Science.gov

Sample records for burgess shale debate

  1. Epistemic values in the Burgess Shale debate.

    PubMed

    Baron, Christian

    2009-12-01

    Focusing primarily on papers and books discussing the evolutionary and systematic interpretation of the Cambrian animal fossils from the Burgess Shale fauna, this paper explores the role of epistemic values in the context of a discipline (paleontology) striving to establish scientific authority within a larger domain of epistemic problems and issues (evolutionary biology). The focal point of this analysis is the repeated claims by paleontologists that the study of fossils gives their discipline a unique 'historical dimension' that makes it possible for them to unravel important aspects of evolution invisible to scientists who study the extant biosphere. The first part of the paper explores the shifting of emphasis in the writings of paleontologists between two strategies that employ opposing views on the classical positivist and physicalist ideal of science. The second part analyzes paleontologists' claims of privileged access to life's historical dimension in a situation where a theoretical upheaval occurring independent of the epistemical problem at hand completely shifts the standards for evaluating the legitimacy of various knowledge claims. Though the various strategies employed in defending the privileged historical perspective of paleontology have been disparate and, to an extent contradictory, each impinges on the acceptance of a specific epistemic ideal or set of values and success or failure of each depends on the compatibility of this ideal with the surrounding community of scientists. PMID:19917487

  2. Ordovician faunas of Burgess Shale type.

    PubMed

    Van Roy, Peter; Orr, Patrick J; Botting, Joseph P; Muir, Lucy A; Vinther, Jakob; Lefebvre, Bertrand; el Hariri, Khadija; Briggs, Derek E G

    2010-05-13

    The renowned soft-bodied faunas of the Cambrian period, which include the Burgess Shale, disappear from the fossil record in the late Middle Cambrian, after which the Palaeozoic fauna dominates. The disappearance of faunas of Burgess Shale type curtails the stratigraphic record of a number of iconic Cambrian taxa. One possible explanation for this loss is a major extinction, but more probably it reflects the absence of preservation of similar soft-bodied faunas in later periods. Here we report the discovery of numerous diverse soft-bodied assemblages in the Lower and Upper Fezouata Formations (Lower Ordovician) of Morocco, which include a range of remarkable stem-group morphologies normally considered characteristic of the Cambrian. It is clear that biotas of Burgess Shale type persisted after the Cambrian and are preserved where suitable facies occur. The Fezouata biota provides a link between the Burgess Shale communities and the early stages of the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event. PMID:20463737

  3. Mechanism for Burgess Shale-type preservation.

    PubMed

    Gaines, Robert R; Hammarlund, Emma U; Hou, Xianguang; Qi, Changshi; Gabbott, Sarah E; Zhao, Yuanlong; Peng, Jin; Canfield, Donald E

    2012-04-01

    Exceptionally preserved fossil biotas of the Burgess Shale and a handful of other similar Cambrian deposits provide rare but critical insights into the early diversification of animals. The extraordinary preservation of labile tissues in these geographically widespread but temporally restricted soft-bodied fossil assemblages has remained enigmatic since Walcott's initial discovery in 1909. Here, we demonstrate the mechanism of Burgess Shale-type preservation using sedimentologic and geochemical data from the Chengjiang, Burgess Shale, and five other principal Burgess Shale-type deposits. Sulfur isotope evidence from sedimentary pyrites reveals that the exquisite fossilization of organic remains as carbonaceous compressions resulted from early inhibition of microbial activity in the sediments by means of oxidant deprivation. Low sulfate concentrations in the global ocean and low-oxygen bottom water conditions at the sites of deposition resulted in reduced oxidant availability. Subsequently, rapid entombment of fossils in fine-grained sediments and early sealing of sediments by pervasive carbonate cements at bed tops restricted oxidant flux into the sediments. A permeability barrier, provided by bed-capping cements that were emplaced at the seafloor, is a feature that is shared among Burgess Shale-type deposits, and resulted from the unusually high alkalinity of Cambrian oceans. Thus, Burgess Shale-type preservation of soft-bodied fossil assemblages worldwide was promoted by unique aspects of early Paleozoic seawater chemistry that strongly impacted sediment diagenesis, providing a fundamentally unique record of the immediate aftermath of the "Cambrian explosion." PMID:22392974

  4. Mechanism for Burgess Shale-type preservation

    PubMed Central

    Gaines, Robert R.; Hammarlund, Emma U.; Hou, Xianguang; Qi, Changshi; Gabbott, Sarah E.; Zhao, Yuanlong; Peng, Jin; Canfield, Donald E.

    2012-01-01

    Exceptionally preserved fossil biotas of the Burgess Shale and a handful of other similar Cambrian deposits provide rare but critical insights into the early diversification of animals. The extraordinary preservation of labile tissues in these geographically widespread but temporally restricted soft-bodied fossil assemblages has remained enigmatic since Walcott’s initial discovery in 1909. Here, we demonstrate the mechanism of Burgess Shale-type preservation using sedimentologic and geochemical data from the Chengjiang, Burgess Shale, and five other principal Burgess Shale-type deposits. Sulfur isotope evidence from sedimentary pyrites reveals that the exquisite fossilization of organic remains as carbonaceous compressions resulted from early inhibition of microbial activity in the sediments by means of oxidant deprivation. Low sulfate concentrations in the global ocean and low-oxygen bottom water conditions at the sites of deposition resulted in reduced oxidant availability. Subsequently, rapid entombment of fossils in fine-grained sediments and early sealing of sediments by pervasive carbonate cements at bed tops restricted oxidant flux into the sediments. A permeability barrier, provided by bed-capping cements that were emplaced at the seafloor, is a feature that is shared among Burgess Shale-type deposits, and resulted from the unusually high alkalinity of Cambrian oceans. Thus, Burgess Shale-type preservation of soft-bodied fossil assemblages worldwide was promoted by unique aspects of early Paleozoic seawater chemistry that strongly impacted sediment diagenesis, providing a fundamentally unique record of the immediate aftermath of the “Cambrian explosion.” PMID:22392974

  5. Paleontology: a new Burgess Shale fauna.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Derek E G

    2014-05-19

    A spectacular Cambrian soft bodied fauna some 40 km from Walcott's original Burgess Shale locality includes over 50 taxa, some 20% new to science. New anatomical evidence from this site will illuminate the evolution of early marine animals. PMID:24845670

  6. Skimming the surface with Burgess Shale arthropod locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Minter, Nicholas J.; Mángano, M. Gabriela; Caron, Jean-Bernard

    2012-01-01

    The first arthropod trackways are described from the Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale Formation of Canada. Trace fossils, including trackways, provide a rich source of biological and ecological information, including direct evidence of behaviour not commonly available from body fossils alone. The discovery of large arthropod trackways is unique for Burgess Shale-type deposits. Trackway dimensions and the requisite number of limbs are matched with the body plan of a tegopeltid arthropod. Tegopelte, one of the rarest Burgess Shale animals, is over twice the size of all other benthic arthropods known from this locality, and only its sister taxon, Saperion, from the Lower Cambrian Chengjiang biota of China, approaches a similar size. Biomechanical trackway analysis demonstrates that tegopeltids were capable of rapidly skimming across the seafloor and, in conjunction with the identification of gut diverticulae in Tegopelte, supports previous hypotheses on the locomotory capabilities and carnivorous mode of life of such arthropods. The trackways occur in the oldest part (Kicking Horse Shale Member) of the Burgess Shale Formation, which is also known for its scarce assemblage of soft-bodied organisms, and indicate at least intermittent oxygenated bottom waters and low sedimentation rates. PMID:22072605

  7. An Ordovician variation on Burgess Shale-type biotas

    PubMed Central

    Botting, Joseph P.; Muir, Lucy A.; Jordan, Naomi; Upton, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The Cambrian Burgess Shale-type biotas form a globally consistent ecosystem, usually dominated by arthropods. Elements of these communities continued into the Early Ordovician at high latitude, but our understanding of ecological changes during the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event (GOBE) is currently limited by the paucity of Ordovician exceptionally preserved open-marine faunas. Here we clarify the early stages of the GOBE by describing a new open-marine Konservat-Lagerstätte from the Early Ordovician of Wales. The Afon Gam Biota includes many lineages typical of the Cambrian Burgess Shale-type biotas, but the most abundant groups were sponges, algae and worms, with non-trilobite arthropods being unexpectedly rare. Labile tissues occur abundantly in the sponges and are also present in other groups, including brachiopods and hyoliths. Taphonomic biases are considered and rejected as explanations for arthropod rarity; the preserved biota is considered to be an approximation to the original community composition. We note that other exceptionally preserved communities in the Welsh Ordovician are also sponge-dominated, suggesting a regional change in benthic ecology during the early stages of the GOBE. PMID:25909638

  8. New Burgess shale type fauna in the Middle Cambrian Stephen Formation on Mt. Stephen, British Columbia

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    Excavation of a fossil locality discovered in 1981 on Mount Stephen, 5 km south of the Burgess shale site on Mount Wapta, has yielded about 1000 specimens of a new soft-bodied and lightly-sclerotized fauna. The fauna includes the trilobite, Glossopleura, which is characteristic of the lower part of the Stephen Formation, 100 m or more stratigraphically below the level of the Burgess shale fauna. The arthropod, Alalcomenaeus, a genus extremely rare in the Burgess shale, is by far the most numerous, followed by a new, fishlike arthropod with prominent eyes, and Branchiocaris, another extremely rare Burgess shale arthropod. Many Burgess shale animals are present, although the most common, Marrella, is absent. They include the arthropods Canadaspis, Naraoia, Plenocaris and Tuzoia, the worms Ottoia and Burgessochaeta, the onychophoran Aysheaia, the sponge Leptomitus, Wiwaxia of unknown affinities, and Fasciculus, a possible ctenophore. The Glossopleura fauna thus adds extant and extinct invertebrate groups to those already known in the Middle Cambrian epoch, mostly from the Burgess shale. It also demonstrates that the animals preserved in the Stephen Formation are evolutionarily stable.

  9. Homology of head sclerites in Burgess Shale euarthropods.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Hernández, Javier

    2015-06-15

    The Cambrian fossil record of euarthropods (extant arachnids, myriapods, crustaceans, hexapods) has played a major role in understanding the origins of these successful animals and indicates that early ancestors underwent an evolutionary transition from soft-bodied taxa (lobopodians) to more familiar sclerotized forms with jointed appendages [1-3]. Recent advances in paleoneurology and developmental biology show that this major transformation is reflected by substantial changes in the head region of early euarthropods, as informed by the segmental affinity of the cephalic appendages [1, 4-6]. However, data on the implications of this reorganization for non-appendicular exoskeletal structures are lacking, given the difficulty of inferring the precise segmental affinities of these features. Here, I report neurological remains associated with the stalked eyes and "anterior sclerite" in the (middle Cambrian) Burgess Shale euarthropods Helmetia expansa and Odaraia alata and provide evidence that these features are associated with nerve traces originating from the anterior brain region, the protocerebrum. The position of the protocerebral ganglia in exceptionally preserved Cambrian euarthropods indicates the homology of the anterior sclerite in extinct groups (e.g., fuxianhuiids, bivalved forms, artiopodans [7, 8]) and allows new comparisons with the dorsal cephalic plate of radiodontans, large nektonic predators whose anterior segmental organization bears fundamental similarities to that of Paleozoic lobopodians [1, 6, 9, 10]. These observations allow reconstruction of the segmental architecture of the head region in the earliest sclerotized euarthropods and demonstrate the deep homology between exoskeletal features in an evolutionary continuum of taxa with distinct types of body organization. PMID:25959966

  10. A new phyllopod bed-like assemblage from the Burgess Shale of the Canadian Rockies.

    PubMed

    Caron, Jean-Bernard; Gaines, Robert R; Aria, Cédric; Mángano, M Gabriela; Streng, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Burgess Shale-type fossil assemblages provide the best evidence of the 'Cambrian explosion'. Here we report the discovery of an extraordinary new soft-bodied fauna from the Burgess Shale. Despite its proximity (ca. 40 km) to Walcott's original locality, the Marble Canyon fossil assemblage is distinct, and offers new insights into the initial diversification of metazoans, their early morphological disparity, and the geographic ranges and longevity of many Cambrian taxa. The arthropod-dominated assemblage is remarkable for its high density and diversity of soft-bodied fossils, as well as for its large proportion of new species (22% of total diversity) and for the preservation of hitherto unreported anatomical features, including in the chordate Metaspriggina and the arthropod Mollisonia. The presence of the stem arthropods Misszhouia and Primicaris, previously known only from the early Cambrian of China, suggests that the palaeogeographic ranges and longevity of Burgess Shale taxa may be underestimated. PMID:24513643

  11. From weird wonders to stem lineages: the second reclassification of the Burgess Shale fauna.

    PubMed

    Brysse, Keynyn

    2008-09-01

    The Burgess Shale, a set of fossil beds containing the exquisitely preserved remains of marine invertebrate organisms from shortly after the Cambrian explosion, was discovered in 1909, and first brought to widespread popular attention by Stephen Jay Gould in his 1989 bestseller Wonderful life: The Burgess Shale and the nature of history. Gould contrasted the initial interpretation of these fossils, in which they were 'shoehorned' into modern groups, with the first major reexamination begun in the 1960s, when the creatures were perceived as 'weird wonders', possessing unique body plans and unrelated to modern organisms. More recently, a third phase of Burgess Shale studies has arisen, which has not yet been historically examined. This third phase represents a revolutionary new understanding, brought about, I believe, by a change in taxonomic methodology that led to a new perception of the Burgess creatures, and a new way to comprehend their relationships with modern organisms. The adoption of cladistics, and its corollary, the stem group concept, has forged a new understanding of the Burgess Shale ... but has it also changed the questions we are allowed to ask about evolution? PMID:18761282

  12. Demecology in the Cambrian: synchronized molting in arthropods from the Burgess Shale

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Burgess Shale is well known for its preservation of a diverse soft-bodied biota dating from the Cambrian period (Series 3, Stage 5). While previous paleoecological studies have focused on particular species (autecology) or entire paleocommunities (synecology), studies on the ecology of populations (demecology) of Burgess Shale organisms have remained mainly anecdotal. Results Here, we present evidence for mass molting events in two unrelated arthropods from the Burgess Shale Walcott Quarry, Canadaspis perfecta and a megacheiran referred to as Alalcomenaeus sp. Conclusions These findings suggest that the triggers for such supposed synchronized molting appeared early on during the Cambrian radiation, and synchronized molting in the Cambrian may have had similar functions in the past as it does today. In addition, the finding of numerous juvenile Alalcomenaeus sp. molts associated with the putative alga Dictyophycus suggests a possible nursery habitat. In this nursery habitat a population of this animal might have found a more protected environment in which to spend critical developmental phases, as do many modern species today. PMID:23721223

  13. Beyond the Burgess Shale: Cambrian microfossils track the rise and fall of hallucigeniid lobopodians.

    PubMed

    Caron, Jean-Bernard; Smith, Martin R; Harvey, Thomas H P

    2013-09-22

    Burgess Shale-type deposits are renowned for their exquisite preservation of soft-bodied organisms, representing a range of animal body plans that evolved during the Cambrian 'explosion'. However, the rarity of these fossil deposits makes it difficult to reconstruct the broader-scale distributions of their constituent organisms. By contrast, microscopic skeletal elements represent an extensive chronicle of early animal evolution--but are difficult to interpret in the absence of corresponding whole-body fossils. Here, we provide new observations on the dorsal spines of the Cambrian lobopodian (panarthropod) worm Hallucigenia sparsa from the Burgess Shale (Cambrian Series 3, Stage 5). These exhibit a distinctive scaly microstructure and layered (cone-in-cone) construction that together identify a hitherto enigmatic suite of carbonaceous and phosphatic Cambrian microfossils--including material attributed to Mongolitubulus, Rushtonites and Rhombocorniculum--as spines of Hallucigenia-type lobopodians. Hallucigeniids are thus revealed as an important and widespread component of disparate Cambrian communities from late in the Terreneuvian (Cambrian Stage 2) through the 'middle' Cambrian (Series 3); their apparent decline in the latest Cambrian may be partly taphonomic. The cone-in-cone construction of hallucigeniid sclerites is shared with the sclerotized cuticular structures (jaws and claws) in modern onychophorans. More generally, our results emphasize the reciprocal importance and complementary roles of Burgess Shale-type fossils and isolated microfossils in documenting early animal evolution. PMID:23902914

  14. Beyond the Burgess Shale: Cambrian microfossils track the rise and fall of hallucigeniid lobopodians

    PubMed Central

    Caron, Jean-Bernard; Smith, Martin R.; Harvey, Thomas H. P.

    2013-01-01

    Burgess Shale-type deposits are renowned for their exquisite preservation of soft-bodied organisms, representing a range of animal body plans that evolved during the Cambrian ‘explosion’. However, the rarity of these fossil deposits makes it difficult to reconstruct the broader-scale distributions of their constituent organisms. By contrast, microscopic skeletal elements represent an extensive chronicle of early animal evolution—but are difficult to interpret in the absence of corresponding whole-body fossils. Here, we provide new observations on the dorsal spines of the Cambrian lobopodian (panarthropod) worm Hallucigenia sparsa from the Burgess Shale (Cambrian Series 3, Stage 5). These exhibit a distinctive scaly microstructure and layered (cone-in-cone) construction that together identify a hitherto enigmatic suite of carbonaceous and phosphatic Cambrian microfossils—including material attributed to Mongolitubulus, Rushtonites and Rhombocorniculum—as spines of Hallucigenia-type lobopodians. Hallucigeniids are thus revealed as an important and widespread component of disparate Cambrian communities from late in the Terreneuvian (Cambrian Stage 2) through the ‘middle’ Cambrian (Series 3); their apparent decline in the latest Cambrian may be partly taphonomic. The cone-in-cone construction of hallucigeniid sclerites is shared with the sclerotized cuticular structures (jaws and claws) in modern onychophorans. More generally, our results emphasize the reciprocal importance and complementary roles of Burgess Shale-type fossils and isolated microfossils in documenting early animal evolution. PMID:23902914

  15. Extraordinary fossils reveal the nature of Cambrian life: a commentary on Whittington (1975) 'The enigmatic animal Opabinia regalis, Middle Cambrian, Burgess Shale, British Columbia'.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Derek E G

    2015-04-19

    Harry Whittington's 1975 monograph on Opabinia was the first to highlight how some of the Burgess Shale animals differ markedly from those that populate today's oceans. Categorized by Stephen J. Gould as a 'weird wonder' (Wonderful life, 1989) Opabinia, together with other unusual Burgess Shale fossils, stimulated ongoing debates about the early evolution of the major animal groups and the nature of the Cambrian explosion. The subsequent discovery of a number of other exceptionally preserved fossil faunas of Cambrian and early Ordovician age has significantly augmented the information available on this critical interval in the history of life. Although Opabinia initially defied assignment to any group of modern animals, it is now interpreted as lying below anomalocaridids on the stem leading to the living arthropods. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. PMID:25750235

  16. Extraordinary fossils reveal the nature of Cambrian life: a commentary on Whittington (1975) ‘The enigmatic animal Opabinia regalis, Middle Cambrian, Burgess Shale, British Columbia’

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, Derek E. G.

    2015-01-01

    Harry Whittington's 1975 monograph on Opabinia was the first to highlight how some of the Burgess Shale animals differ markedly from those that populate today's oceans. Categorized by Stephen J. Gould as a ‘weird wonder’ (Wonderful life, 1989) Opabinia, together with other unusual Burgess Shale fossils, stimulated ongoing debates about the early evolution of the major animal groups and the nature of the Cambrian explosion. The subsequent discovery of a number of other exceptionally preserved fossil faunas of Cambrian and early Ordovician age has significantly augmented the information available on this critical interval in the history of life. Although Opabinia initially defied assignment to any group of modern animals, it is now interpreted as lying below anomalocaridids on the stem leading to the living arthropods. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. PMID:25750235

  17. A new Burgess Shale-type deposit from the Ediacaran of western Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dornbos, Stephen Q.; Oji, Tatsuo; Kanayama, Akihiro; Gonchigdorj, Sersmaa

    2016-03-01

    Preservation of soft-bodied organisms is exceedingly rare in the fossil record. One way that such fossils are preserved is as carbonaceous compressions in fined-grained marine sedimentary rocks. These deposits of exceptional preservation are known as Burgess Shale-type (BST) deposits. During the Cambrian Period, BST deposits are more common and provide a crucial view of early animal evolution. The earliest definitive fossil evidence for macroscopic animal-grade organisms is found in the preceding Ediacaran Period. BST deposits from the Ediacaran are rarer and lack conclusive evidence for animals. Here we report the discovery of a new Ediacaran BST deposit with exceptional preservation of non-mineralizing macro-organisms in thinly bedded black shale from Zavkhan Province, western Mongolia. This fossil assemblage, here named the Zuun-Arts biota, currently consists of two new species of probable macroscopic multicellular benthic algae. One species, Chinggiskhaania bifurcata n. gen., n. sp., dominates the biota. The other species, Zuunartsphyton delicatum n. gen., n. sp., is known from three specimens. SEM-EDS analysis shows that the fossils are composed of aluminosilicate clay minerals and some carbon, a composition comparable to fossils from the Cambrian Burgess Shale biota. This discovery opens a new window through which to view late Precambrian life.

  18. A new Burgess Shale-type deposit from the Ediacaran of western Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Dornbos, Stephen Q; Oji, Tatsuo; Kanayama, Akihiro; Gonchigdorj, Sersmaa

    2016-01-01

    Preservation of soft-bodied organisms is exceedingly rare in the fossil record. One way that such fossils are preserved is as carbonaceous compressions in fined-grained marine sedimentary rocks. These deposits of exceptional preservation are known as Burgess Shale-type (BST) deposits. During the Cambrian Period, BST deposits are more common and provide a crucial view of early animal evolution. The earliest definitive fossil evidence for macroscopic animal-grade organisms is found in the preceding Ediacaran Period. BST deposits from the Ediacaran are rarer and lack conclusive evidence for animals. Here we report the discovery of a new Ediacaran BST deposit with exceptional preservation of non-mineralizing macro-organisms in thinly bedded black shale from Zavkhan Province, western Mongolia. This fossil assemblage, here named the Zuun-Arts biota, currently consists of two new species of probable macroscopic multicellular benthic algae. One species, Chinggiskhaania bifurcata n. gen., n. sp., dominates the biota. The other species, Zuunartsphyton delicatum n. gen., n. sp., is known from three specimens. SEM-EDS analysis shows that the fossils are composed of aluminosilicate clay minerals and some carbon, a composition comparable to fossils from the Cambrian Burgess Shale biota. This discovery opens a new window through which to view late Precambrian life. PMID:26988136

  19. A new Burgess Shale-type deposit from the Ediacaran of western Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Dornbos, Stephen Q.; Oji, Tatsuo; Kanayama, Akihiro; Gonchigdorj, Sersmaa

    2016-01-01

    Preservation of soft-bodied organisms is exceedingly rare in the fossil record. One way that such fossils are preserved is as carbonaceous compressions in fined-grained marine sedimentary rocks. These deposits of exceptional preservation are known as Burgess Shale-type (BST) deposits. During the Cambrian Period, BST deposits are more common and provide a crucial view of early animal evolution. The earliest definitive fossil evidence for macroscopic animal-grade organisms is found in the preceding Ediacaran Period. BST deposits from the Ediacaran are rarer and lack conclusive evidence for animals. Here we report the discovery of a new Ediacaran BST deposit with exceptional preservation of non-mineralizing macro-organisms in thinly bedded black shale from Zavkhan Province, western Mongolia. This fossil assemblage, here named the Zuun-Arts biota, currently consists of two new species of probable macroscopic multicellular benthic algae. One species, Chinggiskhaania bifurcata n. gen., n. sp., dominates the biota. The other species, Zuunartsphyton delicatum n. gen., n. sp., is known from three specimens. SEM-EDS analysis shows that the fossils are composed of aluminosilicate clay minerals and some carbon, a composition comparable to fossils from the Cambrian Burgess Shale biota. This discovery opens a new window through which to view late Precambrian life. PMID:26988136

  20. A New Stalked Filter-Feeder from the Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale, British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Lorna J.; Caron, Jean-Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Burgess Shale-type deposits provide invaluable insights into the early evolution of body plans and the ecological structure of Cambrian communities, but a number of species, continue to defy phylogenetic interpretations. Here we extend this list to include a new soft-bodied animal, Siphusauctum gregarium n. gen. and n. sp., from the Tulip Beds (Campsite Cliff Shale Member, Burgess Shale Formation) of Mount Stephen (Yoho National Park, British Columbia). With 1,133 specimens collected, S. gregarium is clearly the most abundant animal from this locality. This stalked animal (reaching at least 20 cm in length), has a large ovoid calyx connected to a narrow bilayered stem and a small flattened or bulb-like holdfast. The calyx is enclosed by a flexible sheath with six small openings at the base, and a central terminal anus near the top encircled by indistinct openings. A prominent organ, represented by six radially symmetrical segments with comb-like elements, surrounds an internal body cavity with a large stomach, conical median gut and straight intestine. Siphusauctum gregarium was probably an active filter-feeder, with water passing through the calyx openings, capturing food particles with its comb-like elements. It often occurs in large assemblages on single bedding planes suggesting a gregarious lifestyle, with the animal living in high tier clusters. These were probably buried en masse more or less in-situ by rapid mud flow events. Siphusauctum gregarium resembles Dinomischus, another Cambrian enigmatic stalked animal. Principal points of comparison include a long stem with a calyx containing a visceral mass and bract-like elements, and a similar lifestyle albeit occupying different tiering levels. The presence in both animals of a digestive tract with a potential stomach and anus suggest a grade of organization within bilaterians, but relationships with extant phyla are not straightforward. Thus, the broader affinities of S. gregarium remain largely unconstrained

  1. Function and hydrostatics in the telson of the Burgess Shale arthropod Burgessia

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jih-Pai

    2009-01-01

    Burgessia bella is a characteristic Burgess Shale arthropod (508 Ma), but the unusual preservation of its telson in both straight and bent modes leads to contradictory interpretations of its function. A reinvestigation of the fossil material, including burial attitudes, combined with a comparison with the decay sequence and mechanics of the telson in living Limulus, demonstrates that the telson of Burgessia was flexible in its relaxed state but could be stiffened in life. Evidence of fluid within the telson indicates that this manoeuvrability was achieved by changes in hydrostatic pressure and muscular control. The dual mode in the Burgessia telson is, to my knowledge, the first documented among fossil arthropods. It indicates that the requirement for a rigid telson, which is resolved by a thick sclerotized cuticle in most arthropods, may first have been achieved by hydrostatic means. PMID:19324649

  2. Arthropod visual predators in the early pelagic ecosystem: evidence from the Burgess Shale and Chengjiang biotas.

    PubMed

    Vannier, J; García-Bellido, D C; Hu, S-X; Chen, A-L

    2009-07-22

    Exceptional fossil specimens with preserved soft parts from the Maotianshan Shale (ca 520 Myr ago) and the Burgess Shale (505 Myr ago) biotas indicate that the worldwide distributed bivalved arthropod Isoxys was probably a non-benthic visual predator. New lines of evidence come from the functional morphology of its powerful prehensile frontal appendages that, combined with large spherical eyes, are thought to have played a key role in the recognition and capture of swimming or epibenthic prey. The swimming and steering of this arthropod was achieved by the beating of multiple setose exopods and a flap-like telson. The appendage morphology of Isoxys indicates possible phylogenetical relationships with the megacheirans, a widespread group of assumed predator arthropods characterized by a pre-oral 'great appendage'. Evidence from functional morphology and taphonomy suggests that Isoxys was able to migrate through the water column and was possibly exploiting hyperbenthic niches for food. Although certainly not unique, the case of Isoxys supports the idea that off-bottom animal interactions such as predation, associated with complex feeding strategies and behaviours (e.g. vertical migration and hunting) were established by the Early Cambrian. It also suggests that a prototype of a pelagic food chain had already started to build-up at least in the lower levels of the water column. PMID:19403536

  3. Arthropod visual predators in the early pelagic ecosystem: evidence from the Burgess Shale and Chengjiang biotas

    PubMed Central

    Vannier, J.; García-Bellido, D.C.; Hu, S.-X.; Chen, A.-L.

    2009-01-01

    Exceptional fossil specimens with preserved soft parts from the Maotianshan Shale (ca 520 Myr ago) and the Burgess Shale (505 Myr ago) biotas indicate that the worldwide distributed bivalved arthropod Isoxys was probably a non-benthic visual predator. New lines of evidence come from the functional morphology of its powerful prehensile frontal appendages that, combined with large spherical eyes, are thought to have played a key role in the recognition and capture of swimming or epibenthic prey. The swimming and steering of this arthropod was achieved by the beating of multiple setose exopods and a flap-like telson. The appendage morphology of Isoxys indicates possible phylogenetical relationships with the megacheirans, a widespread group of assumed predator arthropods characterized by a pre-oral ‘great appendage’. Evidence from functional morphology and taphonomy suggests that Isoxys was able to migrate through the water column and was possibly exploiting hyperbenthic niches for food. Although certainly not unique, the case of Isoxys supports the idea that off-bottom animal interactions such as predation, associated with complex feeding strategies and behaviours (e.g. vertical migration and hunting) were established by the Early Cambrian. It also suggests that a prototype of a pelagic food chain had already started to build-up at least in the lower levels of the water column. PMID:19403536

  4. Geochemical Proxies as an Effective Tool for Determining Depositional Environments for Burgess Shale-Type Fossil Localities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, W.; Handle, K.

    2012-04-01

    A variety of models have been presented to account for the arrest of decay processes in Burgess Shale-type (BST) fossil beds. These models include sustained anoxia, fluctuating oxyclines, and hypersaline brines. Despite being questioned in the published literature, patterns in redox-sensitive metals may differentiate between these chemical environments of deposition. Accordingly, the redox indices V versus Al, V/Sc, Ni/Al, Ni/Co, and Mo were applied to two well-documented North American BST localities: 1) the Wheeler Formation (Utah, USA) with palaeontological characteristics indicating deposition within a fluctuating oxycline; and 2) the Burgess Shale (British Columbia, Canada) with field evidence indicating an association of fossil deposits with hypersaline brine pools. In addition, the chemical characteristics of the Kinzers Formation (Pennsylvania, USA), a BST fossil locality in which details of depositional environment are unclear due to limited outcrop exposure, were compared to those of the Wheeler and Burgess Shale formations. A set of eighty-four Wheeler Shale samples yielded a range of Ni/Co values from 0.6 to 10.5, and V/Sc values up to 27.9. Barren shales cluster along the line that defines the lithogenic maximum for V, whereas fossiliferous samples yielded a scattered distribution of V versus Al values above the lithogenic maximum. Molybdenum content was <1ppm in all Wheeler Shale samples. These data are consistent with deposition under a range of redox conditions, with fossils (both BST and trilobites) correlating with low-oxygen environments. In contrast, a set of 53 samples from the Burgess Shale and associated units yielded a restricted range of both Ni/Co (<6.3; all but two <5.0), and V/Sc (<7.2). Vanadium values correlate with aluminum. Molybdenum content is below the 2ppm detection limit in all but two samples (2 and 3 ppm). Geochemical signatures for barren, trilobite-bearing, and soft-bodied-fossil-bearing samples are indistinguishable. These

  5. Brachiopods hitching a ride: an early case of commensalism in the middle Cambrian Burgess Shale

    PubMed Central

    Topper, Timothy P.; Holmer, Lars E.; Caron, Jean-Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Ecological interactions, including symbiotic associations such as mutualism, parasitism and commensalism are crucial factors in generating evolutionary novelties and strategies. Direct examples of species interactions in the fossil record generally involve organisms attached to sessile organisms in an epibiont or macroboring relationship. Here we provide support for an intimate ecological association between a calcareous brachiopod (Nisusia) and the stem group mollusc Wiwaxia from the Burgess Shale. Brachiopod specimens are fixed to Wiwaxia scleritomes, the latter showing no signs of decay and disarticulation, suggesting a live association. We interpret this association as the oldest unambiguous example of a facultative ectosymbiosis between a sessile organism and a mobile benthic animal in the fossil record. The potential evolutionary advantage of this association is discussed, brachiopods benefiting from ease of attachment, increased food supply, avoidance of turbid benthic conditions, biofoul and possible protection from predators, suggesting commensalism (benefiting the symbiont with no impact for the host). While Cambrian brachiopods are relatively common epibionts, in particular on sponges, the association of Nisusia with the motile Wiwaxia is rare for a brachiopod species, fossil or living, and suggests that symbiotic associations were already well established and diversified by the “middle” (Series 3, Stage 5) Cambrian. PMID:25330795

  6. Brachiopods hitching a ride: an early case of commensalism in the middle Cambrian Burgess Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topper, Timothy P.; Holmer, Lars E.; Caron, Jean-Bernard

    2014-10-01

    Ecological interactions, including symbiotic associations such as mutualism, parasitism and commensalism are crucial factors in generating evolutionary novelties and strategies. Direct examples of species interactions in the fossil record generally involve organisms attached to sessile organisms in an epibiont or macroboring relationship. Here we provide support for an intimate ecological association between a calcareous brachiopod (Nisusia) and the stem group mollusc Wiwaxia from the Burgess Shale. Brachiopod specimens are fixed to Wiwaxia scleritomes, the latter showing no signs of decay and disarticulation, suggesting a live association. We interpret this association as the oldest unambiguous example of a facultative ectosymbiosis between a sessile organism and a mobile benthic animal in the fossil record. The potential evolutionary advantage of this association is discussed, brachiopods benefiting from ease of attachment, increased food supply, avoidance of turbid benthic conditions, biofoul and possible protection from predators, suggesting commensalism (benefiting the symbiont with no impact for the host). While Cambrian brachiopods are relatively common epibionts, in particular on sponges, the association of Nisusia with the motile Wiwaxia is rare for a brachiopod species, fossil or living, and suggests that symbiotic associations were already well established and diversified by the ``middle'' (Series 3, Stage 5) Cambrian.

  7. Marine shale and the Hazwaste recycling debate

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, J.

    1988-10-01

    This paper reports that Marine Shale Processors, Inc. (St. Rose, La.), and the Hazardous Waste Treatment Council (Washington, D.C.), an industry trade association, are at the focus of a controversy whose resolution has significant implications for the respective definitions, concepts and legal statuses of hazardous-waste incineration and recycling. Marine Shale Processors (MSP) claims it recycles hazardous wastes from a variety of government and commercial sources by blending it and treating it thermally in a large rotary kiln to produce non-hazardous aggregate material, which is sold for construction, road-building or other purposes. The Hazardous Waste Treatment Council (HWTC) and others allege that, under the provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), MSP is operating an unpermitted hazardous-waste incinerator. According to HWTC officials, MSP's identification as a recycler is inappropriate and has allowed the company unfairly to avoid permitting costs and formal compliance with RCRA standards and regulations. Recently, the Louisiana legislature passed laws declaring that hazardous-waste recyclers in the state must meet the same standards as permitted hazardous-waste incinerators. At press time, a hearing before the Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality to determine MSP's status as a recycler under the new laws was set for Sept. 29. Since all parties in the debate over Marine Shale's industry role appear to agree that the controversy is central to the emerging issue of establishing clear distinctions between recycling and hazardous-waste destruction, this article describes the arguments on both sides as these stood in mid-September.

  8. Morphology and function in the Cambrian Burgess Shale megacheiran arthropod Leanchoilia superlata and the application of a descriptive matrix

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Leanchoilia superlata is one of the best known arthropods from the middle Cambrian Burgess Shale of British Columbia. Here we re-describe the morphology of L. superlata and discuss its possible autecology. The re-description follows a standardized scheme, the descriptive matrix approach, designed to provide a template for descriptions of other megacheiran species. Results Our findings differ in several respects from previous interpretations. Examples include a more slender body; a possible hypostome; a small specialised second appendage, bringing the number of pairs of head appendages to four; a further sub-division of the great appendage, making it more similar to that of other megacheirans; and a complex joint of the exopod reflecting the arthropod’s swimming capabilities. Conclusions Different aspects of the morphology, for example, the morphology of the great appendage and the presence of a basipod with strong median armature on the biramous appendages indicate that L. superlata was an active and agile necto-benthic predator (not a scavenger or deposit feeder as previously interpreted). PMID:22935076

  9. Reconstructing the diet of a 505-million-year-old arthropod: Sidneyia inexpectans from the Burgess Shale fauna.

    PubMed

    Zacaï, Axelle; Vannier, Jean; Lerosey-Aubril, Rudy

    2016-03-01

    The feeding ecology of the 505-million-year-old arthropod Sidneyia inexpectans from the middle Cambrian (Series 3, Stage 5) Burgess Shale fauna (British Columbia, Canada) is revealed by three lines of evidence: the structure of its digestive system, the fossilized contents of its gut and the functional anatomy of its appendages. The digestive tract of Sidneyia is straight, tubular and relatively narrow in the trunk region. It is enlarged into a pear-shaped area in the cephalic region and stretches notably to form a large pocket in the abdomen. The mouth is ventral, posteriorly directed and leads to the midgut via a short tubular structure interpreted as the oesophagus. Anteriorly, three pairs of glands with internal, branching tubular structures open into the digestive tract. These glands have equivalents in various Cambrian arthropod taxa (e.g. naraoiids) and modern arthropods. Their primary function was most likely to digest and assimilate food. The abdominal pocket of Sidneyia concentrates undigested skeletal elements and various residues. It is interpreted here as the functional analogue of the stercoral pocket of some extant terrestrial arachnids (e.g. Araneae, Solifugae), whose primary function is to store food residuals and excretory material until defecation. Analysis of the gut contents indicates that Sidneyia fed largely on small ptychopariid trilobites, brachiopods, possibly agnostids, worms and other undetermined animals. Sidneyia was primarily a durophagous carnivore with predatory and/or scavenging habits, feeding on small invertebrates that lived at the water-sediment interface. There is no evidence for selective feeding. Its food items (e.g. living prey or dead material) were grasped and manipulated ventrally by its anterior appendages, then macerated into ingestible fragments and conveyed to the mouth via the converging action of strong molar-like gnathobases. Digestion probably took place within the anterior midgut via enzymes secreted in the

  10. Cephalic and Limb Anatomy of a New Isoxyid from the Burgess Shale and the Role of “Stem Bivalved Arthropods” in the Disparity of the Frontalmost Appendage

    PubMed Central

    Aria, Cédric; Caron, Jean-Bernard

    2015-01-01

    We herein describe Surusicaris elegans gen. et sp. nov. (in Isoxyidae, amended), a middle (Series 3, Stage 5) Cambrian bivalved arthropod from the new Burgess Shale deposit of Marble Canyon (Kootenay National Park, British Columbia). Surusicaris exhibits 12 simple, partly undivided biramous trunk limbs with long tripartite caeca, which may illustrate a plesiomorphic “fused” condition of exopod and endopod. We construe also that the head is made of five somites (= four segments), including two eyes, one pair of anomalocaridid-like frontalmost appendages, and three pairs of poorly sclerotized uniramous limbs. This fossil may therefore be a candidate for illustrating the origin of the plesiomorphic head condition in euarthropods, and questions the significance of the “two-segmented head” in, e.g., fuxianhuiids. The frontalmost appendage in isoxyids is intriguingly disparate, bearing similarities with both dinocaridids and euarthropods. In order to evaluate the relative importance of bivalved arthropods, such as Surusicaris, in the hypothetical structuro-functional transition between the dinocaridid frontal appendage and the pre-oral—arguably deutocerebral—appendage of euarthropods, we chose a phenetic approach and computed morphospace occupancy for the frontalmost appendages of 36 stem and crown taxa. Results show different levels of evolutionary decoupling between frontalmost appendage disparity and body plans. Variance is greatest in dinocaridids and “stem bivalved” arthropods, but these groups do not occupy the morphospace homogeneously. Rather, the diversity of frontalmost appendages in “stem bivalved” arthropods, distinct in its absence of clear clustering, is found to link the morphologies of “short great appendages,” chelicerae and antennules. This find fits the hypothesis of an increase in disparity of the deutocerebral appendage prior to its diversification in euarthropods, and possibly corresponds to its original time of development

  11. Schema Theory and Literary Texts: Anthony Burgess' Nadsat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gladsky, Rita K.

    1992-01-01

    Burgess' novel, "A Clockwork Orange," is discussed as a perfect example of schema theory in operation. The book's overwhelming linguistic accomplishment is based on Nadsat, a language coined by Burgess and described as bits of rhyming slang, gypsy talk, with Slavic roots and propaganda components. (seven references) (LB)

  12. Debating the Debates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markham, Reed

    When looking back at the 1998 presidential debates, political reformers should reconsider the sponsorship and direction of future presidential debates. There is no debate about the need for presidential debates, especially in light of the increasing involvement by media handlers, but the debate should continue over which institution should…

  13. The Debate Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tumposky, Nancy Rennau

    2004-01-01

    Debate has been a well-known pedagogical technique since there have been written records about teaching and learning. Originally employed for learning philosophy and theology, debate was later used in the fields of history, law, literature, and the physical sciences. This author asserts, however, that, although the benefits of debate are…

  14. Gas shale/oil shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fishman, N.S.; Bereskin, S.R.; Bowker, K.A.; Cardott, B.J.; Chidsey, T.C., Jr.; Dubiel, R.F.; Enomoto, C.B.; Harrison, W.B.; Jarvie, D.M.; Jenkins, C.L.; LeFever, J.A.; Li, Peng; McCracken, J.N.; Morgan, C.D.; Nordeng, S.H.; Nyahay, R.E.; Schamel, Steven; Sumner, R.L.; Wray, L.L.

    2011-01-01

    This report provides information about specific shales across North America and Europe from which gas (biogenic or thermogenic), oil, or natural gas liquids are produced or is actively being explored. The intent is to re?ect the recently expanded mission of the Energy Minerals Division (EMD) Gas Shales Committee to serve as a single point of access to technical information on shales regardless of the type of hydrocarbon produced from them. The contents of this report were drawn largely from contributions by numerous members of the EMD Gas Shales Advisory Committee, with much of the data being available from public websites such as state or provincial geological surveys or other public institutions. Shales from which gas or oil is being produced in the United States are listed in alphabetical order by shale name. Information for Canada is presented by province, whereas for Europe, it is presented by country.

  15. Devonian shale

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Objectives were to: estimate the in-place gas resource of Devonian Shale in the eastern United States, project possible production volumes and reserve additions of recoverable gas at various price levels with current technology, estimate the potential of new technology and its effect on production and reserve additions, examine constraints of Devonian Shale development, and compare findings with other published studies.

  16. Metamorphosis in Two Novels by Melvin Burgess: Denying and Disguising "Deviant" Desire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokkola, Lydia

    2011-01-01

    Melvin Burgess has gained a reputation as an "enfant terrible," whose writing tackles topics and presents attitudes which are controversial in literature for adolescents. Kimberley Reynolds cites him as an author whose work demonstrates that "writing about sex, sexuality and relationships between the sexes [is] one of the most radically changed…

  17. The Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Current Issues in Language and Society, 1997

    1997-01-01

    The transcript of a debate within a group of specialists in translation is presented. The discussion addresses: translator "visibility" in translations and reader reception; the relationship of functionalism in translation, comparative linguistics, and intercultural communication; the client's power; literary translation; the translator's power;…

  18. MORIARTY, ZEMECKIS, BURGESS AND OTHERS DURING FILMING OF 'CONTACT' AT LC39 PRESS SITE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    From left, Bruce Moriarty, first assistant director; Robert Zemeckis, director/producer; Don Burgess, director of photography; and other Warner Bros. crew members oversee the filming of scenes for the movie 'Contact' at Kennedy Space Center's Launch Complex 39 Press Site on January 29. The screenplay for 'Contact' is based on the best-selling novel by the late astronomer Carl Sagan. The cast includes Jodie Foster, Matthew McConaughey, John Hurt, James Woods, Tom Skerritt, David Morse, William Fichtner, Rob Lowe and Angela Bassett. Described by Warner Bros. as a science fiction drama, 'Contact' will depict humankind's first encounter with evidence of extraterrestrial life.

  19. Shale gas development: a smart regulation framework.

    PubMed

    Konschnik, Katherine E; Boling, Mark K

    2014-01-01

    Advances in directional drilling and hydraulic fracturing have sparked a natural gas boom from shale formations in the United States. Regulators face a rapidly changing industry comprised of hundreds of players, operating tens of thousands of wells across 30 states. They are often challenged to respond by budget cuts, a brain drain to industry, regulations designed for conventional gas developments, insufficient information, and deeply polarized debates about hydraulic fracturing and its regulation. As a result, shale gas governance remains a halting patchwork of rules, undermining opportunities to effectively characterize and mitigate development risk. The situation is dynamic, with research and incremental regulatory advances underway. Into this mix, we offer the CO/RE framework--characterization of risk, optimization of mitigation strategies, regulation, and enforcement--to design tailored governance strategies. We then apply CO/RE to three types of shale gas risks, to illustrate its potential utility to regulators. PMID:24564674

  20. [Aphasia: debates].

    PubMed

    Roch Lecours, A

    1999-10-01

    . The meeting of 9th July (27th anniversary of the Charcot Chair) was dedicated to cerebral anatomy and the "quadrilateral". The subject of Dejerine's questionnaire was again raised. Accompanied by Georges Guillain, Fulgence Raymond was present on this occasion (but refrained from speaking). This time the star was Augusta Dejerine Klumpke, born on a Spanish sand dune now known as San Francisco, U.S.A. Mrs Dejerine contested the "lenticular zone" and gave it a quite different dimension by proving that its anterodorsal part included associative axons originating in or projecting to Broca's area, the remainder of the "Pierre Marie quadrilateral" being called into question. Brissaud was impressed by the performance of Madame Dejerine, and Pierre Marie found himself in an awkward position. His student François Moutier, present at his request, discussed his own clinical cases and then, on the subject of "Lelong's" brain' (autumn 1861), let it be known that Broca had scratched it with his finger nails while removing the meninges. André-Thomas and Georges Guillain took part in the discussion. At the last meeting, on 23rd July, Brissaud was absent. Fulgence Raymond was again present but remained silent. The only subject on the agenda was "physiological pathology", but several points that had not been resolved on the 9th July were brought up again. On this occasion, Pierre Marie opened the debate and adopted a very cautious approach. However, his patience eventually ran out and he replied sharply to the comments of Dejerine on "images of language" and those of Dupré on "mental representations". Metaphorically speaking, it might be said that the gold medal was not awarded, Augusta Dejerine Klumpke took the silver, Dupré and André-Thomas shared the bronze, and Souques and Moutier each deserved a special mention. It might also be suggested that in 1908 the Society sketched out to a large extent the programme for research on aphasia for the century to come. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATE

  1. Oil shale commercialization study

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, M.M.

    1981-09-01

    Ninety four possible oil shale sections in southern Idaho were located and chemically analyzed. Sixty-two of these shales show good promise of possible oil and probable gas potential. Sixty of the potential oil and gas shales represent the Succor Creek Formation of Miocene age in southwestern Idaho. Two of the shales represent Cretaceous formations in eastern Idaho, which should be further investigated to determine their realistic value and areal extent. Samples of the older Mesozonic and paleozoic sections show promise but have not been chemically analyzed and will need greater attention to determine their potential. Geothermal resources are of high potential in Idaho and are important to oil shale prospects. Geothermal conditions raise the geothermal gradient and act as maturing agents to oil shale. They also might be used in the retorting and refining processes. Oil shales at the surface, which appear to have good oil or gas potential should have much higher potential at depth where the geothermal gradient is high. Samples from deep petroleum exploration wells indicate that the succor Creek shales have undergone considerable maturation with depth of burial and should produce gas and possibly oil. Most of Idaho's shales that have been analyzed have a greater potential for gas than for oil but some oil potential is indicated. The Miocene shales of the Succor Creek Formation should be considered as gas and possibly oil source material for the future when technology has been perfectes. 11 refs.

  2. Alumina from oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    Dawsonite-bearing oil shale of Colorado's Green River Formation offers a unique and vast (6.5 billion tons of Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/) resource of easily extractable alumina. The processing methods required by the thermal reactions of dawsonite and its oil-shale carrier also require production of shale oil, soda ash, and nahcolite as marketable coproducts. These production methods are presented. The alumina production process is contrasted with the Bayer process to describe technical advantages of extraction of alumina from oil shale which may offset the problems associated with processing a relatively lean ore. While alumina production from oil shale requires development of new technology, the technical problems appear solvable. Only the political problems arising from the now onerous and completely unnecessary Federal oil-shale withdrawal appear less solvable.

  3. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the latest developments in the global common clay and shale industry, particularly in the U.S. It claims that common clay and shale is mainly used in the manufacture of heavy clay products like brick, flue tile and sewer pipe. The main producing states in the U.S. include North Carolina, New York and Oklahoma. Among the firms that manufacture clay and shale-based products are Mid America Brick & Structural Clay Products LLC and Boral USA.

  4. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2000-01-01

    Part of the 1999 Industrial Minerals Review. The clay and shale market in 1999 is reviewed. In the U.S., sales or use of clay and shale increased from 26.4 million st in 1998 to 27.3 million st in 1999, with an estimated 1999 value of production of $143 million. These materials were used to produce structural clay products, lightweight aggregates, cement, and ceramics and refractories. Production statistics for clays and shales and for their uses in 1999 are presented.

  5. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2004-01-01

    Part of the 2003 industrial minerals review. The legislation, production, and consumption of common clay and shale are discussed. The average prices of the material and outlook for the market are provided.

  6. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2006-01-01

    At present, 150 companies produce common clay and shale in 41 US states. According to the United States Geological Survey (USGS), domestic production in 2005 reached 24.8 Mt valued at $176 million. In decreasing order by tonnage, the leading producer states include North Carolina, Texas, Alabama, Georgia and Ohio. For the whole year, residential and commercial building construction remained the major market for common clay and shale products such as brick, drain tile, lightweight aggregate, quarry tile and structural tile.

  7. Are debatable scientific questions debatable? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oreskes, N.

    2010-12-01

    Are debatable scientific questions debatable? In 2000, the physicist-philosopher John Ziman posed this pithy—and crucial—question. He noted that scientists were at a disadvantage in public debate, because the rules of engagement are different in scientific discourse than in public discourse in ways that make it difficult for scientists to ‘win’ public arguments, even when the facts are on their side. In this paper, I revisit Ziman’s arguments in light of the difficulties that climate scientists have had in communicating the reality and gravity of global warming. In addition to the problem posed by Ziman, I also address the role of organized disinformation in further increasing the challenges that climate scientists face.

  8. Process for oil shale retorting

    DOEpatents

    Jones, John B.; Kunchal, S. Kumar

    1981-10-27

    Particulate oil shale is subjected to a pyrolysis with a hot, non-oxygenous gas in a pyrolysis vessel, with the products of the pyrolysis of the shale contained kerogen being withdrawn as an entrained mist of shale oil droplets in a gas for a separation of the liquid from the gas. Hot retorted shale withdrawn from the pyrolysis vessel is treated in a separate container with an oxygenous gas so as to provide combustion of residual carbon retained on the shale, producing a high temperature gas for the production of some steam and for heating the non-oxygenous gas used in the oil shale retorting process in the first vessel. The net energy recovery includes essentially complete recovery of the organic hydrocarbon material in the oil shale as a liquid shale oil, a high BTU gas, and high temperature steam.

  9. Shale: Measurement of thermal properties

    SciTech Connect

    Gilliam, T.M.; Morgan, I.L.

    1987-07-01

    Thermal conductivity and heat capacity measurements were made on samples of Devonian shale, Pierre shale, and oil shale from the Green River Formation. Thermal expansion measurements were made on selected samples of Devonian shale. Measurements were obtained over the temperature range of ambient to 473 K. Average values for thermal conductivity and heat capacity for the samples studied were within two standard deviations of all data over this temperature range. 15 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Oil shale retort apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Reeves, Adam A.; Mast, Earl L.; Greaves, Melvin J.

    1990-01-01

    A retorting apparatus including a vertical kiln and a plurality of tubes for delivering rock to the top of the kiln and removal of processed rock from the bottom of the kiln so that the rock descends through the kiln as a moving bed. Distributors are provided for delivering gas to the kiln to effect heating of the rock and to disturb the rock particles during their descent. The distributors are constructed and disposed to deliver gas uniformly to the kiln and to withstand and overcome adverse conditions resulting from heat and from the descending rock. The rock delivery tubes are geometrically sized, spaced and positioned so as to deliver the shale uniformly into the kiln and form symmetrically disposed generally vertical paths, or "rock chimneys", through the descending shale which offer least resistance to upward flow of gas. When retorting oil shale, a delineated collection chamber near the top of the kiln collects gas and entrained oil mist rising through the kiln.

  11. Eastern Gas Shales Project

    SciTech Connect

    Koen, A.D.

    1981-05-01

    The Eastern Gas Shales Project (EGSP), the DOE study to obtain reliable estimates of economically recoverable gas from shale formations in the Appalachian basin, has determined that between 20 and 50 TCF of gas can be recovered from the region. The EGSP final report states that the expected (mean) total economically recoverable gas is 20.2 TCF, with a standard deviation of 1.6 TCF, conditional on the use of shooting technology on 160-acre well spacing. If shooting technology is used and 160-acre well spacing maintained a 95% probability exists that the total recoverable gas from Appalachian basin Devonian shale is between 17.06 and 23.34 TCF.

  12. The Acid Rain Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oates-Bockenstedt, Catherine

    1997-01-01

    Details an activity designed to motivate students by incorporating science-related issues into a classroom debate. Includes "The Acid Rain Bill" and "Position Guides" for student roles as committee members, consumers, governors, industry owners, tourism professionals, senators, and debate directors. (DKM)

  13. Oil shale: Technology status report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-10-01

    This report documents the status of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Oil Shale Program as of the end of FY 86. The report consists of (1) a status of oil shale development, (2) a description of the DOE Oil Shale Program, (3) an FY 86 oil shale research summary, and (4) a summary of FY 86 accomplishments. Discoveries were made in FY 86 about the physical and chemical properties and behavior of oil shales, process chemistry and kinetics, in situ retorting, advanced processes, and the environmental behavior and fate of wastes. The DOE Oil Shale Program shows an increasing emphasis on eastern US oil shales and in the development of advanced oil shale processing concepts. With the award to Foster Wheeler for the design of oil shale conceptual plants, the first step in the development of a systems analysis capability for the complete oil shale process has been taken. Unocal's Parachute Creek project, the only commercial oil shale plant operating in the United States, is operating at about 4000 bbl/day. The shale oil is upgraded at Parachute Creek for input to a conventional refinery. 67 refs., 21 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. The Spirit of the Times in Childhood Education. The First Evangeline Burgess Memorial Lecture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senn, Milton J. E.

    Education of the child, including preschool education, has been and still is a topic of great concern to many people. Translation of this concern into constructive programs for early childhood education is a profound problem, one that is debated often and emotionally. There is a dichotomy between those who favor educational practices based on…

  15. Combustion heater for oil shale

    DOEpatents

    Mallon, R.; Walton, O.; Lewis, A.E.; Braun, R.

    1983-09-21

    A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650 to 700/sup 0/C for use as a process heat source.

  16. Solar retorting of oil shale

    DOEpatents

    Gregg, David W.

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus and method for retorting oil shale using solar radiation. Oil shale is introduced into a first retorting chamber having a solar focus zone. There the oil shale is exposed to solar radiation and rapidly brought to a predetermined retorting temperature. Once the shale has reached this temperature, it is removed from the solar focus zone and transferred to a second retorting chamber where it is heated. In a second chamber, the oil shale is maintained at the retorting temperature, without direct exposure to solar radiation, until the retorting is complete.

  17. Combustion heater for oil shale

    DOEpatents

    Mallon, Richard G.; Walton, Otis R.; Lewis, Arthur E.; Braun, Robert L.

    1985-01-01

    A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650.degree.-700.degree. C. for use as a process heat source.

  18. Current Debate: A Response to the Debate Blahs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovalcheck, Kassian A.

    Intercollegiate debaters often have difficulty coming up with relevant topics for debate. Even when they do find current topics, by the end of an eight-month preparation period both the coaches and the debaters are bored. One possible alternative to this extension of the debate season might be found in current issues debate. Additional emphasis on…

  19. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    Part of the 2000 annual review of the industrial minerals sector. A general overview of the common clay and shale industry is provided. In 2000, U.S. production increased by 5 percent, while sales or use declined to 23.6 Mt. Despite the slowdown in the economy, no major changes are expected for the market.

  20. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2003-01-01

    Part of the 2002 industrial minerals review. The production, consumption, and price of shale and common clay in the U.S. during 2002 are discussed. The impact of EPA regulations on brick and structural clay product manufacturers is also outlined.

  1. Measurements of Methane Emissions and Volatile Organic Compounds from Shale Gas Operations in the Marcellus Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omara, M.; Subramanian, R.; Sullivan, M.; Robinson, A. L.; Presto, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Marcellus Shale is the most expansive shale gas reserve in play in the United States, representing an estimated 17 to 29 % of the total domestic shale gas reserves. The rapid and extensive development of this shale gas reserve in the past decade has stimulated significant interest and debate over the climate and environmental impacts associated with fugitive releases of methane and other pollutants, including volatile organic compounds. However, the nature and magnitude of these pollutant emissions remain poorly characterized. This study utilizes the tracer release technique to characterize total fugitive methane release rates from natural gas facilities in southwestern Pennsylvania and West Virginia that are at different stages of development, including well completion flowbacks and active production. Real-time downwind concentrations of methane and two tracer gases (acetylene and nitrous oxide) released onsite at known flow rates were measured using a quantum cascade tunable infrared laser differential absorption spectrometer (QC-TILDAS, Aerodyne, Billerica, MA) and a cavity ring down spectrometer (Model G2203, Picarro, Santa Clara, CA). Evacuated Silonite canisters were used to sample ambient air during downwind transects of methane and tracer plumes to assess volatile organic compounds (VOCs). A gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector was used to quantify VOCs following the EPA Method TO-14A. A preliminary assessment of fugitive emissions from actively producing sites indicated that methane leak rates ranged from approximately 1.8 to 6.2 SCFM, possibly reflecting differences in facility age and installed emissions control technology. A detailed comparison of methane leak rates and VOCs emissions with recent published literature for other US shale gas plays will also be discussed.

  2. A Matter of Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePitera, Ruth Ann; Rossow, Joe; Lange, Gretchen

    1999-01-01

    Discusses an integrated unit linking social studies, science, and language arts. Students get first-hand experience of legislative processes by writing and debating environmental-protection laws. (CCM)

  3. Debating Climate Change

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, Elizabeth L.

    2009-11-01

    Debating Climate Change explores, both theoretically and empirically, how people argue about climate change and link to each other through various elements in their arguments. As science is a central issue in the debate, the arguments of scientists and the interpretations and responses of non-scientists are important aspects of the analysis. The book first assesses current thinking about the climate change debate and current participants in the debates surrounding the issue, as well as a brief history of various groups’ involvements. Chapters 2 and 3 distill and organize various ways of framing the climate change issue. Beginning in Chapter 4, a modified classical analysis of the elements carried in an argument is used to identify areas and degrees of disagreement and agreement. One hundred documents, drawn from a wide spectrum of sources, map the topic and debate space of the climate change issue. Five elements of each argument are distilled: the authority of the writer, the evidence presented, the formulation of the argument, the worldview presented, and the actions proposed. Then a social network analysis identifies elements of the arguments that point to potential agreements. Finally, the book suggests mechanisms by which participants in the debate can build more general agreements on elements of existing agreement.

  4. Debating Real-World Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenig, Maureen

    2001-01-01

    Presents three different scientific issues to students and uses debate as a way of gaining information. Involves information collection on the topic, team preparation, and debate between teams. Includes debate format and presentation guidelines, suggestions for debate questions, information on areas to explore when preparing to debate the question…

  5. Method of operating an oil shale kiln

    DOEpatents

    Reeves, Adam A.

    1978-05-23

    Continuously determining the bulk density of raw and retorted oil shale, the specific gravity of the raw oil shale and the richness of the raw oil shale provides accurate means to control process variables of the retorting of oil shale, predicting oil production, determining mining strategy, and aids in controlling shale placement in the kiln for the retorting.

  6. Assessment of potential shale-oil and shale-gas resources in Silurian shales of Jordan, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Pitman, Janet K.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Nelson, Philip H.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.; Wandrey, Craig J.

    2014-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 11 million barrels of potential shale-oil and 320 billion cubic feet of shale-gas resources in Silurian shales of Jordan.

  7. Shale oil recovery process

    DOEpatents

    Zerga, Daniel P.

    1980-01-01

    A process of producing within a subterranean oil shale deposit a retort chamber containing permeable fragmented material wherein a series of explosive charges are emplaced in the deposit in a particular configuration comprising an initiating round which functions to produce an upward flexure of the overburden and to initiate fragmentation of the oil shale within the area of the retort chamber to be formed, the initiating round being followed in a predetermined time sequence by retreating lines of emplaced charges developing further fragmentation within the retort zone and continued lateral upward flexure of the overburden. The initiating round is characterized by a plurality of 5-spot patterns and the retreating lines of charges are positioned and fired along zigzag lines generally forming retreating rows of W's. Particular time delays in the firing of successive charges are disclosed.

  8. Transport problems of oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y.I.; Yen, T.F.

    1982-08-01

    Commercial recovery of oil from oil shale is based on thermal decomposition of its solid organic materials, mainly kerogen. The term retorting, as applied to oil shale, signifies the process of applying heat to decompose the oil shale into kerogen products and by-products which then yield the shale oil or gas. The major phenomena that need to be understood are the mechanisms through which shale oil is released, the pressure drop across the shale bed, as well as the heat transmission and the mass transport problems. Frequently retorting process is often treated empirically, without benefit of a thorough understanding of the phenomena involved. A summary of recent advances in the modeling of retorting processes is needed to give a status review.

  9. Oil shale retort apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, A.A.; Mast, E.L.; Greaves, M.J.

    1990-08-14

    A retorting apparatus is described including a vertical kiln and a plurality of tubes for delivering rock to the top of the kiln and removal of processed rock from the bottom of the kiln so that the rock descends through the kiln as a moving bed. Distributors are provided for delivering gas to the kiln to effect heating of the rock and to disturb the rock particles during their descent. The distributors are constructed and disposed to deliver gas uniformly to the kiln and to withstand and overcome adverse conditions resulting from heat and from the descending rock. The rock delivery tubes are geometrically sized, spaced and positioned so as to deliver the shale uniformly into the kiln and form symmetrically disposed generally vertical paths, or rock chimneys'', through the descending shale which offer least resistance to upward flow of gas. When retorting oil shale, a delineated collection chamber near the top of the kiln collects gas and entrained oil mist rising through the kiln. 29 figs.

  10. The Artilect Debate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Garis, Hugo; Halioris, Sam

    Twenty-first-century technologies will allow the creation of massively intelligent machines, many trillions of times as smart, fast, and durable as humans. Issues concerning industrial, consumer, and military applications of mobile autonomous robots, cyborgs, and computer-based AI systems could divisively split humanity into ideological camps regarding whether "artilects" (artificial intellects) should be built or not. The artilect debate, unlike any before it, could dominate the 21st-century political landscape, and has the potential to cause conflict on a global scale. Research is needed to inform policy and individual decisions; and healthy debate should be initiated now to prepare institutions and individuals alike for the impact of AI.

  11. Apparatus for oil shale retorting

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Arthur E.; Braun, Robert L.; Mallon, Richard G.; Walton, Otis R.

    1986-01-01

    A cascading bed retorting process and apparatus in which cold raw crushed shale enters at the middle of a retort column into a mixer stage where it is rapidly mixed with hot recycled shale and thereby heated to pyrolysis temperature. The heated mixture then passes through a pyrolyzer stage where it resides for a sufficient time for complete pyrolysis to occur. The spent shale from the pyrolyzer is recirculated through a burner stage where the residual char is burned to heat the shale which then enters the mixer stage.

  12. The Immigration Reform Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Som, Sonya Olds; Momblanco, Eileen

    2006-01-01

    This article looks at recent government actions that have contributed to the immigration debate, and then considers a number of the key issues: (1) Should the United States grant some sort of legal process, or "amnesty," to undocumented workers already in the U.S. who wish to seek permanent residency and, perhaps, citizenship?; (2) What is the…

  13. Abortion: the new debate.

    PubMed

    Callahan, D

    1986-06-01

    The course of the debate on abortion following the 1973 Supreme Court decision legalizing abortion has been marked by a variety of medical and scientific developments. Many of these new developments have important legal, psychologic, social, moral, and political implications. The cumulative impact of all these developments may pose a significant challenge to the social and legal foundations of Roe v. Wade. PMID:3523563

  14. The Class Size Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishel, Lawrence, Ed.; Rothstein, Richard, Ed.

    This collection of papers debates the merits of smaller class sizes and research methods used to evaluate the efficacy of this education reform measure. Four chapters focus on (1) "Understanding the Magnitude and Effect of Class Size on Student Achievement" (Alan B. Krueger), which discusses expenditures per student and economic criterion; (2)…

  15. The euthanasia debate.

    PubMed

    Seitz, T

    2000-03-01

    Nurses are key players in determining outcomes for nursing and patient care. They treat patients with actual or potential health problems, act as advocates, and educate patients and families. This makes them eminently qualified to become active participants in the debate as to the legalization of euthanasia. PMID:11143663

  16. Reading the Reparations Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, Jacqueline

    2003-01-01

    This essay examines the ways in which the rhetoric of the reparations debate elucidates the varying accounts of history favored by Americans of different backgrounds, the political and ideological foundations underlying different perspectives on the nature and uses of history, and the norms guiding public deliberation in the contemporary U.S.…

  17. The Head Start Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigler, Edward, Ed.; Styfco, Sally J., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    The future of Head Start depends on how well people learn from and apply the lessons from its past. That's why everyone involved in early education needs this timely, forward-thinking book from the leader of Head Start. The first book to capture the Head Start debates in all their complexity and diversity, this landmark volume brings together the…

  18. Vitalism and the Darwin Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, James

    2012-01-01

    There are currently both scientific and public debates surrounding Darwinism. In the scientific debate, the details of evolution are in dispute, but not the central thesis of Darwin's theory; in the public debate, Darwinism itself is questioned. I concentrate on the public debate because of its direct impact on education in the United States. Some…

  19. Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    This pamphlet describes Union Oil's shale oil project in the Parachute Creek area of Garfield County, Colorado. The oil shale is estimated to contain 1.6 billion barrels of recoverable oil in the high Mahogany zone alone. Primarily a public relations publication, the report presented contains general information on the history of the project and Union Oil's future plans. (JMT)

  20. Electron beam irradiation induces abnormal development and the stabilization of p53 protein of American serpentine leafminer, Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Hyun-Na; Yun, Seung-Hwan; Yoon, Changmann; Kim, Gil-Hah

    2012-01-01

    The American serpentine leafminer fly, Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess), is one of the most destructive polyphagous pests worldwide. In this study, we determined electron beam doses for inhibition of normal development of the leaf miner and investigated the effect of electron beam irradiation on DNA damage and p53 stability. Eggs (0-24 h old), larvae (2nd instar), puparia (0-24 h old after pupariation) and adults (24 h after emergence) were irradiated with increasing doses of electron beam irradiation (six levels between 30 and 200 Gy). At 150 Gy, the number of adults that developed from irradiated eggs, larvae and puparia was lower than in the untreated control. Fecundity and egg hatchability decreased depending on the doses applied. Reciprocal crosses between irradiated and unirradiated flies demonstrated that males were more radiotolerant than females. Adult longevity was not affected in all stages. The levels of DNA damage in L. trifolii adults were evaluated using the alkaline comet assay. Our results indicate that electron beam irradiation increased levels of DNA damage in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, low doses of electron beam irradiation led to the rapid appearance of p53 protein within 6 h; however, it decreased after exposure to high doses (150 Gy and 200 Gy). These results suggest that electron beam irradiation induced not only abnormal development and reproduction but also p53 stability caused by DNA damage in L. trifolii. We conclude that a minimum dose of 150 Gy should be sufficient for female sterilization of L. trifolii.

  1. FLUORINE IN COLORADO OIL SHALE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyni, John R.

    1985-01-01

    Oil shale from the lower part of the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Creek Basin, Colorado, averages 0. 13 weight percent fluorine, which is about twice that found in common shales, but is the same as the average amount found in some oil shales from other parts of the world. Some fluorine may reside in fluorapatite; however, limited data suggest that cryolite may be quantitatively more important. To gain a better understanding of the detailed distribution of fluorine in the deeper nahcolite-bearing oil shales, cores were selected for study from two exploratory holes drilled in the northern part of the Piceance Creek Basin where the oil shales reach their maximum thickness and grade.

  2. Causal debates in environmentalism.

    PubMed

    Tesh, S N

    1994-01-01

    Many public health policy analysts celebrate the renewed popularity of environmentalism and its importance for public health. But few recognize that there are three competing versions of environmentalism. Each one assigns blame for environmental degradation and responsibility for addressing it to a different group of people. It is incumbent upon public health professionals to take note of the debate and to consider the ramifications for policy should one of these versions come to predominate. PMID:7983192

  3. Fire and explosion hazards of oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The US Bureau of Mines publication presents the results of investigations into the fire and explosion hazards of oil shale rocks and dust. Three areas have been examined: the explosibility and ignitability of oil shale dust clouds, the fire hazards of oil shale dust layers on hot surfaces, and the ignitability and extinguishment of oil shale rubble piles. 10 refs., 54 figs., 29 tabs.

  4. The Debate Coach and the Debate Teacher: Friends or Foes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unger, James J.

    College summer institutes should be allowed to coach high school debaters on the current high school debate topic. Every individual forensic practice must be viewed as part of a dynamic process, the totality of which ought to be assessed for its competitive and educational balances. The activity of debate becomes endangered not when students allow…

  5. Carbon sequestration in depleted oil shale deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Burnham, Alan K; Carroll, Susan A

    2014-12-02

    A method and apparatus are described for sequestering carbon dioxide underground by mineralizing the carbon dioxide with coinjected fluids and minerals remaining from the extraction shale oil. In one embodiment, the oil shale of an illite-rich oil shale is heated to pyrolyze the shale underground, and carbon dioxide is provided to the remaining depleted oil shale while at an elevated temperature. Conditions are sufficient to mineralize the carbon dioxide.

  6. USAF shale oil program status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delaney, C. L.

    1984-01-01

    The test and evaluation program on shale derived fuel being conducted by the Air Force is intended to accomplish the minimum amount of testing necessary to assure both the safe use of shale oil derived turbine fuels in operational USAF aircraft and its compatibility with USAF handling systems. This program, which was designed to take advantage of existing R&D testing programs, began in 1981. However, due to a problem in acquiring the necessary fuel, the testing program was suspended until July 1983 when an additional sample of shale derived fuel was received. Tentatively, the Air Force is planning to make three relatively minor revisions to the procurement specifications requirements for the production shale derived fuel. These are: (1) Aromatic Contest (min) - 9% (by volume); (2) Nitrogen (max - 20 ppm by weight); and (3) Antioxidants - 9.1 g/100 gal (U.S.)

  7. Coal-shale interface detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, H., Jr. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A coal-shale interface detector for use with coal cutting equipment is described. The detector consists of a reciprocating hammer with an accelerometer to measure the impact of the hammer as it penetrates the ceiling or floor surface of a mine. Additionally, a pair of reflectometers simultaneously view the same surface, and the outputs from the accelerometer and reflectometers are detected and jointly registered to determine when an interface between coal and shale is being cut through.

  8. Coal-shale interface detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broussard, P. H.; Burch, J. L.; Drost, E. J.; Stein, R. J. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A penetrometer for coal-shale interface detection is presented. It is used with coal cutting equipment consisting of a reciprocating hammer, having an accelerometer mounted thereon to measure the impact of the hammer as it penetrates the ceiling or floor surface of a mine. Additionally, a pair of reflectometers simultaneously view the same surface, and the outputs from the accelerometer and reflectometers are detected and jointly registered to determine when an interface between coal and shale is being cut through.

  9. Fracture toughness anisotropy in shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, Michael R.; Meredith, Philip G.; Brantut, Nicolas; Crawford, Brian R.

    2016-03-01

    The use of hydraulic fracturing to recover shale gas has focused attention on the fundamental fracture properties of gas-bearing shales, but there remains a paucity of available experimental data on their mechanical and physical properties. Such shales are strongly anisotropic, so that their fracture propagation trajectories depend on the interaction between their anisotropic mechanical properties and the anisotropic in situ stress field in the shallow crust. Here we report fracture toughness measurements on Mancos shale determined in all three principal fracture orientations: Divider, Short Transverse, and Arrester, using a modified short-rod methodology. Experimental results for a range of other sedimentary and carbonate rocks are also reported for comparison purposes. Significant anisotropy is observed in shale fracture toughness measurements at ambient conditions, with values, as high as 0.72 MPa m1/2 where the crack plane is normal to the bedding, and values as low as 0.21 MPa m1/2 where the crack plane is parallel to the bedding. For cracks propagating nonparallel to bedding, we observe a tendency for deviation toward the bedding-parallel orientation. Applying a maximum energy release rate criterion, we determined the conditions under which such deviations are more or less likely to occur under more generalized mixed-mode loading conditions. We find for Mancos shale that the fracture should deviate toward the plane with lowest toughness regardless of the loading conditions.

  10. The great climate debate

    SciTech Connect

    White, R.M. )

    1990-07-01

    There is no doubt that human activity is increasing the amount of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Whether that spells sweeping global climate change is still much debated. Should we act to blunt the impact in the face of this uncertainty The authors thinks so. The paper presents data on the rise in atmospheric CO{sub 2}; projected rises in CO{sub 2}, methane, nitrous oxide, and chlorofluoro-carbons; the changing pattern of global CO{sub 2} emissions from North America, USSR and Eastern Europe, Western Europe, Developing Countries, and others; the results of 3 computer models of climate change; and the contribution to global warming from various human activities.

  11. Debating personal health budgets

    PubMed Central

    Alakeson, Vidhya; Boardman, Jed; Boland, Billy; Crimlisk, Helen; Harrison, Charlotte; Iliffe, Steve; Khan, Masood; O'Shea, Rory; Patterson, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Personal health budgets (PHBs) were piloted in the National Health Service (NHS) in England between 2009 and 2012 and were found to have greater positive effects on quality of life and psychological well-being for those with mental health problems than commissioned service, as well as reducing their use of unplanned care. The government intends to extend PHBs in England for long-term conditions, including mental health, from April 2015. Given the importance of engaging clinicians in the next phase of PHB development, we provide an overview of the approach, synthesise the evidence from the national pilot and debate some of the opportunities and challenges. Balancing individual choice and recovery with concerns for risk, equity and the sustainability of existing community services is the central tension underpinning this innovation in mental health service delivery. PMID:26958358

  12. Debating personal health budgets.

    PubMed

    Alakeson, Vidhya; Boardman, Jed; Boland, Billy; Crimlisk, Helen; Harrison, Charlotte; Iliffe, Steve; Khan, Masood; O'Shea, Rory; Patterson, Janet

    2016-02-01

    Personal health budgets (PHBs) were piloted in the National Health Service (NHS) in England between 2009 and 2012 and were found to have greater positive effects on quality of life and psychological well-being for those with mental health problems than commissioned service, as well as reducing their use of unplanned care. The government intends to extend PHBs in England for long-term conditions, including mental health, from April 2015. Given the importance of engaging clinicians in the next phase of PHB development, we provide an overview of the approach, synthesise the evidence from the national pilot and debate some of the opportunities and challenges. Balancing individual choice and recovery with concerns for risk, equity and the sustainability of existing community services is the central tension underpinning this innovation in mental health service delivery. PMID:26958358

  13. Combuston method of oil shale retorting

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Jr., John B.; Reeves, Adam A.

    1977-08-16

    A gravity flow, vertical bed of crushed oil shale having a two level injection of air and a three level injection of non-oxygenous gas and an internal combustion of at least residual carbon on the retorted shale. The injection of air and gas is carefully controlled in relation to the mass flow rate of the shale to control the temperature of pyrolysis zone, producing a maximum conversion of the organic content of the shale to a liquid shale oil. The parameters of the operation provides an economical and highly efficient shale oil production.

  14. High efficiency shale oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.

    1993-04-22

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical conditions (heating, mixing, pyrolysis, oxidation) exist in both systems.The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed this quarter. (1) Twelve pyrolysis runs were made on five different oil shales. All of the runs exhibited a complete absence of any plugging, tendency. Heat transfer for Green River oil shale in the rotary kiln was 84.6 Btu/hr/ft[sup 2]/[degrees]F, and this will provide for ample heat exchange in the Adams kiln. (2) One retorted residue sample was oxidized at 1000[degrees]F. Preliminary indications are that the ash of this run appears to have been completely oxidized. (3) Further minor equipment repairs and improvements were required during the course of the several runs.

  15. [Bioethics and abortion. Debate].

    PubMed

    Diniz, D; Gonzalez Velez, A C

    1998-06-01

    Although abortion has been the most debated of all issues analyzed in bioethics, no moral consensus has been achieved. The problem of abortion exemplifies the difficulty of establishing social dialogue in the face of distinct moral positions, and of creating an independent academic discussion based on writings that are passionately argumentative. The greatest difficulty posed by the abortion literature is to identify consistent philosophical and scientific arguments amid the rhetorical manipulation. A few illustrative texts were selected to characterize the contemporary debate. The terms used to describe abortion are full of moral meaning and must be analyzed for their underlying assumptions. Of the four main types of abortion, only 'eugenic abortion', as exemplified by the Nazis, does not consider the wishes of the woman or couple--a fundamental difference for most bioethicists. The terms 'selective abortion' and 'therapeutic abortion' are often confused, and selective abortion is often called eugenic abortion by opponents. The terms used to describe abortion practitioners, abortion opponents, and the 'product' are also of interest in determining the style of the article. The video entitled "The Silent Scream" was a classic example of violent and seductive rhetoric. Its type of discourse, freely mixing scientific arguments and moral beliefs, hinders analysis. Within writings about abortion three extreme positions may be identified: heteronomy (the belief that life is a gift that does not belong to one) versus reproductive autonomy; sanctity of life versus tangibility of life; and abortion as a crime versus abortion as morally neutral. Most individuals show an inconsistent array of beliefs, and few groups or individuals identify with the extreme positions. The principal argument of proponents of legalization is respect for the reproductive autonomy of the woman or couple based on the principle of individual liberty, while heteronomy is the main principle of

  16. Life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of shale gas, natural gas, coal, and petroleum.

    PubMed

    Burnham, Andrew; Han, Jeongwoo; Clark, Corrie E; Wang, Michael; Dunn, Jennifer B; Palou-Rivera, Ignasi

    2012-01-17

    The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. It has been debated whether the fugitive methane emissions during natural gas production and transmission outweigh the lower carbon dioxide emissions during combustion when compared to coal and petroleum. Using the current state of knowledge of methane emissions from shale gas, conventional natural gas, coal, and petroleum, we estimated up-to-date life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we developed distribution functions for key parameters in each pathway to examine uncertainty and identify data gaps such as methane emissions from shale gas well completions and conventional natural gas liquid unloadings that need to be further addressed. Our base case results show that shale gas life-cycle emissions are 6% lower than conventional natural gas, 23% lower than gasoline, and 33% lower than coal. However, the range in values for shale and conventional gas overlap, so there is a statistical uncertainty whether shale gas emissions are indeed lower than conventional gas. Moreover, this life-cycle analysis, among other work in this area, provides insight on critical stages that the natural gas industry and government agencies can work together on to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas. PMID:22107036

  17. Moving beyond the GM debate.

    PubMed

    Leyser, Ottoline

    2014-06-01

    Once again, there are calls to reopen the debate on genetically modified (GM) crops. I find these calls frustrating and unnecessarily decisive. In my opinion the GM debate, on both sides, continues to hamper the urgent need to address the diverse and pressing challenges of global food security and environmental sustainability. The destructive power of the debate comes from its conflation of unrelated issues, coupled with deeply rooted misconceptions of the nature of agriculture. PMID:24914954

  18. Framing the patent troll debate.

    PubMed

    Risch, Michael

    2014-02-01

    The patent troll debate has reached a fevered pitch in the USA. This editorial seeks to frame the debate by pointing out the lack of clarity in defining patent trolls and their allegedly harmful actions. It then frames the debate by asking currently unanswered questions: Where do troll patents come from? What are the effects of troll assertions? Will policy changes improve the system? PMID:24354803

  19. Star Wars software debate

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, W.

    1986-02-01

    David L. Parnas, Landsdowne Professor of Computer Science at the University of Victoria resigned from the SDI Organization's Panel on Computing in Support of Battle Management on June 28, 1985. Parnas, with 20 years of research on software engineering plus 8 years of work on military aircraft real-time software, says the software portion of SDI cannot be built error-free and he doesn't expect the next 20 years of research to change that fact. Since Parnas resigned, there have been several public debates on Star Wars software questions. In November 1985 the SDIO panel from which Parnas resigned released a draft of its report, reflecting its effort to critics of the project. While one might think that errors could be entirely eliminated with enough care and checking, most software professionals believe there will always be some residue of errors in a system of this size and complexity. The general line of the critics' argument is that the larger the amount of software in a single, unified system, the higher the percentage of errors it will contain. Proponents counter that the one very large system can be divided into a number of smaller, relatively independent pieces, thus reducing the proportionate number of errors in each separate piece. This approach is in turn countered by those who point to the intricate relations between these pieces, which themselves contribute to error.

  20. LLNL oil shale project review

    SciTech Connect

    Cena, R.J.

    1990-04-01

    Livermore's oil shale project is funded by two budget authorities, two thirds from base technology development and one third from environmental science. Our base technology development combines fundamental chemistry research with operation of pilot retorts and mathematical modeling. We've studied mechanisms for oil coking and cracking and have developed a detailed model of this chemistry. We combine the detailed chemistry and physics into oil shale process models (OSP) to study scale-up of generic second generation Hot-Recycled-Solid (HRS) retorting systems and compare with results from our 4 tonne-per-day continuous-loop HRS pilot retorting facility. Our environmental science program focuses on identification of gas, solid and liquid effluents from oil shale processes and development of abatement strategies where necessary. We've developed on-line instruments to quantitatively measure trace sulfur and nitrogen compounds released during shale pyrolysis and combustion. We've studied shale mineralogy, inorganic and organic reactions which generate and consume environmentally sensitive species. Figures, references, and tables are included with each discussion.

  1. RETORT. Oil Shale Retorting Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Eyberger, L.R.

    1992-02-26

    RETORT is a one-dimensional mathematical model for simulating the chemical and physical processes involved in the vertical retorting of a fixed or moving rubbled bed of oil shale. The model includes those processes believed to have the most important effects in either the hot-gas retorting mode or the forward combustion retorting mode. The physical processes are: axial convective transport of heat and mass, axial thermal dispersion, axial pressure drop, gas-solid heat transfer, intraparticle thermal conductivity, water evaporation and condensation, wall heat loss, and movement of shale countercurrent to flow of gas. The chemical reactions within the shale particles are: release of bound water, pyrolysis of kerogen, coking of oil, pyrolysis of char, decomposition of carbonate minerals, and gasification of residual organic carbon with CO2, H2O, and O2. The chemical reactions in the bulk-gas stream are: combustion and cracking of oil vapor, combustion of H2, CH4, CHx, and CO, and the water-gas shift. The RETORT model is meant to simulate adiabatic laboratory retorts and in situ retorts that have been prepared with fairly uniform lateral distribution of shale particle sizes, void volume, and permeability. The model`s main role is to calculate, as a function of time and axial location in the retort, the flow rate of the bulk-gas stream and the composition and temperature of both the fluid stream and the shale particles.

  2. RETORT. Oil Shale Retorting Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, R.L.

    1992-02-26

    RETORT is a one-dimensional mathematical model for simulating the chemical and physical processes involved in the vertical retorting of a fixed or moving rubbled bed of oil shale. The model includes those processes believed to have the most important effects in either the hot-gas retorting mode or the forward combustion retorting mode. The physical processes are: axial convective transport of heat and mass, axial thermal dispersion, axial pressure drop, gas-solid heat transfer, intraparticle thermal conductivity, water evaporation and condensation, wall heat loss, and movement of shale countercurrent to flow of gas. The chemical reactions within the shale particles are: release of bound water, pyrolysis of kerogen, coking of oil, pyrolysis of char, decomposition of carbonate minerals, and gasification of residual organic carbon with CO2, H2O, and O2. The chemical reactions in the bulk-gas stream are: combustion and cracking of oil vapor, combustion of H2, CH4, CHx, and CO, and the water- gas shift. The RETORT model is meant to simulate adiabatic laboratory retorts and in situ retorts that have been prepared with fairly uniform lateral distribution of shale particle sizes, void volume, and permeability. The model`s main role is to calculate, as a function of time and axial location in the retort, the flow rate of the bulk-gas stream and the composition and temperature of both the fluid stream and the shale particles.

  3. EVALUATION OF RETORTED OIL SHALE AS A LINER MATERIAL FOR RETORTED SHALE DISPOSAL SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study considering the possibility of using a spent oil shale itself as a water barrier or liner beneath a spent oil shale waste enbankment. Pertinent properties of unburned Tosco II spent shale and an average mixture of Lurgi spent shale have been me...

  4. Debates in Citizenship Education. The Debates in Subject Teaching Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur, James, Ed.; Cremin, Hilary, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    What are the key issues in Citizenship Education today? "Debates in Citizenship Education" encourages student and practising teachers to engage with and reflect on some of the key topics, concepts and debates that they will have to address throughout their career. It places the specialist field of Citizenship Education in a wider context and aims…

  5. Debates in English Teaching. The Debates in Subject Teaching Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Jon, Ed.; Daly, Caroline, Ed.; Moss, John, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Debates in English Teaching" explores the major issues all English teachers encounter in their daily professional lives. It engages with established and contemporary debates, promotes and supports critical reflection and aims to stimulate both novice and experienced teachers to reach informed judgements and argue their point of view with deeper…

  6. Debates in Religious Education. The Debates in Subject Teaching Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, L. Philip, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    What are the key debates in Religious Education teaching today? "Debates in Religious Education" explores the major issues all RE teachers encounter in their daily professional lives. It encourages critical reflection and aims to stimulate both novice and experienced teachers to think more deeply about their practice, and link research and…

  7. Denitrification in marine shales in northeastern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, P.B.; Böhlke, J.K.; Bruce, B.W.

    1999-01-01

    Parts of the South Platte River alluvial aquifer in northeastern Colorado are underlain by the Pierre Shale, a marine deposit of Late Cretaceous age that is <1000 m thick. Ground water in the aquifer is contaminated with NO3/-, and the shale contains abundant potential electron donors for denitrification in the forms of organic carbon and sulfide minerals. Nested piezometers were sampled, pore water was squeezed from cores of shale, and an injection test was conducted to determine if denitrification in the shale was a sink for alluvial NO3/- and to measure denitrification rates in the shale. Measured values of NO3/-, N2, NH4/+, ??15[NO3/-], ??15N[N2], and ??15N[NH4/+] in the alluvial and shale pore water indicated that denitrification in the shale was a sink for alluvial NO3/-. Chemical gradients, reaction rate constants, and hydraulic head data indicated that denitrification in the shale was limited by the slow rate of NO3/- transport (possibly by diffusion) into the shale. The apparent in situ first-order rate constant for denitrification in the shale based on diffusion calculations was of the order of 0.04-0.4 yr-1, whereas the potential rate constant in the shale based on injection tests was of the order of 60 yr-1. Chemical data and mass balance calculations indicate that organic carbon was the primary electron donor for denitrification in the shale during the injection test, and ferrous iron was a minor electron donor in the process. Flux calculations for the conditions encountered at the site indicate that denitrification in the shale could remove only a small fraction of the annual agricultural NO3/- input to the alluvial aquifer. However, the relatively large potential first-order rate constant for denitrification in the shale indicated that the percentage of NO3/- uptake by the shale could be considerably larger in areas where NO3/- is transported more rapidly into the shale by advection.

  8. Botswana: abortion "debate" dynamics.

    PubMed

    Mogwe, A

    1992-01-01

    The Penal Code (Amendment) Bill or the abortion bill has the objective of liberalizing the current law on the regulation of abortion. Abortion had been strictly prohibited and carried stiff penalties. Anyone who attempted to assists a woman to procure an abortion could be liable to 7 years' imprisonment. However, medical abortions were distinguished as being medically determined to save the health of the mother. Demands for a reevaluation of the law came from the medical profession, and in response the Minister for Presidential Affairs submitted a bill to Parliament in November, 1990. The expressed government rationale for these proposed amendments was concern about the health of women. In Botswana about 200 women die yearly because of pregnancy. According to the proposed law: an abortion could be carried out within the first 16 weeks of pregnancy if: 1) the pregnancy were a result of rape, incest, or defilement (the impregnation of a girl aged 16 or less, the impregnation of imbeciles or idiots), 2) the physical or mental health of the woman were at risk because of the pregnancy, 3) the child would be born with a serious physical or mental abnormality. The abortion could be carried out only if 2 medical doctors approved it. The amendments fall far short of increasing women's control over their bodies. The Botswana Christian Council issued a statement early in the public debate. While it did not oppose the bill in its entirety, clear concern was expressed concerning the apparent right of determining who lives and who dies depending on the handicap of the child. This rather liberal position was challenged by the Roman Catholic Church which interpreted abortion as the murder of God-given life. The bill was nevertheless passed by Parliament in September 1991, and the President signed it on October 11, 1991. PMID:12288837

  9. The role of ethics in shale gas policies.

    PubMed

    de Melo-Martín, Inmaculada; Hays, Jake; Finkel, Madelon L

    2014-02-01

    The United States has experienced a boom in natural gas production due to recent technological innovations that have enabled natural gas to be produced from unconventional sources, such as shale. There has been much discussion about the costs and benefits of developing shale gas among scientists, policy makers, and the general public. The debate has typically revolved around potential gains in economics, employment, energy independence, and national security as well as potential harms to the environment, the climate, and public health. In the face of scientific uncertainty, national and international governments must make decisions on how to proceed. So far, the results have been varied, with some governments banning the process, others enacting moratoria until it is better understood, and others explicitly sanctioning shale gas development. These policies reflect legislature's preferences to avoid false negative errors or false positive ones. Here we argue that policy makers have a prima facie duty to minimize false negatives based on three considerations: (1) protection from serious harm generally takes precedence over the enhancement of welfare; (2) minimizing false negatives in this case is more respectful to people's autonomy; and (3) alternative solutions exist that may provide many of the same benefits while minimizing many of the harms. PMID:24246934

  10. Oil shale technology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    This collaborative project with industrial participants studied oil shale retorting through an integrated program of fundamental research, mathematical model development and operation of a 4-tonne-per-day solid recirculation oil shale test unit. Quarterly, project personnel presented progress and findings to a Project Guidance Committee consisting of company representatives and DOE program management. We successfully operated the test unit, developed the oil shale process (OSP) mathematical model, evaluated technical plans for process scale up and determined economics for a successful small scale commercial deployment, producing premium motor fuel, specility chemicals along with electricity co-production. In budget negotiations, DOE funding for this three year CRADA was terminated, 17 months prematurely, as of October 1993. Funds to restore the project and continue the partnership have not been secured.

  11. Geochemistry of Brazilian oil shales

    SciTech Connect

    Neto, C.C.

    1983-02-01

    A general survey of the main brazilian oil shale formations presenting their location, oil reserve, age and stratigraphy introduces this paper. It is followed by a comparative survey of the data on chemical composition (elementary, minerals and organic constituents/biological markers) and of thermal alteration indexes in order to define their maturity. The geochemical phenomena involved with a large diabase intrusion in the Irati formation is particularly stressed. The analytical methods of Solid Phase Extraction and Functional Group Marker developed for the analysis of bitumens and kerogens and the results obtained from the application of these methods to brazilian oil shales are discussed. The paper ends with a brief description of a comprehensive analytical bibliography on brazilian oil shales prepared to serve as a data base for these organites.

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF OIL SHALE DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents a state of the art description of the oil shale industry. The report particularly relates to oil shale mining, retorting, and refining in Greenville, Colorado. The possible effects of oil shale development on pollution, public health, and population growth ar...

  13. Metalliferous black shales and related ore deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Grauch, R.I. ); Huyck, H.L.O. )

    1990-01-01

    This book comprises papers and extended abstracts dealing with a variety of topics including the geochemistry and organic geochemistry of several black shale formations: the nature of modern Black Sea sediments: metal- organic complexes in ore fluids; black shales related to disseminated gold deposits; vanadium concentrations and molybdenum-nickel deposits; and the problem of defining metalliferous black shales.

  14. High efficiency shale oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical (heating, mixing) conditions exist in both systems. The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed and is reported on this quarter: (1) A software routine was written to eliminate intermittently inaccurate temperature readings. (2) We completed the quartz sand calibration runs, resolving calibration questions from the 3rd quarter. (3) We also made low temperature retorting runs to identify the need for certain kiln modifications and kiln modifications were completed. (4) Heat Conductance data on two Pyrolysis runs were completed on two samples of Occidental oil shale.

  15. Clash! The World of Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzam, Amy M.

    2008-01-01

    Debating has been around for a long time, with some pretty spectacular results. Look at Socrates, who was put to death in 399 BCE for corrupting the youth of Athens; his accusers could not forgive him for incessantly questioning their beliefs and making "the worse appear the better cause." More recently, debating has morphed into a sport for the…

  16. Student Pressure Subject of Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses student pressure as a subject of debate. The latest debate about schoolwork is being fueled by three recent books: "The Homework Myth" by Alfie Kohn, "The Case Against Homework" by Sara Bennett and Nancy Kalish, and "The Overachievers", by Alexandra Robbins, which depicts overextended high school students in a wealthy…

  17. Experimental drilling in Chattanooga shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Andrew

    1948-01-01

    Information on which specifications were originally drawn for drilling the Chattanooga shale was obtained largely from the TVA, whose geologists and driller laid great stress on the difficulties of maintaining circulation in their ho;es. The stated that the shale itself was not particularly difficult to core, the trouble being in the overburden. They did not use deep casing, depending on cementing to hold the holes open. On this basis, the Survey's specifications called for mid casing only, it being assumed that solid rock would be encountered at relatively shallow depths. This belief was borne out by examination of such road cuts and other exposures as were available.

  18. The Eagle Ford Shale, Texas: an initial insight into Late Cretaceous organic-rich mudrock palaeoenvironments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forshaw, Joline; Jarvis, Ian; Trabucho-Alexandre, João; Tocher, Bruce; Pearce, Martin

    2014-05-01

    The hypothesised reduction of oxygen within the oceans during the Cretaceous is believed to have led to extended intervals of regional anoxia in bottom waters, resulting in increased preservation of organic matter and the deposition of black shales. Episodes of more widespread anoxia, and even euxinia, in both bottom and surface waters are associated with widespread black shale deposition during Ocean Anoxic Events (OAEs). The most extensive Late Cretaceous OAE, which occurred ~ 94 Ma during Cenomanian-Turonian boundary times, and was particularly well developed in the proto-North Atlantic and Tethyan regions, lasted for around 500 kyr (OAE2). Although the causes of this and other events are still hotly debated, research is taking place internationally to produce a global picture of the causes and consequences of Cretaceous OAEs. Understanding OAEs will enable a better interpretation of the climate fluctuations that ensued, and their association with the widespread deposition of black shales, rising temperatures, increased pCO2, enhanced weathering, and increased nutrient fluxes. The Eagle Ford Formation, of Cenomanian - Turonian age, is a major shale gas play in SW and NE Texas, extending over an area of more than 45,000 km2. The formation, which consists predominantly of black shales (organic-rich calcareous mudstones), was deposited during an extended period of relative tectonic quiescence in the northern Gulf Coast of the Mexico Basin, bordered by reefs along the continental shelf. The area offers an opportunity to study the effects of OAE2 in an organic-rich shelf setting. The high degree of organic matter preservation in the formation has produced excellent oil and gas source rocks. Vast areas of petroleum-rich shales are now being exploited in the Southern States of the US for shale gas, and the Eagle Ford Shale is fast becoming one of the countries largest producers of gas, oil and condensate. The Eagle Ford Shale stratigraphy is complex and heterogeneous

  19. Adsorption of pyridine by combusted oil shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essington, M. E.

    1992-03-01

    Large volumes of solid waste material will be produced during the commercial production of shale oil. An alternative to the disposal of the solid waste product is utilization. One potential use of spent oil shale is for the stabilization of hazardous organic compounds. The objective of this study was to examine the adsorption of pyridine, commonly found in oil shale process water, by spent oil shale. The adsorption of pyridine by fresh and weathered samples of combusted New Albany Shale and Green River Formation oil shale was examined. In general, pyridine adsorption can be classified as L-type and the isotherms modeled with the Langmuir and Freundlich equations. For the combusted New Albany Shale, weathering reduced the predicted pyridine adsorption maximum and increased the amount of pyridine adsorbed at low solution concentrations. For the combusted Green River Formation oil shales, weathering increased the predicted pyridine adsorption maximum. The pyridine adsorption isotherms were similar to those produced for a combusted Australian oil shale. Although adsorption can be mathematically described by empirical models, the reduction in solution concentrations of pyridine was generally less than 10 mg/l at an initial concentration of 100 mg/l. Clearly, the observed reduction in solution pyridine concentrations does not sufficiently justify using spent oil shale as a stabilizing medium. However, data in the literature suggest that other organic compounds can be effectively removed from solution by spent oil shale and that adsorption is dependent on process conditions and organic compound type.

  20. High efficiency shale oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, C.D.

    1992-07-18

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated at bench-scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a larger continuous process kiln. For example, similar conditions of heatup rate, oxidation of the residue and cool-down prevail for the element in both systems. This batch kiln is a unit constructed in a 1987 Phase I SBIR tar sand retorting project. The kiln worked fairly well in that project; however, the need for certain modifications was observed. These modifications are now underway to simplify the operation and make the data and analysis more exact. The second quarter agenda consisted of (a) kiln modifications; (b) sample preparation; and (c) Heat Transfer calibration runs (part of proposal task number 3 -- to be completed by the end of month 7).

  1. Geochemistry of Graywackes and Shales.

    PubMed

    Weber, J N

    1960-03-01

    Sixty-nine graywackes and 33 shales were analyzed spectrographically for 14 minor elements to illustrate the variation of composition within a graywacke bed, between beds in one section, between sections, and between formations. Analyses of several fractions of a graywacke indicate what each contributes chemically to the rock. PMID:17807444

  2. Mechanical Characterization of Mancos Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broome, S.; Ingraham, M. D.; Dewers, T. A.

    2015-12-01

    A series of tests on Mancos shale have been undertaken to determine the failure surface and to characterize anisotropy. This work supports additional studies which are being performed on the same block of shale; fracture toughness, permeability, and chemical analysis. Mechanical tests are being conducted after specimens were conditioned for at least two weeks at 70% constant relative humidity conditions. Specimens are tested under drained conditions, with the constant relative humidity condition maintained on the downstream side of the specimen. The upstream is sealed. Anisotropy is determined through testing specimens that have been cored parallel and perpendicular to the bedding plane. Preliminary results show that when loaded parallel to bedding the shale is roughly 50% weaker. Test are run under constant mean stress conditions when possible (excepting indirect tension, unconfined compression, and hydrostatic). Tests are run in hydrostatic compaction to the desired mean stress, then differential stress is applied axially in displacement control to failure. The constant mean stress condition is maintained by decreasing the confining pressure by half of the increase in the axial stress. Results will be compared to typical failure criteria to investigate the effectiveness of capturing the behavior of the shale with traditional failure theory. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. SAND2015-6107 A.

  3. The Influence of Shales on Slope Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stead, Doug

    2016-02-01

    Shales play a major role in the stability of slopes, both natural and engineered. This paper attempts to provide a review of the state-of-the-art in shale slope stability. The complexities of shale terminology and classification are first reviewed followed by a brief discussion of the important physical and mechanical properties of relevance to shale slope stability. The varied mechanisms of shale slope stability are outlined and their importance highlighted by reference to international shale slope failures. Stability analysis and modelling of anisotropic rock slope masses are briefly discussed and the potential role of brittle rock fracture and damage highlighted. A short review of shale slopes in open pits is presented.

  4. On wettability of shale rocks.

    PubMed

    Roshan, H; Al-Yaseri, A Z; Sarmadivaleh, M; Iglauer, S

    2016-08-01

    The low recovery of hydraulic fracturing fluid in unconventional shale reservoirs has been in the centre of attention from both technical and environmental perspectives in the last decade. One explanation for the loss of hydraulic fracturing fluid is fluid uptake by the shale matrix; where capillarity is the dominant process controlling this uptake. Detailed understanding of the rock wettability is thus an essential step in analysis of loss of the hydraulic fracturing fluid in shale reservoirs, especially at reservoir conditions. We therefore performed a suit of contact angle measurements on a shale sample with oil and aqueous ionic solutions, and tested the influence of different ion types (NaCl, KCl, MgCl2, CaCl2), concentrations (0.1, 0.5 and 1M), pressures (0.1, 10 and 20MPa) and temperatures (35 and 70°C). Furthermore, a physical model was developed based on the diffuse double layer theory to provide a framework for the observed experimental data. Our results show that the water contact angle for bivalent ions is larger than for monovalent ions; and that the contact angle (of both oil and different aqueous ionic solutions) increases with increase in pressure and/or temperature; these increases are more pronounced at higher ionic concentrations. Finally, the developed model correctly predicted the influence of each tested variable on contact angle. Knowing contact angle and therefore wettability, the contribution of the capillary process in terms of water uptake into shale rocks and the possible impairment of hydrocarbon production due to such uptake can be quantified. PMID:27156090

  5. High efficiency shale oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated at bench-scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although a batch oil shale sample will be sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch will be the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a large continuous process kiln. For example, similar conditions of heat-up rate (20 deg F/min during the pyrolysis), oxidation of the residue and cool-down will prevail for the element in both systems. This batch kiln is a unit constructed in a 1987 Phase I SBIR tar sand retorting project. The kiln worked fairly well in that project; however, the need for certain modifications was observed. These modifications are now underway to simplify the operation and make the data and analysis more exact. The agenda for the first three months of the project consisted of the first of nine tasks and was specified as the following four items: 1. Sample acquisition and equipment alteration: Obtain seven oil shale samples, of varying grade each 10 lb or more, and samples of quartz sand. Order equipment for kiln modification. 3. Set up and modify kiln for operation, including electric heaters on the ends of the kiln. 4. Connect data logger and make other repairs and changes in rotary batch kiln.

  6. Oil shale, shale oil, shale gas and non-conventional hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clerici, A.; Alimonti, G.

    2015-08-01

    In recent years there has been a world "revolution" in the field of unconventional hydrocarbon reserves, which goes by the name of "shale gas", gas contained inside clay sediments micropores. Shale gas finds particular development in the United States, which are now independent of imports and see a price reduction to less than one third of that in Europe. With the high oil prices, in addition to the non-conventional gas also "oil shales" (fine-grained sedimentary rocks that contain a large amount of organic material to be used both to be directly burned or to extract liquid fuels which go under the name of shale oil), extra heavy oils and bitumen are becoming an industrial reality. Both unconventional gas and oil reserves far exceed in the world the conventional oil and gas reserves, subverting the theory of fossil fuels scarcity. Values and location of these new fossil reserves in different countries and their production by comparison with conventional resources are presented. In view of the clear advantages of unconventional fossil resources, the potential environmental risks associated with their extraction and processing are also highlighted.

  7. Risks to Water Resources from Shale Gas Development and Hydraulic Fracturing in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vengosh, Avner; Jackson, Robert B.; Warner, Nathaniel; Darrah, Thomas H.; Kondash, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    The rise of shale gas development through horizontal drilling and high volume hydraulic fracturing has expanded oil and gas exploration in the USA. The rapid rate of shale gas exploration has triggered an intense public debate regarding the potential environmental and human health effects. A review of the updated literature has identified four potential risks for impacts on water resources: (1) stray gas contamination of shallow aquifers near shale gas sites; (2) contamination of surface water and shallow groundwater from spills, leaks, and disposal of inadequately treated wastewater or hydraulic fracturing fluids; (3) accumulation of toxic and radioactive residues in soil or stream sediments near disposal or spill sites; and (4) over-extraction of water resources for drilling and hydraulic fracturing that could induce water shortages and conflicts with other water users, particularly in water-scarce areas. As part of a long-term research on the potential water contamination associated with shale gas development, new geochemical and isotopic techniques have been developed for delineating the origin of gases and contaminants in water resource. In particular, multiple geochemical and isotopic (carbon isotopes in hydrocarbons, noble gas, strontium, boron, radium isotopes) tracers have been utilized to distinguish between naturally occurring dissolved gas and salts in water and contamination directly induced from shale gas drilling and hydraulic fracturing operations.

  8. Shale oil value enhancement research: Separation characterization of shale oil

    SciTech Connect

    Bunger, J.W.

    1993-12-31

    The overall objective is to develop a new technology for manufacturing valuable marketable products form shale oil. Phase-I objectives are to identify desirable components in shale oil, develop separations techniques for those components, identify market needs and to identify plausible products manufacturable from raw shale oil to meet those needs. Another objective is to conduct preliminary process modeling and economic analysis of selected process sequences and product slates, including an estimation of process, costs and profitability. The end objective of Phase-I is to propose technically and economically attractive separations and conversion processes for small-scale piloting in the optional Phase-II. Optional Phase-II activities include the pilot-scale test of the Shale Oil Native Products Extraction (SO-NPX) technology and to produce specification products. Specific objectives are to develop the engineering data on separations processing, particularly those in which mixtures behave non-ideally, and to develop the conversion processes for finishing the separations concentrates into specification products.The desired process scenarios will be developed and economic analysis will be performed on the process scenarios. As a result of the process simulation and economic analysis tasks, a product manufacture and test marketing program shall be recommended for the optional Phase-III. Optional Phase-III activities are to manufacture specification products and to test market those products in order to ensure market acceptability. The activities involve the assembling of the technical, market and economic data needed for venture evaluation. The end objective is to develop the private sector interest to carry this technology forward toward commercialization.

  9. Shale Oil Value Enhancement Research

    SciTech Connect

    James W. Bunger

    2006-11-30

    Raw kerogen oil is rich in heteroatom-containing compounds. Heteroatoms, N, S & O, are undesirable as components of a refinery feedstock, but are the basis for product value in agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, surfactants, solvents, polymers, and a host of industrial materials. An economically viable, technologically feasible process scheme was developed in this research that promises to enhance the economics of oil shale development, both in the US and elsewhere in the world, in particular Estonia. Products will compete in existing markets for products now manufactured by costly synthesis routes. A premium petroleum refinery feedstock is also produced. The technology is now ready for pilot plant engineering studies and is likely to play an important role in developing a US oil shale industry.

  10. Oil shale fines process developments in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Lisboa, A.C.; Nowicki, R.E. ); Piper, E.M. )

    1989-01-01

    The Petrobras oil shale retorting process, utilizes the particle range of +1/4 inch - 3 1/2 inches. The UPI plant in Sao Mateus do Sul has over 106,000 hours of operation, has processed over 6,200,000 metric tons of shale and has produced almost 3,000,000 barrels of shale oil. However, the nature of the raw oil shale is such that the amount of shale less than 1/4 inch that is mined and crushed and returned to the mine site is about 20 percent, thereby, increasing the cost of oil produced by a substantial number. Petrobras has investigated several systems to process the fines that are not handled by the 65 MTPH UPI plant and the 260 MTPH commercial plant. This paper provides an updated status of each of these processes in regard to the tests performed, potential contributions to an integrated use of the oil shale mine, and future considerations.

  11. Solar heated oil shale pyrolysis process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qader, S. A. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    An improved system for recovery of a liquid hydrocarbon fuel from oil shale is presented. The oil shale pyrolysis system is composed of a retort reactor for receiving a bed of oil shale particules which are heated to pyrolyis temperature by means of a recycled solar heated gas stream. The gas stream is separated from the recovered shale oil and a portion of the gas stream is rapidly heated to pyrolysis temperature by passing it through an efficient solar heater. Steam, oxygen, air or other oxidizing gases can be injected into the recycle gas before or after the recycle gas is heated to pyrolysis temperature and thus raise the temperature before it enters the retort reactor. The use of solar thermal heat to preheat the recycle gas and optionally the steam before introducing it into the bed of shale, increases the yield of shale oil.

  12. Review of Emerging Resources: U.S. Shale Gas and Shale Oil Plays

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of the potential U.S. domestic shale gas and shale oil resources, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) commissioned INTEK, Inc. to develop an assessment of onshore lower 48 states technically recoverable shale gas and shale oil resources. This paper briefly describes the scope, methodology, and key results of the report and discusses the key assumptions that underlie the results.

  13. Comparative dermotoxicity of shale oils

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, L.M.; Wilson, J.S.; Foreman, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    When shale oils are applied at higher dose levels the standard observation of tumor production and latency are often obscured by a severe inflammatory response leading to epidermal degeneration. The two experiments reported here are still in progress, however the interim results are useful in assessing both the phlogistic and tumorigenic properties of three shale oils. Three shale oils were tested in these experiments. The first crude oil (OCSO No. 6) was produced in a modified in situ report at Occidental Oil Company's Logan Wash site near Debeque, Colorado. The second crude oil (PCSO II) was produced in the above ground Paraho vertical-kiln retort located at Anvil Points near Rifle, Colorado and the third oil was the hydrotreated daughter product of the Paraho crude (PCSO-UP). Experiment I was designed to determine the highest dose level at which tumor latency could be measured without interference from epidermal degeneration. Experiment II was designed to determine the effect of application frequency on both tumor response and inflammatory phenomena. Complete epidermal degeneration was used as the only measure of severe inflammation. Relative tumorigenicity was based on the number of tumor bearing mice without regard to multiple tumors on individual animals. In both experiments, tumor occurrence was confirmed one week after initial appearance. The sex-related difference in inflammatory response is striking and certanly has significance for experimental design. An increased phlogistic sensitivity expressed in male mice could affect the meaning of an experiment where only one sex was used.

  14. Developments in oil shale in 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Knutson, C.F.; Dana, G.F.; Solti, G.; Qian, J.L.; Ball, F.D.; Hutton, A.C.; Hanna, J.; Russell, P.L.; Piper, E.M.

    1988-10-01

    Oil shale development continued at a slow pace in 1987. The continuing interest in this commodity is demonstrated by the 342 oil shale citations added to the US Department of Energy Energy Database during 1987. The Unocal project in Parachute, Colorado, produced 600,000 bbl of synfuel in 1987. An appreciable amount of 1987's activity was associated with the nonsynfuel uses of oil shale. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Introduction to special section: China shale gas and shale oil plays

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jiang, Shu; Zeng, Hongliu; Zhang, Jinchuan; Fishman, Neil; Bai, Baojun; Xiao, Xianming; Zhang, Tongwei; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Li, Xinjing; Richards-McClung, Bryony; Cai, Dongsheng; Ma, Yongsheng

    2015-01-01

    Even though China shale gas and shale oil exploration is still in an early stage, limited data are already available. We are pleased to have selected eight high-quality papers from fifteen submitted manuscripts for this timely section on the topic of China shale gas and shale oil plays. These selected papers discuss various subject areas including regional geology, resource potentials, integrated and multidisciplinary characterization of China shale reservoirs (geology, geophysics, geochemistry, and petrophysics) China shale property measurement using new techniques, case studies for marine, lacustrine, and transitional shale deposits in China, and hydraulic fracturing. One paper summarizes the regional geology and different tectonic and depositional settings of the major prospective shale oil and gas plays in China. Four papers concentrate on the geology, geochemistry, reservoir characterization, lithologic heterogeneity, and sweet spot identification in the Silurian Longmaxi marine shale in the Sichuan Basin in southwest China, which is currently the primary focus of shale gas exploration in China. One paper discusses the Ordovician Salgan Shale in the Tarim Basin in northwest China, and two papers focus on the reservoir characterization and hydraulic fracturing of Triassic lacustrine shale in the Ordos Basin in northern China. Each paper discusses a specific area.

  16. A Comparative Analysis of Communicative Behavior in CEDA Lincoln-Douglas Debate and CEDA Team Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Harold L.; Skaggs, Edward C.

    Keeping debate communicative is a great and recurring concern. A study investigated whether debate format may influence debaters' communicative behavior, by comparing behavior in Cross Examination Debate Association (CEDA) Lincoln-Douglas debate (LD) and in CEDA Team debate. Videotapes of the two first affirmative speeches of each, at the…

  17. Oil shale oxidation at subretorting temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, I.A. Jr.

    1980-06-01

    Green River oil shale was air oxidized at subretorting temperatures. Off gases consisting of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and water were monitored and quantitatively determined. A mathematical model of the oxidation reactions based on a shrinking core model has been developed. This model incorporates the chemical reaction of oxygen and the organic material in the oil shale as well as the diffusivity of the oxygen into the shale particle. Diffusivity appears to be rate limiting for the oxidation. Arrhenius type equations, which include a term for oil shale grade, have been derived for both the chemical reaction and the diffusivity.

  18. Unpacking the great transmission debate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denning, Kathryn

    2010-12-01

    The debate about the wisdom of sending interstellar transmissions is well-known to those involved in SETI, and frustrating for many. Its tendency towards intractability is a result of multiple factors, including: different models of the scientist's role as citizen and/or leader; disparate ideas about society's readiness to cope with frontier science; variable political substrates, particularly ideas concerning individual freedom and state control; competing ideologies of globalization; and the perceived relative risks and benefits of contact. (Variations in the latter, i.e. assessments of the risks and benefits of contact, derive partly from different thinking styles, including tolerance for risk, and partly from inferences based upon episodes of biological and cultural contact on Earth.) Unpacking the debate into its components may be of use to those debating policy about SETI transmissions, or at the very least, help keep in focus what, precisely, the perennial arguments are really about.

  19. Debates in Music Teaching. The Debates in Subject Teaching Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philpott, Chris, Ed.; Spruce, Gary, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Debates in Music Teaching" encourages student and practising teachers to engage with contemporary issues and developments in music education. It aims to introduce a critical approach to the central concepts and practices that have influenced major interventions and initiatives in music teaching, and supports the development of new ways of looking…

  20. Debating the Socialist Calculation Debate: A Classroom Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zygmont, Zenon X.

    2006-01-01

    The author describes a classroom exercise that introduces the Socialist Calculation Debate (SCD) to undergraduate economics students. The SCD concerns an issue that remains one of the most consequential of the 20th century--the belief in the superiority of socialism and central planning over capitalism and the free market. The exercise presents…

  1. Debates in History Teaching. The Debates in Subject Teaching Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Ian, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Debates in History Teaching" explores the major issues all history teachers encounter in their daily professional lives. It encourages critical reflection and aims to stimulate both novice and experienced teachers to think more deeply about their practice, and link research and evidence to what they have observed in schools. Written by a range of…

  2. Senate debates revised energy bill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Susan

    1992-02-01

    A trimmed-down energy bill introduced by J. Bennett Johnston (D-La.) on January 29 breathes new life into the wide-ranging energy package that was killed by a filibuster last November. The National Energy Security Act of 1992 (S2166) maintains most of the core elements of S1220, but many controversial issues have been deleted. It easily received the votes to block a filibuster and went to the floor of the Senate for debate on February 4. Following a week-long recess, debate will resume on February 18.

  3. Characterization of DOE reference oil shales: Mahogany Zone, Parachute Creek Member, Green River Formation Oil Shale, and Clegg Creek Member, New Albany Shale

    SciTech Connect

    Miknis, F. P.; Robertson, R. E.

    1987-09-01

    Measurements have been made on the chemical and physical properties of two oil shales designated as reference oil shales by the Department of Energy. One oil shale is a Green River Formation, Parachute Creek Member, Mahogany Zone Colorado oil shale from the Exxon Colony mine and the other is a Clegg Creek Member, New Albany shale from Kentucky. Material balance Fischer assays, carbon aromaticities, thermal properties, and bulk mineralogic properties have been determined for the oil shales. Kerogen concentrates were prepared from both shales. The measured properties of the reference shales are comparable to results obtained from previous studies on similar shales. The western reference shale has a low carbon aromaticity, high Fischer assay conversion to oil, and a dominant carbonate mineralogy. The eastern reference shale has a high carbon aromaticity, low Fischer assay conversion to oil, and a dominant silicate mineralogy. Chemical and physical properties, including ASTM distillations, have been determined for shale oils produced from the reference shales. The distillation data were used in conjunction with API correlations to calculate a large number of shale oil properties that are required for computer models such as ASPEN. There was poor agreement between measured and calculated molecular weights for the total shale oil produced from each shale. However, measured and calculated molecular weights agreed reasonably well for true boiling point distillate fractions in the temperature range of 204 to 399/sup 0/C (400 to 750/sup 0/F). Similarly, measured and calculated viscosities of the total shale oils were in disagreement, whereas good agreement was obtained on distillate fractions for a boiling range up to 315/sup 0/C (600/sup 0/F). Thermal and dielectric properties were determined for the shales and shale oils. The dielectric properties of the reference shales and shale oils decreased with increasing frequency of the applied frequency. 42 refs., 34 figs., 24

  4. Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Current Issues in Language & Society, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Presents a roundtable discussion carried out by scholars in the field of minority language broadcasting. Examines the context of minority language broadcasting, broadcasting and language policy and planning, and issues of language survival and success. (Author/VWL)

  5. "Parent Unions" Join Policy Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2012-01-01

    Whether they're organizing events, buttonholing legislators, or simply trading ideas and information, a growing number of "parent unions" are attempting to stake out a place in policy debates over education in states and districts, amid a crowded field of actors and advocates. As the term implies, some of these organizations see themselves as…

  6. The Television and Delinquency Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murdock, Graham; McCron, Robin

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the continuing debate about the effects of televised violence on viewers, particularly children, in terms of aggressive behavior. The two opposing views, the psychologistic and the relational, are each supported by research which, in turn, affects the use of censorship. (JMF)

  7. Dyslexia: Diagnoses, Debates and Diatribes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Julian G.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author argues that there are so many different understandings and conceptualizations about what dyslexia is, or is not, that the term has become almost meaningless. The questioning of the value of the dyslexia concept turned into media headlines in the UK. The author accounts three key questions surrounding the debate about…

  8. Using Debate in EFL Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alasmari, Ali; Ahmed, Sayed Salahuddin

    2013-01-01

    The countries that use English as a foreign language need effective activities which propel students to practice skills of the language properly inside as well as outside classrooms. Debating is a practice that inspires learners to open their mouth, get into discussion, defend their own positions, place counter arguments and also conduct research…

  9. Cooling Signs in Wake Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    More than a year after dismantling a student-assignment policy based on socioeconomic diversity and setting off a wave of reaction that drew national attention, the Wake County, North Carolina, school board took a step that may turn down the temperature of the intense debate. The board, which has been deeply split on an assignment plan for the…

  10. Bicentennial Youth Debates: Issue Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huseman, Richard C., Ed.; Luck, James I., Ed.

    This document includes introductory essays, excerpted documents, and selected bibliographies to promote a national dialogue concerning America for its Bicentennial. Bicentennial Youth Debates (BYD) is a national program developed by the Speech Communication Association and supported by a grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities. The…

  11. A debate on open inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawking, S. W.

    1999-07-01

    This is a reproduction of Professor Stephen Hawking's part in a debate, which took place at the COSMO 98 Coference, in Monterey, California. Two other physicists, Andrei Linde and Alexander Villenkin, also took part. Professor Hawking is the Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge, in England.

  12. Students in Action: Debating the "Mighty Opposites."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Insights on Law & Society, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the hate speech, gun, and privacy debates that today's youth will have to address in their future. Includes articles addressing the arguments in each issue: (1) "Debating Hate Speech" (Frank Kopecky); (2) "Debating the Gun Issue" (Denise Barr); and (3) "Debating the Right to Privacy" (Pinky Wassenberg.) (CMK)

  13. Intimate Debate Technique: Medicinal Use of Marijuana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman; DeRei, Kristie

    2007-01-01

    Classroom debates used to be familiar exercises to students schooled in past generations. In this article, the authors describe the technique called "intimate debate". To cooperative learning specialists, the technique is known as "structured debate" or "constructive debate". It is a powerful method for dealing with case topics that involve…

  14. Indirect heating pyrolysis of oil shale

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Jr., John B.; Reeves, Adam A.

    1978-09-26

    Hot, non-oxygenous gas at carefully controlled quantities and at predetermined depths in a bed of lump oil shale provides pyrolysis of the contained kerogen of the oil shale, and cool non-oxygenous gas is passed up through the bed to conserve the heat

  15. Flow properties of Utah shale oils

    SciTech Connect

    Seitzer, W.H.; Lovell, P.F.

    1981-12-01

    In a concentric cylinder viscometer, Utah shale oils have different characteristics, both at equilibrium flow and during start-up from rest, depending on whether the wax has crystallized as needles or spherulites. Compared with waxy crude oils, which are thixotropic, shale oil has the added rheological property of being antithixotropic. 7 refs.

  16. Gas composition shifts in Devonian shales

    SciTech Connect

    Schettler, P.D.; Parmely, C.R. )

    1989-08-01

    Analysis of the gas composition of Devonian shale wells indicates that the composition of produced gas shifts during the production history of the well. Possible mechanisms to explain this behavior are examined in light of field and laboratory data. Application of diffusion theory is made to explain adsorption-like behavior exhibited by some shales.

  17. Cleanouts boost Devonian shale gas flow

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-02-04

    Cleaning shale debris from the well bores is an effective way to boost flow rates from old open hole Devonian shale gas wells, research on six West Virginia wells begun in 1985 has shown. Officials involved with the study say the Appalachian basin could see 20 year recoverable gas reserves hiked by 315 bcf if the process is used on a wide scale.

  18. Scales over Shale: How Pennsylvania Got Fracked

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sica, Carlo E.

    Shale gas has become one of Pennsylvania's major resources in recent years and the gas boom has proceeded in spite of uncertainty over the environmental risks of its production process. This thesis argues that location alone cannot explain why shale gas boomed in Pennsylvania. Using interviews with corporate and state executives, I argue that the scalar dimensions of the neoliberal environmental governance of shale gas were critical to understanding why shale gas boomed in Pennsylvania. These actors supported the preemption of local scales of governance by the state as a scalar fix for capital accumulation from shale gas development. They also legitimated the scalar fix by assembling a neat stack of scale frames that made shale gas seem to benefit everyone. These scale frames made shale gas appear as if it would provide local employment, regional supplies of cheap gas, national energy security, abundant gas for tight global markets, and a mitigating strategy for global climate change. In arguing this point, I present a history of how shale gas became a resource that outlines the critical role of the state in that process.

  19. Chemical kinetics and oil shale process design

    SciTech Connect

    Burnham, A.K.

    1993-07-01

    Oil shale processes are reviewed with the goal of showing how chemical kinetics influences the design and operation of different processes for different types of oil shale. Reaction kinetics are presented for organic pyrolysis, carbon combustion, carbonate decomposition, and sulfur and nitrogen reactions.

  20. Thermomechanical properties of selected shales

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, F.D.; Vogt, T.J.

    1987-08-01

    The experimental work discussed in this report is part of an ongoing program concerning evaluation of sedimentary and other rock types as potential hosts for a geologic repository. The objectives are the development of tools and techniques for repository characterization and performance assessment in a diversity of geohydrologic settings. This phase of the program is a laboratory study that investigates fundamental thermomechanical properties of several different shales. Laboratory experiments are intrinsically related to numerical modeling and in situ field experiments, which together will be used for performance assessment.

  1. The Shale Gas in Europe project (GASH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Hans-Martin; Horsfield, Brian; Gash-Team

    2010-05-01

    At the present time no shale gas play has been brought to the production level in Europe. While the opportunities appear abundant, there are still many challenges to be overcome in Europe such as land access and environmental issues. Costs per well are still higher than in the US, and mining regulations are tighter. As yet it remains unclear whether European shales can support commercial shale gas production. First, it will be essential to test the sub-surface and the potential deliverability of wells, supported by basic research. GASH is the first major scientific initiative in Europe that is focussed on shale gas; it is ambitious in that it is broad ranging in scientific scope and that it unites leading European research groups and geological surveys with industry. US know-how is also integrated into the programme to avoid reinventing the wheel, or, still worse, the flat tyre. GASH is currently funded by eight companies, and comprises two main elements: compilation of a European Black Shale Database (EBSD) and focussed research projects that are based on geochemical, geophysical and geomechanical investigations. The EBSD is being built by a team of more than 20 geological surveys, extending from Sweden in the north, through western Europe and the Baltic states down to southern Europe, and over to Romania, Hungary and the Czech Republic in the east. The research projects apply numerical modelling, process simulations and laboratory analyses to selected regional study areas or "natural laboratories" from both Europe and the USA - the goal: to predict gas-in-place and fracability based on process understanding. The European black shales selected as natural shale gas laboratories are the Cambrian Alum Shale from Sweden and Denmark, the Lower Jurassic Posidonia Shale from Central Germany, and Carboniferous black shales from the UK in the west via the Netherlands to Germany in the east. Fresh core material for detailed investigations will be recovered during the mid

  2. Vitalism and the Darwin Debate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, James

    2012-08-01

    There are currently both scientific and public debates surrounding Darwinism. In the scientific debate, the details of evolution are in dispute, but not the central thesis of Darwin's theory; in the public debate, Darwinism itself is questioned. I concentrate on the public debate because of its direct impact on education in the United States. Some critics of Darwin advocate the teaching of intelligent design theory along with Darwin's theory, and others seek to eliminate even the mention of evolution from science classes altogether. Many of these critics base their objections on the claim that non-living matter cannot give rise to living matter. After considering some of the various meanings assigned to `vitalism' over the years, I argue that a considerable portion of Darwin deniers support a literal version of vitalism that is not scientifically respectable. Their position seems to be that since life cannot arise naturally, Darwin's theory accomplishes nothing: If it can only account for life forms changing from one to another (even this is disputed by some) but not how life arose in the first place, what's the point? I argue that there is every reason to believe that living and non-living matter differ only in degree, not in kind, and that all conversation about Darwinism should start with the assumption that abiogenesis is possible unless or until compelling evidence of its impossibility is presented. That is, I advocate a position that the burden of proof lies with those who claim "Life only comes from life." Until that case is made, little weight should be given to their position.

  3. Assessing Compositional Variability and Migration of Natural Gas in the Antrim Shale in the Michigan Basin Using Noble Gas Geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, T.; Castro, M. C.; Ellis, B. R.; Hall, C. M.; Lohmann, K. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Antrim Shale was one of the first economic shale gas plays in the U.S. and has been actively produced since the 1980's. While previous studies suggest co-produced water in the Antrim is a mixture of brine from deeper formations and freshwater recharge, the extent of water-gas interactions has yet to be determined. The extent and source of thermogenic methane in the Antrim Shale are also under debate. This study uses stable noble gases' (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe) isotopic ratios and their volume fractions from the Antrim Shale gases to assess compositional variability and vertical fluid migration, in addition to distinguishing between the presence of thermogenic versus biogenic methane. R/Ra values of Antrim Shale gases (where R and Ra are the measured and atmospheric 3He/4He ratios, respectively) vary from 0.01 to 0.34 suggesting dominant crustal 4He in addition to minor mantle and atmospheric He. Elevated 20Ne/22Ne ratios (up to 10.4) point to mantle Ne. Similarly crustal 21Ne*, 40Ar* and 136Xe* are also suggested. High variability of noble gas signatures in the Antrim Shale are observed, which are mainly due to variable noble gas input from deep brines and, to a smaller extent, variable in-situ production in the Antrim Shale. Estimated 4He ages considering external 4He flux for Antrim water match well with timings of three major glaciation periods (Wisconsin, Illinoian and Kansan glaciations) in the Michigan Basin, suggesting that all our Antrim samples were more or less influenced by glaciation recharge. Consistency in measured and predicted 40Ar/36Ar assuming Ar release temperatures ≥ 250°C supports a thermogenic origin for the majority of the methane in our Antrim Shale gas samples. Thermogenic methane is likely to originate at greater depth, either from deeper portions of the Antrim Shale in the central Michigan Basin or from deeper formations underlying the Antrim Shale, as the thermal maturity of the Antrim Shale in our study area is low.

  4. 43 CFR 3905.10 - Oil shale lease exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Oil shale lease exchanges. 3905.10 Section... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) OIL SHALE MANAGEMENT-GENERAL Lease Exchanges § 3905.10 Oil shale lease exchanges. To facilitate the recovery of oil shale, the BLM may consider...

  5. 43 CFR 3905.10 - Oil shale lease exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Oil shale lease exchanges. 3905.10 Section... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL SHALE MANAGEMENT-GENERAL Lease Exchanges § 3905.10 Oil shale lease exchanges. To facilitate the recovery of oil shale, the BLM may...

  6. 43 CFR 3905.10 - Oil shale lease exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Oil shale lease exchanges. 3905.10 Section... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL SHALE MANAGEMENT-GENERAL Lease Exchanges § 3905.10 Oil shale lease exchanges. To facilitate the recovery of oil shale, the BLM may...

  7. Phanerozoic black shales and the Wilson Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trabucho-Alexandre, J.; Hay, W. W.; de Boer, P. L.

    2011-09-01

    The spatial and temporal distribution of black shales is related to the development of the environments in which they accumulate and to a propitious combination of environmental variables. Whereas much has been done in recent years to improve our understanding of the mechanisms behind the temporal distribution of black shales in the Phanerozoic, the interpretation of the palaeogeographical distribution of black shales is still dominated by an oversimplistic set of three uniformitarian depositional models that do not capture the complexity and dynamics of environments of black shale accumulation. These three models, the restricted circulation, the (open) ocean oxygen minimum and the continental shelf models, are in fact a uniformitarian simplification of the variety of depositional environments that arise and coexist throughout the course of a basin's Wilson Cycle, i.e. the dynamic sequence of events and stages that characterise the evolution of an ocean basin, from the opening continental rift to the closing orogeny. We examine the spatial distribution of black shales in the context of the Wilson Cycle using examples from the Phanerozoic. It is shown that the geographical distribution of black shales, their position in the basin infill sequence and their nature (e.g. type of organic matter, lithology) depend on basin evolution because the latter controls the development of sedimentary environments where black shales may be deposited.

  8. Kerogen extraction from subterranean oil shale resources

    DOEpatents

    Looney, Mark Dean; Lestz, Robert Steven; Hollis, Kirk; Taylor, Craig; Kinkead, Scott; Wigand, Marcus

    2010-09-07

    The present invention is directed to methods for extracting a kerogen-based product from subsurface (oil) shale formations, wherein such methods rely on fracturing and/or rubblizing portions of said formations so as to enhance their fluid permeability, and wherein such methods further rely on chemically modifying the shale-bound kerogen so as to render it mobile. The present invention is also directed at systems for implementing at least some of the foregoing methods. Additionally, the present invention is also directed to methods of fracturing and/or rubblizing subsurface shale formations and to methods of chemically modifying kerogen in situ so as to render it mobile.

  9. Kerogen extraction from subterranean oil shale resources

    DOEpatents

    Looney, Mark Dean; Lestz, Robert Steven; Hollis, Kirk; Taylor, Craig; Kinkead, Scott; Wigand, Marcus

    2009-03-10

    The present invention is directed to methods for extracting a kerogen-based product from subsurface (oil) shale formations, wherein such methods rely on fracturing and/or rubblizing portions of said formations so as to enhance their fluid permeability, and wherein such methods further rely on chemically modifying the shale-bound kerogen so as to render it mobile. The present invention is also directed at systems for implementing at least some of the foregoing methods. Additionally, the present invention is also directed to methods of fracturing and/or rubblizing subsurface shale formations and to methods of chemically modifying kerogen in situ so as to render it mobile.

  10. Method for retorting oil shale

    DOEpatents

    Shang, Jer-Yu; Lui, A.P.

    1985-08-16

    The recovery of oil from oil shale is provided in a fluidized bed by using a fluidizing medium of a binary mixture of carbon dioxide and 5 steam. The mixture with a steam concentration in the range of about 20 to 75 volume percent steam provides an increase in oil yield over that achievable by using a fluidizing gas of carbon dioxide or steam alone when the mixture contains higher steam concentrations. The operating parameters for the fluidized bed retorted are essentially the same as those utilized with other gaseous fluidizing mediums with the significant gain being in the oil yield recovered which is attributable solely to the use of the binary mixture of carbon dioxide and steam. 2 figs.

  11. Comparison of naturally occurring shale bitumen asphaltene and retorted shale oil asphaltene

    SciTech Connect

    Shue, F.F.; Yen, T.F.

    1980-01-01

    Asphaltene is ubiquitously present in both the natural occurring bitumen and the retorted shale oil. Very few cases for the comparison of asphaltene properties are available in the literature. In this research, a comparison of the shale bitumen asphaltene and the retorted shale oil asphaltene was undertaken to investigate structural changes during thermal cracking. This was accomplished by means of elemental chemical analysis, infrared spectra, proton nmr spectra, and carbon-13 spectra of the bitumen asphaltenes and asphaltenes derived from shale oil retorted at 425 and 500/sup 0/C. Elemental analysis indicated that asphaltenes derived from retorted shale oils have smaller H/C ratio and smaller oxygen and sulfur contents, but greater nitrogen content than that derived from shale bitumen. Infrared spectra revealed that the retorted shale oil asphaltenes have greater pyrrolic N-H and hydrogen bonded O-H or N-H absorption than the shale bitumen asphaltene. Retorted shale oil asphaltenes have relatively higher aromaticity, lower degree of substitution of the aromatic sheet, and shorter alkyl substituents, which indicated that the main reactions in the retorting process are carbon-carbon bond fission and intramolecular aromatization.

  12. Presidential Debates: Not a Spectator Sport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Provides two teaching activities to help students analyze political debates from a curriculum for middle and high schools called "Presidential Debates: A Teacher's Guide". Designed by the Commission on Presidential Debates and Kids Voting USA, it includes : (1) "The Techniques of Persuasion"; and (2) "It's Your Turn to be a Political Reporter."…

  13. 11 CFR 110.13 - Candidate debates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... parties may stage candidate debates in accordance with this section and 11 CFR 114.4(f). (2) Broadcasters... periodical publications may stage candidate debates in accordance with this section and 11 CFR 114.4(f... candidate debates in accordance with 11 CFR part 100, subparts B and C and part 100, subparts D and E....

  14. Technological Imperatives: Using Computers in Academic Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ticku, Ravinder; Phelps, Greg

    Intended for forensic educators and debate teams, this document details how one university debate team, at the University of Iowa, makes use of computer resources on campus to facilitate storage and retrieval of information useful to debaters. The introduction notes the problem of storing and retrieving the amount of information required by debate…

  15. Affective Learning and the Classroom Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jagger, Suzy

    2013-01-01

    A commonly used teaching method to promote student engagement is the classroom debate. This study evaluates how affective characteristics, as defined in Bloom's taxonomy, were stimulated during debates that took place on a professional ethics module for first year computing undergraduates. The debates led to lively interactive group…

  16. Literacy as Social Action in City Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cridland-Hughes, Susan

    2012-01-01

    This study examines critical literacy and the intersections of oral, aural, written, and performative literate practices in City Debate, an afterschool program dedicated to providing debate instruction to students in a major Southeastern city. Previous research into definitions and beliefs about literacy in an urban debate program over its twenty…

  17. COMPENDIUM REPORTS ON OIL SHALE TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document considers the various production processes (mining, retorting, and oil upgrading) and key environmental factors (organic and inorganic characterization, environmental control, and limitations) related to oil shale development. This state-of-the-art survey supports a...

  18. Military jet fuel from shale oil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coppola, E. N.

    1980-01-01

    Investigations leading to a specification for aviation turbine fuel produced from whole crude shale oil are described. Refining methods involving hydrocracking, hydrotreating, and extraction processes are briefly examined and their production capabilities are assessed.

  19. Coal-shale interface detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, R. A.; Hudgins, J. L.; Morris, P. W.; Reid, H., Jr.; Zimmerman, J. E. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A coal-shale interface detection system for use with coal cutting equipment consists of a reciprocating hammer on which an accelerometer is mounted to measure the impact of the hammer as it penetrates the ceiling or floor surface of a mine. A pair of reflectometers simultaneously view the same surface. The outputs of the accelerometer and reflectometers are detected and jointly registered to determine when an interface between coal and shale is being cut through.

  20. HYDRAULIC CEMENT PREPARATION FROM LURGI SPENT SHALE

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, P.K.; Persoff, P.; Fox, J.P.

    1980-06-01

    Low cost material is needed for grouting abandoned retorts. Experimental work has shown that a hydraulic cement can be produced from Lurgi spent shale by mixing it in a 1:1 weight ratio with limestone and heating one hour at 1000°C. With 5% added gypsum, strengths up to 25.8 MPa are obtained. This cement could make an economical addition up to about 10% to spent shale grout mixes, or be used in ordinary cement applications.

  1. Devonian shale gas resource assessment, Illinois basin

    SciTech Connect

    Cluff, R.M.; Cluff, S.G.; Murphy, C.M.

    1996-12-31

    In 1980 the National Petroleum Council published a resource appraisal for Devonian shales in the Appalachian, Michigan, and Illinois basins. Their Illinois basin estimate of 86 TCFG in-place has been widely cited but never verified nor revised. The NPC estimate was based on extremely limited canister off-gas data, used a highly simplified volumetric computation, and is not useful for targeting specific areas for gas exploration. In 1994 we collected, digitized, and normalized 187 representative gamma ray-bulk density logs through the New Albany across the entire basin. Formulas were derived from core analyses and methane adsorption isotherms to estimate total organic carbon (r{sup 2}=0.95) and gas content (r{sup 2}=0.79-0.91) from shale bulk density. Total gas in place was then calculated foot-by-foot through each well, assuming normal hydrostatic pressures and assuming the shale is gas saturated at reservoir conditions. The values thus determined are similar to peak gas contents determined by canister off-gassing of fresh cores but are substantially greater than average off-gas values. Greatest error in the methodology is at low reservoir pressures (or at shallow depths), however, the shale is generally thinner in these areas so the impact on the total resource estimate is small. The total New Albany gas in place was determined by integration to be 323 TCFG. Of this, 210 TCF (67%) is in the upper black Grassy Creek Shale, 72 TCF (23%) in the middle black and gray Selmier Shale, and 31 TCF (10%) in the basal black Blocher Shale. Water production concerns suggest that only the Grassy Creek Shale is likely to be commercially exploitable.

  2. Devonian shale gas resource assessment, Illinois basin

    SciTech Connect

    Cluff, R.M.; Cluff, S.G.; Murphy, C.M. )

    1996-01-01

    In 1980 the National Petroleum Council published a resource appraisal for Devonian shales in the Appalachian, Michigan, and Illinois basins. Their Illinois basin estimate of 86 TCFG in-place has been widely cited but never verified nor revised. The NPC estimate was based on extremely limited canister off-gas data, used a highly simplified volumetric computation, and is not useful for targeting specific areas for gas exploration. In 1994 we collected, digitized, and normalized 187 representative gamma ray-bulk density logs through the New Albany across the entire basin. Formulas were derived from core analyses and methane adsorption isotherms to estimate total organic carbon (r[sup 2]=0.95) and gas content (r[sup 2]=0.79-0.91) from shale bulk density. Total gas in place was then calculated foot-by-foot through each well, assuming normal hydrostatic pressures and assuming the shale is gas saturated at reservoir conditions. The values thus determined are similar to peak gas contents determined by canister off-gassing of fresh cores but are substantially greater than average off-gas values. Greatest error in the methodology is at low reservoir pressures (or at shallow depths), however, the shale is generally thinner in these areas so the impact on the total resource estimate is small. The total New Albany gas in place was determined by integration to be 323 TCFG. Of this, 210 TCF (67%) is in the upper black Grassy Creek Shale, 72 TCF (23%) in the middle black and gray Selmier Shale, and 31 TCF (10%) in the basal black Blocher Shale. Water production concerns suggest that only the Grassy Creek Shale is likely to be commercially exploitable.

  3. Commercialization of oil shale with the Petrosix process

    SciTech Connect

    Batista, A.R.D.; Ivo, S.C.; Piper, E.M.

    1985-02-01

    Brazil, because of domestic crude oil shortage, took an interest in oil shale between 1940 and 1950. Petrobras, created in 1954, included in its charter the responsibility to develop a modern oil shale industry. An outgrowth has been the Petrosix process incorporated in a commercial unit in the State of Parana that has operated successfully more than 65,000 hours. Because of the maturity of the Petrosix process in this plant and the similarity of the Brazilian Irati oil shale to many other shales, interest has developed to apply the Petrosix process to producing shale oil and high BTU gas from these oil shales. A comparison of the characteristics has been developed between Irati and other oil shales. An evaluation of a commercial plant design has been completed for Irati, Kentucky, and Indiana oil shale projects. The technological and commercial aspects of producing shale oil using the Petrosix technology are discussed.

  4. Assessment of undiscovered shale gas and shale oil resources in the Mississippian Barnett Shale, Bend Arch–Fort Worth Basin Province, North-Central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marra, Kristen R.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Lewan, Michael D.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Klett, Timothy R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2015-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 53 trillion cubic feet of shale gas, 172 million barrels of shale oil, and 176 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the Barnett Shale of the Bend Arch–Fort Worth Basin Province of Texas.

  5. Assessment of potential shale gas and shale oil resources of the Norte Basin, Uruguay, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy; Klett, Timothy R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Weaver, Jean N.; Brownfield, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Using a performance-based geological assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 13.4 trillion cubic feet of potential technically recoverable shale gas and 0.5 billion barrels of technically recoverable shale oil resources in the Norte Basin of Uruguay.

  6. CONTROL OF SULFUR EMISSIONS FROM OIL SHALE RETORTING USING SPEND SHALE ABSORPTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a detailed engineering evaluation of the potential for using an absorption on spent shale process (ASSP) for controlling sulfur emissions from oil shale plants. The evaluation analyzes the potential effectiveness and cost of absorbing SO2 on combusted s...

  7. Understanding liquids production from shales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panja, Palash

    The growth of production from liquid shale plays has been phenomenal. However, the recoveries are low of the order of 10% and more efficient methods of producing liquids are necessary. This research is aimed at understanding production performances involving complex interaction between phase behavior and flow in unconventional reservoirs like shales. A new rapid semianalytical forecast tool for transient state linear flow in ultralow permeability (100 nD to 5000 nD) fractured reservoir was developed. The tool is useful for well inflow performance, condensate drop out and material balance calculations of condensate production in unconventional reservoirs. Effects of individual parameters such as reservoir properties (matrix permeability, heterogeneity, rock compressibility and reservoir pressure) on production oil were studied using reservoir simulations with an appropriate number of grid blocks. The matrix permeability, initial reservoir pressure, fracture spacing were the most influencing factors in recoveries from gas-condensate as well as from oil reservoirs. Operating the well at higher flowing bottom hole pressure (FBHP) is preferable for low permeability (100 nD) reservoir and low FBHP for higher permeability (1000 nD) reservoir to recover more liquid. Production data, including Gas Oil Ratios (GOR) are valuable in assessing reservoir performance. A single characteristic factor affecting the produced gas oil ratio was found to be (1--Rsw/Rsb) (1--P wf/Pb) /(1-Pwf/Pi) that predicts deviation of gas oil ratio from its initial value. Effect of the interaction of parameters on recovery was examined using experimental design and response surface methodology. This study resulted in surrogate reservoir models for a quick assessment of production performance from ultralow permeability black oil and condensate reservoirs. Risks of production performance and investment were quantified by preparing the probability density functions (PDF) of production outcomes and the

  8. Fracking in the UK press: threat dynamics in an unfolding debate.

    PubMed

    Jaspal, Rusi; Nerlich, Brigitte

    2014-04-01

    Shale gas is a novel source of fossil fuel which is extracted by induced hydraulic fracturing, or "fracking". This article examines the socio-political dimension of fracking as manifested in the UK press at three key temporal points in the debate on the practice. Three newspaper corpora were analysed qualitatively using Thematic Analysis and Social Representations Theory. Three overarching themes are discussed: "April-May 2011: from Optimism to Scepticism"; "November 2011: (De-) Constructing and Re-Constructing Risk and Danger"; "April 2012: consolidating Social Representations of Fracking". In this article, we examine the emergence of and inter-relations between competing social representations, discuss the dynamics of threat positioning and show how threat can be re-construed in order to serve particular socio-political ends in the debate on fracking. PMID:23942831

  9. Method for maximizing shale oil recovery from an underground formation

    DOEpatents

    Sisemore, Clyde J.

    1980-01-01

    A method for maximizing shale oil recovery from an underground oil shale formation which has previously been processed by in situ retorting such that there is provided in the formation a column of substantially intact oil shale intervening between adjacent spent retorts, which method includes the steps of back filling the spent retorts with an aqueous slurry of spent shale. The slurry is permitted to harden into a cement-like substance which stabilizes the spent retorts. Shale oil is then recovered from the intervening column of intact oil shale by retorting the column in situ, the stabilized spent retorts providing support for the newly developed retorts.

  10. BTEX biodegradation in fractured shale

    SciTech Connect

    O`Cleirigh, D.; Coryea, H.; Christopher, M.; Vaughn, C.

    1997-12-31

    A petroleum hydrocarbon groundwater plume was identified at a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) facility in Oklahoma. The affected area had an average BTEX concentration of 3.8 mg/L. Previous aquifer tests indicated preferential groundwater flow paths resulting from natural fractures present in the aquifer formation (primarily shale). A pneumatic fracturing pilot study was performed to evaluate the technology`s effectiveness in creating a more isotropic aquifer. As part of the study, pre-fracture/post-fracture pump tests were performed. Pre-fracture and post-fracture graphs confirmed the study`s hypothesis that pneumatic fracturing would eliminate preferential flow paths and increase groundwater yield. Based on the successful pneumatic fracturing test, an area within the petroleum hydrocarbon plume was fractured and a pilot-scale biodegradation system was operated for four months. The remediation system provided groundwater circulation amended with nutrients and oxygen. Results of the study indicated a significant decrease in BTEX concentrations between the injection well and the observation wells. By Day 113, the benzene concentration (0.044 mg/L) at one of the observation wells was less than the desired state cleanup goal of 0.05 mg/L.

  11. The population debate heats up.

    PubMed

    Malay, R L

    1994-01-01

    60% of the 65 million people in the Philippines have lived below the poverty line amid overall negative GNP growth for almost a decade. The population is growing at the annual rate of 2.4%. These conditions suggest the urgent need to reduce population growth and take measures to improve the performance of the economy. The big debate in the Philippines regarding population and development, however, is not over the redistribution of resources, but about the morality of managing population growth through the promotion of artificial means of contraception. Roman Catholicism predominates among religions in the Philippines. The Catholic Church in the Philippines, as elsewhere around the world, alleges that artificial contraceptives are abortifacient and that only natural methods should be promoted. Although Health Secretary Dr. Juan M. Flavier, a staunch supporter of family planning, points out that the church and state both abhor abortion, accept natural family planning, and would like to offer a better quality of life to the people, it is clear that the government does not agree with the Church's endorsement of only natural family planning methods. Surveys have found that most Filipinos agree with the government; they are in favor of family planning and feel that the Church should stay out of the debate. A people-centered approach to development and concern for the environment are called for to improve the Filipino quality of life. At the global level, the Vatican has allies among believers of Islam in its position against abortion and in favor of a traditional concept of the family. Despite wrangling at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) over a woman's right to abortion and other contentious issues, such as the objection among Southern states to the ICPD committee's exclusion of the right to family reunification, the ICPD was a success because it gave prime importance to the link between population and sustainable development. The ICPD

  12. Oil shales, evaporites and ore deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eugster, Hans P.

    1985-03-01

    The relationships between oil shales, evaporites and sedimentary ore deposits can be classified in terms of stratigraphic and geochemical coherence. Oil shale and black shale deposition commonly follows continental red beds and is in turn followed by evaporite deposition. This transgressive-regressive sequence represents an orderly succession of depositional environments in space and time and results in stratigraphic coherence. The amount of organic carbon of a sediment depends on productivity and preservation, both of which are enhanced by saline environments. Work on Great Salt Lake. Utah, allows us to estimate that only 5% of TOC originally deposited is preserved. Inorganic carbonate production is similar to TOC production, but preservation is much higher. Oil shales and black shales commonly are enriched in heavy metals through scavenging by biogenic particles and complexation by organic matter. Ore deposits are formed from such rocks through secondary enrichment processes, establishing a geochemical coherence between oil shales and ore deposits. The Permian Kupferschiefer of N. Europe is used as an example to define a Kupferschiefer type (KST) deposit. Here oxygenated brines in contact with red beds become acidified through mineral precipitation and acquire metals by dissolving oxide coatings. Oxidation of the black shale leads to further acid production and metal acquisition and eventually to sulfide deposition along a reducing front. In order to form ore bodies, the stratigraphic coherence of the red bed-black shale-evaporite succession must be joined by the geochemical coherence of the ore body-evaporite-black shale association. The Cretaceous Cu-Zn deposits of Angola, the Zambian Copperbelt as well as the Creta, Oklahoma, deposits are other KST examples. In the Zambian Copperbelt, evaporites are indicated by the carbonate lenticles thought to be pseudomorphs after gypsum-anhydrite nodules. MVT deposits are also deposited by acid brines, but at more

  13. Fracture-permeability behavior of shale

    SciTech Connect

    Carey, J. William; Lei, Zhou; Rougier, Esteban; Mori, Hiroko; Viswanathan, Hari

    2015-05-08

    The fracture-permeability behavior of Utica shale, an important play for shale gas and oil, was investigated using a triaxial coreflood device and X-ray tomography in combination with finite-discrete element modeling (FDEM). Fractures generated in both compression and in a direct-shear configuration allowed permeability to be measured across the faces of cylindrical core. Shale with bedding planes perpendicular to direct-shear loading developed complex fracture networks and peak permeability of 30 mD that fell to 5 mD under hydrostatic conditions. Shale with bedding planes parallel to shear loading developed simple fractures with peak permeability as high as 900 mD. In addition to the large anisotropy in fracture permeability, the amount of deformation required to initiate fractures was greater for perpendicular layering (about 1% versus 0.4%), and in both cases activation of existing fractures are more likely sources of permeability in shale gas plays or damaged caprock in CO₂ sequestration because of the significant deformation required to form new fracture networks. FDEM numerical simulations were able to replicate the main features of the fracturing processes while showing the importance of fluid penetration into fractures as well as layering in determining fracture patterns.

  14. System for utilizing oil shale fines

    DOEpatents

    Harak, Arnold E.

    1982-01-01

    A system is provided for utilizing fines of carbonaceous materials such as particles or pieces of oil shale of about one-half inch or less diameter which are rejected for use in some conventional or prior surface retorting process, which obtains maximum utilization of the energy content of the fines and which produces a waste which is relatively inert and of a size to facilitate disposal. The system includes a cyclone retort (20) which pyrolyzes the fines in the presence of heated gaseous combustion products, the cyclone retort having a first outlet (30) through which vapors can exit that can be cooled to provide oil, and having a second outlet (32) through which spent shale fines are removed. A burner (36) connected to the spent shale outlet of the cyclone retort, burns the spent shale with air, to provide hot combustion products (24) that are carried back to the cyclone retort to supply gaseous combustion products utilized therein. The burner heats the spent shale to a temperature which forms a molten slag, and the molten slag is removed from the burner into a quencher (48) that suddenly cools the molten slag to form granules that are relatively inert and of a size that is convenient to handle for disposal in the ground or in industrial processes.

  15. Fracture-permeability behavior of shale

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Carey, J. William; Lei, Zhou; Rougier, Esteban; Mori, Hiroko; Viswanathan, Hari

    2015-05-08

    The fracture-permeability behavior of Utica shale, an important play for shale gas and oil, was investigated using a triaxial coreflood device and X-ray tomography in combination with finite-discrete element modeling (FDEM). Fractures generated in both compression and in a direct-shear configuration allowed permeability to be measured across the faces of cylindrical core. Shale with bedding planes perpendicular to direct-shear loading developed complex fracture networks and peak permeability of 30 mD that fell to 5 mD under hydrostatic conditions. Shale with bedding planes parallel to shear loading developed simple fractures with peak permeability as high as 900 mD. In addition tomore » the large anisotropy in fracture permeability, the amount of deformation required to initiate fractures was greater for perpendicular layering (about 1% versus 0.4%), and in both cases activation of existing fractures are more likely sources of permeability in shale gas plays or damaged caprock in CO₂ sequestration because of the significant deformation required to form new fracture networks. FDEM numerical simulations were able to replicate the main features of the fracturing processes while showing the importance of fluid penetration into fractures as well as layering in determining fracture patterns.« less

  16. Abortion: taking the debate seriously.

    PubMed

    Kottow Lang, Miguel Hugo

    2015-01-01

    Voluntarily induced abortion has been under permanent dispute and legal regulations, because societies invariably condemn extramarital pregnancies. In recent decades, a measure of societal tolerance has led to decriminalize and legalize abortion in accordance with one of two models: a more restricted and conservative model known as therapeutic abortion, and the model that accepts voluntary abortion within the first trimester of pregnancy. Liberalization of abortion aims at ending clandestine abortions and decriminalizes the practice in order to increase reproductive education and accessibility of contraceptive methods, dissuade women from interrupting their pregnancy and, ultimately, make abortion a medically safe procedure within the boundaries of the law, inspired by efforts to reduce the incidence of this practice. The current legal initiative to decriminalize abortion in Chile proposes a notably rigid set of indications which would not resolve the three main objectives that need to be considered: 1) Establish the legal framework of abortion; 2) Contribute to reduce social unrest; 3) Solve the public health issue of clandestine, illegal abortions. Debate must urgently be opened to include alternatives in line with the general tendency to respect women's decision within the first trimester of pregnancy. PMID:26057783

  17. Methanogenic archaea in marcellus shale: a possible mechanism for enhanced gas recovery in unconventional shale resources.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Yael Tarlovsky; Kotcon, James; Mroz, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Marcellus Shale occurs at depths of 1.5-2.5 km (5000 to 8000 feet) where most geologists generally assume that thermogenic processes are the only source of natural gas. However, methanogens in produced fluids and isotopic signatures of biogenic methane in this deep shale have recently been discovered. This study explores whether those methanogens are indigenous to the shale or are introduced during drilling and hydraulic fracturing. DNA was extracted from Marcellus Shale core samples, preinjected fluids, and produced fluids and was analyzed using Miseq sequencing of 16s rRNA genes. Methanogens present in shale cores were similar to methanogens in produced fluids. No methanogens were detected in injected fluids, suggesting that this is an unlikely source and that they may be native to the shale itself. Bench-top methane production tests of shale core and produced fluids suggest that these organisms are alive and active under simulated reservoir conditions. Growth conditions designed to simulate the hydrofracture processes indicated somewhat increased methane production; however, fluids alone produced relatively little methane. Together, these results suggest that some biogenic methane may be produced in these wells and that hydrofracture fluids currently used to stimulate gas recovery could stimulate methanogens and their rate of producing methane. PMID:25924080

  18. Oil shale retorting and combustion system

    DOEpatents

    Pitrolo, Augustine A.; Mei, Joseph S.; Shang, Jerry Y.

    1983-01-01

    The present invention is directed to the extraction of energy values from l shale containing considerable concentrations of calcium carbonate in an efficient manner. The volatiles are separated from the oil shale in a retorting zone of a fluidized bed where the temperature and the concentration of oxygen are maintained at sufficiently low levels so that the volatiles are extracted from the oil shale with minimal combustion of the volatiles and with minimal calcination of the calcium carbonate. These gaseous volatiles and the calcium carbonate flow from the retorting zone into a freeboard combustion zone where the volatiles are burned in the presence of excess air. In this zone the calcination of the calcium carbonate occurs but at the expense of less BTU's than would be required by the calcination reaction in the event both the retorting and combustion steps took place simultaneously. The heat values in the products of combustion are satisfactorily recovered in a suitable heat exchange system.

  19. Shale Gas: Development Opportunities and Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Zoback, Mark D.; Arent, Douglas J.

    2014-03-01

    The use of horizontal drilling and multistage hydraulic fracturing technologies has enabled the production of immense quantities of natural gas, to date principally in North America but increasingly in other countries around the world. The global availability of this resource creates both opportunities and challenges that need to be addressed in a timely and effective manner. There seems little question that rapid shale gas development, coupled with fuel switching from coal to natural gas for power generation, can have beneficial effects on air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, and energy security in many countries. In this context, shale gas resources represent a critically important transition fuel on the path to a decarbonized energy future. For these benefits to be realized, however, it is imperative that shale gas resources be developed with effective environmental safeguards to reduce their impact on land use, water resources, air quality, and nearby communities.

  20. Method and apparatus for shale gas recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Nielson, D.H.

    1990-05-29

    This patent describes a method for the in situ recovery of natural gas from an undisturbed shale bed formation in a condition ready for transmission through a gas pipeline to end users and substantially without the formation of liquid products. It comprises: forming a heater assembly having an elongated substantially cylindrical outer housing; providing the elongated heater assembly with an interior containing a fuel gas burner there within joined to an upwardly extending fuel gas supply line and including in the interior an upwardly extending product gas line disposed adjacent an upwardly extending combustion air line; drilling a borehole into a subterranean shale bed formation; and lowering the heater assembly into the borehole to a position surrounded by the shale bed formation with the borehole having been drilled to define a diameter relative the heater assembly housing insuring a close fit therebetween while providing a gas space therebetween.

  1. Thermal Maturation of Gas Shale Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, Sylvain; Horsfield, Brian

    2014-05-01

    Shale gas systems serve as sources, reservoirs, and seals for unconventional natural gas accumulations. These reservoirs bring numerous challenges to geologists and petroleum engineers in reservoir characterization, most notably because of their heterogeneous character due to depositional and diagenetic processes but also because of their constituent rocks' fine-grained nature and small pore size -- much smaller than in conventional sandstone and carbonate reservoirs. Significant advances have recently been achieved in unraveling the gaseous hydrocarbon generation and retention processes that occur within these complex systems. In addition, cutting-edge characterization technologies have allowed precise documentation of the spatial variability in chemistry and structure of thermally mature organic-rich shales at the submicrometer scale, revealing the presence of geochemical heterogeneities within overmature gas shale samples and, notably, the presence of nanoporous pyrobitumen. Such research advances will undoubtedly lead to improved performance, producibility, and modeling of such strategic resources at the reservoir scale.

  2. Economic enhancement of Western shale oil upgrading

    SciTech Connect

    Bunger, J. W.; Ryu, H.; Jeong, S. Y.

    1989-07-01

    A proof-of-concept study for a novel shale oil refining process was undertaken. This project promises reduced upgrading costs, thereby making shale oil development more feasible for commercialization. The process consists of distillation of raw shale oil into a distillate and residue portion, cracking of the residue by hydropyrolysis, and selective hydrotreating of narrow boiling cuts from the total distillate. Based on models and experimental data, the end product slate is projected to be 34% naphtha, 57% middle distillate, and 10.3% atm residue + coke. Hydrogen addition is 1.3% or 800 scf/bbl. These results are considerably improved over conventional processing, which gives 14% naphtha, 41% middle distillate, and 48.2% residue + coke and hydrogen addition of 3.2% or 2000 scf/bbl. More quantitative data and preliminary economics will be obtained in the next phase of study. 13 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Shale Gas Information Platform SHIP: first year of fact-based communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hübner, Andreas; Horsfield, Brian; Petrow, Theresia

    2013-04-01

    Natural gas produced from shale, already on stream in the USA, and under development in many regions worldwide, has brought about a fundamental change in energy resource distribution and energy politics. According to recent IEA publications, shale gas production will continue to rise globally and will be embraced by many more countries than at present. Shale gas production, especially in densely populated regions, brings with it a new dimension of risk alongside potential benefits. A fact-based discussion of the pros and cons, however, has been hampered in part by a scarcity of scientific knowledge on the related risks, and by a lack of appropriate, i.e. transparent and balanced, communication of the academic research perspective. With the Shale Gas Information Platform SHIP, the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences engages in the public discussion of technical and environmental issues related to shale gas exploration and production. The project was launched online in early 2012, at a propitious time: the public debate was until then dominated by voices from industry and from environmental groups, which were often biased and/or lacking sound factual background. Significant academic research on the risks related to shale gas development and hydraulic fracturing operations in particular only started in 2011 and continued to expand in 2012. This was reflected in an increased output of peer-reviewed publications and academic reports. SHIP puts these into perspective and brings them to the attention of the broader public. With just one year of online presence, SHIP has already effectively filled the void in fact-based information on shale gas. This can be seen by a continuing demand for subscriptions to our News Email Alert Service, and by invitations SHIP has received to conferences and workshops, in order to share our experience of science-based and balanced information dissemination. SHIP's web content is expanding and so is its expert network. Collaborations

  4. Assessment of potential unconventional lacustrine shale-oil and shale-gas resources, Phitsanulok Basin, Thailand, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Brownfield, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed potential technically recoverable mean resources of 53 million barrels of shale oil and 320 billion cubic feet of shale gas in the Phitsanulok Basin, onshore Thailand.

  5. Oil shale extraction using super-critical extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, L. E. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Significant improvement in oil shale extraction under supercritical conditions is provided by extracting the shale at a temperature below 400 C, such as from about 250 C to about 350 C, with a solvent having a Hildebrand solubility parameter within 1 to 2 Hb of the solubility parameter for oil shale bitumen.

  6. Rapid gas development in the Fayetteville shale basin, Arkansas

    EPA Science Inventory

    Advances in drilling and extraction of natural gas have resulted in rapid expansion of wells in shale basins. The rate of gas well installation in the Fayetteville shale is 774 wells a year since 2005 with thousands more planned. The Fayetteville shale covers 23,000 km2 although ...

  7. Shale seismic anisotropy vs. compaction trend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pervukhina, M.

    2015-12-01

    Shales comprise more than 60% of sedimentary rocks and form natural seals above hydrocarbon reservoirs. Their sealing capacity is also used for storage of nuclear wastes. Shales are notorious for their strong elastic anisotropy, so-called, vertical transverse isotropy or VTI. This VTI anisotropy is of practical importance as it is required for correct surface seismic data interpretation, seismic to well tie and azimuth versus offset analysis. A number of competing factors are responsible for VTI anisotropy in shales, namely, (1) micro-scale elastic anisotropy of clay particles, (2) anisotropic orientation distribution function of clay particles, (3) anisotropic orientation of pores and organic matter. On the contrary, silt (non-clay mineralogy grains with size between 0.06 -0.002 mm) is known to reduce elastic anisotropy of shales. Methods developed for calculations of anisotropy in polycrystalline materials can be used to estimate elastic anisotropy of shales from orientation distribution function (ODF) of clay platelets if elastic properties of individual clay platelets are known. Unfortunately, elastic properties of individual clay platelets cannot be directly measured. Recently, elastic properties of properties of individual clay platelets with different mineralogy were calculated from first principles based on density functional theory. In this work we use these elastic properties of individual platelets of muscovite, illite-smectite and kaolinite to obtain correlations between elastic anisotropy and Legendre coefficients W200 and W400 of different ODFs. Comparison of the Legendre coefficients calculated for more than 800 shales from depths 0 - 6 km (www.rockphysicists.org/data) with those of compaction ODFs shows that compaction has no first order effect on elastic anisotropy. Thus, elastic anisotropy is to large extent determined by factors other than compaction processes, such as depositional environment, chemical composition of fluid, silt fraction, etc.

  8. Shale oil stabilization with a hydroprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    York, E. D.; Johnson, D. M.; Miller, P. B.

    1985-10-22

    A process is provided to produce, stabilize, dedust and upgrade synthetic oil, such as shale oil. In the process, synthetic fuels, such as oil shale, tar sands and diatomite are retorted with heat carrier material to liberate an effluent product stream comprising hydrocarbons and entrained particulates of dust. In order to minimize polymerization of the product stream and agglomerate the dust, the product stream is stabilized, upgraded, and pretreated prior to dedusting, in a hydroprocessor, such as an ebullated bed reactor, with a hydroprocessing gas in the presence of a catalyst. The hydroprocessing gas can be hydrogen, scrubbed fractionator gases, or hydrocarbon-enriched hydroprocessor off gases.

  9. 11 CFR 110.13 - Candidate debates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... political parties may stage candidate debates in accordance with this section and 11 CFR 114.4(f). (2... CFR 114.4(f), provided that they are not owned or controlled by a political party, political committee... also cover or carry candidate debates in accordance with 11 CFR part 100, subparts B and C and part...

  10. 11 CFR 110.13 - Candidate debates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... political parties may stage candidate debates in accordance with this section and 11 CFR 114.4(f). (2... CFR 114.4(f), provided that they are not owned or controlled by a political party, political committee... also cover or carry candidate debates in accordance with 11 CFR part 100, subparts B and C and part...

  11. 11 CFR 110.13 - Candidate debates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... political parties may stage candidate debates in accordance with this section and 11 CFR 114.4(f). (2... CFR 114.4(f), provided that they are not owned or controlled by a political party, political committee... also cover or carry candidate debates in accordance with 11 CFR part 100, subparts B and C and part...

  12. A Taxonomy of CEDA Debate Critics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudczak, Craig A.; Day, Donald L.

    To develop a taxonomy of Cross Examination Debate Association (CEDA) critics, a study associated professed judging philosophy and responses to survey questions with ballot behavior and elaborated judging profiles. Subjects were debate critics who judged rounds at CEDA tournaments in the Northeast during the Spring 1989 season. In all, 13 critics…

  13. School Boundary Debate Divides Minnesota Suburb

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    The author discusses how an assignment plan intended to keep schools socioeconomically balanced spurs a bitter debate in suburban Eden Prairie. The boundary debate in the 9,700-student Eden Prairie, Minnesota, district has been bruising. Eden Prairie adopted new school attendance boundaries this year based on socioeconomic balance, ensuring for…

  14. 11 CFR 110.13 - Candidate debates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Candidate debates. 110.13 Section 110.13 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION GENERAL CONTRIBUTION AND EXPENDITURE LIMITATIONS AND PROHIBITIONS § 110.13 Candidate debates. (a) Staging organizations. (1) Nonprofit organizations described in 26 U.S.C. 501 (c)(3) or (c)(4) and which do...

  15. Rhetorical Legitimacy, and the Presidential Debates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucaites, John Louis

    1989-01-01

    Explores the negative popular reaction to the 1988 Presidential Debates. Examines how these events function as ritualistic enactments of the , thus providing a rhetorical legitimacy for the electoral process in a system dedicated to . Suggests how the 1988 debates failed to satisfy that function. (MM)

  16. The United States: A Persistent Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Scotter, Richard; Hartoonian, H. Michael; White, William E.; Davis, James E.

    2007-01-01

    American democratic society is sustained through debate among its citizens. Four sets of value tensions--(1) law versus ethics, (2) private wealth versus common wealth, (3) freedom versus equality, and (4) unity versus diversity--are central in allowing citizens to address matters of public interest through debate. These value pairs are the…

  17. Debate and Communication Skills. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiex, Nola Kortner

    Debate is an activity which can help young children learn to be part of a team without experiencing the intense competition that is present in athletics. For children, a focus on developing communication skills rather than on competition in debate can help foster attitudes of open-mindedness, fairness, and tolerance for the viewpoints of others.…

  18. The Affirmative Action Debate: A Critical Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wyk, Berte

    2010-01-01

    In this article I contend that we cannot divorce affirmative action from issues about race and racism. Further, debates on affirmative action have to acknowledge the power of words/concepts/definitions and how they can be constructed and used for the purposes of domination or liberation. I argue that, in debating affirmative action, we have to…

  19. Leagues Revive Debate in City Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Bess

    2008-01-01

    This article describes how the National Association for Urban Debate Leagues is reviving debate competitions among high school students in city schools. Starting in Atlanta in 1985 and boosted by seed money from the billionaire George Soros' Open Society Institute, urban educators and their supporters in 2002 formed the National Association for…

  20. Debate Revives Old Arguments on HPV Vaccine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Nirvi

    2011-01-01

    The author reports on a Republican presidential debate which revives the contention over requiring middle school girls to be vaccinated against the virus that causes cervical cancer. At the September 12 debate, U.S. Representative Michele Bachmann, of Minnesota, and Rick Santorum, a former U.S. senator from Pennsylvania, attacked Texas Governor…

  1. Media Nihilism and the Presidential Debates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, J. Michael

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the function of media nihilism--the rhetoric of "crisis and failure"--in the 1988 Presidential Debates. Examines journalists' debate questions, noting that they painted an almost wholly negative portrait of America. Suggests that the candidate who effectively "skewers" the media on its own hypocrisy should be declared the debate…

  2. Industry Interests in the HDTV Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neil, Suzanne Chambliss

    This analysis of the pattern of industrial interests in the current debate over high definition television systems argues that the debate involves more than just television; rather, it is an expression of a shift in the conceptualization of the nature of standards, one which conceives of standards as guidelines for the development of specific…

  3. Using Debates to Teach Information Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace, A. Graham

    2011-01-01

    This experience report details the use of debates in a course on Information Ethics. Formal debates have been used in academia for centuries and create an environment in which students must think critically, communicate well and, above all, synthesize and evaluate the relevant classroom material. They also provide a break from the standard…

  4. CO2 Sequestration within Spent Oil Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, H.; Worrall, F.; Gluyas, J.; Morgan, C.; Fraser, J.

    2013-12-01

    Worldwide deposits of oil shales are thought to represent ~3 trillion barrels of oil. Jordanian oil shale deposits are extensive and of high quality, and could represent 100 billion barrels of oil, leading to much interest and activity in the development of these deposits. The exploitation of oil shales has raised a number of environmental concerns including: land use, waste disposal, water consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions. The dry retorting of oil shales can overcome a number of the environmental impacts, but this leaves concerns over management of spent oil shale and CO2 production. In this study we propose that the spent oil shale can be used to sequester CO2 from the retorting process. Here we show that by conducting experiments using high pressure reaction facilities, we can achieve successful carbonation of spent oil shale. High pressure reactor facilities in the Department of Earth Sciences, Durham University, are capable of reacting solids with a range of fluids up to 15 MPa and 350°C, being specially designed for research with supercritical fluids. Jordanian spent oil shale was reacted with high pressure CO2 in order to assess whether there is potential for sequestration. Fresh and reacted materials were then examined by: Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) methods. Jordanian spent oil shale was found to sequester up to 5.8 wt % CO2, on reacting under supercritical conditions, which is 90% of the theoretical carbonation. Jordanian spent oil shale is composed of a large proportion of CaCO3, which on retorting decomposes, forming CaSO4 and Ca-oxides which are the focus of carbonation reactions. A factorially designed experiment was used to test different factors on the extent of carbonation, including: pressure; temperature; duration; and the water content. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) techniques were then used to determine the significance of

  5. Wellbore stability in shale gas reservoirs, a case study of the Barnett Shale (USA).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouadfeul, Sid-Ali; Aliouane, Leila

    2015-04-01

    Wellbore stability in shale gas reservoirs is one of the major problems during the drilling phase; bad stability can induce the breakouts and drilling induced fractures. Wellbore stability requires the good knowledge of horizontal maximum and minimum stress, the overburden stress and the pore pressure. In this paper, we show a case study of the wellbore stability and how to estimate the mud weight in shale gas reservoir of the Barnett shale formation before drilling. The overburden stress is calculated from the seismic inversion, the minimum stress is calculated using the poro-elastic model, and however the pore pressure is calculated using the Eaton's model. Keywords: Wellbore stability, shale gas, maximum stress, minimum stress, overburden, mud weight, pore pressure.

  6. Preliminary nannofossil and geochemical data from Jurassic black shales from the Qiangtang Basin, northern Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lan; Jenkyns, Hugh C.; Xu, Guiwen; Mattioli, Emanuela; Da, Xuejuan; Yi, Haisheng; Xia, Minquan; Zhu, Zhangxiong; Huang, Zhaohui

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents new biostratigraphic and geochemical data from the Biluo Co section in northern Tibet, which exposes Jurassic black organic-rich shales, locally containing abundant coccoliths. Because of a general lack of macrofossils, the stratigraphic ages have been a matter of debate. However, coccoliths suggest an Early Bajocian through Bathonian to possibly Early Callovian age (Middle Jurassic) for the middle-upper part of the section. In this study, a range of trace-metal paleoredox proxies is used to assess how seawater oxygen levels varied both locally and globally during the deposition of these shales. The redox-sensitive elements V, Cr, U, Ni, Cu, Mo, Co, Cd and Zn exhibit relatively high concentrations and element/Al ratios. In particular, the Ni compositions fluctuate between ∼75 ppm and ∼106 ppm and Mo between ∼1 ppm and ∼7 ppm: values that are higher than those of the post-Archean Average Shale. Palaeoproductivity proxies, such as Zn, P and Cd, which can be fixed in elevated concentrations in sediments deposited under generally reducing conditions, are also relatively enriched. Furthermore, the U-Mo concentrations and Enrichment Factors (EFs) are consistent with deposition under predominantly suboxic to weakly anoxic conditions. Scattered bivalves, however, point to at least intermittent oxic conditions on the sea floor. Based on the redox-sensitive trace-element concentrations, together with ratios (V/(V + Ni), Ni/Co and V/Cr), the formation of the Biluo Co black shales, in Tibet was probably caused by increased productivity and organic-matter flux, leading to enhanced preservation of organic material under low-oxygen conditions.

  7. Astronomers debate diamonds in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-04-01

    This is not the first time the intriguing carbonaceous compound has been detected in space. A peculiar elite of twelve stars are known to produce it. The star now added by ISO to this elite is one of the best representatives of this exclusive family, since it emits a very strong signal of the compound. Additionally ISO found a second new member of the group with weaker emission, and also observed with a spectral resolution never achieved before other already known stars in this class. Astronomers think these ISO results will help solve the mystery of the true nature of the compound. Their publication by two different groups, from Spain and Canada, has triggered a debate on the topic, both in astronomy institutes and in chemistry laboratories. At present, mixed teams of astrophysicists and chemists are investigating in the lab compounds whose chemical signature or "fingerprint" matches that detected by ISO. Neither diamonds nor fullerenes have ever been detected in space, but their presence has been predicted. Tiny diamonds of pre-solar origin --older than the Solar System-- have been found in meteorites, which supports the as yet unconfirmed theory of their presence in interstellar space. The fullerene molecule, made of 60 carbon atoms linked to form a sphere (hence the name "buckyball"), has also been extensively searched for in space but never found. If the carbonaceous compound detected by ISO is a fullerene or a diamond, there will be new data on the production of these industrially interesting materials. Fullerenes are being investigated as "capsules" to deliver new pharmaceuticals to the body. Diamonds are commonly used in the electronics industry and for the development of new materials; if they are formed in the dust surrounding some stars, at relatively low temperatures and conditions of low pressure, companies could learn more about the ideal physical conditions to produce them. A textbook case The latest star in which the compound has been found is

  8. Response of oil shale to fragmentation by cylindrical charges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fourney, W. L.; Dick, R. D.; Young, C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental program that was conducted in 1981 through 1983 in the Anvil Points Oil Shale Mine near Rifle, Colorado. The objective was to examine the response of the kerogen rich oil shale to explosive charges in relatively large scale tests. Due to an alleged shortage of oil at that time the price per barrel of crude oil had reached nearly 40 and the United States was looking at oil shale as a possible source of hydrocarbon fuels. It was the intention of the fragmentation program to develop a modified in situ retort to recover the oil from the fragmented shale. Programs were already underway wherein the oil shale was being mined, transported to the surface, and retorted to remove the oil. This surface retorting resulted in a tremendous amount of spent shale (shale with the kerogen removed) which had to be handled and it was felt that this would lead to serious environmental problems. The scheme being investigated in the program at Anvil Points was one in which about 25% of the shale is mined, moved to the surface, and retorted. The remaining 75% of the shale was to be fragmented in place and an underground retort formed so that the oil could be removed without the necessity of transporting the shale to the surface. A successful method was not developed but the results of the program did provide information on the response of shale to both single hole and multiple hole explosive charges.

  9. Geochemical controls on groundwater chemistry in shales

    SciTech Connect

    Von Damm, K.L.

    1989-01-01

    The chemistry of groundwaters is one of the most important parameters in determining the mobility of species within a rock formation. A three pronged approach was used to determine the composition of, and geochemical controls, on groundwaters specifically within shale formations: (1) available data were collected from the literature, the US Geological Survey WATSTORE data base, and field sampling, (2) the geochemical modeling code EQ3/6 was used to simulate interaction of various shales and groundwaters, and (3) several types of shale were reacted with synthetic groundwaters in the laboratory. The comparison of model results to field and laboratory data provide a means of validating the models, as well as a means of deconvoluting complex field interactions. Results suggest that groundwaters in shales have a wide range in composition and are primarily of the Na-Cl-HCO/sub 3/- type. The constancy of the Na:Cl (molar) ratio at 1:1 and the Ca:Mg ratio from 3:1 to 1:1 suggests the importance of halite and carbonates in controlling groundwater compositions. In agreement with the reaction path modeling, most of the groundwaters are neutral to slightly alkaline at low temperatures. Model and experimental results suggest that reaction (1) at elevated temperatures, or (2) in the presence of oxygen will lead to more acidic conditions. Some acetate was found to be produced in the experiments; depending on the constraints applied, large amounts of acetate were produced in the model results. 13 refs., 1 tab.

  10. Studies of the Scottish oil shale industry

    SciTech Connect

    Randall, S.C.

    1990-03-01

    An oral history of life in the first half of the twentieth century in the shale mining communities of Mid and West Lothian, Scotland provided background information needed for a mortality study of these communities where the Scottish shale oil industry was located until 1963. Thirty-two semi-structured interviews with 41 old people provide a detailed socio-historical picture of life in an area dominated by this industry. Much of the information is presented using quotations from the interviews. Housing conditions and perceptions of pollution are described. Details of working conditions, jobs and wages, focussing in particular on the shale industry, suggest that until the early 1920s shale workers were financially well off compared with workers elsewhere. Comparative wage levels then deteriorated until 1939. Women's activities, roles, domestic and work positions indicate that although women had little exposure to industrial hazards in the workplace, their standard of living was very low and they had to work extremely hard. Health and health care, diet, smoking and drinking habits, leisure and migrations are other factors which could affect morality patterns. Comparisons with contemporary studies are discussed. 33 refs., 6 tabs.

  11. Water mist injection in oil shale retorting

    DOEpatents

    Galloway, T.R.; Lyczkowski, R.W.; Burnham, A.K.

    1980-07-30

    Water mist is utilized to control the maximum temperature in an oil shale retort during processing. A mist of water droplets is generated and entrained in the combustion supporting gas flowing into the retort in order to distribute the liquid water droplets throughout the retort. The water droplets are vaporized in the retort in order to provide an efficient coolant for temperature control.

  12. Detecting a coal/shale interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broussard, P. H.; Burch, J. L.; Campbell, R. A.; Drost, E. J.; Hudgins, J. L.; Morris, P. W.; Reid, H., Jr.; Stein, R. J.; Zimmerman, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    Detector, intended for use with longwall shearer, determines when cut has pierced through coal layer. Accelerometer measures hardness of material struck by penetrometer ram, while reflectometers measure reflectivity of surface on either side of penetrometer. Signals are combined in voting circuit that indicates "coal" or "shale", depending on information supplied by three sensors. It distinguishes by differences in accelerometer waveforms.

  13. Geotechnical properties of PARAHO spent shale

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, T.E.

    1982-10-01

    A literature review of available geotechnical properties for PARAHO retorted shale was conducted. Also reported are laboratory measurements made at PNL on key hydraulic properties of the PARAHO retorted shale. The PARAHO material can be compacted in the laboratory to dry densities of 12.1 KN/m/sup 3/ (77.0 pcf) to 17.0 Kn/m/sup 3/ (108.4 pcf) depending on compaction effort. Optimum water content for these densities range from 14.4 to 23.7 percent (dry weight), however, PARAHO can achieve high densities without requiring water for compaction. Water retention characteristics indicate that optimum moisture contents (field capacity) range from 13 to 14% (dry weight). Water contents in excess of these values are likely to drain with time. PARAHO shale can be considered as semipervious to pervious with permeability values of 10/sup -3/ to 10/sup -4/ cm/s depending on compaction effort. PARAHO shale exhibits self-cementing characteristics. Under normal conditions cementing reactions are slow, with strength gains still indicated after 28 days. The shear strength of PARAHO is comparable to similarly graded gravel with effective angles of internal friction, phi', of 33 to 34 degrees. Depending on compactive effort and gradation of the material, effective cohesion values of 0.09 Mn/m/sup 2/ to 0.19 MN/m/sup 2/ (128.05 psi to 277.45 psi) can be expected.

  14. Technically recoverable Devonian shale gas in Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Kuushraa, V.A.; Wicks, D.E.; Sawyer, W.K.; Esposito, P.R.

    1983-07-01

    The technically recoverable gas from Devonian shale (Lower and Middle Huron) in Ohio is estimated to range from 6.2 to 22.5 Tcf, depending on the stimulation method and pattern size selected. This estimate of recovery is based on the integration of the most recent data and research on the Devonian Age gas-bearing shales of Ohio. This includes: (1) a compilation of the latest geologic and reservoir data for the gas in-place; (2) analysis of the key productive mechanisms; and, (3) examination of alternative stimulation and production strategies for most efficiently recovering this gas. Beyond a comprehensive assembly of the data and calculation of the technically recoverable gas, the key findings of this report are as follows: a substantial volume of gas is technically recoverable, although advanced (larger scale) stimulation technology will be required to reach economically attractive gas production rates in much of the state; well spacing in certain of the areas can be reduced by half from the traditional 150 to 160 acres per well without severely impairing per-well gas recovery; and, due to the relatively high degree of permeability anisotropy in the Devonian shales, a rectangular, generally 3 by 1 well pattern leads to optimum recovery. Finally, although a consistent geological interpretation and model have been constructed for the Lower and Middle Huron intervals of the Ohio Devonian shale, this interpretation is founded on limited data currently available, along with numerous technical assumptions that need further verification. 11 references, 21 figures, 32 tables.

  15. Shale Gas reservoirs characterization using neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouadfeul, Sid-Ali; Aliouane, Leila

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, a tentative of shale gas reservoirs characterization enhancement from well-logs data using neural network is established. The goal is to predict the Total Organic carbon (TOC) in boreholes where the TOC core rock or TOC well-log measurement does not exist. The Multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network with three layers is established. The MLP input layer is constituted with five neurons corresponding to the Bulk density, Neutron porosity, sonic P wave slowness and photoelectric absorption coefficient. The hidden layer is forms with nine neurons and the output layer is formed with one neuron corresponding to the TOC log. Application to two boreholes located in Barnett shale formation where a well A is used as a pilot and a well B is used for propagation shows clearly the efficiency of the neural network method to improve the shale gas reservoirs characterization. The established formalism plays a high important role in the shale gas plays economy and long term gas energy production.

  16. Boomtown blues; Oil shale and Exxon's exit

    SciTech Connect

    Gulliford, A. )

    1989-01-01

    This paper chronicles the social and cultural effects of the recent oil shale boom on the Colorado communities of Rifle, Silt, Parachute, and Grand Junction. The paper is based upon research and oral history interviews conducted throughout Colorado and in Houston and Washington, DC.

  17. [Chemical hazards arising from shale gas extraction].

    PubMed

    Pakulska, Daria

    2015-01-01

    The development of the shale industry is gaining momentum and hence the analysis of chemical hazards to the environment and health of the local population is extreiely timely and important. Chemical hazards are created during the exploitation of all minerals, but in the case of shale gas production, there is much more uncertainty as regards to the effects of new technologies application. American experience suggests the increasing risk of environmental contamination, mainly groundwater. The greatest, concern is the incomplete knowledge of the composition of fluids used for fracturing shale rock and unpredictability of long-term effects of hydraulic fracturing for the environment and health of residents. High population density in the old continent causes the problem of chemical hazards which is much larger than in the USA. Despite the growing public discontent data on this subject are limited. First of all, there is no epidemiological studies to assess the relationship between risk factors, such as air and water pollution, and health effects in populations living in close proximity to gas wells. The aim of this article is to identify and discuss existing concepts on the sources of environmental contamination, an indication of the environment elements under pressure and potential health risks arising from shale gas extraction. PMID:26016049

  18. Studies of New Albany shale in western Kentucky. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schwalb, H.R.; Norris, R.L.

    1980-02-01

    The New Albany (Upper Devonian) Shale in western Kentucky can be zoned by using correlative characteristics distinguishable on wire-line logs. Wells drilled through the shale which were logged by various methods provided a basis for zonation of the subsurface members and units of the Grassy Creek, Sweetland Creek, and Blocher. Structure and isopach maps and cross sections were prepared. The Hannibal Shale and Rockford Limestone were found in limited areas; isopach maps were not made for these members. Samples of cuttings from selected wells were studied in order to identify the contact of the shale with underlying and overlying rock units. A well-site examination of cuttings through the shale section was conducted, and the presence of natural gas was observed in the field. The New Albany Shale has the potential for additional commercially marketable natural gas production. Exploratory drilling is needed to evaluate the reservoir characteristics of the New Albany Shale.

  19. Eastern oil shale research involving the generation of retorted and combusted oil shale solid waste, shale oil collection, and process stream sampling and characterization: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    Approximately 518 tons of New Albany oil shale were obtained from the McRae quarry in Clark County, Indiana and shipped to Golden, CO. A portion of the material was processed through a TOSCO II pilot plant retort. About 273 tons of crushed raw shale, 136 tons of retorted shale, 1500 gallons of shale oil, and 10 drums of retort water were shipped to US Department of Energy, Laramie, WY. Process conditions were documented, process streams were sampled and subjected to chemical analysis, and material balance calculations were made. 6 refs., 12 figs., 14 tabs.

  20. Leaching study of oil shale in Kentucky : with a section on Hydrologic reconnaissance of the oil shale outcrop in Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leung, Samuel S.; Leist, D.W.; Davis, R.W.; Cordiviola, Steven

    1984-01-01

    Oil shales in Kentucky are rocks of predominantly Devonian age. The most prominant are the Ohio, Chattanooga, and New Albany Shales. A leaching study was done on six fresh oil shale samples and one retorted oil shale sample. Leaching reagents were distilled water, 0.0005 N sulfuric acid, and 0.05 N sulfuric acid. The concentration of constituents in the leachates were highly variable. The concentration of sodium, manganese, and zinc in the retorted shale leachate was several orders of magnitude higher than those of the leachates of fresh shale samples. The major oil shale outcrop covers approximately 1,000 square miles in a horseshoe pattern from Vanceburg, Lewis County , in the east, to Louisville, Jefferson County, in the west. The Kentucky, Red, and Licking Rivers cross the outcrop belt, the Rolling Fork River flows along the strike of the shale in the southwest part of the outcrop, and the Ohio River flows past the outcrop at the ends of the horseshoe. Oil shale does not appear to significantly alter the water quality of these streams. Oil shale is not an aquifer, but seeps and springs found in the shale indicate that water moves through it. Ground water quality is highly variable. (USGS)

  1. Western Greece unconventional hydrocarbon potential from oil shale and shale gas reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakitsios, Vasileios; Agiadi, Konstantina

    2013-04-01

    It is clear that we are gradually running out of new sedimentary basins to explore for conventional oil and gas and that the reserves of conventional oil, which can be produced cheaply, are limited. This is the reason why several major oil companies invest in what are often called unconventional hydrocarbons: mainly oil shales, heavy oil, tar sand and shale gas. In western Greece exist important oil and gas shale reservoirs which must be added to its hydrocarbon potential1,2. Regarding oil shales, Western Greece presents significant underground immature, or close to the early maturation stage, source rocks with black shale composition. These source rock oils may be produced by applying an in-situ conversion process (ICP). A modern technology, yet unproven at a commercial scale, is the thermally conductive in-situ conversion technology, developed by Shell3. Since most of western Greece source rocks are black shales with high organic content, those, which are immature or close to the maturity limit have sufficient thickness and are located below 1500 meters depth, may be converted artificially by in situ pyrolysis. In western Greece, there are several extensive areas with these characteristics, which may be subject of exploitation in the future2. Shale gas reservoirs in Western Greece are quite possibly present in all areas where shales occur below the ground-water level, with significant extent and organic matter content greater than 1%, and during their geological history, were found under conditions corresponding to the gas window (generally at depths over 5,000 to 6,000m). Western Greece contains argillaceous source rocks, found within the gas window, from which shale gas may be produced and consequently these rocks represent exploitable shale gas reservoirs. Considering the inevitable increase in crude oil prices, it is expected that at some point soon Western Greece shales will most probably be targeted. Exploration for conventional petroleum reservoirs

  2. Fracturing and brittleness index analyses of shales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnhoorn, Auke; Primarini, Mutia; Houben, Maartje

    2016-04-01

    The formation of a fracture network in rocks has a crucial control on the flow behaviour of fluids. In addition, an existing network of fractures , influences the propagation of new fractures during e.g. hydraulic fracturing or during a seismic event. Understanding of the type and characteristics of the fracture network that will be formed during e.g. hydraulic fracturing is thus crucial to better predict the outcome of a hydraulic fracturing job. For this, knowledge of the rock properties is crucial. The brittleness index is often used as a rock property that can be used to predict the fracturing behaviour of a rock for e.g. hydraulic fracturing of shales. Various terminologies of the brittleness index (BI1, BI2 and BI3) exist based on mineralogy, elastic constants and stress-strain behaviour (Jin et al., 2014, Jarvie et al., 2007 and Holt et al., 2011). A maximum brittleness index of 1 predicts very good and efficient fracturing behaviour while a minimum brittleness index of 0 predicts a much more ductile shale behaviour. Here, we have performed systematic petrophysical, acoustic and geomechanical analyses on a set of shale samples from Whitby (UK) and we have determined the three different brittleness indices on each sample by performing all the analyses on each of the samples. We show that each of the three brittleness indices are very different for the same sample and as such it can be concluded that the brittleness index is not a good predictor of the fracturing behaviour of shales. The brittleness index based on the acoustic data (BI1) all lie around values of 0.5, while the brittleness index based on the stress strain data (BI2) give an average brittleness index around 0.75, whereas the mineralogy brittleness index (BI3) predict values below 0.2. This shows that by using different estimates of the brittleness index different decisions can be made for hydraulic fracturing. If we would rely on the mineralogy (BI3), the Whitby mudstone is not a suitable

  3. Seven Democratic Presidential Candidates Debate Educational Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Equity and Excellence, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Provides the transcript of a debate on educational issues among Democratic presidential candidates Paul Simon, Albert Gore, Joseph Biden, Jesse Jackson, Bruce Babbitt, Richard Gephart, and Michael Dukakis. (BJV)

  4. Four Republican Presidential Candidates Debate Educational Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Equity and Excellence, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Provides the transcript of a September 1987 debate on educational issues between Republican presidential candidates Jack Kemp and Pierre du Pont. Interspersed throughout the transcript are written responses to questions submitted to additional candidates Robert Dole and George Bush. (BJV)

  5. Thinking About the Greenfield-Griffiths Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendell, Richard; Byrne, David R.

    1978-01-01

    The Greenfield- Griffiths debate stands as an example of rigid polarization of attitudes toward research methodologies and obscures efforts to know and understand in the field. "Detente" is called for. (Author/IRT)

  6. A critical review of the risks to water resources from unconventional shale gas development and hydraulic fracturing in the United States.

    PubMed

    Vengosh, Avner; Jackson, Robert B; Warner, Nathaniel; Darrah, Thomas H; Kondash, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The rapid rise of shale gas development through horizontal drilling and high volume hydraulic fracturing has expanded the extraction of hydrocarbon resources in the U.S. The rise of shale gas development has triggered an intense public debate regarding the potential environmental and human health effects from hydraulic fracturing. This paper provides a critical review of the potential risks that shale gas operations pose to water resources, with an emphasis on case studies mostly from the U.S. Four potential risks for water resources are identified: (1) the contamination of shallow aquifers with fugitive hydrocarbon gases (i.e., stray gas contamination), which can also potentially lead to the salinization of shallow groundwater through leaking natural gas wells and subsurface flow; (2) the contamination of surface water and shallow groundwater from spills, leaks, and/or the disposal of inadequately treated shale gas wastewater; (3) the accumulation of toxic and radioactive elements in soil or stream sediments near disposal or spill sites; and (4) the overextraction of water resources for high-volume hydraulic fracturing that could induce water shortages or conflicts with other water users, particularly in water-scarce areas. Analysis of published data (through January 2014) reveals evidence for stray gas contamination, surface water impacts in areas of intensive shale gas development, and the accumulation of radium isotopes in some disposal and spill sites. The direct contamination of shallow groundwater from hydraulic fracturing fluids and deep formation waters by hydraulic fracturing itself, however, remains controversial. PMID:24606408

  7. Shale gas development impacts on surface water quality in Pennsylvania

    PubMed Central

    Olmstead, Sheila M.; Muehlenbachs, Lucija A.; Shih, Jhih-Shyang; Chu, Ziyan; Krupnick, Alan J.

    2013-01-01

    Concern has been raised in the scientific literature about the environmental implications of extracting natural gas from deep shale formations, and published studies suggest that shale gas development may affect local groundwater quality. The potential for surface water quality degradation has been discussed in prior work, although no empirical analysis of this issue has been published. The potential for large-scale surface water quality degradation has affected regulatory approaches to shale gas development in some US states, despite the dearth of evidence. This paper conducts a large-scale examination of the extent to which shale gas development activities affect surface water quality. Focusing on the Marcellus Shale in Pennsylvania, we estimate the effect of shale gas wells and the release of treated shale gas waste by permitted treatment facilities on observed downstream concentrations of chloride (Cl−) and total suspended solids (TSS), controlling for other factors. Results suggest that (i) the treatment of shale gas waste by treatment plants in a watershed raises downstream Cl− concentrations but not TSS concentrations, and (ii) the presence of shale gas wells in a watershed raises downstream TSS concentrations but not Cl− concentrations. These results can inform future voluntary measures taken by shale gas operators and policy approaches taken by regulators to protect surface water quality as the scale of this economically important activity increases. PMID:23479604

  8. Oil shale loss from a laboratory fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.W.; Beavers, P.L.

    1989-03-01

    The rate of loss of dust from a laboratory scale fluidized bed of Green River oil shale has been measured. The rate of loss of dust from raw shale in the bed was approximately 1%/min for the first few minutes, and then decreased. The loss rate for retorted or burnt shale was 5 to 10 times higher. The rate for retorted and burned shale were nearly the same. The time required for a 10 wt% loss of mass was approximately 3 min for processed shale and 1 hour for raw shale. Particles left in the bed during fluidization lost sharp corners, but kept the original elongation. Dust lost by the bed has a very wide range of sizes, and demonstrated a strong bimodal distribution of sizes. The bimodal distribution of particles is interpreted as resulting from two mechanisms of dust generation: fracture and wear. Fracture of large particles sometimes produced fragments which were small enough to be blown out of the bed. These fragments were much larger than the individual mineral grains in the shale. The fracture mechanism was dominant in the case of raw shale. Dust in the smaller particle-size range was generated by wear. Wear was the dominant mechanisms in the case of burned shale, whereas, for retorted shale, nearly equal amounts of dust were generated by each mechanism. 13 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Water management practices used by Fayetteville shale gas producers.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.

    2011-06-03

    Water issues continue to play an important role in producing natural gas from shale formations. This report examines water issues relating to shale gas production in the Fayetteville Shale. In particular, the report focuses on how gas producers obtain water supplies used for drilling and hydraulically fracturing wells, how that water is transported to the well sites and stored, and how the wastewater from the wells (flowback and produced water) is managed. Last year, Argonne National Laboratory made a similar evaluation of water issues in the Marcellus Shale (Veil 2010). Gas production in the Marcellus Shale involves at least three states, many oil and gas operators, and multiple wastewater management options. Consequently, Veil (2010) provided extensive information on water. This current study is less complicated for several reasons: (1) gas production in the Fayetteville Shale is somewhat more mature and stable than production in the Marcellus Shale; (2) the Fayetteville Shale underlies a single state (Arkansas); (3) there are only a few gas producers that operate the large majority of the wells in the Fayetteville Shale; (4) much of the water management information relating to the Marcellus Shale also applies to the Fayetteville Shale, therefore, it can be referenced from Veil (2010) rather than being recreated here; and (5) the author has previously published a report on the Fayetteville Shale (Veil 2007) and has helped to develop an informational website on the Fayetteville Shale (Argonne and University of Arkansas 2008), both of these sources, which are relevant to the subject of this report, are cited as references.

  10. Debating science policy in the physics classroom.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Shannon

    2010-03-01

    It is critically important that national and international science policy be scientifically grounded. To this end, the next generation of scientists and engineers will need to be technically competent, effective communicators of science, and engaged advisors in the debate and formulation of science policy. We describe three science policy debates developed for the physics classroom aimed at encouraging students to draw connections between their developing technical expertise and important science policy issues. The first debate considers the proposal for a 450-megawatt wind farm on public lands in Nantucket Sound and fits naturally into the curriculum related to alternative forms of energy production. The second debate considers national fuel-economy standards for sport-utility vehicles and can be incorporated into the curriculum related to heat engines. The third debate, suitable for the curriculum in optics, considers solid state lighting and implications of recent United States legislation that places stringent new energy-efficiency and reliability requirements on conventional lighting. The technical foundation for each of these debates fits naturally into the undergraduate physics curriculum and the material is suitable for a wide range of physics courses, including general science courses for non-majors.

  11. Formal Debate as a Pedagogical Tool in the College Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercadante, Richard A., Jr.

    By understanding the values and goals of debate, the applicability of debate to all disciplines, the logistics of setting up a debate and the judging and grading procedures, college instructors in all disciplines can use debate to stimulate student interest and increase conceptual skills. Debate functions to develop skills in critical thinking,…

  12. Ten Years of Demographics: Who Debates in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stepp, Pamela L.; Gardner, Beth

    2001-01-01

    Presents demographics about gender and ethnicity of debate directors, debate coaches, and debaters in the Cross Examination Debate Association's National Tournament from 1991-2000. Considers that although there has been an increase in the numbers of females and minorities debating, there has also been a decline in the numbers of females directing…

  13. A feasibility study of oil shale fired pulse combustors with applications to oil shale retorting

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, G.J.; Johnson, E.K.; Zhang, G.Q.; Roach, R.A.

    1992-07-01

    The results of the experimental investigation performed to determine the feasibility of using pulverized Colorado oil shale to fuel a bench scale pulse combustor reveal that oil shale cannot sustain pulsations when used alone as fuel. Trace amounts of propane mixed with the oil shale enabled the pulsations, however. Up to 80% of the organic material in the oil shale was consumed when it was mixed with propane in the combustor. Beyond the feasibility objectives, the operating conditions of the combustor fuel with propane and mixtures of oil shale and propane were characterized with respect to pulsation amplitude and frequency and the internal combustor wall temperature over fuel lean and fuel rich stoichiometries. Maximum pressure excursions of 12.5 kPa were experienced in the combustor. Pulsation frequencies ranged from 50 to nearly 80 Hz. Cycle resolved laser Doppler anemometry velocities were measured at the tail pipe exit plane. Injecting inert mineral matter (limestone) into the pulse combustor while using propane fuel had only a slight effect on the pulsation frequency for the feed rates tested.

  14. Comparison of organic geochemistry and metal enrichment in two black shales: Cambrian Alum Shale of Sweden and Devonian Chattanooga Shale of United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leventhal, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    In most black shales, such as the Chattanooga Shale and related shales of the eastern interior United States, increased metal and metalloid contents are generally related to increased organic carbon content, decreased sedimentation rate, organic matter type, or position in the basin. In areas where the stratigraphic equivalents of the Chattanooga Shale are deeply buried and and the organic material is thermally mature, metal contents are essentially the same as in unheated areas and correlate with organic C or S contents. This paradigm does not hold for the Cambrian Alum Shale Formation of Sweden where increased metal content does not necessarily correlate with organic matter content nor is metal enrichment necessarily related to land derived humic material because this organic matter is all of marine source. In southcentral Sweden the elements U, Mo, V, Ni, Zn, Cd and Pb are all enriched relative to average black shales but only U and Mo correlate to organic matter content. Tectonically disturbed and metamorphosed allochthonous samples of Alum Shale on the Caledonian front in western Sweden have even higher amounts for some metals (V, Ni, Zn and Ba) relative to the autochthonous shales in this area and those in southern Sweden. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag.

  15. Geologic analysis of Devonian Shale cores

    SciTech Connect

    1982-02-01

    Cleveland Cliffs Iron Company was awarded a DOE contract in December 1977 for field retrieval and laboratory analysis of cores from the Devonian shales of the following eleven states: Michigan, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, New York, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Maryland, Kentucky, Tennessee and Virginia. The purpose of this project is to explore these areas to determine the amount of natural gas being produced from the Devonian shales. The physical properties testing of the rock specimens were performed under subcontract at Michigan Technological University (MTU). The study also included LANDSAT information, geochemical research, structural sedimentary and tectonic data. Following the introduction, and background of the project this report covers the following: field retrieval procedures; laboratory procedures; geologic analysis (by state); references and appendices. (ATT)

  16. Oil shale health and environmental risk analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gratt, L.B.

    1983-04-01

    The potential human health and environmental risks of hypothetical one-million-barrels-per-day oil shale industry have been analyzed to serve as an aid in the formulation and management of a program of environmental research. The largest uncertainties for expected fatalities are in the public sector from air pollutants although the occupational sector is estimated to have 60% more expected fatalities than the public sector. Occupational safety and illness have been analyzed for the oil shale fuel cycle from extraction to delivery of products for end use. Pneumoconiosis from the dust environment is the worker disease resulting in the greatest number of fatalities, followed by chronic bronchitis, internal cancer, and skin cancers, respectively. Research recommendations are presented for reducing the uncertainties in the risks analyzed and to fill data gaps to estimate other risks.

  17. Energy trump for Morocco: the oil shales

    SciTech Connect

    Rosa, S.D.

    1981-10-01

    The mainstays of the economy in Morocco are still agriculture and phosphates; the latter represent 34% of world exports. Energy demand in 1985 will be probably 3 times that in 1975. Most of the oil, which covers 82% of its energy needs, must be imported. Other possible sources are the rich oil shale deposits and nuclear energy. Four nuclear plants with a total of 600 MW are projected, but shale oil still will play an important role. A contract for building a pilot plant has been met recently. The plant is to be located at Timahdit and cost $13 million, for which a loan from the World Bank has been requested. If successful in the pilot plant, the process will be used in full scale plants scheduled to produce 400,000 tons/yr of oil. Tosco also has a contract for a feasibility study.

  18. Modifying shale oil to improve flow characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Seitzer, W.H.; Lovell, P.F.

    1982-05-01

    Shale oil, which forms a viscous, wax slurry below 25 C, was treated in several different ways to try to improve its flow characteristics as measured in a concentric cylinder viscometer. Removing the wax does not greatly improve the pumpability of the oil. Hydrotreatment of the whole oil to take out nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen can lower the viscosity by a factor of five or more, even though the pour point is not greatly affected. Apparently hydrogenolysis of the nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen lowers the molecular weight of the oil without much modification of the paraffinic wax. The pour point of the shale oil can be decreased with various commercial pour improvers. Sometimes an accompanying drop in viscosity is observed, but most of this decrease is not stable to shear in the viscometer.

  19. Adsorption of xenon and krypton on shales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podosek, F. A.; Bernatowicz, T. J.; Kramer, F. E.

    1981-01-01

    A method that uses a mass spectrometer as a manometer is employed in the measurement of Xe and Kr adsorption parameters on shales and related samples, where gas partial pressures were lower than 10 to the -11th atm, corresponding adsorption coverages are only small fractions of a monolayer, and Henry's Law behavior is expected and observed. Results show heats of adsorption in the 2-7 kcal/mol range, and Henry constants at 0-25 C of 1 cu cm STP/g per atmosphere are extrapolated. Although the adsorption properties obtained are variable by sample, the range obtained suggests that shales may be capable of an equilibrium adsorption with modern air high enough to account for a significant fraction of the atmospheric inventory of Xe, and perhaps even of Kr. This effect will nevertheless not account for the factor-of-25 defficiency of atmospheric Xe, in comparison with the planetary gas patterns observed in meteorites.

  20. Environmental contamination due to shale gas development.

    PubMed

    Annevelink, M P J A; Meesters, J A J; Hendriks, A J

    2016-04-15

    Shale gas development potentially contaminates both air and water compartments. To assist in governmental decision-making on future explorations, we reviewed scattered information on activities, emissions and concentrations related to shale gas development. We compared concentrations from monitoring programmes to quality standards as a first indication of environmental risks. Emissions could not be estimated accurately because of incomparable and insufficient data. Air and water concentrations range widely. Poor wastewater treatment posed the highest risk with concentrations exceeding both Natural Background Values (NBVs) by a factor 1000-10,000 and Lowest Quality Standards (LQSs) by a factor 10-100. Concentrations of salts, metals, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hydrocarbons exceeded aquatic ecotoxicological water standards. Future research must focus on measuring aerial and aquatic emissions of toxic chemicals, generalisation of experimental setups and measurement technics and further human and ecological risk assessment. PMID:26845179

  1. Parachute Creek shale-oil program. [Brochure

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Union Oil Company has a plan for commercial shale-oil production at the Parachute Creek area of Colorado. This brochure describes the property and the company's concept for room and pillar mining and upflow retorting. Environmental precautions will preserve and restore vegetation on disturbed land and will safeguard local streams and underground basinx. Union will assist local communities to provide housing and services. 17 figures. (DCK)

  2. Plan for addressing issues relating to oil shale plant siting

    SciTech Connect

    Noridin, J. S.; Donovan, R.; Trudell, L.; Dean, J.; Blevins, A.; Harrington, L. W.; James, R.; Berdan, G.

    1987-09-01

    The Western Research Institute plan for addressing oil shale plant siting methodology calls for identifying the available resources such as oil shale, water, topography and transportation, and human resources. Restrictions on development are addressed: land ownership, land use, water rights, environment, socioeconomics, culture, health and safety, and other institutional restrictions. Descriptions of the technologies for development of oil shale resources are included. The impacts of oil shale development on the environment, socioeconomic structure, water availability, and other conditions are discussed. Finally, the Western Research Institute plan proposes to integrate these topics to develop a flow chart for oil shale plant siting. Western Research Institute has (1) identified relative topics for shale oil plant siting, (2) surveyed both published and unpublished information, and (3) identified data gaps and research needs. 910 refs., 3 figs., 30 tabs.

  3. Oil shale loss from a laboratory fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.W.; Beavers, P.L. )

    1989-01-01

    The rate of loss of dust from a laboratory-scale fluidized bed of Greenriver oil shale has been measured. The rate of loss of dust form raw shale in the bed was approximately 1%/min for the first few minutes and then decreased. The loss rate for retorted or burnt shale was 5 to 10 times higher. The rates for retorted and burned shale were nearly the same. The time required for a 10 wt% loss of mass was approximately 3 min for processed shale and 1 hour for raw shale. Particles left in the bed during fluidization lost sharp corners, but kept the original elongation. Dust lost by the bed has a very wide range of sizes and demonstrated a strong bimodal distribution of sizes. The bimodal distribution of particles is interpreted as resulting from two mechanisms of dust generation; fracture and wear.

  4. Geological implications and controls on the determination of water saturation in shale gas reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartigan, David; Lovell, Mike; Davies, Sarah

    2014-05-01

    A significant challenge to the petrophysical evaluation of shale gas systems can be attributed to the conductivity behaviour of clay minerals and entrained clay bound waters. This is compounded by centimetre to sub-millimetre vertical and lateral heterogeneity in formation composition and structure. Where despite significant variation in formation geological and therefore petrophysical properties, we routinely rely on conventional resistivity methods for the determination of water saturation (Sw), and hence the free gas saturation (Sg) in gas bearing mudstones. The application of resistivity based methods is the subject of continuing debate, and there is often significant uncertainty in both how they are applied and the saturation estimates they produce. This is partly a consequence of the view that "the quantification of the behaviour of shale conductivity....has only limited geological significance" (Rider 1986). As a result, there is a separation between our geological understanding of shale gas systems and the petrophysical rational and methods employed to evaluate them. In response to this uncertainty, many petrophysicists are moving away from the use of more complex 'shaly-sand' based evaluation techniques and returning to traditional Archie methods for answers. The Archie equation requires various parameter inputs such as porosity and saturation exponents (m and n), as well as values for connate fluid resistivity (Rw). Many of these parameters are difficult to determine in shale gas systems, where obtaining a water sample, or carrying out laboratory experiments on recovered core is often technically impractical. Here we assess the geological implications and controls on variations in pseudo Archie parameters across two geological formations, using well data spanning multiple basinal settings for a prominent shale gas play in the northern Gulf of Mexico basin. The results, of numerical analysis and systematic modification of parameter values to minimise the

  5. Tensile strengths of problem shales and clays. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Rechner, F.J.

    1990-01-01

    The greatest single expense faced by oil companies involved in the exploration for crude oil is that of drilling wells. The most abundant rock drilled is shale. Some of these shales cause wellbore stability problems during the drilling process. These can range from slow rate of penetration and high torque up to stuck pipe and hole abandonment. The mechanical integrity of the shale must be known when the shalers are subjected to drilling fluids to develop an effective drilling plan.

  6. GRS/industry eastern gas shale data base

    SciTech Connect

    Zielinski, R.E.; Sharer, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    The Gas Resource Information System (GRIS) is a computerized data base that contains historical data on eastern gas shale wells. It contains all those elements which industry feels are important for the evaluation of drilling, completion, stimulation and production techniques for eastern gas shale wells. While GRI will be researching the data on the base to optimize production from the eastern gas shales, it will make GRIS available to industry as a mutually beneficial tool.

  7. Shale gas characteristics of the Lower Toarcian Posidonia Shale in Germany: from basin to nanometre scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Hans-Martin; Bernard, Sylvain; Horsfield, Brian; Krüger, Martin; Littke, Ralf; di primio, Rolando

    2013-04-01

    The Early Toarcian Posidonia Shale is a proven hydrocarbon source rock which was deposited in a shallow epicontinental basin. In southern Germany, Tethyan warm-water influences from the south led to carbonate sedimentation, whereas cold-water influxes from the north controlled siliciclastic sedimentation in the northwestern parts of Germany and the Netherlands. Restricted sea-floor circulation and organic matter preservation are considered to be the consequence of an oceanic anoxic event. In contrast, non-marine conditions led to sedimentation of coarser grained sediments under progressively terrestrial conditions in northeastern Germany The present-day distribution of Posidonia Shale in northern Germany is restricted to the centres of rift basins that formed in the Late Jurassic (e.g., Lower Saxony Basin and Dogger Troughs like the West and East Holstein Troughs) as a result of erosion on the basin margins and bounding highs. The source rock characteristics are in part dependent on grain size as the Posidonia Shale in eastern Germany is referred to as a mixed to non-source rock facies. In the study area, the TOC content and the organic matter quality vary vertically and laterally, likely as a consequence of a rising sea level during the Toarcian. Here we present and compare data of whole Posidonia Shale sections, investigating these variations and highlighting the variability of Posidonia Shale depositional system. During all phases of burial, gas was generated in the Posidonia Shale. Low sedimentation rates led to diffusion of early diagenetically formed biogenic methane. Isochronously formed diagenetic carbonates tightened the matrix and increased brittleness. Thermogenic gas generation occurred in wide areas of Lower Saxony as well as in Schleswig Holstein. Biogenic methane gas can still be formed today in Posidonia Shale at shallow depth in areas which were covered by Pleistocene glaciers. Submicrometric interparticle pores predominate in immature samples. At

  8. Fugitive emissions from the Bakken shale illustrate role of shale production in global ethane shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kort, E. A.; Smith, M. L.; Murray, L. T.; Gvakharia, A.; Brandt, A. R.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Sweeney, C.; Travis, K.

    2016-05-01

    Ethane is the second most abundant atmospheric hydrocarbon, exerts a strong influence on tropospheric ozone, and reduces the atmosphere's oxidative capacity. Global observations showed declining ethane abundances from 1984 to 2010, while a regional measurement indicated increasing levels since 2009, with the reason for this subject to speculation. The Bakken shale is an oil and gas-producing formation centered in North Dakota that experienced a rapid increase in production beginning in 2010. We use airborne data collected over the North Dakota portion of the Bakken shale in 2014 to calculate ethane emissions of 0.23 ± 0.07 (2σ) Tg/yr, equivalent to 1-3% of total global sources. Emissions of this magnitude impact air quality via concurrent increases in tropospheric ozone. This recently developed large ethane source from one location illustrates the key role of shale oil and gas production in rising global ethane levels.

  9. Spatial heterogeneity of uranium isotope variations in a Phanerozoic, epicontintental black shale (Hushpuckney Shale, Swope Formation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, A. D.; Gordon, G. W.; Romaniello, S. J.; Algeo, T. J.; Anbar, A. D.

    2012-12-01

    It has recently been shown that substantial variations in the 238U/235U ratio exist in nature. The isotopic composition of seawater is ultimately driven by the relative sizes and isotopic signatures of the major sources and sinks. Rivers are the major sources of uranium to the ocean, and reducing sediments (mainly anoxic and suboxic sediments) are the major sinks. Under reducing conditions heavy uranium isotopes are sequestered preferentially. Because of the long residence time of uranium in the global ocean, and the relatively large fractionation during removal of uranium under reducing conditions, it has been suggested that the isotope composition of seawater might reflect changes in the redox state of the ocean and that such changes might be mirrored in black shales. Here we present uranium isotope variations of a Pennsylvanian black shale (Hushpuckney Shale; Swope Formation) from two cores from the same depositional basin (Late Paleozoic Midcontinent Sea; LPMS) to test whether global marine redox conditions can be determined from a single section in epicontinental settings. If uranium isotopes in epicontinental black shales can be used to quantify changes in redox changes of the global ocean, then contemporaneous black shales sections should have the same isotope trends and magnitudes. The Hushpuckney shale is one of several cyclothem core intervals that were deposited over large areas (tens of thousands of square kilometers) on continental crust during early transgression in response to the deglaciation of large icesheets in the southern hemisphere. The two cores investigated for this study represent a transect through the LPMS from close to the open ocean (SE Kansas) towards the shoreline (Iowa). The Hushpuckney shale can be easily identified and correlated in these two cores. Thus, it offers an excellent opportunity to test whether the uranium isotopic composition is similar across the basin and how much local redox conditions can play a role in faithfully

  10. Fugitive Emissions from the Bakken Shale Illustrate Role of Shale Production in Global Ethane Shift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kort, E. A.; Smith, M. L.; Murray, L. T.; Gvakharia, A.; Brandt, A. R.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Sweeney, C.; Travis, K.

    2016-01-01

    Ethane is the second most abundant atmospheric hydrocarbon, exerts a strong influence on tropospheric ozone, and reduces the atmosphere's oxidative capacity. Global observations showed declining ethane abundances from 1984 to 2010, while a regional measurement indicated increasing levels since 2009, with the reason for this subject to speculation. The Bakken shale is an oil and gas-producing formation centered in North Dakota that experienced a rapid increase in production beginning in 2010. We use airborne data collected over the North Dakota portion of the Bakken shale in 2014 to calculate ethane emissions of 0.23 +/- 0.07 (2 sigma) Tg/yr, equivalent to 1-3% of total global sources. Emissions of this magnitude impact air quality via concurrent increases in tropospheric ozone. This recently developed large ethane source from one location illustrates the key role of shale oil and gas production in rising global ethane levels.

  11. Beyond the mammography debate: a moderate perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kaniklidis, C

    2015-01-01

    After some decades of contention, one can almost despair and conclude that (paraphrasing) “the mammography debate you will have with you always.” Against that sentiment, in this review I argue, after reflecting on some of the major themes of this long-standing debate, that we must begin to move beyond the narrow borders of claim and counterclaim to seek consensus on what the balance of methodologically sound and critically appraised evidence demonstrates, and also to find overlooked underlying convergences; after acknowledging the reality of some residual and non-trivial harms from mammography, to promote effective strategies for harm mitigation; and to encourage deployment of new screening modalities that will render many of the issues and concerns in the debate obsolete. To these ends, I provide a sketch of what this looking forward and beyond the current debate might look like, leveraging advantages from abbreviated breast magnetic resonance imaging technologies (such as the ultrafast and twist protocols) and from digital breast tomosynthesis—also known as three-dimensional mammography. I also locate the debate within the broader context of mammography in the real world as it plays out not for the disputants, but for the stakeholders themselves: the screening-eligible patients and the physicians in the front lines who are charged with enabling both the acts of screening and the facts of screening at their maximally objective and patient-accessible levels to facilitate informed decisions. PMID:26089721

  12. Beyond the mammography debate: a moderate perspective.

    PubMed

    Kaniklidis, C

    2015-06-01

    After some decades of contention, one can almost despair and conclude that (paraphrasing) "the mammography debate you will have with you always." Against that sentiment, in this review I argue, after reflecting on some of the major themes of this long-standing debate, that we must begin to move beyond the narrow borders of claim and counterclaim to seek consensus on what the balance of methodologically sound and critically appraised evidence demonstrates, and also to find overlooked underlying convergences; after acknowledging the reality of some residual and non-trivial harms from mammography, to promote effective strategies for harm mitigation; and to encourage deployment of new screening modalities that will render many of the issues and concerns in the debate obsolete. To these ends, I provide a sketch of what this looking forward and beyond the current debate might look like, leveraging advantages from abbreviated breast magnetic resonance imaging technologies (such as the ultrafast and twist protocols) and from digital breast tomosynthesis-also known as three-dimensional mammography. I also locate the debate within the broader context of mammography in the real world as it plays out not for the disputants, but for the stakeholders themselves: the screening-eligible patients and the physicians in the front lines who are charged with enabling both the acts of screening and the facts of screening at their maximally objective and patient-accessible levels to facilitate informed decisions. PMID:26089721

  13. In-situ laser retorting of oil shale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomfield, H. S. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    Oil shale formations are retorted in situ and gaseous hydrocarbon products are recovered by drilling two or more wells into an oil shale formation underneath the surface of the ground. A high energy laser beam is directed into the well and fractures the region of the shale formation. A compressed gas is forced into the well that supports combustion in the flame front ignited by the laser beam, thereby retorting the oil shale. Gaseous hydrocarbon products which permeate through the fractured region are recovered from one of the wells that were not exposed to the laser system.

  14. Marine Shale reaches agreement with US Department of Justice

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    Marine Shale Processors, Inc., and the U.S. Department of Justice on July 24 reached an accord that ended a three-year investigation into allegations by Marine Shale competitors of corporate wrongdoing. Under the agreement, Marine Shale agreed to one violation of each of three statutes: the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Refuse Act of 1899, and the Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899, and the Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899. To bring the three years of uncertainty to an end, Marine Shale also agreed to pay a fine of $1 million. Since 1985 Marine Shale has operated a facility in Amelia, Louisiana, that recycles materials that would otherwise be disposed of as hazardous wastes into an inert aggregate material used in road building and other construction applications. The government's only allegations were (1) that Marine Shale stored soil containing creosole on a concrete pad at its recycling facility without a federal permit (Marine Shale has halted use of this storage facility and all of the soils were subsequently removed and recycled at the plant); (2) that Marine Shale created an obstacle to navigation by the placement of a barge in a river; and (3) that Marine Shale had allowed finished product and process area water to wash into the river during rainstorms. These practices or conditions have been discontinued or corrected.

  15. Eastern Devonian shales: Organic geochemical studies, past and present

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breger, I.A.; Hatcher, P.G.; Romankiw, L.A.; Miknis, F.P.

    1983-01-01

    The Eastern Devonian shales are represented by a sequence of sediments extending from New York state, south to the northern regions of Georgia and Alabama, and west into Ohio and to the Michigan and Ilinois Basins. Correlatives are known in Texas. The shale is regionally known by a number of names: Chattanooga, Dunkirk, Rhinestreet, Huron, Antrim, Ohio, Woodford, etc. These shales, other than those in Texas, have elicited much interest because they have been a source of unassociated natural gas. It is of particular interest, however, that most of these shales have no associated crude oil, in spite of the fact that they have some of the characteristics normally attributed to source beds. This paper addresses some of the organic geochemical aspects of the kerogen in these shales, in relation to their oil generating potential. Past organic geochemical studies on Eastern Devonian shales will be reviewed. Recent solid state 13C NMR studies on the nature of the organic matter in Eastern Devonian shales show that Eastern Devonian shales contain a larger fraction of aromatic carbon in their chemical composition. Thus, despite their high organic matter contents, their potential as a petroleum source rock is low, because the kerogen in these shales is of a "coaly" nature and hence more prone to producing natural gas.

  16. INVESTIGATIONS ON HYDRAULIC CEMENTS FROM SPENT OIL SHALE

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, P.K.; Persoff, P.

    1980-04-01

    A process for making hydraulic cements from spent oil shale is described in this paper. Inexpensive cement is needed to grout abandoned in-situ retorts of spent shale for subsidence control, mitigation of leaching, and strengthening the retorted mass in order to recover oil from adjacent pillars of raw shale. A hydraulic cement was produced by heating a 1:1 mixture of Lurgi spent shale and CaCO{sub 3} at 1000 C for one hour. This cement would be less expensive than ordinary portland cement and is expected to fulfill the above requirements.

  17. Attrition and abrasion models for oil shale process modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Aldis, D.F.

    1991-10-25

    As oil shale is processed, fine particles, much smaller than the original shale are created. This process is called attrition or more accurately abrasion. In this paper, models of abrasion are presented for oil shale being processed in several unit operations. Two of these unit operations, a fluidized bed and a lift pipe are used in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Hot-Recycle-Solid (HRS) process being developed for the above ground processing of oil shale. In two reports, studies were conducted on the attrition of oil shale in unit operations which are used in the HRS process. Carley reported results for attrition in a lift pipe for oil shale which had been pre-processed either by retorting or by retorting then burning. The second paper, by Taylor and Beavers, reported results for a fluidized bed processing of oil shale. Taylor and Beavers studied raw, retorted, and shale which had been retorted and then burned. In this paper, empirical models are derived, from the experimental studies conducted on oil shale for the process occurring in the HRS process. The derived models are presented along with comparisons with experimental results.

  18. Water Resources Management for Shale Energy Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoxtheimer, D.

    2015-12-01

    The increase in the exploration and extraction of hydrocarbons, especially natural gas, from shale formations has been facilitated by advents in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technologies. Shale energy resources are very promising as an abundant energy source, though environmental challenges exist with their development, including potential adverse impacts to water quality. The well drilling and construction process itself has the potential to impact groundwater quality, however if proper protocols are followed and well integrity is established then impacts such as methane migration or drilling fluids releases can be minimized. Once a shale well has been drilled and hydraulically fractured, approximately 10-50% of the volume of injected fluids (flowback fluids) may flow out of the well initially with continued generation of fluids (produced fluids) throughout the well's productive life. Produced fluid TDS concentrations often exceed 200,000 mg/L, with elevated levels of strontium (Sr), bromide (Br), sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), barium (Ba), chloride (Cl), radionuclides originating from the shale formation as well as fracturing additives. Storing, managing and properly disposisng of these fluids is critical to ensure water resources are not impacted by unintended releases. The most recent data in Pennsylvania suggests an estimated 85% of the produced fluids were being recycled for hydraulic fracturing operations, while many other states reuse less than 50% of these fluids and rely moreso on underground injection wells for disposal. Over the last few years there has been a shift to reuse more produced fluids during well fracturing operations in shale plays around the U.S., which has a combination of economic, regulatory, environmental, and technological drivers. The reuse of water is cost-competitive with sourcing of fresh water and disposal of flowback, especially when considering the costs of advanced treatment to or disposal well injection and lessens

  19. The Karoo fracking debate: a christian contribution to the world communities of faith.

    PubMed

    Tucker, A Roger; van Tonder, Gerrit

    2015-06-01

    The fracking debate is a product of the tension between the environmental degradation it may cause, on the one hand, and on the other the greater energy demands of a rapidly increasing South African population with expectations of an ever-increasing standard of living. Shale gas fracking in the Karoo of South Africa promises to make vast reserves of oil and gas available to help meet a significant percentage of the country's energy needs for many years to come. This will aid development and contribute to raising the standard of living of many. This article seeks to apprise the South African faith communities of the technology and risks involved. Christian theological guidelines are presented by which its benefits and dangers may be interrogated so that the community may be able come to an informed decision as to whether or not to support fracking. PMID:24935244

  20. Population genetics in the forensic DNA debate.

    PubMed Central

    Weir, B S

    1992-01-01

    The use of matching variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) profiles to link suspects with crimes is potentially very powerful, but it has been quite controversial. Initial debate over laboratory procedures has largely given way to debate over the statistical and population genetic issues involved in calculating the frequency of a profile for a random member of a population. This frequency is used to weight the evidence of a match between suspect and crime scene material when the suspect denies responsibility for that material. A recent report from the National Research Council, intended to put to rest some of the issues, has instead raised further debate by advocating a procedure based on maximum frequencies of profile components over several different populations. PMID:1465380

  1. A Novice and Novel Approach to Encouraging Participation in Debate, the Novice Debate Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Mike

    The Novice Debate Association (NDA) is an organization that is building unity, respecting diversity, and giving students and institutions alike a chance to participate in debate activity. The NDA began in 1987 as a strictly novice tournament. By 1993, the association had enlarged to 24 colleges and universities. The format of the NDA is designed…

  2. Issue ads and the health reform debate.

    PubMed

    Bergan, Daniel; Risner, Genevieve

    2012-06-01

    The public debate over health care reform in 2009 was carried out partly through issue advertisements aired online and on television. Did these advertisements alter the course of the debate over health care reform? While millions of dollars are spent each year on issue ads, little is known about their effects. Results from a naturalistic online experiment on the effects of issue ads suggest that they can influence the perceived importance of an issue and perceptions of politicians associated with the featured policy while influencing policy support only among those low in political awareness. PMID:22323237

  3. Organoporosity Evaluation of Shale: A Case Study of the Lower Silurian Longmaxi Shale in Southeast Chongqing, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fangwen; Lu, Shuangfang; Ding, Xue

    2014-01-01

    The organopores play an important role in determining total volume of hydrocarbons in shale gas reservoir. The Lower Silurian Longmaxi Shale in southeast Chongqing was selected as a case to confirm the contribution of organopores (microscale and nanoscale pores within organic matters in shale) formed by hydrocarbon generation to total volume of hydrocarbons in shale gas reservoir. Using the material balance principle combined with chemical kinetics methods, an evaluation model of organoporosity for shale gas reservoirs was established. The results indicate that there are four important model parameters to consider when evaluating organoporosity in shale: the original organic carbon (w(TOC0)), the original hydrogen index (IH0), the transformation ratio of generated hydrocarbon (F(Ro)), and the organopore correction coefficient (C). The organoporosity of the Lower Silurian Longmaxi Shale in the Py1 well is from 0.20 to 2.76%, and the average value is 1.25%. The organoporosity variation trends and the residual organic carbon of Longmaxi Shale are consistent in section. The residual organic carbon is indicative of the relative levels of organoporosity, while the samples are in the same shale reservoirs with similar buried depths. PMID:25184155

  4. Trace elements in oil shale. Progress report, 1979-1980

    SciTech Connect

    Chappell, W R

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this research program is to understand the potential impact of an oil shale industry on environmental levels of trace contaminants in the region. The program involves a comprehensive study of the sources, release mechanisms, transport, fate, and effects of toxic trace chemicals, principally the trace elements, in an oil shale industry. The overall objective of the program is to evaluate the environmental and health consequences of the release of toxic trace elements by shale and oil production and use. The baseline geochemical survey shows that stable trace elements maps can be constructed for numerous elements and that the trends observed are related to geologic and climatic factors. Shale retorted by above-ground processes tends to be very homogeneous (both in space and in time) in trace element content. Leachate studies show that significant amounts of B, F, and Mo are released from retorted shales and while B and Mo are rapidly flushed out, F is not. On the other hand, As, Se, and most other trace elements are not present in significant quantities. Significant amounts of F and B are also found in leachates of raw shales. Very large concentrations of reduced sulfur species are found in leachates of processed shale. Very high levels of B and Mo are taken up in some plants growing on processed shale with and without soil cover. There is a tendency for some trace elements to associate with specific organic fractions, indicating that organic chelation or complexation may play an important role. Many of the so-called standard methods for analyzing trace elements in oil shale-related materials are inadequate. A sampling manual is being written for the environmental scientist and practicing engineer. A new combination of methods is developed for separating the minerals in oil shale into different density fractions. Microbial investigations have tentatively identified the existence of thiobacilli in oil shale materials such as leachates. (DC)

  5. Fossil fuel energy resources of Ethiopia: Oil shale deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolela, Ahmed

    2006-10-01

    The energy crisis affects all countries in the world. Considering the price scenarios, many countries in Africa have begun to explore various energy resources. Ethiopia is one of the countries that depend upon imported petroleum products. To overcome this problem, geological studies suggest a significant occurrence of oil shale deposits in Ethiopia. The Inter-Trappean oil shale-bearing sediments are widely distributed on the South-Western Plateau of Ethiopia in the Delbi-Moye, Lalo-Sapo, Sola, Gojeb-Chida and Yayu Basins. The oil shale-bearing sediments were deposited in fluviatile and lacustrine environments. The oil shales contain mixtures of algal, herbaceous and higher plant taxa. They are dominated by algal-derived liptinite with minor amounts of vitrinite and inertinite. The algal remains belong to Botryococcus and Pediastrum. Laboratory results confirm that the Ethiopian oil shales are dominated by long-chain aliphatic hydrocarbons and have a low sulphur content. Type-II and Type-I kerogen dominated the studied oil shales. Type-II and Type-I are good source rocks for oil and gas generation. Hydrogen index versus Tmax value plots indicated that most of the oil shale samples fall within the immature-early mature stage for hydrocarbon generation, consistent with the Ro values that range from 0.3% to 0.64%. Pyrolysis data of the oil shales sensu stricto indicate excellent source rocks with up to 61.2% TOC values. Calorific value ranges from 400 to 6165 cal/g. Palynological studies confirmed that the oil shale-bearing sediments of Ethiopia range from Eocene to Miocene in age. A total of about 253,000,000 ton of oil shale is registered in the country. Oil shale deposits in Ethiopia can be used for production of oil and gas.

  6. The relationship between methane migration and shale-gas well operations near Dimock, Pennsylvania, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, Patrick A.

    2016-03-01

    Migration of stray methane gas near the town of Dimock, Pennsylvania, has been at the center of the debate on the safety of shale gas drilling and hydraulic fracturing in the United States. The presented study relates temporal variations in molecular concentrations and stable isotope compositions of methane and ethane to shale-gas well activity (i.e., vertical/horizontal drilling, hydraulic fracturing and remedial actions). This was accomplished by analyzing data collected, between 2008 and 2012, by state and federal agencies and the gas well operator. In some cases, methane migration started prior to hydraulic fracturing. Methane levels of contaminated water wells sampled were one to several orders of magnitude greater than the concentrations due to natural variation in water wells of the local area. Isotope analyses indicate that all samples had a thermogenic origin at varying maturity levels, but from formations above the hydraulically fractured Marcellus Shale. The results from the initial water well samples were similar to annular gas values, but not those of production gases. This indicates that leakage by casing cement seals most likely caused the impacts, not breaks in the production casing walls. Remediation by squeeze cementing was partially effective in mitigating impacts of gas migration. In several cases where remediation caused a substantial reduction in methane levels, there were also substantial changes in the isotope values, providing evidence of two sources, one natural and the other man-induced. Sampling water wells while venting gas wells appears to be a cost-effective method for determining if methane migration has occurred.

  7. CONTROL OF SULFUR EMISSIONS FROM OIL SHALE RETORTING USING SPENT SHALE ABSORPTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes an investigation of the environmental advantages/disadvantages of absorbing SO2 onto combusted retorted oil shale. The objective of the program was to obtain more information in support of Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) permitting decisions on ...

  8. Debating Diversity: Ethics and Controversial Public Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darr, Christopher R.

    2016-01-01

    Courses: Ethics, Organizational Communication, Political Communication. Objectives: After completing this unit activity, students should be able to (1) apply multiple ethical perspectives to real-world diversity issues in a debate format, and (2) explain the role of informational and social category diversity in current controversies.

  9. The Net Neutrality Debate: The Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, Rich

    2006-01-01

    Rich Greenfield examines the basics of today's net neutrality debate that is likely to be an ongoing issue for society. Greenfield states the problems inherent in the definition of "net neutrality" used by Common Cause: "Network neutrality is the principle that Internet users should be able to access any web content they choose and use any…

  10. Teaching Group Work with "The Great Debaters"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moe, Jeffry; Autry, Linda; Olson, Joann S.; Johnson, Kaprea F.

    2014-01-01

    An experiential learning activity, based on the film "The Great Debaters" (Washington, D., 2007), was used during a group work class. Description and preliminary evaluation of the activity is provided, including analysis of participant scores on the group leader self-efficacy instrument at multiple points. Implications and future…

  11. Personal and Academic Writing: Revisiting the Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mlynarczyk, Rebecca Williams

    2006-01-01

    More than ten years have passed since the widely publicized debate about personal and academic writing that played out in the 1990s between Peter Elbow and David Bartholomae. But the question of the relative merits of these two different types of writing for student writers continues to be an issue of concern for teachers of composition,…

  12. Evolution: Don't Debate, Educate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Rodger W.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses controversy over the teaching of biological evolution and other scientific ideas such as Big Bang theory. Recommends that teachers avoid debating creationists, help students develop a greater understanding and appreciation for science as a way of explaining the natural world, and emphasize inquiry and the nature of science. (Contains 19…

  13. The open-access debate continues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, Anthony; Tanner, Peter; Adams, Robert

    2012-09-01

    As the managing editor of a firm that polishes the writing of researchers (especially those whose first language is not English) before they submit papers to learned journals, I have taken a keen interest in the debate about open-access publishing.

  14. Bioethics and the Stem Cell Research Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Robyn S.

    2006-01-01

    Bioethics--the study of ethical issues in science and medicine--has grown to become a significant academic and service-oriented discipline with its own research centers, conferences, journals, and degree programs. As these issues have moved to the center of public debate, the law has assumed an increasingly important place in the discipline of…

  15. Classicists versus Experimentalists: Reexamining the Great Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Tony W.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses an educational controversy between classicists and experimentalists over the educational needs of a democracy. Begins in the 1930s with the Robert Hutchins-John Dewey debate. Compares the educational ideas of Alexander Mieklejohn, the most progressive classicist, to those of Dewey, the undisputed leader of the experimentalists. (AYC)

  16. "Scientific" Label in Law Stirs Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra

    2007-01-01

    This article reports that a quiet debate is unfolding over proposals to tinker with No Child Left Behind Act's (NCLB) definition of what constitutes "scientifically based research" in education while other ideas for revamping it are taking center stage. Sprinkled through the federal education statute more than 100 times, the references to…

  17. Reclaiming the Moral in the Dispositions Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burant, Terry J.; Chubbuck, Sharon M.; Whipp, Joan L.

    2007-01-01

    This article addresses the current debates about the definition and assessment of dispositions in teacher education. Competing perspectives on the definitions and assessment of dispositions in teacher education are examined and critiqued, and a renewed commitment to foregrounding the moral nature of teaching is suggested. Recommendations for…

  18. Debate, Research on E-Cigarettes Continues

    Cancer.gov

    Since they first began to be sold in North America in the mid-2000s, electronic cigarettes have been the subject of intense debate. NCI's Dr. Michele Bloch recently presented an update on some of the issues surrounding e-cigarettes.

  19. Central Perspectives and Debates in Organization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astley, W. Graham; Van de Ven, Andrew H.

    1983-01-01

    Classifies organizational theories, by analytical level and assumptions about human nature, into four perspectives (system-structural, strategic choice, natural selection, collective action), each with different concepts of organizational structure, behavior, change, and managerial roles. Identifies six debates generated among the perspectives and…

  20. State Legislatures Debate Tuition for Illegal Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Josh

    2007-01-01

    With plans for a sweeping federal immigration bill stuck in Congress, Arizona and a growing number of states have decided to try to deal with the in-state-tuition issue themselves. This spring lawmakers in at least 22 states have already considered or are debating legislation concerning in-state tuition to illegal immigrants. In about half of…

  1. Making Sense of the MOOCs Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharrock, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    This article considers recent public debates about massive open online courses (MOOCs) and their potential to transform higher education. Drawing on reports and media commentary, it probes the claims and counterclaims of MOOC proponents and MOOC sceptics. It considers the implications for students, governments, institutions and scholars…

  2. The Great Graduation-Rate Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Christine O.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to promote clearer understanding of the graduation-rate debate by distilling the policy developments and controversy surrounding the measurement of these rates over the last decade. The paper concludes with a discussion of the move toward a federally mandated common metric for graduation rates. The No Child Left Behind…

  3. Beyond the Virtues-Principles Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keat, Marilyn S.

    1992-01-01

    Indicates basic ontological assumptions in the virtues-principles debate in moral philosophy, noting Aristotle's and Kant's fundamental ideas about morality and considering a hermeneutic synthesis of theories. The article discusses what acceptance of the synthesis might mean in the theory and practice of moral pedagogy, offering examples of…

  4. Using Role Play to Debate Animal Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agell, Laia; Soria, Vanessa; Carrió, Mar

    2015-01-01

    The use of animals in biomedical research is a socio-scientific issue in which decision-making is complicated. In this article, we describe an experience involving a role play activity performed during school visits to the Barcelona Biomedical Research Park (PRBB) to debate animal testing. Role playing games require students to defend different…

  5. Voices on Choice: The Education Reform Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billingsley, K. L., Ed.

    This collection presents a sampling of opinions of both proponents and opponents in the school choice debate from a variety of professional perspectives, including academics, bureaucrats, politicians, union leaders, economists, lawyers, parents, and activists. The following essays are included: (1) "School Choice Promotes Educational Excellence in…

  6. Debate: Should Abortion Be Available on Request?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Bernard; Lawrence, George

    1971-01-01

    Two physicians debate whether abortions should be available on request regardless of medical indications. The crux of the issue is whether the fetus should be considered body tissue over which the woman has complete control or whether society has an interest in the embryo and should protect it. (Author/BY)

  7. Getting Over the Quantitative-Qualitative Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Kenneth R.

    1992-01-01

    Describes the evolution of the qualitative-quantitative debate, and suggests that educational researchers learn to live with the necessary tensions resulting from accepting elements of each approach. The proposed critical educational research model is illustrated through examples that go beyond a positivist-interpretivist split. (SLD)

  8. Multiple "Curriculum" Meanings Heighten Debate over Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Calls for shared curricula for the common standards have triggered renewed debates about who decides what students learn, and even about varied meanings of the word "curriculum," adding layers of complexity to the job of translating the broad learning goals into classroom teaching. The most recent calls for common curricula came from the American…

  9. Contemporary Debates in Childhood Education and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suggate, Sebastian, Ed.; Reese, Elaine, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Contemporary Debates in Childhood Education and Development" is a unique resource and reference work that brings together leading international researchers and thinkers, with divergent points of view, to discuss contemporary problems and questions in childhood education and developmental psychology. Through an innovative format whereby leading…

  10. Gun Control: The Debate and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Christine

    1997-01-01

    Provides an overview and background information on the debate over gun control, as well as several teaching ideas. Handouts include a list of related topics drawn from various disciplines (economics, U.S. history), seven arguments for and against gun control, and a set of policy evaluation guidelines. (MJP)

  11. The Grade Retention/Social Promotion Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindelow, John

    1985-01-01

    This publication focuses on the retention/promotion debate regarding failing and low-achieving students. An introductory essay describes the inherent limitation in the research done on this issue--the impossibility of obtaining an appropriate control group--and suggests that the retention/promotion quandary can best be resolved by accommodating…

  12. United States: Exploring the Marriage Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Julie H.

    2004-01-01

    As citizens of the United States respond to legislative and judicial actions that have challenged the prohibition against same-sex couples receiving marriage licenses, schools have a timely opportunity to engage students on this most important debate. Educators can help their students understand the full significance of this issue by encouraging…

  13. Philosophizing about Debate and Individual Events Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dittus, James K.; Davies, Miriam R.

    A joint forensics program including both debate and individual events offers important benefits to students and coaches in training. A complete forensics experience provides what some would consider a true liberal arts education. When exposed to all events, students learn a variety of argumentative styles and develop a variety of universal skills…

  14. White Paper on Televised Political Campaign Debates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argumentation and Advocacy, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Surveys existing research on televised campaign debates; indicates areas for future research; considers the resources needed to expand and improve current research efforts; and encourages more systematic and sustained inquiry. Notes two compelling needs in terms of resources: an archive containing comprehensive records of media coverage of the…

  15. Nutritional development and the target weight debate.

    PubMed

    Hall, John B

    2013-11-01

    Postnatal nutrition has immediate and long-lasting effects on beef heifer reproductive efficiency, longevity, and productivity. This article reviews the effects of nutrients and nutritional management on reproduction in developing heifers. In addition, the current debate on the preferred target weight for heifers at breeding is discussed. PMID:24182433

  16. Modularity in Cognition: Framing the Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, H. Clark; Kurzban, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Modularity has been the subject of intense debate in the cognitive sciences for more than 2 decades. In some cases, misunderstandings have impeded conceptual progress. Here the authors identify arguments about modularity that either have been abandoned or were never held by proponents of modular views of the mind. The authors review arguments that…

  17. Twitter Gets Favorited in the Education Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supovitz, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    The author describes how the interactive study of social media's effect on the Common Core debate was designed and executed. Important findings from the study were: 1) We live in an increasingly interconnected social world. 2) Media has evolved over the last half century from a passive system dominated by a few central opinion makers to the…

  18. Applications of Computer Technology in Intercollegiate Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Jack, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Focusing on how computers can and should be used in intercollegiate forensics, this journal issue offers the perspectives of a number of forensics instructors. The lead article, "Applications of Computer Technology in Intercollegiate Debate" by Theodore F. Sheckels, Jr., discusses five areas in which forensics educators might use computer…

  19. Three Questions for the Multiculturalism Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarbrough, Larry

    1992-01-01

    The debate over political correctness and cultural diversity in U.S. higher education is examined, and three basic questions are raised: who is to be taught?, what is to be taught?, and who will teach it?. Higher education's contribution to social change is seen to be its ability to discuss issues with openness, candor, and reason. (DB)

  20. Debates over School Shutdowns Heating Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zubrzycki, Jaclyn

    2012-01-01

    As school closures are increasingly used as a remedy to budget woes and a solution to failing schools in many cities, debates are intensifying about their effect on student performance and well-being, on district finances, and on communities and the processes districts use to choose which schools will be shuttered. Student and parent groups in…

  1. Knowledge of the Debate Critic-Judge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Neil

    Arguing that any discussion of debate theory is incomplete without at least some analysis or review of paradigm theory, this paper begins by analogizing the arguments over paradigms to a battle ground over control of the activity. The analysis then shifts to an examination of Thomas Kuhn's sociological theory as a basis for the argument that the…

  2. Meningitis Deaths Renew Debate About Vaccinating Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reisberg, Leo

    1999-01-01

    The annual incidence of meningococcal disease among 15- to 25-year olds has doubled since 1991, to over 600 cases, and recent studies indicate outbreaks may be increasing on college campuses. Six of the 83 cases appearing at academic institutions have been fatal. The trend has fueled the debate over whether a vaccine should be administered…

  3. Anonymity in Classroom Voting and Debating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsworth, Shaaron; Gelmini-Hornsby, Giulia; Threapleton, Kate; Crook, Charles; O'Malley, Claire; Buda, Marie

    2011-01-01

    The advent of networked environments into the classroom is changing classroom debates in many ways. This article addresses one key attribute of these environments, namely anonymity, to explore its consequences for co-present adolescents anonymous, by virtue of the computer system, to peers not to teachers. Three studies with 16-17 year-olds used a…

  4. Is Dance a Sport?: A Twenty-First-Century Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guarino, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses a new debate which has emerged for dancers. For many years dancers debated dance as art versus entertainment. This age-old debate still exists without a consensus, yet there is suddenly a new generation of dancers with a fresh debate. Legions of young performers are fervently proclaiming that their dance is actually a sport.…

  5. Academic Debate Paradigms: An Examination from a Rules Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himes, Kenneth G.

    Debate paradigms, which at one time established standards to help judges evaluate arguments and rules to guide debaters' argument choice and strategy selection, no longer offer consistent guidance for either judges or debaters. An increased emphasis on creativity and flexibility has led to a general unwillingness to use a rigid debate format. The…

  6. Politeness Strategies in the 1992 Vice Presidential and Presidential Debates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinck, Edward A.; Hinck, Shelly S.

    2002-01-01

    Extends politeness theory to political debates arguing that an important element of political leadership resides in a candidate's ability to manage political image through politeness strategies in a debate. Reveals differences in face saving strategies in the debates. Considers implications for the importance of debates as campaign events and the…

  7. Effects of the Bush/Ferraro Debate on Candidate Characterization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamm, Keith R.

    A study was conducted to determine the cognitive effects on viewers of the debate between vice-presidential candidates George Bush and Geraldine Ferraro. Adult passengers (N=468) on the Washington State ferries were interviewed, 191 before the debate and 277 afterward. Of those interviewed after the debate, 168 reported watching the debate and 108…

  8. Debating Values: Key Issues in Formatting an Argumentative Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, David K.

    This paper analyzes the components of an "ideal" debate using a non-policy proposition. It is argued that debates using non-policy propositions are currently plagued by a variety of problems. Value propositions on the college level are dissimilar to the value propositions used in high school Lincoln-Douglas debate. Many debaters are somewhat…

  9. Method and apparatus for processing oil shale in a rotary hearth

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, L.S.

    1982-07-27

    Hydrocarbon containing oil shale is processed on the surface of a rabbled rotary hearth by mixing it with a heat exchange medium consisting of heated spent oil shale. Mixing is obtained by feeding the raw shale and the heated spent shale separately, but in proximity to one another, onto the surface of a hearth, and then subjecting both materials to rabbling action. This mixing causes heat from the heated spent shale heat exchange medium to be transferred to the fresh raw shale, which results in the removal of hydrocarbons from the raw shale. In one preferred embodiment, heated spent shale is obtained by removing spent shale from the hearth after processing, mixing it, preferably while it is still hot, with compatible combustible solids, and then introducing oxidizing gases into the mixture. This results in the burning of the combustible solids and any combustible materials remaining in the shale and the heating of the spent shale.

  10. Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy of Anisotropic Shale Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, L. M.; van Wijk, K.

    2014-12-01

    Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (RUS) is a technique that can be used to determine the elastic properties of geological core samples. The resonant frequencies of the sample are measured and the elastic tensor inverted for by the non-linear Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. It is a non-destructive method that allows the complete elastic tensor to be calculated from a single measurement and can provide important attenuation information. Many crustal rocks are anisotropic and can often be described by a hexagonal model of symmetry, where the sample has a single axis of rotational symmetry with perpendicular isotropic planes. Geological samples are often cylindrical and cut parallel or perpendicular to the layering (termed horizontal or vertical transverse isotropy respectively). The two situations cannot be treated by a single model and have substantially different resonant spectra. We have added functionality to existing forward and inverse codes to account for both situations. It is important to be able to deal with the two subsets of hexagonal symmetry because by using mutually perpendicular samples from the same rock complementary information can be obtained and more accurate results achieved than is possible with a single core. Shale formations consist of thin layered sequences of aligned microscopic clay platelets, which are responsible for the inherent anisotropy of shales, and can be described by a hexagonal symmetry model. RUS is used to determine the complete elastic tensor of two shale samples. When measured using RUS at frequencies on the order of 104 Hz and with time-of-flight methods with a dominant frequency an order of magnitude higher the elastic properties display frequency dispersion.

  11. Hydrogeochemistry of the Antrim shale, Michigan Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Martini, A.M.; Richards, J.A.; Walter, L.M. . Dept. of Geology); Kaiser, C.J. )

    1992-01-01

    The upper Devonian Antrim shale represents an unconventional hydrocarbon reservoir for the Michigan Basin which produces both natural gas and water from fractures. This water exhibits extreme variations in salinity over a fairly small geographic area. Samples were collected from 36 wells and analyzed for various chemical and isotopic constituents. The most dilute end-member fluid possesses an carbonate alkalinity of 60 meq/kg and a chloride concentration of 22,000 mg/l. The most saline water has an alkalinity of 7 meq/kg and a chloride concentration of 141,000 mg/l. The source of salinity for the more concentrated Antrim waters is more problematic as the waters possess an unusual chemistry for the reservoir fluids of the Michigan Basin. The reservoir fluids are dominated by Ca-Na-Cl type brines, such as found in the Berea Formation (an upper Devonian sandstone) and the Traverse Group (a mid-Devonian carbonate) aquifers both of which are in stratigraphic proximity to the Antrim shale. The Antrim waters are Na-Cl dominated and cannot be explained by simple mixing of meteoric water with either of these brine aquifers. Large deficiencies in both Br and Ca relative to chloride within the Antrim waters precludes such a model. A likely source for the Na-Cl is from dissolution of Devonian age salt coupled with possible upward fluid migration through regional fractures. When a really mapped, most geochemical parameters exhibit variations consistent with northeast-southwest trends. This corresponds to the primary joint-orientations measured for the Antrim Formation. The hydrologic isolation demonstrated by fluid chemistry within the upper and mid-Devonian aquifers, coupled with the fracture recharge within the Antrim shale leads to a complex pattern of local fluid migration and water-rock interactions.

  12. Shale gas wastewater management under uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Sun, Alexander Y; Duncan, Ian J

    2016-01-01

    This work presents an optimization framework for evaluating different wastewater treatment/disposal options for water management during hydraulic fracturing (HF) operations. This framework takes into account both cost-effectiveness and system uncertainty. HF has enabled rapid development of shale gas resources. However, wastewater management has been one of the most contentious and widely publicized issues in shale gas production. The flowback and produced water (known as FP water) generated by HF may pose a serious risk to the surrounding environment and public health because this wastewater usually contains many toxic chemicals and high levels of total dissolved solids (TDS). Various treatment/disposal options are available for FP water management, such as underground injection, hazardous wastewater treatment plants, and/or reuse. In order to cost-effectively plan FP water management practices, including allocating FP water to different options and planning treatment facility capacity expansion, an optimization model named UO-FPW is developed in this study. The UO-FPW model can handle the uncertain information expressed in the form of fuzzy membership functions and probability density functions in the modeling parameters. The UO-FPW model is applied to a representative hypothetical case study to demonstrate its applicability in practice. The modeling results reflect the tradeoffs between economic objective (i.e., minimizing total-system cost) and system reliability (i.e., risk of violating fuzzy and/or random constraints, and meeting FP water treatment/disposal requirements). Using the developed optimization model, decision makers can make and adjust appropriate FP water management strategies through refining the values of feasibility degrees for fuzzy constraints and the probability levels for random constraints if the solutions are not satisfactory. The optimization model can be easily integrated into decision support systems for shale oil/gas lifecycle

  13. Updated methodology for nuclear magnetic resonance characterization of shales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Washburn, Kathryn E.; Birdwell, Justin E.

    2013-01-01

    Unconventional petroleum resources, particularly in shales, are expected to play an increasingly important role in the world’s energy portfolio in the coming years. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), particularly at low-field, provides important information in the evaluation of shale resources. Most of the low-field NMR analyses performed on shale samples rely heavily on standard T1 and T2 measurements. We present a new approach using solid echoes in the measurement of T1 and T1–T2 correlations that addresses some of the challenges encountered when making NMR measurements on shale samples compared to conventional reservoir rocks. Combining these techniques with standard T1 and T2 measurements provides a more complete assessment of the hydrogen-bearing constituents (e.g., bitumen, kerogen, clay-bound water) in shale samples. These methods are applied to immature and pyrolyzed oil shale samples to examine the solid and highly viscous organic phases present during the petroleum generation process. The solid echo measurements produce additional signal in the oil shale samples compared to the standard methodologies, indicating the presence of components undergoing homonuclear dipolar coupling. The results presented here include the first low-field NMR measurements performed on kerogen as well as detailed NMR analysis of highly viscous thermally generated bitumen present in pyrolyzed oil shale.

  14. Implementation of an anisotropic mechanical model for shale in Geodyn

    SciTech Connect

    Attaia, A.; Vorobiev, O.; Walsh, S.

    2015-05-15

    The purpose of this report is to present the implementation of a shale model in the Geodyn code, based on published rock material models and properties that can help a petroleum engineer in his design of various strategies for oil/gas recovery from shale rock formation.

  15. Chemically assisted in situ recovery of oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Ramierz, W.F.

    1993-12-31

    The purpose of the research project was to investigate the feasibility of the chemically assisted in situ retort method for recovering shale oil from Colorado oil shale. The chemically assisted in situ procedure uses hydrogen chloride (HCl), steam (H{sub 2}O), and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) at moderate pressure to recovery shale oil from Colorado oil shale at temperatures substantially lower than those required for the thermal decomposition of kerogen. The process had been previously examined under static, reaction-equilibrium conditions, and had been shown to achieve significant shale oil recoveries from powdered oil shale. The purpose of this research project was to determine if these results were applicable to a dynamic experiment, and achieve penetration into and recovery of shale oil from solid oil shale. Much was learned about how to perform these experiments. Corrosion, chemical stability, and temperature stability problems were discovered and overcome. Engineering and design problems were discovered and overcome. High recovery (90% of estimated Fischer Assay) was observed in one experiment. Significant recovery (30% of estimated Fischer Assay) was also observed in another experiment. Minor amounts of freed organics were observed in two more experiments. Penetration and breakthrough of solid cores was observed in six experiments.

  16. 78 FR 35601 - Oil Shale Management-General

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    ... 78 FR 18547, is reopended. Send your comments so that they reach the BLM on or before July 15, 2013... March 27, 2013, the BLM published a proposed rule (78 FR 18547) to amend the BLM's commercial oil shale... Bureau of Land Management 43 CFR Parts 3900, 3920, and 3930 RIN 1004-AE28 Oil Shale...

  17. Nuclear Waste Disposal: A Cautionary Tale for Shale Gas Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alley, William M.; Cherry, John A.; Parker, Beth L.; Ryan, M. Cathryn

    2014-07-01

    Nuclear energy and shale gas development each began with the promise of cheap, abundant energy and prospects for national energy independence. Nuclear energy was touted as "too cheap to meter," and shale gas promised jobs and other economic benefits during a recession.

  18. Updated methodology for nuclear magnetic resonance characterization of shales.

    PubMed

    Washburn, Kathryn E; Birdwell, Justin E

    2013-08-01

    Unconventional petroleum resources, particularly in shales, are expected to play an increasingly important role in the world's energy portfolio in the coming years. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), particularly at low-field, provides important information in the evaluation of shale resources. Most of the low-field NMR analyses performed on shale samples rely heavily on standard T1 and T2 measurements. We present a new approach using solid echoes in the measurement of T1 and T1-T2 correlations that addresses some of the challenges encountered when making NMR measurements on shale samples compared to conventional reservoir rocks. Combining these techniques with standard T1 and T2 measurements provides a more complete assessment of the hydrogen-bearing constituents (e.g., bitumen, kerogen, clay-bound water) in shale samples. These methods are applied to immature and pyrolyzed oil shale samples to examine the solid and highly viscous organic phases present during the petroleum generation process. The solid echo measurements produce additional signal in the oil shale samples compared to the standard methodologies, indicating the presence of components undergoing homonuclear dipolar coupling. The results presented here include the first low-field NMR measurements performed on kerogen as well as detailed NMR analysis of highly viscous thermally generated bitumen present in pyrolyzed oil shale. PMID:23719372

  19. Analysis of eastern Devonian gas shales production data

    SciTech Connect

    Gatens, J.M.; Stanley, D.K.; Lancaster, D.E.; Lee, W.J.; Lane, H.S.; Watson, A.T.

    1989-05-01

    Production data from more than 800 Devonian shale wells have been analyzed. Permeability-thickness product and gas in place estimated from production data have been found to correlate with well performance. Empirical performance equations, production type curves, and an analytical dual-porosity model with automatic history-matching scheme were developed for the Devonian shale.

  20. Multivariate analysis relating oil shale geochemical properties to NMR relaxometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Birdwell, Justin E.; Washburn, Kathryn E.

    2015-01-01

    Low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry has been used to provide insight into shale composition by separating relaxation responses from the various hydrogen-bearing phases present in shales in a noninvasive way. Previous low-field NMR work using solid-echo methods provided qualitative information on organic constituents associated with raw and pyrolyzed oil shale samples, but uncertainty in the interpretation of longitudinal-transverse (T1–T2) relaxometry correlation results indicated further study was required. Qualitative confirmation of peaks attributed to kerogen in oil shale was achieved by comparing T1–T2 correlation measurements made on oil shale samples to measurements made on kerogen isolated from those shales. Quantitative relationships between T1–T2 correlation data and organic geochemical properties of raw and pyrolyzed oil shales were determined using partial least-squares regression (PLSR). Relaxometry results were also compared to infrared spectra, and the results not only provided further confidence in the organic matter peak interpretations but also confirmed attribution of T1–T2 peaks to clay hydroxyls. In addition, PLSR analysis was applied to correlate relaxometry data to trace element concentrations with good success. The results of this work show that NMR relaxometry measurements using the solid-echo approach produce T1–T2 peak distributions that correlate well with geochemical properties of raw and pyrolyzed oil shales.

  1. AUTO-OXIDATION POTENTIAL OF RAW AND RETORTED OIL SHALE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper discusses an EPA sponsored study to assess the potential environmental impacts of leachates from raw mined western oil shales. The study was undertaken as a cooperative effort of the Environmental Protection Agency, Colorado State University, Rio Blanco Oil Shale Compa...

  2. Beneficiation and hydroretorting of low grade oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Tippin, R.B.; Hanna, J.; Janka, J.C.; Rex, R.C. Jr.

    1985-02-01

    A new approach to oil recovery from low grade oil shales has been developed jointly by the Mineral Resources Institute (MRI) of The University of Alabama and the HYCRUDE Corporation. The approach is based on the HYTORT process, which utilized hydrogen gas during the retorting process to enhance oil yields from many types of oil shales. The performance of the HYTORT process is further improved by combining it with MRI's froth flotation process. Taking advantage of differences in the surface properties of the kerogen and the inorganic mineral constituents of the oil shales, the MRI process can reject up to three quarters by weight of relatively kerogen-free inorganic fractions of the oil shale before HYTORT processing. The HYTORT and MRI processes are discussed. Results of tests by each process on oil shales of low to moderate inherent kerogen content are presented. Also discussed are the results of the combined processes on an Indiana New Albany oil shale. By combining the two processes, the raw shale which yielded 12 gallons of oil per ton by Fischer Assay was upgraded by flotation to a product yielding 27 gallons of Fischer Assay oil per ton. HYTORT processing of the beneficiated product recovered 54 gallons of oil per ton, an improvement in oil yield by a factor of 4.5 over the raw shale Fischer Assay.

  3. Distribution and origin of sulfur in Colorado oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Dyni, J.R.

    1983-04-01

    The sulfur content of 1,225 samples of Green River oil shale from two core holes in the Piceance Creek Basin, Colorado, ranges from nearly 0 to 4.9 weight percent. In one core hole, the average sulfur content of a sequence of oil shale 555 m thick, which represents nearly the maximum thickness of oil shale in the basin, is 0.76 weight percent. The vertical distribution of sulfur through the oil shale is cyclic. As many as 25 sulfur cycles have lateral continuity and can be traced between the core holes. Most of the sulfur resides in iron sulfides (pyrite, marcasite, and minor. pyrrhotite), and small amounts are organically bound in kerogen. In general, the concentration of sulfur correlates moderately with oil shale yield, but the degree of association ranges from quite high in the upper 90 m of the oil shale sequence to low or none in the leached zone and in illitic oil shale in the lower part of the sequence. Sulfur also correlates moderately with iron in the carbonate oil shale sequence, but no correlation was found in the illitic samples. Sulfide mineralization is believed to have occurred during early and late stages of diagenesis, and after lithification, during development of the leached zone. Significant amounts of iron found in ankeritic dolomite and in illite probably account for the lack of a strong correlation between sulfur and iron.

  4. Shallow oil shale resources of the southern Uinta Basin, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Dana, G.F.; Smith, J.W.; Trudell, L.G.

    1980-09-01

    The shallow Green River Formation oil shales in the southern part of Utah's Uinta Basin are potentially developable by strip mining or by subsurface techniques which take advantage of limited overburden. The resource of potential shale oil represented by the shallow deposits is evaluated in detail from corehole oil-yield data. Cross-sections are constructed to readily correlatable stratigraphic units selected to represent resources in the shallow shale. To define each unit, the thickness, average oil yield, and oil resource of each unit in each core are calculated. Contour maps constructed from these data define the resource variation across the shallow resource. By measuring areas enclosed in each resource unit within the defined limit of 200 feet (61 meters) of overburden, the resource represented by the shallow oil shale is evaluated. The total resource is measured as 4.9 billion barrels (779.1 billion liters) of potential shale oil at depths less than 200 feet (61 meters). The rich zone incorporates the Mahogany bed, the best shallow oil-shale unit. This section, currently being exploited by Geokinetics, Inc., for in situ production of shale oil by horizontal combustion, represents 2.2 billion barrels (349.8 billion liters) of potential shale oil in place.

  5. Market analysis of shale oil co-products. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    Data are presented in these appendices on the marketing and economic potential for soda ash, aluminia, and nahcolite as by-products of shale oil production. Appendices 1 and 2 contain data on the estimated capital and operating cost of an oil shales/mineral co-products recovery facility. Appendix 3 contains the marketing research data.

  6. Preferred Orientations and Anisotropy in Shales: Callovo-Oxfordian Shale (France) and Opalinus Clay (Switzerland)

    SciTech Connect

    Wenk, H.-R.; Voltolini, M.; Mazurek, M.; Van Loon, L.R.; Vinsot, A.

    2009-06-30

    Anisotropy in clay-rich sedimentary rocks is receiving increasing attention. Seismic anisotropy is essential in the prospecting for petroleum deposits. Anisotropy of diffusion has become relevant for environmental contaminants, including nuclear waste. In both cases, the orientation of component minerals is a critical ingredient and, largely because of small grain size and poor crystallinity, the orientation distribution of clay minerals has been difficult to quantify. A method is demonstrated that relies on hard synchrotron X-rays to obtain diffraction images of shales and applies the crystallographic Rietveld method to deconvolute the images and extract quantitative information about phase fractions and preferred orientation that can then be used to model macroscopic physical properties. The method is applied to shales from European studies which investigate the suitability of shales as potential nuclear waste repositories (Meuse/Haute-Marne Underground Research Laboratory near Bure, France, and Benken borehole and Mont Terri Rock Laboratory, Switzerland). A Callovo-Oxfordian shale from Meuse/Haute-Marne shows a relatively weak alignment of clay minerals and a random distribution for calcite. Opalinus shales from Benken and Mont Terri show strong alignment of illite-smectite, kaolinite, chlorite, and calcite. This intrinsic contribution to anisotropy is consistent with macroscopic physical properties where anisotropy is caused both by the orientation distribution of crystallites and high-aspect-ratio pores. Polycrystal elastic properties are obtained by averaging single crystal properties over the orientation distribution and polyphase properties by averaging over all phases. From elastic properties we obtain anisotropies for p waves ranging from 7 to 22%.

  7. Black shale - its deposition and diagenesis.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tourtelot, H.A.

    1979-01-01

    Depositional processes involve a range of relationships among such factors as organic productivity, clastic sedimentation rate, and the intensity of oxidation by which organic matter is destroyed. If enough organic material is present to exhaust the oxygen in the environment, black shale results. During diagenesis for a thickness of a few meters beneath the surface, sulfate is reduced and sulfide minerals may be deposited. Fermentation reactions in the next several hundred meters result in biogenic methane, followed successively at greater depths by decarboxylation reactions and thermal maturation that form additional hydrocarbons. -from Author

  8. Bakken shale typifies horizontal drilling success

    SciTech Connect

    Leibman, P.R. )

    1990-12-01

    Given the favorable production response that has been obtained from horizontal drilling in vertical- fractured reservoirs such as the Bakken shale and, more recently, the Austin chalk, industry interest in this technology has mushroomed in the U.S. Indeed, it is difficult to find a good-sized oil company these days that is not involved in a horizontal drilling project or is giving it serious consideration. In response to growing evidence of successful field applications, the realization is dawning on the investment community that horizontal drilling represents a significant technological development with positive implications for both the exploration and production business, and the oilfield services industry.

  9. Assessing the Adsorption Properties of Shales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pini, R.

    2014-12-01

    Fine-grained rocks, such as shales, contain a significant amount of nanopores that can significantly contribute to their storage capacity through the mechanism of adsorption. The current ability to extract natural gas that is adsorbed in the rock's matrix is limited and current technology focuses primarily on the free gas in the fractures, thus leading to very low recovery efficiencies. Shales constitute also a great portion of so-called caprocks above potential CO2 sequestration sites; hereby, the adsorption process may limit the CO2 mobility within the cap-rock, thus minimizing leakage phenomena. Whether it is a reservoir or a caprock, understanding and quantifying the mechanisms of adsorption in these natural materials is key to improve the engineering design of subsurface operations. Results will be presented from a laboratory study that combines conventional techniques for the measurement of adsorption isotherms with novel methods that allows for the imaging of adsorption using x-rays. Various nanoporous materials are considered, thus including rocks, such as shales and coals, pure clay minerals and engineered adsorbents with well-defined nanopore structures, such as zeolites. Supercritical CO2 adsorption isotherms have been measured with a Rubotherm Magnetic Suspension balance by covering the pressure range 0.1-20~MPa. A medical x-ray CT scanner has been used to identify three-dimensional patterns of the adsorption properties of a packed-bed of adsorbent, thus enabling to assess the spatial variability of the adsorption isotherm. The data are analyzed by using thermodynamically rigorous measures of adsorption and a graphical method is applied for their interpretation. The density of the adsorbed phase is estimated and compared to data reported in the literature; the latter is key to disclose gas-reserves and/or potential storage capacity estimates. When evaluated against classic adsorbent materials, the adsorption mechanism in shales is further complicated by

  10. Method for rubblizing an oil shale deposit for in situ retorting

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Arthur E.

    1977-01-01

    A method for rubblizing an oil shale deposit that has been formed in alternate horizontal layers of rich and lean shale, including the steps of driving a horizontal tunnel along the lower edge of a rich shale layer of the deposit, sublevel caving by fan drilling and blasting of both rich and lean overlying shale layers at the distal end of the tunnel to rubblize the layers, removing a substantial amount of the accessible rubblized rich shale to permit the overlying rubblized lean shale to drop to tunnel floor level to form a column of lean shale, performing additional sublevel caving of rich and lean shale towards the proximate end of the tunnel, removal of a substantial amount of the additionally rubblized rich shale to allow the overlying rubblized lean shale to drop to tunnel floor level to form another column of rubblized lean shale, similarly performing additional steps of sublevel caving and removal of rich rubble to form additional columns of lean shale rubble in the rich shale rubble in the tunnel, and driving additional horizontal tunnels in the deposit and similarly rubblizing the overlying layers of rich and lean shale and forming columns of rubblized lean shale in the rich, thereby forming an in situ oil shale retort having zones of lean shale that remain permeable to hot retorting fluids in the presence of high rubble pile pressures and high retorting temperatures.

  11. Isotope approach to assess hydrologic connections during Marcellus Shale drilling.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shikha; Mulder, Michon L; Sack, Andrea; Schroeder, Karl; Hammack, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Water and gas samples were collected from (1) nine shallow groundwater aquifers overlying Marcellus Shale in north-central West Virginia before active shale gas drilling, (2) wells producing gas from Upper Devonian sands and Middle Devonian Marcellus Shale in southwestern Pennsylvania, (3) coal-mine water discharges in southwestern Pennsylvania, and (4) streams in southwestern Pennsylvania and north-central West Virginia. Our preliminary results demonstrate that the oxygen and hydrogen isotope composition of water, carbon isotope composition of dissolved inorganic carbon, and carbon and hydrogen isotope compositions of methane in Upper Devonian sands and Marcellus Shale are very different compared with shallow groundwater aquifers, coal-mine waters, and stream waters of the region. Therefore, spatiotemporal stable isotope monitoring of the different sources of water before, during, and after hydraulic fracturing can be used to identify migrations of fluids and gas from deep formations that are coincident with shale gas drilling. PMID:23772970

  12. Assessment of industry needs for oil shale research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Hackworth, J.H.

    1987-05-01

    Thirty-one industry people were contacted to provide input on oil shale in three subject areas. The first area of discussion dealt with industry's view of the shape of the future oil shale industry; the technology, the costs, the participants, the resources used, etc. It assessed the types and scale of the technologies that will form the industry, and how the US resource will be used. The second subject examined oil shale R D needs and priorities and potential new areas of research. The third area of discussion sought industry comments on what they felt should be the role of the DOE (and in a larger sense the US government) in fostering activities that will lead to a future commercial US oil shale shale industry.

  13. Method for reducing the nitrogen content of shale oil

    SciTech Connect

    Compton, L.E.

    1981-06-09

    A method is disclosed for reducing the nitrogen content of shale oil by removing nitrogen-containing compounds from the shale oil. The shale oil containing nitrogen-containing compounds is extracted with a sufficient amount of selective solvent which is selective toward the nitrogen-containing compounds present in the shale oil. The selective solvent comprises an active solvent for nitrogen-containing compounds and water in an amount sufficient to provide phase separation. The active solvent component of the selective solvent is selected from the group consisting of organic acids, and substituted organic acids, particularly acetic , formic and trichloroacetic acids and mixtures thereof. The selective solvent containing the nitrogen-containing compounds is separated from the reduced nitrogen content shale oil raffinate by phase disengagement.

  14. A study on the Jordanian oil shale resources and utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakhrieh, Ahmad; Hamdan, Mohammed

    2012-11-01

    Jordan has significant oil shale deposits occurring in 26 known localities. Geological surveys indicate that the existing deposits underlie more than 60% of Jordan's territory. The resource consists of 40 to 70 billion tones of oil shale, which may be equivalent to more than 5 million tones of shale oil. Since the 1960s, Jordan has been investigating economical and environmental methods for utilizing oil shale. Due to its high organic content, is considered a suitable source of energy. This paper introduces a circulating fluidized bed combustor that simulates the behavior of full scale municipal oil shale combustors. The inside diameter of the combustor is 500 mm, the height is 3000 mm. The design of the CFB is presented. The main parameters which affect the combustion process are elucidated in the paper. The size of the laboratory scale fluidized bed reactor is 3 kW, which corresponds to a fuel-feeding rate of approximately 1.5 kg/h.

  15. Particulate oil shale inhalation and pulmonary inflammatory response in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.S.; Holland, L.M.; Halleck, M.S.; Martinez, E.; Saunders, G.

    1983-01-01

    This experiment detrimetal that long-term inhalation of shale dusts by rats elicits a limited inflammatory response in the lung less profound than that observed in animals exposed to equivalent levels of quartz alone. This observation suggests that organic and inorganic constituents of shale may provide a protective effect. The implications for fibrogenic disease are two-fold: (1) inhalation of oil shale dusts appeared to be less detriemtal than the inhalation of quartz along, and (2) there was no apparent synergistic action of quartz and the complex of organic materials present in shale. Animals exposed to shale dusts failed to develop any significant lung lesions, while all of the animals exposed to quartz developed granulomas and some frank fibrosis.

  16. Market analysis of shale oil co-products. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    This study examines the potential for separating, upgrading and marketing sodium mineral co-products together with shale oil production. The co-products investigated are soda ash and alumina which are derived from the minerals nahcolite and dawsonite. Five cases were selected to reflect the variance in mineral and shale oil content in the identified resource. In the five cases examined, oil content of the shale was varied from 20 to 30 gallons per ton. Two sizes of facilities were analyzed for each resource case to determine economies of scale between a 15,000 barrel per day demonstration unit and a 50,000 barrel per day full sized plant. Three separate pieces of analysis were conducted in this study: analysis of manufacturing costs for shale oil and co-products; projection of potential world markets for alumina, soda ash, and nahcolite; and determination of economic viability and market potential for shale co-products.

  17. Ethical debates: enhancing critical thinking in nursing students.

    PubMed

    Candela, Lori; Michael, Susan Rush; Mitchell, Shae

    2003-01-01

    The use of classroom debates can be helpful in teaching ethical content that is often nebulous and difficult for students to comprehend and apply. Debates enhance critical thinking skills through researching issues and developing a stance that can be supported in scientific literature. The authors describe a student debate project involving ethical issues with chronically ill clients. Many students changed their views during the debates. Students evaluated the debates as a positive learning experience. PMID:12544615

  18. Geomechaical Behavior of Shale Rocks Under High Pressure and Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villamor Lora, R.; Ghazanfari, E.

    2014-12-01

    The mechanical properties of shale are demanding parameters for a number of engineering and geomechanical purposes. Borehole stability modeling, geophysics, shale oil and shale gas reservoirs, and underground storage of CO2 in shale formations are some of these potential applications to name a few. The growing interest in these reservoirs, as a source for hydrocarbons production, has resulted in an increasing demand for fundamental rock property data. These rocks are known to be non-linear materials. There are many factors, including induced cracks and their orientation, partial saturation, material heterogeneity and anisotropy, plasticity, strain rate, and temperature that may have an impact on the geomechanical behaviour of these shales.Experimental results and theoretical considerations have shown that the elastic moduli are not single-value, well-defined parameters for a given rock. Finding suitable values for these parameters is of vital importance in many geomechanical applications. In this study, shale heterogeneity and its geomechanical properties are explored through an extensive laboratory experimental program. A series of hydrostatic and triaxial tests were performed in order to evaluate the elasticity, viscoplasticity, yielding and failure response of Marcellus shale samples as a function of pressure and temperature. Additional characterization includes mineralogy, porosity, and permeability measurements. The shale samples were taken from a Marcellus outcrop at State Game Lands 252, located in Lycoming and Union counties, Allenwood, Pennsylvania. Laboratory experiments have shown that creep behaviour is highly sensitive to temperature. Furthermore, the non-linear nature of these rocks reveals interesting behaviour of the elastic moduli highly dependent on stress history of the rock. Results from cyclic triaxial tests point out the different behaviour between 1st-loading and unloading-reloading cycles. Experimental results of these Marcellus shales are

  19. Potential small-scale development of western oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, V.; Renk, R.; Nordin, J.; Chatwin, T.; Harnsberger, M.; Fahy, L.J.; Cha, C.Y.; Smith, E.; Robertson, R.

    1989-10-01

    Several studies have been undertaken in an effort to determine ways to enhance development of western oil shale under current market conditions for energy resources. This study includes a review of the commercial potential of western oil shale products and byproducts, a review of retorting processes, an economic evaluation of a small-scale commercial operation, and a description of the environmental requirements of such an operation. Shale oil used as a blend in conventional asphalt appears to have the most potential for entering today's market. Based on present prices for conventional petroleum, other products from oil shale do not appear competitive at this time or will require considerable marketing to establish a position in the marketplace. Other uses for oil shale and spent shale, such as for sulfur sorbtion, power generation, cement, aggregate, and soil stabilization, are limited economically by transportation costs. The three-state area area consisting of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming seems reasonable for the entry of shale oil-blended asphalt into the commercial market. From a review of retorting technologies and the product characteristics from various retorting processes it was determined that the direct heating Paraho and inclined fluidized-bed processes produce a high proportion of heavy material with a high nitrogen content. The two processes are complementary in that they are each best suited to processing different size ranges of materials. An economic evaluation of a 2000-b/d shale oil facility shows that the operation is potentially viable, if the price obtained for the shale oil residue is in the top range of prices projected for this product. Environmental requirements for building and operating an oil shale processing facility are concerned with permitting, control of emissions and discharges, and monitoring. 62 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs.

  20. Studies of the Scottish oil shale industry. Volume 2. Shale workers pneumoconiosis and skin conditions: epidemiological surveys of surviving ex-shale workers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Louw, S.J.; Cowie, H.; Seaton, A.

    1985-03-01

    The world's largest and richest reserves of oil shale occur in the United States. It has not proved possible to obtain reliable data on the health risks to the work force that such a development might entail. While the risks of accidents, explosions, and local pollution may reasonably be estimated by analogy with similar industries, potential specific hazards of shale oil production itself, such as pneumoconiosis and lung and skin cancer, can only be assessed by study of an established shale industry. The volume describes the use of the Provident Fund form in identifying ex-shale workers and subsequent studies aimed at determining the prevalence and respiratory effects of pneumoconiosis and the prevalence of skin disease amongst them.

  1. Ion chromatographic analysis of oil shale leachates

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, N.L.

    1990-10-01

    In the present work an investigation of the use of ion chromatography to determine environmentally significant anions present in oil shale leachates was undertaken. Nadkarni et al. have used ion chromatography to separate and quantify halogen, sulfur and nitrogen species in oil shales after combustion in a Parr bomb. Potts and Potas used ion chromatography to monitor inorganic ions in cooling tower wastewater from coal gasification. Wallace and coworkers have used ion chromatography to determine anions encountered in retort wastewaters. The ions of interest in this work were the ions of sulfur oxides including sulfite (SO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}), sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}), thiosulfate (S{sub 2}O{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}), dithionite (S{sub 2}O{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}), dithionate (S{sub 2}O{sub 6}{sup 2{minus}}), peroxyodisulfate (S{sub 2}O{sub 8}{sup 2{minus}}), and tetrathionate (S{sub 4}O{sub 6}{sup 2{minus}}), and thiocyanate (SCN{sup {minus}}), sulfide (S{sup 2{minus}}) hydrosulfide (HS{sup {minus}}), cyanide (CN{sup {minus}}), thiocyanate (SCN{sup {minus}}), and cyanate (OCN{sup {minus}}). A literature search was completed and a leaching procedure developed. 15 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Preferred orientation and elastic anisotropy in shales.

    SciTech Connect

    Lonardelli, I.; Wenk, H.-R.; Ren, Y.; Univ. of California at Berkeley

    2007-03-01

    Anisotropy in shales is becoming an important issue in exploration and reservoir geophysics. In this study, the crystallographic preferred orientation of clay platelets that contributes to elastic anisotropy was determined quantitatively by hard monochromatic X-ray synchrotron diffraction in two different shales from drillholes off the coast of Nigeria. To analyze complicated diffraction images with five different phases (illite/smectite, kaolinite, quartz, siderite, feldspar) and many overlapping peaks, we applied a methodology based on the crystallographic Rietveld method. The goal was to describe the intrinsic physical properties of the sample (phase composition, crystallographic preferred orientation, crystal structure, and microstructure) and compute macroscopic elastic properties by averaging single crystal properties over the orientation distribution for each phase. Our results show that elastic anisotropy resulting from crystallographic preferred orientation of the clay particles can be determined quantitatively. This provides a possible way to compare measured seismic anisotropy and texture-derived anisotropy and to estimate the contribution of the low-aspect ratio pores aligned with bedding.

  3. Environmental control technology for shale oil wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Mercer, B.W.; Wakamiya, W.; Bell, N.E.; Mason, M.J.; Spencer, R.R.; English, C.J.; Riley, R.G.

    1982-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of studies conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory from 1976 to 1982 on environmental control technology for shale oil wastewaters. Experimental studies conducted during the course of the program were focused largely on the treatment and disposal of retort water, particularly water produced by in situ retorting of oil shale. Alternative methods were evaluated for the treatment and disposal of retort water and minewater. Treatment and disposal processes evaluated for retort water include evaporation for separation of water from both inorganic and organic pollutants; steam stripping for ammonia and volatile organics removal; activated sludge and anaerobic digestion for removal of biodegradable organics and other oxidizable substances; carbon adsorption for removal of nonbiodegradable organics; chemical coagulation for removal of suspended matter and heavy metals; wet air oxidation and solvent extraction for removal of organics; and land disposal and underground injection for disposal of retort water. Methods for the treatment of minewater include chemical processing and ion exchange for fluoride and boron removal. Preliminary cost estimates are given for several retort water treatment processes.

  4. High risk groups in oil shale workforce

    SciTech Connect

    Gratt, L.B.; Perry, B.W.; Marine, W.M.; Savitz, D.A.

    1984-04-01

    The workforce risks of a hypothetical one million barrels-per-day oil shale industry were estimated. The risks for the different workforce segments were compared and high risk groups were identified. Accidents and injuries were statistically described by rates for fatalities, for accidents with days lost from work, and for accidents with no days lost from work. Workforce diseases analyzed were cancers, silicosia, pneumoconiosis, chronic bronchitis, chronic airway obstruction, and high frequency hearing loss. A comparison of the workforce groups under different risk measures (occurrence, fatality, and life-loss expectancy) was performed. The miners represented the group with the largest fatality and the most serious accident rate, although the estimated rates were below the average industry-wide underground mining experience. Lung disease from inhalation exposure of about the nuisance dust threshold limit value presents a significant risk for future concerns. If future environmental dust exposure is at the 100 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ alpha-quartz level, safety improvements in the mining sector are of prime importance to reduce the oil shale worker's life-loss expectancy. 11 references, 1 figure, 11 tables.

  5. The Lower Jurassic Posidonia Shale in southern Germany: results of a shale gas analogue study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biermann, Steffen; Schulz, Hans-Martin; Horsfield, Brian

    2013-04-01

    The shale gas potential of Germany was recently assessed by the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (2012 NiKo-Project) and is - in respect of the general natural gas occurrence in Germany - regarded as a good alternative hydrocarbon source. The Posidonia Shale in northern and southern Germany is one of the evaluated rock formation and easily accessible in outcrops in the Swabian Alps (southern Germany). The area of interest in this work is located in such an outcrop that is actively used for open pit mining next to the town of Dotternhausen, 70 km southwest of Stuttgart. 31 samples from the quarry of Dotternhausen were analyzed in order to characterize the immature Posidonia Shale (Lower Toarcian, Lias ɛ) of southern Germany as a gas shale precursor. Methods included are Rock Eval, Open Pyrolysis GC, SEM, Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry, XRD, and other. The samples of Dotternhausen contain exclusively type II kerogen. The majority of the organic matter is structureless and occurs in the argillaceous-calcareous matrix. Structured organic matter appears predominantly as alginite, in particular the algae "tasmanite" is noticeable. The TOC content ranges up to 16 wt% with a high bitumen content. The mineral content characterizes the Posidonia Shale as a marlstone or mudstone with varying clay-calcite ratios. The quartz and pyrite content reaches up to 20 wt% and 9 wt%, respectively. The rock fabric is characterized by a fine grained and laminated matrix. The mean porosity lies between 4 and 12 %. Fractures other than those introduced by sample preparation were not observed. The Posidonia Shale is predicted to have an excellent source rock potential and will generate intermediate, P-N-A low wax oil when exposed to higher P-T-conditions ("oil kitchen"). Contact surfaces between the kerogen and matrix will be vulnerable to pressure induced fracturing caused by hydrocarbon formation. Additional porosity will be formed during maturation due to the

  6. Using guided debates to teach current issues.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Debra R

    2014-06-01

    A guided-debate strategy was developed for a graduate-level core course in current issues based on the Jesuit method of discernment (group decision making). The strategy encourages students to use up-to-date Internet sources to determine the range of opinions on current controversies in the discipline. In addition to providing a structured process to engage in persuasive discussion of difficult issues, the strategy facilitates critical thinking about the quality of the debate itself. Thus, students learn to avoid the pitfalls associated with consensus, such as failing to express reservations or negative opinions that might be important, while learning how to express concerns that might not be easily received by others in a group. PMID:24814355

  7. NORMAL HUMAN VARIATION: REFOCUSSING THE ENHANCEMENT DEBATE

    PubMed Central

    Kahane, Guy; Savulescu, Julian

    2015-01-01

    This article draws attention to several common mistakes in thinking about biomedical enhancement, mistakes that are made even by some supporters of enhancement. We illustrate these mistakes by examining objections that John Harris has recently raised against the use of pharmacological interventions to directly modulate moral decision-making. We then apply these lessons to other influential figures in the debate about enhancement. One upshot of our argument is that many considerations presented as powerful objections to enhancement are really strong considerations in favour of biomedical enhancement, just in a different direction. Another upshot is that it is unfortunate that much of the current debate focuses on interventions that will radically transform normal human capacities. Such interventions are unlikely to be available in the near future, and may not even be feasible. But our argument shows that the enhancement project can still have a radical impact on human life even if biomedical enhancement operated entirely within the normal human range. PMID:23906367

  8. Normal human variation: refocussing the enhancement debate.

    PubMed

    Kahane, Guy; Savulescu, Julian

    2015-02-01

    This article draws attention to several common mistakes in thinking about biomedical enhancement, mistakes that are made even by some supporters of enhancement. We illustrate these mistakes by examining objections that John Harris has recently raised against the use of pharmacological interventions to directly modulate moral decision-making. We then apply these lessons to other influential figures in the debate about enhancement. One upshot of our argument is that many considerations presented as powerful objections to enhancement are really strong considerations in favour of biomedical enhancement, just in a different direction. Another upshot is that it is unfortunate that much of the current debate focuses on interventions that will radically transform normal human capacities. Such interventions are unlikely to be available in the near future, and may not even be feasible. But our argument shows that the enhancement project can still have a radical impact on human life even if biomedical enhancement operated entirely within the normal human range. PMID:23906367

  9. Current debates over nosology of somatoform disorders

    PubMed Central

    Jana, Amlan K.; Praharaj, Samir Kumar; Mazumdar, Joyita

    2012-01-01

    There is a wide debate among the researchers and clinicians over the diagnostic categories subsumed under the rubric of somatoform disorders (SDs). Recent proposals vary from radical views that call for removing this category altogether to the conservative views that suggests cosmetic changes in the diagnostic criteria of SDs. We have the reviewed the relevant literature through PUBMED search supplemented with manual search on current concepts of SD. PMID:23766571

  10. Inactivation of Anandamide Signaling: A Continuing Debate

    PubMed Central

    Khairy, Hesham; Houssen, Wael E.

    2010-01-01

    Since the first endocannabinoid anandamide was identified in 1992, extensive research has been conducted to characterize the elements of the tightly controlled endocannabinoid signaling system. While it was established that the activity of endocannabinoids are terminated by a two-step process that includes cellular uptake and degradation, there is still a continuing debate about the mechanistic role of these processes in inactivating anandamide signals.

  11. Patenting human genetic material: refocusing the debate

    PubMed Central

    Caulfield, Timothy; Gold, E. Richard; Cho, Mildred K.

    2008-01-01

    The biotechnology industry has become firmly established over the past twenty years and gene patents have played an important part in this phenomenon. However, concerns have been raised over the patentability of human genetic material, through public protests and international statements, but to little effect. Here we discuss some of these concerns, the patent authorities’ response to them, and ways in which to address these issues and to move the debate forward using current legal structures. PMID:11252752

  12. Perform research in process development for hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales: Volume 2, Expansion of the Moving-Bed Hydroretorting Data Base for Eastern oil shales

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-11-01

    An extensive data base was developed for six Eastern oil shales: Alabama Chattanooga, Indiana New Albany, Kentucky Sunbury, Michigan Antrim, Ohio Cleveland, and Tennessee Chattanooga shales. The data base included the hydroretorting characteristics of the six shales, as well as the retorting characteristics in the presence of synthesis gas and ionized gas. Shale gasification was also successfully demonstrated. Shale fines (20%) can produce enough hydrogen for the hydroretorting of the remaining 80% of the shale. The amount of fines tolerable in a moving bed was also determined. 16 refs., 59 figs., 43 tabs.

  13. Methods for minimizing plastic flow of oil shale during in situ retorting

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Arthur E.; Mallon, Richard G.

    1978-01-01

    In an in situ oil shale retorting process, plastic flow of hot rubblized oil shale is minimized by injecting carbon dioxide and water into spent shale above the retorting zone. These gases react chemically with the mineral constituents of the spent shale to form a cement-like material which binds the individual shale particles together and bonds the consolidated mass to the wall of the retort. This relieves the weight burden borne by the hot shale below the retorting zone and thereby minimizes plastic flow in the hot shale. At least a portion of the required carbon dioxide and water can be supplied by recycled product gases.

  14. Status of LLNL Hot-Recycled-Solid oil shale retort

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, D.E.; Cena, R.J.

    1993-12-31

    We have investigated the technical and economic barriers facing the introduction of an oil shale industry and we have chosen Hot-Recycled-Solid (HRS) oil shale retorting as the primary advanced technology of interest. We are investigating this approach through fundamental research, operation of a 4 tonne-per-day, HRS pilot plant and development of an Oil Shale Process (OSP) mathematical model. Over the last three years, from June 1991 to June 1993, we completed a series of runs (H10--H27) using the 4-TPD pilot plant to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the HRS process and answer key scale-up questions. With our CRADA partners, we seek to further develop the HRS technology, maintain and enhance the knowledge base gained over the past two decades through research and development by Government and industry and determine the follow on steps needed to advance the technology towards commercialization. The LLNL Hot-Recycled-Solid process has the potential to improve existing oil shale technology. It processes oil shale in minutes instead of hours, reducing plant size. It processes all oil shale, including fines rejected by other processes. It provides controls to optimize product quality for different applications. It co-generates electricity to maximize useful energy output. And, it produces negligible SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions, a non-hazardous waste shale and uses minimal water.

  15. Water Resources and Natural Gas Production from the Marcellus Shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soeder, Daniel J.; Kappel, William M.

    2009-01-01

    The Marcellus Shale is a sedimentary rock formation deposited over 350 million years ago in a shallow inland sea located in the eastern United States where the present-day Appalachian Mountains now stand (de Witt and others, 1993). This shale contains significant quantities of natural gas. New developments in drilling technology, along with higher wellhead prices, have made the Marcellus Shale an important natural gas resource. The Marcellus Shale extends from southern New York across Pennsylvania, and into western Maryland, West Virginia, and eastern Ohio (fig. 1). The production of commercial quantities of gas from this shale requires large volumes of water to drill and hydraulically fracture the rock. This water must be recovered from the well and disposed of before the gas can flow. Concerns about the availability of water supplies needed for gas production, and questions about wastewater disposal have been raised by water-resource agencies and citizens throughout the Marcellus Shale gas development region. This Fact Sheet explains the basics of Marcellus Shale gas production, with the intent of helping the reader better understand the framework of the water-resource questions and concerns.

  16. Enhanced Microbial Pathways for Methane Production from Oil Shale

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Fallgren

    2009-02-15

    Methane from oil shale can potentially provide a significant contribution to natural gas industry, and it may be possible to increase and continue methane production by artificially enhancing methanogenic activity through the addition of various substrate and nutrient treatments. Western Research Institute in conjunction with Pick & Shovel Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy conducted microcosm and scaled-up reactor studies to investigate the feasibility and optimization of biogenic methane production from oil shale. The microcosm study involving crushed oil shale showed the highest yield of methane was produced from oil shale pretreated with a basic solution and treated with nutrients. Incubation at 30 C, which is the estimated temperature in the subsurface where the oil shale originated, caused and increase in methane production. The methane production eventually decreased when pH of the system was above 9.00. In the scaled-up reactor study, pretreatment of the oil shale with a basic solution, nutrient enhancements, incubation at 30 C, and maintaining pH at circumneutral levels yielded the highest rate of biogenic methane production. From this study, the annual biogenic methane production rate was determined to be as high as 6042 cu. ft/ton oil shale.

  17. Technically recoverable Devonian shale gas in West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Kuuskraa, V.A.; Wicks, D.E.

    1984-12-01

    This report evaluates the natural gas potential of the Devonian Age shales of West Virginia. For this, the study: (1) compiles the latest geological and reservoir data to establish the gas in-place; (2) analyzes and models the dominant gas production mechanisms; and (3) examines alternative well stimulation and production strategies for most efficiently recovering the in-place gas. The major findings of the study include the following: (1) The technically recoverable gas from Devonian shale (Huron, Rhinestreet, and Marcellus intervals) in West Virginia is estimated to range from 11 to 44 trillion cubic feet. (2) The Devonian shales in this state entail great geological diversity; the highly fractured, permeable shales in the southwest respond well to traditional development practices while the deep, tight shales in the eastern and northern parts of the state will require new, larger scale well stimulation technology. (3) Beyond the currently developed Huron and Rhinestreet shale intervals, the Marcellus shale offers a third attractive gas zone, particularly in the north central portion of the state. 21 references, 53 figures, 27 tables.

  18. Industrial hygiene aspects of underground oil shale mining

    SciTech Connect

    Hargis, K.M.; Jackson, J.O.

    1982-01-01

    Health hazards associated with underground oil shale mining are summarized in this report. Commercial oil shale mining will be conducted on a very large scale. Conventional mining techniques of drilling, blasting, mucking, loading, scaling, and roof bolting will be employed. Room-and-pillar mining will be utilized in most mines, but mining in support of MIS retorting may also be conducted. Potential health hazards to miners may include exposure to oil shale dusts, diesel exhaust, blasting products, gases released from the oil shale or mine water, noise and vibration, and poor environmental conditions. Mining in support of MIS retorting may in addition include potential exposure to oil shale retort offgases and retort liquid products. Based upon the very limited industrial hygiene surveys and sampling in experimental oil shale mines, it does not appear that oil shale mining will result in special or unique health hazards. Further animal toxicity testing data could result in reassessment if findings are unusual. Sufficient information is available to indicate that controls for dust will be required in most mining activities, ventilation will be necessary to carry away gases and vapors from blasting and diesel equipment, and a combination of engineering controls and personal protection will likely be required for control of noise. Recommendations for future research are included.

  19. Laboratory measurement and interpretation of nonlinear gas flow in shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Yili; Chen, Mingjun; Li, Xiangchen; You, Lijun; Yang, Bin

    2015-11-01

    Gas flow mechanisms in shale are urgent to clarify due to the complicated pore structure and low permeability. Core flow experiments were conducted under reservoir net confining stress with samples from the Longmaxi Shale to investigate the characteristics of nonlinear gas flow. Meanwhile, microstructure analyses and gas adsorption experiments are implemented. Experimental results indicate that non-Darcy flow in shale is remarkable and it has a close relationship with pore pressure. It is found that type of gas has a significant influence on permeability measurement and methane is chosen in this work to study the shale gas flow. Gas slippage effect and minimum threshold pressure gradient weaken with the increasing backpressure. It is demonstrated that gas flow regime would be either slip flow or transition flow with certain pore pressure and permeability. Experimental data computations and microstructure analyses confirm that hydraulic radius of flow tubes in shale are mostly less than 100 nm, indicating that there is no micron scale pore or throat which mainly contributes to flow. The results are significant for the study of gas flow in shale, and are beneficial for laboratory investigation of shale permeability.

  20. Alteration of Mancos Shale by synthetic hydrofracturing fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruichak, J. N.; Ilgen, A.; Wang, Y.; Griego, J.; Rodriguez, M.

    2015-12-01

    Shale gas produced through hydrofracturing has changed the energy perspective in the United States. Shale gas extraction is complicated by the fast decline in wellbore production, to mitigate which re-stimulation and drilling new wells are required. Our goal is to conduct laboratory experiments that examine methane transport from low-permeability matrices to fracture networks induced by hydraulic fracturing. In particular, we address whether mineralogical alteration of shale by hydrofracturing fluids has an effect on matrix-to-fracture methane transport. We performed a set of laboratory experiments addressing the alteration of Mancos shale by synthetic hydrofracturing fluid at hydrothermal conditions (90 °C). Both powdered shale and shale chips were investigated. Solid characterization was done using bulk and micro-X-ray diffraction (XRD, μXRD), and micro-X-ray Fluorescence mapping (µXRF). Analysis of the aqueous samples was done using ion chromatography (IC) for major anions and cations and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) - for trace metals. Our results indicate that calcium, barium, strontium , magnesium, manganese, silica, sodium, chloride and sulfate were released from Mancos shale after reaction with hydrofracturing fluid. Altered zones on shale surface after 2 months of reaction are thin - likely, within a few microns. The XRD patterns normalized to the 100% peak for quartz indicate that the dolomite, calcite, biotite, and kaolinite peaks decrease in intensity relative to the quartz peaks with increased alteration time, indicative of the partial dissolution of these minerals. Understanding mineralogical composition of an altered layer of Mancos shale will provide insight whether methane transport through these zones will be affected compared to the unaltered material. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the

  1. Woodford shale in the Anadarko basin. Could it be another 'Bakken type' horizontal target?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hester, Timothy C.; Schmoker, James W.; Sahl, Howard L.

    1990-01-01

    The Woodford shale is one of several organic rich ???black??? shales of late Devonian and early Mississippian age present in basins of the North American craton. Where thermally mature, these black shales are economically important as hydrocarbon source rocks. The Woodford shale is widely regarded as a major source rock in the Anadarko basin. This report describes regional depositional trends and organic carbon content of the Woodford shale as evidenced by wire line logs in the Oklahoma portion of the Anadarko basin.

  2. Improved solvent extraction recovery of shale oil. [DOE patent application

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, J.F.; Chong, S.L.

    1981-07-20

    An improved process for solvent extraction of organic matter from shale by two extraction steps in sequence. The extraction steps are: (1) treating a kerogen-containing shale with a solvent system comprising a combination of water and an alcohol at a temperature of about 375 to 425/sup 0/C; and (2) treating the product of (1) with a solvent system comprising a combination of an alcohol and another organic solvent at an elevated temperature, but not above about 425/sup 0/C. The organic matter is recovered by separating the liquid which results from step (2) from the shale solids.

  3. Characterization of nitrogen compound types in hydrotreated Paraho shale oil

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, S.A.; Latham, D.R.

    1980-10-01

    Results from the separation and characterization of nitrogen compound types in hydrotreated Paraho shale oil samples were obtained. Two samples of Paraho shale oil were hydrotreated by Chevron Research Company such that one sample contained about 0.05 wt. percent nitrogen and the other sample contained about 0.10 wt. percent nitrogen. A separation method concentrate specific nitrogen compound types was developed. Characterization of the nitrogen types was accomplished by infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, potentiometric titration, and elemental analysis. The distribution of nitrogen compound types in both samples and in the Paraho crude shale oil is compared.

  4. Short-term microbial testing of shale oil materials

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, T.K.; Epler, J.L.; Guerin, M.R.; Clark, B.R.

    1980-01-01

    Paraho/Sohio Shale Oil was found to be mutagenic in the Ames assay when assayed with the frameshift strain TA98 and incorporating metabolic activation with rat liver homogenates (Aroclor induced S-9). The mutagenic activity was contributed by the organic constituents of the basic and the neutral fractions. Hydrotreatment of the shale oil abolished the mutagenic activity. Results obtained in the yeast assay supported these observations. Refined oil samples from Paraho/Sohio refinery were not mutagenic. The samples rank for their mutagenic activity as coal oils > shale oil > natural petroleum crudes.

  5. High severity pyrolysis of shale and petroleum gas oil mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Leftin, H.P.; Newsome, D.S.

    1986-01-01

    Light gas oil and heavy gas oil from Paraho shale oil and their mixtures with a petroleum light gas oil were pyrolyzed in the presence of steam at 880-900/sup 0/C and contact times between 60 and 90 ms in a nonisothermal bench-scale pyrolysis reactor. Blending of petroleum LGO into the shale oil feeds provided product yields that were the weighted linear combination of the yields of the individual components of the blends. Partial denitrogenation and a pronounced decrease in the rate of coke deposition on the reactor walls were observed when petroleum gas oil was blended with the shale gas oils.

  6. Environmental transport in the Oil Shale Risk Analysis.

    PubMed

    Feerer, J L; Gratt, L B

    1983-06-01

    The Oil Shale Risk Analysis differs from similar efforts in coal and nuclear energy in that the industry is not yet developed to a commercial scale. Many assumptions are necessary to predict the future oil shale industry pollutants, the environmental transport of these pollutants, and subsequent human health and environmental effects. The environmental transport analysis in the Oil Shale Risk Analysis is used as an example of applying assumptions to the best available data to predict potential environmental effects of a future commercial industry. The analysis provides information to aid in formulating and managing a program of environmental research focused on reducing uncertainties in critical areas. PMID:6879167

  7. Oil shale program. Eighteenth quarterly report, April 1980-June 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, A. L.

    1980-11-01

    Instrumentation and evaluation activities are in progress at two DOE-supported in situ oil shale field projects, namely, the Geokinetics Oil Shale Project near Vernal, Utah, and the Occidental Oil Shale Project near DeBeque, Colorado. In support of these projects, it is necessary to develop new and advanced instrumentation systems and associated deployment, recording and analysis techniques that are unique to the field project needs. A rock mechanics program provides material properties, material response models and computational methods for use in the design analysis, and evaluation functions. In addition, retorting studies are in progress on problems unique to the low void conditions encountered in field experiments.

  8. Shale: an overlooked option for US nuclear waste disposal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, Christopher E.

    2014-01-01

    Toss a dart at a map of the United States and, more often than not, it will land where shale can be found underground. A drab, relatively featureless sedimentary rock that historically attracted little interest, shale (as used here, the term includes clay and a range of clay-rich rocks) is entering Americans’ consciousness as a new source of gas and oil. But shale may also offer something entirely different—the ability to safely and permanently house high-level nuclear waste.

  9. Shock propagation and attenuation in Green River oil shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grady, D. E.

    2014-05-01

    Shock waves produced by planar impact of thin plates onto samples of oil shale are monitored with time-resolved velocity interferometer diagnostics. Peak shock stresses are below the Hugoniot elastic limit. Stress wave measurements at successive sample thickness are analysed to determine the experimental shock energy attenuation with propagation distance. Shock attenuation is attributed to stress wave scattering at planes of oil shale kerogen within the shale matrix. Wave scattering from planar defects are evaluated from a shock physics perspective and a scattering model is constructed that sensibly reproduces the experimental observation of shock energy attenuation.

  10. Investigations of the shale gas potential in NE Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartwig, A.; Könitzer, S.; Schulz, H.-M.; Horsfield, B.

    2009-04-01

    European shale gas exploration is still in its infancy, although the first ideas to search for this unconventional gas resource were published in the 1980s. Today, many companies have included this topic in their research programs and actively explore for shale gas in Europe. Until now, only the US has achieved commercial production of shale gas. The search for shale gas in Europe may apply exploration concepts from the US shale gas experience. However, it is difficult to transfer a single genetic model of productive shale gas plays in the US to potential European systems. Black shales with a wide range of maturities occur in almost all European Phanerozoic formations and include potential for shale gas. Currently, the Helmholtz Centre Potsdam GFZ, the German Research Centre for Geosciences, is investigating black shales in the north-east German basin for their shale gas potential. The north-east German Basin contains in excess of 10-12 km of Lower Palaeozoic, Upper Palaeozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic strata. Our investigations are being carried out on black shales of Silurian, Lower and Upper Carboniferous, and Lower Jurassic age. Existing data about degassing experiments have shown that e.g. the released gas from early Westphalian sediments can be completely composed of methane. However, nitrogen can be the dominant gas component in younger and older sediments. According to this, one key element of our investigations are sediments of early Westphalian age. After compilation of existing data (TOC contents, maturity, gas contents, etc.), several wells have been sampled for the aforementioned horizons. One focus of our investigations is the mineralogy and diagenesis of the sediments to evaluate their geomechanical properties for potential frac jobs. Furthermore, the organic material is being investigated for TOC contents, organic matter type, and maturity by microscopic and organic geochemical procedures. Moreover, gas contents and composition by desorption

  11. Using SEM Analysis on Ion-Milled Shale Surface to Determine Shale-Fracturing Fluid Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, J.; Mickler, P. J.; Nicot, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    It is important to document and assess shale-fluid interaction during hydraulic fracturing (HF) in order to understand its impact on flowback water chemistry and rock property. A series of autoclave experiments were conducted to react shale samples from major oil and gas shales with synthetic HF containing various additives. To better determine mineral dissolution and precipitation at the rock-fluid interface, ion-milling technique was applied to create extremely flat rock surfaces that were examined before and after the autoclave experiments using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) detectors. This method is able to reveal a level of detail not observable on broken surface or mechanically polished surface. It allows direct comparison of the same mineral and organic matter particles before and after the reaction experiments. Minerals undergone dissolution and newly precipitated materials are readily determined by comparing to the exact locations before reaction. The dissolution porosity and the thickness of precipitates can be quantified by tracing and measuring the geometry of the pores and precipitates. Changes in porosity and permeability were confirmed by mercury intrusion capillary tests.

  12. GC-MS studies on extracts and distillates from Posidonomia shales (FRG) and from fossil wood out of these shales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann, W.; Hernanto, A. R.; Heller, W.; Schallies, M.

    1984-12-01

    In this study Posidonomia shale extracts, Posidonomia shale distillates and extracts of fossil wood (gagat) found in these shales were seperated on GC and identified by GC-MS. Samples were obtained from Dotternhausen oil shale formation (FRG) belonging to LIAS epsilon (Toarcien). Main components were n-alkanes ranging from C7 to C27 with a maximum at C17 for shales and two maxima at C17 and C9 respectively for fossil wood. Isoprenoid hydrocarbons present in shales and fossil wood as well were 2,6,10-trimethyltridecane, 2,6,10-trimethylpentadecane, 2,6,10,14-tetramethylpentadecane (pristane) and 2,6,10,14-tetramethylhexadecane (phytane). Numerous low molecular weight cycloalkanes with 6 to 9 carbon atoms were present in fossil wood. Of these, the main constituent could also be found in shales. Also aromatic hydrocarbon compounds were numerous in the low boiling fraction of extracts of fossil wood. The results obtained are discussed with respect to the maturity of the Dotternhausen sediments.

  13. Assessing the adsorption properties of shales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pini, Ronny

    2015-04-01

    Physical adsorption refers to the trapping of fluid molecules at near liquid-like densities in the pores of a given adsorbent material. Fine-grained rocks, such as shales, contain a significant amount of nanopores that can significantly contribute to their storage capacity. As a matter of fact, the current ability to extract natural gas that is adsorbed in the rock's matrix is limited, and current technology focuses primarily on the free gas in the fractures (either natural or stimulated), thus leading to recovery efficiencies that are very low. Shales constitute also a great portion of so-called cap-rocks above potential CO2 sequestration sites; hereby, the adsorption process may limit the CO2 mobility within the cap-rock, thus minimizing the impact of leakage on the whole operation. Whether it is an unconventional reservoir or a cap-rock, understanding and quantifying the mechanisms of adsorption in these natural materials is key to improve the engineering design of subsurface operations. Results will be presented from a laboratory study that combines conventional techniques for the measurement of adsorption isotherms with novel methods that allows for the imaging of adsorption using x-rays. Various nanoporous materials are considered, thus including rocks, such as shales and coals, pure clay minerals (a major component in mudrocks) and engineered adsorbents with well-defined nanopore structures, such as zeolites. Supercritical CO2 adsorption isotherms have been measured with a Rubotherm Magnetic Suspension balance by covering the pressure range 0.1-20~MPa. A medical x-ray CT scanner has been used to identify three-dimensional patterns of the adsorption properties of a packed-bed of adsorbent, thus enabling to assess the spatial variability of the adsorption isotherm in heterogeneous materials. The data are analyzed by using thermodynamically rigorous measures of adsorption, such as the net- and excess adsorbed amounts and a recently developed methodology is

  14. Low-temperature gas from marine shales

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Thermal cracking of kerogens and bitumens is widely accepted as the major source of natural gas (thermal gas). Decomposition is believed to occur at high temperatures, between 100 and 200°C in the subsurface and generally above 300°C in the laboratory. Although there are examples of gas deposits possibly generated at lower temperatures, and reports of gas generation over long periods of time at 100°C, robust gas generation below 100°C under ordinary laboratory conditions is unprecedented. Here we report gas generation under anoxic helium flow at temperatures 300° below thermal cracking temperatures. Gas is generated discontinuously, in distinct aperiodic episodes of near equal intensity. In one three-hour episode at 50°C, six percent of the hydrocarbons (kerogen & bitumen) in a Mississippian marine shale decomposed to gas (C1–C5). The same shale generated 72% less gas with helium flow containing 10 ppm O2 and the two gases were compositionally distinct. In sequential isothermal heating cycles (~1 hour), nearly five times more gas was generated at 50°C (57.4 μg C1–C5/g rock) than at 350°C by thermal cracking (12 μg C1–C5/g rock). The position that natural gas forms only at high temperatures over geologic time is based largely on pyrolysis experiments under oxic conditions and temperatures where low-temperature gas generation could be suppressed. Our results indicate two paths to gas, a high-temperature thermal path, and a low-temperature catalytic path proceeding 300° below the thermal path. It redefines the time-temperature dimensions of gas habitats and opens the possibility of gas generation at subsurface temperatures previously thought impossible. PMID:19236698

  15. Low-temperature gas from marine shales.

    PubMed

    Mango, Frank D; Jarvie, Daniel M

    2009-01-01

    Thermal cracking of kerogens and bitumens is widely accepted as the major source of natural gas (thermal gas). Decomposition is believed to occur at high temperatures, between 100 and 200 degrees C in the subsurface and generally above 300 degrees C in the laboratory. Although there are examples of gas deposits possibly generated at lower temperatures, and reports of gas generation over long periods of time at 100 degrees C, robust gas generation below 100 degrees C under ordinary laboratory conditions is unprecedented. Here we report gas generation under anoxic helium flow at temperatures 300 degrees below thermal cracking temperatures. Gas is generated discontinuously, in distinct aperiodic episodes of near equal intensity. In one three-hour episode at 50 degrees C, six percent of the hydrocarbons (kerogen & bitumen) in a Mississippian marine shale decomposed to gas (C1-C5). The same shale generated 72% less gas with helium flow containing 10 ppm O2 and the two gases were compositionally distinct. In sequential isothermal heating cycles (approximately 1 hour), nearly five times more gas was generated at 50 degrees C (57.4 microg C1-C5/g rock) than at 350 degrees C by thermal cracking (12 microg C1-C5/g rock). The position that natural gas forms only at high temperatures over geologic time is based largely on pyrolysis experiments under oxic conditions and temperatures where low-temperature gas generation could be suppressed. Our results indicate two paths to gas, a high-temperature thermal path, and a low-temperature catalytic path proceeding 300 degrees below the thermal path. It redefines the time-temperature dimensions of gas habitats and opens the possibility of gas generation at subsurface temperatures previously thought impossible. PMID:19236698

  16. High efficiency shale oil recovery. [Kilntrol program

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency is first being demonstrated at bench scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. This batch kiln is a unit constructed in a 1987 Phase I SBIR tar sand retorting project. The kiln worked fairly well in that project; however, the need for certain modifications was observed. These modifications, now completed, provide for a great improvement in the operation and make the data and analysis more exact. Last quarter we reported on equipment modifications and refurbishments which resulted in a sophisticated analytical rotary kiln. As we began operating the equipment this quarter, we observed that the software package was inadequate for our purpose and that the appropriate software could not be purchased as a shelf item. Therefore, we were required to modify the equipment interface and to write our own software. The quartz sand kiln calibration runs have been completed and the results are included in this report. Computer Interface: The computer interface was designed on CTR-05, DAS-08 and MUX-32 Boards from ComputerBoards Inc. We purchased a software program, Control EG by Quinn-Curtis, to use with these boards. As we began operating the equipment we realized that the software control was inadequately sensitive for our system as it would not provide time-proportioning output. This problem was resolved by writing our own software and providing time-proportioning duty cycles for the output to each of five heaters. We have entitled this program Kilntrol.'' It is included in the Appendix of this report.

  17. Catholic options in the abortion debate.

    PubMed

    Maguire, D C

    1990-01-01

    The little-known Roman Catholic theological doctrine of probabilism, an ethical system explicated in all manuals of moral theology, is explained using as an example the dilemma of abortion. Probabilism is based on the notion that a doubtful moral obligation may not be imposed as though it were certain. "Ubi dubium, ibi libertas," means where there is doubt, there is freedom. There are 2 types of moral probability, intrinsic probability, where the individual, without the help of moral theologians, perceives the inapplicability of a particular moral teaching; and extrinsic probability, which involves reliance on the findings of 5 or 6 reputable moral theologians, who may hold a liberal view. Probabilism implies a reasonable doubt, and one's reasons must be cogent, but not necessarily conclusive. Today's abortion debate is an example of a respectable debate, where the liberal view has been endorsed by a number of reputable religious or other humanitarian bodies that in some cases abortion is not always immoral. Other examples in history are the view once taught by the church that taking interest on loans was immoral, that depriving slaves and women of civil rights on non-Catholics of religious or political freedom was moral. For today's legislators, there is a precedent throughout theological history for the state permitting an evil: both St. Augustine and St. Thomas Aquinas wrote that prostitution, although evil, should not be outlawed, because worse evils would occur with prohibition. Legislators who personally find abortion always immoral can support a Roe V. Wade decision because 1) it does not require anyone to have an abortion, and 2) the abortion debate, among Catholics, and non-Catholics is not settled. PMID:12178838

  18. Using Simulated Debates to Teach History of Engineering Advances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Terry S.

    1976-01-01

    Described is a technique for utilizing debates of past engineering controversies in the classroom as a means of teaching the history of engineering advances. Included is a bibliography for three debate topics relating to important controversies. (SL)

  19. Debating Organ Procurement Policy Without Illusions.

    PubMed

    Hippen, Benjamin

    2015-10-01

    In this perspective, I review and critique claims that the transplant waiting list overstates the demand for kidneys and correct a few mischaracterizations of some structural barriers to increasing rates of transplantation. The solutions to the shortage of organs proffered by opponents of financial incentives fail to account for a panoply of clinical, regulatory, and financial realities of transplantation centers in the United States in ways that undermine the thesis that a trial of financial incentives for organ procurement is not warranted at this time. I conclude with some personal pessimistic reflections on the progress of this debate. PMID:26094999

  20. Great debate probes Pluto's planetary credentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2008-09-01

    It had all the trappings of an Olympic boxing final: two fiery competitors, a partisan crowd and the attention of the global press. But no individual gold medalist emerged from the Great Planet Debate held last month in Baltimore to discuss what type of astronomical object Pluto really is. Rather, the contest between Neil de-Grasse Tyson, director of New York's Hayden Planetarium, and Mark Sykes of the University of Arizona's Planetary Science Institute provided a view of how science deals with controversial issues of definition.

  1. Elastic constants and velocity surfaces of indurated anisotropic shales

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, J.E.; Christensen, N.I.

    1994-09-01

    The velocities of two Devonian-Mississippian shales have been measured to confining pressures of 200 MPa in a laboratory study of anisotropy and wave propagation. Both samples were found to be transversely isotropic at elevated pressures with the main symmetry axis perpendicular to bedding. The elastic constants of the shales were used to calculate phase and group velocity surfaces as a function of angle to the bedding normal. Multiple velocity measurements in non-symmetry directions, not undertaken in previously published studies of shales, have been used to confirm features observed on calculated velocity surfaces. It is demonstrated that velocities measured in non-symmetry directions are phase velocities. Group velocities were found to be significantly lower than the corresponding phase velocities of the shales due to their high anisotropies. Shear wave splitting was found to be negligible for propagation directions within approximately 30{degrees} of the bedding normals.

  2. TECHNOLOGICAL OVERVIEW REPORTS FOR EIGHT SHALE OIL RECOVERY PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the document is to supply background information for evaluation of environmental impacts and pollution control technologies in connection with oil shale development. Six surface retorting processes selected for characterization were: (1) Union Oil Retort B, (2) Par...

  3. Application of binomial-edited CPMG to shale characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washburn, Kathryn E.; Birdwell, Justin E.

    2014-09-01

    Unconventional shale resources may contain a significant amount of hydrogen in organic solids such as kerogen, but it is not possible to directly detect these solids with many NMR systems. Binomial-edited pulse sequences capitalize on magnetization transfer between solids, semi-solids, and liquids to provide an indirect method of detecting solid organic materials in shales. When the organic solids can be directly measured, binomial-editing helps distinguish between different phases. We applied a binomial-edited CPMG pulse sequence to a range of natural and experimentally-altered shale samples. The most substantial signal loss is seen in shales rich in organic solids while fluids associated with inorganic pores seem essentially unaffected. This suggests that binomial-editing is a potential method for determining fluid locations, solid organic content, and kerogen-bitumen discrimination.

  4. Deposition of laminated shale: A field and experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, Daniel L.; Roy, David C.

    1985-03-01

    Intermittently laminated shale of the Jemtland Formation in Maine is characterized by thin lenticular silt segregations interlaced with argillaceous and organic material (including graptolites). This shale is thinly interbedded with nonlaminated shale, siltstone, and thicker turbidite graywacke beds. Experiments suggest that the intermittently laminated shale was deposited by silt/clay-laden currents and may have been part of an upward turbidite progression from parallel-laminated silt (>60% silt), through intermittently laminated mud (40 to 60% silt), to nonlaminated mud (20 to 40% silt). Intermittently laminated mud may be produced from silt/clay flows that are: decelerating at a constant silt content, losing silt at constant velocity; or both decelerating and losing silt.

  5. Common clay and shale: a look at 2009 activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2010-01-01

    An overview of clay and shale production, consumption, and prices in 2009 is presented. The industry has seen 15 to 20 percent declines during the past two years, yet producers still expect sales to decline in 2010.

  6. Raman/FTIR spectroscopy of oil shale retort gases

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, J H; Monaco, S B; Sanborn, R H; Hirschfeld, T B; Taylor, J R

    1982-08-01

    A Raman facility was assembled in order to aid in the evaluation of the feasibility of using Raman or FTIR spectroscopy for analyzing gas mixtures of interest in oil shale. Applications considered in oil shale research included both retort monitoring and laboratory kinetic studies. Both techniques gave limits of detection between 10 and 1000 ppM for ten representative pertinent gases. Both techniques are inferior as a general analytical technique for oil shale gas analysis in comparison with mass spectroscopy, which had detection limits between 1 and 50 ppM for the same gases. The conclusion of the feasibility study was to recommend that mass spectroscopic techniques be used for analyzing gases of interest to oil shale.

  7. AIR POLLUTION CONTROL ALTERNATIVES FOR SHALE OIL PRODUCTION OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report consolidates, evaluates, and presents available air pollution emission data and air pollution control technology relevant to oil shale production, for use by project developers in preparing environmental impact statements and permit applications under Clean Air Act and...

  8. Application of binomial-edited CPMG to shale characterization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Washburn, Kathryn E.; Birdwell, Justin E.

    2014-01-01

    Unconventional shale resources may contain a significant amount of hydrogen in organic solids such as kerogen, but it is not possible to directly detect these solids with many NMR systems. Binomial-edited pulse sequences capitalize on magnetization transfer between solids, semi-solids, and liquids to provide an indirect method of detecting solid organic materials in shales. When the organic solids can be directly measured, binomial-editing helps distinguish between different phases. We applied a binomial-edited CPMG pulse sequence to a range of natural and experimentally-altered shale samples. The most substantial signal loss is seen in shales rich in organic solids while fluids associated with inorganic pores seem essentially unaffected. This suggests that binomial-editing is a potential method for determining fluid locations, solid organic content, and kerogen–bitumen discrimination.

  9. Geologic characteristics of hydrocarbon-bearing marine, transitional and lacustrine shales in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Shu; Xu, Zhengyu; Feng, Youliang; Zhang, Jinchuan; Cai, Dongsheng; Chen, Lei; Wu, Yue; Zhou, Dongsheng; Bao, Shujing; Long, Shengxiang

    2016-01-01

    Organic-rich shales spanning in age from Pre-Cambrian to Quaternary were widely deposited in China. This paper elaborates the geology and unique characteristics of emerging and potential hydrocarbon-bearing shales in China. The Pre-Cambrian Sinian Doushantuo to Silurian black marine shales in the intra-shelf low to slope environments were accumulated in South China and Tarim Platform in Northwest China. These marine shales with maturity (Ro) of 1.3-5% are in dry gas window. During Carboniferous to Permian, the shales associated with coal and sandstones were mainly deposited in coastal swamp transitional setting in north China, NE China, NW China and Yangtze platform in South China. These transitional shales are generally clay rich and are potential gas-bearing reservoirs. Since Middle Permian, the lacustrine shales with total carbon content (TOC) up to 30% and Ro mainly in oil window are widely distributed in all the producing basins in China. The lacustrine shales usually have more clay mineral content than marine shales and are characterized by rapid facies change and are interbedded with carbonates and sandstone. The high quality shale reservoir with high TOC, hydrocarbon content and brittle minerals content is usually located at transgressive systems tract (TST) to early highstand systems tract (EHST) interval deposited in anoxic depositional setting. Recent commercial shale gas production from the Silurian Longmaxi marine shale in the southeastern Sichuan Basin, preliminary tight oil production associated with lacustrine hydrocarbon-bearing shale intervals and hydrocarbon shows from many other shales have proven the hydrocarbon-bearing shales in China are emerging and potential shale gas and tight (shale) oil plays. Tectonic movements could have breached the early hydrocarbon accumulation in shales and tectonically stable areas are suggested to be favorable prospects for China shale plays exploration and production.

  10. Studies of the Scottish oil shale industry. Final report. Volume 2. Shale workers' pneumoconiosis and skin conditions: epidemiological surveys of surviving ex-shale workers

    SciTech Connect

    Louw, S.J.; Cowie, H.; Seaton, A.

    1985-03-01

    This report (in 3 volumes) describes the now defunct Scottish oil shale industry and its effects on the health of its workers. This volume investigates the prevalence of skin disease and pneumoconiosis in Scottish ex-oil shale workers. A cross sectional epidemiological survey has been carried base on a population enrolled in the 1950 Scottish Oils Ltd Provident Fund. Investigation of the Fund indicated that it would have included almost all industrial workers employed in the oil shale industry between 1950 and its closure in 1962. It is concluded that workers in the Scottish shale oil industry in its latter years were not at excess risk of skin disease, perhaps because of steps taken within the industry to reduce the known hazards of dermatitis and skin cancer. However, pneumoconiosis was a definite hazard of miners and retort workers and its presence was associated with an impairment of lung function suggestive of fibrosis and possibly emphysema as well. It is suggested that prevention of this hazard might sensibly be based on the strategy used in the coalmining industry and, in the absence of further information on dust and fume exposures of shale workers, standards as applied in coalmining should be appropriate. Radiological surveillance of dust-exposed workers, whether in mines or at retorts or tips, is recommended. 39 refs., 10 figs., 48 tabs.

  11. Environmental baselines: preparing for shale gas in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloomfield, John; Manamsa, Katya; Bell, Rachel; Darling, George; Dochartaigh, Brighid O.; Stuart, Marianne; Ward, Rob

    2014-05-01

    Groundwater is a vital source of freshwater in the UK. It provides almost 30% of public water supply on average, but locally, for example in south-east England, it is constitutes nearly 90% of public supply. In addition to public supply, groundwater has a number of other uses including agriculture, industry, and food and drink production. It is also vital for maintaining river flows especially during dry periods and so is essential for maintaining ecosystem health. Recently, there have been concerns expressed about the potential impacts of shale gas development on groundwater. The UK has abundant shales and clays which are currently the focus of considerable interest and there is active research into their characterisation, resource evaluation and exploitation risks. The British Geological Survey (BGS) is undertaking research to provide information to address some of the environmental concerns related to the potential impacts of shale gas development on groundwater resources and quality. The aim of much of this initial work is to establish environmental baselines, such as a baseline survey of methane occurrence in groundwater (National methane baseline study) and the spatial relationships between potential sources and groundwater receptors (iHydrogeology project), prior to any shale gas exploration and development. The poster describes these two baseline studies and presents preliminary findings. BGS are currently undertaking a national survey of baseline methane concentrations in groundwater across the UK. This work will enable any potential future changes in methane in groundwater associated with shale gas development to be assessed. Measurements of methane in potable water from the Cretaceous, Jurassic and Triassic carbonate and sandstone aquifers are variable and reveal methane concentrations of up to 500 micrograms per litre, but the mean value is relatively low at < 10 micrograms per litre. These values compare with much higher levels of methane in aquicludes

  12. Organizing a Congressional Candidate Debate as Experiential Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeckelman, Keith; Deitz, Janna L.; Hardy, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a political debate among congressional candidates that the authors organized in 2006. The debate was structured to maximize student involvement both in the planning stages and during the event itself. After discussing relevant literature on experiential learning, the article describes the debate format and details the issues…

  13. The Dewey-Hutchins Debate: A Dispute over Moral Teleology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, James Scott

    2011-01-01

    In this essay, James Scott Johnston claims that a dispute over moral teleology lies at the basis of the debate between John Dewey and Robert M. Hutchins. This debate has very often been cast in terms of perennialism, classicism, or realism versus progressivism, experimentalism, or pragmatism. Unfortunately, casting the debate in these terms…

  14. Traditional and Contemporary Influences upon British House of Commons Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auer, J. Jeffery

    1982-01-01

    An American observer's report on contemporary House of Commons debating and debaters. Discusses (1) traditional influences that come from the adversarial nature of parliamentary debate and its implications for communication style; and (2) contemporary influences, including education, that come from the changing characteristics of members of…

  15. Assigned Positions for In-Class Debates Influence Student Opinions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilly, Emily

    2012-01-01

    In-class debates are frequently used to encourage student engagement. Ideally, after researching both sides of the debate, students will form their own opinions based on what they have learned. However, in a large course of Environmental Science, opinions of students, when surveyed after the debate, were remarkably consistent with the position…

  16. How Do Female Students Participate in Online Debates?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson-Shivers, Gayle V.; Ellis, Holly Howard; Amarasing, Poonwilas Kay

    2010-01-01

    This case study focused on whether women, enrolled in a graduate course, would engage in online debate, and if so, whether their postings would contain traditional elements of argumentation (i.e., argue, elaborate, critique). Content analyses for two debates were performed. For the most part, the overarching messages in both debates were…

  17. A Transversely Isotropic Thermo-mechanical Framework for Oil Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semnani, S. J.; White, J. A.; Borja, R. I.

    2014-12-01

    The present study provides a thermo-mechanical framework for modeling the temperature dependent behavior of oil shale. As a result of heating, oil shale undergoes phase transformations, during which organic matter is converted to petroleum products, e.g. light oil, heavy oil, bitumen, and coke. The change in the constituents and microstructure of shale at high temperatures dramatically alters its mechanical behavior e.g. plastic deformations and strength, as demonstrated by triaxial tests conducted at multiple temperatures [1,2]. Accordingly, the present model formulates the effects of changes in the chemical constituents due to thermal loading. It is well known that due to the layered structure of shale its mechanical properties in the direction parallel to the bedding planes is significantly different from its properties in the perpendicular direction. Although isotropic models simplify the modeling process, they fail to accurately describe the mechanical behavior of these rocks. Therefore, many researchers have studied the anisotropic behavior of rocks, including shale [3]. The current study presents a framework to incorporate the effects of transverse isotropy within a thermo-mechanical formulation. The proposed constitutive model can be readily applied to existing finite element codes to predict the behavior of oil shale in applications such as in-situ retorting process and stability assessment in petroleum reservoirs. [1] Masri, M. et al."Experimental Study of the Thermomechanical Behavior of the Petroleum Reservoir." SPE Eastern Regional/AAPG Eastern Section Joint Meeting. Society of Petroleum Engineers, 2008. [2] Xu, B. et al. "Thermal impact on shale deformation/failure behaviors---laboratory studies." 45th US Rock Mechanics/Geomechanics Symposium. American Rock Mechanics Association, 2011. [3] Crook, AJL et al. "Development of an orthotropic 3D elastoplastic material model for shale." SPE/ISRM Rock Mechanics Conference. Society of Petroleum Engineers

  18. Porosity and permeability of eastern Devonian gas shale

    SciTech Connect

    Soeder, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    High-precision core analysis has been performed on eight samples of Devonian gas shale from the Appalachian Basin. Seven of the core samples consist of the Upper Devonian age Huron Member of the Ohio Shale, six of which came from wells in the Ohio River valley, and the seventh from a well in east-central Kentucky. The eighth core sample consists of Middle Devonian age Marcellus Shale obtained from a well in Morgantown, West Virginia. The core analysis was originally intended to supply accurate input data for Devonian shale numerical reservoir simulation. Unexpectedly, the results have also shown that there are a number of previously unknown factors which influence or control gas production from organic-rich shales of the Appalachian Basin. The presence of petroleum as a mobile liquid phase in the pores of all seven Huron Shale samples effectively limits the gas porosity of this formation to less than 0.2%, and permeability of the rock matrix to gas is less than 0.1 microdarcy at reservoir stress. The Marcellus Shale core, on the other hand, was free of a mobile liquid phase and had a measured gas porosity of approximately 10% under stress with a fairly strong ''adsorption'' component. Permeability to gas (K/sub infinity/ was highly stress-dependent, ranging from about 20 microdarcies at a net stress of 3000 psi down to about 5 microdarcies at a net stress of 6000 psi. The conclusion reached from this study is that Devonian shale in the Appalachian Basin is a considerably more complex natural gas resource than previously thought. Production potential varies widely with geographic location and stratigraphy, just as it does with other gas and oil resources. 15 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Method of rubblization for in-situ oil shale processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Lien C. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A method that produces a uniformly rubblized oil shale bed of desirable porosity for underground, in-situ heat extraction of oil. Rubblization is the generation of rubble of various sized fragments. The method uses explosive loadings lying at different levels in adjacent holes and detonation of the explosives at different levels in sequence to achieve the fracturing and the subsequent expansion of the fractured oil shale into excavated rooms both above and below the hole pattern.

  20. Cyclone oil shale retorting concept. [Use it all retorting process

    SciTech Connect

    Harak, A.E.; Little, W.E.; Faulders, C.R.

    1984-04-01

    A new concept for above-ground retorting of oil shale was disclosed by A.E. Harak in US Patent No. 4,340,463, dated July 20, 1982, and assigned to the US Department of Energy. This patent titled System for Utilizing Oil Shale Fines, describes a process wherein oil shale fines of one-half inch diameter and less are pyrolyzed in an entrained-flow reactor using hot gas from a cyclone combustor. Spent shale and supplemental fuel are burned at slagging conditions in this combustor. Because of fines utilization, the designation Use It All Retorting Process (UIARP) has been adopted. A preliminary process engineering design of the UIARP, analytical tests on six samples of raw oil shale, and a preliminary technical and economic evaluation of the process were performed. The results of these investigations are summarized in this report. The patent description is included. It was concluded that such changes as deleting air preheating in the slag quench and replacing the condenser with a quench-oil scrubber are recognized as being essential. The addition of an entrained flow raw shale preheater ahead of the cyclone retort is probably required, but final acceptance is felt to be contingent on some verification that adequate reaction time cannot be obtained with only the cyclone, or possibly some other twin-cyclone configuration. Sufficient raw shale preheating could probably be done more simply in another manner, perhaps in a screw conveyor shale transporting system. Results of the technical and economic evaluations of Jacobs Engineering indicate that further investigation of the UIARP is definitely worthwhile. The projected capital and operating costs are competitive with costs of other processes as long as electric power generation and sales are part of the processing facility.

  1. Debates about assisted suicide in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Burkhardt, Sandra; La Harpe, Romano

    2012-12-01

    Assisted suicide is allowed in 3 states of the United States (Oregon, Washington, Montana) but only if performed by a physician.On the opposite, in Switzerland, at the beginning of the 20th century, the Swiss Penal Code referred to assisted suicide in the context of honor or an unhappy love affair. It was only in 1985 that Exit Deutsche Schweiz (Exit for German-speaking Switzerland) "medically" assisted the first patient to end his life.Even if authorized by the Swiss law upon certain conditions, assisted suicide is subject to debates for ethical reasons. The Swiss Academy of Medical Sciences described directives to guide physicians on this difficult subject.Different studies showed an increase in the number of medical-assisted suicide in Switzerland since the 1990s. Now, this number seems to be quite stable. Assisted suicide is authorized in a few hospitals under strict conditions (especially when returning home is impossible).Thus, according to the Swiss law, any person could perform assisted suicide; this is essentially performed by 3 main associations, using pentobarbital on medical prescription as lethal substance.Generally speaking, the Swiss population is rather in favor of assisted suicide. Among politics, the debate has been tough until 2010, when the Federal Council decided not to modify the Swiss Penal Code concerning assisted suicide. PMID:23099546

  2. The labeling debate in the United States.

    PubMed

    Marchant, Gary E; Cardineau, Guy A

    2013-01-01

    The mandatory labeling of genetically modified (GM) food has become the predominant policy issue concerning biotechnology in the United States. The controversy over GM labeling is being debated at several different levels and branches of government. At the federal level, the Food and Drug Administration, which has primary jurisdiction over food safety and labeling, has steadfastly refused to require labeling of GM foods since 1992 based on its conclusion that GM foods as a category present no unique or higher risks than other foods. Proposed legislation has been repeatedly introduced in the US. Congress over the years to mandate GM labeling, but has made very little progress. With federal labeling requirements apparently stalled, the main activity has switched to the state level, where numerous individual states are considering mandatory GM labeling, either through legislation or proposition. The debate over GM labeling, at both the federal and state levels, has focused on five issues: (1) public opinion; (2) the legality of labeling requirements; (3) the risks and benefits of GM foods; (4) the costs and burdens of GM labeling; and (5) consumer choice. While the pro-labeling forces argue that all of these factors weigh in favor of mandatory GM labeling, a more careful evaluation of the evidence finds that all five factors weigh decisively against mandatory GM labeling requirements. PMID:23982076

  3. Dry needling versus acupuncture: the ongoing debate.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Kehua; Ma, Yan; Brogan, Michael S

    2015-12-01

    Although Western medical acupuncture (WMA) is commonly practised in the UK, a particular approach called dry needling (DN) is becoming increasingly popular in other countries. The legitimacy of the use of DN by conventional non-physician healthcare professionals is questioned by acupuncturists. This article describes the ongoing debate over the practice of DN between physical therapists and acupuncturists, with a particular emphasis on the USA. DN and acupuncture share many similarities but may differ in certain aspects. Currently, little information is available from the literature regarding the relationship between the two needling techniques. Through reviewing their origins, theory, and practice, we found that DN and acupuncture overlap in terms of needling technique with solid filiform needles as well as some fundamental theories. Both WMA and DN are based on modern biomedical understandings of the human body, although DN arguably represents only one subcategory of WMA. The increasing volume of research into needling therapy explains its growing popularity in the musculoskeletal field including sports medicine. To resolve the debate over DN practice, we call for the establishment of a regulatory body to accredit DN courses and a formal, comprehensive educational component and training for healthcare professionals who are not physicians or acupuncturists. Because of the close relationship between DN and acupuncture, collaboration rather than dispute between acupuncturists and other healthcare professionals should be encouraged with respect to education, research, and practice for the benefit of patients with musculoskeletal conditions who require needling therapy. PMID:26546163

  4. Raising the ante on the climate debate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowley, Thomas J.

    Almost alone in the world of science, there is a substantial U.S. effort to discredit some basic conclusions in the global warming debate. There are always legitimate reasons to query scientific conclusions, but the tenor of the debate has taken on a flavor of its own. Since the epicenter of the dispute is in Washington, D.C., the suspicion arises that not all of the discussion is business-as-usual scientific disagreement.The most recent example of the heightening level of the dispute involves a 23 June 2005 letter from U.S. Rep. Joe Barton (R-Tex.), chair of the House Committee on Energy and Commerce, to Michael Mann (University of Virginia) and his collaborators, Raymond Bradley (University of Massachusetts) and Malcolm Hughes (University of Arizona). The dispute centers on the much discussed “hockey stick” reconstruction of Mann et al. [1998,1999]. In those reconstructions, the twentieth century warming stands well above Northern Hemisphere temperature fluctuations of the last 1000 years. Other investigators, using some of the same data but with different approaches, have also reconstructed temperatures of the last millennium (see Mann et al. [2003] for a summary discussion). In general, there is more agreement than disagreement among the various reconstructions. The differences stem mainly from the scaling of the oscillations, but in all cases the late twentieth century is anomalous in a millennial context.

  5. Water Availability for Shale Gas Development in Sichuan Basin, China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Mengjun; Weinthal, Erika; Patiño-Echeverri, Dalia; Deshusses, Marc A; Zou, Caineng; Ni, Yunyan; Vengosh, Avner

    2016-03-15

    Unconventional shale gas development holds promise for reducing the predominant consumption of coal and increasing the utilization of natural gas in China. While China possesses some of the most abundant technically recoverable shale gas resources in the world, water availability could still be a limiting factor for hydraulic fracturing operations, in addition to geological, infrastructural, and technological barriers. Here, we project the baseline water availability for the next 15 years in Sichuan Basin, one of the most promising shale gas basins in China. Our projection shows that continued water demand for the domestic sector in Sichuan Basin could result in high to extremely high water stress in certain areas. By simulating shale gas development and using information from current water use for hydraulic fracturing in Sichuan Basin (20,000-30,000 m(3) per well), we project that during the next decade water use for shale gas development could reach 20-30 million m(3)/year, when shale gas well development is projected to be most active. While this volume is negligible relative to the projected overall domestic water use of ∼36 billion m(3)/year, we posit that intensification of hydraulic fracturing and water use might compete with other water utilization in local water-stress areas in Sichuan Basin. PMID:26881457

  6. Experimental investigations of the wettability of clays and shales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borysenko, Artem; Clennell, Ben; Sedev, Rossen; Burgar, Iko; Ralston, John; Raven, Mark; Dewhurst, David; Liu, Keyu

    2009-07-01

    Wettability in argillaceous materials is poorly understood, yet it is critical to hydrocarbon recovery in clay-rich reservoirs and capillary seal capacity in both caprocks and fault gouges. The hydrophobic or hydrophilic nature of clay-bearing soils and sediments also controls to a large degree the movement of spilled nonaqueous phase liquids in the subsurface and the options available for remediation of these pollutants. In this paper the wettability of hydrocarbons contacting shales in their natural state and the tendencies for wettability alteration were examined. Water-wet, oil-wet, and mixed-wet shales from wells in Australia were investigated and were compared with simplified model shales (single and mixed minerals) artificially treated in crude oil. The intact natural shale samples (preserved with their original water content) were characterized petrophysically by dielectric spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance, plus scanning electron, optical and fluorescence microscopy. Wettability alteration was studied using spontaneous imbibition, pigment extraction, and the sessile drop method for contact angle measurement. The mineralogy and chemical compositions of the shales were determined by standard methods. By studying pure minerals and natural shales in parallel, a correlation between the petrophysical properties, and wetting behavior was observed. These correlations may potentially be used to assess wettability in downhole measurements.

  7. Hydrocarbon potential of Upper Devonian black shale, eastern Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, I.M.; Frankie, W.T.; Moody, J.R.; Kemper, J.R.; Elkin, R.R.

    1987-09-01

    The gas-producing Upper Devonian black shales of eastern Kentucky represent cycles of organic units alternating with less-organic units that were dominated by an influx of clastics from a northeastern source. This pattern of sedimentation is typical throughout the southern Appalachian basin in areas basinal to, yet still influenced by, the Catskill delta to the northwest. These black shales, which thin westward onto the Cincinnati arch, dip eastward into the Appalachian basin. To evaluate the future gas potential of Devonian shale, a data base has been compiled, consisting of specific geologic and engineering information from 5920 Devonian shale wells in Letcher, Knott, Floyd, Martin, and Pike Counties, Kentucky. The first successful gas completion in eastern Kentucky was drilled in Martin County in 1901. Comparison of initial open-flow potential (IP) and long-term production data for these wells demonstrates that higher IP values generally indicate wells of higher production potential. Areas of higher IP are aligned linearly, and these lineaments are interpreted to be related to fracture systems within the Devonian shale. These fractures may be basement influenced. Temperature log analyses indicate that the greatest number of natural gas shows occur in the lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale. Using both the temperature log to indicate gas shows and the gamma-ray log to determine the producing unit is a workable method for selecting the interval for treatment.

  8. Foamed sand provides improved stimulation results from Devonian Shale

    SciTech Connect

    Strang, D.L.; Norton, J.L.

    1983-11-01

    Generally, water saturations in the Devonian Shale are low. Production records indicate minimal, if any, water in the areas producing gas or gas and oil. This low water saturation appears to be the key to stimulating the shale, especially in the oil-producing areas. The introduction of water in the stimulation fluid appears to reduce the permeability to oil, which is reflected in poorer production. The relative permeability reduction seems to be more of a problem than particle migration or clay swelling and could explain the good initial results from straight nitrogen treatments. However, the lack of a proppant, even with low closure stress, leads to very rapid declines. Water-base stimulation fluids appear to increase water saturation in the Devonian Shale. Use of 90+ quality foam with sand should provide a method of minimizing saturation changes while creating a propped fracture. Initial results indicate this technique provides better sustained production increases in the Devonian Shale. This paper defines areas of production, describes the geology and presents physical data of the Devonian Shale. It also compares results of several types of treatments that have been used in the Devonian Shale. These results indicate 90+ quality foam with sand should provide an improved stimulation technique for this formation.

  9. Oil shale in the United States: prospects for development

    SciTech Connect

    Drabenstott, M.; Duncan, M.; Borowski, M.

    1984-05-01

    The development of an oil shale industry has had its ups and downs throughout this century. Despite vast reserves of recoverable shale oil, energy prices usually have been high enough to make extraction of that oil commercially viable. The tripling and then tripling again of world oil prices in the 1970s gave initial promise that development had become economically feasible. After only a few years of rapid development activity, however, the effort was brought to a near-halt by falling world oil prices. The results were a substantial reduction in economic activity for northwestern Colorado and, maybe more importantly, sharply lower expectations for the region's future economic growth. In both the upturn and the downturn, the local public sector was essentially shielded from financial stress because the energy companies helped fund public spending on infrastructure and services. The future for oil shale remains uncertain. A few energy companies continue to pursue their development plans. To spur development of commercial scale plants, Synthetic Fuels Corporation has made loan and price guarantees to energy firms. Some projects may soon be extracting oil, providing needed technological and financial information on various techniques of oil extraction. But the future for oil shale remains clouded by uncertainties regarding the cost of producing syncrude and future oil prices. Environmental issues could also hamper oil shale development. Therefore, oil shale remains, as it has for more than a century, a technical and economic enigma that has only begun to be understood and developed. 8 references, 3 figures, 3 tables

  10. Imbibition of hydraulic fracturing fluids into partially saturated shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birdsell, Daniel T.; Rajaram, Harihar; Lackey, Greg

    2015-08-01

    Recent studies suggest that imbibition of hydraulic fracturing fluids into partially saturated shale is an important mechanism that restricts their migration, thus reducing the risk of groundwater contamination. We present computations of imbibition based on an exact semianalytical solution for spontaneous imbibition. These computations lead to quantitative estimates of an imbibition rate parameter (A) with units of LT-1/2 for shale, which is related to porous medium and fluid properties, and the initial water saturation. Our calculations suggest that significant fractions of injected fluid volumes (15-95%) can be imbibed in shale gas systems, whereas imbibition volumes in shale oil systems is much lower (3-27%). We present a nondimensionalization of A, which provides insights into the critical factors controlling imbibition, and facilitates the estimation of A based on readily measured porous medium and fluid properties. For a given set of medium and fluid properties, A varies by less than factors of ˜1.8 (gas nonwetting phase) and ˜3.4 (oil nonwetting phase) over the range of initial water saturations reported for the Marcellus shale (0.05-0.6). However, for higher initial water saturations, A decreases significantly. The intrinsic permeability of the shale and the viscosity of the fluids are the most important properties controlling the imbibition rate.

  11. Environmental Public Health Dimensions of Shale and Tight Gas Development

    PubMed Central

    Hays, Jake; Finkel, Madelon L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The United States has experienced a boom in natural gas production due to recent technological innovations that have enabled this resource to be produced from shale formations. Objectives: We reviewed the body of evidence related to exposure pathways in order to evaluate the potential environmental public health impacts of shale gas development. We highlight what is currently known and identify data gaps and research limitations by addressing matters of toxicity, exposure pathways, air quality, and water quality. Discussion: There is evidence of potential environmental public health risks associated with shale gas development. Several studies suggest that shale gas development contributes to ambient air concentrations of pollutants known to be associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Similarly, an increasing body of studies suggest that water contamination risks exist through a variety of environmental pathways, most notably during wastewater transport and disposal, and via poor zonal isolation of gases and fluids due to structural integrity impairment of cement in gas wells. Conclusion: Despite a growing body of evidence, data gaps persist. Most important, there is a need for more epidemiological studies to assess associations between risk factors, such as air and water pollution, and health outcomes among populations living in close proximity to shale gas operations. Citation: Shonkoff SB, Hays J, Finkel ML. 2014. Environmental public health dimensions of shale and tight gas development. Environ Health Perspect 122:787–795; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307866 PMID:24736097

  12. Validation Results for Core-Scale Oil Shale Pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Staten, Josh; Tiwari, Pankaj

    2015-03-01

    This report summarizes a study of oil shale pyrolysis at various scales and the subsequent development a model for in situ production of oil from oil shale. Oil shale from the Mahogany zone of the Green River formation was used in all experiments. Pyrolysis experiments were conducted at four scales, powdered samples (100 mesh) and core samples of 0.75”, 1” and 2.5” diameters. The batch, semibatch and continuous flow pyrolysis experiments were designed to study the effect of temperature (300°C to 500°C), heating rate (1°C/min to 10°C/min), pressure (ambient and 500 psig) and size of the sample on product formation. Comprehensive analyses were performed on reactants and products - liquid, gas and spent shale. These experimental studies were designed to understand the relevant coupled phenomena (reaction kinetics, heat transfer, mass transfer, thermodynamics) at multiple scales. A model for oil shale pyrolysis was developed in the COMSOL multiphysics platform. A general kinetic model was integrated with important physical and chemical phenomena that occur during pyrolysis. The secondary reactions of coking and cracking in the product phase were addressed. The multiscale experimental data generated and the models developed provide an understanding of the simultaneous effects of chemical kinetics, and heat and mass transfer on oil quality and yield. The comprehensive data collected in this study will help advance the move to large-scale in situ oil production from the pyrolysis of oil shale.

  13. Life-cycle analysis of shale gas and natural gas.

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, C.E.; Han, J.; Burnham, A.; Dunn, J.B.; Wang, M.

    2012-01-27

    The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. Using the current state of knowledge of the recovery, processing, and distribution of shale gas and conventional natural gas, we have estimated up-to-date, life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we have developed distribution functions for key parameters in each pathway to examine uncertainty and identify data gaps - such as methane emissions from shale gas well completions and conventional natural gas liquid unloadings - that need to be addressed further. Our base case results show that shale gas life-cycle emissions are 6% lower than those of conventional natural gas. However, the range in values for shale and conventional gas overlap, so there is a statistical uncertainty regarding whether shale gas emissions are indeed lower than conventional gas emissions. This life-cycle analysis provides insight into the critical stages in the natural gas industry where emissions occur and where opportunities exist to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas.

  14. Oil-shale mining in Maoming basin of China

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell-Tapping, H.J.

    1989-03-01

    The Maoming basin in Guangdong Province is one of the major oil-shale mining areas of China and is situated about 300 km southwest of Hong Kong. This Tertiary basin produces oil from shales mined from a 5-km long open-faced pit on the crest of an anticline in the center of an uplifted and tilted graben. The oil shale extends about 30 km in a northwest-southeast line, and the beds dip as much as 10/degree/ toward metamorphic mountains to the northeast. In the surrounding area are numerous oil seeps, especially in ponds, water wells, and at the foundations of buildings. Holes with oil shows, made to test the extent of the oil shale, have been drilled to a depth of 1000 m. At the base of the mine face is a limestone hardground on top of which is a coal seam about 0.5 m thick that can be traced throughout the basin. Atop this Paleocene coal bed are Eocene oil-shale and thin sandstone beds in five repeated sections, each about 15 m thick, called the Youganwou formation. All kinds of freshwater fossils - fish, insects, plants, turtles, and tree trunks - are found in a near-perfect state of preservation in these oil-rich shales and coal sections. The estimated oil content of the rock is about 8% of good-quality oil with plenty of light ends.

  15. Union Oil Company's Parachute Creek shale oil program

    SciTech Connect

    Randle, A.C.; Heckel, T.L.

    1982-05-01

    In the Parachute Creek area of the Piceance Creek Basin in Garfield County, Colorado, Union Oil Company is developing the first commercial shale oil project in the United States. In early 1981, Union began construction of a 12,500-ton-per-day roomand-pillar mine and a surface retort that will produce 10,000 barrels of raw shale oil per day. A 10,000-barrel-per-day upgrading facility, to convert the raw shale oil into a high-quality syncrude, also is under construction. This 10,000-barrel-per-day project is planned for completion in mid-1983. It is the first phase of a major shale oil project that will produce 90,000 barrels per day of shale oil when completed in 1993. This paper describes Union's mining methods and the upflow retort developed by Union's Science and Technology Division. It also describes the upgrading process that will convert shale oil into a syncrude acceptable to today's refineries. Also included is a discussion of the current status of the project.

  16. Studies of the Scottish oil shale industry. Volume 3. Causes of death of Scottish oil shale workers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.G.; Cowie, H.; Middleton, W.G.; Seaton, A.

    1985-05-01

    The hazards of the Scottish oil shale industry are reported in three volumes. This volume addresses the cause of death for personnel in the oil shale industry. Skin cancer deaths showed a hazard significantly greater than unity. In comparing oil shale workers mortality with that of the population of 2 counties, an increase in death from bronchitis and emphysema was demonstrated. Comparisons of mortality within the study group to determine if any particular jobs in the industry were more hazardous than others showed no significant associations. There appeared to be a slight excess of prostrate cancer among retort workers. In a case-control study, no significant increase in relative hazard of lung cancer was found in association with workers or residents in areas of high shale activity. 21 refs., 4 figs., 27 tabs. (DMC)

  17. Effects of retorting factors on combustion properties of shale char. 3. Distribution of residual organic matters.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiangxin; Jiang, Xiumin; Cui, Zhigang; Liu, Jianguo; Yan, Junwei

    2010-03-15

    Shale char, formed in retort furnaces of oil shale, is classified as a dangerous waste containing several toxic compounds. In order to retort oil shale to produce shale oil as well as treat shale char efficiently and in an environmentally friendly way, a novel kind of comprehensive utilization system was developed to use oil shale for shale oil production, electricity generation (shale char fired) and the extensive application of oil shale ash. For exploring the combustion properties of shale char further, in this paper organic matters within shale chars obtained under different retorting conditions were extracted and identified using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. Subsequently, the effects of retorting factors, including retorting temperature, residence time, particle size and heating rate, were analyzed in detail. As a result, a retorting condition with a retorting temperature of 460-490 degrees C, residence time of <40 min and a middle particle size was recommended for both keeping nitrogenous organic matters and aromatic hydrocarbons in shale char and improving the yield and quality of shale oil. In addition, shale char obtained under such retorting condition can also be treated efficiently using a circulating fluidized bed technology with fractional combustion. PMID:19896769

  18. Urban Debate and High School Educational Outcomes for African American Males: The Case of the Chicago Debate League

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mezuk, Briana

    2009-01-01

    This study examines whether participating in competitive policy debate influences high school completion, academic achievement, and college readiness for African American male students. The analysis examines data from the Chicago Debate League from 1997 to 2006. Debate participants were 70% more likely to graduate and three times less likely to…

  19. The "Ad Circulorum" Fallacy and Comparative Advantage Debating or: Why Don't Debate Cases Make Sense to Outside Listeners?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Larry S.

    Circular reasoning is often employed in comparative advantage debate cases when only a plan and advantages are articulated without adequate reference to the resolution which inspired the proposal. The advancing of such subtopical analyses as debate cases is deleterious to the long-range interests of educational debate because the practice…

  20. Rock-eval pyrolysis and vitrinite reflectance trends in the Cleveland Shale Member of the Ohio Shale, eastern Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rimmer, S.M.; Cantrell, D.J.; Gooding, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    Within eastern Kentucky, organic petrographic and geochemical data indicate a southeastwards increase in maturation of the Cleveland Shale Member of the Ohio Shale (Devonian-Mississippian). Reflectance levels of dispersed organic material in the Cleveland Shale increase from 0.5% in the outcrop belt in central Kentucky, to slightly over 1.0% in Pike County, eastern Kentucky. A decrease in fluorescence intensity of liptinitic components, such as Tasmanites, accompanies this reflectance increase, as does a shift in fluorescence color of the alginite towards the red. In the highest rank areas, fluorescence is almost absent. Groundmass fluorescence is observed also, and follows trends similar to those shown by the alginite. Kerogen in the Cleveland Shale is primarily Type II, as indicated by petrographic observations and Rock-Eval data. Total organic carbon contents of this shale decrease from over 12% in the outcrop belt, to less than 2% in the eastern-most part of the study area. Source rock potential ranges from good to very good, with the highest potentials occurring in the outcrop belt. Tmax values for this unit increase from under 430??C in the outcrop belt to over 450??C in the southeast, confirming the increase in maturation trends indicated by vitrinite reflectance data. Both petrographic and geochemical maturation parameters place the Cleveland Shale of eastern Kentucky within the oil window. Comparison with maturation data for Pennsylvanian-age coals upsection suggests that maturation indices are retarded, or suppressed, in the Devonian shales. The level of maturation indicated for the Cleveland may be problematical considering that the Ohio Shale is a major gas-producer in this area. ?? 1993.

  1. Remagnetization of lower Silurian black shale and insights into shale gas in the Sichuan Basin, south China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Jia, Dong; Yin, Hongwei; Liu, Mancang; Xie, Wuren; Wei, Guoqi; Li, Yongxiang

    2016-02-01

    The organic-rich lower Silurian shale of the Longmaxi Formation in the Sichuan Basin is the most important target for shale-gas exploration in China. Most Paleozoic rocks of the Sichuan Basin have experienced extraordinarily pervasive remagnetizations. To test a hypothesized connection between hydrocarbon generation and remagnetization and contribute to shale-gas exploration in the region, we undertook an integrated magnetic, geochemical, and petrographic study of 160 specimens from the shale. The results suggest that the shale contains a reliable remanent magnetization (Dec = 41.4°, Inc = 40.8°, and α95 = 6.8°). The magnetization predates tilting, and the paleopole plots close to the Late Triassic segment of the south China apparent polar wander path. The rock magnetic data and scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations confirm that framboidal magnetites carry the bulk of the magnetization, which suggest a Late Triassic chemical remanent magnetization in the shale. 87Sr/86Sr and magnetic analyses indicate that the amount of magnetite was unaffected by fluid alterations around the veins but is strongly covariant with the amount of total organic matter. Moreover, SEM observations reveal possible evidence of the replacement of pyrite framboids by magnetite, probably in the presence of organic acids. These analyses, therefore, suggest that the remagnetization was caused by organic maturation rather than orogenic fluids and that the maturation occurred in the Late Triassic. This timing of organic maturation has been validated by independent modeling studies and provides important constraints on the complex thermal history of the Longmaxi Shale as well as contributing to shale-gas exploration efforts.

  2. Studying the possibility of separate and joint combustion of Estonian shales and oil shale retort gas at thermal power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roslyakov, P. V.; Attikas, Raivo; Zaichenko, M. N.; Pleshanov, K. A.; Ionkin, I. L.

    2015-10-01

    Results from investigations of joint and separate combustion of shale with a low heating value and oil shale retort gas (OSRG) are presented. The question about the possibility of further using shale as basic fuel is presently placed on the agenda. This matter is connected with the fact that the environmental regulations are imposing increasingly more stringent limits on emissions of harmful substances and that a decrease in the shale heating value is predicted. An adequate mathematical model of one of the TP-101 boilers installed at the Estonian power plant was developed and verified for carrying out investigations. Criteria for determining the reliability, efficiency, and environmental safety of equipment operation were formulated based on the operating chart, regulatory documents, and environmental requirements. Assessment of the possibility of boiler operation and the boiler unit as a whole in firing shale with a low calorific value has shown that despite fulfilling the required superheated steam parameters, quite a number of limitations relating to reliable operation of the boiler are not complied with. In addition, normal operation of forced-draft equipment and mills is possible only at low loads. For operation with joint combustion of shale and OSRG, the fractions of degraded-quality shale and OSRG (by heat) at which reliable and efficient operation of the boiler and boiler unit is ensured in the entire working range of loads with fulfilling the environmental standards are determined. Proposals on modifying the equipment for joint combustion of shale and OSRG are formulated. Boiler operation with firing OSRG as main fuel was modeled for three versions of furnace waterwall thermal efficiency with a view to estimate possible changes of boiler operation in carrying out waterwall cleaning operations. Calculation results have shown that operation of the boiler and boiler unit meeting the elaborated criteria is possible in the entire working range of loads with

  3. Geochemical and isotopic variations in shallow groundwater in areas of the Fayetteville Shale development, north-central Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warner, Nathaniel R.; Kresse, Timothy M.; Hays, Phillip D.; Down, Adrian; Karr, Jonathan D.; Jackson, R.B.; Vengosh, Avner

    2013-01-01

    Exploration of unconventional natural gas reservoirs such as impermeable shale basins through the use of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing has changed the energy landscape in the USA providing a vast new energy source. The accelerated production of natural gas has triggered a debate concerning the safety and possible environmental impacts of these operations. This study investigates one of the critical aspects of the environmental effects; the possible degradation of water quality in shallow aquifers overlying producing shale formations. The geochemistry of domestic groundwater wells was investigated in aquifers overlying the Fayetteville Shale in north-central Arkansas, where approximately 4000 wells have been drilled since 2004 to extract unconventional natural gas. Monitoring was performed on 127 drinking water wells and the geochemistry of major ions, trace metals, CH4 gas content and its C isotopes (δ13CCH4), and select isotope tracers (δ11B, 87Sr/86Sr, δ2H, δ18O, δ13CDIC) compared to the composition of flowback-water samples directly from Fayetteville Shale gas wells. Dissolved CH4 was detected in 63% of the drinking-water wells (32 of 51 samples), but only six wells exceeded concentrations of 0.5 mg CH4/L. The δ13CCH4 of dissolved CH4 ranged from −42.3‰ to −74.7‰, with the most negative values characteristic of a biogenic source also associated with the highest observed CH4 concentrations, with a possible minor contribution of trace amounts of thermogenic CH4. The majority of these values are distinct from the reported thermogenic composition of the Fayetteville Shale gas (δ13CCH4 = −35.4‰ to −41.9‰). Based on major element chemistry, four shallow groundwater types were identified: (1) low (<100 mg/L) total dissolved solids (TDS), (2) TDS > 100 mg/L and Ca–HCO3 dominated, (3) TDS > 100 mg/L and Na–HCO3dominated, and (4) slightly saline groundwater with TDS > 100 mg/L and Cl > 20 mg/L with elevated

  4. Broadening the Debate: Comments on Michael J. Feuer's "Moderating the Debate"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Emily

    2009-01-01

    In "Moderating the Debate: Rationality and the Promise of American Education", Michael Feuer argues that insights from cognitive science and the theory of bounded rationality can help us understand why educational policy makers overreach in seeking optimal solutions to educational problems. In this essay, Emily Robertson argues that cognitive…

  5. Role of shale thickness on vertical connectivity of fractures: application of crack-bridging theory to the Austin Chalk, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rijken, Peggy; Cooke, Michele L.

    2001-07-01

    Contrasting material properties of alternating chalk and shale layers control vertical connectivity of fractures. Our field observations within the Austin Chalk, Texas indicate that: (1) the majority of vertical fractures occur in chalk layers and abut against contacts with shale layers, (2) thicker shale layers have greater resistance to fracture propagation than thinner shale layers. From these observations we hypothesize both the resistance of shale to fracturing and the thickness of shale layers may inhibit fracture propagation across the shale and into the next chalk layer. We model crack propagation within a three-layered system (brittle chalk:fracture resistant shale:brittle chalk). The modeled crack extends across the shale, but closing tractions applied to the crack segment within the shale layer simulate resistance of shale to fracturing. The crack-tip lies a short distance within the unfractured chalk layer simulating a coplanar flaw with potential to propagate. If the stress intensity factor at the flaw exceeds the chalk fracture toughness, the crack propagates, thereby bridging and eventually rupturing the shale layer. For any chalk thickness, there is a critical shale thickness above which fractures cross the shale layer and below which fractures arrest at shale. Finite Element Method (FEM) analysis evaluates the influence of shale ductility within the chalk: shale: chalk system. Although remote and fluid pressure driven fractures produce identical stress intensity factors in elastic chalk/shale systems, lower driving stresses are required to propagate fluid pressure driven fractures through a system ductile shale layers than fractures under remote tension.

  6. Slow Radio-Frequency Processing of Large Oil Shale Volumes to Produce Petroleum-Like Shale Oil

    SciTech Connect

    Burnham, A K

    2003-08-20

    A process is proposed to convert oil shale by radio frequency heating over a period of months to years to create a product similar to natural petroleum. Electrodes would be placed in drill holes, either vertical or horizontal, and a radio frequency chosen so that the penetration depth of the radio waves is of the order of tens to hundreds of meters. A combination of excess volume production and overburden compaction drives the oil and gas from the shale into the drill holes, where it is pumped to the surface. Electrical energy for the process could be provided initially by excess regional capacity, especially off-peak power, which would generate {approx}3 x 10{sup 5} bbl/day of synthetic crude oil, depending on shale grade. The electricity cost, using conservative efficiency assumptions, is $4.70 to $6.30/bbl, depending on grade and heating rate. At steady state, co-produced gas can generate more than half the electric power needed for the process, with the fraction depending on oil shale grade. This would increase production to 7.3 x 10{sup 5} bbl/day for 104 l/Mg shale and 1.6 x 10{sup 6} bbl/day for 146 l/Mg shale using a combination of off-peak power and power from co-produced gas.

  7. Sealing shales versus brittle shales: A threshold in the properties and uses of fine-grained sedimentary rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourg, I. C.

    2015-12-01

    Fine-grained sedimentary rocks (shale, mudstone) play important roles in global CO2 abatement efforts through their importance in carbon capture and storage (CCS), radioactive waste storage, and shale gas extraction. These different technologies rely on seemingly conflicting premises regarding the sealing properties of shale and mudstone, suggesting that fine-grained rocks that lend themselves to hydrocarbon extraction may not be optimal seals for CCS or radioactive waste storage, and vice versa. In this paper, a compilation of experimental data on the properties of well-characterized shale and mudstone formations is used to demonstrate that clay mineral mass fraction, Xclay, is a master variable that controls key material properties of these formations and that a remarkably sharp threshold at Xclay ~ 1/3 separates fine-grained rocks with very different properties. This threshold coincides with the predictions of a simple conceptual model of the microstructure of sedimentary rocks and is reflected in the applications of shale and mudstone formations for CCS, radioactive waste storage, and shale gas extraction.

  8. Continuously increasing δ98Mo values in Neoarchean black shales and iron formations from the Hamersley Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurzweil, Florian; Wille, Martin; Schoenberg, Ronny; Taubald, Heinrich; Van Kranendonk, Martin J.

    2015-09-01

    We present Mo-, C- and O-isotope data from black shales, carbonate- and oxide facies iron formations from the Hamersley Group, Western Australia, that range in age from 2.6 to 2.5 billion years. The data show a continuous increase from near crustal δ98Mo values of around 0.50‰ for the oldest Marra Mamba and Wittenoom formations towards higher values of up to 1.51‰ for the youngest sample of the Brockman Iron Formation. Thereby, the trend in increasing δ98Mo values is portrayed by both carbonate facies iron formations and black shales. Considering the positive correlation between Mo concentration and total organic carbon, we argue that this uniformity is best explained by molybdate adsorption onto organic matter in carbonate iron formations and scavenging of thiomolybdate onto sulfurized organic matter in black shales. A temporal increase in the seawater δ98Mo over the period 2.6-2.5 Ga is observed assuming an overall low Mo isotope fractionation during both Mo removal processes. Oxide facies iron formations show lowest Mo concentrations, lowest total organic carbon and slightly lower δ98Mo compared to nearly contemporaneous black shales. This may indicate that in iron formation settings with very low organic matter burial rates, the preferential adsorption of light Mo isotopes onto Fe-(oxyhydr)oxides becomes more relevant. A similar Mo-isotope pattern was previously found in contemporaneous black shales and carbonates of the Griqualand West Basin, South Africa. The consistent and concomitant increase in δ98Mo after 2.54 billion years ago suggests a more homogenous distribution of seawater molybdate with uniform isotopic composition in various depositional settings within the Hamersley Basin and the Griqualand West Basin. The modeling of the oceanic Mo inventory in relation to the Mo in- and outflux suggests that the long-term build-up of an isotopically heavy seawater Mo reservoir requires a sedimentary sink for isotopically light Mo. The search for this

  9. Western oil shale development: a technology assessment. Volume 8. Health effects of oil shale development

    SciTech Connect

    Rotariu, G.J.

    1982-02-01

    Information on the potential health effects of a developing oil shale industry can be derived from two major sources: (1) the historical experience in foreign countries that have had major industries; and (2) the health effects research that has been conducted in the US in recent years. The information presented here is divided into two major sections: one dealing with the experience in foreign countries and the second dealing with the more recent work associated with current oil shale development in the US. As a result of the study, several observations can be made: (1) most of the current and historical data from foreign countries relate to occupational hazards rather than to impacts on regional populations; (2) neither the historical evidence from other countries nor the results of current research have shown pulmonary neoplasia to be a major concern, however, certain types of exposure, particularly such mixed source exposures as dust/diesel or dust/organic-vapor have not been adequately studied and the lung cancer question is not closed; (3) the industry should be alert to the incidence of skin disease in the industrial setting, however, automated techniques, modern industrial hygiene practices and realistic personal hygiene should greatly reduce the hazards associated with skin contact; and (4) the entire question of regional water contamination and any resultant health hazard has not been adequately addressed. The industrial practice of hydrotreating the crude shale oil will diminish the carcinogenic hazard of the product, however, the quantitative reduction of biological activity is dependent on the degree of hydrotreatment. Both Soviet and American experimentalists have demonstrated a correlation betweed carcinogenicity/toxicity and retorting temperature; the higher temperatures producing the more carcinogenic or toxic products.

  10. Online Debates to Enhance Critical Thinking in Pharmacotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Appleton, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To assess the impact of teaching strategies on the complexity and structure of students’ arguments and type of informal reasoning used in arguments. Design. Students were given an introduction to argumentation followed by 2 formal debates, with feedback provided in between. Assessment. Four debate groups were randomly selected for evaluation. In debate 1, all groups posted 1 argument, and all 4 arguments were rationalistic and ranked as high-level arguments. In debate 2, members of the 4 groups posted a total of 33 arguments, which were evaluated and received an overall median ranking lower than that for debate 1. All debates were categorized as rationalistic. Conclusion. Students were able to formulate rationalistic arguments to therapeutic controversies; however, their level of argumentation decreased over the course of the study. Changes planned for the future include conducting the debates in the context of patient scenarios to increase practical applicability. PMID:24159211

  11. Investigating Rare Earth Element Systematics in the Marcellus Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Torres, M. E.; Kim, J. H.; Verba, C.

    2014-12-01

    The lanthanide series of elements (the 14 rare earth elements, REEs) have similar chemical properties and respond to different chemical and physical processes in the natural environment by developing unique patterns in their concentration distribution when normalized to an average shale REE content. The interpretation of the REE content in a gas-bearing black shale deposited in a marine environment must therefore take into account the paleoredox conditions of deposition as well as any diagenetic remobilization and authigenic mineral formation. We analyzed 15 samples from a core of the Marcellus Shale (Whipkey ST1, Greene Co., PA) for REEs, TOC, gas-producing potential, trace metal content, and carbon isotopes of organic matter in order to determine the REE systematics of a black shale currently undergoing shale gas development. We also conducted a series of sequential leaching experiments targeting the phosphatic fractions in order to evaluate the dominant host phase of REEs in a black shale. Knowledge of the REE system in the Marcellus black shale will allow us to evaluate potential REE release and behavior during hydraulic fracturing operations. Total REE content of the Whipkey ST1 core ranged from 65-185 μg/g and we observed three distinct REE shale-normalized patterns: middle-REE enrichment (MREE/MREE* ~2) with heavy-REE enrichment (HREE/LREE ~1.8-2), flat patterns, and a linear enrichment towards the heavy-REE (HREE/LREE ~1.5-2.5). The MREE enrichment occurred in the high carbonate samples of the Stafford Member overlying the Marcellus Formation. The HREE enrichment occurred in the Union Springs Member of the Marcellus Formation, corresponding to a high TOC peak (TOC ~4.6-6.2 wt%) and moderate carbonate levels (CaCO3 ~4-53 wt%). Results from the sequential leaching experiments suggest that the dominant host of the REEs is the organic fraction of the black shale and that the detrital and authigenic fractions have characteristic MREE enrichments. We present our

  12. Nuclear winter: the continuing debate. Student essay

    SciTech Connect

    Nida, A.V.

    1987-03-23

    This essay examines the debate over the climatic consequences of global nuclear war as related in the so-called Nuclear Winter hypothesis. This review examines the major components of the theory and traces development of the scientific knowledge leading to a second phase of the controversy two years after the first hypothesis. The conclusions of the essay are that the original nuclear winter findings have been altered by later scientific study and, therefore, the political conclusions drawn by Carl Sagan in 1983 can no longer be supported by theory or facts. Continued use of the Crutzen-Birks (Ambio, 1982) and TTAPS (Science, December 1983) studies worst-case evidence from NCAR (Foreign Affairs, Summer 86) represents selective science. Arguing for strategic policy changes based on nuclear winter risks constitutes anti-nuclear rhetoric and not scientific reasoning.

  13. The Australian RSI debate: stereotyping and medicine.

    PubMed

    Quintner, J L

    1995-07-01

    The vehement scientific debate which took place in Australia in the 1980s over the epidemic of the chronic cervicobrachial pain syndrome known as repetition strain injury (RSI) was remarkable for the accompanying social commentary offered by many of the medical participants. This commentary was to have a profound effect on relationships between individual doctors and their patients with RSI. It reflected and reinforced the prevailing stereotypes within Australian society, not only of working women, but also of recipients of workers' compensation payments. On the other hand, some of the medical responses to the epidemic were severely criticized by social scientists who analysed the epidemic. In the process of such criticism, a number of stereotypes of doctors were also reinforced. PMID:7626774

  14. [Drug use in the public health debate].

    PubMed

    Tirado-Otálvaro, Andrés Felipe

    2016-07-21

    This article addresses illegal drug use within the current debate in traditional public health and in proposals from Latin America, while emphasizing the need to approach the issue from an alternative public health perspective centered on individual users, groups, and social movements as protagonists. This counterhegemonic approach thus aims to orient the discussion on the need for inclusive and democratic public policies. Illegal drug use has been addressed from various perspectives: clinical medicine, viewing it as a problem that generates mental disorders and infectious diseases, both through risky sexual practices and/or use of injecting paraphernalia; from a legal perspective, as a problem related to delinquency; and according to traditional public health, as a problem that generates school dropout and work absenteeism and increases the demand on health services, in addition to increasing violence and death. However, not all forms of drug consumption involve problematic use, nor do they all trigger disorders related to substance use. PMID:27462857

  15. Debating restrictions on embryonic stem cell research.

    PubMed

    McClain, Colleen

    2009-09-01

    This study investigates the emotional and behavioral effects of interpersonal online communication, focusing on the controversy surrounding the loosening of restrictions on human embryonic stem cell research. The issue, central to national and statewide elections in 2008, generated heated debate among candidates and voters and evoked strong emotional sentiments among partisans. Using the theory of affective intelligence, this study proposes a predictive model connecting levels of enthusiasm and anxiety with behavioral and information-seeking outcomes. Cognitive appraisal theory is also employed to provide a role for political emotion in accounting for interactive media effects. To investigate the ways that online deliberation may influence discussions surrounding stem cell research, a between-subjects experimental study was conducted that systematically varied the tone of feedback received (reinforcing or challenging) and type of interaction (synchronous or asynchronous) experienced by users. Results indicate that emotional responses play a significant role in predicting behavioral intentions arising from the user-to-user interactive experience. PMID:20205522

  16. Mathematical modelling of anisotropy of illite-rich shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chesnokov, E.M.; Tiwary, D.K.; Bayuk, I.O.; Sparkman, M.A.; Brown, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    The estimation of illite-rich shale anisotropy to account for the alignment of clays and gas- or brine-filled cracks is presented via mathematical modelling. Such estimation requires analysis to interpret the dominance of one effect over another. This knowledge can help to evaluate the permeability in the unconventional reservoir, stress orientation, and the seal capacity for the conventional reservoir. Effective media modelling is used to predict the elastic properties of the illite-rich shale and to identify the dominant contributions to the shale anisotropy. We consider two principal reasons of the shale anisotropy: orientation of clay platelets and orientation of fluid-filled cracks. In reality, both of these two factors affect the shale anisotropy. The goal of this study is, first, to separately analyse the effect of these two factors to reveal the specific features in P- and S-wave velocity behaviour typical of each of the factors, and, then, consider a combined effect of the factors when the cracks are horizontally or vertically aligned. To do this, we construct four models of shale. The behaviour of P- and S-wave velocities is analysed when gas- and water-filled cracks embedded in a host matrix are randomly oriented, or horizontally or vertically aligned. The host matrix can be either isotropic or anisotropic (of VTI symmetry). In such a modelling, we use published data on mineralogy and clay platelet alignment along with other micromechanical measurements. In the model, where the host matrix is isotropic, the presence of a singularity point (when the difference VS1 - VS2 changes its sign) in shear wave velocities is an indicator of brine-filled aligned cracks. In the model with the VTI host matrix and horizontally aligned cracks filled with gas, an increase in their volume concentration leads to that the azimuth at which the singularity is observed moves toward the symmetry axis. In this case, if the clay content is small (around 20 per cent), the

  17. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, M.J.; Mensinger, M.C.; Rue, D.M.; Lau, F.S. ); Schultz, C.W. ); Parekh, B.K. ); Misra, M. ); Bonner, W.P. )

    1992-11-01

    The Devonian oil shales of the Eastern United States are a significant domestic energy resource. The overall objective of the multi-year program, initiated in October 1987 by the US Department of Energy is to perform the research necessary to develop the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting (PFH) process for producing oil from Eastern oil shales. The program also incorporates research on technologies in areas such as raw shale preparation, beneficiation, product separation, and waste disposal that have the potential of improving the economics and/or environmental acceptability of recovering oil from oil shales using the PFH process. The results of the original 3-year program, which was concluded in May 1991, have been summarized in a four-volume final report published by IGT. DOE subsequently approved a 1-year extension to the program to further develop the PFH process specifically for application to beneficiated shale as feedstock. Studies have shown that beneficiated shale is the preferred feedstock for pressurized hydroretorting. The program extension is divided into the following active tasks. Task 3. testing of process improvement concepts; Task 4. beneficiation research; Task 5. operation of PFH on beneficiated shale; Task 6. environmental data and mitigation analyses; Task 7. sample procurement, preparation, and characterization; and Task 8. project management and reporting. In order to accomplish all the program objectives, the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), the prime contractor, worked with four other institutions: the University of Alabama/Mineral Resources Institute (MRI), the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER), the University of Nevada (UN) at Reno, and Tennessee Technological University (TTU). This report presents the work performed during the program extension from June 1, 1991 through May 31, 1992.

  18. Potential contaminant pathways from hydraulically fractured shale to aquifers.

    PubMed

    Myers, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing of deep shale beds to develop natural gas has caused concern regarding the potential for various forms of water pollution. Two potential pathways-advective transport through bulk media and preferential flow through fractures-could allow the transport of contaminants from the fractured shale to aquifers. There is substantial geologic evidence that natural vertical flow drives contaminants, mostly brine, to near the surface from deep evaporite sources. Interpretative modeling shows that advective transport could require up to tens of thousands of years to move contaminants to the surface, but also that fracking the shale could reduce that transport time to tens or hundreds of years. Conductive faults or fracture zones, as found throughout the Marcellus shale region, could reduce the travel time further. Injection of up to 15,000,000 L of fluid into the shale generates high pressure at the well, which decreases with distance from the well and with time after injection as the fluid advects through the shale. The advection displaces native fluids, mostly brine, and fractures the bulk media widening existing fractures. Simulated pressure returns to pre-injection levels in about 300 d. The overall system requires from 3 to 6 years to reach a new equilibrium reflecting the significant changes caused by fracking the shale, which could allow advective transport to aquifers in less than 10 years. The rapid expansion of hydraulic fracturing requires that monitoring systems be employed to track the movement of contaminants and that gas wells have a reasonable offset from faults. PMID:22509908

  19. Microbial colonization of retorted shale in field and laboratory studies

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, J.E.; McNair, V.M.; Li, S.W.; Garland, T.R.; Wildung, R.E.

    1982-08-01

    The microbial colonization of retorted shale was measured in field lysimeters and laboratory with retorted shale obtained from an above-ground retort operating in the direct heating mode. In field lysimeter studies, total aerobic heterotrophic bacterial colony forming units (cfu), as measured by a selective plating medium in surface horizons of retorted shale and adjacent soils, were similar (3.3 x 10/sup 6/ and 2.7 x 10/sup 6/ bacterial cfu/g dry weight) two months after disposal. However, unlike the soil that exhibited a diverse community, the retorted shale was dominated by a single Micrococcus species that composed 30% of the total bacterial community. After one and two years, the total aerobic heterotrophic bacterial cfu in the retorted shale and soil were again similar; however, no bacterium dominated either community. A core sample from the field lysimeter indicated microbial colonization to a depth of 150 cm after one year. An increased ratio of anaerobic to aerobic heterotrophic bacterial cfu in the deepest sample (120 to 150 cm) implied the development of anaerobic conditions. In the laboratory, aerobic heterotrophic bacteria were shown capable of using, as the sole source of carbon, retorted shale in liquid cultures. Of the added nutritional amendments, PO/sub 4//sup -3/, NO/sub 3//sup -/ and SO/sub 4//sup -2/, only phosphate markedly altered the colonization of retorted shale in liquid culture; shortening the lag phase of colonization from less than three to seven weeks to less than one week and leading to a greater aerobic heterotrophic population over the incubation interval. The addition of phosphate also led to a aerobic heterotrophic bacterial community composed entirely of Micrococcus species.

  20. Estimating The CO2 Sequestration Capacity of Fractured Shale Formations Using Methane Production Rates: The Case of the Utica Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Z.; Clarens, A. F.

    2014-12-01

    Fractured shale formations that have been drained of hydrocarbons could serve as attractive sites for geologic sequestration of CO2. Shales preferentially sorb CO2 enabling greater storage potential than would be expected based only on the pores vacated during CH4 production. Sequestration in shales could have a variety of other benefits because the intrinsically low permeability of the rock could help mitigate leakage risks and infrastructure resources could be leveraged to minimize costs. Here a modeling framework developed by the authors to estimate the sequestration capacity of fractured shale formations based on CH4 production rates was applied to the Utica Shale. The model is based on a unipore transport model, which assumes that diffusion of gases into and out of the kerogen matrix will control gas transport. The results from the Utica formation were compared to estimates for sequestration in the Marcellus shale to understand how the petrophysical characteristics of these two formations impact estimated sequestration capacity. A detailed sensitivity analysis was carried out to link modeling assumptions and key parameters with known physicochemical characteristics of these two shale formations. Modeling parameters were derived from published production data obtained from the state of Ohio. The model was found to be most sensitive to the equilibrium sorption parameters of CH4 and CO2, for which there is good literature data available. Published values for CO2 sorption varied considerably based on the composition of the shale. Improved experimental data is needed to provide the most accurate estimates of storage in different formations. Differences were observed in gas diffusivity estimates for the Marcellus and Utica shale that could be understood in terms of the petrophysical characteristics of the two formations. We also found important effects tied to the effective diffusion length out of an average pore in the kerogen. These results allow us to understand

  1. Western states enhanced oil shale recovery program: Shale oil production facilities conceptual design studies report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-08-01

    This report analyzes the economics of producing syncrude from oil shale combining underground and surface processing using Occidental's Modified-In-Situ (MIS) technology and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Hot Recycled Solids (HRS) retort. These retorts form the basic technology employed for oil extraction from oil shale in this study. Results are presented for both Commercial and Pre-commercial programs. Also analyzed are Pre-commercialization cost of Demonstration and Pilot programs which will confirm the HRS and MIS concepts and their mechanical designs. These programs will provide experience with the circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor (CFBC), the MIS retort, the HRS retort and establish environmental control parameters. Four cases are considered: commercial size plant, demonstration size plant, demonstration size plant minimum CFBC, and a pilot size plant. Budget cost estimates and schedules are determined. Process flow schemes and basic heat and material balances are determined for the HRS system. Results consist of summaries of major equipment sizes, capital cost estimates, operating cost estimates and economic analyses. 35 figs., 35 tabs.

  2. Modeling of Devonian shale gas reservoirs. Task 16. Mathematical modeling of shale gas production (2D model). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has been supporting the development of flow models for Devonian shale gas reservoirs. The broad objectives of this modeling program are to: (1) develop and validate a mathematical model which describes gas flow through Devonian shales; (2) determine the sensitive parameters that affect deliverability and recovery of gas from Devonian shales; (3) recommend laboratory and field measurements for determination of those parameters critical to the productivity and timely recovery of gas from the Devonian shales; (4) analyze pressure and rate transient data from observation and production gas wells to determine reservoir parameters and well performance; and (5) study and determine the overall performance of Devonian shale reservoirs in terms of well stimulation, well spacing, and resource recovery as a function of gross reservoir properties such as anisotropy, porosity and thickness variations, and boundary effects. During the previous annual period, a mathematical model describing gas flow through Devonian shales and the software for a radial one-dimensional numerical model for single well performance were completed and placed into operation. Although the radial flow model is a powerful tool for studying single well behavior, it is inadequate for determining the effects of well spacing, stimulation treatments, and variation in reservoir properties. Hence, it has been necessary to extend the model to two-dimensions, maintaining full capability regarding Klinkerberg effects, desorption, and shale matrix parameters. During the current annual period, the radial flow model has been successfully extended to provide the two-dimensional capability necessary for the attainment of overall program objectives, as described above.

  3. Screening for Dissolved Methane in Groundwater Across Texas Shale Plays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicot, J. P.; Mickler, P. J.; Hildenbrand, Z.; Larson, T.; Darvari, R.; Uhlman, K.; Smyth, R. C.; Scanlon, B. R.

    2014-12-01

    There is considerable interest in methane concentrations in groundwater, particularly as they relate to hydraulic fracturing in shale plays. Recent studies of aquifers in the footprint of several gas plays across the US have shown that (1) dissolved thermogenic methane may or may not be present in the shallow groundwater and (2) shallow thermogenic methane may be naturally occurring and emplaced through mostly vertical migration over geologic time and not necessarily a consequence of recent unconventional gas production. We are currently conducting a large sampling campaign across the state of Texas to characterize shallow methane in fresh-water aquifers overlying shale plays and other tight formations. We collected a total of ~800 water samples, ~500 in the Barnett, ~150 in the Eagle Ford, ~80 in the Haynesville shale plays as well as ~50 in the Delaware Basin of West Texas. Preliminary analytical results suggest that dissolved methane is not widespread in shallow groundwater and that, when present at concentrations exceeding 10 mg/L, it is often of thermogenic origin according to the isotopic signature and to the presence of other light hydrocarbons. The Barnett Shale contains a large methane hotspot (~ 2 miles wide) along the Hood-Parker county line which is likely of natural origin whereas the Eagle Ford and Haynesville shales, neglecting microbial methane, show more distributed methane occurrences. Samples from the Delaware Basin show no methane except close to blowouts.

  4. Late Cretaceous multicolored shales and phosphatic sedimentary rocks in Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn, C.R.; Garrison, R.E.; Arthur, M.A.

    1983-03-01

    Upper Cretaceous transitional fluvial to marine variegated shale (upper Nubia Formation) and the fully marine Duwi (phosphate) Formation occur as thin, widespread, shallow-marine deposits in an east-west-trending belt spanning the lower-middle latitudes of Egypt. On a larger scale, the phosphoritic rocks in Egypt represent but a small portion of a laterally extensive Middle Eastern-North African phosphogenic province of Upper Cretaceous-Lower Tertiary age that accounts for accumulation of minable marine phosphate in excess of 70 billion tons. Phosphorites, porcelanites/cherts, organic carbon-rich shales, glauconitic sandstones, and bioclastic and fine-grained carbonate rocks variously reflect major hemipelagic and shallow-water carbonate sedimentation. Biosiliceous hemipelagic deposits, now diagenetically altered to procelanite and chert, reflect low energy depositional conditions that were periodically interrupted by high energy, possibly storm-induced currents and/or down-slope redeposition. Both dark shales and porcelanites locally contain abundant organic matter and are commonly finely laminated. Porcelanites and black shales are phosphatic, containing phosphatic grains identical, morphologically and chemically, to those found in associated phosphorites, and are probably the source from which the phosphorites were derived. The organic carbon-rich shales of the Duwi Formation appear to be quite laterally extensive and may, depending on thermal maturity, represent potential hydrocarbon source rocks in other portions of the region (e.g., Western Desert, Gulf of Suez), where they are more deeply buried.

  5. Biochemical activities in soil overlying Paraho processed oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    Microbial activity development in soil materials placed over processed oil shale is vital to the plant litter decomposition, cycling of nutrients, and soil organic matter accumulation and maintenance. Samples collected in the summers of 1979, 1980, and 1981 from revegetated soil 30-, 61-, and 91-cm deep overlying spent oil shale in the Piceance Basin of northwestern Colorado were assayed for dehydrogenease activity with glucose and without glucose, for phosphatase activity, and for acetylene reduction activity. Initial ammonium and nitrite nitrogen oxidation rates and potential denitrification rates were determined in 1981. Zymogenous dehydrogenase activity, phosphatase activity, nitrogenase activity, potential denitrification rates, and direct microscopic counts were lower in surface soil 30 cm deep, and were frequently lower in surface soil 61 cm deep over processed shale than in a surface-disturbed control area soil. Apparently, microbial activities are stressed in these more shallow replaced soils. Soil 61 cm deep over a coarse-rock capillary barrier separating the soil from the spent shale, frequently had improved biochemical activity. Initial ammonium and nitrite nitrogen oxidation rates were lower in all replaced soils than in the disturbed control soil. Soil core samples taken in 1981 were assayed for dehydrogenase and phosphatase activities, viable bacteria, and viable fungal propagules. In general, microbial activity decreased quickly below the surface. At depths greater than 45 cm, microbial activities were similar in buried spent shale and surface-disturbed control soil.

  6. Stress dependence of permeability of intact and fractured shale cores.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Noort, Reinier; Yarushina, Viktoriya

    2016-04-01

    Whether a shale acts as a caprock, source rock, or reservoir, understanding fluid flow through shale is of major importance for understanding fluid flow in geological systems. Because of the low permeability of shale, flow is thought to be largely confined to fractures and similar features. In fracking operations, fractures are induced specifically to allow for hydrocarbon exploration. We have constructed an experimental setup to measure core permeabilities, using constant flow or a transient pulse. In this setup, we have measured the permeability of intact and fractured shale core samples, using either water or supercritical CO2 as the transporting fluid. Our measurements show decreasing permeability with increasing confining pressure, mainly due to time-dependent creep. Furthermore, our measurements show that for a simple splitting fracture, time-dependent creep will also eliminate any significant effect of this fracture on permeability. This effect of confinement on fracture permeability can have important implications regarding the effects of fracturing on shale permeability, and hence for operations depending on that.

  7. Ozone impacts of natural gas development in the Haynesville Shale.

    PubMed

    Kemball-Cook, Susan; Bar-Ilan, Amnon; Grant, John; Parker, Lynsey; Jung, Jaegun; Santamaria, Wilson; Mathews, Jim; Yarwood, Greg

    2010-12-15

    The Haynesville Shale is a subsurface rock formation located beneath the Northeast Texas/Northwest Louisiana border near Shreveport. This formation is estimated to contain very large recoverable reserves of natural gas, and during the two years since the drilling of the first highly productive wells in 2008, has been the focus of intensive leasing and exploration activity. The development of natural gas resources within the Haynesville Shale is likely to be economically important but may also generate significant emissions of ozone precursors. Using well production data from state regulatory agencies and a review of the available literature, projections of future year Haynesville Shale natural gas production were derived for 2009-2020 for three scenarios corresponding to limited, moderate, and aggressive development. These production estimates were then used to develop an emission inventory for each of the three scenarios. Photochemical modeling of the year 2012 showed increases in 2012 8-h ozone design values of up to 5 ppb within Northeast Texas and Northwest Louisiana resulting from development in the Haynesville Shale. Ozone increases due to Haynesville Shale emissions can affect regions outside Northeast Texas and Northwest Louisiana due to ozone transport. This study evaluates only near-term ozone impacts, but the emission inventory projections indicate that Haynesville emissions may be expected to increase through 2020. PMID:21086985

  8. Clay mineralogy of Devonian shales in the Appalachian basin

    SciTech Connect

    Hosterman, J.W.; Whitlow, S.T.

    1981-01-01

    A study of the clay mineralogy of the Devonian black shales of the Appalachian basin was undertaken to help predict areas for potential gas resources. Illite (2m) recrystallized during diagenesis is more or less uniformly present throughout all shale units. Chlorite formed during low grade metamorphism is least abundant in the younger units and more abundant in the older units. Illite-smectite mixed-layer clay, which supplied the material for the formation of chlorite, is most abundant in the younger units and least abundant in the older units. Illite-chlorite mixed-layer clay occurs as a trace in all shale units. Kaolinite, the only unaltered detrital clay mineral, occurs in ca. 25 to 30% of the samples. The source of the kaolinite appears to have been to the east and northeast of the basin of deposition. The color of the shale units is primarily due to the organic content; however, those shales that contain calcite are darker than those that do not for equal amounts of organic carbon. 24 references.

  9. Trace element-sulfide mineral association in eastern oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, G.M.

    1989-03-01

    Eastern oil shales including the Chattanooga Shale in Tennessee and the various other time-equivalent black shales in the central portion of the United States represent a major source of hydrocarbons. A primary concern for the development of eastern oil shale and all fossil fuels is the high concentration of sulfide minerals and associated with these materials. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate trace elements in sulfide minerals from a Chattanooga Shale core from central Tennessee and (2) establish mineral residence and stratigraphic distribution of selected trace elements. Previous researchers have suggested the residency of the trace elements As, Cu, Cd, Pb, Mo, Ni, and Zn as being sulfide minerals, either as separate distinct phases, inclusions, or isomorphous substitution. The most significant contribution derived from the present study is the direct observation and association of selected trace and minor elements with sulfide minerals. Rather than an indirect or inferred trace element- sulfide mineral association, sulfide mineral phases were isolated allowing the morphology and composition to be directly evaluated. 9 refs., 31 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Mineralogic characterization of a Chattanooga Shale core from central Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, G.M.; Spackman, L.K.; Leimer, H.W.

    1985-02-01

    The Chattanooga Shale was deposited over much of present Tennessee when Devonian seas transgressed, leaving a thick deposit of organic rich black mud. The Chattanooga Shale ranges in thickness from less than 35 feet in central Tennessee to more than 720 feet in the eastern portion of the state. Although much thinner, the central Tennessee section of the shale appears much richer in extractable organic material, averaging 13% carbon (approximately 9.3 gallons per ton by Fischer assay) with a maximum of 20% carbon (15 gallons per ton). In central Tennessee, the Chattanooga Shale has two members, the Dowelltown and the Gassaway and is underlain by the Leipers Limestone and overlain by the Ft. Payne Chert and Maury Formation, a phosphatic claystone. Detailed mineralogy from a corehole taken in DeKalb County is presented. The abundance of kaolinite (5 to 29% of total clay fraction) differs significantly from data of other investigators, possibly suggesting a proximity to an ancient shoreline. Additionally, the samples from this corehole were higher in quartz and feldspars, and lower in overall clay mineral percentages than samples of the Chattanooga Shale reported in other areas.

  11. What can I say? Geoscientists as participants in debating our energy needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilham, Nic

    2016-04-01

    Where and how we get our energy, how we commoditise and use it, and the consequences for people and the environment are inherently ethical as well as technical matters. These questions sit at the heart of debates about whether and how we can live sustainably on our planet. Geologists who come in contact with debates about sourcing and using energy, either as active participants and advocates or as apparently neutral 'technicians', are therefore thrust into a series of (sometimes fraught) ethical battles for which they may be ill prepared. They may choose explicitly to comment on the relationship between their technical work and its wider societal and ethical implications - but even to remain silent on these matters is an ethical choice. Furthermore, what may appear purely technical scientific activities and statements are 'value-laden', shaped by cultural, political, economic and personal framing assumptions. This raises some difficult questions. What should be our ethical framework as scientists when we enter into these techno-ethical spaces? Should we attempt to tease apart the scientific and non-scientific elements of what we do, say and write - or is this a hopeless or pointless task? How should we decide when to speak up and when to keep quiet? Is it acceptable or desirable for scientists also to be advocates and activists, or does this undermine their independence and therefore their authority as 'experts' with something useful to say? My presentation will explore some of these questions, in the context of contested topics such as shale gas, radioactive waste disposal and CCS (carbon capture and storage). It will also ask whether our present codes of professional and scientific conduct, whether formal or informal, are adequate for these challenges.

  12. LOGAN WASH FIELD TREATABILITY STUDIES OF WASTEWATERS FROM OIL SHALE RETORTING PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Treatability studies were conducted on retort water and gas condensate wastewater from modified in-situ oil shale retorts to evaluate the effectiveness of selected treatment technologies for removing organic and inorganic contaminants. At retorts operated by Occidental Oil Shale,...

  13. Plan and justification for a Proof-of-Concept oil shale facility. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    The technology being evaluated is the Modified In-Situ (MIS) retorting process for raw shale oil production, combined with a Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor (CFBC), for the recovery of energy from the mined shale. (VC)

  14. Plan and justification for a Proof-of-Concept oil shale facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    The technology being evaluated is the Modified In-Situ (MIS) retorting process for raw shale oil production, combined with a Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor (CFBC), for the recovery of energy from the mined shale. (VC)

  15. Using Debate to Teach Pharmacy Students About Ethical Issues

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Lezley-Anne; Barry, Johanne; Donnelly, Ryan; Hughes, Fiona; Jones, David; Laverty, Garry; Parsons, Carole; Ryan, Cristin

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To create, implement, and evaluate debate as a method of teaching pharmacy undergraduate students about ethical issues. Design. Debate workshops with 5 hours of contact with student peers and facilitators and 5 hours of self-study were developed for second-year pharmacy students. Student development of various skills and understanding of the topic were assessed by staff members and student peers. Assessment. One hundred fifty students completed the workshops. The mean score for debating was 25.9 out of 30, with scores ranging from 23.2 to 28.7. Seventy percent of students agreed that the debates were a useful teaching method in the degree program. Conclusion. A series of workshops using debates effectively delivered course content on ethical issues and resulted in pharmacy students developing skills such as teamwork, peer assessment, communication, and critical evaluation. These findings suggest that pharmacy students respond favorably to a program using debates as a teaching tool. PMID:24761018

  16. Complex conductivity of organic-rich shales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodruff, W. F.; Revil, A.; Torres-Verdin, C.

    2013-12-01

    We can accurately determine the intrinsic anisotropy and material properties in the laboratory, providing empirical evidence of transverse isotropy and the polarization of the organic and metallic fractions in saturated and unsaturated shales. We develop two distinct approaches to obtain the complex conductivity tensor from spectral induced polarization (SIP) measurements. Experimental results indicate clear anisotropy, and characterize the effects of thermal maturation, TOC, and pyrite, aiding in the calibration and interpretation of geophysical data. SIP is a non-intrusive measurement, sensitive to the surface conductance of mineral grains, frequency-dependent polarization of the electrical double layer, and bulk conductivity of the pore water. The in-phase and quadrature components depend upon parameters of principal importance in unconventional shale formation evaluation (e.g., the distribution of pore throat sizes, formation factor, permeability, salinity and cation exchange capacity (CEC), fluid saturation and wettability). In addition to the contribution of the electrical double layer of non-conducting minerals to surface conductivity, we have observed a clear relaxation associated with kerogen pyrolysis, pyrite distribution, and evidence that the CEC of the kerogen fraction may also contribute, depending on thermal maturation history. We utilize a recent model for anisotropic complex conductivity, and rigorous experimental protocols to quantify the role of kerogen and pyrolysis on surface and quadrature conductivity in mudrocks. The complex conductivity tensor σ* describes the directional dependence of electrical conduction in a porous medium, and accounts for both conduction and polarization. The complex-valued tensor components are given as σ*ij , where σ'ij represents in-phase and σ"ij denotes quadrature conductivities. The directional dependence of the complex conductivity tensor is relegated to the textural properties of the material. The

  17. Generic Argillite/Shale Disposal Reference Case

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Liange; Colon, Carlos Jové; Bianchi, Marco; Birkholzer, Jens

    2014-08-08

    Radioactive waste disposal in a deep subsurface repository hosted in clay/shale/argillite is a subject of widespread interest given the desirable isolation properties, geochemically reduced conditions, and widespread geologic occurrence of this rock type (Hansen 2010; Bianchi et al. 2013). Bianchi et al. (2013) provides a description of diffusion in a clay-hosted repository based on single-phase flow and full saturation using parametric data from documented studies in Europe (e.g., ANDRA 2005). The predominance of diffusive transport and sorption phenomena in this clay media are key attributes to impede radionuclide mobility making clay rock formations target sites for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The reports by Hansen et al. (2010) and those from numerous studies in clay-hosted underground research laboratories (URLs) in Belgium, France and Switzerland outline the extensive scientific knowledge obtained to assess long-term clay/shale/argillite repository isolation performance of nuclear waste. In the past several years under the UFDC, various kinds of models have been developed for argillite repository to demonstrate the model capability, understand the spatial and temporal alteration of the repository, and evaluate different scenarios. These models include the coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical (THM) and Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) models (e.g. Liu et al. 2013; Rutqvist et al. 2014a, Zheng et al. 2014a) that focus on THMC processes in the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) bentonite and argillite host hock, the large scale hydrogeologic model (Bianchi et al. 2014) that investigates the hydraulic connection between an emplacement drift and surrounding hydrogeological units, and Disposal Systems Evaluation Framework (DSEF) models (Greenberg et al. 2013) that evaluate thermal evolution in the host rock approximated as a thermal conduction process to facilitate the analysis of design options. However, the assumptions and the

  18. Can shale safely host US nuclear waste?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    2013-01-01

    "Even as cleanup efforts after Japan’s Fukushima disaster offer a stark reminder of the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) stored at nuclear plants worldwide, the decision in 2009 to scrap Yucca Mountain as a permanent disposal site has dimmed hope for a repository for SNF and other high-level nuclear waste (HLW) in the United States anytime soon. About 70,000 metric tons of SNF are now in pool or dry cask storage at 75 sites across the United States [Government Accountability Office, 2012], and uncertainty about its fate is hobbling future development of nuclear power, increasing costs for utilities, and creating a liability for American taxpayers [Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future, 2012].However, abandoning Yucca Mountain could also result in broadening geologic options for hosting America’s nuclear waste. Shales and other argillaceous formations (mudrocks, clays, and similar clay-rich media) have been absent from the U.S. repository program. In contrast, France, Switzerland, and Belgium are now planning repositories in argillaceous formations after extensive research in underground laboratories on the safety and feasibility of such an approach [Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future, 2012; Nationale Genossenschaft für die Lagerung radioaktiver Abfälle (NAGRA), 2010; Organisme national des déchets radioactifs et des matières fissiles enrichies, 2011]. Other nations, notably Japan, Canada, and the United Kingdom, are studying argillaceous formations or may consider them in their siting programs [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2012; Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO), (2011a); Powell et al., 2010]."

  19. The abortion debate in the Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    Faced with a situation in which an estimated 60,000 illegal abortions (a major cause of maternal mortality) were performed annually, the Dominican Republic has adopted a new Health Code which contains a chapter dedicated to maternal health. Included in the new code are cases in which abortion is allowed: 1) when 2 specialists affirm that the pregnancy or childbirth constitutes a risk to the mother's health or life; 2) if the medical history of the parents and 2 doctors confirm the likelihood of the baby being born seriously disabled or deformed; or 3) if the mother's mental health is put in jeopardy by continuing the pregnancy. Despite the disapproval of church representatives, the legalization of abortion was unanimously approved by the Congress. The debate which surrounded the process was increased by a petition signed by more than 260 women decrying the lack of input that women had in the decision-making process. Women's action groups have been trying to widen the context in which the political discussion is taking place to stress the importance of viewing abortion from a reproductive rights perspective. The women's groups wish to prevent a situation in which the discussion surrounding the issue will be limited to legislators and church leaders. The women have pointed out that women should make the decisions about their lives and their bodies. In the meantime, the president of the Congress predicts that illegal abortion will continue in the Dominican Republic regardless of the current provisions for legal abortion. PMID:12286344

  20. Emphasizing history in communicating scientific debates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, S. C.

    2010-12-01

    Communication to the public of the reality of anthropogenic climate change has been less successful than many expect. The scientists themselves, the media, special interest groups, or the complexity of modern society are often blamed. However a look at past scientific paradigm shifts, in particular the Copernican revolution and the discovery of relativity, shows close parallels with the modern situation. Common aspects include the gradual formation of a scientific consensus in advance of the public; a politically partisan backlash against the new theory that, paradoxically, occurs after the arrival of conclusive supporting evidence; the prevalence of convincing but invalid pseudo-scientific counterarguments; the general failure of "debates" to increase public acceptance of the scientists' position; and, in the case of the heliocentric solar system, a very long time scale to final public acceptance (> 100 years). Greater emphasis on the lessons from such historical parallels, and on the success so far of consensus predictions of global warming made up to and including the first IPCC report in 1990, might be one useful way of enhancing the public's trust in science and scientists and thereby accelerate acceptance of uncomfortable scientific findings.

  1. Geneticization and bioethics: advancing debate and research.

    PubMed

    Arnason, Vilhjálmur; Hjörleifsson, Stefán

    2007-12-01

    In the present paper, we focus on the role that the concept of geneticization has played in the discussion about health care, bioethics and society. The concept is discussed and examples from the evolving discourse about geneticization are critically analyzed. The relationship between geneticization, medicalization and biomedicalization is described, emphasizing how debates about the latter concepts can inspire future research on geneticization. It is shown how recurrent themes from the media coverage of genetics portray typical traits of geneticization and thus contribute to the process. We look at examples of small-scale studies from the literature where geneticization of medical practice has been demonstrated. Methodological disputes about the relevance of empirical evidence for the geneticization thesis and the normative status of the concept are discussed. We consider arguments to the effect that ideas from mainstream bioethics have facilitated geneticization by emphasizing individualistic notions of autonomy and responsibility while ignoring the role of genetics in the wider social context. It is shown how a concept like geneticization, which can be used to draw the attention of philosophers, social scientists and others to challenges that tend to be neglected by mainstream bioethics, also has the potential to move people's attention away from other pertinent issues. This may happen if researchers become preoccupied with the transformative effects of genetics, and we argue that a wider reading of geneticization should inspire critical analysis of the sociocultural preconditions under which genetics is currently evolving. PMID:17705026

  2. Debating Water Fluoridation Before Dr. Strangelove.

    PubMed

    Carstairs, Catherine

    2015-08-01

    In the 1930s, scientists learned that small amounts of fluoride naturally occurring in water could protect teeth from decay, and the idea of artificially adding fluoride to public water supplies to achieve the same effect arose. In the 1940s and early 1950s, a number of studies were completed to determine whether fluoride could have harmful effects. The research suggested that the possibility of harm was small. In the early 1950s, Canadian and US medical, dental, and public health bodies all endorsed water fluoridation. I argue in this article that some early concerns about the toxicity of fluoride were put aside as evidence regarding the effectiveness and safety of water fluoridation mounted and as the opposition was taken over by people with little standing in the scientific, medical, and dental communities. The sense of optimism that infused postwar science and the desire of dentists to have a magic bullet that could wipe out tooth decay also affected the scientific debate. PMID:26066938

  3. [The debate about the right to die].

    PubMed

    Beca, Juan Pablo; Ortiz, Armando; Solar, Sebastián

    2005-05-01

    The Right to Die is a debatable issue and some basic notions need to be clarified to discuss it. Death needs to be recognized as part of human life. The goal of medicine is to avoid pain and alleviate suffering, to prevent premature death and when this is not possible, to let it occur peacefully. The concept of euthanasia is unclear, which increases the confusion on end-of-life topics. The term euthanasia should be used only when referring to medical acts performed to produce the patient's death, with the intention of terminating his/her suffering. It is what is usually called "active" euthanasia, which can be voluntary or involuntary. It is essential to understand the difference between producing and allowing death. This will permit timely decisions about limiting or withdrawing treatments, that can be disproportionate or that are only prolonging suffering. Limiting treatments does not mean to abandon the patient but rather to redefine his needs, such as pain treatment, prevention of complications, and relief of suffering. The ethic rationale for these decisions is the respect to the dignity of human life, and the estimation of proportionality or futility of each treatment. The physician's duty with the patient at the end of his life is to assist him in dying according to his values and to minimize his distress. PMID:15970987

  4. Civil defense: nuclear debate's new element

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, W.

    1982-06-04

    President Reagan's plans to build up US military forces include a seven-year $4.2 billion civil-defense program that will emphasize the removal of residents from urban centers and will match the Soviet capability. In the Soviet Union, cities of 100,000 have shelters for 10 to 20% of the population, but they lack the US transportation system, low-density suburbs, mild climate, and other factors. The House Armed Services Committee approved raising the current $133 million civil-defense budget to $252 million, but the Senate's May 14th vote limited the increase to $144 million. The civil-defense debate offers peace and anti-nuclear activists on opportunity to organize and coordinate their efforts. Peace activists were to demonstrate against the administration's plans during a special June 7-9 United Nations session because they feel the public will now be able to understand the implications of relocation in government planning for nuclear war. 17 references, 2 figures, 31 tables. (DCK)

  5. Shaping AGU's contributions to policy debate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, M. Granger; Patwardhan, Anand

    In their Forum piece in the April 9 issue of Eos, Kaula and Anderson paint an unrealistically stark choice for the roles AGU might play in policy debates that substantially involve geophysical science. On the one hand is the antiseptic model of AGU-above-the-policy-fray: the aloof provider of geophysical facts from the literature. On the other hand is the model of AGU-as-policy-advocate: blending geophysical knowledge with value judgements in order to argue for specific policy actions in the political trenches. The problem with the first model is that the form assumed by most geophysical facts in the literature is rather distant from the needs of policy makers. Thus, the facts are easily overlooked in the face of pressing short-term political agendas. The problem with the second model is that AGU is a professional society comprised of scientists who hold many different value orientations. Any particular set of values adopted in a piece of political advocacy is likely to be at odds with many AGU members.

  6. A feasibility study of oil shale fired pulse combustors with applications to oil shale retorting. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, G.J.; Johnson, E.K.; Zhang, G.Q.; Roach, R.A.

    1992-07-01

    The results of the experimental investigation performed to determine the feasibility of using pulverized Colorado oil shale to fuel a bench scale pulse combustor reveal that oil shale cannot sustain pulsations when used alone as fuel. Trace amounts of propane mixed with the oil shale enabled the pulsations, however. Up to 80% of the organic material in the oil shale was consumed when it was mixed with propane in the combustor. Beyond the feasibility objectives, the operating conditions of the combustor fuel with propane and mixtures of oil shale and propane were characterized with respect to pulsation amplitude and frequency and the internal combustor wall temperature over fuel lean and fuel rich stoichiometries. Maximum pressure excursions of 12.5 kPa were experienced in the combustor. Pulsation frequencies ranged from 50 to nearly 80 Hz. Cycle resolved laser Doppler anemometry velocities were measured at the tail pipe exit plane. Injecting inert mineral matter (limestone) into the pulse combustor while using propane fuel had only a slight effect on the pulsation frequency for the feed rates tested.

  7. Methodology of organic-rich shale lithofacies identification and prediction: A case study from Marcellus Shale in the Appalachian basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guochang; Carr, Timothy R.

    2012-12-01

    The success of shale gas in North America has attracted increased interest in "unconventional" reservoirs. Two critical factors for shale-gas reservoirs are units amenable to hydrologic fracture stimulation and sufficient natural gas content. The effectiveness of hydrologic fracture stimulation is influenced by rock geomechanical properties, which are related to rock mineralogy. The natural gas content in shale reservoirs has a strong relationship with organic matter, which is measured by total organic carbon (TOC). A 3D shale lithofacies model constructed using mineral composition, rock geomechanical properties and TOC content can be applied to optimize the design of horizontal well trajectories and stimulation strategies. Core analysis data, log data and seismic data were used to build a 3D shale lithofacies from core to well and finally to regional scale. Core, advanced and common logs were utilized as inputs to petrophysical analysis, and various pattern recognition methods, such as discriminant analysis, fuzzy logic, neural network and support vector machine. A limited set of eight derived parameters from common logs were determined as critical inputs for pattern recognition methods. Advanced logs, such as pulsed neutron spectroscopy, are used to determine mineral composition and TOC data improve and confirm the quantitative relationship between conventional logs and lithofacies. Seismic data, interpreted sequence stratigraphy and depositional environments were used as constraints to build deterministic and stochastic 3D lithofacies models and to extrapolate lithofacies from well scale to regional scale.

  8. Evaluation of Devonian-shale potential in Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Komar, C. A.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to inform interested oil and gas operators about EGSP results as they pertain to the Devonian gas shales of the Appalachian basin in eastern Ohio. Geologic data and interpretations are summarized, and areas where the accumulation of gas may be large enough to justify commercial production are outlined. Because the data presented in this report are generalized and not suitable for evaluation of specific sites for exploration, the reader should consult the various reports cited for more detail and discussion of the data, concepts, and interpretations presented. A complete list of EGSP sponsored work pertinent to the Devonian shales in Ohio is contained as an appendix to this report. Radioactive shale zones are also mapped.

  9. Chemical Effect on Wellbore Instability of Nahr Umr Shale

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Zhen

    2013-01-01

    Wellbore instability is one of the major problems that hamper the drilling speed in Halfaya Oilfield. Comprehensive analysis of geological and engineering data indicates that Halfaya Oilfield features fractured shale in the Nahr Umr Formation. Complex accidents such as wellbore collapse and sticking emerged frequently in this formation. Tests and theoretical analysis revealed that wellbore instability in the Halfaya Oilfield was influenced by chemical effect of fractured shale and the formation water with high ionic concentration. The influence of three types of drilling fluids on the rock mechanical properties of Nahr Umr Shale is tested, and time-dependent collapse pressure is calculated. Finally, we put forward engineering countermeasures for safety drilling in Halfaya Oilfield and point out that increasing the ionic concentration and improving the sealing capacity of the drilling fluid are the way to keep the wellbore stable. PMID:24282391

  10. Devonian shale-specific computation methodology. Topical report, June 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Guidry, F.K.; Truman, R.B.; Campbell, R.L.; Harrison, C.W.

    1988-06-01

    This report presents the application of the 'Devonian Shale-specific Formation Evaluation Model' for the evaluation of geophysical well logs in the Devonian shale. A procedure is outlined for determining lithology, porosity, and bulk volume free-hydrocarbon. The logging suite commonly utilized by ResTech for evaluation of the shales is presented. However, methods were developed for obtaining reliable results in certain areas with a reduced logging suite. The final report from an analysis includes a written document containing recommended completion intervals and perforations. Also included within the report are the results presented in both a log and listed format. The log format has an 11-inch and 22-inch presentation. In addition to lithology, porosity, and bulk-volume free-hydrocarbon that are presented on the 11-inch presentation, results from the borehole television, temperature survey, and mudlog are displayed on the 22-inch wide presentation.

  11. Oil shale programs. Sixteenth quarterly report, October-December 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, A. L.

    1980-06-01

    This document is the sixteenth in a continuing series of quarterly reports, and describes the Sandia National Laboratories oil shale activities during the period between October 1, 1979 and December 31, 1979. Sandia's major responsibility to the DOE in situ oil shale program is to provide a quantitative evaluation to DOE of the various field projects being supported by DOE in the development of commercial in situ oil shale processes. This requires the deployment of instrumentation systems and analysis techniques to evaluate key procedures and operations. In order to fulfill this responsibility, it is necessary to develop new and advanced instrumentation systems and associated deployment, recording and analysis techniques that are unique to the field projects. In addition, a rock mechanics program provides material properties, material response models, and computational methods to support the design and evaluation functions. This report describes detailed activities in these project areas over the last quarter.

  12. ASSESSMENT OF OIL SHALE RETORT WASTEWATER TREATMENT AND CONTROL TECHNOLOGY: PHASES I AND II

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oil shale retorting is a synthetic fuel production technology on the verge of commercialization in the United States. In order to ensure that the emerging oil shale industry will have minimal adverse effects upon surface and/or groundwater where recoverable reserves of oil shale ...

  13. Substance composition and initial material of combustible shales from the Domanikovaya suite of the Ukhta region

    SciTech Connect

    Ginzburg, A.I.; Letushova, I.A.

    1984-01-01

    The results are given of investigations of the combustible shales of the Upper Devonian of the Ukhta region with its detailed chemical and petrographic characteristics. Considerations are expressed concerning the initial material of their organic matter. A comparison has been made of the combustible shales of the Ukhta region with the Upper Devonian combustible shales of the Southern Urals.

  14. World Shale Gas Resources: An Initial Assessment of 14 Regions Outside the United States

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration sponsored Advanced Resources International, Inc., to assess 48 gas shale basins in 32 countries, containing almost 70 shale gas formations. This effort has culminated in the report: World Shale Gas Resources: An Initial Assessment of 14 Regions Outside the United States.

  15. POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNICAL MANUAL: MODIFIED 'IN SITU' OIL SHALE RETORTING COMBINED WITH LURGI SURFACE RETORTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The oil shale PCTM for Modified In Situ Oil Shale Retorting combined with Lurgi Surface Retorting addresses the application of this combination of technologies to the development of oil shale resources in the western United States. This manual describes the combined plant using L...

  16. DOE oil shale reference sample bank: Quarterly report, July-September 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, L.B.

    1987-09-01

    The DOE Oil Shale Program was restructured in FY84 to implement a 5-year period of basic and applied research in the study of the phenomena involved in oil shale pyrolysis/retorting. The program calls for the study of two reference shales per year for a period of 5 years. Consequently, the program calls for the identification, acquisition, processing, characterization, storage, disbursement, and record keeping for ten reference shales in a period of 5 years. Two FY86 and one FY87 reference shales have been acquired, processed and stored under inert gas. The Eastern shale, designated E86, was obtained from the Clegg Creek Member of the New Albany Shale at a quarry near Louisville, Kentucky in the first quarter of FY86. The FY86 Western Shale was obtained from the Exxon Colony Mine, located near Parachute, Colorado, during the first quarter of FY86. The FY87 Western Shale was obtained from the Tipton Member of the Green River Formation near Rock Springs, Wyoming during the fourth quarter of FY87. Partial distributions of the FY86 shale have been made to DOE and non-DOE contractors. Complete descriptions of the FY87 Western reference shale locale, shale processing procedures and analytical characterization are provided in this report. 7 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Revegetation research on oil shale lands in the Piceance Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Redente, E.F.; Cook, C.W.

    1981-02-01

    The overall objective of this project is to study the effects of various reclamation practices on above- and belowground ecosystem development associated with disturbed oil shale lands in northwestern Colorado. Plant growth media that are being used in field test plots include retorted shale, soil over retorted shale, subsoil materials, and surface disturbed topsoils. Satisfactory stands of vegetation failed to establish on unleached retorted shale during two successive years of seeding. All seedings with soil over retorted shale were judged to be successful at the end of three growing seasons, but deep-rooted shrubs that depend upon subsoil moisture may have their growth hampered by the retorted shale substrate. Natural revegetation on areas with various degrees of disturbance shows that natural invasion and succession was slow at best. Invasion of species on disturbed topsoil plots showed that after three years introduced seed mixtures were more effective than native mixtures in occupying space and closing the community to invading species. Fertilizer appears to encourage the invasion of annual plants even after the third year following application. Long-term storage of topsoil without vegetation significantly decreases the mycorrhizal infection potential and, therefore, decreases the relative success of aboveground vegetation and subsequent succession. Ecotypic differentation related to growth and competitive ability, moisture stress tolerance, and reproductive potential have been found in five native shrub species. Germplasm sources of two grasses and two legumes, that have shown promise as revegetation species, have been collected and evaluated for the production of test seed. Fertilizer (nitrogen) when added to the soil at the time of planting may encourage competition from annual weeds to the detriment of seeded species.

  18. Application of Ester based Drilling Fluid for Shale Gas Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauki, Arina; Safwan Zazarli Shah, Mohamad; Bakar, Wan Zairani Wan

    2015-05-01

    Water based mud is the most commonly used mud in drilling operation. However, it is ineffective when dealing with water-sensitive shale that can lead to shale hydration, consequently wellbore instability is compromised. The alternative way to deal with this kind of shale is using synthetic-based mud (SBM) or oil-based mud (OBM). OBM is the best option in terms of technical requirement. Nevertheless, it is toxic and will create environmental problems when it is discharged to onshore or offshore environment. SBM is safer than the OBM. The aim of this research is to formulate a drilling mud system that can carry out its essential functions for shale gas drilling to avoid borehole instability. Ester based SBM has been chosen for the mud formulation. The ester used is methyl-ester C12-C14 derived from palm oil. The best formulation of ester-based drilling fluid was selected by manipulating the oil-water ratio content in the mud which are 70/30, 80/20 and 90/10 respectively. The feasibility of using this mud for shale gas drilling was investigated by measuring the rheological properties, shale reactivity and toxicity of the mud and the results were compared with a few types of OBM and WBM. The best rheological performance can be seen at 80/20 oil-water ratio of ester based mud. The findings revealed that the rheological performance of ester based mud is comparable with the excellent performance of sarapar based OBM and about 80% better than the WBM in terms of fluid loss. Apart from that, it is less toxic than other types of OBM which can maintain 60% prawn's survival even after 96 hours exposure in 100,000 ppm of mud concentration in artificial seawater.

  19. Inter-layered clay stacks in Jurassic shales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pye, K.; Krinsley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy in the backscattered electron mode is used together with energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis to show that Lower Jurassic shales from the North Sea Basin contain large numbers of clay mineral stacks up to 150 microns in size. Polished shale sections are examined to determine the size, shape orientation, textural relationships, and internal compositional variations of the clays. Preliminary evidence that the clay stacks are authigenic, and may have formed at shallow burial depths during early diagenesis, is presented.

  20. Executive summary. Western oil shale developmet: a technology assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-11-01

    The objectives are to review shale oil technologies as a means of supplying domestically produced fuels within environmental, social, economic, and legal/institutional constraints; using available data, analyses, and experienced judgment, to examine the major points of uncertainty regarding potential impacts of oil shale development; to resolve issues where data and analyses are compelling or where conclusions can be reached on judgmental grounds; to specify issues which cannot be resolved on the bases of the data, analyses, and experienced judgment currently available; and when appropriate and feasible, to suggest ways for the removal of existing uncertainties that stand in the way of resolving outstanding issues.