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Sample records for bullhead city az

  1. 76 FR 38568 - Safety Zone; Bullhead City Regatta, Bullhead City, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Bullhead City Regatta, Bullhead City, AZ... temporary safety zone on the navigable waters of the Colorado River in Bullhead City, Arizona for the Bullhead City Regatta on August 13, 2011. This temporary safety zone is necessary to provide for the...

  2. 78 FR 44011 - Safety Zone; Bullhead City Regatta; Bullhead City, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: ] Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM... Proposed Rulemaking for this event on June 7, 2013 (78 FR 34300). We received no comments or requests for a... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Bullhead City Regatta; Bullhead City,...

  3. 77 FR 36439 - Safety Zone; Bullhead City Regatta; Bullhead City, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice... public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). 4. Public Meeting We... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Bullhead City Regatta; Bullhead City,...

  4. 78 FR 34300 - Safety Zone; Bullhead City Regatta, Bullhead City, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-07

    ... DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A. Public... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). 4. Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Bullhead City Regatta, Bullhead City,...

  5. 78 FR 34300 - Safety Zone; Bullhead City Regatta, Bullhead City, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-07

    ...Guard to establish safety zones. The City of Bullhead...proposed temporary safety zone is necessary to provide...event involves people floating down the river on inflatable...rafts, inner tubes and floating platforms. The size...proposing a temporary safety zone that would be...

  6. 77 FR 36439 - Safety Zone; Bullhead City Regatta; Bullhead City, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ...AZ. The proposed temporary safety zone is necessary to provide for the safety...waterway. This event involves people floating down the river on inflatable rafts...Guard is proposing a temporary safety zone that would be enforced from 6...

  7. 76 FR 38568 - Safety Zone; Bullhead City Regatta, Bullhead City, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ...City, Arizona. The temporary safety zone is necessary to provide for the safety...waterway. This event involves people floating down the river on inflatable rafts...is establishing a temporary safety zone that would be enforced from 7...

  8. 78 FR 71706 - Noise Exposure Map Notice for Laughlin/Bullhead International Airport, Bullhead City, Arizona

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ...Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Notice for Laughlin/Bullhead International...its determination that the noise exposure maps submitted by Mohave County Airport Authority...that the FAA finds that the noise exposure maps submitted for Laughlin/Bullhead...

  9. 33 CFR 100.1102 - Marine Events on the Colorado River, between Davis Dam (Bullhead City, Arizona) and Headgate Dam...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... false Marine Events on the Colorado River, between Davis Dam (Bullhead City...1102 Marine Events on the Colorado River, between Davis Dam (Bullhead City...Lake Moovalya, Parker, Arizona between river miles 179 and 185 (between the...

  10. 33 CFR 100.1102 - Marine Events on the Colorado River, between Davis Dam (Bullhead City, Arizona) and Headgate Dam...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... false Marine Events on the Colorado River, between Davis Dam (Bullhead City...1102 Marine Events on the Colorado River, between Davis Dam (Bullhead City...Lake Moovalya, Parker, Arizona between river miles 179 and 185 (between the...

  11. 33 CFR 100.1102 - Marine Events on the Colorado River, between Davis Dam (Bullhead City, Arizona) and Headgate Dam...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... River, between Davis Dam (Bullhead City, Arizona) and Headgate Dam (Parker, Arizona). 100.1102 Section... Davis Dam (Bullhead City, Arizona) and Headgate Dam (Parker, Arizona). (a) General. Sponsors are... Roadrunner Resort and Headgate Dam). Bullhead City Boat Drags Sponsor: Sunshine Promotions Date: 2 to...

  12. 78 FR 71706 - Noise Exposure Map Notice for Laughlin/Bullhead International Airport, Bullhead City, Arizona

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Notice for Laughlin/Bullhead International Airport... Aviation Administration (FAA) announces its determination that the noise exposure maps submitted by Mohave... INFORMATION: This notice announces that the FAA finds that the noise exposure maps submitted for...

  13. 33 CFR 100.1102 - Marine Events on the Colorado River, between Davis Dam (Bullhead City, Arizona) and Headgate Dam...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... River, between Davis Dam (Bullhead City, Arizona) and Headgate Dam (Parker, Arizona). 100.1102 Section... Davis Dam (Bullhead City, Arizona) and Headgate Dam (Parker, Arizona). (a) General. Sponsors are... between September and December Where: that portion of Lake Moovalya, Parker, Arizona between Headgate...

  14. 78 FR 44011 - Safety Zone; Bullhead City Regatta; Bullhead City, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ...Guard to establish safety zones (33 U.S.C. sections...This temporary safety zone is necessary to provide...involves participants floating down the river on inflatable...rafts, inner tubes and floating platforms as part of...the associated safety zone will collapse...

  15. 78 FR 13811 - Special Local Regulation; Annual Marine Events on the Colorado River, Between Davis Dam (Bullhead...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 Special Local Regulation; Annual Marine Events on the Colorado River, Between Davis Dam (Bullhead City, AZ) and Headgate Dam (Parker, AZ) Within the San Diego Captain of...

  16. 77 FR 67563 - Special Local Regulation; Annual Marine Events on the Colorado River, Between Davis Dam (Bullhead...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 Special Local Regulation; Annual Marine Events on the Colorado River, Between Davis Dam (Bullhead City, AZ) and Headgate Dam (Parker, AZ) Within the San Diego Captain of...

  17. 77 FR 70121 - Special Local Regulation; Annual Marine Events on the Colorado River Between Davis Dam (Bullhead...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 Special Local Regulation; Annual Marine Events on the Colorado River Between Davis Dam (Bullhead City, AZ) and Headgate Dam (Parker, AZ) Within the San Diego Captain of...

  18. 33 CFR 165.1124 - Annual Firework Events on the Colorado River, between Davis Dam (Bullhead City, Arizona) and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Annual Firework Events on the... § 165.1124 Annual Firework Events on the Colorado River, between Davis Dam (Bullhead City, Arizona) and... § 165.1124 1. Avi Resort & Casino Memorial Day Fireworks Sponsor Avi Resort & Casino. Event...

  19. 33 CFR 165.1124 - Annual Firework Events on the Colorado River, between Davis Dam (Bullhead City, Arizona) and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Annual Firework Events on the... § 165.1124 Annual Firework Events on the Colorado River, between Davis Dam (Bullhead City, Arizona) and... § 165.1124 1. Avi Resort & Casino Memorial Day Fireworks Sponsor Avi Resort & Casino. Event...

  20. 33 CFR 165.1124 - Annual Firework Events on the Colorado River, between Davis Dam (Bullhead City, Arizona) and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Annual Firework Events on the... § 165.1124 Annual Firework Events on the Colorado River, between Davis Dam (Bullhead City, Arizona) and... § 165.1124 1. Avi Resort & Casino Memorial Day Fireworks Sponsor Avi Resort & Casino. Event...

  1. 78 FR 48303 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Tuba City, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... Tuba City VORTAC, Tuba City, AZ (78 FR 32086, May 29, 2013). In the regulatory text, the region..., 2013 (78 FR 32086), Airspace Docket No. 13-AWP-1, FR Doc. 2013-12623, is corrected as follows: Sec. 71... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Parts 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Tuba City,...

  2. 78 FR 32086 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Tuba City, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... rulemaking (NPRM) to amend controlled airspace at Tuba City, AZ (78 FR 16823). Interested parties were... 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The...

  3. 78 FR 16823 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Tuba City, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-19

    ... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does... FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in 14 CFR 71.1... (IFR) aircraft under control of Denver, Albuquerque and Salt Lake City Air Route Traffic...

  4. 78 FR 17869 - Safety Zone; Desert Storm Shootout; Lake Havasu, Lake Havasu City, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-25

    ...USCG-2013-0005] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Desert Storm Shootout; Lake Havasu, Lake Havasu...Havasu City, Arizona in support of the Desert Storm Shootout. This temporary safety...Lake Racer LLC is sponsoring the Desert Storm Shootout, which is to be held...

  5. Temperature-dependent Index of Mitotic Interval (?0) for Chromosome Manipulation in Korean Bullhead, Pseudobagrus fulvidraco

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sang Gu; Han, Hyoung Kyun; Gil, Hyun Woo; Park, In-Seok

    2012-01-01

    Korean bullhead (Pseudobagrus fulvidraco) was collected from the Kum River areas of Kangkyung-eup, Nonsan city, Chungcheongnam-do, Korea, from April to June, 2012 and was fertilized in order to observe egg development and temperature-related cleavage rates and mitotic intervals (?0). The fertilized eggs were separative, demersal and light yellowish with 1.5ą0.06 mm in diameter, and did not contain oil globules. The first cleavage stages were 90 min, 80 min, 60 min and 50 min at 21°C , 24°C , 27°C and 30°C , respectively. At higher temperatures, eggs developed faster and underwent further identical development. For Korean bullhead, ?0 were 33.4ą2.08 min at 21°C, 31.5ą3.06 min at 24°C, 28.1ą2.11 min at 27°C and 26.4ą3.35 min at 30°C . There were strong negative correlations between the ?0 and water temperatures at all points studied (Y= 1.13X+58.15, R2=0.98, n=30, where Y is ?0 and X is temperature). The results obtained in this work will be helpful for chromosome manipulation by use of cleavage frequency data and ?0 data in Korean bullhead. PMID:25949107

  6. 78 FR 60698 - Safety Zone, Lucas Oil Drag Boat Racing Series; Thompson Bay, Lake Havasu City, AZ.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Lucas Oil Drag Boat Racing Series; Thompson..., AZ for the Lucas Oil Drag Boat Racing Series. This temporary safety zone is necessary to...

  7. 78 FR 60698 - Safety Zone, Lucas Oil Drag Boat Racing Series; Thompson Bay, Lake Havasu City, AZ.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ...RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Lucas Oil Drag Boat Racing Series; Thompson Bay, Lake...Bay in Lake Havasu, AZ for the Lucas Oil Drag Boat Racing Series. This temporary safety...the logistical details of the Lucas Oil Drag Boat Racing Series were not finalized...

  8. HISTORICAL MONITORING OF BIOMARKERS OF EXPOSURE OF BROWN BULLHEAD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biomarkers of exposure to chemical contamination, benzo(a)pyrene (BAP) and naphthalene (NAPH) type metabolites were measured in brown bullhead from a heavily polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminated section of the Black River, Ohio during and immediately after remedial ...

  9. Comparative Analysis of Histological Changes in Ussurian Bullhead, Leiocassis ussuriensis, and Korean Bullhead, Pseudobagrus fulvidevrepaco, in the Early Period of Growth

    PubMed Central

    Goo, In Bon; Gil, Hyun Woo; Park, In-Seok

    2013-01-01

    The histological changes in the Ussurian bullhead, Leiocassis ussuriensis, and the Korean bullhead, Pseudobagrus fulvidevrepaco, were observed during the early period of growth. The retinas size of both species increased in the 9 days post-hatching (DPH) (p<0.05). In the just-hatched Ussurian bullhead, the retina already consisted of six layers: the epithelial layer, ganglion cell layer, inner nuclear layer, inner plexiform layer, outer limiting membrane layer, and rod and cone layer. The Korean bullhead had the same components. At 50 DPH, the thickness of the retina was 538.0ą7.19 ?m in the Ussurian bullhead and 558.9ą9.44 ?m in the Korean bullhead. The relative thickness of each layer of the retina did not differ significantly in the two species. Although the growth of the Korean bullhead’s retina was faster, the relative thickness of each layer in the retina did not change during early development. After hatching, some parts of the tissue gradually became denser. Immediately after hatching, the kidney and midgut epithelium of the Ussurian bullhead and Korean bullhead were already formed and grew gradually thereafter. From 0 DPH to 30 DPH, the nuclear height in the midgut epithelium did not differ significantly between the two species, but at 50 DPH, it was 11.4ą2.45 ?m in the Korean bullhead and 9.9ą 2.13 ?m in the Ussurian bullhead. During the experimental period, the major axes, minor axes, surface areas, and volumes of the proximal tubule cells in the kidney did not differ significantly between the two species. Thus, the early histological development of the Ussurian bullhead is similar to that of the Korean bullhead. PMID:25949159

  10. DNA DAMAGE AND EXTERNAL LESIONS IN BROWN BULLHEAD FROM CONTAMINATED HABITATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The single cell gel electrophoresis ("Comet") assay was used to compare levels of DNA damage in brown bullheads (Ameiurus nebulosus) collected from three known contaminated locations, the Cuyahoga River, Ashtabula River, and Ashumet Pond (Cape Cod), with brown bullheads collected...

  11. Biotic and abiotic correlates with black bullhead population characteristics in Nebraska sandhill lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phelps, Q.E.; Ward, M.J.; Paukert, C.P.; Chipps, S.R.; Willis, D.W.

    2005-01-01

    We explored relationships among black bullhead (Ameiurus melas) population characteristics and physicochemical attributes in shallow lakes and quantified relationships between population characteristics of black bullhead and sport fishes. Lake characteristics and fisheries survey data were collected from the Sandhills region of northcentral Nebraska from May through June, 1998 and 1999. Relative abundance of black bullheads was inversely related to proportional stock density (r=-0.672, df=15, P=0.004); however, neither relative weight nor growth was significantly (P ??? 0.20) related to black bullhead relative abundance. Population characteristics of common panfish species such as bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), green sunfish (L. cyanellus), pumpkinseed (L. gibbosus), and yellow perch (Perca flavescens) were not correlated with black bullhead relative abundance or size structure. Rather, proportional stock density (r=0.655, df=10, P=0.029) and growth (r=0.59, df=11, P=0.04) of black bullhead were positively related to relative abundance of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Similarly, black bullhead relative abundance was inversely related to largemouth bass size structure (r=-0.51, df=14, P= 0.05). Black bullhead mean length at age 3 was positively related to total phosphorous concentration (r=0.65, df=16, P=0.004), and bullhead relative abundance was positively related to shoreline development index (r=0.46, df=22, P=0.03). Population characteristics of black bullhead appeared to have little influence on panfish communities. Rather, black bullhead abundance, predator density, and lake productivity exhibited stronger relationships with black bullhead population characteristics.

  12. Pollution-induced behavioural effects in the brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus)

    E-print Network

    Neff, Bryan D.

    Pollution-induced behavioural effects in the brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) Ross D. Breckels on biodiversity. Thus, it is important to understand the nature of pollution- induced change in aquatic ecosystems. We show that brown bullheads (Ameiurus nebulosus) may have evolved in response to chronic pollution

  13. DNA DAMAGE AND EXTERNAL LESIONS IN BROWN BULLHEADS FROM CONTAMINATED HABITATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Comet assay was used to compare levels of DNA damage in brown bullheads (Ameiurus nebulosus) collected from three known contaminated locations, the Cuyahoga River, Ashtabula River, and Ashumet Pond (Cape Cod), with brown bullheads collected from three paired reference sites, ...

  14. 27Barnes & Hicks--Catfish in Lake Taupo Brown bullhead catfish

    E-print Network

    Waikato, University of

    27Barnes & Hicks--Catfish in Lake Taupo Brown bullhead catfish (Ameiurus nebulosus) in Lake Taupo A C T Brown bullhead catfish (Ameiurus nebulosus) were first discovered in Lake Taupo during the early. A native of the southern and eastern states of America, these catfish have been in New Zealand since 1878

  15. First record of the black bullhead Ameiurus melas (Teleostei: Ictaluridae) in Poland.

    PubMed

    Nowak, M; Kosco, J; Popek, W; Epler, P

    2010-04-01

    The North American catfish, the black bullhead Ameiurus melas, is recorded for the first time in Poland. The origin of these fish is not clear, but their presence may be associated with unregulated introductions by anglers. PMID:20537032

  16. SERUM CHEMISTRY AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL EVALUATIONS OF BROWN BULLHEADS (AMEIURUS NEBULOSUS) FROM THE BUFFALO AND NIAGARA RIVERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cholangiomas and cholangiocarcinomas were observed in brown bullheads (Ameiurus nebulosus) collected from the Buffalo and Niagara Rivers (NY) and Old Woman Creek (OH). ignificant increases in serum BUN, uric acid, triglycerides inorganic phosphate, ALT, LDL, calcium and iron and ...

  17. PATHOLOGICAL AND SERUM CHEMISTRY PROFILES OF BROWN BULLHEADS (AMERIURUS NEBULOSUS) FROM THE BLACK RIVER AND OLD WOMAN CREEK, OHIO

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study compares serum chemistry values for brown bullheads (Amciurus nebulosus) from the industrially contaminated Black River, Ohio, with the rural and relatively uncontaminated Old Woman Creek, Ohio. ifty-two percent (24 of 46) brown bullheads over 3-years-old had liver neo...

  18. Decreased glutathione S-transferase expression and activity and altered sex steroids in Lake Apopka brown bullheads (Ameriurus nebulosus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gallagher, E.P.; Gross, T.S.; Sheehy, K.M.

    2001-01-01

    A number of freshwater lakes and reclaimed agricultural sites in Central Florida have been the receiving waters for agrochemical and municipal runoff. One of these sites, Lake Apopka, is also a eutrophic system that has been the focus of several case studies reporting altered reproductive activity linked to bioaccumulation of persistent organochlorine chemicals in aquatic species. The present study was initiated to determine if brown bullheads (Ameriurus nebulosus) from the north marsh of Lake Apopka (Lake Apopka Marsh) exhibit an altered capacity to detoxify environmental chemicals through hepatic glutathione S-transferase (GST)-mediated conjugation as compared with bullheads from a nearby reference site (Lake Woodruff). We also compared plasma sex hormone concentrations (testosterone, 17-?? estradiol, and 11 keto-testosterone) in bullheads from the two sites. Female bullheads from Lake Apopka had 40% lower initial rate GST conjugative activity toward 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB), 50% lower activity towards p-nitrobutyl chloride (NBC), 33% lower activity toward ethacrynic acid (ECA), and 43% lower activity toward ??5-androstene-3,17-dione (??5-ADI), as compared with female bullheads from Lake Woodruff. Enzyme kinetic analyses demonstrated that female bullheads from Lake Apopka had lower GST-catalyzed CDNB clearance than did female Lake Woodruff bullheads. Western blotting studies of bullhead liver cytosolic proteins demonstrated that the reduced GST catalytic activities in female Lake Apopka bullheads were accompanied by lower expression of hepatic GST protein. No site differences were observed with respect to GST activities or GST protein expression in male bullheads. Female Lake Apopka bullheads also had elevated concentrations of plasma androgens (testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone) as compared with females from Lake Woodruff. In contrast, male Lake Apopka bullheads had elevated levels of plasma estrogen but similar levels of androgens as compared with male bullheads from Lake Woodruff. Collectively, our studies indicate the presence of reduced GST protein expression, reduced GST conjugative capacity and altered sex steroid homeostasis in female bullheads from a contaminated field site in Central Florida. The implications of these physiological alterations in terms of pollutant biotransformation and reproduction are discussed. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Variable growth and longevity of yellow bullhead (Ameiurus natalis) in the Everglades of south Florida, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murie, D.J.; Parkyn, D.C.; Loftus, W.F.; Nico, L.G.

    2009-01-01

    Yellow bullhead (Ictaluridae: Ameiurus natalis) is the most abundant ictalurid catfish in the Everglades of southern Florida, USA, and, as both prey and predator, is one of many essential components in the ecological-simulation models used in assessing restoration success in the Everglades. Little is known of its biology and life history in this southernmost portion of its native range; the present study provides the first estimates of age and growth from the Everglades. In total, 144 yellow bullheads of 97-312 mm total length (TL) were collected from canals and marshes of the Everglades between April 2000 and January 2001, and from October 2003 to February 2005. Fish were aged using cross-sections of pectoral spines and ranged from 1-12 years, with the maximum age almost twice that of any yellow bullhead previously reported. Yellow bullheads from south Florida grew relatively rapidly during their first 3 years, but after age 5 growth slowed and fish approached an asymptote of ???214 mm TL. Compared to other populations in the United States, yellow bullhead in the Everglades grew relatively slowly, were smaller at age overall, but survived to older ages. ?? 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Prevalence of Tumors in Brown Bullhead from Three Lakes in Southeastern Massachusetts, 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baumann, Paul C.; LeBlanc, Denis R.; Blazer, Vicki; Meier, John R.; Hurley, Stephen T.; Kiryu, Yasu

    2008-01-01

    The Massachusetts Military Reservation (MMR) has been a military base on western Cape Cod since the early 1900s. Contaminated surface water and ground water from the MMR have discharged into several kettle lakes on or near the base. To discover whether the prevalences of tumors and other lesions in brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) in these lakes, particularly Ashumet Pond, were elevated above normal, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), assisted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife (MADFW), conducted a study in 2002 of brown bullhead in Ashumet Pond and in two reference lakes, Santuit Pond (on Cape Cod) and Great Herring Pond (on the mainland of Massachusetts). Brown bullhead from Great Herring Pond had few external raised lesions (2.8 percent), a low prevalence of liver neoplasms (5 percent), and little genetic damage to their red blood cell nuclei. Brown bullhead from Ashumet Pond had a high prevalence of raised lesions (62.1 percent), which included histopathologically verified papillomas and squamous carcinoma; an elevated incidence of liver neoplasms (16.7 percent); and an elevated level of genetic damage to their red blood cell nuclei. Because red blood cells in fish have a lifespan of about 100 days, these results indicate an ongoing exposure to genotoxins in Ashumet Pond. Brown bullhead from Santuit Pond also had elevated prevalences of raised lesions (48.3 percent) and liver neoplasms (15 percent), although the prevalences of large and multiple lesions were significantly lower than those in fish from Ashumet Pond. These differences may indicate differing causes of pathology in the two lakes. The high prevalence of melanistic lesions on brown bullhead from Ashumet Pond, combined with the tumor pathology and genetic damage, implicates chemical carcinogens as one of the causal factors in that lake.

  1. Diagnostic criteria for proliferative hepatic lesions in brown bullhead Ameiurus nebulosus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blazer, V.S.; Fournie, J.W.; Wolf, J.C.; Wolfe, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Brown bullhead Ameiurus nebulosus is used as indicator species for contaminant effects at areas of concern (AOC) in the Great Lakes and other areas. One of the beneficial use impairments at numerous AOC is 'fish tumors and other deformities'. An impairment occurs when the prevalence of fish tumors and other deformities exceeds those at unimpacted or control sites or when survey data confirm the presence of neoplastic or preneoplastic liver lesions in bullhead or white sucker Catostomus commersonii. Numerous surveys have been conducted over the years assessing neoplasia in these fishes, both liver and skin tumors. However, a major problem in comparing the results has been a lack of consistent criteria for evaluating histological changes in bullhead livers. As individual AOC develop and implement remedial action plans, realistic and attainable delisting targets need to be specified. For this to occur and be consistent from site to site there must be standardization of the criteria being used to evaluate specific impairments. In this report, specific diagnostic criteria are provided for both non-neoplastic and neoplastic proliferative hepatocellular and biliary lesions. These criteria should assist fish pathologists in describing and categorizing proliferative liver lesions from brown bullhead. ?? Inter-Research 2006.

  2. Ontogenetic Development of Weberian Ossicles and Hearing Abilities in the African Bullhead Catfish

    E-print Network

    Ladich, Friedrich

    Ontogenetic Development of Weberian Ossicles and Hearing Abilities in the African Bullhead Catfish on the development of the Weberian ossicles and its effect on the development of hearing in catfishes. Methodology/Principal Findings: We investigated the development of the Weberian apparatus and auditory sensitivity in the catfish

  3. Tumor prevalence and biomarkers of genotoxicity in brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) in Chesapeake Bay tributaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pinkney, A.E.; Harshbarger, J.C.; Karouna-Renier, N. K.; Jenko, K.; Balk, L.; Skarpheinsdottir, H.; Liewenborg, B.; Rutter, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    We surveyed four Chesapeake Bay tributaries for skin and liver tumors in brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus). We focused on the South River, where the highest skin tumor prevalence (53%) in the Bay watershed had been reported. The objectives were to 1) compare tumor prevalence with nearby rivers (Severn and Rhode) and a more remote river (Choptank); 2) investigate associations between tumor prevalence and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkylating agents; and 3) statistically analyze Chesapeake Bay bullhead tumor data from 1992 through 2008. All four South River collections exhibited high skin tumor prevalence (19% to 58%), whereas skin tumor prevalence was 2%, 10%, and 52% in the three Severn collections; 0% and 2% in the Choptank collections; and 5.6% in the Rhode collection. Liver tumor prevalence was 0% to 6% in all but one South River collection (20%) and 0% to 6% in the three other rivers. In a subset of samples, PAH-like biliary metabolites and 32P-DNA adducts were used as biomarkers of exposure and response to polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). Adducts from alkylating agents were detected as O6-methyl-2'-deoxyguanosine (O6Me-dG) and O6-ethyl-2'-deoxyguanosine (O6Et-dG) modified DNA. Bullheads from the contaminated Anacostia River were used as a positive control for DNA adducts. 32P-DNA adduct concentrations were significantly higher in Anacostia bullhead livers compared with the other rivers. We identified alkyl DNA adducts in bullhead livers from the South and Anacostia, but not the Choptank. Neither the PAH-like bile metabolite data, sediment PAH data, nor the DNA adduct data suggest an association between liver or skin tumor prevalence and exposure to PACs or alkylating agents in the South, Choptank, Severn, or Rhode rivers. Logistic regression analysis of the Chesapeake Bay database revealed that sex and length were significant covariates for liver tumors and length was a significant covariate for skin tumors. ?? 2011.

  4. Tumor prevalence and biomarkers of genotoxicity in brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) in Chesapeake Bay tributaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pinkney, Alfred E.; Harshbarger, John C.; Karouna-Renier, Natalie K.; Jenko, Kathryn; Balk, Lennart; Skarphéđinsdóttir, Halldora; Liewenborg, Birgitta; Rutter, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    We surveyed four Chesapeake Bay tributaries for skin and liver tumors in brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus). We focused on the South River, where the highest skin tumor prevalence (53%) in the Bay watershed had been reported. The objectives were to 1) compare tumor prevalence with nearby rivers (Severn and Rhode) and a more remote river (Choptank); 2) investigate associations between tumor prevalence and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkylating agents; and 3) statistically analyze Chesapeake Bay bullhead tumor data from 1992 through 2008. All four South River collections exhibited high skin tumor prevalence (19% to 58%), whereas skin tumor prevalence was 2%, 10%, and 52% in the three Severn collections; 0% and 2% in the Choptank collections; and 5.6% in the Rhode collection. Liver tumor prevalence was 0% to 6% in all but one South River collection (20%) and 0% to 6% in the three other rivers. In a subset of samples, PAH-like biliary metabolites and 32P-DNA adducts were used as biomarkers of exposure and response to polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). Adducts from alkylating agents were detected as O6-methyl-2'-deoxyguanosine (O6Me-dG) and O6-ethyl-2'-deoxyguanosine (O6Et-dG) modified DNA. Bullheads from the contaminated Anacostia River were used as a positive control for DNA adducts. 32P-DNA adduct concentrations were significantly higher in Anacostia bullhead livers compared with the other rivers. We identified alkyl DNA adducts in bullhead livers from the South and Anacostia, but not the Choptank. Neither the PAH-like bile metabolite data, sediment PAH data, nor the DNA adduct data suggest an association between liver or skin tumor prevalence and exposure to PACs or alkylating agents in the South, Choptank, Severn, or Rhode rivers. Logistic regression analysis of the Chesapeake Bay database revealed that sex and length were significant covariates for liver tumors and length was a significant covariate for skin tumors.

  5. SERUM CHEMISTRY AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL EVALUATIONS OF BROWN BULLHEADS (AMEIRUS NEBULOSUS) FROM THE BUFFALO AND NIAGARA RIVERS, NEW YORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cholangiomas and cholangiocarcinomas were observed in brown bullheads (Ameiurus nebulosus) collected from the Buffalo and Niagara Rivers (NY) and Old Woman Creek (OH), USA. ignificant increases in serum blood urea nitrogen, uric acid, triglycerides, inorganic phosphate, ALT, LDL,...

  6. DNA damage and external lesions in brown bullheads (Ameiurus nebulosus) from contaminated habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yang, X.; Meier, J.; Chang, L.; Rowan, M.; Baumann, P.C.

    2006-01-01

    The Comet assay was used to compare levels of DNA damage in brown bullheads (Ameiurus nebulosus) collected from three known contaminated locations, the Cuyahoga River (OH, USA), Ashtabula River (OH, USA; both tributaries to Lake Erie, USA), and Ashumet Pond (Cape Cod, MA, USA), with brown bullheads collected from three paired reference sites, Old Woman Creek (OH, USA), Conneaut River (OH, USA; both tributaries to Lake Erie), and Great Herring Pond (mainland MA, USA), respectively. Blood was sampled from each fish, and the Comet assay was conducted on erythrocytes. The assay results demonstrate that fish from the three contaminated sites each suffered higher DNA damage compared with fish from their respective reference sites. The results also show that the genetic damage was associated with the occurrence of external lesions and deformities in fish. The Comet assay is sufficiently sensitive to detect exposure of natural fish populations to environmental levels of genotoxic contaminants. ?? 2006 SETAC.

  7. Tumor frequencies in walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) and brown bullhead (Ictalurus nebulosus) and sediment contaminants in tributaries of the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baumann, Paul C.; Mac, Michael J.; Smith, Stephen B.; Harshbarger, John C.

    1991-01-01

    To better characterize neoplasm epizootics in the Great Lakes basin and their association with families of contaminants, we samples five locations: the Fox and Menominee rivers, Lake Michigan; Munuscong Lake, St. Marys River; and the Black and Cuyahoga rivers, Lake Erie. Frequencies of external and liver tumors were determined for brown bullhead (Ictalurus nebulosus) from all locations except the Black River and for walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) from the Lake Michigan and St. Mary's River sites. Sediment samples were analyzed for metals, polychlorinated aromatics, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Liver neoplasms occurred in brown bullhead from the Cuyahoga River and Munuscong Lake; brown bullhead captured from Munuscong Lake were older than those collected from the other locations. Brown bullhead from these same two rivers had elevated hepatosomatic indexes. No liver neoplasms were found in brown bullhead from the Fox and Menominee rivers, although polychlorinated aromatics were highest in both Fox River sediment and Fox and Menominee brown bullhead, and arsenic was highest in Menominee River sediment and fish. Liver neoplasms in brown bullhead from the Cuyahoga River fit the prevailing hypothesis that elevated PAH in sediment can induce cancer in wild fish. The cause of the liver neoplasms in Munuscong Lake brown bullhead is undetermined.

  8. Tumor prevalence and biomarkers in brown bullheads (Ameiurus nebulosus) from the tidal Potomac River watershed [poster

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mitchell, R.T.

    2000-01-01

    Associations between contaminant exposure and liver and skin tumor prevalence were evaluated in brown bullheads (Ameiurus nebulosus) from the tidal Potomac River watershed. Thirty bullheads (>260 mm) were collected from (1) Quantico embayment, near a Superfund site which released organochlorine contaminants; (2) Neabsco Creek, a tributary with petroleum inputs from runoff and marinas; and (3) Anacostia River (spring and fall), an urban tributary designated as a Chesapeake Bay Region of Concern, contaminated with PCBs, PAHs, and organochlorine pesticides. Fish were collected from the Tuckahoe River, as a reference. Cytochrome P450 activity, bile PAH metabolites, and muscle organochlorine pesticide/PCB concentrations were measured in randomly-selected individuals and sediment contaminants were analyzed. We found statistically significant differences in liver tumor prevalences: Anacostia (spring)-50%, Anacostia (fall)-60%, Neabsco-17%, Quantico-7%, Tuckahoe-10%. Skin tumor prevalences were significantly different: Anacostia (spring)-37%, Anacostia (fall)-10%, Neabsco-3%, Quantico-3%, Tuckahoe-0%. Tumor prevalence in Anacostia bullheads warrants concern and was similar to those at highly contaminated sites in the Great Lakes. There was evidence of higher PAH exposure in Anacostia fish but a cause-effect linkage cannot be established. Fish tumor surveys, with histopathological examination of internal and external organs, are recommended for monitoring the status of Regions of Concern.

  9. Temperament in bullheads: do laboratory and field explorative behaviour variables correlate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobler, Alexander; Engelen, Brecht; Knaepkens, Guy; Eens, Marcel

    2009-10-01

    The relevance of temperament traits for life history strategy or productivity is increasingly acknowledged. Temperament traits are often either observed in captivity or in the wild, but studies combining both observations are very rare. We examine whether exploratory behaviour in the bullhead ( Cottus perifretum), assayed under laboratory conditions, predicts this behaviour under field conditions. Forty-three PIT-tagged individuals were first assayed for exploration of a novel environment in the aquarium and then released into an unfamiliar stream stretch, where they were later relocated using a mobile antenna. Explorative behaviour assayed in the laboratory was significantly positively related to the exploration in the field, thus predicting distance moved in the field release. Both in the laboratory and in the field, explorative behaviour was not related to individual body length. When bullheads that did not leave the refuge in the aquarium (laboratory assay) and, therefore, did not explore the new environment were excluded from the analysis, the correlation between laboratory and field explorative behaviour variables became weaker. However, overall, our results illustrate that exploration rate of bullheads in isolated single-individual experiments can be used to predict this behaviour in the natural ecosystem.

  10. Effect of remedial dredging on bullhead tumor frequency in a recovering river

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, P.

    1995-12-31

    In 1980 and 1981 high tumor frequencies in brown bullhead from the Black River, Ohio were correlated with high concentrations of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in sediment. Surficial sediment levels of PAH dropped after a decline in the steel industry in 1982 followed by closure of the USX coke plant in 1983. By 1987 PAH concentrations had declined to less than one-hundredth of those found in 1980. During this same period liver cancer in age 3+ brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) underwent a significant decline to about one quarter of the 1982 frequency (38.5%) by 1987 (10%). Then in mid to late 1990, in a delayed reaction to a US EPA consent decree, PAH contaminated sediments were dredged from the river. Surveys in 1992 and 1993 revealed that the cancer frequency in age 3+ brown bullhead had increased to more than 45%. Preliminary 1994 data indicates a decline in grossly observable liver tumors (usually diagnosed as biliary cancers), along with declines in external tumors and eye pathology. The data fit the following hypothesis: Contaminated sediments become less bioavailable with time after a point source is removed, possibly due to deposition of cleaner sediment. Dredging temporarily restores bioavailability (and consequent effects). These data support the position that in some locations controlling contaminants in situ may be preferable to dredging on a cost-benefit basis.

  11. 75 FR 19246 - Safety Zone; Desert Storm, Lake Havasu, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ...USCG-2009-0809] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Desert Storm, Lake Havasu, AZ AGENCY: Coast...Havasu City, Arizona in support of the Desert Storm Exhibition Run. This temporary...Purpose The Lake Racer LLC is sponsoring the Desert Storm Charity Poker Run and...

  12. Mortality and pathology in brown bullheads Amieurus nebulosus associated with a spontaneous Edwardsiella ictaluri outbreak under tank culture conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iwanowicz, L.R.; Griffin, A.R.; Cartwright, Deborah D.; Blazer, V.S.

    2006-01-01

    Brown bullheads Amieurus nebulosus (family Ictaluridae) are commonly used as a sentinel of environmental contamination. These fish are not generally cultured under laboratory conditions and little is known about their disease susceptibility. Here we report an outbreak of disease due to Edwardsiella ictaluri in a laboratory population of tank-reared, wild-caught brown bullheads. The isolate was positively identified as E. ictaluri using standard bacteriological substrate utilization tests and a monoclonal antibody specific for this bacterium. This pathogen causes a significant disease in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus and is associated with disease in other ictalurid and non-ictalurid fishes. It appears that E. ictaluri is also a significant pathogen in brown bullheads and produces clinical signs and lesions similar but not identical to those observed in channel catfish. Since commercial sources of bullheads for laboratory tank studies are not available, precautions should be taken to prevent potential E. ictaluri disease outbreaks from wild-caught bullheads intended for laboratory research. ?? Inter-Research 2006.

  13. Aroclor 1248 exposure leads to immunomodulation, decreased disease resistance and endocrine disruption in the brown bullhead, Ameiurus nebulosus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iwanowicz, L.R.; Blazer, V.S.; McCormick, S.D.; Van Veld, P.A.; Ottinger, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    The brown bullhead Ameiurus nebulosus is a species of the family Ictaluridae commonly used as a sentinel of environmental contamination. While these fish have been utilized for this purpose in areas contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), few controlled, laboratory-based studies have been designed to document the effects of PCB mixtures in this species. Here, brown bullhead were exposed to the PCB mixture, Aroclor 1248, via intraperitoneal injection and the effects on immune function, plasma hormones and disease resistance were evaluated. Exposure to this mixture led to a decrease in bactericidal activity and circulating antibodies to Edwardsiella ictaluri present from a previous exposure to this pathogen. A subsequent E. ictaluri disease challenge led to significantly higher mortality in A1248 treated fish compared to vehicle-control fish. The mitogenic response to the T-cell mitogen, phytohemaglutinin-P, was increased compared to vehicle-control fish. The steroid hormone, cortisol, and the thyroid hormone, T3, were also significantly lower in A1248 exposed fish. In summary, we have validated a number of functional immune assays for application in brown bullhead immunotoxicity studies. Additionally, we have demonstrated that the PCB mixture (A1248) modulates both immune function and endocrine physiology in brown bullhead. Such data may compliment the interpretation of data yielded from applied field studies conducted in PCB contaminated aquatic ecosystems.

  14. HISTORICAL MONITORING OF BIOMARKERS OF PAH EXPOSURE OF BROWN BULLHEAD IN THE REMEDIATED BLACK RIVER AND THE CUYAHOGA RIVER, OHIO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biomarkers of exposure to chemical contamination were measured in brown bullhead from a heavily PAH contaminated section of the Black River, Ohio, during and immediately after remedial sediment dredging in 1990-1991, and in follow-up visits in 1993 and 1998. Biomarker levels of ...

  15. Az-Tech Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Rob

    2000-01-01

    Created in 1552 as a gift for Spain's king, the Badianus Manuscript is a repository of Aztec traditional medicinal knowledge and contains the earliest surviving illustrations of New World plants. At the College of Santa Cruz (Mexico City) for Aztec nobility, an Aztec healer who became the college physician compiled plant descriptions and medicinal…

  16. Mitochondrial DNA diversity of brown bullhead from contaminated and relatively pristine sites in the Great Lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Murdoch, M.H.; Hebert, P.D.N. . Dept. of Zoology)

    1994-08-01

    Brown bullhead were sampled from contaminated and relatively pristine sites to determine whether there was any association between genetic diversity and site contamination. Nine sites were sampled in the lower Great Lakes: five from Areas of Concern (identified by the International Joint Commission as having significant environmental degradation) and four from relatively clean areas of similar habitat type. Genetic variation was surveyed in the mitochondrial genome using restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Sixteen restriction enzymes were used to identify 42 distinct mitochondrial DNA haplotypes among 163 fish. Eight pairwise comparisons of populations at contaminated vs. clean sites showed that genetic diversity estimates were always lower in populations from contaminated sites. The most parsimonious explanation is that reduced diversity is a result of stochastic reductions in population size that have culled much of the genetic diversity from populations. Although contaminated sites support large populations of brown bullhead, historical environmental degradation at these sites may have reduced population size in the past, resulting in reduced present-day genetic diversity.

  17. Chlordane, DDT, PCB's, and other selected organic compounds in Asiatic clams and yellow bullhead in the Potomac River Basin, 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zappia, Humbert

    1996-01-01

    Chlordane, DDT (dichlor-diphenyl-trichloroethane), and PCB's (polychlorinated biphenyls) were the most widespread organic contaminants detected during a 1992 survey of aquatic biological tissues in the Potomac River Basin. On the basis of existing U.S. Food and Drug Administration criteria, no new threats to human health were discovered, although chlordane concentrations may pose a threat to fish-eating wildlife. Chlordane exceeded the National Academy of Science and National Academy of Engineering recommended maximum concentration for the protection of fish-eating wildlife at two sites. The survey, conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program, sampled Asiatic clams (Corbicula fluminea) and yellow bullhead (Ameiurus natalis) at 16 sites to determine the occurrence and distribution of 29 hydrophobic organic compounds. Thirteen of these organic compounds were detected in the survey. Sites with the greatest number of compounds detected include the Potomac River near Alexandria, Va., with 6 compounds detected in Asiatic clam tissue, and Accotink Creek near Annandale, Va., with 11 compounds in yellow bullhead tissue. Chlordane was detected at six sites, with maximum concentrations of 31.1 ?g/kg (micrograms per kilograms) in Asiatic clam tissue and 127 ?g/kg in yellow bullhead whole-fish tissue. DDT was detected at five sites, with maximum concentrations of 12.9 ?g/kg in Asiatic clam tissue and 7.6 ?g/kg in yellow bullhead whole-fish tissue. PCB's were detected at nine sites, with maximum concentrations of 162 ?g/kg in Asiatic clam tissue and 146 mg/ kg in yellow bullhead whole-fish tissue.

  18. Decline in liver neoplasms in wild brown bullhead catfish after coking plant closes and environmental PAHs plummet

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, P.C.; Harshbarger, J.C.

    1995-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in both sediment and brown bullhead catfish tissues from the Black River in Lorain County, Ohio, declined by 65% and 93%, respectively, between 1980 and 1982. Sediment PAHs declined an additional 99% by 1987, coincident with the closure of a coking facility in 1983. Contemporaneously, liver cancer in 3- to 4-year-old brown bullheads declined to about one-quarter the 1982 frequency (10% versus 39%) by 1987, while the percentage of livers without any proliferative lesions doubled (42% versus 20%). These changes were significant within age group. Our data affirm a cause-and-effect relationship between PAH exposure and liver cancer in wild fish. The data also support the efficacy of natural, unassisted remediation once the source of the pollution is eliminated. 21 refs., 4 tabs.

  19. Tumor prevalence and biomarkers of exposure in brown bullheads (Ameiurus nebulosus) from the tidal Potomac River, USA, watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pinkney, A.E.; Harshbarger, J.C.; May, E.B.; Melancon, M.J.

    2001-01-01

    Associations between contaminant exposure and liver and skin tumor prevalence were evaluated in brown bullheads (Ameiurus nebulosus) from the tidal Potomac River, USA, watershed. Thirty bullheads (>age 3) were collected from Quantico embayment near a Superfund site that released organochlorine contaminants; Neabsco Creek, a tributary with petroleum inputs from runoff and marinas; and Anacostia River (spring and fall), an urban tributary designated as a Chesapeake Bay region of concern, that was contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and organochlorine pesticides. Fish were collected from the Tuckahoe River, as a reference. Cytochrome P450 activity, bile PAH metabolites, and muscle organochlorine pesticide and PCB concentrations were measured in randomly selected individuals and sediment contaminants were analyzed. We found statistically significant differences in liver tumor prevalences: Anacostia (spring), 50%, Anacostia (fall), 60%, Neabsco, 17%, Quantico, 7%, and Tuckahoe, 10%. Skin tumor prevalences were significantly different: Anacostia (spring), 37%, Anacostia (fall), 10%, Neabsco, 3%, Quantico, 3%, and Tuckahoe, 0%. Tumor prevalences in Anacostia bullheads warrants concern and was similar to those as highly contaminated sites in the Great Lakes. Evidence was found of higher PAH exposure in Anacostia fish but a cause-effect linkage could not be established. Fish tumor surveys, with histopathologic examination of internal and external organs are recommended for monitoring the status of regions of concern.

  20. Naturally occurring orocutaneous papillomas and carcinomas of brown bullheads (Ictalurus nebulosus) in New York State.

    PubMed

    Poulet, F M; Wolfe, M J; Spitsbergen, J M

    1994-01-01

    Ninety-four brown bullheads (Ictalurus nebulosus) with spontaneous orocutaneous neoplasms (papillomas and carcinomas) were studied grossly and by light microscopy. Of these 94 fish, 71 were selected from 505 fish examined macroscopically during field surveys and 23 were selected from those submitted for diagnostic study. Fish with neoplasms came from 17 locations throughout New York State: Buffalo River, Canaan Lake, Cazenovia Lake, Delta Lake, Fort Pond, Greenwood Lake, Hudson River, Lake George, Lake Tiorati, Lincoln Hall Pond. Lincoln Pond, Oneida Lake, Onondaga Lake, Rutland Pond, Salmon River, Silver Stream Reservoir and Swan Lake. The prevalence varied from 0 to 100%. Multiple neoplasms were more common (84/94, 89%) than solitary ones (10/94, 11%). In order of decreasing frequency, neoplasms arose on the head, especially the ventral aspect, the lower dental plate, the upper dental plate, the trunk, the barbels, the fins, the tongue, and the tail. Of the 38/94 brown bullheads (40%) with tumors in both upper and lower lips and dental plates, 24/38 (63%) had the tumors in opposition. Macroscopically, soft, pink or yellowish papillary masses protruded above the normal epithelial surfaces. Histologically, cutaneous and oral neoplasms originated from the morphologically similar Malpighian epithelial cells of the surface epithelia and from the outer cells of the enamel organ. Based on histopathologic criteria, cutaneous and oral neoplasms were considered the same disease in different anatomic locations. No apparent difference in biologic behavior was noted between cutaneous and oral neoplasms. The lesions apparently progressed from benign papilloma to locally invasive carcinoma (28/94, 30%). Neoplastic emboli were seen in one case, and no metastases were detected. There was no statistically significant difference between the susceptibility of males (20/57, 35%) and females (6/26, 23%) to carcinomas. An apparent correlation was noted between a higher frequency of malignant tumors and longer body size (3/13 fish [23%] < 30 cm, 17/54 fish [31%] 30-34 cm, and 7/18 fish [39%] > 34 cm). PMID:8140730

  1. 76 FR 30907 - Proposed Foreign-Trade Zone-Eloy, AZ; Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ...-Trade Zones Board Proposed Foreign-Trade Zone--Eloy, AZ; Application An application has been submitted to the Foreign-Trade Zones Board (the Board) by the City of Eloy to establish a general-purpose foreign- trade zone at sites in Pinal County, Arizona, adjacent to the Phoenix U.S. Customs and...

  2. 75 FR 20920 - Safety Zone; Lake Havasu Grand Prix, Lake Havasu, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-22

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Lake Havasu Grand Prix, Lake Havasu, AZ... temporary safety zone upon the navigable waters of Lake Havasu on the Colorado River in Lake Havasu City, Arizona for the Lake Havasu Grand Prix. This temporary safety zone is necessary to provide for the...

  3. 75 FR 10552 - Noise Exposure Map Notice for Chandler Municipal Airport, Chandler, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Notice for Chandler Municipal Airport, Chandler, AZ... Administration (FAA) announces its determination that the noise exposure maps submitted by City of Chandler, for...: The effective date of the FAA's determination on the noise exposure maps is February 19, 2010....

  4. Airoport(City,Country,NumberOfRunways) Flight(FlightID,Day,DepartCity,DepartTime,ArrCity,ArrTime,PlaneType)

    E-print Network

    is not known. SELECT City FROM Airport WHERE NumberOfRunWays is Null #12; 2 Airoport(City AS Departure FROM (Airport AS A1 INNER JOIN Flight ON Flight.ArrCity=A1.City) INNER JOIN Airport AS A2 ON Flight.DepartCity=A2.City WHERE Flight.FlightID='AZ274' Airoport(City,Country,NumberOfRunways) Flight

  5. Airoport(City,Country,NumberOfRunways) Flight(FlightID,Day,DepartCity,DepartTime,ArrCity,ArrTime,PlaneType)

    E-print Network

    is not known. SELECT City FROM Airport WHERE NumberOfRunWays is Null #12;2 Airoport(City AS Departure FROM (Airport AS A1 INNER JOIN Flight ON Flight.ArrCity=A1.City) INNER JOIN Airport AS A2 ON Flight.DepartCity=A2.City WHERE Flight.FlightID='AZ274' Airoport(City,Country,NumberOfRunways) Flight

  6. The AzTEC Mathematics Project (AMP).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Gae R.

    The AzTEC Mathematics Project (AMP) is a statewide partnership among Arizona's Regents universities and state community colleges, partner school districts, and economic communities. AzTec is committed to preparing highly qualified K-12 mathematics and science teachers. AMP targeted Native American teachers and teachers of Native American students…

  7. Estimates of population genetic diversity in brown bullhead catfish by DNA fingerprinting

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, A.C.; Wessendarp, T.K.; Gordon, D.A.; Smith, M.K.; Lattier, D.L.; Hertzberg, V.; Leonard, A.

    1994-12-31

    Estimates of population genetic diversity may be a sensitive indicator of environmental impact, since limiting the effective breeding population by any means will result in loss of some variant genotypes, as has been demonstrated by allozyme analysis. DNA fingerprinting techniques are also coming into use for population analyses, and the authors chose to apply fingerprinting analysis three populations of brown bullhead catfish collected in Northern Ohio. DNA was isolated from the red blood cells of individual fish. Purified DNAs were digested with EcoR1 restriction enzyme; the digests were then sized on a 1% agarose gel, transferred to nylon membranes and probed with a radiolabeled M13 probe using the Westneat hybridization protocol (Southern blotting). This method effects fragments containing VNTR (variable number of tandem repeat) sequences complementary to the M13, which are highly variable among individual catfish. Hybridized bands were visualized by a Molecular Dynamics phosphorimager and recorded and analyzed with its proprietary Imagequant image analysis program, Excel and SAS. A total of 10 variable bands were identified and their presence or absence scored in each individual. These data were analyzed to determine between and within-population similarity indices as well as population heterozygosity and genetic diversity measures.

  8. Biliary PAH metabolites and the hepatosomatic index of brown bullheads from Lake Erie tributaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yang, X.; Baumann, P.C.

    2006-01-01

    In studies designed to investigate the environmental exposure of fish in Lake Erie tributaries, a benthic fish, the brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus), was collected from the industrially contaminated Detroit River, Ottawa River, Black River, Cuyahoga River-harbor and -upstream, Ashtabula River, Buffalo River, and Niagara River, and the non-industrialized Old Woman Creek during 1997-2000. Biliary benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P)- and naphthalene (NAPH)-type metabolites and the hepatosomatic index (HSI) were measured in fish and compared between different sites. Fish from all of the contaminated sites except Niagara River had significantly higher concentrations of both types of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites than fish from the Old Woman Creek. Concentrations of PAH metabolites in bile of fish were positively associated with concentrations of PAHs in sediments, supporting the use of bile metabolites as a measure of PAH exposure. Relatively low concentrations of PAHs detected in fish bile and sediments of the Niagara River, which had undergone extensive remediation, suggested a lowered PAH exposure for fish at this site. No apparent trend was observed in HSI between the industrialized and non-industrialized sites. This study demonstrates that biliary PAH metabolites are an effective indicator of exposure of fish to PAHs. However, because factors other than contamination could also affect the liver size of wild fish, HSI alone may be not a reliable biomarker for assessing contaminant stress. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Susceptibility of black bullhead Ameiurus melas to a panel of ranavirus isolates.

    PubMed

    Gobbo, F; Cappellozza, E; Pastore, M R; Bovo, G

    2010-07-01

    Ranaviruses are considered a serious threat to lower vertebrates, including fish, amphibians and reptiles. However, epidemiological data on these agents are lacking, and further investigations are needed to understand the role of carriers and to update the list of susceptible hosts. We carried out various experimental infections under controlled conditions to contribute to the current knowledge on the susceptibility of black bullhead Ameiurus melas to European catfish virus (ECV) and other ranaviruses. A panel of 7 ranavirus isolates was used to challenge duplicate groups of A. melas juveniles maintained in aquaria supplied with running dechlorinated tap water. The experiments were performed at 15 and 25 degrees C. The results confirmed the high susceptibility of A. melas to ECV infection. Furthermore, a significant mortality associated with the typical signs of systemic viral infections was observed in groups challenged with Epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus (EHNV) at 25 degrees C, and to a lesser extent, at 15 degrees C. No significant mortality was recorded in fish challenged with European sheatfish virus (ESV), Frog virus 3 (FV3), Rana esculenta virus-like (REV-like), Bohle iridovirus (BIV) or short-finned eel virus (SERV). PMID:20815324

  10. Flow cytometric leukocyte population patterns in brown bullhead from three Ohio rivers

    SciTech Connect

    Torsella, T.A.; Neiheisel, T.; Cormier, S.M.; Bercz, P.

    1994-12-31

    Brown bullhead (A. nebulosus) were collected from three Ohio rivers: Old Woman Creek (OWC), classified as clean, Cuyahoga (CR) and Black Rivers (BR), documented as polluted. Each river was sampled in April and September 1993. Patterns of leukocyte distribution (prepared via density gradient) by GSH content and oxidative burst capacity, using fluorescent probes were determined by flow cytometry. Sample processing was in blind coded batches. Three principal classes of leukocytes were identified. Type A; large, very granular with high GSH reserves and marked capacity for oxidative burst. Type B were smaller, less granular, contained low GSH and negligible oxidative burst capacity. Type C were small, less granular, possessing intermediate GSH and peroxidative activity. ANOVA of the subset distributions and mean fluorescent intensities by sex, site and season, disclosed: Type C were significantly (p < 0.001) elevated in the spring OWC males, whereas type A dominated in the spring CR and spring BR males. No differences in Type A/Type C patterns were seen in the spring females. In the fall sampling, significant dominance (p < 0.001) of Type A was seen in both sexes of the OWC fish, the CR and BR fish showed a predominance of Type C. These may be explained by chemical stressors, affecting immune competence. Sex differences in the spring were attributed to hormonal (spawning) influences.

  11. Bioaccumulation of cesium-137 in yellow bullhead catfish (Ameiurus natalis) inhabiting an abandoned nuclear reactor reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    McCreedy, C.D.; Glickman, L.T.; Jagoe, C.H.; Brisbin, I.L. Jr.

    1997-02-01

    Bioaccumulation of {sup 137}Cs was investigated in yellow bullhead catfish (Ameiurus natalis) inhabiting an abandoned reactor reservoir, Pond B, Savannah River Site, Barnwell Co., South Carolina. The authors collected fish by trap-netting, and determined ages from pectoral spines. Muscle and other tissues were assayed for {sup 137}Cs by NaI-scintillation. Music {sup 137}Cs was unrelated to sex or mass of fish, but was related to age. Examination of least-squares means suggested that {sup 137}Cs in muscle increased up to about age 3, but did not increase with greater age. A modified Richards model showed equilibrium {sup 137}Cs concentration in muscle was acquired in approximately 2.4 years. Growth differed between sexes and the time to asymptotic body mass was longer than the time to attain equilibrium {sup 137}Cs concentration. Males attained an asymptotic mass of 577 g in approximately 6.3 years; females attained an asymptotic mass of 438 g in approximately 5.9 years. The cumulative {sup 137}Cs burden of the population was 4.9 {times} 10{sup 6} Bq, representing <0.001% of the {sup 137}Cs inventory of the reservoir. Concentration of {sup 137}Cs varied among tissues with gill and muscle the lowest and highest. Concentration of {sup 137}Cs in ovaries declined with increasing ovary mass. Until equilibrium is attained in these fish, {sup 137}Cs concentration is directly related to increasing age rather than size.

  12. Airoport(City,Country,NumberOfRunways) Flight(FlightID,Day,DepartCity,DepartTime,ArrCity,ArrTime,PlaneType)

    E-print Network

    Airoport(City,Country,NumberOfRunways) Flight(FlightID,Day,DepartCity,DepartTime,ArrCity,ArrTime,PlaneType) Plane(PlaneType,NumberOfPassengers) 1. The cities with airport for which the number of runways is not known. 2. The arrival and the departure countries of flight AZ274 3. The types of aircraft used

  13. Assessment of the fish tumor beneficial use impairment in brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) at selected Great Lakes Areas of Concern

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blazer, Vicki; Mazik, Patricia M.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Braham, Ryan P.; Hahn, Cassidy M.; Walsh, Heather L.; Sperry, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    A total of 878 adult Brown Bullhead were collected at 11 sites within the Lake Erie and Lake Ontario drainages from 2011 to 2013. The sites included seven Areas of Concern (AOC; 670 individuals), one delisted AOC (50 individuals) and three non-AOC sites (158 individuals) used as reference sites. These fish were used to assess the “fish tumor or other deformities” beneficial use impairment. Fish were anesthetized, weighed, measured and any external abnormalities documented and removed. Abnormal orocutaneous and barbel tissue, as well as five to eight pieces of liver, were preserved for histopathological analyses. Otoliths were removed and used for age analyses. Visible external abnormalities included reddened (raised or eroded), melanistic areas and raised growths on lips, body surface, fins and barbels. Microscopically, these raised growths included papilloma, squamous cell carcinoma, osteoma and osteosarcoma. Proliferative lesions of the liver included bile duct hyperplasia, foci of cellular alteration, bile duct (cholangioma, cholangiocarcinoma) and hepatocellular (adenoma, hepatic cell carcinoma) neoplasia. The two reference sites (Long Point Inner Bay, Conneaut Creek), at which 30 or more bullhead were collected had a skin tumor prevalence of 10% or less and liver tumor prevalence of 4% or less. Presque Isle Bay, recently delisted, had a similar liver tumor prevalence (4%) and slightly higher prevalence (12%) of skin tumors. The prevalence of skin neoplasms was 15% or less at sites in the Black River, Cuyahoga River and Maumee AOCs, while more than 20% of the bullheads from the Rochester Embayment, Niagara River, Detroit River and Ashtabula River AOCs had skin tumors. The prevalence of liver tumors was greater than 4% at all AOC sites except the Old Channel site at the Cuyahoga River AOC, Wolf Creek within the Maumee AOC and the upper and lower sites within the Niagara River AOC.

  14. Long-term trends in liver neoplasms in brown bullhead in the Buffalo River, New York, USA.

    PubMed

    Lauren, Darrel J; Hinton, David; Law, Mac; Sorensen, Mary; Lyndall, Jennifer; Magar, Victor; Nielsen, Mark

    2010-08-01

    The Buffalo River area of concern (AOC) was assigned an impaired status for the fish tumors and other deformities beneficial use impairment category by the New York State Department of Environmental Protection in 1989. This was initially based on an inadequately documented brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) feeding study using river sediment extracts. The presence of liver tumors was subsequently supported by reports of a 19 to 27% prevalence in wild brown bullhead between 1983 and 1988 and a 4.8% prevalence in 1998. However, neither fish size (or age) nor sample locations were given, and histopathological definitions were inconsistent in these previous studies. Therefore, in 2008, we re-evaluated the prevalence of hepatocellular and chloangiocellular tumors (as well as other gross indicators of fish health) in brown bullhead averaging 25 cm in length collected from three reaches of the Buffalo River and recorded our collection sites by global positioning system. Among the 37 fish of appropriate size collected, only three exhibited liver tumors (8%). The tumors were evenly distributed within the three reaches, and only hepatocellular tumors were found. There were no differences in the prevalence of hepatic foci of alteration, body weight, length, or hepatosomatic index among the three reaches, but the conditions factor was significantly lower in fish from reach 2. Natural attenuation of water and sediment quality are the most likely causes for the decrease in liver tumors. The prevalence of liver tumors between 1998 and 2008 in the Buffalo River is similar to that found in recovery-stage AOCs and some Great Lakes reference areas. PMID:20821628

  15. Sediment PAHs and tumors in brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) at Featherstone National Wildlife Refuge, Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Pinkney, A.E.; Sutherland, D.W.; Foley, R.E.; Harshbarger, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    Featherstone National Wildlife Refuge is located in Virginia along the Potomac River, about 35.4 kilometers southwest of Washington, DC. The study objective was to verify past observations of gross lesions in several fish species, previously collected from Potomac River tributaries for contaminant analysis. Thirty brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) were collected from Neabsco Creek, which borders the refuge, 29 were collected from Farm Creek, which bisects the refuge, and 30 were collected from Marumsco Creek, 1.75 km upstream. Sediment concentrations of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) were measured because elevated levels have been associated with skin and liver tumors in this species. The average concentration of total carcinogenic PAHs in sediments was: Farm Creek (0.34 ppm) < Marumsco Creek (0.63 ppm) < Neabsco Creek (1.37 ppm). The prevalence of skin neoplasms (squamous carcinomas and papillomas) was 3.4% in Farm Creek, 16.6% in Marumsco Creek, and 33.3% in Neabsco Creek. This ranking and the rankings of the total number of fish with tumors, invasive tumors, or non-parasitic lesions all followed the trend in sediment carcinogenic PAHs (p < 0.003; Jongheere-Terpstra test). The prevalence of liver carcinomas (O% at Farm Creek, 3.3% at Marumsco Creek, and 10% at Neabsco Creek) was of borderline significance (p = 0.06). The highest sediment concentrations of total (25.5 ppm) and carcinogenic (2.70 ppm) PAHs were found in Neabsco Creek near a complex of three marinas. Further sampling should be conducted in Neabsco Creek to determine the sources and extent of PAH contamination. Laboratory exposures are recommended for establishing a cause-effect linkage between sediment and tumor incidence. Additional sediment chemistry is needed to determine if other carcinogens are present.

  16. Pigmented macrophage aggregates as a biomarker of oxidative damage in yellow bullhead catfish, Ameiurus natalis

    SciTech Connect

    McCreedy, C.D.; HoganEsch, H.; Turek, J.; Jagoe, C.H.

    1995-12-31

    Pigmented macrophage aggregates (PMs) occur when peroxidized lipids resulting from oxidative damage in tissues are scavenged by macrophages. Ionizing radiation causes oxidative damage, so the authors evaluated PMs as a biomarker in the pronephros of yellow bullheads (Ameiurus natalis) inhabiting Pond B, Savannah River Site, SC, a reservoir contaminated with low levels of {sup 137}Cs. ANOVA, ANCOVA, and stepwise regression were used to relate the mean number of PMs, per 0.15 mm{sup 2} of tissue section, to fish sex (females: N = 61; males: N = 84), age (1--6 yrs), body-condition, and muscle {sup 137}Cs concentration. Mean pronephric PMs differed by six and with fish muscle {sup 137}Cs concentration. Among males, PMs were positively correlated with fish age and {sup 137}Cs. In females, PMs were also correlated with fish age and {sup 137}Cs. ANCOVA, with age as covariate, affirmed that sex and muscle {sup 137}Cs were significantly associated with the mean number of pronephric PMs. Using stepwise regression, the interaction of age and {sup 137}Cs concentration was most strongly associated with pronephric PMs in males. Among females, the product of age, body-condition, and {sup 137}Cs concentration was most strongly associated with pronephric PMs. The positive relationships between the number of pronephric PMs and {sup 137}Cs concentration suggest that oxidative damage related to long-term exposure to low-level radiation is detectable in these fish. Secondarily, these results demonstrate the importance of considering covariates such as age and sex when evaluating effects of environmental contaminants.

  17. Az ELTE tanri mesterszakos kpzsnek matematikatanri moduljai

    E-print Network

    Kiss, Emil

    -s szak vagy az informatika. Ha a hallgató minor szakja BTK-s vagy PPK-s, akkor a matematikatanári modulja major szakja BTK-s, akkor a matematikatanári modulja 40 kredites. 3) Matematika modulok a fiskolát

  18. 20. Streetscape, South Coronado Boulevard, looking southwest Righttoleft, AZ198(Margaret B. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Streetscape, South Coronado Boulevard, looking southwest Right-to-left, AZ-198(Margaret B. Hill House), AZ-199 (Henry H. Hill House), AZ-200 (Henry H. Hill Rental House), AZ-201 (Otto Rosenthal House), AZ-202 (J. M. Stevens House), AZ-203 (L J. Dunagan House), AZ204 (C. W. Beck House), and AZ-205 (F. D. Connor House) face the street - Clifton Townsite, Confluence of Chase Creek & San Francisco River, Clifton, Greenlee County, AZ

  19. Assessing the ecosystem service potential of Tucson AZ's urban forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavao-Zuckerman, M.

    2011-12-01

    Urbanization is arguably one of the most dramatic forms of landscape change, and an important anthropogenic influence on the structure and function of ecosystems. Cities have obvious impacts on local ecologies and environments, such as shifts in species diversity and alteration of local microclimates. While scientists are now familiar with many of these localized impacts of urbanization, cities and suburban areas contribute to 10-15 % of surface land cover in the conterminous U.S., pointing to the potential, yet poorly understood, contribution of cities to regional, national, and global carbon (C) and energy budgets. As cities continue to expand urban ecologists place more emphasis on understanding the functions of urban ecosystems and the ecosystem services (e.g. habitat, air, and water quality) that cities provide. While studies demonstrate that the urban environment alters the structure and function of remnant patches of native ecosystems relative to their non-urban counterparts, the ability of restoration, planning, and design to improve the provision of ecosystem services is a new approach within ecology. One strategy involves green urban design, or using ecological principles for planning or reinvigorating certain ecological processes, in cities. Increasing the amount of vegetative cover can reduce this effect by reinforcing ecosystem services in cities, including shading of surfaces, promotion of cooling through evapotranspiration, and the sequestration of atmospheric CO2 in plant tissues and soils. However, the on-the-ground reality of such strategies is relatively unknown. A pilot study is being conducted in Tucson, AZ to investigate the impact of increasing the cover of trees in the urban landscape on local microclimates and the urban heat island. Trees (Velvet Mesquite, Chilean Mesquite, and Desert Willow) were planted in two neighborhoods in Tucson in 1990. We are collecting data during the summer 2011 monsoon (DBH, crown volume, and hemispherical canopy photos) to asses growth of the trees in the urban environment. These growth rates, and associated ecosystem services (C-sequestration, energy savings, pollution mitigation, etc.) are evaluated using US Forest Service models (Tree Carbon Calculator and i-tree software) to determine how the performance of trees in the Tucson urban environment perform vs. model predictions. We hypothesize that the models overestimate tree performance as Tucson differs in water availability relative to the cities the model was parameterized in (e.g. Glendale), both in terms of soil water holding capacities and also city "water culture." This preliminary study will provide a data collection framework for a citizen science urban forestry project which will provide data to improve environmental decision making related to the interaction of plants, water, and energy balance in this arid city.

  20. Tumor prevalence and biomarkers of exposure in brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) from Back River, Furnace Creek, and Tuckahoe River, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pinkney, A.E.; Harshbarger, J.C.; May, E.B.; Melancon, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Brown bullheads (Ameiurus nebulosus) were collected from 2 locations near Baltimore, Maryland, Back River and Furnace Creek, and 1 (reference) location, Tuckahoe River, to compare the prevalence of tumors (liver and skin) and visible skin lesions (fin erosion and abnormal barbels). Cytochrome P450 activity measured as ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, biliary PAH-like fluorescent metabolites, and fillet contaminant concentrations were determined as indicators of exposure in a randomly selected subset of the fish. There were no significant differences in liver tumor prevalence: Back River = 8% (4/50), Furnace Creek = 0% (0/50), and Tuckahoe River = 2.6% (1/39; p = 0.20, extension of Fishers exact test). Skin tumor prevalence was as follows: Furnace Creek = 12% (6/50), Back River = 8% (4/50), and Tuckahoe River = 0% (0/39; p = 0.063). In the Back River fish, there was a 40% (20/50) prevalence of fin erosion and a 28% (14/50) prevalence of abnormal (shortened, clubbed, or missing) barbels. Fin erosion was not observed in the other collections, and only 10% (5/50) of the Furnace Creek fish had abnormal barbels (p < 0.001 for both lesions). There were statistically significant differences in mean EROD activity, with levels in Furnace Creek and Back River fish approximately twice that found in Tuckahoe River fish. There were also significant differences in mean benzo(a)pyrene-like bile metabolite concentrations: the lowest mean was in the Tuckahoe River fish, 8 times higher in Furnace Creek fish, and 13 times higher in Back River fish. Of the 3 groups, the Back River bullheads appear to be most adversely affected by contaminant exposure because they had the highest prevalence of liver tumors, fin erosion, and abnormal barbels.

  1. Assessment of the "fish tumors or other deformities" beneficial use impairment in brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus): I. Orocutaneous tumors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blazer, V.S.; Rafferty, S.D.; Baumman, P.C.; Smith, S.B.; Obert, E.C.

    2009-01-01

    The "fish tumor or other deformities" beneficial use impairment (BUI) occurs at 9 of the 12 areas of concern (AOC) on Lake Erie. As point sources are mitigated and remediation occurs, AOC are faced with determining delisting criteria. The lack of standardized analyses for this BUI has confounded that process. For orocutaneous tumors, different criteria (presumptive tumors and/or abnormal barbels) and methodology (gross versus microscopic observations) have been used. Hence, this project evaluated tumors at numerous AOC and non-AOC sites and compared methodology. In 1998-2000 the prevalence of presumptive orocutaneous tumors and barbel abnormalities was compared in brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) collected at eight AOC. The Black (46.7%), Buffalo (29.3%), Cuyahoga (58.9%), and Detroit (26.5%) rivers and Presque Isle Bay (28.6%) had high prevalences of orocutaneous tumors, while the Niagara (10%), Maumee (3.9%) and Ashtabula (4.4%) rivers were lower. From 2002 to 2007 the prevalence of orocutaneous tumors at Presque Isle Bay was consistently near 30%. A variety of non-AOC sites, as potential reference sites, were also monitored during this time. By combining years and sites the prevalence of orocutaneous tumors in bullhead (age 2-12 years) at inland lakes was 6.3%, at Long Point Inner Bay was 8.7%, at other bays and harbors was 14.6% and at tributary sites was 12.5%. Overall, 93% of the raised lesions identified as presumptive tumors grossly were verified as neoplasms microscopically. The prevalence of orocutaneous tumors increased with age at both Presque Isle Bay and Long Point Inner Bay, the sites with the largest sample sizes.

  2. Assessment of the "fish tumors or other deformities" beneficial use impairment in brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus): II. Liver neoplasia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blazer, V.S.; Rafferty, S.D.; Baumman, P.C.; Smith, S.B.; Obert, E.C.

    2009-01-01

    Liver pathology of fishes, including neoplastic and preneoplastic lesions, is widely used as an indicator of exposure to anthropogenic contaminants. By definition, the "fish tumor or other deformities" beneficial use impairment (BUI) at Great Lakes Areas of Concern (AOC) includes neoplastic and preneoplastic liver lesions in brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) or suckers. Unfortunately, adequate guidelines for defining neoplastic and preneoplastic liver lesions or determining rates at unimpacted control sites were not provided and different criteria have been used. In some cases, only neoplastic changes were used to calculate tumor prevalence, in some both neoplastic and preneoplastic changes and in some it is difficult to determine which changes were included. Using standardized criteria, the prevalence of liver neoplasia was compared at eight AOC during 1998-2000. The Cuyahoga River had the highest prevalence (25.0%), while the Maumee River had the lowest (3.9%). The Buffalo (4.8%), Detroit (5.9%), Ashtabula (6.8%), Niagara (7.5%) and Black (8.9%) rivers were intermediate, as was Presque Isle Bay (7.1%). From 2002 to 2007 the prevalence of liver neoplasia at Presque Isle Bay ranged from a low of 2.1% (2002) to a high of 12.0% (2007). Non-AOC sites, as potential reference sites, also were monitored during this time. By combining years and sites, the prevalence of liver neoplasia in bullhead (aged 2 to 12 years) at inland lakes was 0.7%, at bays/harbors was 1.6% and at tributary sites was 4.1%. This is the same trend (inland lakes < bays/harbors < tributaries < Presque Isle Bay) noted for orocutaneous neoplasms.

  3. Characterization of the histone H2A.Z-1 and H2A.Z-2 isoforms in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Within chromatin, the histone variant H2A.Z plays a role in many diverse nuclear processes including transcription, preventing the spread of heterochromatin and epigenetic transcriptional memory. The molecular mechanisms of how H2A.Z mediates its effects are not entirely understood. However, it is now known that H2A.Z has two protein isoforms in vertebrates, H2A.Z-1 and H2A.Z-2, which are encoded by separate genes and differ by 3 amino acid residues. Results We report that H2A.Z-1 and H2A.Z-2 are expressed across a wide range of human tissues, they are both acetylated at lysine residues within the N-terminal region and they exhibit similar, but nonidentical, distributions within chromatin. Our results suggest that H2A.Z-2 preferentially associates with H3 trimethylated at lysine 4 compared to H2A.Z-1. The phylogenetic analysis of the promoter regions of H2A.Z-1 and H2A.Z-2 indicate that they have evolved separately during vertebrate evolution. Conclusions Our biochemical, gene expression, and phylogenetic data suggest that the H2A.Z-1 and H2A.Z-2 variants function similarly yet they may have acquired a degree of functional independence. PMID:20003410

  4. 33 CFR 100.1102 - Annual Marine Events on the Colorado River, between Davis Dam (Bullhead City, Arizona) and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... application each year in accordance with 33 CFR 100.15 to the cognizant Coast Guard Sector Commander no less... event for those events without specific dates or by Notice to Mariners 20 Days prior to the event for... Mariners at least 20 days prior to each event. To be placed on the mailing list for Local Notice...

  5. 33 CFR 100.1102 - Annual marine events on the Colorado River, between Davis Dam (Bullhead City, Arizona) and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... application each year as required by 33 CFR part 100, subpart A, to the cognizant Coast Guard Sector Commander... event for those events without specific dates or by Notice to Mariners 20 Days prior to the event for... Mariners at least 20 days prior to each event. To be placed on the mailing list for Local Notice...

  6. 33 CFR 100.1102 - Annual marine events on the Colorado River, between Davis Dam (Bullhead City, Arizona) and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... application each year as required by 33 CFR part 100, subpart A, to the cognizant Coast Guard Sector Commander... event for those events without specific dates or by Notice to Mariners 20 Days prior to the event for... Mariners at least 20 days prior to each event. To be placed on the mailing list for Local Notice...

  7. 33 CFR 100.1102 - Annual Marine Events on the Colorado River, between Davis Dam (Bullhead City, Arizona) and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...may be reached on VHF-FM Channel 13 (156.65MHz) or 16 (156... Hydroplane, flatbottom, tunnel, and v-bottom powerboat...transit through the London Bridge Channel. Date First Saturday and...Lake Havasu, London Bridge Channel and Thompson Bay....

  8. 33 CFR 100.1102 - Annual marine events on the Colorado River, between Davis Dam (Bullhead City, Arizona) and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...may be reached on VHF-FM Channel 13 (156.65MHz) or 16 (156... Hydroplane, flatbottom, tunnel, and v-bottom powerboat...transit through the London Bridge Channel. Date First Saturday and...Lake Havasu, London Bridge Channel and Thompson Bay....

  9. 33 CFR 100.1102 - Annual marine events on the Colorado River, between Davis Dam (Bullhead City, Arizona) and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...may be reached on VHF-FM Channel 13 (156.65MHz) or 16 (156... Hydroplane, flatbottom, tunnel, and v-bottom powerboat...transit through the London Bridge Channel. Date First Saturday and...Lake Havasu, London Bridge Channel and Thompson Bay....

  10. 33 CFR 165.1124 - Annual Firework Events on the Colorado River, between Davis Dam (Bullhead City, Arizona) and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Annual Firework Events on the Colorado River, between...Guard District § 165.1124 Annual Firework Events on the Colorado River, between... 1. Avi Resort & Casino Memorial Day Fireworks Sponsor Avi Resort & Casino....

  11. 33 CFR 165.1124 - Annual Firework Events on the Colorado River, between Davis Dam (Bullhead City, Arizona) and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Annual Firework Events on the Colorado River, between...Guard District § 165.1124 Annual Firework Events on the Colorado River, between... 1. Avi Resort & Casino Memorial Day Fireworks Sponsor Avi Resort & Casino....

  12. 33 CFR 165.1124 - Annual Firework Events on the Colorado River, between Davis Dam (Bullhead City, Arizona) and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Annual Firework Events on the Colorado River, between...Guard District § 165.1124 Annual Firework Events on the Colorado River, between... 1. Avi Resort & Casino Memorial Day Fireworks Sponsor Avi Resort & Casino....

  13. Biochemistry Games: "AZ-Quiz" and "Jeopardy!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rostejnska, Milada; Klimova, Helena

    2011-01-01

    "AZ-Quiz" and "Jeopardy!" are popular television shows and serve as the basis for in-class games designed to support and diversify chemistry instruction at the high school level. Both games were created in Microsoft PowerPoint, which is an easily accessible and controllable instrument that enables the creation of engaging animation. The use of…

  14. Tank 241-AZ-102 tank characterization plan

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-02-06

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board has advised the DOE to concentrate the near-term sampling and analysis activities on identification and resolution of safety issues. The Data Quality Objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used in the resolution of safety issues. As a result, a revision in the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) milestone M-44 has been made, which states that ``A Tank Characterization Plan (TCP) will also be developed for each double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process ... Development of TCPs by the DQO process is intended to allow users to ensure their needs will be met and that resources are devoted to gaining only necessary information``. This document satisfies that requirement for tank 241-AZ-102 (AZ-102) sampling activities. Tank AZ-102 is currently a non-Watch List tank, so the only DQOs applicable to this tank are the safety screening DQO and the compatibility DQO, as described below. The current contents of Tank AZ-102, as of October 31, 1994, consisted of 3,600 kL (950 kgal) of dilute non-complexed waste and aging waste from PUREX (NCAW, neutralized current acid waste). Tank AZ-102 is expected to have two primary layers. The bottom layer is composed of 360 kL of sludge, and the top layer is composed of 3,240 kL of supernatant, with a total tank waste depth of approximately 8.9 meters.

  15. Growth of brown bullhead (BB) and other fish cell lines on microcarriers and the production of channel catfish virus (CCV).

    PubMed

    Buck, C D; Loh, P C

    1985-02-01

    The growth of brown bullhead (BB) fish cells and other poikilothermic cell lines on four commercially available brands of microcarrier beads was evaluated. Three of the microcarriers carry a positive surface charge, while the fourth carries a negative surface charge. The four microcarriers vary in their capacity to support the growth of the BB cells and other poikilothermic cell lines tested. The polyacrylamide beads by Bio-Rad and the polystyrene beads by Nunc were found to best support the growth of the anchorage-dependent BB cells. Although the DEAE-dextran beads by Flow Laboratories were also found to be satisfactory, similar Cytodex 1 beads by Pharmacia, were found to support the growth of BB cells poorly. Both the polyacrylamide and polystyrene beads were found to be satisfactory for reuse after resterilization. In contrast, the DEAE-dextran beads were unsatisfactory since they sustained obvious mechanical damage. The BB growth rate and final cell density in microcarrier culture were dependent on the concentration of beads in culture and of the size of the initial cell inoculum. In terms of cell yield per milliliter of culture medium the microcarrier culture was superior to conventional stationary cultures. Microcarrier spinner cultures of BB cells consistently produced higher yields of channel catfish virus than conventional monolayers of the same cells. Two important advantages of the microcarrier system are its suitability for large scale as well as small scale production of both cells and virus. PMID:3980665

  16. Monitoring exposure of brown bullheads and benthic macroinvertebrates to sediment contaminants in the Ashtabula River before, during, and after remediation.

    PubMed

    Meier, John R; Lazorchak, James M; Mills, Marc; Wernsing, Paul; Baumann, Paul C

    2015-06-01

    In 2007, approximately 420,500 cubic meters of contaminated sediment were removed from the Ashtabula River by dredging. The primary objective of the present study was to monitor contaminant exposure in fish and macroinvertebrates before, during, and after dredging. This was done by measuring tissue concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) in brown bullhead catfish (Ameriurus nebulosa) and in benthic macroinvertebrates, assessing changes in DNA damage in fish liver and blood, and scoring external and histopathological lesions and anomalies in the fish. In surficial sediment PCBs and PAHs were also quantified in conjunction with the biological sampling. The results show a significant reduction in contaminant levels in both fish and macroinvertebrates following dredging, indicating the effectiveness of the remediation in reducing exposure of biota to the primary contaminants of concern. Similarly, DNA damage levels in fish collected from the Ashtabula River significantly declined following dredging; however, a similar reduction in DNA damage over time was seen in fish collected from a reference site (Conneaut Creek), making interpretation difficult. Macroinvertebrate PCB concentrations were reflective of the sediment concentrations in the areas where Hester-Dendy samplers were deployed for macroinvertebrate collection. The present study demonstrates that these methods can be used to evaluate and assess the effectiveness of remediation techniques at contaminated sediment sites. PMID:25565098

  17. Computer simulation of the leaching and washing of waste in tanks C-106, AY-102, AZ-101, and AZ-102

    SciTech Connect

    MacLean, G.T.

    1997-05-01

    The waste in underground storage tanks C-106, AY-102, AZ-101, and AZ-102 will be used to prepare feed material for the proposed high level waste vitrification demonstration plant at Hanford. A chemical process simulation computer program called the Environment Simulation Program (ESP) was used to estimate the compositions and quantities of this waste and the products after pretreatment processing. The amount of precipitated material in Tank C-106 predicted to be dissolved by sluicing is 27 wt.%. The amount of precipitated material predicted to be dissolved by mild leaching is about 30% for the C-106 and AY-102 combined waste and about 50% for AZ-101, and 35% for AZ-102 wastes. The predicted caustic solution raw material requirements for leaching are 158 m{sup 3} for C-106 and AY-102, 60 m{sup 3} for AZ-101, and 146 m{sup 3} for AZ-102, all as 50 wt.% NAOH.

  18. 78 FR 13811 - Special Local Regulation; Annual Marine Events on the Colorado River, Between Davis Dam (Bullhead...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ...River from 8 a.m. through 5 p.m. on March 9 and March 10, 2013. The event will cover an area beginning at the Blue Water Marina in Parker, AZ, and extending approximately 10 miles to La Paz County Park. This action is necessary provide for the...

  19. Bevezets az algebrba Determinnsok Wettl Ferenc

    E-print Network

    Wettl, Ferenc

    Motivåció 2 A determinåns mint sorvektorainak fßggvÊnye 3 A determinåns mint elemeinek fßggvÊnye Wettl A determinåns mint sorvektorainak fßggvÊnye 3 A determinåns mint elemeinek fßggvÊnye Wettl Ferenc BevezetÊs az ­ Determinånsok 2015. november 18. 4 / 35 #12;A determinåns mint sorvektorainak fßggvÊnye 1 Motivåció 2

  20. Assessment of Debris Flow Hazards, North Mountain, Phoenix, AZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reavis, K. J.; Wasklewicz, T. A.

    2014-12-01

    Urban sprawl in many western U.S. cities has expanded development onto alluvial fans. In the case of metropolitan Phoenix, AZ (MPA), urban sprawl has led to an exponential outward growth into surrounding mountainous areas and onto alluvial fans. Building on alluvial fans places humans at greater risk to flooding and debris flow hazards. Recent research has shown debris flows often supply large quantities of material to many alluvial fans in MPA. However, the risk of debris flows to built environments is relatively unknown. We use a 2D debris flow modeling approach, aided by high-resolution airborne LiDAR and terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) topographic data, to examine debris flow behavior in a densely populated portion of the MPA to assess the risk and vulnerability of debris flow damage to the built infrastructure. A calibrated 2D debris flow model is developed for a "known" recent debris flow at an undeveloped site in MPA. The calibrated model and two other model scenarios are applied to a populated area with historical evidence of debris flow activity. Results from the modeled scenarios show evidence of debris flow damage to houses built on the alluvial fan. Debris flow inundation is also evident on streets on the fan. We use housing values and building damage to estimate the costs assocaited with various modeled debris flow scenarios.

  1. Klmavltozsok s az aktivista sz kritikja Rcz Zoltn

    E-print Network

    Rácz, Zoltán

    and Witch-Hunt, A Global History (Cambridge, 2004). L. Reynmann (1514) Von warer erkantnus des Wetters (Igaz yCT o 50/6> #12;Az utolsó 15 ezer év: észak és dél közötti különbség #12;Az utolsó 1000 év IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) 1990 (forrás nélkül) IPCC 2001 (Mann et al.) Mann et al., PNAS, 13252

  2. 241-AZ Farm Annulus Extent of Condition Baseline Inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Engeman, Jason K.; Girardot, Crystal L.; Vazquez, Brandon J.

    2013-05-15

    This report provides the results of the comprehensive annulus visual inspection for tanks 241- AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 performed in fiscal year 2013. The inspection established a baseline covering about 95 percent of the annulus floor for comparison with future inspections. Any changes in the condition are also included in this document.

  3. ANALYSIS RESULTS FOR BUILDING 241 702-AZ A TRAIN

    SciTech Connect

    DUNCAN JB; FRYE JM; COOKE CA; LI SW; BROCKMAN FJ

    2006-12-13

    This report presents the analyses results for three samples obtained under RPP-PLAN-28509, Sampling and Analysis Plan for Building 241 702-AZ A Train. The sampling and analysis was done in response to problem evaluation request number PER-2004-6139, 702-AZ Filter Rooms Need Radiological Cleanup Efforts.

  4. Tumor Prevalence and Biomarkers of Exposure and Response in Brown Bullheads (Ameiurus nebulosus) from the Tidal Potomac River Watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pinkney, A.E.; Harshbarger, J.C.; May, E.B.; Melancon, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    Four groups of thirty brown bullheads (Ameiurus nebulosus) were collected from the tidal Potomac River watershed to survey tumor prevalence in relation to contaminant exposure. Fish were obtained from the Quantico embayment, near a Superfund site that released polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and DDT compounds; Neabsco Creek,.a tributary with petroleum inputs from upstream areas and marinas; and the Anacostia River (both in spring and fall),where sediment is contaminated with polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), PCBs, and organochlorine pesticides. Fish were also collected from the Tuckahoe River, on the Eastern Shore of Maryland, as a reference. Fish were necropsied and examined grossly and histopathologically for skin and liver neoplasms. Cytochrome P450 activity, bile PAH metabolites, and muscle organochlorine pesticide/PCB concentrations were determined in randomly selected individuals. There were significant differences among sites in liver tumor prevalence: Anacostia (spring)-50%, Anacostia (fall)-60%, Neabsco-17%, Quantico-7%, Tuckahoe-10%. Skin tumor prevalences were also significantly different: Anacostia (spring)-37%, Anacostia (fall)-10%, Neabsco-3%, Quantico-3%, Tuckahoe-0%. Tumor prevalences in Anacostia fish were comparable to those at contaminated sites in the Great Lakes. PAH concentrations were higher in Anacostia sediments than at the other sites and there were significantly higher concentrations of PAH metabolites in bile of the Anacostia fish. At present, there are insufficient data, however, to establish a cause-effect linkage with a particular class of contaminants. Tumor surveys in selected species are recommended for monitoring the status and remediation of Regions of Concern and other areas in the Chesapeake Bay watershed.

  5. Tomorrow's City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Emrys

    1979-01-01

    Examines several simple models of cities, discussing possible future changes in city design. The concepts of the megalopolis, linear city, tower block, imploded or miniaturized city, and dispersed city are described. (CS)

  6. 78 FR 71493 - Special Local Regulation; Lake Havasu City Christmas Boat Parade of Lights; Colorado River; Lake...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ...Lake Havasu City Christmas Boat Parade of Lights; Colorado River; Lake Havasu, AZ AGENCY...Lake Havasu City Christmas Boat Parade of Lights on the Colorado River. This modification...Lake Havasu City Christmas Boat Parade of Lights will involve fifty vessels in Lake...

  7. 78 FR 3877 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Peach Springs, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-17

    ...MB Docket No. 12-374; RM-11687; DA 12-2072] Radio Broadcasting Services; Peach Springs, AZ AGENCY: Federal...415 and 1.420. List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission....

  8. ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY STETSON UNIVERSITY Phoenix, AZ Deland, FL

    E-print Network

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    Humanities Liberal Studies Library Science & Info Studies Management Rhetoric & Composition MIDDLE TENNESSEEARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY STETSON UNIVERSITY Phoenix, AZ Deland, FL Interdisciplinary Studies OF BRISTOL Mount Pleasant, MI Bristol, UK Communication/English Cinema Studies EASTERN KENTUCKY UNIVERSITY

  9. 241-AZ-101 pump removal trough analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Coverdell, B.L.

    1995-10-17

    As part of the current Hanford mission of environmental cleanup, various long length equipment must be removed from highly radioactive waste tanks. The removal of equipment will utilize portions of the Equipment Removal System for Project W320 (ERS-W320), specifically the 50 ton hydraulic trailer system. Because the ERS-W320 system was designed to accommodate much heavier equipment it is adequate to support the dead weight of the trough, carriage and related equipment for 241AZ101 pump removal project. However, the ERS-W320 components when combined with the trough and its` related components must also be analyzed for overturning due to wind loads. Two troughs were designed, one for the 20 in. diameter carriage and one for the 36 in. diameter carriage. A proposed 52 in. trough was not designed and, therefore is not included in this document. In order to fit in the ERS-W320 strongback the troughs were design with the same widths. Structurally, the only difference between the two troughs is that more material was removed from the stiffener plates on the 36 in trough. The reduction in stiffener plate material reduces the allowable load. Therefore, only the 36 in. trough was analyzed.

  10. Caustic leaching of composite AZ-101/AZ-102 Hanford tank sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Rapko, B.M.; Wagner, M.J.

    1997-07-01

    To reduce the quantity (and hence the cost) of glass canisters needed for disposing of high-level radioactive wastes from the Hanford tank farms, pretreatment processes are needed to remove as much nonradioactive material as possible. This report describes the results of a laboratory-scale caustic leaching test performed on a composite derived from a combination of 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 Hanford Tank sludges. The goals of this FY 1996 test were to evaluate the effectiveness of caustic leaching on removing key components from the sludge and to evaluate the effectiveness of varying the free-hydroxide concentrations by incrementally increasing the free hydroxide concentration of the leach steps up to 3 {und M} free hydroxide. Particle-size analysis of the treated and untreated sludge indicated that the size and range of the sludge particles remained essentially unchanged by the caustic leaching treatment. Both before and after caustic leaching, a particle range of 0.2 {micro}m to 50 {micro}m was observed, with mean particle diameters of 8.5 to 9 {micro}m based on the volume distribution and mean particle diameters of 0.3 to 0.4 {micro}m based on the number distribution.

  11. Electroless Nickel Phosphorus Plating on AZ31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shartal, Kh. M.; Kipouros, G. J.

    2009-04-01

    One of the major drawbacks to using magnesium parts in automotive applications is poor corrosion resistance, which can be improved with a nickel-boron coating placed on a nickel-phosphorus coating, which, in turn, is placed on a phosphate-permanganate conversion-coating layer produced on the magnesium alloy AZ31. This work reports on the determination of the optimum kinetic parameters for producing a coherent nickel-phosphorus coating using an electroless-procedure phosphate-permanganate conversion-coating layer and for studying the effects of the experimental variables of the electroless plating process on the phosphorus content, surface morphology, and structure of the electroless nickel-phosphorus (EN-P) coatings produced. Measurements of the plating rate as a function of experimental variables such as the compositions of the plating bath constituents, temperature, and pH were implemented using the weight-gain method; the phosphorus content of the EN-P coatings was measured using energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. The surface morphology of the coating was examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM); X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to characterize the structure of each coating. An empirical rate law was determined for EN-P plating on a phosphate-permanganate conversion coating. It is found that the deposition rate of the EN-P coating increases by increasing the deposition temperature, the concentration of free nickel ions, and the concentration of hypophosphite ions in the plating bath. In addition, the deposition rate decreases by increasing both the plating bath pH and the concentration of citric acid in the plating bath.

  12. Reorganization of Damaged Chromatin by the Exchange of Histone Variant H2A.Z-2

    SciTech Connect

    Nishibuchi, Ikuno; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Kinomura, Aiko; Sun, Jiying; Liu, Ning-Ang; Horikoshi, Yasunori; Shima, Hiroki; Kusakabe, Masayuki; Harata, Masahiko; Fukagawa, Tatsuo; Ikura, Tsuyoshi; Ishida, Takafumi; Nagata, Yasushi; Tashiro, Satoshi

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: The reorganization of damaged chromatin plays an important role in the regulation of the DNA damage response. A recent study revealed the presence of 2 vertebrate H2A.Z isoforms, H2A.Z-1 and H2A.Z-2. However, the roles of the vertebrate H2A.Z isoforms are still unclear. Thus, in this study we examined the roles of the vertebrate H2A.Z isoforms in chromatin reorganization after the induction of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Methods and Materials: To examine the dynamics of H2A.Z isoforms at damaged sites, we constructed GM0637 cells stably expressing each of the green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled H2A.Z isoforms, and performed fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) analysis and inverted FRAP analysis in combination with microirradiation. Immunofluorescence staining using an anti-RAD51 antibody was performed to study the kinetics of RAD51 foci formation after 2-Gy irradiation of wild-type (WT), H2A.Z-1- and H2A.Z-2-deficient DT40 cells. Colony-forming assays were also performed to compare the survival rates of WT, H2A.Z-1-, and H2A.Z-2-deficient DT40 cells with control, and H2A.Z-1- and H2A.Z-2-depleted U2OS cells after irradiation. Results: FRAP analysis revealed that H2A.Z-2 was incorporated into damaged chromatin just after the induction of DSBs, whereas H2A.Z-1 remained essentially unchanged. Inverted FRAP analysis showed that H2A.Z-2 was released from damaged chromatin. These findings indicated that H2A.Z-2 was exchanged at DSB sites immediately after the induction of DSBs. RAD51 focus formation after ionizing irradiation was disturbed in H2A.Z-2-deficient DT40 cells but not in H2A.Z-1-deficient cells. The survival rate of H2A.Z-2-deficient cells after irradiation was lower than those of WT and H2A.Z-1- DT40 cells. Similar to DT40 cells, H2A.Z-2-depleted U2OS cells were also radiation-sensitive compared to control and H2A.Z-1-depleted cells. Conclusions: We found that vertebrate H2A.Z-2 is involved in the regulation of the DNA damage response at a very early stage, via the damaged chromatin reorganization required for RAD51 focus formation.

  13. 14 CFR Appendix to Subpart U of... - Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of the Grand Canyon National Park, AZ

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...the Vicinity of the Grand Canyon National Park, AZ Appendix to Subpart U of...in the Vicinity of Grand Canyon National Park, AZ Pt. 93, Subpt. U, App...the Vicinity of the Grand Canyon National Park, AZ...

  14. 75 FR 57327 - Environmental Impact Statement; Pinal County, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-20

    ...Hopi Tribe, Pascua Yaqui Tribe, San Carlos Apache Nation, White Mountain Apache Tribe, Yavapai-Prescott Indian Tribe, Yavapai-Apache...City of Coolidge, City of Eloy, City of Queen Creek, Town of Gilbert, City of Mesa, City of Apache Junction, City of Casa...

  15. ABOUT CALENDAR FEES ENROLLMENT RECORDS University Home MyUCSC People Calendars A-Z Index

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    ABOUT CALENDAR FEES ENROLLMENT RECORDS University Home MyUCSC People Calendars A-Z Index OFFICE CALENDAR FEES ENROLLMENT RECORDS University Home MyUCSC People Calendars A-Z Index OFFICE OF THE REGISTRAR

  16. 19. View to the north of Riverside Avenue. AZ196(J. C. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. View to the north of Riverside Avenue. AZ-196(J. C. Gatti House) at left Part of AZ-197 (Shannon Copper Company Store) can be seen in group of buildings at right - Clifton Townsite, Confluence of Chase Creek & San Francisco River, Clifton, Greenlee County, AZ

  17. Arizonans on Edge...So Why Not Involved? AZ Views. Volume 2, Issue 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison Institute for Public Policy, Arizona State University, 2009

    2009-01-01

    What a difference a year makes. In June 2008, "AZ Views" reported that "Arizonans have a strong sense of job security, despite the national economic slump and the state's budget crisis." That is no longer true, as this edition of "AZ Views" shows, and Arizona's economic situation arguably is the best example of the worst case.This issue of "AZ…

  18. 75 FR 76293 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Peach Springs, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ...DA 10-2212; MB Docket No. 09-204; RM-11580] Radio Broadcasting Services; Peach Springs, AZ AGENCY: Federal...a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. 0 As stated in the preamble, the...

  19. Mixer pump test plan for double shell tank AZ-101

    SciTech Connect

    STAEHR, T.W.

    1999-05-12

    Mixer pump systems have been chosen as the method for retrieval of tank wastes contained in double shell tanks at Hanford. This document describes the plan for testing and demonstrating the ability of two 300 hp mixer pumps to mobilize waste in tank AZ-101. The mixer pumps, equipment and instrumentation to monitor the test were installed by Project W-151.

  20. 78 FR 3877 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Peach Springs, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-17

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Peach Springs, AZ AGENCY: Federal Communications... the Hualapai Tribe, proposing to amend the Table of Allotments by allotting Channel 265A at Peach... second potential service at Peach Springs. Channel 265A can be allotted at Peach Springs, Arizona,...

  1. 75 FR 76293 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Peach Springs, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Peach Springs, AZ AGENCY: Federal Communications..., allots FM Channel 281C3 at Peach Springs, Arizona, in order to maintain a first local service at that community. Channel 281C3 can be allotted at Peach Springs, Arizona, in compliance with the...

  2. 78 FR 19988 - Safety Zone; BWRC Spring Classic, Parker, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ...USCG-2013-0074] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; BWRC Spring Classic, Parker, AZ AGENCY: Coast Guard...Arizona for the Blue Water Resort and Casino Spring Classic. This temporary safety zone is...sponsoring the Blue Water Resort and Casino Spring Classic, which is held on the Lake...

  3. 75 FR 19250 - Safety Zone; BWRC Spring Classic, Parker, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ...USCG-2009-1111] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; BWRC Spring Classic, Parker, AZ AGENCY: Coast Guard...Arizona for the Blue Water Resort and Casino Spring Classic. This temporary safety zone is...sponsoring the Blue Water Resort and Casino Spring Classic, which is held on the Lake...

  4. 77 FR 10649 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Douglas, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... proposed rulemaking to amend controlled airspace at Douglas, AZ (76 FR 78180). Interested parties were... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does.... 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in...

  5. 75 FR 19246 - Safety Zone; Desert Storm, Lake Havasu, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Desert Storm, Lake Havasu, AZ AGENCY: Coast... zone within the Thompson Bay region of the navigable waters of the Colorado River in Lake Havasu, Lake... Purpose The Lake Racer LLC is sponsoring the Desert Storm Charity Poker Run and Exhibition Run, which...

  6. 75 FR 19250 - Safety Zone; BWRC Spring Classic, Parker, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; BWRC Spring Classic, Parker, AZ AGENCY..., Arizona for the Blue Water Resort and Casino Spring Classic. This temporary safety zone is necessary to... Speedboat Club is sponsoring the Blue Water Resort and Casino Spring Classic, which is held on the...

  7. 76 FR 45177 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Kayenta, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to establish controlled airspace at Kayenta, AZ (76 FR... a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979.... 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in...

  8. Age 55 or better: active adult communities and city planning.

    PubMed

    Trolander, Judith Ann

    2011-01-01

    Active adult, age-restricted communities are significant to urban history and city planning. As communities that ban the permanent residence of children under the age of nineteen with senior zoning overlays, they are unique experiments in social planning. While they do not originate the concept of the common interest community with its shared amenities, the residential golf course community, or the gated community, Sun Cities and Leisure Worlds do a lot to popularize those physical planning concepts. The first age-restricted community, Youngtown, AZ, opened in 1954. Inspired by amenity-rich trailer courts in Florida, Del Webb added the “active adult” element when he opened Sun City, AZ, in 1960. Two years later, Ross Cortese opened the first of his gated Leisure Worlds. By the twenty-first century, these “lifestyle” communities had proliferated and had expanded their appeal to around 18 percent of retirees, along with influencing the design of intergenerational communities. PMID:22175080

  9. Education Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaked, Haim

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, several cities in Israel have labeled themselves "Education Cities," concentrating on education as their central theme. Employing qualitative techniques, this article aims to describe, define, and conceptualize this phenomenon as it is being realized in three such cities. Findings show that Education Cities differ from…

  10. Az ELTE knyvtrosainak hrlevele. Kiadja az ELTE Egyetemi Knyvtr Hlzati s mdszertani osztlya. Fszerkeszt: Klczi Katalin figazgat-helyettes. Szerkeszt: Zsmboki Mnika (zsamboki.monika@lib.elte.hu)

    E-print Network

    Ágoston, István

    linken érhetk el: http://konyvtar.elte.hu/k21/esemenyek/index.html#101208 Az ELTE BTK könyvtárainak elérhetségei A közelmúltban ­ 6.500 nyomtatott példányban ­ megjelent az ELTE BTK könyvtárainak elérhetségeit és szolgáltatásait ismertet kiadvány, melynek elektronikus változata is letölthet: http://www.btk

  11. PUBLIKACIOS ES IDEZETTSEGI LISTA -al jelolve az SCI-idezetek

    E-print Network

    Jurcsik, Johanna

    Astronomy 1, 194 5.ˇ Iben, I., Jr., Livio, M. 1993, ApJ 406, L15 6.ˇ Arkhipova, V. P. 1993, Piszma A.Zs. Vol/H] scales used for globular clusters and RR Lyrae variables" Hivatkoz´asok: 18.ˇ Walker, A., Nemec, J. 1996 69. 49 30.ˇ Walker, A. 1998, AJ 116, 220 31.ˇ Schwarzenberg-Czerny, A., Kaluzny, J. 1998, MNRAS 300

  12. The Corrosion Protection of Magnesium Alloy AZ31B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danford, M. D.; Mendrek, M. J.; Mitchell, M. L.; Torres, P. D.

    1997-01-01

    Corrosion rates for bare and coated Magnesium alloy AZ31B have been measured. Two coatings, Dow-23(Trademark) and Tagnite(Trademark), have been tested by electrochemical methods and their effectiveness determined. Electrochemical methods employed were the scanning reference electrode technique (SRET), the polarization resistance technique (PR) and the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique (EIS). In addition, general corrosion and stress corrosion methods were employed to examine the effectiveness of the above coatings in 90 percent humidity. Results from these studies are presented.

  13. Formability study of magnesium alloy AZ31B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z. G.; Lasne, P.; Massoni, E.

    2011-08-01

    The main aim of this paper is to study the formability of the AZ31B magnesium alloy at various temperature and strain rates. The tensile tests are performed to describe the rheological behavior of material, and the constitutive law is identified with Voce law [1], which contains a softening item. The law is proved effectiveness by fitting the equation with the experimental data. Nakazima experiments with hemispherical punch have been performed at CEMEF on a hydraulic testing machine. Six strain paths are selected by performing various sample geometries [2]. The AramisOptical strain measurement system has been used to obtain principle forming limit strain. The Forming Limit Diagram (FLD) is obtained by the critical point on the specimen surface at various temperatures. It is shown that the forming limit curve is higher at high temperature. Based on the Voce law model, finite element simulations of deep drawing test have been done with the commercial finite element code FORGEŽ in order to investigate the feasibility of hot stamping process for AZ31. In the simulation, the punch load and the thickness distributions have been studied. Meanwhile, the cross-shaped cup deep drawing simulations have been conducted with the data provided in the conference Website. The similar conclusion are obtained that the formability of AZ31 improve at high temperature and the simulation is effective in hot stamping processing. The study results are helpful for the application of the stamping technology for the magnesium alloy sheet [3].

  14. Tensile city

    E-print Network

    Chakkour, Mario Henri

    1987-01-01

    Tensile City is a story that provides the answer to the following question: II If we were to leap forward in time and visit a city of the future, what would learn about our contemporary city ? II The story unfolds when ...

  15. 8-Hydroxy-2{prime}-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG): A biomarker of oxidative damage in yellow bullheads chronically exposed to low-level radiation

    SciTech Connect

    McCreedy, C.D.; Glickman, L.T.; Jagoe, C.H.

    1995-12-31

    8-hydroxy-2{prime}-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG), an oxidation product of the nucleotide deoxyguanosine (dG) was used as a biomarker to assess oxidative damage in brain and gill tissues of yellow bullhead catfish (Ameiurus natalis; n = 18) inhabiting an abandoned reactor reservoir contaminated with low levels of {sup d137}Cs (Pond B, Savannah River Site, SC). DNA was isolated by chloroform-isoamyl extraction, enzymatically digested with Nuclease P1/Calf Intestinal Phosphatase, and analyzed by HPLC with electrochemical detection.Length, weight, age, condition and muscle {sup 137}Cs activity of each fish were also determined. Concentrations of 8-OH-dG were greater in brain than in gill tissues. 8-OH-dG in gill tissues decreased as condition of fish increased, but as age increased, the effect of condition declined. Brain 8-OH-dG concentration was not related to age or condition of fish, but was greater in females and the interaction between gender and {sup 137}Cs was significant. Brain 8-OH-dG was positively associated with muscle {sup 137}Cs concentration among females, but was unrelated to {sup 137}Cs concentration in males. At lower {sup 137}Cs concentrations, females tended to have fewer oxidative DNA adducts in brian than did males. Deposition of somatic lipids into eggs may provide females some anti-oxidant benefit by diminishing the contribution of lipid peroxidation to DNA damage. 8-OH-dG is a sensitive biomarker of low-level radiation exposure, however, its application in fish requires consideration of factors such as gender, age, body-condition, and the tissue type sampled.

  16. ANP32E is a histone chaperone that removes H2A.Z from chromatin.

    PubMed

    Obri, Arnaud; Ouararhni, Khalid; Papin, Christophe; Diebold, Marie-Laure; Padmanabhan, Kiran; Marek, Martin; Stoll, Isabelle; Roy, Ludovic; Reilly, Patrick T; Mak, Tak W; Dimitrov, Stefan; Romier, Christophe; Hamiche, Ali

    2014-01-30

    H2A.Z is an essential histone variant implicated in the regulation of key nuclear events. However, the metazoan chaperones responsible for H2A.Z deposition and its removal from chromatin remain unknown. Here we report the identification and characterization of the human protein ANP32E as a specific H2A.Z chaperone. We show that ANP32E is a member of the presumed H2A.Z histone-exchange complex p400/TIP60. ANP32E interacts with a short region of the docking domain of H2A.Z through a new motif termed H2A.Z interacting domain (ZID). The 1.48?Ĺ resolution crystal structure of the complex formed between the ANP32E-ZID and the H2A.Z/H2B dimer and biochemical data support an underlying molecular mechanism for H2A.Z/H2B eviction from the nucleosome and its stabilization by ANP32E through a specific extension of the H2A.Z carboxy-terminal ?-helix. Finally, analysis of H2A.Z localization in ANP32E(-/-) cells by chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing shows genome-wide enrichment, redistribution and accumulation of H2A.Z at specific chromatin control regions, in particular at enhancers and insulators. PMID:24463511

  17. 241-AZ Tank Farm Construction Extent of Condition Review for Tank Integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, Travis J.; Boomer, Kayle D.; Gunter, Jason R.; Venetz, Theodore J.

    2013-07-30

    This report provides the results of an extent of condition construction history review for tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102. The construction history of the 241-AZ tank farm has been reviewed to identify issues similar to those experienced during tank AY-102 construction. Those issues and others impacting integrity are discussed based on information found in available construction records, using tank AY-102 as the comparison benchmark. In the 241-AZ tank farm, the second DST farm constructed, both refractory quality and tank and liner fabrication were improved.

  18. Mixer pump test plan for double shell tank AZ-101

    SciTech Connect

    Symons, G.A.; Staehr, T.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company has undertaken the task to develop and demonstrate a method of retrieval for double-shell tank (DST)waste. Mixer pumps were chosen as the planned method of retrieval for the DSTs, based on engineering technology studies,past experience with hydraulic sluicing at the Hanford Site, and experience with mixer pumps at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site. This document outlines a test plan to demonstrate the ability of two 300 hp mixer pumps installed in the AZ-101 tank to mobilize waste.

  19. Modelling of Superplastic Forming of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Giuliano, G.

    2011-01-17

    In this study the constitutive equation of the superplastic AZ31 magnesium-based alloy is modelled by the power law relationship between the stress, the strain and the strain-rate and an accurate procedure for determining the constants of the material is presented. Moreover, the problem of optimizing the pressure-time load curve of a free forming process is investigated and resolved by means of a pressure jump forming process. The experimental tests, carried out to support the finite-element modelling, have shown good agreement between the numerical results and the experimental data.

  20. 78 FR 17097 - Safety Zone; Lake Havasu Triathlon; Lake Havasu City, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ... temporary safety zone within the navigable waters of Lake Havasu and the London Bridge Channel for the Lake... and the London Bridge Channel. The course requires a safety zone while the swimmers are on the course, thus restricting vessel traffic within the north London Bridge Channel and a small portion of...

  1. 78 FR 17869 - Safety Zone; Desert Storm Shootout; Lake Havasu, Lake Havasu City, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-25

    ... FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A. Regulatory History and Information The... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Desert Storm Shootout; Lake Havasu, Lake... establishing a temporary safety zone on the navigable waters of the Colorado River in Lake Havasu, Lake...

  2. Sensitivity of summer climate to anthropogenic land-cover change over the Greater Phoenix, AZ, region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Georgescu, M.; Miguez-Macho, G.; Steyaert, L.T.; Weaver, C.P.

    2008-01-01

    This work evaluates the first-order effect of land-use/land-cover change (LULCC) on the summer climate of one of the nation's most rapidly expanding metropolitan complexes, the Greater Phoenix, AZ, region. High-resolution-2-km grid spacing-Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) simulations of three "wet" and three "dry" summers were carried out for two different land-cover reconstructions for the region: a circa 1992 representation based on satellite observations, and a hypothetical land-cover scenario where the anthropogenic landscape of irrigated agriculture and urban pixels was replaced with current semi-natural vegetation. Model output is evaluated with respect to observed air temperature, dew point, and precipitation. Our results suggest that development of extensive irrigated agriculture adjacent to the urban area has dampened any regional-mean warming due to urbanization. Consistent with previous observationally based work, LULCC produces a systematic increase in precipitation to the north and east of the city, though only under dry conditions. This is due to a change in background atmospheric stability resulting from the advection of both warmth from the urban core and moisture from the irrigated area. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Mat. tanri I/6. 4. feladatsor megoldsai 1999. mrcius 4. 1. a) Gyr, nincs benne egysgelem (teht nem is lehet test, s az invertlhatsgnak sincs rtelme).

    E-print Network

    Ágoston, Istvån

    az ĂśsszeadĂĄsra). l) Nem alkotnak gyÂśrÂśt (nem zĂĄrtak az ĂśsszeadĂĄsra). m) Nem alkotnak gyÂśrÂśt (mint az ĂŠrtĂŠkĂŠt; az invertĂĄlhatĂłsĂĄgrĂłl ugyanazt mondhatjuk el, mint az elÂŽbb. 2. a) Van: bĂĄrmely fĂźggvĂŠny, mint az eredeti g polinom. #12;

  4. Functional analysis of the histone variant H2A.Z during lineage commitment

    E-print Network

    Surface, Lauren E. (Lauren Elizabeth)

    2014-01-01

    remained enigmatic. In this thesis, we dissect the role of H2A.Z during lineage commitment. In particular, we focused on the Polycomb-mediated mono-ubiquitylation of H2A.Z. We found that this modification regulates the ...

  5. CONCENTRATIONS OF PESTICIDE FROM DERMAL SURFACES: A COMPARISON OF NHEXAS & AZ BORDER SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    NHEXAS-AZ was a statewide survey designed to gather data on the distributions of exposure from various media. Results of intensive sampling were obtained from 179 homes. Border-AZ was a similar study focusing on homes within 40 km of the Arizona-Mexico Border; similar results...

  6. Evaluation of microstructural eects on corrosion behaviour of AZ91D magnesium

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Wei

    Evaluation of microstructural eects on corrosion behaviour of AZ91D magnesium alloy Rajan Ambat(OH)2 with small amounts b phase, magnesium-aluminium oxide and MgH2 while for die-cast, the product: Magnesium alloys; AZ91D; Ingot; Die-cast; Microstructure; Corrosion 0010-938X/00/$ - see front matter 7 2000

  7. Effect of heat treatment on corrosion and electrochemical behaviour of AZ91D magnesium alloy

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Wei

    Effect of heat treatment on corrosion and electrochemical behaviour of AZ91D magnesium alloy N, magnesium alloy, precipitation Abstract An AZ91D ingot in the as-cast condition was homogenized by solution in mechanical properties [1­3]. Early studies on ageing of magnesium alloys showed improved strength

  8. Atypical Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiJulio, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    In this creative challenge, Surrealism and one-point perspective combine to produce images that not only go "beyond the real" but also beyond the ubiquitous "imaginary city" assignment often used to teach one-point perspective. Perhaps the difference is that in the "atypical cities challenge," an understanding of one-point perspective is a means…

  9. Mexico City

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-18

    ... Mexico City has one of the world's most serious air pollution problems. The city is located atop a high plain at an altitude of ... as the orange and red areas, and mountainous areas appear light blue and green. The position of the clouds within the 70-degree image are ...

  10. An 18-Inch Direct Drive Alt-Az Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genet, Russell M.; Rowe, Dave; Gray, Dan; Albertson, Billy; Chiu, Wilson; Kirkup, Michelle; Murphy, Drew; Ridgely, John; Schmitt, Josh; Swanson, Matt; Urban, Rob; Liu, Tong; Branch, Howard; Chelborad, Cary; Keller, Allan

    2008-05-01

    A modest aperture alt-az telescope has been designed and is being built for student use at California Polytechnic State University. The telescope's drive system has no gears, belts, or friction wheels; instead direct drive motors and high resolution encoders are completely integrated into the bearing assemblies and telescope superstructure. In altitude, for instance, a ring of permanent magnets is firmly mounted to the OTA while an opposing ring of coils is mounted on the inside of a fork arm. The electronic control system has been designed to operate these brushless motors in a high- precision mode. To achieve the highest possible closed loop servo bandwidth, the structure was designed -- using finite element analysis as well as traditional tools -- to have a very high natural frequency. The direct drive system and stiff structure should effectively counter wind gusts when the telescope is operated out in the open or within a roll-off roof observatory.

  11. -dimensional Symmetry Catalysts for A-Z Gas Loading Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubb, Talbot

    2011-03-01

    An epitaxial mating of a metal layer to a chemically stable ionic crystal minimizes system energy for cold fusion based on Bloch function symmetry and using gas loading and nm-Pd at a favored interface. To achieve epitaxy second and third metal layers need to have imperfections. One thinks of the stable ionic crystal as a template and the nano-Pd solid as a malleable lattice. The interior volume of the nano-Pd solid has a face-centered cubic structure. ZrO2 was the template ionic crystal used in A-Z gas loading studies at elevated T in (2005). A template crystal using the sapphire crystal equivalent of a double-layer graphene crystal is suggested. Impurity Rh and Ru are suggested as impurity atoms in the nano-metal (as in gem-quality Zircon) and a amall amount of interstitial H in addition to dominant D as involved in diffusion. Ref.

  12. Corrosion resistance of titanium ion implanted AZ91 magnesium alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Chenglong; Xin Yunchang; Tian Xiubo; Zhao, J.; Chu, Paul K.

    2007-03-15

    Degradable metal alloys constitute a new class of materials for load-bearing biomedical implants. Owing to their good mechanical properties and biocompatibility, magnesium alloys are promising in degradable prosthetic implants. The objective of this study is to improve the corrosion behavior of surgical AZ91 magnesium alloy by titanium ion implantation. The surface characteristics of the ion implanted layer in the magnesium alloys are examined. The authors' results disclose that an intermixed layer is produced and the surface oxidized films are mainly composed of titanium oxide with a lesser amount of magnesium oxide. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that the oxide has three layers. The outer layer which is 10 nm thick is mainly composed of MgO and TiO{sub 2} with some Mg(OH){sub 2}. The middle layer that is 50 nm thick comprises predominantly TiO{sub 2} and MgO with minor contributions from MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and TiO. The third layer from the surface is rich in metallic Mg, Ti, Al, and Ti{sub 3}Al. The effects of Ti ion implantation on the corrosion resistance and electrochemical behavior of the magnesium alloys are investigated in simulated body fluids at 37{+-}1 deg. C using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and open circuit potential techniques. Compared to the unimplanted AZ91 alloy, titanium ion implantation significantly shifts the open circuit potential (OCP) to a more positive potential and improves the corrosion resistance at OCP. This phenomenon can be ascribed to the more compact surface oxide film, enhanced reoxidation on the implanted surface, as well as the increased {beta}-Mg{sub 12}Al{sub 17} phase.

  13. The histone variant H2A.Z is an important regulator of enhancer activity.

    PubMed

    Brunelle, Mylčne; Nordell Markovits, Alexei; Rodrigue, Sébastien; Lupien, Mathieu; Jacques, Pierre-Étienne; Gévry, Nicolas

    2015-11-16

    Gene regulatory programs in different cell types are largely defined through cell-specific enhancers activity. The histone variant H2A.Z has been shown to play important roles in transcription mainly by controlling proximal promoters, but its effect on enhancer functions remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate by genome-wide approaches that H2A.Z is present at a subset of active enhancers bound by the estrogen receptor alpha (ER?). We also determine that H2A.Z does not influence the local nucleosome positioning around ER? enhancers using ChIP sequencing at nucleosomal resolution and unsupervised pattern discovery. We further highlight that H2A.Z-enriched enhancers are associated with chromatin accessibility, H3K122ac enrichment and hypomethylated DNA. Moreover, upon estrogen stimulation, the enhancers occupied by H2A.Z produce enhancer RNAs (eRNAs), and recruit RNA polymerase II as well as RAD21, a member of the cohesin complex involved in chromatin interactions between enhancers and promoters. Importantly, their recruitment and eRNAs production are abolished by H2A.Z depletion, thereby revealing a novel functional link between H2A.Z occupancy and enhancer activity. Taken together, our findings suggest that H2A.Z acts as an important player for enhancer functions by establishing and maintaining a chromatin environment required for RNA polymerase II recruitment, eRNAs transcription and enhancer-promoters interactions, all essential attributes of enhancer activity. PMID:26319018

  14. 78 FR 71493 - Special Local Regulation; Lake Havasu City Christmas Boat Parade of Lights; Colorado River; Lake...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... Acronyms BNM Broadcast Notices to Mariners COTP Captain of the Port DHS Department of Homeland Security FR... Boat Parade of Lights; Colorado River; Lake Havasu, AZ AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary... in support of the Lake Havasu City Christmas Boat Parade of Lights on the Colorado River....

  15. Influence of Aluminum Content on Grain Refinement and Strength of AZ31 Magnesium GTA Weld Metal

    SciTech Connect

    Babu, N. Kishore; Cross, Carl E.

    2012-06-28

    The goal is to characterize the effect of Al content on AZ31 weld metal, the grain size and strength, and examine role of Al on grain refinement. The approach is to systematically vary the aluminum content of AZ31 weld metal, Measure average grain size in weld metal, and Measure cross-weld tensile properties and hardness. Conclusions are that: (1) increased Al content in AZ31 weld metal results in grain refinement Reason: higher undercooling during solidification; (2) weld metal grain refinement resulted in increased strength & hardness Reason: grain boundary strengthening; and (3) weld metal strength can be raised to wrought base metal levels.

  16. System Description for Tank 241-AZ-101 Waste Retrieval Data Acquisition System

    SciTech Connect

    ROMERO, S.G.

    2000-01-10

    Describes the hardware and software for the AZ-101 Mixer Pump Data Acquisition System. The purpose of the tank 241-AZ-101 retrieval system Data Acquisition System (DAS) is to provide monitoring and data acquisition of key parameters in order to confirm the effectiveness of the mixer pumps utilized for suspending solids in the tank. The suspension of solids in Tank 241-AZ-101 is necessary for pretreatment of the neutralized current acid waste (NCAW), and eventual disposal as glass via the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant.

  17. 77 FR 2241 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Ehrenberg, First Mesa, Kachina Village, Wickenburg, and Williams, AZ...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ...RM-11517, RM-11518; DA 11-2058] Radio Broadcasting Services; Ehrenberg, First...Williams, AZ; and Application of Univision Radio License Corporation, KHOV-FM, Wickenburg...proposal, RM-11517, filed by Rocket Radio, Inc., proposes the allotment of...

  18. a Manganese Oxide Contained Coating for Biodegradable AZ31B Magnesium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Tingting; Tan, Lili; Xiong, Dangsheng; Zhang, Bingchun; Yang, Ke

    A manganese oxide contained coating was prepared on biodegradable AZ31B magnesium alloy to control the degradation of AZ31B and improve its biocompatibility. Morphology, composition, and corrosion resistance of the coating were studied. The SEM observations showed that the coating was approximately 4-6 ?m in thickness with net-like microcracks. The XPS analysis indicated that the coating was mainly composed of MgO, Mg(OH)2, MnO2, Mn2O3, and Mn3O4. It was found that AZ31B with such coating showed better corrosion resistance in simulated blood plasma through electrochemical and immersion tests. The hemolytic assay indicated that the treated AZ31B had no hemolytic effect.

  19. 75 FR 49526 - Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., Technical Information Center, Tempe, AZ; Freescale Semiconductor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... Register on November 17, 2009 (74 FR 59249). At the request of the petitioners, the Department reviewed the... and Training Administration Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., Technical Information Center, Tempe, AZ; Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., Technical Information Center, Woburn, MA; Amended Certification...

  20. 77 FR 20356 - Foreign-Trade Zone 277-Western Maricopa County, AZ; Application for Manufacturing Authority...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ...Authority; Suntech Arizona, Inc., (Solar Panel Manufacturing), Goodyear, AZ...manufacture of 275 and 290 watt solar panels for industrial use. Components...entry procedures that apply to solar panels (duty-free) for the...

  1. 50 Az stksk j vilga 2006-ban ismert f kisbolygvi stksk

    E-print Network

    Petrovay, Kristóf

    50 Az üstökösök új világa 2006-ban ismert fő kisbolygóövi üstökösök Objektum Pálya fél nagytengely.581 3.811 4.4 Üstökösaktivitást mutató ismert objektumok a kentaur régióban 2006-ban Objektum a (CSE) E

  2. H2A.Z: a molecular rheostat for transcriptional control

    E-print Network

    Subramanian, Vidya

    The replacement of nucleosomal H2A with the histone variant H2A.Z is critical for regulating DNA-mediated processes across eukaryotes and for early development of multicellular organisms. How this variant performs these ...

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Lysobacter capsici AZ78, a Bacterium Antagonistic to Plant-Pathogenic Oomycetes.

    PubMed

    Puopolo, Gerardo; Sonego, Paolo; Engelen, Kristof; Pertot, Ilaria

    2014-01-01

    Lysobacter capsici AZ78, isolated from tobacco rhizosphere, effectively controls Phytophthora infestans and Plasmopara viticola on tomato and grapevine plants, respectively. We report the first draft genome sequence of the L. capsici species. PMID:24762937

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Lysobacter capsici AZ78, a Bacterium Antagonistic to Plant-Pathogenic Oomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Sonego, Paolo; Engelen, Kristof; Pertot, Ilaria

    2014-01-01

    Lysobacter capsici AZ78, isolated from tobacco rhizosphere, effectively controls Phytophthora infestans and Plasmopara viticola on tomato and grapevine plants, respectively. We report the first draft genome sequence of the L. capsici species. PMID:24762937

  5. The Histone Chaperones FACT and Spt6 Restrict H2A.Z from Intragenic Locations.

    PubMed

    Jeronimo, Célia; Watanabe, Shinya; Kaplan, Craig D; Peterson, Craig L; Robert, François

    2015-06-18

    H2A.Z is a highly conserved histone variant involved in several key nuclear processes. It is incorporated into promoters by SWR-C-related chromatin remodeling complexes, but whether it is also actively excluded from non-promoter regions is not clear. Here we provide genomic and biochemical evidence that the RNA polymerase II (RNA Pol II) elongation-associated histone chaperones FACT and Spt6 both contribute to restricting H2A.Z from intragenic regions. In the absence of FACT or Spt6, the lack of efficient nucleosome reassembly coupled to pervasive incorporation of H2A.Z by mislocalized SWR-C alters chromatin composition and contributes to cryptic initiation. Therefore, chaperone-mediated H2A.Z confinement is crucial for restricting the chromatin signature of gene promoters that otherwise may license or promote cryptic transcription. PMID:25959393

  6. 75 FR 49526 - Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., Technical Information Center, Tempe, AZ; Freescale Semiconductor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ...TA-W-71,855A] Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., Technical Information Center, Tempe, AZ; Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., Technical Information...applicable to workers of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., Technical...

  7. 78 FR 65370 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Pima County Office of the Medical Examiner, Tucson, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ...2013. ADDRESSES: Dr. Bruce Anderson, Forensic Anthropologist, PCOME, Tucson, AZ...County Medical Examiner's Office for forensic analysis. The Pinal County Medical Examiner...Medical Examiner for examination by a forensic anthropologist. Dr. Bruce...

  8. Operational Test Report for the 241-AZ-101 Ultrasonic Interface Level Analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    ANDREWS, J.E.

    2000-03-28

    This document comprises the Operational Test Report for the 241-AZ-101 Ultrasonic Interface Level Analyzer. The objective of the testing was to verify that all equipment and components functioned as designed following construction completion and turnover to operations.

  9. H2A.Z: a molecular rheostat for transcriptional control

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian*, Vidya; Fields*, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    The replacement of nucleosomal H2A with the histone variant H2A.Z is critical for regulating DNA-mediated processes across eukaryotes and for early development of multicellular organisms. How this variant performs these seemingly diverse roles has remained largely enigmatic. Here, we discuss recent mechanistic insights that have begun to reveal how H2A.Z functions as a molecular rheostat for gene control. We focus on specific examples in metazoans as a model for understanding how H2A.Z integrates information from histone post-translational modifications, other histone variants, and transcription factors (TFs) to regulate proper induction of gene expression programs in response to cellular cues. Finally, we propose a general model of how H2A.Z incorporation regulates chromatin states in diverse processes. PMID:25705384

  10. Final results of double-shell tank 241-AZ-101 ultrasonic inspection

    SciTech Connect

    JENSEN, C.E.

    1999-08-23

    This document presents the results and documentation of the nondestructive ultrasonic examination of tank 241-AZ-101. A tank inspection supplier was retained to provide and use an ultrasonic examination system (equipment, procedures, and inspectors) to scan a limited area of double-shell tank 241-AZ-101 primary tank wall and welds. The inspection found one reportable indication of thinning and no reportable pitting, corrosion, or cracking.

  11. System Description for Tank 241-AZ-101 Waste Retrieval Data Acquisition System

    SciTech Connect

    ROMERO, S.G.

    2000-02-14

    The proposed activity provides the description of the Data Acquisition System for Tank 241-AZ-101. This description is documented in HNF-5572, Tank 241-AZ-101 Waste Retrieval Data Acquisition System (DAS). This activity supports the planned mixer pump tests for Tank 241-AZ-101. Tank 241-AZ-101 has been selected for the first full-scale demonstration of a mixer pump system. The tank currently holds over 960,000 gallons of neutralized current acid waste, including approximately 12.7 inches of settling solids (sludge) at the bottom of the tank. As described in Addendum 4 of the FSAR (LMHC 2000a), two 300 HP mixer pumps with associated measurement and monitoring equipment have been installed in Tank 241-AZ-101. The purpose of the Tank 241-AZ-101 retrieval system Data Acquisition System (DAS) is to provide monitoring and data acquisition of key parameters in order to confirm the effectiveness of the mixer pumps utilized for suspending solids in the tank. The suspension of solids in Tank 241-AZ-101 is necessary for pretreatment of the neutralized current acid waste and eventual disposal as glass via the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant. HNF-5572 provides a basic description of the Tank 241-AZ-101 retrieval system DAS, including the field instrumentation and application software. The DAS is provided to fulfill requirements for data collection and monitoring. This document is not an operations procedure or is it intended to describe the mixing operation. This USQ screening provides evaluation of HNF-5572 (Revision 1) including the changes as documented on ECN 654001. The changes include (1) add information on historical trending and data backup, (2) modify DAS I/O list in Appendix E to reflect actual conditions in the field, and (3) delete IP address in Appendix F per Lockheed Martin Services, Inc. request.

  12. Acceptance Test Report for the 241-AZ-101 Ultrasonic Interface Level Analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    ANDREWS, J.E.

    2000-01-27

    This document comprises the Acceptance Test Report for the 241-AZ-101 Ultrasonic Interface Level Analyzer. This document presents the results of Acceptance Testing of the 241-AZ-101 Ultrasonic Interface Level Analyzers (URSILLAs). Testing of the URSILLAs was performed in accordance with ATP-260-001, ''URSILLA Pre-installation Acceptance Test Procedure''. The objective of the testing was to verify that all equipment and components function in accordance with design specifications and original equipment manufacturer's specifications.

  13. City 2020+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, C.; Buttstädt, M.; Merbitz, H.; Sachsen, T.; Ketzler, G.; Michael, S.; Klemme, M.; Dott, W.; Selle, K.; Hofmeister, H.

    2010-09-01

    This research initiative CITY 2020+ assesses the risks and opportunities for residents in urban built environments under projected demographic and climate change for the year 2020 and beyond, using the City of Aachen as a case study. CITY 2020+ develops scenarios, options and tools for planning and developing sustainable future city structures. We investigate how urban environment, political structure and residential behavior can best be adapted, with attention to the interactions among structural, political, and sociological configurations and with their consequences on human health. Demographers project that in the EU-25-States by 2050, approximately 30% of the population will be over age 65. Also by 2050, average temŹperatures are projected to rise by 1 to 2 K. Combined, Europe can expect enhanced thermal stress and higher levels of particulate matter. CITY 2020+ amongst other sub-projects includes research project dealing with (1) a micro-scale assessment of blockages to low-level cold-air drainage flow into the city centre by vegetation and building structures, (2) a detailed analysis of the change of probability density functions related to the occurrence of heat waves during summer and the spatial and temporal structure of the urban heat island (UHI) (3) a meso-scale analysis of particulate matter (PM) concentrations depending on topography, local meteorological conditions and synoptic-scale weather patterns. First results will be presented specifically from sub-projects related to vegetation barriers within cold air drainage, the assessment of the UHI and the temporal and spatial pattern of PM loadings in the city centre. The analysis of the cold air drainage flow is investigated in two consecutive years with a clearing of vegetation stands in the beginning of the second year early in 2010. The spatial pattern of the UHI and its possible enhancement by climate change is addressed employing a unique setup using GPS devices and temperature probes fixed to several public transport units running all across the city. This is accompanied by an analysis of probability density functions (PDF) for heat waves based on recent climate data and climate projections. A dense net of 40 PM measurement sites is operated in order to obtain the spatial pattern of PM concentration as depending on meteorological condition and location. It is lined out how this climate related sub-projects interact with investigations on social networks, governance issues, buildings structure development and health outcome. Related to the later the chemical composition of PM is analyzed in more detail and related to the spatial patterns of health deficiencies. At a later stage City2020+ will propose new strategies based on cooperation from the fields of medicine, geography, sociology, history, civil engineering, and architecture for adapting the city for future needs. The Project CITY 2020+ is part of the interdisciplinary Project House HumTec (Human Sciences and Technology) at RWTH Aachen University funded by the Excellence Initiative of the German federal and state governments through the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Foundation, DFG).

  14. Lysobacter capsici AZ78 can be combined with copper to effectively control Plasmopara viticola on grapevine.

    PubMed

    Puopolo, Gerardo; Giovannini, Oscar; Pertot, Ilaria

    2014-01-01

    The bacterial genus Lysobacter represents a still underdeveloped source of biocontrol agents able to protect plants against pathogenic oomycetes. In this work the L. capsici strain AZ78 was evaluated with regard to the biological control of Plasmopara viticola, the causal agent of grapevine downy mildew. L. capsici AZ78 is able to resist copper ions and its resistance to this metal is probably due to the presence of genes coding for copper oxidase (copA) and copper exporting PIB-type ATPases (ctpA). The presence of both genes was also detected in other members of the Lysobacter genus. Resistance to copper allowed L. capsici AZ78 to be combined with a low-dose of a copper-based fungicide, leading to more effective control of grapevine downy mildew. Notably, prophylactic application of L. capsici AZ78 alone to grapevine leaves reduced downy mildew disease to the same degree as a copper-based fungicide. Furthermore, L. capsici AZ78 persists in the phyllosphere of grapevine plants and tolerates environmental stresses such as starvation, freezing, mild heat shock and UV light irradiation. These traits suggest that L. capsici AZ78 could be a suitable candidate for developing a new biofungicide to be used in combination with copper to control grapevine downy mildew. PMID:24140153

  15. Effect of microstructure on the zinc phosphate conversion coatings on magnesium alloy AZ91

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Phuong, Nguyen; Moon, Sungmo; Chang, Doyon; Lee, Kyu Hwan

    2013-01-01

    The effect of the microstructure, particularly of ?-Mg17Al12 phase, on the formation and growth of zinc phosphate conversion coatings on magnesium alloy AZ91 (AZ91) was studied. The zinc phosphate coatings were formed on AZ91 with different microstructures produced by heat treatment. The effect of the microstructure on the zinc phosphate coatings were examined using optical microscope (OM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), coatings weight and etching weight balances, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and salt immersion test. Results showed that as-cast AZ91 contained a high volume fraction of the ?-Mg17Al12 phase and it was dissolved into ?-Mg phase during heat treatment at 400 °C. The ?-phase became center for hydrogen evolution during phosphating reaction (cathodic sites). The decreased volume fraction of the ?-phase caused decreasing both coatings weight and etching weight of the phosphating process. However, it increased the crystal size of the coatings and improved corrosion resistance of AZ91 by immersing in 0.5 M NaCl solution. Results also showed that the structure of the zinc phosphate conversion on AZ91 consisted of two layers: an outer crystal Zn3(PO4)2ˇ4H2O (hopeite) and an inner which was mainly composed of MgZn2(PO4)2 and Mg3(PO4)2. A mechanism for the formation of two layers of the coatings was also proposed in this study.

  16. Fine particulate chemical composition and light extinction at Meadview, AZ

    SciTech Connect

    Delbert J. Eatough; Wenxuan Cui; Jeffery Hull; Robert J. Farber

    2006-12-15

    The concentration of fine particulate nitrate, sulfate, and carbonaceous material was measured for 12-hr daynight samples using diffusion denuder samplers during the Project Measurement of Haze and Visibility Effects (MOHAVE) July to August 1992 Summer Intensive study at Meadview, AZ, just west of Grand Canyon National Park. Organic material was measured by several techniques. Only the diffusion denuder method measured the semivolatile organic material. Fine particulate sulfate and nitrate (using denuder technology) determined by various groups agreed. Based on the various collocated measurements obtained during the Project MOHAVE study, the precision of the major fine particulate species was {+-} 0.6 {mu}g/m{sup 3} organic material, {+-} 0.3 {mu}g/m{sup 3} ammonium sulfate, and {+-} 0.07 {mu}g/m{sup 3} ammonium nitrate. Fine particulate organic material was the principal particulate contributor to light extinction during the study period, with fine particulate sulfate as the second most important contributor. Particle light extinction was dominated by sulfate and organic material during periods of lowest light extinction. Combination of the extinction data and chemical mass balance analysis of sulfur oxides sources in the region indicate that the major anthropogenic contributors to light extinction were from the Los Angeles, CA, and Las Vegas, NV, urban areas. Mohave Power Project associated secondary sulfate was a negligible contributor to light extinction. 49 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Air composition over Siberian cities.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belan, B. D.; Ivlev, G. A.; Kozlov, A. S.; Marinaite, I. I.; Peneko, V. V.; Simonenkov, D. V.; Fofonov, A. V.; Khodzher, T. V.; Arshinov, M. Yu.

    2009-04-01

    It is typical feature of Siberian cities that the quality of the atmosphere significantly depends on the climate conditions. During more than half of year, stable atmospheric stratification dominates over Siberia with temperature inversions, favoring accumulation of pollutants of different origin in the lower atmospheric layers. In addition to severe climatic conditions, modern industrial cities experience increasingly intensifying effect of anthropogenic factors on the environment and human health. Urban conditions give rise to distinct mesoclimates favoring accumulation of pollutants. In this case, natural and anthropogenic systems (power-generating and industrial objects, traffic, etc.) interact very closely. In this paper we present experimental results of the study the local air circulation effect on air composition of industrial cities of Siberian region. In our studies we have used AKV-2 mobile station, designed at the Institute of Atmospheric Optics SB RAS. The instrumentation of the station provides measurements of air temperature and humidity, wind speed and direction, total solar radiation; aerosol number density in two size ranges (0.4-10 microns by use of a modernized AZ-6 optical particle counter, and from 3 to 200 nm with a diffusion spectrometer of aerosols), and concentration of trace gases (NO, NO2, O3, SO2, CO, CO2). In addition to the continuous observations during the station motion, in Angarsk, Usol'e-Sibirskoe, Tulun, Nizhneudinsk, Taishet, Kansk, Krasnoyarsk, and Achinsk, we have carried measurements during stops at the city entry, near center, and at the exit. These observations were aimed to estimate the contribution of urban circulation to impurity accumulation on the city territory and to the change of thermodynamic regime. Such a contribution was found in all of the above-mentioned cities. Maximum of NO concentration is observed at crossroads of the main highways and decreases away from them. It should be noted that the NO distribution almost the same as the distribution of CO, which is also of "automobile engine" origin. In the center of cities where usually impurities are accumulated, concentration of SO2, NO2, CO, and aerosol number density as well are several times higher than in the city periphery. On the contrary, the ozone content in center is much lower. In most of the cases, the urban samples have 2-3 times more chemical elements than the background samples. The total concentrations of PAHs in aerosol matter of the cities varied from 20 to 30 ng/m3. PAH concentrations, as well as the percentage relation between them are determined by the place of aerosol sampling, i.e., by locations of pollution sources. Among the identified PAHs in the public green space and industrial zones of Angarsk, the predominating species are phenanthrene, pyrene, and fluoranthene, whose total amount reaches 80% of the mass of the detected PAHs. In summer, owing to more effective atmospheric ventilation, the effects of local circulation substantially weaken. As a result, a significant pollutant accumulation in the central parts of the cities may not always be detected.

  18. 75 FR 57327 - Environmental Impact Statement; Pinal County, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-20

    ... area that currently exceeds existing road capacity and is expected to continue to worsen with the... Department of Corrections, Arizona Attorney General's Office, Gila River Indian Community, Salt River Pima... Nation, Salt River Project, Phoenix-Mesa Gateway Airport Authority, Town of Florence, City of...

  19. Devolatilization or melting of carbonates at Meteor Crater, AZ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hörz, F.; Archer, P. D.; Niles, P. B.; Zolensky, M. E.; Evans, M.

    2015-06-01

    We have investigated the carbonates in the impact melts and in a monolithic clast of highly shocked Coconino sandstone of Meteor Crater, AZ to evaluate whether melting or devolatilization is the dominant response of carbonates during high-speed meteorite impact. Both melt- and clast-carbonates are calcites that have identical crystal habits and that contain anomalously high SiO2 and Al2O3. Also, both calcite occurrences lack any meteoritic contamination, such as Fe or Ni, which is otherwise abundantly observed in all other impact melts and their crystallization products at Meteor Crater. The carbon and oxygen isotope systematics for both calcite deposits suggest a low temperature environment (<100 °C) for their precipitation from an aqueous solution, consistent with caliche. We furthermore subjected bulk melt beads to thermogravimetric analysis and monitored the evolving volatiles with a quadrupole mass spectrometer. CO2 yields were <5 wt%, with typical values in the 2 wt% range; also total CO2 loss is positively correlated with H2O loss, an indication that most of these volatiles derive from the secondary calcite. Also, transparent glasses, considered the most pristine impact melts, yield 100 wt% element totals by EMPA, suggesting complete loss of CO2. The target dolomite decomposed into MgO, CaO, and CO2; the CO2 escaped and the CaO and MgO combined with SiO2 from coexisting quartz and FeO from the impactor to produce the dominant impact melt at Meteor Crater. Although confined to Meteor Crater, these findings are in stark contrast to Osinski et al. (2008) who proposed that melting of carbonates, rather than devolatilization, is the dominant process during hypervelocity impact into carbonate-bearing targets, including Meteor Crater.

  20. Fine particulate chemical composition and light extinction at Meadview, AZ.

    PubMed

    Eatough, Delbert J; Cui, Wenxuan; Hull, Jeffery; Farber, Robert J

    2006-12-01

    The concentration of fine particulate nitrate, sulfate, and carbonaceous material was measured for 12-hr day-night samples using diffusion denuder samplers during the Project Measurement of Haze and Visibility Effects (MOHAVE) July to August 1992 Summer Intensive study at Meadview, AZ, just west of Grand Canyon National Park. Organic material was measured by several techniques. Only the diffusion denuder method measured the semivolatile organic material. Fine particulate sulfate and nitrate (using denuder technology) determined by various groups agreed. Based on the various collocated measurements obtained during the Project MOHAVE study, the precision of the major fine particulate species was +/- 0.6 microg/m3 organic material, +/- 0.3 microg/m3 ammonium sulfate, and +/- 0.07 microg/m3 ammonium nitrate. Data were also available on fine particulate crustal material, fine and coarse particulate mass from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments sampling system, and relative humidity (RH), light absorption, particle scattering, and light extinction measurements from Project MOHAVE. An extinction budget was obtained using mass scattering coefficients estimated from particle size distribution data. Literature data were used to estimate the change in the mass scattering coefficients for the measured species as a function of RH and for the absorption of light by elemental carbon. Fine particulate organic material was the principal particulate contributor to light extinction during the study period, with fine particulate sulfate as the second most important contributor. During periods of highest light extinction, contributions from fine particulate organic material, sulfate, and light-absorbing carbon dominated the extinction of light by particles. Particle light extinction was dominated by sulfate and organic material during periods of lowest light extinction. Combination of the extinction data and chemical mass balance analysis of sulfur oxides sources in the region indicate that the major anthropogenic contributors to light extinction were from the Los Angeles, CA, and Las Vegas, NV, urban areas. Mohave Power Project associated secondary sulfate was a negligible contributor to light extinction. PMID:17195488

  1. Electrodeposition of high corrosion resistance Cu/Ni-P coating on AZ91D magnesium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shan; Cao, Fahe; Chang, Linrong; Zheng, JunJun; Zhang, Zhao; Zhang, Jianqing; Cao, Chunan

    2011-08-01

    High corrosion resistance Cu/Ni-P coatings were electrodeposited on AZ91D magnesium alloy via suitable pretreatments, such as one-step acid pickling-activation, once zinc immersion and environment-friendly electroplated copper as the protective under-layer, which made Ni-P deposit on AZ91D Mg alloy in acid plating baths successfully. The pH value and current density for Ni-P electrodeposition were optimized to obtain high corrosion resistance. With increasing the phosphorous content of the Ni-P coatings, the deposits were found to gradually transform to amorphous structure and the corrosion resistance increased synchronously. The anticorrosion ability of AZ91D Mg alloy was greatly improved by the amorphous Ni-P deposits, which was investigated by potentiodynamic polarization curve and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The corrosion current density ( Icorr) of the coated Mg alloy substrate is about two orders of magnitude less than that of the uncoated.

  2. Ultrasonic Spot Welding of AZ31B to Galvanized Mild Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Dr. Tsung-Yu; Franklin, Teresa; Pan, Professor Jwo; Brown, Elliot; Santella, Michael L

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasonic spot welds were made between sheets of 0.8-mm-thick hot-dip-galvanized mild steel and 1.6-mm-thick AZ31B-H24. Lap-shear strengths of 3.0-4.2 kN were achieved with weld times of 0.3-1.2 s. Failure to achieve strong bonding of joints where the Zn coating was removed from the steel surface indicate that Zn is essential to the bonding mechanism. Microstructure characterization and microchemical analysis indicated temperatures at the AZ31-steel interfaces reached at least 344 C in less than 0.3 s. The elevated temperature conditions promoted annealing of the AZ31-H24 metal and chemical reactions between it and the Zn coating.

  3. Study of thermal properties of metallic samples AZ91E/ALN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz Mandujano, Javier; Egberto Bedolla, Becerril; Villafańa Rauda, Edgar

    2011-08-01

    Using the open photoacoustic cell technique, we obtained the spectra of the photoacoustic signal amplitude as a function of the modulation frequency of the incident radiation. From these spectra we determined the thermal diffusivity in Mg- AZ91E/AlN metal matrix composite with a magnesium alloy of around 9% aluminum and 1% zinc, the aluminum nitrade (AlN) is a ceramic with relationship AlN/AZ91E with ratio 1:1. The photoacoustic signal amplitude in the region thermally thick and optically opaque is used to calculate the thermal diffusivity of the Mg-AZ91E/AlN material and the results obtained are shown.

  4. Corrosion and mechanical performance of AZ91 exposed to simulated inflammatory conditions.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Emily K; Der, Stephanie; Ehrensberger, Mark T

    2016-03-01

    Magnesium (Mg) and its alloys, including Mg-9%Al-1%Zn (AZ91), are biodegradable metals with potential use as temporary orthopedic implants. Invasive orthopedic procedures can provoke an inflammatory response that produces hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and an acidic environment near the implant. This study assessed the influence of inflammation on both the corrosion and mechanical properties of AZ91. The AZ91 samples in the inflammatory protocol were immersed for three days in a complex biologically relevant electrolyte (AMEM culture media) that contained serum proteins (FBS), 150mM of H2O2, and was titrated to a pH of 5. The control protocol immersed AZ91 samples in the same biologically relevant electrolyte (AMEM & FBS) but without H2O2 and the acid titration. After 3days all samples were switched into fresh AMEM & FBS for an additional 3-day immersion. During the initial immersion, inflammatory protocol samples showed increased corrosion rate determined by mass loss testing, increased Mg and Al ion released to solution, and a completely corroded surface morphology as compared to the control protocol. Although corrosion in both protocols slowed once the test electrolyte solution was replaced at 3days, the samples originally exposed to the simulated inflammatory conditions continued to display enhanced corrosion rates as compared to the control protocol. These lingering effects may indicate the initial inflammatory corrosion processes modified components of the surface oxide and corrosion film or initiated aggressive localized processes that subsequently left the interface more vulnerable to continued enhanced corrosion. The electrochemical properties of the interfaces were also evaluated by EIS, which found that the corrosion characteristics of the AZ91 samples were potentially influenced by the role of intermediate adsorption layer processes. The increased corrosion observed for the inflammatory protocol did not affect the flexural mechanical properties of the AZ91 at any time point assessed. PMID:26706549

  5. Autophagy limits the cytotoxic effects of the AKT inhibitor AZ7328 in human bladder cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Dickstein, Rian J.; Nitti, Giovanni; Dinney, Colin P.; Davies, Barry R.; Kamat, Ashish M.; McConkey, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Mutations that activate the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway are relatively common in urothelial (bladder) cancers, but how these pathway mutations affect AKT dependency is not known. We characterized the relationship between AKT pathway mutational status and sensitivity to the effects of the selective AKT kinase inhibitor AZ7328 using a panel of 12 well-characterized human bladder cancer cell lines. Methods: Sequenome DNA sequencing was performed to identify mutations in a panel of 12 urothelial cancer cell lines. Drug-induced proliferative inhibition and apoptosis were quantified using MTT assays and propidium iodide staining with FACS analyses. Protein activation via phosphorylation was measured by immunoblotting. Autophagy was measured by LC3 immunofluorescence and immunoblotting. Results: AZ7328 inhibited proliferation and AKT substrate phosphorylation in a concentration-dependent manner but had minimal effects on apoptosis. Proliferative inhibition correlated loosely with the presence of activating PIK3CA mutations and was strengthened in combination with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin. AZ7328 induced autophagy in some of the lines, and in the cells exposed to a combination of AZ7328 and chemical autophagy inhibitors apoptosis was induced. Conclusions: The cytostatic effects of AZ7328 correlate with PIK3CA mutations and are greatly enhanced by dual pathway inhibition using an mTOR inhibitor. Furthermore, AZ7328 can interact with autophagy inhibitors to induce apoptosis in some cell lines. Overall, our results support the further evaluation of combinations of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and autophagy inhibitors in pre-clinical in vivo models and ultimately in patients with PIK3CA mutant bladder cancers. PMID:22895070

  6. 76 FR 70957 - Foreign-Trade Zone 277-Western Maricopa County, AZ; Application for Manufacturing Authority, Sub...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 277--Western Maricopa County, AZ; Application for Manufacturing Authority, Sub-Zero, Inc. (Refrigerators and Freezers), Goodyear, AZ An application has been submitted to the Foreign-Trade Zones Board (the...

  7. H2A.Z Acidic Patch Couples Chromatin Dynamics to Regulation of Gene Expression Programs during ESC Differentiation

    E-print Network

    Subramanian, Vidya

    The histone H2A variant H2A.Z is essential for embryonic development and for proper control of developmental gene expression programs in embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Divergent regions of amino acid sequence of H2A.Z likely ...

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of the Sulfolobales Archaeon AZ1, Obtained through Metagenomic Analysis of a Mexican Hot Spring

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Romero, Esperanza

    2014-01-01

    The Sulfolobales archaea have been found inhabiting acidic hot springs all over the world. Here, we report the 1.798-Mbp draft genome sequence of the thermoacidophilic Sulfolobales archaeon AZ1, reconstructed from the metagenome of a Mexican hot spring. Sequence-based comparisons revealed that the Sulfolobales archaeon AZ1 represents a novel candidate genus. PMID:24604657

  9. 14 CFR Appendix to Subpart U of... - Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of the Grand Canyon National Park, AZ

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Grand Canyon National Park, AZ Appendix to Subpart U of Part 93 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... TRAFFIC RULES Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of Grand Canyon National Park, AZ Pt. 93, Subpt. U, App. Appendix to Subpart U of Part 93—Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of the Grand Canyon National Park,...

  10. 14 CFR Appendix to Subpart U of... - Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of the Grand Canyon National Park, AZ

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Grand Canyon National Park, AZ Appendix to Subpart U of Part 93 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... TRAFFIC RULES Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of Grand Canyon National Park, AZ Pt. 93, Subpt. U, App. Appendix to Subpart U of Part 93—Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of the Grand Canyon National Park,...

  11. 14 CFR Appendix to Subpart U of... - Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of the Grand Canyon National Park, AZ

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Grand Canyon National Park, AZ Appendix to Subpart U of Part 93 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... TRAFFIC RULES Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of Grand Canyon National Park, AZ Pt. 93, Subpt. U, App. Appendix to Subpart U of Part 93—Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of the Grand Canyon National Park,...

  12. Learning Cities as Healthy Green Cities: Building Sustainable Opportunity Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearns, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a new generation of learning cities we have called EcCoWell cities (Economy, Community, Well-being). The paper was prepared for the PASCAL International Exchanges (PIE) and is based on international experiences with PIE and developments in some cities. The paper argues for more holistic and integrated development so that…

  13. Chihuahua City

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-09-05

    IBM, through its Smarter Cities program, working with the Building Performance Lab of the City University of New York (BPL-CUNY) and New York City (NYC) government, has developed an energy dashboard drawing upon the city’s database of information...

  14. Effects of the types of overlap on the mechanical properties of FSSW welded AZ series magnesium alloy joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dan; Shen, Jun; Wang, Lin-Zhi

    2012-03-01

    The effects of the types of overlap on the mechanical properties of the friction stir spot welding (FSSW) welded AZ series magnesium alloy joints were investigated by microstructural observations, microhardness tests, and tensile tests. The results show that the microstructure of the stir zone adjacent to the periphery of the rotating pin is mainly composed of the upper sheet. The average distance D between the longitudinal segment of the curved interface and the keyhole periphery, the tensile shear force, and the microhardness of the stir zone of the FSSW welded AZ61 alloy joint are the highest in all samples. During FSSW of AZ31 and AZ61 dissimilar magnesium alloys, the irregular deformation of the longitudinal segment of the curved interface appears, while the microhardness of the stir zone is higher when AZ61 alloy is the upper sheet. Moreover, the microhardness of the stir zone increases initially and then decreases sharply in the longitudinal test position.

  15. CESIUM REMOVAL FROM TANKS 241-AN-103 & 241-SX-105 & 241-AZ-101 & 241AZ-102 COMPOSITE FOR TESTING IN BENCH SCALE STEAM REFORMER

    SciTech Connect

    DUNCAN JB; HUBER HJ

    2011-04-21

    This report documents the preparation of three actual Hanford tank waste samples for shipment to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). Two of the samples were dissolved saltcakes from tank 241-AN-103 (hereafter AN-103) and tank 241-SX-105 (hereafter SX-105); one sample was a supernate composite from tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 (hereafter AZ-101/102). The preparation of the samples was executed following the test plans LAB-PLAN-10-00006, Test Plan for the Preparation of Samples from Hanford Tanks 241-SX-105, 241-AN-103, 241-AN-107, and LAB-PLN-l0-00014, Test Plan for the Preparation of a Composite Sample from Hanford Tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 for Steam Reformer Testing at the Savannah River National Laboratory. All procedural steps were recorded in laboratory notebook HNF-N-274 3. Sample breakdown diagrams for AN-103 and SX-105 are presented in Appendix A. The tank samples were prepared in support of a series of treatability studies of the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) process using a Bench-Scale Reformer (BSR) at SRNL. Tests with simulants have shown that the FBSR mineralized waste form is comparable to low-activity waste glass with respect to environmental durability (WSRC-STI-2008-00268, Mineralization of Radioactive Wastes by Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR): Comparisons to Vitreous Waste Forms and Pertinent Durability Testing). However, a rigorous assessment requires long-term performance data from FBSR product formed from actual Hanford tank waste. Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) has initiated a Waste Form Qualification Program (WP-5.2.1-2010-001, Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer Low-level Waste Form Qualification) to gather the data required to demonstrate that an adequate FBSR mineralized waste form can be produced. The documentation of the selection process of the three tank samples has been separately reported in RPP-48824, Sample Selection Process for Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Treatability Studies Using Hanford Waste Samples.

  16. Clean Cities Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-01-01

    This fact sheet explains the Clean Cities Program and provides contact information for all coalitions and regional offices. It answers key questions such as: What is the Clean Cities Program? What are alternative fuels? How does the Clean Cities Program work? What sort of assistance does Clean Cities offer? What has Clean Cities accomplished? What is Clean Cities International? and Where can I find more information?

  17. AzTEC millimetre survey of the COSMOS field – I. Data reduction and source catalogue

    E-print Network

    Scott, K. S.; Austermann, J. E.; Perera, Thushara A.; Wilson, Graham Wallace; Aretxaga, I.; Bock, J. J.; Hughes, D. H.; Kang, Y.; Kim, S.; Mauskopf, P. D.; Sanders, D. B.; Scoville, N.; Yun, M. S.

    2008-04-21

    We present a 1.1 mm wavelength imaging survey covering 0.3 deg2 in the COSMOS field. These data, obtained with the AzTEC continuum camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, were centred on a prominent large-scale structure overdensity which...

  18. 75 FR 5115 - Temporary Concession Contract for Lake Mead National Recreation Area, AZ/NV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ...Lake Mead National Recreation Area, AZ/NV AGENCY: National Park...Lake Mead National Recreation Area...SUMMARY: Pursuant to 36 CFR 51.24, public notice is hereby...Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Arizona and Nevada for a...

  19. Histone H2A.Z and DNA methylation are mutually antagonistic chromatin marks

    E-print Network

    transposons. Mutation of the MET1 DNA methyltransferase, which causes both losses and gains of DNA methylationLETTERS Histone H2A.Z and DNA methylation are mutually antagonistic chromatin marks Daniel into functional domains differ- entiated by post-translational histone modifications, histone var- iants and DNA

  20. Deposition of Histone Variant H2A.Z within Gene Bodies Regulates Responsive Genes

    E-print Network

    , California, United States of America Abstract The regulation of eukaryotic chromatin relies on interactions-mail: danielz@berkeley.edu Introduction In addition to packaging the DNA to fit within the cell, histones as the most well-conserved, with a single origin at the root of eukaryotic evolution [1]. H2A.Z has been

  1. 76 FR 31933 - Tonto National Forest; AZ; Salt River Allotments Vegetative Management EIS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ...Forest Service Tonto National Forest; AZ; Salt River Allotments Vegetative Management...The Project Area is located along the Salt River in Gila County, Arizona. DATES...ecosystems within the six allotments along the Salt River. The purpose of this effort is...

  2. 76 FR 31933 - Tonto National Forest; AZ; Salt River Allotments Vegetative Management EIS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... safety, or have potential to damage property and natural/cultural resources. 2B Salt River Canyon... Forest Service Tonto National Forest; AZ; Salt River Allotments Vegetative Management EIS AGENCY: Forest.... The Project Area is located along the Salt River in Gila County, Arizona. DATES: Comments...

  3. life.curtin.edu.auMake tomorrow better. CURTIN A-Z GUIDE 2015 1

    E-print Network

    Mucina, Ladislav

    life.curtin.edu.auMake tomorrow better. 2015 #12;CURTIN A-Z GUIDE 2015 1 How to use this guide There is an index at the back of this guide to help you find the information you need. Entries are in alphabetical the Academic Calendar and important dates by visiting students.curtin. edu.au/administration/dates/index

  4. 75 FR 5115 - Temporary Concession Contract for Lake Mead National Recreation Area, AZ/NV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... concession contract for Lake Mead National Recreation Area. SUMMARY: Pursuant to 36 CFR 51.24, public notice... National Park Service Temporary Concession Contract for Lake Mead National Recreation Area, AZ/NV AGENCY... the conduct of certain visitor services within Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Arizona and...

  5. 4.5 Rock Coatings RI Dorn, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA

    E-print Network

    Dorn, Ron

    4.5 Rock Coatings RI Dorn, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA r 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 4.5.1 Introduction to Rock Coatings 70 4.5.2 Interpreting Rock Coatings through a Landscape.5.3 Importance of Rock Coatings in Geomorphology 88 4.5.4 Conclusion 90 References 94 Glossary Carbonate skin

  6. 75 FR 35504 - San Rafael Cattle Company; Habitat Conservation Plan; Santa Cruz County, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-22

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service San Rafael Cattle Company; Habitat Conservation Plan; Santa Cruz County, AZ AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability; Draft Low-Effect Habitat... habitat from specified actions conducted under the authority of the San Rafael Cattle Company. We...

  7. 78 FR 40381 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Grand Canyon, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-05

    ...) to establish controlled airspace at Grand Canyon, AZ (78 FR 25404). Interested parties were invited... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of... FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in 14 CFR...

  8. 78 FR 33703 - Safety Zone; Great Western Tube Float; Colorado River; Parker, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-05

    ...Parker, AZ. This temporary safety zone is necessary to provide for the safety...waterway. This event involves people floating down the river on inflatable rafts...Coast Guard is establishing a safety zone that will be enforced from 8:30...

  9. Radioisotope inventory of T101AZ thermocouple tree from riser 13D

    SciTech Connect

    Kessler, S.F., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-12

    The radionuclide inventory for the thermocouple tree removed from tank T101-AZ riser 13D was estimated using measured {sup 137}Cs activity. This activity was measured by detectors as the tree was removed from the tank. Other radionuclide activities were estimated using the results of tank samples.

  10. 241-AZ-101 Waste Tank Color Video Camera System Shop Acceptance Test Report

    SciTech Connect

    WERRY, S.M.

    2000-03-23

    This report includes shop acceptance test results. The test was performed prior to installation at tank AZ-101. Both the camera system and camera purge system were originally sought and procured as a part of initial waste retrieval project W-151.

  11. 75 FR 65255 - Proposed Modification of Class E Airspace; Show Low, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ...modify Class E airspace at Show Low, AZ to accommodate new Area...Procedures (SIAPs) at Show Low Regional Airport. The FAA is...this action may be changed in light of comments received. All comments...modifying Class E airspace at Show Low Regional Airport, Show...

  12. 75 FR 26098 - Safety Zone; Under Water Clean Up of Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ...1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Under Water Clean Up of Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu, AZ AGENCY: Coast...the navigable waters of Lake Havasu in the Copper Canyon in support of the underwater cleanup of Copper Canyon. This temporary safety zone is...

  13. Structural evaluation of thermocouple probes for 241-AZ-101 waste tank

    SciTech Connect

    Kanjilal, S.K.

    1994-12-06

    This document reports on the structural analysis of the thermocouple probe to be installed in 241-AZ-101 waste tank. The thermocouple probe is analyzed for normal pump mixing operation and potential earthquake induced loads required by the Hanford Site Design Criteria SDC-4.1.

  14. In vitro Study on Biodegradable AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Fibers Reinforced PLGA Composite

    E-print Network

    Zheng, Yufeng

    studied. The tensile test showed that with the addition of AZ31 fibers, the composites had a significant increment in tensile strength and elongation. For the direct cell attachment test, all the cells showed such as hydroxyapatite (HA)[25] , polymers such as collagen[23,26] were used as reinforcements to fabricate PLGA

  15. Hot cracking in tungsten inert gas welding of magnesium alloy AZ91D

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Wei

    Hot cracking in tungsten inert gas welding of magnesium alloy AZ91D W. Zhou*, T. Z. Long and C. K of the plates were produced using tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding method. The TIG arc was also used to deposit welding beads on some of the thin plates. No cracking was found in the butt joints. However, hot cracking

  16. Study on fused/cast AZS refractories for deployment in vitrification of radioactive waste effluents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, Pranesh; Mishra, R. K.; Soudamini, N.; Sen, D.; Mazumder, S.; Kaushik, C. P.; Ajithkumar, T. G.; Banerjee, K.

    2015-12-01

    'Fused/cast Al2O3-ZrO2-SiO2 (FC-AZS)' is being considered as 'glass contact refractory' within ceramic melters, to be used for nuclear waste immobilization. Microstructural analyses reveal random distributions of baddeleyite (ZrO2) within aluminosilicate (Al2SiO5) matrix. 27Al and 29Si NMR data suggest that within aluminosilicate matrix Al occurs in both 4- and 6-fold co-ordinations whereas Si prefers a 4-fold environment. Polydispersity of pores has been studied with small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) technique. Corrosion rates of FC-AZS within 6 M HNO3, simulated wastes (500 h exposure), and borosilicate melt (975 °C, 800 h exposure) are found to be 0.38 × 103 ?my-1, 0.13 × 103 ?my-1 and 4.75 × 103 ?my-1 respectively. A comparison of chemical interaction data clearly suggests that FC-AZS exhibits better chemical durability than AZC refractory (Al2O3-ZrO2-Cr2O3, also used for similar purpose). Thermal cycling studies indicate that FC-AZS retains structural integrity (including compressive strength and density) even up to 20 cycles.

  17. 75 FR 11939 - DNS Electronics, Chandler, AZ; Notice of Termination of Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration DNS Electronics, Chandler, AZ; Notice of Termination of Investigation... a petition filed on May 27, 2009, by three workers on behalf of workers of DNS Electronics,...

  18. 75 FR 35122 - Approval of Noise Compatibility Program for Buckeye Municipal Airport, Town of Buckeye, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ..., Town of Buckeye, AZ AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Federal... Town of Buckeye under the provisions of 49 U.S.C. 47501 et seq. (formerly the Aviation Safety and Noise... maps submitted by the Town of Buckeye under Part 150 were in compliance with applicable...

  19. 78 FR 78794 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Flagstaff, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation.../Distance Measuring Equipment (VOR/DME) navigation aid, Flagstaff, AZ, to facilitate vectoring of...

  20. 78 FR 25404 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Grand Canyon, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ...This action proposes to establish Class E airspace at the Grand Canyon VHF Omni-Directional Radio Range/Distance Measuring Equipment (VOR/DME) navigation aid, Grand Canyon, AZ, to facilitate vectoring of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) aircraft under control of Los Angeles Air Route Traffic Control Center (ARTCC). The FAA is proposing this action to enhance the safety and management of aircraft......

  1. 75 FR 63066 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Clifton/Morenci, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ... establish controlled airspace at Clifton/Morenci, AZ (75 FR 44725). Interested parties were invited to... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a... follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963...

  2. 76 FR 2000 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Show Low, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to amend controlled airspace at Show Low, AZ (75 FR 65255... a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979.... 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in...

  3. 78 FR 34558 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Clifton/Morenci, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ... Clifton/Morenci, AZ (78 FR 18269). Interested parties were invited to participate in this rulemaking... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of... FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in 14 CFR...

  4. Nucleosome stability mediated by histone variants H3.3 and H2A.Z

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Chunyuan; Felsenfeld, Gary

    2007-01-01

    Nucleosomes containing the histone variant H3.3 tend to be clustered in vivo in the neighborhood of transcriptionally active genes and over regulatory elements. It has not been clear, however, whether H3.3-containing nucleosomes possess unique properties that would affect transcription. We report here that H3.3 nucleosomes isolated from vertebrates, regardless of whether they are partnered with H2A or H2A.Z, are unusually sensitive to salt-dependent disruption, losing H2A/H2B or H2A.Z/H2B dimers. Immunoprecipitation studies of nucleosome core particles (NCPs) show that NCPs that contain both H3.3 and H2A.Z are even less stable than NCPs containing H3.3 and H2A. Intriguingly, NCPs containing H3 and H2A.Z are at least as stable as H3/H2A NCPs. These results establish an hierarchy of stabilities for native nucleosomes carrying different complements of variants, and suggest how H2A.Z could play different roles depending on its partners within the NCP. They also are consistent with the idea that H3.3 plays an active role in maintaining accessible chromatin structures in enhancer regions and transcribed regions. Consistent with this idea, promoters and enhancers at transcriptionally active genes and coding regions at highly expressed genes have nucleosomes that simultaneously carry both H3.3 and H2A.Z, and should therefore be extremely sensitive to disruption. PMID:17575053

  5. Tank 241-AZ-101 criticality assessment resulting from pump jet mixing: Sludge mixing simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Onishi, Y.; Recknagle, K.

    1997-04-01

    Tank 241-AZ-101 (AZ-101) is one of 28 double-shell tanks located in the AZ farm in the Hanford Site`s 200 East Area. The tank contains a significant quantity of fissile materials, including an estimated 9.782 kg of plutonium. Before beginning jet pump mixing for mitigative purposes, the operations must be evaluated to demonstrate that they will be subcritical under both normal and credible abnormal conditions. The main objective of this study was to address a concern about whether two 300-hp pumps with four rotating 18.3-m/s (60-ft/s) jets can concentrate plutonium in their pump housings during mixer pump operation and cause a criticality. The three-dimensional simulation was performed with the time-varying TEMPEST code to determine how much the pump jet mixing of Tank AZ-101 will concentrate plutonium in the pump housing. The AZ-101 model predicted that the total amount of plutonium within the pump housing peaks at 75 g at 10 simulation seconds and decreases to less than 10 g at four minutes. The plutonium concentration in the entire pump housing peaks at 0.60 g/L at 10 simulation seconds and is reduced to below 0.1 g/L after four minutes. Since the minimum critical concentration of plutonium is 2.6 g/L, and the minimum critical plutonium mass under idealized plutonium-water conditions is 520 g, these predicted maximums in the pump housing are much lower than the minimum plutonium conditions needed to reach a criticality level. The initial plutonium maximum of 1.88 g/L still results in safety factor of 4.3 in the pump housing during the pump jet mixing operation.

  6. Mechanical and Wear Properties of Sb- and Y-Added Mg-9Al-1Zn (AZ91) Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boby, Arun; Srinivasan, A.; Pillai, U. T. S.; Pai, B. C.

    2015-09-01

    This paper studies the effect of Sb and Y additions on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the AZ91 alloy. The results indicate that the Sb and Y additions lead to the formation of Mg3Sb2 and Al2Y phases. These phases modify the morphology of the ?-Mg17Al12 phase, and hence refine the microstructure. The effects of Sb and Y additions on the aging behavior have also been investigated. Aging of the AZ91 alloy results in the formation of continuous and discontinuous types of precipitates. Whereas Sb and Y additions to AZ91 alloy suppresses the formation of discontinuous precipitate. The paper also reports the mechanical properties of as-cast and aged Sb-added AZ91-xY alloys for room and high temperatures. The optimum tensile properties are obtained with the alloy having the combined addition of 0.5 wt pct Sb and 0.6 wt pct Y. The fracture surface of AZ91-0.5Sb-0.6Y alloy reveals more quasi-cleavage type of failure with a cleavage fracture than the base alloy. At HT, the AZ91-0.5Sb-0.6Y alloy displays more cleavage facets connected with tearing ridges and shallow dimples than AZ91 alloy. Furthermore, it observed the improvement in wear resistance through the addition of Y. The worn surface reveals abrasion, oxidation, delamination, and plastic deformation wear mechanisms.

  7. A Combination of H2A.Z and H4 Acetylation Recruits Brd2 to Chromatin during Transcriptional Activation

    PubMed Central

    Draker, Ryan; Ng, Marlee K.; Sarcinella, Elizabeth; Ignatchenko, Vladimir; Kislinger, Thomas; Cheung, Peter

    2012-01-01

    H2A.Z is an essential histone variant that has been implicated to have multiple chromosomal functions. To understand how H2A.Z participates in such diverse activities, we sought to identify downstream effector proteins that are recruited to chromatin via H2A.Z. For this purpose, we developed a nucleosome purification method to isolate H2A.Z-containing nucleosomes from human cells and used mass spectrometry to identify the co-purified nuclear proteins. Through stringent filtering, we identified the top 21 candidates, many of which have conserved structural motifs that bind post-translationally modified histones. We further validated the biological significance of one such candidate, Brd2, which is a double-bromodomain-containing protein known to function in transcriptional activation. We found that Brd2's preference for H2A.Z nucleosomes is mediated through a combination of hyperacetylated H4 on these nucleosomes, as well as additional features on H2A.Z itself. In addition, comparison of nucleosomes containing either H2A.Z-1 or H2A.Z-2 isoforms showed that significantly more Brd2 co-purifies with the former, suggesting these two isoforms engage different downstream effector proteins. Consistent with these biochemical analyses, we found that Brd2 is recruited to AR–regulated genes in an H2A.Z-dependent manner and that chemical inhibition of Brd2 recruitment greatly inhibits AR–regulated gene expression. Taken together, we propose that Brd2 is a key downstream mediator that links H2A.Z and transcriptional activation of AR–regulated genes. Moreover, this study validates the approach of using proteomics to identify nucleosome-interacting proteins in order to elucidate downstream mechanistic functions associated with the histone variant H2A.Z. PMID:23144632

  8. Analysis of human histone H2AZ deposition in vivo argues against its direct role in epigenetic templating mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Viens, Antoine; Mechold, Undine; Brouillard, Franck; Gilbert, Cristele; Leclerc, Philippe; Ogryzko, Vasily

    2006-07-01

    Chromatin is considered to be a principal carrier of epigenetic information due to the ability of alternative chromatin states to persist through generations of cell divisions and to spread on DNA. Replacement histone variants are novel candidates for epigenetic marking of chromatin. We developed a novel approach to analyze the chromatin environment of nucleosomes containing a particular replacement histone. We applied it to human H2AZ, one of the most studied alternative histones. We find that neither H2AZ itself nor other features of the H2AZ-containing nucleosome spread to the neighboring nucleosomes in vivo, arguing against a role for H2AZ as a self-perpetuating epigenetic mark. PMID:16809769

  9. 77 FR 75144 - Foreign-Trade Zone 277-Western Maricopa County, AZ; Application for Expansion; (New Magnet Site...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ...AZ; Application for Expansion; (New Magnet Site) Under Alternative Site Framework...c)) to include two additional new magnet sites in western Maricopa County, Arizona...current zone project includes the following magnet sites: Site 1 (230.25...

  10. Analysis of Human Histone H2AZ Deposition In Vivo Argues against Its Direct Role in Epigenetic Templating Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Viens, Antoine; Mechold, Undine; Brouillard, Franck; Gilbert, Cristele; Leclerc, Philippe; Ogryzko, Vasily

    2006-01-01

    Chromatin is considered to be a principal carrier of epigenetic information due to the ability of alternative chromatin states to persist through generations of cell divisions and to spread on DNA. Replacement histone variants are novel candidates for epigenetic marking of chromatin. We developed a novel approach to analyze the chromatin environment of nucleosomes containing a particular replacement histone. We applied it to human H2AZ, one of the most studied alternative histones. We find that neither H2AZ itself nor other features of the H2AZ-containing nucleosome spread to the neighboring nucleosomes in vivo, arguing against a role for H2AZ as a self-perpetuating epigenetic mark. PMID:16809769

  11. 75 FR 2133 - Construction and Operation of the Quartzsite Solar Energy Project, La Paz County, AZ (DOE/EIS-0440)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-14

    ...and Operation of the Quartzsite Solar Energy Project, La Paz County, AZ...EIS) for the proposed Quartzsite Solar Energy Project (Project) in La Paz County...Quartzsite, Arizona. Quartzsite Solar Energy, LLC (QSE) has applied to...

  12. 78 FR 53477 - Notice of Relocation of the Bureau of Land Management's San Pedro Project Office in Sierra Vista, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ...of the Bureau of Land Management's San Pedro Project Office in Sierra Vista, AZ AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION...of the Bureau of Land Management's (BLM) San Pedro Project Office (SPPO),...

  13. H2A.Z landscapes and dual modifications in pluripotent and multipotent stem cells underlie complex genome regulatory functions

    E-print Network

    Ku, Manching

    Background: The histone variant H2A.Z has been implicated in nucleosome exchange, transcriptional activation and Polycomb repression. However, the relationships among these seemingly disparate functions remain obscure.

  14. H2A.Z landscapes and dual modifications in pluripotent and multipotent stem cells underlie complex genome regulatory functions

    E-print Network

    Ku, Manching

    Abstract Background The histone variant H2A.Z has been implicated in nucleosome exchange, transcriptional activation and Polycomb repression. However, the relationships among these seemingly disparate functions remain ...

  15. City health development planning.

    PubMed

    Green, Geoff; Acres, John; Price, Charles; Tsouros, Agis

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this evaluation was to review the evolution and process of city health development planning (CHDP) in municipalities participating in the Healthy Cities Network organized by the European Region of the World Health Organization. The concept of CHDP combines elements from three theoretical domains: (a) health development, (b) city governance and (c) urban planning. The setting was the 56 cities which participated in Phase III (1998-2002) of the Network. Evidence was gathered from documents either held in WHO archives or made available from Network cities and from interviews with city representatives. CHDPs were the centrepiece of Phase III, evolving from city health plans developed in Phase II. They are strategic documents giving direction to municipalities and partner agencies. Analysis revealed three types of CHDP, reflecting the realpolitik of each city. For many cities, the process of CHDP was as important as the plan itself. PMID:19914991

  16. Surface characterization and cytocompatibility evaluation of silanized magnesium alloy AZ91 for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witecka, Agnieszka; Yamamoto, Akiko; Dybiec, Henryk; Swieszkowski, Wojciech

    2012-12-01

    Mg alloys with high Al contents have superior corrosion resistance in aqueous environments, but poor cytocompatibility compared to that of pure Mg. We have silanized the cast AZ91 alloy to improve its cytocompatibility using five different silanes: ethyltriethoxysilane (S1), 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (S2), 3-isocyanatopyltriethoxysilane (S3), phenyltriethoxysilane (S4) and octadecyltriethoxysilane (S5). The surface hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity was evaluated by water contact angle measurements. X-ray photoelectron analysis was performed to investigate the changes in surface states and chemical composition. All silane reagents increased adsorption of the albumin to the modified surface. In vitro cytocompatibility evaluation revealed that silanization improved cell growth on AZ91 modified by silane S1. Measurement of the concentration of Mg2+ ions released during the cell culture indicated that silanization does not affect substrate degradation.

  17. Project W-314 specific test and evaluation plan for AZ tank farm upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, W.H.

    1998-08-12

    The purpose of this Specific Test and Evaluation Plan (STEP) is to provide a detailed written plan for the systematic testing of modifications made by the addition of the SN-631 transfer line from the AZ-O1A pit to the AZ-02A pit by the W-314 Project. The STEP develops the outline for test procedures that verify the system`s performance to the established Project design criteria. The STEP is a lower tier document based on the W-314 Test and Evaluation P1 an (TEP). Testing includes Validations and Verifications (e.g., Commercial Grade Item Dedication activities, etc), Factory Tests and Inspections (FTIs), installation tests and inspections, Construction Tests and Inspections (CTIs), Acceptance Test Procedures (ATPs), Pre-Operational Test Procedures (POTPs), and Operational Test Procedures (OTPs). The STEP will be utilized in conjunction with the TEP for verification and validation.

  18. Corrosion Behavior of AZ91D Magnesium Alloy in Three Different Physiological Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Juncen; Li, Qing; Zhang, Haixiao; Chen, Funan

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium alloys have been considered as promising biomedical materials and were studied in different physiological environments. In this work, corrosion behavior of AZ91D magnesium alloy in artificial saliva, simulated body fluid (SBF), and 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution was investigated using electrochemical techniques and a short-term immersion test. In contrast with other physiological environments, the amount of aggressive ions in artificial saliva is small. In addition, a protective film is formed on the surface of samples in artificial saliva. Experimental results suggest that corrosion resistance of AZ91D magnesium alloy in artificial saliva is better than that in c-SBF and 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution.

  19. Study on hydrogen removal of AZ91 alloys using ultrasonic argon degassing process.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuan; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Hu, Wenyi; Le, Qichi; Bao, Lei; Cui, Jianzhong; Jiang, Jiajia

    2015-09-01

    Argon degassing, ultrasonic degassing and a novel ultrasonic argon degassing treatment were applied for the hydrogen removal of AZ91 magnesium alloy. The hydrogen concentration, microstructures and mechanical properties have also been investigated. AZ91 alloys contains a high hydrogen concentration. The mechanical properties of the as-cast alloy are much improved using degassing process, which should be mainly attributed to the hydrogen removal. Among the three degassing process, the ultrasonic argon treatment is a high efficient process both for hydrogen removal and microstructure refining. One hand, ultrasonic wave could break up the purged argon bubble to improve the degassing efficiency of these bubbles. On the other hand, ultrasound could also generate many cavitation bubbles in the melt, which should account for the microstructure refinement. The ultrasonic argon treatment involves dynamics between the ascending argon bubbles and ultrasonic effects, such as cavitation and streaming, etc. PMID:25649834

  20. An Investigation to Double Hit Deformation Behavior of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Shamsi, M.; Hanzaki, A. Zarei; Naei, H.

    2007-04-07

    In recent years magnesium alloys have been used in different industries due to their outstanding properties. The hot deformation processes are recognized to be the most applicable forming routes for these alloys. These are usually performed through multi-stage straining. Accordingly the static restoration processes may play important roles on their final microstructure and mechanical properties. In the present work double hit compression tests were applied on AZ31 magnesium alloy. The results were analyzed relying on the fractional softening relationship. The effects of strain rate and inter-pass time were discussed. Microstructural observations were addressed to describe the effects of static recrystallization on the double hit deformation behavior of AZ31 alloy.

  1. Electroless deposition of Ni W P coating on AZ91D magnesium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W. X.; Huang, N.; He, J. G.; Jiang, Z. H.; Jiang, Q.; Lian, J. S.

    2007-03-01

    Ternary Ni-W-P alloy coating was deposited directly on AZ91D magnesium alloy by using an alkaline-citrate-based baths. Nickel sulfate and sodium tungstate were used as metal ion sources, respectively, and sodium hypophosphite was used as a reducing agent. The pH value of the electroless bath was tailored for magnesium alloy. The coating was characterized for its structure, morphology, microhardness and the corrosion properties. SEM observation showed the presence of dense and coarse nodules in the ternary coating. EDS analysis showed that the content of tungsten in the Ni-W-P alloy was 4.5 wt.%. Both the electrochemical analysis and the immersion test in 10% HCl solution revealed that the ternary Ni-W-P coating exhibited good corrosion resistance properties in protecting the AZ91D magnesium alloy.

  2. Comparison of simulants to actual neutralized current acid waste: Process and product testing of three NCAW core samples from Tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ

    SciTech Connect

    Morrey, E.V.; Tingey, J.M.

    1996-04-01

    A vitrification plant is planned to process the high-level waste (HLW) solids from Hanford Site tanks into canistered glass logs for disposal in a national repository. Programs have been established within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) Project to test and model simulated waste to support design, feed processability, operations, permitting, safety, and waste-form qualification. Parallel testing with actual radioactive waste is being performed on a laboratory-scale to confirm the validity of using simulants and glass property models developed from simulants. Laboratory-scale testing has been completed on three radioactive core samples from tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ containing neutralized current acid waste (NCAW), which is one of the first waste types to be processed in the high-level waste vitrification plant under a privatization scenario. Properties of the radioactive waste measured during process and product testing were compared to simulant properties and model predictions to confirm the validity of simulant and glass property models work. This report includes results from the three NCAW core samples, comparable results from slurry and glass simulants, and comparisons to glass property model predictions.

  3. Best Practices Case Study: John Wesley Miller Companies - Armory Park Del Sol, Tucson, AZ

    SciTech Connect

    2009-10-01

    Case study of John Wesley Miller Companies, who built two net zero energy homes plus 97 other solar homes in Tucson, AZ. Masonry block walls with rigid foam exterior sheathing, rigid foam over the roof deck plus R-38 in the attic, ducts in conditioned space, 4.2 kW and 5.7 kW photovoltaics and solar water heating yielded HERS scores of 0 on the two homes.

  4. Evaluation results for the positive deep-UV resist AZ DX 46

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiess, Walter; Lynch, Thomas J.; Le Cornec, Charles; Escher, Gary C.; Kinoshita, Yoshiaki; Kochan, John; Kudo, Takanori; Masuda, Seiya; Mourier, Thierry; Nozaki, Yuko; Olson, Setha G.; Okazaki, Hiroshi; Padmanaban, Munirathna; Pawlowski, Georg; Przybilla, Klaus J.; Roeschert, Horst; Suehiro, Natusmi; Vinet, Francoise; Wengenroth, Horst

    1994-05-01

    This contribution emphasizes resist application site by communicating lithographic results for AZ DX 46, obtained using the GCA XLS 7800/31 stepper, NA equals 0.53, equipped with krypton fluoride excimer laser ((lambda) equals 248 nm), model 4500 D, as exposure source, delivered by Cymer Laser Technologies. As far as delay time experiments are concerned ASM-L PAS 5500/70 stepper, NA equals 0.42, was used in combination with Lambda Physik excimer laser, model 248 L.

  5. Test plan: Laboratory-scale testing of the first core sample from Tank 102-AZ

    SciTech Connect

    Morrey, E.V.

    1996-03-01

    The overall objectives of the Radioactive Process/Product Laboratory Testing (RPPLT), WBS 1.2.2.05.05, are to confirm that simulated HWVP feed and glass are representative of actual radioactive HWVP feed and glass and to provide radioactive leaching and glass composition data to WFQ. This study will provide data from one additional NCAW core sample (102-AZ Core 1) for these purposes.

  6. AzTEC 1.1 mm OBSERVATIONS OF THE MBM12 MOLECULAR CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, M. J.; Kim, S.; Youn, S.; Kang, Y.-W.; Yun, M. S.; Wilson, G. W.; Aretxaga, I.; Hughes, D. H.; Humphrey, A.; Williams, J. P.; Austermann, J. E.; Perera, T. A.; Mauskopf, P. D.; Magnani, L.

    2012-02-10

    We present 1.1 mm observations of the dust continuum emission from the MBM12 high-latitude molecular cloud observed with the Astronomical Thermal Emission Camera (AzTEC) mounted on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. We surveyed 6.34 deg{sup 2} centered on MBM12, making this the largest area that has ever been surveyed in this region with submillimeter and millimeter telescopes. Eight secure individual sources were detected with a signal-to-noise ratio of over 4.4. These eight AzTEC sources can be considered to be real astronomical objects compared to the other candidates based on calculations of the false detection rate. The distribution of the detected 1.1 mm sources or compact 1.1 mm peaks is spatially anti-correlated with that of the 100 {mu}m emission and the {sup 12}CO emission. We detected the 1.1 mm dust continuum emitting sources associated with two classical T Tauri stars, LkH{alpha}262 and LkH{alpha}264. Observations of spectral energy distributions (SEDs) indicate that LkH{alpha}262 is likely to be Class II (pre-main-sequence star), but there are also indications that it could be a late Class I (protostar). A flared disk and a bipolar cavity in the models of Class I sources lead to more complicated SEDs. From the present AzTEC observations of the MBM12 region, it appears that other sources detected with AzTEC are likely to be extragalactic and located behind MBM12. Some of these have radio counterparts and their star formation rates are derived from a fit of the SEDs to the photometric evolution of galaxies in which the effects of a dusty interstellar medium have been included.

  7. Formability of Ultrafine-Grain Mg Alloy AZ31B at Warm Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Q.; Ghosh, A. K.

    2008-11-01

    Warm formability of ultrafine-grain (UFG) AZ31B Mg alloy in the range of 150 °C to 311 °C is investigated. Refinement of grain size significantly improves the formability primarily through increasing strain rate sensitivity of flow stress and increasing diffuse quasi-stable flow, as compared with the coarse-grain AZ31B alloy. Strain rate sensitivity increases with increasing temperatures, and seems to be connected with dynamic recovery and grain boundary processes. For fine-grain sizes, twinning is inhibited. At 200 °C and strain rates below 2 × 10-4 s-1, the UFG AZ31B alloy demonstrates a high rate of strain hardening up to a true strain of 0.6, in addition to its high strain rate sensitivity, which is responsible for its enhanced formability. Examination of the microstructure shows that there is competition between dynamic grain growth and grain refinement during deformation at modest warm forming temperatures, the former causing hardening and the latter causing softening. Increasing the test strain rate and starting with larger grain size initiates deformation twinning during forming, and assists in the refinement of the coarser grains followed by recrystallization.

  8. Stamping of Thin-Walled Structural Components with Magnesium Alloy AZ31 Sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, F.-K.; Chang, C.-K.

    2005-08-05

    In the present study, the stamping process for manufacturing cell phone cases with magnesium alloy AZ31 sheets was studied using both the experimental approach and the finite element analysis. In order to determine the proper forming temperature and set up a fracture criterion, tensile tests and forming limit tests were first conducted to obtain the mechanical behaviors of AZ31 sheets at various elevated temperatures. The mechanical properties of Z31 sheets obtained from the experiments were then adopted in the finite element analysis to investigate the effects of the process parameters on the formability of the stamping process of cell phone cases. The finite element simulation results revealed that both the fracture and wrinkle defects could not be eliminated at the same time by adjusting blank-holder force or blank size. A drawbead design was then performed using the finite element simulations to determine the size and the location of drawbead required to suppress the wrinkle defect. An optimum stamping process, including die geometry, forming temperature, and blank dimension, was then determined for manufacturing the cell phone cases. The finite element analysis was validated by the good agreement between the simulation results and the experimental data. It confirms that the cell phone cases can be produced with magnesium alloy AZ31 sheet by the stamping process at elevated temperatures.

  9. H2A.Z helps genes remember their history so we can remember ours.

    PubMed

    Zovkic, Iva B; Walters, Brandon J

    2015-06-01

    Histone variant exchange is a novel epigenetic regulator of cognition. We speculate that H2A.Z, a variant of canonical histone H2A, exerts unique effects on transcription during distinct stages of memory formation, ultimately acting to maintain memory of previous transcriptional states and poise genes for re-activation. Hippocampus-dependent memory formation is initiated by transient expression of memory-related genes, which support the storage of recently acquired memories. Soon after, memories undergo systems consolidation, which transfers memories from the hippocampus to the cortex for long-term storage, and requires ongoing re-activation of memory-related genes. We speculate that learning-induced H2A.Z eviction from nucleosomes initially contributes to stimulus-induced transcriptional induction needed for the initial process of memory consolidation. During systems consolidation, we speculate that delayed incorporation of H2A.Z into nucleosomes of memory-related genes in the cortex is needed to poise genes for rapid re-activation, thus supporting the long-term process of memory stabilization. PMID:25880368

  10. Profiling gene expression in citrus fruit calyx abscission zone (AZ-C) treated with ethylene.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chunzhen; Zhang, Lingyun; Yang, Xuelian; Zhong, Guangyan

    2015-10-01

    On-tree storage and harvesting of mature fruit account for a large proportion of cost in the production of citrus, and a reduction of the cost would not be achieved without a thorough understanding of the mechani sm of the mature fruit abscission. Genome-wide gene expression changes in ethylene-treated fruit calyx abscission zone (AZ-C) of Citrus sinensis cv. Olinda were therefore investigated using a citrus genome array representing up to 33,879 citrus transcripts. In total, 1313 and 1044 differentially regulated genes were identified in AZ-C treated with ethylene for 4 and 24 h, respectively. The results showed that mature citrus fruit abscission commenced with the activation of ethylene signal transduction pathway that led to the activation of ethylene responsive transcription factors and the subsequent transcriptional regulation of a large set of ethylene responsive genes. Significantly down-regulated genes included those of starch/sugar biosynthesis, transportation of water and growth promoting hormone synthesis and signaling, whereas significantly up-regulated genes were those involved in defense, cell wall degradation, and secondary metabolism. Our data unraveled the underlying mechanisms of some known important biochemical events occurring at AZ-C and should provide informative suggestions for future manipulation of the events to achieve a controllable abscission for mature citrus fruit. PMID:25948248

  11. 2 CITY COUNCIL CITY OF NEW YORK

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    Conservation Committee New York City Audubon Society 17 John E. Pearson 18 Sierra Club - New York City Group 19 14 B E F O R E: 15 JAMES GENNARO 16 Chairperson, 17 COUNCIL MEMBERS: Bill DeBlasio 18 Oliver Koppell of Environmental Protection 7 James Mueller 8 Director of Planning NYC Department of Environmental Protection 9

  12. Jerusalem: City of Dreams, City of Sorrows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricks, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Jerusalem is more than an intriguing global historical city; it is a classroom for liberal learning and international understanding. It had never been a city of one language, one religion and one culture. Looking at the origins of Jerusalem's name indicates its international and multicultural nature. While Israelis designate Jerusalem as their…

  13. What Is Clean Cities?

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-08-01

    This Clean Cities Program fact sheet describes the purpose and scope of this DOE program. Clean Cities facilitates the use of alternative and advanced fuels and vehicles to displace petroleum in the transportation sector.

  14. German City, Jewish Memory

    E-print Network

    Snider, Barry B.

    German City, Jewish Memory Copyrighted Material #12;the tauber institute series for the study www.upne.com Nils Roemer, German City, Jewish Memory:The Story ofWorms David Assaf, Untold Published by University Press of New England Hanover and London German City, Jewish Memory Copyrighted

  15. Histone chaperone Anp32e removes H2A.Z from DNA double-strand breaks and promotes nucleosome reorganization and DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Gursoy-Yuzugullu, Ozge; Ayrapetov, Marina K; Price, Brendan D

    2015-06-16

    The repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) requires open, flexible chromatin domains. The NuA4-Tip60 complex creates these flexible chromatin structures by exchanging histone H2A.Z onto nucleosomes and promoting acetylation of histone H4. Here, we demonstrate that the accumulation of H2A.Z on nucleosomes at DSBs is transient, and that rapid eviction of H2A.Z is required for DSB repair. Anp32e, an H2A.Z chaperone that interacts with the C-terminal docking domain of H2A.Z, is rapidly recruited to DSBs. Anp32e functions to remove H2A.Z from nucleosomes, so that H2A.Z levels return to basal within 10 min of DNA damage. Further, H2A.Z removal by Anp32e disrupts inhibitory interactions between the histone H4 tail and the nucleosome surface, facilitating increased acetylation of histone H4 following DNA damage. When H2A.Z removal by Anp32e is blocked, nucleosomes at DSBs retain elevated levels of H2A.Z, and assume a more stable, hypoacetylated conformation. Further, loss of Anp32e leads to increased CtIP-dependent end resection, accumulation of single-stranded DNA, and an increase in repair by the alternative nonhomologous end joining pathway. Exchange of H2A.Z onto the chromatin and subsequent rapid removal by Anp32e are therefore critical for creating open, acetylated nucleosome structures and for controlling end resection by CtIP. Dynamic modulation of H2A.Z exchange and removal by Anp32e reveals the importance of the nucleosome surface and nucleosome dynamics in processing the damaged chromatin template during DSB repair. PMID:26034280

  16. Strategies to Reduce the Harmful Effects of Extreme Heat Events: A Four-City Study

    PubMed Central

    White-Newsome, Jalonne L.; McCormick, Sabrina; Sampson, Natalie; Buxton, Miatta A.; O’Neill, Marie S.; Gronlund, Carina J.; Catalano, Linda; Conlon, Kathryn C.; Parker, Edith A.

    2014-01-01

    Extreme heat events (EHEs) are becoming more intense, more frequent and longer lasting in the 21st century. These events can disproportionately impact the health of low-income, minority, and urban populations. To better understand heat-related intervention strategies used by four U.S. cities, we conducted 73 semi-structured interviews with government and non-governmental organization leaders representing public health, general social services, emergency management, meteorology, and the environmental planning sectors in Detroit, MI; New York City, NY; Philadelphia, PA and Phoenix, AZ—cities selected for their diverse demographics, climates, and climate adaptation strategies. We identified activities these leaders used to reduce the harmful effects of heat for residents in their city, as well as the obstacles they faced and the approaches they used to evaluate these efforts. Local leaders provided a description of how local context (e.g., climate, governance and city structure) impacted heat preparedness. Despite the differences among study cities, political will and resource access were critical to driving heat-health related programming. Upon completion of our interviews, we convened leaders in each city to discuss these findings and their ongoing efforts through day-long workshops. Our findings and the recommendations that emerged from these workshops could inform other local or national efforts towards preventing heat-related morbidity and mortality. PMID:24531122

  17. 76 FR 54288 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Bridge and Approach Roadways in Nevada and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-31

    ... Federal Highway Administration Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Bridge and Approach... proposed Laughlin-Bullhead City Bridge project in Laughlin, Clark County, Nevada; and in Bullhead City... claim seeking judicial review of the Federal agency actions on the bridge and roadway project will...

  18. Combined effect of pulse electron beam treatment and thin hydroxyapatite film on mechanical features of biodegradable AZ31 magnesium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surmeneva, M. A.; Tyurin, A. I.; Teresov, A. D.; Koval, N. N.; Pirozhkova, T. S.; Shuvarin, I. A.; Surmenev, R. A.

    2015-11-01

    The morphology, elemental, phase composition, nanohardness, and Young's modulus of the hydroxyapatite (HA) coating deposited via radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering onto the AZ31 surface were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and nanoindentationtechniques. The calcium phosphate (Ca/P) molar ratio of the HA coating deposited via RF-magnetron sputtering onto AZ31 substrates according to EDX was 1.57+0.03. The SEM experiments revealed significant differences in the morphology of the HA film deposited on untreated and treated with the pulsed electron beam (PEB) AZ31 substrate. Nanoindentation studies demonstrated significant differences in the mechanical responses of the HA film deposited on the initial and PEB-modified AZ31 substrates. The nanoindentation hardness and the Young's modulus of the HA film on the magnesium alloy modified using the PEB treatment were higher than that of the HA layer on the untreated substrate. Moreover, the HA film fabricated onto the PEB-treated surface was more resistant to plastic deformation than the same film on the untreated AZ31 surface.

  19. Comparison of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of AZ91D Alloy Formed by Rheomolding and High-Pressure Die Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, M. F.; Kang, Y. L.; Yan, Y.; Zhu, G. M.; Liao, W. N.

    2015-10-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of AZ91D alloy thin-wall parts produced by the rheomolding (RM) process were investigated and compared with the same alloy formed by conventional high-pressure die casting (HPDC). The results indicate that the RM process is able to get such AZ91D parts in which ? 1 -Mg with average size of 27.36 ?m are spherical and uniformly distributed in the matrix, and the matrix is a mixture of numerous fine ? 2 -Mg and intermetallic ?-Mg17Al12. High mechanical properties including ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of 270 MPa, yield strength (YS) of 169 MPa, elongation of 7.1%, and Vickers hardness of 102 are obtained in parts formed by RM due to the fine and uniform microstructure and less porosities. Compared with HPDC, the UTS, YS, elongation, and hardness of RM AZ91D are increased by 14.4, 9.7, 86.8, and 21.4%, respectively. The solidified grains in RM AZ91D alloy show a smaller aluminum gradient than that in HPDC. This indicates that the solidification of the RM AZ91D is closer to equilibrium.

  20. Histone Variant H2A.Z Marks the 5? Ends of Both Active and Inactive Genes in Euchromatin

    PubMed Central

    Raisner, Ryan M.; Hartley, Paul D.; Meneghini, Marc D.; Bao, Marie Z.; Liu, Chih Long; Schreiber, Stuart L.; Rando, Oliver J.; Madhani, Hiten D.

    2007-01-01

    Summary In S. cerevisiae, histone variant H2A.Z is deposited in euchromatin at the flanks of silent heterochromatin to prevent its ectopic spread. We show that H2A.Z nucleosomes are found at promoter regions of nearly all genes in euchromatin. They generally occur as two positioned nucleosomes that flank a nucleosome-free region (NFR) that contains the transcription start site. Astonishingly, enrichment at 5? ends is observed not only at actively transcribed genes but also at inactive loci. Mutagenesis of a typical promoter revealed a 22 bp segment of DNA sufficient to program formation of a NFR flanked by two H2A.Z nucleosomes. This segment contains a binding site of the Myb-related protein Reb1 and an adjacent dT:dA tract. Efficient deposition of H2A.Z is further promoted by a specific pattern of histone H3 and H4 tail acetylation and the bromodomain protein Bdf1, a component of the Swr1 remodeling complex that deposits H2A.Z. PMID:16239142

  1. Ultrasonic Examination of Double-Shell Tank 241-AZ-101. Examination Completed July 2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Pardini, Allan F.; Weier, Dennis R.

    2007-08-12

    AREVA NC Inc. (AREVA), under a contract from CH2M Hill Hanford Group (CH2M Hill), has performed an ultrasonic examination of selected portions of Double-Shell Tank 241-AZ-101. PNNL is responsible for preparing a report(s) that describes the results of the AREVA ultrasonic examinations. The purpose of this examination was to provide information that could be used to evaluate the integrity of the wall of the primary tank. The requirements for the ultrasonic examination of Tank 241-AZ-101 were to detect, characterize (identify, size, and locate), and record measurements made of any wall thinning, pitting, or cracks that might be present in the wall of the primary tank. Any measurements that exceed the requirements set forth in the Engineering Task Plan (ETP), RPP-Plan-27202 (Jensen 2005) and summarized on page 1 of this document, are to be reported to CH2M HILL and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for further evaluation. Under the contract with CH2M HILL, all data is to be recorded on electronic media and paper copies of all measurements are provided to PNNL for third-party evaluation. PNNL is responsible for preparing a report(s) that describes the results of the AREVA ultrasonic examinations. The results of the examination of Tank 241-AZ-101 have been evaluated by PNNL personnel. The ultrasonic examination consisted of two vertical 15-in.-wide scan paths over the entire height of the tank and the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of five vertical welds and one horizontal weld from Riser 89. The examination also included two vertical 15-in.-wide scan paths over the entire height of the tank from Riser 90. The examination was performed to detect any wall thinning, pitting, or cracking in the primary tank wall.

  2. Thin hydroxyapatite coating on AZ91D magnesium alloy fabricated via RF-magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhametkaliyev, T. M.; Surmeneva, M. A.; Mueller, M.; Prymak, O.; Epple, M.; Surmenev, R. A.

    2015-11-01

    In this study the morphology, composition, structure and wettability of radiofrequency (RF) magnetron sputter-deposited hydroxyapatite (HA) coating deposited on the surface of AZ91D magnesium alloy were investigated. The results revealed that the fabricated coating is uniform, homogeneous with the structure of the stoichiometric HA. The deposition of the HA coating did not change significantly the surface wettability of the bare alloy, however water contact angle dynamics in the case of the HA coated substrates revealed a lower rate of a droplet spreading over the surface.

  3. Exotic decays of a heavy neutral Higgs through HZ/AZ channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleppa, Baradhwaj; Kling, Felix; Su, Shufang

    2014-09-01

    Models of electroweak symmetry breaking with extended Higgs sectors are theoretically well motivated. In this study, we focus on the Two Higgs Doublet Model with a low energy spectrum containing scalars H and a pseudoscalar A. We study the decays A ? HZ or H ? AZ, which could reach sizable branching fractions in certain parameter regions. With detailed collider analysis, we obtain model independent exclusion bounds as well as discovery reach at the 14 TeV LHC for the process: gg ? A/ H ? HZ/ AZ, looking at final states bb??, ???? and ZZZ(4 ? + 2 j) for ? = e, ?. We further interpret these bounds in the context of the Type II Two Higgs Doublet Model, considering three different classes of processes: A ? h 0 Z, A ? H 0 Z, and H 0 ? AZ, in which h 0 and H 0 are the light and heavy CP-even Higgses respectively. For 100 fb-1 integrated luminosity at the 14 TeV LHC, we find that for parent particle mass around 300-400 GeV, A ? h 0 Z has the greatest reach when H 0 is interpreted as the 126 GeV Higgs: most regions in the tan ? versus sin( ? - ?) plane can be excluded and a significant fraction at small and large tan ? can be covered by discovery. For 126 GeV h 0, only relatively small tan ? ? 10 (5) can be reached by exclusion (discovery) while a wide range of sin( ? - ?) is accessible. For A ? H 0 Z, the reach is typically restricted to sin( ? - ?) ~ ą1 with tan ? ? 10 in bb?? and ???? channels. The ZZZ(4 ?2 j) channel, on the other hand, covers a wide range of 0 .3 < | sin( ? - ?)| < 1 for tan ? ? 4. H 0 ? AZ typically favors negative values of sin( ? - ?), with exclusion/discovery reach possibly extending to all values of tan ?. A study of exotic decays of extra Higgses appearing in extensions of the Standard Model would extend the reach at the LHC and provides nice complementarity to conventional Higgs search channels.

  4. Evaluation of 241-AZ tank farm supporting phase 1 privatization waste feed delivery

    SciTech Connect

    CARLSON, A.B.

    1998-11-19

    This evaluation is one in a series of evaluations determining the process needs and assessing the adequacy of existing and planned equipment in meeting those needs at various double-shell tank farms in support of Phase 1 privatization. A number of tank-to-tank transfers and waste preparation activities are needed to process and feed waste to the private contractor in support of Phase 1 privatization. The scope of this evaluation is limited to process needs associated with 241-AZ tank farm during the Phase 1 privatization.

  5. Interfacial characteristics of squeeze-cast SiC reinforced AZ91D magnesium-based composites

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, J.; Carpenter, G.J.C.; Charest, M.

    1996-10-01

    The method of producing magnesium-based composites with silicon carbide (SiC) particulates embedded in the matrix of magnesium AZ91D alloy by the squeeze-casting technique are described. This method involves the fabrication of a SiC particulate preform and the subsequent squeezing of molten magnesium into the preform. In this study, alumina, aluminum phosphate and a proprietary binder were used for the fabrication of SiC particulate preforms. The procedures employed in the fabrication of SiC/AZ91D composites are presented, together with the results of characterization of the composites using optical and transmission electron microscopy. Special attention is given to the reaction products in the bulk alloy and at the interfaces between SiC particles and the AZ91D matrix alloy.

  6. Histone H2A.Z deregulation in prostate cancer. Cause or effect?

    PubMed

    Dryhurst, Deanna; Ausió, Juan

    2014-09-01

    Genetic and epigenetic changes are at the root of all cancers. The epigenetic component involves alterations of the post-synthetic modifications of DNA (methylation) and histones (histone posttranslational modifications, PTMs) as well as of those of their molecular "writers," "readers," and "erasers." Noncoding RNAs (ncRNA) can also play a role. Here, we focus on the involvement of histone alterations in cancer, in particular that of the histone variant H2A.Z in the etiology of prostate cancer. The structural mechanisms putatively responsible for the contribution of H2A.Z to oncogenic gene expression programs are first described, followed by what is currently known about the involvement of this histone variant in the regulation of androgen receptor regulated gene expression. The implications of this and their relevance to oncogene deregulation in different stages of prostate cancer, including the progression toward androgen independence, are discussed. This review underscores the increasing awareness of the epigenetic contribution of histone variants to oncogenic progression. PMID:24398858

  7. Research on microstructures of sub-rapidly solidified AZ61 Magnesium Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Teng Haitao; Zhang Xiaoli; Zhang Zhongtao; Li Tingju; Cockcroft, Steve

    2009-06-15

    AZ61 magnesium alloy foils of 0.5-3.0 mm thick were successfully produced by using sub-rapid solidification technique. Microstructures of conventionally solidified (CS) and sub-rapidly solidified (sub-RS) alloys were examined by optical microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that the cellular grain of 1.8-13.5 {mu}m can be obtained during sub-rapid solidification process. Phase compositions and microdistribution of the alloying elements in the foils were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA), respectively. The eutectic transformation L {yields} {alpha}-Mg + {beta}-Mg{sub 17}Al{sub 12} and microsegregation in conventionally solidified AZ61 alloy were remarkably suppressed in sub-rapid solidification process. As a consequence, the alloying elements Al, Zn, Mn showed much higher solid solubility and the sub-rapid solidification microstructures dominantly consisted of supersaturated {alpha}-Mg solid solution. Meanwhile, the {beta}-Mg{sub 17}Al{sub 12} phases located in the {alpha}-Mg grain boundaries are largely decreased due to high solidification cooling rate.

  8. Laser surface modification of AZ31B?Mg alloy for bio-wettability.

    PubMed

    Ho, Yee-Hsien; Vora, Hitesh D; Dahotre, Narendra B

    2015-02-01

    Magnesium alloys are the potential degradable materials for load-bearing implant application due to their comparable mechanical properties to human bone, excellent bioactivity, and in vivo non-toxicity. However, for a successful load-bearing implant, the surface of bio-implant must allow protein absorption and layer formation under physiological environment that can assist the cell/osteoblast growth. In this regard, surface wettability of bio-implant plays a key role to dictate the quantity of protein absorption. In light of this, the main objective of the present study was to produce favorable bio-wettability condition of AZ31B Mg alloy bio-implant surface via laser surface modification technique under various laser processing conditions. In the present efforts, the influence of laser surface modification on AZ31B Mg alloy surface on resultant bio-wettability was investigated via contact-angle measurements and the co-relationships among microstructure (grain size), surface roughness, surface energy, and surface chemical composition were established. In addition, the laser surface modification technique was simulated by computational (thermal) model to facilitate the prediction of temperature and its resultant cooling/solidification rates under various laser processing conditions for correlating with their corresponding composition and phase evolution. These predicted thermal properties were later used to correlate with the corresponding microstructure, chemical composition, and phase evolution via experimental analyses (X-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive spectroscopy). PMID:25201909

  9. Identification of an advanced constitutive model of Magnesium alloy AZ31B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z. G.; Massoni, E.

    2011-05-01

    The main aim of this paper is to study the flow behavior of the AZ31B magnesium alloy by means of tensile tests performed in extended ranges of temperature and strain rates. The flow stress-strain curves analyzed by power law type constitutive equation [1] can only fit well with experimental curves at the work-hardening stage. A new mathematical model is studied to describe the softening behavior of material based on tensile experiments. The relative parameters are obtained by fitting the equation with the experimental data. The genetic algorithm has been used to obtain the global optimal fitting parameters. The comparison between the fitted and experimental data proves the effectiveness of the model. The results indicate that this model leads to a better simulation of the flow stress during the softening stage than that of the power law equation. Based on this model, the deep drawing process has been simulated with the commercial finite element code FORGEŽ. The punch load and thickness distribution of AZ31 sheet have been studied. The study of the results is helpful to the application of the stamping technology for the magnesium alloy sheet.

  10. CHARACTERIZATION AND FORMABILITY OF CONTINUOUS-CAST AZ31B MAGNESIUM ALLOY SHEETS

    SciTech Connect

    Rohatgi, Aashish; Herling, Darrell R.; Nyberg, Eric A.

    2009-09-24

    The goal of this work is to understand the inter-relationship between the initial properties of continuous-cast magnesium alloy (AZ31B) sheets and their subsequent formability and post-formed mechanical performance for use in cost-effective, lightweight, automotive body panels. As-received sheets, provided by the Automotive Metals Division (AMD-602) team, were characterized by surface roughness measurements using mechanical profilometry. The arithmetic mean deviation of profile (Ra) and the maximum two-point height of profile (Ry) of the as-received sheets ranged from ~0.2-2 ?m and ~2-15 ?m, respectively. Several commercial lubricants were evaluated by thermal analysis and the liquid phase of the lubricants was found to evaporate/decompose upon heating leaving behind a solid residue upon heating to temperatures exceeding ~125-150°C. Elevated temperature bending-under-tension (BUT) friction tests were conducted at 350°C and the coefficient-of-friction values ranged from a minimum of ~0.1 (for tungsten disulfide lubricant) to ~0.7 when no lubricant was used. These results, in conjunction with those from the forming trials conducted by the AMD-602 team, will be eventually used to determine the role of sheet-die friction in determining the formability of AZ31B sheets.

  11. Physical properties of the extreme Centaur and super-comet candidate 2013 AZ60

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pál, A.; Kiss, Cs.; Horner, J.; Szakáts, R.; Vilenius, E.; Müller, Th. G.; Acosta-Pulido, J.; Licandro, J.; Cabrera-Lavers, A.; Sárneczky, K.; Szabó, Gy. M.; Thirouin, A.; Sip?cz, B.; Dózsa, Á.; Duffard, R.

    2015-11-01

    We present estimates of the basic physical properties including size and albedo of the extreme Centaur 2013 AZ60. These properties have been derived from optical and thermal infrared measurements. Our optical measurements revealed a probable full period of ?9.4 h with a shallow amplitude of 4.5%. By combining optical brightness information and thermal emission data, we are able to derive a diameter of 62.3 ą 5.3 km and a geometric albedo of 2.9%, which corresponds to an extremely dark surface. Additionally, our finding of ?50 Jm-2 K-1 s- 1/2 for the thermal inertia is also remarkable for objects in such a distance. The results of dynamical simulations yield an unstable orbit, with a 50% probability that the target will be ejected from the solar system within 700 000 yr. The current orbit of this object and its instability could imply a pristine cometary surface. This possibility agrees with the observed low geometric albedo and red photometric colour indices for the object, which match the surface of a dormant comet well, as would be expected for a long-period cometary body approaching perihelion. Although it was approaching ever closer to the Sun, however, the object exhibited star-like profiles in each of our observations, lacking any sign of cometary activity. According to the albedo, 2013 AZ60 is a candidate for the darkest body among the known trans-Neptunian objects.

  12. A Feasiblity Study on Spot Friction Welding of Magnesium Alloy AZ31

    SciTech Connect

    Santella, Michael L; Pan, Dr. Tsung-Yu; Frederick, David Alan; Schwartz, William

    2007-01-01

    Spot friction welding (SFW) is a novel variant of the linear friction stir welding process with the potential to create strong joints between similar, as well as dissimilar sheet metals. It is particularly suitable for soft, low melting point metals such as aluminum, magnesium, and their alloys where resistance spot welding can cause defects such as voids, trapped gas and micro-cracks due to the intense heat requirement for joint formation. Up to now, spot friction welding has focused primarily on aluminum alloys. This paper presents a feasibility study on spot friction welding of AZ31, a wrought magnesium alloy available in sheet form. Lap joints of 1.58-mm-thick magnesium alloy AZ31B-O sheet were produced by spot friction welding. The spot welds were made in 2 sec with 15-mm-diameter pin tool rotating at 500-2,000 rpm. The tool was inserted into 2-sheet stack-ups to depths of either 2.4 or 2.8 mm relative to the top sheet surface. Tensile-shear testing showed that joint strengths up to 4.75 kN were obtained. The removal of surface oxides from the sheets prior to welding increased lap shear strengths about 50% at the 2.4-mm insertion depth and it promoted failure by nugget pull-out rather than by interface separation.

  13. Project W-151 Tank 101-AZ Waste Retrieval System Year 2000 Compliance Assessment Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    BUSSELL, J.H.

    1999-08-02

    This assessment describes the potential Year 2000 (Y2K) problems and describes the methods for achieving Y2K compliance for Project W-151, Tank 101-AZ Waste Retrieval System. The purpose of this assessment is to give an overview of the project. This document will not be updated and any dates contained in this document are estimates and may change. Two mixer pumps and instrumentation have been or are planned to be installed in waste tank 101-AZ to demonstrate solids mobilization. The information and experience gained during this process test will provide data for comparison with sludge mobilization prediction models and provide indication of the effects of mixer pump operation on an Aging Waste Facility tank. A limited description of system dates, functions, interfaces, potential Y2K problems, and date resolutions is presented. The project is presently on hold, and definitive design and procurement have been completed. This assessment will describe the methods, protocols, and practices to ensure that equipment and systems do not have Y2K problems.

  14. Fatigue properties of magnesium alloy AZ91 processed by severe plastic deformation.

    PubMed

    Fintová, Stanislava; Kunz, Ludvík

    2015-02-01

    Fatigue properties of cast AZ91 magnesium alloy processed by severe plastic deformation were investigated and compared with the properties of the initial cast state. The severe plastic deformation was carried out by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP). The ECAP treatment resulted in a bimodal structure. The bimodality consists in a coexistence of fine grained areas with higher content of Mg17Al12 particles and areas exhibiting larger grains and lower density of Mg17Al12 particles. Improvement of the basic mechanical properties of AZ91 (yield stress, tensile strength and ductility) by ECAP was significant. Also the improvement of the fatigue life in the low-cycle fatigue region was substantial. However the improvement of the fatigue strength in the high-cycle fatigue region was found to be negligible. The endurance limit based on 10(7) cycles for the cast alloy was 80 MPa and for the alloy processed by ECAP 85 MPa. The cyclic plastic response in both states was qualitatively similar; initial softening was followed by a long cyclic hardening. Fatigue cracks in cast alloy initiate in cyclic slip bands which were formed in areas of solid solution. In the case of severe plastic deformed material with bimodal structure two substantially different mechanisms of crack initiation were observed. Crack initiation in slip bands was a preferred process in the areas with large grains whereas the grain boundaries cracking was a characteristic mechanism in the fine grained regions. PMID:25498295

  15. Corrosion behavior of magnesium alloy AZ91 and its MMC in NaCl solution

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, W.M.; Cheng, F.T.; Leung, L.K.; Horylev, R.J.; Yue, T.M.

    1997-12-01

    The corrosion behaviors of magnesium alloy AZ91C and its Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(short fiber)-reinforced metal matrix composite (MMC) in alkaline solutions (pH 10.5) containing chloride were compared using potentiodynamic polarization measurements, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and immersion tests. Dependence of polarization characteristics (corrosion potential and corrosion current density) on chloride concentration was similar for both materials. The corrosion potential E{sub corr} decreased linearly with the logarithm of chloride concentration, while the corrosion current density i{sub corr} increased rapidly at chloride concentrations larger than 0.1%, with the i{sub corr} for the MMC consistently higher than that for AZ91C, reaching a factor of about 3 in3.5% sodium chloride solution. EIS data indicated that the protective film on the MMC was inferior to that on the matrix alloy. With stirring and at frequencies higher than 5 Hz, the electrode/electrolyte interface might be described by the simplified Randles model for both materials. Immersion tests showed that the corrosion rate of the MMC, in terms of weight loss, was about 7 times that of the matrix alloy. Thus the present investigation indicated that in alkaline solutions containing chloride ions, the presence of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} short fibers in the alloy did not drastically alter the corrosion behavior, but significantly reduced its corrosion resistance.

  16. Research on the drawing process with a large total deformation wires of AZ31 alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajor, T.; Muskalski, Z.; Suliga, M.

    2010-07-01

    Magnesium and their alloys have been extensively studied in recent years, not only because of their potential applications as light-weight engineering materials, but also owing to their biodegradability. Due to their hexagonal close-packed crystallographic structure, cold plastic processing of magnesium alloys is difficult. The preliminary researches carried out by the authors have indicated that the application of the KOBO method, based on the effect of cyclic strain path change, for the deformation of magnesium alloys, provides the possibility of obtaining a fine-grained structure material to be used for further cold plastic processing with large total deformation. The main purpose of this work is to present research findings concerning a detailed analysis of mechanical properties and changes occurring in the structure of AZ31 alloy wire during the multistage cold drawing process. The appropriate selection of drawing parameters and the application of multistep heat treatment operations enable the deformation of the AZ31 alloy in the cold drawing process with a total draft of about 90%.

  17. Microstructural and textural evolution of AZ61 magnesium alloy sheet during bidirectional cyclic bending

    SciTech Connect

    Huo, Qinghuan; Yang, Xuyue Ma, Jijun; Sun, Huan; Qin, Jia; Jiang, Yupei

    2013-05-15

    In this work, the microstructural and textural evolution in the sheets of AZ61 magnesium alloy was studied by means of bidirectional cyclic bending for 8 passes at 623 K. The bended samples were examined by optical microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction analysis. The results showed that a gradient structure with fine grains about 3 ?m in the regions near two surfaces and, in contrast, coarse grains in the middle of the sheet were formed. The evident grain refinement was attributed to twin-assisted dynamic recrystallization and continuous dynamic recrystallization induced by kink bands. The texture intensity was clearly reduced, resulting in a negative gradient distribution, with the texture intensity decreases from the center of the sheet to two surfaces. The weakened texture greatly facilitated the reduction of the yield strength. A higher fracture elongation and a slightly improved ultimate tensile strength were achieved concurrently. - Highlights: • The AZ61 Mg alloy is deformed at 623 K by bidirectional cyclic bending. • A symmetric gradient distribution of fine grains along the thickness is formed. • The basal texture in the regions near two surfaces is weakened significantly.

  18. Experimental investigation of anisotropy evolution of AZ31 magnesium alloy sheets under tensile loading

    SciTech Connect

    Tari, D. Ghaffari; Worswick, M. J.

    2011-05-04

    Increasing demand for lighter final products has created new opportunities for the application of new light weight materials. Due to high strength to density ratio and good magnetic resistance properties, magnesium alloys are good candidates to replace steel and aluminum for same application. However, limited numbers of active slip deformation mechanisms, result in a decreased formability at room temperature. Furthermore, wrought magnesium alloys have an initial crystallographic texture, remained from the prior rolling operations, which makes them highly anisotropic. In this paper, tensile tests are performed at room temperature and 200 deg. C at different strain rates and orientations relative to the rolling direction, including rolling, 30 deg., 45 deg., 60 deg. and transverse orientation. The strain rates adopted for these experiments varied from 0.001 to 1.0. The testing results show the effect of temperature on the strain rate sensitivity of AZ31 sheets. The extent of deformation is continuously recorded using two separate high temperature extensometers. The results of testing show an increase in the r-values with the plastic deformation. The strain rate sensitivity of AZ31 increased as the temperature was elevated. At higher strain rates the measured r-values are larger and the slope of its evolution with the plastic strain is steeper.

  19. Characterization of fold defects in AZ91D and AE42 magnesium alloy permanent mold castings

    SciTech Connect

    Bichler, L.; Ravindran, C.

    2010-03-15

    Casting premium-quality magnesium alloy components for aerospace and automotive applications poses unique challenges. Magnesium alloys are known to freeze rapidly prior to filling a casting cavity, resulting in misruns and cold shuts. In addition, melt oxidation, solute segregation and turbulent metal flow during casting contribute to the formation of fold defects. In this research, formation of fold defects in AZ91D and AE42 magnesium alloys cast via the permanent mold casting process was investigated. Computer simulations of the casting process predicted the development of a turbulent metal flow in a critical casting region with abrupt geometrical transitions. SEM and light optical microscopy examinations revealed the presence of folds in this region for both alloys. However, each alloy exhibited a unique mechanism responsible for fold formation. In the AZ91D alloy, melt oxidation and velocity gradients in the critical casting region prevented fusion of merging metal front streams. In the AE42 alloy, limited solubility of rare-earth intermetallic compounds in the {alpha}-Mg phase resulted in segregation of Al{sub 2}RE particles at the leading edge of a metal front and created microstructural inhomogeneity across the fold.

  20. Geologie study off gravels of the Agua Fria River, Phoenix, AZ

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langer, W.H.; Dewitt, E.; Adams, D.T.; O'Briens, T.

    2010-01-01

    The annual consumption of sand and gravel aggregate in 2006 in the Phoenix, AZ metropolitan area was about 76 Mt (84 million st) (USGS, 2009), or about 18 t (20 st) per capita. Quaternary alluvial deposits in the modern stream channel of the Agua Fria River west of Phoenix are mined and processed to provide some of this aggregate to the greater Phoenix area. The Agua Fria drainage basin (Fig. 1) is characterized by rugged mountains with high elevations and steep stream gradients in the north, and by broad alluvial filled basins separated by elongated faultblock mountain ranges in the south. The Agua Fria River, the basin’s main drainage, flows south from Prescott, AZ and west of Phoenix to the Gila River. The Waddel Dam impounds Lake Pleasant and greatly limits the flow of the Agua Fria River south of the lake. The southern portion of the watershed, south of Lake Pleasant, opens out into a broad valley where the river flows through urban and agricultural lands to its confluence with the Gila River, a tributary of the Colorado River.

  1. Thermal Microstructural Stability of AZ31 Magnesium after Severe Plastic Deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Young, John P.; Askari, Hesam A.; Hovanski, Yuri; Heiden, Michael J.; Field, David P.

    2015-03-01

    Both equal channel angular pressing and friction stir processing have the ability to refine the grain size of twin roll cast AZ31 magnesium and potentially improve its superplastic properties. This work used isochronal and isothermal heat treatments to investigate the microstructural stability of twin roll cast, equal channel angular pressed and friction stir processed AZ31 magnesium. For both heat treatment conditions, it was found that the twin roll casted and equal channel angular pressed materials were more stable than the friction stir processed material. Calculations of the grain growth kinetics showed that severe plastic deformation processing decreased the activation energy for grain boundary motion with the equal channel angular pressed material having the greatest Q value of the severely plastically deformed materials and that increasing the tool travel speed of the friction stir processed material improved microstructural stability. The Hollomon-Jaffe parameter was found to be an accurate means of identifying the annealing conditions that will result in substantial grain growth and loss of potential superplastic properties in the severely plastically deformed materials. In addition, Humphreys’s model of cellular microstructural stability accurately predicted the relative microstructural stability of the severely plastically deformed materials and with some modification, closely predicted the maximum grain size ratio achieved by the severely plastically deformed materials.

  2. Archaeological data recovery at drill hole U19az, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Lancaster, J.

    1992-01-01

    At the request of the Department of Energy, Nevada Field Office (DOE/NV), the Desert Research Institute (DRI) conducted archaeological data recovery at drill hole U19az on the Nevada Test Site in February 1988 and April 1990. The work focused on a site that was recommended as eligible to the National Register of Historic Places. DOE/NV chose to mitigate adverse impacts to the site though a data recovery program. The mapping and collection of artifacts took place in two discrete areas, covering almost 10 hectares (24.71 acres). In addition to surface collection, 11 test pits and 12 surface scrapes were excavated. Information was sought to address four research questions concerned with the age of the site, the subsistence and demography of the site's inhabitants, and the behavioral implications of their lithic technology. This report describes and presents the results of the data recovery at drill hole U19az. The analyses of the artifacts indicate that the site was inhabited between 5,000 years ago and historic times. Relative artifact abundance indicates the most intense use occurred from about 4,000 to 1,500 years ago.

  3. Archaeological data recovery at drill hole U19az, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Lancaster, J.

    1992-12-31

    At the request of the Department of Energy, Nevada Field Office (DOE/NV), the Desert Research Institute (DRI) conducted archaeological data recovery at drill hole U19az on the Nevada Test Site in February 1988 and April 1990. The work focused on a site that was recommended as eligible to the National Register of Historic Places. DOE/NV chose to mitigate adverse impacts to the site though a data recovery program. The mapping and collection of artifacts took place in two discrete areas, covering almost 10 hectares (24.71 acres). In addition to surface collection, 11 test pits and 12 surface scrapes were excavated. Information was sought to address four research questions concerned with the age of the site, the subsistence and demography of the site`s inhabitants, and the behavioral implications of their lithic technology. This report describes and presents the results of the data recovery at drill hole U19az. The analyses of the artifacts indicate that the site was inhabited between 5,000 years ago and historic times. Relative artifact abundance indicates the most intense use occurred from about 4,000 to 1,500 years ago.

  4. Surface composite nanostructures of AZ91 magnesium alloy induced by high current pulsed electron beam treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, M. C.; Hao, S. Z.; Wen, H.; Huang, R. F.

    2014-06-01

    High current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB) treatment was conducted on an AZ91 cast magnesium alloy with accelerating voltage 27 kV, energy density 3 J/cm2 and pulse duration 2.5 ?s. The surface microstructure was characterized by optical microscope (OM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The surface corrosion property was tested with electrochemical method in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. It is found that after 1 pulse of HCPEB treatment, the initial eutectic ? phase and Mg17Al12 particles started to dissolve in the surface modified layer of depth ˜15 ?m. When using 15 HCPEB pulses, the Al content in surface layer increased noticeably, and the phase structure was modified as composite nanostructures consisted of nano-grained Mg3.1Al0.9 domains surrounded by network of Mg17Al12 phase. The HCPEB treated samples showed an improved corrosion resistance with cathodic current density decreased by two orders of magnitude as compared to the initial AZ91 alloy.

  5. Histone H2A (H2A.X and H2A.Z) Variants in Molluscs: Molecular Characterization and Potential Implications

    E-print Network

    Eirin Lopez, Jose Maria

    Histone H2A (H2A.X and H2A.Z) Variants in Molluscs: Molecular Characterization and Potential in most organisms, specially protostome animals. Molluscs (which represent sentinel organisms. (2012) Histone H2A (H2A.X and H2A.Z) Variants in Molluscs: Molecular Characterization and Potential

  6. SAFETY ANALYSIS FOR TANK 241-AZ-101 MIXER PUMP PROCESS TEST

    SciTech Connect

    HAMMOND DM; HARRIS JP; MOUETTE P

    1997-06-09

    This document contains the completed safety analysis which establishes the safety envelope for performing the mixer pump process test in Tank 241-AZ-101. This process test is described in TF-210-OTP-001. All equipment necessary for the mixer pump test has been installed by Project W-151. The purpose of this document is to describe and analyze the mixer pump test for Aging Waste Facility (AWF) Tank 241-AZ-101 and to address the 'yes/maybe' responses marked for evaluation questions identified in Unreviewed Safety Question Evaluation (USQE) TF-94-0266. The scope of this document is limited to the performance of the mixer pump test for Tank 241-AZ-101. Unreviewed Safety Question Determination (USQD) TF-96-0018 verified that the installation of two mixer pumps into Tank 241-AZ-101 was within the current Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Authorization Basis. USQDs TF-96-0461, TF-96-0448, and TF-96-0805 verified that the installation of the in-tank video camera, thermocouples, and Ultrasonic Interface Level Analyzer (URSILLA), respectively, were within the current TWRS Authorization Basis. USQD TF-96-1041 verified that the checkout testing of the installed equipment was within the current TWRS Authorization Basis. Installation of the pumps and equipment has been completed. An evaluation of safety considerations associated with operation of the mixer pumps for the mixer pump test is provided in this document. This document augments the existing AWF authorization basis as defined in the Interim Safety Basis (Stahl 1997), and as such, will use the existing Interim Operational Safety Requirements (IOSRs) of Heubach 1996 to adequately control the mixer pump test. The hazard and accident analysis is limited to the scope and impact of the mixer pump test, and therefore does not address hazards already addressed by the current AWF authorization basis. This document does not evaluate removal of the mixer pumps. Safety considerations for removal of the pumps will be addressed by separate safety documentation once that portion of the mission is defined. The mixer pump test has been evaluated to cover the use of either the existing ventilation system (241-A-702) or the ventilation system upgrade provided by Project W-030. Analysis of Project W-030 is outside of the scope of this document and is addressed in HNF-SD-WM-SARR-039 (Draft) which, should the W-030 system be in service at the time of the mixer pump test, will have been approved and made a part of the TWRS authorization basis. The test will use two high-capacity mixer pumps in various configurations and modes to demonstrate solids mobilization of waste in Tank 241-AZ-101. The information and experience gained during the test will provide data for comparison with sludge mobilization prediction models; provide data to estimate the number, location, and cycle times of the mixer pumps; and provide indication of the effects of mixer pump operation on the AWF tank systems and components. The slurry produced will be evaluated for future pretreatment processing. This process test does not transfer waste from the tank; the waste is mixed and confined within the existing system. At the completion of the mixer pump test, the mixer pumps will be stopped and normal tank operations, maintenance, and surveillance will continue. Periodic rotation of the mixer pumps and motor shafts, along with bearing greasing, is required to maintain the pumps following the mixer pump test.

  7. Salt Lake City, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Salt Lake City, Utah, will host the 2002 Winter Olympic Games. The city is located on the southeastern shore of the Great Salt Lake and sits to the west of the Wasatch Mountains, which rise more than 3,500 meters (10,000 feet) above sea level. The city was first settled in 1847 by pioneers seeking relief from religious persecution. Today Salt Lake City, the capital of Utah, is home to more than 170,000 residents. This true-color image of Salt Lake City was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), flying aboard Landsat 7, on May 26, 2000. The southeastern tip of the Great Salt Lake is visible in the upper left of the image. The furrowed green and brown landscape running north-south is a portion of the Wasatch Mountains, some of which are snow-capped (white pixels). The greyish pixels in the center of the image show the developed areas of the city. A number of water reservoirs can be seen east of the mountain range. Salt Lake City International Airport is visible on the northwestern edge of the city. About 20 miles south of the airport is the Bingham Canyon Copper Mine (tan pixels), the world's largest open pit excavation. See also this MODIS image of Utah. Image courtesy NASA Landsat7 Science Team and USGS Eros Data Center

  8. Innovation and the City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleiman, Neil; Forman, Adam; Ko, Jae; Giles, David; Bowles, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    With Washington trapped in budget battles and partisan gridlock, cities have emerged as the best source of government innovation. Nowhere is this more visible than in New York City. Since taking office in 2002, Mayor Bloomberg has introduced a steady stream of innovative policies, from a competition to recruit a new applied sciences campus and a…

  9. Build a City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Jean A.

    1985-01-01

    A week-long build-a-city project is described which lets students become familiar with the history of the five Platonic solids (tetrahedron, octahedron, hexahedron, isosahedron, dodecahedron) and then use these solids to create a city using posterboard and construction paper. (MNS)

  10. The Plains City Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Olphen, Marcela; Rios, Francisco; Berube, William; Dexter, Robin; McCarthy, Robert

    2006-01-01

    This case study portrays a contemporary phenomenon that affects many U.S. school districts. Specifically, the authors address the challenges that the superintendent of the Plains City school district faced as a result of a change in the demographic distribution of his district. The gradual development of the pig farming industry in Plains City…

  11. Walkout in Crystal City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrios, Greg

    2009-01-01

    When students take action, they create change that extends far beyond the classroom. In this article, the author, who was a former teacher from Crystal City, Texas, remembers the student walkout that helped launch the Latino civil rights movement 40 years ago. The Crystal City student walkout remains a high point in the history of student activism…

  12. Great cities look small

    E-print Network

    Sim, Aaron; Barahona, Mauricio; Stumpf, Michael P H

    2015-01-01

    Great cities connect people; failed cities isolate people. Despite the fundamental importance of physical, face-to-face social-ties in the functioning of cities, these connectivity networks are not explicitly observed in their entirety. Attempts at estimating them often rely on unrealistic over-simplifications such as the assumption of spatial homogeneity. Here we propose a mathematical model of human interactions in terms of a local strategy of maximising the number of beneficial connections attainable under the constraint of limited individual travelling-time budgets. By incorporating census and openly-available online multi-modal transport data, we are able to characterise the connectivity of geometrically and topologically complex cities. Beyond providing a candidate measure of greatness, this model allows one to quantify and assess the impact of transport developments, population growth, and other infrastructure and demographic changes on a city. Supported by validations of GDP and HIV infection rates ac...

  13. AZ-101 Mixer Pump Demonstration and Tests Data Management Analysis Plan

    SciTech Connect

    DOUGLAS, D.G.

    2000-02-22

    This document provides a plan for the analysis of the data collected during the AZ-101 Mixer Pump Demonstration and Tests. This document was prepared after a review of the AZ-101 Mixer Pump Test Plan (Revision 4) [1] and other materials. The plan emphasizes a structured and well-ordered approach towards handling and examining the data. This plan presumes that the data will be collected and organized into a unified body of data, well annotated and bearing the date and time of each record. The analysis of this data will follow a methodical series of steps that are focused on well-defined objectives. Section 2 of this plan describes how the data analysis will proceed from the real-time monitoring of some of the key sensor data to the final analysis of the three-dimensional distribution of suspended solids. This section also identifies the various sensors or sensor systems and associates them with the various functions they serve during the test program. Section 3 provides an overview of the objectives of the AZ-101 test program and describes the data that will be analyzed to support that test. The objectives are: (1) to demonstrate that the mixer pumps can be operated within the operating requirements; (2) to demonstrate that the mixer pumps can mobilize the sludge in sufficient quantities to provide feed to the private contractor facility, and (3) to determine if the in-tank instrumentation is sufficient to monitor sludge mobilization and mixer pump operation. Section 3 also describes the interim analysis that organizes the data during the test, so the analysis can be more readily accomplished. Section 4 describes the spatial orientation of the various sensors in the tank. This section is useful in visualizing the relationship of the Sensors in terms of their location in the tank and how the data from these sensors may be related to the data from other sensors. Section 5 provides a summary of the various analyses that will be performed on the data during the test program. Finally, an appendix reviews the technical aspects of the key sensor systems that will be used in the program. This review focuses on the performance capabilities and limits of the sensing systems.

  14. Thermal Analysis on Hex Placement Patterns of the Gemini Primary Gemini Telescopes Project, 950 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson AZ 85719

    E-print Network

    Incorporated, Science & Technology Division Corning, NY 14831 ABSTRACT Ultra Low Expansion (ULE) TM material, the variation of CTE and CTE gradients may effect the optical quality. A mathematical thermal model was employed Telescopes Project, 950 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson AZ 85719 W. R. Powell Corning Incorporated, Science

  15. Thermal Analysis on Hex Placement Patterns of the Gemini Primary Gemini Telescopes Project, 950 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson AZ 85719

    E-print Network

    Incorporated, Science & Technology Division Corning, NY 14831 ABSTRACT Ultra Low Expansion (ULE)TM material, the variation of CTE and CTE gradients may effect the optical quality. A mathematical thermal model was employed Telescopes Project, 950 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson AZ 85719 W. R. Powell Corning Incorporated, Science

  16. In Proceedings of the 1999 Winter Simulation Conference, Phoenix, AZ. BPR AND LOGISTICS: THE ROLE OF COMPUTATIONAL MODELS

    E-print Network

    In Proceedings of the 1999 Winter Simulation Conference, Phoenix, AZ. BPR AND LOGISTICS: THE ROLE- gistics, and the cost of logistics is roughly 10% of GDP in the US. Designing, managing, and improving indus- trial logistics systems has never been more challenging, or more critical to competitive success

  17. Weldability of A7075-T651 and AZ31B dissimilar alloys by MIG welding method based on welding appearances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishak, M.; Islam, M. R.

    2014-04-01

    It is not recommended to weld aluminium and magnesium dissimilar alloys using fusion welding method because of the formation of AlmMgn type intermetallic brittle compounds like Mg2Al3, Mg17Al12 etc. in the welding joint. These brittle compounds deteriorate the mechanical properties of the joint. But so far, insufficient researches have been attempted to stop the formation of AlmMgn type intermetallic brittle compounds in fusion welding method. The aim of this research work was to investigate on the weldability between A7075-T651 and AZ31B dissimilar alloys based on welding appearances and study the formation of intermetallic brittle compounds at the joint. In this research, A7075-T651 and AZ31B alloys were welded using ER5356 filler wire in MIG welding method in butt configuration. 100% argon was used as shielding gas. The results showed that, most of the welding appearances were moderate. The macroscopic investigation at all welding cross section showed that a lot of AlmMgn intermetallic brittle compounds were formed at the interface between weld seam and AZ31B parent metal side which caused macro cracks. A good number of macro pores were also observed at AZ31B parent metal side. These cracks and pores could easily cause the failure of the joint at very low stress.

  18. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY ADSORPTIVE MEDIA, USEPA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AT RIMROCK, AZ, SIX-MONTH EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents the activities performed during and the results obtained from the first six months of the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at Rimrock, AZ. The objectives of the project are to evaluate the effectiveness of AdEdge Arsenic Package Uni...

  19. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 2-Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of the Grand Canyon National Park, AZ

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the Grand Canyon National Park, AZ Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 50 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Pt. 91, SFAR No. 50-2 Special Federal Aviation...

  20. Histone H2A.Z controls a critical chromatin remodeling step required for DNA double-strand break repair

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ye; Ayrapetov, Marina K.; Xu, Chang; Gursoy-Yuzugullu, Ozge; Hu, Yiduo; Price, Brendan D.

    2012-01-01

    Chromatin remodeling during DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair is required to facilitate access to and repair of DSBs. This remodeling requires increased acetylation of histones and a shift in nucleosome organization to create open, relaxed chromatin domains. However, the underlying mechanism driving changes in nucleosome structure at DSBs is poorly defined. Here, we demonstrate that histone H2A.Z is exchanged onto nucleosomes at DSBs by the p400 remodeling ATPase. H2A.Z exchange at DSBs shifts the chromatin to an open conformation, and is required for acetylation and ubiquitination of histones and for loading of the brca1 complex. H2A.Z exchange also restricts single-stranded DNA production by nucleases and is required for loading of the Ku70/80 DSB repair protein. H2A.Z exchange therefore promotes specific patterns of histone modification and reorganization of the chromatin architecture, leading to the assembly of a chromatin template which is an efficient substrate for the DSB repair machinery. PMID:23122415

  1. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY ADSORPTIVE MEDIA. USEPA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AT VALLEY VISTA, AZ FINAL PERFORMANCE EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents the activities performed during and the results obtained from the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at an Arizona Water Company (AWC) facility in Sedona, AZ, commonly referred to as Valley Vista. The objectives of the project were t...

  2. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY ADSORPTIVE MEDIA USEPA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AT VALLEY VISTA, AZ SIX-MONTH EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents the activities performed and the results obtained from the first six months of the EPA arsenic removal technology demonstration project at the Arizona Water Company (AWC) facility in Sedona, AZ, commonly referred to as Valley Vista. The main objective of the...

  3. Warm Deep Drawing of Rectangular Parts of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Sheet Adopting Variable Blank Holder Force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying-hong, Peng; Qun-feng, Chang; Da-yong, Li; Xiao-qin, Zeng

    2007-05-01

    AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet with good shape and formability is fabricated by warm cross rolling. Uniaxial tensile tests are conducted using a Gleeble 3500 thermal - mechanical simulator, and the mechanical properties of AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet are analyzed. A warm deep drawing process of square part is also simulated by the finite element method. The influences of blank holder force on the formability are numerically investigated. A double-action hydraulic press that can realize adjustable blank holder forces is developed and its working principle and control system are introduced. Some warm deep drawing experiments of square parts of AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet are also performed. Different variation schemes of the blank holder force with the stroke of the punch are tested, and the experiment results are compared. Results show that the suitable blank holder force variation scheme is a ladder curve with the punch stroke. Adopting the variable blank holder force technique can improve 13.2% of the drawing depth of square parts of AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet.

  4. AzTEC/ASTE 1.1-mm survey of the AKARI Deep Field South: source catalogue and number counts

    E-print Network

    Hatsukade, B.; Kohno, K.; Aretxaga, I.; Austermann, J. E.; Ezawa, H.; Hughes, D. H.; Ikarashi, S.; Iono, D.; Kawabe, R.; Khan, S.; Matsuo, H.; Matsuura, S.; Nakanishi, K.; Oshima, T.; Perera, Thushara A.; Scott, K. S.; Shirahata, M.; Takeuchi, T. T.; Tamura, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Tosaki, T.; Wilson, Graham Wallace; Yun, M. S.

    2011-02-11

    in the far-infrared bands of the AKARI satellite, suggesting that they are mostly at z? 1.5 given the detection limits. We constructed differential and cumulative number counts in the ADF-S, the Subaru/XMM–Newton Deep Field and the SSA 22 field surveyed by Az...

  5. Materials Science and Engineering A 418 (2006) 341356 Microstructural effects of AZ31 magnesium alloy on its

    E-print Network

    Tong, Wei

    2006-01-01

    Materials Science and Engineering A 418 (2006) 341­356 Microstructural effects of AZ31 magnesium, Wei Tongc a Colorado School of Mines, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, Center curves were computed with the digital image correlation (DIC) technique. Initial yield point, ultimate

  6. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Adsorptive Media USEPA Demonstration Project at Rimrock AZ Final Performance Evaluation Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents the activities performed during and the results obtained from the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at the Arizona Water Company (AWC) facility in Rimrock, AZ. The objectives of the project were to evaluate: 1) the effectiveness of ...

  7. WM'05 Conference, February 27 March 3, 2005, Tucson, AZ WM-5278 IDENTIFYING RADIOACTIVE SOURCES AT THE DEMOLITION SITE

    E-print Network

    processing sites, some facilities have voluntarily installed radiation monitoring devices at the entrance Portal Monitor at entrance to scrap yard #12;WM'05 Conference, February 27 ­ March 3, 2005, Tucson, AZ WM SOURCES AT THE DEMOLITION SITE Deborah Kopsick and Renelle Rae Office of Radiation and Indoor Air United

  8. Presented at: Toward a Science of Consciousness Conference, Tucson, AZ, April, 2008 The Prospects for Creating Conscious Machines

    E-print Network

    Presented at: Toward a Science of Consciousness Conference, Tucson, AZ, April, 2008 The Prospects for Creating Conscious Machines Lyle N. Long+ , Troy D. Kelley* , and Michael, J. Wenger§ While there have been-simplify the issue of building intelligent or conscious machines. We should also not conflat e intelligence

  9. AzTEC Millimetre Survey of the COSMOS field – II. Source count overdensity and correlations with large-scale structure

    E-print Network

    Austermann, J. E.; Aretxaga, I.; Hughes, D. H.; Kang, Y.; Kim, S.; Lowenthal, J. D.; Perera, Thushara A.; Sanders, D. B.; Scott, K. S.; Scoville, N.; Wilson, Graham Wallace; Yun, M. S.

    2009-03-11

    We report an overdensity of bright submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) in the 0.15 deg^(2) AzTEC/COSMOS survey and a spatial correlation between the SMGs and the optical-IR galaxy density at z? 1.1. This portion of the COSMOS ...

  10. Brightness Variation and Companion Analysis of AZ Capricorni --- A Low-Mass Member in the Beta Pictoris Moving Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chang Yao; Chen, Wen-Ping

    2015-08-01

    AZ Capricorni (BD-17o 6128) is a low-mass member of the Beta Pictoris moving group, which consists of 55 known stellar systems sharing similar space moving motion as that of Beta Pic, the prototypical star with a prominent planetary debris disk. AZ Cap is a known X-ray source signifying its chromospheric activity. We present the three-year light curve of the star from 2010 to 2012. The 3.4 d period previously reported (Messina et al. 2010) is confirmed. The star was particularly active in 2011 with amplified brightness modulation. AZ Cap is known to have a close companion (Neuhäuser et al. 2002), which not only may confuse the X-ray source identification but, if bound to AZ Cap, would add to the inventory of the group membership. Astrometric measurements of DSS images, Pan-STARRS 1 images, and images taken by ourselves, at three epochs spanning 60 years, led to the conclusion that it is not a physical pair.

  11. Histone Variant H2A.Z Regulates Centromere Silencing and Chromosome Segregation in Fission Yeast*S

    E-print Network

    Jia, Songtao

    Histone Variant H2A.Z Regulates Centromere Silencing and Chromosome Segregation in Fission Yeast. Here, we show that the JmjC domain protein Msc1 is a novel component of the fission yeast Swr1 complex in Drosophila, Cse4 in budding yeast, and Cnp1 in fission yeast) (1­3). CENP-A serves as the foundation

  12. 14 CFR Appendix to Subpart U of... - Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of the Grand Canyon National Park, AZ

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of the Grand Canyon National Park, AZ Appendix to Subpart U of Part 93 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Special Flight Rules...

  13. 14 CFR Appendix to Subpart U of... - Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of the Grand Canyon National Park, AZ

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of the Grand Canyon National Park, AZ Appendix to Subpart U of Part 93 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Special Flight Rules...

  14. 76 FR 81525 - Notice of Realty Action: Conveyance of Federally Owned Mineral Interests in Pinal County, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ...Action: Conveyance of Federally Owned Mineral Interests in Pinal County, AZ AGENCY...the conveyance of the federally owned mineral interests of a 459.60 acre tract of...notice temporarily segregates the Federal mineral interests in the land covered by the...

  15. 75 FR 61660 - Proposed Modification of Class D and E Airspace, and Revocation of Class E Airspace; Flagstaff, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ...10-AWP-5 Proposed Modification of Class D and E Airspace, and Revocation of Class...SUMMARY: This action proposes to modify Class D and E airspace at Flagstaff, AZ, to accommodate...airspace designated as an extension to a Class D or E surface area at Flagstaff Pulliam...

  16. 75 FR 76924 - Modification of Class D and E Airspace, and Revocation of Class E Airspace; Flagstaff, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-10

    ...No. 10-AWP-5] Modification of Class D and E Airspace, and Revocation of Class...SUMMARY: This action will modify Class D and E airspace at Flagstaff, AZ, to accommodate...airspace designated as an extension to a Class D or E surface area at Flagstaff Pulliam...

  17. Pump Jet Mixing and Pipeline Transfer Assessment for High-Activity Radioactive Wastes in Hanford Tank 241-AZ-102

    SciTech Connect

    Y Onishi; KP Recknagle; BE Wells

    2000-08-09

    The authors evaluated how well two 300-hp mixer pumps would mix solid and liquid radioactive wastes stored in Hanford double-shell Tank 241-AZ-102 (AZ-102) and confirmed the adequacy of a three-inch (7.6-cm) pipeline system to transfer the resulting mixed waste slurry to the AP Tank Farm and a planned waste treatment (vitrification) plant on the Hanford Site. Tank AZ-102 contains 854,000 gallons (3,230 m{sup 3}) of supernatant liquid and 95,000 gallons (360 m{sup 3}) of sludge made up of aging waste (or neutralized current acid waste). The study comprises three assessments: waste chemistry, pump jet mixing, and pipeline transfer. The waste chemical modeling assessment indicates that the sludge, consisting of the solids and interstitial solution, and the supernatant liquid are basically in an equilibrium condition. Thus, pump jet mixing would not cause much solids precipitation and dissolution, only 1.5% or less of the total AZ-102 sludge. The pump jet mixing modeling indicates that two 300-hp mixer pumps would mobilize up to about 23 ft (7.0 m) of the sludge nearest the pump but would not erode the waste within seven inches (0.18 m) of the tank bottom. This results in about half of the sludge being uniformly mixed in the tank and the other half being unmixed (not eroded) at the tank bottom.

  18. Forming-Limit Diagrams for Magnesium AZ31B and ZEK100 Alloy Sheets at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoniswamy, Aravindha R.; Carpenter, Alexander J.; Carter, Jon T.; Hector, Louis G.; Taleff, Eric M.

    2013-11-01

    Modern design and manufacturing methodologies for magnesium (Mg) sheet panels require formability data for use in computer-aided design and computer-aided engineering tools. To meet this need, forming-limit diagrams (FLDs) for AZ31B and ZEK100 wrought Mg alloy sheets were developed at elevated temperatures for strain rates of 10-3 and 10-2 s-1. The elevated temperatures investigated range from 250 to 450 °C for AZ31B and 300 to 450 °C for ZEK100. The FLDs were generated using data from uniaxial tension, biaxial bulge, and plane-strain bulge tests, all carried out until specimen rupture. The unique aspect of this study is that data from materials with consistent processing histories were produced using consistent testing techniques across all test conditions. The ZEK100 alloy reaches greater major true strains at rupture, by up to 60%, than the AZ31B alloy for all strain paths at all temperatures and strain rates examined. Formability limits decrease only slightly with a decrease in temperature, less than 30% decrease for AZ31B and less than 35% decrease for ZEK100 as the temperature decreases from 450 to 300 °C. This suggests that forming processes at 250-300 °C are potentially viable for manufacturing complex Mg components.

  19. Great cities look small

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Aaron; Yaliraki, Sophia N.; Barahona, Mauricio; Stumpf, Michael P. H.

    2015-01-01

    Great cities connect people; failed cities isolate people. Despite the fundamental importance of physical, face-to-face social ties in the functioning of cities, these connectivity networks are not explicitly observed in their entirety. Attempts at estimating them often rely on unrealistic over-simplifications such as the assumption of spatial homogeneity. Here we propose a mathematical model of human interactions in terms of a local strategy of maximizing the number of beneficial connections attainable under the constraint of limited individual travelling-time budgets. By incorporating census and openly available online multi-modal transport data, we are able to characterize the connectivity of geometrically and topologically complex cities. Beyond providing a candidate measure of greatness, this model allows one to quantify and assess the impact of transport developments, population growth, and other infrastructure and demographic changes on a city. Supported by validations of gross domestic product and human immunodeficiency virus infection rates across US metropolitan areas, we illustrate the effect of changes in local and city-wide connectivities by considering the economic impact of two contemporary inter- and intra-city transport developments in the UK: High Speed 2 and London Crossrail. This derivation of the model suggests that the scaling of different urban indicators with population size has an explicitly mechanistic origin. PMID:26179988

  20. Great cities look small.

    PubMed

    Sim, Aaron; Yaliraki, Sophia N; Barahona, Mauricio; Stumpf, Michael P H

    2015-08-01

    Great cities connect people; failed cities isolate people. Despite the fundamental importance of physical, face-to-face social ties in the functioning of cities, these connectivity networks are not explicitly observed in their entirety. Attempts at estimating them often rely on unrealistic over-simplifications such as the assumption of spatial homogeneity. Here we propose a mathematical model of human interactions in terms of a local strategy of maximizing the number of beneficial connections attainable under the constraint of limited individual travelling-time budgets. By incorporating census and openly available online multi-modal transport data, we are able to characterize the connectivity of geometrically and topologically complex cities. Beyond providing a candidate measure of greatness, this model allows one to quantify and assess the impact of transport developments, population growth, and other infrastructure and demographic changes on a city. Supported by validations of gross domestic product and human immunodeficiency virus infection rates across US metropolitan areas, we illustrate the effect of changes in local and city-wide connectivities by considering the economic impact of two contemporary inter- and intra-city transport developments in the UK: High Speed 2 and London Crossrail. This derivation of the model suggests that the scaling of different urban indicators with population size has an explicitly mechanistic origin. PMID:26179988

  1. City Lights of Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Growth in 'mega-cities' is altering the landscape and the atmosphere in such a way as to curtail normal photosynthesis. By using data from The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System, researchers have been able to look at urban sprawl by monitoring the emission of light from cities at night. By overlaying these 'light maps' onto other data such as soil and vegetation maps, the research shows that urbanization can have a variable but measurable impact on photosynthetic productivity. For more information, read Bright Lights, Big City Image by the NASA GSFC Scientific Visualization Studio

  2. Tribological properties of heat-treated electroless Ni-P coatings on AZ91 alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novák, M.; Vojt?ch, D.; Novák, P.; Vít?, T.

    2011-09-01

    Influence of heat treatment regime on adhesion and wear resistance of Ni-P electroless coating on AZ91 magnesium alloy is investigated in this work. The pretreated substrate was plated using a bath containing nickel sulphate, sodium hypophosphite and sodium acetate as main constituents. The coated samples were heat treated at 400-450 °C for 1-8 h. Adhesion of coating was estimated from the scratch test with an initial load of 8.80 N. Wear resistance was studied using the pin-on-disc method. It was found that there is no significant dependence of the coating wear resistance on heat treatment regime, as the formation of Al-Ni intermetallic sub-layers that reduce coating adhesion is limited to regions where Al17Mg12 phase is present in the substrate. Moreover, the coating shows good sliding properties due to the formation of oxide glazes in the wear track.

  3. Microstructure and interfacial reactions of soldering magnesium alloy AZ31B

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Liming; Wu Zhonghui

    2010-01-15

    In this paper, economic and innoxious solder alloys with low melting temperature were designed for AZ31B. Their chemical composition and relevant parameters were investigated for a high-performance structure of bonding region. Results of microstructure observation showed that Zn-enriched phases disappeared and {alpha}-Mg existed in the joints in the form of coarse dendrites by increasing the concentration of Mg in the solder alloys. Water cooling with a high cooling rate was adopted in experiments. Experimental research showed that high cooling rate restricted the grains of {alpha}-Mg as the equiaxed dendrites, which was about 1/5 of the coarse dendrite but their number was more than 40-50 times. Both morphology with typical fracture and the analysis on X-ray diffraction fracture indicated that equiaxed dendrites significantly improved the mechanical property of the joints. Necking phenomenon occurred in the bonding region was in favor of the improvement of joint shear strength.

  4. Warm Deep Drawing Of Rectangular Cups With Magnesium Alloy AZ31 Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, L. M.; Palumbo, G.; Zhang, S. H.; Tricarico, L.

    2007-05-01

    Recently, magnesium alloys have been widely applied in automotive and electronic industries as the lightest weight structural and functional materials. Warm forming of magnesium alloys has attracted much attention due to the very poor formability of Mg alloys at room temperature. The formability of magnesium alloy sheet at elevated temperature is significantly affected by the processing parameters. Among them the forming temperature, the punch speed, the geometrical shape of the blank, the blank holder force and the lubrication are probably the most relevant. In this research, the deep drawing of rectangular cups with AZ31 sheets was conducted at elevated temperatures with different process parameters. The finite element analyses were performed to investigate the effects of the process parameters on the formability of rectangular cup drawing and to predict the process defects during the process. The material yield condition was modeled using the isotropic Von Mises criterion. The flow stress data were obtained from tensile tests.

  5. Fiber laser cutting of AZ31 magnesium alloy: numerical and experimental investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Huafeng; Li, Juli; He, Min; Wu, Xiao; Sun, Tao

    2015-10-01

    Fiber laser cutting of AZ31B magnesium alloy is considered. A three-dimensional (3D) finite element model (FEM) for simulation of the transient temperature field in laser cutting process is developed. The FEM take into account of the thermal physical parameters change with temperature, the moving heat source, the surface effect element, the reasonable boundary conditions, etc. The temperature evolution, the temperature gradient, the kerf shape and dimensions are simulated. Kerf width are measured using the Olympus optical microscopy and is compared with the predicted value. The microhardness near the kerf is measured by a Vickers microhardness tester. The results show that the maximum temperature gradually increased with the increase of cutting time. The workpiece temperature rise to 135.72°C from the room temperature. The simulated kerf width are in good agreement with measured results. The heat affected zone is not obvious and the microhardness change little perpendicular to laser cutting direction.

  6. Evaluation of cracking in the 241-AZ tank farm ventilation line at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    ANANTATMULA, R.P.

    1999-10-20

    In the period from April to October of 1988, a series of welding operations on the outside of the AZ Tank Farm ventilation line piping at the Hanford Site produced unexpected and repeated cracking of the austenitic stainless steel base metal and of a seam weld in the pipe. The ventilation line is fabricated from type 304L stainless steel pipe of 24 inch diameter and 0.25 inch wall thickness. The pipe was wrapped in polyethylene bubble wrap and buried approximately 12 feet below grade. Except for the time period between 1980 and 1987, impressed current cathodic protection has been applied to the pipe since its installation in 1974. The paper describes the history of the cracking of the pipe, the probable cracking mechanisms, and the recommended future action for repair/replacement of the pipe.

  7. AZ-101 Mixer Pump Test MT Fury Suspended Solids Profiler Application and Testing

    SciTech Connect

    MACLEAN, G.T.

    2000-01-06

    Describes the radiation testing and calibration of the AZ-101 tank suspended solids profiler unit mounted on 6 tank riser 24A. The Mt. Fury Suspended Solids Profiler (SSP) is a microprocessor-controlled instrument that measures the turbidity of solid-liquid suspensions and sludges. The profiler is used commercially for the monitoring and control of clarifiers and thickeners in waste treatment, mining, pulp and paper, and other industrial processing facilities. The instrument includes a three inch diameter probe, a Kynar coated coaxial cable, a reel assembly with a clutch and drive shaft, a stepper motor, and electronics. The instrument measures insoluble or suspended solids content in liquids by transmitting infrared energy at a wavelength of 935 nm and measuring the extent of backscatter. This frequency is not affected by solution color. There are two detectors that allow the instrument to operate over a broad range of concentrations, from clear liquids to light sludges.

  8. Die-casting effect on surface characteristics of thin-walled AZ91D magnesium components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Lifang; Chen, Shaoping; Miao, Yang; Meng, Qingsen

    2012-11-01

    Filling trace, filling time and temperature distribution during the die-casting process were simulated using commercial software (MAGMA). The surface microstructure and phase distribution in thin-walled AZ91D magnesium components cast on a hot-chamber die-casting machine were investigated by means of optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The depth profile of alloying elements was examined using a glow discharge optical emission spectrometer. The outer skin microstructure consists of more ?-phase and less eutectic ?-phase than the interior region. The elemental content of C, Si, and Fe in the outer skin increased along the filling trace, and they decreased with increasing distance from the surface to the interior region, while the Al had an inverse trend. The corrosion resistance decreased along the filling trace.

  9. Simulation of cylindrical cup drawing of AZ31 sheet metal with crystal plasticity finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Weiqin; Li, Dayong; Zhang, Shaorui; Peng, Yinghong

    2013-12-01

    As a light-weight structural material, magnesium alloys show good potential in improving the fuel efficiency of vehicles and reducing CO2 emissions. However, it is well known that polycrystalline Mg alloys develop pronounced crystallographic texture and plastic anisotropy during rolling, which leads to earing phenomenon during deep drawing of the rolled sheets. It is vital to predict this phenomenon accurately for application of magnesium sheet metals. In the present study, a crystal plasticity model for AZ31 magnesium alloy that incorporates both slip and twinning is established. Then the crystal plasticity model is implemented in the commercial finite element software ABAQUS/Explicit through secondary development interface (VUMAT). Finally, the stamping process of a cylindrical cup is simulated using the developed crystal plasticity finite element model, and the predicting method is verified by comparing with experimental results from both earing profile and deformation texture.

  10. Effect of preheat on TIG welding of AZ61 magnesium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jun; Xu, Nan

    2012-04-01

    The effects of preheat treatments on the microstructures and mechanical properties of tungsten inert gas (TIG)-welded AZ61 magnesium alloy joints were studied by microstructural observations, microhardness tests and tensile tests. The results showed that the volume fraction of the lamellar ?-Mg17(Al,Zn)12 intermetallic compound of in fusion zone (FZ) increased from 15% to 66% with an increase in preheat temperature. Moreover, the microhardness of the FZ and the ultimate tensile strength of the welded joints reached their maximum values when the preheat temperature was 300°C because more lamellar ?-Mg17(Al,Zn)12 intermetallic compounds were distributed at the ?-Mg grain boundaries and no cracks and pores formed in the FZ of the welded joint.

  11. Fatigue behaviour of friction stir processed AZ91 magnesium alloy produced by high pressure die casting

    SciTech Connect

    Cavaliere, P. . E-mail: pasquale.cavaliere@unile.it; De Marco, P.P.

    2007-03-15

    The room temperature fatigue properties of AZ91 magnesium alloy produced by high pressure die casting (HPDC) as cast, heat treated, friction stir processed (FSP) and FSP and heat treated were studied. The fatigue properties of the material were evaluated for the HPDC magnesium alloy in the as-received state and after a solution treatment at 415 deg. C for 2 h and an ageing treatment at 220 deg. C for 4 h. The heat treatment resulted in a significant increase in the fatigue properties of the HPDC material, while no significance influence of heat treatment was recorded in the FSP condition. The morphology of fracture surfaces was examined by employing a field emission gun scanning electron microscope (FEGSEM)

  12. Characterization of Al-Mn particles in AZ91D investment castings

    SciTech Connect

    Lun Sin, S.; Dube, D. Tremblay, R.

    2007-10-15

    Manganese is currently added to Mg-Al alloys in order to improve the corrosion behavior of cast components. A part of this manganese is dissolved in the magnesium matrix and the balance is found as fine Al(Mn,Fe) particles dispersed within castings. For AZ91D specimens prepared using the plaster mould investment casting process, these particles were observed in very large quantity at the surface of castings. These particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and electron probe microanalysis. It was found that they consist of Al{sub 8}Mn{sub 5} phase and that their morphology and size depend on local solidification conditions. Their presence at the surface of the castings is related to low solidification rates and reduced thermal gradients at the mould/metal interface.

  13. Laser beam welding of AZ31B-H24 magnesium alloy.

    SciTech Connect

    Leong, K. H.

    1998-09-29

    The laser beam weldability of AZ31B magnesium alloy was examined with high power CW CO{sub 2} and pulsed Nd:YAG lasers. The low viscosity and surface tension of the melt pool make magnesium more difficult to weld than steel. Welding parameters necessary to obtain good welds were determined for both CW CO{sub 2} and pulsed Nd:YAG lasers. The weldability of the magnesium alloy was significantly better with the Nd:YAG laser. The cause of this improvement was attributed to the higher absorption of the Nd:YAG beam. A lower threshold beam irradiance was required for welding, and a more stable weldpool was obtained.

  14. Fabrication of microfluidic chips using lithographic patterning and adhesive bonding of the thick negative photoresist AZ 125 nXT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knoll, Thorsten; Bergmann, Andreas; Nußbaum, Dominic

    2015-05-01

    In this work, for the first time the negative photoresist AZ 125 nXT was used for the fabrication of a microfluidic chip. Usually, fabrication of microfluidic devices on the basis of silicon or glass substrates is done by using the epoxy-based negative photoresist SU-8 or other thick film polymer materials. The suitability of SU-8 for various microfluidic applications has been shown in the fields of bioanalytic devices, lab-on-chip systems or microreaction technology. However, processing is always a very challenging task with regard to the adaptation of process parameters to the individual design and required functionality. Now, the AZ 125 nXT allows for the fabrication of structures in a wide thickness range with only one type of viscosity. In contrast to SU-8, the AZ 125 nXT is fully cross-linked during UV exposure and does not require a time-consuming post-exposure bake. 90 ?m deep microfluidic channels were defined by lithographic patterning of AZ 125 nXT. Sealing of the open microfluidic channels was performed by a manual adhesive bonding process at a temperature of 100 °C. The fluidic function was successfully tested with flow rates up to 20 ml/min by means of a microfluidic edge connector. Long term stability and chemical resistance of the fabricated microfluidic channels will be investigated in the near future. The presented work shows the potential of AZ 125 nXT as a possible alternative to SU-8 for the fabrication of microfluidic chips.

  15. Archaeological studies at Drill Hole U20az Pahute Mesa, Nye county, Nevada. [Contains bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, A.H.; Hemphill, M.L.; Henton, G.H.; Lockett, C.L.; Nials, F.L.; Pippin, L.C.; Walsh, L.

    1991-07-01

    During the summer of 1987, the Quaternary Sciences Center (formerly Social Science Center) of the Desert Research Institute (DRI), University of Nevada System, conducted data recovery investigations at five archaeological sites located near Drill Hole U20az on the Nevada Test Site in southern Nevada. These sites were among 12 recorded earlier during an archaeological survey of the drill hole conducted as part of the environmental compliance activities of the Department of Energy (DOE). The five sites discussed in this report were considered eligible for the National Register of Historic Places and were in danger of being adversely impacted by construction activities or by effects of the proposed underground nuclear test. Avoidance of these sites was not a feasible alternative; thus DRI undertook a data recovery program to mitigate expected adverse impacts. DRI's research plan included controlled surface collections and excavation of the five sites in question, and had the concurrence of the Nevada Division of Historic Preservation and Archaeology and the Advisory Council of Historic Preservation. Of the five sites investigated, the largest and most complex, 26Ny5207, consists of at least three discrete artifact concentrations. Sites 26Ny5211 and 26Ny5215, both yielded considerable assemblages. Site 26Ny5206 is very small and probably is linked to 26Ny5207. Site 26Ny5205 contained a limited artifact assemblage. All of the sites were open-air occurrences, and, with one exception contained no or limited subsurface cultural deposits. Only two radiocarbon dates were obtained, both from 26Ny5207 and both relatively recent. While the investigations reported in the volume mitigate most of the adverse impacts from DOE activities at Drill Hole U20az, significant archaeological sites may still exist in the general vicinity. Should the DOE conduct further activities in the region, additional cultural resource investigations may be required. 132 refs., 71 figs., 44 tabs.

  16. Software configuration management plan, 241-AY and 241-AZ tank farm MICON automation system

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, L.F.

    1997-10-30

    This document establishes a Computer Software Configuration Management Plan (CSCM) for controlling software for the MICON Distributed Control System (DCS) located at the 241-AY and 241-AZ Aging Waste Tank Farm facilities in the 200 East Area. The MICON DCS software controls and monitors the instrumentation and equipment associated with plant systems and processes. A CSCM identifies and defines the configuration items in a system (section 3.1), controls the release and change of these items throughout the system life cycle (section 3.2), records and reports the status of configuration items and change requests (section 3.3), and verifies the completeness and correctness of the items (section 3.4). All software development before initial release, or before software is baselined, is considered developmental. This plan does not apply to developmental software. This plan applies to software that has been baselined and released. The MICON software will monitor and control the related instrumentation and equipment of the 241-AY and 241-AZ Tank Farm ventilation systems. Eventually, this software may also assume the monitoring and control of the tank sludge washing equipment and other systems as they are brought on line. This plan applies to the System Cognizant Manager and MICON Cognizant Engineer (who is also referred to herein as the system administrator) responsible for the software/hardware and administration of the MICON system. This document also applies to any other organizations within Tank Farms which are currently active on the system including system cognizant engineers, nuclear operators, technicians, and control room supervisors.

  17. Proximity of H2A.Z containing nucleosome to the transcription start site influences gene expression levels in the mammalian liver and brain

    PubMed Central

    Bargaje, Rhishikesh; Alam, Mohammad Parwez; Patowary, Ashok; Sarkar, Maharnob; Ali, Tamer; Gupta, Shivani; Garg, Manali; Singh, Meghna; Purkanti, Ramya; Scaria, Vinod; Sivasubbu, Sridhar; Brahmachari, Vani; Pillai, Beena

    2012-01-01

    Nucleosome positioning maps of several organisms have shown that Transcription Start Sites (TSSs) are marked by nucleosome depleted regions flanked by strongly positioned nucleosomes. Using genome-wide nucleosome maps and histone variant occupancy in the mouse liver, we show that the majority of genes were associated with a single prominent H2A.Z containing nucleosome in their promoter region. We classified genes into clusters depending on the proximity of H2A.Z to the TSS. The genes with no detectable H2A.Z showed lowest expression level, whereas H2A.Z was positioned closer to the TSS of genes with higher expression levels. We confirmed this relation between the proximity of H2A.Z and expression level in the brain. The proximity of histone variant H2A.Z, but not H3.3 to the TSS, over seven consecutive nucleosomes, was correlated with expression. Further, a nucleosome was positioned over the TSS of silenced genes while it was displaced to expose the TSS in highly expressed genes. Our results suggest that gene expression levels in vivo are determined by accessibility of the TSS and proximity of H2A.Z. PMID:22821566

  18. City sewer collectors biocorrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ksia&¸zdot; ek, Mariusz

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents the biocorrosion of city sewer collectors impregnated with special polymer sulphur binders, polymerized sulphur, which is applied as the industrial waste material. The city sewer collectors are settled with a colony of soil bacteria which have corrosive effects on its structure. Chemoautotrophic nitrifying bacteria utilize the residues of halites (carbamide) which migrate in the city sewer collectors, due to the damaged dampproofing of the roadway and produce nitrogen salts. Chemoorganotrophic bacteria utilize the traces of organic substrates and produce a number of organic acids (formic, acetic, propionic, citric, oxalic and other). The activity of microorganisms so enables the origination of primary and secondary salts which affect physical properties of concretes in city sewer collectors unfavourably.

  19. Between house and city

    E-print Network

    Kallus, Rachel Admati

    1982-01-01

    In an attempt to understand the relationships between a residential building type and the city, this thesis explores the quality of the urban context resulting from the assemblage of these buildings. The investigation takes ...

  20. New norc city/

    E-print Network

    Reyes, Ulises

    2015-01-01

    People in cities in select parts of the world are on the cusp of a paradigm never before experienced by previous generations. The demographic-economic paradox tells us there is an inverse correlation found between wealth ...

  1. Light in the city

    E-print Network

    Srinivasan, Kavita, 1976-

    2002-01-01

    This thesis focuses on enhancing the awareness of light for the pedestrian,and using light as a way of revealing the structure of the city and its relation to the cosmos. It proposes that aesthetic qualities of light inform ...

  2. The Sustainable City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gangloff, Deborah

    1995-01-01

    Focuses on methods to make cities more sustainable through the processes of energy efficiency, pollution and waste reduction, capture of natural processes, and the merger of ecological, economic, and social factors. (LZ)

  3. Tyler- Smith City HTC 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    The Capital City of Munich spends more than 40 million Euros (~50 million US$) annually for the supply of heat, electricity and water to its own buildings. This amount for energy consumption equals a production of carbon dioxide of approximately...

  4. City College of New York CITY FACTS, 2000-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    City Univ. of New York, NY. City Coll.

    CITY FACTS is an annual publication of the City College of New York's (CCNY's) Institutional Research Office. It contains four main sections: Executive Summary and Commentary on CITY FACTS Tables, Student Data over the Past Decade, Employee and Financial Data, and Reference Sources. A brief commentary on each of the City Facts tables is included…

  5. Sinking coastal cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkens, G.; Bucx, T.; Dam, R.; de Lange, G.; Lambert, J.

    2015-11-01

    In many coastal and delta cities land subsidence now exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten. A major cause for severe land subsidence is excessive groundwater extraction related to rapid urbanization and population growth. Without action, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other coastal cities will sink below sea level. Land subsidence increases flood vulnerability (frequency, inundation depth and duration of floods), with floods causing major economic damage and loss of lives. In addition, differential land movement causes significant economic losses in the form of structural damage and high maintenance costs for (infra)structure. The total damage worldwide is estimated at billions of dollars annually. As subsidence is often spatially variable and can be caused by multiple processes, an assessment of subsidence in delta cities needs to answer questions such as: what are the main causes? What is the current subsidence rate and what are future scenarios (and interaction with other major environmental issues)? Where are the vulnerable areas? What are the impacts and risks? How can adverse impacts be mitigated or compensated for? Who is involved and responsible to act? In this study a quick-assessment of subsidence is performed on the following mega-cities: Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Dhaka, New Orleans and Bangkok. Results of these case studies will be presented and compared, and a (generic) approach how to deal with subsidence in current and future subsidence-prone areas is provided.

  6. Learning Cities on the Move

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearns, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The modern Learning City concept emerged from the work of OECD on lifelong learning with streams of Learning Cities and Educating Cities having much in common but having little contact with each other. While the early development of Learning Cities in the West has not been sustained, the present situation is marked by the dynamic development of…

  7. City Lights: America's Boldest Mayors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggers, William D.

    1993-01-01

    Although the plight of cities seems nearly hopeless, three new-style big city mayors have emerged to try ideas deserving study by other cities. Edward Rendell of Philadelphia (Pennsylvania), John Norquist of Milwaukee (Wisconsin), and Stephen Goldsmith of Indianapolis (Indiana) are demonstrating that U.S. cities can be made to work. (SLD)

  8. Sinking Coastal Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkens, G.; Stuurman, R.; De Lange, G.; Bucx, T.; Lambert, J.

    2014-12-01

    In many coastal cities land subsidence now exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten. Without action, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other coastal cities will continue to sink, even below sea level. The ever increasing industrial and domestic demand for water in these cities results in excessive groundwater extraction, causing severe subsidence. In addition, coastal cities are often faced with larger natural subsidence, as they are built on thick sequences of soft soil. The impacts of subsidence are further exacerbated by climate-induced sea level rise. Land subsidence results in two types damage: foremost it increases flood vulnerability (frequency, inundation depth and duration of floods), with floods causing major economic damage and loss of lives. Secondly, differential land movement causes significant economic losses in the form of structural damage and high maintenance costs of roads and transportation networks, sewage systems, buildings and foundations. The total damage worldwide is estimated at billions of dollars annually. To survey the extent of groundwater associated subsidence, we conducted a quick-assessment of subsidence in a series of mega-cities (Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Dhaka, New Orleans and Bangkok). For each city research questions included: what are the main causes, how much is the current subsidence rate and what are predictions, where are the vulnerable areas, what are the impacts and risks, how can adverse impacts can be mitigated or compensated for, and what governmental bodies are involved and responsible to act? Using the assessment, this paper discusses subsidence modelling and measurement results from the selected cities. The focus is on the importance of delayed settlement after increases in hydraulic heads, the role of the subsurface composition for subsidence rates and best practice solutions for subsiding cities. For the latter, urban (ground)water management, adaptive flood risk management and related spatial planning strategies are just examples of the options available. The discussions in this paper form the building blocks for a much-needed research agenda that aims to deliver a strategy to deal with subsidence in current and future subsidence-prone areas.

  9. The Role of Trans Tensional Structures and Lake Mead Reservoir in Groundwater Flow in Black Canyon, Lake Mead National Recreation Area, NV-AZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Justet, L.; Beard, S.

    2010-12-01

    Hot springs and seeps discharging into Black Canyon (BC) along the Colorado River in north Colorado River Valley (CRV) support endemic riparian ecosystems in the Lake Mead National Recreation Area. Increases in groundwater development in southern NV and northwestern AZ may impact spring discharge. Sources of spring discharge in BC were evaluated using geochemical methods. Kinematic analysis and geologic mapping of structures associated with BC springs were used to evaluate structural controls on groundwater flow in BC. Geochemical analysis indicates groundwater discharge near Hoover Dam (HD) and along the faulted edge of the Boulder City Pluton is derived from Lake Mead, high ?87Sr Proterozoic or Tertiary crystalline rock and, possibly, Tertiary sedimentary rock. Reducing conditions indicated by 234U/238U and ?34S concentrations suggest the groundwater is confined and/or derived from greater depths while carbon isotopes indicate the groundwater is old. Lighter ?D and ?O-18, modern tritium concentrations, post-Dam U disequilibrium ages, and occurrence of anthropogenic perchlorate support the presence of a young Lake Mead component. South of the pluton, the Lake Mead component is absent. More oxidizing conditions in this part of BC, indicated by the U and S isotope concentrations, suggest the groundwater is less confined and/or derived from shallower depths compared to groundwater discharging near HD. Older apparent groundwater ages and heavier ?D and ?O-18 values south of the pluton indicate slower flow paths from a lower elevation or latitude source. Clarifying the nature of groundwater flow in eastern NV, the analyses indicate that hydraulic connection between the regional carbonate aquifer and BC is unlikely. Instead, the data indicate sources of BC springs are derived relatively locally in CRV and, possibly, south Lake Mead Valley. Results of the geologic and kinematic analyses indicate faults that formed from the interaction of E-W extension related to the AZ extensional corridor and NW-SE trans tension related to the Lake Mead shear zone are the main controls on groundwater flow in the vicinity of HD and Boulder City Pluton. Most groundwater in BC appears to discharge along the NW-striking Palm Tree fault that parallels the northern edge of the pluton. Supported by trends in chemistry, an alignment of similar-elevation springs along a N-S striking fault that extends the length of west BC may be a flow path for groundwater from north BC to south of the pluton. South of the pluton, dikes intrude many of the faults and appear to act as flow barriers. Groundwater in this part of BC may flow through stacked layers of brecciated volcanic rock prevalent in the area. Flow from laterally adjacent valleys into BC would have to cross a N-S structural fabric that is not favored kinematically. Existing information implies an overall absence of significant surface discharge in BC prior to construction of HD. This indicates that the head created by impoundment of the Colorado River has likely pushed old, slow moving groundwater through CRV and, possibly, south Lake Mead Valley, to the surface in BC where it discharges as springs and seeps.

  10. Evaluation of waste temperatures in AWF tanks for bypass mode operation of the 702-AZ ventilation system, Project W-030

    SciTech Connect

    Sathyanarayana, K.

    1997-09-10

    This report describes the results of thermal hydraulic analysis performed to provide data in support of Project W-030 to startup new 702-AZ Primary Ventilation System. During the startup of W-030 system, the ventilation system will be operating in bypass mode. In bypass made of operation, the system is capable of supplying 1000 cfm total flow for all four AWF doubleshell tanks. The design of the W-030 system is based on the assumption that both the recirculation loop of the primary ventilation system and the secondary ventilation which provides cooling would be operating. However, during the startup neither the recirculation system nor the secondary ventilation system will be operating. A minimum flow of 100 cfm is required to prevent any flammable gas associated risk. The remaining 600 cfm flow can be divided among the four tanks as necessary to keep the peak sludge temperatures below the operating temperature limit. For the purpose of determining the minimum flow required for cooling each tank, the thermal hydraulic analysis is performed to predict the peak sludge temperatures in AY/AZ tanks under different ventilation flows. The heat load for AZ farm tanks is taken from characterization reports and for the AY farm tanks, the heat load was estimated by thermal analysis using the measured waste temperatures and the waste liquid evaporation rates. The tank 241-AZ-101 and the tank 241-AZ-102 have heat loads of 241,600 and 199,500 Btu/hr respectively. The tank 241-AY-101 and tank 241-AY-102 have heat loads of 41,000 and 33,000 Btu/hr respectively. Using the ambient meteorological conditions of temperature and relative humidity for the air and tank, some soil surface and the sludge levels reported in recent documents, the peak sludge and supernatant temperatures were predicted for various primary ventilation flows ranging from 100 to 400 cfm for AZ tanks and 100 and 150 cfm for AY tanks. The results of these thermal hydraulic analyses are presented. Based on the results, it is concluded that with the W-030 operating in bypass mode of operation, the waste peak temperatures can be kept below the operating limit.

  11. 75 FR 10552 - Noise Exposure Map Notice for Chandler Municipal Airport, Chandler, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ...Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Notice for Chandler Municipal Airport...its determination that the noise exposure maps submitted by City of Chandler, for Chandler...FAA's determination on the noise exposure maps is February 19, 2010. FOR FURTHER...

  12. Earth's City Lights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image of Earth's city lights was created with data from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS). Originally designed to view clouds by moonlight, the OLS is also used to map the locations of permanent lights on the Earth's surface. The brightest areas of the Earth are the most urbanized, but not necessarily the most populated. (Compare western Europe with China and India.) Cities tend to grow along coastlines and transportation networks. Even without the underlying map, the outlines of many continents would still be visible. The United States interstate highway system appears as a lattice connecting the brighter dots of city centers. In Russia, the Trans-Siberian railroad is a thin line stretching from Moscow through the center of Asia to Vladivostok. The Nile River, from the Aswan Dam to the Mediterranean Sea, is another bright thread through an otherwise dark region. Even more than 100 years after the invention of the electric light, some regions remain thinly populated and unlit. Antarctica is entirely dark. The interior jungles of Africa and South America are mostly dark, but lights are beginning to appear there. Deserts in Africa, Arabia, Australia, Mongolia, and the United States are poorly lit as well (except along the coast), along with the boreal forests of Canada and Russia, and the great mountains of the Himalaya. The Earth Observatory article Bright Lights, Big City describes how NASA scientists use city light data to map urbanization. Image by Craig Mayhew and Robert Simmon, NASA GSFC, based on DMSP data

  13. Finding the Lost City

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Nicholas Clapp, a filmmaker and archeology enthusiast, had accumulated extensive information concerning Ubar, the fabled lost city of ancient Arabia. When he was unable to identify its exact location, however, he turned to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for assistance in applying orbital remote sensing techniques. JPL scientists searched NASA's shuttle imaging radar, as well as Landsat and SPOT images and discovered ancient caravan tracks. This enabled them to prepare a map of the trails, which converged at a place known as Ash Shisr. An expedition was formed, which found structures and artifacts from a city that predates previous area civilization by a thousand years. Although it will take time to validate the city as Ubar, the discovery is a monumental archeological triumph.

  14. Ultrafine particles in cities.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Prashant; Morawska, Lidia; Birmili, Wolfram; Paasonen, Pauli; Hu, Min; Kulmala, Markku; Harrison, Roy M; Norford, Leslie; Britter, Rex

    2014-05-01

    Ultrafine particles (UFPs; diameter less than 100 nm) are ubiquitous in urban air, and an acknowledged risk to human health. Globally, the major source for urban outdoor UFP concentrations is motor traffic. Ongoing trends towards urbanisation and expansion of road traffic are anticipated to further increase population exposure to UFPs. Numerous experimental studies have characterised UFPs in individual cities, but an integrated evaluation of emissions and population exposure is still lacking. Our analysis suggests that the average exposure to outdoor UFPs in Asian cities is about four-times larger than that in European cities but impacts on human health are largely unknown. This article reviews some fundamental drivers of UFP emissions and dispersion, and highlights unresolved challenges, as well as recommendations to ensure sustainable urban development whilst minimising any possible adverse health impacts. PMID:24503484

  15. Effect of hot working on the damping capacity and mechanical properties of AZ31 magnesium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, K.; Kang, C.; Kim, K.

    2015-04-01

    Magnesium alloys have received much attention for their lightweight and other excellent properties, such as low density, high specific strength, and good castability, for use in several industrial and commercial applications. However, both magnesium and its alloys show limited room-temperature formability owing to the limited number of slip systems associated with their hexagonal close-packed crystal structure. It is well known that crystallographic texture plays an important role in both plastic deformation and macroscopic anisotropy of magnesium alloys. Many authors have concentrated on improving the room- temperature formability of Mg alloys. However, despite having a lot of excellent properties in magnesium alloy, the study for various properties of magnesium alloy have not been clarified enough yet. Mg alloys are known to have a good damping capacity compared to other known metals and their alloys. Also, the damping properties of metals are generally recognized to be dependent on microstructural factors such as grain size and texture. However, there are very few studies on the relationship between the damping capacity and texture of Magnesium alloys. Therefore, in this study, specimens of the AZ31 magnesium alloy, were processed by hot working, and their texture and damping property investigated. A 60 mm × 60 mm × 40 mm rectangular plate was cut out by machining an ingot of AZ31 magnesium alloy (Mg-3Al-1Zn in mass%), and rolling was carried out at 673 K to a rolling reduction of 30%. Then, heat treatment was carried out at temperatures in the range of 573-723 K for durations in the range of 30-180 min. The samples were immediately quenched in oil after heat treatment to prevent any change in the microstructure. Texture was evaluated on the compression planes by the Schulz reflection method using nickel-filtered Cu K? radiation. Electron backscatter diffraction measurements were conducted to observe the spatial distribution of various orientations. Specimens for damping capacity measurements were machined from the rolled specimen, to have a length of 120 mm, width of 20 mm, and thickness of 1 mm. The damping capacity was measured with a flexural internal friction measurement machine at room temperature. It was found that the damping capacity increases with both increasing heat-treatment temperature and time, due to grain growth and the increased pole densities of textures.

  16. Microstructural Analysis of Severe Plastic Deformed Twin Roll Cast AZ31 for the Optimization of Superplastic Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Young, John P.; Askari, Hesam A.; Heiden, Michael J.; Hovanski, Yuri; Field, David P.; Zbib, Hussein M.

    2013-07-08

    In recent years magnesium alloys have attracted significant attention as potential candidates to replace many of the heavier metals used in some automotive applications. However, the limited formability of magnesium and its alloys at room temperature has driven interest in the superplastic forming magnesium as an alternative shaping method. Severe plastic deformation techniques have become a well studied method of refining the grain size and modifying the microstructural characteristics of many magnesium alloys to achieve greater superplastic properties. In this study twin roll cast (TRC) AZ31 magnesium alloy was subjected to equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) and friction stir welding (FSW). The influence of these severe plastic deformation processes on the grain size, texture and grain boundary character distribution was investigated to identify the optimum severe plastic deformation process for the superplastic forming of AZ31.

  17. Tensile properties of AZ11A-0 magnesium-alloy sheet under rapid-heating and constant temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurg, Ivo M

    1956-01-01

    Specimens of AZ31A-0 magnesium alloy sheet were heated to rupture at nominal rates of 0.2 F to 100 F per second under constant tensile load conditions. The data are presented and compared with the results of conventional tensile stress-strain tests at elevated temperatures after 1.2-hour exposure. A temperature-rate parameter was used to construct master curves from which stresses and temperatures for yield and rupture can be predicted under rapid-heating conditions. A comparison of the elevated-temperature tensile properties of AZ31A-0 and HK31XA-H24 magnesium-alloy sheet under both constant-temperature and rapid-heating conditions is included.

  18. THE REDSHIFT AND NATURE OF AzTEC/COSMOS 1: A STARBURST GALAXY AT z = 4.6

    SciTech Connect

    Smolcic, V.; Capak, P.; Blain, A. W.; Salvato, M.; Masters, D.; Moric, I.; Riechers, D. A.; Ilbert, O.; Aretxaga, I.; Hughes, D.; Schinnerer, E.; Sheth, K.; Aravena, M.; Aussel, H.; Aguirre, J.; Berta, S.; Carilli, C. L.; Civano, F.; Fazio, G.; Huang, J.

    2011-04-20

    Based on broadband/narrowband photometry and Keck DEIMOS spectroscopy, we report a redshift of z = 4.64{sup +0.06}{sub -0.08} for AzTEC/COSMOS 1, the brightest submillimeter galaxy (SMG) in the AzTEC/COSMOS field. In addition to the COSMOS-survey X-ray to radio data, we report observations of the source with Herschel/PACS (100, 160 {mu}m), CSO/SHARC II (350 {mu}m), and CARMA and PdBI (3 mm). We do not detect CO(5 {yields} 4) line emission in the covered redshift ranges, 4.56-4.76 (PdBI/CARMA) and 4.94-5.02 (CARMA). If the line is within this bandwidth, this sets 3{sigma} upper limits on the gas mass to {approx}<8 x 10{sup 9} M{sub sun} and {approx}<5 x 10{sup 10} M{sub sun}, respectively (assuming similar conditions as observed in z {approx} 2 SMGs). This could be explained by a low CO-excitation in the source. Our analysis of the UV-IR spectral energy distribution of AzTEC 1 shows that it is an extremely young ({approx}<50 Myr), massive (M{sub *} {approx} 10{sup 11} M{sub sun}), but compact ({approx}<2 kpc) galaxy, forming stars at a rate of {approx}1300 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}. Our results imply that AzTEC 1 is forming stars in a 'gravitationally bound' regime in which gravity prohibits the formation of a superwind, leading to matter accumulation within the galaxy and further generations of star formation.

  19. Iron Phosphate Glass for Vitrifying Hanford AZ102 LAW in Joule Heated and Cold Crucible Induction Melters

    SciTech Connect

    Day, Delbert E.; Brow, R. K.; Ray, C. S.; Kim, Cheol-Woon; Reis, Signo T.; Vienna, John D.; Peeler, David K.; Johnson, Fabienne; Hansen, E. K.; Sevigny, Gary J.; Soelberg, Nicolas R.; Pegg, Ian L.; Gan, Hao

    2012-01-05

    An iron phosphate composition for vitrifying a high sulfate (~17 wt%) and high alkali (~80 wt%) low activity Hanford waste, known as AZ102 LAW, has been developed for processing in a Joule Heated Melter (JHM) or a Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM). This composition produced a glass waste form, designated as MS26AZ102F-2, with a waste loading of 26 wt% of the AZ102 which corresponded to a total alkali and sulfate (SO3) content of 21 and 4.2 wt%, respectively. A slurry (7M Na) of MS26AZ102F-2 simulant was melted continuously at temperatures between 1030 and 1090°C for 10 days in a small JHM at PNNL and for 7 days in a CCIM at INL. The as-cast glasses produced in both melters and in trial laboratory experiments along with their CCC-treated counterparts met the DOE LAW requirements for the Product Consistency Test (PCT) and the Vapor Hydration Test (VHT). These glass waste forms retained up to 77 % of the SO3 (3.3 wt%), 100% of the Cesium, and 33 to 44% of the rhenium, surrogate for Tc-99, all of which either exceeded or were comparable to the retention limit for these species in borosilicate glass nuclear waste form. Analyses of commercial K-3 refractory lining and the Inconel 693 metal electrodes used in JHM indicated only minimum corrosion of these components by the iron phosphate glass. This is the first time that an iron phosphate composition (slurry feed) was melted continuously in the JHM and CCIM, thereby, demonstrating that iron phosphate glasses can be used as alternative hosts for vitrifying nuclear waste.

  20. In vitro degradation, hemolysis, and cytocompatibility of PEO/PLLA composite coating on biodegradable AZ31 alloy.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhongling; Tian, Peng; Liu, Xuanyong; Zhou, Bangxin

    2015-02-01

    Magnesium and its alloys have large potential as degradable and absorbable biomaterials because of their mechanical properties and biocompatibility. However, their corrosion resistance is usually inadequate especially in physiological environment, which limits their broad applications in biomedical areas. In this work, plasma electrolytic oxidized/poly(l-lactide) (PEO/PLLA) composite coating was successfully fabricated on biodegradable AZ31 alloy by combing PEO process and sealing with PLLA. The microstructure, elemental composition, and phase composition of the PEO/PLLA composite coating were investigated. The in vitro degradation of the PEO/PLLA composite coating in simulated body fluid (SBF) was also systematically evaluated. The results revealed that the PEO/PLLA composite coating improved the corrosion resistance of AZ31 alloy significantly. The corrosion potential shifted from -1.663V to more positive position -1.317 V and the corrosion current density was reduced with six-order of magnitude. The Mg(2+) ions, hydrogen release, and pH value change of solution caused by degradation were all decreased significantly. Moreover, the PEO process played a critical role in sustaining the integrity of the implant in long-term service. The result of hemolysis test showed that the PEO/PLLA composite coating vested AZ31 alloy a low hemolysis ratio (0.806?ą?0.771)%, which is much lower than the safe value of 5% according to ISO 10993-4. For the cytocompatibility test, compared with bare AZ31 alloy and PEO coating, MC3T3-E1 cells showed much better adhesion and proliferation on the PEO/PLLA composite coating with nearly 4-fold increase of cells after 7-day cultivation, indicating that the PEO/PLLA composite coating has good biocompatibility for biomedical applications. PMID:24889920

  1. In vitro and in vivo studies of biodegradable fine grained AZ31 magnesium alloy produced by equal channel angular pressing.

    PubMed

    Ratna Sunil, B; Sampath Kumar, T S; Chakkingal, Uday; Nandakumar, V; Doble, Mukesh; Devi Prasad, V; Raghunath, M

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the present work is to investigate the role of different grain sizes produced by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) on the degradation behavior of magnesium alloy using in vitro and in vivo studies. Commercially available AZ31 magnesium alloy was selected and processed by ECAP at 300°C for up to four passes using route Bc. Grain refinement from a starting size of 46?m to a grain size distribution of 1-5?m was successfully achieved after the 4th pass. Wettability of ECAPed samples assessed by contact angle measurements was found to increase due to the fine grain structure. In vitro degradation and bioactivity of the samples studied by immersing in super saturated simulated body fluid (SBF 5×) showed rapid mineralization within 24h due to the increased wettability in fine grained AZ31 Mg alloy. Corrosion behavior of the samples assessed by weight loss and electrochemical tests conducted in SBF 5× clearly showed the prominent role of enhanced mineral deposition on ECAPed AZ31 Mg in controlling the abnormal degradation. Cytotoxicity studies by MTT colorimetric assay showed that all the samples are viable. Additionally, cell adhesion was excellent for ECAPed samples particularly for the 3rd and 4th pass samples. In vivo experiments conducted using New Zealand White rabbits clearly showed lower degradation rate for ECAPed sample compared with annealed AZ31 Mg alloy and all the samples showed biocompatibility and no health abnormalities were noticed in the animals after 60days of in vivo studies. These results suggest that the grain size plays an important role in degradation management of magnesium alloys and ECAP technique can be adopted to achieve fine grain structures for developing degradable magnesium alloys for biomedical applications. PMID:26652384

  2. Laser surface forming of AlCoCrCuFeNi particle reinforced AZ91D matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Guanghui; Yue, T. M.; Lin, Xin; Yang, Haiou; Xie, Hui; Ding, Xu

    2015-07-01

    Traditionally, the laser melt injection (LMI) technique can only be used for forming ceramic particles reinforced metal matrix composites (MMCs) for enhancing surface properties of lightweight engineering materials. In this research, the LMI method was employed to form metal particles reinforced MMCs on AZ91D instead. This was viable because of the unique properties of the AlCoCrCuFeNi high-entropy alloy (HEA) metal particles used. The large difference in melting point between the HEA and the substrate material (AZ91D), and the limited reaction and the lack of fusion between the HEA and Mg have made it possible that a metal particles reinforced AZ91D composite material was produced. The reason of limited reaction was considered mainly due to the relatively high mixing enthalpy between the HEA constituent elements and Mg. Although there was some melting occurred at the particles surface with some solute segregation found in the vicinity close to the surface, intermetallic compounds were not observed. With regard to the wear resistance of the MMCs, it was found that when the volume fraction of the reinforcement phase, i.e. the HEA particles, reached about 0.4, the wear volume loss of the coating was only one-seventh of that of the substrate material.

  3. Laser Keyhole Welding of Dissimilar Ti-6Al-4V Titanium Alloy to AZ31B Magnesium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, M.; Wang, Z. M.; Li, X. Y.; Zeng, X. Y.

    2012-01-01

    Laser keyhole welding of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy to AZ31B magnesium alloy was developed, and the correlations of process parameters, joint properties, and bonding mechanism were studied. The results show that the offset from the laser beam center on AZ31B side to the edge of the weld seam plays a big role in the joint properties by changing the power density irradiated at the Ti-Mg initial interface. The optimal range of the offset is 0.3 to 0.4mm in the present study. Some lamellar and granular Ti-rich mixtures are observed in the fusion zone, which is formed by intermixing melted Ti-6Al-4V with liquid AZ31B. The maximum ultimate tensile strength of the joints reaches 266 MPa. Furthermore, the fracture surface consists of scraggly remaining weld metal and smooth Ti surface. The higher the failure strength, the smaller the proportion of smooth Ti surface to whole interface is. Finally, the bonding mechanism of the interfacial layer is summarized by the morphologies and test results of fracture surfaces.

  4. City of Castle Hills State of the City and Recommendations 

    E-print Network

    Bright, Elise; Croxell, Christina

    2003-01-01

    Two courses focused on assessing the demographics, economics, environment, aesthetics, land use, transportation, and city history. Newspaper articles, maps, Census Data, field trip, examination of the city budget, planning efforts, and zoning were...

  5. Quantifying texture evolution during hot rolling of AZ31 Twin Roll Cast strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelova, S.; Schaeben, H.

    2015-04-01

    Multi-pass rolling experiments with an AZ31 Twin Roll Cast (TRC) alloy were performed on an industrial scaled four-high rolling mill. Within the rolling with an intermediate annealing the evolution of texture was investigated. To quantify the extent of preferred crystallographic orientation experimental X-ray pole figures were measured after different process steps and analyzed using the free and open MatlabŽ toolbox MTEX for texture analysis. The development of the fiber texture was observed and analyzed in dependence on rolling conditions. In the initial state the specimen exhibits a texture composed of a weak basal texture and a cast texture with {0001}-planes oriented across the rolling direction. During the following rolling process a fiber texture was developed. The expected strength increment of the fiber texture was quantitatively confirmed in terms of volume portions of the orientation density function around the fiber and in terms of the canonical parameters of fitted pseudo Bingham distributions. On the results of this work a model for prediction of the texture evolution during the strip rolling of magnesium in the examined parameter range was developed.

  6. Characterizing Sky Brightness Variations 2014: Fort Collins, CO and Tucson, AZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culver, Roger B.; Craine, Erin M.; Wall, Renae E.

    2015-05-01

    Internet enabled sky brightness meters (iSBM), designed and manufactured by STEM Laboratory, Inc., have been operated and tested at several locations for the last few years. The iSBM units are zenith looking, single channel, broadband photometers that record sky brightness continuously at a cadence of about 40-sec. They operate every night regardless of weather, thus providing a record of sky brightness useful not only for astronomers (clear nights), but also wildlife biologists who are concerned with the real range of local sky brightness. Data logged include time, date, geographic location, elevation, sky brightness, twilight times, moonrise/set times, lunar phase, cloud cover, temperature, humidity, barometric pressure, and dew-point. We have examined recent archives of iSBM data for two different types of locations: Fort Collins, CO and Tucson, AZ. From the archives we have calculated statistics of sky brightness and compare the results to provide a qualitative and quantitative description of natural ranges of sky brightness trends.

  7. Time Dependent Magnesium AZ31B Behavior: Experimental and Physically based Modeling Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, A. K.; Ayoub, G.; Kridli, G.; Zbib, H.

    The need to produce vehicles with improved fuel efficiency and reduced emissions has led the automotive industry to consider use of "lightweighting" materials in the construction of automotive body and chassis systems. For automotive body structures and closure panel applications, mostly made of sheet, aluminum alloys are being introduced due to their lower densities and relatively high specific strengths, as well as their compatibility with the traditional manufacturing process that are used with steel. However, interest has been increasingly focusing on the use of sheet magnesium in the manufacturing of panels and structural components, since its density is about 40% lower compared to aluminum. Accordingly, the objectives of this study are to investigate the evolution of microstructure during thermo-mechanical processing of twin-roll cast AZ31B alloys sheets, and to examine the mechanical properties of the alloy under superplastic conditions. The rate dependent crystal plasticity model have been used and integrated using an explicit model was coupled with the Taylor polycrystal model in the aim to capture the overall behavior of our studied material.

  8. Recycling of AZ40 Magnesium Alloy Scraps by Hydriding-Dehydriding and Subsequent Consolidation Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haiping, Zhou; Lianxi, Hu; Yu, Sun; Heng, Wang

    2015-09-01

    The hydriding-dehydriding process was used to recycle AZ40 magnesium (Mg) alloy scraps, and the microstructure nanocrystallization was realized. X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy were carried out to characterize the microstructure. After mechanically milling in hydrogen for 72 h, matrix Mg was completely turned into nanocrystalline MgH2, with an average crystallite size of about 10 nm. And then, the MgH2 phase was completely transformed into Mg again through vacuum dehydriding treatment at 300 °C for 192 min, with an average crystallite size of about 20 nm. In addition, the nanocrystalline alloy powders were hot-pressed and extruded into bars. The average grain size of the bars was about 500 nm, which had reached the size of ultrafine-grain. Meanwhile, the yield strength and ultimate tensile strength of the as-extruded bars reached about 312 and 497 MPa, respectively. The results indicate that hydriding-dehydriding process is a feasible method for recycling of Mg alloy scraps, and it is expected to have a good application prospect in preparing ultrafine-grain Mg alloys.

  9. Rate sensitivity and tension–compression asymmetry in AZ31B magnesium alloy sheet

    PubMed Central

    Kurukuri, Srihari; Worswick, Michael J.; Ghaffari Tari, Dariush; Mishra, Raja K.; Carter, Jon T.

    2014-01-01

    The constitutive response of a commercial magnesium alloy rolled sheet (AZ31B-O) is studied based on room temperature tensile and compressive tests at strain rates ranging from 10?3 to 103?s?1. Because of its strong basal texture, this alloy exhibits a significant tension–compression asymmetry (strength differential) that is manifest further in terms of rather different strain rate sensitivity under tensile versus compressive loading. Under tensile loading, this alloy exhibits conventional positive strain rate sensitivity. Under compressive loading, the flow stress is initially rate insensitive until twinning is exhausted after which slip processes are activated, and conventional rate sensitivity is recovered. The material exhibits rather mild in-plane anisotropy in terms of strength, but strong transverse anisotropy (r-value), and a high degree of variation in the measured r-values along the different sheet orientations which is indicative of a higher degree of anisotropy than that observed based solely upon the variation in stresses. This rather complex behaviour is attributed to the strong basal texture, and the different deformation mechanisms being activated as the orientation and sign of applied loading are varied. A new constitutive equation is proposed to model the measured compressive behaviour that captures the rate sensitivity of the sigmoidal stress–strain response. The measured tensile stress–strain response is fit to the Zerilli–Armstrong hcp material model. PMID:24711496

  10. Discovery of AZ0108, an orally bioavailable phthalazinone PARP inhibitor that blocks centrosome clustering.

    PubMed

    Johannes, Jeffrey W; Almeida, Lynsie; Daly, Kevin; Ferguson, Andrew D; Grosskurth, Shaun E; Guan, Huiping; Howard, Tina; Ioannidis, Stephanos; Kazmirski, Steven; Lamb, Michelle L; Larsen, Nicholas A; Lyne, Paul D; Mikule, Keith; Ogoe, Claude; Peng, Bo; Petteruti, Philip; Read, Jon A; Su, Nancy; Sylvester, Mark; Throner, Scott; Wang, Wenxian; Wang, Xin; Wu, Jiaquan; Ye, Qing; Yu, Yan; Zheng, Xiaolan; Scott, David A

    2015-12-15

    The propensity for cancer cells to accumulate additional centrosomes relative to normal cells could be exploited for therapeutic benefit in oncology. Following literature reports that suggested TNKS1 (tankyrase 1) and PARP16 may be involved with spindle structure and function and may play a role in suppressing multi-polar spindle formation in cells with supernumerary centrosomes, we initiated a phenotypic screen to look for small molecule poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) enzyme family inhibitors that could produce a multi-polar spindle phenotype via declustering of centrosomes. Screening of AstraZeneca's collection of phthalazinone PARP inhibitors in HeLa cells using high-content screening techniques identified several compounds that produced a multi-polar spindle phenotype at low nanomolar concentrations. Characterization of these compounds across a broad panel of PARP family enzyme assays indicated that they had activity against several PARP family enzymes, including PARP1, 2, 3, 5a, 5b, and 6. Further optimization of these initial hits for improved declustering potency, solubility, permeability, and oral bioavailability resulted in AZ0108, a PARP1, 2, 6 inhibitor that potently inhibits centrosome clustering and is suitable for in vivo efficacy and tolerability studies. PMID:26546219

  11. The cold-rolling behaviour of AZ31 tubes for fabrication of biodegradable stents.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaowu; Kent, Damon; Wang, Gui; StJohn, David; Dargusch, Matthew S

    2014-11-01

    Mg alloys are receiving considerable attention for biomedical stents due to their combination of good mechanical properties and high biodegradability. Cold rolling is necessary to process Mg alloy tubes before final drawing and fabrication of the magnesium stents. In this paper, cold-rolled tubes were subjected to a cross-sectional reduction rate (?) of up to 19.7%, and were further processed at various ratios of wall-thickness to diameter reduction (Q) from 0 to 2.24 with a constant ? of 19.7%. The results show that the cold-rolled tubes exhibited a rise in ultimate tensile strength (UTS), yield strength (YS), and a reduction in elongation as ? increased from 5.5% to 19.7%. UTS, YS and elongation decreased when Q was increased from 0 to 2.24. Mechanical twinning was observed and analysed. Extension twins increased with increasing ? and were almost saturated at a ? of 16.5%. Extension twins play an important role in determining the evolution of mechanical behaviour in the case of increasing ?, whilst contraction/double twins and secondary extension twins have a large effect on mechanical behaviour in the case of varying Q. The results indicate that the proportions and types of twins play a major role in determining the mechanical behaviour of the AZ31 tubes. PMID:25171746

  12. Mechanical and corrosion properties of Al/Ti film on magnesium alloy AZ31B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Rong-Chang; Jiang, Ke; Li, Shuo-Qi; Zhang, Fen; Cui, Hong-Zhi; Han, En-Hou

    2015-03-01

    Preparation of titanium film on magnesium substrate faces a challenge due to non-Fickian inter-diffusion between titanium and magnesium. Aluminum can build a bridge between titanium and magnesium. Al/Ti duplex coatings were deposited on magnesium alloy AZ31B using magnetron sputtering (MS). The low temperature diffusion bonding behavior of the Mg/Al/Ti coating was investigated through SEM and its affiliated EDS. The phase structure and critical load of the coatings were examined by means of XRD and scratch tests, respectively. The results demonstrated that the bonding strength was significantly improved after a post heat treatment (HT) at a temperature of 210°C. The diffusion mechanism of the interfaces of Mg/Al and Al/Ti in the coating was discussed based on the analysis of formation energy of vacancies and diffusion rates. The Al/Ti dual layer enhanced the corrosion resistance of the alloy. And the HT process further increased the corrosion resistance of the coated alloy. This result implies that a post HTat a lower temperature after MS is an effective approach to enhance the bonding strength and corrosion resistance of the Al/Ti film on Mg alloys.

  13. Physical properties of the extreme centaur and super-comet candidate 2013 AZ60

    E-print Network

    Pál, A; Horner, J; Szakáts, R; Vilenius, E; Müller, Th G; Acosta-Pulido, J; Licandro, J; Cabrera-Lavers, A; Sárneczky, K; Szabó, Gy M; Thirouin, A; Sip?cz, B; Dózsa, Á; Duffard, R

    2015-01-01

    We present estimates of the basic physical properties -- including size and albedo -- of the extreme Centaur 2013 AZ60. These properties have been derived from optical and thermal infrared measurements. Our optical measurements revealed a likely full period of ~9.4 h with a shallow amplitude of 4.5%. By combining optical brightness information and thermal emission data, we are able to derive a diameter of 62.3 +/- 5.3 km and a geometric albedo of 2.9% -- corresponding to an extremely dark surface. Additionally, our finding of ~> 50 Jm^{-2}K^{-1}s^{-1/2} for the thermal inertia is also noticeably for objects in such a distance. The results of dynamical simulations yield an unstable orbit, with a 50% probability that the target will be ejected from the Solar System within 700,000 years. The current orbit of this object as well as its instability could imply a pristine cometary surface. This possibility is in agreement with the observed low geometric albedo and red photometric colour indices for the object, whic...

  14. A study of strontium doped calcium phosphate coatings on AZ31.

    PubMed

    Singh, Satish S; Roy, Abhijit; Lee, Boeun E; Ohodnicki, John; Loghmanian, Autrine; Banerjee, Ipsita; Kumta, Prashant N

    2014-07-01

    Calcium phosphate (CaP) coatings have been studied to tailor the uncontrolled non-uniform corrosion of Mg based alloys while simultaneously enhancing bioactivity. The use of immersion techniques to deposit CaP coatings is attractive due to the ability of the approach to coat complex structures. In the current study, AZ31 substrates were subjected to various pretreatment conditions prior to depositing Sr(2+) doped and undoped CaP coatings. It was hypothesized that the bioactivity and corrosion protection of CaP coatings could be improved by doping with Sr(2+). Heat treatment to elevated temperatures resulted in the diffusion of alloying elements, Mg and Zn, into the pretreated layer. Sr(2+) doped and undoped CaP coatings formed on the pretreated substrates consisted of biphasic mixtures of ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) and hydroxyapatite (HA). Electrochemical corrosion experiments indicated that the extent of Sr(2+) doping and pretreatment both influenced the corrosion protection. Cytotoxicity was evaluated with MC3T3-E1 mouse preosteoblasts and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). For both cell types, proliferation decreased upon increasing the Sr(2+) concentration. However, both osteogenic gene and protein expression significantly increased upon increasing Sr(2+) concentration. These results suggest that Sr(2+) doped coatings are capable of promoting osteogenic differentiation on degradable Mg alloys, while also enhancing corrosion protection, in comparison to undoped CaP coatings. PMID:24857503

  15. Semisolid die forging process, microstructures and properties of AZ31 magnesium alloy mobile telephone shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Ren-Guo; Chen, Li-Qing; Cao, Fu-Rong; Zhao, Zhan-Yong; Ren, Yong

    2011-12-01

    A semisolid slurry of AZ31 magnesium alloy was prepared by vibrating wavelike sloping plate process, and the semisolid die forging process, microstructures, and properties of the magnesium alloy mobile telephone shell were investigated. The semisolid forging process was performed on a YA32-315 four-column universal hydraulic press. The microstructures were observed by optical microscopy, the hardness was analyzed with a model 450SVD Vickers hardometer, the mechanical properties was measured with a CMT5105 tensile test machine, and the fractograph of elongated specimens was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results reveal that with the increase of die forging force, the microstructures of the product become fine and dense. A lower preheating temperature and a longer dwell time are favorable to the formation of fine and dense microstructures. The optimum process conditions of preparing mobile telephone shells with excellent surface quality and microstructures are a die forging force of 2000 kN, a die preheating temperature of 250°C, and a dwell time of 240 s. After solution treatment at 430°C and aging at 220°C for 8 h, the Vickers hardness is 61.7 and the ultimate tensile strength of the product is 193 MPa. Tensile fractographs show the mixing mechanisms of quasi-cleavage fracture and ductile fracture.

  16. Effects of CH3OH Addition on Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation of AZ31 Magnesium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yongyi; Chen, Li; Yan, Zongcheng; Zhang, Yalei

    2015-09-01

    Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) films on AZ31 magnesium alloys were prepared in alkaline silicate electrolytes (base electrolyte) with the addition of different volume concentrations of CH3OH, which was used to adjust the thickness of the vapor sheath. The compositions, morphologies, and thicknesses of ceramic layers formed with different CH3OH concentrations were determined via X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Corrosion behavior of the oxide films was evaluated in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution using potentiodynamic polarization tests. PEO coatings mainly comprised Mg, MgO, and Mg2SiO4. The addition of CH3OH in base electrolytes affected the thickness, pores diameter, and Mg2SiO4 content in the films. The films formed in the electrolyte containing 12% CH3OH exhibited the highest thickness. The coatings formed in the electrolyte containing different concentrations of CH3OH exhibited similar corrosion resistance. The energy consumption of PEO markedly decreased upon the addition of CH3OH to the electrolytes. The result is helpful for energy saving in the PEO process. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 21376088), the Project of Production, Education and Research, Guangdong Province and Ministry of Education (Nos. 2012B09100063, 2012A090300015), and Guangzhou Science and Technology Plan Projects of China (No. 2014Y2-00042)

  17. Arthur Heights Baldwin City

    E-print Network

    Farlington Faulkner Fern Filler Five Points Fleming Forest Hills Fort Riley Four Corners Fox Town Fredonia Frontenac Fruitland Ft. Scott Fuller Furley Galena Galesburg Garden City Garden Plain Gardner Garland Gas Lafontaine Lake of the Forest Lake Quivira Lake Ridge Lake Shore Lake View Lakeland Estates Lakeside Acres

  18. Nature in the City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferbert, Mary Lou

    1981-01-01

    Describes a science program developed by the Cleveland Museum of Natural History, "Nature in the City," in which students and teachers learn together about the natural community surrounding their school. Includes program's rationale, list of "adventures," and methods. Discusses strategies of Sherlock Holmes'"adventure" focusing on animal tracks…

  19. Inner-City Dislocations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, William Julius

    1983-01-01

    Although racial discrimination contributes to increasing urban social dislocation, problems such as massive joblessness, the influx of migrants to cities, and demographic shifts underlie the current crisis. Change will only come about through public policies that benefit all the poor, not just poor minorities. (Author/GC)

  20. Bug City: Bees [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic photography, fun…

  1. Clean Cities Tools

    SciTech Connect

    2014-12-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities offers a large collection of Web-based tools on the Alternative Fuels Data Center. These calculators, interactive maps, and data searches can assist fleets, fuels providers, and other transportation decision makers in their efforts to reduce petroleum use.

  2. Chihuahua City

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    1914-01-01

    In this paper, the real-time measuring data with noise undergo wavelet transformation. With the treated data and an internal time-delay Elman network, city heating supply predictive models are established and short-term real-time predictions...

  3. Bug City: Beetles [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic photography, fun…

  4. Nature in the City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karl, Dorie

    1979-01-01

    Graduate forestry students from Yale University cooperate with the New Haven public school system and with youth organizations to present learning experiences in ecology and the environment to inner city children. The program has been operating successfully for ten years. (RE)

  5. Accepted into Education City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asquith, Christina

    2006-01-01

    Qatar's Education City, perhaps the world's most diverse campus, is almost entirely unknown in the United States, but represents the next step in the globalization of American higher education--international franchising. Aided by technology such as online libraries, distance learning and streaming video, U.S. universities offer--and charge tuition…

  6. [City and County Records.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, Judith O.; And Others

    Six papers presented at the Institute were concerned with city and county records. They are: "EWEB and Its Records," which discusses the history, laws and records of the Eugene Water and Electric Board (EWEB);""Police Records: Eugene, Oregon," classifies police records, other than administrative, into three general categories: (1) case or…

  7. New City, New Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Frank

    2010-01-01

    After eight years at the helm of the City College of New York, where Dr. Gregory Williams grew enrollment at the minority-serving institution by 60 percent, instituted more rigorous admissions standards and launched the college's first capital campaign that raised more than $300 million, last fall he became the 27th president of the University of…

  8. Bug City: Ants [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children (grades 1-6) learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic…

  9. Sinking coastal cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkens, Gilles; Bucx, Tom; Dam, Rien; De Lange, Ger; Lambert, John

    2014-05-01

    In many coastal and delta cities land subsidence now exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten. Without action, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other coastal cities will sink below sea level. Land subsidence increases flood vulnerability (frequency, inundation depth and duration of floods), with floods causing major economic damage and loss of lives. In addition, differential land movement causes significant economic losses in the form of structural damage and high maintenance costs. This effects roads and transportation networks, hydraulic infrastructure - such as river embankments, sluice gates, flood barriers and pumping stations -, sewage systems, buildings and foundations. The total damage worldwide is estimated at billions of dollars annually. Excessive groundwater extraction after rapid urbanization and population growth is the main cause of severe land subsidence. In addition, coastal cities are often faced with larger natural subsidence, as they are built on thick sequences of soft soil. Because of ongoing urbanization and population growth in delta areas, in particular in coastal megacities, there is, and will be, more economic development in subsidence-prone areas. The impacts of subsidence are further exacerbated by extreme weather events (short term) and rising sea levels (long term).Consequently, detrimental impacts will increase in the near future, making it necessary to address subsidence related problems now. Subsidence is an issue that involves many policy fields, complex technical aspects and governance embedment. There is a need for an integrated approach in order to manage subsidence and to develop appropriate strategies and measures that are effective and efficient on both the short and long term. Urban (ground)water management, adaptive flood risk management and related spatial planning strategies are just examples of the options available. A major rethink is needed to deal with the 'hidden' but urgent threat of subsidence. As subsidence is spatially different and can be caused by multi processes, an assessment of subsidence in delta cities needs to answer questions such as: what are the main causes, how much is the current subsidence rate and what are future scenarios (and interaction with other major environmental issues), where are the vulnerable areas, what are the impacts and risks, how can adverse impacts can be mitigated or compensated for, and who is involved and responsible to act? In this study a quick-assessment of subsidence is performed on the following mega-cities: Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Dhaka, New Orleans and Bangkok. Results of these case studies will be presented and compared, and a (generic) approach how to deal with subsidence in current and future subsidence-prone areas is provided.

  10. 26. 'CITY HOSPITAL, BLACKWELL'S ISLAND.' (Source: New York City Department ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. 'CITY HOSPITAL, BLACKWELL'S ISLAND.' (Source: New York City Department of Public Finance, Real Estate Owned by the City of New York under Jurisdiction of the Department of Public Charities, 1909.) - Island Hospital, Roosevelt Island, New York, New York County, NY

  11. Transient Liquid Phase Diffusion Bonding of Magnesium Alloy (Mg-AZ31) to Titanium Alloy (Ti-6Al-4V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atieh, Anas Mahmoud

    The magnesium alloy Mg-AZ31 and titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V have physical characteristics and mechanical properties that makes it attractive for a wide range of engineering applications in the aerospace and automotive industries. However, the differences in melting temperature and coefficient of thermal expansion hinder the use of traditional fusion welding techniques. Transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding of magnesium alloy Mg-AZ31 and titanium alloy Ti-6Al- 4V was performed and different interlayer types and configurations were used to facilitate joint formation. The joining of these alloys using Ni foils was successful at a bonding temperature of 515°C, bonding pressure 0.2 MPa, for bonding time of 5 minutes. At the Ni/Mg-AZ31 bond interface, the formation of a eutectic liquid between Mg and Ni was observed. The formation of Mg2Ni and Mg3AlNi2 were identified along the bond interface resulting in an isothermally solidified joint. At the Ni/Ti-6Al-4V interface, the solid-state diffusion process results in joint formation. The use of double Ni-Cu sandwich joint resulted in further enhancement in joint formation and this produced joints with greater shear strength values. The configuration of Mg-AZ31/Cu- Ni/Ti-6Al-4V or Mg-AZ31/Ni-Cu/Ti-6Al-4V influence the mechanism of bonding and the type of intermetallics formed within the joint. The application of thin Ni electrodeposited coatings resulted in further enhancements of joint quality due to better surface-to-surface contact and a reduction in the formation of intermetallics at the joint. The effect of Cu nano-particles in the coatings was found to decrease the eutectic zone width and this resulted in an increase the shear strength of the joints. The highest shear strength of 69 MPa was possible with bonds made using coatings containing Cu nano-particle dispersion.

  12. Kipple kaboodle : reincarnating California city

    E-print Network

    Pho, Susanna Wansan

    2015-01-01

    California City is a superlative shrinking suburb. Situated deep in the Mojave Desert, the conditions that typically spur suburban shrinkage are exaggerated here. As such, the city provides a singular opportunity to comment ...

  13. Social Studies: Cities in Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulkner, Brenda F.

    This elective quinmester program for grades 10 through 12 focuses upon the study of urban problems. Students analyze city problems taking into consideration ecology, city planning, model cities, and other factors in an attempt to provide creative solutions. The course is arranged into seven sections. Student activities are to: 1) discuss the…

  14. New York City's Education Battles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Peter

    2008-01-01

    When Bloomberg gave his first State of the City address, in January, 2002, he announced his intention to seek mayoral control of the schools and abolish the infamous New York City Board of Education, which he called "a rinky-dink candy store." He joined a long list of New York mayors, educators, and business leaders who believed that the city's…

  15. Rapid City, SD Showcase Streamgage

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A USGS South Dakota Water Science Center streamgage was dedicated by Congressional and city officials on September 3 in Rapid City. This showcase streamgage is located on Rapid Creek at Rapid City in Founders Park and provides visitors with critical information about how streamflow is meas...

  16. City-City Correlations to Introduce Galaxy-Galaxy Correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. M.

    2014-07-01

    The large-scale structure of the Universe, vividly displayed by the spatial distribution of galaxies, is characterised quanti- tatively by the two-point galaxy-galaxy correlation function. But the meaning of the correlation function is somewhat abstract because it does not have a ready analogy. This work computes the two-dimensional, two-point city-city correlation function for three populous regions of the United States, demonstrating that the city-city correlation function is analogous to the galaxy-galaxy correlation function determined from Sloan Digital Sky Survey data. City radii are analogous to galaxy cluster radii, and city-to-city distances are analogous to distances between galaxy clusters. Part of this work has been adapted for a lab suitable for non-experts.

  17. Expression of Non-acetylatable H2A.Z in Myoblast Cells Blocks Myoblast Differentiation through Disruption of MyoD Expression.

    PubMed

    Law, Cindy; Cheung, Peter

    2015-05-22

    H2A.Z is a histone H2A variant that is essential for viability in Tetrahymena and Drosophila and also during embryonic development of mice. Although implicated in diverse cellular processes, including transcriptional regulation, chromosome segregation, and heterochromatin formation, its essential function in cells remains unknown. Cellular differentiation is part of the developmental process of multicellular organisms. To elucidate the roles of H2A.Z and H2A.Z acetylation in cellular differentiation, we examined the effects of expressing wild type (WT) or a non-acetylatable form of H2A.Z in the growth and differentiation of the myoblast C2C12 cell line. Ectopic expression of wild type or mutant H2A.Z resulted in distinct phenotypes in the differentiation of the C2C12 cells and the formation of myotubes. Most strikingly, expression of the H2A.Z non-acetylatable mutant (H2A.Z-Ac-mut) resulted in a complete block of myoblast differentiation. We determined that this phenotype is caused by a loss of MyoD expression in the Ac-mut-expressing cells prior to and after induction of differentiation. Moreover, chromatin accessibility assays showed that the promoter region of MyoD is less accessible in the differentiation-defective cells. Altogether, these new findings show that expression of the Ac-mut form of H2A.Z resulted in a dominant phenotype that blocked differentiation due to chromatin changes at the MyoD promoter. PMID:25839232

  18. Garden City, Kansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Center pivot irrigation systems create red circles of healthy vegetation in this image of croplands near Garden City, Kansas. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on September 25, 2000. This is a false-color composite image made using near infrared, red, and green wavelengths. The image has also been sharpened using the sensor's panchromatic band. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  19. The Origin of Fracture in the I-ECAP of AZ31B Magnesium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gzyl, Michal; Rosochowski, Andrzej; Boczkal, Sonia; Qarni, Muhammad Jawad

    2015-11-01

    Magnesium alloys are very promising materials for weight-saving structural applications due to their low density, comparing to other metals and alloys currently used. However, they usually suffer from a limited formability at room temperature and low strength. In order to overcome those issues, processes of severe plastic deformation (SPD) can be utilized to improve mechanical properties, but processing parameters need to be selected with care to avoid fracture, very often observed for those alloys during forming. In the current work, the AZ31B magnesium alloy was subjected to SPD by incremental equal-channel angular pressing (I-ECAP) at temperatures varying from 398 K to 525 K (125 °C to 250 °C) to determine the window of allowable processing parameters. The effects of initial grain size and billet rotation scheme on the occurrence of fracture during I-ECAP were investigated. The initial grain size ranged from 1.5 to 40 ľm and the I-ECAP routes tested were A, BC, and C. Microstructures of the processed billets were characterized before and after I-ECAP. It was found that a fine-grained and homogenous microstructure was required to avoid fracture at low temperatures. Strain localization arising from a stress relaxation within recrystallized regions, namely twins and fine-grained zones, was shown to be responsible for the generation of microcracks. Based on the I-ECAP experiments and available literature data for ECAP, a power law between the initial grain size and processing conditions, described by a Zener-Hollomon parameter, has been proposed. Finally, processing by various routes at 473 K (200 °C) revealed that route A was less prone to fracture than routes BC and C.

  20. Increased corrosion resistance of the AZ80 magnesium alloy by rapid solidification.

    PubMed

    Aghion, E; Jan, L; Meshi, L; Goldman, J

    2015-11-01

    Magnesium (Mg) and Mg-alloys are being considered as implantable biometals. Despite their excellent biocompatibility and good mechanical properties, their rapid corrosion is a major impediment precluding their widespread acceptance as implantable biomaterials. Here, we investigate the potential for rapid solidification to increase the corrosion resistance of Mg alloys. To this end, the effect of rapid solidification on the environmental and stress corrosion behavior of the AZ80 Mg alloy vs. its conventionally cast counterpart was evaluated in simulated physiological electrolytes. The microstructural characteristics were examined by optical microscopy, SEM, TEM, and X-ray diffraction analysis. The corrosion behavior was evaluated by immersion, salt spraying, and potentiodynamic polarization. Stress corrosion resistance was assessed by Slow Strain Rate Testing. The results indicate that the corrosion resistance of rapidly solidified ribbons is significantly improved relative to the conventional cast alloy due to the increased Al content dissolved in the ?-Mg matrix and the correspondingly reduced presence of the ?-phase (Mg17 Al12 ). Unfortunately, extrusion consolidated solidified ribbons exhibited a substantial reduction in the environmental performance and stress corrosion resistance. This was mainly attributed to the detrimental effect of the extrusion process, which enriched the iron impurities and increased the internal stresses by imposing a higher dislocation density. In terms of immersion tests, the average corrosion rate of the rapidly solidified ribbons was <0.4 mm/year compared with ?2 mm/year for the conventionally cast alloy and 26 mm/year for the rapidly solidified extruded ribbons. Š 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 103B: 1541-1548, 2015. PMID:25491147

  1. Early Science with the Large Millimeter Telescope: CO and [C II] Emission in the z = 4.3 AzTEC J095942.9+022938 (COSMOS AzTEC-1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Min S.; Aretxaga, I.; Gurwell, M. A.; Hughes, D. H.; Montańa, A.; Narayanan, G.; Rosa-González, D.; Sánchez-Argüelles, D.; Schloerb, F. P.; Snell, R. L.; Vega, O.; Wilson, G. W.; Zeballos, M.; Chavez, M.; Cybulski, R.; Díaz-Santos, T.; De La Luz, V.; Erickson, N.; Ferrusca, D.; Gim, H. B.; Heyer, M. H.; Iono, D.; Pope, A.; Rogstad, S. M.; Scott, K. S.; Souccar, K.; Terlevich, E.; Terlevich, R.; Wilner, D.; Zavala, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Measuring redshifted CO line emission is an unambiguous method for obtaining an accurate redshift and total cold gas content of optically faint, dusty starburst systems. Here, we report the first successful spectroscopic redshift determination of AzTEC J095942.9+022938 (`COSMOS AzTEC-1'), the brightest 1.1 mm continuum source found in the AzTEC/James Clerk Maxwell Telescope survey (Scott et al.), through a clear detection of the redshifted CO (4-3) and CO (5-4) lines using the Redshift Search Receiver on the Large Millimeter Telescope. The CO redshift of z = 4.3420 ą 0.0004 is confirmed by the detection of the redshifted 158 ?m [C II] line using the Submillimeter Array. The new redshift and Herschel photometry yield LFIR = (1.1 ą 0.1) × 1013 L? and SFR ? 1300 M? yr-1. Its molecular gas mass derived using the ultraluminous infrared galaxy conversion factor is 1.4 ą 0.2 × 1011M? while the total interstellar medium mass derived from the 1.1 mm dust continuum is 3.7 ą 0.7 × 1011M? assuming Td = 35 K. Our dynamical mass analysis suggests that the compact gas disc (r ? 1.1 kpc, inferred from dust continuum and spectral energy distribution analysis) has to be nearly face-on, providing a natural explanation for the uncommonly bright, compact stellar light seen by the HST. The [C II] line luminosity L_[C II]= 7.8ą 1.1 × 10^9 L_{?} is remarkably high, but it is only 0.04 per cent of the total IR luminosity. AzTEC COSMOS-1 and other high redshift sources with a spatially resolved size extend the tight trend seen between [C II]/FIR ratio and ?FIR among IR-bright galaxies reported by Díaz-Santos et al. by more than an order of magnitude, supporting the explanation that the higher intensity of the IR radiation field is responsible for the `[C II] deficiency' seen among luminous starburst galaxies.

  2. Is a healthy city also an age-friendly city?

    PubMed

    Jackisch, Josephine; Zamaro, Gianna; Green, Geoff; Huber, Manfred

    2015-06-01

    Healthy Ageing is an important focus of the European Healthy Cities Network and has been supported by WHO since 2003 as a key strategic topic, since 2010 in cooperation with the Global Network of Age-friendly Cities and Communities. Based on the methodology of realist evaluation, this article synthesizes qualitative evidence from 33 structured case studies (CS) from 32 WHO European Healthy Cities, 72 annual reports from Network cities and 71 quantitative responses to a General Evaluation Questionnaire. City cases are assigned to three clusters containing the eight domains of an age-friendly city proposed by WHO's Global Age-friendly City Guide published in 2007. The analysis of city's practice and efforts in this article takes stock of how cities have developed the institutional prerequisites and processes necessary for implementing age-friendly strategies, programmes and projects. A content analysis of the CS maps activities across age-friendly domains and illustrates how cities contribute to improving the social and physical environments of older people and enhance the health and social services provided by municipalities and their partners. PMID:26069312

  3. Nano-hydroxyapatite reinforced AZ31 magnesium alloy by friction stir processing: a solid state processing for biodegradable metal matrix composites.

    PubMed

    Ratna Sunil, B; Sampath Kumar, T S; Chakkingal, Uday; Nandakumar, V; Doble, Mukesh

    2014-04-01

    Friction stir processing (FSP) was successfully adopted to fabricate nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) reinforced AZ31 magnesium alloy composite as well as to achieve fine grain structure. The combined effect of grain refinement and the presence of embedded nHA particles on enhancing the biomineralization and controlling the degradation of magnesium were studied. Grain refinement from 56 to ~4 and 2 ?m was observed at the stir zones of FSP AZ31 and AZ31-nHA composite respectively. The immersion studies in super saturated simulated body fluid (SBF 5×) for 24 h suggest that the increased wettability due to fine grain structure and nHA particles present in the AZ31-nHA composite initiated heterogeneous nucleation which favored the early nucleation and growth of calcium-phosphate mineral phase. The nHA particles as nucleation sites initiated rapid biomineralization in the composite. After 72 h of immersion the degradation due to localized pitting was observed to be reduced by enhanced biomineralization in both the FSPed AZ31 and the composite. Also, best corrosion behavior was observed for the composite before and after immersion test. MTT assay using rat skeletal muscle (L6) cells showed negligible toxicity for all the processed and unprocessed samples. However, cell adhesion was observed to be more on the composite due to the small grain size and incorporated nHA. PMID:24375146

  4. Histone H2A.Z has a conserved function that is distinct from that of the major H2A sequence variants.

    PubMed

    Jackson, J D; Gorovsky, M A

    2000-10-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains three genes that encode members of the histone H2A gene family. The last of these to be discovered, HTZ1 (also known as HTA3), encodes a member of the highly conserved H2A.Z class of histones. Little is known about how its in vivo function compares with that of the better studied genes (HTA1 and HTA2) encoding the two major H2As. We show here that, while the HTZ1 gene encoding H2A.Z is not essential in budding yeast, its disruption results in slow growth and formamide sensitivity. Using plasmid shuffle experiments, we show that the major H2A genes cannot provide the function of HTZ1 and the HTZ1 gene cannot provide the essential function of the genes encoding the major H2As. We also demonstrate for the first time that H2A.Z genes are functionally conserved by showing that the gene encoding the H2A.Z variant of the ciliated protozoan TETRAHYMENA: thermophila is able to rescue the phenotypes associated with disruption of the yeast HTZ1 gene. Thus, the functions of H2A.Z are distinct from those of the major H2As and are highly conserved. PMID:11000274

  5. Global regulation of H2A.Z localization by the INO80 chromatin remodeling enzyme is essential for genome integrity

    PubMed Central

    Papamichos-Chronakis, Manolis; Watanabe, Shinya; Rando, Oliver J.; Peterson, Craig L.

    2010-01-01

    Summary INO80 is an evolutionarily conserved, ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling enzyme that plays roles in transcription, DNA repair, and replication. Here, we show that yeast INO80 facilitates these diverse processes at least in part by controlling genome-wide distribution of the histone variant H2A.Z. In the absence of INO80, H2A.Z nucleosomes are mis-localized, and H2A.Z levels at promoters show reduced responsiveness to transcriptional changes, suggesting that INO80 controls H2A.Z dynamics. Additionally, we demonstrate that INO80 has a novel histone exchange activity in which the enzyme can replace nucleosomal H2A.Z/H2B with free H2A/H2B dimers. Genetic interactions between ino80 and htz1 support a model in which INO80 catalyzes the removal of unacetylated H2A.Z from chromatin as a novel mechanism to promote genome stability. PMID:21241891

  6. A tale of two machines: a review of the BLAST meeting, Tucson, AZ, 20-24 January 2013.

    PubMed

    Josenhans, Christine; Jung, Kirsten; Rao, Christopher V; Wolfe, Alan J

    2014-01-01

    Since its inception, Bacterial Locomotion and Signal Transduction (BLAST) meetings have been the place to exchange and share the latest developments in the field of bacterial signal transduction and motility. At the 12th BLAST meeting, held last January in Tucson, AZ, researchers from all over the world met to report and discuss progress in diverse aspects of the field. The majority of these advances, however, came at the level of atomic level structures and their associated mechanisms. This was especially true of the biological machines that sense and respond to environmental changes. PMID:24125587

  7. The mechanical properties and microstructures of AZ91D magnesium alloy processed by selective laser cladding with Al powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Pengyu; Zhang, Zhihui; Ren, Luquan

    2014-08-01

    This work focuses on the effects of selective laser cladding using Al powder on the properties and microstructure of Mg alloy AZ91D, with different experimental parameters. The scanning strategy was inspired by the alternately hard-soft shell surface structures. The microstructure was greatly refined. Furthermore, the growth of the ?-Mg17Al12 dendrite was curbed. The treatment depth is ~900 ?m. The UTS, YS and microhardness were notably increased. However, the ductility was decreased by a part. The output power of 2200 W and the scanning speed of 180 mm/min are the optimum combination. The resulting wear resistance was thus the highest of all.

  8. Estimate of the Distribution of Solids Within Mixed Hanford Double-Shell Tank AZ-101: Implications for AY-102

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, Beric E.; Ressler, Jennifer J.

    2009-04-29

    This paper describes the current level of understanding of the suspension of solids in Hanford double-shell waste tanks while being mixed with the baseline configuration of two 300-horsepower mixer pumps. A mixer pump test conducted in Tank AZ-101 during fiscal year 2000 provided the basis for this understanding. Information gaps must be filled to demonstrate the capability of the baseline feed delivery system to effectively mix, sample, and deliver double-shell tank waste to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) for vitrification.

  9. Diffusion Bonding Behavior and Characterization of Joints Made Between 316L Stainless Steel Alloy and AZ31 Magnesium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elthalabawy, Waled Mohamed

    The 316L austenitic stainless steel and AZ31 magnesium alloy have physical and mechanical properties which makes these alloys suitable in a number of high technology based industries such as the aerospace and automotive sectors. However, for these alloys to be used in engineering applications, components must be fabricated and joined successfully. The differences in the physical and metallurgical properties between these two alloys prevents the use of conventional fusion welding processes commonly employed in aerospace and transport industry. Therefore, alternative techniques need to be developed and diffusion bonding technology is a process that has considerable potential to join these two dissimilar alloys. In this research work both solid-state and transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding processes were applied. The solid-state bonding of 316L steel to AZ31 magnesium alloy was possible at a bonding temperature of 550°C for 120 minutes using a pressure of 1.3 MPa. The interface characterization of the joint showed a thin intermetallic zone rich in Fe-Al was responsible for providing a metallurgical bond. However, low joint shear strengths were recorded and this was attributed to the poor surface to surface contact. The macro-deformation of the AZ31 alloy prevented the use of higher bonding pressures and longer bonding times. In order to overcome these problems, the TLP bonding process was implemented using pure Cu and Ni foils as interlayers which produced a eutectic phase at the bonding temperature. This research identified the bonding mechanism through microstructural and differential scanning calorimetry investigations. The microstructural characterization of the TLP joints identified intermetallics which became concentrated along the 316L steel/AZ31 bond interface due to the "pushing effect" of the solid/liquid interface during isothermal solidification stage of bonding. The size and concentration of the intermetallics had a noticeable effect on the final joint strength properties. TLP bonding using electrodeposited coatings of Cu and Ni were used as a way of controlling the volume of eutectic liquid formed at the joint. Theoretical and experimental work showed that the use of thin coatings was successful in reducing the size and amount of intermetallics formed at the joint and this had the effect on increasing joint shear strength values.

  10. Wetting and Interfacial Characteristics of Mg AZ61 Alloy/Galvanized Steel in Cold Metal Transfer Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Qiaoli; Yang, Fan; Cao, Rui; Chen, Jianhong; Guo, Tingbiao

    2015-09-01

    The dynamic sessile drop method was used to study the wetting behavior of galvanized steel by molten Mg AZ61 alloy under cold metal transfer condition. The interfacial microstructures were also analyzed by using scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectrometry. The observed results showed that the wetting behavior was directly determined by the wire feed speed (or the heat input). The Al-Fe intermetallic layer and Zn-rich zone were observed both at the interface and at the close of triple line. The formations of these interfacial characteristics satisfy the thermodynamic characteristic of Mg-Al/Fe and Mg-Zn/Fe systems.

  11. Large cities are less green

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Erneson A.; Andrade, José S.; Makse, Hernán A.

    2014-01-01

    We study how urban quality evolves as a result of carbon dioxide emissions as urban agglomerations grow. We employ a bottom-up approach combining two unprecedented microscopic data on population and carbon dioxide emissions in the continental US. We first aggregate settlements that are close to each other into cities using the City Clustering Algorithm (CCA) defining cities beyond the administrative boundaries. Then, we use data on CO2 emissions at a fine geographic scale to determine the total emissions of each city. We find a superlinear scaling behavior, expressed by a power-law, between CO2 emissions and city population with average allometric exponent ? = 1.46 across all cities in the US. This result suggests that the high productivity of large cities is done at the expense of a proportionally larger amount of emissions compared to small cities. Furthermore, our results are substantially different from those obtained by the standard administrative definition of cities, i.e. Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA). Specifically, MSAs display isometric scaling emissions and we argue that this discrepancy is due to the overestimation of MSA areas. The results suggest that allometric studies based on administrative boundaries to define cities may suffer from endogeneity bias. PMID:24577263

  12. Large cities are less green.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Erneson A; Andrade, José S; Makse, Hernán A

    2014-01-01

    We study how urban quality evolves as a result of carbon dioxide emissions as urban agglomerations grow. We employ a bottom-up approach combining two unprecedented microscopic data on population and carbon dioxide emissions in the continental US. We first aggregate settlements that are close to each other into cities using the City Clustering Algorithm (CCA) defining cities beyond the administrative boundaries. Then, we use data on CO2 emissions at a fine geographic scale to determine the total emissions of each city. We find a superlinear scaling behavior, expressed by a power-law, between CO2 emissions and city population with average allometric exponent ? = 1.46 across all cities in the US. This result suggests that the high productivity of large cities is done at the expense of a proportionally larger amount of emissions compared to small cities. Furthermore, our results are substantially different from those obtained by the standard administrative definition of cities, i.e. Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA). Specifically, MSAs display isometric scaling emissions and we argue that this discrepancy is due to the overestimation of MSA areas. The results suggest that allometric studies based on administrative boundaries to define cities may suffer from endogeneity bias. PMID:24577263

  13. Securing water for the cities.

    PubMed

    Satterthwaite, D

    1993-01-01

    Many cities in developing countries have grown so much that they can no longer provide adequate, sustainable water. Over pumping in Dakar and Mexico City has forced those cities to obtain water from ever more distant sources. In Dakar, the result has been saltwater intrusion. Overpumping has caused Mexico City to sink, in some areas by as much as 9 m, resulting in serious damage to buildings and sewage and drainage pipes. Other cities facing similar water problems are coastal cities in Peru (e.g., Lima), La Rioja and Catamarca in Argentina, cities in Northern Mexico, and cities in dry areas of Africa. For some cities, the problem is not so much ever more distant water supplies but insufficient funds to expand supplies. Bangkok and Jakarta both face saltwater intrusion into their overdrawn aquifers. Even through agriculture is the dominant user of water in most countries, demand concentrated in a small area exhausts local and regional sources and pollutes rivers, lakes, and coasts with untreated human and industrial waste. Most cities in Africa and Asia do not have a sewerage system. Further, most cities do not have the drains to deal with storm water and external floodwater, causing frequent, seasonal flooding. The resulting stagnant water provides breeding grounds for insect vectors of diseases (e.g., malaria). The problems in most cities are a result of poor management, not lack of water. Reducing leaks in existing piped distribution systems from the usual 60% loss of water to leaks to 12% would increase the available water 2-fold. Another way to address water shortages would be commercial, industrial, and recreational use of minimally treated waste water, such as is the case in Madras and Mexico City. Political solutions are needed to resolve inadequate water supply and waste management. PMID:12287008

  14. CityGML - Interoperable semantic 3D city models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gröger, Gerhard; Plümer, Lutz

    2012-07-01

    CityGML is the international standard of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) for the representation and exchange of 3D city models. It defines the three-dimensional geometry, topology, semantics and appearance of the most relevant topographic objects in urban or regional contexts. These definitions are provided in different, well-defined Levels-of-Detail (multiresolution model). The focus of CityGML is on the semantical aspects of 3D city models, its structures, taxonomies and aggregations, allowing users to employ virtual 3D city models for advanced analysis and visualization tasks in a variety of application domains such as urban planning, indoor/outdoor pedestrian navigation, environmental simulations, cultural heritage, or facility management. This is in contrast to purely geometrical/graphical models such as KML, VRML, or X3D, which do not provide sufficient semantics. CityGML is based on the Geography Markup Language (GML), which provides a standardized geometry model. Due to this model and its well-defined semantics and structures, CityGML facilitates interoperable data exchange in the context of geo web services and spatial data infrastructures. Since its standardization in 2008, CityGML has become used on a worldwide scale: tools from notable companies in the geospatial field provide CityGML interfaces. Many applications and projects use this standard. CityGML is also having a strong impact on science: numerous approaches use CityGML, particularly its semantics, for disaster management, emergency responses, or energy-related applications as well as for visualizations, or they contribute to CityGML, improving its consistency and validity, or use CityGML, particularly its different Levels-of-Detail, as a source or target for generalizations. This paper gives an overview of CityGML, its underlying concepts, its Levels-of-Detail, how to extend it, its applications, its likely future development, and the role it plays in scientific research. Furthermore, its relationship to other standards from the fields of computer graphics and computer-aided architectural design and to the prospective INSPIRE model are discussed, as well as the impact CityGML has and is having on the software industry, on applications of 3D city models, and on science generally.

  15. SETD6 monomethylates H2AZ on lysine 7 and is required for the maintenance of embryonic stem cell self-renewal

    PubMed Central

    Binda, Olivier; Sevilla, Ana; LeRoy, Gary; Lemischka, Ihor R.; Garcia, Benjamin A.; Richard, Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    The histone H2A variant H2AZ is an essential chromatin signaling factor. Herein, we report that H2AZ is monomethylated at lysine 7 (H2AZK7me1) by the lysine methyltransferase SETD6. We observed that methylation of H2AZ increased noticeably upon cellular differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). H2AZK7me1 and the repressive H3K27me3 mark were found near the transcriptional start sites of differentiation marker genes, but were removed upon retinoic acid-induced cellular differentiation. The depletion of Setd6 in mESCs led to cellular differentiation, compromised self-renewal, and poor clonogenicity. These findings demonstrate that mESCs require Setd6 for self-renewal and portray H2AZK7me1 as a marker of cellular differentiation. PMID:23324626

  16. Spermidine triggering effect to the signal transduction through the AtoS-AtoC/Az two-component system in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Theodorou, Marina C; Theodorou, Evaggelos C; Panagiotidis, Christos A; Kyriakidis, Dimitrios A

    2007-08-01

    Recent analysis revealed that, in Escherichia coli the AtoS-AtoC/Az two-component system (TCS) and its target atoDAEB operon regulate the biosynthesis of short-chain poly-(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate (cPHB) biosynthesis, a biopolymer with many physiological roles, upon acetoacetate-mediated induction. We report here that spermidine further enhanced this effect, in E. coli that overproduces both components of the AtoS-AtoC/Az TCS, without altering their protein levels. However, bacteria that overproduce either AtoS or AtoC did not display this phenotype. The extrachromosomal introduction of AtoS-AtoC/Az in an E. coli DeltaatoSC strain restored cPHB biosynthesis to the level of the atoSC(+) cells, in the presence of the polyamine. Lack of enhanced cPHB production was observed in cells overproducing the TCS that did not have the atoDAEB operon. Spermidine attained the cPHB enhancement through the AtoC/Az response regulator phosphorylation, since atoC phosphorylation site mutants, which overproduce AtoS, accumulated less amounts of cPHB, compared to their wild-type counterparts. Exogenous addition of N(8)-acetyl-spermidine resulted in elevated amounts of cPHB but at lower levels than those attained upon spermidine addition. Furthermore, AtoS-AtoC/Az altered the intracellular distribution of cPHB according to the inducer recognized by the TCS. Overall, AtoS-AtoC/Az TCS was induced by spermidine to regulate both the biosynthesis and the intracellular distribution of cPHB in E. coli. PMID:17475408

  17. City-Management - Eine Erfolgsstory?!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuron, Irene

    2002-03-01

    Seit geraumer Zeit wird das Thema Innenstadt kontrovers diskutiert. Neben dem Niedergang der City und der Konkurrenz zur "Grünen Wiese" werden zugleich die europäische urbane Stadt heraufbeschworen und zahlreiche Aktivitäten zur (Re-)Vitalisierung unternommen. Von privaten Initiativen, Händlergemeinschaften über public-private-partnership-Projekte, wie z.B. Ab in die Mitte" in Nordrhein-Westfalen, bis zum städtischen City-Manager und Landesförderung für Innenstadtprojekte reicht das Repertoire. City-Management ist dabei ein wesentliches Instrument. Wie City-Management in Deutschland aussieht und wie es sich entwickelt, zeigt der folgende Beitrag.

  18. Smart Financing for Smart Cities 

    E-print Network

    Byrd, D.

    2014-01-01

    Industrialization 3Confidential Property of Schneider Electric Rebalancing ESL-KT-14-11-29 CATEE 2014: Clean Air Through Efficiency Conference, Dallas, Texas Nov. 18-20 Today’s Agenda Cities and Our Future A N A h Why Cities Need Smart City Financing ew pproac... Smart Financing Models Conclusion 4 ESL-KT-14-11-29 CATEE 2014: Clean Air Through Efficiency Conference, Dallas, Texas Nov. 18-20 Schneider Electric A Global Leader in Smart Cities and Energy Management Company Overview Diversified end markets FY 2012...

  19. Hydroxyapatite coating on biodegradable AZ31 and Mg-Ca alloys prepared by RF-magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhametkaliyev, T.; Surmeneva, M.; Surmenev, R.; Mathan, B. K.

    2015-11-01

    A thin film of hydroxyapatite (HA) was deposited on AZ31 and Mg-Ca alloys by using radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The thickness of the HA coating was determined to be 750 nm. The phase composition, microstructure, and surface morphology of the HA coatings were investigated using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. In vitro degradation behaviour of the HA coated alloys was evaluated in simulated body fluid (SBF) and 3.5wt.% NaCl solution using electrochemical method. The coatings homogeneously covered the entire surface of the substrates. The coating structure corresponded to a nanostructured HA. The ultrathin coating significantly improved the degradation resistance of the alloy. Nanocrystalline HA coating significantly improved the corrosion resistance of the Mg-Ca and AZ31 magnesium alloys. The polarization resistance (Rp) of the coated Mg-Ca alloy was more than two-order of magnitude higher and the corrosion current density Icorr reduced by ˜ 98% as compared to the base alloy.

  20. A New Constitutive Model for AZ31B Magnesium Alloy Sheet Deformed at Elevated Temperatures and Various Strain Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Duc-Toan

    2014-12-01

    In this study, a new constitutive model is established for AZ31B magnesium alloy sheet at elevated temperatures and strain rates in order to describe two competing mechanisms for deformation, i.e. both work-hardening and softening stage of AZ31B magnesium alloy sheet. Stress-strain curves obtained by conducting uni-axial tensile tests at elevated and strain rates were first separated at the maximum stress and corresponding strain values. Voce's law [25] was then employed to fit separated hardening and softening stage. A MATLAB tool is used to determine material parameters by using least square fitting method at various temperatures and strain rate. The mergence of separated work-hardening and softening equations is in good agreement with experimental data. The parameters of fitting curves are utilized to determine them as a function of temperature and strain rate using a surface fitting method. The final equation is then implemented to predict stress-strain curves at various temperatures and strain rates. The proposed equation showed the good comparability between the simulation results and the corresponding experiments.

  1. Quantitative Analysis of Composition Change in AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Using CF-LIBS After Laser Material Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Dehua; Cao, Yu; Zhong, Rong; Chen, Xiaojing

    2015-11-01

    The concentration of elements in molten metal of AZ31 magnesium alloy after long pulsed Nd:YAG laser processing was quantitatively analyzed by using calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (CF-LIBS). The composition change in AZ31 magnesium alloy under different laser pulse width was also investigated. The experimental results showed that CF-LIBS can obtain satisfactory quantitative or semi-quantitative results for matrix or major elements, while only qualitative analysis was possible for minor or trace elements. Moreover, it is found that the chemical composition of molten metal will change after laser processing. The concentration of magnesium in molten metal is lower than that present in the base metal. The Mg loss increases with an increase of pulse width in the laser processing. This result shows that the selective vaporization of different elements is affected by the pulse width during laser processing. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61405147, 51375348) and the Scientific Research Fund of Zhejiang Provincial Education Department, China (No. Y201430387)

  2. Darkening effect on AZ31B magnesium alloy surface induced by nanosecond pulse Nd:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Y. C.; Zhou, W.; Zheng, H. Y.; Li, Z. L.

    2013-09-01

    Permanent darkening effect was achieved on surface of AZ31B Mg alloy irradiated with nanosecond pulse Nd:YAG laser, and special attention was made to examine how surface structure as well as oxidation affect the darkening effect. Experiments were carried out to characterize morphological evolution and chemical composition of the irradiated areas by optical reflection spectrometer, Talysurf surface profiler, SEM, EDS, and XPS. The darkening effect was found to be occurred at the surface under high laser energy. Optical spectra showed that the induced darkening surface was uniform over the spectral range from 200 nm to 1100 nm. SEM and surface profiler showed that surface morphology of darkening areas consisted of large number of micron scale cauliflower-like clusters and protruding particles. EDS and XPS showed that compared to non-irradiated area, oxygen content at the darkening areas increased significantly. It was proposed a mechanism that involved trapping of light in the surface morphology and chemistry variation of irradiated areas to explain the laser-induced darkening effect on AZ31B Mg alloy.

  3. Numerical Assessment of the Role of Slip and Twinning in Magnesium Alloy AZ31B During Loading Path Reversal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huamiao; Wu, Peidong; Wang, Jian

    2015-07-01

    Magnesium alloy AZ31B plastically deforms via twinning and slip. Corresponding to the unidirectional nature of twinning, the activity of twinning/detwinning is directly related to loading history and materials texture. Using the elastic viscoplastic self-consistent model implementing with the twinning and detwinning model (EVPSC-TDT), we revisited experimental data of AZ31B sheets under four different strain paths: (1) tension-compression-tension along rolling direction, (2) tension-compression-tension along transverse direction, (3) compression-tension-compression along rolling direction, and (4) compression-tension-compression along transverse direction, and identified the dominant deformation mechanisms with respect to the strain path. We captured plastic deformation behaviors observed in experiments and quantitatively interpreted experimental observations in terms of the activities of different deformation mechanisms and the evolution of texture. It is found that the in-plane pre-tension has slight effect on the subsequent deformation, and the pre-compression and the reverse tension after compression have significant effect on the subsequent deformation. The inelastic behavior under compressive unloading is found to be insignificant at a small strain level but pronounced at a large strain level. Such significant effect is mainly ascribed to the activity of twinning and detwinning.

  4. Simulating Intergranular Stress Corrosion Cracking in AZ31 Using Three-Dimensional Cohesive Elements for Grain Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Chen, Z. H.; Dong, C. F.

    2015-11-01

    In this study, a grain boundary model with three-dimensional (3D) cohesive elements for analyzing the intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) on the crystal level in polycrystalline materials is presented. The objectives are to characterize the grain boundary microstructure and the fracture mechanism of IGSCC in AZ31 Mg alloy. In order to investigate the development of the microcrack and its effects on macrocrack evolution, a novel model of IGSCC propagation has been developed, in which the 3D Voronoi tessellations geometry is employed to model polycrystalline grain structures. And the 3D cohesive elements with zero constitutive thickness are directly inserted on the faces of two adjacent grains. The effect of the embrittlement due to the presence of hydrogen has also been included in the cohesive model. To validate the model, an IGSCC process of AZ31 Mg alloy in NaCl solution has been simulated, with the influence of hydrogen concentration being taken into account. It is found that damage develops at the triple lines between the grains and the combinations of grains can lead to high stresses at the grains boundary, especially those that are normal to the direction of the applied strain. In this paper, the effects of damage due to hydrogen and the grain sizes in microstructure are considered. The simulation results have a good consistency with the experimental phenomenon.

  5. The Effect of SiC Particle Addition During FSW on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, M.; Abdollahzadeh, A.; Bagheri, B.; Omidvar, H.

    2015-11-01

    Welding and joining of magnesium alloys exert a profound effect on magnesium application expansion, especially in ground and air transportations where large-size, complex components are required. Due to specific physical properties of magnesium, its welding requires great control. In general, the solid-state nature of friction stir welding (FSW) process has been found to produce a low concentration of defects. In the current research, specimens from AZ31 magnesium alloy were welded together using the friction stir process with previously inserted SiC powder particles in the nugget zone. In other words, during the FSW process, the pre-placed SiC particles were stirred throughout the nugget zone of the weld. The results indicated that proper values of rotation and translation speeds led to good appearance of weld zone and suitable distribution of SiC particles producing increased weld strength. The comparison of the microstructures and mechanical properties of FS-welded AZ31 with those of FS-welded one using pre-placed SiC particles showed that the addition of SiC particles decreased the grain size and increased the strength and the formability index.

  6. A. Bag, W. Zhou, D. Taplin and E. S. Dwarakadasa, Fatigue Behaviour of AZ91D Magnesium Alloy and its Composite Reinforced with SiC, in Magnesium Technology 2000, eds. H. I. Kaplan, J. N. Hryn

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Wei

    A. Bag, W. Zhou, D. Taplin and E. S. Dwarakadasa, Fatigue Behaviour of AZ91D Magnesium Alloy and its Composite Reinforced with SiC, in Magnesium Technology 2000, eds. H. I. Kaplan, J. N. Hryn and B. B. Clow, Nashville, Tennessee, Mar. 2000, pp. 345-348. FATIGUE BEHAVIOUR OF AZ91D MAGNESIUM ALLOY

  7. 300 Cities -An Exploration in Characterizing US Cities

    E-print Network

    and Organizational Systems CASOS technical report. This work was supported by the IRS-Opera for agent300 Cities - An Exploration in Characterizing US Cities Michael K. Martin, Kathleen M. Carley for advances in ORA-GIS. Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this report

  8. Salt Lake City, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympics are hosted by Salt Lake City at several venues within the city, in nearby cities, and within the adjacent Wasatch Mountains. This simulated natural color image presents a late spring view of north central Utah that includes all of the Olympic sites. The image extends from Ogden in the north, to Provo in the south; and includes the snow-capped Wasatch Mountains and the eastern part of the Great Salt Lake.

    This image was acquired on May 28, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Size: 63.5 x 123.3 km (38.1 x 74 miles) Location: 40.7 deg. North lat., 111.9 deg. West long. Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 1,2, and 3. Original Data Resolution: 15 m Date Acquired: May 28, 2000

  9. Smart cities of the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batty, M.; Axhausen, K. W.; Giannotti, F.; Pozdnoukhov, A.; Bazzani, A.; Wachowicz, M.; Ouzounis, G.; Portugali, Y.

    2012-11-01

    Here we sketch the rudiments of what constitutes a smart city which we define as a city in which ICT is merged with traditional infrastructures, coordinated and integrated using new digital technologies. We first sketch our vision defining seven goals which concern: developing a new understanding of urban problems; effective and feasible ways to coordinate urban technologies; models and methods for using urban data across spatial and temporal scales; developing new technologies for communication and dissemination; developing new forms of urban governance and organisation; defining critical problems relating to cities, transport, and energy; and identifying risk, uncertainty, and hazards in the smart city. To this, we add six research challenges: to relate the infrastructure of smart cities to their operational functioning and planning through management, control and optimisation; to explore the notion of the city as a laboratory for innovation; to provide portfolios of urban simulation which inform future designs; to develop technologies that ensure equity, fairness and realise a better quality of city life; to develop technologies that ensure informed participation and create shared knowledge for democratic city governance; and to ensure greater and more effective mobility and access to opportunities for urban populations. We begin by defining the state of the art, explaining the science of smart cities. We define six scenarios based on new cities badging themselves as smart, older cities regenerating themselves as smart, the development of science parks, tech cities, and technopoles focused on high technologies, the development of urban services using contemporary ICT, the use of ICT to develop new urban intelligence functions, and the development of online and mobile forms of participation. Seven project areas are then proposed: Integrated Databases for the Smart City, Sensing, Networking and the Impact of New Social Media, Modelling Network Performance, Mobility and Travel Behaviour, Modelling Urban Land Use, Transport and Economic Interactions, Modelling Urban Transactional Activities in Labour and Housing Markets, Decision Support as Urban Intelligence, Participatory Governance and Planning Structures for the Smart City. Finally we anticipate the paradigm shifts that will occur in this research and define a series of key demonstrators which we believe are important to progressing a science of smart cities.

  10. Kid-Friendly Cities Report Card, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polansky, Lee S., Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This report examines the health and wellbeing of children in the United States' largest cities, covering every city with a population of 100,000 or more, as well as the largest cities in states without any cities of this size. Research shows that many cities are becoming more child-friendly, with better access to good education, jobs, and health…

  11. Educating Cities in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messina, Graciela; Valdés-Cotera, Raúl

    2013-01-01

    This article considers the development of educating cities from a political perspective, illustrating in detail the diversity of organisations and individuals involved and the challenges they are facing. Bearing in mind that educating cities were established from the 1990s onwards in Europe and spread to other continents from there, the purpose of…

  12. Educating cities in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messina, Graciela; Valdés-Cotera, Raúl

    2013-09-01

    This article considers the development of educating cities from a political perspective, illustrating in detail the diversity of organisations and individuals involved and the challenges they are facing. Bearing in mind that educating cities were established from the 1990s onwards in Europe and spread to other continents from there, the purpose of this article is to demonstrate how this proposal was adopted in Latin America. After discussing the basic aims of educating cities, the paper focuses on the Latin American experience, giving examples of existing projects within the educating cities initiative. The authors are particularly interested in the contrast between the political intentions of educating cities on the one hand and the social, economic, political and cultural world on the other hand. They observe that in this context there is a danger of the individual being forgotten, which contradicts the actual intention of the educating city concept. They also discuss the problem of who should carry out the realisation of educating cities and how the various stakeholders might coordinate their actions. Contemplating new directions at the end of their paper, the authors sum up a number of guidelines and offer recommendations for action in developing educating cities.

  13. Cities as nuclei of sustainability?

    E-print Network

    Rybski, Diego; Reusser, Dominik E; Fichtner, Christina; Kropp, Jürgen P

    2013-01-01

    Analyzing CO2 emission inventories of 256 cities from 33 countries we find power-law correlations between the emissions and city size, measured in population. The results suggest that in developing countries more CO2 per capita is emitted in large cities, i.e. they tend to exhibit super-linear correlations and doubling the population of any city implies up to 110% increase of emissions. For developed countries the results suggest the opposite, i.e. linear or sub-linear correlations, implying better efficiency of large cities, doubling the population of any city implies only 80% increase of emissions. The transition occurs at approx. 10,000GDP/cap. We derive how the total emissions of an entire country relate with the power-law correlations and find that the size of the most populated city is dominating in the case of linear and super-linear correlations. The size of the largest city has no influence in the case of sub-linear correlations. We conclude that from the climate change mitigation point of view, urba...

  14. "Learning City" Summer Migrant Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Presson, Johnny E.; Baker, Wilbur L.

    "Learning City" is the theme of a summer education project that provides a unique teaching atmosphere for migrant children. For 2 summers, 130 students have participated in this program that sustains and enforces reading and math skills, as well as helps develop self-concept. Industries in Learning City are the various branches of study: reading…

  15. Knowledge Infrastructures for Solar Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderburg, Willem H.

    2006-01-01

    The evolution of contemporary cities into solar cities will be affected by the decisions of countless specialists according to an established intellectual and professional division of labor. These specialists belong to groups responsible for advancing and applying a body of knowledge, and jointly, these bodies of knowledge make up a knowledge…

  16. New York City: Musically Speaking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiex, Nola Kortner

    New York City as a subject has fascinated generations of artists, writers, and musicians. However, the glamorous image of the city has changed over the years, and in the 1960s, popular music, in particular, began to reflect a utopia/dystopia dichotomy in relation to New York. During the past twenty years, six popular singer-songwriters who have…

  17. City Planning Unit: Grade 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, William Edward

    Described is a project designed to make government lessons and economics more appealing to sixth-grade students by having them set up and run a model city. General preparation procedures and set-up of the project, specific lesson plans, additional activities, and project evaluation are examined. An actual 3-dimensional model city was set up on…

  18. 76 FR 18753 - City of Springfield, Illinois, City Water, Light and Power; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ...EL11-31-000] City of Springfield, Illinois, City Water, Light and Power; Notice of Filing Take notice that on March 24, 2011, The City of Springfield, Illinois, City Water, Light and Power (CWLP), filed its proposed rate schedule,...

  19. Human diffusion and city influence

    E-print Network

    Lenormand, Maxime; Tugores, Antňnia; Ramasco, José J

    2015-01-01

    Cities are characterized by concentrating population, economic activity and services. However, not all cities are equal and hierarchy in terms of influence at local, regional or global scales naturally emerges. Traditionally, there have been important efforts to describe this hierarchy by indirect measures such the sharing of company headquarters, traffic by air, train or boats or economical exchanges. In this work, we take a different approach and introduce a method that uses geolocated Twitter information to quantify the impact of cities on rural or other urban areas. Since geolocated tweets are becoming a global phenomenon, the method can be applied at a world-wide scale. We focus on $58$ cities and analyze the mobility patterns of people after visiting them for the first time. Cities such as Rome and Paris appear consistently as those with largest area covered by Twitter users after their visit and as those attracting visitors most diverse in origin. The study is also performed discerning users mobility b...

  20. Healthy Cities: a guide to the literature.

    PubMed Central

    Kenzer, M

    2000-01-01

    The author reviews the literature on attempts by city governments, international agencies, and nongovernmental and community organizations to improve city life around the world through Healthy Cities projects. PMID:10968770

  1. Sustainable Supply Chain Networks Sustainable Cities

    E-print Network

    Nagurney, Anna

    Sustainable Supply Chain Networks for Sustainable Cities Anna Nagurney Isenberg School Applied Supply Chain Network Game Theory Models of Relevance to Sustainable Cities The Sustainable Supply papers: ˇ "Design of Sustainable Supply Chains for Sustainable Cities," A. Nagurney, in press

  2. City Hall plazas : they're different

    E-print Network

    Hall, Kristen E. (Kristen Elizabeth)

    2008-01-01

    This essay explores the form, goals, and ideals behind city hall plazas by asking the questions: What is the difference between a city hall plaza and any other urban plaza? What are the uses intended by the city in the ...

  3. RACEMIZATION OF METEORITIC AMINO ACIDS. B. A. Cohen1 and C. F. Chyba, The University of Ari-zona, Tucson AZ 85719 1bcohen@lpl.arizona.edu.

    E-print Network

    Cohen, Barbara Anne

    RACEMIZATION OF METEORITIC AMINO ACIDS. B. A. Cohen1 and C. F. Chyba, The University of Ari- zona, Tucson AZ 85719 1bcohen@lpl.arizona.edu. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins, among the most biologically critical molecules. It was first noted in the 1800's that the vast majority of amino acids used

  4. An AzTEC 1.1-mm survey for ULIRGs in the field of the Galaxy Cluster MS 0451.6?0305

    E-print Network

    Wardlow, J. L.; Smail, Ian; Wilson, Graham Wallace; Wilson, G. W.; Yun, M. S.; Coppin, K. E. K.; Cybulski, R.; Geach, J. E.; Ivison, R. J.; Aretxaga, I.; Austermann, J. E.; Edge, A. C.; Fazio, G. G.; Huang, J.; Hughes, D. H.; Kodama, T.; Kang, Y.; Kim, S.; Mauskopf, P. D.; Perera, Thushara A.; Scott, K. S.

    2010-02-01

    , the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), as well as exten- sive archival multiwavelength imaging and spectroscopy, which we employ for determining cluster membership of AzTEC-detected galaxies. Our survey probes the rest-frame 700?m emission of cluster galaxies...

  5. Analysis of metallic traces from the biodegradation of endomedullary AZ31 alloy temporary implants in rat organs after long implantation times.

    PubMed

    Bodelón, O G; Iglesias, C; Garrido, J; Clemente, C; Garcia-Alonso, M C; Escudero, M L

    2015-08-01

    AZ31 alloy has been tested as a biodegradable material in the form of endomedullary implants in female Wistar rat femurs. In order to evaluate the accumulation of potentially toxic elements from the biodegradation of the implant, magnesium (Mg), aluminium (Al), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn) and fluorine (F) levels have been measured in different organs such as kidneys, liver, lungs, spleen and brain. Several factors that may influence accumulation have been taken into account: how long the implant has been in place, whether or not the bone is fractured, and the presence of an MgF2 protective coating on the implant. The main conclusions and the clinical relevance of the study have been that AZ31 endomedullary implants have a degradation rate of about 60% after 13 months, which is fully compatible with fracture consolidation. Neither bone fracture nor an MgF2 coating seems to influence the accumulation of trace elements in the studied organs. Aluminium is the only alloying element in this study that requires special attention. The increase in Al recovered from the sampled organs represents 3.95% of the amount contained in the AZ31 implant. Al accumulates in a statistically significant way in all the organs except the brain. All of this suggests that in long-term tests AZ31 may be a suitable material for osteosynthesis. PMID:26238295

  6. Wide-field Imaging Survey of Dust Continuum Emissions at lambda = 1.1 mm toward the Chamaeleon and Lupus Regions with AzTEC on ASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Momose, Munetake; Hiramatsu, Masaaki; Tsukagoshi, Takashi; Shimajiri, Yoshito; Ezawa, Hajime; Kawabe, Ryohei; Ikeda, Norio; Kitamura, Yoshimi; Kamegai, Kazuhisa; Saito, Masao

    2009-08-05

    We carried out an imaging survey of dust continuum emissions toward the Chamaeleon and Lupus regions. Observations were made with the 144-element bolometer array camera AzTEC mounted on the 10-meter sub-millimeter telescope ASTE during 2007-2008. The preliminary results of disk search and the cloud structure of Lupus III are presented.

  7. An AzTEC 1.1 mm survey of the GOODS-N field – II. Multiwavelength identifications and redshift distribution

    E-print Network

    Chapin, Edward L.; Pope, Alexandra; Scott, Douglas; Aretxaga, I.; Austermann, J. E.; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Coppin, K. E. K.; Halpern, Mark; Hughes, David H.; Lowenthal, James D.; Morrison, Glenn E.; Perera, Thushara A.; Scott, Kimberly S.; Wilson, Graham Wallace; Yun, Min S.

    2009-10-01

    We present results from a multiwavelength study of 29 sources (false detection probabilities <5 per cent) from a survey of the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-North (GOODS-N) field at 1.1 mm using the Astronomical Thermal Emission Camera (Az...

  8. Studies on the inuence of chloride ion and pH on the corrosion and electrochemical behaviour of AZ91D magnesium alloy

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Wei

    91D magnesium alloy R. AMBAT, N.N. AUNG and W. ZHOU School of Mechanical and Production Engineering in revised form 20 January 2000 Key words: AZ91D alloy, chloride ion, corrosion, die-cast, ingot, magnesium of morphology. The corrosion product consisted of magnesium hydroxide, fallen b particles and magnesium

  9. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Adsorptive Media - U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Covered Wells in Tohono O’odham Nation, AZ - Final Performance Evaluation Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents the activities performed and the results obtained from the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at Covered Wells in Tohono O’odham Nation, AZ. The main objective of the project was to evaluate the effectiveness of AdEdge Technologies’ ...

  10. An AzTEC 1.1 mm survey of the GOODS-N field – I. Maps, catalogue and source statistics

    E-print Network

    Perera, Thushara A.; Chapin, E. L.; Austermann, J. E.; Scott, K. S.; Wilson, Graham Wallace; Halpern, Mark; Pope, A.; Scott, D.; Yun, M. S.; Lowenthal, J. D.; Morrison, G.; Aretxaga, I.; Bock, J. J.; Coppin, K. E. K.; Crowe, M.; Frey, L.; Hughes, D. H.; Kang, Y.; Kim, S.; Mauskopf, P. D.

    2008-12-11

    We have conducted a deep and uniform 1.1 mm survey of the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-North (GOODS-N) field with AzTEC on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. Here, we present the first results from this survey ...

  11. AzTEC half square degree survey of the SHADES fields — II. Identifications, redshifts and evidence for large-scale structure

    E-print Network

    Micha?owski, Micha? J.; Dunlop, J. S.; Ivison, R. J.; Cirasuolo, M.; Caputi, K. I.; Aretxaga, I.; Arumugam, V.; Austermann, J. E.; Chapin, E. L.; Chapman, S. C.; Coppin, K. E. K.; Egami, E.; Hughes, D. H.; Ibar, E.; Mortier, A. M. J.; Schael, A. M.; Scott, K. S.; Smail, I.; Targett, T. A.; Wagg, J.; Wilson, Graham Wallace; Xu, L.; Yun, M.

    2013-01-07

    The Astronomical Thermal Emission Camera (AzTEC) 1.1?mm survey of the two SCUBA HAlf Degree Extragalactic Survey (SHADES) fields is the largest (0.7?deg(2)) blank-field millimetre-wavelength (mm-wavelength) survey undertaken to date at a resolution...

  12. Hybrid Al/SiC Composite Optics for IFE Applications W. Kowbel, MER Corp., Tucson, AZ And M. Tillack, UCSD, La Jolla, CA

    E-print Network

    Tillack, Mark

    Hybrid Al/SiC Composite Optics for IFE Applications W. Kowbel, MER Corp., Tucson, AZ And M. Tillack, UCSD, La Jolla, CA I. Introduction Inertial Fusion (IFE) optics presents a unique challenge. Ghoniem [1 laser optics. Figure 1. Current Design Concept for Al/SiC. MER has proposed a highly innovative solution

  13. Evaluating the improvement of corrosion residual strength by adding 1.0 wt.% yttrium into an AZ91D magnesium alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Qiang; Liu Yaohui; Fang Shijie; Song Yulai; Zhang Dawei; Zhang Lina; Li Chunfang

    2010-06-15

    The influence of yttrium on the corrosion residual strength of an AZ91D magnesium alloy was investigated detailedly. Scanning electron microscope was employed to analyze the microstructure and the fractography of the studied alloys. The microstructure of AZ91D magnesium alloy is remarkably refined due to the addition of yttrium. The electrochemical potentiodynamic polarization curve of the studied alloy was performed with a CHI 660b electrochemical station in the three-electrode system. The result reveals that yttrium significantly promotes the overall corrosion resistance of AZ91D magnesium alloy by suppressing the cathodic reaction in corrosion process. However, the nucleation and propagation of corrosion pits on the surface of the 1.0 wt.% Y modified AZ91D magnesium alloy indicate that pitting corrosion still emerges after the addition of yttrium. Furthermore, stress concentration caused by corrosion pits should be responsible for the drop of corrosion residual strength although the addition of yttrium remarkably weakens the effect of stress concentration at the tip of corrosion pits in loading process.

  14. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Modeling and Analysis of Semiconductor Manufacturing, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA, May, 2000.

    E-print Network

    Manufacturing, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA, May, 2000. HIGH-FIDELITY RAPID PROTOTYPING OF THE REAL manufacturing in- dustry has been driven by continuous technological advancement of the underlying production results in Dis- crete Event Systems theory. Furthermore, in addition to the development of the formal

  15. Brigham City Hydro Generation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Ammons, Tom B.

    2015-10-31

    Brigham City owns and operates its own municipal power system which currently includes several hydroelectric facilities. This project was to update the efficiency and capacity of current hydro production due to increased water flow demands that could pass through existing generation facilities. During 2006-2012, this project completed efficiency evaluation as it related to its main objective by completing a feasibility study, undergoing necessary City Council approvals and required federal environmental reviews. As a result of Phase 1 of the project, a feasibility study was conducted to determine feasibility of hydro and solar portions of the original proposal. The results indicated that the existing Hydro plant which was constructed in the 1960’s was running at approximately 77% efficiency or less. Brigham City proposes that the efficiency calculations be refined to determine the economic feasibility of improving or replacing the existing equipment with new high efficiency equipment design specifically for the site. Brigham City completed the Feasibility Assessment of this project, and determined that the Upper Hydro that supplies the main culinary water to the city was feasible to continue with. Brigham City Council provided their approval of feasibility assessment’s results. The Upper Hydro Project include removal of the existing powerhouse equipment and controls and demolition of a section of concrete encased penstock, replacement of penstock just upstream of the turbine inlet, turbine bypass, turbine shut-off and bypass valves, turbine and generator package, control equipment, assembly, start-up, commissioning, Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA), and the replacement of a section of conductors to the step-up transformer. Brigham City increased the existing 575 KW turbine and generator with an 825 KW turbine and generator. Following the results of the feasibility assessment Brigham City pursued required environmental reviews with the DOE and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Services (USFWS) concurring with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) It was determined that Brigham City’s Upper Hydroelectric Power Plant upgrade would have no effect to federally listed or candidate species. However Brigham City has contributed a onetime lump sum towards Bonneville cutthroat trout conservation in the Northern Bonneville Geographic Management Unit with the intention to offset any impacts from the Upper Hydro Project needed to move forward with design and construction and is sufficient for NEPA compliance. No work was done in the river or river bank. During construction, the penstock was disconnected and water was diverted through and existing system around the powerhouse and back into the water system. The penstock, which is currently a 30-inch steel pipe, would be removed and replaced with a new section of 30-inch pipe. Brigham City worked with the DOE and was awarded a new modification and the permission to proceed with Phase III of our Hydro Project in Dec. 2013; with the exception to the modification of the award for the construction phase. Brigham City developed and issued a Request for Proposal for Engineer and Design vendor. Sunrise Engineering was selected for the Design and throughout the Construction Phase of the Upper Hydroelectric Power Plant. Brigham City conducted a Kickoff Meeting with Sunrise June 28, 2013 and received a Scope of Work Brigham City along with engineering firm sent out a RFP for Turbine, Generator and Equipment for Upper Hydro. We select Turbine/Generator Equipment from Canyon Industries located in Deming, WA. DOE awarded Brigham City a new modification and the permission to proceed with Phase III Construction of our Hydro Project. Brigham City Crews removed existing turbine/generator and old equipment alone with feeder wires coming into the building basically giving Caribou Construction an empty shell to begin demolition. Brigham City contracted with Caribou Construction from Jerome, Idaho for the Upper Power Plant construction. A kickoff meeting was June 24, 2014 and

  16. Noise enforcement in cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwerling, Eric

    2001-05-01

    Noise enforcement programs (NEPs) in cities face a number of unique obstacles, including the necessity to conduct sound level measurements in a complex acoustical environment. It is important to regularly and objectively review the efficacy of the program in totality. A successful NEP consists of the following interactive components: the ordinance, trained enforcement personnel, sound measurement equipment, and prosecutorial mechanisms. If any of these components are not working in harmony, the NEP may not deliver the desired results. The NEP should be designed to reflect the realities of field enforcement, and should be tailored to the specific agency that will be conducting the enforcement, mindful of the differences between environmental compliance officers and police officers. This begins with the crafting of an ordinance that is appropriate for the unique conditions within the jurisdiction. The sound measurement equipment should be the least complicated necessary to take the specified measurements, and should be as durable as possible. Enforcement officers require proper training. Noncompliance must be addressed in a constructive and meaningful manner. A number of jurisdictions with active noise enforcement programs have been interviewed to determine the status of the program, and their strengths and weaknesses have been honestly assessed.

  17. The big, bad city: mega-city myth?

    PubMed

    Richardson, H W

    1989-01-01

    This paper raises the question of whether or not the virtues of big city size were exaggerated in the literature which appeared in the 1970s with respect to developing country megacities. It examines negative externalities (especially pollution), the capital costs associated with megacity growth, the productivity advantages of large cities, the role of spatial restructuring towards a policentric pattern as a relief to core city congestion, and the problems of metropolitan management (including the appropriate institutional framework). The adoption of constructive policy actions could handle the following problems: that the declining rates of megacity growth may reflect declining productivity advantages; that capital costs of urbanization increase strongly with city size; that there are diseconomies of scale in urban management; that negative externalities may be more severe in developing country megacities in physical but not in imputed monetary damage terms; and that policentric evolution may be hampered by the wrong type of government intervention. PMID:12343008

  18. Discovery, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of Thiazoloquin(az)olin(on)es as Potent CD38 Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Haffner, Curt D; Becherer, J David; Boros, Eric E; Cadilla, Rodolfo; Carpenter, Tiffany; Cowan, David; Deaton, David N; Guo, Yu; Harrington, Wallace; Henke, Brad R; Jeune, Michael R; Kaldor, Istvan; Milliken, Naphtali; Petrov, Kim G; Preugschat, Frank; Schulte, Christie; Shearer, Barry G; Shearer, Todd; Smalley, Terrence L; Stewart, Eugene L; Stuart, J Darren; Ulrich, John C

    2015-04-23

    A series of thiazoloquin(az)olinones were synthesized and found to have potent inhibitory activity against CD38. Several of these compounds were also shown to have good pharmacokinetic properties and demonstrated the ability to elevate NAD levels in plasma, liver, and muscle tissue. In particular, compound 78c was given to diet induced obese (DIO) C57Bl6 mice, elevating NAD > 5-fold in liver and >1.2-fold in muscle versus control animals at a 2 h time point. The compounds described herein possess the most potent CD38 inhibitory activity of any small molecules described in the literature to date. The inhibitors should allow for a more detailed assessment of how NAD elevation via CD38 inhibition affects physiology in NAD deficient states. PMID:25828863

  19. Micro and sub-micron surface structuring of AZ31 by laser re-melting and dimpling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furlan, Valentina; Demir, Ali Gökhan; Previtali, Barbara

    2015-12-01

    In this work, the use of ns-pulsed fibre laser for surface structuring of AZ31 Mg alloy is investigated. Surface re-melting was employed to change surface morphology, especially in terms of surface roughness. Dimpling by percussion microdrilling was investigated to control the hole geometry.. With surface remelting mono-directional and homogeneous surfaces were obtained with Fl<500 J/cm2. Above 500 J/cm2 particle generation was observed, which induced sub-micron structure growth with nano-fibrous features. Moreover, surface roughness could be controlled below the initial value and much higher. With dimpling, transformation from gentle to strong ablation was observed at F0=10.3 J/cm2. XRD analysis was employed to link oxide growth to the surface morphology. Tensile tests were carried out to assess the damage on the mechanical properties after surface structuring.

  20. Effect of Interlayer Thickness on Joint Formation Between Ti-6Al-4V and Mg-AZ31 Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atieh, Anas M.; Khan, Tahir I.

    2014-11-01

    The joining of a Ti-6Al-4V alloy to a Mg-AZ31 alloy was performed using Ni electroplated coatings during the TLP bonding process. In this work, different coating thicknesses were used ranging from 1 to 20 ?m. The effect of the coat thickness on microstructural developments and mechanical properties was studied. The bonded specimens were examined by metallographic examination, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction analysis. It was observed that as the coat thickness increased from 1 to 12 ?m, the joint shear strength increased from 9 to 47 MPa. A further increase in coat thickness had a detrimental effect on the bond strength, and a lower value of 11 MPa was recorded. The mechanism of joint formation includes three stages: solid-state diffusion, eutectic formation, and isothermal solidification.

  1. The MOA 1.8-metre alt-az wide-field survey telescope and the MOA project

    E-print Network

    J. B. Hearnshaw; F. Abe; I. A. Bond; A. C. Gilmore; Y. Itow; K. Kamiya; K. Masuda; Y. Matsubara; Y. Muraki; C. Okada; N. J. Rattenbury; T. Sako; M. Sasaki; D. J. Sullivan; P. C. M. Yock

    2005-09-15

    A new 1.8-m wide-field alt-az survey telescope was installed at Mt John University Observatory in New Zealand in October 2004. The telescope will be dedicated to the MOA (Microlensing Observations in Astrophysics) project. The instrument is equipped with a large 10-chip mosaic CCD camera with 80 Mpixels covering about 2 square degrees of sky. It is mounted at the f/3 prime focus. The telescope will be used for finding and following microlensing events in the galactic bulge and elsewhere, with an emphasis on the analysis of microlensing light curves for the detection of extrasolar planets. The MOA project is a Japan-New Zealand collaboration, with the participation of Nagoya University and four universities in New Zealand.

  2. Histone H2A (H2A.X and H2A.Z) Variants in Molluscs: Molecular Characterization and Potential Implications For Chromatin Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    González-Romero, Rodrigo; Rivera-Casas, Ciro; Frehlick, Lindsay J.; Méndez, Josefina; Ausió, Juan; Eirín-López, José M.

    2012-01-01

    Histone variants are used by the cell to build specialized nucleosomes, replacing canonical histones and generating functionally specialized chromatin domains. Among many other processes, the specialization imparted by histone H2A (H2A.X and H2A.Z) variants to the nucleosome core particle constitutes the earliest response to DNA damage in the cell. Consequently, chromatin-based genotoxicity tests have been developed in those cases where enough information pertaining chromatin structure and dynamics is available (i.e., human and mouse). However, detailed chromatin knowledge is almost absent in most organisms, specially protostome animals. Molluscs (which represent sentinel organisms for the study of pollution) are not an exception to this lack of knowledge. In the present work we first identified the existence of functionally differentiated histone H2A.X and H2A.Z variants in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis (MgH2A.X and MgH2A.Z), a marine organism widely used in biomonitoring programs. Our results support the functional specialization of these variants based on: a) their active expression in different tissues, as revealed by the isolation of native MgH2A.X and MgH2A.Z proteins in gonad and hepatopancreas; b) the evolutionary conservation of different residues encompassing functional relevance; and c) their ability to confer specialization to nucleosomes, as revealed by nucleosome reconstitution experiments using recombinant MgH2A.X and MgH2A.Z histones. Given the seminal role of these variants in maintaining genomic integrity and regulating gene expression, their preliminary characterization opens up new potential applications for the future development of chromatin-based genotoxicity tests in pollution biomonitoring programs. PMID:22253857

  3. City of Bryan Community Wildfire

    E-print Network

    City of Bryan Community Wildfire Protection Plan 2013 A collaborative approach to protecting lives. Eric Wallace, a member of the Community Wildfire Protection Plan working group, and Lt. Greg Pickard

  4. The self-aware city

    E-print Network

    Sevtsuk, Andres

    2006-01-01

    This thesis explores the idea of real-time urban space management. While increasing amounts of real-time information about the city, specifically the location of people and resources, appear, it becomes necessary to explore ...

  5. 75 FR 11580 - Florida Power Corporation, City of Alachua, City of Bushnell, City of Gainesville, City of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ...and City of Orlando, Seminole Electric Cooperative, Inc., Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant; Receipt of Request...Commission (NRC) take action with regard to the licensee for the Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant (CR-3). The...

  6. The Solar America Cities Awards

    SciTech Connect

    R. Nahan

    2009-03-01

    This publication is an ongoing effort to support outreach activities through the Solar America Cities program. The two-page fact sheet offers an overview of the SAC program and lists specific resources for more information on developing solar programs.

  7. 75 FR 11580 - Florida Power Corporation, City of Alachua, City of Bushnell, City of Gainesville, City of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... Commission and City of Orlando, Seminole Electric Cooperative, Inc., Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating... Commission (NRC) take action with regard to the licensee for the Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear...

  8. Deer Tracks in the City?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, Cassie Fay; Beeman-Cadwallader, Nicole; Riggs, Morgan; Rodriguez, Antonia; Buck, Gayle

    2009-01-01

    "Why would a deer print be in the city?" wondered a student. She had noticed the track near a grocery store that morning with her mother. She was familiar with deer and had noticed their prints on a trip to a local museum; however, she had never seen a deer in the city before this experience. As she retold the story to her classmates, her question…

  9. (Sub)millimetre interferometric imaging of a sample of COSMOS/AzTEC submillimetre galaxies. I. Multiwavelength identifications and redshift distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miettinen, O.; Smol?i?, V.; Novak, M.; Aravena, M.; Karim, A.; Masters, D.; Riechers, D. A.; Bussmann, R. S.; McCracken, H. J.; Ilbert, O.; Bertoldi, F.; Capak, P.; Feruglio, C.; Halliday, C.; Kartaltepe, J. S.; Navarrete, F.; Salvato, M.; Sanders, D.; Schinnerer, E.; Sheth, K.

    2015-05-01

    We used the Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI) to map a sample of 15 submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) in the COSMOS field at the wavelength of 1.3 mm. The target SMGs were originally discovered in the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT)/AzTEC 1.1 mm continuum survey at S/N1.1 mm = 4-4.5. This paper presents, for the first time, interferometric millimetre-wavelength observations of these sources. The angular resolution of our observations, 1''&dotbelow;8, allowed us to accurately determine the positions of the target SMGs. Using a detection threshold of S/N1.3 mm> 4.5 regardless of multiwavelength counterpart association, and 4 AzTEC19. Three of our detected SMGs (AzTEC21, 27, and 28; which corresponds to 20%) are marginally resolved at our angular resolution, and these sources are found to have elongated or clumpy morphologies and/or multiple components. Using optical to near-infrared photometric redshifts, available spectroscopic redshifts, and redshifts estimated from the radio-to-submm spectral index we infer a median redshift of tilde{z}= 3.20 ą 0.25 for our sample. To study the overall multiplicity and redshift distribution of flux-limited samples of SMGs we combined these sources with the 15 brightest JCMT/AzTEC SMGs detected at 1.1 mm, AzTEC1-15, and studied previously. This constitutes a complete, flux- and S/N-limited 1.1-mm selected sample. We find that the median redshift for the 15 brightest JCMT/AzTEC SMGs (tilde{z}= 3.05 ą 0.44) is consistent with that for AzTEC16-30. This conforms to recent observational findings that SMGs do not exhibit any significant trend between the redshift and (sub)mm flux density. For the combined AzTEC1-30 sample we derive a median redshift of tilde{z}= 3.17 ą 0.27, consistent with previous results based on mm-selected samples. We further infer that within the combined AzTEC1-30 sample 25 ą 9% of sources separate into multiple components. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany), and IGN (Spain).Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  10. The Economic Challenges Facing Milwaukee's Inner City

    E-print Network

    Saldin, Dilano

    The Economic Challenges Facing Milwaukee's Inner City Statistical Snapshots UWM Center for Economic Development #12;Milwaukee's "Inner City," 1970-2000: An Economic Snapshot $18,193$21,090Real median household in the inner city: continuing economic distress in the traditional inner city, and growing distress

  11. Achieving Energy Independence by Reviving America's Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Neil; Winterer, Amey

    1982-01-01

    Discusses how it is in our nation's energy interest that cities and city living prosper and that movement of people out of cities and into nonurban areas be reversed. However, national energy policy itself favors suburban sprawl-type development and works against city revival. (AM)

  12. Sustainable Development of the Learning City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juceviciene, Palmira

    2010-01-01

    Kaunas is the second largest city in Lithuania and has strong links with its large rural hinterland. Working from the ideas and examples in "Learning Cities for a Learning Century," (Longworth, 1999) and through contact with other cities that have already implemented lifelong learning concepts, the city has, since 2001, started out on the journey…

  13. Design of Sustainable Supply Chains Sustainable Cities

    E-print Network

    Nagurney, Anna

    Design of Sustainable Supply Chains for Sustainable Cities Anna Nagurney Isenberg School Sustainability #12;Cities and Sustainability Cities, as dynamic complex networks, are the systems in which more of Management University of Massachusetts Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 Complex-City Workshop Amsterdam

  14. Model Cities Impact on Better Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washnis, George J.

    This study focuses on eight cities in the Model Cities Program and the effects of the program on national urban policy and the ability of cities and counties to cope with urban problems. The cities (Boston, Chicago, Dayton, Indianapolis, Newark, New York, Savannah, and Seattle) were chosen not only for their geographic and population…

  15. City Sketching University of Cape Town

    E-print Network

    Gain, James

    City Sketching James Gain University of Cape Town jgain@cs.uct.ac.za Patrick Marais University to procedural city systems tend to either focus on a single aspect of city layout (such as the road network visual feedback, short of the completed city, which may take up to several minutes to generate

  16. The Copper Balance of Cities

    PubMed Central

    Kral, Ulrich; Lin, Chih-Yi; Kellner, Katharina; Ma, Hwong-wen; Brunner, Paul H

    2014-01-01

    Material management faces a dual challenge: on the one hand satisfying large and increasing demands for goods and on the other hand accommodating wastes and emissions in sinks. Hence, the characterization of material flows and stocks is relevant for both improving resource efficiency and environmental protection. This article focuses on the urban scale, a dimension rarely investigated in past metal flow studies. We compare the copper (Cu) metabolism of two cities in different economic states, namely, Vienna (Europe) and Taipei (Asia). Substance flow analysis is used to calculate urban Cu balances in a comprehensive and transparent form. The main difference between Cu in the two cities appears to be the stock: Vienna seems close to saturation with 180 kilograms per capita (kg/cap) and a growth rate of 2% per year. In contrast, the Taipei stock of 30 kg/cap grows rapidly by 26% per year. Even though most Cu is recycled in both cities, bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration represents an unused Cu potential accounting for 1% to 5% of annual demand. Nonpoint emissions are predominant; up to 50% of the loadings into the sewer system are from nonpoint sources. The results of this research are instrumental for the design of the Cu metabolism in each city. The outcomes serve as a base for identification and recovery of recyclables as well as for directing nonrecyclables to appropriate sinks, avoiding sensitive environmental pathways. The methodology applied is well suited for city benchmarking if sufficient data are available. PMID:25866460

  17. Electroless Ni-P/Ni-B duplex coatings for improving the hardness and the corrosion resistance of AZ91D magnesium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W. X.; Jiang, Z. H.; Li, G. Y.; Jiang, Q.; Lian, J. S.

    2008-06-01

    The Ni-P/Ni-B duplex coatings were deposited on AZ91D magnesium alloy by electroless plating process and their structure, morphology, microhardness and corrosion resistance were evaluated. The duplex coatings were prepared using dual baths (acidic hypophosphite- and alkaline borohydride-reduced electroless nickel baths) with Ni-P as the inner layer. The coatings were amorphous in as-plated condition and crystallized and produced nickel borides upon heat-treatment. SEM observations showed that the duplex interface on the magnesium alloy was uniform and the compatibility between the layers was good. The Ni-P/Ni-B coatings microhardness and corrosion resistance of having Ni-B coating as the outer layer was higher than Ni-P coatings. The Ni-P/Ni-B duplex coatings on AZ91D magnesium alloy with high hardness and good corrosion resistance properties would expand their scope of applications.

  18. FINAL REPORT DM1200 TESTS WITH AZ 101 HLW SIMULANTS VSL-03R3800-4 REV 0 2/17/04

    SciTech Connect

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; BARDAKCI T; D'ANGELO NA; GONG W; KOT WK; PEGG IL

    2011-12-29

    This report documents melter and off-gas performance results obtained on the DM 1200 HLW Pilot Melter during processing of simulated HLW AZ-101 feed. The principal objectives of the DM1200 melter testing were to determine the achievable glass production rates for simulated HLW AZ-101 feed; determine the effect of bubbling rate and feed solids content on production rate; characterize melter off-gas emissions; characterize the performance of the prototypical off-gas system components as well as their integrated performance; characterize the feed, glass product, and off-gas effluents; and to perform pre- and post-test inspections of system components. The test objectives (including test success criteria), along with how they were met, are outlined in a table.

  19. Creating a "city of art" : evaluating Singapore's vision of becoming a renaissance city

    E-print Network

    Lee, Wai Kin, 1975-

    2003-01-01

    The arts have been used by many cities as a way to regenerate their urban environments and rejuvenate their economies. In this thesis, I examine an approach in which city-wide efforts are undertaken to create a "city of ...

  20. HLW Feed Delivery AZ101 Batch Transfer to the Private Contractor Transfer and Mixing Process Improvements [Initial Release at Rev 2

    SciTech Connect

    DUNCAN, G.P.

    2000-02-28

    The primary purpose of this business case is to provide Operations and Maintenance with a detailed transfer process review for the first High Level Waste (HLW) feed delivery to the Privatization Contractor (PC), AZ-101 batch transfer to PC. The Team was chartered to identify improvements that could be implemented in the field. A significant penalty can be invoked for not providing the quality, quantity, or timely delivery of HLW feed to the PC.

  1. Star City, Russia Medical Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, Michael R.; Senter, Cedric H.; Roden, Sean K.; Gilmore, Stevan; Powers, William E.; Alexander, David J.

    2004-01-01

    Since the beginning of the NASA/Mir missions, NASA has had astronauts in training at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC), also known as Star City, with crewmembers currently there to train for the International Space Station missions. Agreements have been reached with all International Partners that allow the crewmember's parent agency to provide a flight surgeon to oversee crewmember health and safety during training away from home. NASA Medical Operations through the Bioastronautics Contract employs flight surgeons to provide medical support for U.S. crewmembers and their support staff. This poster presentation reviews the aspects of NASA medical operations at Star City.

  2. Stellar Occultations by TNOs: the January 08, 2011 by (208996) 2003 AZ84 and the May 04, 2011 by (50000) Quaoar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga-Ribas, F.; Sicardy, B.; Ortiz, J. L.; Jehin, E.; Camargo, J. I. B.; Assafin, M.; Behrend, R.; Unda-Sanzana, E.; Colque, J. P.; Morales, N.; Tancredi, G.; Roland, S.; Bruzzone, S.; Salvo, R.; Almenares, L.; Emilio, M.; Schoenell, W.; Gil-Hutton, R.; Milone, A.; Jacques, C.; Vanzi, L.; Kavelaars, J. J.; Cacella, P.; Maury, A.; Alvarez, E.; van der Bliek, N. S.; Vieira-Martins, R.; Colas, F.; Lecacheux, J.; Vachier, F.; Roques, F.; Widemann, T.; Thirouin, A.; Gillon, M.; Manfroid, J.; Bergengruen, A.; Martinez, M.; Capeche, J.; Amorim, A.; Pimentel, E.; Leiva, R.; Toledo, I.; Almeida, L. A.; Magalhăes, V. S.; Montańa, C. E.; Rodrigues, C. V.

    2011-10-01

    Between February 2010 and May 2011, our group has observed five stellar occultations by Trans-Neptunian Objects (TNOs), giving the size and shape for some of the biggest TNO's: Varuna, Eris, 2003 AZ84, Makemake and Quaoar. Here we present two of them: the January 08 stellar occultation by 2003 AZ84, and the May 04 by Quaoar. For the event of 2003 AZ84 we obtained one positive and another negative occultation chords in Chile. We give a lower limit to the diameter of the TNO. The event of Quaoar was observed from 16 sites distributed in Uruguay, Argentina, Chile and Brazil. Five of them yielded positive detection of the occultation. A preliminary analysis shows that the body is probably elongated and significantly bigger than the size determined by Fraser & Brown 2010, with a diameter of 890km. Using the size determined by the occultation, we will discuss the implications for the body density and albedo determination. The upper limit of the atmosphere is also studied.

  3. The influence of milling parameters on the material hardness in the case of magnesium alloy AZ61A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigora?, C. C.; Brabie, G.

    2015-11-01

    This study was conducted in order to determine the material hardness value due to modification of the milling cutting parameters. The alloy hardness was analysed as a function of different cutting parameters for milling operations (speed, feed and depth of cut), using a face mill. A total number of 17 samples were machined using parameters obtained by combining the input parameters. The total number of combinations is reduced by a preoptimization, using the DesignExpert software. The cutting process was performed in dry conditions, and it was recorded that dry cutting magnesium-aluminium alloy AZ61A with the used parameters did not lead to chip ignition. The surface hardness was determined based on the Vickers scale (HV), its values ranging from 110.59 [HV] to 121.37 [HV]. The obtained results showed that the feed has a significant contribution in the surface harness modification. The application of the Taguchi method reveals that the material hardness can be improved, together with the manufacturing time, by means of the speed, feed and depth of cut maximization.

  4. Comparative study of CW, nanosecond- and femtosecond-pulsed laser microcutting of AZ31 magnesium alloy stents.

    PubMed

    Gökhan Demir, Ali; Previtali, Barbara

    2014-06-01

    Magnesium alloys constitute an interesting solution for cardiovascular stents due to their biocompatibility and biodegradability in human body. Laser microcutting is the industrially accepted method for stent manufacturing. However, the laser-material interaction should be well investigated to control the quality characteristics of the microcutting process that concern the surface roughness, chemical composition, and microstructure of the final device. Despite the recent developments in industrial laser systems, a universal laser source that can be manipulated flexibly in terms of process parameters is far from reality. Therefore, comparative studies are required to demonstrate processing capabilities. In particular, the laser pulse duration is a key factor determining the processing regime. This work approaches the laser microcutting of AZ31 Mg alloy from the perspective of a comparative study to evaluate the machining capabilities in continuous wave (CW), ns- and fs-pulsed regimes. Three industrial grade machining systems were compared to reach a benchmark in machining quality, productivity, and ease of postprocessing. The results confirmed that moving toward the ultrashort pulse domain the machining quality increases, but the need for postprocessing remains. The real advantage of ultrashort pulsed machining was the ease in postprocessing and maintaining geometrical integrity of the stent mesh after chemical etching. Resultantly, the overall production cycle time was shortest for fs-pulsed laser system, despite the fact that CW laser system provided highest cutting speed. PMID:24985208

  5. Residual Stresses and Tensile Properties of Friction Stir Welded AZ31B-H24 Magnesium Alloy in Lap Configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, Bhukya Srinivasa; Cao, Xinjin; Wanjara, Priti; Friedman, Jacob; Chen, Daolun

    2015-08-01

    AZ31B-H24 Mg alloy sheets with a thickness of 2 mm were friction stir welded in lap configuration using two tool rotational rates of 1000 and 1500 rpm and two welding speeds of 10 and 20 mm/s. The residual stresses in the longitudinal and transverse directions of the weldments were determined using X-ray diffraction. The shear tensile behavior of the lap joints was evaluated at low [233 K (-40 °C)], room [298 K (25 °C)], and elevated [453 K (180 °C)] temperatures. The failure load was highest for the lower heat input condition that was obtained at a tool rotational rate of 1000 rpm and a welding speed of 20 mm/s for all the test temperatures, due to the smaller hooking height, larger effective sheet thickness, and lower tensile residual stresses, as compared to the other two welding conditions that were conducted at a higher tool rotational rate or lower welding speed. The lap joints usually fractured on the advancing side of the top sheet near the interface between the thermo-mechanically affected zone and the stir zone. Elevated temperature testing of the weld assembled at a tool rotational rate of 1000 rpm and a welding speed of 20 mm/s led to the failure along the sheet interface in shear fracture mode due to the high integrity of the joint that exhibited large plastic deformation and higher total energy absorption.

  6. Dual-beam laser welding of AZ31B magnesium alloy in zero-gap lap joint configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harooni, Masoud; Carlson, Blair; Kovacevic, Radovan

    2014-03-01

    Porosity within laser welds of magnesium alloys is one of the main roadblocks to achieving high quality joints. One of the causes of pore formation is the presence of pre-existing coatings on the surface of magnesium alloy such as oxide or chromate layers. In this study, single-beam and dual-beam laser heat sources are investigated in relation to mitigation of pores resulting from the presence of the as-received oxide layer on the surface of AZ31B-H24 magnesium alloy during the laser welding process. A fiber laser with a power of up to 4 kW is used to weld samples in a zero-gap lap joint configuration. The effect of dual-beam laser welding with different beam energy ratios is studied on the quality of the weld bead. The purpose of this paper is to identify the beam ratio that best mitigates pore formation in the weld bead. The laser molten pool and the keyhole condition, as well as laser-induced plasma plume are monitored in real-time by use of a high speed charge-coupled device (CCD) camera assisted with a green laser as an illumination source. Tensile and microhardness tests were used to measure the mechanical properties of the laser welded samples. Results showed that a dual-beam laser configuration can effectively mitigate pore formation in the weld bead by a preheating-welding mechanism.

  7. Optimizing Diffusion Bonding Parameters in AA6061-T6 Aluminum and AZ80 Magnesium Alloy Dissimilar Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph Fernandus, M.; Senthilkumar, T.; Balasubramanian, V.; Rajakumar, S.

    2012-11-01

    The main difficulty when joining magnesium (Mg) and aluminum (Al) alloys by fusion welding lies in the formation of oxide films and brittle intermetallic in the bond region which affects the integrity of the joints. However, diffusion bonding is a suitable process to join these two materials as no such characteristic defects are produced at the joints. The diffusion bonding process parameters such as bonding temperature, bonding pressure, holding time, and surface roughness of the specimen play a major role in determining the joint strength. In this investigation, an attempt was made to develop empirical relationships to predict the strengths of diffusion bonded AZ80 magnesium and AA6061 aluminum alloys dissimilar joints from the process parameters based on central composite factorial design. Response surface methodology was applied to optimize the process parameters to attain the maximum shear strength and bonding strength of the joint. From this investigation, it was found that the bonds produced with the temperature of 405.87 °C, pressure of 7.87 MPa, holding time of 29.02 min and surface roughness of 0.10 ?m exhibited maximum shear strength and bonding strength of 57.70 and 76.90 MPa, respectively. The intermetallic formation at the interface was identified.

  8. Abnormal distribution of microhardness in tungsten inert gas arc butt-welded AZ61 magnesium alloy plates

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Nan; Shen Jun; Xie Weidong; Wang Linzhi; Wang Dan; Min Dong

    2010-07-15

    In this study, the effects of heat input on the distribution of microhardness of tungsten inert gas (TIG) arc welded hot-extruded AZ61 magnesium alloy joints were investigated. The results show that with an increase of heat input, the distributions of microhardness at the top and bottom of the welded joints are different because they are determined by both the effect of grain coarsening and the effect of dispersion strengthening. With an increase of the heat input, the microhardness of the heat-affected zone (HAZ) at the top and bottom of welded joints and the fusion zone (FZ) at the bottom of welded joints decreased gradually, while the microhardness of the FZ at the top of welded joints decreased initially and then increased sharply. The reason for the abnormal distribution of microhardness of the FZ at the top of the welded joints is that this area is close to the heat source during welding and then large numbers of hard {beta}-Mg{sub 17}(Al,Zn){sub 12} particles are precipitated. Hence, in this case, the effect of dispersion strengthening dominated the microhardness.

  9. Corrosion resistance of Zn-Al layered double hydroxide/poly(lactic acid) composite coating on magnesium alloy AZ31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Rong-Chang; Li, Xiao-Ting; Liu, Zhen-Guo; Zhang, Fen; Li, Shuo-Qi; Cui, Hong-Zhi

    2015-08-01

    A Zn-Al layered double hydroxide (ZnAl-LDH) coating consisted of uniform hexagonal nano-plates was firstly synthesized by co-precipitation and hydrothermal treatment on the AZ31 alloy, and then a poly(lactic acid) (PLA) coating was sealed on the top layer of the ZnAl-LDH coating using vacuum freeze-drying. The characteristics of the ZnAl-LDH/PLA composite coatings were investigated by means of XRD, SEM, FTIR and EDS. The corrosion resistance of the coatings was assessed by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results showed that the ZnAl-LDH coating contained a compact inner layer and a porous outer layer, and the PLA coating with a strong adhesion to the porous outer layer can prolong the service life of the ZnAl-LDH coating. The excellent corrosion resistance of this composite coating can be attributable to its barrier function, ion-exchange and self-healing ability.

  10. Characterization of High Strain Rate Mechanical behavior of AZ31 magnesium alloy using 3D Digital Image Correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yanli; Xu, Hanbing; ERDMAN III, DONALD L; Starbuck, J Michael; Simunovic, Srdjan

    2011-01-01

    Characterization of the material mechanical behavior at sub-Hopkinson regime (0.1 to 1000 s{sup -1}) is very challenging due to instrumentation limitations and the complexity of data analysis involved in dynamic loading. In this study, AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet specimens are tested using a custom designed servo-hydraulic machine in tension at nominal strain rates up to 1000 s{sup -1}. In order to resolve strain measurement artifacts, the specimen displacement is measured using 3D Digital Image correlation instead from actuator motion. The total strain is measured up to {approx} 30%, which is far beyond the measurable range of electric resistance strain gages. Stresses are calculated based on the elastic strains in the tab of a standard dog-bone shaped specimen. Using this technique, the stresses measured for strain rates of 100 s{sup -1} and lower show little or no noise comparing to load cell signals. When the strain rates are higher than 250 s{sup -1}, the noises and oscillations in the stress measurements are significantly decreased from {approx} 250 to 50 MPa. Overall, it is found that there are no significant differences in the elongation, although the material exhibits slight work hardening when the strain rate is increased from 1 to 100 s{sup -1}.

  11. Role of biomineralization on the degradation of fine grained AZ31 magnesium alloy processed by groove pressing.

    PubMed

    Sunil, B Ratna; Kumar, Arun Anil; Sampath Kumar, T S; Chakkingal, Uday

    2013-04-01

    Groove pressing (GP) has been successfully adopted to achieve fine grain size up to 7 ?m in AZ31 magnesium alloy with an initial grain size of 55 ?m. The effect of microstructural evolution and surface features on wettability, corrosion resistance, bioactivity and cell adhesion were investigated with an emphasis to study the influence of deposited phases when the samples were immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF 5×). The role of microstructure was also evaluated without any surface treatments or coatings on the material. GPed samples exhibit improved hydrophilicity compared to the annealed sample. After immersion in SBF, specimens were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX) analysis and X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods. More amount of white precipitates composed of hydroxyapatite and magnesium phosphate along with magnesium hydroxide was observed on the surfaces of groove pressed specimens as compared to the annealed specimens with an increase in immersion time in SBF. Corrosion behavior of the samples estimated using potentiodynamic polarization curves indicate good corrosion resistance for GPed samples before and after immersion in SBF. The MTT assay using rat skeletal muscle (L6) cells revealed that both the processed and unprocessed samples are nontoxic and cell adhesion was promising for GPed sample. PMID:23827614

  12. Strain-Controlled Low-Cycle Fatigue Behavior of Friction Stir-Welded AZ31 Magnesium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Ni, D. R.; Wang, D.; Xiao, B. L.; Ma, Z. Y.

    2014-04-01

    Strain-controlled low-cycle fatigue (LCF) behavior of friction stir-welded (FSW) AZ31 joints, produced at rotation rates of 800 and 3500 rpm, was studied. The joints exhibited symmetric hysteresis loops, whereas asymmetric loops were observed for the parent material (PM). The fatigue resistance of the FSW joints was slightly improved as the rotation rate increased, and both the FSW joints possessed a fatigue life similar to that of the PM at the low strain amplitude of 0.1 pct. The obtained fatigue data for the PM and FSW joints can be well described using the Coffin-Manson and Basquin's relationships. For the FSW joints, during LCF deformation, the twinning originated from the nugget zone (NZ)/thermomechanically affected zone (TMAZ) boundary and then propagated to the NZ interior. This was attributed to different textures in these regions: the center of the NZ exhibited a hard orientation, whereas a soft orientation was observed in the region around the NZ/TMAZ boundary. The fatigue cracks initiated at the bottom of the joints and propagated along the NZ/TMAZ boundary or the NZ adjacent to the NZ/TMAZ boundary.

  13. GREAT CITIES SCHOOL IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SALTZMAN, HENRY

    TO COMPENSATE FOR THE EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL DEPRIVATION, A NUMBER OF LARGE CITIES HAVE DEVELOPED PROGRAMS FOR SCHOOL CHILDREN. CERTAIN ASSUMPTIONS AND PRINCIPLES MUST BE ACCEPTED BEFORE THE PROGRAMS CAN MATERIALIZE. IN BUFFALO, TEACHERS ARE REVISING CURRICULUM FOR THE CULTURALLY DEPRIVED IN LANGUAGE ARTS, MATHEMATICS, SCIENCE, AND SOCIAL…

  14. Policymaking in European healthy cities.

    PubMed

    de Leeuw, Evelyne; Green, Geoff; Spanswick, Lucy; Palmer, Nicola

    2015-06-01

    This paper assesses policy development in, with and for Healthy Cities in the European Region of the World Health Organization. Materials for the assessment were sourced through case studies, a questionnaire and statistical databases. They were compiled in a realist synthesis methodology, applying theory-based evaluation principles. Non-response analyses were applied to ascertain the degree of representatives of the high response rates for the entire network of Healthy Cities in Europe. Further measures of reliability and validity were applied, and it was found that our material was indicative of the entire network. European Healthy Cities are successful in developing local health policy across many sectors within and outside government. They were also successful in addressing 'wicked' problems around equity, governance and participation in themes such as Healthy Urban Planning. It appears that strong local leadership for policy change is driven by international collaboration and the stewardship of the World Health Organization. The processes enacted by WHO, structuring membership of the Healthy City Network (designation) and the guidance on particular themes, are identified as being important for the success of local policy development. PMID:26069314

  15. Bug City: Flies & Mosquitoes [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children (grades 1-6) learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon, including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic…

  16. Youth and the City Streets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husby, Lynn; Brendtro, Larry

    1992-01-01

    This "Voices of Pioneers" section of the journal highlights the work of Jane Addams, who founded the settlement house movement in America with the establishment of Hull House in Chicago in 1899. Presents excerpts from Addams' book "The Spirit of Youth and the City Streets (1909)" to illustrate her views on guns, stealing, rebellion, and drugs. (NB)

  17. Kansas City Plots Next Steps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, Ed

    2012-01-01

    Kansas City (Missouri) Public Schools is at a crossroads. The district has struggled for decades with poor academic achievement, dwindling enrollment and budget, and short-term superintendents--27 in the past 40 years. Most recently, after a two-year stint during which he helped the district get its financial house in order, closing nearly half of…

  18. VOCS IN MEXICO CITY AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mexico City, with nearly 20 million people, 3 million vehicles, and 35,000 industrial businesses, has severe photochemical air pollution. he 0, standard of 0.11 ppm is exceeded over 300 days of the year. ecause of the role of VOCs in the production of ozone, a study of the concen...

  19. Bug City: Aquatic Insects [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic photography, fun…

  20. North City Water Reclamation Plant

    E-print Network

    Prevedouros, Panos D.

    Reclamation? Water Reclamation is the process of treating wastewater to be suitable for reuse Not Suitable pipes #12;25 MGD Wastewater 21 MGD to Point Loma 4 MGD Reclaimed Water #12;Social & Environmental Center (MBC) Sludge from North City WRP is sent to MBC for digestion. Sustains a maximum of 3.8 MW 75