Science.gov

Sample records for bulking substance evaluation

  1. Leachables evaluation for bulk drug substance.

    PubMed

    Tsui, Victor; Somma, Maria S; Zitzner, Linda A

    2009-01-01

    This study describes a comprehensive analytical approach for evaluating potential leachables from product-contacting material surfaces in the manufacture of bulk drug substance (BDS) for use in parenteral products. A qualitative step-by-step evaluation of the process stream for the production, purification, and storage of the BDS was performed. The product-contact equipment surfaces were then grouped based on their materials of construction and prioritized according to the potential risk of contributing leachables to the BDS. Based on this evaluation, 13 potential leachable species were identified and classified either as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), anions, cations, or trace metals. The BDS was first screened for the presence of VOCs, SVOCs, anions, cations, and trace metals using analytical methods that were qualified for their application with the BDS. Thirteen potential leachables were then spiked in the BDS and in the water for injection for spike-recovery studies. The analysis of the BDS for potential leachables showed that the potential impurities were not present in the BDS except for a trace amount of silicon, and that the residual solvent concentrations were lower than the recommended limits established by the International Committee on Harmonisation. The spike-recovery studies confirmed that the analytical methods could effectively determine the leachable compounds in the BDS. Moreover, the 13 contaminants did not form a complex with the protein in the BDS and did not represent a potential risk to the BDS's safety and stability. PMID:19634355

  2. 46 CFR 125.120 - Carriage of noxious liquid substances in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... bulk in integral tanks or fixed independent tanks must— (1) Meet the definition of oceangoing in 33 CFR... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carriage of noxious liquid substances in bulk. 125.120... GENERAL § 125.120 Carriage of noxious liquid substances in bulk. (a) Except as provided by this...

  3. 46 CFR 125.120 - Carriage of noxious liquid substances in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... bulk in integral tanks or fixed independent tanks must— (1) Meet the definition of oceangoing in 33 CFR... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carriage of noxious liquid substances in bulk. 125.120... GENERAL § 125.120 Carriage of noxious liquid substances in bulk. (a) Except as provided by this...

  4. 46 CFR 125.120 - Carriage of noxious liquid substances in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... bulk in integral tanks or fixed independent tanks must— (1) Meet the definition of oceangoing in 33 CFR... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carriage of noxious liquid substances in bulk. 125.120... GENERAL § 125.120 Carriage of noxious liquid substances in bulk. (a) Except as provided by this...

  5. 46 CFR 125.120 - Carriage of noxious liquid substances in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... bulk in integral tanks or fixed independent tanks must— (1) Meet the definition of oceangoing in 33 CFR... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carriage of noxious liquid substances in bulk. 125.120... GENERAL § 125.120 Carriage of noxious liquid substances in bulk. (a) Except as provided by this...

  6. 49 CFR 172.324 - Hazardous substances in non-bulk packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hazardous substances in non-bulk packagings. 172.324 Section 172.324 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS..., TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.324 Hazardous substances in non-bulk...

  7. 49 CFR 172.324 - Hazardous substances in non-bulk packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hazardous substances in non-bulk packagings. 172.324 Section 172.324 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS..., TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.324 Hazardous substances in non-bulk...

  8. 21 CFR 1301.33 - Application for bulk manufacture of Schedule I and II substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application for bulk manufacture of Schedule I and... manufacture of Schedule I and II substances. (a) In the case of an application for registration or reregistration to manufacture in bulk a basic class of controlled substance listed in Schedule I or II,...

  9. 21 CFR 1301.33 - Application for bulk manufacture of Schedule I and II substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Application for bulk manufacture of Schedule I and... manufacture of Schedule I and II substances. (a) In the case of an application for registration or reregistration to manufacture in bulk a basic class of controlled substance listed in Schedule I or II,...

  10. 21 CFR 1301.33 - Application for bulk manufacture of Schedule I and II substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Application for bulk manufacture of Schedule I and... manufacture of Schedule I and II substances. (a) In the case of an application for registration or reregistration to manufacture in bulk a basic class of controlled substance listed in Schedule I or II,...

  11. 21 CFR 1301.33 - Application for bulk manufacture of Schedule I and II substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Application for bulk manufacture of Schedule I and... manufacture of Schedule I and II substances. (a) In the case of an application for registration or reregistration to manufacture in bulk a basic class of controlled substance listed in Schedule I or II,...

  12. 21 CFR 1301.33 - Application for bulk manufacture of Schedule I and II substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Application for bulk manufacture of Schedule I and... manufacture of Schedule I and II substances. (a) In the case of an application for registration or reregistration to manufacture in bulk a basic class of controlled substance listed in Schedule I or II,...

  13. 49 CFR 172.324 - Hazardous substances in non-bulk packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hazardous substances in non-bulk packagings. 172.324 Section 172.324 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS..., TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.324 Hazardous substances in non-bulk...

  14. 49 CFR 172.324 - Hazardous substances in non-bulk packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hazardous substances in non-bulk packagings. 172.324 Section 172.324 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS..., TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.324 Hazardous substances in non-bulk...

  15. 49 CFR 172.324 - Hazardous substances in non-bulk packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hazardous substances in non-bulk packagings. 172.324 Section 172.324 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS..., TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.324 Hazardous substances in non-bulk...

  16. 78 FR 72838 - Bulk Drug Substances That May Be Used To Compound Drug Products in Accordance With Section 503B...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ... Compound Drug Products in Accordance With Section 503B of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act... to develop a list of bulk drug substances (bulk drugs) that may be used to compound drug products in... facility does not compound using a bulk drug substance unless: (1) The bulk drug substance appears on...

  17. 78 FR 72841 - List of Bulk Drug Substances That May Be Used in Pharmacy Compounding; Bulk Drug Substances That...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ... is withdrawing the proposed rule published January 7, 1999 (64 FR 996), as of December 4, 2013... Federal Register of April 7, 1998 (63 FR 17011), FDA invited all interested persons to nominate bulk drug... January 1999 (64 FR 996, January 7, 1999). The proposed rule also discussed 10 nominated drug...

  18. OSCEE fan exhaust bulk absorber treatment evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomer, H. E.; Samanich, N. E.

    1980-01-01

    The acoustic suppression capability of bulk absorber material designed for use in the fan exhaust duct walls of the quiet clean short haul experiment engine (OCSEE UTW) was evaluated. The acoustic suppression to the original design for the engine fan duct which consisted of phased single degree-of-freedom wall treatment was tested with a splitter and also with the splitter removed. Peak suppression was about as predicted with the bulk absorber configuration, however, the broadband characteristics were not attained. Post test inspection revealed surface oil contamination on the bulk material which could have caused the loss in bandwidth suppression.

  19. QCSEE fan exhaust bulk absorber treatment evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomer, H. E.; Samanich, N. E.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of the experimental program reported herein was to evaluate the acoustic suppression capability of bulk absorber material designed for use in the fan exhaust duct walls of the QCSEE UTW (under-the-wing) engine and to compare it with other means of acoustic suppression. The paper includes comparison of the acoustic suppression to the original design for the QCSEE UTW engine fan duct which consisted of phased SDOF (single-degree-of-freedom) wall treatment and a splitter and also with the splitter removed. The method of approach consisted of mounting the UTW engine on the test stand of the Lewis Engine Noise Facility with an appropriate array of far-field microphones in order to measure the acoustic levels of the various configurations. Peak suppression was about as predicted with the bulk absorber configuration; however, the broadband characteristics were not attained. Post-test inspection revealed surface oil contamination on the bulk material which could have caused the loss in bandwidth suppression.

  20. Evaluation in the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.

    PubMed

    Marsh, A; Jansen, M; Lewis, C; Straw, R B

    1996-09-01

    The evaluation policy of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) is described in this article. Three studies are presented that exemplify SAMHSA's evaluations. These include evaluations of a program to prevent substance abuse among pregnant and postpartum women and their infants; a Job Corps treatment enrichment program; and the McKinney program for homeless persons with severe mental illnesses. Each of these evaluations demonstrated the effectiveness of the programs in reducing substance abuse or homelessness and in improving the health and well-being of the consumers served. SAMHSA will use the results of these and similar evaluations to guide policy and program development. Through its evaluations, SAMHSA must identify effective approaches to prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation. By using its evaluation results to guide policy and program development, SAMHSA aims to improve the quality of the public system of substance abuse and mental health services. PMID:10186921

  1. Navy Substance Abuse Prevention Program: Research and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Randall M.

    This paper describes the research and evaluation efforts of the Navy Substance Abuse Prevention Program at the University of Arizona. The importance and usefulness of formative and summative evaluations are discussed and specific evaluation tasks are identified. The first of these tasks is associated with personnel selection; the functions and…

  2. Psychosis and Substance Use: Implications for Conditional Release Readiness Evaluations.

    PubMed

    Tabernik, Holly E; Vitacco, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    In Foucha v. Louisiana (1992), the United States Supreme Court ruled that individuals adjudicated not guilty by reason of insanity (NGRI) could not remain in a forensic hospital if they were no longer mentally ill and dangerous. Since this decision, a variety of important questions have arisen related to the insanity defense and what should happen to insanity acquittees post-adjudication. This article provides an analysis of clinical issues confronting forensic examiners when psychosis as a result of substance abuse is the underlying condition supporting an insanity defense. To accomplish this analysis, this article provides the reader with a review of literature showing the complex relationship between psychosis and substance abuse. Second, this article investigates how substance-induced psychosis may impact both insanity opinions and subsequent conditional release decisions. Third, the article aims to provide research-driven information to assist clinicians in conducting conditional release evaluations. Finally, this paper provides a model for evaluating dangerousness in the context of conditional release evaluations. Given the substantial comorbidity between substance abuse and psychosis, it is critical for researchers and clinicians to consider potential effects of substance abuse when evaluating insanity acquittees for conditional release, especially as substance use relates to future dangerousness. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27021306

  3. Integrating Qualitative and Quantitative Evaluation Methods in Substance Abuse Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Michael L.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Some specific opportunities and techniques are described for combining and integrating qualitative and quantitative methods from the design stage of a substance abuse program evaluation through implementation and reporting. The multiple problems and requirements of such an evaluation make integrated methods essential. (SLD)

  4. 46 CFR 125.125 - Carriage of noxious liquid substances in bulk by OSVs of at least 6,000 GT ITC (500 GRT if GT ITC...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... paragraph (b)(1) of this section, as defined in 46 CFR 30.10-15; and (ii) In quantities not to exceed 20... Dangerous Cargoes, as defined by 33 CFR 160.204, to or from a portable tank. ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carriage of noxious liquid substances in bulk by OSVs...

  5. 77 FR 20022 - Substances To Be Evaluated for Set 26 Toxicological Profiles

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... Federal Register on November 3rd, 2011 (76 FR 68193). For prior versions of the list of substances, see Federal Register notices dated December 7, 2005 (70 FR 70284); and March 6, 2008 (73 FR 12178). Substances... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Substances To Be Evaluated for Set...

  6. Theoretical evaluation of bulk viscosity: Expression for relaxation time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossein Mohammad Zaheri, Ali; Srivastava, Sunita; Tankeshwar, K.

    2007-10-01

    A theoretical calculation of bulk viscosity has been carried out by deriving an expression for the relaxation time which appears in the formula for bulk viscosity derived by Okumura and Yonezawa. The expression involved a pair distribution function and interaction potential. Numerical results have been obtained over a wide range of densities and temperatures for Lennard-Jones fluids. It is found that our results provide a good description of bulk viscosity as has been judged by comparing the results with nonequilibrium molecular dynamics results. In addition, our results demonstrate the importance of the multiparticle correlation function.

  7. Substance dependent American Indian veterans: a national evaluation.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, R D; Howard, M O; Anderson, B; Lambert, M D

    1994-01-01

    Demographic, clinical, and treatment episode characteristics of 3,087 American Indian veterans discharged from Department of Veterans Affairs hospitals in fiscal year 1991 were examined. Substance use disorders were diagnosed in 46.3 percent of discharged American Indians, compared with 23.4 percent of discharged veterans overall. More than 97 percent of American Indian substance use diagnoses were for alcohol dependence, while rates of other drug use disorders were low. Substance dependent American Indians were younger, and more likely to be male and unmarried, than nondependent American Indians. Psychiatric disorders, particularly personality disorders, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorders, were more prevalent among American Indians diagnosed with substance use disorders, than among nondependent American Indians. American Indians with substance use disorders were similar demographically to the general population of substance dependent veterans. Rates of diagnosed psychiatric disorders and drug dependencies other than alcohol were lower among American Indians receiving substance (alcohol or drug) use diagnoses than among the general population of substance dependent veterans. Rates of rehospitalization following discharge were higher in substance-abusing American Indian veterans than among their counterparts. Potential explanations for these findings are discussed. PMID:8153275

  8. Substance Abuse Prevention Program. Evaluation Report 1986-87.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Jennifer S.

    In May 1986, the Albuquerque, New Mexico Public Schools adopted a policy to address concerns about student substance abuse. All schools developed objectives and activities to address substance abuse prevention and intervention, and an interdisciplinary team was formed to monitor and facilitate the schools' efforts in implementing the policy. To…

  9. Evaluation of Marginal Integrity of Four Bulk-Fill Dental Composite Materials: In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Orłowski, Mirosław; Tarczydło, Bożena; Chałas, Renata

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The aim of the study was to compare under in vitro conditions marginal sealing of 4 different bulk-fill materials composite restorations of class II. Methods. Comparative evaluation concerned 4 composites of a bulk-fill type: SonicFill, Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill, Filtek Bulk Fill, and SDR. The study used 30 third molars without caries. In each tooth 4 cavities of class II were prepared. The prepared tooth samples were placed in a 1% methylene blue solution for 24 h, and after that in each restoration the depth of dye penetration along the side walls was evaluated. Results. The highest rating (score 0, no dye penetration) was achieved by 93.33% of the restorations made of the SDR material, 90% of restorations of SonicFill system, 86.66% of restorations of the composite Filtek Bulk Fill, and 73.33% of restorations of the Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill. Conclusion. The performed study showed that bulk-fill flowable or sonic-activated flowable composite restorations have better marginal sealing (lack of discoloration) in comparison with bulk-fill paste-like composite. PMID:25874254

  10. Removal site evaluation report on the bulk shielding facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    This removal site evaluation report on the Bulk Shielding Facility (BSF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory was prepared to provide the Environmental Restoration Program with information necessary to evaluate whether hazardous and/or radiological contaminants in and around BSF buildings pose a substantial risk to human health or the environment (i.e., a high probability of adverse effects) and whether remedial site evaluations or removal actions are, therefore, required. A removal site evaluation was conducted at nine areas associated with the BSF. The scope of each evaluation included (1) a search for, and review of, readily available historical records regarding operations and use of the facility (including hazardous substance usage and existing contamination); (2) interviews with facility personnel concerning current and past practices; and (3) a brief walk-through to visually inspect the facility and identify existing hazard areas requiring maintenance actions or remedial evaluation. The results of the removal site evaluation indicate that no substantial risks exist from contaminants present because adequate efforts are being made to contain and control existing contamination and hazardous substances and to protect human health and the environment. At Building 3004, deteriorated and peeling exterior paint has a direct pathway to the storm water drainage system and can potentially impact local surface water during periods of storm water runoff. The paint is assumed to be lead based, thus posing a potential problem. The paint should be sampled and analyzed to determine its lead content and to assess whether a hazard exists. If so, a maintenance action will be necessary to prevent further deterioration and dislodging of the paint. In addition, if the paint contains lead, then a remedial site evaluation should be conducted to determine whether lead from fallen chips has impacted soils in the immediate area of the building.

  11. Evaluating the Effects of Self-Esteem on Substance Abuse among Homeless Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malcolm, Barris P.

    2004-01-01

    Associations between self-esteem and abuse of alcohol and psychoactive substances have been documented in empirical studies involving high school and college students. No research exists that addresses whether this association generalizes to adult homeless substance users. The current study uses secondary data analysis methodology to evaluate an…

  12. Monitoring and Evaluation of Substance Abuse Services in South Africa: Implications for Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Bronwyn; Burnhams, Nadine Harker; Fakier, Nuraan

    2010-01-01

    Although outcomes monitoring and the collection of other performance data holds benefits for service managers and policy makers, the extent to which these data are collected by South African substance abuse service providers is unknown. To describe (i) the extent to which substance abuse service providers in South Africa monitor and evaluate their…

  13. 7 CFR 205.600 - Evaluation criteria for allowed and prohibited substances, methods, and ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... compatible with organic handling; (3) The nutritional quality of the food is maintained when the substance is...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM... evaluation of substances or ingredients for the organic production and handling sections of the National...

  14. 7 CFR 205.600 - Evaluation criteria for allowed and prohibited substances, methods, and ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... compatible with organic handling; (3) The nutritional quality of the food is maintained when the substance is...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM... evaluation of substances or ingredients for the organic production and handling sections of the National...

  15. 7 CFR 205.600 - Evaluation criteria for allowed and prohibited substances, methods, and ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... compatible with organic handling; (3) The nutritional quality of the food is maintained when the substance is...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM... evaluation of substances or ingredients for the organic production and handling sections of the National...

  16. Evaluating and Training Substance Abuse Counselors: A Pilot Study Assessing Standardized Patients as Authentic Clients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fussell, Holly E.; Lewy, Colleen S.; McFarland, Bentson H.

    2009-01-01

    Clinician training and supervision are needed to transfer evidence-based practices to community-based treatment organizations. Standardized patients (SPs) are used for clinician training and evaluating. However, to be effective for substance abuse counselors, SPs must realistically portray substance abuse treatment clients. The current study…

  17. EVALUATION OF AEROSOLIZATION OF ASBESTOS AND RELATED FIBERS FROM BULK MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    1. Status Report on the Evaluation of the Alternative Asbestos Control Method – A Comparison to the NESHAP Method of Demolition of Asbestos Containing Buildings; and, 2. Update on the Evaluation of Aerosolization of Asbestos and Related Fibers from Bulk Materials. This abstract a...

  18. The Juvenile and Adolescent Substance Abuse Prevention Program: An Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talpade, Medha; Lynch, Diane; Lattimore, Barbara; Graham, Ashlee

    2008-01-01

    The Juvenile and Adolescent Substance Abuse Prevention Program (JASAP) is a curriculum-based prevention and health promotion program for youth between the ages of 13 to 18 years in Fulton County, Georgia. The program was established in 2007 to promote healthy decision-making skills that would eventually lead to informed choices and decisions…

  19. Evaluation of Radiopacity of Bulk-fill Flowable Composites Using Digital Radiography.

    PubMed

    Tarcin, B; Gumru, B; Peker, S; Ovecoglu, H S

    2016-01-01

    New flowable composites that may be bulk-filled in layers up to 4 mm are indicated as a base beneath posterior composite restorations. Sufficient radiopacity is one of the several important requirements such materials should meet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiopacity of bulk-fill flowable composites and to provide a comparison with conventional flowable composites using digital imaging. Ten standard specimens (5 mm in diameter, 1 mm in thickness) were prepared from each of four different bulk-fill flowable composites and nine different conventional flowable composites. Radiographs of the specimens were taken together with 1-mm-thick tooth slices and an aluminum step wedge using a digital imaging system. For the radiographic exposures, a storage phosphor plate and a dental x-ray unit at 70 kVp and 8 mA were used. The object-to-focus distance was 30 cm, and the exposure time was 0.2 seconds. The gray values of the materials were measured using the histogram function of the software available with the system, and radiopacity was calculated as the equivalent thickness of aluminum. The data were analyzed statistically (p<0.05). All of the tested bulk-fill flowable composites showed significantly higher radiopacity values in comparison with those of enamel, dentin, and most of the conventional flowable composites (p<0.05). Venus Bulk Fill (Heraeus Kulzer) provided the highest radiopacity value, whereas Arabesk Flow (Voco) showed the lowest. The order of the radiopacity values for the bulk-fill flowable composites was as follows: Venus Bulk Fill (Heraeus Kulzer) ≥ X-tra Base (Voco) > SDR (Dentsply DeTrey) ≥ Filtek Bulk Fill (3M ESPE). To conclude, the bulk-fill flowable restorative materials, which were tested in this study using digital radiography, met the minimum standard of radiopacity specified by the International Standards Organization. PMID:27045286

  20. Evaluating Faculty Development and Clinical Training Programs in Substance Abuse: A Guide Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klitzner, Michael; Stewart, Kathryn

    Intended to provide an overview of program evaluation as it applies to the evaluation of faculty development and clinical training programs in substance abuse for health and mental health professional schools, this guide enables program developers and other faculty to work as partners with evaluators in the development of evaluation designs that…

  1. A comprehensive study into fouling properties of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) extracted from bulk sludge and cake sludge in a mesophilic anaerobic membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yi; Tian, Yu; Li, Zhipeng; Zuo, Wei; Zhang, Jun

    2015-09-01

    This study focused on the fouling behaviors of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in a mesophilic anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) to obtain the relations of EPS specific constituents with membrane fouling. It was found that for the EPS extracted from bulk sludge, the LB-EPS induced the largest flux decline; however, for EPS extracted from cake sludge, the S-EPS caused the highest flux decline. The preferential rejection fraction by membrane further confirmed that the greater flux decline was exhibited with the higher percent rejection of EPS fractions. The adhesion and cohesion interactions of EPS fractions and membranes could explain the different rejection rates of the EPS components. The structural characteristics analysis indicated that the fouling layers of different EPS fractions with the greater loss of filterability had the smaller porosity. Further investigations demonstrated that these changes could be attributed to the different content of HPO-N in EPS fractions. PMID:26022972

  2. Evaluation of cervical marginal and internal adaptation using newer bulk fill composites: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Rolly Shrivastav; Hiremath, Hemlatha; Agarwal, Jatin; Garg, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the cervical marginal and internal adaptation of posterior bulk fill resin composites of different viscosities, before and after thermo-cycling (TMC). Materials and Methods: Eighty box-only class II cavities were prepared in 40 extracted human premolars with the distal proximal box beneath the enamel-cementum junction (CEJ). The teeth in the experimental groups were restored with bulk fill resin composite restorations (Gr. I- Sonic Fill, Gr. II- SDR, Gr. III- Tetric N Ceram Bulk Fill or a conventional composite designed for 2-mm increments (Gr. IV- Tetric N Flow along with Tetric N Ceram). Before and after thermal cycling, the gap-free marginal length was analyzed using SEM of epoxy resin replicas. After thermal cycling, specimens were cut longitudinally in order to investigate internal dentine adaptation by epoxy replicas under SEM (500 × magnification). Results: Statistical analysis was performed using the ANOVA and Tukey Post Hoc tests (P < 0.05). In enamel, high percentages of gap-free margins were initially identified for all the groups, which declined after thermal cycling. However, no significant differences were identified among any of the groups (P > 0.05). In dentine, bulk fill groups performed at par with the incremental placement; for both marginal and internal adaptation (P < 0.05), for all materials except Tetric N Ceram Bulk Fill. Conclusions: Viscosity of the bulk fill restorative material influenced the proportion of gap-free marginal interface and the internal adaptation in dentin. PMID:25657529

  3. Test and evaluation of an Argonne National Laboratory bulk assay calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Rodenburg, W.W.; Fellers, C.L.; Lemming, J.F.

    1981-06-30

    The Argonne National Laboratory bulk assay calorimeter (BAC) was subjected to a series of tests, using plutonium-238 heat standards, to evaluate the performance of the calorimeter over its operating range. The results of these tests provide baseline information of the instrument performance under laboratory conditions.

  4. In vivo evaluation of a Ti-based bulk metallic glass alloy bar.

    PubMed

    Kokubun, Ryo; Wang, Wei; Zhu, Shengli; Xie, Guoqiang; Ichinose, Shizuko; Itoh, Soichiro; Takakuda, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Ti-based bulk metallic glasses are reported with high strength, low Young modulus and high corrosion resistance, suggesting their potentials in biomedical applications. However a thorough in vivo evaluation of its biocompatibilities has not been conducted yet. In this study, we implanted bars of Ti-based bulk metallic glass in the femoral bone of rats, followed up local tissue reaction as well as its component ions' diffusion in local area and whole body. The Ti-based BMG (Ti40Zr10Cu34Pd14Sn2) alloy exhibited favorable features of both high strength and high elasticity. In vivo implant evaluation showed that it has a good tissue compatibility, equivalent bone integration and bonding ability with Ti sample. No component ion diffusion was detected up to 3 months post implantation. The possibility and efficacy of its use for bone implant is confirmed. Thus further long term implant study is recommended. PMID:26484551

  5. Uniform system for the evaluation of substances. I. Principles and structure.

    PubMed

    Vermeire, T G; van der Zandt, P T; Roelfzema, H; van Leeuwen, C J

    1994-07-01

    In April 1994, the first version of the Uniform System for the Evaluation of Substances (USES 1.0) was launched to comply with an action point of the Netherlands National Environmental Policy Plan. USES is a tool for the rapid, quantitative assessment of the hazards and risks of chemical substances, including new substances, existing substances, agricultural pesticides and biocides. It was developed to be applied as a decision-support system by the central government, by industry and institutes in the private sector and by international fora. Since hazard and risk assessment must be transparent to all users and easy to perform, USES 1.0 is well documented and available as a computer program. An overview of this system will be presented including its objectives, the national and international framework, the general principles involved, as well as the structure and the content of the models used. PMID:8044631

  6. Bulk electric system reliability evaluation incorporating wind power and demand side management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Dange

    Electric power systems are experiencing dramatic changes with respect to structure, operation and regulation and are facing increasing pressure due to environmental and societal constraints. Bulk electric system reliability is an important consideration in power system planning, design and operation particularly in the new competitive environment. A wide range of methods have been developed to perform bulk electric system reliability evaluation. Theoretically, sequential Monte Carlo simulation can include all aspects and contingencies in a power system and can be used to produce an informative set of reliability indices. It has become a practical and viable tool for large system reliability assessment technique due to the development of computing power and is used in the studies described in this thesis. The well-being approach used in this research provides the opportunity to integrate an accepted deterministic criterion into a probabilistic framework. This research work includes the investigation of important factors that impact bulk electric system adequacy evaluation and security constrained adequacy assessment using the well-being analysis framework. Load forecast uncertainty is an important consideration in an electrical power system. This research includes load forecast uncertainty considerations in bulk electric system reliability assessment and the effects on system, load point and well-being indices and reliability index probability distributions are examined. There has been increasing worldwide interest in the utilization of wind power as a renewable energy source over the last two decades due to enhanced public awareness of the environment. Increasing penetration of wind power has significant impacts on power system reliability, and security analyses become more uncertain due to the unpredictable nature of wind power. The effects of wind power additions in generating and bulk electric system reliability assessment considering site wind speed

  7. Hybrid biofilm-membrane bioreactor (Bf-MBR) for minimization of bulk liquid-phase organic substances and its positive effect on membrane permeability.

    PubMed

    Sun, F Y; Li, P; Li, J; Li, H J; Ou, Q M; Sun, T T; Dong, Z J

    2015-12-01

    Four biofilm membrane bioreactors (Bf-MBRs) with various fixed carrier volumes (C:M) were operated in parallel to investigate the effect of attached-growth mode biomass involvement to the change of liquid-phase organics characteristics and membrane permeability, by comparing with conventional MBR. The experiments displayed that C:M and co-existence of biofilm with suspended solids in Bf-MBRs resulted in slight difference in pollutants removal effectiveness, and in rather distinct biomass properties and bacterial activities. The membrane permeability and specific resistance of bulk suspension of Bf-MBRs related closely with the liquid-phase organic substance, including soluble microbial products (SMP) and biopolymer cluster (BPC). Compared with conventional MBR, Bf-MBR with proper C:M had a low total biomass content and food-chain, where biofilm formation and its dominance affected liquid-phase organics, especially through reducing their content and minimizing strongly and weakly hydrophobic components with small molecular weight, and thus to mitigate membrane fouling significantly. PMID:26454042

  8. Neurotoxicity in Aquatic Systems: Evaluation of Anthropogenic Trace Substances

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is evaluating methods to screen and prioritize large numbers of chemicals for developmental toxicity, as well as acute and developmental neurotoxicity. In this endeavor, one of our focuses is on contaminants found in drinking water. To exp...

  9. Candidate substances for space bioprocessing methodology and data specification for benefit evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Analytical and quantitative economic techniques are applied to the evaluation of the economic benefits of a wide range of substances for space bioprocessing. On the basis of expected clinical applications, as well as the size of the patient that could be affected by the clinical applications, eight substances are recommended for further benefit evaluation. Results show that a transitional probability methodology can be used to model at least one clinical application for each of these substances. In each recommended case, the disease and its therapy are sufficiently well understood and documented, and the statistical data is available to operate the model and produce estimates of the impact of new therapy systems on the cost of treatment, morbidity, and mortality. Utilizing the morbidity and mortality information produced by the model, a standard economic technique called the Value of Human Capital is used to estimate the social welfare benefits that could be attributable to the new therapy systems.

  10. Economic Evaluation of Continuing Care Interventions in the Treatment of Substance Abuse: Recommendations for Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popovici, Ioana; French, Michael T.; McKay, James R.

    2008-01-01

    The chronic and relapsing nature of substance abuse points to the need for continuing care after a primary phase of treatment. This article reviews the economic studies of continuing care, discusses research gaps, highlights some of the challenges of conducting rigorous economic evaluations of continuing care, and offers research guidelines and…

  11. Treating Substance-Using Women and Their Children in Public Housing: Preliminary Evaluation Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metsch, Lisa R.; Wolfe, Harlan P.; Fewell, Rebecca; McCoy, Clyde B.; Elwood, William N.; Wohler-Torres, Brad; Petersen-Baston, Pamela; Haskins, Henry V.

    2001-01-01

    SafePort is a residential substance abuse treatment program within public housing to provide drug treatment to parenting women in Key West, Florida. All family members--women, children, and significant others--receive comprehensive assessments to determine appropriate therapeutic interventions. Preliminary evaluation findings suggest that women…

  12. EVALUATION OF HYPERFILTRATION FOR SEPARATION OF TOXIC SUBSTANCES IN TEXTILE PROCESS WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of hyperfiltration for separation of toxic substances in textile process water. Three membranes (cellulose acetate, polyether/amide, and dynamic zirconium oxide/polyacrylic acid) were used to separate process water from scour and dye oper...

  13. Evaluation of a Substance Use Disorder Curriculum for Internal Medicine Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Melissa R.; Arnsten, Julia H.; Parish, Sharon J.; Kunins, Hillary V.

    2011-01-01

    Teaching about diagnosis, treatment, and sequelae of substance use disorders (SUDs) is insufficient in most Internal Medicine residency programs. To address this, the authors developed, implemented, and evaluated a novel and comprehensive SUD curriculum for first year residents (interns) in Internal Medicine, which anchors the ensuing 3-year…

  14. 7 CFR 205.600 - Evaluation criteria for allowed and prohibited substances, methods, and ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Evaluation criteria for allowed and prohibited substances, methods, and ingredients. 205.600 Section 205.600 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED)...

  15. Evaluation of Free to Grow: Head Start Partnerships to Promote Substance-Free Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfson, Mark; Champion, Heather; Rogers, Todd; Neiberg, Rebecca H.; Barker, Dianne C.; Talton, Jennifer W.; Ip, Edward H.; D'Agostino, Ralph B., Jr.; Parries, Maria T.; Easterling, Doug

    2011-01-01

    Free to Grow: Head Start Partnerships to Promote Substance-free Communities (FTG) was a national initiative in which local Head Start (HS) agencies, in partnership with other community organizations, implemented a mix of evidence-based family-strengthening and community-strengthening strategies. The evaluation of FTG used a quasi-experimental…

  16. Multidimensional Implementation Evaluation of a Residential Treatment Program for Adolescent Substance Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faw, Leyla; Hogue, Aaron; Liddle, Howard A.

    2005-01-01

    The authors applied contemporary methods from the evaluation literature to measure implementation in a residential treatment program for adolescent substance abuse. A logic model containing two main components was measured. Program structure (adherence to the intended framework of service delivery) was measured using data from daily activity logs…

  17. Comparative evaluation of humic substances in oral drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Mirza, Mohd Aamir; Ahmad, Niyaz; Agarwal, Suraj Prakash; Mahmood, Danish; Khalid Anwer, M; Iqbal, Z

    2011-05-01

    Major and biologically most explored components of natural organic matter (NOM) are humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA). We have explored rock shilajit as a source of NOM. On the other hand carbamazepine (CBZ) is a well known anticonvulsant drug and has a limited accessibility to brain. Bioavailability and pharmacokinetic profiles of CBZ have been improved by complexation and different techniques also. Present study has assessed the comparative abilities of FA and HA as complexing agent for CBZ in order to enhance pharmacokinetic profile of CBZ and accessibility to the brain. These two complexing agents have been compared on various indices such as their abilities to cause complexation and enhance solubility, permeability and dissolution. The present study also compared pharmacodynamic and biochemical profiles after oral administration of complexes. With the help of various pharmaceutical techniques such as freeze drying, physical mixture, kneading and solvent evaporation, two molar ratios (1:1 and 1:2) were selected for complexation and evaluated for conformational analysis (molecular modeling). Complex formed was further characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), mass spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Preclinical study on rodents with CBZ-HA and CBZ-FA has yielded appreciable results in terms of their anticonvulsant and antioxidants activities. However, CBZ-HA (1:2) demonstrated better result than any other complex. PMID:25755978

  18. Comparative evaluation of humic substances in oral drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Mirza, Mohd. Aamir; Ahmad, Niyaz; Agarwal, Suraj Prakash; Mahmood, Danish; Khalid Anwer, M.; Iqbal, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Major and biologically most explored components of natural organic matter (NOM) are humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA). We have explored rock shilajit as a source of NOM. On the other hand carbamazepine (CBZ) is a well known anticonvulsant drug and has a limited accessibility to brain. Bioavailability and pharmacokinetic profiles of CBZ have been improved by complexation and different techniques also. Present study has assessed the comparative abilities of FA and HA as complexing agent for CBZ in order to enhance pharmacokinetic profile of CBZ and accessibility to the brain. These two complexing agents have been compared on various indices such as their abilities to cause complexation and enhance solubility, permeability and dissolution. The present study also compared pharmacodynamic and biochemical profiles after oral administration of complexes. With the help of various pharmaceutical techniques such as freeze drying, physical mixture, kneading and solvent evaporation, two molar ratios (1:1 and 1:2) were selected for complexation and evaluated for conformational analysis (molecular modeling). Complex formed was further characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), mass spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Preclinical study on rodents with CBZ–HA and CBZ–FA has yielded appreciable results in terms of their anticonvulsant and antioxidants activities. However, CBZ–HA (1:2) demonstrated better result than any other complex. PMID:25755978

  19. A triple-moment hail bulk microphysics scheme. Part I: Description and initial evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loftus, A. M.; Cotton, W. R.; Carrió, G. G.

    2014-10-01

    Hail processes in deep convection can have a substantial impact on precipitation characteristics as well as on dynamic and thermodynamic properties of convective downdrafts and cold pools, yet the realistic representation of hail in many cloud-resolving models employing bulk microphysical schemes is challenging. The limits imposed by fixing one or two of the distribution parameters in many one- and two-moment bulk microphysics schemes often lead to particularly poor representations of particles within the tails of size distribution spectra; an especially important consideration for hail, which covers a broad range of sizes in nature. In order to improve the representation of hail distributions in simulations of deep moist convection in cloud-resolving numerical models, a new triple-moment bulk hail microphysics scheme (3MHAIL) is presented and evaluated. The 3MHAIL scheme predicts the relative dispersion parameter for a gamma distribution function via prognostication of the sixth moment (related to the reflectivity factor) of the distribution in addition to the mass mixing ratio and number concentration (third and zeroeth moments, respectively) thereby allowing for a fully prognostic distribution function. Significant improvement in the representation of sedimentation, melting, and formation processes of hail are achieved with the 3MHAIL scheme compared to lower-order moment schemes.

  20. A triple-moment hail bulk microphysics scheme. Part I: Description and initial evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loftus, A. M.; Cotton, W. R.; Carrió, G. G.

    2014-11-01

    Hail processes in deep convection can have a substantial impact on precipitation characteristics as well as on dynamic and thermodynamic properties of convective downdrafts and cold pools, yet the realistic representation of hail in many cloud-resolving models employing bulk microphysical schemes is challenging. The limits imposed by fixing one or two of the distribution parameters in many one- and two-moment bulk microphysics schemes often lead to particularly poor representations of particles within the tails of size distribution spectra; an especially important consideration for hail, which covers a broad range of sizes in nature. In order to improve the representation of hail distributions in simulations of deep moist convection in cloud-resolving numerical models, a new triple-moment bulk hail microphysics scheme (3MHAIL) is presented and evaluated. The 3MHAIL scheme predicts the relative dispersion parameter for a gamma distribution function via prognostication of the sixth moment (related to the reflectivity factor) of the distribution in addition to the mass mixing ratio and number concentration (third and zeroeth moments, respectively) thereby allowing for a fully prognostic distribution function. Significant improvement in the representation of sedimentation, melting, and formation processes of hail are achieved with the 3MHAIL scheme compared to lower-order moment schemes.

  1. Evaluation of a bulk calorimeter and heat balance for determination of supersonic combustor efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclinton, C. R.; Anderson, G. Y.

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented from the shakedown and evaluation test of a bulk calorimeter. The calorimeter is designed to quench the combustion at the exit of a direct-connect, hydrogen fueled, scramjet combustor model, and to provide the measurements necessary to perform an analysis of combustion efficiency. Results indicate that the calorimeter quenches reaction, that reasonable response times are obtained, and that the calculated combustion efficiency is repeatable within + or -3 percent and varies in a regular way with combustor model parameters such as injected fuel equivalence ratio.

  2. System and method for identifying, reporting, and evaluating presence of substance

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Maurice; Lusby, Michael; Van Hook, Arthur; Cook, Charles J.; Wenski, Edward G.; Solyom, David

    2012-02-14

    A system and method for identifying, reporting, and evaluating a presence of a solid, liquid, gas, or other substance of interest, particularly a dangerous, hazardous, or otherwise threatening chemical, biological, or radioactive substance. The system comprises one or more substantially automated, location self-aware remote sensing units; a control unit; and one or more data processing and storage servers. Data is collected by the remote sensing units and transmitted to the control unit; the control unit generates and uploads a report incorporating the data to the servers; and thereafter the report is available for review by a hierarchy of responsive and evaluative authorities via a wide area network. The evaluative authorities include a group of relevant experts who may be widely or even globally distributed.

  3. System And Method For Identifying, Reporting, And Evaluating Presence Of Substance

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Maurice; Lusby, Michael; Hook, Arthur Van; Cook, Charles J.; Wenski, Edward G.; Solyom, David

    2005-09-20

    A system and method for identifying, reporting, and evaluating a presence of a solid, liquid, gas, or other substance of interest, particularly a dangerous, hazardous, or otherwise threatening chemical, biological, or radioactive substance. The system comprises one or more substantially automated, location self-aware remote sensing units; a control unit; and one or more data processing and storage servers. Data is collected by the remote sensing units and transmitted to the control unit; the control unit generates and uploads a report incorporating the data to the servers; and thereafter the report is available for review by a hierarchy of responsive and evaluative authorities via a wide area network. The evaluative authorities include a group of relevant experts who may be widely or even globally distributed.

  4. System and method for identifying, reporting, and evaluating presence of substance

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Maurice; Lusby, Michael; Van Hook, Arthur; Cook, Charles J.; Wenski, Edward G.; Solyom, David

    2006-10-24

    A system and method for identifying, reporting, and evaluating a presence of a solid, liquid, gas, or other substance of interest, particularly a dangerous, hazardous, or otherwise threatening chemical, biological, or radioactive substance. The system comprises one or more substantially automated, location self-aware remote sensing units; a control unit; and one or more data processing and storage servers. Data is collected by the remote sensing units and transmitted to the control unit; the control unit generates and uploads a report incorporating the data to the servers; and thereafter the report is available for review by a hierarchy of responsive and evaluative authorities via a wide area network. The evaluative authorities include a group of relevant experts who may be widely or even globally distributed.

  5. Short communication: Evaluation of bulk tank milk microbiological quality of nine dairy farms in Tennessee.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, B E; Lewis, M J; Boonyayatra, S; Maxwell, M L; Saxton, A; Oliver, S P; Almeida, R A

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bulk tank milk (BTM) quality of 9 East Tennessee dairy farms and to determine its relationship with selected quality milk parameters. Bulk tank milk samples (n=1,141) were collected over a 42-mo period (June 2006 through November 2009) from farms, based on their preliminary incubation count (PIC) history. Parameters of BTM quality evaluated in this study included somatic cell count (SCC), standard plate count (SPC), PIC, laboratory pasteurization count (LPC), Staphylococcus spp. count, Streptococcus spp. count, and coliform count. Strong correlations between SPC and Streptococcus spp. counts (0.72) and between SPC and PIC (0.70) were found. However, moderate correlations were seen among other milk quality parameters. In addition, seasonal variations for some milk quality parameters were noted. For example, milk quality parameters such as SCC, SPC, LPC, and coliform count were significantly higher in summer, whereas Streptococcus spp. counts were significantly higher in winter. No seasonal variation in PIC or Staphylococcus spp. counts was observed. Summarizing, results from this investigation showed the importance of using several bacterial counts (SCC, SPC, PIC, LPC, Streptococcus spp. count, Staphylococcus spp. count, and coliform counts) as simultaneous indicators of milk quality. PMID:22818441

  6. An evaluation of organic substance fraction removal during ion exchange with Miex-DOC resin.

    PubMed

    Wolska, Małgorzata

    2015-07-01

    In this study, the usefulness of Miex-DOC resin in eliminating organic substances and their fractions from water sources for drinking water was evaluated. The objects of study were samples from three surface water sources and one infiltration water source taken at water treatment plants before treatment in technical conditions. In particular, the effectiveness of removing biodegradable and non-biodegradable fractions as a function of resin dosages and water-resin contact times was evaluated. The ion exchange process with the Miex-DOC resin achieved a high effectiveness in removing aromatic non-biodegradable organic substances, and therefore a reduction in UV254 absorbance. The biodegradable fraction is much less susceptible to removal yet its removal effectiveness allows for a significant reduction in hazards connected with secondary microorganism development. The results of this study indicate the possibility of using ion exchange with the Miex-DOC resin for effective removal of disinfection by-product precursors. PMID:25976333

  7. Evaluation and Management of Caustic Injuries from Ingestion of Acid or Alkaline Substances

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Although the numbers have decreased compared with in the past, cases of patients who ingest caustic substances and visit the emergency room are not rare. However, well-summarized data about caustic injuries are insufficient. Therefore, in this article, I will discuss the etiologic causative agents, injury mechanism, and clinical characteristics, as well as the endoscopic evaluation of the degree of injury and proper management of the patient, in gastrointestinal caustic injury. PMID:25133115

  8. Evaluation of Vickers hardness of bulk-fill composites cured by different light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhsh, Turki A.; Yagmoor, Mohammed A.; Alsadi, Fahad M.; Jamleh, Ahmad

    2016-02-01

    [Objective] The current in vitro study was performed to evaluate Vickers hardness (VHN) of two different composite resins that were cured by using two different light curing units. [Materials and Methods] Porcelain tube samplers were used to fabricate composite cylinders from either Tetric Evoceram BulkFill (BF; Ivoclar/Vivadent, USA) or SonicFill composite (SF; Kerr, USA). Each composite type had 12 cylindrical specimens, and each specimen was cured with either Blue-phase N light-cure (Bp; Polywave, Ivoclar/Vivadent, USA) or Elipar S10 (El; Monowave, 3M ESPE, Germany). The VHN data were analyzed and tested by using Mann-Whitney U test at a significance level of 5%. [Results] Statistical analyses demonstrated an interaction between the type of composite and the type of light curing source. Significant differences (P<0.05) were recorded for all groups with higher VHN hardness of SF-El and lowest for BF-El. [Conclusions] It can be concluded that the surface hardness of bulk-fill composite is not dependent on the type of light-cure. This research was supported by King Abdulaziz University.

  9. Ultrasonic evaluation of residual stresses in aero engine materials using bulk and Rayleigh surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubel, Sebastian; Dillhöfer, Alexander; Rieder, Hans; Spies, Martin; Bamberg, Joachim; Götz, Joshua; Hessert, Roland; Preikszas, Christina

    2014-02-01

    The evaluation of residual stresses using ultrasound can be a very complex issue, because different material properties may effect the propagation of ultrasonic waves. Nevertheless, in the manufacturing of modern aero engines it is essential to benefit from the full potential of the employed materials. In this context, it is indispensable to test whether ultrasonic stress measurement is applicable for the highly developed nickel- and titanium-based alloys. This contribution contains basic investigations on the achievable measurement effect in samples made of Inconel IN718 and the Titanium alloy Ti 6-2-4-6. Furthermore, we give an overview over the principles of ultrasonic stress measurement using bulk and Rayleigh waves and present first results which are discussed with respect to texture effects and future work.

  10. Evaluation of functional substances in the selected food materials for space agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Kimura, Yasuko; Yamashita, Masamichi; Kimura, Shunta; Sato, Seigo; Katoh, Hiroshi; Abe, Yusuke; Ajioka, Reiko

    We have been studying the useful life-support system in closed bio-ecosystem for space agriculture. We have already proposed the several species as food material, such as Nostoc sp. HK-01 and Prunnus sp., cyanobacterium and Japanese cherry tree, respectively. The cyanobacterium, Nostoc sp Hk-01, has high tolerances to several space environment. Furthermore, the woody plant materials have useful utilization elements in our habitation environment. The studies of woody plants under a space-environment in the vegetable kingdom have a high contribution to the study of various and exotic environmental responses, too. We have already found that they can produce the important functional substances for human. Here, we will show the evaluation of functional substances in the selected food materials under the possible conditions for space agriculture after cooking.

  11. Evaluation of food, nutrition and functional substances, in the selected food materials for space agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Kimura, Yasuko; Yamashita, Masamichi; Kimura, Shunta; Sato, Seigo; Katoh, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    We have been studying the evaluation of food, nutrition and functional substances, in the selected organic materials for useful life-support systems in closed bio-ecosystems for space agriculture on Mars in the future. We have already proposed several species as food materials; cyanobacterium, Nostoc sp. HK-01 and the Japanese cherry tree. Nostoc sp. HK-01 is a terrestrial cyanobacterium which has high tolerances to several space environments. In addition to its high tolerances to serious environments, HK-01 has a high protein content. Total protein per 100 g of the dried colony of Nostoc sp. HK-01 was approximately 50 g. Woody plant materials also have several properties which can be utilized in our habitation environment and as food. We have already found abilities to produce important functional substances for humans in the selected trees. Here, we show the extended results of our experiments.

  12. [Organizing evaluation of chemical substances in EEC countries and in Poland prior to their admission to trade turnover].

    PubMed

    Indulski, J A; Rolecki, R

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents systems how chemical substances, those in use and new ones, are evaluated in the EEC countries and in Poland prior to their admission to trade turnover. The Polish hygienic monitoring of chemical substances in comparison with systems operating in the Western countries requires a very thorough verification. New organizational concepts of evaluation of chemical substances before their admission to trade turnover in Poland are generally outlined. It is stressed that issues related to production and entering the market with chemical substances require new legal regulations. It also is necessary to set up a national centre responsible for implementing provisions of the Chemical Substances Act which is now being drafted. PMID:8231798

  13. Evaluation of surface and bulk qualities of semiconductor materials by a laser-induced photothermal technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Jingtao; Chen, Jian; Sun, Shiwen; Zhang, Dawei; Zhuang, Songlin; Wu, Zhouling

    2015-05-01

    Non-destructive evaluation of defects for semiconductor materials is critical to the quality control process. The existing evaluation methods, including radiographic testing, ultrasonic detection, fluorescence and infrared imaging, are widely used in industrial applications. In this paper an instrument based on laser-induced photothermal technique was applied to study various semiconductor materials. With a specially arranged pump-probe configuration, this system can do three dimensional mapping of local properties and defects. By using this photothermal instrument, several semiconductors, such as bulk CdZnTe (CZT) crystals and monocrystalline silicon wafers under different processing conditions, were investigated. The surface and internal structures and defects of these materials were tested nondestructively by the 3-D photothermal microscope. The results show intersting correlation between the photothermal characterizations and the processing conditions. In addition, the details of the development of the 3-D photothermal microscope were also presented. The system provides user-friendly operations of the defects characterization process and shows great potential of application for characterization of semiconductor materials.

  14. Psychedelics as medicines for substance abuse rehabilitation: evaluating treatments with LSD, Peyote, Ibogaine and Ayahuasca.

    PubMed

    Winkelman, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Substances known as psychedelics, hallucinogens and entheogens have been employed in ethnomedical traditions for thousands of years, but after promising uses in the 1950's and 1960's they were largely prohibited in medical treatment and human research starting in the 1970's as part of the fallout from the war on drugs. Nonetheless, there are a number of studies which suggest that these substances have potential applications in the treatment of addictions. While these substances are generally classified as Schedule I, alleging no established medical uses and a high drug abuse potential, there is nonetheless evidence indicating they might be safe and effective tools for short term interventions in addictions treatment. Evidence suggests that the psychedelics have a much greater safety profile than the major addictive drugs, having extremely low levels of mortality, and producing little if any physical dependence. This paper reviews studies evaluating the use of LSD, peyote, ibogaine and ayahuasca in the treatment of dependencies and the possible mechanisms underlying the indications of effectiveness. Evidence suggests that these substances help assist recovery from drug dependency through a variety of therapeutic mechanisms, including a notable "after-glow" effect that in part reflects their action on the serotonin neurotransmitter system. Serotonin has been long recognized as central to the psychedelics' well-known phenomenological, physical, emotional and cognitive dynamics. These serotonin-based dynamics are directly relevant to treatment of addiction because of depressed serotonin levels found in addict populations, as well as the role of serotonin as a neuromodulators affecting many other neurotransmitter systems. PMID:25563446

  15. In vivo evaluation of Zr-based bulk metallic glass alloy intramedullary nails in rat femora.

    PubMed

    Imai, Kazuhiro; Hiromoto, Sachiko

    2014-03-01

    Zr-based bulk metallic glasses (BMG) show high corrosion resistance in vitro and higher strength and lower Young's modulus than crystalline alloys with the similar composition. This study aimed to perform an in vivo evaluation of Zr65Al7.5Ni10Cu17.5 BMG. Osteotomy of the femur was done in rats and stabilized with intramedullary nails made of Zr65Al7.5Ni10Cu17.5 BMG, Ti-6Al-4V alloy, or 316L stainless steel. Systemic and local effects of each type of nail were evaluated by measuring the levels of Cu and Ni in the blood and the surrounding soft tissue. Changes of the surface of each nail were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Healing of the osteotomy was evaluated by peripheral quantitative computed tomography and mechanical testing. No increase of Cu and Ni levels was recognized. Surface of the BMG showed no noticeable change, while Ti-6Al-4V alloy showed Ca and P deposition and 316L stainless steel showed surface irregularities and pitting by SEM observation. The stress strain index, maximum torque, torsional stiffness, and energy absorption values were larger for the BMG than those for Ti-6Al-4V alloy, although there was no significant difference. The Zr-based BMG can promote osteotomy healing as fast as Ti-6Al-4V alloy, with the possible advantage of the Zr-based BMG that bone bonding is less likely, allowing easier nail removal compared with Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The Zr-based BMG is promising for the use in osteosynthetic devices that are eventually removed. PMID:24281655

  16. Substance Abuse, Relapse, and Treatment Program Evaluation in Malaysia: Perspective of Rehab Patients and Staff Using the Mixed Method Approach

    PubMed Central

    Chie, Qiu Ting; Tam, Cai Lian; Bonn, Gregory; Dang, Hoang Minh; Khairuddin, Rozainee

    2016-01-01

    This study examined reasons for substance abuse and evaluated the effectiveness of substance treatment programs in Malaysia through interviews with rehab patients and staff. Substance rehab patients (aged 18–69 years; n = 30) and staff (ages 30–72 years; n = 10) participated in semi-structured interviews covering a range of topics, including family and peer relationships, substance use and treatment history, factors for substance use and relapse, motivation for entering treatment, work experience, job satisfaction, treatment evaluation, and patient satisfaction. Most patients did not demonstrate the substance progression trend and had normal family relationships. Most patients reported having peers from normal family backgrounds as well. Various environmental and personal factors was cited as contributing to substance abuse and relapse. There was no significant difference between patient and staff program evaluation scores although the mean score for patients was lower. A holistic treatment approach with a combination of cognitive–behavioral, medical, social, and spiritual components was favored by patients. Suggestions for improving existing programs include better tailoring treatment to individual needs, and providing more post-treatment group support. PMID:27303313

  17. Substance Abuse, Relapse, and Treatment Program Evaluation in Malaysia: Perspective of Rehab Patients and Staff Using the Mixed Method Approach.

    PubMed

    Chie, Qiu Ting; Tam, Cai Lian; Bonn, Gregory; Dang, Hoang Minh; Khairuddin, Rozainee

    2016-01-01

    This study examined reasons for substance abuse and evaluated the effectiveness of substance treatment programs in Malaysia through interviews with rehab patients and staff. Substance rehab patients (aged 18-69 years; n = 30) and staff (ages 30-72 years; n = 10) participated in semi-structured interviews covering a range of topics, including family and peer relationships, substance use and treatment history, factors for substance use and relapse, motivation for entering treatment, work experience, job satisfaction, treatment evaluation, and patient satisfaction. Most patients did not demonstrate the substance progression trend and had normal family relationships. Most patients reported having peers from normal family backgrounds as well. Various environmental and personal factors was cited as contributing to substance abuse and relapse. There was no significant difference between patient and staff program evaluation scores although the mean score for patients was lower. A holistic treatment approach with a combination of cognitive-behavioral, medical, social, and spiritual components was favored by patients. Suggestions for improving existing programs include better tailoring treatment to individual needs, and providing more post-treatment group support. PMID:27303313

  18. The Evaluation of a Workplace Program to Prevent Substance Abuse: Challenges and Findings.

    PubMed

    Spicer, Rebecca S; Miller, Ted R

    2016-08-01

    Workplace consequences of alcohol and drug abuse include poor performance, fighting, insubordination, and occupational injuries. To address the need for workplace substance abuse prevention, the PREVENT program, originally designed for the United States Navy, was adapted to the railroad workforce. This study evaluates the impact of the PREVENT program on alcohol use and smoking among young adults ages 18-29 in the railroad industry. We discuss challenges to study protocol faced by this evaluation in the reality of the workplace. PREVENT is a 2-day health promotion program that includes substance abuse and smoking modules. Using a prospective controlled before-after study design, we compare self-reported alcohol use and smoking pre- versus post-intervention among PREVENT participants versus a comparison group of workers. Comparison and case group non-equivalency at baseline is controlled for using a propensity score. The study sample suffered high losses to follow-up. In the analysis, we included those lost to follow up and applied an intent-to-treat approach that assumed, conservatively, that substance use by non-respondents was identical pre and post. In regression analysis PREVENT participants showed significant declines in drinking levels post-intervention compared to comparison workers, controlling for baseline and demographic factors. Relative to pre-intervention levels PREVENT participants consumed 56 % fewer drinks (relative rate = 0.44, 95 % CI 0.23-0.85) and consumed alcohol on 32 % fewer days (relative rate = 0.68, 95 % CI 0.50-0.93) compared to comparison workers. Changes in smoking behaviors were not significant. We conclude that PREVENT is a promising program for reducing alcohol abuse. PMID:27062500

  19. Evaluation of the physical properties, bulk density and aggregate stability of potential substrates in quarry restoration.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, M.; Garcia-Orenes, F.; Mataix-Solera, J.; Garcia-Sanchez, E.

    2012-04-01

    Quarrying activity entails significant environmental impact affecting the soil, water, plants, landscape, etc. One of the most important impacts is the loss of the productive layer of the soil and its vegetation cover. However, mining activities are absolutely necessary for human development; keeping them sustainable implicates looking for viable solutions for the restoration of these areas to prevent degradation during and after the exploitation period. The aim of this study was to evaluate different substrates obtained from different mixes of sewage sludge and different mine spoils, to check how they are effective in quarry restoration, and to establish good practises in mining restoration. Also, the study tried to approach two refuses, one deriving from mining activity, as are the mine spoils that need to be reused for their valorisation, and the other, sewage sludge, obtained in the water depuration process to acquire a cheap substrate for soil rehabilitation. This preliminary work, which is included in a larger study, shows the results obtained from two physical properties studied, bulk density and aggregate stability, as key properties in the substrate structure for use in mining area restoration. Two doses of composted sewage sludge (30 and 90 Tm/Ha), both very rich in calcium carbonate, were applied to two different mine spoils under lab conditions. The first material, of poor quality, originated from the acquisition of arid particles in crushed limestone (Z). It is characterized by stable ''coarse elements'' predominance (up to 75% of its weight), and by the presence of elevated percentages of sand. The other waste material tested comes from limestone extraction (basically formed by the levels of interspersed non-limestone materials and the remains of stripped soils (D)). The results show that the high dose of sewage sludge applied to a mix of the two mine spoils significantly increased the percentage of stable aggregates by more than 50% than the control

  20. S. mutans biofilm model to evaluate antimicrobial substances and enamel demineralization.

    PubMed

    Ccahuana-Vásquez, Renzo Alberto; Cury, Jaime Aparecido

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate a model of S. mutans biofilm formation, which simulated 'feast-famine' episodes of exposure to sucrose that occur in the oral cavity, showed dose-response susceptibility to antimicrobials and allowed the evaluation of substances with anticaries potential. S. mutans UA159 biofilms were grown for 5 days on bovine enamel slabs at 37 degrees C, 10% CO2. To validate the model, the biofilms were treated 2x/day with chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) at 0.012, 0.024 and 0.12% (concentration with recognized anti-plaque effect) and 0.05% NaF (concentration with recognized anti-caries effect). CHX showed dose-response effect decreasing biomass, bacterial viability and enamel demineralization (p < 0.05). Whereas, 0.05% NaF did not show antimicrobial effect but had similar effect to that of 0.12% CHX decreasing enamel demineralization (p < 0.05). The model developed has potential to evaluate the effect of substances on biofilm growth and on enamel demineralization. PMID:20658029

  1. Evaluating Measures of Fidelity for Substance Abuse Group Treatment With Incarcerated Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bassett, Shayna S; Stein, L A R; Rossi, Joseph S; Martin, Rosemarie A

    2016-07-01

    The evaluation of treatment fidelity has become increasingly important as the demand for evidence-based practice grows. The purpose of the present study is to describe the psychometric properties of two measures of treatment fidelity that can be used by therapists and supervisors - one for group-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and one for combined Substance Education and Twelve-Step Introduction (SET) for adolescent substance use. At the end of group sessions (CBT n=307; SET n=279), therapists and supervisors completed an evaluation measure assessing adherence to certain core components of the intervention. The supervisor version of the fidelity measure also included items for rating the level of competency the therapist demonstrated when providing each component of the intervention. Results from split-half cross-validation analyses provide strong support for an 11-item, three-factor CBT fidelity measure. Somewhat less consistent but adequate support for a nine-item, two-factor SET fidelity measure was found. Internal consistencies ranged from acceptable to good for both the CBT and SET adherence scales and from acceptable to good for the CBT and SET competency scales, with the exception of the CBT practices competency scale. Preliminary validation of the measures suggests that both measures have adequate to strong factor structure, reliability, and concurrent and discriminant validity. The results of this study have implications for research and clinical settings, including the supervision process. PMID:27211991

  2. A novel integrated approach to quantitatively evaluate the efficiency of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) extraction process.

    PubMed

    Sun, Min; Li, Wen-Wei; Yu, Han-Qing; Harada, Hideki

    2012-12-01

    A novel integrated approach is developed to quantitatively evaluate the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) extraction efficiency after taking into account EPS yield, EPS damage, and cell lysis. This approach incorporates grey relational analysis and fuzzy logic analysis, in which the evaluation procedure is established on the basis of grey relational coefficients generation, membership functions construction, and fuzzy rules description. The flocculation activity and DNA content of EPS are chosen as the two evaluation responses. To verify the feasibility and effectiveness of this integrated approach, EPS from Bacillus megaterium TF10 are extracted using five different extraction methods, and their extraction efficiencies are evaluated as one real case study. Based on the evaluation results, the maximal extraction grades and corresponding optimal extraction times of the five extraction methods are ordered as EDTA, 10 h > formaldehyde + NaOH, 60 min > heating, 120 min > ultrasonication, 30 min > H₂SO₄, 30 min > control. The proposed approach here offers an effective tool to select appropriate EPS extraction methods and determine the optimal extraction conditions. PMID:23064456

  3. Evaluation of free to grow: head start partnerships to promote substance-free communities.

    PubMed

    Wolfson, Mark; Champion, Heather; Rogers, Todd; Neiberg, Rebecca H; Barker, Dianne C; Talton, Jennifer W; Ip, Edward H; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Parries, Maria T; Easterling, Doug

    2011-04-01

    Free to Grow: Head Start Partnerships to Promote Substance-free Communities (FTG) was a national initiative in which local Head Start (HS) agencies, in partnership with other community organizations, implemented a mix of evidence-based family-strengthening and community-strengthening strategies. The evaluation of FTG used a quasi-experimental design to compare 14 communities that participated in the FTG intervention with 14 matched comparison communities. Telephone surveys were conducted with two cohorts of the primary caregivers of children in HS at baseline and then annually for 2 years. The survey was also administered to repeated cross-sectional samples of primary caregivers of young children who were not enrolled in HS. No consistent evidence was found in changes in family functioning or neighborhood conditions when the 14 FTG sites were compared to 14 matched sites. However, caregivers of young children who were not in HS in three high-implementing FTG sites showed evidence of improvements in neighborhood organization, neighborhood norms against substance abuse, and child disciplinary practices. Results provide highly limited support for the concept that family and neighborhood conditions that are likely to affect child development and well-being can be changed through organized efforts implemented by local HS programs. PMID:21558278

  4. Introducing the Bulking Factor to Quantify Clogging in Petroleum Formation Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauss, E. D.; Mays, D. C.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the dynamics of both fluid and particle interactions in porous media is important for applications in groundwater hydrology, carbon sequestration, water filtration, and petroleum reservoir characterization. In particular, petroleum reservoir damage costs $10 billion annually, according to the Society of Petroleum Engineers. Petroleum reservoir damage, also called formation damage, results from various operations related to oil and gas production, including drilling, completions, and production phases. In this study, an extension to the widely applied Kozeny-Carman equation will be used to explore the characteristics of a dimensionless clogging parameter called the bulking factor, which was first introduced by Ojha and Graham in the 1990s. This present study will explore the tendency for fines, also called colloids, to cause clogging in initially clean porous media. Analysis proceeds using a mathematical model in which the dimensionless bulking factor is used to extend the widely utilized Kozeny-Carman equation to account for other clogging factors that are not correlated with the volume of deposited fines. The velocity dependence of the bulking factor is illustrated by considering several experimental studies from the literature that use a variety of porosities, fluids, colloid diameters and types, filter materials, and flow velocities. The filtration data sets had porosity from 35% to 46%, filter material diameters from 163 μm to 1400 μm, and colloid diameters from 0.10 μm to 8.00 μm. The filter materials were uniform sand, glass beads, or Clementine silica. Results indicate that with increasing velocity, the bulking factor decreases for all of the experiments analyzed. This correlation indicates that when other variables are held constant, filtration experiments conducted at higher flow velocity result in less clogging, at least for the case of initially clean porous media. Fitted values of the bulking factor were also correlated with the Peclet

  5. Evaluation and analysis of non-intrusive techniques for detecting illicit substances

    SciTech Connect

    Micklich, B.J.; Roche, C.T.; Fink, C.L.; Yule, T.J.; Demirgian, J.C.; Kunz, T.D.; Ulvick, S.J.; Cui, J.

    1995-12-31

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC) have been tasked by the Counterdrug Technology Assessment Center of the Office of National Drug Control Policy to conduct evaluations and analyses of technologies for the non-intrusive inspection of containers for illicit substances. These technologies span the range of nuclear, X-ray, and chemical techniques used in nondestructive sample analysis. ANL has performed assessments of nuclear and X-ray inspection concepts and undertaken site visits with developers to understand the capabilities and the range of applicability of candidate systems. ANL and HARC have provided support to law enforcement agencies (LEAs), including participation in numerous field studies. Both labs have provided staff to assist in the Narcotics Detection Technology Assessment (NDTA) program for evaluating drug detection systems. Also, the two labs are performing studies of drug contamination of currency. HARC has directed technical evaluations of automated ballistics imaging and identification systems under consideration by law enforcement agencies. ANL and HARC have sponsored workshops and a symposium, and are participating in a Non-Intrusive Inspection Study being led by Dynamics Technology, Incorporated.

  6. One-dimensional Stress Evaluation of a Ring Bulk HTS with Shrinkage Fit by an Iron Ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchimoto, M.; Morita, M.

    The stress distributions of a ring bulk high-Tc superconductor are studied in the one-dimensional numerical analysis. Boundary condition is derivated under shrinkage fit by an iron ring. Convergences of the solutions are compared with the simple iteration method and the successive approximation method. Maximum hoop stresses are evaluated during the field-cooled magnetization. Differences of the solutions are also discussed between the present and the previous boundary conditions.

  7. Evaluation of Exothermic Reactions from Bulk-Vitrification Melter Feeds Containing Cellulose

    SciTech Connect

    Scheele, Randall D.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Bos, Stanley J.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; Berry, Pam

    2007-06-25

    PNNL has demonstrated that cellulose effectively reduces the amount of molten ionic salt during Bulk Vitrification of simulated Hanford Low Level Waste (LLW). To address concerns about the potential reactivity of cellulose-LLW, PNNL used thermogravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis, and accelerating rate calorimetry to determine in these preliminary studies that these mixtures will support a self-sustaining reaction if heated to 110°C at adiabatic conditions. Additional testing is recommended.

  8. An in vivo invertebrate evaluation system for identifying substances that suppress sucrose-induced postprandial hyperglycemia.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yasuhiko; Ishii, Masaki; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2016-01-01

    Sucrose is a major sweetener added to various foods and beverages. Excessive intake of sucrose leads to increases in blood glucose levels, which can result in the development and exacerbation of lifestyle-related diseases such as obesity and diabetes. In this study, we established an in vivo evaluation system using silkworms to explore substances that suppress the increase in blood glucose levels caused by dietary intake of sucrose. Silkworm hemolymph glucose levels rapidly increased after intake of a sucrose-containing diet. Addition of acarbose or voglibose, α-glycosidase inhibitors clinically used for diabetic patients, suppressed the dietary sucrose-induced increase in the silkworm hemolymph glucose levels. Screening performed using the sucrose-induced postprandial hyperglycemic silkworm model allowed us to identify some lactic acid bacteria that inhibit the increase in silkworm hemolymph glucose levels caused by dietary intake of sucrose. The inhibitory effects of the Lactococcus lactis #Ll-1 bacterial strain were significantly greater than those of different strains of lactic acid bacteria. No effect of the Lactococcus lactis #Ll-1 strain was observed in silkworms fed a glucose diet. These results suggest that the sucrose diet-induced postprandial hyperglycemic silkworm is a useful model for evaluating chemicals and lactic acid bacteria that suppress increases in blood glucose levels. PMID:27194587

  9. An in vivo invertebrate evaluation system for identifying substances that suppress sucrose-induced postprandial hyperglycemia

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Yasuhiko; Ishii, Masaki; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2016-01-01

    Sucrose is a major sweetener added to various foods and beverages. Excessive intake of sucrose leads to increases in blood glucose levels, which can result in the development and exacerbation of lifestyle-related diseases such as obesity and diabetes. In this study, we established an in vivo evaluation system using silkworms to explore substances that suppress the increase in blood glucose levels caused by dietary intake of sucrose. Silkworm hemolymph glucose levels rapidly increased after intake of a sucrose-containing diet. Addition of acarbose or voglibose, α-glycosidase inhibitors clinically used for diabetic patients, suppressed the dietary sucrose-induced increase in the silkworm hemolymph glucose levels. Screening performed using the sucrose-induced postprandial hyperglycemic silkworm model allowed us to identify some lactic acid bacteria that inhibit the increase in silkworm hemolymph glucose levels caused by dietary intake of sucrose. The inhibitory effects of the Lactococcus lactis #Ll-1 bacterial strain were significantly greater than those of different strains of lactic acid bacteria. No effect of the Lactococcus lactis #Ll-1 strain was observed in silkworms fed a glucose diet. These results suggest that the sucrose diet-induced postprandial hyperglycemic silkworm is a useful model for evaluating chemicals and lactic acid bacteria that suppress increases in blood glucose levels. PMID:27194587

  10. Evaluation of Bulk Charging in Geostationary Transfer Orbit and Earth Escape Trajectories Using the Numit 1-D Charging Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Coffey, Victoria N.; Parker, Linda N.; Blackwell, William C., Jr.; Jun, Insoo; Garrett, Henry B.

    2007-01-01

    The NUMIT 1-dimensional bulk charging model is used as a screening to ol for evaluating time-dependent bulk internal or deep dielectric) ch arging of dielectrics exposed to penetrating electron environments. T he code is modified to accept time dependent electron flux time serie s along satellite orbits for the electron environment inputs instead of using the static electron flux environment input originally used b y the code and widely adopted in bulk charging models. Application of the screening technique ts demonstrated for three cases of spacecraf t exposure within the Earth's radiation belts including a geostationa ry transfer orbit and an Earth-Moon transit trajectory for a range of orbit inclinations. Electric fields and charge densities are compute d for dielectric materials with varying electrical properties exposed to relativistic electron environments along the orbits. Our objectiv e is to demonstrate a preliminary application of the time-dependent e nvironments input to the NUMIT code for evaluating charging risks to exposed dielectrics used on spacecraft when exposed to the Earth's ra diation belts. The results demonstrate that the NUMIT electric field values in GTO orbits with multiple encounters with the Earth's radiat ion belts are consistent with previous studies of charging in GTO orb its and that potential threat conditions for electrostatic discharge exist on lunar transit trajectories depending on the electrical proper ties of the materials exposed to the radiation environment.

  11. Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment in the United States: Exemplary Models from a National Evaluation Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Sally J.; Morral, Andrew R.

    This book provides detailed descriptions of exemplary adolescent drug treatment models and gives the latest information on substance use and its consequences. The examinations of treatment models included in this book include programs serving adolescent substance users from a wide range of ethnic and cultural backgrounds. Chapters include: (1)…

  12. First Steps PLUS: Yakima First Steps Mobilization Project for Pregnant Substance Abusers. An Interim Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordlund, Daniel J.; And Others

    The Yakima First Steps Mobilization Project for Pregnant Substance Abusers, known as First Steps PLUS, is a demonstration project. The project seeks to improve the health outcomes of pregnant substance abusing women and their infants by enhancing existing perinatal services provided through Washington's First Steps Maternity Care Program and by…

  13. Is Substance Abuse Increasing among WCPSS High School Students? Eye on Evaluation. E&R Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wake County Public Schools System, Raleigh, NC. Dept. of Evaluation and Research.

    After more than a decade of decline in the use of drugs by American high school students, national, state and local data sources seem to indicate that high school student substance abuse, particularly the use of marijuana and hallucinogens such as LSD, has been increasing for the past two years. Indicators of student substance abuse can be found…

  14. 76 FR 10906 - Proposed Substances To Be Evaluated for Set 25 Toxicological Profiles

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-28

    ... the 275 priority substances was announced in the Federal Register on March 6, 2008 (73 FR 12178). For prior versions of the list of substances, see Federal Register notices dated April 17, 1987 (52 FR 12866); October 20, 1988 (53 FR 41280); October 26, 1989 (54 FR 43619); October 17, 1990 (55 FR 42067); October...

  15. 76 FR 35242 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ..., Penick Corporation, 33 Industrial Park Road, Pennsville, New Jersey 08070, made application by renewal to... company plans to manufacture the listed controlled substances as bulk controlled substance...

  16. 75 FR 36683 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ..., Penick Corporation, 33 Industrial Road, Pennsville, New Jersey 08070, made application by renewal to the... company plans to manufacture the listed controlled substances as bulk controlled substance...

  17. Cuspal Displacement Induced by Bulk Fill Resin Composite Polymerization: Biomechanical Evaluation Using Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, João; Alves, Sofia; Nogueira, Rogério

    2016-01-01

    Polymerization shrinkage is a major concern to the clinical success of direct composite resin restorations. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of polymerization shrinkage strain of two resin composites on cuspal movement based on the use of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors. Twenty standardized Class II cavities prepared in upper third molars were allocated into two groups (n = 10). Restorations involved the bulk fill placement of conventional microhybrid resin composite (Esthet•X® HD, Dentsply DeTrey) (Group 1) or flowable “low-shrinkage” resin composite (SDR™, Dentsply DeTrey) (Group 2). Two FBG sensors were used per restoration for real-time measurement of cuspal linear deformation and temperature variation. Group comparisons were determined using ANCOVA (α = 0.05) considering temperature as the covariate. A statistically significant correlation between cuspal deflection, time, and material was observed (p < 0.01). Cuspal deflection reached 8.8 μm (0.23%) and 7.8 μm (0.20%) in Groups 1 and 2, respectively. When used with bulk fill technique, flowable resin composite SDR™ induced significantly less cuspal deflection than the conventional resin composite Esthet•X® HD (p = 0.015) and presented a smoother curve slope during the polymerization. FBG sensors appear to be a valid tool for accurate real-time monitoring of cuspal deformation. PMID:27190517

  18. Cuspal Displacement Induced by Bulk Fill Resin Composite Polymerization: Biomechanical Evaluation Using Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors.

    PubMed

    Vinagre, Alexandra; Ramos, João; Alves, Sofia; Messias, Ana; Alberto, Nélia; Nogueira, Rogério

    2016-01-01

    Polymerization shrinkage is a major concern to the clinical success of direct composite resin restorations. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of polymerization shrinkage strain of two resin composites on cuspal movement based on the use of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors. Twenty standardized Class II cavities prepared in upper third molars were allocated into two groups (n = 10). Restorations involved the bulk fill placement of conventional microhybrid resin composite (Esthet•X® HD, Dentsply DeTrey) (Group 1) or flowable "low-shrinkage" resin composite (SDR™, Dentsply DeTrey) (Group 2). Two FBG sensors were used per restoration for real-time measurement of cuspal linear deformation and temperature variation. Group comparisons were determined using ANCOVA (α = 0.05) considering temperature as the covariate. A statistically significant correlation between cuspal deflection, time, and material was observed (p < 0.01). Cuspal deflection reached 8.8 μm (0.23%) and 7.8 μm (0.20%) in Groups 1 and 2, respectively. When used with bulk fill technique, flowable resin composite SDR™ induced significantly less cuspal deflection than the conventional resin composite Esthet•X® HD (p = 0.015) and presented a smoother curve slope during the polymerization. FBG sensors appear to be a valid tool for accurate real-time monitoring of cuspal deformation. PMID:27190517

  19. Evaluating the ready biodegradability of two poorly water-soluble substances: comparative approach of bioavailability improvement methods (BIMs).

    PubMed

    Sweetlove, Cyril; Chenèble, Jean-Charles; Barthel, Yves; Boualam, Marc; L'Haridon, Jacques; Thouand, Gérald

    2016-09-01

    Difficulties encountered in estimating the biodegradation of poorly water-soluble substances are often linked to their limited bioavailability to microorganisms. Many original bioavailability improvement methods (BIMs) have been described, but no global approach was proposed for a standardized comparison of these. The latter would be a valuable tool as part of a wider strategy for evaluating poorly water-soluble substances. The purpose of this study was to define an evaluation strategy following the assessment of different BIMs adapted to poorly water-soluble substances with ready biodegradability tests. The study was performed with two poorly water-soluble chemicals-a solid, anthraquinone, and a liquid, isodecyl neopentanoate-and five BIMs were compared to the direct addition method (reference method), i.e., (i) ultrasonic dispersion, (ii) adsorption onto silica gel, (iii) dispersion using an emulsifier, (iv) dispersion with silicone oil, and (v) dispersion with emulsifier and silicone oil. A two-phase evaluation strategy of solid and liquid chemicals was developed involving the selection of the most relevant BIMs for enhancing the biodegradability of tested substances. A description is given of a BIM classification ratio (R BIM), which enables a comparison to be made between the different test chemical sample preparation methods used in the various tests. Thereby, using this comparison, the BIMs giving rise to the greatest biodegradability were ultrasonic dispersion and dispersion with silicone oil or with silicone oil and emulsifier for the tested solid chemical, adsorption onto silica gel, and ultrasonic dispersion for the liquid one. PMID:27234835

  20. From single-substance evaluation to ecological process concept: the dilemma of processing gold with cyanide.

    PubMed

    Korte, F; Coulston, F

    1995-10-01

    In the past decades, limit concentration values for environmentally dangerous synthetic and natural chemical substances have been established in industrialized countries. Depending on the range of application, state of aggregation, propagation velocity, specific action on living organisms, long- or short-time effect, etc., different terms are used to specify these limit concentrations (acceptable daily intakes, TLV, LD50, emission values, water quality standards, etc.). Several parameters (e.g., range of application, ethic and social valuation, environmental factors, scientific knowledge) have led to nationally and internationally varying values depending on the region and time. The accuracy of this system of evaluation cannot necessarily be improved by listing further analytical data, but rather by furnishing sufficiently secured scientific data for a serious discussion, with the public concepts influenced more and more by the mass media. The best-established scientific knowledge has been acquired by the chemical industry. National and international groups demand that ecological-chemical problems in other fields of industry be dealt with as well; this research should, without doubt, be intensified. The example of the mining industry, which must employ chemical methods to isolate small concentrations (ppm), demonstrates the environmental conflict caused by the increasing world population, requiring the adaptation of the process by industry to the modern environmental concept. This is illustrated by the evolution of the gold recovery process. PMID:8565884

  1. Uniform System for the Evaluation of Substances. IV. Distribution and intake.

    PubMed

    Visser, J D; van de Meent, C J

    1994-07-01

    This is the fourth article in the series on USES, the Uniform System for the Evaluation of Substances. This article describes the modelling approach used to predict concentrations in the environmental media (air, surface water, agricultural soil and groundwater) and the intake media for humans (fish, drinking water, root crops, leaf crops, meat and milk) and for predatory birds and mammals (fish and earthworms). Distribution and intake are estimated on two spatial scales: locally near a point source, and regionally over a larger area. This article focuses on the local distribution and the general intake models. Local distribution is modelled in a hypothetical standard environment, using typical environmental characteristics. Humans and predators are assumed to be exposed to food products from the contaminated system. The choice of models in a system like USES, is limited by the small data sets legally required for risk assessment purposes. Therefore, USES focuses on relatively simple models, and is able to work with the limited input data. PMID:7922148

  2. Re-Evaluation of the Lifetimes of Ozone-Depleting Substances and Related Trace Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimann, Stefan; Ko, Malcolm; Newman, Paul; Strahan, Susan

    2013-04-01

    Estimating the average lifetime of a chemical in the atmosphere is crucial to understanding their current and future atmospheric concentrations. Furthermore, for ozone depleting substances (ODSs) and greenhouse gases information on their lifetimes are of paramount importance for obtaining estimates for ozone depletion and climate forcing. Because the lifetimes of ODSs are also used to predict how the future concentrations change with emissions, they also have implications on policy decisions for limiting future release of hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) and other replacement compounds under the Montreal Protocol. During the last 25 years, various methods have been used to derive lifetimes of ODSs and values have changed accordingly. Within the last several years evidence is growing that the lifetimes of certain ODSs are possibly somewhat longer than published values. The "Lifetime of halogen source gases" activity under the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP)/Stratospheric Processes And their Role in Climate (SPARC) project has convened a working group to re-evaluate these ODS lifetimes. The goal was to estimate the numerical values for lifetimes and their uncertainties, and to quantify how the values may depend on factors such as the use of different lifetime definitions (e.g. steady-state/instantaneous lifetimes) and changing climate. First results of the report will be shown and implications will be discussed.

  3. Evaluating the use of sub-tile Bulk Averaged inputs to simulate evapotranspiration within Heterogeneous Land-Atmosphere Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qiting; Jia, Li; Hutjes, Ronald

    2016-04-01

    Evapotranspiration plays a crucial role in the regional water and energy balance and often takes place within heterogeneous land-atmosphere systems. Heterogeneity usually appears in the resolvable elements in Land Surface Models (LSMs). Typically, Land surface modelling to simulate evapotranspiration tends to oversimplify the sub-Tile heterogeneity of a Land-atmosphere parameter by a single representative value. This paper evaluates the inaccuracy of LSMs resulting from inaccurately representing the heterogeneity within resolvable elements by a bulk average value. In a synthetic experiment, seven Probability Density Functions (PDFs) were used to simulate the different scenarios of heterogeneity of Leaf Area Index (LAI) and top Soil Moisture (SM). Evapotranspiration estimates based on bulk averaged LAI and SM status were compared with the one obtained by the real distributed LAI and SM. Their difference is due to the combined effect of heterogeneities in LAI and SM, and the nonlinear processes in the LSMs. Besides the synthetic numerical experiment, we also tested the reliability of the bulk average scheme in a real world case for the Heihe river basin, northwest of China, to further demonstrate the importance of accounting for sub-Tile heterogeneity in evapotranspiration estimates and its implications for the regional and irrigation water management.

  4. Evaluation of a relationship between polymer bulk hydroxyl and surface oxygen content and in vitro serum - material interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Sawada, Koji; Shimoyama, Takashi ); Malchesky, P.S.; Goldcamp, J.B.; Omokawa, Susumu )

    1993-04-01

    To evaluate serum-material interaction for six types of minimodule and to assess the relationship between the interaction and chemical composition, notably bulk polymer hydroxyl ([minus]OH) percent of polymer, or surface oxygen (SO) percent, polymeric membranes with varying [minus]OH and SO percents were evaluated with normal human serum. The membrane materials ([minus]OH percent and SO percent) evaluated included polypropylene (PP; 0% and 1.9%), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA; 23.7% and 27.3%), ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVAL 4A and D; 30.4% and 25.3%), Cuprophan (CP; 31.5% and 37.4%), and Hemophan (HP; 30.9% and 23.6%), respectively. Data from serum perfusions expressed as percent changes to sham perfusion showed that solute percent decreases were less than 10% in all materials except PVA (10-22%). PVA and CP had higher C3a, C4a, and C5a, and C3a concentration increases, and had larger suppressive effects for all three mitogen-induced mononuclear cell transformation functions (MNCTF) and concanavalin A-induced MNCTF, respectively. PVA had higher SO percent than EVAL and CP was higher than HP, despite PVA and CP having lower or comparable bulk [minus]OH percent to EVAL or HP.

  5. Evaluation of a microwave resonator for predicting grain moisture independent of bulk density

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This work evaluated the ability of a planar whispering mode resonator to predict moisture considering moisture and densities expected in an on-harvester application. A calibration model was developed to accurately predict moisture over the moisture, density and temperature ranges evaluated. This mod...

  6. 76 FR 39127 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... a bulk manufacturer of Remifentanil (9739) the basic class of controlled substance in schedule II... facility in West Deptford, New Jersey. The controlled substances manufactured in bulk at this facility...

  7. Evaluation of Two Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays for Detecting Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Dublin Antibodies in Bulk Milk

    PubMed Central

    Veling, J.; van Zijderveld, F. G.; van Zijderveld-van Bemmel, A. M.; Schukken, Y. H.; Barkema, H. W.

    2001-01-01

    Two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for the detecting Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Dublin antibodies in bulk milk were developed and evaluated for potential use in control programs. The ELISAs were based on either lipopolysacharide (LPS ELISA) or flagellar antigen (GP ELISA). Sensitivity was determined with 79 case herds with a wide range of clinical signs. Specificity was determined with 125 Dutch and 200 Swedish control herds. The relation between antibodies in bulk milk, antibodies in serum, and the level of milk production of individual cows was studied with 61 case herds. The optimal optical density (OD) values of the LPS ELISA and the GP ELISA were determined to be 0.2 and 0.5, respectively. The sensitivities of the LPS ELISA and the GP ELISA were 54 and 63%, respectively, with a specificity of 98% for both ELISAs with samples from the Dutch control herds. The specificities for samples from the Swedish herds were 100% for the LPS ELISA and 95% for the GP ELISA. The sensitivity of the combination of tests was 65% when samples were run in parallel, and the specificity was 100% when samples were run in series, irrespective of whether the samples came from Dutch or Swedish control herds. The variance (R2) in the OD value for bulk milk samples could be explained by the percentage of seropositive lactating cows in a herd with the LPS ELISA for 51% of the samples and with the GP ELISA for 72%. The variance in the OD value was best explained by the combination of the percentage of seropositive lactating cows in the herd and the mean log10 serum antibody titer for that herd (R2 = 62% for the LPS ELISA and R2 = 75% for the GP ELISA). Case herds more often tested negative by the ELISA with bulk milk when the percentage of seropositive lactating cows was less than 5%. It is concluded that both ELISAs with bulk milk can be used in control programs to distinguish between infected and noninfected herds. Specificity can be increased by using the

  8. Evaluate the effect of laser shock peening on plasticity of Zr-based bulk metallic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jie; Zhu, Yunhu; Zheng, Chao; Liu, Ren; Ji, Zhong

    2015-10-01

    The effect of laser shock peening (LSP) on mechanical properties, especially the plasticity of a typical Zr-based bulk metallic glass (BMG) had been investigated. The surface treatment introduced by successive laser pulses facilitated the formation of shear bands and promoted the plastic deformation of BMG. Experimental investigations of the bending deformation behavior were performed by three-point bending test at room temperature. It was found that the LSP pretreatment could improve the plasticity. The shear bands in fracture surface of laser peened sample were increased which could be observed by SEM. Logarithmic strain and stress distributions during bending deformation were predicted by finite element analysis. The high level of strain concentration in peened sample represented the increasing possibility of shear band formation which was beneficial to enhance plasticity. Corresponding with the strain distribution, the stress in peened sample was also increased which would enhance the ability of resisting a larger bending load force. Besides, simulation results clearly showed the logarithmic strain evolution of the beams with different laser irradiated regions throughout the bending process. The results indicated that the larger the laser irradiated region was, the better the plasticity of BMG would be.

  9. An evaluation of effective radiuses of bulk-wave ultrasonic transducers as circular piston sources for accurate velocity measurements.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Mototaka; Kushibiki, Jun-ichi; Aoki, Naoya

    2004-05-01

    The effective radius of a bulk-wave ultrasonic transducer as a circular piston source, fabricated on one end of a synthetic silica (SiO2) glass buffer rod, was evaluated for accurate velocity measurements of dispersive specimens over a wide frequency range. The effective radius was determined by comparing measured and calculated phase variations due to diffraction in an ultrasonic transmission line of the SiO2 buffer rod/water-couplant/SiO2 standard specimen, using radio-frequency (RF) tone burst ultrasonic waves. Fourteen devices with different device parameters were evaluated. The velocities of the nondispersive standard specimen (C-7940) were found to be 5934.10 +/- 0.35 m/s at 70 to 290 MHz, after diffraction correction using the nominal radius (0.75 mm) for an ultrasonic device with an operating center frequency of about 400 MHz. Corrected velocities were more accurately found to be 5934.15 +/- 0.03 m/s by using the effective radius (0.780 mm) for the diffraction correction. Bulk-wave ultrasonic devices calibrated by this experimental procedure enable conducting extremely accurate velocity dispersion measurements. PMID:15217227

  10. Forms in Search of Substance: Quality and Evaluation in Romanian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geven, Koen; Maricut, Adina

    2015-01-01

    Romania's integration into the European Union is fraught with cultural stereotypes. One dominant narrative is that the country creates "forms without substance": meaningless institutions without adequate personnel or intellectual capital. In this paper, we investigate whether this popular stereotype adequately describes higher education…

  11. Working with Children of Parents with Substance Use Disorders: Evaluation of a Course Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiechelt, Shelly A.; Okundaye, Joshua N.

    2012-01-01

    Social workers are in a position to identify the effects of substance use disorders (SUDs) on children and families and provide appropriate interventions in broad practice contexts. Unfortunately, many social workers are not trained to consider parental SUDs and their effects on children in the assessment process. A course module for training…

  12. 78 FR 43205 - Proposed Substances To Be Evaluated for Set 27 Toxicological Profiles

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ... announced in the Federal Register on November 3, 2011 (76 FR 68193). For prior versions of the list of substances, see Federal Register notices dated April 17, 1987 (52 FR 12866); October 20, 1988 (53 FR 41280); October 26, 1989 (54 FR 43619); October 17,1990 (55 FR 42067); October 17, 1991 (56 FR 52166); October...

  13. 75 FR 16153 - Proposed Substances To Be Evaluated for Set 24 Toxicological Profiles

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... announced in the Federal Register on March 6, 2008 (73 FR 12178). For prior versions of the list of substances, see Federal Register notices dated April 17, 1987 (52 FR 12866); October 20, 1988 (53 FR 41280); October 26, 1989 (54 FR 43619); October 17, 1990 (55 FR 42067); October 17, 1991 (56 FR 52166); October...

  14. Students' Evaluations of the Effectiveness of Substance Abuse Education: The Impact of Different Delivery Modes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dykeman, Cass; Nelson, J. Ron

    1996-01-01

    Asked 96 students, grades 3, 6, 8, 12, about various teaching methods (expert-led, teacher-led, peer-led, and parent in home) commonly employed in substance abuse education. Students generally believed that each type of would positively influence drug- and alcohol-related knowledge but not behavior. Expert-led discussions were believed the most…

  15. Psychometric Evaluation of the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS) in an Inpatient Sample of Substance Users Using Cue-Reactivity Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Schlauch, Robert C.; Crane, Cory A.; Houston, Rebecca J.; Molnar, Danielle S.; Schlienz, Nicolas J.; Lang, Alan R.

    2015-01-01

    The current project sought to examine the psychometric properties of a personality based measure (Substance Use Risk Profile Scale; SURPS: introversion-hopelessness, anxiety sensitivity, impulsivity, and sensation seeking) designed to differentially predict substance use preferences and patterns by matching primary personality-based motives for use to the specific effects of various psychoactive substances. Specifically, we sought to validate the SURPS in a clinical sample of substance users using cue reactivity methodology to assess current inclinations to consume a wide range of psychoactive substances. Using confirmatory factor analysis and correlational analyses, the SURPS demonstrated good psychometric properties and construct validity. Further, impulsivity and sensation-seeking were associated with use of multiple substances but could be differentiated by motives for use and susceptibility to the reinforcing effects of stimulants (i.e., impulsivity) and alcohol (i.e. sensation-seeking). In contrast, introversion-hopelessness and anxiety sensitivity demonstrated a pattern of use more focused on reducing negative affect, but were not differentiated based on specific patterns of use. Taken together, results suggests that among those receiving inpatient treatment for substance use disorders, the SURPS is a valid instrument for measuring four distinct personality dimensions that may be sensitive to motivational susceptibilities to specific patterns of alcohol and drug use. PMID:26052180

  16. Intrinsic carrier multiplication efficiency in bulk Si crystals evaluated by optical-pump/terahertz-probe spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yamashita, G.; Nagai, M. E-mail: ashida@mp.es.osaka-u.ac.jp; Ashida, M. E-mail: ashida@mp.es.osaka-u.ac.jp; Matsubara, E.; Kanemitsu, Y.

    2014-12-08

    We estimated the carrier multiplication efficiency in the most common solar-cell material, Si, by using optical-pump/terahertz-probe spectroscopy. Through close analysis of time-resolved data, we extracted the exact number of photoexcited carriers from the sheet carrier density 10 ps after photoexcitation, excluding the influences of spatial diffusion and surface recombination in the time domain. For incident photon energies greater than 4.0 eV, we observed enhanced internal quantum efficiency due to carrier multiplication. The evaluated value of internal quantum efficiency agrees well with the results of photocurrent measurements. This optical method allows us to estimate the carrier multiplication and surface recombination of carriers quantitatively, which are crucial for the design of the solar cells.

  17. Evaluating bulk Nb2O2F3 for Li-battery electrode applications.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Rafael B; Ahuja, Rajeev

    2016-02-01

    This investigation has the primary objective of elucidating the lithium intercalation process in the crystal structure of a new niobium oxyfluoride compound Nb2O2F3. The framework of the density functional theory was applied in a generalized gradient approximation together with the hybrid functional method. It is revealed that lithium atoms intercalate in this material in a maximum concentration of one Li atom per formula unit forming LiNb2O2F3. Moreover, octahedral positions in between the layers of Nb-O-F appear as the Li preferred occupancy resulting in a structural volume expansion of only 5%. Electronic structure evolution with the insertion of lithium displays a transformation from semi-conductor to metal when half of the lithium atoms are added. This transformation occurs due to a symmetry break induced by the transition from the +8 to +7 oxidation state of half of the Nb2 dimers. Then, after full lithiation the symmetry is recovered and the material becomes a semiconductor again with a band gap amounting to 1 eV. The evaluated average deintercalation potential reaches 1.29 V vs. Li/Li(+) with activation energy for lithium ion migration of 0.79 eV. The computed low potential of the redox reaction Nb2(8+) to Nb2(7+) includes niobium oxyfluoride in the map of possible materials for the anode application of Li-ion batteries. PMID:26751421

  18. Evaluation of Eye Irritation Potential of Solid Substance with New 3D Reconstructed Human Cornea Model, MCTT HCETM

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Won-hee; Jung, Kyoung-mi; Yang, Hye-ri; Lee, Miri; Jung, Haeng-Sun; Lee, Su-Hyon; Park, Miyoung; Lim, Kyung-Min

    2015-01-01

    The eye irritation potential of drug candidates or pharmaceutical ingredients should be evaluated if there is a possibility of ocular exposure. Traditionally, the ocular irritation has been evaluated by the rabbit Draize test. However, rabbit eyes are more sensitive to irritants than human eyes, therefore substantial level of false positives are unavoidable. To resolve this species difference, several three-dimensional human corneal epithelial (HCE) models have been developed as alternative eye irritation test methods. Recently, we introduced a new HCE model, MCTT HCETM which is reconstructed with non-transformed human corneal cells from limbal tissues. Here, we examined if MCTT HCETM can be employed to evaluate eye irritation potential of solid substances. Through optimization of washing method and exposure time, treatment time was established as 10 min and washing procedure was set up as 4 times of washing with 10 mL of PBS and shaking in 30 mL of PBS in a beaker. With the established eye irritation test protocol, 11 solid substances (5 non-irritants, 6 irritants) were evaluated which demonstrated an excellent predictive capacity (100% accuracy, 100% specificity and 100% sensitivity). We also compared the performance of our test method with rabbit Draize test results and in vitro cytotoxicity test with 2D human corneal epithelial cell lines. PMID:26157556

  19. A critical evaluation of how ancient DNA bulk bone metabarcoding complements traditional morphological analysis of fossil assemblages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grealy, Alicia C.; McDowell, Matthew C.; Scofield, Paul; Murray, Dáithí C.; Fusco, Diana A.; Haile, James; Prideaux, Gavin J.; Bunce, Michael

    2015-11-01

    When pooled for extraction as a bulk sample, the DNA within morphologically unidentifiable fossil bones can, using next-generation sequencing, yield valuable taxonomic data. This method has been proposed as a means to rapidly and cost-effectively assess general ancient DNA preservation at a site, and to investigate temporal and spatial changes in biodiversity; however, several caveats have yet to be considered. We critically evaluated the bulk bone metabarcoding (BBM) method in terms of its: (i) repeatability, by quantifying sampling and technical variance through a nested experimental design containing sub-samples and replicates at several stages; (ii) accuracy, by comparing morphological and molecular family-level identifications; and (iii) overall utility, by applying the approach to two independent Holocene fossil deposits, Bat Cave (Kangaroo Island, Australia) and Finsch's Folly (Canterbury, New Zealand). For both sites, bone and bone powder sub-sampling were found to contribute significantly to variance in molecularly identified family assemblage, while the contribution of library preparation and sequencing was almost negligible. Nevertheless, total variance was small. Sampling over 80% fewer bones than was required to morphologically identify the taxonomic assemblages, we found that the families identified molecularly are a subset of the families identified morphologically and, for the most part, represent the most abundant families in the fossil record. In addition, we detected a range of extinct, extant and endangered taxa, including some that are rare in the fossil record. Given the relatively low sampling effort of the BBM approach compared with morphological approaches, these results suggest that BBM is largely consistent, accurate, sensitive, and therefore widely applicable. Furthermore, we assessed the overall benefits and caveats of the method, and suggest a workflow for palaeontologists, archaeologists, and geneticists that will help mitigate these

  20. Evaluation of the damage of cell wall and cell membrane for various extracellular polymeric substance extractions of activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xuesong; Liu, Junxin; Xiao, Benyi

    2014-10-20

    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) are susceptible to contamination by intracellular substances released during the extraction of EPS owing to the damage caused to microbial cell structures. The damage to cell walls and cell membranes in nine EPS extraction processes of activated sludge was evaluated in this study. The extraction of EPS (including proteins, carbohydrates and DNA) was the highest using the NaOH extraction method and the lowest using formaldehyde extraction. All nine EPS extraction methods in this study resulted in cell wall and membrane damage. The damage to cell walls, evaluated by 2-keto-3-deoxyoctonate (KDO) and N-acetylglucosamine content changes in extracted EPS, was the most significant in the NaOH extraction process. Formaldehyde extraction showed a similar extent of damage to cell walls to those detected in the control method (centrifugation), while those in the formaldehyde-NaOH and cation exchange resin extractions were slightly higher than those detected in the control. N-acetylglucosamine was more suitable than KDO for the evaluation of cell wall damage in the EPS extraction of activated sludge. The damage to cell membranes was characterized by two fluorochromes (propidium iodide and FITC Annexin V) with flow cytometry (FCM) measurement. The highest proportion of membrane-damaged cells was detected in NaOH extraction (26.54% of total cells) while membrane-damaged cells comprised 8.19% of total cells in the control. PMID:25173614

  1. Evaluation of American Indian Health Service Training in Pain Management and Opioid Substance Use Disorder.

    PubMed

    Katzman, Joanna G; Fore, Chris; Bhatt, Snehal; Greenberg, Nina; Griffin Salvador, Julie; Comerci, George C; Camarata, Christopher; Marr, Lisa; Monette, Rebecca; Arora, Sanjeev; Bradford, Andrea; Taylor, Denise; Dillow, Jenny; Karol, Susan

    2016-08-01

    We examined the benefits of a collaboration between the Indian Health Service and an academic medical center to address the high rates of unintentional drug overdose in American Indians/Alaska Natives. In January 2015, the Indian Health Service became the first federal agency to mandate training in pain and opioid substance use disorder for all prescribing clinicians. More than 1300 Indian Health Service clinicians were trained in 7 possible 5-hour courses specific to pain and addiction. We noted positive changes in pre- and postcourse knowledge, self-efficacy, and attitudes as well as thematic responses showing the trainings to be comprehensive, interactive, and convenient. PMID:27196642

  2. Evaluating Project Connect: improving juvenile probationers' mental health and substance use service access.

    PubMed

    Wasserman, Gail A; McReynolds, Larkin S; Musabegovic, Hana; Whited, Andria L; Keating, Joseph M; Huo, Yanling

    2009-11-01

    Project Connect is a multilayered county-specific program aimed at linking juvenile probationers to needed mental health and substance use services. In four NY counties, the intervention included cooperative agreements between probation and mental health authorities, program materials to facilitate referral, in-service training for probation officers, and systematic screening for mental health needs. Charts for 583 Baseline youths were reviewed and compared with 594 youths undergoing intake under Project Connect. Compared to Baseline, under Project Connect, referred youths were 2.7 times as likely to access services, regardless of youth or county characteristics, service availability, or when the intervention took place. PMID:19582568

  3. Evaluation of various substances to prevent adsorption of tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) to glass surfaces*

    PubMed Central

    Landi, S.; Held, H. R.; Tseng, M. C.

    1970-01-01

    It is well known that a dilute tuberculin PPD solution (1 IU or 5 IU per dose) very rapidly loses its potency owing to adsorption of tuberculoprotein to the wall of the container into which it is dispensed. The amount of tuberculoprotein adsorbed per cm2 of glass surface has been measured for phosphate-buffered saline over a wide pH range (pH 1 to pH 10). The maximum adsorption was found at pH 4 (0.31 μg/cm2) and the least at between pH 6 and pH 10 (0.15 μg/cm2). The rate of adsorption of tuberculoprotein to glass was not changed when the phosphate-buffered saline was replaced by borate-buffered saline. Tuberculin PPD prepared by the ammonium sulfate precipitation method, by the trichloroacetic acid precipitation method and by a combination of both methods adsorbed equally well to glass and no difference in the rate of adsorption for these tuberculoproteins was found. Forty-two substances in addition to Tween 80 were tested for their property to prevent adsorption of tuberculoprotein to glass in dilute tuberculin PPD solutions (50 IU/ml of 14C-labelled PPD). The most efficient anti-adsorption agents were found to be nonionic surfactants, some ionic surfactants and some colloidal substances; polypeptides and non-surface-active substances of low molecular weight showed little or no anti-adsorption property. The labelling of PPD with 14C has proved to be a valuable tool, particularly for long-term adsorption studies and for screening substances to be used as efficient anti-adsorption agents. These studies have permitted the selection of agents which could be added to dilute solutions of tuberculin PPD (10 IU/ml to 500 IU/ml or 0.2 μg/ml to 10 μg/ml respectively) in order to avoid loss of potency due to adsorption. PMID:5312323

  4. ATSDR evaluation of health effects of chemicals. VI. Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.

    PubMed

    Fay, M; Donohue, J M; De Rosa, C

    1999-12-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (also known as DEHP, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, or BEHP; CAS Registry Number 117-81-7) is a widely-used plasticizer. It is found in numerous plastic articles, such as paints, inks, floor tiles, upholstery, shower curtains, footwear, plastic bags, food-packaging materials, toys, and medical tubing. Not surprisingly, DEHP appears at many waste sites. As part of its mandate, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) prepares toxicological profiles on hazardous chemicals that are of greatest public health concern at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) National Priority List (NPL) sites. These profiles comprehensively summarize toxicological and environmental information. This article constitutes the release of the bulk of ATSDR's profile for DEHP (ATSDR, 1993) into the mainstream scientific literature. An extensive listing of human and animal health effects, organized by route, duration, and endpoint, is presented. Toxicological information on toxicokinetics, biomarkers, interactions, sensitive subpopulations, reducing toxicity after exposure, and relevance to public health is also included. Environmental information encompasses physical properties, production and use, environmental fate, levels seen in the environment, analytical methods, and a listing of regulations. ATSDR, at the behest of Congress and therefore the citizenry, prepares these profiles to inform the public about site contaminants. PMID:10786378

  5. Quantitative evaluation on activated property-tunable bulk liquid water with reduced hydrogen bonds using deconvoluted Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsiao-Chien; Mai, Fu-Der; Yang, Kuang-Hsuan; Chen, Liang-Yih; Yang, Chih-Ping; Liu, Yu-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Interesting properties of water with distinguishable hydrogen-bonding structure on interfacial phase or in confined environment have drawn wide attentions. However, these unique properties of water are only found within the interfacial phase and confined environment, thus, their applications are limited. In addition, quantitative evaluation on these unique properties associating with the enhancement of water's physical and chemical activities represents a notable challenge. Here we report a practicable production of free-standing liquid water at room temperature with weak hydrogen-bonded structure naming Au nanoparticles (NPs)-treated (AuNT) water via treating by plasmon-induced hot electron transfer occurred on resonantly illuminated gold NPs (AuNPs). Compared to well-known untreated bulk water (deionized water), the prepared AuNT water exhibits many distinct activities in generally physical and chemical reactions, such as high solubilities to NaCl and O2. Also, reducing interaction energy within water molecules provides lower overpotential and higher efficiency in electrolytic hydrogen production. In addition, these enhanced catalytic activities of AuNT water are tunable by mixing with deionized water. Also, most of these tunable activities are linearly proportional to its degree of nonhydrogen-bonded structure (DNHBS), which is derived from the O-H stretching in deconvoluted Raman spectrum. PMID:25471522

  6. [The evaluation of concentration of certain NSAID in the procedure of screening medicinal and narcotic substances in blood].

    PubMed

    Dvorskaya, K; Kataev, S S; Silina, K; Krokhin, I P

    2016-01-01

    We have undertaken the metrological assessment of the method for the quantitative determination of a number of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) including ibuprofen, ketorolac, diclofenac, indomethacin, naproxen, and ketoprofen with the use of gas chromatography mass spectrometry in the model blood samples in the framework of the screening survey of medicinal and narcotic substances. The method was evaluated in terms of the following characteristics: specificity, linearity, correctness, precision (reproducibility), and intra-laboratory precision. The proposed method can be applied for the quantitative evaluation of indomethacin, ketoprofen, and naproxen content as well as for the preliminary quantitative determination of ibuprofen and diclofenac in the framework of the chemico-toxicological and forensic chemical analysis. The method can be employed for the quantitative determination of ketorolac from such characteristics as «linearity» and «reproducibility». PMID:27239768

  7. Evaluation of milk yield losses associated with Salmonella antibodies in bulk tank milk in bovine dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, T D; Green, L E; Kudahl, A B; Østergaard, S; Nielsen, L R

    2012-09-01

    The effect of Salmonella on milk production is not well established in cattle. The objective of this study was to investigate whether introduction of Salmonella into dairy cattle herds was associated with reduced milk yield and determine the duration of any such effect. Longitudinal data from 2005 through 2009 were used, with data from 12 mo before until 18 mo after the estimated date of infection. Twenty-eight case herds were selected based on an increase in the level of Salmonella-specific antibodies in bulk-tank milk from <10 corrected optical density percentage (ODC%) to ≥70 ODC% between 2 consecutive three-monthly measurements in the Danish Salmonella surveillance program. All selected case herds were conventional Danish Holstein herds. Control herds (n=40) were selected randomly from Danish Holstein herds with Salmonella antibody levels consistently <10 ODC%. A date of herd infection was randomly allocated to the control herds. Hierarchical mixed effect models with the outcome test-day yield of energy-corrected milk (ECM)/cow were used to investigate daily milk yield before and after the estimated herd infection date for cows in parities 1, 2, and 3+. Control herds were used to evaluate whether the effects in the case herds could be reproduced in herds without Salmonella infection. Herd size, days in milk, somatic cell count, season, and year were included in the models. Yield in first-parity cows was reduced by a mean of 1.4 kg (95% confidence interval: 0.5 to 2.3) of ECM/cow per day from 7 to 15 mo after the estimated herd infection date, compared with that of first-parity cows in the same herds in the 12 mo before the estimated herd infection date. Yield for parity 3+ cows was reduced by a mean of 3.0 kg (95% confidence interval: 1.3 to 4.8) of ECM/cow per day from 7 to 15 mo after herd infection compared with that of parity 3+ cows in the 12 mo before the estimated herd infection. We observed minor differences in yield in second-parity cows before and

  8. Using Videogame Apps to Assess Gains in Adolescents’ Substance Use Knowledge: New Opportunities for Evaluating Intervention Exposure and Content Mastery

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Videogame interventions are becoming increasingly popular as a means to engage people in behavioral interventions; however, strategies for examining data from such interventions have not been developed. Objective The objective of this study was to describe how a technology-based intervention can yield meaningful, objective evidence of intervention exposure within a behavioral intervention. This study demonstrates the analysis of automatic log files, created by software from a videogame intervention, that catalog game play and, as proof of concept, the association of these data with changes in substance use knowledge as documented with standardized assessments. Methods We analyzed 3- and 6-month follow-up data from 166 participants enrolled in a randomized controlled trial evaluating a videogame intervention, PlayForward: Elm City Stories (PlayForward). PlayForward is a videogame developed as a risk reduction and prevention program targeting HIV risk behaviors (substance use and sex) in young minority adolescents. Log files were analyzed to extract the total amount of time spent playing the videogame intervention and the total number of game levels completed and beaten by each player. Results Completing and beating more of the game levels, and not total game play time, was related to higher substance use knowledge scores at the 3- (P=.001) and 6-month (P=.001) follow-ups. Conclusions Our findings highlight the potential contributions a videogame intervention can make to the study of health behavior change. Specifically, the use of objective data collected during game play can address challenges in traditional human-delivered behavioral interventions. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01666496; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01666496 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6cV9fxsOg) PMID:26510775

  9. The evaluation of an analytical protocol for the determination of substances in waste for hazard classification

    SciTech Connect

    Hennebert, Pierre; Papin, Arnaud; Padox, Jean-Marie; Hasebrouck, Benoît

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: • Knowledge of wastes in substances will be necessary to assess HP1–HP15 hazard properties. • A new analytical protocol is proposed for this and tested by two service laboratories on 32 samples. • Sixty-three percentage of the samples have a satisfactory analytical balance between 90% and 110%. • Eighty-four percentage of the samples were classified identically (Seveso Directive) for their hazardousness by the two laboratories. • The method, in progress, is being normalized in France and is be proposed to CEN. - Abstract: The classification of waste as hazardous could soon be assessed in Europe using largely the hazard properties of its constituents, according to the the Classification, Labelling and Packaging (CLP) regulation. Comprehensive knowledge of the component constituents of a given waste will therefore be necessary. An analytical protocol for determining waste composition is proposed, which includes using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) screening methods to identify major elements and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC–MS) screening techniques to measure organic compounds. The method includes a gross or indicator measure of ‘pools’ of higher molecular weight organic substances that are taken to be less bioactive and less hazardous, and of unresolved ‘mass’ during the chromatography of volatile and semi-volatile compounds. The concentration of some elements and specific compounds that are linked to specific hazard properties and are subject to specific regulation (examples include: heavy metals, chromium(VI), cyanides, organo-halogens, and PCBs) are determined by classical quantitative analysis. To check the consistency of the analysis, the sum of the concentrations (including unresolved ‘pools’) should give a mass balance between 90% and 110%. Thirty-two laboratory samples comprising different industrial wastes (liquids and solids) were tested by two routine service laboratories, to give circa 7000 parameter

  10. Malondialdehyde measurement in oxidized foods: evaluation of the spectrophotometric thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) test in various foods.

    PubMed

    Papastergiadis, Antonios; Mubiru, Edward; Van Langenhove, Herman; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2012-09-26

    The ability of the spectrophotometric thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) test to determine malondialdehyde (MDA) in various food matrices was evaluated. MDA was extracted from the foods; the extract reacted with thiobarbituric acid (TBA); and the formed TBA-MDA adduct was measured spectrophotometricaly at 532 nm. In parallel, the TBA-MDA adduct was analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with fluorescence detection. Oils and unprocessed and uncooked meat and fish products did not exhibit any significant difference in the amount of MDA measured by the two methods, indicating that the major substance reacting with TBA and forming an adduct that absorbs at 532 nm was MDA. However, in products such as dry nuts, pork sausages, cooked fish, and gouda cheese, an overestimation of MDA was observed, indicating that TBARS test was unsuitable for accurate determination of MDA. Furthermore, the results in the present work suggest that the overestimation of MDA by the TBARS test as it was applied is related to the interference of other than secondary lipid oxidation products. PMID:22950760

  11. Evaluation of various substances to increase adult Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae) collections on alsynite cylinder traps in north Florida.

    PubMed

    Cilek, J E

    1999-09-01

    During 1993-1995, field studies evaluated various volatile substances to increase the catch of adult stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans L., on adhesive-coated translucent fiberglass (Alsynite) cylinder traps. Dry ice, 1-octen-3-ol (referred to as octenol), acetone, 4:1:8 mixture of 1 octen-3-ol: 3-n-propylphenol: 4-methylphenol, and an eye gnat (Hippelates) attractant were tested. Using dry ice as a baseline, the latter 4 treatments also were considered as possible alternatives to carbon dioxide. Dry ice significantly increased fly collections on cylinders as much as 25-fold compared with cylinders with no odor. Although trap collections increased by approximately 4% with addition of octenol (release rate approximately 18.0 mg/h), it was not significantly different when compared with dry ice alone. Fly collections on cylinders baited with octenol only were significantly lower than dry ice and not significantly different from cylinders with no odor. Collections from Alsynite cylinders baited with either acetone released at approximately 62.0 mg/h or eye gnat bait plus sand caught significantly more stable flies than no odor. However, neither substance increased fly collections as much as dry ice. The 4:1:8 phenolic mixture (released at either 0.7 mg/h or 20.0 mg/h) significantly increased fly collection on cylinders nearly 6-fold compared with no odor and warrants further investigation as an alternative to carbon dioxide for sampling stable flies. PMID:10534955

  12. Evaluation of WaySafe: A Disease-Risk Reduction Curriculum for Substance-Abusing Offenders.

    PubMed

    Lehman, Wayne E K; Rowan, Grace A; Greener, Jack M; Joe, George W; Yang, Yang; Knight, Kevin

    2015-11-01

    With a focus on reducing disease risk behavior in the community, a six-session curriculum, WaySafe, was developed to increase positive decision-making skills among soon-to-be-released inmates participating in a therapeutic community substance abuse treatment program. The intervention used TCU Mapping-Enhanced Counseling as an approach to focus on cognitive aspects of risky sexual and drug use behaviors in an effort to improve problem recognition, commitment to change, and strategies for avoiding behavioral risks of infections. A total of 1393 inmates from eight different institutions in two states were randomly assigned to receive WaySafe or treatment as usual (TAU). Baseline and follow-up surveys measured knowledge, confidence, and motivation regarding general HIV information, risky sex and drug use, HIV testing, and risk reduction skills. WaySafe participants had significantly better scores on all measures at follow-up than did TAU participants, supporting the efficacy of WaySafe in improving knowledge, motivation, and confidence in avoiding risky behaviors. PMID:26059002

  13. The evaluation of an analytical protocol for the determination of substances in waste for hazard classification.

    PubMed

    Hennebert, Pierre; Papin, Arnaud; Padox, Jean-Marie; Hasebrouck, Benoît

    2013-07-01

    The classification of waste as hazardous could soon be assessed in Europe using largely the hazard properties of its constituents, according to the the Classification, Labelling and Packaging (CLP) regulation. Comprehensive knowledge of the component constituents of a given waste will therefore be necessary. An analytical protocol for determining waste composition is proposed, which includes using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) screening methods to identify major elements and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) screening techniques to measure organic compounds. The method includes a gross or indicator measure of 'pools' of higher molecular weight organic substances that are taken to be less bioactive and less hazardous, and of unresolved 'mass' during the chromatography of volatile and semi-volatile compounds. The concentration of some elements and specific compounds that are linked to specific hazard properties and are subject to specific regulation (examples include: heavy metals, chromium(VI), cyanides, organo-halogens, and PCBs) are determined by classical quantitative analysis. To check the consistency of the analysis, the sum of the concentrations (including unresolved 'pools') should give a mass balance between 90% and 110%. Thirty-two laboratory samples comprising different industrial wastes (liquids and solids) were tested by two routine service laboratories, to give circa 7000 parameter results. Despite discrepancies in some parameters, a satisfactory sum of estimated or measured concentrations (analytical balance) of 90% was reached for 20 samples (63% of the overall total) during this first test exercise, with identified reasons for most of the unsatisfactory results. Regular use of this protocol (which is now included in the French legislation) has enabled service laboratories to reach a 90% mass balance for nearly all the solid samples tested, and most of liquid samples (difficulties were caused in some samples from polymers in solution and

  14. A new approach to data evaluation in the non-target screening of organic trace substances in water analysis.

    PubMed

    Müller, Alexander; Schulz, Wolfgang; Ruck, Wolfgang K L; Weber, Walter H

    2011-11-01

    Non-target screening via high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) has gained increasingly in importance for monitoring organic trace substances in water resources targeted for the production of drinking water. In this article a new approach for evaluating the data from non-target HPLC-MS screening in water is introduced and its advantages are demonstrated using the supply of drinking water as an example. The crucial difference between this and other approaches is the comparison of samples based on compounds (features) determined by their full scan data. In so doing, we take advantage of the temporal, spatial, or process-based relationships among the samples by applying the set operators, UNION, INTERSECT, and COMPLEMENT to the features of each sample. This approach regards all compounds, detectable by the used analytical method. That is the fundamental meaning of non-target screening, which includes all analytical information from the applied technique for further data evaluation. In the given example, in just one step, all detected features (1729) of a landfill leachate sample could be examined for their relevant influences on water purification respectively drinking water. This study shows that 1721 out of 1729 features were not relevant for the water purification. Only eight features could be determined in the untreated water and three of them were found in the final drinking water after ozonation. In so doing, it was possible to identify 1-adamantylamine as contamination of the landfill in the drinking water at a concentration in the range of 20 ng L(-1). To support the identification of relevant compounds and their transformation products, the DAIOS database (Database-Assisted Identification of Organic Substances) was used. This database concept includes some functions such as product ion search to increase the efficiency of the database query after the screening. To identify related transformation products the database function

  15. Bulk undercooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kattamis, T. Z.

    1984-01-01

    Bulk undercooling methods and procedures will first be reviewed. Measurement of various parameters which are necessary to understand the solidification mechanism during and after recalescence will be discussed. During recalescence of levitated, glass-encased large droplets (5 to 8 mm diam) high speed temperature sensing devices coupled with a rapid response oscilloscope are now being used at MIT to measure local thermal behavior in hypoeutectic and eutectic binary Ni-Sn alloys. Dendrite tip velocities were measured by various investigators using thermal sensors or high speed cinematography. The confirmation of the validity of solidification models of bulk-undercooled melts is made difficult by the fineness of the final microstructure, the ultra-rapid evolution of the solidifying system which makes measurements very awkward, and the continuous modification of the microstructure which formed during recalescence because of precipitation, remelting and rapid coarsening.

  16. Formula to evaluate efficacy of vaccines and systemic substances against three-host ticks.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, André de Abreu Rangel; Garcia, Marcos Valério; Szabó, Matias Pablo Juan; Barros, Jacqueline Cavalcante; Andreotti, Renato

    2015-05-01

    The control of ticks with vaccines is of global interest. Experimental vaccines incorporate new technologies as soon as they are available. Historically, the main vaccine studies have focused on the one-host cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus, and efficacy evaluations have been standardised for this tick species. On the other hand, evaluations of vaccine candidates for three-host ticks are being done somewhat arbitrarily and thus comparisons within the current literature on the efficacy of vaccines, as well as other methods of control, are difficult. We herein provide a formula for the evaluation of efficacy of a vaccine designed against three-host ticks that incorporates the whole life cycle of the tick. PMID:25765624

  17. Substance p.

    PubMed

    Harrison, S; Geppetti, P

    2001-06-01

    This article provides a brief overview of the history of substance P from its discovery in the 1930s to the present day. The development of substance P receptor agonists and antagonists, and more recently the employment of transgenic mice, provide a framework to explore the functional role of substance P. Chronic inflammation and pain are associated with a number of diseases, and it has been proposed that substance P, released from primary afferent nerve endings play a role in these conditions. Recent developments with substance P antagonists have demonstrated the importance of substance P in several models of disease that span from asthma to chronic bronchitis; from cystitis, inflammatory bowel disease to migraine; emesis, depression, pain and seizures. Advancements in the knowledge of the role of substance P, its agonists and antagonists could provide clinical solutions for a variety of chronic inflammatory conditions. PMID:11378438

  18. ISOLATION OR CONCENTRATION OF ORGANIC SUBSTANCES FROM WATER - AN EVALUATION OF REVERSE OSMOSIS CONCENTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study describes the development and evaluation of a reverse osmosis (RO)/Donnan dialysis system to be used in the preparation of drinking water concentrates for biological testing. Two reverse osmosis membranes, cellulose acetate (Osmonics, Inc.) and FT-30 (Film Tec, Inc.), ...

  19. IN-VITRO METHODS FOR EVALUATING SIDE EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES AND TOXIC SUBSTANCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several skeletal muscle and smooth muscle preparations have been examined for their usefulness in evaluating the toxic effects of a variety of insecticides. The following preparations were found satisfactory for such test: guinea pig ileum for muscarinic receptors, guinea pig hea...

  20. Critical Evaluation of Animal Alternative Tests for the Identification of Endocrine Active Substances

    EPA Science Inventory

    A significant amount of research is currently targeted to evaluate alternative test methods that may reduce, refine, or replace the use of animals, while ensuring human and environmental health and safety. It is important that the information gained from the alternative tests pr...

  1. Critical Evaluation of Animal Alternative Tests for the Identification of Endocrine Active Substances, oral presentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the past 20 years, considerable progress in animal alternatives accompanied by advances in the toxicological sciences and new emphases on aquatic vertebrates has appeared. A significant amount of current research is targeted to evaluate alternative test methods that may reduce...

  2. Mechanical Property and Corrosion Resistance Evaluations of Ti-6Al-7Nb Alloy Brazed with Bulk Metallic Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, E.; Kato, H.; Ogata, Toshiaki; Nishiyama, Nobuyuki; Specht, Eliot D; Shiraishi, Takanobu; Inoue, A.; Hisatsune, K.

    2007-01-01

    Exploitation of metallic glass as new brazing filler for Ti-based biomedical alloy was attempted. Ti-6Al-7Nb was used as a brazed material, and candidates of bulk metallic glass brazing filler were Cu60Hf25Ti15, Mg65Cu25Gd10, Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5 and Pd40Cu30P20Ni10. Convergence infrared-ray brazing was conducted for brazing Ti-6Al-7Nb/metallic glass in Ar atmosphere. After brazing, hardness measurement, X-ray tomography, cross-sectional observation, artificial saliva immersion test and tensile test were performed to evaluate brazability, mechanical property and corrosion resistance of the obtained brazing joints. The results of brazing using these metallic glass fillers show that all the metallic glasses were brazable to Ti-6Al-7Nb except for Mg65Cu25Gd10. Mg65Cu25Gd10, Cu60Hf25Ti15 and their joints collapsed rapidly during immersion test. Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5 joint was the best in terms of degradation resistance; however, tensile strength was inferior to the conventional one. Pd40Cu30Ni10P20 filler and Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5 filler and their joints did not show any collapse or tarnish during the immersion test. Pd40Cu30Ni10P20 joint showed the excellent properties in terms of both corrosion resistance and tensile strength, which were superior to a joint brazed using Ti-15Cu-25Ni conventional filler. X-ray tomograph indicates that fracture tends to occur in the vicinity of the brazing interface after tensile test. The brazed metallic glass fillers were fully crystallized, excluding Pd40Cu30Ni10P20 filler. Pd40Cu30Ni10P20 brazed filler contained mapleleaf like primary dendrite, peritectoid and a few microns interfacial reaction layer in glassy matrix. The results indicated that Pd40Cu30Ni10P20 is promising brazing filler for dental or biomaterial devices.

  3. Evaluation of the adsorptive behavior of cesium and strontium on hydroxyapatite and zeolite for decontamination of radioactive substances.

    PubMed

    Ozeki, K; Aoki, H

    2016-08-12

    Removal of radioactive substances, such as cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr), has become an emerging issue after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Disaster. To assess the possibility that hydroxyapatite (HA) and zeolites can be used for removal of radioactive substances, the adsorption capacities of Cs and Sr on the HA and a zeolite were investigated. The influence of Fe ions on Cs and Sr adsorption on the HA and the zeolite was also evaluated, because Fe ions are the most effective inhibitor of Cs adsorption on the zeolite.In the Cs adsorption process on the HA and the zeolite, the zeolite showed a higher adsorption ratio than the HA, and the maximum sorption capacity of the zeolite was calculated as 196 mg/g, whereas the HA showed a higher Sr adsorption ratio than the zeolite. The maximum sorption capacity of Sr on the HA was 123 mg/g. Under coexistence with Fe, Cs adsorption on the zeolite decreased with increasing Fe concentration, reaching 2.0 ± 0.8% at 0.1 M Fe concentration. In contrast, Cs adsorption on the zeolite was improved by adding the HA. In the case of coexistence of the HA, the Cs adsorption on the mixture of the HA and the zeolite was 52.4% ± 3.6 % at 0.1 M Fe concentration, although Cs adsorption on the HA alone was quite low. In the Fe adsorption processes of the HA and the zeolite, the HA exhibited a maximum sorption capacity of 256 mg/g, which was much higher than that of the zeolite (111 mg/g). The high affinity of Fe on the HA contributes to the improvement of the deteriorated Cs adsorption on the zeolite due to Fe ions. PMID:27567777

  4. Targeting children of substance-using parents with the community-based group intervention TRAMPOLINE: A randomised controlled trial - design, evaluation, recruitment issues

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Children of substance-abusing parents are at risk for developing psychosocial development problems. In Germany it is estimated that approx. 2.65 million children are affected by parental substance abuse or dependence. Only ten percent of them receive treatment when parents are treated. To date, no evaluated programme for children from substance-affected families exists in Germany. The study described in this protocol is designed to test the effectiveness of the group programme TRAMPOLINE for children aged 8-12 years with at least one substance-abusing or -dependent caregiver. The intervention is specifically geared to issues and needs of children from substance-affected families. Methods/Design The effectiveness of the manualised nine-session group programme TRAMPOLINE is tested among N = 218 children from substance-affected families in a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Outpatient counselling facilities across the nation from different settings (rural/urban, Northern/Southern/Eastern/Western regions of the country) will deliver the interventions, as they hold the primary access to the target group in Germany. The control condition is a group programme with the same duration that is not addiction-specific. We expect that participants in the intervention condition will show a significant improvement in the use of adaptive coping strategies (in general and within the family) compared to the control condition as a direct result of the intervention. Data is collected shortly before and after as well as six months after the intervention. Discussion In Germany, the study presented here is the first to develop and evaluate a programme for children of substance-abusing parents. Limitations and strengths are discussed with a special focus on recruitment challenges as they appear to be the most potent threat to feasibility in the difficult-to-access target group at hand (Trial registration: ISRCTN81470784). PMID:22439919

  5. An Evaluation of an Hypothesized Paradigm: The Relationship between Childhood Abuse and Substance Use Mediated by Biopsychosocial Factors among Priority Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Loretta N.

    This study evaluated an hypothesized model of biopsychosocial factors that mediate the relationship between childhood abuse and substance abuse. A questionnaire packet consisting of self-report measures was administered to 160 drug dependent participants with and without co-occurring psychological disorders in residential, partial, and outpatient…

  6. Toxicity evaluation of copper oxide bulk and nanoparticles in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, using hematological, bioaccumulation and histological biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Khalek, Amr A; Badran, Shereen R; Marie, Mohamed-Assem S

    2016-08-01

    The increased industrial applications of nanoparticles (NPs) augment the possibility of their deposition into aquatic ecosystems and threatening the aquatic life. So, this study aimed to provide a comparable toxicological effects of nano-CuO and bulk CuO on a common freshwater fish, Oreochromis niloticus. Fish were exposed to two selected doses (1/10 and 1/20 of the LC50/96 h) of both nano-/bulk CuO for 30 days. Based on the studied hematological parameters (RBCs count, hemoglobin content and hematocrit%), the two selected concentrations of CuO in their nano- and bulk sizes were found to induce significant decrease in all studied parameters. But, nano-CuO-treated fish showed the maximum decrease in all recorded parameters among the all studied groups especially at the low concentration of 1/20 LC50/96 h. Hematological status was also confirmed using the calculated blood indices (MCV, MHC and MCHC). In case of bulk CuO-treated groups, the significant decrease in the studied hematological parameters was not followed by any change in MCV and MCH (normocytic anemia), while fish that exposed to NPs showed a significant increase in all calculated blood parameters reflecting erythrocytes swelling which is related to the intracellular osmotic disorders (macrocytic anemia). Regarding metal bioaccumulation factor, the results showed that CuO NPs had more efficiency to internalize fish tissues (liver, kidneys, gills, skin and muscle). The accumulation pattern of Cu metal was ensured by histopathological investigation of liver, kidneys and gills. The histopathological analysis revealed various alterations that varied between adaptation responses and permanent tissue damage. PMID:26947705

  7. Evaluation of Rotordynamic Coefficients of Look-through Labyrinths by Means of a Three Volume Bulk Flow Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nordmann, R.; Weiser, P.

    1991-01-01

    To describe the compressible, turbulent flow in a labyrinth seal, a three volume bulk flow model is presented. The conservation equations for mass, momentum, and energy are established in every control volume. A perturbation analysis is performed, yielding zeroth order equations for centric rotor position and first order equations describing the flow field for small rotor motions around the seal center. The equations are integrated numerically. From perturbation pressure, the forces on the shaft and the dynamic coefficients are calculated.

  8. The Effect of Substance Abuse Treatment on High Risk Behaviors in the National Treatment Improvement Evaluation Study (NTIES).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, Lawrence; Finkbiner, Richard; Bishop, Sharon

    Substance abusers are at particular risk for becoming infected with, and for spreading, a number of serious communicable diseases. The value of substance abuse treatment in helping to reduce the associated risk behaviors for these diseases is the focus of this technical report. This analysis examines the risk behaviors of injection drug use and…

  9. A hazardous substance exposure prevention rating method for intervention needs assessment and effectiveness evaluation: the Small Business Exposure Index

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Aims This paper describes the refinement and adaptation to small business of a previously developed method for systematically prioritizing needs for intervention on hazardous substance exposures in manufacturing worksites, and evaluating intervention effectiveness. Methods We developed a checklist containing six unique sets of yes/no variables organized in a 2 × 3 matrix of exposure potential versus exposure protection at three levels corresponding to a simplified hierarchy of controls: materials, processes, and human interface. Each of the six sets of indicator variables was reduced to a high/moderate/low rating. Ratings from the matrix were then combined to generate an exposure prevention 'Small Business Exposure Index' (SBEI) Summary score for each area. Reflecting the hierarchy of controls, material factors were weighted highest, followed by process, and then human interface. The checklist administered by an industrial hygienist during walk-through inspection (N = 149 manufacturing processes/areas in 25 small to medium-sized manufacturing worksites). One area or process per manufacturing department was assessed and rated. A second hygienist independently assessed 36 areas to evaluate inter-rater reliability. Results The SBEI Summary scores indicated that exposures were well controlled in the majority of areas assessed (58% with rating of 1 or 2 on a 6-point scale), that there was some room for improvement in roughly one-third of areas (31% of areas rated 3 or 4), and that roughly 10% of the areas assessed were urgently in need of intervention (rated as 5 or 6). Inter-rater reliability of EP ratings was good to excellent (e.g., for SBEI Summary scores, weighted kappa = 0.73, 95% CI 0.52–0.93). Conclusion The SBEI exposure prevention rating method is suitable for use in small/medium enterprises, has good discriminatory power and reliability, offers an inexpensive method for intervention needs assessment and effectiveness evaluation, and complements

  10. 76 FR 51401 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I Amphetamine (1100) II... 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to bulk manufacture cannabidiol as a synthetic intermediate....

  11. 76 FR 51401 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I The... customers. In reference to drug code 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to bulk manufacture cannabidiol...

  12. Mental health care in post-genocide Rwanda: evaluation of a program specializing in posttraumatic stress disorder and substance abuse

    PubMed Central

    Ng, L. C.; Harerimana, B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Following the genocide, millions of Rwandans are likely living with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Le Centre Psychothérapeutique Icyizere provides the only specialized treatment for PTSD in the Rwandan healthcare system. Methods Demographics, diagnosis, treatment, outcomes, and scores on assessments of functioning and PTSD were recorded from clinical charts of all patients receiving care between October 2013 and 2014. Descriptive statistics and within-group t tests comparing functional impairment and PTSD symptoms at intake to discharge and follow-up were calculated. Results A total of 719 patients (55.08% male) received care. Patients were more educated, more likely to live in the capital, and less likely to be married than the general population. Patients reported high desire for, and strong satisfaction with, care. Most patients (55.60%) were still in care by the end of the program evaluation. Functioning improved from intake to discharge (p < 0.001), and improvements were sustained at follow-up (p < 0.001). Most adults were diagnosed with psychotic disorders, substance use disorders, or depression. Only 20 patients were diagnosed with PTSD, and symptoms were improved at discharge (p = 0.003). Conclusions This program evaluation demonstrated the utility of a low-resource information management system to provide clarity about the patient population and outcomes. Results suggest that services are effective and sustainable, although people with PTSD were not the primary recipients of care. Disparities in care by diagnosis, education, marital status, and geography are discussed. Results have contributed to changes in service delivery and care and efforts to increase access to care. PMID:27610238

  13. ZnS and ZnSe immersion gratings for astronomical high-resolution spectroscopy - evaluation of internal attenuation of bulk materials in the short NIR region

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, Y; Kobayashi, N; Kondo, S; Yasui, C; Kuzmenko, P J; Tokoro, H; Terada, H

    2009-08-12

    We measure the internal attenuation of bulk crystals of CVD-ZnS, CVD-ZnSe, Si, and GaAs, in the short near-infrared (sNIR) region to evaluate the possibility of astronomical immersion gratings with those high refractive index materials. We confirm that multispectral grade CVD-ZnS and CVD-ZnSe are best suited for the immersion gratings, with the smallest internal attenuation of {alpha}{sub att} = 0.01-0.03 cm{sup -1} among the major candidates. The measured attenuation is roughly in proportion to {lambda}{sup -2}, suggesting it is dominated by bulk scattering due to the polycrystalline grains rather than by absorption. The total transmittance in the immersion grating is estimated to be at least > 80 %, even for the spectral resolution of R = 300,000. Two potential problems, the scattered light by the bulk material and the degradation of the spectral resolution due to the gradient illumination in the diffracted beam, are investigated and found to be negligible for usual astronomical applications. Since the remaining problem, the difficulty of cutting grooves on CVD-ZnS and CVD-ZnSe, has recently been overcome by the nanoprecision fly-cutting technique, ZnS and ZnSe immersion gratings for astronomy can be technically realized.

  14. Evaluation of soft error rates using nuclear probes in bulk and SOI SRAMs with a technology node of 90 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abo, Satoshi; Masuda, Naoyuki; Wakaya, Fujio; Onoda, Shinobu; Hirao, Toshio; Ohshima, Takeshi; Iwamatsu, Toshiaki; Takai, Mikio

    2010-06-01

    The difference of soft error rates (SERs) in conventional bulk Si and silicon-on-insulator (SOI) static random access memories (SRAMs) with a technology node of 90 nm has been investigated by helium ion probes with energies ranging from 0.8 to 6.0 MeV and a dose of 75 ions/μm 2. The SERs in the SOI SRAM were also investigated by oxygen ion probes with energies ranging from 9.0 to 18.0 MeV and doses of 0.14-0.76 ions/μm 2. The soft error in the bulk and SOI SRAMs occurred by helium ion irradiation with energies at and above 1.95 and 2.10 MeV, respectively. The SER in the bulk SRAM saturated with ion energies at and above 2.5 MeV. The SER in the SOI SRAM became the highest by helium ion irradiation at 2.5 MeV and drastically decreased with increasing the ion energies above 2.5 MeV, in which helium ions at this energy range generated the maximum amount of excess charge carriers in a SOI body. The soft errors occurred by helium ions were induced by a floating body effect due to generated excess charge carriers in the channel regions. The soft error occurred by oxygen ion irradiation with energies at and above 10.5 MeV in the SOI SRAM. The SER in the SOI SRAM gradually increased with energies from 10.5 to 13.5 MeV and saturated at 18 MeV, in which the amount of charge carriers induced by oxygen ions in this energy range gradually increased. The computer calculation indicated that the oxygen ions with energies above 13.0 MeV generated more excess charge carriers than the critical charge of the 90 nm node SOI SRAM with the designed over-layer thickness. The soft errors, occurred by oxygen ions with energies at and below 12.5 MeV, were induced by a floating body effect due to the generated excess charge carriers in the channel regions and those with energies at and above 13.0 MeV were induced by both the floating body effect and generated excess carriers. The difference of the threshold energy of the oxygen ions between the experiment and the computer calculation might

  15. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of bulk aqueous solutions at oceanic pressures: evaluation of key measurement parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Michel, Anna P. M.; Lawrence-Snyder, Marion; Angel, S. Michael; Chave, Alan D

    2007-05-01

    The development of in situ chemical sensors is critical for present-day expeditionary oceanography and the new mode of ocean observing systems that we are entering. New sensors take a significant amount of time to develop; therefore, validation of techniques in the laboratory for use in the ocean environment is necessary. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a promising in situ technique for oceanography. Laboratory investigations on the feasibility of using LIBS to detect analytes in bulk liquids at oceanic pressures were carried out. LIBS was successfully used to detect dissolved Na, Mn, Ca, K, and Li at pressures up to 2.76x107 Pa. The effects of pressure, laser-pulse energy, interpulse delay, gate delay, temperature, and NaCl concentration on the LIBS signal were examined. An optimal range of laser-pulse energies was found to exist for analyte detection in bulk aqueous solutions at both low and high pressures. No pressure effect was seen on the emission intensity for Ca and Na, and an increase in emission intensity with increased pressure was seen for Mn. Using the dual-pulse technique for several analytes, a very short interpulse delay resulted in the greatest emission intensity. The presence of NaCl enhanced the emission intensity for Ca, but had no effect on peak intensity of Mn or K. Overall, increased pressure, the addition of NaCl to a solution, and temperature did not inhibit detection of analytes in solution and sometimes even enhanced the ability to detect the analytes. The results suggest that LIBS is a viable chemical sensing method for in situ analyte detection in high-pressure environments such as the deep ocean.

  16. Evaluation of performance including influence by interfering substances of the Innovance D-dimer assay on the Sysmex coagulation analyzer.

    PubMed

    Park, Seo-Jin; Chi, Hyun-Sook; Chun, Soh Hyun; Jang, Seongsoo; Park, Chan-Jeoung

    2011-01-01

    D-dimer is formed during activation of the coagulation system and is commonly assayed in order to diagnose disseminated intravascular coagulation, deep vein thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay has been validated as the reference method, but it is a time-consuming procedure. The objective of this study was to evaluate a new immunoturbidimetric, particle-enhanced, Innovance(®) D-dimer immunoassay. A total of 129 plasma samples from apparently healthy individuals and 298 samples from patients were collected for linearity, precision, and correlation studies. Testing the precision of low- and high-controls yielded CV values of 2.08% and 1.76%, respectively. The central 95% non-parametric reference interval estimated from healthy controls was 0.093-0.68 mg/L Fibrinogen Equivalent Units (FEU; median, 0.26 mg/L FEU). Comparison analysis yielded acceptable correlation with the STA Liatest(®) D-dimer assay (R(2) = 0.9471). At a cut-off level of <0.5 mg/L FEU, the sensitivity and specificity indices of the Innovance D-dimer assay were 99.7% and 89.1%, respectively. Thus the Innovance D-dimer method showed acceptable precision and linearity, and the assay results showed acceptable correlation with the STA Liatest D-dimer method. The Innovance method was relatively unaffected by potential interfering substances such as bilirubin and hemoglobin. In conclusion, the Innovance D-dimer assay is suitable for monitoring D-dimer concentrations in various clinical conditions and should be useful in clinical laboratories. PMID:21325250

  17. A simple and rapid extraction method for sensitive determination of perfluoroalkyl substances in blood serum suitable for exposure evaluation.

    PubMed

    Luque, Noelia; Ballesteros-Gómez, Ana; van Leeuwen, Stefan; Rubio, Soledad

    2012-04-27

    In this work, we propose a microextraction method based on a new supramolecular solvent (SUPRAS) made up of reverse aggregates of hexanoic acid, combined with liquid chromatography/triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC/QQQ MS-MS) for the determination of the perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in blood serum. A SUPRAS is a nano-structured liquid made up of surfactant aggregates synthesized through a self-assembly process. The method involved the acidification of 765 μL of blood serum (600 μmol of hydrochloric acid per mL of serum) followed by the addition of hexanoic acid (97 μL) and tetrahydrofuran (THF) (600 μL), conditions under which the supramolecular solvent (∼360 μL) formed in situ after vortex-shaking and centrifugation. Parameters affecting extraction efficiency and concentration factors were studied. The overall sample treatment took only 20 min and several samples (20-30) can be simultaneously analyzed using conventional lab equipments, making additional investments unnecessary. Recoveries for the internal standards in samples ranged from 75 to 89% with relative standard deviations between 1 and 15%. Calibration was based on the use of internal standards. The method was very sensitive with detection limits ranging from 2 to 20 pg mL(-1) for PFASs. The approach developed was successfully applied to the determination of PFASs in different blood serum samples. The concentration of PFASs found in samples of animal origin ranged between 17 and 197.3 pg mL(-1) and between 84 and 5168 pg mL(-1) in samples of human origin. Both the analytical and operational features of this method make it suitable for the evaluation of exposure to PFASs. PMID:22420956

  18. An evaluation of the impact of ‘Lifeskills’ training on road safety, substance use and hospital attendance in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Teyhan, Alison; Cornish, Rosie; Macleod, John; Boyd, Andy; Doerner, Rita; Sissons Joshi, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate if attendance at Lifeskills, a safety education centre for children in Year 6 (10–11 years), is associated with engagement in safer behaviours, and with fewer accidents and injuries, in adolescence. Methods The sample are participants in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children who attended school in the Lifeskills catchment area in Year 6; 60% attended Lifeskills. At 14–15 years, participants (n approximately 3000, varies by outcome) self-reported road safety behaviours and accidents, and perceived health effects and use of alcohol, cannabis, and tobacco. Additional outcomes from linkage to Hospital Episodes Statistics were available for a sub-sample (n = 1768): hospital admittance (for accident-related reason, from 11–16 years) and A&E attendance (for any reason, from approximately 14–16 years). Results Children who attended Lifeskills were more likely to report using pedestrian crossings on their way to school than children who did not attend (59% versus 52%). Lifeskills attendance was unrelated to the ownership of cycle helmets, or the use of cycle helmets, seat belts, or reflective/fluorescent clothing, or to A&E attendance. Use of cycle helmets (37%) and reflective/fluorescent clothing (<4%) on last cycle was low irrespective of Lifeskills attendance. Lifeskills attendance was associated with less reported smoking and cannabis use, but was generally unrelated to perceptions of the health impact of substance use. Conclusions Lifeskills attendance was associated with some safer behaviours in adolescence. The overall low use of cycle helmets and reflective/fluorescent clothing evidences the need for powerful promotion of some safer behaviours at Lifeskills and at follow-up in schools. PMID:26540015

  19. 76 FR 62449 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ..., Johnson Matthey, Inc., Custom Pharmaceuticals Department, 2003 Nolte Drive, West Deptford, New Jersey... a bulk manufacturer of Diphenoxylate (9170), a basic class of controlled substance listed in schedule II. The company plans to manufacture the listed controlled substance for sale in bulk to...

  20. LC-MS of novel narcoepileptics and related substances.

    PubMed

    Rao, Ramisetti Nageswara; Shinde, Dhananjay D; Ramesh, Venna; Srinivas, Ragampeta

    2009-05-01

    Modafinil, adrafinil and their related substances were synthesized and analyzed by RP-LC with ESI-MS/MS. The ionization mode, polarity, cone voltage, and chromatographic conditions were evaluated. The optimum LC-MS conditions to obtain fragment ions indispensable for identification of the structures were described. The bulk drugs purity of modafinil and adrafinil was evaluated on Kromasil C(18) column with ACN/0.02 M ammonium acetate as mobile phase in gradient elution mode at 30 degrees C. The method was found to be suitable not only for monitoring the reactions during the process development but also for quality assurance of modafinil and adrafinil. PMID:19399862

  1. The electrochemical evaluation of a Zr-based bulk metallic glass in a phosphate-buffered saline electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Morrison, M L; Buchanan, R A; Leon, R V; Liu, C T; Green, B A; Liaw, P K; Horton, J A

    2005-09-01

    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) represent an emerging class of materials with an amorphous structure and a unique combination of properties. The objectives of this investigation were to define the electrochemical behavior of a specific Zr-based BMG alloy in a physiologically relevant environment and to compare these properties to standard, crystalline biomaterials as well as other Zr-based BMG compositions. Cyclic-anodic-polarization studies were conducted with a Zr52.5Cu17.9Ni14.6Al10.0Ti5.0 (at %) BMG in a phosphate-buffered saline electrolyte with a physiologically relevant oxygen content at 37 degrees C. The results were compared to three common, crystalline biomaterials: CoCrMo, 316L stainless steel, and Ti-6Al-4V. The BMG alloy was found to have a lower corrosion penetration rate (CPR), as compared to the 316L stainless steel, and an equivalent CPR, as compared to the CoCrMo and Ti-6Al-4V alloys. Furthermore, the BMG alloy demonstrated better localized corrosion resistance than the 316L stainless steel. However, the localized corrosion resistance of the BMG alloy was not as high as those of the CoCrMo and Ti-6Al-4V alloys in the tested environment. The excellent electrochemical properties demonstrated by the BMG alloy are combined with a low modulus and unparalleled strength. This unique combination of properties dramatically demonstrates the potential for amorphous alloys as a new generation of biomaterials. PMID:16013063

  2. The electrochemical Evaluation of a Zr-Based Bulk Metallic Glass in a Phosphate-Buffered Saline Electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, M. L.; Buchanan, R. A.; Leon, R. V.; Liu, Chain T; Green, B. A.; Liaw, Peter K; Horton Jr, Joe A

    2005-01-01

    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) represent an emerging class of materials with an amorphous structure and a unique combination of properties. The objectives of this investigation were to define the electrochemical behavior of a specific Zr-based BMG alloy in a physiologically relevant environment and to compare these properties to standard, crystalline biomaterials as well as other Zr-based BMG compositions. Cyclic-anodic-polarization studies were conducted with a Zr{sub 52.5}Cu{sub 17.9}Ni{sub 14.6}Al{sub 10.0}Ti{sub 5.0} (at %) BMG in a phosphate-buffered saline electrolyte with a physiologically relevant oxygen content at 37 C. The results were compared to three common, crystalline biomaterials: CoCrMo, 316L stainless steel, and Ti-6Al-4V. The BMG alloy was found to have a lower corrosion penetration rate (CPR), as compared to the 316L stainless steel, and an equivalent CPR, as compared to the CoCrMo and Ti-6Al-4V alloys. Furthermore, the BMG alloy demonstrated better localized corrosion resistance than the 316L stainless steel. However, the localized corrosion resistance of the BMG alloy was not as high as those of the CoCrMo and Ti-6Al-4V alloys in the tested environment. The excellent electrochemical properties demonstrated by the BMG alloy are combined with a low modulus and unparalleled strength. This unique combination of properties dramatically demonstrates the potential for amorphous alloys as a new generation of biomaterials.

  3. First tier modeling of consumer dermal exposure to substances in consumer articles under REACH: a quantitative evaluation of the ECETOC TRA for consumers tool.

    PubMed

    Delmaar, J E; Bokkers, B G H; ter Burg, W; van Engelen, J G M

    2013-02-01

    The demonstration of safe use of chemicals in consumer products, as required under REACH, is proposed to follow a tiered process. In the first tier, simple conservative methods and assumptions should be made to quickly verify whether risks for a particular use are expected. The ECETOC TRA Consumer Exposure Tool was developed to assist in first tier risk assessments for substances in consumer products. The ECETOC TRA is not a prioritization tool, but is meant as a first screening. Therefore, the exposure assessment needs to cover all products/articles in a specific category. For the assessment of the dermal exposure for substances in articles, ECETOC TRA uses the concept of a 'contact layer', a hypothetical layer that limits the exposure to a substance contained in the product. For each product/article category, ECETOC TRA proposes default values for the thickness of this contact layer. As relevant experimental exposure data is currently lacking, default values are based on expert judgment alone. In this paper it is verified whether this concept meets the requirement of being a conservative exposure evaluation method. This is done by confronting the ECETOC TRA expert judgment based predictions with a mechanistic emission model, based on the well established theory of diffusion of substances in materials. Diffusion models have been applied and tested in many applications of emission modeling. Experimentally determined input data for a number of material and substance combinations are available. The estimated emissions provide information on the range of emissions that could occur in reality. First tier tools such as ECETOC TRA tool are required to cover all products/articles in a category and to provide estimates that are at least as high as is expected on the basis of current scientific knowledge. Since this was not the case, it is concluded that the ECETOC TRA does not provide a proper conservative estimation method for the dermal exposure to articles. An

  4. Evaluating the Direction of Effects in the Relationship between Religious versus Non-Religious Activities, Academic Success, and Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, Marie; Willoughby, Teena

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study tested the "influence of involvement" and "selection" hypotheses for the association between religious versus non-religious activity involvement and two salient indicators of adolescent psychosocial adjustment (substance use and academic achievement). Participants included 3,993 Canadian adolescents (49.4% girls) who were…

  5. Measuring Negative Consequences of College Student Substance Use: A Psychometric Evaluation of the Core Alcohol and Drug Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Matthew P.; Brown, Natashia T.; Donovan, Brooke M.; Dude, Kim

    2005-01-01

    A commonly used instrument to assess negative consequences of substance use among college students is the Core Alcohol and Drug Survey (CADS; C. A. Presley, P. W. Meilman, & J. S. Leichliter, 1998; C. A. Presley, P. W. Meilman, & R. Lyerla, 1993). Results from 2 studies suggest that a subset of CADS negative consequences items can be explained by…

  6. Counting Girls Out: A Review of Suicide among Young Substance Misusers and Gender Difference Implications in the Evaluation of Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Lucy

    2009-01-01

    This literature review examines the evidence of suicide risk among young female substance misusers in comparison with their male counterparts, and considers arguments that suicide risk is underestimated for this group due to the methodological difficulties presented by small cohort numbers. Existing evidence indicates significant gender…

  7. Evaluating integrated MI and CBT for people with psychosis and substance misuse: recruitment, retention and sample characteristics of the MIDAS trial.

    PubMed

    Barrowclough, Christine; Haddock, Gillian; Beardmore, Ruth; Conrod, Patricia; Craig, Tom; Davies, Linda; Dunn, Graham; Lewis, Shôn; Moring, Jan; Tarrier, Nick; Wykes, Til

    2009-10-01

    Major problems with existing RCTs evaluating psychosocial interventions for psychosis and substance misuse have been identified, in particular small sample sizes, high attrition rates, and short follow up periods. With a sample size of 327 and a follow up of 2 years, the MIDAS trial in the UK is to date the largest RCT for people with psychosis and substance use and is evaluating an integrated MI and CBT ("MiCBT") client therapy. Whilst the outcomes of the study are not yet available, data on recruitment and retention indicate that attrition rates in MIDAS are low and the majority of those allocated to treatment received a substantial number of therapy sessions. Sample characteristics are in line with those reported in epidemiological studies and are indicative of the challenges facing mental health services attempting to manage the client group: substance use is often longstanding, with frequent use at moderate or severe level and low motivation for change, and seen in the context of low levels of functioning and significant psychopathology. We conclude that this is a methodologically robust study that will have results generalisable to mental health services. PMID:19362429

  8. Risks and Chemical Substances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumberg, Avrom A.

    1994-01-01

    Examines exposure to chemicals within the home and three important ways in which hazardous substances can be identified and evaluated. Suggests a rational picture of human health risks and contains an introductory discussion of reasons for exposure, epidemiology, cancer causes and patterns, animal testing, toxins, and risk. (LZ)

  9. Long-term consequences of non-intentional flows of substances: Modelling non-intentional flows of lead in the Dutch economic system and evaluating their environmental consequences

    SciTech Connect

    Elshkaki, Ayman Voet, Ester van der; Holderbeke, Mirja van; Timmermans, Veerle

    2009-06-15

    Substances may enter the economy and the environment through both intentional and non-intentional flows. These non-intentional flows, including the occurrence of substances as pollutants in mixed primary resources (metal ores, phosphate ores and fossil fuels) and their presence in re-used waste streams from intentional use may have environmental and economic consequences in terms of pollution and resource availability. On the one hand, these non-intentional flows may cause pollution problems. On the other hand, these flows have the potential to be a secondary source of substances. This article aims to quantify and model the non-intentional flows of lead, to evaluate their long-term environmental consequences, and compare these consequences to those of the intentional flows of lead. To meet this goal, the model combines all the sources of non-intentional flows of lead within one model, which also includes the intentional flows. Application of the model shows that the non-intentional flows of lead related to waste streams associated with intentional use are decreasing over time, due to the increased attention given to waste management. However, as contaminants in mixed primary resources application, lead flows are increasing as demand for these applications is increasing.

  10. Comparative evaluation of acute and chronic toxicities of CuO nanoparticles and bulk using Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri.

    PubMed

    Rossetto, Ana Letícia de O F; Melegari, Silvia Pedroso; Ouriques, Luciane Cristina; Matias, William Gerson

    2014-08-15

    Copper oxide (CuO) has various applications, as highlighted by the incorporation of this compound as a biocide of antifouling paints for coating ships and offshore oil platforms. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the aquatic toxicity of CuO nanoparticles (NPs) and microparticles (MPs) through acute and chronic toxicity tests with the freshwater microcrustacean Daphnia magna and an acute toxicity test with the bioluminescent marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri. Acute toxicity results for D. magna in tests with CuO NPs (EC50, 48 h=22 mg L(-1)) were ten times higher than those for tests with CuO MPs (EC50, 48 h=223.6 mg L(-1)). In both periods of exposure of V. fischeri, the CuO NPs (EC50, 15m 248±56.39 - equivalent to 12.40%; EC50, 30 m 257.6±30.8 mg L(-1) - equivalent to 12.88%) were more toxic than the CuO MPs (EC50, 15m 2404.6±277.4 - equivalent to 60.10%; EC50, 30 m 1472.9±244.7 mg L(-1) - equivalent to 36.82%). In chronic toxicity tests, both forms of CuO showed significant effects (p<0.05) on the growth and reproduction parameters of the D. magna relative to the control. Additionally, morphological changes, such as lack of apical spine development and malformed carapaces in D. magna, were observed for organisms after the chronic test. The toxicity results demonstrate that CuO NPs have a higher level of toxicity than CuO MPs, emphasizing the need for comparative toxicological studies to correctly classify these two forms of CuO with identical CAS registration numbers. PMID:24907615

  11. Assays of the production of harmful substances by genetically modified oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) plants in accordance with regulations for evaluating the impact on biodiversity in Japan.

    PubMed

    Asanuma, Yoko; Jinkawa, Tomoe; Tanaka, Hidenori; Gondo, Takahiro; Zaita, Norihiro; Akashi, Ryo

    2011-02-01

    Environmental risk assessment of transgenic crops is implemented under the Cartagena Protocol domestic law in accordance with guidelines for implementing the assessment established by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF) and the Ministry of Environment (MOE) in Japan. Environmental risk assessments of transgenic crops are implemented based on the concept of 'substantial equivalence' to conventional crops. A unique requirement in Japan to monitor the production of harmful substances, or allelochemicals, is unparalleled in other countries. The potential for allelochemicals to be secreted from the roots of transgenic crops to affect other plants or soil microflora or for substances in the plant body to affect other plants after dying out must be evaluated. We evaluated the allelopathic potential of seven transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) lines that express glufosinate tolerance in terms of substantial equivalence to conventional oilseed rape lines, and established evaluation methods. Our results indicate no potential production of allelochemicals for any of the seven transgenic oilseed rape lines compared with conventional oilseed rape lines. PMID:20607604

  12. Evaluation of underlying mechanisms in the link between childhood ADHD symptoms and risk for early initiation of substance use.

    PubMed

    Vitulano, Michael L; Fite, Paula J; Hopko, Derek R; Lochman, John; Wells, Karen; Asif, Irfan

    2014-09-01

    Although there has been support for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as a risk for early substance use, this link is not fully established or understood. Furthermore, the potential mechanisms explaining these associations are unclear. The current study examined peer rejection, school bonding, and internalizing problems as potential mediators of the association between childhood ADHD symptoms and risk for early initiation of substance use. The sample included a control group of 126 students with problematic aggression (79% African American, 66% male) from an intervention study following children from fourth to ninth grade. Results suggested that ADHD symptoms follow a path to early initiation of tobacco use through the combined effects of peer rejection and internalizing problems as well as through internalizing problems alone. ADHD symptoms were also associated with the cubic slope of marijuana use initiation, such that increased ADHD symptoms were associated with a strong cubic trend (e.g., a more rapid acceleration of risk for initiation). ADHD symptoms were not associated with risk for early initiation of alcohol use. Identification of important vulnerability factors in children with ADHD symptoms highlight the need for primary prevention and psychological interventions that target these factors and decrease the likelihood of early tobacco and marijuana use initiation. PMID:25222174

  13. Solid state NMR spectroscopy in the evaluation of the conformational changes of humic substances as affected by thermal variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pasquale, C.; Berns, A. E.; Kucerik, J.; Conte, P.; Alonzo, G.

    2009-04-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is an ubiquitous, complex material which is produced by the degradation of plant tissues and animal bodies. It is the major indicator of soil quality since it is directly involved in the maintenance of soil fertility, prevention of erosion and desert encroachment and provision of suitable environment for biological activity. Organic matter is an important driving force in environmental global change as it acts as both a source and sink of atmospheric carbon. However, SOM is subjected to rapid changes due to environmental transformations such as massive deforestations, fires, intensive land uses, temperature increases and so on. In the present work, a characterization of humic substances was done in order to obtain information about the transformation occurring to SOM as affected by temperature increases. For the first time variable temperature cross polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) 13C NMR spectroscopy was applied in combination with thermal analyses (TG and DSC) on environmentally relevant soil organic matter. The results show that the conformational changes occurring in humic substances as temperature is raised can be associated to melting of alkyl components connected with sublimation of some organic compounds. The simultaneous application of solid phase micro extraction GC-MS also allowed the identification of the components which were released by sublimation processes.

  14. EVALUATION OF PLASMA SUBSTANCE P AND BETA‐ENDORPHIN LEVELS IN CHILDREN WITH PRADER‐WILLI SYNDROME

    PubMed Central

    Butler, M.G.; Nelson, T. A.; Driscoll, D.J.; Manzardo, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare obesity-related genetic disorder often caused by a deletion of the chromosome 15q11–q13 region inherited from the father or by maternal disomy 15. Growth hormone deficiency with short stature, hypogonadism, cognitive and behavioral problems, analgesia, decreased gastric motility and decreased ability to vomit with hyperphagia are common in PWS leading to severe obesity in early childhood, if not controlled. Substance P (SP) and beta-endorphin (BE) are neuropeptides involved with centrally and peripherally mediated pain perception, emotional regulation, and gastric motility impacting nausea, emesis and feeding patterns. Objective The goal of this study was to investigate potential mechanisms for PWS symptom development for pain, emotion and gastric motility and plasma levels of substance P and beta-endorphin between PWS and unrelated unaffected children. Methodology Plasma samples were collected from 23 Caucasian children with PWS and 18 unrelated, unaffected siblings with an average age of 8.2 ±2.0 years and age range of 5 to 11 years following an overnight fast and neuropeptide substance p and beta-endorphin levels were assessed using Multiplex sandwich immunoassays using the Luminex magnetic-bead based platform. Linear regression analysis was carried out on log-transformed values adjusted for age, sex, and body mass index (BMI). Results The mean plasma SP (57 ± 23 pg/ml) and BE (592 ± 200 pg/ml) levels in PWS were significantly higher than SP (35 ± 20 pg/ml, F=10.5, P<0.01) and BE (402 ± 162 pg/ml, F=10.8, P<0.01) levels found in unrelated, unaffected siblings suggesting a previously uncharacterized neuroendocrine pathophysiology in PWS. Conclusions The increased BE and SP plasma levels relative to unrelated, unaffected siblings may contribute to hyperphagia, abnormal pain sensation and adrenal insufficiency seen in PWS. Increases in SP levels may be modulated by central and/or peripheral actions of BE on

  15. Screening for addiction in patients with chronic pain and "problematic" substance use: evaluation of a pilot assessment tool.

    PubMed

    Compton, P; Darakjian, J; Miotto, K

    1998-12-01

    Assessing for the presence of addiction in the chronic pain patient receiving chronic opioid analgesia is a challenging clinical task. This paper presents a recently developed screening tool for addictive disease in chronic pain patients, and pilot efficacy data describing its ability to do so. In a small sample of patients (n = 52) referred from a multidisciplinary pain center for "problematic" medication use, responses to the screening questionnaire were compared between patients who met combined diagnostic criteria for a substance use disorder and those who did not, as assessed by a trained addiction medicine specialist. Responses of addicted patients significantly differed from those of nonaddicted patients on multiple screening items, with the two groups easily differentiated by total questionnaire score. Further, three key screening indicators were identified as excellent predictors for the presence of addictive disease in this sample of chronic pain patients. PMID:9879160

  16. Evaluation of a substance abuse, HIV and hepatitis prevention initiative for urban Native Americans: the Native Voices program.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Kyle; Tom, Nazbah

    2011-01-01

    Although many community-based prevention interventions are conducted in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities, few studies report the outcomes. This article is a mixed methods outcome evaluation of an HIV/AIDS, hepatitis, and substance abuse prevention intervention for an urban AI/AN community, Native Voices. The study group wascomposed of 100youth (ages 13 to 18) who lived in the San Francisco Bay Area. The outcome measures of interest were knowledge, perception of risk, sexual self-efficacy, ethnic identity, and sexual risk behavior. The findings indicate that knowledge, perception of risk, and sexual self-efficacy increased, while no change was shown in measures of ethnic identity and behavior. Findings extended prior research by evaluating the Gathering of Native Americans (GONA) curriculum, a promising intervention designed for AI/AN people. PMID:22400468

  17. Bulk-wave and guided-wave photoacoustic evaluation of the mechanical properties of aluminum/silicon nitride double-layer thin films.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feifei; Krishnaswamy, Sridhar; Lilley, Carmen M

    2006-12-01

    The development of devices made of micro- and nano-structured thin film materials has resulted in the need for advanced measurement techniques to characterize their mechanical properties. Photoacoustic techniques, which use pulsed laser irradiation to nondestructively induce very high frequency ultrasound in a test object via rapid thermal expansion, are suitable for nondestructive and non-contact evaluation of thin films. In this paper, we compare two photoacoustic techniques to characterize the mechanical parameters of edge-supported aluminum and silicon nitride double-layer thin films. The elastic properties and residual stresses in such films affect their mechanical performance. In a first set of experiments, a femtosecond transient pump-probe technique is used to investigate the Young's moduli of the aluminum and silicon nitride layers by launching ultra-high frequency bulk acoustic waves in the films. The measured transient signals are compared with simulated transient thermoelastic signals in multi-layer structures, and the elastic moduli are determined. Independent pump-probe tests on silicon substrate-supported region and unsupported region are in good agreement. In a second set of experiments, dispersion curves of the A(0) mode of the Lamb waves that propagate along the unsupported films are measured using a broadband photoacoustic guided-wave method. The residual stresses and flexural rigidities for the same set of double-layer membranes are determined from these dispersion curves. Comparisons of the results obtained by the two photoacoustic techniques are made and discussed. PMID:16899268

  18. Implementation and evaluation of a harm-reduction model for clinical care of substance using pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Methamphetamine (MA) use during pregnancy is associated with many pregnancy complications, including preterm birth, small for gestational age, preeclampsia, and abruption. Hawaii has lead the nation in MA use for many years, yet prior to 2007, did not have a comprehensive plan to care for pregnant substance-using women. In 2006, the Hawaii State Legislature funded a pilot perinatal addiction clinic. The Perinatal Addiction Treatment Clinic of Hawaii was built on a harm-reduction model, encompassing perinatal care, transportation, child-care, social services, family planning, motivational incentives, and addiction medicine. We present the implementation model and results from our first one hundred three infants (103) seen over 3 years of operation of the program. Methods Referrals came from community health centers, hospitals, addiction treatment facilities, private physician offices, homeless outreach services and self-referral through word-of-mouth and bus ads. Data to describe sample characteristics and outcome was obtained prospectively and retrospectively from chart abstraction and delivery data. Drug use data was obtained from the women's self-report and random urine toxicology during the pregnancy, as well as urine toxicology at the time of birth on mothers, and urine and meconium toxicology on the infants. Post-partum depression was measured in mothers with the Edinburgh Post-Partum depression scale. Data from Path clinic patients were compared with a representative cohort of women delivering at Kapiolani Medical Center for Women and Children during the same time frame, who were enrolled in another study of pregnancy outcomes. Ethical approval for this study was obtained through the University of Hawaii Committee for Human Studies. Results Between April 2007 and August 2010, 213 women with a past or present history of addiction were seen, 132 were pregnant and 97 delivered during that time. 103 live-born infants were delivered. There were 3 first

  19. ROTARY BULK SOLIDS DIVIDER

    DOEpatents

    Maronde, Carl P.; Killmeyer JR., Richard P.

    1992-03-03

    An apparatus for the disbursement of a bulk solid sample comprising, a gravity hopper having a top open end and a bottom discharge end, a feeder positioned beneath the gravity hopper so as to receive a bulk solid sample flowing from the bottom discharge end, and a conveyor receiving the bulk solid sample from the feeder and rotating on an axis that allows the bulk solid sample to disperse the sample to a collection station.

  20. Rotary bulk solids divider

    DOEpatents

    Maronde, Carl P.; Killmeyer, Jr., Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for the disbursement of a bulk solid sample comprising, a gravity hopper having a top open end and a bottom discharge end, a feeder positioned beneath the gravity hopper so as to receive a bulk solid sample flowing from the bottom discharge end, and a conveyor receiving the bulk solid sample from the feeder and rotating on an axis that allows the bulk solid sample to disperse the sample to a collection station.

  1. Hydrogen interstitial in H-ion implanted ZnO bulk single crystals: Evaluation by elastic recoil detection analysis and electron paramagnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaida, T.; Kamioka, K.; Nishimura, T.; Kuriyama, K.; Kushida, K.; Kinomura, A.

    2015-12-01

    The origins of low resistivity in H ion-implanted ZnO bulk single crystals are evaluated by elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and Van der Pauw methods. The H-ion implantation (peak concentration: 5.0 × 1015 cm-2) into ZnO is performed using a 500 keV implanter. The maximum of the concentration of the implanted H estimated by a TRIM simulation is at 3600 nm in depth. The resistivity decreases from ∼103 Ω cm for un implanted ZnO to 6.5 Ω cm for as-implanted, 2.3 × 10-1 Ω cm for 200 °C annealed, and 3.2 × 10-1 Ω cm for 400 °C annealed samples. The ERDA measurements can evaluate the concentration of hydrogens which move to the vicinity of the surface (surface to 300 nm or 100 nm) because of the diffusion by the annealing at 200 °C and 400 °C. The hydrogen concentration near the surface estimated using the 2.0 MeV helium beam is ∼3.8 × 1013 cm-2 for annealed samples. From EPR measurements, the oxygen vacancy of +charge state (Vo+) is observed in as-implanted samples. The Vo+ related signal (g = 1.96) observed under no illumination disappears after successive illumination with a red LED and appears again with a blue light illumination. The activation energy of as-implanted, 200 °C annealed, and 400 °C annealed samples estimated from the temperature dependence of carrier concentration lies between 29 meV and 23 meV, suggesting the existence of H interstitial as a shallow donor level.

  2. Bulk Fuel Man.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the skills needed by bulk fuel workers. Addressed in the four individual units of the course are the following topics: bulk fuel equipment, bulk fuel systems, procedures for handling fuels, and…

  3. Evaluation of Arthrobacter aurescens Strain TC1 as Bioaugmentation Bacterium in Soils Contaminated with the Herbicidal Substance Terbuthylazine.

    PubMed

    Silva, Vera P; Moreira-Santos, Matilde; Mateus, Carla; Teixeira, Tânia; Ribeiro, Rui; Viegas, Cristina A

    2015-01-01

    In the last years the chloro-s-triazine active substance terbuthylazine has been increasingly used as an herbicide and may leave residues in the environment which can be of concern. The present study aimed at developing a bioaugmentation tool based on the soil bacterium Arthrobacter aurescens strain TC1 for the remediation of terbuthylazine contaminated soils and at examining its efficacy for both soil and aquatic compartments. First, the feasibility of growing the bioaugmentation bacterium inocula on simple sole nitrogen sources (ammonium and nitrate) instead of atrazine, while still maintaining its efficiency to biodegrade terbuthylazine was shown. In sequence, the successful and quick (3 days) bioremediation efficacy of ammonium-grown A. aurescens TC1 cells was proven in a natural soil freshly spiked or four-months aged with commercial terbuthylazine at a dose 10× higher than the recommended in corn cultivation, to mimic spill situations. Ecotoxicity assessment of the soil eluates towards a freshwater microalga supported the effectiveness of the bioaugmentation tool. Obtained results highlight the potential to decontaminate soil while minimizing terbuthylazine from reaching aquatic compartments via the soil-water pathway. The usefulness of this bioaugmentation tool to provide rapid environment decontamination is particularly relevant in the event of accidental high herbicide contamination. Its limitations and advantages are discussed. PMID:26662024

  4. Evaluation of Arthrobacter aurescens Strain TC1 as Bioaugmentation Bacterium in Soils Contaminated with the Herbicidal Substance Terbuthylazine

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Vera P.; Moreira-Santos, Matilde; Mateus, Carla; Teixeira, Tânia; Ribeiro, Rui; Viegas, Cristina A.

    2015-01-01

    In the last years the chloro-s-triazine active substance terbuthylazine has been increasingly used as an herbicide and may leave residues in the environment which can be of concern. The present study aimed at developing a bioaugmentation tool based on the soil bacterium Arthrobacter aurescens strain TC1 for the remediation of terbuthylazine contaminated soils and at examining its efficacy for both soil and aquatic compartments. First, the feasibility of growing the bioaugmentation bacterium inocula on simple sole nitrogen sources (ammonium and nitrate) instead of atrazine, while still maintaining its efficiency to biodegrade terbuthylazine was shown. In sequence, the successful and quick (3 days) bioremediation efficacy of ammonium-grown A. aurescens TC1 cells was proven in a natural soil freshly spiked or four-months aged with commercial terbuthylazine at a dose 10× higher than the recommended in corn cultivation, to mimic spill situations. Ecotoxicity assessment of the soil eluates towards a freshwater microalga supported the effectiveness of the bioaugmentation tool. Obtained results highlight the potential to decontaminate soil while minimizing terbuthylazine from reaching aquatic compartments via the soil-water pathway. The usefulness of this bioaugmentation tool to provide rapid environment decontamination is particularly relevant in the event of accidental high herbicide contamination. Its limitations and advantages are discussed. PMID:26662024

  5. Evaluation of emamectin benzoate and substance EX against salmon lice in sea-ranched Atlantic salmon smolts.

    PubMed

    Skilbrei, Ove Tommy; Espedal, Per Gunnar; Nilsen, Frank; Garcia, Enrique Perez; Glover, Kevin A

    2015-04-01

    Experimental releases of Atlantic salmon smolts treated with emamectin benzoate (EB) against salmon lice have previously been used to estimate the significance of salmon lice on the survival of migrating smolts. In recent years, the salmon louse has developed reduced sensitivity to EB, which may influence the results of such release experiments. We therefore tested the use of 2 anti-lice drugs: EB was administered to salmon smolts in high doses by intra-peritoneal injection and the prophylactic substance EX (SubEX) was administered by bathing. A third, untreated control group was also established. Salmon were challenged with copepodids of 2 strains of salmon lice (1 EB-sensitive strain and 1 with reduced EB-sensitivity) in mixed-group experimental tanks. At 31 d post-challenge, the numbers of pre-adult lice on treated fish were around 20% compared with the control fish, with minor or no differences between the 2 treatments and lice strains. Both treatments therefore appeared to give the smolts a high degree of protection against infestation of copepodids of salmon lice. However, significantly lower growth of the EB-treatment group indicates that bathing the fish in SubEX is less stressful for smolts than intra-peritoneal injection of EB. PMID:25850396

  6. Creating bulk nanocrystalline metal.

    SciTech Connect

    Fredenburg, D. Anthony; Saldana, Christopher J.; Gill, David D.; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Roemer, Timothy John; Vogler, Tracy John; Yang, Pin

    2008-10-01

    Nanocrystalline and nanostructured materials offer unique microstructure-dependent properties that are superior to coarse-grained materials. These materials have been shown to have very high hardness, strength, and wear resistance. However, most current methods of producing nanostructured materials in weapons-relevant materials create powdered metal that must be consolidated into bulk form to be useful. Conventional consolidation methods are not appropriate due to the need to maintain the nanocrystalline structure. This research investigated new ways of creating nanocrystalline material, new methods of consolidating nanocrystalline material, and an analysis of these different methods of creation and consolidation to evaluate their applicability to mesoscale weapons applications where part features are often under 100 {micro}m wide and the material's microstructure must be very small to give homogeneous properties across the feature.

  7. The Structure and Substance of Teachers' Opportunities to Learn about Teacher Evaluation Reform: Promise or Pitfall for Equity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Morgaen L.; Woulfin, Sarah; LeChasseur, Kimberly; Cobb, Casey D.

    2016-01-01

    Despite growing momentum to overhaul teacher evaluation policies and practices, scant research examines how educators at the street level of such reform--principals and teachers--make sense of them, and almost no research examines the implications of current evaluation reforms for equity. This article provides findings based on a study of 14…

  8. 19 CFR 149.4 - Bulk and break bulk cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bulk and break bulk cargo. 149.4 Section 149.4... TREASURY (CONTINUED) IMPORTER SECURITY FILING § 149.4 Bulk and break bulk cargo. (a) Bulk cargo exempted.... (b) Break bulk cargo exempted from time requirement. For break bulk cargo that is exempt from...

  9. 19 CFR 149.4 - Bulk and break bulk cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bulk and break bulk cargo. 149.4 Section 149.4... TREASURY (CONTINUED) IMPORTER SECURITY FILING § 149.4 Bulk and break bulk cargo. (a) Bulk cargo exempted.... (b) Break bulk cargo exempted from time requirement. For break bulk cargo that is exempt from...

  10. 19 CFR 149.4 - Bulk and break bulk cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bulk and break bulk cargo. 149.4 Section 149.4... TREASURY (CONTINUED) IMPORTER SECURITY FILING § 149.4 Bulk and break bulk cargo. (a) Bulk cargo exempted.... (b) Break bulk cargo exempted from time requirement. For break bulk cargo that is exempt from...

  11. 19 CFR 149.4 - Bulk and break bulk cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bulk and break bulk cargo. 149.4 Section 149.4... TREASURY (CONTINUED) IMPORTER SECURITY FILING § 149.4 Bulk and break bulk cargo. (a) Bulk cargo exempted.... (b) Break bulk cargo exempted from time requirement. For break bulk cargo that is exempt from...

  12. 19 CFR 149.4 - Bulk and break bulk cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bulk and break bulk cargo. 149.4 Section 149.4... TREASURY (CONTINUED) IMPORTER SECURITY FILING § 149.4 Bulk and break bulk cargo. (a) Bulk cargo exempted.... (b) Break bulk cargo exempted from time requirement. For break bulk cargo that is exempt from...

  13. 76 FR 3160 - Importer of Controlled Substances Notice of Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ..., 2010, and published in the Federal Register on June 8, 2010 (75 FR 32505), Meda Pharmaceuticals, Inc... controlled substance in bulk active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) form. There are no domestic sources...

  14. 75 FR 20001 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... substances in bulk to manufacture in-vitro diagnostic test kits. The company distributes the test kits for sale to its customers. The process used in manufacturing the test kits irreversibly alters...

  15. 76 FR 38209 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ..., 2011, and published in the Federal Register on April 19, 2011, 76 FR 21915, Meda Pharmaceuticals, Inc... controlled substance in bulk active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) form. There are no domestic sources...

  16. 19 CFR 12.118 - Toxic Substances Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... States of a chemical substance in bulk or as part of a mixture, or article containing a chemical... of the Treasury in consultation with the Administrator, Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”)....

  17. 76 FR 21915 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-19

    ... listed controlled substance in bulk ] active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) form. There are no domestic... Federal Register on September 23, 1975, 40 FR 43745-46, all applicants for registration to import a...

  18. 75 FR 32505 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... the listed controlled substance in bulk active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) form. There are no... the Federal Register on September 23, 1975 (40 FR 43745-46), all applicants for registration to...

  19. 75 FR 53719 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... Acid (GHB) (2010), a basic class of controlled substance listed in schedule I. The company plans to manufacture Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid (GHB) (2010) in bulk active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) form...

  20. EVALUATION OF METHODS FOR THE ISOLATION OR CONCENTRATION OF ORGANIC SUBSTANCES FROM WATER USING XAD-4 QUATERNARY RESIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    A synthetic resin (Amberlite XAD-4 Quaternary in the OH- form) was evaluated as an adsorption medium for the concentration/isolation of acids, amines, aldehydes, carbohydrates, chlorobiphenyls, esters, hydrocarbons, ketones, phenols, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and trihalo...

  1. Hydrogen ion-implantation induced low resistive layer in KNbO3 bulk single crystal: Evaluation by elastic recoil detection analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinkawa, A.; Shibasaki, Y.; Nishimura, T.; Tanuma, C.; Kuriyama, K.

    2016-03-01

    Origins of low resistivity in H-ion implanted KNbO3 bulk single crystals are studied by elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) and Van der Pauw methods. The H-ion implantation (peak ion fluence: 5.0 × 1015 cm-2) into KNbO3 is performed using a 500 keV implanter. The sheet resistance decreases from ∼108 Ω/□ for an un-implanted KNbO3 sample to 2.33 × 105 Ω/□ for as-implanted, 2.29 × 105 Ω/□ for 100 °C annealed, and 4.25 × 105 Ω/□ for 150 °C annealed samples, respectively. The ERDA experiment using the 1.5 MeV-4He+ beam can evaluate hydrogen from the surface to around 60 nm. The hydrogen concentration near the surface estimated using the 1.5 MeV helium beam is 5.1 × 1014 cm-2 for un-implanted KNbO3 sample, 5.6 × 1014 cm-2 for as-implanted, 3.4 × 1014 cm-2 for 150 °C annealed samples, respectively, indicating that a part of hydrogen is diffused out by annealing. The low resistive layer induced in H-ion implanted KNbO3 suggests the existence of a shallow energy level related to the complex defect consisting of hydrogen interstitial and the proton induced defect such as oxygen vacancy.

  2. 75 FR 69467 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-12

    ... 17, 2010, and published in the Federal Register on June 28, 2010, (75 FR 36683), Penick Corporation, 33 Industrial Road, Pennsville, New Jersey 08070, made application by renewal to the Drug Enforcement... manufacture the listed controlled substances as bulk controlled substance intermediates for distribution...

  3. 75 FR 36683 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ..., Siegfried (USA), 33 Industrial Park Road, Pennsville, New Jersey 08070, made application by letter to the... Acid (2010), a basic class of controlled substance listed in schedule I. The company plans to manufacture the listed controlled substance in bulk for sale to its customers. Any other such applicant,...

  4. 77 FR 5849 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ... 23, 2011, and published in the Federal Register on July 5, 2011, 76 FR 39127, Johnson Matthey... Remifentanil (9739), the basic class of controlled substance in schedule II. The company plans to utilize this facility to manufacture small quantities of the listed controlled substance in bulk and to...

  5. 75 FR 75497 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ..., Siegfried (USA), Inc., 33 Industrial Park Road, Pennsville, New Jersey 08070, made application by letter to... (9301), a basic class of controlled substance listed in schedule I. The company plans to manufacture small quantities of the listed controlled substance in bulk for distribution to its customers for use...

  6. Radiation hardness evaluations of 65 nm fully depleted silicon on insulator and bulk processes by measuring single event transient pulse widths and single event upset rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuta, Jun; Sonezaki, Eiji; Kobayashi, Kazutoshi

    2015-04-01

    We measure single event transient (SET) pulse widths on inverter chains and single event upset (SEU) rates on flip-flops (FFs) fabricated in 65 nm fully depleted silicon on insulator (FD-SOI) and bulk processes. The layout designs of test chips are strictly identical between their processes besides buried oxide (BOX) layers. Experimental results show that neutron-induced SEU and SET rates in the FD-SOI process are 230× and 450× lower than those in the bulk process, respectively.

  7. In vitro pharmacological evaluation of the radiolabeled C-terminal substance P analogue Lys-Phe-Phe-Gly-Leu-Met-NH2: Does a specific binding site exist?

    PubMed

    Tomczyszyn, Aleksandra; Csibrany, Balazs; Keresztes, Attila; Mallareddy, Jayapal Reddy; Dyniewicz, Jolanta; Misicka, Aleksandra; Toth, Geza; Lipkowski, Andrzej W

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper, we report the synthesis, radiolabeling and comprehensive pharmacological evaluation of a C-terminally truncated tachykinin derivative, 3H-KFFGLM-NH2. The C-terminal fragments of endogenous tachykinins are pharmacophores responsible for interaction with the tachykinin receptors NK1, NK2 and NK3. The N-terminal fragments are responsible for modulation of receptor selectivity and interactions with other receptor systems. To evaluate and separate the function of an NK-pharmacophore from the activity of its parent neurokinin, KFFGLM-NH2 was synthesized in both tritiated and unlabeled forms. It has been proposed that the obtained NK-binding profiles of specific reference ligands and KFFGLM-NH2 differentiate monomeric and dimeric forms of NK receptors. We hypothesize that dimers of NK receptors could be specific receptor(s) for C-terminal fragments of all neurokinins as well as their C-terminal fragments, including H-KFFGLM-NH2. Dissociation of dimers into monomers opens access to additional allosteric binding sites. Fully elongated undecapeptide substance P interacts with both the "tachykinin pocket" and the "allosteric pocket" on the monomeric NK1 receptor, resulting in high and selective activation. However, C-terminal hexapeptide fragment analogues, recognizing only the "tachykinin pocket", may have less specific interactions with all tachykinin receptors in both monomeric and dimeric forms. PMID:25574743

  8. 75 FR 36683 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... 21 CFR 1301.34(b), (c), (d), (e), and (f). As noted in a previous notice published in the Federal Register on September 23, 1975, ] (40 FR 43745-46), all applicants for registration to import a basic class... listed controlled substance to bulk manufacture amphetamine. Any bulk manufacturer who is presently,...

  9. Evaluation of Cloud Microphysics in JMA-NHM Simulations Using Bin or Bulk Microphysical Schemes through Comparison with Cloud Radar Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iguchi, Takamichi; Nakajima, Teruyuki; Khain, Alexander P.; Saito, Kazuo; Takemura, Toshihiko; Okamoto, Hajime; Nishizawa, Tomoaki; Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2012-01-01

    Numerical weather prediction (NWP) simulations using the Japan Meteorological Agency NonhydrostaticModel (JMA-NHM) are conducted for three precipitation events observed by shipborne or spaceborneW-band cloud radars. Spectral bin and single-moment bulk cloud microphysics schemes are employed separatelyfor an intercomparative study. A radar product simulator that is compatible with both microphysicsschemes is developed to enable a direct comparison between simulation and observation with respect to theequivalent radar reflectivity factor Ze, Doppler velocity (DV), and path-integrated attenuation (PIA). Ingeneral, the bin model simulation shows better agreement with the observed data than the bulk modelsimulation. The correction of the terminal fall velocities of snowflakes using those of hail further improves theresult of the bin model simulation. The results indicate that there are substantial uncertainties in the masssizeand sizeterminal fall velocity relations of snowflakes or in the calculation of terminal fall velocity of snowaloft. For the bulk microphysics, the overestimation of Ze is observed as a result of a significant predominanceof snow over cloud ice due to substantial deposition growth directly to snow. The DV comparison shows thata correction for the fall velocity of hydrometeors considering a change of particle size should be introducedeven in single-moment bulk cloud microphysics.

  10. A New D.A.R.E. Curriculum Gets Mixed Reviews: Communications Activities for Improving and Evaluating the DARE School-Based Substance Abuse Prevention Curriculum. Program Results Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakashian, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Zili Sloboda, Sc.D., and colleagues at the University of Akron, Ohio, designed and evaluated "Take Charge of Your Life", a substance abuse prevention curriculum for 7th- and 9th-grade students delivered by D.A.R.E. (Drug Abuse Resistance Education) police officers. They designed "Take Charge of Your Life" to impact students' later (high school)…

  11. 77 FR 43861 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-26

    ..., 40 FR 43745-46, all applicants for registration to import a basic class of any controlled substances... listed controlled substance to bulk manufacture amphetamine. Any bulk manufacturer who is presently, or... conducted simultaneously with, and independent of, the procedures described in 21 CFR 1301.34(b), (c),...

  12. Associations of Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) with Lower Birth Weight: An Evaluation of Potential Confounding by Glomerular Filtration Rate Using a Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model (PBPK)

    PubMed Central

    Loccisano, Anne E.; Morken, Nils-Halvdan; Yoon, Miyoung; Wu, Huali; McDougall, Robin; Maisonet, Mildred; Marcus, Michele; Kishi, Reiko; Miyashita, Chihiro; Chen, Mei-Huei; Hsieh, Wu-Shiun; Andersen, Melvin E.; Clewell, Harvey J.; Longnecker, Matthew P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) has been associated with lower birth weight in epidemiologic studies. This association could be attributable to glomerular filtration rate (GFR), which is related to PFAS concentration and birth weight. Objectives We used a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model of pregnancy to assess how much of the PFAS–birth weight association observed in epidemiologic studies might be attributable to GFR. Methods We modified a PBPK model to reflect the association of GFR with birth weight (estimated from three studies of GFR and birth weight) and used it to simulate PFAS concentrations in maternal and cord plasma. The model was run 250,000 times, with variation in parameters, to simulate a population. Simulated data were analyzed to evaluate the association between PFAS levels and birth weight due to GFR. We compared simulated estimates with those from a meta-analysis of epidemiologic data. Results The reduction in birth weight for each 1-ng/mL increase in simulated cord plasma for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was 2.72 g (95% CI: –3.40, –2.04), and for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was 7.13 g (95% CI: –8.46, –5.80); results based on maternal plasma at term were similar. Results were sensitive to variations in PFAS level distributions and the strength of the GFR–birth weight association. In comparison, our meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies suggested that each 1-ng/mL increase in prenatal PFOS and PFOA levels was associated with 5.00 g (95% CI: –21.66, –7.78) and 14.72 g (95% CI: –8.92, –1.09) reductions in birth weight, respectively. Conclusion Results of our simulations suggest that a substantial proportion of the association between prenatal PFAS and birth weight may be attributable to confounding by GFR and that confounding by GFR may be more important in studies with sample collection later in pregnancy. Citation Verner MA, Loccisano AE, Morken NH, Yoon M, Wu H, Mc

  13. Technical Appendix: What Are Districts' Written Policies Regarding Student Substance-Related Incidents? NCEE Evaluation Brief--Appendix. NCEE 2012-4023

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, 2012

    2012-01-01

    To better understand the nature of substance-related discipline rules and guidelines that may be in use around the country, the U.S. Department of Education's Institute of Education Sciences (IES) commissioned an examination of the features of the written substance-related policies for high schools in the 100 largest school districts. The key…

  14. What Works for Preventing and Stopping Substance Use in Adolescents: Lessons from Experimental Evaluations of Programs and Interventions. Fact Sheet. Publication #2008-19

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandy, Tawana; Moore, Kristin A.

    2008-01-01

    Despite a decade-long decline in substance use among adolescents, research tells that about 80 percent of teens have begun to drink alcohol and 50 percent have used an illegal drug by their senior year in high school. Substance use among teens is related to poorer outcomes for adolescents and youth (e.g., unintentional injuries, homicides and…

  15. 'Human-on-a-chip' developments: a translational cutting-edge alternative to systemic safety assessment and efficiency evaluation of substances in laboratory animals and man?

    PubMed

    Marx, Uwe; Walles, Heike; Hoffmann, Silke; Lindner, Gerd; Horland, Reyk; Sonntag, Frank; Klotzbach, Udo; Sakharov, Dmitry; Tonevitsky, Alexander; Lauster, Roland

    2012-10-01

    Various factors, including the phylogenetic distance between laboratory animals and humans, the discrepancy between current in vitro systems and the human body, and the restrictions of in silico modelling, have generated the need for new solutions to the ever-increasing worldwide dilemma of substance testing. This review provides a historical sketch on the accentuation of this dilemma, and highlights fundamental limitations to the countermeasures taken so far. It describes the potential of recently-introduced microsystems to emulate human organs in 'organ-on-a-chip' devices. Finally, it focuses on an in-depth analysis of the first devices that aimed to mimic human systemic organ interactions in 'human-on-a-chip' systems. Their potential to replace acute systemic toxicity testing in animals, and their inability to provide alternatives to repeated dose long-term testing, are discussed. Inspired by the latest discoveries in human biology, tissue engineering and micro-systems technology, this review proposes a paradigm shift to overcome the apparent challenges. A roadmap is outlined to create a new homeostatic level of biology in 'human-on-a-chip' systems in order to, in the long run, replace systemic repeated dose safety evaluation and disease modelling in animals. PMID:23215661

  16. 40 CFR 82.11 - Exports of class I controlled substances to Article 5 Parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... substances) to foreign states listed in appendix E to this subpart (Article 5 countries). (1) A person must... purchaser; (viii) The commodity code of the controlled substance exported; and (ix) A copy of the invoice or... contains provisions forbidding the reexport of the controlled substance in bulk form and subjecting...

  17. 40 CFR 82.11 - Exports of class I controlled substances to Article 5 Parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... substances) to foreign states listed in appendix E to this subpart (Article 5 countries). (1) A person must... purchaser; (viii) The commodity code of the controlled substance exported; and (ix) A copy of the invoice or... contains provisions forbidding the reexport of the controlled substance in bulk form and subjecting...

  18. 40 CFR 82.11 - Exports of class I controlled substances to Article 5 Parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... substances) to foreign states listed in appendix E to this subpart (Article 5 countries). (1) A person must... purchaser; (viii) The commodity code of the controlled substance exported; and (ix) A copy of the invoice or... contains provisions forbidding the reexport of the controlled substance in bulk form and subjecting...

  19. Matters of Substance: Students' Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Gertrude

    2007-01-01

    America's romance with certainty leads to a belief that substances improve life and fits with the New Psychiatry. It's use of psychotropic medications to treat an array of mental illnesses changes evaluations, treatment and emergency coverage. The rising abuse of its prescription drugs alters the campus party scene, and challenges pretenses about…

  20. Evaluating Carbon Isotope Signature of Bulk Organic Matter and Plant Wax Derived n-alkanes from Lacustrine Sediments as Climate Proxies along the Western Side of the Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras, S.; Werne, J. P.; Araneda, A.; Conejero, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    Sedimentary carbon isotope values (δ13C) of bulk organic matter and long chain (C25 to C35) n-alkanes are among the most long-lived and widely utilized proxies of organic matter and vegetation source. The carbon distribution (e.g. average carbon chain length, ACL) and isotope signature from long chain n-alkanes had been intensively used on paleoclimate studies because they are less influenced by diagenesis, differential preservation of compound classes, and changes in the sources of organic matter than bulk δ13C values. Recently, studies of modern plant n-alkanes have challenged the use of carbon distribution and carbon isotope signature from sedimentary n-alkanes as reliable indicators of vegetation and climate change. The climate in central-south western South America (SA) is projected to become significantly warmer and drier over the next several decades to centuries in response to anthropogenically driven warming. Paleolimnological studies along western SA are critical to obtain more realistic and reliable regional reconstructions of past climate and environments, including vegetation and water budget variability. Here we discuss bulk δ13C, distribution and δ13C in long chain n-alkanes from a suite of ~40 lake surface sediment (core-top) samples spanning the transition from a Mediterranean climate with a patchwork of cultivated vegetation, pastureland, conifers in central Chile to a rainy temperate climate dominated by broadleaf deciduous and evergreen forest. Data are compared to the latitudinal and orographic climatic trends of the Andes based on the climatology (e.g. precipitation and temperature) of the locations of all lakes involved in this study, using monthly gridded reanalysis products of the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR), based on the NCEP global forecast model and meteorological stations available in the region, from January 1979 to December 2010 with a 0.5° horizontal resolution.

  1. Substance Abuse and Trauma.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Shannon; Suárez, Liza

    2016-10-01

    There is a strong, bidirectional link between substance abuse and traumatic experiences. Teens with cooccurring substance use disorders (SUDs) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have significant functional and psychosocial impairment. Common neurobiological foundations point to the reinforcing cycle of trauma symptoms, substance withdrawal, and substance use. Treatment of teens with these issues should include a systemic and integrated approach to both the SUD and the PTSD. PMID:27613348

  2. Incorporating Turbula mixers into a blending scale-up model for evaluating the effect of magnesium stearate on tablet tensile strength and bulk specific volume.

    PubMed

    Kushner, Joseph

    2012-06-15

    Turbula bottle blenders are often used in lab-scale experiments during early-stage pharmaceutical product development. Unfortunately, applying knowledge gained with these blenders to larger-sized diffusion mixers is limited by the lack of blending models that include Turbula mixers. To address this need for lubrication blending scale-up, 2:1 blends of microcrystalline cellulose and spray-dried lactose or dibasic calcium phosphate were mixed with 1% magnesium stearate using Turbula bottle blenders, varying bottle volume, V (30-1250mL); bottle headspace fraction, F(headspace) (30-70%); and the number of blending cycles, r (24 to ∼190,000 cycles). The impact of lubrication blending on tensile strength and bulk specific volume quality attributes, QA, was modeled by:where QA(0) is initial QA value, β is sensitivity of QA to lubrication, γ is formulation-specific lubrication rate constant, and L is characteristic mixing length scale (i.e. 1.5V(1/3) for Turbula blenders, V(1/3) for simple diffusion mixers). The factor of 1.5 captures the bottle dimensions and the more complex mixing dynamics of the Turbula blender. This lubrication blending process model is valid for scale-up from 30-mL to 200-L blenders. Assessing bulk specific volume may provide a simpler, more material-sparing means for determining γ than tensile strength, since these QAs exhibited similar γ values. PMID:22405966

  3. Assessment of dietary intake of flavouring substances within the procedure for their safety evaluation: advantages and limitations of estimates obtained by means of a per capita method.

    PubMed

    Arcella, D; Leclercq, C

    2005-01-01

    The procedure for the safety evaluation of flavourings adopted by the European Commission in order to establish a positive list of these substances is a stepwise approach which was developed by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and amended by the Scientific Committee on Food. Within this procedure, a per capita amount based on industrial poundage data of flavourings, is calculated to estimate the dietary intake by means of the maximised survey-derived daily intake (MSDI) method. This paper reviews the MSDI method in order to check if it can provide conservative intake estimates as needed at the first steps of a stepwise procedure. Scientific papers and opinions dealing with the MSDI method were reviewed. Concentration levels reported by the industry were compared with estimates obtained with the MSDI method. It appeared that, in some cases, these estimates could be orders of magnitude (up to 5) lower than those calculated considering concentration levels provided by the industry and regular consumption of flavoured foods and beverages. A critical review of two studies which had been used to support the statement that MSDI is a conservative method for assessing exposure to flavourings among high consumers was performed. Special attention was given to the factors that affect exposure at high percentiles, such as brand loyalty and portion sizes. It is concluded that these studies may not be suitable to validate the MSDI method used to assess intakes of flavours by European consumers due to shortcomings in the assumptions made and in the data used. Exposure assessment is an essential component of risk assessment. The present paper suggests that the MSDI method is not sufficiently conservative. There is therefore a clear need for either using an alternative method to estimate exposure to flavourings in the procedure or for limiting intakes to the levels at which the safety was assessed. PMID:15582202

  4. Synthesis and Preliminary Evaluation of a New 99mTc Labeled Substance P Analogue as a Potential Tumor Imaging Agent

    PubMed Central

    Mozaffari, Saeed; Erfani, Mostafa; Beiki, Davood; Johari Daha, Fariba; Kobarfard, Farzad; Balalaie, Saeed; Fallahi, Babak

    2015-01-01

    Neurokinin 1 receptors (NK1R) are overexpressed on several types of important human cancer cells. Substance P (SP) is the most specific endogenous ligand known for NK1Rs. Accordingly,a new SP analogue was synthesized and evaluated for detection of NK1R positive tumors.[6-hydrazinopyridine-3-carboxylic acid (HYNIC)-Tyr8-Met(O)11-SP] was synthesized and radiolabeled with 99mTc using ethylenediamine-N,N'-diacetic acid (EDDA)and Tricine as coligands. Common physicochemical properties of radioconjugate were studied and in-vitro cell line biological tests were accomplished to determine the receptor mediated characteristics. In-vivo biodistribution in normal and tumor bearingnude mice was also assessed. The cold peptide was prepared in high purity (>99%) and radiolabeled with 99mTc at high specific activities (84-112GBq/µmol) with an acceptable labeling yield (>95%). The radioconjugate was stable in-vitro in the presence of human serum and showed 44% protein binding to human serumalbumin. In-vitro cell line studies on U373MG cells showed an acceptable uptake up to 4.91 ± 0.22% with the ratio of 60.21 ± 1.19% for its specific fraction and increasing specific internalization during 4 h. Receptor binding assays on U373MG cells indicated a mean Kd of 2.46 ± 0.43 nM and Bmax of 128925 ± 8145 sites/cell. In-vivo investigations determined the specific tumor uptake in 3.36 percent of injected dose per gram (%ID/g) for U373MG cells and noticeable accumulations of activity in the intestines and lung. Predominant renal excretion pathway was demonstrated. Therefore, this new radiolabeled peptide could be a promising radiotracer for detection of NK1R positive primary or secondary tumors. PMID:25561916

  5. 77 FR 12293 - PCBs Bulk Product v. Remediation Waste

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... application of particular disposal and cleanup regulatory requirements regarding PCB- contaminated building... PCB-contaminated building materials. The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) regulations at 40 CFR 761...-contaminated building material depend on whether the material is classified as PCB bulk product waste or...

  6. Translating Developmental Neuroscience to Substance Use Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Riggs, Nathaniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Several preventive interventions have demonstrated efficacy in reducing substance use. However, opportunities exist to further improve prevention approaches. The application of recent advances in developmental neuroscience can inform the design, implementation, and evaluation of substance use prevention programs. This paper first briefly describes the developmental integration of the prefrontal cortex with emotion and motivation centers of the brain, and the implications of this process for substance use vulnerability. Discussed next are specific examples of how developmental neuroscience can inform prevention timing, development, and evaluation. Contextual considerations are then suggested including a critical role for schools in substance misuse prevention. Finally, current theoretical and methodological challenges to the translation of developmental neuroscience to substance use prevention are discussed. PMID:26236576

  7. Nuclear reaction analysis of Ge ion-implanted ZnO bulk single crystals: The evaluation of the displacement in oxygen lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamioka, K.; Oga, T.; Izawa, Y.; Kuriyama, K.; Kushida, K.; Kinomura, A.

    2014-08-01

    The displacement of oxygen lattices in Ge ion-implanted ZnO bulk single crystals is studied by nuclear reaction analysis (NAR), photoluminescence (PL), and Van der Pauw methods. The Ge ion-implantation (net concentration: 2.6 × 1020 cm-3) into ZnO is performed using a multiple-step energy. The high resistivity of ∼103 Ω cm in un-implanted samples remarkably decreased to ∼10-2 Ω cm after implanting Ge-ion and annealing subsequently. NRA measurements of as-implanted and annealed samples suggest the existence of the lattice displacement of O atoms acting as acceptor defects. As O related defects still remain after annealing, these defects are not attributed to the origin of the low resistivity in 800 and 1000 °C annealed ZnO.

  8. Hydrogels: DNA bulks up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labean, Thom

    2006-10-01

    Since the 1940s DNA has been known as the genetic material connected to heredity, and from the early 1980s it has also been considered as a potential structural material for nanoscale construction. Now, a hydrogel made entirely of DNA brings this molecule into the realm of bulk materials.

  9. Fate of bulk and trace organics during a simulated aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR)-ozone hybrid process.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Min K; Drewes, Jörg E; Amy, Gary L

    2013-11-01

    The attenuation of bulk organic matter and trace organic contaminants (TOrCs) was evaluated for various aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR)-ozone (O3) hybrid treatment process combinations using soil-batch reactor and bench-scale ozonation experiments as a proof of concept prior to pilot and/or field studies. In water reclamation and especially potable reuse, refractory bulk organic matter and TOrCs are of potential health concern in recycled waters. In this study, the role of biotransformation of bulk organic matter and TOrCs was investigated considering different simulated treatment combinations, including soil passage (ARR) alone, ARR after ozonation (O3-ARR), and ARR prior to ozonation (ARR-O3). During oxic (aerobic) ARR simulations, soluble microbial-like substances (e.g., higher molecular weight polysaccharides and proteins) were easily removed while (lower molecular weight) humic substances and aromatic organic matter were not efficiently removed. During ARR-ozone treatment simulations, removals of bulk organic matter and TOrCs were rapid and effective compared to ARR alone. A higher reduction of effluent-derived organic matter, including aromatic organic matter and humic substances, was observed in the ARR-O3 hybrid followed by the O3-ARR hybrid. An enhanced attenuation of recalcitrant TOrCs was observed while increasing the ozone dose slightly (O3: DOC=1). TOrC removal efficiency also increased during the post-ozone treatment combination (i.e., ARR-O3). In addition, the carcinogenic wastewater disinfection byproduct N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) was eliminated below the method reporting limit (<5 ng L(-1)) both during ARR treatment alone and the ARR-ozone hybrid. PMID:23942016

  10. Diagnostic Efficiency of DSM-IV Criteria for Borderline Personality Disorder: An Evaluation in Hispanic Men and Women with Substance Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grilo, Carlos M.; Becker, Daniel F.; Anez, Luis Miguel; McGlashan, Thomas H.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined diagnostic efficiency of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV), criteria for borderline personality disorder (BPD). One hundred thirty monolingual Hispanic adults (90 men, 40 women) at an outpatient psychiatric and substance abuse clinic were assessed with the Spanish-Language Version of…

  11. Toxicogenomics in vitro as an alternative tool for safety evaluation of petroleum substances and PAHs with regard to prenatal developmental toxicity.

    PubMed

    Tsitou, Polyxeni; Heneweer, Marjoke; Boogaard, Peter J

    2015-03-01

    The REACH legislation requires chemicals - including petroleum substances - that are put on the EU market in quantities greater than 1000 tonnes/year, to be tested for prenatal developmental toxicity. This will require large numbers of animals since prenatal development toxicity testing is animal-intensive. The application of toxicogenomic technologies might reduce the number of animals to study prenatal developmental toxicity of petroleum substances by allowing their grouping into categories with the same toxicological properties. This substance categorization may be supported by similarities in molecular fingerprints. The developmental toxicity effects observed in some oil products are most likely related to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with high-molecular weight. However, the current review indicates that even though the available studies provide clues regarding the HOX, FOX, SHH and PAX family genes, which regulate functions in skeleton development, single individual genes cannot be used as biomarkers of PAHs exposure and subsequent prenatal developmental toxicity. Furthermore, it should be considered that toxicogenomic technologies applied to specific tissues/organs testing might lead to unreliable results regarding developmental toxicity due to induction of tissue-specific pathways. Thus, an approach which applies a battery of in vitro tests including the zebrafish embryo test, embryonic stem cells, and the whole embryo culture is suggested as it would be more relevant for studying developmental effects in the terms of substances categorization. PMID:25481525

  12. An evaluation of fish early life stage tests for predicting reproductive and longer-term toxicity from plant protection product active substances.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, James R; Maynard, Samuel K; Crane, Mark

    2014-08-01

    The chronic toxicity of chemicals to fish is routinely assessed by using fish early life stage (ELS) test results. Fish full life cycle (FLC) tests are generally required only when toxicity, bioaccumulation, and persistence triggers are met or when there is a suspicion of potential endocrine-disrupting properties. This regulatory approach is based on a relationship between the results of fish ELS and FLC studies first established more than 35 yrs ago. Recently, this relationship has been challenged by some regulatory authorities, and it has been recommended that more substances should undergo FLC testing. In addition, a project proposal has been submitted to the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to develop a fish partial life cycle (PLC) test including a reproductive assessment. Both FLC and PLC tests are animal- and resource-intensive and technically challenging and should therefore be undertaken only if there is clear evidence that they are necessary for coming to a regulatory decision. The present study reports on an analysis of a database of paired fish ELS and FLC endpoints for plant protection product active substances from European Union draft assessment reports and the US Environmental Protection Agency Office of Pesticide Programs Pesticide Ecotoxicity Database. Analysis of this database shows a clear relationship between ELS and FLC responses, with similar median sensitivity across substances when no-observed-effect concentrations (NOECs) are compared. There was also no indication that classification of a substance as a mammalian reproductive toxicant leads to more sensitive effects in fish FLC tests than in ELS tests. Indeed, the response of the ELS tests was generally more sensitive than the most sensitive reproduction NOEC from a FLC test. This analysis indicates that current testing strategies and guidelines are fit for purpose and that there is no need for fish full or partial life cycle tests for most plant protection

  13. Bulk Email Forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Fred

    Legal matters related to unsolicited commercial email often involve several hundred thousand messages. Manual examination and interpretation methods are unable to deal with such large volumes of evidence. Furthermore, as the actors gain experience, it is increasingly difficult to show evidence of spoliation and detect intentional evidence construction. This paper presents improved automated techniques for bulk email analysis and presentation to aid in evidence interpretation.

  14. Er:YAG laser radiation: contact versus non-contact enamel ablation and sonic-activated bulk composite placement: microleakage evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dostalova, T.; Jelinkova, H.; Kasparova, M.; Ginzelova, K.; Feberova, J.; Sulc, J.; Nemec, M.; Fibrich, M.; Bradna, P.

    2015-02-01

    Our study aims to analyze the bond after the Er:YAG laser-radiation-prepared cavity was filled with a new kind of bulk-filled composite material. The laser radiation acted in a contact and non-contact mode. The setting for contact ablation was as follows: energy 250 mJ/pulse with a pulse repetition rate 15 Hz, giving an average power of 3.75 W. For non-contact ablation these values were 600 mJ/pulse, 6 Hz, and 3.6 W. Scanning ablation was provided in non-contact mode (1440 pulses/cavity) and the parameters were: energy 300 mJ/pulse, repetition rate 1 Hz, and mean power 0.3 W. Three types of laser cavities were filled with sonic activated composite resin. Four longitudinal sections were prepared after immersion in 5% methylene blue for 24 h. Microleakage was assessed quantitatively by the degree of dye penetration; the data were analyzed by the Fisher exact test with the level of significance set at p < 0.05. Contact and non-contact laser treatments prepared similar cavities (5167.31 versus 5356.31 µm). Defocusing of non-contact therapy has a direct influence on the presence of dye penetration microleakage (481.19 versus 611.94 µm). The non-contact scan is a more effective method for laser ablation (8508.05 µm). For that reason the dye penetration (microleakage) is higher (1458.65 µm). These results are statistically significant.

  15. Substance Abuse. Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Collaboration for Youth, Washington, DC.

    This paper presents the policy statement on substance abuse from the National Collaboration for Youth (NCY). The policy statement section lists programs and activities supported by the NCY. A section on background includes a statement of the issue of substance abuse. Areas examined in this section include alcohol abuse and drunk driving among…

  16. Special Issue: Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuhrmann, Barbara S., Ed.; Washington, Craig S., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Presents ten articles about substance abuse: its effects, consequences, and strategies for intervention. Describes specific group therapy techniques and presents both a court service designed for assisting juveniles with drug/alcohol offenses, and a school-based substance abuse prevention program. Looks at strategies for counseling special…

  17. Substance Abuse and Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sales, Amos

    A review of the literature provides the conclusion that individuals with a disability versus those without a disability are more likely to have a substance abuse problem and less likely to get effective treatment. Data suggest 10-40% of all individuals in treatment for substance abuse have a coexisting physical or mental disability. Alcohol rates…

  18. Bulk-barrier transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mader, H.; Mueller, R.; Beinvogl, W.

    1983-10-01

    Experimental and theoretical results are presented on a bulk-barrier transistor (BBT). In this device the charge-carrier transportation is determined by an energy barrier, which is located inside a semiconductor. The barrier is the result of a space-charge region in a three-layered n-p-n or p-n-p structure with a very thin middle layer. The height of the energy barrier, which is adjustable by technological parameters, can be controlled by an external voltage.

  19. Evaluation of serum neopterin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in Egyptian patients with acute coronary syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Ragab, M; Hassan, H; Zaytoun, T; Refai, W; Rocks, B; Elsammak, M

    2005-01-01

    The present study evaluated serum neopterin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in Egyptian patients with acute coronary artery disease. Thirty-six patients with unstable angina aged (mean ± SD) 61.3±9.4 years, 29 patients with myocardial infarction aged 58.2±8.7 years and 24 sex- and age-matched control subjects were included in the study. Neopterin levels were significantly higher in patients with myocardial infarction and those with unstable angina than in the healthy control group (P<0.001). The serum level of neopterin in the control group (median [range]) was 3.25 nmol/L (1.25 nmol/L to 5.4 nmol/L), whereas in patients with unstable angina and those with myocardial infarction, neopterin levels were 10.4 nmol/L (3.5 nmol/L to 15.2 nmol/L) and 12.6 nmol/L (3.25 nmol/L to 17.8 nmol/L), respectively. Levels of hs-CRP and TBARS were also significantly higher in patients with unstable angina and those with myocardial infarction than in the healthy control group (P<0.01). The medians (ranges) of hs-CRP were 4.8 mg/L (2.5 mg/L to 9.9 mg/L), 12.0 mg/L (4.6 mg/L to 31.0 mg/L) and 12.3 mg/L (7.5 mg/L to 32.1 mg/L) in the control group, patients with unstable angina and those with myocardial infarction, respectively. The means ± SD of TBARS in the control group, patients with unstable angina and those with myocardial infarction were 0.64±0.17 μmol/L, 1.17±0.31 μmol/L and 1.17±0.49 μmol/L, respectively. TBARS positively correlated with hs-CRP and neopterin levels. Furthermore, when both patients and controls were classified according to their smoking status, significantly higher levels of neopterin and TBARS were found in the smokers of each subgroup than in the nonsmokers. In conclusion, the present study found a higher level of neopterin, hs-CRP and TBARS in patients with coronary artery disease. Serum neopterin and hs-CRP positively correlated with the level of TBARS. The authors suggest that

  20. 77 FR 38086 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Chemica

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ... methamphetamine will not be sold as a commercial product. The company plans to utilize a bulk active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), as an intermediate for the development of another controlled substance,...

  1. Safety evaluation of food contact paper and board using chemical tests and in vitro bioassays: role of known and unknown substances.

    PubMed

    Honkalampi-Hämäläinen, U; Bradley, E L; Castle, L; Severin, I; Dahbi, L; Dahlman, O; Lhuguenot, J-C; Andersson, M A; Hakulinen, P; Hoornstra, D; Mäki-Paakkanen, J; Salkinoja-Salonen, M; Turco, L; Stammati, A; Zucco, F; Weber, A; von Wright, A

    2010-03-01

    In vitro toxicological tests have been proposed as an approach to complement the chemical safety assessment of food contact materials, particularly those with a complex or unknown chemical composition such as paper and board. Among the concerns raised regarding the applicability of in vitro tests are the effects of interference of the extractables on the outcome of the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity tests applied and the role of known compounds present in chemically complex materials, such as paper and board, either as constituents or contaminants. To answer these questions, a series of experiments were performed to assess the role of natural substances (wood extracts, resin acids), some additives (diisopropylnaphthalene, phthalates, acrylamide, fluorescent whitening agents) and contaminants (2,4-diaminotoluene, benzo[a]pyrene) in the toxicological profile of paper and board. These substances were individually tested or used to spike actual paper and board extracts. The toxic concentrations of diisopropylnaphthalenes and phthalates were compared with those actually detected in paper and board extracts showing conspicuous toxicity. According to the results of the spiking experiments, the extracts did not affect the toxicity of tested chemicals nor was there any significant metabolic interference in the cases where two compounds were used in tests involving xenobiotic metabolism by the target cells. While the identified substances apparently have a role in the cytotoxicity of some of the project samples, their presence does not explain the total toxicological profile of the extracts. In conclusion, in vitro toxicological testing can have a role in the safety assessment of chemically complex materials in detecting potentially harmful activities not predictable by chemical analysis alone. PMID:20087806

  2. Bulk material handling system

    DOEpatents

    Kleysteuber, William K.; Mayercheck, William D.

    1979-01-01

    This disclosure relates to a bulk material handling system particularly adapted for underground mining and includes a monorail supported overhead and carrying a plurality of conveyors each having input and output end portions with the output end portion of a first of the conveyors positioned above an input end portion of a second of the conveyors, a device for imparting motion to the conveyors to move the material from the input end portions toward the output end portions thereof, a device for supporting at least one of the input and output end portions of the first and second conveyors from the monorail, and the supporting device including a plurality of trolleys rollingly supported by the monorail whereby the conveyors can be readily moved therealong.

  3. Bulk amorphous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, R.B.; Archuleta, J.I.; Sickafus, K.E.

    1998-12-01

    This is the final report for a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this work was to develop the competency for the synthesis of novel bulk amorphous alloys. The authors researched their synthesis methods and alloy properties, including thermal stability, mechanical, and transport properties. The project also addressed the development of vanadium-spinel alloys for structural applications in hostile environments, the measurement of elastic constants and thermal expansion in single-crystal TiAl from 300 to 750 K, the measurement of elastic constants in gallium nitride, and a study of the shock-induced martensitic transformations in NiTi alloys.

  4. Bulk muscles, loose cables.

    PubMed

    Liyanage, Chamari R D G; Kodali, Venkata

    2014-01-01

    The accessibility and usage of body building supplements is on the rise with stronger internet marketing strategies by the industry. The dangers posed by the ingredients in them are underestimated. A healthy young man came to the emergency room with palpitations and feeling unwell. Initial history and clinical examination were non-contributory to find the cause. ECG showed atrial fibrillation. A detailed history for any over the counter or herbal medicine use confirmed that he was taking supplements to bulk muscle. One of the components in these supplements is yohimbine; the onset of symptoms coincided with the ingestion of this product and the patient is symptom free after stopping it. This report highlights the dangers to the public of consuming over the counter products with unknown ingredients and the consequential detrimental impact on health. PMID:25326558

  5. Explosive bulk charge

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Jacob Lee

    2015-04-21

    An explosive bulk charge, including: a first contact surface configured to be selectively disposed substantially adjacent to a structure or material; a second end surface configured to selectively receive a detonator; and a curvilinear side surface joining the first contact surface and the second end surface. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface form a bi-truncated hemispherical structure. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface are formed from an explosive material. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface each have a substantially circular shape. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface consist of planar structures that are aligned substantially parallel or slightly tilted with respect to one another. The curvilinear side surface has one of a smooth curved geometry, an elliptical geometry, and a parabolic geometry.

  6. Population-Level Evaluation of School-Based Interventions to Prevent Problem Substance Use among Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual Adolescents in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Konishi, Chiaki; Saewyc, Elizabeth; Homma, Yuko; Poon, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study examined whether students’ odds of recent substance use were lower in the presence of GSAs or explicit anti-homophobia policy that had been established at their school recently, or at least three years prior. Methods We analyzed a population-based sample of students in grades 8 through 12 from the British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey of 2008 (weighted N = 21,708). We used multi-nomial logistic regressions to test the hypothesized effects of GSAs and policies on substance use outcomes for LGB and 100% heterosexual students separately. Results Results indicated that GSAs and anti-homophobic bullying policies were linked to significantly lower odds of some but not all types of recent risky alcohol use, and past-year harms from alcohol or drug use, for LGB adolescents, but these were predominantly among girls, and almost exclusively in schools where the policies or GSAs had been established for at least three years. Conclusions Our findings suggest that these school-based strategies (GSAs and anti-homophobia policies) to reduce homophobia and foster school inclusion may be beneficial in reducing problem alcohol use among all students, not just sexual minority students. PMID:23850517

  7. 75 FR 62570 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... 10, 2008, and published in the Federal Register on March 19, 2008 (73 FR 14841), Chemica, Inc., 316... Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of methamphetamine (1105), a basic class of... manufacture of Benzphetamine, a schedule III non-narcotic controlled substance. The methamphetamine will...

  8. 76 FR 77257 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances Notice of Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... 10, 2011, and published in the Federal Register on August 18, 2011, 76 FR 51401, Chemica, 316 West... Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of Methamphetamine (1105), a basic class of... controlled substance, and further distribution to its customers. The methamphetamine will not be sold as...

  9. 76 FR 51401 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... Enforcement Administration (DEA) as a bulk manufacturer of Methamphetamine (1105), a basic class of controlled... of Benzphetamine, a schedule III non-narcotic controlled substance. The methamphetamine will not be... its customers. The methamphetamine will not be sold. Any other such applicant, and any person who...

  10. 76 FR 62449 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug... Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of ] the following basic classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Noroxymorphone (9668) II Alfentanil (9737) II...