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Sample records for bulk semiconductors surfaces

  1. Photoinduced bulk-surface dynamics: time resolved two photon photoemission signals at semiconductor surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramakrishna, S.; Willig, F.; Knorr, A.

    2004-06-01

    A free particle theory of photoinduced bulk-surface dynamics at semiconductor surfaces is developed wherein relaxation processes arising from electron-electron and electron-phonon scattering are treated phenomenologically. The role played by bulk-surface dynamics in the thermalization and cooling processes of the bulk and the complementary issue of how bulk dynamics influences the surface state occupancy are both studied. Time resolved 2PPE spectra is analysed both in the context of pure bulk as well as combined bulk-surface dynamics and its relation to the time dependent populations in the conduction band and surface states is discussed.

  2. Dispersion regions overlapping for bulk and surface polaritons in a magnetic-semiconductor superlattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fesenko, Volodymyr I.; Fedorin, Illia V.; Tuz, Vladimir R.

    2016-05-01

    Extraordinary dispersion features of both bulk and surface polaritons in a finely-stratified magnetic-semiconductor structure which is under an action of an external static magnetic field in the Voigt geometry are discussed in this letter. It is shown that the conditions for total overlapping dispersion regions of simultaneous existence of bulk and surface polaritons can be reached providing a conscious choice of the constitutive parameters and material fractions for both magnetic and semiconductor subsystems.

  3. Interaction of graphene quantum dots with bulk semiconductor surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohapatra, P. K.; Kushavah, Dushyant; Mohapatra, J.; Singh, B. P.

    2015-05-01

    Highly luminescent graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are synthesized through thermolysis of glucose. The average lateral size of the synthesized GQDs is found to be ˜5 nm. The occurrence of D and G band at 1345 and 1580 cm-1 in Raman spectrum confirms the presence of graphene layers. GQDs are mostly consisting of 3 to 4 graphene layers as confirmed from the AFM measurements. Photoluminescence (PL) measurement shows a distinct broadening of the spectrum when GQDs are on the semiconducting bulk surface compared to GQDs in water. The time resolved PL measurement shows a significant shortening in PL lifetime due to the substrate interaction on GQDs compared to the GQDs in solution phase.

  4. Interaction of graphene quantum dots with bulk semiconductor surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Mohapatra, P. K.; Singh, B. P.; Kushavah, Dushyant; Mohapatra, J.

    2015-05-15

    Highly luminescent graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are synthesized through thermolysis of glucose. The average lateral size of the synthesized GQDs is found to be ∼5 nm. The occurrence of D and G band at 1345 and 1580 cm{sup −1} in Raman spectrum confirms the presence of graphene layers. GQDs are mostly consisting of 3 to 4 graphene layers as confirmed from the AFM measurements. Photoluminescence (PL) measurement shows a distinct broadening of the spectrum when GQDs are on the semiconducting bulk surface compared to GQDs in water. The time resolved PL measurement shows a significant shortening in PL lifetime due to the substrate interaction on GQDs compared to the GQDs in solution phase.

  5. Quasiparticle energy studies of bulk semiconductors, surfaces and nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Blase, X.F.

    1994-12-01

    Effects of many-body effects on electronic excitation energies (quasiparticle band structure) of these materials are explored. GW approximation, including local field effects, for self-energy operator is used to calculate quasi-particle energies. The newly discovered carbon nanotubes are studied; structural stability and band structures are calculated. BN nanotubes are also studied, and their stability is predicted. Unexpected electronic features are predicted for both systems. Filling of carbon nanotubes with metal atoms and the doping of BN nanotubes by carbon and other impurites is also studied. The occupied surface states at H/Si(111)-(1{times}1) surface are studied; it is shown that the electronic structure requires a full quasiparticle calculation even for this simple chemisorption system. The core level shift of the Si 2p levels for atoms near the H/Si(111)-(1{times}1) surface is calculated; a simple first order perturbation theory using pseudopotential and the local density approximation gives good results for the photoemission spectra of the core electrons. The quasiparticle energies of bulk hexagonal BN and those of an isolated BN sheet are studied; this provides an understanding of the quasiparticle band structure of BN nanotubes. A nearly free electron state with a wavefunction in the interlayer or vacuum region composes the bottom of the conduction bands. A mixed-space formalism is presented for calculating the dynamical screening effects and electron self-energy operator in solids; this provides an efficient algorithm to calculate quasiparticle energies for large systems.

  6. Evaluation of surface and bulk qualities of semiconductor materials by a laser-induced photothermal technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Jingtao; Chen, Jian; Sun, Shiwen; Zhang, Dawei; Zhuang, Songlin; Wu, Zhouling

    2015-05-01

    Non-destructive evaluation of defects for semiconductor materials is critical to the quality control process. The existing evaluation methods, including radiographic testing, ultrasonic detection, fluorescence and infrared imaging, are widely used in industrial applications. In this paper an instrument based on laser-induced photothermal technique was applied to study various semiconductor materials. With a specially arranged pump-probe configuration, this system can do three dimensional mapping of local properties and defects. By using this photothermal instrument, several semiconductors, such as bulk CdZnTe (CZT) crystals and monocrystalline silicon wafers under different processing conditions, were investigated. The surface and internal structures and defects of these materials were tested nondestructively by the 3-D photothermal microscope. The results show intersting correlation between the photothermal characterizations and the processing conditions. In addition, the details of the development of the 3-D photothermal microscope were also presented. The system provides user-friendly operations of the defects characterization process and shows great potential of application for characterization of semiconductor materials.

  7. A Theoretical Study of Bulk and Surface Diffusion Processes for Semiconductor Materials Using First Principles Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roehl, Jason L.

    discovered for a Ga adatom relaxing from heights of 3 and 0.5 A from the surface. These two sets show significant differences in the interaction of the Ga adatom with surface As dimers and an electronic signature of the differences in this interaction was identified. The energetic barriers to diffusion were computed between various adsorption sites. Diffusion profiles for native Cd and S, adatom and vacancy, and non-native interstitial adatoms of Te, Cu and Cl were investigated in bulk wurtzite CdS. The interstitial diffusion paths considered in this work were chosen parallel to c-axis as it represents the path encountered by defects diffusing from the CdTe layer. Because of the lattice mismatch between zinc-blende CdTe and hexagonal wurtzite CdS, the c-axis in CdS is normal to the CdTe interface. The global minimum and maximum energy positions in the bulk unit cell vary for different diffusing species. This results in a significant variation, in the bonding configurations and associated strain energies of different extrema positions along the diffusion paths for various defects. The diffusion barriers range from a low of 0.42 eV for an S interstitial to a high of 2.18 eV for a S vacancy. The computed 0.66 eV barrier for a Cu interstitial is in good agreement with experimental values in the range of 0.58 - 0.96 eV reported in the literature. There exists an electronic signature in the local density of states for the s- and d-states of the Cu interstitial at the global maximum and global minimum energy position. The work presented in this thesis is an investigation into diffusion processes for semiconductor bulk and surfaces. The work provides information about these processes at a level of control unavailable experimentally giving an elaborate description into physical and electronic properties associated with diffusion at its most basic level. Not only does this work provide information about GaAs, CdTe and CdS, it is intended to contribute to a foundation of knowledge that

  8. Temperature dependence of surface photovoltage of bulk semiconductors and the effect of surface passivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Shouvik; Gokhale, M. R.; Shah, A. P.; Arora, B. M.; Kumar, Shailendra

    2000-12-01

    Surface photovoltage (SPV) of n-GaAs decreases both above and below a certain transition temperature. We explain this phenomenon in terms of a Schottky contact based model and relative dominance of thermal and nonthermal parts of the dark current. This also explains the observed increase of SPV of p-GaAs below room temperature. Our analysis is further confirmed from the temperature dependence of the SPV measurements on p-InP and n-InP samples. Surface passivation is seen to lower the transition temperature of n-GaAs.

  9. Impact of Molecular Orientation and Packing Density on Electronic Polarization in the Bulk and at Surfaces of Organic Semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Ryno, Sean M; Risko, Chad; Brédas, Jean-Luc

    2016-06-01

    The polarizable environment surrounding charge carriers in organic semiconductors impacts the efficiency of the charge transport process. Here, we consider two representative organic semiconductors, tetracene and rubrene, and evaluate their polarization energies in the bulk and at the organic-vacuum interface using a polarizable force field that accounts for induced-dipole and quadrupole interactions. Though both oligoacenes pack in a herringbone motif, the tetraphenyl substituents on the tetracene backbone of rubrene alter greatly the nature of the packing. The resulting change in relative orientations of neighboring molecules is found to reduce the bulk polarization energy of holes in rubrene by some 0.3 eV when compared to tetracene. The consideration of model organic-vacuum interfaces highlights the significant variation in the electrostatic environment for a charge carrier at a surface although the net change in polarization energy is small; interestingly, the environment of a charge even just one layer removed from the surface can be viewed already as representative of the bulk. Overall, it is found that in these herringbone-type layered crystals the polarization energy has a much stronger dependence on the intralayer packing density than interlayer packing density. PMID:27183361

  10. Modeling direct interband tunneling. I. Bulk semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Andrew; Chui, Chi On

    2014-08-07

    Interband tunneling is frequently studied using the semiclassical Kane model, despite uncertainty about its validity. Revisiting the physical basis of this formula, we find that it neglects coupling to other bands and underestimates transverse tunneling. As a result, significant errors can arise at low and high fields for small and large gap materials, respectively. We derive a simple multiband tunneling model to correct these defects analytically without arbitrary parameters. Through extensive comparison with band structure and quantum transport calculations for bulk InGaAs, InAs, and InSb, we probe the accuracy of the Kane and multiband formulas and establish the superiority of the latter. We also show that the nonlocal average electric field should be used when applying either of these models to nonuniform potentials. Our findings are important for efficient analysis and simulation of bulk semiconductor devices involving tunneling.

  11. Hydrogen on semiconductor surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, J.A.; Balster, T.; Polyakov, V.; Rossow, U.; Sloboshanin, S.; Starke, U.; Tautz, F.S.

    1998-12-31

    The authors review structural and electronic aspects of the reaction of hydrogen with semiconductor surfaces. Among others, they address the Si(100), Ge{sub x}Si{sub 1{minus}x}(100), GaAs(100), InP(100), SiC(100), SiC(0001) and SiC(000{bar 1}) surfaces. It is demonstrated that high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) in conjunction with a number of other surface sensitive techniques like low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS/UPS) can yield important information about the surface atomic structure, the effects of hydrogen passivation and etching and on electronic properties of the surfaces. 67 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Preservation of surface features on semiconductor surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Wilt, D.P.

    1989-02-14

    A semiconductor laser is described comprising a Group III-V compound semiconductor body having a major surface, p1 an optical grating on the major surface, a protective coating on the grating, the coating including a transition metal, a Group III-V compound semiconductor heterostructure formed on the coating, the heterostructure having the shape of a mesa and including a Group III-V compound semiconductor active layer, a current-blocking Group III-V compound semiconductor structure laterally adjacent the mesa and effective to direct the primary flow of current through the mesa during operation of the laser, and means forming electrical contact to the laser.

  13. Method of passivating semiconductor surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Wanlass, M.W.

    1990-06-19

    A method is described for passivating Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound surfaces. The method includes selecting a passivating material having a lattice constant substantially mismatched to the lattice constant of the semiconductor compound. The passivating material is then grown as an ultrathin layer of passivating material on the surface of the Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound. The passivating material is grown to a thickness sufficient to maintain a coherent interface between the ultrathin passivating material and the semiconductor compound. In addition, a device formed from such method is also disclosed.

  14. Method of passivating semiconductor surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Wanlass, Mark W.

    1990-01-01

    A method of passivating Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound surfaces. The method includes selecting a passivating material having a lattice constant substantially mismatched to the lattice constant of the semiconductor compound. The passivating material is then grown as an ultrathin layer of passivating material on the surface of the Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound. The passivating material is grown to a thickness sufficient to maintain a coherent interface between the ultrathin passivating material and the semiconductor compound. In addition, a device formed from such method is also disclosed.

  15. Modeling and simulation of bulk gallium nitride power semiconductor devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabui, G.; Parbrook, P. J.; Arredondo-Arechavala, M.; Shen, Z. J.

    2016-05-01

    Bulk gallium nitride (GaN) power semiconductor devices are gaining significant interest in recent years, creating the need for technology computer aided design (TCAD) simulation to accurately model and optimize these devices. This paper comprehensively reviews and compares different GaN physical models and model parameters in the literature, and discusses the appropriate selection of these models and parameters for TCAD simulation. 2-D drift-diffusion semi-classical simulation is carried out for 2.6 kV and 3.7 kV bulk GaN vertical PN diodes. The simulated forward current-voltage and reverse breakdown characteristics are in good agreement with the measurement data even over a wide temperature range.

  16. Absolute surface energy for zincblende semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S. B.; Wei, Su-Huai

    2003-03-01

    Recent advance in nanosciences requires the determination of surface (or facet) energy of semiconductors, which is often difficult due to the polar nature of some of the most important surfaces such as the (111)A/(111)B surfaces. Several approaches have been developed in the past [1-3] to deal with the problem but an unambiguous division of the polar surface energies is yet to come [2]. Here we show that an accurate division is indeed possible for the zincblende semiconductors and will present the results for GaAs, ZnSe, and CuInSe2 [4], respectively. A general trend emerges, relating the absolute surface energy to the ionicity of the bulk materials. [1] N. Chetty and R. M. Martin, Phys. Rev. B 45, 6074 (1992). [2] N. Moll, et al., Phys. Rev. B 54, 8844 (1996). [3] S. Mankefors, Phys. Rev. B 59, 13151 (1999). [4] S. B. Zhang and S.-H. Wei, Phys. Rev. B 65, 081402 (2002).

  17. Distinction between surface and bulk states in surface-photovoltage spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leibovitch, M.; Kronik, L.; Fefer, E.; Shapira, Yoram

    1994-07-01

    The effect of localized electron states on the photovoltage at a free semiconductor surface is analyzed. The analysis shows that surface-photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS) is inherently more sensitive to surface states than to bulk states. Moreover, a fundamental difference between the effect of surface and bulk states on the surface photovoltage (SPV) is shown. The analysis demonstrates that the same illumination-induced variation of the population at a surface and a bulk state may result in a significantly different dependence of the SPV on the illumination intensity. Under certain conditions, this difference makes it possible to distinguish between surface and bulk states by means of SPS. Analytical expressions for these relations are obtained under the depletion approximation, and are compared with the results of a numerical simulation. Experimental results obtained from InP samples demonstrate an application of the theory to practical distinction between surface and bulk states.

  18. Stable surface passivation process for compound semiconductors

    DOEpatents

    Ashby, Carol I. H.

    2001-01-01

    A passivation process for a previously sulfided, selenided or tellurated III-V compound semiconductor surface. The concentration of undesired mid-gap surface states on a compound semiconductor surface is reduced by the formation of a near-monolayer of metal-(sulfur and/or selenium and/or tellurium)-semiconductor that is effective for long term passivation of the underlying semiconductor surface. Starting with the III-V compound semiconductor surface, any oxidation present thereon is substantially removed and the surface is then treated with sulfur, selenium or tellurium to form a near-monolayer of chalcogen-semiconductor of the surface in an oxygen-free atmosphere. This chalcogenated surface is then contacted with a solution of a metal that will form a low solubility chalcogenide to form a near-monolayer of metal-chalcogen-semiconductor. The resulting passivating layer provides long term protection for the underlying surface at or above the level achieved by a freshly chalcogenated compound semiconductor surface in an oxygen free atmosphere.

  19. Scattering and Chemical Investigations of Semiconductor Surfaces.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Robert Milo

    1988-12-01

    This two-part thesis describes: (i) the design of an ion scattering system to examine the surface and near-surface region of semiconductors, and (ii) the chemical reaction channels of unsaturated hydrocarbons on the silicon (100) surface. Details on the design and construction of an ultrahigh vacuum, high-energy ion scattering system are presented. The use of MeV ion scattering to investigate surface and near -surface regions of materials is described and the combination of ion scattering with complimentary surface science techniques is stressed. The thermal activation of chemical bonds of the adsorbed unsaturated hydrocarbon molecules ethylene, propylene, and acetylene is investigated on the Si(100)-(2 times 11) surface with a goal of understanding the surface chemistry of Si-C formation. The use of precision dosing techniques, Low Energy Electron Diffraction, Auger Electron Spectroscopy, and Temperature Programmed Desorption in the investigation of the remaining carbonaceous species is described. Comparisons of the adsorption and desorption behavior of these molecules is made in terms of the carbon -carbon double and triple bonds (ethylene to acetylene) and the methyl functional group (ethylene to propylene). We find that the monolayer saturation coverage of these hydrocarbons is in very good agreement with the number of dimer sites on the surface estimated from scanning-tunneling microscopy, which suggests that the bonding of these hydrocarbons to the Si(100) surface is similar. It is also found that ethylene, in particular, does not provide an efficient Si-C reaction channel upon thermal activation, with nearly 100% of the ethylene molecules desorbing. In contrast, acetylene is found to be very efficient in SiC formation: >=q90% of the adsorbed acetylene thermally dissociates and eventually leads to SiC formation. Propylene has an efficiency of roughly 70% upon heating. Evidence for the diffusion of carbon into the bulk is seen at >=q850 K for propylene and

  20. Bulk and surface correlations in a microemulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, D.D.; Chen, S.H.; Majkrzak, C.F.; Satija, S.K.

    1995-07-01

    Small angle neutron scattering and neutron reflectivity are used to study the bulk and surface structure of water--octane--tetraethylene glycol monodecyl ether (C{sub 10}E{sub 4}) bicontinuous microemulsions. When the hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity of the surfactant monolayers in the microemulsion are balanced, the surface correlation length is found to be significantly larger than its bulk analog. Varying the spontaneous curvature of the monolayers greatly influences the surface structure of the microemulsion while having a relatively slight effect on the bulk correlation function. These observations are explained using a Ginzburg-Landau theory.

  1. Orbital magnetization in insulators: Bulk versus surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, Raffaello; Resta, Raffaele

    2016-05-01

    The orbital magnetic moment of a finite piece of matter is expressed in terms of the one-body density matrix as a simple trace. We address a macroscopic system, insulating in the bulk, and we show that its orbital moment is the sum of a bulk term and a surface term, both extensive. The latter only occurs when the transverse conductivity is nonzero and it is due to conducting surface states. Simulations on a model Hamiltonian validate our theory.

  2. Surface Sum Frequency Generation of III-V Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhenyu; Kim, Jisun; Khoury, Rami; Plummer, E. W.; Haber, Louis

    2015-03-01

    Optical sum frequency generation (SFG) is a well-established technique for surface and interface studies but its use has been limited mainly to centrosymmetric materials so far. Here, we demonstrate that femtosecond broadband SFG spectroscopy has the ability to identify surface molecular vibrations on the archetypical non-centrosymmetric semiconductor GaAs (001), in which the bulk SFG signal typically dominates over surface SFG contributions. Azimuthal angle dependence of the second order SFG nonlinear response from GaAs (001) surface in the reflection geometry in vacuum for all eight polarization combinations are detected and analyzed. The results agree with and extend upon previous second harmonic generation (SHG) studies and phenomenological analysis. In addition, carbon monoxide and methanol are employed as molecular-markers on the GaAs (001) surfaces. The C-O stretching mode of carbon monoxide and the methyl group stretching modes of methanol are clearly observed even though the bulk contribution dominates the SFG signal. Coherent heterodyne interference is proposed as the mechanism for the surface signal enhancement. Two other zinc blende type III-V semiconductors, GaP and GaSb, are also studied and compared. Funded by EFRC.

  3. Electron correlations in semiconductors: Bulk cohesive properties and magnetic-field-induced Wigner crystal at heterojunctions

    SciTech Connect

    Louie, S.G.; Zhu, X.

    1992-08-01

    A correlated wavefunction variational quantum Monte Carlo approach to the studies of electron exchange and correlation effects in semiconductors is presented. Applications discussed include the cohesive and structural properties of bulk semiconductors, and the magnetic-field-induced Wigner electron crystal in two dimensions. Landau level mixing is shown to be important in determining the transition between the quantum Hall liquid and the Wigner crystal states in the regime of relevant experimental parameters.

  4. Surface-Bulk Vibrational Correlation Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Roy, Sandra; Covert, Paul A; Jarisz, Tasha A; Chan, Chantelle; Hore, Dennis K

    2016-05-01

    Homo- and heterospectral correlation analysis are powerful methods for investigating the effects of external influences on the spectra acquired using distinct and complementary techniques. Nonlinear vibrational spectroscopy is a selective and sensitive probe of surface structure changes, as bulk molecules are excluded on the basis of symmetry. However, as a result of this exquisite specificity, it is blind to changes that may be occurring in the solution. We demonstrate that correlation analysis between surface-specific techniques and bulk probes such as infrared absorption or Raman scattering may be used to reveal additional details of the adsorption process. Using the adsorption of water and ethanol binary mixtures as an example, we illustrate that this provides support for a competitive binding model and adds new insight into a dimer-to-bilayer transition proposed from previous experiments and simulations. PMID:27058265

  5. Surface passivation process of compound semiconductor material using UV photosulfidation

    DOEpatents

    Ashby, Carol I. H.

    1995-01-01

    A method for passivating compound semiconductor surfaces by photolytically disrupting molecular sulfur vapor with ultraviolet radiation to form reactive sulfur which then reacts with and passivates the surface of compound semiconductors.

  6. Surface Bonding Effects in Compound Semiconductor Nanoparticles: II

    SciTech Connect

    Helen H. Farrell

    2008-07-01

    Small nanoparticles have a large proportion of their atoms either at or near the surface, and those in clusters are essentially all on the surface. As a consequence, the details of the surface structure are of paramount importance in governing the overall stability of the particle. Just as with bulk materials, factors that determine this stability include “bulk” structure, surface reconstruction, charge balance and hybridization, ionicity, strain, stoichiometry, and the presence of adsorbates. Needless to say, many of these factors, such as charge balance, hybridization and strain, are interdependent. These factors all contribute to the overall binding energy of clusters and small nanoparticles and play a role in determining the deviations from an inverse size dependence that we have previously reported for compound semiconductor materials. Using first-principles density functional theory calculations, we have explored how these factors influence particle stability under a variety of conditions.

  7. Free surface properties of 3-5 compound semiconductor surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahn, A.

    1980-06-01

    Studies of free compound semiconductor surfaces as well as gas-solid and metal-solid interaction are summarized. An experimental and theoretical analysis of the GaAs(110) surface reconstruction was conducted and applied to three additional compounds: InSb, InP and ZnTe. Attempts were made to relate the type and the magnitude of the surface reconstruction of these materials to the covalent-ionic character of the bonding. Knowledge of the atomic reconstructions of these surfaces was used to investigate the reactivity of semiconductor surfaces (GaAs(110)) with gas (oxygen) and metal (aluminum) atoms. These multicomponent systems are at the center of the author's essays to understand the chemistry of these surfaces and its relationship with their atomic reconstruction. Using Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED) as the principal tool to investigation, structural information has been obtained which correlates chemical and electronic information obtained by other surface analysis techniques.

  8. TiN surface dynamics: role of surface and bulk mass transport processes

    SciTech Connect

    Bareno, J.; Swiech, W.; Petrova, V.; Petrov, I.; Greene, J. E.; Kodambaka, S.; Khare, S. V.

    2007-02-09

    Transition-metal nitrides, such as TiN, have a wide variety of applications as hard, wear-resistant coatings, as diffusion barriers, and as scratch-resistant and anti-reflective coatings in optics. Understanding the surface morphological and microstructural evolution of these materials is crucial for improving the performance of devices. Studies of surface step dynamics enable determination of the rate-limiting mechanisms, corresponding surface mass transport parameters, and step energies. However, most models describing these phenomena are limited in application to simple elemental metal and semiconductor surfaces. Here, we summarize recent progress toward elucidating the interplay of surface and bulk diffusion processes on morphological evolution of compound surfaces. Specifically, we analyze the coarsening/decay kinetics of two- and three-dimensional TiN(111) islands and the effect of surface-terminated dislocations on TiN(111) steps.

  9. Multiscale approach to the electronic structure of doped semiconductor surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinai, Ofer; Hofmann, Oliver T.; Rinke, Patrick; Scheffler, Matthias; Heimel, Georg; Kronik, Leeor

    2015-02-01

    The inclusion of the global effects of semiconductor doping poses a unique challenge for first-principles simulations, because the typically low concentration of dopants renders an explicit treatment intractable. Furthermore, the width of the space-charge region (SCR) at charged surfaces often exceeds realistic supercell dimensions. Here, we present a multiscale technique that fully addresses these difficulties. It is based on the introduction of a charged sheet, mimicking the SCR-related field, along with free charge which mimics the bulk charge reservoir, such that the system is neutral overall. These augment a slab comprising "pseudoatoms" possessing a fractional nuclear charge matching the bulk doping concentration. Self-consistency is reached by imposing charge conservation and Fermi level equilibration between the bulk, treated semiclassically, and the electronic states of the slab, which are treated quantum-mechanically. The method, called CREST—the charge-reservoir electrostatic sheet technique—can be used with standard electronic structure codes. We validate CREST using a simple tight-binding model, which allows for comparison of its results with calculations encompassing the full SCR explicitly. Specifically, we show that CREST successfully predicts scenarios spanning the range from no to full Fermi level pinning. We then employ it with density functional theory, obtaining insight into the doping dependence of the electronic structures of the metallic "clean-cleaved" Si(111) surface and its semiconducting (2 ×1 ) reconstructions.

  10. Energy harvesting in semiconductor-insulator-semiconductor junctions through excitation of surface plasmon polaritons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, A. K.; Holloway, Terence; Mundle, Rajeh; Dondapati, Hareesh; Bahoura, M.

    2012-02-01

    We have demonstrated a simple approach for developing a photovoltaic device consisting of semiconductor-insulator-semiconductor (SIS) heterojunction using surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) generated in one of the semiconductors (Al:ZnO) and propagated through the dielectric barrier (SiO2) to other (Si). This robust architecture based on surface plasmon excitation within an SIS device that produces power based on spatial confinement of electron excitation through plasmon absorption in Al:ZnO in a broad spectrum of visible to infrared wavelengths enhancing the photovoltaic activities. This finding suggests a range of applications for photovoltaics, sensing, waveguides, and others using SPPs enhancement on semiconductors without using noble metals.

  11. Theory of electron g-tensor in bulk and quantum-well semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Wayne H.; Flatte', Michael E.

    2004-03-01

    We present quantitative calculations for the electron g-tensors in bulk and quantum-well semiconductors based on a generalized P.p envelope function theory solved in a fourteen-band restricted basis set. The dependences of g-tensor on structure, magnetic field, carrier density, temperature, and spin polarization have been explored and will be described. It is found that at temperatures of a few Kelvin and fields of a few Tesla, the g-tensors for bulk semiconductors develop quasi-steplike dependences on carrier density or magnetic field due to magnetic quantization, and this effect is even more pronounced in quantum-well semiconductors due to the additional electric quantization along the growth direction. The influence of quantum confinement on the electron g-tensors in QWs is studied by examining the dependence of electron g-tensors on well width. Excellent agreement between these calculated electron g-tensors and measurements [1-2] is found for GaAs/AlGaAs QWs. This work was supported by DARPA/ARO. [1] A. Malinowski and R. T. Harley, Phys. Rev. B 62, 2051 (2000);[2] Le Jeune et al., Semicond. Sci. Technol. 12, 380 (1997).

  12. High-power, efficient, semiconductor saturable absorber mode-locked Yb:KGW bulk laser.

    PubMed

    Kisel, V E; Rudenkov, A S; Pavlyuk, A A; Kovalyov, A A; Preobrazhenskii, V V; Putyato, M A; Rubtsova, N N; Semyagin, B R; Kuleshov, N V

    2015-06-15

    A high-power, diode-pumped, semiconductor saturable absorber mode-locked Yb(5%):KGW bulk laser was demonstrated with high optical-to-optical efficiency. Average output power as high as 8.8 W with optical-to-optical efficiency of 37.5% was obtained for Nm-polarized laser output with 162 fs pulse duration and 142 nJ pulse energy at a pulse repetition frequency of 62 MHz. For Np polarization, 143 fs pulses with pulse energy of 139 nJ and average output power of up to 8.6 W with optical-to-optical efficiency of 31% were generated. PMID:26076242

  13. Atomic-scale studies of hydrogenated semiconductor surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayne, A. J.; Riedel, D.; Comtet, G.; Dujardin, G.

    The adsorption of hydrogen on semiconductors strongly modifies the electronic and chemical properties of the surfaces, whether on the surface or in the sub-surface region. This has been the starting point, in recent years, of many new areas of research and technology. This paper will discuss the properties, at the atomic scale, of hydrogenated semiconductor surfaces studied with scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) and synchrotron radiation. Four semiconductor surfaces will be described - germanium(1 1 1), silicon(1 0 0), silicon carbide(1 0 0) and diamond(1 0 0). Each surface has its particularities in terms of the physical and electronic structure and in regard to the adsorption of hydrogen. The manipulation of hydrogen on these surfaces by electronic excitation using electrons from the STM tip will be discussed in detail highlighting the excitation mechanisms. The reactivity of these surfaces towards various molecules and semiconductor nanocrystals will be illustrated.

  14. Effects of bulk charged impurities on the bulk and surface transport in three-dimensional topological insulators

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, B.; Chen, T.; Shklovskii, B. I.

    2013-09-15

    In the three-dimensional topological insulator (TI), the physics of doped semiconductors exists literally side-by-side with the physics of ultrarelativistic Dirac fermions. This unusual pairing creates a novel playground for studying the interplay between disorder and electronic transport. In this mini-review, we focus on the disorder caused by the three-dimensionally distributed charged impurities that are ubiquitous in TIs, and we outline the effects it has on both the bulk and surface transport in TIs. We present self-consistent theories for Coulomb screening both in the bulk and at the surface, discuss the magnitude of the disorder potential in each case, and present results for the conductivity. In the bulk, where the band gap leads to thermally activated transport, we show how disorder leads to a smaller-than-expected activation energy that gives way to variable-range hopping at low temperatures. We confirm this enhanced conductivity with numerical simulations that also allow us to explore different degrees of impurity compensation. For the surface, where the TI has gapless Dirac modes, we present a theory of disorder and screening of deep impurities, and we calculate the corresponding zero-temperature conductivity. We also comment on the growth of the disorder potential in passing from the surface of the TI into the bulk. Finally, we discuss how the presence of a gap at the Dirac point, introduced by some source of time-reversal symmetry breaking, affects the disorder potential at the surface and the mid-gap density of states.

  15. Surface roughness scattering of electrons in bulk mosfets

    SciTech Connect

    Zuverink, Amanda Renee

    2015-11-01

    Surface-roughness scattering of electrons at the Si-SiO2 interface is a very important consideration when analyzing Si metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). Scattering reduces the mobility of the electrons and degrades the device performance. 250-nm and 50-nm bulk MOSFETs were simulated with varying device parameters and mesh sizes in order to compare the effects of surface-roughness scattering in multiple devices. The simulation framework includes the ensemble Monte Carlo method used to solve the Boltzmann transport equation coupled with a successive over-relaxation method used to solve the two-dimensional Poisson's equation. Four methods for simulating the surface-roughness scattering of electrons were implemented on both devices and compared: the constant specularity parameter, the momentum-dependent specularity parameter, and the real-space-roughness method with both uniform and varying electric fields. The specularity parameter is the probability of an electron scattering speculariy from a rough surface. It can be chosen as a constant, characterizing partially diffuse scattering of all electrons from the surface the same way, or it can be momentum dependent, where the size of rms roughness and the normal component of the electron wave number determine the probability of electron-momentum randomization. The real-space rough surface method uses the rms roughness height and correlation length of an actual MOSFET to simulate a rough interface. Due to their charge, electrons scatter from the electric field and not directly from the surface. If the electric field is kept uniform, the electrons do not perceive the roughness and scatter as if from a at surface. However, if the field is allowed to vary, the electrons scatter from the varying electric field as they would in a MOSFET. These methods were implemented for both the 50-nm and 250-nm MOSFETs, and using the rms roughness heights and correlation lengths for real devices. The

  16. Shubnikov-de Haas Oscillations in the Bulk Rashba Semiconductor BiTeI

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, C.; Bahramy, M.S.; Murakawa, H.; Checkelsky, J.G.; Arita, R.; Kaneko, Y.; Onose, Y.; Nagaosa, N.; Tokura, Y.; Hwang, H.Y.

    2012-07-11

    Bulk magnetoresistance quantum oscillations are observed in high quality single crystal samples of BiTeI. This compound shows an extremely large internal spin-orbit coupling, associated with the polarity of the alternating Bi, Te, and I layers perpendicular to the c-axis. The corresponding areas of the inner and outer Fermi surfaces around the A-point show good agreement with theoretical calculations, demonstrating that the intrinsic bulk Rashba-type splitting is nearly 360 meV, comparable to the largest spin-orbit coupling generated in heterostructures and at surfaces.

  17. Liquid phase electroepitaxial bulk growth of binary and ternary alloy semiconductors under external magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheibani, Hamdi

    2002-01-01

    Liquid Phase Electroepitaxy (LPEE) and is a relatively new, promising technique for producing high quality, thick compound semiconductors and their alloys. The main objectives are to reduce the adverse effect of natural convection and to determine the optimum growth conditions for reproducible desired crystals for the optoelectronic and electronic device industry. Among the available techniques for suppressing the adverse effect of natural convection, the application of an external magnetic field seems the most feasible one. The research work in this dissertation consists of two parts. The first part is focused on the design and development of a state of the art LPEE facility with a novel crucible design, that can produce bulk crystals of quality higher than those achieved by the existing LPEE system. A growth procedure was developed to take advantage of this novel crucible design. The research of the growth of InGaAs single crystals presented in this thesis will be a basis for the future LPEE growth of other important material and is an ideal vehicle for the development of a ternary crystal growth process. The second part of the research program is the experimental study of the LPEE growth process of high quality bulk single crystals of binary/ternary semiconductors under applied magnetic field. The compositional uniformity of grown crystals was measured by Electron Probe Micro-analysis (EPMA) and X-ray microanalysis. The state-of-the-art LPEE system developed at University of Victoria, because of its novel design features, has achieved a growth rate of about 4.5 mm/day (with the application of an external fixed magnetic field of 4.5 KGauss and 3 A/cm2 electric current density), and a growth rate of about 11 mm/day (with 4.5 KGauss magnetic field and 7 A/cm2 electric current density). This achievement is simply a breakthrough in LPEE, making this growth technique absolutely a bulk growth technique and putting it in competition with other bulk growth techniques

  18. Growth of Bulk Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Crystals and Their Potential Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Kuo-Tong; Shi, Detang; Morgan, S. H.; Collins, W. Eugene; Burger, Arnold

    1997-01-01

    Developments in bulk crystal growth research for electro-optical devices in the Center for Photonic Materials and Devices since its establishment have been reviewed. Purification processes and single crystal growth systems employing physical vapor transport and Bridgman methods were assembled and used to produce high purity and superior quality wide bandgap materials such as heavy metal halides and II-VI compound semiconductors. Comprehensive material characterization techniques have been employed to reveal the optical, electrical and thermodynamic properties of crystals, and the results were used to establish improved material processing procedures. Postgrowth treatments such as passivation, oxidation, chemical etching and metal contacting during the X-ray and gamma-ray device fabrication process have also been investigated and low noise threshold with improved energy resolution has been achieved.

  19. Tomographic investigation of fermi level pinning at focused ion beam milled semiconductor surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, D.; Lubk, A.; Lenk, A.; Sturm, S.; Lichte, H.

    2013-12-01

    Electron holography in the transmission electron microscope (TEM) offers the spatial and signal resolution for studying effects like Fermi level pinning or dopant concentration variations important for the design of modern electronic devices. To overcome the loss of information along the projection direction, surface effects, and surface damage due to TEM specimen preparation, we apply electron holographic tomography to analyze the 3D potential distribution of semiconductor samples prepared by focused-ion-beam. We observe mid-band gap pinning of the Fermi level at Si surfaces but valence band pinning at Ge surfaces. The pinning extends over tens of nanometers into the bulk.

  20. Phonon-Electron Interactions in Piezoelectric Semiconductor Bulk Acoustic Wave Resonators

    PubMed Central

    Gokhale, Vikrant J.; Rais-Zadeh, Mina

    2014-01-01

    This work presents the first comprehensive investigation of phonon-electron interactions in bulk acoustic standing wave (BAW) resonators made from piezoelectric semiconductor (PS) materials. We show that these interactions constitute a significant energy loss mechanism and can set practical loss limits lower than anharmonic phonon scattering limits or thermoelastic damping limits. Secondly, we theoretically and experimentally demonstrate that phonon-electron interactions, under appropriate conditions, can result in a significant acoustic gain manifested as an improved quality factor (Q). Measurements on GaN resonators are consistent with the presented interaction model and demonstrate up to 35% dynamic improvement in Q. The strong dependencies of electron-mediated acoustic loss/gain on resonance frequency and material properties are investigated. Piezoelectric semiconductors are an extremely important class of electromechanical materials, and this work provides crucial insights for material choice, material properties, and device design to achieve low-loss PS-BAW resonators along with the unprecedented ability to dynamically tune resonator Q. PMID:25001100

  1. Electrical current driven by a coherent spin wave in a bulk ferromagnetic semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraerman, A. A.; Muhamatchin, K. R.; Tokman, I. D.

    2011-07-01

    We theoretically investigate the effect of electrical current generation by a coherent spin wave propagated in a bulk ferromagnetic semiconductor. This is one of the effects in conductive magnetic materials that are based on spin-transfer torque concept first proposed by J. C. Slonszewski [J. Magn. Magn. Mater.0304-885310.1016/0304-8853(96)00062-5 159, L1 (1996)] and L. Berger [Phys. Rev. BPLRBAQ1098-012110.1103/PhysRevB.54.9353 54, 9353 (1996)]. Due to the relatively simple description of interaction between conduction electrons and a coherent spin wave (in the framework of s-d exchange), the spin-transfer torque effect is considered here ab initio. A systematic analysis of current generation effect is done by quantum kinetics methods; relaxation processes are considered within the τ approximation. We derive an analytical expression for the stationary current density and make estimations for a ferromagnetic semiconductor of the CdCr2Se4 type.

  2. Effect of bulk aging on surface diffusion of glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brian, Caleb W.; Zhu, Lei; Yu, Lian

    2014-02-01

    The effect of physical aging on surface diffusion has been determined for two organic glasses, Indomethacin and Nifedipine. The two systems exhibit similar aging kinetics typical of organic glasses. Surface diffusivity remains unchanged despite significant bulk aging that nearly equilibrates the systems and increases the bulk relaxation time by orders of magnitude. The finding is relevant for understanding the stability of amorphous materials and the formation of low-energy glasses by vapor deposition.

  3. Theory of raman scattering from molecules adsorbed at semiconductor surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueba, H.

    1983-09-01

    A theory is presented to calculate the Raman polarizability of an adsorbed molecule at a semiconductor surface, where the electronic excitation in the molecular site interacts with excitons (elementary excitations in the semiconductor) through non-radiative energy transfer between them, in an intermediate state in the Raman scattering process. The Raman polarizability thus calculated is found to exhibit a peak at the energy corresponding to a resonant excitation of excitons, thereby suggesting the possibility of surface enhanced Raman scattering on semiconductor surfaces. The mechanism studied here can also give an explanation of a recent observation of the Raman excitation profiles of p-NDMA and p-DMAAB adsorbed on ZnO or TiO 2, where those profiles were best described by assuming a resonant intermediate state of the exciton transition in the semiconductors. It is also demonstrated that in addition to vibrational Raman scattering, excitonic Raman scattering of adsorbed molecules will occur in the coupled molecule-semiconductor system, where the molecular returns to its ground electronic state by leaving an exciton in the semiconductor. A spectrum of the excitonic Raman scattering is expected to appear in the background of the vibrational Raman band and to be characterized by the electronic structure of excitons. A desirable experiment is suggested for an examination of the theory.

  4. Zinc uptake by brain cells: `surface' versus `bulk'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeStasio, Gelsomina; Pochon, S.; Lorusso, G. F.; Tonner, B. P.; Mercanti, Delio; Ciotti, M. Teresa; Oddo, Nino; Galli, Paolo; Perfetti, P.; Margaritondo, G.

    1996-08-01

    The uptake of zinc by cerebellar rat cultures upon exposure to 0022-3727/29/8/023/img12 solutions was comparatively investigated using two well known condensed matter physics techniques: synchrotron photoelectron spectromicroscopy and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. The objective was to apply a strategy - well known in surface physics - to distinguish between `surface' and `bulk' phenomena. The results clearly demonstrate that exposure significantly enhances the bulk (cell cytoplasm) Zn concentration with respect to the physiological level, whereas the effect on the surface (cell membrane) is negligible.

  5. Photoacoustic spectroscopy of surface defects states of semiconductor samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maliński, M.; Zakrzewski, J.; Firszt, F.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents both theoretical and experimental issues connected with measurements and numerical analysis of the microphone amplitude and phase photoacoustic spectra of semiconductor samples exhibiting surface absorption connected with defects states located on their surfaces. The analytical model of surface absorption in semiconductors is described and the results of computations are compared with experimental amplitude and phase spectra for Zn{0.965}Be{0.035}Se crystal samples. This paper shows the importance of the phase spectra for the proper interpretation of the PA (photoacoustic) results.

  6. Comparing multiple exciton generation in quantum dots to impact ionization in bulk semiconductors: implications for enhancement of solar energy conversion.

    PubMed

    Beard, Matthew C; Midgett, Aaron G; Hanna, Mark C; Luther, Joseph M; Hughes, Barbara K; Nozik, Arthur J

    2010-08-11

    Multiple exciton generation (MEG) in quantum dots (QDs) and impact ionization (II) in bulk semiconductors are processes that describe producing more than one electron-hole pair per absorbed photon. We derive expressions for the proper way to compare MEG in QDs with II in bulk semiconductors and argue that there are important differences in the photophysics between bulk semiconductors and QDs. Our analysis demonstrates that the fundamental unit of energy required to produce each electron-hole pair in a given QD is the band gap energy. We find that the efficiency of the multiplication process increases by at least 2 in PbSe QDs compared to bulk PbSe, while the competition between cooling and multiplication favors multiplication by a factor of 3 in QDs. We also demonstrate that power conversion efficiencies in QD solar cells exhibiting MEG can greatly exceed conversion efficiencies of their bulk counterparts, especially if the MEG threshold energy can be reduced toward twice the QD band gap energy, which requires a further increase in the MEG efficiency. Finally, we discuss the research challenges associated with achieving the maximum benefit of MEG in solar energy conversion since we show the threshold and efficiency are mathematically related. PMID:20698615

  7. Comparing Multiple Exciton Generation in Quantum Dots To Impact Ionization in Bulk Semiconductors: Implications for Enhancement of Solar Energy Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Beard, Matthew C.; Midgett, Aaron G.; Hanna, Mark C.; Luther, Joseph M.; Hughes, Barbara K.; Nozik, Arthur J.

    2010-07-26

    Multiple exciton generation (MEG) in quantum dots (QDs) and impact ionization (II) in bulk semiconductors are processes that describe producing more than one electron-hole pair per absorbed photon. We derive expressions for the proper way to compare MEG in QDs with II in bulk semiconductors and argue that there are important differences in the photophysics between bulk semiconductors and QDs. Our analysis demonstrates that the fundamental unit of energy required to produce each electron-hole pair in a given QD is the band gap energy. We find that the efficiency of the multiplication process increases by at least 2 in PbSe QDs compared to bulk PbSe, while the competition between cooling and multiplication favors multiplication by a factor of 3 in QDs. We also demonstrate that power conversion efficiencies in QD solar cells exhibiting MEG can greatly exceed conversion efficiencies of their bulk counterparts, especially if the MEG threshold energy can be reduced toward twice the QD band gap energy, which requires a further increase in the MEG efficiency. Finally, we discuss the research challenges associated with achieving the maximum benefit of MEG in solar energy conversion since we show the threshold and efficiency are mathematically related.

  8. Large enhancements of thermopower and carrier mobility in quantum dot engineered bulk semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuanfeng; Sahoo, Pranati; Makongo, Julien P A; Zhou, Xiaoyuan; Kim, Sung-Joo; Chi, Hang; Uher, Ctirad; Pan, Xiaoqing; Poudeu, Pierre F P

    2013-05-22

    The thermopower (S) and electrical conductivity (σ) in conventional semiconductors are coupled adversely through the carriers' density (n) making it difficult to achieve meaningful simultaneous improvements in both electronic properties through doping and/or substitutional chemistry. Here, we demonstrate the effectiveness of coherently embedded full-Heusler (FH) quantum dots (QDs) in tailoring the density, mobility, and effective mass of charge carriers in the n-type Ti(0.1)Zr(0.9)NiSn half-Heusler matrix. We propose that the embedded FH QD forms a potential barrier at the interface with the matrix due to the offset of their conduction band minima. This potential barrier discriminates existing charge carriers from the conduction band of the matrix with respect to their relative energy leading to simultaneous large enhancements of the thermopower (up to 200%) and carrier mobility (up to 43%) of the resulting Ti(0.1)Zr(0.9)Ni(1+x)Sn nanocomposites. The improvement in S with increasing mole fraction of the FH-QDs arises from a drastic reduction (up to 250%) in the effective carrier density coupled with an increase in the carrier's effective mass (m*), whereas the surprising enhancement in the mobility (μ) is attributed to an increase in the carrier's relaxation time (τ). This strategy to manipulate the transport behavior of existing ensembles of charge carriers within a bulk semiconductor using QDs is very promising and could pave the way to a new generation of high figure of merit thermoelectric materials. PMID:23607819

  9. Metal-oxide-semiconductor photocapacitor for sensing surface plasmon polaritons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalilzade-Rezaie, Farnood; Peale, Robert E.; Panjwani, Deep; Smith, Christian W.; Nath, Janardan; Lodge, Michael; Ishigami, Masa; Nader, Nima; Vangala, Shiva; Yannuzzi, Mark; Cleary, Justin W.

    2015-09-01

    An electronic detector of surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) is reported. SPPs optically excited on a metal surface using a prism coupler are detected by using a close-coupled metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor. Semitransparent metal and graphene gates function similarly. We report the dependence of the photoresponse on substrate carrier type, carrier concentration, and back-contact biasing.

  10. Low energy positrons as probes of reconstructed semiconductor surfaces.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazleev, Nail G.; Weiss, Alex H.

    2007-03-01

    Positron probes of semiconductor surfaces that play a fundamental role in modern science and technology are capable to non-destructively provide information that is both unique to the probe and complimentary to that extracted using other more standard techniques. We discuss recent progress in studies of the reconstructed Si(100), Si(111), Ge(100), and Ge(111) surfaces, clean and exposed to hydrogen and oxygen, using a surface characterization technique, Positron-Annihilation-Induced Auger-Electron Spectroscopy (PAES). Experimental PAES results are analyzed by performing first-principles calculations of positron surface states and annihilation probabilities of surface-trapped positrons with relevant core electrons for the reconstructed surfaces, taking into account discrete lattice effects, the electronic reorganization due to bonding, and charge redistribution effects at the surface. Effects of the hydrogen and oxygen adsorption on semiconductor surfaces on localization of positron surface state wave functions and annihilation characteristics are also analyzed. Theoretical calculations confirm that PAES intensities, which are proportional to annihilation probabilities of the surface trapped positrons that results in a core hole, are sensitive to the crystal face, surface structure and elemental content of the semiconductors.

  11. Dynamical thermoelectric coefficients of bulk semiconductor crystals: Towards high thermoelectric efficiency at high frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezzahri, Younès; Joulain, Karl

    2014-06-01

    We investigate in this work the fundamental behavior of the dynamical thermoelectric coefficients of a bulk cubic semiconductor (SC) crystal. The treatment is based on solving Boltzmann electron transport equation in the frequency domain after simultaneous excitations by dynamical temperature and electric potential gradients, within the framework of the single relaxation time approximation. The SC crystal is assumed to be a linear, elastic homogenous, and isotropic medium having a parabolic energy band structure. We further assume to deal with one type of carriers (electrons or holes) that reside in a single energy band, and we neglect any phonon drag effect. Our approach allows us to obtain very compact expressions for the different dynamical thermoelectric coefficients that nicely capture the essential features of the dynamics of electron transport. We emphasize our study about the dynamical behavior of the thermoelectric figure of merit ZT(Ω) of the SC crystal by considering the coupled electron-phonon transport. Our study revealed a very interesting and compelling result in which ZT increases in the high frequency regime with respect to its steady-state value. The fundamental reason of this enhancement is due to the intrinsic uncoupling in the dynamics of electrons and phonons in the high frequency regime.

  12. Dynamical thermoelectric coefficients of bulk semiconductor crystals: Towards high thermoelectric efficiency at high frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Ezzahri, Younès Joulain, Karl

    2014-06-14

    We investigate in this work the fundamental behavior of the dynamical thermoelectric coefficients of a bulk cubic semiconductor (SC) crystal. The treatment is based on solving Boltzmann electron transport equation in the frequency domain after simultaneous excitations by dynamical temperature and electric potential gradients, within the framework of the single relaxation time approximation. The SC crystal is assumed to be a linear, elastic homogenous, and isotropic medium having a parabolic energy band structure. We further assume to deal with one type of carriers (electrons or holes) that reside in a single energy band, and we neglect any phonon drag effect. Our approach allows us to obtain very compact expressions for the different dynamical thermoelectric coefficients that nicely capture the essential features of the dynamics of electron transport. We emphasize our study about the dynamical behavior of the thermoelectric figure of merit ZT(Ω) of the SC crystal by considering the coupled electron-phonon transport. Our study revealed a very interesting and compelling result in which ZT increases in the high frequency regime with respect to its steady-state value. The fundamental reason of this enhancement is due to the intrinsic uncoupling in the dynamics of electrons and phonons in the high frequency regime.

  13. Wideband model of a reflective tensile-strained bulk semiconductor optical amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connelly, M. J.

    2014-05-01

    Reflective semiconductor optical amplifiers (RSOAs) have shown promise for applications in WDM optical networks and in fiber ring mode-locked lasers. Polarization insensitive SOAs can be fabricated using tensile-strained bulk material and a rectangular cross section waveguide. The introduction of tensile strain can be used to compensate for the different confinement factors experienced by the waveguide TE and TM modes. There is a need for models that can be used to predict RSOA static characteristics such as the dependency of the signal gain on bias current and input optical power, the amplified spontaneous emission spectrum and noise figure. In this paper we extend our prior work on non-reflective SOAs to develop a static model that includes facet reflections. The model uses a detailed band structure description, which is used to determine the wavelength and carrier density dependency of the material gain and additive spontaneous emission. The model and includes a full geometrical description of the amplifier waveguide, including the input taper and the position dependency of the TE/TM confinement factors. The amplified signal and spontaneous emission are described by detailed travelling-wave equations and numerically solved in conjunction with a carrier density rate equation. The model uses material and geometric parameters for a commercially available RSOA. The versatility of the model is shown by several simulations that are used to predict the SOA operational characteristics as well as internal variables such as the amplified spontaneous emission and signal and the carrier density.

  14. Bulk Growth of Wide Band Gap II-VI Compound Semiconductors by Physical Vapor Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ching-Hua

    1997-01-01

    The mechanism of physical vapor transport of II-VI semiconducting compounds was studied both theoretically, using a one-dimensional diffusion model, as well as experimentally. It was found that the vapor phase stoichiometry is critical in determining the vapor transport rate. The experimental heat treatment methods to control the vapor composition over the starting materials were investigated and the effectiveness of the heat treatments was confirmed by partial pressure measurements using an optical absorption technique. The effect of residual (foreign) gas on the transport rate was also studies theoretically by the diffusion model and confirmed experimentally by the measurements of total pressure and compositions of the residual gas. An in-situ dynamic technique for the transport rate measurements and a further extension of the technique that simultaneously measured the partial pressures and transport rates were performed and, for the first time, the experimentally determined mass fluxes were compared with those calculated, without any adjustable parameters, from the diffusion model. Using the information obtained from the experimental transport rate measurements as guideline high quality bulk crystal of wide band gap II-VI semiconductor were grown from the source materials which undergone the same heat treatment methods. The grown crystals were then extensively characterized with emphasis on the analysis of the crystalline structural defects.

  15. Observation of core-level binding energy shifts between (100) surface and bulk atoms of epitaxial CuInSe{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, A.J.; Berry, G.; Rockett, A.

    1997-04-01

    Core-level and valence band photoemission from semiconductors has been shown to exhibit binding energy differences between surface atoms and bulk atoms, thus allowing one to unambiguously distinguish between the two atomic positions. Quite clearly, surface atoms experience a potential different from the bulk due to the lower coordination number - a characteristic feature of any surface is the incomplete atomic coordination. Theoretical accounts of this phenomena are well documented in the literature for III-V and II-VI semiconductors. However, surface state energies corresponding to the equilibrium geometry of (100) and (111) surfaces of Cu-based ternary chalcopyrite semiconductors have not been calculated or experimental determined. These compounds are generating great interest for optoelectronic and photovoltaic applications, and are an isoelectronic analog of the II-VI binary compound semiconductors. Surface core-level binding energy shifts depend on the surface cohesive energies, and surface cohesive energies are related to surface structure. For ternary compound semiconductor surfaces, such as CuInSe{sub 2}, one has the possibility of variations in surface stoichiometry. Applying standard thermodynamical calculations which consider the number of individual surface atoms and their respective chemical potentials should allow one to qualitatively determine the magnitude of surface core-level shifts and, consequently, surface state energies.

  16. Concentration polarization, surface currents, and bulk advection in a microchannel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Christoffer P.; Bruus, Henrik

    2014-10-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of salt transport and overlimiting currents in a microchannel during concentration polarization. We have carried out full numerical simulations of the coupled Poisson-Nernst-Planck-Stokes problem governing the transport and rationalized the behavior of the system. A remarkable outcome of the investigations is the discovery of strong couplings between bulk advection and the surface current; without a surface current, bulk advection is strongly suppressed. The numerical simulations are supplemented by analytical models valid in the long channel limit as well as in the limit of negligible surface charge. By including the effects of diffusion and advection in the diffuse part of the electric double layers, we extend a recently published analytical model of overlimiting current due to surface conduction.

  17. Method for making high resistance chromium-free semiconductor substrate body with low resistance active semiconductor layer by surface irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kniepkamp, H.

    1984-10-30

    A high resistance semiconductor substrate body with a thin low resistance active semiconductor layer thereon is generated by a method including the steps of subjecting the semiconductor substrate body to neutron bombardment to a degree which produces high resistance in the semiconductor body and whereby doping substances are generated in the substrate body by the thermal neutron bombardment. A thin low resistant active semiconductor layer is then generated on the substrate body by annealing, a surface of the semiconductor substrate body up to a selected depth by laser radiation or electron radiation such that the lattice deterioration which was caused by the neutron bombardment is eliminated but the doping which was generated by the transmutation of elements during neutron bombardment remains. The annealing can be undertaken only in selected regions on the surface of the semiconductor substrate body, thereby facilitating the construction of integrated circuit components thereon.

  18. Exceptional surface and bulk electronic structures in a topological insulator, Bi2Se3

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Deepnarayan; Thakur, Sangeeta; Balakrishnan, Geetha; Maiti, Kalobaran

    2015-01-01

    The outstanding problem in topological insulators is the bulk metallicity underneath topologically ordered surface states and the appearance of Dirac point far away from the Fermi energy. Enormous efforts are being devoted to get the Dirac point at the Fermi level via exposure to foreign materials so that these materials can be used in technology and realize novel fundamental physics. Ironically, the conclusion of bulk metallicity in the electronic structure is essentially based on the angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy, a highly surface sensitive technique. Here, we employed state-of-the-art hard x-ray photoemission spectroscopy with judiciously chosen experiment geometry to delineate the bulk electronic structure of a topological insulator and a potential thermoelectric material, Bi2Se3. The results exhibit signature of insulating bulk electronic structure with tiny intensities at akin to defect/vacancy induced doped states in the semiconductors. The core level spectra exhibit intense plasmon peak associated to core level excitations manifesting the signature of coupling of electrons to the collective excitations, a possible case of plasmon-phonon coupling. In addition, a new loss feature appear in the core level spectra indicating presence of additional collective excitations in the system. PMID:26644075

  19. Exceptional surface and bulk electronic structures in a topological insulator, Bi2Se3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Deepnarayan; Thakur, Sangeeta; Balakrishnan, Geetha; Maiti, Kalobaran

    2015-12-01

    The outstanding problem in topological insulators is the bulk metallicity underneath topologically ordered surface states and the appearance of Dirac point far away from the Fermi energy. Enormous efforts are being devoted to get the Dirac point at the Fermi level via exposure to foreign materials so that these materials can be used in technology and realize novel fundamental physics. Ironically, the conclusion of bulk metallicity in the electronic structure is essentially based on the angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy, a highly surface sensitive technique. Here, we employed state-of-the-art hard x-ray photoemission spectroscopy with judiciously chosen experiment geometry to delineate the bulk electronic structure of a topological insulator and a potential thermoelectric material, Bi2Se3. The results exhibit signature of insulating bulk electronic structure with tiny intensities at akin to defect/vacancy induced doped states in the semiconductors. The core level spectra exhibit intense plasmon peak associated to core level excitations manifesting the signature of coupling of electrons to the collective excitations, a possible case of plasmon-phonon coupling. In addition, a new loss feature appear in the core level spectra indicating presence of additional collective excitations in the system.

  20. Exceptional surface and bulk electronic structures in a topological insulator, Bi2Se3.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Deepnarayan; Thakur, Sangeeta; Balakrishnan, Geetha; Maiti, Kalobaran

    2015-01-01

    The outstanding problem in topological insulators is the bulk metallicity underneath topologically ordered surface states and the appearance of Dirac point far away from the Fermi energy. Enormous efforts are being devoted to get the Dirac point at the Fermi level via exposure to foreign materials so that these materials can be used in technology and realize novel fundamental physics. Ironically, the conclusion of bulk metallicity in the electronic structure is essentially based on the angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy, a highly surface sensitive technique. Here, we employed state-of-the-art hard x-ray photoemission spectroscopy with judiciously chosen experiment geometry to delineate the bulk electronic structure of a topological insulator and a potential thermoelectric material, Bi2Se3. The results exhibit signature of insulating bulk electronic structure with tiny intensities at akin to defect/vacancy induced doped states in the semiconductors. The core level spectra exhibit intense plasmon peak associated to core level excitations manifesting the signature of coupling of electrons to the collective excitations, a possible case of plasmon-phonon coupling. In addition, a new loss feature appear in the core level spectra indicating presence of additional collective excitations in the system. PMID:26644075

  1. Optical velocimeters for moving surfaces using gas and semiconductor lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belousov, P. Ya.; Dubnistshev, Yu. N.; Meledin, V. G.

    1990-10-01

    A differential arrangement using a laser for the measurement of the velocity of moving surfaces is discussed. Configurations of optical velocimeters with diffraction beam-splitters are shown not to be critical on the wavelength stability of a semiconductor laser. Laser meters measuring the velocity and length of rolled stock have been built on the basis of the devices considered.

  2. Surface and bulk contribution to Cu(111) quantum efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Pedersoli, Emanuele; Greaves, Corin Michael Ricardo; Wan, Weishi; Coleman-Smith, Christopher; Padmore, Howard A.; Pagliara, Stefania; Cartella, Andrea; Lamarca, Fabrizio; Ferrini, Gabriele; Galimberti, Gianluca; Montagnese, Matteo; dal Conte, Stefano; Parmigiani, Fulvio

    2008-11-04

    The quantum efficiency (QE) of Cu(111) is measured for different impinging light angles with photon energies just above the work function. We observe that the vectorial photoelectric effect, an enhancement of the QE due to illumination with light with an electric vector perpendicular to the sample surface, is stronger in the more surface sensitive regime. This can be explained by a contribution to photoemission due to the variation in the electromagnetic potential at the surface. The contributions of bulk and surface electrons can then be determined.

  3. Molecular assembly at bare semiconductor surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuiness, Christine L.

    The formation of well-organized monolayers with highly reproducible structures by solution self assembly of octadecanethiol (ODT) on GaAs (001) and (011) surfaces at ambient temperature through rigorous control of assembly conditions is demonstrated. Using TOF-SIMs and HRXPS measurements, it is shown that ODT molecules form a direct S-GaAs attachment with little to no substrate oxidation and exhibit an overall thermal stability up to ˜100°C, lower than the same monolayers on Au{111} surfaces. Detailed characterization using a combination of ellipsometry, liquid drop contact angles, atomic force microscopy, near edge x-ray absorption fine structure, infrared spectroscopy and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy probes reveal a structure with conformationally ordered alkyl chains tilted 14 +/-1° from the surface normal with a 43 +/-5° twist, a highly oleophobic and hydrophobic ambient surface. On GaAs (111A) surfaces, the ODT monolayers also form a direct S-GaAs attachment with little to no substrate oxidation but the final monolayer structure is more disordered, with the alkyl chains tilted 25 +/-5° from surface normal with a 45 +/-5° twist, resulting in a less oleophobic and hydrophobic ambient surface. Further, in contrast to previously reported results with Na2S9H2O treatments, Raman scattering measurements reveal that the ODT monolayers do not significantly modify the near-surface electronic structure of GaAs. Analysis of the tilt angle and film thickness data in conjunction with grazing incidence x-ray diffraction measurements show that the monolayers form structures with a significant mismatch of the average adsorbate molecule spacings with the spacings of intrinsic GaAs crystal lattices. For the square surface lattices of GaAs (001) and (011), ODT monolayers are observed to form pseudo-hcp structures. On the hcp surface lattice of GaAs (111A) however, the monolayers form a true hcp structure. This suggests that formation of the monolayers is driven

  4. Investigation on properties of ultrafast switching in a bulk gallium arsenide avalanche semiconductor switch

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Long; Su, Jiancang; Ding, Zhenjie; Hao, Qingsong; Yuan, Xuelin

    2014-03-07

    Properties of ultrafast switching in a bulk gallium arsenide (GaAs) avalanche semiconductor switch based on semi-insulating wafer, triggered by an optical pulse, were analyzed using physics-based numerical simulations. It has been demonstrated that when a voltage with amplitude of 5.2 kV is applied, after an exciting optical pulse with energy of 1 μJ arrival, the structure with thickness of 650 μm reaches a high conductivity state within 110 ps. Carriers are created due to photons absorption, and electrons and holes drift to anode and cathode terminals, respectively. Static ionizing domains appear both at anode and cathode terminals, and create impact-generated carriers which contribute to the formation of electron-hole plasma along entire channel. When the electric field in plasma region increases above the critical value (∼4 kV/cm) at which the electrons drift velocity peaks, a domain comes into being. An increase in carrier concentration due to avalanche multiplication in the domains reduces the domain width and results in the formation of an additional domain as soon as the field outside the domains increases above ∼4 kV/cm. The formation and evolution of multiple powerfully avalanching domains observed in the simulations are the physical reasons of ultrafast switching. The switch exhibits delayed breakdown with the characteristics affected by biased electric field, current density, and optical pulse energy. The dependence of threshold energy of the exciting optical pulse on the biased electric field is discussed.

  5. Investigation on properties of ultrafast switching in a bulk gallium arsenide avalanche semiconductor switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Long; Su, Jiancang; Ding, Zhenjie; Hao, Qingsong; Yuan, Xuelin

    2014-03-01

    Properties of ultrafast switching in a bulk gallium arsenide (GaAs) avalanche semiconductor switch based on semi-insulating wafer, triggered by an optical pulse, were analyzed using physics-based numerical simulations. It has been demonstrated that when a voltage with amplitude of 5.2 kV is applied, after an exciting optical pulse with energy of 1 μJ arrival, the structure with thickness of 650 μm reaches a high conductivity state within 110 ps. Carriers are created due to photons absorption, and electrons and holes drift to anode and cathode terminals, respectively. Static ionizing domains appear both at anode and cathode terminals, and create impact-generated carriers which contribute to the formation of electron-hole plasma along entire channel. When the electric field in plasma region increases above the critical value (˜4 kV/cm) at which the electrons drift velocity peaks, a domain comes into being. An increase in carrier concentration due to avalanche multiplication in the domains reduces the domain width and results in the formation of an additional domain as soon as the field outside the domains increases above ˜4 kV/cm. The formation and evolution of multiple powerfully avalanching domains observed in the simulations are the physical reasons of ultrafast switching. The switch exhibits delayed breakdown with the characteristics affected by biased electric field, current density, and optical pulse energy. The dependence of threshold energy of the exciting optical pulse on the biased electric field is discussed.

  6. Bulk ordering and surface segregation in Ni50Pt50

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourovskii, L. V.; Ruban, A. V.; Abrikosov, I. A.; Vekilov, Y. Kh.; Johansson, B.

    2001-07-01

    Interatomic interactions obtained from the effective screened generalized-perturbation method have been applied in Monte Carlo simulations to derive the bulk and surface-alloy configurations for Ni50Pt50. The calculated order-disorder transition temperature and short-range order parameters in the bulk compare well with experimental data. The surface-alloy compositions for the (111) and (110) facets above the ordering transition temperature are also found to be in a good agreement with experiments. It is demonstrated that the segregation profile at the (110) surface of NiPt is mainly caused by the unusually strong segregation of Pt into the second layer and the interlayer ordering due to large chemical nearest-neighbor interactions.

  7. Efficient coupling of light to graphene plasmons by compressing surface polaritons with tapered bulk materials.

    PubMed

    Nikitin, A Yu; Alonso-González, P; Hillenbrand, R

    2014-05-14

    Graphene plasmons promise exciting nanophotonic and optoelectronic applications. Owing to their extremely short wavelengths, however, the efficient coupling of photons to propagating graphene plasmons-critical for the development of future devices-can be challenging. Here, we propose and numerically demonstrate coupling between infrared photons and graphene plasmons by the compression of surface polaritons on tapered bulk slabs of both polar and doped semiconductor materials. Propagation of surface phonon polaritons (in SiC) and surface plasmon polaritons (in n-GaAs) along the tapered slabs compresses the polariton wavelengths from several micrometers to around 200 nm, which perfectly matches the wavelengths of graphene plasmons. The proposed coupling device allows for a 25% conversion of the incident energy into graphene plasmons and, therefore, could become an efficient route toward graphene plasmon circuitry. PMID:24773123

  8. Semiconductor surface sublimation energies and atom-atom interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnamurthy, Srinivasan; Berding, M. A.; Sher, A.; Chen, A.-B.

    1990-01-01

    The energy required to remove an atom from semiconductor surfaces is calculated using a Green's-function approach. Contrary to intuition, it is found that, in some cases, less energy is needed to remove an atom from the nearly full surface than from a nearly empty surface. The results are explained in terms of the relative energies of anion and cation dangling bonds, and the charge transfers between them. The deducted effective pair-interaction energies and their effects on surface morphology and growth perfection are discussed.

  9. Experimental demonstration of surface and bulk plasmon polaritons in hypergratings

    PubMed Central

    Sreekanth, Kandammathe Valiyaveedu; De Luca, Antonio; Strangi, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Hyperbolic metamaterials (HMMs) represent a novel class of fascinating anisotropic plasmonic materials, supporting highly confined bulk plasmon polaritons in addition to the surface plasmon polaritons. However, it is very challenging to tailor and excite those modes at optical frequencies using prism coupling technique because of the intrinsic difficulties to engineer non-traditional optical properties using artificial nanostructures and the unavailability of high refractive index prisms for matching the momentum between the incident light and the guided modes. Here, we experimentally demonstrate the excitation of both surface and bulk plasmon polaritons in a HMM through a grating coupling technique of surface plasmon excitation that makes use a hypergrating, which is a combined structure of metallic diffraction grating and HMM. Initially, we propose an optical hyperbolic metamaterial based on Au/TiO2 multilayers and confirm the hyperbolic dispersion, and the presence of high-k modes in the fabricated HMM. Reflection measurements as a function of incident angle and excitation wavelength show the existence of both surface and bulk plasmon polaritons inside the hypergrating. The proposed configuration is expected to find potential applications in bio-chemical sensors, integrated optics and optical sub-wavelength imaging. PMID:24256947

  10. Experimental demonstration of surface and bulk plasmon polaritons in hypergratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreekanth, Kandammathe Valiyaveedu; de Luca, Antonio; Strangi, Giuseppe

    2013-11-01

    Hyperbolic metamaterials (HMMs) represent a novel class of fascinating anisotropic plasmonic materials, supporting highly confined bulk plasmon polaritons in addition to the surface plasmon polaritons. However, it is very challenging to tailor and excite those modes at optical frequencies using prism coupling technique because of the intrinsic difficulties to engineer non-traditional optical properties using artificial nanostructures and the unavailability of high refractive index prisms for matching the momentum between the incident light and the guided modes. Here, we experimentally demonstrate the excitation of both surface and bulk plasmon polaritons in a HMM through a grating coupling technique of surface plasmon excitation that makes use a hypergrating, which is a combined structure of metallic diffraction grating and HMM. Initially, we propose an optical hyperbolic metamaterial based on Au/TiO2 multilayers and confirm the hyperbolic dispersion, and the presence of high-k modes in the fabricated HMM. Reflection measurements as a function of incident angle and excitation wavelength show the existence of both surface and bulk plasmon polaritons inside the hypergrating. The proposed configuration is expected to find potential applications in bio-chemical sensors, integrated optics and optical sub-wavelength imaging.

  11. Electroless silver plating of the surface of organic semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Campione, Marcello; Parravicini, Matteo; Moret, Massimo; Papagni, Antonio; Schröter, Bernd; Fritz, Torsten

    2011-10-01

    The integration of nanoscale processes and devices demands fabrication routes involving rapid, cost-effective steps, preferably carried out under ambient conditions. The realization of the metal/organic semiconductor interface is one of the most demanding steps of device fabrication, since it requires mechanical and/or thermal treatments which increment costs and are often harmful in respect to the active layer. Here, we provide a microscopic analysis of a room temperature, electroless process aimed at the deposition of a nanostructured metallic silver layer with controlled coverage atop the surface of single crystals and thin films of organic semiconductors. This process relies on the reaction of aqueous AgF solutions with the nonwettable crystalline surface of donor-type organic semiconductors. It is observed that the formation of a uniform layer of silver nanoparticles can be accomplished within 20 min contact time. The electrical characterization of two-terminal devices performed before and after the aforementioned treatment shows that the metal deposition process is associated with a redox reaction causing the p-doping of the semiconductor. PMID:21875110

  12. Surface and bulk reconstruction of Pt(111) 1 × 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego, S.; Ocal, C.; Soria, F.

    1997-04-01

    A new structural analysis of the Pt(111) 1 × 1 surface by low energy electron diffraction gives an unexpected lattice parameter compression of a o=3.904 Å with respect to the crystallographic value of 3.924 Å, yielding a Pendry R-factor of 0.078. This implies a 0.5% contraction for both the in-plane lattice parameter, a p=2.761 Å, and bulk vertical interplanar distances, d b=2.25 Å, as compared to the crystallographic values of 2.775 and 2.265 Å, respectively. The topmost surface layer exhibits an expansion of 0.9%, 2.285 Å, and the second a contraction of 0.9%, 2.245 Å. Deeper layers are bulk layers.

  13. Bulk and surface structure of a ternary microemulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, D.D.; Chen, S.H.; Satija, S.K.; Majkrzak, C.F.

    1995-12-31

    Microemulsions are isotropic mixtures of water, oil, and surfactant which self-assemble to form interfacial monolayers with a characteristic length scale on the order of hundreds of Angstroms. Small angle neutron scattering was sued to determine the bulk structure of a water-octane-C{sub 10}E{sub 4} bicontinuous microemulsion. The mean curvature of the surfactant film was verified to be near zero by independently measuring the scattering contributions form the water-surfactant and oil-surfactant interfaces through hydrogen-deuterium contrast variation. The exponentially damped, oscillatory scattering length density profile of the microemulsion near a hydrophobic silicon surface was also observed with neutron reflectivity. The surface reflectivity results as well as the bulk small angle scattering measurements are explained using a simple Ginzburg-Landau theory.

  14. Bulk Surface Momentum Parameters for Satellite-Derived Vegetation Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jasinski, Michael F.; Borak, Jordan; Crago, Richard

    2005-01-01

    The bulk aerodynamic parameters associated with the absorption of surface momentum by vegetated landscapes are theoretically estimated within the context of Raupach's roughness sublayer formulation. The parameters include the bulk plant drag coefficient, maximum u*/U(sub h), sheltering coefficient, and canopy area density at onset of sheltering. Parameters are estimated for the four principal IGBP land cover classes within the U.S. Southern Great Plains: evergreen needleleaf forests, grasslands, croplands, and open shrublands. The estimation approach applies the Method of Moments to roughness data from several international field experiments and other published sources. The results provide the necessary land surface parameters for satellite-based estimation of momentum aerodynamic roughness length and zero-plane displacement height for seasonally variable vegetation fields employed in most terrestrial and atmospheric simulation models used today. Construction of sample displacement and roughness maps over the Southern United States using MODIS land products demonstrates the potential of this approach for regional to global applications.

  15. Examining surface and bulk structures using combined nonlinear vibrational spectroscopies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chi; Wang, Jie; Khmaladze, Alexander; Liu, Yuwei; Ding, Bei; Jasensky, Joshua; Chen, Zhan

    2011-06-15

    We combined sum-frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy with coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy in one system to examine both surface and bulk structures of materials with the same geometry and without the need to move the sample. Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and polystyrene (PS) thin films were tested before and after plasma treatment. The sensitivities of SFG and CARS were tested by varying polymer film thickness and using a lipid monolayer. PMID:21685990

  16. Comparison of bulk- and surface-micromachined pressure sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, W.P.; Smith, J.H.; Monk, D.J.; O`Brien, G.; Miller, T.F.

    1998-08-01

    Two piezoresistive micromachined pressure sensors were compared: a commercially available bulk-micromachined (BM) pressure sensor and an experimental surface-micromachined (SM) pressure sensor. While the SM parts had significantly smaller die sizes, they were outperformed in most areas by the BM parts. This was due primarily to the smaller piezoresistive gauge factor in the polysilicon piezoresistors in the SM parts compared to the single crystal strain gauge used in the BM parts.

  17. Visible light surface emitting semiconductor laser

    DOEpatents

    Olbright, Gregory R.; Jewell, Jack L.

    1993-01-01

    A vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser is disclosed comprising a laser cavity sandwiched between two distributed Bragg reflectors. The laser cavity comprises a pair of spacer layers surrounding one or more active, optically emitting quantum-well layers having a bandgap in the visible which serve as the active optically emitting material of the device. The thickness of the laser cavity is m .lambda./2n.sub.eff where m is an integer, .lambda. is the free-space wavelength of the laser radiation and n.sub.eff is the effective index of refraction of the cavity. Electrical pumping of the laser is achieved by heavily doping the bottom mirror and substrate to one conductivity-type and heavily doping regions of the upper mirror with the opposite conductivity type to form a diode structure and applying a suitable voltage to the diode structure. Specific embodiments of the invention for generating red, green, and blue radiation are described.

  18. Formation and properties of metallic nanoparticles on compound semiconductor surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Myungkoo

    When electromagnetic radiation is incident upon metallic nanoparticles (NPs), a collective oscillation, termed a surface plasmon resonance (SPR), is generated. Recently, metallic NPs on semiconductor surfaces have enabled the generation of SPR, promising for enhanced light emission, efficient solar energy harvesting, biosensing, and metamaterials. Metallic NPs have been fabricated by focused ion beam (FIB) which has an advantage of cost-effectiveness over conventional lithography process requiring multi-step processes. Here, we report formation and properties of FIB-induced metallic NPs on compound semiconductor surfaces. Results presented in this thesis study suggest that FIB-induced Ga NPs can be a promising alternative plasmonic material. In particular, using a combined experimental-computational approach, we discovered a universal mechanism for ion-induced NP formation, which is governed by the sputtering yield of semiconductor surfaces. We also discovered a governing mechanism for ion-induced NP motion, which is driven by thermal fluctuation and anisotropic mass transport. Furthermore, we demonstrated Ga NP arrays with plasmon resonances with performance comparable to those of traditionally-used silver and gold NPs. We then finally demonstrated the Ga NP plasmoninduced enhancement of light emission from GaAs, which is the first ever combination of a new plasmonic material (Ga) and a new fabrication method (FIB) for the plasmon-enhanced light emission.

  19. Bulk charge carrier transport in push-pull type organic semiconductor.

    PubMed

    Karak, Supravat; Liu, Feng; Russell, Thomas P; Duzhko, Volodimyr V

    2014-12-10

    Operation of organic electronic and optoelectronic devices relies on charge transport properties of active layer materials. The magnitude of charge carrier mobility, a key efficiency metrics of charge transport properties, is determined by the chemical structure of molecular units and their crystallographic packing motifs, as well as strongly depends on the film fabrication approaches that produce films with different degrees of anisotropy and structural order. Probed by the time-of-flight and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction techniques, bulk charge carrier transport, molecular packing, and film morphology in different structural phases of push-pull type organic semiconductor, 7,7'-(4,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-silolo[3,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl)bis(6-fluoro-4-(5'-hexyl-[2,2'-bithiophen]-5yl)benzo[c][1,2,5] thiadiazole), one of the most efficient small-molecule photovoltaic materials to-date, are described herein. In the isotropic phase, the material is ambipolar with high mobilities for a fluid state. The electron and hole mobilities at the phase onset at 210.78 °C are 1.0 × 10(-3) cm(2)/(V s) and 6.5 × 10(-4) cm(2)/(V s), respectively. Analysis of the temperature and electric field dependences of the mobilities in the framework of Gaussian disorder formalism suggests larger energetic and positional disorder for electron transport sites. Below 210 °C, crystallization into a polycrystalline film with a triclinic unit cell symmetry and high degree of anisotropy leads to a 10-fold increase of hole mobility. The mobility is limited by the charge transfer along the direction of branched alkyl side chains. Below 90 °C, faster cooling rates produce even higher hole mobilities up to 2 × 10(-2) cm(2)/(V s) at 25 °C because of the more isotropic orientations of crystalline domains. These properties facilitate in understanding efficient material performance in photovoltaic devices and will guide further development of materials and devices. PMID:25393015

  20. Analysis of spurious bulk waves in ball surface wave device.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Satoru; Cho, Hideo; Tsukahara, Yusuke; Nakaso, Noritaka; Yamanaka, Kazushi

    2003-01-01

    We analyzed the acoustic waves propagating in a sphere to establish a useful guideline for the design of NDE apparatus and ball surface acoustic wave (SAW) device exploiting the diffraction-free propagation of SAW on a sphere. First, we calculated the laser-generated acoustic displacements both under ablation condition and under thermoelastic condition and verified experimentally the validity of the calculation. Next, the acoustic waves excited by out-of-plane stress and those excited by in-plane stress were compared. The results showed that when the out-of-plane stress was applied, the relative amplitudes of the bulk waves to that of the SAW were larger and the number of bulk waves was larger than that when the in-plane stress was applied, while the SAW had similar waveforms in each case. The ratio of the relative amplitude of the bulk waves for the out-of-plane stress and the in-plane stress was 3.1:1 at phi(1)=90 degrees and 1.67:1 at phi(1)=0 degrees. The large amplitude for the out-of-plane stress can be explained by wide directivities of bulk waves. Consequently, we found that it is necessary for ball SAW device to select a piezoelectric material and form of interdigital transducer so that the in-plane stress becomes dominant. PMID:12464407

  1. Differentiating surface and bulk interactions in nanoplasmonic interferometric sensor arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Beibei; Gao, Yongkang; Bartoli, Filbert J.

    2014-11-01

    Detecting specific target analytes and differentiating them from interfering background effects is a crucial but challenging task in complex multi-component solutions commonly encountered in environmental, chemical, biological, and medical sensing applications. Here we present a simple nanoplasmonic interferometric sensor platform that can differentiate the adsorption of a thin protein layer on the sensor surface (surface effects) from bulk refractive index changes (interfering background effects) at a single sensing spot, exploiting the different penetration depths of multiple propagating surface plasmon polaritons excited in the ring-hole nanoplasmonic sensors. A monolayer of bovine serum albumin (BSA) molecules with an effective thickness of 1.91 nm is detected and differentiated from a 10-3 change in refractive index unit for the bulk solution. The noise level of the retrieved real-time sensor output compares favorably with that of traditional prism-based surface plasmon resonance sensors, but is achieved using a significantly simpler collinear transmission geometry and a miniaturized sensor footprint.Detecting specific target analytes and differentiating them from interfering background effects is a crucial but challenging task in complex multi-component solutions commonly encountered in environmental, chemical, biological, and medical sensing applications. Here we present a simple nanoplasmonic interferometric sensor platform that can differentiate the adsorption of a thin protein layer on the sensor surface (surface effects) from bulk refractive index changes (interfering background effects) at a single sensing spot, exploiting the different penetration depths of multiple propagating surface plasmon polaritons excited in the ring-hole nanoplasmonic sensors. A monolayer of bovine serum albumin (BSA) molecules with an effective thickness of 1.91 nm is detected and differentiated from a 10-3 change in refractive index unit for the bulk solution. The noise level

  2. Characterization of semiconductor surface-emitting laser wafers

    SciTech Connect

    Gourley, P.L.; Vawter, G.A.; Brennan, T.M.; Hammons, B.E.

    1990-01-01

    The development of epitaxial semiconductor surface-emitting lasers has begun in recent years. These lasers are ultra-short (few {mu}m) Fabry-Perot resonators comprising epitaxial multilayer semiconductor mirrors and quantum well active regions. The resonators are single crystals grown along the lasing axis by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) or chemical vapor deposition (CVD). They offer significant advances over conventional cleaved, edge-emitting lasers for creating lasers with single elements of 2 dimensional arrays, low beam divergence, engineered active regions, single longitudinal modes, and improved temperature characteristics. To realize the high potential of these new laser structures, techniques for characterizing the laser wafer after growth and between fabrication steps must be developed. In this paper we discuss several optical techniques that we have developed for this emerging surface-emitting laser technology.

  3. Tapping of Love waves in an isotropic surface waveguide by surface-to-bulk wave transduction.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuan, H.-S.; Chang, C.-P.

    1972-01-01

    A theoretical study of tapping a Love wave in an isotropic microacoustic surface waveguide is given. The surface Love wave is tapped by partial transduction into a bulk wave at a discontinuity. It is shown that, by careful design of the discontinuity, the converted bulk wave power and the radiation pattern may be controlled. General formulas are derived for the calculation of these important characteristics from a relatively general surface contour deformation.

  4. Probing surface recombination velocities in semiconductors using two-photon microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Gaury, Benoit; Haney, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    The determination of minority-carrier lifetimes and surface recombination velocities is essential for the development of semiconductor technologies such as solar cells. The recent development of two-photon time-resolved microscopy allows for better measurements of bulk and subsurface interfaces properties. Here we analyze the diffusion problem related to this optical technique. Our three-dimensional treatment enables us to separate lifetime (recombination) from transport effects (diffusion) in the photoluminescence intensity. It also allows us to consider surface recombination occurring at a variety of geometries: a single plane (representing an isolated exposed or buried interface), two parallel planes (representing two inequivalent interfaces), and a spherical surface (representing the enclosing surface of a grain boundary). We provide fully analytical results and scalings directly amenable to data fitting, and apply those to experimental data collected on heteroepitaxial CdTe/ZnTe/Si. PMID:27182082

  5. Probing surface recombination velocities in semiconductors using two-photon microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaury, Benoit; Haney, Paul M.

    2016-03-01

    The determination of minority-carrier lifetimes and surface recombination velocities is essential for the development of semiconductor technologies such as solar cells. The recent development of two-photon time-resolved microscopy allows for better measurements of bulk and subsurface interfaces properties. Here, we analyze the diffusion problem related to this optical technique. Our three-dimensional treatment enables us to separate lifetime (recombination) from transport effects (diffusion) in the photoluminescence intensity. It also allows us to consider surface recombination occurring at a variety of geometries: a single plane (representing an isolated exposed or buried interface), a two parallel planes (representing two inequivalent interfaces), and a spherical surface (representing the enclosing surface of a grain boundary). We provide fully analytical results and scalings directly amenable to data fitting and apply those to experimental data collected on heteroepitaxial CdTe/ZnTe/Si.

  6. Compton Scattering from Bulk and Surface of Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wenjie; Kuzmenko, Ivan; Vaknin, David

    2014-03-01

    Elastic and Compton scattering at grazing angle X-ray incidence from water show distinct behaviors below and above the critical angle for total reflections suggesting surface restructuring of the water surface. Using X-ray synchrotron radiation in reflectivity mode, we collect the Thomson and Compton scattering signals with energy dispersive detector at various angles near the normal to surface as a function of the angle of incidence. Analysis of the ratio between the Thomson and Compton intensity above the critical angle (which mainly probes bulk water) is a constant as expected from incoherent scattering from single water molecule, whereas the signal from the surface shows strong angular dependence on the incident angle. Although we do not fully understand the phenomena, we attribute the observation to more organized water at the interface. Ames Laboratory, DOE under contract No. DE-AC02-07CH11358 and Advanced Photon Source, DOE under contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  7. Surface and Bulk Thermal Dehydroxylation of FeOOH Polymorphs.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaowei; Boily, Jean-François

    2016-08-11

    In this study, bulk and surface thermal decomposition of synthetic iron oxyhydroxides to iron oxides was followed using the temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) technique. Submicron-sized akaganéite (β-FeOOH), rod- and lath-shaped lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH), and goethite (α-FeOOH) particles were heated in vacuo in the 30-400 °C range, and their OH vibrational modes were monitored by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy while H2O(g) release was monitored by quadrupole mass spectrometry. Peak thermal dehydroxylation temperatures were larger in the order of lath lepidocrocite (200 °C) < akaganéite (200/260 °C) < rod lepidocrocite (268 °C) < goethite (293 °C). Pre-equilibration of these particles to aqueous solutions of HCl increased dehydroxylation temperatures of all minerals except goethite by 13-40 °C. These shifts were explained by (1) the dissolution of particles or regions of particles of lower degree of crystallinity by HCl, as well as (2) the strengthening of the hydrogen bond environment in the akaganéite bulk. The latter is a means of facilitating H2O(g) formation via interactions between two adjacent OH groups. Strongly analogous forms of interactions at the FeOOH particle surfaces were also shown to facilitate the release of singly coordinated (-OH) hydroxo groups to the gas phase at temperatures lower than 125 °C, thus creating OH vacancies that may be actively involved in the transfer of bulk to surface OH groups during thermal dehydroxylation. Doubly- (μ-OH) and triply- (μ3-OH) coordinated hydroxo groups were however resilient to exchange under those conditions, and their dehydroxylation was strongly congruent with that of bulk OH groups. By resolving the bulk and surface thermal decomposition of FeOOH polymorphs, this work provides clearer insight into the fate of these materials in natural and technological settings where important thermal gradients are commonplace. PMID:27426101

  8. Surface melting of clusters and implications for bulk matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Hai-Ping; Berry, R. Stephen

    1992-06-01

    Surface melting on clusters is investigated by a combination of analytic modeling and computer simulation. Homogeneous argonlike clusters bound by Lennard-Jones forces and Cu-like clusters bound by ``embedded-atom'' potentials are the systems considered. Molecular-dynamics calculations have been carried out for clusters with 40-147 atoms. Well below the bulk melting temperature, the surfaces become very soft, exhibiting well-defined diffusion constants even while the cores remain nearly rigid and solidlike. The simulations, particularly animations, of atomic motion reveal that the surface melting is associated not with amorphous, random surface structures in constant, irregular motion, but rather with large-amplitude, organized, collective motion of most of the surface atoms accompanied by a few detached atoms (``floaters'') and holes. At any time, a few of the surface atoms are out of the surface layer, leaving vacancies; these promoted particles wander diffusively, the holes also but less so; the floaters occasionally exchange with atoms in the surface layer. This result is the basis for an analytic, statistical model. The caloric curves, particularly the latent heats, together with the results from an analytical model, show that surface melting of clusters is a ``phase change'' different from the homogeneous melting of clusters.

  9. Atomic-scale theoretical investigations of compound semiconductor surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, G. P.

    2005-05-01

    Atomic-scale theoretical investigations of clean and covered low-index surfaces of compound semiconductors are presented. Particular emphasis is laid on the role of the electron counting rule (ECR) in governing plausible surface reconstructions. Trends are presented for the characeristic tilt of the topmost atomic layer and the highest localised phonon mode on nonpolar III-V(1 1 0) surfaces, including III-nitride compounds. Reconstructions and electronic properties of polar surfaces are explained in terms of dimer formation on (0 0 1), and trimer and/or chain formation on (1 1 1) faces. It is pointed out that some surface reconstructions stabilise as a result of a balance between the ECR and minimization of adsorbate-induced local distortion. This is demonstrated for the long-range ordered reconstruction on the Sb:GaAs(1 1 1)B surface.

  10. Ultrafast optical studies of surface reaction processes at semiconductor interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.J.D.

    1993-03-01

    Rectifying properties of semiconductor liquid junctions make them a simple system for converting and storing optical energy. However, interfacial electron or hole carrier transfer and competing non-radiative (energy loss) channels are not well understood at surfaces. This research has explored the use of three optical techniques, Surface Space Charge Electrooptic Sampling, Surface Restricted Transient Grating Spectroscopy, and Femtosecond Optical Kerr Spectroscopy (OKE) to obtain time evolution of the surface spatial distribution of photogenerated charge carriers, photocarrier population dynamics at semiconductor interfaces, and solvent modes responsible for charge localization and separation. These studies have shown that carriers arrive at GaAs(100) surfaces on the hundred femtosecond time scale. Improvements in time resolution, using surface grating spectroscopy, have shown interfacial hole transfer is occurring on the picosecond time scale. The OKE approach to solvent dynamics has determined the response of water to a field is multiexpontential with a major relaxation component of 100 femtoseconds. The observed interfacial hole transfer to Se[sup [minus]2] acceptors is occurring on this same time scale. This observation illustrates charge transfer processes can occur in the strong electronic coupling limit and can be competitive with carrier thermalization.

  11. Pump-probe surface photovoltage spectroscopy measurements on semiconductor epitaxial layers

    SciTech Connect

    Jana, Dipankar Porwal, S.; Sharma, T. K. Oak, S. M.; Kumar, Shailendra

    2014-04-15

    Pump-probe Surface Photovoltage Spectroscopy (SPS) measurements are performed on semiconductor epitaxial layers. Here, an additional sub-bandgap cw pump laser beam is used in a conventional chopped light geometry SPS setup under the pump-probe configuration. The main role of pump laser beam is to saturate the sub-bandgap localized states whose contribution otherwise swamp the information related to the bandgap of material. It also affects the magnitude of Dember voltage in case of semi-insulating (SI) semiconductor substrates. Pump-probe SPS technique enables an accurate determination of the bandgap of semiconductor epitaxial layers even under the strong influence of localized sub-bandgap states. The pump beam is found to be very effective in suppressing the effect of surface/interface and bulk trap states. The overall magnitude of SPV signal is decided by the dependence of charge separation mechanisms on the intensity of the pump beam. On the contrary, an above bandgap cw pump laser can be used to distinguish the signatures of sub-bandgap states by suppressing the band edge related feature. Usefulness of the pump-probe SPS technique is established by unambiguously determining the bandgap of p-GaAs epitaxial layers grown on SI-GaAs substrates, SI-InP wafers, and p-GaN epilayers grown on Sapphire substrates.

  12. Pump-probe surface photovoltage spectroscopy measurements on semiconductor epitaxial layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jana, Dipankar; Porwal, S.; Sharma, T. K.; Kumar, Shailendra; Oak, S. M.

    2014-04-01

    Pump-probe Surface Photovoltage Spectroscopy (SPS) measurements are performed on semiconductor epitaxial layers. Here, an additional sub-bandgap cw pump laser beam is used in a conventional chopped light geometry SPS setup under the pump-probe configuration. The main role of pump laser beam is to saturate the sub-bandgap localized states whose contribution otherwise swamp the information related to the bandgap of material. It also affects the magnitude of Dember voltage in case of semi-insulating (SI) semiconductor substrates. Pump-probe SPS technique enables an accurate determination of the bandgap of semiconductor epitaxial layers even under the strong influence of localized sub-bandgap states. The pump beam is found to be very effective in suppressing the effect of surface/interface and bulk trap states. The overall magnitude of SPV signal is decided by the dependence of charge separation mechanisms on the intensity of the pump beam. On the contrary, an above bandgap cw pump laser can be used to distinguish the signatures of sub-bandgap states by suppressing the band edge related feature. Usefulness of the pump-probe SPS technique is established by unambiguously determining the bandgap of p-GaAs epitaxial layers grown on SI-GaAs substrates, SI-InP wafers, and p-GaN epilayers grown on Sapphire substrates.

  13. Pump-probe surface photovoltage spectroscopy measurements on semiconductor epitaxial layers.

    PubMed

    Jana, Dipankar; Porwal, S; Sharma, T K; Kumar, Shailendra; Oak, S M

    2014-04-01

    Pump-probe Surface Photovoltage Spectroscopy (SPS) measurements are performed on semiconductor epitaxial layers. Here, an additional sub-bandgap cw pump laser beam is used in a conventional chopped light geometry SPS setup under the pump-probe configuration. The main role of pump laser beam is to saturate the sub-bandgap localized states whose contribution otherwise swamp the information related to the bandgap of material. It also affects the magnitude of Dember voltage in case of semi-insulating (SI) semiconductor substrates. Pump-probe SPS technique enables an accurate determination of the bandgap of semiconductor epitaxial layers even under the strong influence of localized sub-bandgap states. The pump beam is found to be very effective in suppressing the effect of surface/interface and bulk trap states. The overall magnitude of SPV signal is decided by the dependence of charge separation mechanisms on the intensity of the pump beam. On the contrary, an above bandgap cw pump laser can be used to distinguish the signatures of sub-bandgap states by suppressing the band edge related feature. Usefulness of the pump-probe SPS technique is established by unambiguously determining the bandgap of p-GaAs epitaxial layers grown on SI-GaAs substrates, SI-InP wafers, and p-GaN epilayers grown on Sapphire substrates. PMID:24784628

  14. On the dependence of bulk properties on surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springborg, Michael; Kirtman, Bernard; Tevekeliyska, Violina

    2012-12-01

    By modifying the surfaces of large, regular systems it is possible to modify the polarization of the macroscopic system, although the polarization can only be modified in units of a lattice vector times the elemental charge. Alternatively, when treating the system as being infinite and periodic, there is no surface. In that case the definition of the polarization contains a so-far undefined additive constant of a lattice vector times the elemental charge. We show that the two cases are equivalent, although the reasons behind the 'unknown' additive constants in the two cases are very different. Subsequently, we show that the response of extended systems to electrostatic fields, including internal structure, piezoelectricity, bulk charge density, and (hyper)polarizabilities, depends on the additive constants, i.e., on the surfaces.

  15. Synthetic Strategies for Semiconductor Nanocrystals Expressing Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance.

    PubMed

    Niezgoda, J Scott; Rosenthal, Sandra J

    2016-03-01

    The field of semiconductor plasmonics has grown rapidly since its outset, only roughly six years ago, and now includes many crystalline substances ranging from GeTe to wide-bandgap transition-metal oxides. One byproduct of this proliferation is the sea of differing synthetic methods to realize localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) based on the studied material. Strategies vary widely from material to material, but all have the common goal of introducing extremely high carrier densities to the semiconductor system. This doping results in tunable, size-quantized, and on/off-switchable LSPR modes, which are a complete departure from traditional metal-nanoparticle-based plasmon resonances. This Minireview will provide an overview of the current state of nanocrystal and quantum-dot plasmonics and the physical basis thereof, however its main purpose is to summarize the methods for realizing LSPRs in the various syntheses and systems that have been reported to date. PMID:26530667

  16. Hot electron dynamics at semiconductor surfaces: Implications for quantum dot photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tisdale, William A., III

    Finding a viable supply of clean, renewable energy is one of the most daunting challenges facing the world today. Solar cells have had limited impact in meeting this challenge because of their high cost and low power conversion efficiencies. Semiconductor nanocrystals, or quantum dots, are promising materials for use in novel solar cells because they can be processed with potentially inexpensive solution-based techniques and because they are predicted to have novel optoelectronic properties that could enable the realization of ultra-efficient solar power converters. However, there is a lack of fundamental understanding regarding the behavior of highly-excited, or "hot," charge carriers near quantum-dot and semiconductor interfaces, which is of paramount importance to the rational design of high-efficiency devices. The elucidation of these ultrafast hot electron dynamics is the central aim of this Dissertation. I present a theoretical framework for treating the electronic interactions between quantum dots and bulk semiconductor surfaces and propose a novel experimental technique, time-resolved surface second harmonic generation (TR-SHG), for probing these interactions. I then describe a series of experimental investigations into hot electron dynamics in specific quantum-dot/semiconductor systems. A two-photon photoelectron spectroscopy (2PPE) study of the technologically-relevant ZnO(1010) surface reveals ultrafast (sub-30fs) cooling of hot electrons in the bulk conduction band, which is due to strong electron-phonon coupling in this highly polar material. The presence of a continuum of defect states near the conduction band edge results in Fermi-level pinning and upward (n-type) band-bending at the (1010) surface and provides an alternate route for electronic relaxation. In monolayer films of colloidal PbSe quantum dots, chemical treatment with either hydrazine or 1,2-ethanedithiol results in strong and tunable electronic coupling between neighboring quantum dots

  17. Enhanced Infrared Magneto-Optical Response of the Nonmagnetic Semiconductor BiTeI Driven by Bulk Rashba Splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demkó, L.; Schober, G. A. H.; Kocsis, V.; Bahramy, M. S.; Murakawa, H.; Lee, J. S.; Kézsmárki, I.; Arita, R.; Nagaosa, N.; Tokura, Y.

    2012-10-01

    We study the magneto-optical (MO) response of the polar semiconductor BiTeI with giant bulk Rashba spin splitting at various carrier densities. Despite being nonmagnetic, the material is found to yield a huge MO activity in the infrared region under moderate magnetic fields (up to 3T). Our first-principles calculations show that the enhanced MO response of BiTeI comes mainly from the intraband transitions between the Rashba-split bulk conduction bands. These transitions connecting electronic states with opposite spin directions become active due to the presence of strong spin-orbit interaction and give rise to distinct features in the MO spectra with a systematic doping dependence. We predict an even more pronounced enhancement in the low-energy MO response and dc Hall effect near the crossing (Dirac) point of the conduction bands.

  18. Adhesion: role of bulk viscoelasticity and surface roughness.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, B; Krick, B A; Mulakaluri, N; Smolyakova, M; Dieluweit, S; Sawyer, W G; Persson, B N J

    2013-06-01

    We study the adhesion between smooth polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) rubber balls and smooth and rough poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) surfaces, and between smooth silicon nitride balls and smooth PDMS surfaces. From the measured viscoelastic modulus of the PDMS rubber we calculate the viscoelastic contribution to the crack-opening propagation energy γeff(v,T) for a wide range of crack tip velocities v and for several temperatures T. The Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) contact mechanics theory is used to analyze the ball pull-off force data, and γeff(v,T) is obtained for smooth and rough surfaces. We conclude that γeff(v,T) has contributions of similar magnitude from both the bulk viscoelastic energy dissipation close to the crack tip, and from the bond-breaking process at the crack tip. The pull-off force on the rough surfaces is strongly reduced compared to that of the flat surface, which we attribute mainly to the decrease in the area of contact on the rough surfaces. PMID:23649298

  19. Adhesion: role of bulk viscoelasticity and surface roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, B.; Krick, B. A.; Mulakaluri, N.; Smolyakova, M.; Dieluweit, S.; Sawyer, W. G.; Persson, B. N. J.

    2013-06-01

    We study the adhesion between smooth polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) rubber balls and smooth and rough poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) surfaces, and between smooth silicon nitride balls and smooth PDMS surfaces. From the measured viscoelastic modulus of the PDMS rubber we calculate the viscoelastic contribution to the crack-opening propagation energy γeff(v,T) for a wide range of crack tip velocities v and for several temperatures T. The Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) contact mechanics theory is used to analyze the ball pull-off force data, and γeff(v,T) is obtained for smooth and rough surfaces. We conclude that γeff(v,T) has contributions of similar magnitude from both the bulk viscoelastic energy dissipation close to the crack tip, and from the bond-breaking process at the crack tip. The pull-off force on the rough surfaces is strongly reduced compared to that of the flat surface, which we attribute mainly to the decrease in the area of contact on the rough surfaces.

  20. Predefined planar structures in semiconductor surfaces patterned by NSOM lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lettrichova, Ivana; Pudis, Dusan; Laurencikova, Agata; Hasenohrl, Stanislav; Novak, Jozef; Skriniarova, Jaroslava; Kovac, Jaroslav

    2013-09-01

    Near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) lithography is one of optical technologies for planar structure fabrication, where exposure process is performed by optical near field produced at tip of fiber probe. Maskless exposure of defined regions is performed so that different periodic and predefined arrangement can be achieved. In this contribution, NSOM lithography is presented as effective tool for semiconductor device surface patterning. Non-contact mode of NSOM lithography was used to pattern planar predefined structures in GaAs, AlGaAs and GaP surfaces. In this way, GaAs/AlGaAs-based LED with patterned structure in the emitting surface was prepared, where patterned air holes show enhancement of radiation in comparison with the surrounding surface. Furthermore, NSOM in combination with lift-off technique was used to prepare metal-catalyst particles on GaP substrate for subsequent growth of GaP nanowires which can be used in photovoltaic applications.

  1. Surface and Bulk Carbide Transformations in High-Speed Steel.

    PubMed

    Godec, M; Večko Pirtovšek, T; Šetina Batič, B; McGuiness, P; Burja, J; Podgornik, B

    2015-01-01

    We have studied the transformation of carbides in AISI M42 high-speed steels in the temperature window used for forging. The annealing was found to result in the partial transformation of the large, metastable M2C carbides into small, more stable grains of M6C, with an associated change in the crystal orientation. In addition, MC carbides form during the transformation of M2C to M6C. From the high-speed-steel production point of view, it is beneficial to have large, metastable carbides in the cast structure, which later during annealing, before the forging, transform into a structure of polycrystalline carbides. Such carbides can be easily decomposed into several small carbides, which are then randomly distributed in the microstructure. The results also show an interesting difference in the carbide-transformation reactions on the surface versus the bulk of the alloy, which has implications for in-situ studies of bulk phenomena that are based on surface observations. PMID:26537780

  2. Surface and Bulk Carbide Transformations in High-Speed Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godec, M.; Večko Pirtovšek, T.; Šetina Batič, B.; McGuiness, P.; Burja, J.; Podgornik, B.

    2015-11-01

    We have studied the transformation of carbides in AISI M42 high-speed steels in the temperature window used for forging. The annealing was found to result in the partial transformation of the large, metastable M2C carbides into small, more stable grains of M6C, with an associated change in the crystal orientation. In addition, MC carbides form during the transformation of M2C to M6C. From the high-speed-steel production point of view, it is beneficial to have large, metastable carbides in the cast structure, which later during annealing, before the forging, transform into a structure of polycrystalline carbides. Such carbides can be easily decomposed into several small carbides, which are then randomly distributed in the microstructure. The results also show an interesting difference in the carbide-transformation reactions on the surface versus the bulk of the alloy, which has implications for in-situ studies of bulk phenomena that are based on surface observations.

  3. Surface and Bulk Carbide Transformations in High-Speed Steel

    PubMed Central

    Godec, M.; Večko Pirtovšek, T.; Šetina Batič, B.; McGuiness, P.; Burja, J.; Podgornik, B.

    2015-01-01

    We have studied the transformation of carbides in AISI M42 high-speed steels in the temperature window used for forging. The annealing was found to result in the partial transformation of the large, metastable M2C carbides into small, more stable grains of M6C, with an associated change in the crystal orientation. In addition, MC carbides form during the transformation of M2C to M6C. From the high-speed-steel production point of view, it is beneficial to have large, metastable carbides in the cast structure, which later during annealing, before the forging, transform into a structure of polycrystalline carbides. Such carbides can be easily decomposed into several small carbides, which are then randomly distributed in the microstructure. The results also show an interesting difference in the carbide-transformation reactions on the surface versus the bulk of the alloy, which has implications for in-situ studies of bulk phenomena that are based on surface observations. PMID:26537780

  4. Inverted xerographic depletion discharge mechanism for the dark decay of electrostatic surface potential on amorphous semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Kasap, S.O.

    1988-07-01

    Recently, the xerographic depletion discharge (XDD) model has been applied extensively to chemically modified a-Se, a-Se/sub 1/..sqrt../sub x/Te/sub x/ alloys, and a-As/sub 2/Se/sub 3/ as well as to a-Si:H films to study the nature of charge carrier generation from deep mobility gap states which control the dark decay of the electrostatic surface potential on a corona charged amorphous semiconductor. In the normal XDD model, the dark discharge involves bulk thermal generation of a mobile carrier of the same sign as the surface charge and its subsequent sweep out from the sample leaving behind an ionized center of opposite charge. It is shown that an ''inverted depletion discharge'' mechanism, which involves the thermal generation of a mobile charge carrier of the opposite sign to the surface charge and its subsequent drift to the surface and the resulting surface charge neutralization there, results in a dark discharge rate which has identical features as the normal XDD mechanism. In the normal XDD mechanism, the neutral region develops after the depletion time from the grounded electrode, whereas in the inverted XDD mechanism the neutral region grows from the surface. Furthermore, during inverted depletion discharge the surface charge is actually dissipated by neutralization, whereas in the normal depletion discharge model there is no such requirement over the time scale of the experiment. It is concluded that xerographic dark decay experiments alone cannot determine the sign of the thermally generated mobile carrier and that of the bulk space charge. Chemically modified amorphous selenium case is discussed as an example of surface potential decay resulting from bulk space-charge buildup.

  5. Surface properties of semiconductor analogs of CdBVI and their solid substitution solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirovskaya, I. A.; Nor, P. E.; Bukashkina, T. L.; Mironova, E. V.

    2016-03-01

    The physicochemical (acidic-basic, adsorption, and electrophysical) surface properties of binary semiconductor analogs of CdBVI (CdTe, CdSe, and CdS), and (CdTe) x (CdSe)1- x , and (CdTe) x (CdS)1- x solid substitution solutions were studied using modern methods and equipment. The nature of the active centers and the mechanisms of acidic-basic, adsorption (involving CO), and electronic interactions, interrelated tendencies in variation of the surface properties under study, and their correlations with the known bulk physicochemical properties were elucidated; the property-composition diagrams were constructed, which were used to reveal the most active adsorbents suggested for use as materials for CO (carbon monoxide) microimpurity sensors.

  6. Bulk and surface characterization of novel photoresponsive polymeric systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkataramani, Shivshankar

    This dissertation presents a detailed characterization of two important classes of photoresponsive polymers-polydiacetylenes (PDAs) and azopolymers. Bulk and surface characterization techniques were used to evaluate the structure-property relationships of the PDAs and surface characterization, in particular-atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to characterize the azopolymers. PDAs from bis-alkylurethanes of 5,7 dodecadiyn 1,12-diol (viz.,) ETCD, IPUDO and PUDO are of particular interest in view of reports of reversible thermochromic and photochromic phase transitions in these materials. Thermochromism in the above PDAs is associated with a first order phase transition involving expansion of the crystallographic unit cell, the preservation of the urethane hydrogen bonding and possibly some relief of mechanical strain upon heating. Insights into thermochromism obtained from studies of nonthermochromic forms of PDA-ETCD are discussed. Some of the bulk characterization experiments reported In the literature are repeated. The motivation to investigate the surface morphology of the PDA single crystals using AFM was derived from Raman spectroscopy studies of various PDAs in which dispersion of the Raman spectrum indicating surface heterogeneity was observed. Micron scale as well as molecularly resolved images were obtained The micron scale images indicated a variable surface of the crystals. The molecularly resolved images showed a well defined 2-D lattice and are interpreted in terms of known crystallographic data. The surface parameters obtained from AFM measurements are similar to those determined from X-ray diffraction. During an attempt of AFM imaging of IPUDO crystals exposed to 254 nm ultraviolet light, it was observed that these crystals undergo a "macroscopic shattering". In the interest of rigorously defining conditions for photochromism, this research has undertaken a combined study of the surface morphology of the above mentioned PDA crystals by AFM and the

  7. Light scattering from human corneal grafts: Bulk and surface contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latour, Gaël; Georges, Gaëlle; Lamoine, Laure Siozade; Deumié, Carole; Conrath, John; Hoffart, Louis

    2010-09-01

    The cornea is the only transparent tissue in the body. The transparency is the main characteristic of the corneal tissue, and depends not only on the transmission coefficient but also on the losses by scattering and absorption. The scattering properties of the cornea tissues become one of the most important parameters in the case of the corneal graft. These scattering properties are studied in this paper in the reflected half area, similar to the diagnosis configuration. We quantify the influence of the cornea thickness and of the epithelial layer on scattering level. The technique of ellipsometry on scattered field is also used to analyze the polarization properties in order to determine the origin of scattering (surface and/or bulk).

  8. Nonequilibrium optical properties in semiconductors from first principles: A combined theoretical and experimental study of bulk silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangalli, Davide; Dal Conte, Stefano; Manzoni, Cristian; Cerullo, Giulio; Marini, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    The calculation of the equilibrium optical properties of bulk silicon by using the Bethe-Salpeter equation solved in the Kohn-Sham basis represents a cornerstone in the development of an ab-initio approach to the optical and electronic properties of materials. Nevertheless, calculations of the transient optical spectrum using the same efficient and successful scheme are scarce. We report, here, a joint theoretical and experimental study of the transient reflectivity spectrum of bulk silicon. Femtosecond transient reflectivity is compared to a parameter-free calculation based on the nonequilibrium Bethe-Salpeter equation. By providing an accurate description of the experimental results we disclose the different phenomena that determine the transient optical response of a semiconductor. We give a parameter-free interpretation of concepts such as bleaching, photoinduced absorption, and stimulated emission, beyond the Fermi golden rule. We also introduce the concept of optical gap renormalization, as a generalization of the known mechanism of band gap renormalization. The present scheme successfully describes the case of bulk silicon, showing its universality and accuracy.

  9. Bulk and surface polymer composites prepared in supercritical carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kung, Edward

    This dissertation describes the use of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC CO2) as an aid in fabricating polymer/polymer composites. Monomers and initiators were infused into solid polymer substrates using SC CO 2. The monomers were subsequently polymerized within the substrates to form composites. CO2 swells the polymer substrate and increases the diffusively of reactants within the substrate. The solvent strength of SC CO2 is tunable allowing control over the degree of swelling and over the partitioning behavior of the reactants. CO2 can be easily removed from the final products. First, polystyrene/polyethylene bulk composites were investigated. Styrene and a radical initiator were infused into and reacted throughout the bulk of polyethylene substrates. The composite composition was controlled by controlling infusion time, reaction time and partitioning conditions. Characterization of the composites showed that the crystalline domains of the polyethylene were unaffected. Styrene infused into and polymerized within only the amorphous domains of polyethylene. Polyethylene and polystyrene are immiscible; the semicrystalline nature of polyethylene frustrated gross phase separation of the polystyrene. The resulting "kinetically trapped" phase morphology gave the composites interesting mechanical properties. The phase morphology was characterized, and the polystyrene was found to reside within the interlamellar regions and the centers of the polyethylene spherulites. The polystyrene formed a continuous "scaffold" that reinforced the polyethylene. The reinforcement provided efficient and dramatic improvement in the composite modulus and strength. However, the composites fracture toughness decreased with increasing polystyrene content. The fracture behavior was correlated to the microstructural damage mechanisms in the composites. Second, surface composites were investigated. Using a two-stage process, ethyl 2-cyanoacrylate (ECA) monomer was anionically polymerized in the

  10. Utilization of novel atom sources in studies of semiconductor surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolan, John Thaddeus

    Nanometer-scale characterization of semiconductor surfaces is very important for precise control of the ultrafine structures necessary for the realization of devices using quantum confinement. The performance of these heterojunction devices is strongly dependent on interface quality. In the case of III-V semiconductors, the major problem is the presence of the native oxide layer and surface carbon contamination. This carbon is strongly bonded to the III-V surface even after ion-etching and high temperature annealing and induces a free-carrier depletion region at the substrate-epilayer interface. Furthermore, native oxides on GaAs and InP surfaces are detrimental to the formation of stable interfaces and can result in defective epitaxial growth, inducing undesirable electrical characteristics to the device so they must be removed without damaging the near-surface region. A surface characterization study using ion scattering spectroscopy (ISS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been performed on GaAs(001) and InP(111) substrates before and after cleaning by ion sputtering/annealing cycles and room temperature exposure to the flux produced by a novel atomic hydrogen source based on electron-stimulated desorption (ESD) to determine any treatment-induced alterations. In order to realize high performance III-V circuits, the preparation of a good quality passivating oxide interface is necessary. Device quality oxide-(III-V) interface fabrication will certainly depend on the composition of the oxide interface and any possible damage induced by the oxidation process. In the case of GaAs, thermal oxides and formation of thick oxides (which actually is diffusion-controlled and possibly close to thermal equilibrium) usually results in non-stoichiometric films of Gasb2Osb3 and Assb2Osb3 as well as a pile-up of elemental As at the GaAs-oxide interface. This structure is predicted by the Ga-O-As phase diagram, but it provides poor electrical isolation and surface

  11. Modeling direct band-to-band tunneling: From bulk to quantum-confined semiconductor devices

    SciTech Connect

    Carrillo-Nuñez, H.; Ziegler, A.; Luisier, M.; Schenk, A.

    2015-06-21

    A rigorous framework to study direct band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) in homo- and hetero-junction semiconductor nanodevices is introduced. An interaction Hamiltonian coupling conduction and valence bands (CVBs) is derived using a multiband envelope method. A general form of the BTBT probability is then obtained from the linear response to the “CVBs interaction” that drives the system out of equilibrium. Simple expressions in terms of the one-electron spectral function are developed to compute the BTBT current in two- and three-dimensional semiconductor structures. Additionally, a two-band envelope equation based on the Flietner model of imaginary dispersion is proposed for the same purpose. In order to characterize their accuracy and differences, both approaches are compared with full-band, atomistic quantum transport simulations of Ge, InAs, and InAs-Si Esaki diodes. As another numerical application, the BTBT current in InAs-Si nanowire tunnel field-effect transistors is computed. It is found that both approaches agree with high accuracy. The first one is considerably easier to conceive and could be implemented straightforwardly in existing quantum transport tools based on the effective mass approximation to account for BTBT in nanodevices.

  12. Towards p × n transverse thermoelectrics: extreme anisotropic conduction in bulk doped semiconductor thin films via proton implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yang; Koblmüller, G.; Riedl, H.; Grayson, M.

    2016-03-01

    Transverse thermoelectrics promise entirely new strategies for integrated cooling elements for optoelectronics. The recently introduced p × n-type transverse thermoelectric paradigm indicates that the most important step to engineering artificial transverse thermoelectrics is to create alternate p- and n-doped layers with orthogonally oriented anisotropic conductivity. This paper studies an approach to creating extreme anisotropic conductivity in bulk-doped semiconductor thin films via ion implantation. This approach defines an array of parallel conduction channels with photolithographic patterning of an SiO2 mask layer, followed by proton implantation. With a 10 μm channel width and 20 μm pitch, both n-type and p-type Al0.42 Ga0.58As thin films demonstrate a conductivity anisotropy ratio σ /σ⊥ > 104 at room temperature, while the longitudinal resistivity along the channel direction after implantation only increased by a factor of 3.3 ˜ 3.6. This approach can be readily adapted to other semiconductor materials for artificial p × n-type transverse thermoelectrics as other applications.

  13. Indirect coupling of an organic semiconductor to a d -orbital surface state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingying; Dougherty, Daniel B.

    2015-10-01

    Adsorption of the organic semiconductor perylene tetracarboxylic dianhydride onto Cr (001 ) decreases the metal d -derived surface-state lifetime without causing a shift in its energy. This suggests an indirect electronic interaction that contrasts sharply with expectations of p-d electronic coupling based on direct chemisorption. Lifetime changes are measured with scanning tunneling spectroscopy as a function of temperature and quantified as arising from a molecule-induced increase in electron-electron scattering rate into bulk bands within Fermi-liquid theory. Adsorbate-induced effects extend far beyond the adsorption site of the molecule, decaying exponentially away with a characteristic length scale of ˜2.4 nm , similar to the carrier mean free path in Cr.

  14. Bulk and surface light scattering from transparent silica aerogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platzer, Werner J.; Bergkvist, Mikael

    1992-11-01

    Elastic light scattering has been used to study structural properties of different transparent aerogels, which may be used as filling materials in super-windows. With a goniometer having an angular resolution better than 0.6 degree(s) and a He-Ne laser as the light source we investigated the angular distribution of scattered intensity from transparent silica aerogels and one xerogel. The densities ranged between 0.11 and 0.60 gcm-3. An exponential correlation function for the density fluctuations of a random porous medium has been utilized to analyze the large-angle scattering, which is dominated by bulk scattering, for different polarization of the incident light. The determination of correlation lengths in the nanometer range was possible, because the absolute scattering intensities were determined. For relative angular dependence measurements, this range would have been accessible only to small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). The resulting mean pore sizes between 8 nm and 50 nm and specific surface areas between 500 and 700 m2/g agree well with nitrogen-porosimetry data from the literature. The data compare quite well with correlation lengths calculated from specular transmittance data from an ordinary spectrophotometer. This method, which is not sensitive to the angular distribution of superposed forward scattering with large correlation lengths, has also been applied to a series of base-catalyzed TMOS aerogels with different catalyst concentrations. The forward scattering peak of the signal may be attributed to correlation lengths in the micrometer range. Experimental results for aerogel surfaces with evaporated aluminum indicate that this might be due to the surface properties. A quantitative analysis, however, is not possible yet.

  15. Atomistic simulations of bulk, surface and interfacial polymer properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natarajan, Upendra

    In chapter I, quasi-static molecular mechanics based simulations are used to estimate the activation energy of phenoxy rings flips in the amorphous region of a semicrystalline polyimide. Intra and intermolecular contributions to the flip activation energy, the torsional cooperativity accompanying the flip, and the effect of the flip on the motion in the glassy bulk state, are looked at. Also, comparison of the weighted mean activation energy is made with experimental data from solid state NMR measurements; the simulated value being 17.5 kcal/mol., while the experimental value was observed to be 10.5 kcal/mol. Chapter II deals with construction of random copolymer thin films of styrene-butadiene (SB) and styrene-butadiene-acrylonitrile (SBA). The structure and properties of the free surfaces presented by these thin films are analysed by, the atom mass density profiles, backbone bond orientation function, and the spatial distribution of acrylonitrile groups and styrene rings. The surface energies of SB and SBA are calculated using an atomistic equation and are compared with experimental data in the literature. In chapter III, simulations of polymer-polymer interfaces between like and unlike polymers, specifically cis-polybutadiene (PBD) and atatic polypropylene (PP), are presented. The structure of an incompatible polymer-polymer interface, and the estimation of the thermodynamic work of adhesion and interfacial energy between different incompatible polymers, form the focus here. The work of adhesion is calculated using an atomistic equation and is further used in a macroscopic equation to estimate the interfacial energy. The interfacial energy is compared with typical values for other immiscible systems in the literature. The interfacial energy compared very well with interfacial energy values for a few other immiscible hydrocarbon pairs. In chapter IV, the study proceeds to look at the interactions between nonpolar and polar small molecules with SB and SBA thin

  16. The use of bulk states to accelerate the band edge statecalculation of a semiconductor quantum dot

    SciTech Connect

    Vomel, Christof; Tomov, Stanimire Z.; Wang, Lin-Wang; Marques,Osni A.; Dongarra, Jack J.

    2006-05-10

    We present a new technique to accelerate the convergence of the folded spectrum method in empirical pseudopotential band edge state calculations for colloidal quantum dots. We use bulk band states of the materials constituent of the quantum dot to construct initial vectors and a preconditioner. We apply these to accelerate the convergence of the folded spectrum method for the interior states at the top of the valence and the bottom of the conduction band. For large CdSe quantum dots, the number of iteration steps until convergence decreases by about a factor of 4 compared to previous calculations.

  17. Role of Quantum and Surface-State Effects in the Bulk Fermi-Level Position of Ultrathin Bi Films.

    PubMed

    Hirahara, T; Shirai, T; Hajiri, T; Matsunami, M; Tanaka, K; Kimura, S; Hasegawa, S; Kobayashi, K

    2015-09-01

    We performed high-resolution photon-energy and polarization-dependent ARPES measurements on ultrathin Bi(111) films [6-180 bilayers (BL), 2.5-70 nm thick] formed on Si(111). In addition to the extensively studied surface states (SSs), the edge of the bulk valence band was clearly measured by using S-polarized light. We found direct evidence that this valence band edge, which forms a hole pocket in the bulk Bi crystal, does not cross the Fermi level for the 180 BL thick film. This is consistent with the predicted semimetal-to-semiconductor transition due to the quantum-size effect [V.B. Sandomirskii, Sov. Phys. JETP 25, 101 (1967)]. However, it became metallic again when the film thickness was decreased (below 30 BL). A plausible explanation for this phenomenon is the modification of the charge neutrality condition due to the size effect of the SSs. PMID:26382694

  18. Note: All solid-state high repetitive sub-nanosecond risetime pulse generator based on bulk gallium arsenide avalanche semiconductor switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Long; Su, Jiancang; Ding, Zhenjie; Hao, Qingsong; Fan, Yajun; Liu, Chunliang

    2016-08-01

    An all solid-state high repetitive sub-nanosecond risetime pulse generator featuring low-energy-triggered bulk gallium arsenide (GaAs) avalanche semiconductor switches and a step-type transmission line is presented. The step-type transmission line with two stages is charged to a potential of 5.0 kV also biasing at the switches. The bulk GaAs avalanche semiconductor switch closes within sub-nanosecond range when illuminated with approximately 87 nJ of laser energy at 905 nm in a single pulse. An asymmetric dipolar pulse with peak-to-peak amplitude of 9.6 kV and risetime of 0.65 ns is produced on a resistive load of 50 Ω. A technique that allows for repetition-rate multiplication of pulse trains experimentally demonstrated that the parallel-connected bulk GaAs avalanche semiconductor switches are triggered in sequence. The highest repetition rate is decided by recovery time of the bulk GaAs avalanche semiconductor switch, and the operating result of 100 kHz of the generator is discussed.

  19. Note: All solid-state high repetitive sub-nanosecond risetime pulse generator based on bulk gallium arsenide avalanche semiconductor switches.

    PubMed

    Hu, Long; Su, Jiancang; Ding, Zhenjie; Hao, Qingsong; Fan, Yajun; Liu, Chunliang

    2016-08-01

    An all solid-state high repetitive sub-nanosecond risetime pulse generator featuring low-energy-triggered bulk gallium arsenide (GaAs) avalanche semiconductor switches and a step-type transmission line is presented. The step-type transmission line with two stages is charged to a potential of 5.0 kV also biasing at the switches. The bulk GaAs avalanche semiconductor switch closes within sub-nanosecond range when illuminated with approximately 87 nJ of laser energy at 905 nm in a single pulse. An asymmetric dipolar pulse with peak-to-peak amplitude of 9.6 kV and risetime of 0.65 ns is produced on a resistive load of 50 Ω. A technique that allows for repetition-rate multiplication of pulse trains experimentally demonstrated that the parallel-connected bulk GaAs avalanche semiconductor switches are triggered in sequence. The highest repetition rate is decided by recovery time of the bulk GaAs avalanche semiconductor switch, and the operating result of 100 kHz of the generator is discussed. PMID:27587178

  20. Photoinduced "stick-slip" on superhydrophilic semiconductor surfaces.

    PubMed

    Denison, Kieth R; Boxall, Colin

    2007-04-10

    Transparent mesoporous TiO2 (M-TiO2) thin films were prepared on quartz via a reverse micelle, sol-gel, spin-coating technique. Films were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Raman and UV-vis spectroscopies and were found to be mostly anatase with low surface roughness (Rt approximately 5 nm). The time dependence of film photoinduced superhydrophilicity (PISH) was measured by observation of the spreading of a sessile water drop using a new, continuous measurement technique wherein the drop was first applied to the semiconductor surface and then was filmed while it and the underlying substrate were illuminated by 315 nm ultraband gap light. Results obtained at 100% relative humidity (RH) at 293 K showed that drops on M-TiO2 surfaces exhibited a photoinduced "stick-slip" behavior, the first time such an effect has been observed. The thermodynamic driving force for this photoinduced stick-slip was the departure of the system from capillary equilibrium as, with increasing illumination time, the concentration of surface Ti-OH groups increased and the equilibrium contact angle of the drop, theta0, decreased. A simple theoretical description of photoinduced stick-slip is derived and is used to calculate a value of the potential energy barrier associated with surface inhomogeneities that oppose onset of movement of the triple line, U = 6.63 x 10(-6) J m(-1). This is the first time that U has been quantified for a surface with photoinduced superhydrophilicity. Triple line retreat measurements on an evaporating drop on M-TiO2 in the dark, RH = 60%, T = 293 K, gave a value of U = 9.4 x 10(-6) J m(-1), indicating that U decreases upon UV illumination and that U in the light is primarily associated with inhomogeneities that are unaffected by an increase in the surface Ti-OH population, such as the physical roughness of the surface. In the dark evaporation experiment, the drop was found to retreat with an areal velocity of 1.48 x 10(-8) m2 s(-1). However, under UV

  1. Surface chemistry relevant to material processing for semiconductor devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Lynne Aiko

    Metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structures are the core of many modern integrated circuit (IC) devices. Each material utilized in the different regions of the device has its own unique chemistry. Silicon is the base semiconductor material used in the majority of these devices. With IC device complexity increasing and device dimensions decreasing, understanding material interactions and processing becomes increasingly critical. Hsb2 desorption is the rate-limiting step in silicon growth using silane under low temperature conditions. Activation energies for Hsb2 desorption measured during Si chemical vapor deposition (CVD) versus single-crystal studies are found to be significantly lower. It has been proposed that defect sites on the silicon surface could explain the observed differences. Isothermal Hsb2 desorption studies using laser induced thermal desorption (LITD) techniques have addressed this issue. The growth of low temperature oxides is another relevant issue for fabrication of IC devices. Recent studies using 1,4-disilabutane (DSB) (SiHsb3CHsb2CHsb2SiHsb3) at 100sp°C in ambient Osb2 displayed the successful low temperature growth of silicon dioxide (SiOsb2). However, these studies provided no information about the deposition mechanism. We performed LITD and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) studies on single-crystal and porous silicon surfaces to examine the adsorption, decomposition, and desorption processes to determine the deposition mechanism. Titanium nitride (TiN) diffusion barriers are necessary in modern metallization structures. Controlled deposition using titanium tetrachloride (TiClsb4) and ammonia (NHsb3) has been demonstrated using atomic layered processing (ALP) techniques. We intended to study the sequential deposition method by monitoring the surface intermediates using LITD techniques. However, formation of a Cl impurity source, ammonium chloride (NHsb4sp+Clsp-), was observed, thereby, limiting our ability for effective studies. Tetrakis

  2. Diffusion length measurements in bulk and epitaxially grown 3-5 semiconductors using charge collection microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leon, R. P.

    1987-01-01

    Diffusion lengths and surface recombination velocities were measured in GaAs diodes and InP finished solar cells. The basic techniques used was charge collection microscopy also known as electron beam induced current (EBIC). The normalized currents and distances from the pn junction were read directly from the calibrated curves obtained while using the line scan mode in an SEM. These values were then equated to integral and infinite series expressions resulting from the solution of the diffusion equation with both extended generation and point generation functions. This expands previous work by examining both thin and thick samples. The surface recombination velocity was either treated as an unknown in a system of two equations, or measured directly using low e(-) beam accelerating voltages. These techniques give accurate results by accounting for the effects of surface recombination and the finite size of the generation volume.

  3. Theoretical studies of electronic band-tail states, Anderson transition and surfaces of amorphous semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Jianjun

    In this dissertation, we study the Anderson transition within the electronic band tail states, and amorphous surfaces. The disorder induced band tail states is one of the unique character of amorphous semiconductors. Because of the proximity to the Fermi level, the nature of these band tail states is of obvious interest to theory of doping and transport. The study of amorphous solid surface is also an interesting area for theory. It is possible to have some major rearrangements near surfaces of amorphous solids (the amorphous analog of surface reconstruction), and the local bonding environment could be dramatically different from that of bulk. The study of the surfaces can also help people toward understanding the growth mechanism. First, electronic band tail states of amorphous silicon and amorphous diamond were studied based on the large (4096 atom) and realistic structural models. To solve the large tight-binding Hamiltonian matrices, we used two order N methods: the maximum entropy method for computing the total densities of states, and the modified Lanczos techniques for computing the individual energy eigenstates in the band gap regions. The DC conductivity was estimated with the Kubo formula. Next, the structural and electronic properties of the surfaces of tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) were also studied with a first-principles, local basis LDA technique. We reported two structural models made under different conditions, and examined the transition of the local bonding environment from the bulk to the surface. In the study of band tail states, we observe that Anderson (local-to-extended) transition within the band states proceeds by "cluster proliferation". We interpret the nature of band tail states in terms of a "resonant cluster model" through which one can qualitatively understand the evolution of the states from midgap toward the mobility edges. In the study of ta-C surfaces, we observe that nearly 50% surface atoms are threefold coordinated and

  4. Influence of the side chain and substrate on polythiophene thin film surface, bulk, and buried interfacial structures.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Minyu; Jasensky, Joshua; Zhang, Xiaoxian; Li, Yaoxin; Pichan, Cayla; Lu, Xiaolin; Chen, Zhan

    2016-08-10

    The molecular structures of organic semiconducting thin films mediate the performance of various devices composed of such materials. To fully understand how the structures of organic semiconductors alter on substrates due to different polymer side chains and different interfacial interactions, thin films of two kinds of polythiophene derivatives with different side-chains, poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and poly(3-potassium-6-hexanoate thiophene) (P3KHT), were deposited and compared on various surfaces. A combination of analytical tools was applied in this research: contact angle goniometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize substrate dielectric surfaces with varied hydrophobicity for polymer film deposition; X-ray diffraction and UV-vis spectroscopy were used to examine the polythiophene film bulk structure; sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy was utilized to probe the molecular structures of polymer film surfaces in air and buried solid/solid interfaces. Both side-chain hydrophobicity and substrate hydrophobicity were found to mediate the crystallinity of the polythiophene film, as well as the orientation of the thiophene ring within the polymer backbone at the buried polymer/substrate interface and the polymer thin film surface in air. For the same type of polythiophene film deposited on different substrates, a more hydrophobic substrate surface induced thiophene ring alignment with the surface normal at both the buried interface and on the surface in air. For different films (P3HT vs. P3KHT) deposited on the same dielectric substrate, a more hydrophobic polythiophene side chain caused the thiophene ring to align more towards the surface at the buried polymer/substrate interface and on the surface in air. We believe that the polythiophene surface, bulk, and buried interfacial molecular structures all influence the hole mobility within the polythiophene film. Successful characterization of an organic conducting

  5. Atomically Flat Surfaces Developed for Improved Semiconductor Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, J. Anthony

    2001-01-01

    New wide bandgap semiconductor materials are being developed to meet the diverse high temperature, -power, and -frequency demands of the aerospace industry. Two of the most promising emerging materials are silicon carbide (SiC) for high-temperature and high power applications and gallium nitride (GaN) for high-frequency and optical (blue-light-emitting diodes and lasers) applications. This past year Glenn scientists implemented a NASA-patented crystal growth process for producing arrays of device-size mesas whose tops are atomically flat (i.e., step-free). It is expected that these mesas can be used for fabricating SiC and GaN devices with major improvements in performance and lifetime. The promising new SiC and GaN devices are fabricated in thin-crystal films (known as epi films) that are grown on commercial single-crystal SiC wafers. At this time, no commercial GaN wafers exist. Crystal defects, known as screw defects and micropipes, that are present in the commercial SiC wafers propagate into the epi films and degrade the performance and lifetime of subsequently fabricated devices. The new technology isolates the screw defects in a small percentage of small device-size mesas on the surface of commercial SiC wafers. This enables atomically flat surfaces to be grown on the remaining defect-free mesas. We believe that the atomically flat mesas can also be used to grow GaN epi films with a much lower defect density than in the GaN epi films currently being grown. Much improved devices are expected from these improved low-defect epi films. Surface-sensitive SiC devices such as Schottky diodes and field effect transistors should benefit from atomically flat substrates. Also, we believe that the atomically flat SiC surface will be an ideal surface on which to fabricate nanoscale sensors and devices. The process for achieving atomically flat surfaces is illustrated. The surface steps present on the "as-received" commercial SiC wafer is also illustrated. because of the

  6. Fabrication of ion doped WO3 photocatalysts through bulk and surface doping.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoying; Pang, Laixue; Hu, Xiuying; Han, Nianfeng

    2015-09-01

    Na(+) doped WO3 nanowire photocatalysts were prepared by using post-treatment (surface doping) and in situ (bulk doping) doping methods. Photocatalytic degradation of Methyl Blue was tested under visible light irradiation, the results showed that 1wt.% Na(+) bulk-doped WO3 performed better, with higher photoactivity than surface-doped WO3. Photoelectrochemical characterization revealed the differences in the photocatalytic process for surface doping and bulk doping. Uniform bulk doping could generate more electron-hole pairs, while minimizing the chance of electron-hole recombination. Some bulk properties such as the bandgap, Fermi level and band position could also be adjusted by bulk doping, but not by surface doping. PMID:26354695

  7. Stability analysis and simulations of coupled bulk-surface reaction–diffusion systems

    PubMed Central

    Madzvamuse, Anotida; Chung, Andy H. W.; Venkataraman, Chandrasekhar

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we formulate new models for coupled systems of bulk-surface reaction–diffusion equations on stationary volumes. The bulk reaction–diffusion equations are coupled to the surface reaction–diffusion equations through linear Robin-type boundary conditions. We then state and prove the necessary conditions for diffusion-driven instability for the coupled system. Owing to the nature of the coupling between bulk and surface dynamics, we are able to decouple the stability analysis of the bulk and surface dynamics. Under a suitable choice of model parameter values, the bulk reaction–diffusion system can induce patterning on the surface independent of whether the surface reaction–diffusion system produces or not, patterning. On the other hand, the surface reaction–diffusion system cannot generate patterns everywhere in the bulk in the absence of patterning from the bulk reaction–diffusion system. For this case, patterns can be induced only in regions close to the surface membrane. Various numerical experiments are presented to support our theoretical findings. Our most revealing numerical result is that, Robin-type boundary conditions seem to introduce a boundary layer coupling the bulk and surface dynamics. PMID:25792948

  8. Low-dimensional transport and large thermoelectric power factors in bulk semiconductors by band engineering of highly directional electronic states.

    PubMed

    Bilc, Daniel I; Hautier, Geoffroy; Waroquiers, David; Rignanese, Gian-Marco; Ghosez, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    Thermoelectrics are promising for addressing energy issues but their exploitation is still hampered by low efficiencies. So far, much improvement has been achieved by reducing the thermal conductivity but less by maximizing the power factor. The latter imposes apparently conflicting requirements on the band structure: a narrow energy distribution and a low effective mass. Quantum confinement in nanostructures and the introduction of resonant states were suggested as possible solutions to this paradox, but with limited success. Here, we propose an original approach to fulfill both requirements in bulk semiconductors. It exploits the highly directional character of some orbitals to engineer the band structure and produce a type of low-dimensional transport similar to that targeted in nanostructures, while retaining isotropic properties. Using first-principle calculations, the theoretical concept is demonstrated in Fe2YZ Heusler compounds, yielding power factors 4 to 5 times larger than in classical thermoelectrics at room temperature. Our findings are totally generic and rationalize the search of alternative compounds with similar behavior. Beyond thermoelectricity, these might be relevant also in the context of electronic, superconducting, or photovoltaic applications. PMID:25884131

  9. Chemical, electronic, and magnetic structure of LaFeCoSi alloy: Surface and bulk properties

    SciTech Connect

    Lollobrigida, V.; Basso, V.; Kuepferling, M.; Coïsson, M.; Olivetti, E. S.; Celegato, F.; Borgatti, F.; Torelli, P.; Panaccione, G.; Tortora, L.; Stefani, G.; Offi, F.

    2014-05-28

    We investigate the chemical, electronic, and magnetic structure of the magnetocaloric LaFeCoSi compound with bulk and surface sensitive techniques. We put in evidence that the surface retains a soft ferromagnetic behavior at temperatures higher than the Curie temperature of the bulk due to the presence of Fe clusters at the surface only. This peculiar magnetic surface effect is attributed to the exchange interaction between the ferromagnetic Fe clusters located at the surface and the bulk magnetocaloric alloy, and it is used here to monitor the magnetic properties of the alloy itself.

  10. Influence Of Sterilization On Bulk And Surface Morphologies Of Copolyether-Urethane-Ureas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knutson, K.; Lyman, D. J.

    1981-10-01

    The influence of sterilization on the bulk and surface morphologies of a copolyether-urethane-urea was studied. The bulk morphology was altered due to annealing by autoclaving and ethylene oxide sterilization. Radiation sterilization did not significantly alter the morphology. Surface morphology was not significantly altered by any of the sterilization procedures. Changes in chemical structure as the result of sterilization were not observed.

  11. Sub-nanometer resolution of an organic semiconductor crystal surface using friction force microscopy in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimentel, Carlos; Varghese, Shinto; Yoon, Seong-Jun; Park, Soo Young; Gierschner, Johannes; Gnecco, Enrico; Pina, Carlos M.

    2016-04-01

    Organic semiconductors (OSC) are attracting much interest for (opto)electronic applications, such as photovoltaics, LEDs, sensors or solid state lasers. In particular, crystals formed by small π -conjugated molecules have shown to be suitable for constructing OSC devices. However, the (opto)electronic properties are complex since they depend strongly on both the mutual orientation of molecules as well as the perfection of bulk crystal surfaces. Hence, there is an urgent need to control nano-topographic OSC features in real space. Here we show that friction force microscopy in water is a very suitable technique to image the free surface morphology of an OSC single crystal (TDDCS) with sub-nanometer resolution. We demonstrate the power of the method by direct correlation to the structural information extracted from combined single crystal (SC-) and specular (s-) XRD studies, which allows us to identify the pinning centers encountered in the stick-slip motion of the probing tip with the topmost methyl groups on the TDDCS surface.

  12. A multi-scale approach to the electronic structure of doped semiconductor surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinai, Ofer; Hofmann, Oliver T.; Rinke, Patrick; Scheffler, Matthias; Heimel, Georg; Kronik, Leeor

    2015-03-01

    The inclusion of the global effects of semiconductor doping poses a unique challenge for first-principles simulations, because the typically low concentration of dopants renders an explicit treatment intractable. Furthermore, the width of the space-charge region (SCR) at charged surfaces often exceeds realistic supercell dimensions. We present a multi-scale technique that addresses these difficulties. It is based on the introduction of excess charge, mimicking free charge carriers from the SCR, along with a fixed sheet of counter-charge mimicking the SCR-related field. Self-consistency is obtained by imposing charge conservation and Fermi level equilibration between the bulk, treated semi-classically, and the electronic states of the slab/surface, which are treated quantum-mechanically. The method, called CREST - the Charge-Reservoir Electrostatic Sheet Technique - can be used with standard electronic structure codes. We validate CREST using a simple tight-binding model, which allows for comparison of its results with calculations encompassing the full SCR explicitly. We then employ it with density functional theory, obtaining insight into the doping dependence of the electronic structures of the metallic clean-cleaved Si(111) surface and its semiconducting (2x1) reconstructions.

  13. Sub-nanometer resolution of an organic semiconductor crystal surface using friction force microscopy in water.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, Carlos; Varghese, Shinto; Yoon, Seong-Jun; Park, Soo Young; Gierschner, Johannes; Gnecco, Enrico; Pina, Carlos M

    2016-04-01

    Organic semiconductors (OSC) are attracting much interest for (opto)electronic applications, such as photovoltaics, LEDs, sensors or solid state lasers. In particular, crystals formed by small π-conjugated molecules have shown to be suitable for constructing OSC devices. However, the (opto)electronic properties are complex since they depend strongly on both the mutual orientation of molecules as well as the perfection of bulk crystal surfaces. Hence, there is an urgent need to control nano-topographic OSC features in real space. Here we show that friction force microscopy in water is a very suitable technique to image the free surface morphology of an OSC single crystal (TDDCS) with sub-nanometer resolution. We demonstrate the power of the method by direct correlation to the structural information extracted from combined single crystal (SC-) and specular (s-) XRD studies, which allows us to identify the pinning centers encountered in the stick-slip motion of the probing tip with the topmost methyl groups on the TDDCS surface. PMID:26931487

  14. Bulk and surface controlled diffusion of fission gas atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, Anders D.

    2012-08-09

    Fission gas retention and release impact nuclear fuel performance by, e.g., causing fuel swelling leading to mechanical interaction with the clad, increasing the plenum pressure and reducing the gap thermal conductivity. All of these processes are important to understand in order to optimize operating conditions of nuclear reactors and to simulate accident scenarios. Most fission gases have low solubility in the fuel matrix, which is especially pronounced for large fission gas atoms such as Xe and Kr, and as a result there is a significant driving force for segregation of gas atoms to extended defects such as grain boundaries or dislocations and subsequently for nucleation of gas bubbles at these sinks. Several empirical or semi-empirical models have been developed for fission gas release in nuclear fuels, e.g. [1-6]. One of the most commonly used models in fuel performance codes was published by Massih and Forsberg [3,4,6]. This model is similar to the early Booth model [1] in that it applies an equivalent sphere to separate bulk UO{sub 2} from grain boundaries represented by the sphere circumference. Compared to the Booth model, it also captures trapping at grain boundaries, fission gas resolution and it describes release from the boundary by applying timedependent boundary conditions to the circumference. In this work we focus on the step where fission gas atoms diffuse from the grain interior to the grain boundaries. The original Massih-Forsberg model describes this process by applying an effective diffusivity divided into three temperature regimes. In this report we present results from density functional theory calculations (DFT) that are relevant for the high (D{sub 3}) and intermediate (D{sub 2}) temperature diffusivities of fission gases. The results are validated by making a quantitative comparison to Turnbull's [8-10] and Matzke's data [12]. For the intrinsic or high temperature regime we report activation energies for both Xe and Kr diffusion in UO

  15. Surface-irregularity-enhanced subband resonance of semiconductors. I. General theory

    SciTech Connect

    Nee, T.W.

    1984-03-15

    The intersubband resonance absorption enhanced by the insulator-semiconductor interfacial irregularities in a metal-insulator-semiconductor system is investigated theoretically. The line shape of absorption spectrum is calculated microscopically. It is shown that the perpendicular excitation can be effectively generated by electric fields parallel to the surface due to the localized electromagnetic waves scattered by the surface irregularities. The general spectra for both isotropic and anisotropic surface scattering models are calculated and discussed.

  16. Investigation of Semiconductor Surface Structure by Transmission Ion Channeling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyman, Paul Francis

    The primary thrust of this dissertation is the investigation of the composition and structure of two important surface systems on Si, and the study of how this structure evolves under the influence of ion bombardment or film growth. I have studied the initial stages of oxidation of Si immediately following removal of a surface oxide by an HF etch. I have also studied the structure of Ge deposited on clean Si(100) at low temperatures. These systems are of considerable technological interest, but were chosen because they naturally pose fundamental questions regarding physical and chemical processes at surfaces. In the study of the oxidation of Si, I have focused on the influence of the bombarding ion beam in altering the structure and composition of the surface layer. Thus, the system then provides a natural vehicle to study ion-induced chemistry. In the study of low-temperature growth of Ge, I have focused on the structure of the Ge layer and the evolution of that structure upon further deposition or upon heating. This simple system is a model one for observing strained semiconductor heteroepitaxial growth. The primary probe for these studies was transmission channeling of MeV ions. The sensitivity of this technique to correlations between the substrate and an overlayer allowed us to make the following observations. The O, Si and H bound in the thin oxide formed after an HF etch and H_2O rinse occupy preferred positions with respect to the Si matrix. Upon ion bombardment, the O further reacts with the Si (the reaction proceeds linearly with the ion fluence) and the portion of the H that is uncorrelated to the substrate is preferentially desorbed. For the case of Ge growth on Si(100)-(2 x 1) at room temperature, a substantial fraction of the Ge films is strained to occupy sites having the lattice constant of the Si substrate (pseudomorphic growth). A model for film growth is proposed in which pseudomorphic domains constitute roughly half of the Ge films up to a

  17. Depletion controlled surface deposition of uncharged colloidal spheres from stable bulk dispersions.

    PubMed

    Ouhajji, Samia; Nylander, Tommy; Piculell, Lennart; Tuinier, Remco; Linse, Per; Philipse, Albert P

    2016-05-01

    The competition between surface adsorption and bulk aggregation was investigated for silica colloids dispersed in cyclohexane in contact with hydrophobized silica substrates. Central to this study is that the colloids and surfaces have the same material and surface properties. Colloid-colloid and colloid-surface interactions were controlled by addition of polymers providing depletion interaction. Bulk instability was determined by turbidity and viscosity measurements and surface adsorption by ellipsometry measurements. At increasing polymer concentration, strong surface adsorption occurred at polymer concentrations below that required for bulk phase separation. Complementary Monte Carlo simulations with the use of a new weak depletion theory support quantitatively the experimental observation of the existence of an interval of interaction strength at which aggregation in bulk is negligible while surface adsorption is substantial. PMID:27025949

  18. Observing the interplay between surface and bulk optical nonlinearities in thin van der Waals crystals

    PubMed Central

    Deckoff-Jones, Skylar; Zhang, Jingjing; Petoukhoff, Christopher E.; Man, Michael K.L.; Lei, Sidong; Vajtai, Robert; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Talbayev, Diyar; Madéo, Julien; Dani, Keshav M.

    2016-01-01

    Van der Waals materials, existing in a range of thicknesses from monolayer to bulk, allow for interplay between surface and bulk nonlinearities, which otherwise dominate only at atomically-thin or bulk extremes, respectively. Here, we observe an unexpected peak in intensity of the generated second harmonic signal versus the thickness of Indium Selenide crystals, in contrast to the quadratic increase expected from thin crystals. We explain this by interference effects between surface and bulk nonlinearities, which offer a new handle on engineering the nonlinear optical response of 2D materials and their heterostructures. PMID:26936437

  19. Observing the interplay between surface and bulk optical nonlinearities in thin van der Waals crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deckoff-Jones, Skylar; Zhang, Jingjing; Petoukhoff, Christopher E.; Man, Michael K. L.; Lei, Sidong; Vajtai, Robert; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Talbayev, Diyar; Madéo, Julien; Dani, Keshav M.

    2016-03-01

    Van der Waals materials, existing in a range of thicknesses from monolayer to bulk, allow for interplay between surface and bulk nonlinearities, which otherwise dominate only at atomically-thin or bulk extremes, respectively. Here, we observe an unexpected peak in intensity of the generated second harmonic signal versus the thickness of Indium Selenide crystals, in contrast to the quadratic increase expected from thin crystals. We explain this by interference effects between surface and bulk nonlinearities, which offer a new handle on engineering the nonlinear optical response of 2D materials and their heterostructures.

  20. Observing the interplay between surface and bulk optical nonlinearities in thin van der Waals crystals.

    PubMed

    Deckoff-Jones, Skylar; Zhang, Jingjing; Petoukhoff, Christopher E; Man, Michael K L; Lei, Sidong; Vajtai, Robert; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Talbayev, Diyar; Madéo, Julien; Dani, Keshav M

    2016-01-01

    Van der Waals materials, existing in a range of thicknesses from monolayer to bulk, allow for interplay between surface and bulk nonlinearities, which otherwise dominate only at atomically-thin or bulk extremes, respectively. Here, we observe an unexpected peak in intensity of the generated second harmonic signal versus the thickness of Indium Selenide crystals, in contrast to the quadratic increase expected from thin crystals. We explain this by interference effects between surface and bulk nonlinearities, which offer a new handle on engineering the nonlinear optical response of 2D materials and their heterostructures. PMID:26936437

  1. Application of PECVD for bulk and surface passivation of high efficiency silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Krygowski, T.; Doshi, P.; Cai, L.; Doolittle, A.; Rohatgi, A.

    1995-08-01

    Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) passivation of bulk and surface defects has been shown to be an important technique to improve the performance of multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) and single crystalline silicon solar cells. In this paper, we report the status of our on-going investigation into the bulk and surface passivation properties of PECVD insulators for photovoltaic applications. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the ability of PECVD films to passivate the front (emitter) surface, bulk, and back surface by proper tailoring of deposition and post-PECVD annealing conditions.

  2. Surface-emitting semiconductor laser for intracavity spectroscopy and microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Meissner, K.E.; Gourley, P.L.; Brennan, T.M.; Hammons, B.E.; McDonald, A.E.

    1995-03-01

    The authors demonstrate lasing action in a novel microcavity laser which can be utilized for intracavity spectroscopy as well as high contrast imaging of small ({approximately} 10{mu}m) structures. The system can be easily visualized as a Fabry-Perot cavity containing a gain media and an object for study. Since the primary constraint on the object is transparency at the lasing wavelength, investigation of lasing in objects such as microspheres, liquid droplets, and biological cells is possible. The resonator consists of an epitaxial NME grown mirror and gain region on a GaAs wafer. This is essentially an open-cavity vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL). The object to be studied is placed on the wafer and covered with a glass dielectric mirror which acts as the output coupler. When the semiconductor gain region is photo-pumped, the object within the cavity provides lateral optical confinement through its index difference with the surrounding media, increases the cavity Q, and thus encourages lasing action. The emitted laser light can be spectrally and spatially resolved. The narrow lasing lines can provide information about the lasing modes supported and the size of the object. The spatially resolved laser light provides high contrast microscopic images of the electromagnetic modes oscillating in the resonator. The authors present an investigation of stable lasing modes in polystyrene spheres. This device could prove useful in biomedical diagnostics. It covers the correct spatial dimensions as well as wavelength region. In fact, an integrated system of these devices may provide a high speed, compact method of performing cell diagnostics.

  3. Bulk and surface loss in superconducting transmon qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dial, Oliver; McClure, Douglas T.; Poletto, Stefano; Keefe, G. A.; Rothwell, Mary Beth; Gambetta, Jay M.; Abraham, David W.; Chow, Jerry M.; Steffen, Matthias

    2016-04-01

    Decoherence of superconducting transmon qubits is purported to be consistent with surface loss from two-level systems on the substrate surface. Here, we present a study of surface loss in transmon devices, explicitly designed to have varying sensitivities to different surface loss contributors. Our experiments also encompass two particular different sapphire substrates, which reveal the onset of a yet unknown additional loss mechanism outside of surface loss for one of the substrates. Tests across different wafers and devices demonstrate substantial variation, and we emphasize the importance of testing large numbers of devices for disentangling different sources of decoherence.

  4. Wavelength-resonant surface-emitting semiconductor laser

    DOEpatents

    Brueck, Steven R. J.; Schaus, Christian F.; Osinski, Marek A.; McInerney, John G.; Raja, M. Yasin A.; Brennan, Thomas M.; Hammons, Burrell E.

    1989-01-01

    A wavelength resonant semiconductor gain medium is disclosed. The essential feature of this medium is a multiplicity of quantum-well gain regions separated by semiconductor spacer regions of higher bandgap. Each period of this medium consisting of one quantum-well region and the adjacent spacer region is chosen such that the total width is equal to an integral multiple of 1/2 the wavelength in the medium of the radiation with which the medium is interacting. Optical, electron-beam and electrical injection pumping of the medium is disclosed. This medium may be used as a laser medium for single devices or arrays either with or without reflectors, which may be either semiconductor or external.

  5. Bulk crystal growth, and high-resolution x-ray diffraction results of LiZnP semiconductor material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montag, Benjamin W.; Reichenberger, Michael A.; Sunder, Madhana; Ugorowski, Philip B.; Nelson, Kyle A.; McGregor, Douglas S.

    2015-06-01

    Nowotny-Juza compounds continue to be explored as a candidate for solid-state neutron detectors. Such a device would have greater efficiency, in a compact form, than present day gas-filled 3He and 10BF3 detectors. The 6Li(n,t)4He reaction yields a total Q-value of 4.78 MeV, larger than 10B, an energy easily identified above background radiations. Hence, devices fabricated from semiconducting compounds containing either natural Li (nominally 7.5% 6Li) or enriched 6Li (usually 95% 6Li) may provide a semiconductor material for compact high efficiency neutron detectors. Starting material was synthesized by preparing equimolar portions of Li, Zn, and P sealed under vacuum (10-6 Torr) in quartz ampoules lined with boron nitride and subsequently reacted in a compounding furnace [1]. The synthesized material showed signs of high impurity levels from material and electrical property characterizations. A static vacuum sublimation in quartz was performed to help purify the synthesized material [2]. Bulk crystalline samples were grown from the purified material. An ingot 9.6 mm in diameter and 4.0 mm in length was harvested. Individual samples were characterized for crystallinity on a Bruker AXS Inc. D2 CRYSO, energy dispersive x-ray diffractometer, and a Bruker AXS D8 DISCOVER, high-resolution x-ray diffractometer with a 0.004° beam divergence. The (220) orientation was characterized as the main orientation with the D2 CRYSO, and confirmed with the D8 DISCOVER. An out-of-plane high-resolution rocking curve yielded a 0.417° full width at half maximum (FWHM) for the (220) LiZnP. In-plane ordering was confirmed by observation of the (311) orientation, where a rocking curve was collected with a FWHM of 0.294°.

  6. Photoprecursor Approach Enables Preparation of Well-Performing Bulk-Heterojunction Layers Comprising a Highly Aggregating Molecular Semiconductor.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Mitsuharu; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Takahashi, Kohei; Takahira, Katsuya; Koganezawa, Tomoyuki; Masuo, Sadahiro; Nakayama, Ken-ichi; Yamada, Hiroko

    2016-04-01

    Active-layer morphology critically affects the performance of organic photovoltaic cells, and thus its optimization is a key toward the achievement of high-efficiency devices. However, the optimization of active-layer morphology is sometimes challenging because of the intrinsic properties of materials such as strong self-aggregating nature or low miscibility. This study postulates that the "photoprecursor approach" can serve as an effective means to prepare well-performing bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) layers containing highly aggregating molecular semiconductors. In the photoprecursor approach, a photoreactive precursor compound is solution-deposited and then converted in situ to a semiconducting material. This study employs 2,6-di(2-thienyl)anthracene (DTA) and [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester as p- and n-type materials, respectively, in which DTA is generated by the photoprecursor approach from the corresponding α-diketone-type derivative DTADK. When only chloroform is used as a cast solvent, the photovoltaic performance of the resulting BHJ films is severely limited because of unfavorable film morphology. The addition of a high-boiling-point cosolvent, o-dichlorobenzene (o-DCB), to the cast solution leads to significant improvement such that the resulting active layers afford up to approximately 5 times higher power conversion efficiencies. The film structure is investigated by two-dimensional grazing-incident wide-angle X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and fluorescence microspectroscopy to demonstrate that the use of o-DCB leads to improvement in film crystallinity and increase in charge-carrier generation efficiency. The change in film structure is assumed to originate from dynamic molecular motion enabled by the existence of solvent during the in situ photoreaction. The unique features of the photoprecursor approach will be beneficial in extending the material and processing scopes for the development of organic thin-film devices. PMID

  7. - and Mesoscopic Soft Condensed Matter Architectures on Semiconductor Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuilov, Vladimir; Seo, Young-Soo; Ksenevich, Vitaly; Galibert, Jean; Sokolov, John; Rafailovich, Miriam

    2003-03-01

    A novel and simple approach of self-organized fabrication of two dimensional mesoscopic networks with the feature size down to 50 nm has been developed. The technique is based on the self-organized patterning in a thin layer of complex liquid (polymer solution) in the presence of humid atmosphere. Two dimensional mesoscopic honeycomb-shaped carbon structures were produced by high temperature annealing of nitrocellulose precursors [1]. The polymer network was also utilized as a mask for further reactive ion etching of surfaces with epi-layer of GaAs [2,3] and GaAs/AlGaAs ? -doped heterostructures [4]. The electrical transport in the obtained structures was studied in a temperature range from 1.9 to 300 K and in pulsed magnetic fields up to 35 T. A crossover from the Mott variable range hopping to the Colomb-gap Efros-Shklovskii variable range hopping has been observed experimentally in mesoscopic carbon structures [1]. At low fields, ln(R/R0) is proportional to B2. In the intermediate range, the magnetoresistance is linear on B. At high temperatures, if the hopping distance is comparable to the localization length, the observed small negative magnetoresistance in our samples is consistent to the weak-localization picture. Magnetoresistance of patterned GaAs/AlGaAs ?-doped structures is negative [4], which is relater to quantum interference in hopping regime. At B=0, the resistance showed typical behavior of a two-dimensional hopping. Below about 20 K, the data followed the Mott variable-range-hopping mechanism for two dimensions. Also, we have used diblock-copolymer system, self-assembled with L-B technique, to produce nano-patterns. These structures were utilized as templates for introducing metal nanopatterns on semiconductor surfaces by reactive ion beam etching for magnetic storage systems [5] and DNA separation on a flat surface [6] devices. 1. V.A. Samuilov, J. Galibert, V.K. Ksenevich, V.J. Goldman, M. Rafailovich, J. Sokolov, I.A. Bashmakov, V.A. Dorosinets

  8. Plasma Treatment of Bulk Niobium Surface for SRF Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Marija Raskovic; H. Phillips; Anne-Marie Valente

    2006-08-16

    Pulsed electric discharges were used to demonstrate the validity of plasma surface treatment of superconducting radio-frequency cavities. The experiments were performed on disc-shaped Nb samples and compared with identical samples treated with buffer chemical polishing techniques. The results of several standard surface analytical techniques indicate that plasma-treated samples have comparable or superior properties regarding the surface roughness and composition.

  9. Interband interaction between bulk and surface resonance bands of a Pb-adsorbed Ge(001) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakata, Tomohiro; Takeda, Sakura N.; Kitagawa, Kosuke; Daimon, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the valence band structure of a Pb-adsorbed Ge(001) surface by angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. Three Ge bands, G1, G2, and G3, were observed in a Ge(001) 2 × 1 clean surface. In addition to these three bands, a fourth band (R band) is found on the surface with 2 ML of Pb. The R band continuously appeared even when the surface superstructure was changed. The position of the R band does not depend on Pb coverage. These results indicate that the R band derives from Ge subsurface states, known as surface resonance states. Furthermore, the effective mass of G3 is significantly reduced when the R band exists. We found that this reduction of G3 effective mass was explained by the interaction of the G3 and R bands. Consequently, the surface resonance band is considered to penetrate into the Ge subsurface region affecting the Ge bulk states. We determine the hybridization energy to be 0.068 eV by fitting the observed bands.

  10. Semiconductor with protective surface coating and method of manufacture thereof. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Hansen, W.L.; Haller, E.E.

    1980-09-19

    Passivation of predominantly crystalline semiconductor devices is provided for by a surface coating of sputtered hydrogenated amorphous semiconductor material. Passivation of a radiation detector germanium diode, for example, is realized by sputtering a coating of amorphous germanium onto the etched and quenched diode surface in a low pressure atmosphere of hydrogen and argon. Unlike prior germanium diode semiconductor devices, which must be maintained in vacuum at cryogenic temperatures to avoid deterioration, a diode processed in the described manner may be stored in air at room temperature or otherwise exposed to a variety of environmental conditions. The coating compensates for pre-existing undesirable surface states as well as protecting the semiconductor device against future impregnation with impurities.

  11. Charge-transfer excitons at organic semiconductor surfaces and interfaces.

    PubMed

    Zhu, X-Y; Yang, Q; Muntwiler, M

    2009-11-17

    When a material of low dielectric constant is excited electronically from the absorption of a photon, the Coulomb attraction between the excited electron and the hole gives rise to an atomic H-like quasi-particle called an exciton. The bound electron-hole pair also forms across a material interface, such as the donor/acceptor interface in an organic heterojunction solar cell; the result is a charge-transfer (CT) exciton. On the basis of typical dielectric constants of organic semiconductors and the sizes of conjugated molecules, one can estimate that the binding energy of a CT exciton across a donor/acceptor interface is 1 order of magnitude greater than k(B)T at room temperature (k(B) is the Boltzmann constant and T is the temperature). How can the electron-hole pair escape this Coulomb trap in a successful photovoltaic device? To answer this question, we use a crystalline pentacene thin film as a model system and the ubiquitous image band on the surface as the electron acceptor. We observe, in time-resolved two-photon photoemission, a series of CT excitons with binding energies < or = 0.5 eV below the image band minimum. These CT excitons are essential solutions to the atomic H-like Schrodinger equation with cylindrical symmetry. They are characterized by principal and angular momentum quantum numbers. The binding energy of the lowest lying CT exciton with 1s character is more than 1 order of magnitude higher than k(B)T at room temperature. The CT(1s) exciton is essentially the so-called exciplex and has a very low probability of dissociation. We conclude that hot CT exciton states must be involved in charge separation in organic heterojunction solar cells because (1) in comparison to CT(1s), hot CT excitons are more weakly bound by the Coulomb potential and more easily dissociated, (2) density-of-states of these hot excitons increase with energy in the Coulomb potential, and (3) electronic coupling from a donor exciton to a hot CT exciton across the D

  12. Surface dynamics dominated by bulk thermal defects -- the case of NiAl (110).

    SciTech Connect

    Nobel, J. A.; McCarty, Kevin F.; Bartelt, Norman Charles

    2004-09-01

    We find that small temperature changes cause steps on the NiAl(110) surface to move. We show that this step motion occurs because mass is transferred between the bulk and the surface as the concentration of bulk thermal defects (i.e., vacancies) changes with temperature. Since the change in an island's area with a temperature change is found to scale strictly with the island's step length, the thermally generated defects are created (annihilated) very near the surface steps. To quantify the bulk/surface exchange, we oscillate the sample temperature and measure the amplitude and phase lag of the system response, i.e., the change in an island's area normalized to its perimeter. Using a one-dimensional model of defect diffusion through the bulk in a direction perpendicular to the surface, we determine the migration and formation energies of the bulk thermal defects. During surface smoothing, we show that there is no flow of material between islands on the same terrace and that all islands in a stack shrink at the same rate. We conclude that smoothing occurs by mass transport through the bulk of the crystal rather than via surface diffusion. Based on the measured relative sizes of the activation energies for island decay, defect migration, and defect formation, we show that attachment/detachment at the steps is the rate-limiting step in smoothing.

  13. Reliability of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors on low dislocation density bulk GaN substrate: Implications of surface step edges

    SciTech Connect

    Killat, N. E-mail: Martin.Kuball@bristol.ac.uk; Montes Bajo, M.; Kuball, M. E-mail: Martin.Kuball@bristol.ac.uk; Paskova, T.; Evans, K. R.; Leach, J.; Li, X.; Özgür, Ü.; Morkoç, H.; Chabak, K. D.; Crespo, A.; Gillespie, J. K.; Fitch, R.; Kossler, M.; Walker, D. E.; Trejo, M.; Via, G. D.; Blevins, J. D.

    2013-11-04

    To enable gaining insight into degradation mechanisms of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors, devices grown on a low-dislocation-density bulk-GaN substrate were studied. Gate leakage current and electroluminescence (EL) monitoring revealed a progressive appearance of EL spots during off-state stress which signify the generation of gate current leakage paths. Atomic force microscopy evidenced the formation of semiconductor surface pits at the failure location, which corresponds to the interaction region of the gate contact edge and the edges of surface steps.

  14. Electrospray deposition of organic molecules on bulk insulator surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Pawlak, Rémy; Glatzel, Thilo

    2015-01-01

    Summary Large organic molecules are of important interest for organic-based devices such as hybrid photovoltaics or molecular electronics. Knowing their adsorption geometries and electronic structures allows to design and predict macroscopic device properties. Fundamental investigations in ultra-high vacuum (UHV) are thus mandatory to analyze and engineer processes in this prospects. With increasing size, complexity or chemical reactivity, depositing molecules by thermal evaporation becomes challenging. A recent way to deposit molecules in clean conditions is Electrospray Ionization (ESI). ESI keeps the possibility to work with large molecules, to introduce them in vacuum, and to deposit them on a large variety of surfaces. Here, ESI has been successfully applied to deposit triply fused porphyrin molecules on an insulating KBr(001) surface in UHV environment. Different deposition coverages have been obtained and characterization of the surface by in-situ atomic force microscopy working in the non-contact mode shows details of the molecular structures adsorbed on the surface. We show that UHV-ESI, can be performed on insulating surfaces in the sub-monolayer regime and to single molecules which opens the possibility to study a variety of complex molecules. PMID:26665062

  15. Direct visualization of Ni-Nb bulk metallic glasses surface: From initial nucleation to full crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oreshkin, A. I.; Mantsevich, V. N.; Savinov, S. V.; Oreshkin, S. I.; Panov, V. I.; Maslova, N. S.; Louzguine-Luzgin, D. V.

    2012-10-01

    This article is devoted to in situ investigation of the Ni-based bulk metallic glass structural evolution and crystallization behavior by scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy. The possibility of different surface nanostructures formation is shown by annealing of an original bulk glassy alloy in ultra high vacuum. Atomic locations in these surface nanostructures are completely different from those formed according to Ni-Nb binary phase diagram in the bulk area of the sample. The validity of the results is also verified by transmission electron microscopy and nano-beam diffraction measurements.

  16. Diffusion of low molecular weight siloxane from bulk to surface

    SciTech Connect

    Homma, H.; Kuroyagi, T.; Mirley, C.L.; Ronzello, J.; Boggs, S.A.

    1996-12-31

    Silicone-based materials for outdoor insulators have the advantage that low molecular weight (LMW) components migrate through the material and coat the surface, thereby restoring hydrophobicity over a period of hours. By measuring the infrared (IR) absorption of siloxane migrating to the silicone surface through a thin carbon coating, the aspect of the LMW siloxane migration was observed as a real time plot and the time constant of the migration was calculated. According to the time dependence of IR-absorbance, the migration mostly saturated within only 12 hours after the carbon coating was applied. Also, the time constant showed a dependence on the concentration of added filler in the silicone samples.

  17. Quasiparticle interference of the Fermi arcs and surface-bulk connectivity of a Weyl semimetal.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Hiroyuki; Gyenis, András; Wang, Zhijun; Li, Jian; Oh, Seong Woo; Jiang, Shan; Ni, Ni; Bernevig, B Andrei; Yazdani, Ali

    2016-03-11

    Weyl semimetals host topologically protected surface states, with arced Fermi surface contours that are predicted to propagate through the bulk when their momentum matches that of the surface projections of the bulk's Weyl nodes. We used spectroscopic mapping with a scanning tunneling microscope to visualize quasiparticle scattering and interference at the surface of the Weyl semimetal TaAs. Our measurements reveal 10 different scattering wave vectors, which can be understood and precisely reproduced with a theory that takes into account the shape, spin texture, and momentum-dependent propagation of the Fermi arc surface states into the bulk. Our findings provide evidence that Weyl nodes act as sinks for electron transport on the surface of these materials. PMID:26965625

  18. Bulk growth and surface characterization of epitaxy ready cadmium zinc telluride substrates for use in IR imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flint, J. P.; Martinez, B.; Betz, T. E. M.; MacKenzie, J.; Kumar, F. J.; Bindley, G.

    2016-05-01

    Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) is an important compound semiconductor material upon which Mercury Cadmium Telluride (MCT) layers are deposited epitaxially to form structures that are used in high performance detectors covering a wide infrared (IR) spectral band. The epitaxial growth of high quality MCT layers presents many technical challenges and a critical determinant of material performance is the quality of the underlying bulk CZT substrate. CZT itself is a difficult material to manufacture where traditional methods of bulk growth are complex and low yielding, which constrains the supply of commercially available substrates. In this work we report on the epitaxy-ready finishing of Travelling Heather Method (THM) grown Cd0.96Zn0.04Te substrates. The THM method is well established for the growth of high quality CZT crystals used in nuclear, X-ray and spectroscopic imaging applications and in this work we demonstrate the application of this technique to the growth of IR specification CZT substrates with areas of up to 5 cm x 5 cm square. We will discuss the advantages of the THM method over alternative methods of bulk CZT growth where the high yield and material uniformity advantages of this technique will be demonstrated. Chemo-mechanical polishing (CMP) of 4 cm x 4 cm CZT substrates reveals that III-V (InSb/GaSb) like levels of epitaxy-ready surface finishing may be obtained with modified process chemistries. Surface quality assessments will be made by various surface analytical and microscopy techniques from which the suitability of the material for subsequent assessment of quality by epitaxial growth will be ascertained.

  19. Relationship between surface concentration of L-leucine and bulk powder properties in spray dried formulations.

    PubMed

    Mangal, Sharad; Meiser, Felix; Tan, Geoffrey; Gengenbach, Thomas; Denman, John; Rowles, Matthew R; Larson, Ian; Morton, David A V

    2015-08-01

    The amino acid L-leucine has been demonstrated to act as a lubricant and improve the dispersibility of otherwise cohesive fine particles. It was hypothesized that optimum surface L-leucine concentration is necessary to achieve optimal surface and bulk powder properties. Polyvinylpyrrolidone was spray dried with different concentration of L-leucine and the change in surface composition of the formulations was determined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). The formulations were also subjected to powder X-ray diffraction analysis in order to understand the relationship between surface concentration and solid-state properties of L-leucine. In addition, the morphology, surface energy and bulk cohesion of spray dried formulations were also assessed to understand the relation between surface L-leucine concentration and surface and bulk properties. The surface concentration of L-leucine increased with higher feed concentrations and plateaued at about 10% L-leucine. Higher surface L-leucine concentration also resulted in the formation of larger L-leucine crystals and not much change in crystal size was noted above 10% L-leucine. A change in surface morphology of particles from spherical to increasingly corrugated was also observed with increasing surface l-leucine concentration. Specific collapsed/folded over particles were only seen in formulations with 10% or higher l-leucine feed concentration suggesting a change in particle surface formation process. In addition, bulk cohesion also reduced and approached a minimum with 10% L-leucine concentration. Thus, the surface concentration of L-leucine governs particle formation and optimum surface L-leucine concentration results in optimum surface and bulk powder properties. PMID:26007290

  20. Data analysis and calibration for a bulk-refractive-index-compensated surface plasmon resonance affinity sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinowsky, Timothy M.; Yee, Sinclair S.

    2002-02-01

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) affinity sensing, the problem of bulk refractive index (RI) interference in SPR sensing, and a sensor developed to overcome this problem are briefly reviewed. The sensor uses a design based on Texas Instruments' Spreeta SPR sensor to simultaneously measure both bulk and surface RI. The bulk RI measurement is then used to compensate the surface measurement and remove the effects of bulk RI interference. To achieve accurate compensation, robust data analysis and calibration techniques are necessary. Simple linear data analysis techniques derived from measurements of the sensor response were found to provide a versatile, low noise method for extracting measurements of bulk and surface refractive index from the raw sensor data. Automatic calibration using RI gradients was used to correct the linear estimates, enabling the sensor to produce accurate data even when the sensor has a complicated nonlinear response which varies with time. The calibration procedure is described, and the factors influencing calibration accuracy are discussed. Data analysis and calibration principles are illustrated with an experiment in which sucrose and detergent solutions are used to produce changes in bulk and surface RI, respectively.

  1. The coexistence of surface magnetoplasmons (SMPs) and bulk magnetoplasmons (BMPs) in SIS waveguide with the Voigt configuration magnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qiong-gan; Wang, Zhi-guo

    2016-05-01

    The coexistence behavior of surface magnetoplasmons (SMPs) and bulk magnetoplasmons (BMPs) is discussed on a platform constructed by the Semicondutor-Insulator-Semiconductor (SIS) waveguide with the Voigt configuration magnetization. It is found that the coexistence of SMPs and BMPs stems from the nonzero off-diagonal terms of permittivity tensors of the top and the bottom semiconductor materials (SM) claddings which are induced by the external magnetic field. In this case, the impendence of SM for SMPs contains two contributions associated with both the transversal and the longitudinal wave vectors of SMPs. When the impendence matching condition of SMPs exciting in SIS waveguide is satisfied in the propagating band of BMPs, the coexistence of these two modes thus appears. The results show that the forward-propagating SMPs only coexists with the lower BMPs mode, however, the backward-propagating SMPs coexists with the higher BMPs mode when the top and the bottom SM claddings are magnetized by equal amplitude magnetic field but with opposite direction. In addition, the influences of external-magnetic-field intensity, insulator permittivity and waveguide width on the coexisting frequency widths are also presented.

  2. Analysis of Surface and Bulk Behavior in Ni-Pd Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Noebe, Rondald D.

    2003-01-01

    The most salient features of the surface structure and bulk behavior of Ni-Pd alloys have been studied using the BFS method for alloys. Large-scale atomistic simulations were performed to investigate surface segregation profiles as a function of temperature, crystal face, and composition. Pd enrichment of the first layer was observed in (111) and (100) surfaces, and enrichment of the top two layers occurred for (110) surfaces. In all cases, the segregation profile shows alternate planes enriched and depleted in Pd. In addition, the phase structure of bulk Ni-Pd alloys as a function of temperature and composition was studied. A weak ordering tendency was observed at low temperatures, which helps explain the compositional oscillations in the segregation profiles. Finally, based on atom-by-atom static energy calculations, a comprehensive explanation for the observed surface and bulk features will be presented in terms of competing chemical and strain energy effects.

  3. Near-surface transport of semiconductor nanoclusters upon cyclic photoexcitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekhtyar', M. L.; Rozenbaum, V. M.; Trakhtenberg, L. I.

    2016-07-01

    A mechanism for the directed motion of a semiconductor nanocluster along a polar substrate upon cyclic photoexcitation that alters the electron density distribution inside the particle is studied. A model that allows us to estimate the average velocity and optimize the system parameters (particle size, distance between the particle and the substrate, the average cycle duration, and charge distribution in the substrate) so as to ensure the maximum velocity is proposed. At the optimum parameters, the average velocity of directed motion can be quite high (~3 mm/s).

  4. Defect-induced Nonpolar-to-polar Transition at the Surface of Chalcopyrite Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Jaffe, John E.; Zunger, Alex

    2001-12-15

    In contrast to zinc-blende semiconductors, where the nonpolar (110) surface has the lowest energy, our first-principles calculations on the chalcopyrite semiconductor CuInSe2 reveal that facets terminated by the (112)-cation and (-1-1-2)-Se polar surfaces are lower in energy than the unfaceted (110) plane, despite the resulting increased surface area. This explains the hitherto puzzling existence of polar microfacets on nominally nonpolar (110) chalcopyrite surfaces. The extraordinary stability of these polar facets originates from the effective neutralization of surface charge by low-energy ordered CuIn antisite or Cu vacancy surface defects, while the relaxed but defect-free (112) surface is metallic and much higher in energy. We explain the low carrier density of the observed faceted surface in terms of autocompensation between opposite-polarity facets.

  5. Bulk and Surface Interactions of Hydrophilic Polyacrylates with Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wan-Lin; Shull, Kenneth R.

    1998-03-01

    The adsorption of water by a series of hydrophilic acrylic coatings has been investigated in controlled humidity environments using a quartz crystal microbalance. The amounts of water adsorption are strongly dependent on the lengths of the polyethylene glycol (PEG) side chains of the acrylic polymers. We have also studied the properties of block copolymers which have a PEG-acrylate block coupled to hydrophobic poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) or polystyrene (PS) blocks. The dynamic wetting behavior of water on these polymeric surfaces has been monitored by video microscopy during spreading of water drops on polymer thin films. The swelling and spreading rate data provide a useful characterization of the interactions of these materials with water.

  6. Near-surface and bulk behavior of Ag in SiC

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Haiyan; Zhang, Yanwen; Snead, Lance Lewis; Shutthanandan, Vaithiyalingam; Xue, Haizhou; Weber, William J

    2012-01-01

    The diffusive release of fission products, such as Ag, from TRISO particles at high temperatures has raised concerns regarding safe and economic operation of advanced nuclear reactors. Understanding the mechanisms of Ag diffusion is thus of crucial importance for effective retention of fission products. Two mechanisms, i.e., grain boundary diffusion and vapor or surface diffusion through macroscopic structures such as nano-pores or nano-cracks, remain in debate. In the present work, an integrated computational and experimental study of the near-surface and bulk behavior of Ag in silicon carbide (SiC) has been carried out. The ab initio calculations show that Ag prefers to adsorb on the SiC surface rather than in the bulk, and the mobility of Ag on the surface is high. The energy barrier for Ag desorption from the surface is calculated to be 0.85-1.68 eV, and Ag migration into bulk SiC through equilibrium diffusion process is not favorable. Experimentally, Ag ions are implanted into SiC to produce Ag profiles buried in the bulk and peaked at the surface. High-temperature annealing leads to Ag release from the surface region instead of diffusion into the interior of SiC. It is suggested that surface diffusion through mechanical structural imperfection, such as vapor transport through cracks in SiC coatings, may be a dominating mechanism accounting for Ag release from the SiC in the nuclear reactor.

  7. Guided evolution of bulk metallic glass nanostructures: A platform for designing three-dimensional electrocatalytic surfaces

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Doubek, Gustavo; Sekol, Ryan C.; Li, Jinyang; Ryu, Won -Hee; Gittleson, Forrest S.; Nejati, Siamak; Moy, Eric; Reid, Candy; Carmo, Marcelo; Linardi, Marcelo; et al

    2015-12-22

    Precise control over catalyst surface composition and structure is necessary to improve the function of electrochemical systems. To that end, bulk metallic glass (BMG) alloys with atomically dispersed elements provide a highly processable, nanoscale platform for electrocatalysis and surface modification. Here we report on nanostructures of Pt-based BMGs that are modified with various subtractive and additive processes to improve their electrochemical performance.

  8. A New Commercializable Route for the Preparation of Single-Source Precursors for Bulk, Thin-Film, and Nanocrystallite I-III-IV Semiconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banger, Kulbinder K.; Jin, Michael H. C.; Harris, Jerry D.; Fanwick, Philip E.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    2004-01-01

    We report a new simplified synthetic procedure for commercial manufacture of ternary single source precursors (SSP). This new synthetic process has been successfully implemented to fabricate known SSPs on bulk scale and the first liquid SSPs to the semiconductors CuInSe2 and AgIn(x)S(y). Single crystal X-ray determination reveals the first unsolvated ternary AgInS SSP. SSPs prepared via this new route have successfully been used in a spray assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process to deposit polycrystalline thin films, and for preparing ternary nanocrystallites.

  9. Surface passivation of an implantable semiconductor multielectrode array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, Steven P.

    1986-12-01

    An effective passivation material was needed for the protection of a semiconductor multielectrode array during long-term bio-implantations. The following properties were required: a large electrical resistivity, a small relative dielectric constant, good adhesion to silicon dioxide and aluminum, impermeability to water and ionic contaminants, chemical stability in water, and a thermal coefficient of expansion compatible with those of aluminum and silicon dioxide. Three materials were examined: Du Pont PI-2555, Accuglass 407, and Diffusion Technology U-1A. The first is a polyimide, and the latter two are polysiloxanes. The latter were found to be permeable to ionic contaminants and eliminated. The polyimide possesses all of the desired properties. Several multielectrode arrays were passivated with polyimide using conventional photolithography and wet etching techniques. These arrays were tested in vitro in a saline solution for thirty days. The aluminum metallization on the multielectrode array was heavily corroded by the saline solution, resulting in changes in the integrated circuits's electrical parameters.

  10. Surface recombination in doped semiconductors: Effect of light excitation power and of surface passivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadiz, F.; Paget, D.; Rowe, A. C. H.; Berkovits, V. L.; Ulin, V. P.; Arscott, S.; Peytavit, E.

    2013-09-01

    For n- and p-type semiconductors doped above the 1016 cm-3 range, simple analytical expressions for the surface recombination velocity S have been obtained as a function of excitation power P and surface state density NT. These predictions are in excellent agreement with measurements on p-type GaAs films, using a novel polarized microluminescence technique. The effect on S of surface passivation is a combination of the changes of three factors, each of which depends on NT: (i) a power-independent factor which is inversely proportional to NT and (ii) two factors which reveal the effect of photovoltage and the shift of the electron surface quasi Fermi level, respectively. In the whole range of accessible excitation powers, these two factors play a significant role so that S always depends on power. Three physical regimes are outlined. In the first regime, illustrated experimentally by the oxidized GaAs surface, S depends on P as a power law of exponent determined by NT. A decrease of S such as the one induced by sulfide passivation is caused by a marginal decrease of NT. In a second regime, as illustrated by GaInP-encapsulated GaAs, because of the reduced value of S, the photoelectron concentration in the subsurface depletion layer can no longer be neglected. Thus, S-1 depends logarithmically on P and very weakly on surface state density. In a third regime, expected at extremely small values of P, the photovoltage is comparable to the thermal energy, and S increases with P and decreases with increasing NT.

  11. Monte Carlo studies of liquid semiconductor surfaces - Si and Ge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Z. Q.; Stroud, D.

    1988-01-01

    The liquid-vapor interface of Si and Ge, and of Si doped with impurities is studied using the empirical Stillinger-Weber two- and three-body potentials. The surface tension of the pure elements is calculated by use of a direct evaluation of the free energy required to create the surface. For Si, both the surface tension and its temperature derivative are in good agreement with experiment. To within numerical accuracy, the free surfaces of both Si and Ge have a monotonically decreasing density, with a 10-90 percent surface width of about 2.2 A in both cases. When large and small model impurities are introduced into pure liquid Si, they are found in the simulations to migrate, respectively, towards the surface and away from the surface. This behavior is consistent with the interpretation that impurities with atoms larger than Si tend to lower the surface tension.

  12. Visualizing weakly bound surface Fermi arcs and their correspondence to bulk Weyl fermions

    PubMed Central

    Batabyal, Rajib; Morali, Noam; Avraham, Nurit; Sun, Yan; Schmidt, Marcus; Felser, Claudia; Stern, Ady; Yan, Binghai; Beidenkopf, Haim

    2016-01-01

    Fermi arcs are the surface manifestation of the topological nature of Weyl semimetals, enforced by the bulk-boundary correspondence with the bulk Weyl nodes. The surface of tantalum arsenide, similar to that of other members of the Weyl semimetal class, hosts nontopological bands that obscure the exploration of this correspondence. We use the spatial structure of the Fermi arc wave function, probed by scanning tunneling microscopy, as a spectroscopic tool to distinguish and characterize the surface Fermi arc bands. We find that, as opposed to nontopological states, the Fermi arc wave function is weakly affected by the surface potential: it spreads rather uniformly within the unit cell and penetrates deeper into the bulk. Fermi arcs reside predominantly on tantalum sites, from which the topological bulk bands are derived. Furthermore, we identify a correspondence between the Fermi arc dispersion and the energy and momentum of the bulk Weyl nodes that classify this material as topological. We obtain these results by introducing an analysis based on the role the Bloch wave function has in shaping quantum electronic interference patterns. It thus carries broader applicability to the study of other electronic systems and other physical processes. PMID:27551687

  13. Coexistence of Bulk and Surface Shubnikov-de Haas Oscillations in Bi2Se3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chi; Qu, Fanming; Du, Rui-Rui; Lu, Li

    2013-03-01

    Topological insulator possesses insulating bulk state and spin-momentum interlocked conducting topological surface state. Among many materials, bismuth selenide (Bi2Se3) is an important candidate, which hosts a single Dirac cone in the surface energy spectrum. In electron transport measurements, 3-dimensional Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations of bulk state were observed. Under a very high magnetic field, our rotating sample experimental results exhibit the coexistence of bulk and surface SdH oscillations: Hall bar shape device based on Bi2Se3 nano-plate was fabricated and studied at a dilution temperature with a tilted magnetic field up to 45 T. Three types of carrier, one of 3-dimensional and two of 2-dimensional, were identified by analyzing the angular dependence of SdH oscillations, which confirmed the coexistence of bulk carrier and band bending induced two-dimensional electron gas in transport experiment. The co-contributions to quantum oscillations indicated the independence of these states, without smearing out by scattering with each other, which may pave off the way for studying topological surface states with residual bulk carriers in Bi2Se3. The data analysis and experimental results are included in the presentation. We would like to thank National High Magnetic Field Lab (NHMFL) in Florida, in which the high magnetic field measurements were conducted.

  14. Visualizing weakly bound surface Fermi arcs and their correspondence to bulk Weyl fermions.

    PubMed

    Batabyal, Rajib; Morali, Noam; Avraham, Nurit; Sun, Yan; Schmidt, Marcus; Felser, Claudia; Stern, Ady; Yan, Binghai; Beidenkopf, Haim

    2016-08-01

    Fermi arcs are the surface manifestation of the topological nature of Weyl semimetals, enforced by the bulk-boundary correspondence with the bulk Weyl nodes. The surface of tantalum arsenide, similar to that of other members of the Weyl semimetal class, hosts nontopological bands that obscure the exploration of this correspondence. We use the spatial structure of the Fermi arc wave function, probed by scanning tunneling microscopy, as a spectroscopic tool to distinguish and characterize the surface Fermi arc bands. We find that, as opposed to nontopological states, the Fermi arc wave function is weakly affected by the surface potential: it spreads rather uniformly within the unit cell and penetrates deeper into the bulk. Fermi arcs reside predominantly on tantalum sites, from which the topological bulk bands are derived. Furthermore, we identify a correspondence between the Fermi arc dispersion and the energy and momentum of the bulk Weyl nodes that classify this material as topological. We obtain these results by introducing an analysis based on the role the Bloch wave function has in shaping quantum electronic interference patterns. It thus carries broader applicability to the study of other electronic systems and other physical processes. PMID:27551687

  15. A new approach to the problem of bulk-mediated surface diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezhkovskii, Alexander M.; Dagdug, Leonardo; Bezrukov, Sergey M.

    2015-08-01

    This paper is devoted to bulk-mediated surface diffusion of a particle which can diffuse both on a flat surface and in the bulk layer above the surface. It is assumed that the particle is on the surface initially (at t = 0) and at time t, while in between it may escape from the surface and come back any number of times. We propose a new approach to the problem, which reduces its solution to that of a two-state problem of the particle transitions between the surface and the bulk layer, focusing on the cumulative residence times spent by the particle in the two states. These times are random variables, the sum of which is equal to the total observation time t. The advantage of the proposed approach is that it allows for a simple exact analytical solution for the double Laplace transform of the conditional probability density of the cumulative residence time spent on the surface by the particle observed for time t. This solution is used to find the Laplace transform of the particle mean square displacement and to analyze the peculiarities of its time behavior over the entire range of time. We also establish a relation between the double Laplace transform of the conditional probability density and the Fourier-Laplace transform of the particle propagator over the surface. The proposed approach treats the cases of both finite and infinite bulk layer thicknesses (where bulk-mediated surface diffusion is normal and anomalous at asymptotically long times, respectively) on equal footing.

  16. Bulk and Surface Molecular Orientation Distribution in Injection-molded Liquid Crystalline Polymers: Experiment and Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, J.; Burghardt, W; Bubeck, R; Burgard, S; Fischer, D

    2010-01-01

    Bulk and surface distributions of molecular orientation in injection-molded plaques of thermotropic liquid crystalline polymers (TLCPs) have been studied using a combination of techniques, coordinated with process simulations using the Larson-Doi 'polydomain' model. Wide-angle X-ray scattering was used to map out the bulk orientation distribution. Fourier Transform Infrared Attenuated Total Reflectance (FTIR-ATR) and Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) were utilized to probe the molecular orientation states to within about {approx}5 {micro}m and {approx}2 nm, respectively, of the sample surface. These noninvasive, surface-sensitive techniques yield reasonable self-consistency, providing complementary validation of the robustness of these methods. An analogy between Larson-Doi and fiber orientation models has allowed the first simulations of TLCP injection molding. The simulations capture many fine details in the bulk orientation distribution across the sample plaque. Direct simulation of surface orientation at the level probed by FTIR-ATR and NEXAFS was not possible due to the limited spatial resolution of the simulations. However, simulation results extracted from the shear-dominant skin region are found to provide a qualitatively accurate indicator of surface orientation. Finally, simulations capture the relation between bulk and surface orientation states across the different regions of the sample plaque.

  17. Colloidal semiconductor quantum dots with tunable surface composition.

    PubMed

    Wei, Helen Hsiu-Ying; Evans, Christopher M; Swartz, Brett D; Neukirch, Amanda J; Young, Jeremy; Prezhdo, Oleg V; Krauss, Todd D

    2012-09-12

    Colloidal CdS quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized with tunable surface composition. Surface stoichiometry was controlled by applying reactive secondary phosphine sulfide precursors in a layer-by-layer approach. The surface composition was observed to greatly affect photoluminescence properties. Band edge emission was quenched in sulfur terminated CdS QDs and fully recovered when QDs were cadmium terminated. Calculations suggest that electronic states inside the band gap arising from surface sulfur atoms could trap charges, thus inhibiting radiative recombination and facilitating nonradiative relaxation. PMID:22924603

  18. Long Range Modification of a Metal Surface Electronic Structure by an Organic Semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingying; Dougherty, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    In an organic spintronic device the interaction between electrode surface and organic semiconductor layer plays an important role in spin injection at this interface. The antiferromagnetic material Cr(001) is known to have a spin-polarized state near Fermi level that could potentially hybridize with organic molecules. Here we report our STM/STS study of electronic structure at interface between an organic semiconductor, PTCDA, and Cr(001) surface. The study shows that the surface state at Fermi level of Cr(001) can be broadened by PTCDA molecules deposited on the surface due to hybridization of PTCDA molecular orbital and conduction sp band of Cr(001). This indirect modification is not only localized at molecular adsorption sites, but also extends several nm to bare surrounding Cr(001) surface and decays with distance away from PTCDA molecules.

  19. Approaching Bulk Carrier Dynamics in Organo-Halide Perovskite Nanocrystalline Films by Surface Passivation.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Robert J; Grieco, Christopher; Larsen, Alec V; Maier, Joshua J; Asbury, John B

    2016-04-01

    The electronic properties of organo-halide perovskite absorbers described in the literature have been closely associated with their morphologies and processing conditions. However, the underlying origins of this dependence remain unclear. A combination of inorganic synthesis, surface chemistry, and time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy was used to show that charge recombination centers in organo-halide perovskites are almost exclusively localized on the surfaces of the crystals rather than in the bulk. Passivation of these surface defects causes average charge carrier lifetimes in nanocrystalline thin films to approach the bulk limit reported for single-crystal organo-halide perovskites. These findings indicate that the charge carrier lifetimes of perovskites are correlated with their thin-film processing conditions and morphologies through the influence these have on the surface chemistry of the nanocrystals. Therefore, surface passivation may provide a means to decouple the electronic properties of organo-halide perovskites from their thin-film processing conditions and corresponding morphologies. PMID:26966792

  20. Halogens on Semiconductor Surfaces: Adsorption, Oxidation, and Etching.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepniak, Frank

    This dissertation presents studies of Si, GaAs, and InP surfaces following exposure to the halogens Cl _2 and Br_2. Synchrotron radiation photoemission is used to investigate the oxidation states of Si near the Si/SiO_2 interface as a function of Cl_2 exposure. Oxidation of highly ordered surfaces shows no dependence of the oxidation state concentration on Cl_2 inclusion in the gas mixture. For less-than-ideal Si surfaces, oxidation with O_2 -only results in a broader transition region, and presumably, inferior electrical properties. The addition of Cl_2 in the oxidizing gas reduced the concentration of intermediate oxides by a factor of two for these disordered starting Si surfaces. A new feature is also measured from Cl-Si bonds that we associate with passivation of Si defects at the oxide interface. The adsorption and reactivity of Br_2 and Cl_2 on GaAs(110) and InP(110) was studied in the temperature range of 25 K < T < 625 K with photoemission spectroscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy. Initial halogen adsorption was dissociative at all temperatures and we find that a simple model where the halogen atoms bond to a single Ga or As surface site can not account for the complex surface chemistry and morphology. Thermally-activated etching was observed after warming a surface with chemisorbed Br or Cl. Etching resulted from the formation and eventual temperature dependent desorption of the trihalides of Ga and As. For halogen exposures where T < 650 K, monohalide-like surface bonding persist during the etching process and the etched surface is rough. For T > 700 K, the surface is essentially free of halogen and etching occurs in a nearly layer-by-layer fashion.

  1. Reconstructing past sea surface temperatures: Correcting for diagenesis of bulk marine carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Schrag, D.P.; DePaolo, D.J. |; Richter, F.M.

    1995-06-01

    A numerical model which describes oxygen isotope exchange during burial and recrystallization of deep-sea carbonate is used to obtain information on how sea surface temperatures have varied in the past by correcting measured {delta}{sup 18}O values of bulk carbonate for diagenetic overprinting. Comparison of bulk carbonate and planktonic foraminiferal {delta}{sup 18}O records from ODP site 677A indicates that the oxygen isotopic composition of bulk carbonate does reflect changes in sea surface temperature and {delta}{sup 18}O. At ODP Site 690, we calculate that diagenetic effects are small, and that both bulk carbonate and planktonic foraminiferal {delta}{sup 18}O records accurately reflect Paleogene warming of high latitude surface oceans, biased from diagenesis by no more than 1{degrees}C. The same is likely to be true for other high latitude sites where sedimentation rates are low. At DSDP sites 516 and 525, the effects of diagenesis are more significant. Measured {delta}{sup 18}O values of Eocene bulk carbonates are more than 2% lower at deeply buried site 516 than at site 525, consistent with the model prediction that the effects of diagenesis should be proportional to sedimentation rate. Model-corrections reconcile the differences in the data between the two sites; the resulting paleotemperature reconstruction indicates a 4{degrees}C cooling of mid-latitude surface oceans since the Eocene. We show that the data are consistent with constant equatorial sea surface temperatures through most of the Cenozoic, with the possible exception of the early Eocene, when slightly higher temperatures are indicated. We suggest that the lower equatorial sea surface temperatures for the Eocene and Oligocene reported in other oxygen isotope studies are artifacts of diagenetic recrystallization, and that it is impossible to reconstruct accurately equatorial sea surface temperatures without explicitly accounting for diagenetic overprinting.

  2. Ultra-soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy: A bulk and surface probe of materials

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, D.A. ); Mitchell, G.E.; Dekoven, B.M. ); Yeh, A.T.; Gland, J.L. ); Moodenbaugh, A.R. )

    1993-01-01

    Direct comparisons between surface and bulk of diverse materials can be made by simultaneous electron yield (5 nm depth sensitivity) and fluorescence yield (200 nm) ultra soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements utilizing a rapid sample interchange apparatus. For example the orientations of functional groups have been characterized at and near the surface of a series of model polymeric materials highlighting the chemical and molecular sensitivity of ultra soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy. In addition we discuss a bulk sensitive use of fluorescence yield to non destructively study a buried metal polymer interface. A second bulk sensitive example is the use of fluorescence yield oxygen K near edge x-ray spectroscopy as a method to determine the hole state density of high Tc materials.

  3. Ultra-soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy: A bulk and surface probe of materials

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, D.A.; Mitchell, G.E.; Dekoven, B.M.; Yeh, A.T.; Gland, J.L.; Moodenbaugh, A.R.

    1993-06-01

    Direct comparisons between surface and bulk of diverse materials can be made by simultaneous electron yield (5 nm depth sensitivity) and fluorescence yield (200 nm) ultra soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements utilizing a rapid sample interchange apparatus. For example the orientations of functional groups have been characterized at and near the surface of a series of model polymeric materials highlighting the chemical and molecular sensitivity of ultra soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy. In addition we discuss a bulk sensitive use of fluorescence yield to non destructively study a buried metal polymer interface. A second bulk sensitive example is the use of fluorescence yield oxygen K near edge x-ray spectroscopy as a method to determine the hole state density of high Tc materials.

  4. Surface energies of semiconductors by the energy density method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Min; Martin, Richard M.

    2008-03-01

    Energy Density formalism within the first-principles pseudopotential density functional theory has been proposed by Chetty and Martin^1 in 1990s. Although the energy density function is non-unique, nevertheless integrals over surface regions provide unique results for surface energies, and calculations have been carried out by several groups^2,3 to study the polar surfaces and interfaces of solid state systems such as GaAs (111) and (111) polar surfaces. In our work, we apply this method to wurtzite CdSe to determine the energy of of various polar surfaces such as (0001),(0001), and non-polar surfaces such as (1010),(1120), from which we can estimate the equilibrium crystal shape for large nanoclusters. 1. N. Chetty and Richard M. Martin, Phys. Rev. B 45, 6074 (1992). 2. K. Rapcewicz, B. Chen, B. Yakobson, and J. Bernholc, Phys. Rev. B 57, 7281 (1998). 3. N. Moll, A. Kley, E. Pehlke, and M. Scheffler, Phys. Rev. B 54, 8844 (1996).

  5. A binderless, bulk-modified, renewable surface amperometric sensor for NADH and ethanol.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, P; Sampath, S

    2000-07-15

    Graphite particles are exfoliated and subsequently functionalized with toluidine blue. The resulting covalently modified graphite particles are restacked without any binder to form a surface-renewable, bulk-modified electrode. Electrocatalytic oxidation of NADH and its application in the amperometric biosensing of ethanol using alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme have been demonstrated with this material. PMID:10939414

  6. Surface and bulk-loss reduction research by low-energy hydrogen doping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fonash, S.

    1985-01-01

    Surface and bulk loss reduction by low energy hydrogen doping of silicon solar cells was examined. Hydrogen ions provided a suppression of space charge recombination currents. Implantation of hydrogen followed by the anneal cycle caused more redistribution of boron than the anneal which could complicate processing. It was demonstrated that passivation leads to space charge current reduction.

  7. Decoupling Bulk and Surface Contributions in Water- Splitting Photocatalysts by In Situ Ultrafast Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Appavoo, Kannatassen; Mingzhao, Liu; Black, Charles T.; Sfeir, Matthew Y.

    2015-05-10

    By performing ultrafast emission spectroscopy in an operating, bias-controlled photoelectrochemical cell, we distinguish between bulk (charge transport) and surface (chemical reaction) recombination processes in a nanostructured photocatalyst and correlate its electronic properties directly with its incident-photon-to-current efficiency.

  8. Nanoscale surface structuring during ion bombardment of elemental semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anzenberg, Eitan

    2013-01-01

    Nano-patterning of surfaces with uniform ion bombardment yields a rich phase-space of topographic patterns. Particle irradiation can cause surface ultra-smoothing or self-organized nanoscale pattern formation in surface topography. Topographic pattern formation has previously been attributed to the effects of the removal of target atoms by sputter erosion. In this thesis, the surface morphology evolution of Si(100) and Ge(100) during low energy ion bombardment of Ar+ and Kr+ ions, respectively, is studied. Our facilities for studies of surface processes at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) allow in-situ characterization of surface morphology evolution during ion bombardment using grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS). This technique is used to measure in reciprocal space the kinetics of formation or decay of correlated nanostructures on the surface, effectively measuring the height-height correlations. A linear model is used to characterize the early time kinetic behavior during ion bombardment as a function of ion beam incidence angle. The curvature coefficients predicted by the widely used erosive model of Bradley and Harper are quantitatively negligible and of the wrong sign when compared to the observed effect in both Si and Ge. A mass-redistribution model explains the observed ultra-smoothing at low angles, exhibits an instability at higher angles, and predicts the observed 45° critical angle separating these two regimes in Si. The Ge surface evolution during Kr+ irradiation is qualitatively similar to that observed for Ar+ irradiation of Si at the same ion energy. However, the critical angle for Ge cannot be quantitatively reproduced by the simple mass redistribution model. Crater function theory, as developed by Norris et al., incorporates both mass redistributive and erosive effects, and predicts constraining relationships between curvature coefficients. These constraints are compared to experimental data of both Si and Ge

  9. Optical find of hypersonic surface acoustic waves in bulk transparent materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez Riobóo, Rafael J.; Sánchez-Sánchez, Alberto; Prieto, Carlos

    2016-07-01

    It is shown that direct information from surface acoustic waves (SAWs) of bulk transparent materials can be obtained by using Brillouin light scattering (BLS). The study of surface phonons by means of an optical spectroscopy such as BLS has been historically constrained to nontransparent and highly reflecting bulk and film samples or even to very thin films deposited on reflecting substrates. Probably due to its low signal and to the narrow window in experimental conditions, it was assumed for years that bulk transparent samples were not suited for Brillouin spectroscopy in order to get information on SAWs, negating this optical technique in the search for SAW properties. The reported experiments on transparent glasses and single crystals (cubic MgO and trigonal sapphire) prove that there is no intrinsic physical reason not to collect SAW propagation velocity data from transparent bulk samples and opens a challenge to apply the Brillouin spectroscopy in a wider scenario to obtain direct information, in a nondestructive and contactless way, about SAWs in bulk materials.

  10. Tailoring the Spectroscopic Properties of Semiconductor Nanowires via Surface-Plasmon-Based Optical Engineering

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Semiconductor nanowires, due to their unique electronic, optical, and chemical properties, are firmly placed at the forefront of nanotechnology research. The rich physics of semiconductor nanowire optics arises due to the enhanced light–matter interactions at the nanoscale and coupling of optical modes to electronic resonances. Furthermore, confinement of light can be taken to new extremes via coupling to the surface plasmon modes of metal nanostructures integrated with nanowires, leading to interesting physical phenomena. This Perspective will examine how the optical properties of semiconductor nanowires can be altered via their integration with highly confined plasmonic nanocavities that have resulted in properties such as orders of magnitude faster and more efficient light emission and lasing. The use of plasmonic nanocavities for tailored optical absorption will also be discussed in order to understand and engineer fundamental optical properties of these hybrid systems along with their potential for novel applications, which may not be possible with purely dielectric cavities. PMID:25396030

  11. Surface Passivation for 3-5 Semiconductor Processing: Stable Gallium Sulphide Films by MOCVD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macinnes, Andrew N.; Jenkins, Phillip P.; Power, Michael B.; Kang, Soon; Barron, Andrew R.; Hepp, Aloysius F.; Tabib-Azar, Massood

    1994-01-01

    Gallium sulphide (GaS) has been deposited on GaAs to form stable, insulating, passivating layers. Spectrally resolved photoluminescence and surface recombination velocity measurements indicate that the GaS itself can contribute a significant fraction of the photoluminescence in GaS/GaAs structures. Determination of surface recombination velocity by photoluminescence is therefore difficult. By using C-V analysis of metal-insulator-semiconductor structures, passivation of the GaAs with GaS films is quantified.

  12. Chemical surface deposition of ultra-thin semiconductors

    DOEpatents

    McCandless, Brian E.; Shafarman, William N.

    2003-03-25

    A chemical surface deposition process for forming an ultra-thin semiconducting film of Group IIB-VIA compounds onto a substrate. This process eliminates particulates formed by homogeneous reactions in bath, dramatically increases the utilization of Group IIB species, and results in the formation of a dense, adherent film for thin film solar cells. The process involves applying a pre-mixed liquid coating composition containing Group IIB and Group VIA ionic species onto a preheated substrate. Heat from the substrate causes a heterogeneous reaction between the Group IIB and VIA ionic species of the liquid coating composition, thus forming a solid reaction product film on the substrate surface.

  13. Comparing ultrafast surface and bulk heating using time-resolved electron diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Streubühr, C.; Kalus, A.; Zhou, P. Kammler, M.; Linde, D. von der; Ligges, M.; Hanisch-Blicharski, A.; Bovensiepen, U.; Horn-von Hoegen, M.

    2014-04-21

    From measurements of the transient Debye-Waller effect in Bismuth, we determine the buildup time of the random atomic motion resulting from the electronic relaxation after short pulse laser excitation. The surface sensitive reflection high energy electron diffraction and transmission electron diffraction yield a time constant of about 12 ps and 3 ps, respectively. The different energy transfer rates indicate relatively weak coupling between bulk and surface vibrational modes.

  14. Curved grating fabrication techniques for concentric-circle grating, surface-emitting semiconductor lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Rebecca H.; King, Oliver; Wicks, Gary W.; Hall, Dennis G.; Anderson, Erik H.; Rooks, Michael J.

    1993-01-01

    We describe the fabrication and operational characteristics of a novel, surface-emitting semiconductor laser that makes use of a concentric-circle grating to both define its resonant cavity and to provide surface emission. A properly fabricated circular grating causes the laser to operate in radially inward- and outward-going circular waves in the waveguide, thus, introducing the circular symmetry needed for the laser to emit a beam with a circular cross-section. The basic circular-grating-resonator concept can be implemented in any materials system; an AlGaAs/GaAs graded-index, separate confinement heterostructure (GRINSCH), single-quantum-well (SQW) semiconductor laser, grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), was used for the experiments discussed here. Each concentric-circle grating was fabricated on the surface of the AlGaAs/GaAs semiconductor laser. The circular pattern was first defined by electron-beam (e-beam) lithography in a layer of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and subsequently etched into the semiconductor surface using chemically-assisted (chlorine) ion-beam etching (CAIBE). We consider issues that affect the fabrication and quality of the gratings. These issues include grating design requirements, data representation of the grating pattern, and e-beam scan method. We provide examples of how these techniques can be implemented and their impact on the resulting laser performance. A comparison is made of the results obtained using two fundamentally different electron-beam writing systems. Circular gratings with period lambda = 0.25 microns and overall diameters ranging from 80 microns to 500 microns were fabricated. We also report our successful demonstration of an optically pumped, concentric-circle grating, semiconductor laser that emits a beam with a far-field divergence angle that is less than one degree. The emission spectrum is quite narrow (less than 0.1 nm) and is centered at wavelength lambda = 0.8175 microns.

  15. Bulk vortices and half-vortex surface modes in parity-time-symmetric media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huagang; Zhu, Xing; Shi, Zhiwei; Malomed, Boris A.; Lai, Tianshu; Lee, Chaohong

    2014-05-01

    We demonstrate that in-bulk vortex localized modes and their surface half-vortex ("horseshoe") counterparts self-trap in two-dimensional nonlinear optical systems with PT-symmetric photonic lattices (PLs). The respective stability regions are identified in the underlying parameter space. The in-bulk states are related to truncated nonlinear Bloch waves in gaps of the PL-induced spectrum. The basic vortex and horseshoe modes are built, severally, of four and three beams with appropriate phase shifts between them. Their stable complex counterparts, built of up to 12 beams, are also reported.

  16. Atomic-level imaging, processing and characterization of semiconductor surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Kazmerski, L.L.

    1995-08-22

    A method for selecting and removing single specific atoms from a solid material surface uses photon biasing to break down bonds that hold the selected atom in the lattice and to reduce barrier effects that hold the atom from transferring to a probe. The photon bias is preferably light or other electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength and frequency that approximately matches the wave function of the target atom species to be removed to induce high energy, selective thermionic-like vibration. An electric field potential is then applied between the probe and the surface of the solid material to pull the atom out of the lattice and to transfer the atom to the probe. Different extrinsic atoms can be installed in the lattice sites that are vacated by the removed atoms by using a photon bias that resonates the extrinsic atom species, reversing polarity of the electric field, and blowing gas comprising the extrinsic atoms through a hollow catheter probe. 8 figs.

  17. Atomic-level imaging, processing and characterization of semiconductor surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Kazmerski, Lawrence L.

    1995-01-01

    A method for selecting and removing single specific atoms from a solid material surface uses photon biasing to break down bonds that hold the selected atom in the lattice and to reduce barrier effects that hold the atom from transferring to a probe. The photon bias is preferably light or other electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength and frequency that approximately matches the wave function of the target atom species to be removed to induce high energy, selective thermionic-like vibration. An electric field potential is then applied between the probe and the surface of the solid material to pull the atom out of the lattice and to transfer the atom to the probe. Different extrinsic atoms can be installed in the lattice sites that are vacated by the removed atoms by using a photon bias that resonates the extrinsic atom species, reversing polarity of the electric field, and blowing gas comprising the extrinsic atoms through a hollow catheter probe.

  18. INSTRUMENTS AND METHODS OF INVESTIGATION: Scanning tunneling microscopy of fullerenes on metal and semiconductor surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhtizin, Raouf Z.; Hashizume, T.; Wang, W.-D.; Sakurai, Toshio

    1997-03-01

    The current state of the ultra-high vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) of fullerene molecules is reviewed with the use of the authors' work. We focus our work on absorption and reaction of the C60 and C70 fullerenes, separately or in mixture, with semiconductor [Si(111)-7×7 and Si(100)-2×1] and metal [Cu(111)-1×1 and Ag(111)-1×1] surfaces. By using the STM, the adsorption geometry and the corresponding reconstruction are directly observed on these surfaces, and the intramolecular structures are revealed in high resolution STM images which are analyzed theoretically within the local charge distribution model. Results on the ordered growth of fullerene films on metal and semiconductor surfaces are presented and discussed.

  19. Surface plasmon polariton assisted red shift in excitonic emission of semiconductor microflowers

    SciTech Connect

    Parameswaran, Chithra; Warrier, Anita R. Bingi, Jayachandra Vijayan, C.

    2014-10-15

    We report on the study of metal nanoparticle-semiconductor hybrid system composed of β-indium sulfide (β-In{sub 2}S{sub 3}) and gold (Au) nanoparticles. β-In{sub 2}S{sub 3} micron sized flower like structures (∼1 μm) and Au nanoparticles (∼10 nm) were synthesized by chemical route. These Au nanoparticles have surface plasmon resonance at ∼ 520 nm. We study the influence of Au surface plasmon polaritons on the radiative properties of the β-In{sub 2}S{sub 3} microflowers. As a result of the coupling between the surface plasmon polaritons and the excitons there is a red shift ∼ 50 nm in emission spectrum of hybrid β-In{sub 2}S{sub 3}-Au system. Such hybrid systems provide scope for a control on the optical properties of semiconductor microstructures, thus rendering them suitable for specific device applications in optoelectronics and photovoltaics.

  20. Vapor-Liquid-Solid Etch of Semiconductor Surface Channels by Running Gold Nanodroplets.

    PubMed

    Nikoobakht, Babak; Herzing, Andrew; Muramoto, Shin; Tersoff, Jerry

    2015-12-01

    We show that Au nanoparticles spontaneously move across the (001) surface of InP, InAs, and GaP when heated in the presence of water vapor. As they move, the particles etch crystallographically aligned grooves into the surface. We show that this process is a negative analogue of the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth of semiconductor nanowires: the semiconductor dissolves into the catalyst and reacts with water vapor at the catalyst surface to create volatile oxides, depleting the dissolved cations and anions and thus sustaining the dissolution process. This VLS etching process provides a new tool for directed assembly of structures with sublithographic dimensions, as small as a few nanometers in diameter. Au particles above 100 nm in size do not exhibit this process but remain stationary, with oxide accumulating around the particles. PMID:26599639

  1. PLASMA TREATMENT OF BULK Nb SURFACE IN THE Ar/Cl2 DISCHARGE

    SciTech Connect

    Marija Raskovic; H. Phillips; Anne-Marie Valente

    2008-02-12

    The preparation of the cavity walls has been one of the major challenges in the superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) accelerator technology. Therefore, constant research and development effort is devoted to develop surface preparation processes that will improve roughness and lower the level of impurities, like hydrogen or oxygen, embedded in bulk Nb, having in the same time reasonable etching rates. Plasma based surface modification provides an excellent opportunity to achieve these goals. We present Ar/Cl2 discharge treatment of bulk Nb where we achieved etching rates comparable to the rates obtained with the electropolishing method without introducing impurities in Nb. The current experiments were performed on disk shaped Nb samples, exposed to plasma produced in a microwave discharge system. Surface composition and topology measurements were carried out before and after plasma treatment. Upon determining optimal experimental conditions on disk shaped samples, we will apply the same procedure on the single cell cavities, pursuing improvement of their RF performance.

  2. Study of the ink-paper interaction by image analysis: surface and bulk inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiadeiro, Paulo T.; de O. Mendes, António; M. Ramos, Ana M.; L. de Sousa, Sónia C.

    2013-11-01

    In this work, two optical systems previously designed and implemented by our research team, were used to enable the surface and bulk inspection of the ink-paper interaction by image analysis. Basically, the first system works by ejecting micro-liter ink drops onto the papers surface while monitoring the event under three different views over time. The second system is used for sectioning the paper samples through their thickness and to simultaneously acquire images of the ink penetration of each section cut. In the performed experiments, three black inks of different brands and a common copy paper were chosen, used, and tested with the two developed optical systems. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses were carried out at the surface level and in the bulk of the paper. In terms of conclusions, it was shown that the three tested ink-paper combinations revealed very distinct characteristics.

  3. Selectable Surface and Bulk Fluorescence Imaging with Plasmon-Coupled Waveguides

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ruxue; Zhang, Douguo; Zhu, Liangfu; Wen, Xiaolei; Chen, Junxue; Kuang, Cuifang; Liu, Xu; Wang, Pei; Ming, Hai; Badugu, Ramachandram; Lakowicz, Joseph R.

    2015-01-01

    In this letter, we propose a new method for selective imaging of surface bound probes or simultaneous imaging of surface bound plus fluorescence from dye molecules in bulk water solution. The principle of this method relies on use of two optical modes with different mode distributions, filed decay lengths and polarization states that are sustaining in a plasmon waveguide. The two modes with different decay lengths couple with dye molecules of different regions, at different distances from the PCW-water interface. The emission from two different regions occur as two coupled emission rings with different polarizations and emitting angles in the back focal plane (BFP) images. By using an electric-driven liquid crystal in BFP imaging, we selectively imaged surface or surface plus bulk fluorescence. Accordingly two coupled emissions can be switched ON or OFF independently, that are for either surface or bulk fluorescence imaging. Our work provides a new method for fluorescence imaging or sensing just by using a planar multilayer film, which may be a useful for fluorescence-based techniques in chemistry, materials science, molecular biology, and medicine. PMID:26523158

  4. Surface recombination velocity at n-CdSe semiconductor-electrolyte interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessler-Podorowski, Pnina

    1989-06-01

    The influence of the concentration of divers electrolyte solutions on the surface recombination velocity of n-CdSe immersed in them was investigated. The semiconductor was irradiated with a 25-psec, 532-nanometer laser pulse and photoluminescence decays from the crystal surface were measured. Surface recombination velocities were evaluated by fitting the experimental decay curves to simulated decay curves. A crystal which had been chemically etched showed a significantly longer photoluminescence decay time than a mechanically polished one, when immersed in distilled water, and a surface recombination velocity of less than 1,000 cm/sec. The surface recombination velocity increased when the crystal was immersed in aqueous solutions of CuSO4, NaI, NaI/I2, AgNO3 and HgCl2, and methanol solutions of bromide. The velocity increased with solution concentration, to a maximum of 100,000-1,000,000 cm/sec. Immersion in aqueous solutions of LiCl and Cr(NO3)3 induced recombination velocity increases, but only at high concentrations; these changes were attributed to impurities. In aqueous ZnSO4 solutions, there was no velocity change until the concentration reached 0.01M, when the velocity decreased. The surface recombination velocity increases are caused by surface states which result from intrinsic states of the crystal, unsaturated bonds on the surface, defects, or adsorption of ions from the solution. Only molecules having a negative free energy of absorption can be adsorbed, and the solubility product of the adsorbed cation with Se, the semiconductor anion, must be lower than the solubility product of the semiconductor, CdSe. When an anion is adsorbed, the solubility product of the adsorbed anion with Cd(2+), the semiconductor cation, must be lower than the solubility product of CdSe. Thus, cations which form selenide salts or anions which form cadmium salts in which the solubility products are higher than the solubility product of CdSe would not be adsorbed on the Cd

  5. Direct laser fabrication of nanowires on semiconductor surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haghizadeh, Anahita; Yang, Haeyeon

    2016-03-01

    Periodic nanowires are observed from (001) orientation of Si and GaAs when the surfaces are irradiated interferentially by high power laser pulses. These nanowires are self-assembled and can be strain-free while their period is consistent with interference period. The nanowire morphologies are studied by atomic force microscopy. The observed period between nanowires depends on the wavelengths used and interference angle. The nanowire width increases with laser intensity. The narrowest nanowires observed have the width smaller than 20 nm, which is more than 10 times smaller than the interference period.

  6. Control of the crystalline structure of inkjet-printed semiconductor layers using overlap condition and surface wettability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Byung Ju; Oh, Je Hoon

    2015-05-01

    We demonstrate the effects of overlap condition and surface wettability of dielectric layers on the drying process and crystalline structure of inkjet-printed semiconductor layers. 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene (TIPS pentacene) was utilized to inkjet-print the semiconductor layer. Using various overlap conditions, semiconductor layers were inkjet-printed on dielectric layers with different surface wettabilities. It is observed that crystal growth and the resulting crystalline structures in inkjet-printed semiconductor layers are primarily determined by evaporation behavior, particularly the contact line movement of the drying semiconductor layers, which can be controlled via the overlap condition. With inappropriate overlap conditions, randomly oriented TIPS pentacene crystalline structures are generated in the semiconductor layer through irregular contact line recession. One-dimensionally oriented TIPS pentacene crystal structures can be obtained using the optimized overlap condition of 50% as a result of the uniform contact line movement. Relatively hydrophobic dielectric layers help to generate good crystallinity in the semiconductor layer. All-inkjet-printed organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) with well-oriented TIPS pentacene crystalline structures in the semiconductor layer show a high field effect mobility of ~0.1 cm2 V-1s-1, suggesting that, when printing inkjet semiconductor layers, the overlap condition and surface wettability of the dielectric layer are important factors for generating a well-oriented crystalline structure and thereby fabricating high-performance all-inkjet-printed OTFTs.

  7. Tuning the reactivity of semiconductor surfaces by functionalization with amines of different basicity

    PubMed Central

    Bent, Stacey F.; Kachian, Jessica S.; Rodríguez-Reyes, Juan Carlos F.; Teplyakov, Andrew V.

    2011-01-01

    Surface functionalization of semiconductors has been the backbone of the newest developments in microelectronics, energy conversion, sensing device design, and many other fields of science and technology. Over a decade ago, the notion of viewing the surface itself as a chemical reagent in surface reactions was introduced, and adding a variety of new functionalities to the semiconductor surface has become a target of research for many groups. The electronic effects on the substrate have been considered as an important consequence of chemical modification. In this work, we shift the focus to the electronic properties of the functional groups attached to the surface and their role on subsequent reactivity. We investigate surface functionalization of clean Si(100)-2 × 1 and Ge(100)-2 × 1 surfaces with amines as a way to modify their reactivity and to fine tune this reactivity by considering the basicity of the attached functionality. The reactivity of silicon and germanium surfaces modified with ethylamine (CH3CH2NH2) and aniline (C6H5NH2) is predicted using density functional theory calculations of proton attachment to the nitrogen of the adsorbed amine to differ with respect to a nucleophilic attack of the surface species. These predictions are then tested using a model metalorganic reagent, tetrakis(dimethylamido)titanium (((CH3)2N)4Ti, TDMAT), which undergoes a transamination reaction with sufficiently nucleophilic amines, and the reactivity tests confirm trends consistent with predicted basicities. The identity of the underlying semiconductor surface has a profound effect on the outcome of this reaction, and results comparing silicon and germanium are discussed. PMID:21068370

  8. Molecular weight dependence of surface flow near the bulk glass transition temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Yu; Salez, Thomas; Benzaquen, Michael; Raphael, Elie; Forrest, James A.

    2014-03-01

    We present the study on molecular weight dependent sub-Tg surface dynamics of polymer thin films by using the Nano-step experiment [McGraw et al. Soft Matter 7, 7832 (2011)]. By varying the molecular weight, we are able to probe the surface dynamics of the free surface below Tg with the polymer size comparable to the surface depth. In particular, we define and use a correlation function to compare measured and calculated profiles to analyze the transition from the bulk flow to flow restricted to the surface region. Surprisingly, even for the polymers with Mw = 22,000 surface flow is still observed below the bulk Tg value. A numerical simulation of random walk is used to find the fraction of polymer of which all of the polymer segments are located in the free surface region. The simulation results indicate that there are still a significant fraction of polymer molecules where all segments are in the near free surface region. These molecules can undergo flow consistent with the experimental results.

  9. Coupled instabilities of surface crease and bulk bending during fast free swelling of hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Riku; Ikura, Yumihiko; King, Daniel R; Nonoyama, Takayuki; Nakajima, Tasuku; Kurokawa, Takayuki; Kuroda, Hirotoshi; Tonegawa, Yoshihiro; Gong, Jian Ping

    2016-06-21

    Most studies on hydrogel swelling instability have been focused on a constrained boundary condition. In this paper, we studied the mechanical instability of a piece of disc-shaped hydrogel during free swelling. The fast swelling of the gel induces two swelling mismatches; a surface-inner layer mismatch and an annulus-disc mismatch, which lead to the formation of a surface crease pattern and a saddle-like bulk bending, respectively. For the first time, a stripe-like surface crease that is at a right angle on the two surfaces of the gel was observed. This stripe pattern is related to the mechanical coupling of surface instability and bulk bending, which is justified by investigating the swelling-induced surface pattern on thin hydrogel sheets fixed onto a saddle-shaped substrate prior to swelling. A theoretical mechanism based on an energy model was developed to show an anisotropic stripe-like surface crease pattern on a saddle-shaped surface. These results might be helpful to develop novel strategies for controlling crease patterns on soft and wet materials by changing their three-dimensional shape. PMID:27108760

  10. Femtosecond laser surface ablation of transparent solids: understanding the bulk filamentation damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryashov, Sergey I.; Joglekar, A.; Mourou, G.; Ionin, A. A.; Zvorykin, V. D.; Hunt, A. J.

    2007-06-01

    Direct SEM examination reveals a complex nanoscale structure of deep narrow central channels within shallow wide external craters produced by single-shot high-intensity femtosecond laser radiation on Corning 0211 glass and sapphire surfaces. These internal narrow channels are not expected from ordinary surface melt spallation and expulsion processes characteristic of the external surface nanocraters, but exhibit nearly the same appearance threshold. Surprisingly, the nanochannel radiuses rapidly saturate versus incident laser intensity indicating bulk rather than surface character of laser energy deposition, in contrast to the external craters extending versus laser intensity in a regular manner. These facts may be explained by channeling of electromagnetic radiation by near-surface ablative filamentary propagation of intense femtosecond laser pulses in the highly electronically excited dielectrics, by spherical aberrations in the surface layer, or deep drilling of the samples by short-wavelength Bremsstrahlung radiation of relatively hot surface electron-hole or electron-ion plasma. The double structure of ablated surface nano-features is consistent with similar structures observed for bulk damage features fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses at supercritical laser powers, but much lower laser intensities.

  11. Bulk and interface trapping in the gate dielectric of GaN based metal-oxide-semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ťapajna, M.; Jurkovič, M.; Válik, L.; Haščík, Š.; Gregušová, D.; Brunner, F.; Cho, E.-M.; Kuzmík, J.

    2013-06-01

    The trapping phenomena in GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor high-electron mobility transistor structures with 10 and 20-nm thick Al2O3 gate dielectric grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition were deeply investigated using comprehensive capacitance-voltage measurements. By controlling the interface traps population, substantial electron trapping in the dielectric bulk was identified. Separation between the trapping process and the interface traps emission allowed us to determine distribution of interface trap density in a wide energy range. Temperature dependence of the trapping process indicates thermionic field emission of electrons from the gate into traps with a sheet density of ~1013 cm-2, located a few nm below the gate.

  12. Bulk and interface trapping in the gate dielectric of GaN based metal-oxide-semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ťapajna, M.; Jurkovič, M.; Válik, L.; Haščík, Š.; Gregušová, D.; Brunner, F.; Cho, E.-M.; Kuzmík, J.

    2013-06-01

    The trapping phenomena in GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor high-electron mobility transistor structures with 10 and 20-nm thick Al2O3 gate dielectric grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition were deeply investigated using comprehensive capacitance-voltage measurements. By controlling the interface traps population, substantial electron trapping in the dielectric bulk was identified. Separation between the trapping process and the interface traps emission allowed us to determine distribution of interface trap density in a wide energy range. Temperature dependence of the trapping process indicates thermionic field emission of electrons from the gate into traps with a sheet density of ˜1013 cm-2, located a few nm below the gate.

  13. (La1-xBax)(Zn1-xMnx)AsO: A two-dimensional 1111-type diluted magnetic semiconductor in bulk form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Cui; Man, Huiyuan; Qin, Chuan; Lu, Jicai; Sun, Yunlei; Wang, Quan; Yu, Biqiong; Feng, Chunmu; Goko, T.; Arguello, C. J.; Liu, L.; Frandsen, B. A.; Uemura, Y. J.; Wang, Hangdong; Luetkens, H.; Morenzoni, E.; Han, W.; Jin, C. Q.; Munsie, T.; Williams, T. J.; D'Ortenzio, R. M.; Medina, T.; Luke, G. M.; Imai, T.; Ning, F. L.

    2013-07-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of a bulk diluted magnetic semiconductor (La1-xBax)(Zn1-xMnx)AsO (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.2) with a layered crystal structure identical to that of the 1111-type FeAs superconductors. No ferromagnetic order occurs with (Zn,Mn) substitution in the parent compound LaZnAsO without charge doping. Together with carrier doping via (La,Ba) substitution, a small amount of Mn substituting for Zn results in ferromagnetic order with TC up to ˜40 K, although the system remains semiconducting. Muon spin relaxation measurements confirm the development of ferromagnetic order in the entire volume, with the relationship between the internal field and TC consistent with the trend found in (Ga,Mn)As and the 111-type Li(Zn,Mn)As and the 122-type (Ba,K)(Zn,Mn)2As2 systems.

  14. K and Mn co-doped BaCd2As2: A hexagonal structured bulk diluted magnetic semiconductor with large magnetoresistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaojun; Li, Yuke; Zhang, Pan; Jiang, Hao; Luo, Yongkang; Chen, Qian; Feng, Chunmu; Cao, Chao; Dai, Jianhui; Tao, Qian; Cao, Guanghan; Xu, Zhu-An

    2013-12-01

    A bulk diluted magnetic semiconductor was found in the K and Mn co-doped BaCd2As2 system. Different from recently reported tetragonal ThCr2Si2-structured II-II-V based (Ba,K)(Zn,Mn)2As2, the Ba1-yKyCd2-xMnxAs2 system has a hexagonal CaAl2Si2-type structure with the Cd2As2 layer forming a honeycomb-like network. The Mn concentration reaches up to x ˜ 0.4. Magnetization measurements show that the samples undergo ferromagnetic transitions with Curie temperature up to 16 K. With low coercive field of less than 10 Oe and large magnetoresistance of about -70%, the hexagonal structured Ba1-yKyCd2-xMnxAs2 can be served as a promising candidate for spin manipulations.

  15. Self-assembled molecular corrals on a semiconductor surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrin, S.; Harikumar, K. R.; Jones, R. V.; Li, N.; McNab, I. R.; Polanyi, J. C.; Sloan, P. A.; Waqar, Z.; Yang, J.(S. Y.); Ayissi, S.; Hofer, W. A.

    2006-03-01

    Nano-corrals for capturing surface electrons are of interest in molecular electronics. Here we show that haloalkane molecules, e.g., 1-chlorododecane, physisorbed on Si(1 1 1)-(7 × 7) self-assemble to form dimers stable to 100 °C which corral silicon adatoms. Corral size is shown to be governed by the haloalkane chain-length. Spectroscopic and theoretical evidence shows that the haloalkane dimer induces electron transfer to the corralled adatom, shifting its energy levels by ˜1 eV. Isolation of a labile pre-cursor points to a model for corral formation which combines mobility with immobility; monomers diffusing in a mobile vertical state meet and convert to the immobile horizontal dimers constituting the corrals.

  16. Probing semiconductor confined excitons decay into surface plasmon polaritons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobreira, F. W. A.; de Oliveira, E. R. Cardozo; Teodoro, M. D.; Marques, G. E.; Marega, E.

    2016-04-01

    The study of the interaction of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) with quantum emitters has become very important in the last few years. The ability to design optical devices as well as investigate the physics of strongly interacting systems is some of its useful applications. In this paper, we will show some results on the decay of excitons confined in a InAs/GaAs quantum dot into SPP modes confined in a metallic thin film made of Au, an important step toward the investigation of the basic features of the SPP-exciton interaction. The lifetime of the ground state level was investigated and shown to decrease with the presence of the metallic film.

  17. Reduction of solar cell efficiency by bulk defects across the back-surface-field junction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sah, C. T.; Yamakawa, K. A.; Lutwack, R.

    1982-01-01

    The degradation of solar cell performance due to bulk defects distributed across the back-surface field junction is analyzed in terms of a three-region developed-perimeter model. Families of curves are computed and their physical significance is discussed in detail with reference to three parameters used to characterize the defects: defect area, defect density, and defect surface recombination velocity. A reduction in the open-circuit voltage due to the presence of a defect is expressed as a function of the defect area, density, cell thickness, and defect surface recombination velocity. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the importance of the particular defect parameters.

  18. Bulk-surface relationship of an electronic structure for high-throughput screening of metal oxide catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kweun, Joshua Minwoo; Li, Chenzhe; Zheng, Yongping; Cho, Maenghyo; Kim, Yoon Young; Cho, Kyeongjae

    2016-05-01

    Designing metal-oxides consisting of earth-abundant elements has been a crucial issue to replace precious metal catalysts. To achieve efficient screening of metal-oxide catalysts via bulk descriptors rather than surface descriptors, we investigated the relationship between the electronic structure of bulk and that of the surface for lanthanum-based perovskite oxides, LaMO3 (M = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu). Through density functional theory calculations, we examined the d-band occupancy of the bulk and surface transition-metal atoms (nBulk and nSurf) and the adsorption energy of an oxygen atom (Eads) on (001), (110), and (111) surfaces. For the (001) surface, we observed strong correlation between the nBulk and nSurf with an R-squared value over 94%, and the result was interpreted in terms of ligand field splitting and antibonding/bonding level splitting. Moreover, the Eads on the surfaces was highly correlated with the nBulk with an R-squared value of more than 94%, and different surface relaxations could be explained by the bulk electronic structure (e.g., LaMnO3 vs. LaTiO3). These results suggest that a bulk-derived descriptor such as nBulk can be used to screen metal-oxide catalysts.

  19. Nanoparticle doping in nematic liquid crystals: distinction between surface and bulk effects by numerical simulations.

    PubMed

    Urbanski, Martin; Mirzaei, Javad; Hegmann, Torsten; Kitzerow, Heinz-S

    2014-05-19

    Doping nematic liquid crystals with small amounts of nanoparticles can significantly alter the electro-optic response of the nematic host. Some of these effects result from nanoparticles influencing the liquid crystal/substrate interface, while other effects are caused by nanoparticles in the bulk. So far, little attention has been paid to the influence of surface interactions on the determination of bulk properties. In the present study, these effects are investigated experimentally and confirmed by numerical simulations. The splay-type Fréedericksz-transition of the nematic liquid crystal 5CB doped with CdSe quantum dots is investigated, as these dispersions are known from earlier studies to affect the initial alignment layers. In comparison, dispersions of chemically and thermally stable silanized gold nanoparticles in the apolar nematic host FELIX-2900-03 are analyzed, which are expected to be bulk-active only. A data fitting routine is presented which allows a distinction between bulk and surface effects of nanoparticle doping. For the quantum dots, an increase of pretilt angle proportional to the doping concentration is found, as well as a slight decrease of the anchoring energy of molecules at the confining substrates. The silanized gold particles show no influence on the boundary conditions up to doping concentrations of 2.5 % (w). For higher concentrations an increase of pretilt angle is reported. PMID:24482304

  20. Electronic structure of reconstructed InAs(001) surfaces - identification of bulk and surface bands based on their symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olszowska, Natalia; Kolodziej, Jacek J.

    2016-02-01

    Using angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) band structures of indium- and arsenic-terminated InAs(001) surfaces are investigated. These surfaces are highly reconstructed, elementary cells of their lattices contain many atoms in different chemical configurations, and moreover, they are composed of domains having related but different reconstructions. These domain-type surface reconstructions result in the reciprocal spaces containing regions with well-defined k→∥-vector and regions with not-well-defined one. In the ARPES spectra most of the surface related features appear as straight lines in the indeterminate k→∥-vector space. It is shown that, thanks to differences in crystal and surface symmetries, the single photon energy ARPES may be successfully used for classification of surface and bulk bands of electronic states on complex, highly reconstructed surfaces instead of the most often used variable photon energy studies.

  1. Combining Bulk/Surface Engineering of Hematite To Synergistically Improve Its Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting Performance.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yufei; Gu, Jiuwang; Ye, Kai-Hang; Chai, Zhisheng; Yu, Xiang; Chen, Xiaobo; Zhao, Chuanxi; Zhang, Yuanming; Mai, Wenjie

    2016-06-29

    One of the most promising candidates for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting photoanode is hematite (α-Fe2O3) due to its narrow bandgap and chemical stability. However, the poor bulk/surface kinetics of hematite limits its PEC performance. Herein, a facile two-step approach is reported to synergistically improve the PEC performance of Fe2O3. First, through bulk engineering of Ti doping, the photocurrent density of Ti-Fe2O3 photoanode (1.68 mA cm(-2) at 1.23 VRHE) shows a 3-fold increase compared with that of pure Fe2O3 photoanode (0.50 mA cm(-2) at 1.23 VRHE). Second, the photocurrent density of Ti-Fe2O3 photoanode could be further enhanced to 2.31 mA cm(-2) by surface engineering of FeOOH. The enhanced PEC water splitting performance is proposed to be the synergistic effect of bulk and surface engineering, which can be mainly attributed to the great increase of charge separation efficiency and surface transfer efficiency. PMID:27275649

  2. Bulk and surface properties of spinel Co 3O 4 by density functional calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiang-Lan; Chen, Zhan-Hong; Li, Yi; Chen, Wen-Kai; Li, Jun-Qian

    2009-02-01

    DFT calculations are employed to bulk and surface properties of spinel oxide Co 3O 4. The bulk magnetic structure is calculated to be antiferromagnetic, with a Co 2+ moment of 2.631 μB in the antiferromagnetic state. There are three predicted electron transitions O(2p) → Co 2+(t 2g) of 2.2 eV, O(2p) → Co 3+(e g) of 2.9 eV and Co 3+(t 2g) → Co 2+(t 2g) of 3.3 eV, and the former two transitions are close to the corresponding experimental values 2.8 and 2.4 eV. The naturally occurring Co 3O 4 (1 1 0) and (1 1 1) surfaces were considered for surface calculations. For ideal Co 3O 4 (1 1 0) surfaces, the surface relaxations are not significant, while for ideal Co 3O 4 (1 1 1) surfaces the relaxation of Co 2+ cations in the tetrahedral sites is drastic, which agrees with the experiment observation. The stability over different oxygen environments for possible ideal and defect surface terminations were explored.

  3. Metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor humidity sensor using surface conductance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Seok-Ho; Yang, Hyun-Ho; Han, Chang-Hoon; Ko, Seung-Deok; Lee, Seok-Hee; Yoon, Jun-Bo

    2012-03-01

    This letter presents a metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor based humidity sensor which does not use any specific materials to sense the relative humidity. We simply make use of the low pressure chemical vapor deposited (LPCVD) silicon dioxide's surface conductance change. When the gate is biased and then floated, the electrical charge in the gate is dissipated through the LPCVD silicon dioxide's surface to the surrounding ground with a time constant depending on the surface conductance which, in turn, varies with humidity. With this method, extremely high sensitivity was achieved—the charge dissipation speed increased thousand times as the relative humidity increased.

  4. Mapping polarization induced surface band bending on the Rashba semiconductor BiTeI

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Christopher John; Yang, Hung-Hsiang; Hong, Jhen-Yong; Hsu, Shih-Hao; Sankar, Raman; Lu, Chun-I; Lu, Hsin-Yu; Yang, Kui-Hon Ou; Shiu, Hung-Wei; Chen, Chia-Hao; Kaun, Chao-Cheng; Shu, Guo-Jiun; Chou, Fang-Cheng; Lin, Minn-Tsong

    2014-01-01

    Surfaces of semiconductors with strong spin-orbit coupling are of great interest for use in spintronic devices exploiting the Rashba effect. BiTeI features large Rashba-type spin splitting in both valence and conduction bands. Either can be shifted towards the Fermi level by surface band bending induced by the two possible polar terminations, making Rashba spin-split electron or hole bands electronically accessible. Here we demonstrate the first real-space microscopic identification of each termination with a multi-technique experimental approach. Using spatially resolved tunnelling spectroscopy across the lateral boundary between the two terminations, a previously speculated on p-n junction-like discontinuity in electronic structure at the lateral boundary is confirmed experimentally. These findings realize an important step towards the exploitation of the unique behaviour of the Rashba semiconductor BiTeI for new device concepts in spintronics. PMID:24898943

  5. Glass Formation, Chemical Properties and Surface Analysis of Cu-Based Bulk Metallic Glasses

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Chunling; Zhao, Weimin; Inoue, Akihisa

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the influence of alloying elements Mo, Nb, Ta and Ni on glass formation and corrosion resistance of Cu-based bulk metallic glasses (BMGs). In order to obtain basic knowledge for application to the industry, corrosion resistance of the Cu–Hf–Ti–(Mo, Nb, Ta, Ni) and Cu–Zr–Ag–Al–(Nb) bulk glassy alloy systems in various solutions are reported in this work. Moreover, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis is performed to clarify the surface-related chemical characteristics of the alloy before and after immersion in the solutions; this has lead to a better understanding of the correlation between the surface composition and the corrosion resistance. PMID:21731441

  6. Surface and bulk modified high capacity layered oxide cathodes with low irreversible capacity loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manthiram, Arumugam (Inventor); Wu, Yan (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention includes compositions, surface and bulk modifications, and methods of making of (1-x)Li[Li.sub.1/3Mn.sub.2/3]O.sub.2.xLi[Mn.sub.0.5-yNi.sub.0.5-yCo.sub.2- y]O.sub.2 cathode materials having an O3 crystal structure with a x value between 0 and 1 and y value between 0 and 0.5, reducing the irreversible capacity loss in the first cycle by surface modification with oxides and bulk modification with cationic and anionic substitutions, and increasing the reversible capacity to close to the theoretical value of insertion/extraction of one lithium per transition metal ion (250-300 mAh/g).

  7. Surface and bulk modified high capacity layered oxide cathodes with low irreversible capacity loss

    DOEpatents

    Manthiram, Arumugam; Wu, Yan

    2010-03-16

    The present invention includes compositions, surface and bulk modifications, and methods of making of (1-x)Li[Li.sub.1/3Mn.sub.2/3]O.sub.2.xLi[Mn.sub.0.5-yNi.sub.0.5-yCo.sub.2- y]O.sub.2 cathode materials having an O3 crystal structure with a x value between 0 and 1 and y value between 0 and 0.5, reducing the irreversible capacity loss in the first cycle by surface modification with oxides and bulk modification with cationic and anionic substitutions, and increasing the reversible capacity to close to the theoretical value of insertion/extraction of one lithium per transition metal ion (250-300 mAh/g).

  8. Emission properties of surface-emitting distributed-feedback and distributed-Bragg-reflector semiconductor lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Dziura, T. G.; Wang, S. C.

    1989-05-15

    We use a single-mode transfer equation model to study the performance of vertical-cavity surface-emitting distributed-feedback (DFB) and distributed-Bragg-reflector (DBR) semiconductor lasers above threshold. We find that DBR lasers exhibit less envelope spatial hole burning than both single and double phase-shifted DFB lasers and therefore may achieve more stable single-longitudinal-mode operation.

  9. Combining the Best of Bulk and Surface Micromaching Using Si(111) Substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, J.G.

    1998-11-30

    This process combines the best features of bulk ad surface micromachining. It enables the production of stress free, thick, virtually arbitrarily shaped structures with well defiti thick or thin sacrificial layers, high sacrificial layer selectivity and large undercuts using IC compatible, processes. The basis of this approach is the use of dy available {111} oriented substrates. anisotropic Si trench etching, S iN masking and KOH etching.

  10. Guided Evolution of Bulk Metallic Glass Nanostructures: A Platform for Designing 3D Electrocatalytic Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Doubek, Gustavo; Sekol, Ryan C; Li, Jinyang; Ryu, Won-Hee; Gittleson, Forrest S; Nejati, Siamak; Moy, Eric; Reid, Candy; Carmo, Marcelo; Linardi, Marcelo; Bordeenithikasem, Punnathat; Kinser, Emily; Liu, Yanhui; Tong, Xiao; Osuji, Chinedum O; Schroers, Jan; Mukherjee, Sundeep; Taylor, André D

    2016-03-01

    Electrochemical devices such as fuel cells, electrolyzers, lithium-air batteries, and pseudocapacitors are expected to play a major role in energy conversion/storage in the near future. Here, it is demonstrated how desirable bulk metallic glass compositions can be obtained using a combinatorial approach and it is shown that these alloys can serve as a platform technology for a wide variety of electrochemical applications through several surface modification techniques. PMID:26689722

  11. Importance of quantum correction for the quantitative simulation of photoexcited scanning tunneling spectra of semiconductor surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnedler, M.; Dunin-Borkowski, R. E.; Ebert, Ph.

    2016-05-01

    Photoexcited scanning tunneling spectroscopy is a promising technique for the determination of carrier concentrations, surface photovoltages, and potentials of semiconductors with atomic spatial resolution. However, extraction of the desired quantities requires computation of the electrostatic potential induced by the proximity of the tip and the tunnel current. This calculation is based on an accurate solution of the Poisson as well as the continuity equations for the tip-vacuum-semiconductor system. For this purpose, the carrier current densities are modeled by classical drift and diffusion equations. However, for small tip radii and highly doped materials, the drift and diffusion transport model significantly overestimates a semiconductor's carrier concentration near the surface, making the quantification of physical properties impossible. In this paper, we apply quantum correction to the drift and diffusion model, in order to account for the so-called quantum compressibility, i.e., reduced compressibility of the carrier gas due to the Pauli principle, in the region of the tip-induced band bending. We compare carrier concentrations, potentials, and tunnel currents derived with and without quantum correction for GaN (10 1 ¯0 ) and GaAs(110) surfaces to demonstrate its necessity.

  12. A cut finite element method for coupled bulk-surface problems on time-dependent domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansbo, Peter; Larson, Mats G.; Zahedi, Sara

    2016-08-01

    In this contribution we present a new computational method for coupled bulk-surface problems on time-dependent domains. The method is based on a space-time formulation using discontinuous piecewise linear elements in time and continuous piecewise linear elements in space on a fixed background mesh. The domain is represented using a piecewise linear level set function on the background mesh and a cut finite element method is used to discretize the bulk and surface problems. In the cut finite element method the bilinear forms associated with the weak formulation of the problem are directly evaluated on the bulk domain and the surface defined by the level set, essentially using the restrictions of the piecewise linear functions to the computational domain. In addition a stabilization term is added to stabilize convection as well as the resulting algebraic system that is solved in each time step. We show in numerical examples that the resulting method is accurate and stable and results in well conditioned algebraic systems independent of the position of the interface relative to the background mesh.

  13. Surface studies of gallium nitride quantum dots grown using droplet epitaxy on bulk, native substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Christina; Jeon, Sunyeol; Goldman, Rachel; Yacoby, Yizhak; Clarke, Roy

    Gallium nitride (GaN) and its applications in light-emitting diodes play an integral part in efficient, solid-state lighting, as evidenced by its recognition in the 2014 Nobel prize in physics. In order to push this technology towards higher efficiency and reliability and lower cost, we must understand device growth on bulk GaN substrates, which have lower defect densities and strain than template GaN substrates grown on sapphire. In this work, we present our findings on the surface properties of GaN quantum dots (QDs) grown on commercial bulk GaN. QDs are grown using the droplet epitaxy method and analyzed using a surface X-ray diffraction technique called Coherent Bragg Rod Analysis (COBRA), which uses phase retrieval to reconstruct atomic positions near the substrate surface. While several QD growth conditions in our study produce dense QDs, COBRA reveals that only low nitridation temperatures result in GaN QDs that are coherent with the bulk GaN substrate. Results are supported with atomic force microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy.

  14. Differentiation of surface and bulk conductivities in topological insulator via four-probe spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, An-Ping; Durand, Corentin; Hus, Saban; Zhang, Xiaoguang; McGuire, Michael; Chen, Yong

    The direct measurement of the topological surface states (TSS) conductivity is often hard to achieve due to the pronounced contribution from the bulk conduction channel. Here, we show a new method to differentiate conductivities from the surface states and the coexisting bulk states in topological insulators (TI) using a four-probe transport spectroscopy in a multi-probe scanning tunneling microscopy system. In contrast to conventional models that assume two resistors in parallel to count for both the TSS and bulk conductance channels, we derive a scaling relation of measured resistance with respect to varying inter-probe spacing for two interconnected conduction channels, which allows quantitative determination of conductivities from both channels. Using this method, we demonstrate the separation of 2D and 3D conduction in TI by comparing the conductance scaling of Bi2Se3, Bi2Te2Se, and Sb-doped Bi2Se3 with that of a pure 2D conductance of graphene on SiC substrate. We also quantitatively show the effect of surface doping carriers on the 2D conductance enhancement in TI. The method offers an approach to understanding not just the topological insulators but also the 2D to 3D crossover of conductance in other complex systems. This research was conducted at the Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, which is a DOE Office of Science User Facility.

  15. Femtosecond laser direct inscription of surface skimming waveguides in bulk glass.

    PubMed

    Bérubé, Jean-Philippe; Vallée, Réal

    2016-07-01

    We present a detailed study of waveguide inscription near the surface of bulk glass using a femtosecond laser. Three silicate glasses used extensively as hosts for photo-induced photonic devices were examined. Our results show that near-surface waveguides generally present a low-index contrast, as the pulse energy damage threshold decreases sharply at close proximity to the surface. We devised a novel method to allow the formation of optical waveguides that exhibit a high-index contrast up to the surface of any transparent material. As a proof of concept, the inscription of near-surface single-mode waveguides operating at a wavelength of 405 nm is demonstrated. PMID:27367105

  16. Bonding and reactivity of clean and chemically-modified semiconductor surfaces probed with STM

    SciTech Connect

    Hamers, R.J.

    1995-12-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy has been used to directly study the interrelationships between chemical composition, chemical reactivity, electronic structure, and surface morphology at the atomic level on clean and chemically-modified semiconductor surfaces. Our work has focused recently on understanding the atomic-level interactions of dopants such as phosphorus and boron on the Si(001) surface, and the influence of these atoms on other chemical reactions such as the thermal decomposition of disilane to grow epitaxial silicon. Using STM to study how these atoms modify the surface in combination with tunneling spectroscopy to reveal the occupied and unoccupied molecular orbitals of these structures provides direct insight into the nature of chemical bonding on these surfaces. This talk will discuss the application of STM to understand chemical bonding at silicon surfaces.

  17. Quantitative surface studies of protein adsorption by infrared spectroscopy. II. Quantification of adsorbed and bulk proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, D.J.; Hutson, T.B.; Chittur, K.K.; Gendreau, R.M.

    1987-08-15

    Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectra of surface-adsorbed proteins are correlated with concentration measurements determined by /sup 125/I-labeled proteins. This paper demonstrates that linear correlations between the intensity of the major bands of proteins and the quantity of proteins can be obtained for human albumin and immunoglobulin G up to surface concentrations of approximately 0.25 microgram/cm2. A poorer correlation was observed for human fibrinogen. A linear correlation was also observed between the concentration in the bulk solution and the major bands of albumin up to a concentration of 60 mg/ml.

  18. Determination of surface recombination velocity and bulk lifetime in detector grade silicon and germanium crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Derhacobian, N.; Fine, P.; Walton, J.T.; Wong, Y.K.; Rossington, C.S.; Luke, P.N.

    1993-10-01

    Utility of a noncontact photoconductive decay (PCD) technique is demonstrated in measuring bulk lifetime, {tau}{sub B}, and surface recombination velocity, S, in detector grade silicon and germanium crystals. We show that the simple analytical equations which relate the observed effective lifetimes in PCD transients to {tau}{sub B} and S have a limited range of applicability. The noncontact PCD technique is used to determine the effect of several surface treatments on the observed effective lifetimes in Si and Ge. A degradation of the effective lifetime in Si is reported as result of the growth of a thin layer of native oxide at room temperature under atmospheric conditions.

  19. Is surface layering of aqueous alkali halides determined by ion pairing in the bulk solution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandes, Eva; Stage, Christiane; Motschmann, Hubert; Rieder, Julian; Buchner, Richard

    2014-11-01

    This contribution aims to elucidate the connection between ion-ion-solvent interactions in the bulk of aqueous electrolyte solutions and the properties of their liquid-air interface. In particular, we were interested in the conditions under which ion pairs form at the surface and whether this is linked to ion pairing in the bulk. For this reason different combinations of hard (Cl-, Li+) and soft ions (I-, Cs+) were investigated. Ion hydration and possible ion association in the bulk was probed with dielectric relaxation spectroscopy. This technique monitors the cooperative reorientation of the dipolar solvent molecules and detects all ion-pair species possibly present in the solution. At the interface, the formation of contact ion pairs was investigated by infrared-visible-sum frequency spectroscopy (SFG). This nonlinear optical technique possesses an inherent surface specificity and can be used for the characterization of interfacial water. The intensity of the SFG-active vibrational stretching modes depends on the number of oriented water molecules. The electric field at the surface of a charged aqueous interface aligns the water dipoles, which in turn increases the SFG response. Hence, the enhancement of the oscillator strengths of the water vibrational modes can be used to draw some conclusions on the strengths and geometrical extension of the electric field. The formation of ion pairs at the interface reduces the intensity of the band associated with hydrogen-bonded water. The underlying theory is presented. The combined data show that there are no contact ion pairs in the bulk of the fluid and—at best—only small amounts of solvent shared ion pairs. On the other hand, the combination of hard/hard or soft/soft ions leads to the formation of ion pairs at the liquid-air interface.

  20. Structural Relaxation and Nanocrystallization-Induced Laser Surface Hardening of Fe-Based Bulk Amorphous Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ashish K.; Alavi, S. Habib; Paital, Sameer R.; Dahotre, Narendra B.; Harimkar, Sandip P.

    2014-06-01

    Amorphous metallic alloys or bulk metallic glasses are emerging as promising materials for a range of structural, microelectromechanical systems, and biomedical applications. With the recent developments in spark plasma sintering and superplastic forming of the amorphous alloys, it is likely that the amorphous alloys will find a place in new applications. In this article, surface hardening of spark plasma sintered Fe48Cr15Mo14Y2C15B6 bulk amorphous alloys using a continuous-wave Nd:YAG laser is reported. Depending on the processing parameters, the laser surface irradiation causes structural relaxation (enhanced medium-range ordering and/or annihilation of excess free volume) and nanocrystallization of hard carbides (M23C6 and M7C3), resulting in surface hardening. Detailed investigations on the thermal effects, microstructural modifications, and hardness improvements due to laser surface irradiation with laser fluence in the range of 1.77-2.36 J/mm2 are presented. An increase in hardness in the range of 1360-1560 HV for laser surface-treated alloys compared to 1200 HV for as-sintered alloys over a hardening depth of about 50-80 µm is observed.

  1. Topological polymer dispersed liquid crystals with bulk nematic defect lines pinned to handlebody surfaces.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Michael G; Tasinkevych, Mykola; Smalyukh, Ivan I

    2014-05-16

    Polymer dispersed liquid crystals are a useful model system for studying the relationship between surface topology and defect structures. They are comprised of a polymer matrix with suspended spherical nematic drops and are topologically constrained to host defects of an elementary hedgehog charge per droplet, such as bulk or surface point defects or closed disclination loops. We control the genus of the closed surfaces confining such micrometer-sized nematic drops with tangential boundary conditions for molecular alignment imposed by the polymer matrix, allowing us to avoid defects or, on the contrary, to generate them in a controlled way. We show, both experimentally and through numerical modeling, that topological constraints in nematic microdrops can be satisfied by hosting topologically stable half-integer bulk defect lines anchored to opposite sides of handlebody surfaces. This enriches the interplay of topologies of closed surfaces and fields with nonpolar symmetry, yielding new unexpected configurations that cannot be realized in vector fields, having potential implications for topologically similar defects in cosmology and other fields. PMID:24877965

  2. Topological Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystals with Bulk Nematic Defect Lines Pinned to Handlebody Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Michael G.; Tasinkevych, Mykola; Smalyukh, Ivan I.

    2014-05-01

    Polymer dispersed liquid crystals are a useful model system for studying the relationship between surface topology and defect structures. They are comprised of a polymer matrix with suspended spherical nematic drops and are topologically constrained to host defects of an elementary hedgehog charge per droplet, such as bulk or surface point defects or closed disclination loops. We control the genus of the closed surfaces confining such micrometer-sized nematic drops with tangential boundary conditions for molecular alignment imposed by the polymer matrix, allowing us to avoid defects or, on the contrary, to generate them in a controlled way. We show, both experimentally and through numerical modeling, that topological constraints in nematic microdrops can be satisfied by hosting topologically stable half-integer bulk defect lines anchored to opposite sides of handlebody surfaces. This enriches the interplay of topologies of closed surfaces and fields with nonpolar symmetry, yielding new unexpected configurations that cannot be realized in vector fields, having potential implications for topologically similar defects in cosmology and other fields.

  3. Surface and bulk phase separations in block copolymers and their blends. Interim report 30 Sep 82-30 Dec 83

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, N.M.; Dwight, D.W.

    1984-03-01

    Surface and bulk properties have been studied in terms of composition and morphology of siloxane containing block copolymers and their blends with homopolymers. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to obtain the compositional information from the top 60 angstroms or so at the surface. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) was utilized to probe the bulk morphology. An attempt is made to compare the bulk and the surface and find possible mechanisms governing them. It is found that solvent-cast neat block copolymers have a uniform layer at the surface that is rich in siloxane whereas their bulk has a microphase-separated domain structure. In case of blends, siloxane enrichment is quite pronounced even at bulk concentrations as low as 0.05% w/w siloxane. Amount of surface siloxane as a function of bulk content is studied with the help of XPS. At the same time, the bulk morphology of these blends is studied by TEM. The changes occuring in the surface and the bulk are found to have similar patterns.

  4. Nickel Alloy Primary Water Bulk Surface and SCC Corrosion Film Analytical Characterization and SCC Mechanistic Implications

    SciTech Connect

    Morton, D.; Lewis, N.; Hanson, M.; Rice, S.; Sanders, P.

    2007-04-18

    Alloy 600 corrosion coupon tests were performed: (1) to quantify the temperature dependency of general corrosion and (2) to characterize the composition and structure of bulk surface corrosion films for comparison with ongoing primary water SCC (PWSCC) crack tip corrosion film analyses. Results suggest that the thermal activation energy of Alloy 600 corrosion is consistent with the thermal activation energy of nickel alloy PWSCC. Analytical investigations of the structure and composition of Alloy 600 bulk surface corrosion oxides revealed a duplex (inner and outer) oxide layer structure. The outer layer is discontinuous and comprised of relatively large (1 to 3 {micro}m) nickel ferrite crystals and smaller ({approx}0.1 {micro}m) chromium containing nickel ferrite crystals. The inner layer consists of a relatively continuous chromite spinel (major phase) and chromia (Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} minor phase) which formed through non-selective oxidation. Chromia and dealloyed Alloy 600 (highly Ni enriched metal) were only observed at 337 C (640 F) and only along the boundaries of deformation induced fine grains and subcells. Specimens having deformation free surfaces exhibited continuous uniform inner chromite spinel oxide layers. Specimens with machining induced surface deformation produced non-uniform inner layer oxides (chromite spinel, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and unoxidized material). PWSCC crack tip oxides, in contrast, were fine grain (no duplex structure) and consisted of both chromium rich spinels and ''NiO'' structure oxides. Generally, nickel rich oxides were more abundant under more oxidized conditions (reduced coolant hydrogen) and spinel rich crack tip oxides were favored under more reducing conditions (increased coolant hydrogen). Bulk surface corrosion film thickness did not correlate with observed SCC growth rates. These results suggest that corrosion is not the rate controlling step of PWSCC but rather that PWSCC and corrosion have a common rate controlling sub

  5. Generalized Electron Counting in Determination of Metal-Induced Reconstruction of Compound Semiconductor Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Lixin; Wang, E. G.; Xue, Qi-Kun; Zhang, S. B.; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2006-01-01

    Based on theoretical analysis, first-principles calculations, and experimental observations, we establish a generic guiding principle, embodied in generalized electron counting (GEC), that governs the surface reconstruction of compound semiconductors induced by different metal adsorbates. Within the GEC model, the adsorbates serve as an electron bath, donating or accepting the right number of electrons as the host surface chooses a specific reconstruction that obeys the classic electron-counting model. The predictive power of the GEC model is illustrated for a wide range of metal adsorbates.

  6. Kinetic model for electric-field induced point defect redistribution near semiconductor surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Gorai, Prashun; Seebauer, Edmund G.

    2014-07-14

    The spatial distribution of point defects near semiconductor surfaces affects the efficiency of devices. Near-surface band bending generates electric fields that influence the spatial redistribution of charged mobile defects that exchange infrequently with the lattice, as recently demonstrated for pile-up of isotopic oxygen near rutile TiO{sub 2} (110). The present work derives a mathematical model to describe such redistribution and establishes its temporal dependence on defect injection rate and band bending. The model shows that band bending of only a few meV induces significant redistribution, and that the direction of the electric field governs formation of either a valley or a pile-up.

  7. Effect of Oxygen Adsorbates on Terahertz Emission Properties of Various Semiconductor Surfaces Covered with Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagsican, Filchito Renee; Zhang, Xiang; Ma, Lulu; Wang, Minjie; Murakami, Hironaru; Vajtai, Robert; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Kono, Junichiro; Tonouchi, Masayoshi; Kawayama, Iwao

    2016-07-01

    We have studied coherent terahertz (THz) emission from graphene-coated surfaces of three different semiconductors—InP, GaAs, and InAs—to provide insight into the influence of O2 adsorption on charge states and dynamics at the graphene/semiconductor interface. The amplitude of emitted THz radiation from graphene-coated InP was found to change significantly upon desorption of O2 molecules by thermal annealing, while THz emission from bare InP was nearly uninfluenced by O2 desorption. In contrast, the amount of change in the amplitude of emitted THz radiation due to O2 desorption was essentially the same for graphene-coated GaAs and bare GaAs. However, in InAs, neither graphene coating nor O2 adsorption/desorption affected the properties of its THz emission. These results can be explained in terms of the effects of adsorbed O2 molecules on the different THz generation mechanisms in these semiconductors. Furthermore, these observations suggest that THz emission from graphene-coated semiconductors can be used for probing surface chemical reactions (e.g., oxidation) as well as for developing O2 gas sensor devices.

  8. Exploiting imperfections in the bulk to direct assembly of surface colloids

    PubMed Central

    Cavallaro, Marcello; Gharbi, Mohamed A.; Beller, Daniel A.; Čopar, Simon; Shi, Zheng; Baumgart, Tobias; Yang, Shu; Kamien, Randall D.; Stebe, Kathleen J.

    2013-01-01

    We exploit the long-ranged elastic fields inherent to confined nematic liquid crystals (LCs) to assemble colloidal particles trapped at the LC interface into reconfigurable structures with complex symmetries and packings. Spherical colloids with homeotropic anchoring trapped at the interface between air and the nematic LC 4-cyano-4′-pentylbiphenyl create quadrupolar distortions in the director field causing particles to repel and consequently form close-packed assemblies with a triangular habit. Here, we report on complex open structures organized via interactions with defects in the bulk. Specifically, by confining the nematic LC in an array of microposts with homeotropic anchoring conditions, we cause defect rings to form at well-defined locations in the bulk of the sample. These defects source elastic deformations that direct the assembly of the interfacially trapped colloids into ring-like assemblies, which recapitulate the defect geometry even when the microposts are completely immersed in the nematic. When the surface density of the colloids is high, they form a ring near the defect and a hexagonal lattice far from it. Because topographically complex substrates are easily fabricated and LC defects are readily reconfigured, this work lays the foundation for a versatile, robust mechanism to direct assembly dynamically over large areas by controlling surface anchoring and associated bulk defect structure. PMID:24191037

  9. Surface and bulk crystallization of amorphous solid water films: Confirmation of “top-down” crystallization

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yuan, Chunqing; Smith, R. Scott; Kay, Bruce D.

    2016-01-11

    Here, the crystallization kinetics of nanoscale amorphous solid water (ASW) films are investigated using temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) and reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS). TPD measurements are used to probe surface crystallization and RAIRS measurements are used to probe bulk crystallization. Isothermal TPD results show that surface crystallization is independent of the film thickness (from 100 to 1000 ML). Conversely, the RAIRS measurements show that the bulk crystallization time increases linearly with increasing film thickness. These results suggest that nucleation and crystallization begin at the ASW/vacuum interface and then the crystallization growth front propagates linearly into the bulk. This mechanism wasmore » confirmed by selective placement of an isotopic layer (5% D2O in H2O) at various positions in an ASW (H2O) film. In this case, the closer the isotopic layer was to the vacuum interface, the earlier the isotopic layer crystallized. These experiments provide direct evidence to confirm that ASW crystallization in vacuum proceeds by a “top-down” crystallization mechanism.« less

  10. Semiconductor processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The primary thrust of the semiconductor processing is outlined. The purpose is to (1) advance the theoretical basis for bulk growth of elemental and compound semiconductors in single crystal form, and (2) to develop a new experimental approaches by which semiconductor matrices with significantly improved crystalline and chemical perfection can be obtained. The most advanced approaches to silicon crystal growth is studied. The projected research expansion, directed toward the capability of growth of 4 inch diameter silicon crystals was implemented. Both intra and interdepartmental programs are established in the areas of process metallurgy, heat transfer, mass transfer, and systems control. Solutal convection in melt growth systems is also studied.