Sample records for buried soil horizons

  1. Soil Horizons

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity involves previously collected soils from each horizon of a soil profile. The bags from one soil profile are given to a group and the students put the bags in the proper order. This involves student groups looking at each other's sample bags as well as their own and sharing information. After some discussion, during which the instructor makes certain that the students have gotten the soil samples into their correct horizon sequence, the bags are opened and examined to let the students see the different textures and properties of each horizon. Students will discover that each soil is different due to different bedrock and weathering conditions. Some soils may not show all of the above horizons, while other soils may clearly show the development of each layer. The thickness of the individual layers may vary greatly also.

  2. Buried soils of Late Quaternary moraines of the Wind River Mountains, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Dahms, D.E. (Univ. of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA (United States). Geography Dept.)

    1992-01-01

    Buried soils occur on kettle floors of four Pinedale moraine catenas of the western Wind River Mountains of Wyoming. Radiocarbon ages from bulk samples of Ab horizons indicate the soils were buried during the mid-Holocene. Soils on kettle floors have silty A and Bw horizons that overlie buried A and B horizons that also formed in silt-rich sediments. Crests and backslope soils also have A and Bw horizons of sandy loam formed over 2BCb and 2Cb horizons of stony coarse loamy sand. Recent data show the silty textures of the A and B horizons are due to eolian silt and clay from the Green River Basin just west of the mountains. The buried soils appear to represent alternate periods of erosion and deposition on the moraines during the Holocene. The original soils developed on higher slopes of the moraines were eroded during the mid-Holocene and the 2BC and 2C horizons exposed at the surface. Eroded soil sediments were transported downslope onto the kettle floors. Following erosion, silt-rich eolian sediments accumulated on all surfaces and mixed with the BC and C horizons (the mixed loess of Shroba and Birkeland). The present surface soils developed within this silt-rich material. Stone lines often occur at the Bw-2BCb/2Cb boundary, and mark the depth to which the earlier soils were eroded. Thus, soil profiles at the four localities result from two periods of soil formation, interrupted by an interval of erosion during the mid-Holocene. Moraines of this study are adjacent to the Fremont Lake type area for the Pinedale glaciation of the Rocky Mountains. Buried soils in kettles of the moraines indicates the soil characteristics of the Pinedale type region are not necessarily due to continuous post-Pinedale development, but may result from more than one episode of soil formation.

  3. Carbon cycle: Sequestration in buried soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, William C.

    2014-06-01

    Rapid deposition of wind-borne silt after the end of the last glacial period buried a large reservoir of organic carbon in the deep soil. Geochemical analyses suggest that this sequestered soil carbon could be released to the atmosphere if exposed to decomposition.

  4. Radiocarbon dating of buried soils Humate fractionation, delta C-13 correction and paleoclimatic signals: Geoarchaeological implications in the central Great Plains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. C. Johnson; C. W. Martin

    1992-01-01

    Due to perceived uncertainties associated with humate-derived C-14 ages from buried soils, samples were collected and dated from buried A horizons developed in alluvium and loess within the Kansas River basin of Kansas, Nebraska, and Colorado. Soils range in age from c. 30ka to latest Holocene. Samples were split, sent to two laboratories (SMU and Pittsburgh), and fractionated. Ages were

  5. Soil Horizons Some Noteworthy Soil Science in Wisconsin

    E-print Network

    Mladenoff, David

    Soil Horizons Some Noteworthy Soil Science in Wisconsin Alfred E. Hartemink The impact and benefits of soil science have only partly been documented. Here I highlight four noteworthy soil science countries, I arrived in September 2011 as professor of soil science at the Department of Soil Science

  6. Detecting buried archaeological soils with TGA in an agricultural terrace setting in Northern Calabria, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koster, K.; Guttmann-Bond, E.; Kluiving, S.; van Leusen, M.

    2012-04-01

    Agricultural terraces are geomorphologic features created by humans. These structures protect farming land by reducing soil erosion, they collect water in their hydrological infrastructure, and preserve crops and vegetation. Their construction could however negatively affect underlying soils and archaeology present in those soils. However, if a terrace is constructed on a hill slope without destroying the underlying soil, the agricultural terrace could create a stable environment in regard to erosion, and preserve the underlying soil and potential archaeological remains in it. In order to detect soils within agricultural terraces in Northern-Calabria, Italy, Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) was performed on exposures of four agricultural terraces, two agricultural fields in a non-terraced setting and five natural geomorphological features. Results are the detection of a buried soil horizon which contains archaeological remains dating from the Hellenistic period 60 cm below the surface of an agricultural terrace, and a buried soil horizon which contains archaeological remains dating from the Hellenistic period at the interface of an agricultural field and a river valley. Both soil horizons were indentified by an increase in organic components, and a decrease in calcium carbonates relative to their surrounding context. Conclusions are that the construction of agricultural terraces and fields does not necessarily lead to the destruction of underlying soils. This could open new doors for archaeological field investigations in agricultural areas in southern Italy. This study was conducted as part of the Raganello Archaeological Project of the Groningen Institute of Archaeology, Rijks Universiteit Groningen, in collaboration with the Institute for Geo- and Bioarchaeology at the VU University Amsterdam.

  7. Removal of overburden soils from buried waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, P.M. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Transuranic (TRU) waste buried in pits and trenches is covered with a soil cap, or overburden, to shed water. During retrieval operations, the overburden (expected to be clean) must be removed carefully to avoid breaching the soil/waste matrix within a pit or trench and to confine any possible local spot contamination. This necessitates removal in precise (7.6- to 15.25-cm) increments with a high degree of accuracy. In addition, during overburden removal the overburden must be characterized to a depth that exceeds each cut of soil. A field demonstration was conducted to evaluate a technology for removing overburden soils a the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC), Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The demonstration evaluated equipment performance and techniques for removing overburden soil and controlling contamination and dust. To evaluate the performance of these techniques during removal operations, personnel took air particulate samples, physical measurements of the soil cuts, maneuverability measurements, and rate of soil removal data. The overburden was spiked at specific locations and depths with rare earth tracers to provide a medium for evaluating samples. Analysis to determine the precision and accuracy of the soil removal, amount of dust generated, and potential spread of contamination was performed.

  8. Acoustic Interrogation of Soil and Possible Remote Detection of Shallow Buried Inclusions

    E-print Network

    Sen, Surajit

    for the remote detection and imaging of buried land mines, improvised explosive devices (IEDs) and otherAcoustic Interrogation of Soil and Possible Remote Detection of Shallow Buried Inclusions Laura E from shallow buried objects and of how such backscattering can be inexpensively and remotely detected

  9. [Metabolic profiling for characteristics of Trichoderma from buried soils].

    PubMed

    Tukhbatova, R I; Morozova, Iu A; Alimova, F K

    2014-01-01

    Previously, 135 strains of Trichoderma isolated from buried soils of Tatarstan have been identified as T. asperellum, T. viride, T. atroviride, T. harzianum, T. hamatum, T. citrinoviride and T. longibrachiatum. At this stage, the biochemical analysis of the strains was carried out using the Biolog system, which being a simple screening test enables rapid preparation of strains based on 95 substrates. We have revealed that each species has only a specific substrate utilisation profile. Biochemical analysis provides a large amount of information that can then be used for optimization of biotechnological processes, in particular, the selection of effective nutrient media. PMID:25696984

  10. Detecting buried nonmetal objects using soil magnetic susceptibility measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Haoping; Won, I. J.; San Filipo, Bill

    2003-09-01

    Soil magnetic susceptibility is always greater than zero and is detectable using an electromagnetic (EM) induction sensor. When the frequency-domain EM response is affected by magnetic polarization, the in-phase component becomes negative at the low frequency and proportional to the ground magnetic susceptibility. The in-phase measurement can thus be used to compute the apparent magnetic susceptibility. This approach provides a means of detecting a buried object based on it susceptibility contrast to the host medium. For example, an M19 anti-tank mine is physically large (33cm×33cm×9cm) but has so little metal that metal detectors can miss it. When an M19 is buried in soil, it produces a cavity in magnetic susceptibility, which may be detected as a region of low or anomalous apparent susceptibility compared to the surrounding area. We derived a simple formula to compute the apparent magnetic susceptibility from the in-phase data at the resistive limit. The behavior of the apparent susceptibility for layered earth models has been studied using synthetic data. Apparent susceptibility anomalies may be predicted from these studies based on the susceptibility contrast, and geometry of the sensor and target. Finally, we present experimental data obtained using two sensors, a GEM-2 and a GEM-3.

  11. Soil Texture Involvement in Germination and Emergence of Buried Weed Seeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefano Benvenuti

    2003-01-01

    studied in an ecological perspective to identify the physi- ological causes that prevent deeply buried seed from Laboratory trials were performed to test germination and emer- germinating; results obtained so far suggest this is partly gence characteristics of jimsonweed (Datura stramonium L.) seeds buried in 10 different soil types (with or without the control of soil due to the lack

  12. SOLUBLE ALUMINUM IN ACIDIFIED ORGANIC HORIZONS OF FOREST SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concentrations of labile and total Al in soil extracts were measured as a function of equilibrium solution pH in six forest soil organic horizons acidified with HNO, (0-20 cmol H+.kg-1) under controlled conditions of ionic strength (0.05 M NaNO3), temperature (23 C), and solution...

  13. Transformation of lignin in surface and buried soils of mountainous landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovaleva, N. O.; Kovalev, I. V.

    2009-11-01

    The content and composition of the lignin phenols in plants and soils of vertical natural zones were studied in the Northern Caucasus region and Northwestern Tien Shan. Three types of lignin transformation were revealed: steppe, forest, and meadow ones. It was shown that the degree of oxidation of the biopolymer during the transformation of organic matter increased when going from the living plant tissues to humic acids in surface and buried soils. The portion of lignin fragments remained unchanged during the biopolymer transformation in the following series: plant tissues-falloff-litter-soil-humic acids-buried humic acids. It was also shown that the biochemical composition of the plants had a decisive effect on the structure of the humic acids in the soils. The quantitative analysis of the lignin phenols and the 13C NMR spectroscopy proved that the lignin in higher plants was involved in the formation of specific compounds of soil humus, including aliphatic and aromatic molecular fragments. The first analysis of the lignin content and composition in buried soils of different ages was performed, and an increase in the degree of oxidation of the lignin structures was revealed in the soil chronoseries. It was proposed to use the proportions of lignin phenols in surface and buried soils as diagnostic criteria of the vegetation types in different epochs.

  14. 14C dating of buried soils in the volcanic chaine des puys (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hetier, J. M.; Guillet, B.; Brousse, R.; Delibrajs, G.; Maury, R. C.

    1983-06-01

    Apparent ages of the paleosoils buried under ash deposits or lava flows cannot be used without a correct understanding of the soil type buried by the volcanic event. Considering the apparent ages measured in the French «Massif Central» we can accept the rejuvenation of 500 years generally used if mollisols (sol bruns) are concerned. The rejuvenation can reach 4,000 years or more in the case of buried andosoils whose mean residence time of carbon is generally of 2,000 to 6,000 years. These observations have to be taken into account in the future to establish more accurate chronosequences of the volcanic events using paleosoil14C datations.

  15. Predicting the preservation of cultural artefacts and buried materials in soil.

    PubMed

    Kibblewhite, Mark; Tóth, Gergely; Hermann, Tamás

    2015-10-01

    This study identifies factors affecting the fate of buried objects in soil and develops a method for assessing where preservation of different materials and stratigraphic evidence is more or less likely in the landscape. The results inform the extent of the cultural service that soil supports by preserving artefacts from and information about past societies. They are also relevant to predicting the state of existing and planned buried infrastructure and the persistence of materials spread on land. Soils are variable and preserve different materials and stratigraphic evidence differently. This study identifies the material and soil properties that affect preservation and relates these to soil types; it assesses their preservation capacities for bones, teeth and shells, organic materials, metals (Au, Ag, Cu, Fe, Pb and bronze), ceramics, glass and stratigraphic evidence. Preservation of Au, Pb and ceramics, glass and phytoliths is good in most soils but degradation rates of other materials (e.g. Fe and organic materials) is strongly influenced by soil type. A method is proposed for using data on the distribution of soil types to map the variable preservation capacities of soil for different materials. This is applied at a continental scale across the EU for bones, teeth and shells, organic materials, metals (Cu, bronze and Fe) and stratigraphic evidence. The maps produced demonstrate how soil provides an extensive but variable preservation of buried objects. PMID:26022409

  16. Genesis of petroduric and petrocalcic horizons in Latinamerica volcanic soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quantin, Paul

    2010-05-01

    Introduction. In Latinamerica, from Mexico to Chile, there are indurated volcanic soils horizons, named 'tepetate' in Mexico or cangahua in the Andes Mountains. Apart from original volcanic tuffs, these horizons were produced by pedogenesis: either through a former weathering of volcanic ash layers into fragic and later to petrocalcic horizons; or after a former soil formation through a second process of transformation from clayey volcanic soils to silicified petroduric horizons. This oral presentation will briefly deal with the formation of petroduric horizons in Mexico and petrocalcic horizon in Ecuador. Petroduric horizon genesis in Mexico. A soil climato-toposequence, near to Veracruz (Rossignol & Quantin, 1997), shows downwards an evolution from a ferralic Nitisol to a petroduric Durisol. A Durisol profile comports these successive horizons: at the top A and Eg, then columnar Btg-sim, laminar Bt-sim , prismatic Bsim, plinthite Cg, over andesite lava flow. Among its main features are especially recorded: clay mineralogy, microscopy and HRTEM. These data show: an increase in cristobalite at the expenses of 0.7 nm halloysite in Egsiltans, laminar Bt-sim, around or inside the columns or prisms of Btg-sim and Bsimhorizons. HRTEM (Elsass & al 2000) on ultra thin sections reveals an 'epigenesis' of clay sheets by amorphous silica, to form successively A-opal, Ct-opal and microcrystalline cristobalite. From these data and some groundwater chemical analyses, a scenario of duripan formation from a past clayey Nitisol is inferred: clay eluviation-illuviation process? alternate redoximorphy? clay degradation, Al leaching and Si accumulation, to form successively A-opal, Ct-opal and cristobalite. Petrocalcic horizon genesis in Ecuador. A soil climato-toposequence on pyroclastic flows, near to Bolivar in Ecuador (Quantin & Zebrowski, 1997), shows downwards the evolution from fragic-eutric-vitric Cambisols to petrocalcic-vitric Phaeozems, at the piedmont under semi-arid climate. A complex soil profile of petrocalcic Phaeozem, derived from 4 pyroclastic layers, shows among its successive horizons: in layer 3 the 'upper cangahua' with petrocalcic features and in layer 4 the 'lower cangahua' with hard fragipan properties. The features of the petrocalcic cangahua differ from a Mexican fragipan (Hidalgo & al 1997) by: a hard calcrete, higher alkalinity, stability in water after HCl and NaOH treatment, 2-4% of 'free silica'. The macro and micro-morphology shows: the laminar calcite crust, at the top of cangahua, with alternate micrite-sparite layers; downwards, microcalcite infillings in the voids of a prismatic structure, invading the groundmass by epigenesis of clay sheets, together whith microcrystalline opal. From these data this scenario is inferred: after a former weathering of volcanic glass to form a clayey matrix, as well amorphous silica and microcalcite coatings and infillings, then a second process, perhaps due to drier climate, produced the laminar crust formation, by invasion of microcalcite in the matrix. Conclusion. The petrocalcic horizon in Ecuador was produced by two processes: from a former phase of weathering giving a fragic horizon to a second producing the accumulation of calcite and some opal over and inside the matrix, due to climate change. The petroduric horizon in Mexico, is the product of a very complex soil transformation, from a former clayey Nitisol, through four successive processes: clay eluviation-illuviation, alternate redoximorphy, clay degradation, finally a progressive silicification over and inside the groundmass, probably due to pedoclimate change. References F. Elsass, D. Dubroeucq & M. Thiry. 2000. Clay Minerals, 35, 477-489. C. Hidalgo, P. Quantin & F. Elsass. 1997. Memorias del III Simposio Internacional sobre Suelos volcanicos endurecidos (Quito 1996), p. 65-72. - P. Quantin & C. Zebrowski. 1997. idem, p. 29-47.- J.P. Rossignol & P. Quantin. 1997. idem, p. 73-82.

  17. Soil effects on thermal signatures of buried nonmetallic landmines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dam, Remke L.; Borchers, Brian; Hendrickx, Jan M. H.; Hong, Sung-ho

    2003-09-01

    Thermal sensors hold much promise for the detection of non-metallic landmines. However, the prediction of their thermal signatures depends on a large number of factors. In this paper, an analytical solution for temperature propagation through homogeneous and layered soils is presented to predict surface temperatures as a function of soil heat flux amplitude, soil texture, soil water content, and thermal properties and burial depth of the landmine. Comparison with the numerical model HYDRUS-2D shows that the relatively simple analytical solution proposed here is reasonably accurate. The results show that an increase in soil water content has a significant effect on the thermal signature, as well as on the phase shift of the maximum temperature difference. Different soil textures have relatively little effect on the temperature at the surface. The thermal properties of the mine itself can play a significant role. It is shown that for most soils 10 cm is the maximum burial depth to produce a significant thermal signature at the surface.

  18. Soil horizon designation: State of the art, problems, and proposals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerasimova, M. I.; Lebedeva, I. I.; Khitrov, N. B.

    2013-05-01

    A review of the systems of symbols used for designating the soil horizons and properties identified in the course of profile descriptions has been made with emphasis put on their genetic meaning, adequacy to the principles of the soil classification, and requirements concerning the ways of their presenting. The review is based on examining the symbols regarded as optional in classification systems (both Russian and foreign) mentioned in publications (mostly in Eurasian Soil Science) and on the experience of the authors and their colleagues. The inconsistencies or contradictions revealed even within one system are discussed, as well as the problems in discriminating between the diagnostically important and "descriptive" symbols. The multiplicity of the designations used with different meanings and differently written hinders the diagnostics and taxonomic definition of soils. The authors' suggestions for designating the morphological elements of soil profiles are in good agreement with the principles of the recent soil classification of Russia and take into account the comments and proposals of the users: professionals, students, and visitors to special sites. The suggestions may hopefully be helpful for the standardization of soil profile descriptions and contribute to the reliability and adequacy of soil diagnostics.

  19. Predicting the long-term fate of buried organic carbon in colluvial soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhengang; Van Oost, Kristof; Govers, Gerard

    2015-04-01

    A significant part of the soil organic carbon (SOC) that is eroded in uplands is deposited and buried in colluvial settings. Understanding the fate of this deposited soil organic carbon is of key importance for the understanding of the role of (accelerated) erosion in the global C cycle: the residence time of the deposited carbon will determine if, and for how long, accelerated erosion due to human disturbance will induce sequestration of SOC from the atmosphere to the soil. Experimental studies may provide useful information, but, given the time scale under consideration, the response of the colluvial SOC can only be simulated using numerical models which need careful calibration using field data. In this study, we present a depth explicit SOC model (ICBM-DE) including soil profile evolution due to sedimentation to simulate the long-term C dynamics in colluvial soils. The SOC profile predicted by our model is in good agreement with field observations. The C burial efficiency (the ratio of current C content of the buried sediments to the original C content at the time of sedimentation) of deposited sediments exponentially decreases with time and gradually reached an equilibrium value. This equilibrium C burial efficiency is positively correlated with the sedimentation rate. The sedimentation rate is crucial for the long-term dynamics of the deposited SOC as it controls the time that buried sediments spend at a given soil depth, thereby determining its temporal evolution of C input and decomposition rate during the burial process: C input and decomposition rate vary with depth due to the vertical variation of root distribution and soil environmental factors such as (but not limited to) humidity, temperature and aeration. The model demonstrates that, for the profiles studied, it takes ca. 300 yr for the buried SOC to lose half of its C load. It would also take centuries for the SOC accumulated in colluvial soils over the past decades due to soil redistribution under mechanized agriculture to be released to the atmosphere after the application of soil conservation measures such as conservation tillage.

  20. Predicting the long-term fate of buried organic carbon in colluvial soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhengang; Van Oost, Kristof; Govers, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    A significant part of the soil organic carbon (SOC) that is eroded in uplands is deposited and buried in colluvial settings. Understanding the fate of this deposited soil organic carbon is of key importance for the understanding of the role of (accelerated) erosion in the global C cycle: the residence time of the deposited carbon will determine if, and for how long, accelerated erosion due to human disturbance will induce sequestration of SOC from the atmosphere to the soil. Experimental studies may provide useful information, but, given the time scale under consideration, the response of the colluvial SOC can only be simulated using numerical models which need careful calibration using field data. In this study, we present a depth explicit SOC model including soil profile evolution due to sedimentation to simulate the long-term C dynamics in colluvial soils. The SOC profile predicted by our model is in good agreement with field observations. The C burial efficiency (the ratio of current C content of the buried sediments to the original C content at the time of sedimentation) of deposited sediments exponentially decreases with time and gradually reaches an equilibrium value. This equilibrium C burial efficiency is positively correlated with the sedimentation rate. The sedimentation rate is crucial for the long-term dynamics of the deposited SOC as it controls the time that buried sediments spend at a given soil depth, thereby determining its temporal evolution of C input and decomposition rate during the burial process: C input and decomposition rate vary with depth due to the vertical variation of root distribution and soil environmental factors such as (but not limited to) humidity, temperature, and aeration. The model demonstrates that, for the profiles studied, it takes circa 300 years for the buried SOC to lose half of its C load. It would also take centuries for the SOC accumulated in colluvial soils over the past decades due to soil redistribution under mechanized agriculture to be released to the atmosphere after the application of soil conservation measures such as conservation tillage.

  1. Chemical Soil Physics Phenomena for Chemical Sensing of Buried UXO

    SciTech Connect

    Phelan, James, M.; Webb, Stephen W.

    1999-06-14

    Technology development efforts are under way to apply chemical sensors to discriminate inert ordnance and clutter from live munitions that remain a threat to reutilization of military ranges. However, the chemical signature is affected by multiple environmental phenomena that can enhance or reduce its presence and transport behavior, and can affect the distribution of the chemical signature in the environment. For example, the chemical can be present in the vapor, aqueous, and solid phases. The distribution of the chemical among these phases, including the spatial distribution, is key in designing appropriate detectors, e.g., gas, aqueous or solid phase sampling instruments. A fundamental understanding of the environmental conditions that affect the chemical signature is needed to describe the favorable and unfavorable conditions of a chemical detector based survey to minimize the consequences of a false negative. UXO source emission measurements are being made to estimate the chemical flux from a limited set of ordnance items. Phase partitioning analysis has been completed to show what the expected concentrations of chemical analytes would be fi-om total concentrations measured in the soil. The soil moisture content in the dry region has been shown to be critical in the attenuation of soil gas concentrations by increased sorption to soil particles. Numerical simulation tools have been adapted to include surface boundary conditions such as solar radiation, surface boundary layer (which is a function of wind speed), precipitation and evaporation, and plant cover/root density to allow transport modeling and evaluate long term processes. Results of this work will provide performance targets for sensor developers and support operational decisions regarding field deployments.

  2. A disconnect between O horizon and mineral soil carbon - Implications for soil C sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Garten Jr, Charles T [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Changing inputs of carbon to soil is one means of potentially increasing carbon sequestration in soils for the purpose of mitigating projected increases in atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. The effect of manipulations of aboveground carbon input on soil carbon storage was tested in a temperate, deciduous forest in east Tennessee, USA. A 4.5-year experiment included exclusion of aboveground litterfall and supplemental litter additions (three times ambient) in an upland and a valley that differed in soil nitrogen availability. The estimated decomposition rate of the carbon stock in the O horizon was greater in the valley than in the upland due to higher litter quality (i.e., lower C/N ratios). Short-term litter exclusion or addition had no effect on carbon stock in the mineral soil, measured to a depth of 30 cm, or the partitioning of carbon in the mineral soil between particulate- and mineral-associated organic matter. A two-compartment model was used to interpret results from the field experiments. Field data and a sensitivity analysis of the model were consistent with little carbon transfer between the O horizon and the mineral soil. Increasing aboveground carbon input does not appear to be an effective means of promoting carbon sequestration in forest soil at the location of the present study because a disconnect exists in carbon dynamics between O horizon and mineral soil. Factors that directly increase inputs to belowground soil carbon, via roots, or reduce decomposition rates of organic matter are more likely to benefit efforts to increase carbon sequestration in forests where carbon dynamics in the O horizon are uncoupled from the mineral soil.

  3. Contribution of charred and buried plant fragments to humic and fulvic acids in Japanese volcanic ash soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Syusaku Nishimura; Tomoki Hirota; Osamu Hirahara; Haruo Shindo

    2006-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of the role of charred plant materials, which were produced during the burning of vegetation by human activity and wildfires, in the formation of humic and fluvic acids in Japanese volcanic ash soils, the quantitative contribution of charred and buried plant fragments to their acids in whole soils were investigated using three volcanic ash soil

  4. Rapid mineral differentiation among horizons of a meadow soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szalai, Zoltán; Ringer, Marianna; Kiss, Klaudia; Horváth Szabó, Kata; Németh, Tibor; Sipos, Péter; Madarász, Balázs; Jakab, Gergely

    2015-04-01

    Soil development under hydromorphic conditions may results intense mineral transformation and rapid vertical differentiation in the profile. Original papers refer more than hundreds of years for this kinds of mineral transformations. We suppose that this process could be more rapid. Present paper focuses on the profile development of a sandy meadow soil (calcic, gleyic Phaeozem ferric, arenic) from the soil mineralogical viewpoint. The main aim was to explore the degree of mineral phase alteration via soil formation during a half-century under hydromorphic conditions. The studied soil is located in a swampy area (near to Ceglédbercel, Hungary). The parent material deposited during an extremely heavy flood event in 1963. The reference (parent) material can be found near to the study site. We combined routine field tests (carbonate content, dipididil test) with laboratory measurements (selective extractions for the determination of amorphous and crystalline Fe, and Mn content; X-ray phase analysis; X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy; particle sizing by laser diffraction; NDIR and FT-IR and DRS spectrometry), whereas Eh and pH measured by field monitoring station. The most intense mineralogical transformations developed in the zone of the heaviest redox oscillation. Results show that well developed horizons have emerged during fifty years in the studied soil. This time was enough for bivalent and trivalent iron mineral crystallisation and smectite formation in this zone. The high proportion of amorphous and colloidal phases refers to very intensive recent processes. Soil formation under hydromorphic conditions proceeds at higher speeds contrariwise to the century time scale reported in sources (discussing non-waterlogged cases). Support of the Hungarian Research Fund OTKA under contracts K100180 (for Z. Szalai) and K100181 (for T Németh) are gratefully acknowledged.

  5. Acidity field of soils as ion-exchange systems and the diagnostics of genetic soil horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokotov, Yu. A.; Sukhacheva, E. Yu.; Aparin, B. F.

    2014-12-01

    For the comprehensive description of the acidity of a two-phase ion-exchange system, we should analyze two curves of the ionite titration by a strong base in water and salt solutions and find the quantitative relationships between the corresponding pH characteristics. An idea of the three-dimensional field of acidity of ion-exchange systems (the phase space of the soil acidity characteristics) and its three two-dimensional projections is suggested. For soils, three interrelated characteristics—the pH values of the salt and water extracts and the degree of base saturation—can serve as spatial coordinates for the acidity field. Representation of factual data in this field makes it possible to compare and analyze the acidity characteristics of different soils and soil horizons and to determine their specific features. Differentiation of the field into separate volumes allows one to present the data in a discrete form. We have studied the distribution patterns of the groups of soil horizons from Leningrad oblast and other regions of northwestern Russia in the acidity field. The studied samples are grouped in different partially overlapping areas of the projections of the acidity field. The results of this grouping attest to the correctness of the modern classification of Russian soils. A notion of the characteristic soil area in the acidity field is suggested; it can be applied to all the soils with a leaching soil water regime.

  6. PH BUFFERING IN FOREST SOIL ORGANIC HORIZONS: RELEVANCE TO ACID PRECIPITATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Samples of organic surface horizons (Oi, Oe, Oa) from New York State forest soils were equilibrated with 0 to 20 cmol HNO3 Kg(-1) soil in the laboratory by a batch technique designed to simulate reactions of acid precipitation with forest floors. Each organic horizon retained a c...

  7. Comparison of thermal signatures of a mine buried in mineral and organic soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamorski, K.; Pregowski, Piotr; Swiderski, Waldemar; Usowicz, B.; Walczak, R. T.

    2001-10-01

    Values of thermal signature of a mine buried in soils, which ave different properties, were compared using mathematical- statistical modeling. There was applied a model of transport phenomena in the soil, which takes into consideration water and energy transfer. The energy transport is described using Fourier's equation. Liquid phase transport of water is calculated using Richard's model of water flow in porous medium. For the comparison, there were selected two soils: mineral and organic, which differs significantly in thermal and hydrological properties. The heat capacity of soil was estimated using de Vries model. The thermal conductivity was calculated using a statistical model, which incorprates fundamental soil physical properties. The model of soil thermal conductivity was built on the base of heat resistance, two Kirchhoff's laws and polynomial distribution. Soil hydrological properties were described using Mualem-van Genuchten model. The impact of thermal properties of the medium in which a mien had been placed on its thermal signature in the conditions of heat input was presented. The dependence was stated between observed thermal signature of a mine and thermal parameters of the medium.

  8. Controls on microbial CO2 production: a comparison of surface and subsurface soil horizons

    E-print Network

    Fierer, Noah

    Controls on microbial CO2 production: a comparison of surface and subsurface soil horizons N O A H­35 1C), and soil water potential ( À 0.5 to À 10 MPa) on the microbial mineralization of native soil potential on microbial CO2 production; C mineralization rates in surface soils were more affected

  9. Site- and horizon-specific patterns of microbial community structure and enzyme activities in permafrost-affected soils of Greenland

    PubMed Central

    Gittel, Antje; Bárta, Ji?í; Kohoutová, Iva; Schnecker, Jörg; Wild, Birgit; ?apek, Petr; Kaiser, Christina; Torsvik, Vigdis L.; Richter, Andreas; Schleper, Christa; Urich, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Permafrost-affected soils in the Northern latitudes store huge amounts of organic carbon (OC) that is prone to microbial degradation and subsequent release of greenhouse gasses to the atmosphere. In Greenland, the consequences of permafrost thaw have only recently been addressed, and predictions on its impact on the carbon budget are thus still highly uncertain. However, the fate of OC is not only determined by abiotic factors, but closely tied to microbial activity. We investigated eight soil profiles in northeast Greenland comprising two sites with typical tundra vegetation and one wet fen site. We assessed microbial community structure and diversity (SSU rRNA gene tag sequencing, quantification of bacteria, archaea and fungi), and measured hydrolytic and oxidative enzyme activities. Sampling site and thus abiotic factors had a significant impact on microbial community structure, diversity and activity, the wet fen site exhibiting higher potential enzyme activities and presumably being a hot spot for anaerobic degradation processes such as fermentation and methanogenesis. Lowest fungal to bacterial ratios were found in topsoils that had been relocated by cryoturbation (“buried topsoils”), resulting from a decrease in fungal abundance compared to recent (“unburied”) topsoils. Actinobacteria (in particular Intrasporangiaceae) accounted for a major fraction of the microbial community in buried topsoils, but were only of minor abundance in all other soil horizons. It was indicated that the distribution pattern of Actinobacteria and a variety of other bacterial classes was related to the activity of phenol oxidases and peroxidases supporting the hypothesis that bacteria might resume the role of fungi in oxidative enzyme production and degradation of phenolic and other complex substrates in these soils. Our study sheds light on the highly diverse, but poorly-studied communities in permafrost-affected soils in Greenland and their role in OC degradation. PMID:25360132

  10. Site- and horizon-specific patterns of microbial community structure and enzyme activities in permafrost-affected soils of Greenland.

    PubMed

    Gittel, Antje; Bárta, Ji?í; Kohoutová, Iva; Schnecker, Jörg; Wild, Birgit; Capek, Petr; Kaiser, Christina; Torsvik, Vigdis L; Richter, Andreas; Schleper, Christa; Urich, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Permafrost-affected soils in the Northern latitudes store huge amounts of organic carbon (OC) that is prone to microbial degradation and subsequent release of greenhouse gasses to the atmosphere. In Greenland, the consequences of permafrost thaw have only recently been addressed, and predictions on its impact on the carbon budget are thus still highly uncertain. However, the fate of OC is not only determined by abiotic factors, but closely tied to microbial activity. We investigated eight soil profiles in northeast Greenland comprising two sites with typical tundra vegetation and one wet fen site. We assessed microbial community structure and diversity (SSU rRNA gene tag sequencing, quantification of bacteria, archaea and fungi), and measured hydrolytic and oxidative enzyme activities. Sampling site and thus abiotic factors had a significant impact on microbial community structure, diversity and activity, the wet fen site exhibiting higher potential enzyme activities and presumably being a hot spot for anaerobic degradation processes such as fermentation and methanogenesis. Lowest fungal to bacterial ratios were found in topsoils that had been relocated by cryoturbation ("buried topsoils"), resulting from a decrease in fungal abundance compared to recent ("unburied") topsoils. Actinobacteria (in particular Intrasporangiaceae) accounted for a major fraction of the microbial community in buried topsoils, but were only of minor abundance in all other soil horizons. It was indicated that the distribution pattern of Actinobacteria and a variety of other bacterial classes was related to the activity of phenol oxidases and peroxidases supporting the hypothesis that bacteria might resume the role of fungi in oxidative enzyme production and degradation of phenolic and other complex substrates in these soils. Our study sheds light on the highly diverse, but poorly-studied communities in permafrost-affected soils in Greenland and their role in OC degradation. PMID:25360132

  11. Mach stem due to an underground explosion near a rigid structure buried in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karinski, Y. S.; Feldgun, V. R.; Racah, E.; Yankelevsky, D. Z.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents recent results of an analysis of pressure distributions along the circumference of underground structures of various shapes due to a nearby buried explosion. The present study examines the effect of the standoff distance on the results and special attention is given to the soil medium equation of state characteristics and their effect on the Mach stem. It was found that for a short standoff distance and a steep growth of pressure beyond the full compaction point that characterizes dense soils, the envelope of the pressure distributions shows a maximum value, which is located at some distance away from the plane of symmetry rather than along it, as is the case for a distant explosion. This phenomenon causes the distortion of the frontal part of the explosive cavity. This effect is more pronounced for more dense soils that show a sharper pressure increase in the equation of state. It has been proven that these pressure distributions and associated shapes of the explosion cavities are caused by the Mach stem effect appearing in a soil medium with full locking.

  12. Zn Speciation in the Organic Horizon of a Contaminated Soil by

    E-print Network

    Zn Speciation in the Organic Horizon of a Contaminated Soil by Micro-X-ray Fluorescence, Micro, MS 6-2100, Berkeley, California 94720 Soils that have been acutely contaminated by heavy metals show contamination is restricted to the top layer of the soil (3), which consists mainly of partially decomposed

  13. A geophysical and biochemical investigation of buried remains in contrasting soil textures in southern Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, Amanda C.

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is a non-invasive, geophysical tool used for the detection of clandestine graves. GPR operates by detecting density differences in soil by the transmission of high frequency electromagnetic (EM) waves from an antenna. A 500 Megahertz (MHz) frequency antenna is typically used for forensic investigations, as it provides a suitable compromise between depth of penetration and sub-surface resolution. Domestic pig (Sus scrofa) carcasses were clothed in 100% cotton t-shirts and 50% cotton/50% polyester briefs, and buried at a consistent depth at three field sites of contrasting soil texture (silty clay loam, fine sand and fine sandy loam) in southern Ontario. GPR was used to detect and monitor the graves for a period of 14 months post burial. Analysis of collected data revealed that GPR had applicability in the detection of clandestine graves containing remains in silty clay loam and fine sandy loam soils, but was not suitable for detection in fine sandy soil. Specifically, within a fine sandy loam soil, there is the potential to estimate the post burial interval (PBI), as hyperbolic grave response was well defined at the beginning of the 14 month burial duration, but became less distinctive near the completion of the study. Following the detection of a clandestine grave containing a carcass, collection of gravesoil, tissue and textile samples is important for the estimation of the stage of decomposition and the post burial interval (PBI) of the remains. Throughout the decomposition process of a carcass, adipose tissue is subjected to hydrolytic enzymes that convert triglycerides to their corresponding unsaturated, saturated and salts of fatty acids. The composition of fatty acids in the decomposed tissue will vary with the post mortem period, but it is unknown what affect the soil texture has on lipid degradation. As decomposition proceeds, fatty acids can leach from the tissues into the surrounding burial environment. Fatty acid analysis of gravesoil, tissue and textile samples, exhumed at two, eleven and fourteen month post burial intervals, was conducted using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS), attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Infrared (IR) spectroscopy analysis of the samples provided a qualitative profile of lipid degradation. Analysis of gravesoil samples did not reveal IR spectroscopy bands attributable to fatty acid degradation or adipocere formation. IR spectroscopy analysis of tissue samples is applicable for the estimation of carcass decomposition in all of the soil textures tested. Results of textile IR spectroscopy analysis revealed limited potential to estimate the stage of carcass decomposition in silty clay loam soil. GC-MS was used to quantify the peak area ratio (area/int std area) (PAR) of myristic (C14:0), palmitic (C16:0), palmitoleic (C16:1), stearic (C18:0) and oleic (C18:1) acids. GC-MS results revealed that analysis of both tissue and textile samples can be useful in the estimation of the stage of decomposition and the PBI of carcasses in all three of the soil textures tested. The results of this research may have applicability within forensic investigations involving decomposing bodies by aiding in the location of clandestine graves in silty clay loam and fine sandy loam soil through the use of GPR. Infrared spectroscopy and GC-MS analysis of the fatty acid composition of tissue and textile samples may also be incorporated into investigational protocols to aid in the estimation of the stage of decomposition and the PBI of a body. Key Words: forensic science, ground penetrating radar, soil texture, buried remains, fatty acids, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), infrared spectroscopy

  14. Inductive interference on pipelines buried in multilayer soil due to magnetic fields from nearby faulted power lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Georgios C. Christoforidis; Dimitris P. Labridis; Petros S. Dokopoulos

    2005-01-01

    The interference of power transmission lines to buried pipelines, sharing the same rights of way, has been a research subject for many years. Especially under fault conditions, large currents and voltages are induced on the pipelines, posing a threat to operating personnel, equipment, and the integrity of the pipeline. The soil structure is an important parameter that affects the level

  15. Uplifting behavior of shallow buried pipe in liquefiable soil by dynamic centrifuge test.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bo; Liu, Jingwen; Lin, Peng; Ling, Daosheng

    2014-01-01

    Underground pipelines are widely applied in the so-called lifeline engineerings. It shows according to seismic surveys that the damage from soil liquefaction to underground pipelines was the most serious, whose failures were mainly in the form of pipeline uplifting. In the present study, dynamic centrifuge model tests were conducted to study the uplifting behaviors of shallow-buried pipeline subjected to seismic vibration in liquefied sites. The uplifting mechanism was discussed through the responses of the pore water pressure and earth pressure around the pipeline. Additionally, the analysis of force, which the pipeline was subjected to before and during vibration, was introduced and proved to be reasonable by the comparison of the measured and the calculated results. The uplifting behavior of pipe is the combination effects of multiple forces, and is highly dependent on the excess pore pressure. PMID:25121140

  16. Transport of four pharmaceuticals in different horizons of three soil types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodesova, Radka; Svatkova, Paula; Klement, Ales; Jaksik, Ondrej; Golovko, Oksana; Fer, Miroslav; Kocarek, Martin; Nikodem, Antonin; Grabic, Roman

    2015-04-01

    Soil structure, which varies in different soil types and the horizons of these soil types, has a significant impact on water flow and contaminant transport in soils. Transport of many contaminants is in addition strongly influenced by their sorption on soil particles. Transport of four pharmaceuticals (sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, atenolol and carbamazepine) was studied in soil columns (a diameter of 10.5 cm and a height of 13 cm) taken from all diagnostic horizons of three different soil types (Haplic Luvisol, Greyic Phaeozem and Haplic Cambisol). The irrigation by water contaminated by a mixture of all four compounds followed by ponding infiltration of distilled water was simulated and water outflow and solute concentrations from the bottom of the soil sample was monitored in time. The highest infiltration rates were observed for soil samples from the Bt horizons of the Greyic Phaeozem that exhibited prismatic structure, followed by rates observed in the Ap horizons of the Haplic Luvisol, Greyic Phaeozem and Haplic Cambisol (due to their granular soil structure and presence of root channels). The lowest infiltration rate was measured for the Bw horizon of the Haplic Cambisol, which had a poorly developed soil structure and a low fraction of macropores. Compound discharge was however also highly affected by their sorption on solids. The highest mobility was observed for sulfamethoxazole followed by carbamazepine atenolol and trimethoprim, which corresponds to measured sorption isotherms. Mobility of ionizable compounds in different soil samples was influenced by pH (i.e. degree and form of their ionization) and sites available for absorption. Mobility of sulfamethoxazole decreased with decreasing pH (i.e. the largest sorption measured in horizons of the Haplic Cambisol). While mobility of atenolol and trimethoprim decreased with increasing base cation saturation, and with increasing organic matter content for carbamazepine. As result of both affects (i.e. soil structure and compounds' sorption) the highest discharge of all compounds was observed from the Ap horizon of the Greyic Phaeozem followed by compound discharge from the C horizons of the Greyic Phaeozem and the C and Bt2 horizons of the Haplic Luvisol. Acknowledgement: The authors acknowledge the financial support of the Czech Science Foundation (Project No. 13-12477S, Transport of pharmaceuticals in soils). References: Kodesova, R., Grabic, R., Kocarek, M., Klement, A., Golovko, O., Fer, M., Nikodem, A., Jaksik, O., Pharmaceuticals' sorptions relative to properties of thirteen different soils. Science of the Total Environment 511 (2015) 435-443.

  17. The magnetic diagnostics of cosmic and industrial silt in humus horizons of soils (abstract)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vyacheslav F. Babanin; Irina V. Shplkina; Sergei A. Shoba; Alexander V. Ivanov

    1994-01-01

    In the early 50s the increase of magnetic susceptibility in head horizons of soils has been observed. The reason was accepted to be forest and steppe fire. Later we discovered that the increasing of susceptibility and magnetic saturation was observed more clearly in the soils developed on weak magnetic native rock (loam, carbonate) and the magnetic fraction was separated from

  18. The distribution and genesis of calcic horizons in some soils of the Texas Coast Prairie 

    E-print Network

    Sobecki, Terrence Michael

    1980-01-01

    (Donar and Lynn, 1977; Hawker, 1927). In New Mexico soils Gile (1961) noted two basic occurrences of carbonate: (1) carbonate distributed throughout a horizon, which prob- ably encompasses the "finely disseminated" carbonate noted by Harper (1957... study in New Mexico, classified ca horizons from weak to very strong on. the basis of unconfined compressive strength, carbonate content, bulk density, and infiltration rate. Bulk density and unconfined compressive ' strength increased with carbonate...

  19. Stabilization of ancient organic matter in deep buried paleosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin-Spiotta, E.; Chaopricha, N. T.; Mueller, C.; Diefendorf, A. F.; Plante, A. F.; Grandy, S.; Mason, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    Buried soils representing ancient surface horizons can contain large organic carbon reservoirs that may interact with the atmosphere if exposed by erosion, road construction, or strip mining. Paleosols in long-term depositional sites provide a unique opportunity for studying the importance of different mechanisms on the persistence of organic matter (OM) over millennial time-scales. We report on the chemistry and bioavailability of OM stored in the Brady soil, a deeply buried (7 m) paleosol in loess deposits of southwestern Nebraska, USA. The Brady Soil developed 9,000-13,500 years ago during a time of warming and drying. The Brady soil represents a dark brown horizon enriched in C relative to loess immediately above and below. Spanning much of the central Great Plains, this buried soil contains large C stocks due to the thickness of its A horizon (0.5 to 1 m) and wide geographic extent. Our research provides a unique perspective on long-term OM stabilization in deep soils using multiple analytical approaches. Soils were collected from the Brady soil A horizon (at 7 m depth) and modern surface A horizons (0-15 cm) at two sites for comparison. Soils were separated by density fractionation using 1.85 g ml-1 sodium polytungstate into: free particulate organic matter (fPOM) and aggregate-occluded (oPOM) of two size classes (large: >20 ?m, and small: < 20 ?m). The remaining dense fraction was separated into sand, silt, and clay size fractions. The distribution and age of C among density and particle-size fractions differed between surface and Brady soils. We isolated the source of the characteristic dark coloring of the Brady soil to the oPOM-small fraction, which also contained 20% of the total organic C pool in the Brady soil. The oPOM-small fraction and the bulk soil in the middle of the Brady A horizon had 14C ages of 10,500-12,400 cal yr BP, within the time that the soil was actively forming at the land surface. Surface soils showed modern ages. Lipid analyses of the Brady soil indicate a predominance of terrestrial vegetation biomarkers. The strong presence of vascular plant-derived terpenoids and long-chain n-alkyl lipids suggest a grassland origin. Respiration rates of the buried soil in a laboratory incubation were negligible compared to modern surface A and B horizons, and responded little to wetting. These results suggest that moisture alone does not limit decomposition in the buried soil, at least over the 120-day incubation. Solid-state 13C-NMR spectroscopy reveals that the Brady soil is enriched in aromatic C, with high contributions of char, especially in the oPOM-small fraction. Thermal analysis showed high thermal stability of oPOM-small and bulk soils in the Brady soil compared to modern surface horizons. Radiocarbon ages and chemical composition of OM isolated from a deep paleosol suggest little modification since burial and may indicate rapid stabilization of plant-derived organic C by burial. The accumulation of char in the aggregate-protected fraction of the Brady soil provides additional evidence for warming and drying conditions during the time of loess deposition at this site. Developing a better understanding of the mechanisms that control long-term SOM stabilization is important for understanding how soil C is sequestered over millennia and for predicting how future disturbances may affect deep soil C.

  20. Characteristics and genesis of Inceptisols with placic horizons in the subalpine forest soils of Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sen-Po Wu; Zueng-Sang Chen

    2005-01-01

    Three pedons of Inceptisols with placic horizons were selected to study the characteristics and genesis of subalpine forest soils located in Shang-Hsing Mountain in Ilan county, northeastern Taiwan. The selected pedons were elevated from 1900 to 2100 m and derived from slate formed in the late Quaternary age. The vegetation types are dominated by red cypress (Chamaecyparis formosensis Matsum) and

  1. Expanding the horizons of soil science to the public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindbo, David L.; Hopmans, Jan; Olson, Carolyn; Fisk, Susan; Chapman, Susan

    2015-04-01

    Soils are critical to all life on the planet yet most individuals treat soil like dirt. As soil scientist we have long recognized this and have struggled to find ways to communicate the importance of soils to the public. The goal is not purely altruistic as we recognize that society funds or research and provides the workforce in soils that we need to continue to gain knowledge and expertise in soil science. In 2006 the Soil Science Society of America took a bold move and created its K12 Committee in part to compliment the Dig It! The Secrets of Soil exhibit that opened in July 2008 at the Smithsonian's Institution's Nation Museum of Natural History (of which SSS was a founding sponsor). The committee's work began quickly with a website designed to provide resources for K12 teachers (primary and school teachers). The first accomplishments included reviewing and posting links to web based information already available to teachers. These links were sorted by subject and grade level to make it easier for teachers to navigate the web and find what they needed quickly. Several presentations and lessons designed for K12 teachers were also posted at this time. Concurrent with this effort a subcommittee review and organized the national teaching standards to show where soils could fit into the overall K12 curriculum. As the website was being developed another subcommittee developed a soils book (Soil! Get the Inside Scoop, 2008) to further compliment the Dig It! exhibit. This was a new endeavor for SSSA having never worked with the non-academic audience in developing a book. Peer-reviews of this book included not only scientist but also students in order to make sure the book was attractive to them. Once the book was published and the website developed it became clear more outreach was needed. SSSA K12 Committee has attended both the National Science Teachers Association (since 2008) the USA Science and Engineering Festival (since 2010) with exhibits and workshops. It has cooperated and contributed to the American Geologic Institutes' Earth Science Week materials with brochures and lesson plans and with National Association of Conservation Districts by providing peer-review and distribution of materials. The most recent developments from the committee include a web redesign that is more student and teacher friendly, the development of a peer-review system to publish K12 Lesson Plans, and finally the publication of a new soils book (Know Soils, Know Life, 2012) for the 8-12th grade audience. It is hoped that Know Soils, Know Life will be used by the Cannon Envirothon and environmental science students and teachers. Future activities planned include a state soils book, teacher's guide for Know Soils, Know Life and development of a searchable digital photo/video library. Overall this committee has been exceedingly productive in its brief 8 year history. Most recently and in part based on the success of the K12 Committee's success, SSSA created an Identity Committee with the goal of not only reaching our members and other related scientist but also to better engage the public and the media. The efforts of this committee have been to redesign our web site to make it more accessible to the general public. The opening page has interest of a general nature and links that some who knows nothing (or very little) about soils can navigate to find out more. Prominent on this home page are links to soil questions posed by the public and answered by soil scientists. There is also a soil related blog as well as a resource for soil photos. In order to encourage secondary school students to consider a career involving soils there are profiles of individuals who are researchers, consultants, teachers and artists as well as soil scientists. The hope is that all this information will inspire a new generation of soil scientist as well as help the general public understand that soil is not just dirt.

  2. The structural state of buried and surface soils of solonetzic complexes in the dry steppe zone of the Lower Volga basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolotareva, B. N.; Bukhonov, A. V.; Demkin, V. A.

    2012-07-01

    The structural state of modern (surface) soils and the soils buried under Anna Ioannovna's rampart (1718-1720) was studied. These soils are the components of solonetzic soil complexes in the southern Privolzhskaya Upland. The dehumification and the high content of calcium in the exchange complex determine the state of the macrostructure of the chestnut soil buried about 300 years ago. The dehumification drastically lowers the water stability of the soil aggregates, and the predominance of calcium ions in the soil exchange complex prevents the destruction of the chestnut paleosol aggregates and preserves their aggregate state upon moistening. For the last 300 years, no significant changes in the macrostructure of the solonetzes have been observed.

  3. Feasibility of fast neutron analysis for the detection of explosives buried in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faust, A. A.; McFee, J. E.; Bowman, C. L.; Mosquera, C.; Andrews, H. R.; Kovaltchouk, V. D.; Ing, H.

    2011-12-01

    A commercialized thermal neutron analysis (TNA) sensor has been developed to confirm the presence of buried bulk explosives as part of a multi-sensor anti-tank landmine detection system. Continuing improvements to the TNA system have included the use of an electronic pulsed neutron generator that offers the possibility of applying fast neutron analysis (FNA) methods to improve the system's detection capability. This paper describes an investigation into the use of FNA as a complementary component in such a TNA system. The results of a modeling study using simple geometries and a full model of the TNA sensor head are presented, as well as preliminary results from an experimental associated particle imaging (API) system that supports the modeling study results. The investigation has concluded that the pulsed beam FNA approach would not improve the detection performance of a TNA system for landmine or buried IED detection in a confirmation role, and could not be made into a practical stand-alone detection system for buried anti-tank landmines. Detection of buried landmines and IEDs by FNA remains a possibility, however, through the use of the API technique.

  4. Functional Assays and Metagenomic Analyses Reveals Differences between the Microbial Communities Inhabiting the Soil Horizons of a Norway Spruce Plantation

    PubMed Central

    Uroz, Stéphane; Ioannidis, Panos; Lengelle, Juliette; Cébron, Aurélie; Morin, Emmanuelle; Buée, Marc; Martin, Francis

    2013-01-01

    In temperate ecosystems, acidic forest soils are among the most nutrient-poor terrestrial environments. In this context, the long-term differentiation of the forest soils into horizons may impact the assembly and the functions of the soil microbial communities. To gain a more comprehensive understanding of the ecology and functional potentials of these microbial communities, a suite of analyses including comparative metagenomics was applied on independent soil samples from a spruce plantation (Breuil-Chenue, France). The objectives were to assess whether the decreasing nutrient bioavailability and pH variations that naturally occurs between the organic and mineral horizons affects the soil microbial functional biodiversity. The 14 Gbp of pyrosequencing and Illumina sequences generated in this study revealed complex microbial communities dominated by bacteria. Detailed analyses showed that the organic soil horizon was significantly enriched in sequences related to Bacteria, Chordata, Arthropoda and Ascomycota. On the contrary the mineral horizon was significantly enriched in sequences related to Archaea. Our analyses also highlighted that the microbial communities inhabiting the two soil horizons differed significantly in their functional potentials according to functional assays and MG-RAST analyses, suggesting a functional specialisation of these microbial communities. Consistent with this specialisation, our shotgun metagenomic approach revealed a significant increase in the relative abundance of sequences related glycoside hydrolases in the organic horizon compared to the mineral horizon that was significantly enriched in glycoside transferases. This functional stratification according to the soil horizon was also confirmed by a significant correlation between the functional assays performed in this study and the functional metagenomic analyses. Together, our results suggest that the soil stratification and particularly the soil resource availability impact the functional diversity and to a lesser extent the taxonomic diversity of the bacterial communities. PMID:23418476

  5. Protein precipitation by tannins in soil organic horizon and vegetation in relation to tree species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bartosz Adamczyk; Veikko Kitunen; Aino Smolander

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the concentration of tannins and their capacity to precipitate proteins in the dominant\\u000a species of ground vegetation (Deschampsia flexuosa (L.) Trin., Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt., Vaccinium myrtillus (L.), and Vaccinium vitis-idaea (L.)) and in different layers of the soil organic horizon (litter layer—L, fermentation layer—F, humified layer—H) under\\u000a silver birch (Betula pendula

  6. Temporal Changes in the Ectomycorrhizal Community in Two Soil Horizons of a Temperate Oak Forest? †

    PubMed Central

    Courty, Pierre-Emmanuel; Franc, Alain; Pierrat, Jean-Claude; Garbaye, Jean

    2008-01-01

    The species structure of an ectomycorrhizal (ECM) community was assessed monthly for 15 months in the two horizons (A1 and A2) of an oak temperate forest in northeastern France. Ectomycorrhizal species were identified each month by internal transcribed spacer sequencing. Seventy-five fungal symbionts were identified. The community was dominated by Tomentellaceae, Russulaceae, Cortinariaceae, and Boletales. Four species are abundant in the study site: Lactarius quietus, Tomentella sublilacina, Cenococcum geophilum, and Russula sp1. The relative abundance of each species varied depending on the soil horizon and over time. Some species, such as L. quietus, were present in the A1 and A2 horizons. C. geophilum was located particularly in the A2 horizon, whereas T. sublilacina was more abundant in A1. Some species, such as Clavulina sp., were detected in winter, while T. sublilacina and L. quietus were present all year long. Our results support the hypothesis that a rapid turnover of species composition of the ECM community occurs over the course of a month. The spatial and temporal unequal distribution of ECM species could be explained by their ecological preferences, driven by such factors as root longevity, competition for resources, and resistance to environmental variability. PMID:18658284

  7. Porewater geochemistry of inland Acid sulfate soils with sulfuric horizons following postdrought reflooding with freshwater.

    PubMed

    Creeper, Nathan L; Shand, Paul; Hicks, Warren; Fitzpatrick, Rob W

    2015-05-01

    Following the break of a severe drought in the Murray-Darling Basin, rising water levels restored subaqueous conditions to dried inland acid sulfate soils with sulfuric horizons (pH <3.5). Equilibrium dialysis membrane samplers were used to investigate in situ changes to soil acidity and abundance of metals and metalloids following the first 24 mo of restored subaqueous conditions. The rewetted sulfuric horizons remained severely acidified (pH ?4) or had retained acidity with jarosite visibly present after 5 mo of continuous subaqueous conditions. A further 19 mo of subaqueous conditions resulted in only small additional increases in pH (?0.5-1 pH units), with the largest increases occurring within the uppermost 10 cm of the soil profile. Substantial decreases in concentrations of some metal(loid)s were observed with time most likely owing to lower solubility and sorption as a consequence of the increase in pH. In deeper parts of the profiles, porewater remained strongly buffered at low pH values (pH <4.5) and experienced little progression toward anoxic circumneutral pH conditions over the 24 mo of subaqueous conditions. It is proposed that low pH conditions inhibited the activity of SO-reducing bacteria and, in turn, the in situ generation of alkalinity through pyrite production. The limited supply of alkalinity in freshwater systems and the initial highly buffered low pH conditions were also thought to be slowing recovery. The timescales involved for a sulfuric horizon rewetted by a freshwater body to recover from acidic conditions could therefore be in the order of several years. PMID:26024279

  8. Impact of spruce forest and grass vegetation cover on soil micromorphology and hydraulic properties of organic matter horizon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Radka Kodešová; Lenka Pavl?; Vít Kodeš; Anna Žigová; Antonín Nikodem

    2007-01-01

    Two organic matter horizons developed under a spruce forest and grass vegetation were chosen to demonstrate the impact of\\u000a a different vegetation cover on the micromorphology, porous system and hydraulic properties of surface soils. Micromorphological\\u000a studies showed that the decomposed organic material in the organic matter horizon under the grass vegetation was more compact\\u000a compared to the decomposed organic material

  9. Persistence of 137Cs in the litter layers of forest soil horizons of Mount IDA/Kazdagi, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Karadeniz, Özlem; Karakurt, Hidayet; Çak?r, Rukiye; Çoban, Fatih; Büyükok, Emir; Akal, Cüneyt

    2015-01-01

    In 2010-2012, an extensive study was performed in forest sites of Mount IDA (Kazdagi)/Edremit 26 years after the Chernobyl accident. The (137)Cs activity concentrations were determined by gamma-ray spectrometry in the forest soil layers (OL, OF + OH and A horizons) separately. Based on 341 surface soil samples and 118 soil profiles, activity concentrations of (137)Cs in OL horizons varied between 0.25 ± 0.14 and 70 ± 1 Bq kg(-1), while the ranges of (137)Cs activity concentrations in OF + OH and A horizons were 13 ± 1-555 ± 3 Bq kg(-1) and 2 ± 1-253 ± 2 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Cesium-137 deposition in the study area was estimated to be in the range of 1-39 kBq m(-2) and a linear relationship between the deposition of (137)Cs and the altitude was observed. The distributions of (137)Cs activities in OL, OF + OH and A horizons throughout the region were mapped in detail. The highest (137)Cs activities were found in OF + OH horizons, with markedly lower (137)Cs activity in mineral horizons of soil profiles. It is observed that (137)Cs content of humus layer increases with the thickness of the humus layer for coniferous forest sites. The (137)Cs activity concentrations were higher than the recommended screening limits (150 Bq kg(-1)) at some of the investigated areas. The current activity concentration of top soil layers indicates that over many years since the initial deposition, (137)Cs activity is keeping still high in the organic horizons. PMID:25464048

  10. Degradation behavior of biocomposites based on cassava starch buried under indoor soil conditions.

    PubMed

    Maran, J Prakash; Sivakumar, V; Thirugnanasambandham, K; Sridhar, R

    2014-01-30

    Degradation of cassava (tapioca) starch based composite films during indoor soil burial experiments was analyzed using five factors, three levels Box-Behnken response surface design. From the results, it was observed that, increased water sorption promotes the entry of soil microorganism and it utilizes the starch films as a source of energy for their growth. The reduction in weight and mechanical property was associated with preferential loss of matrix components of the films. The microorganisms associated with the degradation of films were quantified and identified. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis showed the formation of patterns and cracks on the surface of the materials aged in the soils. From the results, second order polynomial models were developed for the responses. The results of the study demonstrated that, the tapioca starch based composites were showed a limited lifetime in biotic environment which make them suitable for being disposed in landfills after their use. PMID:24299744

  11. Spatial and temporal soil water variability in the plowing horizon of agriculturally used soils in two regions of Southwest Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poltoradnev, Maxim; Ingwersen, Joachim; Streck, Thilo

    2015-04-01

    Soil water dynamics plays an important role in soil-plant-atmosphere interactions. There is a lack of long-term continuous measurements of topsoil water content at the regional scale. The objective of the present study was to quantify and elucidate the seasonal dynamics of spatial soil water content variability in the plowing horizon (Ap) of agricultural soils at the regional scale. The study was conducted in the central part of the Kraichgau and the Mid Swabian Alb in Southwest Germany. In each region a soil water network embracing 21 stations was set up. All stations were installed on cropped agricultural sites and distributed across three spatial domains: an inner domain 3 km × 3 km (5 stations), a middle 9 km × 9 km (8 stations), and an outer domain 27 km × 27 km (8 stations). Each station consists of a TDT sensor (SI.99 Aquaflex Soil Moisture Sensor, Streat Instruments Ltd, New Zealand), which senses both soil water content and soil temperature, a rain gauge, and a remote transfer unit (RTU, datalogger + GSM modem), which stores and transfers data via GPRS modem to the central data server (Adcon Telemetry GmbH, Austria) located at the University of Hohenheim. The TDT sensors were installed at 0.15 m depth. A sensor consists of a three meter long and three centimeter wide flat transmission line. The relationship between the standard deviation (??) of the soil water content (SWC) and mean spatial soil water content (⟨?⟩) formed combinations of concave and convex hyperbolas. However, it strongly depended on SWC state and season. Generally, ?? was found to be changing along a convex trend during dry out and rewetting phases with a maximum in the intermediate SWC range. At the rain event scale, ??(⟨?⟩) was either ascending or converging with decreasing ⟨?⟩. A concave shape was observed when ⟨?⟩ approached to dry state. The majority of ??(⟨?⟩) hysteresis loops were observed in intermediate and intermediate/wet state of SWC. All hysteretic loops were clockwise oriented. Rainfall intensity and distribution were identified as main factors driving SWC variability at the regional scale.

  12. Structural properties of dissolved organic carbon in deep soil horizons of an arable and temporarily grassland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavaud, A.; Chabbi, A.; Croue, J. P.

    2009-04-01

    It is commonly accepted that dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is the bio-available fraction of the largest amount of soil organic matter (SOM), even if it does represent only a very small proportion. Because most of the studies on DOC dynamics were mainly restricted to forest soils, studies on the factors governing the dynamics of DOC in deep soil horizons (>1 m) in arable system are still very little limited. The objective of this work is to better define the proportion of DOC in deep soil horizons and indicate their main characteristics and structural properties. The study was conducted on the long term observatory for environmental research- biogeochemical cycles and biodiversity Lusignan site). DOC collected using lysimeters plates inserted to a depth of 105 cm was fractionated into 3 fractions using the two column array of XAD-8 and XAD-4 resins. The HPO (hydrophobic) fraction (i.e. humic substances) isolated from the XAD-8 resin, the TPH (Transphilic) fraction from the XAD-4 resin and the HPI (hydrophilic) fraction which corresponds to the DOC that does not adsorbed onto the two resins under the acid condition used (pH 2). DOM adsorbed onto the resins is recovered with a 75%/25% acetonitrile/water mixture and lyophilized. Depend on the amount of material; the chemical composition of DOC was performed using UV254 nm, fluorescence EEM, NMR and HPSEC/UV/COD. The results show that the concentration and structural properties of DOC in deep soil horizon were similar to those of groundwater (low SUVA (1.2 m-1.L.mg C-1), structures composed mainly of low molecular weight). Because of the relatively recent establishment of the treatment, the monitoring of the dynamics of the DOC concentrations did not show significant differences between arable and grassland. However, the temporal dynamic shows a slight increase in the DOC content regardless of the of land use. DOC concentrations between winter and the middle of spring tend to double going from 1 to 2.5 mg / L and then to 4-5 mg / L in summer time. The structural analysis reveals significant input of terpenoid derived organic matter was confirmed in the HPO fraction of DOC a results supported by the data of 13C NMR, Infra Red and Micro Scale Sealed Vessel / pyrolysis GC / MS. The chromatographic profiles obtained by flash pyrolysis GC / MS highlight the presence of phenol and alkyl phenols, generally attributed to structures polyhydroxyaromatiques (lignin / tannins), but acetamide, pyrolysis product of amino sugars constituents of the wall microbial cells. The thermochimiolyse (TMAH) / GC / MS confirmed the presence of hydroxy aromatic structures in the extracts, however, their precise origin (lignin, tannins ...) remains uncertain. The results so far indicate that the DOC in deep soil horizons is marked by low aromaticity and dominated by small size molecules. This would consist of carbon derived from terpenoids, lignin degraded and amino sugars.

  13. Experimental validation of forensic evidence: a study of the decomposition of buried pigs in a heavy clay soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bryan Turner; Patricia Wiltshire

    1999-01-01

    In a murder investigation, where the victim had been strangled and buried in a shallow grave, there were discrepancies between the post mortem interval (PMI) as estimated from entomological studies and estimations determined from other evidence. This inconsistency provided the impetus for examining the decay process using pig carcasses as analogues for the human cadaver. The pigs were buried in

  14. A numerically based design procedure for buried high-density polyethylene profile-wall pipes buried in fine-grained in-situ soils

    E-print Network

    Brown, Frederick Allen

    1984-01-01

    for Different Soil and Water Contents. . . TABLE 4. In-situ Soil Parameter Used in Factorial Study. . . . TABLE 5. Effect of Varying Trench Width for a 48 in. Pipe in a Weak Soil. ~Pa e 15 18 51 52 75 TABLE 6. Maximum Pipe Strain and Deflection... Katona ( I). ~pa e FIGURE 3. Profile-Wall Pipe With Nonsymmetric Cross-Section. . 20 FIGURE 4. Hyperbolic Representation of a Stress-Strain Curve. 23 FIGURE 5. Mohr-Coulomb Failure Diagram. FIGURE 6. General Nonlinear Stress-Strain Curve 26 After...

  15. Microbial nitrogen dynamics in organic and mineral soil horizons along a latitudinal transect in western Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, Birgit; Schnecker, Jörg; Knoltsch, Anna; Takriti, Mounir; Mooshammer, Maria; Gentsch, Norman; Mikutta, Robert; Alves, Ricardo J. Eloy; Gittel, Antje; Lashchinskiy, Nikolay; Richter, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    Soil N availability is constrained by the breakdown of N-containing polymers such as proteins to oligopeptides and amino acids that can be taken up by plants and microorganisms. Excess N is released from microbial cells as ammonium (N mineralization), which in turn can serve as substrate for nitrification. According to stoichiometric theory, N mineralization and nitrification are expected to increase in relation to protein depolymerization with decreasing N limitation, and thus from higher to lower latitudes and from topsoils to subsoils. To test these hypotheses, we compared gross rates of protein depolymerization, N mineralization and nitrification (determined using 15N pool dilution assays) in organic topsoil, mineral topsoil, and mineral subsoil of seven ecosystems along a latitudinal transect in western Siberia, from tundra (67°N) to steppe (54°N). The investigated ecosystems differed strongly in N transformation rates, with highest protein depolymerization and N mineralization rates in middle and southern taiga. All N transformation rates decreased with soil depth following the decrease in organic matter content. Related to protein depolymerization, N mineralization and nitrification were significantly higher in mineral than in organic horizons, supporting a decrease in microbial N limitation with depth. In contrast, we did not find indications for a decrease in microbial N limitation from arctic to temperate ecosystems along the transect. Our findings thus challenge the perception of ubiquitous N limitation at high latitudes, but suggest a transition from N to C limitation of microorganisms with soil depth, even in high-latitude systems such as tundra and boreal forest.

  16. Some factors influencing production of sulphate by oxidation of elemental sulphur and thiosulphate in upper horizons of spruce forest soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Lettl; O. Langkramer; V. Lochman

    1981-01-01

    Some factors influencing the oxidative activity of upper horizons of spruce forest soils (a mixture of fermentative and humus\\u000a layers) toward intermediates of the oxidative part of the sulphur cycle were investigated. Preincubation of the soil with\\u000a added cysteine, sulphide, elemental sulphur or thiosulphate was found to stimulate enzyme systems oxidating any of these compounds.\\u000a Sulphite and sulphate were ineffective

  17. The Influence of Organic-Soil Horizons on Thermal Dynamics in High-Latitude Soils: Identifying Thresholds for Permafrost State Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ODonnell, J. A.; Harden, J. W.; Romanovsky, V. E.

    2014-12-01

    Organic-soil horizons exert significant control on soil temperature and permafrost dynamics in high-latitude regions. Ecosystem protection of permafrost is governed by the low thermal conductivity of organic soils, which is sensitive to changes in horizon thickness (OHT), moisture content, and decomposition extent (and thus, porosity, and density) of organic matter. At broad spatial scales, the occurrence of permafrost is positively correlated with OHT when organic horizons are relatively thin (< 30 cm). Across sites where OHT is deeper, this correlation reverses and becomes negative. We hypothesize that this bi-modal relationship between OHT and permafrost occurrence is primarily governed by the contrasting thermal properties of upper organic-soil horizons and the underlying deep organic-soil and mineral-soil horizons. As documented with prior investigations on snow thermal properties, we find that that the underlying layers can have a profound impact on the insulating effect of the overlying layer. To evaluate this hypothesis, we examine the sensitivity of permafrost to soil properties (OHT, moisture content, and texture) and their variations across landscape positions and drainage class using field-based observations and generalized simulations using the Geophysical Institute Permafrost Laboratory model (GIPL). We observed significant negative correlations between minimum daily ground-surface temperature during summer and OHT across upland forest sites in interior Alaska. In peatlands, ground-surface temperature and OHT appear to be decoupled, which is likely due to variation in deposit thickness as determined by the timing of peatland formation across the region. Model results highlight the role of moisture content and water table position, both as controls on organic matter accumulation and on permafrost extent and thermal state.

  18. Investigating priming of soil organic matter decomposition with litter extract in genetic horizons of two harvested red spruce podzols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, C.; Kellman, L. M.

    2012-12-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) represents a significant store of carbon (C), and factors that influence its stability are essential to understand, particularly since rising greenhouse gases such as CO2 play an important role in exacerbating climate change. Several studies have documented losses of SOM as a result of forest harvesting, particularly in mineral soils below 20 cm, but the specific mechanism for this loss has not been identified. Priming of SOM decomposition has been observed in some soils with the addition of labile C sources, so it is important to consider whether leaching of organic matter from litter through soil profiles is a mechanism that might explain these observed harvesting-related losses. Here we present preliminary results of a study whose objective is to quantify changes in respiration rates from paired soils differing only in their harvest history, through depth and under C amendment conditions that closely mimic those found in the field setting. Composite field moist soil samples from Ae, Bf and BC (transitional) horizons were incubated to assess respiration rates (2.5 g dry weight, in triplicate) at 15 C for paired sites representing 110 yr and 35 yr post-harvest temperate forest soils. The approach combined descriptive measurements (elemental composition and C and N stable isotope ratios), with soil headspace CO2 and ?13C-CO2 measurements for soils experiencing additions of litter extract or deionized water over a 28 day period. Results indicate an order of magnitude difference in CO2 evolution rates between the shallow horizons (Ae and Bf) and the deeper soil (BC). The respired 13C-CO2 ratio was higher in the 110 yr old site soils, with a more depleted signature released from the 35 yr old site soils. The stable isotope signature of respired CO2 matched that of the bulk soil in the Ae horizon, but signatures that emerged from the Bf horizon did not necessarily follow that trend. Litter extracts produced variable results between sites, yielding insight into the role a labile C source derived from the upper profile may play in the stability of C in the profiles of harvested soils. Studies of this nature have important implications for understanding key processes governing SOM stability.

  19. Effect of hydrothermally carbonized char application on trace gas emissions from two sandy soil horizons.

    PubMed

    Dicke, Christiane; Lanza, Giacomo; Mumme, Jan; Ellerbrock, Ruth; Kern, Jürgen

    2014-09-01

    The application of biochar to soil is a potential tool for the long-term sequestration of C and a possible mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Among the various processes available to produce biochar, hydrothermal carbonization is one technique that is suitable for moist feedstock like digestates from biogas production. The aim of this study was to investigate the stability of C and emissions of NO after the addition of (i) digested wheat ( L.) straw (digestate) and (ii) hydrothermally carbonized (HTC) char of wheat straw as well as (iii) HTC char of digested wheat straw to two soil horizons that differed in C content. The HTC chars were obtained from wheat straw and digested wheat straw that were hydrothermally carbonized at 230°C for 6 h. The digestate and HTC chars were mixed with soil and incubated in 125-mL vessels. The GHG emissions of CO and NO were measured at regular intervals. Additionally, after 108 d, N was applied in the form of NHNO equivalent to 100 kg N ha. After 500 d of incubation, the digestate had lost 34% of C, while the soil mixture with the corresponding HTC char lost 12% of C in the form of CO from the topsoil. The estimated bi-exponential half-life of the recalcitrant C was more than 50% longer for the carbonized material than for the untreated digestate. The NO emissions from both HTC chars were significantly reduced compared with untreated digestate. The reductions were up to 64% for the topsoil and 60% for the subsoil samples. These laboratory results show that HTC holds the potential to increase the C stability of fermented and carbonized biomasses and to reduce NO emissions. PMID:25603263

  20. Near-infrared spectroscopy for analysis of chemical and microbiological properties of forest soil organic horizons in a heavy-metal-polluted area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcin Chodak; Maria Nikli?ska; Friedrich Beese

    2007-01-01

    In industrial areas, heavy metals may accumulate in forest soil organic horizons, affecting soil microorganisms and causing\\u000a changes in the chemical composition of the accumulated organic matter. The objectives of this study were to test the ability\\u000a of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to detect heavy metal effects on the chemical composition of forest soil O horizons and\\u000a to test whether NIRS

  1. Phenolic compounds and terpenes in soil organic horizon layers under silver birch, Norway spruce and Scots pine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanna Kanerva; Veikko Kitunen; Jyrki Loponen; Aino Smolander

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor the concentration of some plant secondary metabolites, such as low- and high-molecular-weight\\u000a phenolics, condensed tannins (proanthocyanidins), and sesqui-, di- and triterpenes, in litter (L), fermentation (F) and humified\\u000a (H) layers of the soil organic horizon in stands dominated by silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and Scots

  2. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOIL pH AND BASE-SATURA- TION PERCENTAGE FOR SURFACE AND SUBSOIL HORIZONS OF SELECTED MOLLISOLS, ALFISOLS, AND ULTISOLS IN OHIO 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MAYNARD BEERY; L. P. WILDING

    In the 7th Approximation soil classification system, base-saturation percentage is used as a definitive criterion in separating Alfisols (Gray-Brown Podzolics) from Ultisols (Red-Yellow Podzolics) and Umbric epipedons (acidic, dark-colored surface horizons) from Mollic epipedons (other dark-colored surface horizons). Ohio soil scientists are cur- rently using field-determined pH to estimate base-saturation percentage when laboratory data are unavailable. To test the reliability

  3. On the use of evanescent electromagnetic waves in the detection and identification of objects buried in lossy soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glenn S. Smith; L. E. Rickard Petersson

    2000-01-01

    In some electromagnetic (EM) systems proposed for the detection of buried objects, such as landmines, the transducers (antennas) are located very close to the surface of the Earth. The coupling of energy into the Earth is then by the near field of the transducers, or, more precisely, by evanescent waves as well as propagating waves in the spectrum for the

  4. Structural properties of dissolved organic carbon in deep horizons of an arable soil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavaud, A.; Croué, Jp; Berwick, L.; Steffens, M.; Chabbi, A.

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this work is to quantity the DOC that percolates in deep horizons of an arable soil, and to characterize the structural properties of the main fractions. The study was conducted on the long term observatory for environmental research- biogeochemical cycles and biodiversity Lusignan site-France. DOC collected using lysimeter plates inserted to a depth of 105 cm was fractionated into 3 fractions using the two column array of XAD-8 and XAD-4 resins. The HPO (hydrophobic) fraction (i.e. humic substances) isolated from the XAD-8 resin, the TPH (Transphilic) fraction from the XAD-4 resin and the HPI (hydrophilic) fraction which corresponds to the DOC that does not adsorbed onto the two resins under the acid condition used (pH 2). DOM adsorbed onto the resins is recovered with a 75%/25% acetonitrile/water mixture and lyophilized. The hydrophilic fraction is purified according the protocol proposed by Aiken and Leenheer (1993). The isolated fractions were subjected to several characterization tools: UV/Vis, fluorescence EEM, HPSEC/UV/DOC, 13C NMR, 14C dating, FT-IR, pyrolysis, thermochemolysis and MSSV GC/MS. The DOC content ranged from 1 to 2.5 mg / L between winter and the middle of spring and then to 4-5 mg / L in summer time. For all isolated fractions HPSEC analyses indicated the predominance of low molecular structures with a low aromatic character. Fluorescence EEM confirmed the non-humic character of the DOM. 13C-NMR spectra showed that the aromatic character decreased from HPO to TPH, and HPI character. Molecular size follows the same trend. HPI DOM was found to be strongly enriched in carboxyl groups. The 14C concentration of the HPO fraction corresponds to an apparent calibrated age around AD 1500. For the same fraction isolated from the 0 - 30 cm horizon, the measured 14C concentration 131.9 pMC corresponds to that in the atmosphere around AD 1978. Significant input of terpenoid derived organic matter was confirmed in the HPO fraction of DOC, results supported by the data of 13C NMR, FT-IR and Micro Scale Sealed Vessel / pyrolysis GC / MS. Flash pyrolysis GC / MS chromatogram highlight the presence of phenol and alkyl phenols, generally attributed to structures polyhydroxyaromatic structures. Acetamide, a pyrolysis product of amino sugars constituents of microbial cell wall is also significantly present. The thermochimiolysis (TMAH)/GC/ MS confirmed the presence of hydroxy aromatic structures in the extracts; however, their precise origin (lignin, tannins ...) remains uncertain.

  5. The history of soil erosion: Interpreting historical sources, buried soils and colluvial sediments as archives of past soil erosion and human-environment interactions in the Longue Durée

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dotterweich, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Soil erosion threatens the environment and the sustainability of agricultural practices since the earliest societies started modifying their natural environment in the Neolithic. Almost all farming-based cultures in the world, from large civilizations to peasant groups on little islands, have suffered from soil erosion by water. The amounts of soil erosion varied largely through time and space, and extreme events have left a wide variety of imprints on the landscape over millennia. Eroded hillslopes and gullies, deposited sediments in sinks like lakes, footslopes, valleys, floodplains, and river deltas are geomorphic legacies that have been linked to changes in land use and climate by many studies during the last decades. However, a standardized analysis and interpretation of these geomorphic legacies is problematic because of the variety of methodological approaches and the nonlinearity between soil erosion, climate, and land use. Cascading effects, land use structures, soil management, soil conservation strategies, and long-term system changes have produced different signals over time. Historical records are crucial and an invaluable source to provide alternative proxies about soil erosion in the past. Direct observations of individual soil erosion events may restrict the deposition of a distinct sediment package to a certain time span. They also expand the range of alternative interpretations, particularly with respect to the long-term effects of soil erosion to ecosystem services and socioeconomic processes. However, historical records also need critical analyses regarding their origin, intention, and quality. They were often created in the context of personal interests or political issues rather than being based on scientific facts; and it is often unclear if they represent certain events, narratives, or vague assumptions. This presentation will present and discuss examples of geomorphic evidences and historical records of past soil erosion for the deciphering of human-environment interactions in the Longue Durée.

  6. Contamination of the O2 soil horizon by zinc smelting and its effect on woodlouse survival

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Miller, G.W.; Cromartie, E.J.

    1984-01-01

    Samples of litter from the 02 horizon of Dekalb soil (loamyskeletal, mixed, mesic Typic Dystrochrept) were collected from 18 ridgetop sites on a transect that ran by two Zn smelters in Palmerton, Pa. Metal concentrations increased by regular gradations from a minimum at a site 105 km west of the smelters (67 mg/kg Zn, 0.85 mg/kg Cd, 150 mg/kg Pb, 11 mg/kg Cu) to a maximum 1.2 km east of the smelters (35,000 mg/kg Zn, 1300 mg/kg Cd, 3200 mg/kg Pb, 280 mg/kg Cu), and then decreased until they reached an eastern minimum at the easternmost site, 19 km from the smelters. An increase in the P concentrations near the smelters showed that the emissions were disrupting nutrient flow through the ecosystem. An increase in the pH near the smelters was attributed to the high concentrations of Zn. The log of the distance of the sites from the smelters was significantly correlated (r = - 0.80, p < 0.05) with the mortality of woodlice (Porcellio scaber Latreille} fed samples of the litter during an 8-week test. There was substantial mortality of woodlice observed even in the 02 litter collected 19 km east of the smelters. Zinc, cadmium, lead, copper, and sulfur were experimentally added, alone or in combination, to 02 litter collected far from any known source of metal emissions. The highest concentration of Zn added (20,000 mg/kg) was toxic enough to account for the mortality observed in the earlier test. A lower concentration of Zn (5000 mg/kg) as well as the concentration of Cd (500 mg/kg) tested also significantly (p < 0.05) increased the mortality of woodlice.

  7. Evaluation of the graphite electrode DC arc furnace for the treatment of INEL buried wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Surma; C. J. Freeman; T. D. Powell; D. R. Cohn; D. L. Smatlak; P. Thomas; P. P. Woskov; R. A. Hamilton; C. H. Titus; J. K. Wittle

    1993-01-01

    The past practices of DOE and its predecessor agencies in burying radioactive and hazardous wastes have left DOE with the responsibility of remediating large volumes of buried wastes and contaminated soils. The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID), has chosen to evaluate treatment of buried wastes at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Because of the characteristics of the buried wastes,

  8. Incubation of air-pollution-control residues from secondary Pb smelter in deciduous and coniferous organic soil horizons: leachability of lead, cadmium and zinc.

    PubMed

    Chrastný, Vladislav; Van?k, Aleš; Komárek, Michael; Farkaš, Juraj; Drábek, Ond?ej; Vokurková, Petra; N?mcová, Jana

    2012-03-30

    The leachability of air-pollution-control (APC) residues from a secondary lead smelter in organic soil horizons (F and H) from a deciduous and a coniferous forest during incubation periods of 0, 3 and 6 months were compared in this work. While the concentration of Pb, Zn and Cd associated with the exchangeable/acid extractable fraction in the horizon F from the coniferous forest was higher compared to the deciduous, significantly lower concentrations in the humified horizon H was found. It is suggested that lower pH and a higher share of fulvic acids fraction (FAs) of solid phase soil organic matter (SOM) in the humified soil horizon H from the coniferous compared to the deciduous forest is responsible for a higher metal association with solid phase SOM and therefore a lower metal leaching in a soil system. From this point of view, the humified soil horizon H from the deciduous forest represents a soil system more vulnerable to Pb, Zn and Cd leaching from APC residues. PMID:22277334

  9. Sarret G., Balesdent J., Bouziri L., Garnier J. M., Marcus M. A., Geoffroy N., Panfili F., and Manceau A. (2004) Zn speciation in the organic horizon of a contaminated soil by micro X-ray fluorescence,

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    2004-01-01

    ., and Manceau A. (2004) Zn speciation in the organic horizon of a contaminated soil by micro X-ray fluorescence speciation in the organic horizon of a contaminated soil by micro X-ray fluorescence, micro and powder EXAFS-mail: gsarret@ujf-grenoble.fr #12;Abstract Soils which have been acutely contaminated by heavy-metals show

  10. Abiotic factors influence microbial diversity in permanently cold soil horizons of a maritime-associated Antarctic Dry Valley.

    PubMed

    Stomeo, Francesca; Makhalanyane, Thulani P; Valverde, Angel; Pointing, Stephen B; Stevens, Mark I; Cary, Craig S; Tuffin, Marla I; Cowan, Don A

    2012-11-01

    The McMurdo Dry Valleys collectively comprise the most extensive ice-free region in Antarctica and are considered one of the coldest arid environments on Earth. In low-altitude maritime-associated valleys, mineral soil profiles show distinct horizontal structuring, with a surface arid zone overlying a moist and biologically active zone generated by seasonally melted permafrost. In this study, long-term microenvironmental monitoring data show that temperature and soil humidity regimes vary in the soil horizons of north- and south-facing slopes within the Miers Valley, a maritime valley in the McMurdo Dry Valleys. We found that soil bacterial communities varied from the north to the south. The microbial assemblages at the surface and shallow subsurface depths displayed higher metabolic activity and diversity compared to the permafrost soil interface. Multivariate analysis indicated that K, C, Ca and moisture influenced the distribution and structure of microbial populations. Furthermore, because of the large % RH gradient between the frozen subsurface and the soil surface we propose that water transported to the surface as water vapour is available to microbial populations, either as a result of condensation processes or by direct adsorption from the vapour phase. PMID:22428950

  11. Soils

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Pamela Gore

    1995-08-29

    The purpose of the handout is to identify the three major types of soils: pedalfer, pedocal, and laterite, and to understand the soil profile. This is accomplished with brief descriptions of the soil horizons and the designation of common elements to pedalfers, pedocals, and laterite soils. The handout is concluded with a discussion of soil erosion. Links are provided to the online Physical Geology resources at Georgia Perimeter College.

  12. Electromagnetic scattering from buried objects

    SciTech Connect

    Brock, B.C.; Sorensen, K.W.

    1994-10-01

    Radar imaging and detection of objects buried in soil has potentially important applications in the areas of nonproliferation of weapons, environmental monitoring, hazardous-waste site location and assessment, and even archeology. In order to understand and exploit this potential, it is first necessary to understand how the soil responds to an electromagnetic wave, and how targets buried within the soil scatter the electromagnetic wave. We examine the response of the soil to a short pulse, and illustrate the roll of the complex dielectric permittivity of the soil in determining radar range resolution. This leads to a concept of an optimum frequency and bandwidth for imaging in a particular soil. We then propose a new definition for radar cross section which is consistent with the modified radar equation for use with buried targets. This radar cross section plays the same roll in the modified radar equation as the traditional radar cross section does in the free-space radar equation, and is directly comparable to it. The radar cross section of several canonical objects in lossy media is derived, and examples are given for several object/soil combinations.

  13. Use of the color indices of humus soil horizons as indicators of soil evolution in the steppe zone of the Transvolga region under irrigation conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoma, G. V.; Rozov, S. Yu.; Sukhanova, N. I.

    2015-05-01

    Changes that occurred in the humus parameters and humus horizon color of soils of an experimental production farm in the Saratov oblast during 50 years of irrigation indicate the development of a northern humid version of soil-forming process. Its rate is determined by the confinement of soils to mesoand microrelief elements. The qualitative differences in the character of humification in soils on watersheds and middle and lower slopes are confirmed by statistically reliable differences in the color parameters of soils in the CIE-L*a*b* color system. The lightness (L*) and the yellowness (b*) are the most informative parameters. The lightness is related to the content of humus and probably to its qualitative composition, and the changes in yellowness result from the masking of yellow-colored mineral iron compounds by the newly formed humus. These color indices are reliable criteria for color assessment and can be used for the detection and estimation of changes in the irrigated soils of the steppe regions.

  14. Detection and characterization of buried landmines using infrared thermography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nguyen Trung Thành; Hichem Sahli; Dinh Nho Hào

    2011-01-01

    The application of infrared (IR) thermography to the detection and characterization of buried landmines (more generally, buried objects) is introduced. The problem is aimed at detecting the presence of objects buried under the ground and characterizing them by estimating their thermal and geometrical properties using IR measurements on the soil surface. Mathematically, this problem can be stated as an inverse

  15. Effect of Dissemination of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid (2,4-D) Degradation Plasmids on 2,4-D Degradation and on Bacterial Community Structure in Two Different Soil Horizons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WINNIE DEJONGHE; JOHAN GORIS; S. El Fantroussi; M. Hofte; P. De Vos; W. Verstraete; E. M. Top

    2000-01-01

    Transfer of the 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) degradation plasmids pEMT1 and pJP4 from an introduced donor strain, Pseudomonas putida UWC3, to the indigenous bacteria of two different horizons (A horizon, depth of 0 to 30 cm; B horizon, depth of 30 to 60 cm) of a 2,4-D-contaminated soil was investigated as a means of bioaugmentation. When the soil was amended with

  16. Age and activation of microbial communities in soils under burial mounds and in recent surface soils of steppe zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demkina, T. S.; Khomutova, T. E.; Kashirskaya, N. N.; Demkina, E. V.; Stretovich, I. V.; El-Registan, G. I.; Demkin, V. A.

    2008-12-01

    Chestnut paleosols buried under steppe kurgans about 4800, 4000, and 2000 years ago and their background analogues were studied in the dry steppe zone on the Volga-Don interfluve. Morphological, chemical, microbiological, biochemical, and radiocarbon studies were performed. Paleoclimatic conditions in the region were reconstructed on the basis of paleosol data. The ages of microbial fractions isolated from the buried and surface soils were determined using the method of 14C atomic mass-spectrometry. It reached 2100 years in the A1 horizon of the buried paleosol, which corresponded to the archaeological age of the kurgan (1st century AD). The ages of microbial biomass isolated from the B2 horizons of the buried paleosol and the background surface soil comprised 3680 ± 35 and 3300 ± 30 years, respectively. The obtained data confirmed our assumption about preservation of microorganisms of the past epochs in the paleosols buried under archaeological monuments. It is ensured by various mechanisms of adaptation of soil microbial communities to unfavorable environmental conditions (anabiosis, transformation of bacteria into nanoforms, etc.). The possibility to stimulate germination of the ancient dormant microbial pool isolated from the buried paleosols by 2-3 orders of magnitude with the use of ?-indolyl-3-acetic acid as a signal substance was demonstrated.

  17. Estimating Depth to Argillic Soil Horizons using Apparent Electrical Conductivity Response Functions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maps of apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) of the soil profile are widely used in precision agriculture practice and research. A number of ECa sensors are commercially available, each with a unique response function (i.e., the relative contribution of soil at each depth to the integrated ECa rea...

  18. SULFUR DYNAMICS IN MINERAL HORIZONS OF TWO NORTHERN HARDWOOD SOILS A COLUMN STUDY WITH 35S

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sulfur dynamics of two Spodosols were ascertained using soil columns constructed from homogenized mineral soil from northern hardwood ecosystems at the Huntington Forest (HF) in the Adirondack Mountains of New York and Bear Brook Watershed in Maine (BBWM). olumns were leached for...

  19. Fire, temperature and nutrient responses on the C balance of arctic tundra soils from surface, mineral horizons and permafrost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Baets, S. L.; Lewis, R.; van de Weg, M. J.; Quine, T. A.; Shaver, G. R.; Hartley, I. P.

    2013-12-01

    Models predict substantial release of carbon (C) from thawing permafrost as the climate warms. Therefore, determining how the decomposition of the organic matter stored in near surface permafrost is controlled represents a key research priority. Important questions remain regarding how readily decomposable the organic matter may be, as well as the extent to which microbial activity is limited by the low temperatures, the rate of new labile C inputs, and/or nitrogen (N) availability. Accurate model predictions require that these questions are addressed.Disturbances, including fire, which is becoming increasingly common in the tundra biome, may promote rates of permafrost thaw. In 2007, the Anaktuvuk River fire burned over 1,000 km2 of tundra on the North Slope of the Brooks Range, Alaska, USA, doubling the cumulative area burned in this region over the past 50 years. This fire enhanced active layer thickness by removing insulating plant biomass and exposing surfaces with low albedo. In this study we investigated how temperature, N and labile C additions affected rates of CO2 production over a one-year incubation of samples collected from different depths (topsoil, mineral horizons and near-surface permafrost) in burnt and unburnt sites within the Anaktuvik river catchment. The results show that respiration rates did not decline substantially during the 1-year incubation, indicating there were relatively large amounts of readily decomposable C present. However, decomposition rates per gram of C did decline with depth, especially in the burnt sites where some of the surface soil may have been lost. This indicates that the C present in the near surface permafrost may be less labile than C nearer the soil surface. In addition, respiration rates in the deeper horizons were more temperature sensitive, potentially reflecting the lower lability of the C present. Against expectations, N addition inhibited respiration in the deeper layers, especially at low temperatures. Labile C additions promoted the decomposition of soil organic matter in the deep soil samples, but not in the surface samples, with the positive priming effect being lost following N addition. This study indicates that there is the potential for considerable loss of C following the thaw of near-surface permafrost in Alaskan tussock tundra, although the C present may be slightly less readily decomposable than C stored nearer the surface. The decomposition of near-surface permafrost C was shown to be highly temperature sensitive and thus accurately simulating the soil thermal regime post-thaw is likely to be important in predicting rates of C release. In addition, root colonisation of previously frozen horizons may stimulate decomposition if labile C inputs increase. On the other hand, the inhibition of activity by N addition suggests that the positive feedback associated with reduced microbial N limitation in a warming Arctic may not be ubiquitous.

  20. A Mesophilic, Autotrophic, Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaeon of Thaumarchaeal Group I.1a Cultivated from a Deep Oligotrophic Soil Horizon

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Man-Young; Park, Soo-Je; Kim, So-Jeong; Kim, Jong-Geol; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2014-01-01

    Soil nitrification plays an important role in the reduction of soil fertility and in nitrate enrichment of groundwater. Various ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) are considered to be members of the pool of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms in soil. This study reports the discovery of a chemolithoautotrophic ammonia oxidizer that belongs to a distinct clade of nonmarine thaumarchaeal group I.1a, which is widespread in terrestrial environments. The archaeal strain MY2 was cultivated from a deep oligotrophic soil horizon. The similarity of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain MY2 to those of other cultivated group I.1a thaumarchaeota members, i.e., Nitrosopumilus maritimus and “Candidatus Nitrosoarchaeum koreensis,” is 92.9% for both species. Extensive growth assays showed that strain MY2 is chemolithoautotrophic, mesophilic (optimum temperature, 30°C), and neutrophilic (optimum pH, 7 to 7.5). The accumulation of nitrite above 1 mM inhibited ammonia oxidation, while ammonia oxidation itself was not inhibited in the presence of up to 5 mM ammonia. The genome size of strain MY2 was 1.76 Mb, similar to those of N. maritimus and “Ca. Nitrosoarchaeum koreensis,” and the repertoire of genes required for ammonia oxidation and carbon fixation in thaumarchaeal group I.1a was conserved. A high level of representation of conserved orthologous genes for signal transduction and motility in the noncore genome might be implicated in niche adaptation by strain MY2. On the basis of phenotypic, phylogenetic, and genomic characteristics, we propose the name “Candidatus Nitrosotenuis chungbukensis” for the ammonia-oxidizing archaeal strain MY2. PMID:24705324

  1. Soil-landscape development and late Quaternary environmental change in coastal Estremadura, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, Michael; Haws, Jonathan; Benedetti, Michael; Bicho, Nuno

    2015-04-01

    This poster integrates soil-landscape analysis with archaeological survey and paleoenvironmental reconstruction. Soils in surface and buried contexts in Estremadura, Portugal, provide evidence of landscape stability and instability, relative age relationships between landforms, and general paleoenvironmental conditions during the late Quaternary. These factors provide insight into the distribution and condition of Paleolithic archaeological sites and help understand the record of human settlement in the region. Late Pleistocene and Holocene dunes extend inland approximately 10 km from coastal source regions. Surface soils in Holocene dunes under maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) forest exhibit A, E, C/Bh and A, C horizon sequences and classify as Quartzipsamments. Surface soils in late Pleistocene dunes exhibit A, E, Bh, Bhs, Bs horizon sequences and classify as Haplorthods. Both Pleistocene and Holocene dunes commonly bury a heavily weathered soil formed in calcareous sandstone. The boundary between underlying buried soils and overlying surface soils is characterized by a lag deposit of medium to coarse, moderately-rounded gravels, underlain immediately by subsurface Bt and Bss horizons. The lag deposit and absence of buried A horizons both indicate intense and/or prolonged surface erosion prior to burial by late Quaternary dunes. Soil-geomorphic relationships therefore suggest at least two distinct episodes of dune emplacement and subsequent landscape stability following an extensive episode late Pleistocene landscape instability and soil erosion. A conceptual model of soil-landscape evolution through the late Quaternary and Holocene results from the integration of soil profile data, proxy paleoenvironmental data, and the partial record of human settled as revealed in the archaeological record.

  2. Some factors influencing production of sulphate by oxidation of elemental sulphur and thiosulphate in upper horizons of spruce forest soils.

    PubMed

    Lettl, A; Langkramer, O; Lochman, V

    1981-01-01

    Some factors influencing the oxidative activity of upper horizons of spruce forest soils (a mixture of fermentative and humus layers) toward intermediates of the oxidative part of the sulphur cycle were investigated. Preincubation of the soil with added cysteine, sulphide, elemental sulphur or thiosulphate was found to stimulate enzyme systems oxidating any of these compounds. Sulphite and sulphate were ineffective in this respect. The oxidation of elemental sulphur was stimulated by CaCO3, technical urea and high doses of superphosphate and potassium sulphate. It was inhibited by KH2PO4, pure urea, 40 % potassium salt, ammonium nitrate with calcium carbonate and the fertilizer NPK I. It proceeded at the highest rate at approximately 60 % capillary capacity (61 % of mass water content). Oxidation of thiosulphate was stimulated by KH2PO4, pure urea, superphosphate, potassium sulphate and only slightly by the fertilizer NPK I. It was inhibited by CaCO3, 40 % potassium salt and only slightly by ammonium nitrate with calcium carbonate. Potassium chloride, glucose and technical urea were without effect. The oxidation proceeded at the highest rate at 35 % maximal capillary capacity (48 % mass water content). PMID:6266935

  3. Frost heave induced mechanics of buried pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Selvadurai, A.P.S. [McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Shinde, S.B. [Canada Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada). Engineering Research and Technology Div.

    1993-12-01

    This paper examines the problem of the flexural interaction between a long-distance buried pipeline embedded in a soil medium that experiences differential frost heave. The modeling takes into consideration the interaction at a transition zone between a frozen region and a frost-susceptible region that experiences a time-dependent growth of a frost bulb around the buried pipeline. The heave that accompanies the development of a frost bulb induces the soil-pipeline interaction process. The analysis focuses on the development of a computational scheme that addresses the three-dimensional nature of the soil-pipeline interaction problem, the creep susceptibility of the frozen region, and a prescribed time- and stress-dependent heave in an evolving frost bulb zone. The numerical results presented in the paper illustrate the influence of the heave process and the creep behavior of the frozen soil on the displacements and stresses in the buried pipeline.

  4. The contribution of micrometeorites to the iron stocks of buried podzols, developed in Late-glacial aeolian sand deposits (Brabant, The Netherlands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Mourik, Jan; de Vet, Sebastiaan

    2015-04-01

    The surface geology of an extensive part of NW-Europe is dominated by coversands (Late-glacial chemical poor aeolian sand deposits). The geomorphology of coversand landscapes is dominated by ridges and planes. Podzolation is the dominant soil forming process in coversands under moderate humid climatic conditions. Umbric Podzols developed on the ridges under Quercetum-mixtum, Gleyic and Histic Podzols developed in the planes under Alnetum. Even in chemical poor coversands, iron will be released by hydrolysis from iron containing silicate minerals (such as feldspars). It is well known that the vertical iron distribution in Podzols is effected by translocation of active iron from eluvial to illuvial horizons and that iron is leaching to the aquifer. Iron stocks of Podzols, in contrasts, have not been widely studied for comparison purposes of individual soil horizons or between soils. We determined the stocks of active and immobile iron in the horizons of buried xeromorphic Podzols (soils that developed without any contact with groundwater). The results show that the total amount of iron exceeds the potential amount which can be released by hydrolysis from the parent material. Furthermore, to amount of iron that leached to the groundwater is unknown. It is evident that we must find an additional source to explain the total iron stocks in buried Podzols. It is known from analysis of ice cores that the earth atmosphere is subjected to a continuous influx of (iron rich) micrometeorites. The precipitation of micrometeorites (and other aerosols) on the earth surface is concentrated in humid climatic zones with (intensive) rain fall. We analyzed minerals, extracted from the ectorganic horizon of the Initial Podzols, developed in driftsand that stabilized around 1900 AD, overlying Palaeopodzols, buried around 1200 AD. Among blown in quartz grains, we could determine also micrometeorites, embedded in the organic skeleton of the fermentation horizon of the Initial Podzol (Mormoder). The exogenic origin of the micrometeorites could be confirmed by SEM-EDX analysis. Micrometeorites could accumulate on the surface level of the Initial Podzols during one century (between 1900 AD till the moment of sampling in 2013), on the surface level of the buried Podzols during eight millennia (between the moment of stabilization in the Preboreal and the moment of burying around 1200 AD). The soil conditions of the ectorganic horizons of (initial) Podzols are moist and acidic, promoting quick release of iron from micrometeorites. An additional source of Iron that could be added to the amount, released from the parent material. The extraction and identification of micrometeorites from ectorganic horizons of Initial Podzols helped illustrate that atmospheric deposition in the form of aerosol and aeolian (e.g. Saharan) dust, micrometeorites and other hydrolysable particles, contributes to soil development. The requisite active iron for podzolation can therefore be derived from chemical weathering of atmospheric iron sources in the acidic soil environment. Reference: 1. Van Mourik, J.M., Seijmonsbergen, A.C., Slotboom, R.T. and Wallinga, J., 2012. The impact of human land use on soils and landforms in cultural landscapes on aeolian sandy substrates (Maashorst, SE Netherlands). Quaternary International 265, 74-89. 2. Van Mourik, J.M. and de Vet, S.B. (2015). Iron stocks of buried Podzols: endogenic iron deficits and potential exogenic enrichment in the Maashorst region, SE Netherlands. Catena, accepted.

  5. Adsorption coefficients for TNT on soil and clay minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, Rosángela; Pabón, Julissa; Pérez, Omarie; Muñoz, Miguel A.; Mina, Nairmen

    2007-04-01

    To understand the fate and transport mechanisms of TNT from buried landmines is it essential to determine the adsorption process of TNT on soil and clay minerals. In this research, soil samples from horizons Ap and A from Jobos Series at Isabela, Puerto Rico were studied. The clay fractions were separated from the other soil components by centrifugation. Using the hydrometer method the particle size distribution for the soil horizons was obtained. Physical and chemical characterization studies such as cation exchange capacity (CEC), surface area, percent of organic matter and pH were performed for the soil and clay samples. A complete mineralogical characterization of clay fractions using X-ray diffraction analysis reveals the presence of kaolinite, goethite, hematite, gibbsite and quartz. In order to obtain adsorption coefficients (K d values) for the TNT-soil and TNT-clay interactions high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used. The adsorption process for TNT-soil was described by the Langmuir model. A higher adsorption was observed in the Ap horizon. The Freundlich model described the adsorption process for TNT-clay interactions. The affinity and relative adsorption capacity of the clay for TNT were higher in the A horizon. These results suggest that adsorption by soil organic matter predominates over adsorption on clay minerals when significant soil organic matter content is present. It was found that, properties like cation exchange capacity and surface area are important factors in the adsorption of clayey soils.

  6. Remote technologies for buried waste retrieval

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.M.; Rice, P.

    1995-10-01

    The DOE is evaluating what should be done with this buried waste. Although the radioactive waste is not particularly mobile unless airborne, some of it was buried with volatile organics and/or other substances that tend to spread easily to surrounding soil or water tables. Volatile organics are hazardous materials (such as trichloroethylene) and require clean-up at certain levels in drinking water. There is concern that the buried volatile organics will spread into the water table and contaminate drinking water. Because of this, the DOE is considering options for handling this buried waste and reducing the risks of spreading or exposure. There are two primary options: containment and stabilization, or retrieval. Containment and stabilization systems would include systems that would leave the waste where it is, but contain and stabilize it so that the radioactive and hazardous materials would not spread to the surrounding soil, water, or air. For example, an in situ vitrification system could be used to melt the waste into a composite glass-like material that would not leach into the surrounding soil, water, or air. Retrieval systems are those that would remove the waste from its burial location for treatment and/or repackaging for long term storage. The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate remote technologies that would minimize dust generation and the spread of airborne contaminants during buried waste retrieval. Remote technologies are essential for the retrieval of buried waste because they remove workers from the hazardous environment and provide greater automation, reducing the chances of human error. Minimizing dust generation is also essential to increased safety for the workers and the environment during buried waste retrieval. The main contaminants within the waste are micron-sized particles of plutonium and americium oxides, chlorides, and hydroxides, which are easily suspended in air and spread if disturbed.

  7. Chemical detection of buried landmines

    SciTech Connect

    Phelan, J.M.; Webb, S.W.

    1998-03-01

    Of all the buried landmine identification technologies currently available, sensing the chemical signature from the explosive components found in landmines is the only technique that can classify non-explosive objects from the real threat. In the last two decades, advances in chemical detection methods has brought chemical sensing technology to the foreground as an emerging technological solution. In addition, advances have been made in the understanding of the fundamental transport processes that allow the chemical signature to migrate from the buried source to the ground surface. A systematic evaluation of the transport of the chemical signature from inside the mine into the soil environment, and through the soil to the ground surface is being explored to determine the constraints on the use of chemical sensing technology. This effort reports on the results of simulation modeling using a one-dimensional screening model to evaluate the impacts on the transport of the chemical signature by variation of some of the principal soil transport parameters.

  8. Buried fiber optic sensor 

    E-print Network

    Park, Jaehee

    1992-01-01

    BURIED FIBER OPTIC SENSOR A Thesis JAEHEE PARK Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1992 Major Subject: Elecbical... Engineering BURIED FIBER OPTIC SENSOR A Thesis JAEHEE PARK Approved as to style and content by: . F. Taylor (Chair of Committee) C. . Su (Member) S. M. Wright (Member) J, C. Holste (Member) J. W. Howze (Head of Department) August 1992 ABSTRACT...

  9. Accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs) in organic and mineral soil horizons from four U.S. remote forests.

    PubMed

    Obrist, Daniel; Zielinska, Barbara; Perlinger, Judith A

    2015-09-01

    We characterized distributions of 23 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (?23PAH) and nine oxygenated PAHs (?9OPAH) in four remote forests. We observed highest ?23PAH and ?9OPAH concentrations in a coniferous forest in Florida, particularly in organic layers which we attributed to frequent prescribed burning. Across sites, ?23PAH and ?9OPAH concentrations strongly increased from surface to humidified organic layers (+1626%) where concentrations reached up to 584ngg(-1). Concentrations in mineral soils were lower (average 37±8ngg(-1)); but when standardized per unit organic carbon (OC), PAH/OC and OPAH/OC ratios were at or above levels observed in organic layers. Accumulation in litter and soils (i.e., enrichment factors with depth) negatively correlated with octanol-water partition coefficients (Kow) and therefore was linked to water solubility of compounds. Concentrations of ?9OPAHs ranged from 6±6ngg(-1) to 39±25ngg(-1) in organic layers, and from 3±1ngg(-1) to 11±3ngg(-1) in mineral soils, and were significantly and positively correlated to ?23PAHs concentrations (r(2) of 0.90) across sites and horizons. While OPAH concentrations generally decreased from organic layers to mineral soil horizons, OPAH/OC ratios increased more strongly with depth compared to PAHs, in particular for anthrone, anthraquinone, fluorenone, and acenaphthenequinone. The strong vertical accumulation of OPAH relative to OC was exponentially and negatively correlated to C/N ratios (r(2)=0.67), a measure that often is used for tissue age. In fact, C/N ratios alone explained two-thirds of the variability in OPAH/OC ratios suggesting particularly high retention, sorption, and persistency of OPAHs in old, decomposed carbon fractions. PMID:25929871

  10. Vertical distribution of heavy metals associated with the coarse and medium sand fraction in the forest soils of European Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samonova, Olga; Aseyeva, Elena

    2015-04-01

    To accurately model metal behavior in soils, studies on possible geochemical changes occurring within a specific grain-size fraction during pedogenesis are needed. In the present study we analyze concentrations and vertical distributions of heavy metals associated with the coarse and medium sand fraction (1-0.25mm) for soils in the middle Protva basin, situated in the mixed forest zone of European Russia. Two soil types were analyzed: well-differentiated sod-podzolic soils (podzoluvisols) with AEBtC-profile, the major soil type in the study area occupying the interfluve's sub-horizontal surfaces and gentle slopes; and poorly differentiated soddy soils of subordinate positions: soddy soils, soddy gleyic soils and soddy soils with buried fluvial soil horizons. In total 27 samples, collected from 4 soil profiles, were analyzed for Fe, Ti, Mn, Cu, Ni, Co, Cr, Zn, Pb and Zr contents in the partitioned coarse and medium sand fraction. The median concentrations calculated are for Fe ? 4%, for Mn ? 760 ppm; for Ti ? 980 ppm; for Zr ? 130 ppm; for Zn ? 30 ppm; and for Cu, Pb, Co, Cr, Ni ? 67, 13, 11, 38, 33 ppm, respectively. The metal concentrations in total sample population vary differently, with the variation coefficients diminishing from Mn (171%) and Fe (112%) to Zr, Ni and Pb (53%). Comparing the chemical composition of coarse and medium sand fractions in the vertical sequence of horizons within a soil profile showed that in the sod-podzolic soil developed on mantle loam metals are enriched in the sand fraction of the upper A and AE horizons. The second but less distinct maximum levels for Cu, Ni, Fe, Cr, Mn and Co were found in the subsoil with gleyic features (Cg horizon). In soddy soils developed on diluvium on the steep section of the slope the studied sand fraction generally showed larger amounts of metals in A and AC horizons. In similar soils with gleyic features the concentrations of Fe, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu are the highest in the uppermost horizon, while the levels of Mn, Pb, Ti, Zr are higher in the ACg horizon. In the genetically heterogeneous soil profile combining horizons typical for contemporary soddy soils and buried fluvial soils the metal concentrations depend on the genesis of the sand fraction, with higher concentrations found in the contemporary soil horizons and lower concentrations in the buried fluvial soils. Thus, our results imply that during soil formation, under the influence of soil and geochemical processes conditioned by a humid temperate climate, the composition of the sand fraction in relation to metal contents changes. In most cases the enrichment of the sand fraction with a wide spectrum of metals was found in upper soil horizons of the studied soil types where humus accumulation, active biogeochemical processes and sand grain weathering takes place. Periodic saturation of the soils with water might also have contributed to metal accumulation in the sand fraction through the formation of iron and manganese compounds which can serve as sinks for metals.

  11. Semiclassical Horizons

    E-print Network

    Arundhati Dasgupta

    2007-11-05

    The entropy of apparent horizons is derived using coherent states or semiclassical states in quantum gravity. The leading term is proportional to area for large horizons, and the correction terms differ according to the details of the graph which is used to regularise the quantum gravity phase space variables.

  12. Age and origin of Terra Rossa soils in the Coonawarra area of South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mee, Aija C.; Bestland, Erick A.; Spooner, Nigel A.

    2004-03-01

    The famous Terra Rossa soil in the Coonawarra area, South Australia, is dominated by locally derived aeolian detritus, which probably accumulated over the last 120-130 ka. Four soil profiles and associated limestone and lunette deposits were investigated using the following methods: mass balance geochemistry of bulk soil samples (major and trace elements), quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) mineralogy, strontium isotopes (87/86), as well as grain-size analysis and cation exchange capacity. These data show that the Terra Rossa soil from the Coonawarra has a thick, clayey B-horizon which is geochemically homogeneous and dominated by smectite and kaolinite. Mass-balance calculations show unrealistic weathering scenarios when plotted using silicate residuum from the underlying limestone as parent. Realistic weathering scenarios are produced with fine-grained silicate material from local lunette deposits as parent. Strontium isotopes of silicate residuum from Gambier Limestone (0.78) contrast strongly with the clayey B-horizon (0.726). Strontium isotope ratios of silicate material from a local lunette (0.725) are similar to the B-horizon soil values. Strontium isotope ratios from regional geological units indicate that the strontium signature in the lunette and soil B-horizon is dominated by weathering products from the Palaeozoic Kanmantoo shales, extensively exposed upwind to the west on Kangaroo Island and the Fleurieu Peninsula. Optical (optically stimulated luminescence, OSL) dating of 61 individual quartz grains (single aliquot) from three samples in the Coonawarra soil profile (one from the A-horizon and two from the B-horizon) shows that most of the quartz sand grains have been buried for only a few thousand years. Many of the grains, however, have been buried for tens of thousands of years with three grains having exposure ages of between 105 and 109 ka. The large population of young exposure dates represents quartz sands recently exposed in the A-horizon and which have been translocated down to the B-horizon. The older exposure dates are interpreted as representing grains that were buried during or soon after the accumulation of wind-blown silt and clay. Our current model concerning the timing and conditions of aeolian deposition of the Coonawarra soil is that much of it accumulated during the relatively wet, last interglacial period around 120-130 ka. During that time span, it is thought that the playa-lunette systems in the low-lying areas to the west were particularly active and generated a significant local dust flux.

  13. Prediction of soil water retention properties after stratification by combining texture, bulk density and the type of horizon

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Prediction of soil water retention properties after stratification by combining texture, bulk water retention properties at continental and national scales because only very basic soils data (topsoil and subsoil). The performance of these class-PTFs was validated against water retained at -33

  14. Are We Under-Estimating Mercury in Soils? Experimental Acidification and Sample Collection Timing Demonstrate Variability in Estimates of Mercury in O-Horizon Soils at a Maine Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, S. J.; Johnson, K. B.

    2009-12-01

    Sampling protocols, including sample timing, collection methods, preservation, and preparation, can strongly influence the results of any analysis. Organic soil horizons are a large pool of mercury (Hg) in most temperate, forested sites; minimizing the potential for under- or over- estimates in this medium is critical for discerning the fate and transport of Hg. Detailed guidance is available for ultra-clean and semi-clean handling for Hg sampling in surface waters. However, neither guidance regarding the proper time of year to sample soils nor methodological studies regarding post-sampling preservation and handling were available in the scientific literature for soil Hg sampling. Here we report on pilot work that (1) provides data for Hg in soils (O-horizon) through an entire year, to determine whether seasonality affects Hg estimates; and (2) documents the effect of treating a soil with acidic water prior to preparation and analysis. We collected O-horizon soil samples monthly from a single plot during 2008, and analyzed them for total Hg. Each month, samples were split; half were ‘control’ samples (dried then analyzed) and half were ‘acidified’ (treated with acidic (pH 2.0) ultrapure water prior to drying and analysis). We observed: (1) a three-fold range of Hg values (148-446 ppb) for the control samples (all collected within the same 2-m2 plot), varying across the twelve months in 2008 during which samples were collected; (2) differences of ~15-20% between acidified and control samples; and, (3) an apparent loss of ~100 ppb of Hg (~22%) if acidification of the dry sample was delayed a day or more. Soils collected when the antecedent period had been wet lost Hg when soils were treated with pH 2.0 solution, potentially because soluble Hg in solution could have been leached during acid treatment. This finding may help to explain why researchers have seen large pulses of Hg in streamwater flux during snowmelt. Further, our results may help to inform ongoing scientific discussions regarding the fate of ‘old’ Hg versus ‘new’ Hg. If ‘new’ Hg is subject to rapid transformations that depend, in part, on antecedent weather conditions, this could account for some of the temporal variability in the proportion of ‘new’ Hg in streamwater flux. Although potential mechanisms that explain the temporal variability and acidification effect need to be more thoroughly studied, our results clearly demonstrate that there is large variability within the O-horizon component of watershed-scale budgets of Hg. The effects of long storage times, heating or air-drying samples, and freezing samples have not been explicitly discussed in the literature, though potential sources of variability, including those we investigated, are listed by US EPA. A standardized sampling protocol for soils, based on rigorous tests of field and laboratory handling and preparation, should be developed to support cross-site comparison such as that proposed in the national mercury monitoring network.

  15. Water flow and distribution around buried landmines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh, Gary; Ginsberg, Mark D.; Howington, Stacy E.

    2006-05-01

    Soil properties make a significant impact in the observed responses of various sensors for mine detection. Soil moisture affects the performance of electromagnetic sensors through its effects on soil thermal and dielectric properties. We have initiated laboratory, field and numerical studies to advance our fundamental understanding of the properties and governing processes of moisture distribution and flow around buried landmines. The laboratory component features magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to map water distribution around a mine-like obstacle placed in a test soil sample. The field component investigates the moisture migration around landmines under realistic weather and soil conditions. We use anti-tank mines instrumented with moisture and temperature sensors to monitor the weather-driven processes. The numerical component investigates existing physics models underlying current simulations of moisture transport in soils. We use existing flow simulators to evaluate the completeness of process descriptions and to estimate the relative importance of individual processes on micro-scale moisture movement. These existing simulators include both continuum codes designed to work at scales much larger than the grain size and pore-scale models that discretize individual pores. We present the preliminary results of our investigations and discuss the potential impact of our findings on infrared and radar detection of buried landmines.

  16. HORIZON SENSING

    SciTech Connect

    Larry G. Stolarczyk, Sc.D.

    2002-07-31

    Real-time horizon sensing (HS) on continuous mining (CM) machines is becoming an industry tool. Installation and testing of production-grade HS systems has been ongoing this quarter at Oxbow Mining Company, Monterey Coal Company (EXXON), FMC Trona, Twentymile Coal Company (RAG America), and SASOL Coal. Detailed monitoring of system function, user experience, and mining benefits is ongoing. All horizon sensor components have finished MSHA (United States) and IEC (International) certification.

  17. Stringy horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giveon, Amit; Itzhaki, Nissan; Kutasov, David

    2015-06-01

    We argue that classical (?') effects qualitatively modify the structure of Euclidean black hole horizons in string theory. While low energy modes experience the geometry familiar from general relativity, high energy ones see a rather different geometry, in which the Euclidean horizon can be penetrated by an amount that grows with the radial momentum of the probe. We discuss this in the exactly solvable black hole, where it is a manifestation of the black hole/Sine-Liouville duality.

  18. Topographic variability influences the carbon sequestration potential of arable soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirinda, N.; Elsgaard, L.; Thomsen, I. K.; Lægdsmand, M.; Heckrath, G.; Petersen, B. M.; Olesen, JE

    2012-04-01

    There is presently limited knowledge on the influence of field spatial variability on the carbon (C) sink-source relationships in arable landscapes. This is accompanied by the fact that our understanding of soil profile C dynamics is also limited. This study aimed at investigating how spatial variability along a short catena influences C sink-source relationships and temporal dynamics of CO2 concentrations in soils. In spring 2011, soil samples were collected from topsoil (2-5.5 cm) and subsoil (38-41.5 cm) horizons at upslope and footslope positions in a Danish winter wheat field on a sandy loam soil developed on glacial till. Bulk densities and C concentrations of the soils were characterized. From June 2011, gas samples were collected at least bimonthly from the same slope positions in four spatial replicates using stainless steel needles that were permanently installed at 5, 10, 20 and 30 cm soil depths. Concurrently, gas was sampled from 40, 50, and 80 cm depths using steel rods connected to a sampling port. Concentrations of CO2 in the gas samples were analyzed by gas chromatography. The results show that at the upslope position, soils from the topsoil horizon clearly had higher C pools (5.2 Mg C ha-1) compared to those from the subsoil horizon (1.0 Mg C ha-1). At the footslope position, however, C pools in topsoil (6.9 Mg C ha-1) and subsoil (7.0 C Mg ha-1) horizons were similar but higher than those at the upslope position. The gas monitoring study is still ongoing, but preliminary results show that CO2 concentrations generally increased with depth. At the upslope position, CO2 concentrations ranged between 800 and 24000 ppm and were generally lower than the concentrations observed at the footslope position (3000-42000 ppm) for similar soil depths. The upslope position has been subject to soil erosion while the footslope position has been a depositional site; thus the subsoil at the footslope position was to a large extent a buried topsoil horizon. The topographic relationship between the upslope and footslope position made the latter a sink for soil C transported through processes such as tillage erosion. This led to the presence of higher C pools and CO2 concentrations at the footslope compared to the upslope position. Despite the fact that higher CO2 concentrations with depth may be influenced by the relationship between CO2 production and transport, our results indicated that variability across arable landscapes makes footslope soils both a larger sink of buried soil C and a bigger potential CO2 source than upslope soils.

  19. Laser neutralization of surface and buried munitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habersat, James D.; Schilling, Bradley W.; Alexander, Joe; Lehecka, Thomas

    2012-06-01

    In recent years NVESD has been investigating laser-based neutralization of buried mines and minelike targets. This paper covers the most recent efforts in this area. A field-test was conducted to demonstrate the state-of-the-art capability for standoff laser neutralization of surface and buried mines. The neutralization laser is a Ytterbium fiber laser with a nominal power output of 10 kW and a beam quality of M2 ~ 1.8 at maximum power. Test trials were conducted at a standoff range of 50 meters with a 20° angle of attack. The laser was focused to a submillimeter spot using a Cassegrain telescope with a 12.5 inch diameter primary mirror. The targets were 105 mm artillery rounds with a composition B explosive fill. Three types of overburden were studied: sand, soil, and gravel. Laser neutralization capability was demonstrated under these conditions for live rounds buried under 7 cm of dry sand, 4 cm of soil, and 2 cm of gravel.

  20. DOE complex buried waste characterization assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Kaae, P.S.; Holter, G.M.; Garrett, S.M.K.

    1993-01-01

    The work described in this report was conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to provide information to the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. The information in this report is intended to provide a complex-wide planning base for th.e BWID to ensure that BWID activities are appropriately focused to address the range of remediation problems existing across the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. This report contains information characterizing the 2.1 million m[sup 3] of buried and stored wastes and their associated sites at six major DOE facilities. Approximately 85% of this waste is low-level waste, with about 12% TRU or TRU mixed waste; the remaining 3% is low-level mixed waste. In addition, the report describes soil contamination sites across the complex. Some of the details that would be useful in further characterizing the buried wastes and contaminated soil sites across the DOE complex are either unavailable or difficult to locate. Several options for accessing this information and/or improving the information that is available are identified in the report. This document is a companion to Technology Needs for Remediation: Hanford and Other DOE Sites, PNL-8328 (Stapp 1993).

  1. Numerical Modeling of Mechanical Behavior for Buried Steel Pipelines Crossing Subsidence Strata

    PubMed Central

    Han, C. J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the mechanical behavior of buried steel pipeline crossing subsidence strata. The investigation is based on numerical simulation of the nonlinear response of the pipeline-soil system through finite element method, considering large strain and displacement, inelastic material behavior of buried pipeline and the surrounding soil, as well as contact and friction on the pipeline-soil interface. Effects of key parameters on the mechanical behavior of buried pipeline were investigated, such as strata subsidence, diameter-thickness ratio, buried depth, internal pressure, friction coefficient and soil properties. The results show that the maximum strain appears on the outer transition subsidence section of the pipeline, and its cross section is concave shaped. With the increasing of strata subsidence and diameter-thickness ratio, the out of roundness, longitudinal strain and equivalent plastic strain increase gradually. With the buried depth increasing, the deflection, out of roundness and strain of the pipeline decrease. Internal pressure and friction coefficient have little effect on the deflection of buried pipeline. Out of roundness is reduced and the strain is increased gradually with the increasing of internal pressure. The physical properties of soil have a great influence on the mechanical properties of buried pipeline. The results from the present study can be used for the development of optimization design and preventive maintenance for buried steel pipelines. PMID:26103460

  2. STUDY ON TEMPERATURE FIELD ROUND VERTICAL BURIED PIPE OF GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP IN INTERMITTENT OPERATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Songtao; T. Yu; W. Gang; S. Zhigang

    Heat transfer between soil and cooling water in buried pipes is presented, thus ground source heat pump can realize the transfer from low-grade energy to high-grade energy. We tested Water temperature and flow rate of the buried pipe of Ground source heat pump system under intermittent operation condition in Qingdao, temperature field of vertical buried double-U pipes is analyzed by

  3. Bury Me Not!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-05-08

    This activity (page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into decomposition. Groups of learners will carefully observe and record the appearance of items, such as an apple, that can decompose, taking weights, measurements, and noting other physical markings. The items are then buried in buckets of various earth materials for at least two weeks. Learners will then dig up the objects to inspect, record observations to compare with their previous notes, and graph changes over time. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV GPS: Bogs.

  4. Buried fiber optic sensor

    E-print Network

    Park, Jaehee

    1992-01-01

    Engineering BURIED FIBER OPTIC SENSOR A Thesis JAEHEE PARK Approved as to style and content by: . F. Taylor (Chair of Committee) C. . Su (Member) S. M. Wright (Member) J, C. Holste (Member) J. W. Howze (Head of Department) August 1992 ABSTRACT... to thank Dr. C. B. SU, Dr. S. M. Wright, and J. C. Holste for their serving as my committee members. Many thanks are expressed to C. E. Lee, Wayne Matous, Andrew Chu, and Korean friends of mine working in the optical labortory for their assistance...

  5. Reconstructing spatial and temporal patterns of soil formation in an anthropogenic drift sand area in Northeastern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Anna; Hirsch, Florian; Raab, Thomas; Wechler, Klaus-Peter

    2015-04-01

    On the sandy deposits of the Weichselian glaciation, soils developed during periods of landscape stability are often conserved under windblown sand. The relatively diverse morphology of dune areas and the possibilities for dating the accumulation of windblown sediment offer good opportunities to improve the understanding of spatial and temporal patterns of soil formation. However, a mapping of the buried soils and surfaces is often limited to single outcrops. In the forefield of the open-cast mine Cottbus-Nord, archaeological excavations in an about 10 ha dune and drift sand area revealed widespread buried soils, mainly podzols, of different characteristics. Archaeological findings give evidence for the age of the buried surfaces. The densely spaced excavation trenches allow for reconstructing the distribution of fossil and recent soils in a high spatial resolution. We created and analyzed digital models of the recent surface and the buried soils using a combination of methods: To characterize the recent ground surface, we used microdrone-based photogrammetry, LIDAR-based elevation data and GPS. To create a digital model of the palaeosurface and the distribution of fossil soils, we used soil and sedimentological mapping along excavation trenches, mapping of the elevation of excavated palaeosurfaces, and prospection of the fossil soils by Ground Penetrating Radar. Our studies reveal a high vertical and horizontal heterogeneity of soils, with varying thicknesses of eluvial and illuvial horizons and varying degrees of organic compound and sesquioxide accumulation. First results reflect several phases of landscape development: i) the formation of a Late Pleistocene soil on fluvio-eolian deposits, ii) a fossilization by eolian sands which underwent intensive podsolization, and iii) a land use-induced eolian remobilization of the sands. The soil characteristics' spatial distribution in relation to surface morphology indicates a high relevance of lateral leachate transport, even along very low gradients.

  6. HORIZON SENSING

    SciTech Connect

    Larry G. Stolarczyk

    2003-03-18

    With the aid of a DOE grant (No. DE-FC26-01NT41050), Stolar Research Corporation (Stolar) developed the Horizon Sensor (HS) to distinguish between the different layers of a coal seam. Mounted on mining machine cutter drums, HS units can detect or sense the horizon between the coal seam and the roof and floor rock, providing the opportunity to accurately mine the section of the seam most desired. HS also enables accurate cutting of minimum height if that is the operator's objective. Often when cutting is done out-of-seam, the head-positioning function facilitates a fixed mining height to minimize dilution. With this technology, miners can still be at a remote location, yet cut only the clean coal, resulting in a much more efficient overall process. The objectives of this project were to demonstrate the feasibility of horizon sensing on mining machines and demonstrate that Horizon Sensing can allow coal to be cut cleaner and more efficiently. Stolar's primary goal was to develop the Horizon Sensor (HS) into an enabling technology for full or partial automation or ''agile mining''. This technical innovation (R&D 100 Award Winner) is quickly demonstrating improvements in productivity and miner safety at several prominent coal mines in the United States. In addition, the HS system can enable the cutting of cleaner coal. Stolar has driven the HS program on the philosophy that cutting cleaner coal means burning cleaner coal. The sensor, located inches from the cutting bits, is based upon the physics principles of a Resonant Microstrip Patch Antenna (RMPA). When it is in proximity of the rock-coal interface, the RMPA impedance varies depending on the thickness of uncut coal. The impedance is measured by the computer-controlled electronics and then sent by radio waves to the mining machine. The worker at the machine can read the data via a Graphical User Interface, displaying a color-coded image of the coal being cut, and direct the machine appropriately. The Horizon Sensor program began development in 1998 and experienced three major design phases. The final version, termed HS-3, was commissioned in 2000 with the assistance of the DOE-Mining Industry of the Future program, commercialized in 2002, and has been used 14 times in 12 different mines within the United States. The Horizon Sensor has applications in both underground and surface mining operations. This technology is primarily used in the coal industry, but is also used to mine trona and potash. All horizon sensor components have Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) (United States) and IEC (International) certification. Horizon Sensing saves energy by maximizing cutting efficiency, cutting only desired material. This desired material is cleaner fuel, therefore reducing pollutants to the atmosphere when burned and burning more efficiently. Extracting only desired material increases productivity by reducing or eliminating the cleaning step after extraction. Additionally, this technology allows for deeper mining, resulting in more material gained from one location. The remote sensing tool allows workers to operate the machinery away from the hazards of cutting coal, including noise, breathing dust and gases, and coal and rock splintering and outbursts. The HS program has primarily revolved around the development of the technology. However, the end goal of the program has always been the commercialization of the technology and only within the last 2 years of the program has this goal been realized. Real-time horizon sensing on mining machines is becoming an industry tool. Detailed monitoring of system function, user experience, and mining benefits is ongoing.

  7. Evidence for an underground runoff and soil permeability at the Ouled Fayet (Algiers, Algeria) buried waste pilot project: needs for a specific landfill implantation code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djadia, Leila; Abtout, Abdslam; Boudella, Amar

    2014-05-01

    Results from geophysical investigations (electrical resistivity, electromagnetic mapping and seismic refraction) on an empty excavated rack of the Ouled Fayet (Algiers, Algeria) pilot landfill evidenced a more permeable soil than found by a feasibility study and the presence of an underground runoff underneath the rack. The problem was to evaluate the degree of confidence of the feasibility study, based on 76 10-m drilling cores only, 6 of them performed on the studied rack. To the contrary of what is claimed in the feasibility study a threat of lixiviate pollution is real. It is more than urgent to elaborate a code for landfill implantation in Algeria, which should include mandatory geophysical prospecting and deeper drilling cores. Keywords: Landfill, Geophysical prospecting, Underground runoff, Permeability, Algeria.

  8. Soil profile dynamics in an eroding soil landscape - a catena through a kettle hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerke, Horst H.; Kaczorek, Danuta; Hierold, Wilfried; Deumlich, Detlef; Koszinski, Sylvia; Ellerbrock, Ruth H.; Sommer, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The arable hummocky ground moraine soil landscapes are characterized by a spatial continuum of more or less eroded soils at hilltops and slopes, and by colluviated soils in topographic depressions. After removal of forest in the middle ages, colluvium started covering the pre-existing Histosols and Gleysols within and Luvisols in the vicinity of kettle holes. A catena through originally peat-filled kettle-hole has hardly been described with respect to ongoing pedological modifications according to changes in landscape and hydrology. The objective was to derive the lateral continuum of soil horizons by identifying the location of the lateral boundaries between regions of clay mobilization/migration and gleisation (gleyic conditions), peat accumulation, and secondary carbonate accumulation. Data from an intensively-sampled field in northeastern Germany are presented. The start of colluviation could be dated by tree ring analyses of a buried stem. The location of the fossil topsoil A and peat horizons was determined from a dense grid of auger holes and geophysical explorations. In addition to older processes in the landscape, also younger redoximorphic processes were indicating changes in soil hydraulic properties and a modified hydrology of the arable soil landscape. We found in micromorphological analyses of soil thin sections that clay migration is an ongoing process; samples indicated vertical gradients in C-contents and secondary carbonate accumulation. The clay mobilization in the colluvium and the migration into the fossil horizons seemed to depend on the direction of soil water movement; anisotropic hydraulic conductivity indicated a potential for lateral water movement. The catena data suggest that the soil landscape development was relatively dynamic; the results may allow the reconstruction of former land surfaces, soil distributions, and erosion rates and may help predicting future developments.

  9. Soils of paleocryogenic hummocky-hollow landscapes in the southern Baikal region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlova, A. A.; Kuz'min, V. A.; Zazovskaya, E. P.

    2014-05-01

    The features of ancient periglacial phenomena are widespread in landscapes lying beyond the modern permafrost zone. The specificity of the paleogeographic conditions in the south of the Baikal region resulted in the formation of paleocryogenic landscapes with hummocky-hollow landforms. The paleocryogenic mounds (hummocks) are of rounded or elongated shape, their height is up to 2-3 m, and their width is up to 20-25 m. They are separated by microlows (hollows). This paleocryogenic microtopography favors the differentiation of the pedogenesis on the mounds and in the hollows, so the soil cover pattern becomes more complicated. It is composed of polychronous soils organized in complexes with cyclic patterns. Light gray and gray forest soils and leached and ordinary chernozems are developed on the mounds; gray and dark gray forest soils and chernozems with buried horizons are developed in the hollows. The soils of the paleocryogenic complexes differ from one another in their morphology, physical and chemical properties, elemental composition, and humus composition. For the first time, radiocarbon dates have been obtained for the surface and buried humus horizons in the hollows. The results prove the heterochronous nature of the soils of the paleocryogenic landscapes in the south of the Baikal region.

  10. Prediction of radiation pattern of a buried leaky coaxial cable

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nathan Blaunstein; Z. Dank; M. Zilbershtein

    1999-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations of the radiation properties of a buried leaky coaxial cable (LCC), as a guarding radar system, are presented for various artificial and natural local inhomogeneous conditions along the cable system. The theoretical model of two coupling coaxial lines, outside which consists a sub-soil medium, is introduced to describe interactions of two modes, external and internal, which

  11. Prediction of Radiation Pattern of a Buried Leaky Coaxial Cable

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Blaunstein; Z. Dank; M. Zilbershtein

    2000-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations of the radiation properties of a buried leaky coaxial cable (LCC), as a guarding radar system, are presented for various artificial and natural local inhomogeneous conditions along the cable system. The theoretical model of two coupling coaxial lines, outside of which consists of a sub-soil medium, is introduced to describe interactions of two modes, external and

  12. Insect arrival pattern and succession on buried carrion in Michigan.

    PubMed

    Pastula, E C; Merritt, R W

    2013-03-01

    This study examined pig carcasses buried at two different depths, 30 and 60 cm, to determine if insects were able to colonize buried carcasses, when they arrive at each depth, and what fauna were present over seven sampling dates to establish an insect succession database on buried carrion in East Lansing, MI. Thirty-eight pigs were buried, 18 at 30 cm and 20 at 60 cm. Four control carcasses were placed on the soil surface. Three replicates at each depth were exhumed after 3, 7, 14, 21, 30, and 60 d, respectively. One pig also was exhumed from 60 cm after 90 d and another after 120 d. Sarcophaga bullata (Parker) (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) and Hydrotaea sp. (Diptera: Muscidae) were found colonizing buried carrion 5 d after burial at 30 cm. Insect succession at 30 cm proceeded with flesh and muscid flies being the first to colonize, followed by blow flies. Insects were able to colonize carcasses at 60 cm and Hydrotaea sp. and Megaselia scalaris (Loew) (Diptera: Phoridae) were collected 7 d after burial. Insect succession at 60 cm did not proceed similarly, instead muscid and coffin flies were the only larvae collected. Overall these results reveal postburial interval estimates for forensic investigations in mid-Michigan during the summer, depending on climatic and soil conditions. PMID:23540133

  13. Electrical impedance tomography for underwater detection of buried mines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gail Bouchette; Stéphane Gagnon; Philip Church; Tim Luu; John McFee

    2008-01-01

    The detection of buried land mines in soil is a well-studied problem; many existing technologies are designed and optimized for performance in different soil types. Research on mine detection in shallow water environments such as beaches, however, is much less developed. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) shows promise for this application. EIT uses current-stimulating and voltage-recording electrode pairs to measure trans-impedances

  14. DOE complex buried waste characterization assessment. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Kaae, P.S.; Holter, G.M.; Garrett, S.M.K.

    1993-01-01

    The work described in this report was conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to provide information to the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. The information in this report is intended to provide a complex-wide planning base for th.e BWID to ensure that BWID activities are appropriately focused to address the range of remediation problems existing across the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. This report contains information characterizing the 2.1 million m{sup 3} of buried and stored wastes and their associated sites at six major DOE facilities. Approximately 85% of this waste is low-level waste, with about 12% TRU or TRU mixed waste; the remaining 3% is low-level mixed waste. In addition, the report describes soil contamination sites across the complex. Some of the details that would be useful in further characterizing the buried wastes and contaminated soil sites across the DOE complex are either unavailable or difficult to locate. Several options for accessing this information and/or improving the information that is available are identified in the report. This document is a companion to Technology Needs for Remediation: Hanford and Other DOE Sites, PNL-8328 (Stapp 1993).

  15. Soil Characterization Protocol

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The GLOBE Program, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR)

    2003-08-01

    The purpose of this resource is to characterize the physical and chemical properties for each horizon in a soil profile. Students identify the horizons of a soil profile at a soil characterization site, then measure and record the top and bottom depth for each horizon. For each horizon, students describe the structure, color, consistence, texture, and abundance of roots, rocks, and carbonates. Samples are collected and prepared for additional laboratory analysis.

  16. Analysis of Subsea Buried Pipelines and Partially Buried Cables 

    E-print Network

    Bai, Yanbin

    2014-08-26

    pipe wall temperature, and the importance of pipeline burial depth on seabed temperature distribution above the pipeline. In order to better address the problem of partially buried subsea cables, a three dimensional meshfree method was formulated...

  17. Deriving the extent of Chernozems and Phaeozems in Central Germany during the Neolithic period from sediments buried in Neolithic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Suchodoletz, Hans; Tinapp, Christian; Lauer, Tobias; Stäuble, Harald; Glaser, Bruno; Zielhofer, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    Material found in Neolithic pits, ditches or postholes was often buried quite fast, and since that time it was largely cut off from input of younger sediments and from subsequent transformation processes. Thus, this kind of material can be used as a discontinuous sedimentary archive that can give valuable information about the former palaeoenvironment such as the Neolithic soil type distribution. The largest region of Germany that is recently covered by black-coloured Chernozems and Phaeozems is located in the rain-shadow of the Harz Mountains in Central Germany. However, similar to other regions of Germany the former occurrence of Chernozems and Phaeozems in areas of Central Germany that are covered by other soil types today is suggested by black-coloured colluvia and by black fillings of Neolithic pits, ditches and postholes, as well as by dark-coloured clay coatings in the Bt-horizons of Luvisols (Luvic Phaeozems). Whereas for some German regions as the Lower Rhine Basin or Central Bavaria it could be demonstrated that buried black material does not originate from former Chernozems or Phaeozems but is of anthropogenic origin, similar investigations were not carried out in Central Germany yet. Thus, in this study we investigated whether Chermozems and Phaeozems had a larger distribution in Central Germany during the Neolithic period. This is achieved by comparatively analyzing sedimentologic and micromorphological properties of black-coloured material taken from Neolithic structures in the recent Luvisol area with Neolithic and Medieval material derived from the recent Chernozem/Phaeozem-region. Furthermore, carbonate contents from individual sites are compared with each other. Doing so it could be shown that the Neolithic distribution of Chernozems and Chernozems in Central Germany was not significantly larger than today. Instead, most black material buried in Neolithic structures obviously has an anthropogenic origin or is derived from former Ah-horizons of humus-rich Luvisols. Apart from a sub-continental climate, the main factor determining the recent and former distribution of Chernozems and Phaeozems in Central Germany was obviously the carbonate content of the parent material of pedogenesis.

  18. Prediction of the TNT signature from buried UXO/landmines

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, S.W.; Phelan, J.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Finsterle, S.A.; Pruess, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1998-06-01

    The detection and removal of buried unexploded ordnance (UXO) and landmines is one of the most important problems facing the world today. Numerous detection strategies are being developed, including infrared, electrical conductivity, ground-penetrating radar, and chemical sensors. Chemical sensors rely on the detection of TNT molecules, which are transported from buried UXO/landmines by advection and diffusion in the soil. As part of this effort, numerical models are being developed to predict TNT transport in soils including the effect of precipitation and evaporation. Modifications will be made to TOUGH2 for application to the TNT chemical sensing problem. Understanding the fate and transport of TNT in the soil will affect the design, performance and operation of chemical sensors by indicating preferred sensing strategies.

  19. Electromagnetic modeling of buried objects

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.F. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Lexington, MA (United States). Lincoln Lab.

    1994-12-31

    In this paper, radar cross section (RCS) models of buried dipoles, surface steel pipe, and buried steel pipes are discussed. In all these models, the ground is assumed to be a uniform half space. The calculated results for the buried dipoles and the surface steel pipe compare favorably with those measured in the 1993 Yuma ground penetration radar (GPR) experiment. For the buried dipoles, a first-order RCS model is developed. In this model, a solution for an infinitely long conducting cylinder, together with a mirror image approximation (which accounts for the coupling between the dipole and the ground-air interface) is used to calculate the dipole RCS. This RCS model of the buried dipoles explains the observed loss of dipole RCS. For the surface steel pipe, a geometrical optics model, which includes the multipath interaction, is developed. This model explains the observed multipath gain/loss. For the buried steel pipes, a zero order physical optics model is developed. Also discussed is desert radar clutter statistics as a function of depression angle. Preliminary analysis, based on samples of Yuma desert surface profiles, indicates that simple rough-surface models cannot explain the observed average backscatter from desert clutter.

  20. Dynamics of organic nitrogen in cryoturbated Arctic soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, B.; Schnecker, J.; Rusalimova, O.; Mikutta, R.; Guggenberger, G.; Richter, A.

    2012-12-01

    Arctic soils are estimated to store about twice the amount of carbon as today's atmosphere, with a large proportion of this C in subsoil horizons. Within the subsoil, cryoturbated organic matter (OM), i.e. OM buried by freeze-thaw processes, represents a large store of poorly decomposed material. Although soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition is known to be affected by nitrogen status of the microbial biomass, knowledge about N dynamics and N availability in the subsoil of arctic soils is particularly scarce. We here report on microbial transformations of organic N, i.e. protein/peptide depolymerization (the rate limiting step for the soil N cycle), microbial amino acid uptake and N mineralization. We hypothesized that gross rates of N transformations would decrease with increasing SOM decomposition, while N availability would increase as a consequence of decreasing C/N ratio. We sampled topsoil (organic), cryoturbated and subsoil horizons of tundra sites in Greenland and Siberia, and applied a set of 15N pool dilution assays to measure gross rates of protein depolymerization, microbial amino acid uptake and N mineralization. From these assays we also calculated microbial N use efficiency (NUE), i.e. the efficiency of microorganisms to incorporate organic N into the biomass, as an indicator of N availability for microorganisms. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of easily available organic C and N sources on soil microbial processes: We incubated soils amended with 13C labelled amino acids, protein, glucose and cellulose, and measured C and N mineralization rates as well as microbial community composition and potential activities of extracellular enzymes. We found that all gross N transformation rates decreased significantly from topsoil organic over cryoturbated to subsoil mineral horizons. While the differences between topsoil organic and subsoil mineral horizons were sufficiently explained by SOM content, cryoturbated horizons had significantly lower rates even when calculated on a carbon basis. NUE was generally high, did not differ significantly between horizons, and was not correlated to the C/N ratio of SOM, suggesting that N limitation for microorganisms was similar across the soil profile. The addition of organic N (amino acids and protein), however, resulted in a two-fold increase in SOM mineralization in cryoturbated horizons, while the addition of organic C only (glucose and cellulose) had no effect. Taken together, our results suggest that an increased N availability in cryoturbated horizons might lead to an increase in SOM decomposition by altering the function of the microbial decomposer community. Increasing SOM decomposition in turn is likely to increase N availability for microbes, which may lead to a positive feedback on SOM decomposition.

  1. Digital Horizons

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Digital Horizons was established in 2007 by a consortium that includes Prairie Public Broadcasting, the State Historical Society of North Dakota, and several other organizations. The goal of their work is to provide and maintain access to "a wide range of historical and significant content related to North Dakota and Minnesota." Visitors can use the search engine here to look for items by general subject heading or collection. All told, there are over fifteen collections included in this archive, including "Korean War Propaganda Leaflets", "Dakota Lithographs and Engravings", and "North Dakota Blue Books". For those looking for a place to start, they can take advantage of the "Popular Searches" list, which includes topical headings such as "floods", "bonanza farms", and "homesteading". This last heading is a great place to check out, as visitors will find evocative (and sometimes quite lonely) photographs of 19th century homesteads.

  2. Mt. Blanco revisited: soil-geomorphic implications for the ages of the upper Cenozoic Blanco and Blackwater Draw Formations

    SciTech Connect

    Holliday, V.T.

    1988-06-01

    Mt. Blanco, on the eastern edge of the Southern High Plains of Texas, contains stratigraphic features significant in interpreting the late Cenozoic history of the region and the vertebrate paleontology of the Great Plains; however, the stratigraphic relations are confused in the literature or are unreported. Mt. Blanco is the type locality for the Blanco Formation and the Blanco Local Fauna, which occurs throughout North America and is the type fauna for the Blancan Land Mammal Age in North America. Here also occur exposures of the Blackwater Draw Formation, an extensive (120,000 km/sup 2/) eolian sheet that is the surficial cover of the region and contains the 1.4 Ma Guaje Ash and several buried soils. A reexamination of the section shows that (1) the Blackwater Draw Formation, an eolian deposit, contains three well-expressed buried soils (5 YR hues, argillic horizons greater than or equal to 1 m thick, Stages III and IV calcic horizons) and the similar regional surface soil (Paleustalf); (2) the Guaje Ash is within the lower Blackwater Draw Formation but is separated from the Blanco Formation, a lacustrine unit, by about 1 m of sediment, including the lowest buried soil; and (3) the lowest buried soil shows a Stage IV calcrete formed at the top of the Blanco Formation and the base of the Blackwater Draw Formation and probably took about 200 ka to form. These new data suggested that deposition of the type Blanco sediments may have ended by about 1.6 Ma or earlier. Since that time, the Blackwater Draw Formation has accumulated episodically; periods of nondeposition are characterized by landscape stability and pedogenesis.

  3. Modeling the electromagnetic detection of buried cylindrical conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, R.W.; Kelly, R.E.; Mack, J.M.

    1996-05-01

    The remote detection of buried structures and tunnels is important to the mining, construction, and defense industries. It is often desirable to identify underground power lines, pipe lines, and utility tunnels which have unique electromagnetic cross sections. A computational model for the electromagnetic detection of buried conducting cylinders is described in this paper. The source of electromagnetic radiation is either current injection into the soil or a surface based magnetic dipole with possible extensions to airborne platforms. Frequency ranges from a few kHz to 100 kHz are considered. The target conductor is a cylinder buried directly in the soil or placed inside an insulating pipe. The receiver is a magnetic gradiometer held 1m above the ground, separate from the transmitter. Data are taken widely over the terrain under investigation. Cases where the target conductor is grounded at both ends, one end, or not at all are modeled. The scattered field and field gradient are computed at or above ground level and compared in magnitude and phase with the transmitted signal. Calculated results are compared with experimental tests done to detect a buried wire at Sandia National Laboratory and a tunnel at Yucca Mountain. Essential factors affecting detection performance are frequency optimization, dynamic range of reception and proper data processing.

  4. Acoustic Detection of Buried Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivansson, S.; Jacobsen, N.; Levonen, M.; Nilsson, B.; Moren, P.

    2001-12-01

    The capability to detect objects buried in the sea bottom is important for many reasons. For example bottom mines as well as dumped chemical munitions can be expected to have been buried by the sedimentation. Standard sub-bottom profilers that are routinely used for mapping sediment structures do not have good enough resolutions to detect small buried objects. Parametric sonar, with a much smaller lobe, is much more appropriate. In the report, we show results from measurements with a parametric sonar, mounted on a ROV (remotely operated vehicle). The measurements were made in the archipelago of Stockholm with a test object buried in clay. Two techniques were used to improve the detection capability, image processing and FARIM analysis. Concerning image processing, median filtering turns out to provide the best results. Isolated noisy pings are effectively suppressed in this way. FARIM analysis can be used to estimate roughness and impedance of the bottom. Our experiments show that a buried object can often be detected by an anomaly in the impedance estimate. Among three tested center frequencies for the emitted pulse, 5, 10 and 20 kHz, the highest frequency (20 kHz) turns out to provide the best detection capability. This is true for the image processing results as well as for the FARIM results. We have tried bistatic techniques to characterize a detected buried object. Sound pulses are emitted towards the object from one direction and the scattered energy is studied at another direction. We show computational results from a recently developed numerical model. The scattered field turns out to be very sensitive to the properties of the object.

  5. In situ vitrification application to buried waste: Final report of intermediate field tests at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Callow; J. R. Weidner; C. A. Loehr; S. O. Bates; L. E. Thompson; B. P. McGrail

    1991-01-01

    This report describes two in situ vitrification field tests conducted on simulated buried waste pits during June and July 1990 at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. In situ vitrification, an emerging technology for in place conversion of contaminated soils into a durable glass and crystalline waste form, is being investigated as a potential remediation technology for buried waste. The overall

  6. Late Holocene climate reconstructions for the Russian steppe, based on mineralogical and magnetic properties of buried palaeosols

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Alekseeva; A. Alekseev; B. A. Maher; V. Demkin

    2007-01-01

    Insights into past climate changes, and corresponding evolution of soils and the environment, can be gained by multidisciplinary studies of palaeosols. Here, we focus on palaeosols buried beneath archaeological monuments, specifically, funerary mounds (kurgans), in the Russian steppe. The kurgans were constructed, and each of the palaeosols buried, over a range of different timesteps from the mid-Holocene to ? 600 years before

  7. Thin film buried anode battery

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Se-Hee (Lakewood, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO); Liu, Ping (Denver, CO)

    2009-12-15

    A reverse configuration, lithium thin film battery (300) having a buried lithium anode layer (305) and process for making the same. The present invention is formed from a precursor composite structure (200) made by depositing electrolyte layer (204) onto substrate (201), followed by sequential depositions of cathode layer (203) and current collector (202) on the electrolyte layer. The precursor is subjected to an activation step, wherein a buried lithium anode layer (305) is formed via electroplating a lithium anode layer at the interface of substrate (201) and electrolyte film (204). The electroplating is accomplished by applying a current between anode current collector (201) and cathode current collector (202).

  8. Common causes of material degradation in buried piping

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, C.F.

    1997-01-20

    Buried pipe may fail for innumerable reasons. Causes can be mechanical damage/breakage, chemically initiated corrosion, or a combination. Failures may originate either internally or externally on the pipe. They may be related to flaws in the design, to excessive or unanticipated internal pressure or ground level loading, and/or to poor or uncertain installation practice. Or the pipe may simply ``wear out`` in service. Steel is strong and very forgiving in underground applications, especially with regard to backfill. However, soil support developed through densification or compaction is critical for brittle concrete and vitrified clay tile pipe, and is very important for cast iron and plastic pipe. Chemistry of the soil determines whether or not it will enhance corrosion or other types of degradation. Various causes and mechanisms for deterioration of buried pipe are indicated. Some peculiarities of the different materials of construction are characterized. Repair methods and means to circumvent special problems are described.

  9. 7 CFR 1755.505 - Buried services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...terminal blocks in accordance with the applicable paragraphs of § 1755.200, RUS standard for splicing copper and fiber optic cables. (d) Buried service wire or cable shall be identified at buried plant housings in accordance with...

  10. Hyperspectral imaging using AOTF and NIR sensing of buried objects and landmines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel Mobley; Gordon H. Miller; Paul M. Kasili; Charles A. Dimarzio; Tuan Vo-Dinh

    1999-01-01

    The detection of landmines and buried objects requires methods that can cover large areas rapidly while providing the required sensitivity to detect the optical and spectroscopic contrasts in soil properties that can reveal their presence. These conditions on contrast and coverage can be met by capturing images of the soil at wavelengths which are sensitive to the properties modified by

  11. Experimental study of heat transfer of buried finned pipe for ground source heat pump applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmet Koyun; Hakan Demir; Zakir Torun

    2009-01-01

    Ground heat exchangers have vital importance for ground source heat pump applications. Various configurations tried to improve heat transfer in the soil. A new kind of aluminium finned pipe buried in the soil for this aim. In order to compare effectiveness of the Al finned pipe over the traditional PPRC pipe an experimental study carried out. The experimental GSHP system

  12. Specific features of organic matter in urban soils of Rostov-on-Don

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbov, S. N.; Bezuglova, O. S.

    2014-08-01

    Data on the fractional and group composition of humus in urban soils of Rostov-on-Don are discussed. We have compared the humus profiles of chernozems under tree plantations and those buried under anthropogenic deposits (including sealed chernozems under asphalt). It is shown that the type of humus in these soils remains stable despite a decrease in its total content after the long-term burial under asphalt. Under the impact of the trees, the organic matter of the chernozems acquired some features typical of gray forest soils, i.e., the humate-fulvate type of humus in the humus horizon and the sharp drop in the humus content down the soil profile.

  13. Soil Core Sample #2

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Soil core obtained from existing goose grazing lawn along the Smith River in the Teshekpuk Lake Special Area of the National Petroleum Reserve - Alaska.  Buried peat layer broken open.  Closer examination of the buried peat layer demonstrates that non-salt-tolerant vegetation from the past...

  14. Investigation of guided waves propagation in pipe buried in sand

    SciTech Connect

    Leinov, Eli; Cawley, Peter; Lowe, Michael J.S. [NDE Group, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-18

    The inspection of pipelines by guided wave testing is a well-established method for the detection of corrosion defects in pipelines, and is currently used routinely in a variety of industries, e.g. petrochemical and energy. When the method is applied to pipes buried in soil, test ranges tend to be significantly compromised because of attenuation of the waves caused by energy radiating into the soil. Moreover, the variability of soil conditions dictates different attenuation characteristics, which in-turn results in different, unpredictable, test ranges. We investigate experimentally the propagation and attenuation characteristics of guided waves in pipes buried in fine sand using a well characterized full scale experimental apparatus. The apparatus consists of an 8 inch-diameter, 5.6-meters long steel pipe embedded over 3 meters of its length in a rectangular container filled with fine sand, and an air-bladder for the application of overburden pressure. Longitudinal and torsional guided waves are excited in the pipe and recorded using a transducer ring (Guided Ultrasonics Ltd). Acoustic properties of the sand are measured independently in-situ and used to make model predictions of wave behavior in the buried pipe. We present the methodology and the systematic measurements of the guided waves under a range of conditions, including loose and compacted sand. It is found that the application of overburden pressure modifies the compaction of the sand and increases the attenuation, and that the measurement of the acoustic properties of sand allows model prediction of the attenuation of guided waves in buried pipes with a high level of confidence.

  15. Investigation of guided waves propagation in pipe buried in sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinov, Eli; Cawley, Peter; Lowe, Michael J. S.

    2014-02-01

    The inspection of pipelines by guided wave testing is a well-established method for the detection of corrosion defects in pipelines, and is currently used routinely in a variety of industries, e.g. petrochemical and energy. When the method is applied to pipes buried in soil, test ranges tend to be significantly compromised because of attenuation of the waves caused by energy radiating into the soil. Moreover, the variability of soil conditions dictates different attenuation characteristics, which in-turn results in different, unpredictable, test ranges. We investigate experimentally the propagation and attenuation characteristics of guided waves in pipes buried in fine sand using a well characterized full scale experimental apparatus. The apparatus consists of an 8 inch-diameter, 5.6-meters long steel pipe embedded over 3 meters of its length in a rectangular container filled with fine sand, and an air-bladder for the application of overburden pressure. Longitudinal and torsional guided waves are excited in the pipe and recorded using a transducer ring (Guided Ultrasonics Ltd). Acoustic properties of the sand are measured independently in-situ and used to make model predictions of wave behavior in the buried pipe. We present the methodology and the systematic measurements of the guided waves under a range of conditions, including loose and compacted sand. It is found that the application of overburden pressure modifies the compaction of the sand and increases the attenuation, and that the measurement of the acoustic properties of sand allows model prediction of the attenuation of guided waves in buried pipes with a high level of confidence.

  16. Odor analysis of decomposing buried human remains

    SciTech Connect

    Vass, Arpad Alexander [ORNL; Smith, Rob R [ORNL; Thompson, Cyril V [ORNL; Burnett, Michael N [ORNL; Dulgerian, Nishan [ORNL; Eckenrode, Brian A [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    This study, conducted at the University of Tennessee's Anthropological Research Facility (ARF), lists and ranks the primary chemical constituents which define the odor of decomposition of human remains as detected at the soil surface of shallow burial sites. Triple sorbent traps were used to collect air samples in the field and revealed eight major classes of chemicals which now contain 478 specific volatile compounds associated with burial decomposition. Samples were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and were collected below and above the body, and at the soil surface of 1.5-3.5 ft. (0.46-1.07 m) deep burial sites of four individuals over a 4-year time span. New data were incorporated into the previously established Decompositional Odor Analysis (DOA) Database providing identification, chemical trends, and semi-quantitation of chemicals for evaluation. This research identifies the 'odor signatures' unique to the decomposition of buried human remains with projected ramifications on human remains detection canine training procedures and in the development of field portable analytical instruments which can be used to locate human remains in shallow burial sites.

  17. Soil

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Scott Bauer (USDA-ARS; )

    2006-05-23

    Soil is an example of a non-living thing. Soil contains nutrients and living organisms, but the soil itself is not alive. Soil is important in plant growth because soil gives plants a place to anchor their roots and it also provides the plant with essential nutrients.

  18. Electromagnetic response of buried cylindrical structures for line current excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajewski, Lara; Ponti, Cristina

    2013-04-01

    The Cylindrical-Wave Approach (CWA) rigorously solves, in the spectral domain, the electromagnetic forward scattering by a finite set of buried two-dimensional perfectly-conducting or dielectric objects [1]-[2]. In this technique, the field scattered by underground objects is represented in terms of a superposition of cylindrical waves. Use is made of the plane-wave spectrum [1] to take into account the interaction of such waves with the planar interface between air and soil, and between different layers eventually present in the ground [3]. Obstacles of general shape can be simulated through the CWA with good results, by using a suitable set of small circular-section cylinders [4]. Recently, we improved the CWA by facing the fundamental problem of losses in the ground [5]: this is of significant importance in remote-sensing applications, since real soils often have complex permittivity and conductivity, and sometimes also a complex permeability. While in previous works concerning the CWA a monochromatic or pulsed plane-wave incident field was considered, in the present work a different source of scattering is present: a cylindrical wave radiated by a line source. Such a source is more suitable to model the practical illumination field used in GPR surveys. The electric field radiated by the line current is expressed by means of a first-kind Hankel function of 0-th order. The theoretical solution to the scattering problem is developed for both dielectric and perfectly-conducting cylinders buried in a dielectric half-space. The approach is implemented in a Fortran code; an accurate numerical evaluation of the involved spectral integrals is performed, the highly-oscillating behavior of the homogeneous waves is correctly followed and evanescent contributions are taken into account. The electromagnetic field scattered in both air and ground can be obtained, in near- and far-field regions, for arbitrary radii and permittivity of the buried cylinders, as well as for arbitrary arrangements of cylinders in the soil. As future work, the presented analysis, carried out in the spectral domain, will be extended to a time-domain solution following an approach analogous to the one developed in [6] for pulsed plane-wave excitation. [1] M. Di Vico, F. Frezza, L. Pajewski, and G. Schettini, "Scattering by a Finite Set of Perfectly Conducting Cylinders Buried in a Dielectric Half-Space: a Spectral-Domain Solution," IEEE Transactions Antennas and Propagation, vol. 53(2), 719-727, 2005. [2] M. Di Vico, F. Frezza, L. Pajewski, and G. Schettini, "Scattering by Buried Dielectric Cylindrical Structures," Radio Science, vol. 40(6), RS6S18, 2005. [3] F. Frezza, L. Pajewski, C. Ponti, and G. Schettini, "Scattering by Perfectly-Conducting Cylinders Buried in a Dielectric Slab through the Cylindrical Wave Approach," IEEE Transactions Antennas and Propagation, vol. 57(4), 1208-1217, 2009. [4] F. Frezza, L. Pajewski, C. Ponti, and G. Schettini, "Accurate Wire-Grid Modeling of Buried Conducting Cylindrical Scatterers," Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation (Special Issue on "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar"), vol. 27(3), pp. 199-207, 2012. [5] F. Frezza, L. Pajewski, C. Ponti, G. Schettini, and N. Tedeschi, "Electromagnetic Scattering by a Metallic Cylinder Buried in a Lossy Medium with the Cylindrical Wave Approach," IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, vol. 10(1), pp. 179-183, 2013. [6] F. Frezza, P. Martinelli, L. Pajewski, and G. Schettini, "Short-Pulse Electromagnetic Scattering from Buried Perfectly-Conducting Cylinders," IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, vol. 4(4), pp. 611-615, 2007.

  19. Mineralogical analysis of clays in hardsetting soil horizons, by X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction using Rietveld method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prandel, L. V.; Saab, S. C.; Brinatti, A. M.; Giarola, N. F. B.; Leite, W. C.; Cassaro, F. A. M.

    2014-02-01

    Diffraction and spectroscopic techniques have been shown to be suitable for obtaining physical and mineralogical properties in polycrystalline soil samples, and also in their precursor compounds. For instance, the X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy allows obtaining the elemental composition of an investigated sample, while the X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique permits obtaining qualitative and quantitative composition of the soil minerals through the Rietveld method (RM). In this study Yellow Latosol (Oxisol), Yellow Argisol (Ultisol) and Gray Argisol (Ultisol) soil samples, classified as "hardsetting soils", extracted from areas located at Northeast and Southeast of Brazilian coast were investigated. The soils and their fractions were analyzed in an EDX-700 and an XRD-6000 (Cu K? radiation). XRF results indicate high percentages of Si and Al, and small percentage of Fe and Ti in the investigated samples. The DRX data and RM indicate that there was a predominance of kaolinite and halloysite minerals (kaolin group minerals) in the clay fractions, which are presumably responsible for the formation of kaolinitic plasma in these soils. Also, the obtained results showed that the XRF, XRD techniques and RM were very helpful for investigating the mineralogical composition of a hardsetting soil.

  20. KINETICS OF CHEMICAL WEATHERING IN B-HORIZON SPODOSOL FRACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies on a B horizon soil from Maine have been conducted to etermine the weathering rate dependence on hydrogen ion concentration in soil solution. Effects of soil concentration and solution chemistry on chemical weathering rate were also investigated. he studies used a laborat...

  1. Soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil is a diverse natural material characterized by solid, liquid, and gas phases that impart unique chemical, physical, and biological properties. Soil provides many key functions, including supporting plant growth and providing environmental remediation. Monitoring key soil properties and processe...

  2. In situ grouting of buried transuranic waste with polyacrylamide

    SciTech Connect

    Spalding, B.P.; Lee, S.Y.; Farmer, C.D.; Hyder, L.K.; Supaokit, P.

    1987-01-01

    This project is a demonstration and evaluation of the in situ hydrologic stabilization of buried transuranic waste at a humid site via grout injection. Two small trenches, containing buried transuranic waste, were filled with 34.000 L of polyacrylamide grout. Initial field results have indicated that voids within the trenches were totally filled by the grout and that the intratrench hydraulic conductivity was reduced to below field-measurable values. No evidence of grout constituents were observed in twelve perimeter groundwater monitoring wells indicating that grout was contained completely within the two trenches. Polyacrylamide grout was selected for field demonstration over the polyacrylate grout due to its superior performance in laboratory degradation studies. Also supporting the selection of polyacrylamide was the difficulty in controlling the set time of the acrylate polymerization. Based on preliminary degradation monitoring, the polyacrylamide was estimated to have a microbiological half-life of 362 years in the test soil. 15 refs., 9 figs., 12 tabs.

  3. Soil Particle Density Protocol

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The GLOBE Program, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR)

    2003-08-01

    The purpose of this resource is to measure the soil particle density of each horizon in a soil profile. Students weigh a sample of dry, sieved soil from a horizon, mix it with distilled water and then boil the mixture to remove any air. The mixture cools for a day and then students add water until the volume of the mixture is 100 mL. Students measure the temperature and mass of the final mixture and use the Soil Particle Density Data Sheet to calculate the soil particle density. Three samples should be measured for each horizon.

  4. Chapter 3. Concepts of Basic Soil Science W. Lee Daniels

    E-print Network

    Kaye, Jason P.

    Chapter 3. Concepts of Basic Soil Science W. Lee Daniels Kathryn C. Haering Department of Crop and Soil Environmental Sciences, Virginia Tech Table of Contents Soil formation and soil horizons................................................................................................................... 33 Soil composition by volume

  5. Controlled field experiments of wind effects on thermal signatures of buried and surface-laid landmines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dam, Remke L.; Borchers, Brian; Hendrickx, Jan M.; Hong, Sung

    2004-09-01

    Thermal signatures of buried land mines depend on a complex combination of environmental conditions, soil properties, and properties and burial depth of the land mine. Due to the complex nature of the problem most modeling and experimental efforts to understand thermal signatures of land mines have focused on the effects of one or a few variables. Of these variables, the effect of wind speed has received little attention in modeling and experimental studies. In this contribution we discuss the role of wind in the generation of thermal images and we present results of field experiments at the outdoor land mine detection test facility at New Mexico Tech. Here, several anti-tank and anti-personnel land mine simulants have been buried in sand, loam, and clay soils. During the measurements the environmental and soil conditions were continuously monitored using a fully equipped weather station and using probes for measurements of soil temperature and soil water content.

  6. Pleistocene permafrost features in soils in the South-western Italian Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amico, Michele; Catoni, Marcella; Bonifacio, Eleonora; Zanini, Ermanno

    2015-04-01

    Because of extensive Pleistocenic glaciations which erased most of the previously existing soils, slope steepness and climatic conditions favoring soil erosion, most soils observed on the Alps (and in other mid-latitude mountain ranges) developed only during the Holocene. However, in few sites, particularly in the outermost sections of the Alpine range, Pleistocene glaciers covered only small and scattered surfaces because of the low altitude reached in the basins, and ancient soils could be preserved for long periods of time on particularly stable surfaces. In some cases, these soils retain good memories of past periglacial activity. We described and sampled soils on stable surfaces in the Upper Tanaro valley, Ligurian Alps (Southwestern Piemonte, Italy). The sampling sites were between 600 to 1600 m of altitude, under present day lower montane Castanea sativa/Ostrya carpinifolia forests, montane Fagus sylvatica and Pinus uncinata forests or montane heath/grazed grassland, on different quartzitic substrata. The surface morphology often showed strongly developed, fossil periglacial patterned ground forms, such as coarse stone circles on flat surfaces, or stone stripes on steeper slopes. The stone circles could be up to 5 m wide, while the sorted stripes could be as wide as 12-15 m. A strong lateral cryogenic textural sorting characterized the fine fraction too, with sand dominating close to the stone rims of the patterned ground features and silt and clay the central parts. The surface 60-120 cm of the soils were podzolized during the Holocene; as a result of the textural lateral sorting, the thickness of the podzolic E and Bs horizons varied widely across the patterns. The lower boundary of the Holocene Podzols was abrupt, and corresponded with dense layers with thick coarse laminar structure and illuvial silt accumulation (Cjj horizons). Dense Cjj diapiric inclusions were sometimes preserved in the central parts of the patterns. Where cover beds were developed, more superimposed podzol cycles were observed: the deeper podzols, included in the dense layer, were strongly cryoturbated and showed convoluted horizons and buried organic horizons. The presence of the dense Cjj horizons also influenced surface soil hydrology, which in turn influenced the expression of E and Bs horizons, in addition to textural lateral variability. In conclusion, surface morphology and soil properties evidence the presence of permafrost during cold Pleistocene phases, with an active layer 60-120 cm thick, associated with a particularly strong cryoturbation. However, all the permafrost features were not necessarily formed during the same periods, and dating of different materials would be necessary in order to obtain precise paleoenvironmental reconstructions of cold Quaternary phases in the Alps.

  7. BATATA: a buried muon hodoscope

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, F.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Paic, G.; Salazar, M. E. Patino; D'Olivo, J. C. [Departamento de Fisica de Altas Energias, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A. P. 70-543, 04510, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Molina, R. Alfaro [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A. P. 70-543, 04510, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    2009-04-20

    Muon hodoscopes have several applications, ranging from astrophysics to fundamental particle physics. In this work, we present a detector dedicated to the study, at ground level, of the main signals of cosmic-ray induced showers above 6 PeV. The whole detector is composed by a set of three parallel dual-layer scintillator planes buried at fix depths ranging from 120 g/cm{sup 2} to 600 g/cm{sup 2} and by a triangular array of water cerenkov detectors located nearby on ground.

  8. Blast wave from buried charges

    SciTech Connect

    Reichenbach, H.; Behrens, K. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Kurzzeitdynamik - Ernst-Mach-Institut (EMI), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Kuhl, A.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., El Segundo, CA (United States)

    1993-08-01

    While much airblast data are available for height-of-burst (HOB) effects, systematic airblast data for depth-of-burst (DOB) effects are more limited. It is logical to ask whether the spherical 0.5-g Nitropenta charges that, proved to be successful for HOB tests at EMI are also suitable for experiments with buried charges in the laboratory scale; preliminary studies indicated in the alternative. Of special interest is the airblast environment generated by detonations just above or below the around surface. This paper presents a brief summary of the test results.

  9. Distance to Horizon

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NCTM Illuminations

    2000-01-01

    This applet allows students to explore the relationship between their height above the Earth and the distance they can see to the horizon. Learners can change the height above sea level by dragging the point labeled Height. Based on the height, the distance to the horizon is automatically calculated. Students are challenged to find a relationship between the height of a person above sea level and the distance he/she can see to the horizon.

  10. Horizonal and Vertical Spatial Patterns of Radon and Other Soil-gases Across the El Pilar Fault Trace at Guaraphiche, Edo. Surce (Venezuela)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaBrecque, J. J.

    2002-05-01

    Soil-gases (radon, thoron, carbon dioxide and hydrogen) were measured at 63-cm depths along a transect perpendicular to the rupture (fault trace) from the 1997 Caricao earthquake (Mw=6.9) at Guarapiche, state of Sucre (Venezuela). The transect was about 40 meters long with ten sampling points with the spacings was smaller near the rupture. The shapes of the horizontal spatial patterns for radon (Rn-222), thoron (Rn-220) and total radon (Rn-222+Rn-220) were similar; the gas concentrations increased from both ends of the transect toward the rupture where a dip (valley) occurred. Both carbon dioxide and hydrogen gases showed anomalous values at the same sampling points. Twin peaks (anomalies) had been previously reported and suggested that they were due to blockage in the rupture. We have also determined soil-gases from 25-cm to 155-cm depths near the rupture and at the ends of the transect. The results showed that the soil-gas concentrations were not only higher in the upper levels (less than 65-cm) near the fault trace but were similar or greater than the lower levels. Thus, producing the twin peaks when soil-gas sampling was performed at the 65-cm depth. When the sampling was performed at only 45-cm depth the dip over the rupture was much less and the patterns looked more like a broad doublet peak. In conclusion, one can clearly see that not only positive soil-gas anomalies can occur over a fault trace but also negative ones too. 1) This work was partially funded by a research contract from the Venezuelan National Science Foundation (CONICIT Proyecto S1-95000448). 2) Mailing Address: Centro de Quimica, 8424 NW 56th Street, Suite 00204,Miami, Fl 33166 (USA). E-mail jjlabrec@ivic.ve FAX: +58-212-504-1214

  11. Electrical impedance tomography for underwater detection of buried mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchette, Gail; Gagnon, Stéphane; Church, Philip; Luu, Tim; McFee, John

    2008-04-01

    The detection of buried land mines in soil is a well-studied problem; many existing technologies are designed and optimized for performance in different soil types. Research on mine detection in shallow water environments such as beaches, however, is much less developed. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) shows promise for this application. EIT uses current-stimulating and voltage-recording electrode pairs to measure trans-impedances in the volume directly beneath the electrode array, which sits flat over the ground surface. The trans-impedances are used to construct a conductivity profile of the volume. Non-metallic and metallic explosives appear as perturbations in the conductivity profile, and their location and size can be estimated. Lab testing has yielded promising results using a submerged array positioned over a sand bed. The instrument has also successfully detected surrogate mines in a traditional soil environment during field trials. Resolution of the detector is roughly half the pitch of electrodes in the array. In underwater lab testing, non-conducting targets buried in the sand are detected at a depth of 1.5 times the electrode pitch with the array positioned up to one electrode pitch above the sand bed. Results will be presented for metallic and non-metallic targets of various shapes and sizes.

  12. Stability analysis of buried flexible pipes: a biaxial buckling equation

    E-print Network

    Chau, Melissa Tuyet-Mai

    1990-01-01

    11 3 /as Embedment Notarial Invert CI Crown Springline & In Situ Soil 3 D FIGURE 5. The Trench Model for Buried Pipes (Chua and Lytton, 1987) 34 TABLE 3. Bureau of Reclamation Values of the Elastic Modulus Ee for the Iowa Formula E.... Othe&woe usc E Coarseapsmed Smls wuh Muk or No Fines GW GP. SW. SP' contmns less than l2% fines Crushed Rosh Accuracy in Terms of Perccnumc DeAccuon' l. 000 2 I 000 3. 000 2 3. 000 3 000 3. IRS O0. 3 ASTM Dcsigneuon D-2497, USBR Deugneuon...

  13. Measurement of Attenuation and Speed of Sound in Soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael L. Oelze; William D. O'Brien; Robert G. Darmody

    2002-01-01

    required. These basic properties of the soil can then be evaluated to assess the acoustic imaging tradeoffs for The potential application of this work is the detection and imaging detecting and characterizing buried artifacts. The acous- of buried objects using acoustic methodology. To image buried arti- facts, it is vital to know speed and attenuation of sound in the particular

  14. Detection of buried mines with seismic sonar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas G. Muir; Steven R. Baker; Frederick E. Gaghan; Sean M. Fitzpatrick; Patrick W. Hall; Kraig E. Sheetz; Jeremie Guy

    2003-01-01

    Prior research on seismo-acoustic sonar for detection of buried targets [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 103, 2333-2343 (1998)] has continued with examination of the target strengths of buried test targets as well as targets of interest, and has also examined detection and confirmatory classification of these, all using arrays of seismic sources and receivers as well as signal processing techniques to

  15. A new way of identifying buried objects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David BOULINGUEZ; A. Quinquis

    1999-01-01

    Underwater object identification is of great interest to acousticians (detection of boulders), marines (detection of buried mines), or archaeologists (detection of wreckage). Image and signal processing succeed in identifying objects lying on the sea bottom, however identification of an object buried in sediment remains complex. The purpose of this work is to propose a complete identification of objects embedded in

  16. Array processing methods for identifying buried objects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Salah Bourennane

    2001-01-01

    Underwater object identification has been of great interest for a few years to acousticians (detection of boulders) or marines (detection of buried mines). Image and signal processing succeed in identifying objects lying on the sea bottom, however identification of an object buried in sediment remains complex. The purpose of this paper is to develop a complete identification of objects embedded

  17. Mining metrics for buried treasure

    E-print Network

    D. A. Konkowski; T. M. Helliwell

    2005-01-07

    The same but different: That might describe two metrics. On the surface CLASSI may show two metrics are locally equivalent, but buried beneath one may be a wealth of further structure. This was beautifully described in a paper by M.A.H. MacCallum in 1998. Here I will illustrate the effect with two flat metrics -- one describing ordinary Minkowski spacetime and the other describing a three-parameter family of Gal'tsov-Letelier-Tod spacetimes. I will dig out the beautiful hidden classical singularity structure of the latter (a structure first noticed by Tod in 1994) and then show how quantum considerations can illuminate the riches. I will then discuss how quantum structure can help us understand classical singularities and metric parameters in a variety of exact solutions mined from the Exact Solutions book.

  18. Mining metrics for buried treasure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konkowski, D. A.; Helliwell, T. M.

    2006-06-01

    The same but different: That might describe two metrics. On the surface CLASSI may show two metrics are locally equivalent, but buried beneath may be a wealth of further structure. This was beautifully described in a paper by Malcolm MacCallum in 1998. Here I will illustrate the effect with two flat metrics — one describing ordinary Minkowski spacetime and the other describing a threeparameter family of Gal'tsov-Letelier-Tod spacetimes. I will dig out the beautiful hidden classical singularity structure of the latter (a structure first noticed by Tod in 1994) and then show how quantum considerations can illuminate the riches. I will then discuss how quantum structure can help us understand classical singularities and metric parameters in a variety of exact solutions mined from the Exact Solutions book.

  19. A novel mathematical modeling of grounding system buried in multilayer Earth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhong-Xin Li; Weijiang Chen; Jian-Bin Fan; Jiayu Lu

    2006-01-01

    A novel mathematical model for accurately computing the currents flowing along the high-voltage ac substations' grounding system and floating metallic conductors buried in the multilayer earth model has been developed in this paper. Not only the conductive effect of currents leaking into the soil, but also capacitive and inductive effects have been considered in this model. To accelerate the calculation,

  20. Pore-pressure gradients in the proximity of a submarine buried pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Magda, W. [Technical Univ. of Gdansk (Poland). Marine Civil Engineering Dept.

    1995-12-31

    This paper is concerned with the two-dimensional finite-element modeling of the wave-induced pore-pressure field in the proximity of a submarine pipeline buried in sandy seabed sediments subject to continuous loading of regular surface waves. Neglecting inertial forces, a linear elastic stress-strain relationship for the soil, and Darcy`s law for the flow of pore-fluid are assumed. The model takes into account the compressibility of both components (i.e., pore-fluid and soil skeleton) of the two-phase medium. The results of numerical computations are discussed with respect to the hydraulic gradient in the upper part of seabed sediments just above the buried submarine pipeline. The pore-pressure gradient is studied as a function of geometry (depth of burial) as well as soil and pore-fluid compressibility parameters where the later of which is defined in terms of soil saturation conditions.

  1. Scanning the Conservation Horizon

    E-print Network

    Scanning the Conservation Horizon A Guide to Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment #12;Scanning Vulnerability Assessment. National Wildlife Federation, Washington, D.C. ISBN 978-0-615-40233-8 Financial.nwf.org #12;A Guide to Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment ii Scanning the Conservation Horizon A Guide

  2. Modeling physical and biogeochemical controls over carbon accumulation in a boreal forest soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, Jonathan J.; Neff, Jason C.; Harden, Jennifer W.

    2006-06-01

    Boreal soils are important to the global C cycle owing to large C stocks, repeated disturbance from fire, and the potential for permafrost thaw to expose previously stable, buried C. To evaluate the primary mechanisms responsible for both short- and long-term C accumulation in boreal soils, we developed a multi-isotope (12, 14C) soil C model with dynamic soil layers that develop through time as soil organic matter burns and reaccumulates. We then evaluated the mechanisms that control organic matter turnover in boreal regions including carbon input rates, substrate recalcitrance, soil moisture and temperature, and the presence of historical permafrost to assess the importance of these factors in boreal C accumulation. Results indicate that total C accumulation is controlled by the rate of carbon input, decomposition rates, and the presence of historical permafrost. However, unlike more temperate ecosystems, one of the key mechanisms involved in C preservation in boreal soils examined here is the cooling of subsurface soil layers as soil depth increases rather than increasing recalcitrance in subsurface soils. The propagation of the 14C bomb spike into soils also illustrates the importance of historical permafrost and twentieth century warming in contemporary boreal soil respiration fluxes. Both 14C and total C simulation data also strongly suggest that boreal SOM need not be recalcitrant to accumulate; the strong role of soil temperature controls on boreal C accumulation at our modeling test site in Manitoba, Canada, indicates that carbon in the deep organic soil horizons is probably relatively labile and thus subject to perturbations that result from changing climatic conditions in the future.

  3. Priming in permafrost soils: High vulnerability of arctic soil organic carbon to increased input of plant-derived compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, Birgit; Gentsch, Norman; Capek, Petr; Diakova, Katerina; Alves, Ricardo; Barta, Jiri; Gittel, Antje; Guggenberger, Georg; Lashchinskiy, Nikolay; Knoltsch, Anna; Mikutta, Robert; Santruckova, Hana; Schnecker, Jörg; Shibistova, Olga; Takriti, Mounir; Urich, Tim; Watzka, Margarete; Richter, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Arctic ecosystems are warming rapidly, resulting in a stimulation of both plant primary production and soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition. In addition to this direct stimulation, SOM decomposition might also be indirectly affected by rising temperatures mediated by the increase in plant productivity. Higher root litter production for instance might decrease SOM decomposition by providing soil microorganisms with alternative C and N sources ("negative priming"), or might increase SOM decomposition by facilitating microbial growth and enzyme production ("positive priming"). With about 1,700 Pg of organic C stored in arctic soils, and 88% of that in horizons deeper than 30 cm, it is crucial to understand the controls on SOM decomposition in different horizons of arctic permafrost soils, and thus the vulnerability of SOM to changes in C and N availability in a future climate. We here report on the vulnerability of SOM in arctic permafrost soils to an increased input of plant-derived organic compounds, and on its variability across soil horizons and sites. We simulated an increased input of plant-derived compounds by amending soil samples with 13C-labelled cellulose or protein, and compared the mineralization of native, unlabelled soil organic C (SOC) to unamended control samples. Our experiment included 119 individual samples of arctic permafrost soils, covering four sites across the Siberian Arctic, and five soil horizons, i.e., organic topsoil, mineral topsoil, mineral subsoil and cryoturbated material (topsoil material buried in the subsoil by freeze-thaw processes) from the active layer, as well as thawed material from the upper permafrost. Our findings suggest that changes in C and N availability in Arctic soils, such as mediated by plants, have a high potential to alter the decomposition of SOM, but also point at fundamental differences between soil horizons. In the organic topsoil, SOC mineralization increased by 51% after addition of protein, but was not affected by cellulose, suggesting predominant N limitation of the microbial decomposer community, and a high vulnerability of SOM to increases in N availability. In contrast, in mineral subsoil and thawed permafrost, SOC mineralization was stimulated by both cellulose and protein (between 23 and 120%), cellulose- and protein-derived C was efficiently incorporated into the microbial biomass, and effects of both cellulose and protein were significantly correlated. These findings suggest predominant C limitation of the microbial decomposer community in deeper, mineral horizons of arctic permafrost soils, and point at a high vulnerability of SOM to increased C availability, e.g., due to higher root litter production. We estimate that on a circum-arctic scale, increases in C and N availability have the potential to stimulate SOC mineralization in the order of several Tg C per day. Together with the direct stimulation of SOC mineralization by rising temperatures, this indirect stimulation can counteract the increased CO2 fixation by plants, and thus reduce the C sink strength of arctic ecosystems or even provoke net ecosystem C losses that might induce a positive feedback to global warming.

  4. Killing Horizons and Spinors

    E-print Network

    Bruno Carneiro da Cunha; Amilcar de Queiroz

    2014-06-19

    We study the near horizon geometry of generic Killing horizons constructing suitable coordinates and taking the appropriate scaling limit. We are able to show that the geometry will always show an enhancement of symmetries, and, in the extremal case, will develop a causally disconnected "throat" as expected. We analyze the implications of this to the Kerr/CFT conjecture and the attractor mechanism. We are also able to construct a set of special (pure) spinors associated with the horizon structure using their interpretation as maximally isotropic planes. The structure generalizes the usual reduced holonomy manifold in an interesting way and may be fruitful to the search of new types of compactification backgrounds.

  5. Redistribution of soil nitrogen, carbon and organic matter by mechanical disturbance during whole-tree harvesting in northern hardwoods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryan, D.F.; Huntington, T.G.; Wayne, Martin C.

    1992-01-01

    To investigate whether mechanical mixing during harvesting could account for losses observed from forest floor, we measured surface disturbance on a 22 ha watershed that was whole-tree harvested. Surface soil on each 10 cm interval along 81, randomly placed transects was classified immediately after harvesting as mineral or organic, and as undisturbed, depressed, rutted, mounded, scarified, or scalped (forest floor scraped away). We quantitatively sampled these surface categories to collect soil in which preharvest forest floor might reside after harvest. Mechanically mixed mineral and organic soil horizons were readily identified. Buried forest floor under mixed mineral soil occurred in 57% of mounds with mineral surface soil. Harvesting disturbed 65% of the watershed surface and removed forest floor from 25% of the area. Mechanically mixed soil under ruts with organic or mineral surface soil, and mounds with mineral surface soil contained organic carbon and nitrogen pools significantly greater than undisturbed forest floor. Mechanical mixing into underlying mineral soil could account for the loss of forest floor observed between the preharvest condition and the second growing season after whole-tree harvesting. ?? 1992.

  6. Buried plastic scintillator muon telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, F.; Medina-Tanco, G. A.; D'Olivo, J. C.; et al.

    Muon telescopes can have several applications, ranging from astrophysical to solar-terrestrial interaction studies, and fundamental particle physics. We show the design parameters, characterization and end-to-end simulations of a detector composed by a set of three parallel dual-layer scintillator planes, buried at fix depths ranging from 0.30 m to 3 m. Each layer is 4 m2 and is composed by 50 rectangular pixels of 4cm x 2 m, oriented at a 90 deg angle with respect to its companion layer. The scintillators are MINOS extruded polystyrene strips with two Bicron wavelength shifting fibers mounted on machined grooves. Scintillation light is collected by multi-anode PMTs of 64 pixels, accommodating two fibers per pixel. The front-end electronics has a time resolution of 7.5 nsec. Any strip signal above threshold opens a GPS-tagged 2 micro-seconds data collection window. All data, including signal and background, are saved to hard disk. Separation of extensive air shower signals from secondary cosmic-ray background muons and electrons is done offline using the GPS-tagged threefold coincidence signal from surface water cerenkov detectors located nearby in a triangular array. Cosmic-ray showers above 6 PeV are selected. The data acquisition system is designed to keep both, background and signals from extensive air showers for a detailed offline data.

  7. Black holes: from event horizons to trapping horizons

    E-print Network

    Gourgoulhon, Eric

    Black holes: from event horizons to trapping horizons Eric Gourgoulhon Laboratoire Univers et Th 2009 Eric Gourgoulhon (LUTH) Black holes: trapping horizons LPT, Orsay, 14 October 2009 1 / 39 #12;Plan 1 Concept of black hole and event horizon 2 Local approaches to black holes 3 Viscous fluid analogy

  8. Black holes: from event horizons to trapping horizons

    E-print Network

    Gourgoulhon, Eric

    Black holes: from event horizons to trapping horizons Eric Gourgoulhon Laboratoire Univers et Th, France 10 December 2009 Eric Gourgoulhon (LUTH) Black holes: trapping horizons LATT, Toulouse, 10 December 2009 1 / 38 #12;Plan 1 Concept of black hole and event horizon 2 Local approaches to black holes 3

  9. Black holes: from event horizons to trapping horizons

    E-print Network

    Gourgoulhon, Eric

    Black holes: from event horizons to trapping horizons Eric Gourgoulhon Laboratoire Univers et Th) Black holes: trapping horizons CERN, 17 March 2010 1 / 38 #12;Plan 1 Concept of black hole and event horizon 2 Local approaches to black holes 3 Viscous fluid analogy 4 Angular momentum and area evolution

  10. Black holes: from event horizons to trapping horizons

    E-print Network

    Gourgoulhon, Eric

    Black holes: from event horizons to trapping horizons Eric Gourgoulhon Laboratoire Univers et Th April 2009 Eric Gourgoulhon (LUTH) Black holes: trapping horizons INLN, Nice, 2 April 2009 1 / 39 #12;Plan 1 Concept of black hole and event horizon 2 Local approaches to black holes 3 Viscous fluid

  11. Soils âField Characterization, Collection, and Laboratory Analysis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Abir Biswas

    Field characterization of soil profiles in coniferous and deciduous settings; sample collection of soils from different horizons; laboratory analysis of soil moisture, soil organic carbon (by loss on ignition), and grain size distribution (by sieving)

  12. 7 CFR 1755.505 - Buried services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...accepted or RUS technically accepted. The conductor size for two and three pair buried...wire including neutral and grounding conductors: Open 4 [102] In conduit ...television antennas, Lead-in and grounding conductors 4 [102] Lightning rods and...

  13. Horizon 2020 Proposal Workshop

    E-print Network

    Potsdam, Universität

    Horizon 2020 Proposal Workshop "Marie Sklodowska Curie ­ Proposals for Individual fellowships" 16th Research Cooperation, University of Potsdam) 10:40 ­ 11:30 Marie Sklodowska Curie Actions ­ Individual

  14. New Horizons encounters Jupiter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Carroll

    2007-01-01

    NASA's New Horizons spacecraft, en route to Pluto, flew within 2.3 million kilometers of Jupiter. The results have estounded and excited planetary scientists, with new data on its moons, red spots, rings and magnetic field.

  15. On the Scattering by Buried Objects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Fiaz; L. Pajewski; C. Ponti; G. Schettini; F. Frezza

    2011-01-01

    The scattering problem by a set of buried circular- cross section cylinders is considered. A scenario with cylinders buried in a dielectric slab between two semi-infinite half-spaces is solved by means of Cylindrical Wave Approach (CWA). The same technique is also applied to the scattering by cylinders under a rough surface of separation between two semi-infinite media. In the latter

  16. Simulation of the environmental fate and transport of chemical signatures from buried landmines

    SciTech Connect

    Phelan, J.M.; Webb, S.W.

    1998-03-01

    The fate and transport of chemical signature molecules that emanate from buried landmines is strongly influenced by physical chemical properties and by environmental conditions of the specific chemical compounds. Published data have been evaluated as the input parameters that are used in the simulation of the fate and transport processes. A one-dimensional model developed for screening agricultural pesticides was modified and used to simulate the appearance of a surface flux above a buried landmine and estimate the subsurface total concentration. The physical chemical properties of TNT cause a majority of the mass released to the soil system to be bound to the solid phase soil particles. The majority of the transport occurs in the liquid phase with diffusion and evaporation driven advection of soil water as the primary mechanisms for the flux to the ground surface. The simulations provided herein should only be used for initial conceptual designs of chemical pre-concentration subsystems or complete detection systems. The physical processes modeled required necessary simplifying assumptions to allow for analytical solutions. Emerging numerical simulation tools will soon be available that should provide more realistic estimates that can be used to predict the success of landmine chemical detection surveys based on knowledge of the chemical and soil properties, and environmental conditions where the mines are buried. Additional measurements of the chemical properties in soils are also needed before a fully predictive approach can be confidently applied.

  17. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration. Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that offer promising solutions to the problems associated with the remediation of buried waste. BWID addresses the difficult remediation problems associated with DOE complex-wide buried waste, particularly transuranic (TRU) contaminated buried waste. BWID has implemented a systems approach to the development and demonstration of technologies that will characterize, retrieve, treat, and dispose of DOE buried wastes. This approach encompasses the entire remediation process from characterization to post-monitoring. The development and demonstration of the technology is predicated on how a technology fits into the total remediation process. To address all of these technological issues, BWID has enlisted scientific expertise of individuals and groups from within the DOE Complex, as well as experts from universities and private industry. The BWID mission is to support development and demonstration of a suite of technologies that, when integrated with commercially-available technologies, forms a comprehensive, remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste throughout the DOE Complex. BWID will evaluate and validate demonstrated technologies and transfer this information and equipment to private industry to support the Office of Environmental Restoration (ER), Office of Waste Management (WM), and Office of Facility Transition (FT) remediation planning and implementation activities.

  18. Black hole horizons Eric Gourgoulhon

    E-print Network

    Gourgoulhon, Eric

    Black hole horizons ´Eric Gourgoulhon Laboratoire Univers et Th´eories (LUTH) CNRS / Observatoire hole horizons SN2NS, Paris, 4 Feb 2014 1 / 37 #12;Outline 1 Concept of black hole and event horizon 2 Quasi-local horizons 3 Astrophysical black holes 4 The near-future observations of black holes ´Eric

  19. Guided wave attenuation in pipes buried in sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinov, Eli; Cawley, Peter; Lowe, Michael JS

    2015-03-01

    Long-range ultrasonic guided wave testing of pipelines is used routinely for detection of corrosion defects in a variety of industries, e.g. petrochemical and energy. When the method is applied to pipelines that are buried in soil, test ranges tend to be significantly compromised compared to those achieved for pipelines above ground because of the attenuation of the guided wave, due to energy leaking into the embedding soil. The attenuation characteristics of guided wave propagation in a pipe buried in sand are investigated using a full scale experimental rig. The apparatus consists of an 8"-diameter, 6-meters long steel pipe embedded over 3 meters in a rectangular container filled with sand and fitted with an air-bladder for the application of overburden pressure. Measurements of the attenuation of the T(0,1) and L(0,2) guided wave modes over a range of sand conditions, including loose, compacted, water saturated and drained, are presented. Attenuation values are found to be in the range of 1-5.5 dB/m. The application of overburden pressure modifies the compaction of the sand and increases the attenuation. The attenuation decreases in the fully water-saturated sand, while it increases in drained sand to values comparable with those obtained for the compacted sand. The attenuation behavior of the torsional guided wave mode is found not to be captured by a uniform soil model; comparison with predictions obtained with the Disperse software suggest that this is likely to be due to a layer of sand adhering to the surface of the pipe.

  20. Buried structural traps in upper paleozoic strata of the Orenburg region and their petroleum prospects. [USSR

    SciTech Connect

    Orel, A.V.

    1982-07-01

    Analysis of drilling data within the Orenburg sector of the northern marginal zone of the Caspian Basin and the Sol'-Ilets rise has shown that horizons of the Moscovian Stage of Late Carboniferous and Early Permian age rest on an eroded surface of Bashkirian deposits in a transgressive succession.Changes in thicknesses in the upper Paleozoic stratigraphic complexes indicate a significant discordance between the structural plans of the Artinskian and Bashkirian deposits and the possibility of discovering buried traps here, promising in the search for oil and gas.

  1. Soil response to a 3-year increase in temperature and nitrogen deposition measured in a mature boreal forest using ion-exchange membranes.

    PubMed

    D'Orangeville, Loïc; Houle, Daniel; Côté, Benoît; Duchesne, Louis

    2014-12-01

    The projected increase in atmospheric N deposition and air/soil temperature will likely affect soil nutrient dynamics in boreal ecosystems. The potential effects of these changes on soil ion fluxes were studied in a mature balsam fir stand (Abies balsamea [L.] Mill) in Quebec, Canada that was subjected to 3 years of experimentally increased soil temperature (+4 °C) and increased inorganic N concentration in artificial precipitation (three times the current N concentrations using NH4NO3). Soil element fluxes (NO3, NH4, PO4, K, Ca, Mg, SO4, Al, and Fe) in the organic and upper mineral horizons were monitored using buried ion-exchange membranes (PRS™ probes). While N additions did not affect soil element fluxes, 3 years of soil warming increased the cumulative fluxes of K, Mg, and SO4 in the forest floor by 43, 44, and 79 %, respectively, and Mg, SO4, and Al in the mineral horizon by 29, 66, and 23 %, respectively. We attribute these changes to increased rates of soil organic matter decomposition. Significant interactions of the heating treatment with time were observed for most elements although no clear seasonal patterns emerged. The increase in soil K and Mg in heated plots resulted in a significant but small K increase in balsam fir foliage while no change was observed for Mg. A 6-15 % decrease in foliar Ca content with soil warming could be related to the increase in soil-available Al in heated plots, as Al can interfere with the root uptake of Ca. PMID:25139238

  2. Dual-horizon Peridynamics

    E-print Network

    Ren, Huilong; Cai, Yongchang; Rabczuk, Timon

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we develop a new Peridynamic approach that naturally includes varying horizon sizes and completely solves the "ghost force" issue. Therefore, the concept of dual-horizon is introduced to consider the unbalanced interactions between the particles with different horizon sizes. The present formulation is proved to fulfill both the balances of linear momentum and angular momentum. Neither the "partial stress tensor" nor the "`slice" technique are needed to ameliorate the ghost force issue in \\cite{Silling2014}. The consistency of reaction forces is naturally fulfilled by a unified simple formulation. The method can be easily implemented to any existing peridynamics code with minimal changes. A simple adaptive refinement procedure is proposed minimizing the computational cost. The method is applied here to the three Peridynamic formulations, namely bond based, ordinary state based and non-ordinary state based Peridynamics. Both two- and three- dimensional examples including the Kalthof-Winkler experi...

  3. Assessing bioturbation using micromorphology and biosilicate evidence: A case study of the early-Holocene Brady Soil, central Great Plains, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodburn, T. L.; Hasiotis, S. T.; Johnson, W. C.

    2012-12-01

    The Old Wauneta Roadcut site in southwestern Nebraska exhibits a 1.2 meter-thick exposure of the Brady Soil, a buried paleosol which formed within loess during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. Excavation of the loess-paleosol sequence has revealed considerable bioturbation by plant roots, invertebrates, and small vertebrates. Bioturbation was not restricted to a single time period, but occurred continually throughout soil development, as evidenced by differing sediment fills and crosscutting relationships. The Brady Soil is an accretionary soil within the uppermost part of the Last Glacial Maximum Peoria Loess. At the base of the solum, the Bkb horizon exhibits an increased illuvial clay and carbonate content, and contains extensive, small (~2cm width), backfilled burrows typically produced by cicada nymphs (Cicadidae) or beetle larvae. The most stable period of the Brady Soil is expressed by the dark (9.8 YR 4/1), thick Ab horizon. This is overlain by an ACb horizon, where soil formation was being extinguished by the onset of Holocene-age Bignell Loess deposition. Within the upper solum and Bignell Loess, a shift in biota activity occurs as indicated by the large burrow (6-12 cm width) and chamber (30-40 cm width) systems observed. Trace sizes suggest that a burrowing rodent, such as the prairie dog (Cynomys sp.) or ground squirrel (Spermophilus sp.), was responsible for their creation. Soil micromorphology was used to distinguish sediment-size classes, mineralogy, and clay morphology of specific loess deposits and soil horizons in order to track displacement of sediment through the profile due to bioturbation. Five block samples were taken in undisturbed sediment and soil horizons for thin-section analysis. Twelve additional samples of burrow cross-sections or bioturbated sediment were analyzed for comparison. Soil features produced by faunal and floral activity were differentiated from features produced by pedologic processes through the identification and classification of granular and spongy microstructures indicative of excrement, calcitic biospheroids, infilling, meniscate backfilling, channel microstructures, and well-oriented clay coatings. Sediment morphology, mineralogy of the infill and backfill material, and biosilicate assemblages were used to trace the material to the source sediment location providing a timeline for events of bioturbation. Defining localized versus deep-mixing events provides an assessment of the disturbance to paleoclimate proxies and age data and will allow for a more accurate paleoclimate reconstruction in this heavily bioturbated paleosol.

  4. Soils and the soil cover of the Valley of Geysers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostyuk, D. N.; Gennadiev, A. N.

    2014-06-01

    The results of field studies of the soil cover within the tourist part of the Valley of Geysers in Kamchatka performed in 2010 and 2011 are discussed. The morphology of soils, their genesis, and their dependence on the degree of hydrothermal impact are characterized; the soil cover patterns developing in the valley are analyzed. On the basis of the materials provided by the Kronotskii Biospheric Reserve and original field data, the soil map of the valley has been developed. The maps of vegetation conditions, soil temperature at the depth of 15 cm, and slopes of the surface have been used for this purpose together with satellite imagery and field descriptions of reference soil profiles. The legend to the soil map includes nine soil units and seven units of parent materials and their textures. Soil names are given according to the classification developed by I.L. Goldfarb (2005) for the soils of hydrothermal fields. The designation of soil horizons follows the new Classification and Diagnostic System of Russian Soils (2004). It is suggested that a new horizon—a thermometamorphic horizon TRM—can be introduced into this system by analogy with other metamorphic (transformed in situ) horizons distinguished in this system. This horizon is typical of the soils partly or completely transformed by hydrothermal impacts.

  5. In-situ vitrification of soil. [Patent application

    SciTech Connect

    Brouns, R.A.; Buelt, J.L.; Bonner, W.F.

    1981-04-06

    A method of vitrifying soil at or below a soil surface location. Two or more conductive electrodes are inserted into the soil for heating of the soil mass between them to a temperature above its melting temperature. Materials in the soil, such as buried waste, can thereby be effectively immobilized.

  6. Modelling and interpreting biologically crusted dryland soil sub-surface structure using automated micropenetrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoon, Stephen R.; Felde, Vincent J. M. N. L.; Drahorad, Sylvie L.; Felix-Henningsen, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Soil penetrometers are used routinely to determine the shear strength of soils and deformable sediments both at the surface and throughout a depth profile in disciplines as diverse as soil science, agriculture, geoengineering and alpine avalanche-safety (e.g. Grunwald et al. 2001, Van Herwijnen et al. 2009). Generically, penetrometers comprise two principal components: An advancing probe, and a transducer; the latter to measure the pressure or force required to cause the probe to penetrate or advance through the soil or sediment. The force transducer employed to determine the pressure can range, for example, from a simple mechanical spring gauge to an automatically data-logged electronic transducer. Automated computer control of the penetrometer step size and probe advance rate enables precise measurements to be made down to a resolution of 10's of microns, (e.g. the automated electronic micropenetrometer (EMP) described by Drahorad 2012). Here we discuss the determination, modelling and interpretation of biologically crusted dryland soil sub-surface structures using automated micropenetrometry. We outline a model enabling the interpretation of depth dependent penetration resistance (PR) profiles and their spatial differentials using the model equations, ? {}(z) ={}? c0{}+? 1n[? n{}(z){}+anz + bnz2] and d? /dz = ? 1n[d? n(z) /dz{} {}+{}Frn(z)] where ? c0 and ? n are the plastic deformation stresses for the surface and nth soil structure (e.g. soil crust, layer, horizon or void) respectively, and Frn(z)dz is the frictional work done per unit volume by sliding the penetrometer rod an incremental distance, dz, through the nth layer. Both ? n(z) and Frn(z) are related to soil structure. They determine the form of ? {}(z){} measured by the EMP transducer. The model enables pores (regions of zero deformation stress) to be distinguished from changes in layer structure or probe friction. We have applied this method to both artificial calibration soils in the laboratory, and in-situ field studies. In particular, we discuss the nature and detection of surface and buried (fossil) subsurface Biological Soil Crusts (BSCs), voids, macroscopic particles and compositional layers. The strength of surface BSCs and the occurrence of buried BSCs and layers has been detected at sub millimetre scales to depths of 40mm. Our measurements and field observations of PR show the importance of morphological layering to overall BSC functions (Felde et al. 2015). We also discuss the effect of penetrometer shaft and probe-tip profiles upon the theoretical and experimental curves, EMP resolution and reproducibility, demonstrating how the model enables voids, buried biological soil crusts, exotic particles, soil horizons and layers to be distinguished one from another. This represents a potentially important contribution to advancing understanding of the relationship between BSCs and dryland soil structure. References: Drahorad SL, Felix-Henningsen P. (2012) An electronic micropenetrometer (EMP) for field measurements of biological soil crust stability, J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci., 175, 519-520 Felde V.J.M.N.L., Drahorad S.L., Felix-Henningsen P., Hoon S.R. (2015) Ongoing oversanding induces biological soil crust layering - a new approach for BSC structure elucidation determined from high resolution penetration resistance data (submitted) Grunwald, S., Rooney D.J., McSweeney K., Lowery B. (2001) Development of pedotransfer functions for a profile cone penetrometer, Geoderma, 100, 25-47 Van Herwijnen A., Bellaire S., Schweizer J. (2009) Comparison of micro-structural snowpack parameters derived from penetration resistance measurements with fracture character observations from compression tests, Cold Regions Sci. {& Technol.}, 59, 193-201

  7. Silicon on insulator with active buried regions

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, Anthony M. (Menlo Park, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A method for forming patterned buried components, such as collectors, sources and drains, in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices. The method is carried out by epitaxially growing a suitable sequence of single or multiple etch stop layers ending with a thin silicon layer on a silicon substrate, masking the silicon such that the desired pattern is exposed, introducing dopant and activating in the thin silicon layer to form doped regions. Then, bonding the silicon layer to an insulator substrate, and removing the silicon substrate. The method additionally involves forming electrical contact regions in the thin silicon layer for the buried collectors.

  8. Prioritization for rehabilitation of buried lifelines

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L.R.L.; Ishibashi, I. [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Li, H.

    1995-12-31

    Seismic rehabilitation or retrofit is a cost-effective way to prevent pipeline damage caused by future earthquakes. In general, it is very difficult, if not impossible, to rehabilitate all buried pipelines at the same time because of limited funds and time available. The purpose of this study is to establish a priority strategy for rehabilitation of buried pipelines considering several important factors such as pipeline damage probability, rehabilitation cost, rehabilitation rate (e.g. km/day), pipeline importance and total funds available.

  9. New Horizons at Jupiter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Stern; H. A. Weaver; J. Moore; J. Spencer

    2007-01-01

    The New Horizons Pluto-Kuiper Belt Mission was launched on a Jupiter Gravity Assist (JGA) trajectory on 19 January 2006. Jupiter closest approach occurred on 28 February 2007. The primary objective of the JGA was to target the spacecraft to its Pluto system flyby on 14 July 2015. This was successfully accomplished. The secondary objectives of the JGA were to (i)

  10. The New Horizons Spacecraft

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glen H. Fountain; David Y. Kusnierkiewicz; Christopher B. Hersman; Timothy S. Herder; Thomas B. Coughlin; William C. Gibson; Deborah A. Clancy; Christopher C. Deboy; T. Adrian Hill; James D. Kinnison; Douglas S. Mehoke; Geffrey K. Ottman; Gabe D. Rogers; S. Alan Stern; James M. Stratton; Steven R. Vernon; Stephen P. Williams

    2008-01-01

    The New Horizons spacecraft was launched on 19 January 2006. The spacecraft was designed to provide a platform for seven instruments designated by the science team to collect and return data from Pluto in 2015. The design meets the requirements established by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Announcement of Opportunity AO-OSS-01. The design drew on heritage from previous

  11. Surface acoustic wave devices as passive buried sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedt, J.-M.; Rétornaz, T.; Alzuaga, S.; Baron, T.; Martin, G.; Laroche, T.; Ballandras, S.; Griselin, M.; Simonnet, J.-P.

    2011-02-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices are currently used as passive remote-controlled sensors for measuring various physical quantities through a wireless link. Among the two main classes of designs—resonator and delay line—the former has the advantage of providing narrow-band spectrum informations and hence appears compatible with an interrogation strategy complying with Industry-Scientific-Medical regulations in radio-frequency (rf) bands centered around 434, 866, or 915 MHz. Delay-line based sensors require larger bandwidths as they consists of a few interdigitated electrodes excited by short rf pulses with large instantaneous energy and short response delays but is compatible with existing equipment such as ground penetrating radar (GPR). We here demonstrate the measurement of temperature using the two configurations, particularly for long term monitoring using sensors buried in soil. Although we have demonstrated long term stability and robustness of packaged resonators and signal to noise ratio compatible with the expected application, the interrogation range (maximum 80 cm) is insufficient for most geology or geophysical purposes. We then focus on the use of delay lines, as the corresponding interrogation method is similar to the one used by GPR which allows for rf penetration distances ranging from a few meters to tens of meters and which operates in the lower rf range, depending on soil water content, permittivity, and conductivity. Assuming propagation losses in a pure dielectric medium with negligible conductivity (snow or ice), an interrogation distance of about 40 m is predicted, which overcomes the observed limits met when using interrogation methods specifically developed for wireless SAW sensors, and could partly comply with the above-mentioned applications. Although quite optimistic, this estimate is consistent with the signal to noise ratio observed during an experimental demonstration of the interrogation of a delay line buried at a depth of 5 m in snow.

  12. Boosted apparent horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akcay, Sarp

    Boosted black holes play an important role in General Relativity (GR), especially in relation to the binary black hole problem. Solving Einstein vac- uum equations in the strong field regime had long been the holy grail of numerical relativity until the significant breakthroughs made in 2005 and 2006. Numerical relativity plays a crucial role in gravitational wave detection by providing numerically generated gravitational waveforms that help search for actual signatures of gravitational radiation exciting laser interferometric de- tectors such as LIGO, VIRGO and GEO600 here on Earth. Binary black holes orbit each other in an ever tightening adiabatic inspiral caused by energy loss due to gravitational radiation emission. As the orbits shrinks, the holes speed up and eventually move at relativistic speeds in the vicinity of each other (separated by ~ 10M or so where 2M is the Schwarzschild radius). As such, one must abandon the Newtonian notion of a point mass on a circular orbit with tangential velocity and replace it with the concept of black holes, cloaked behind spheroidal event horizons that become distorted due to strong gravity, and further appear distorted because of Lorentz effects from the high orbital velocity. Apparent horizons (AHs) are 2-dimensional boundaries that are trapped surfaces. Conceptually, one can think of them as 'quasi-local' definitions for a black hole horizon. This will be explained in more detail in chapter 2. Apparent horizons are especially important in numerical relativity as they provide a computationally efficient way of describing and locating a black hole horizon. For a stationary spacetime, apparent horizons are 2-dimensional cross-sections of the event horizon, which is itself a 3-dimensional null surface in spacetime. Because an AH is a 2-dimensional cross-section of an event horizon, its area remains invariant under distortions due to Lorentz boosts although its shape changes. This fascinating property of the AH can be attributed to the fact that it is a cross-section of a null surface, which, under the boost, still remains null and the total area does not change. Although this invariance of the area is conceptually easy to see it is less straightforward to derive this result. We present two diRTMerent ways to show the area invariance. One is based on the spin-boost transformation of the null tetrad and the other a direct coordinate transformation of the boosted metric under the Lorentz boost. Despite yielding identical results the two methods differ significantly and we elaborate on this in much more detail. We furthermore show that the use of the spin-boost transformation is not well-suited for binary black hole spacetime and that the spin-boost is fundamentally different from a Lorentz boost although the transformation equations look very similar. We also provide a way to visualize the distorted horizons and look at the multi-pole moments of these surfaces under small boosts. We finish by summarizing our main results at the end and by commenting on the binding energy of the binary and how the apparent horizon is distorted due to presence of another black hole.

  13. Soil Science Society of America Journal Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 78:14581468

    E-print Network

    Battles, John

    cm of mineral soil to track the fate of the added Ca. We also measured soil pH and exchangeable horizon or the top 10 cm of mineral soil. Soil pH and exchangeable Ca concentrations increasedSoil Science Society of America Journal Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 78:1458­1468 doi:10.2136/sssaj2014

  14. Instability of enclosed horizons

    E-print Network

    Bernard S. Kay

    2015-01-05

    We point out that there are solutions to the scalar wave equation on 1+1 dimensional Minkowski space with finite energy tails which, if they reflect off a uniformly accelerated mirror due to (say) Dirichlet boundary conditions on it, develop an infinite stress-energy tensor on the mirror's Rindler horizon. We also show that, in the presence of an image mirror in the opposite Rindler wedge, suitable compactly supported arbitrarily small initial data on a suitable initial surface will develop an arbitrarily large stress-energy scalar near where the two horizons cross. Also, while there is a regular Hartle-Hawking-Israel-like state for the quantum theory between these two mirrors, there are coherent states built on it for which there are similar singularities in the expectation value of the renormalized stress-energy tensor. We conjecture that in other situations with analogous enclosed horizons such as a (maximally extended) Schwarzschild black hole in equilibrium in a (stationary spherical) box or the (maximally extended) Schwarzschild-AdS spacetime, there will be similar stress-energy singularities and almost-singularities -- leading to instability of the horizons when gravity is switched on and matter and gravity perturbations are allowed for. All this suggests it is incorrect to picture a black hole in equilibrium in a box or a Schwarzschild-AdS black hole as extending beyond the past and future horizons of a single Schwarzschild (/Schwarzschild-AdS) wedge. It would thus provide new evidence for 't Hooft's brick wall model while seeming to invalidate the picture in Maldacena's 'Eternal black holes in AdS'. It would thereby also support the validity of the author's matter-gravity entanglement hypothesis and of the paper 'Brick walls and AdS/CFT' by the author and Ort\\'iz.

  15. Instability of enclosed horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kay, Bernard S.

    2015-03-01

    We point out that there are solutions to the scalar wave equation on dimensional Minkowski space with finite energy tails which, if they reflect off a uniformly accelerated mirror due to (say) Dirichlet boundary conditions on it, develop an infinite stress-energy tensor on the mirror's Rindler horizon. We also show that, in the presence of an image mirror in the opposite Rindler wedge, suitable compactly supported arbitrarily small initial data on a suitable initial surface will develop an arbitrarily large stress-energy scalar near where the two horizons cross. Also, while there is a regular Hartle-Hawking-Israel-like state for the quantum theory between these two mirrors, there are coherent states built on it for which there are similar singularities in the expectation value of the renormalized stress-energy tensor. We conjecture that in other situations with analogous enclosed horizons such as a (maximally extended) Schwarzschild black hole in equilibrium in a (stationary spherical) box or the (maximally extended) Schwarzschild-AdS spacetime, there will be similar stress-energy singularities and almost-singularities—leading to instability of the horizons when gravity is switched on and matter and gravity perturbations are allowed for. All this suggests it is incorrect to picture a black hole in equilibrium in a box or a Schwarzschild-AdS black hole as extending beyond the past and future horizons of a single Schwarzschild (/Schwarzschild-AdS) wedge. It would thus provide new evidence for 't Hooft's brick wall model while seeming to invalidate the picture in Maldacena's ` Eternal black holes in AdS'. It would thereby also support the validity of the author's matter-gravity entanglement hypothesis and of the paper ` Brick walls and AdS/CFT' by the author and Ortíz.

  16. Spacetimes containing slowly evolving horizons

    SciTech Connect

    Kavanagh, William; Booth, Ivan [Department of Physics and Physical Oceanography, Memorial University of Newfoundland St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, A1B 3X7 (Canada); Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Memorial University of Newfoundland St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, A1C 5S7 (Canada)

    2006-08-15

    Slowly evolving horizons are trapping horizons that are ''almost'' isolated horizons. This paper reviews their definition and discusses several spacetimes containing such structures. These include certain Vaidya and Tolman-Bondi solutions as well as (perturbatively) tidally distorted black holes. Taking into account the mass scales and orders of magnitude that arise in these calculations, we conjecture that slowly evolving horizons are the norm rather than the exception in astrophysical processes that involve stellar-scale black holes.

  17. Numerical simulation of thermal signatures of buried mines over a diurnal cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ibrahim K. Sendur; Brian A. Baertlein

    2000-01-01

    3D thermal and radiometric models have been developed to study the passive IR signature of a land mine buried under a rough soil surface. A finite element model is used to describe the thermal phenomena, including temporal variations, the spatial structure of the signature, and environmental effects. The Crank-Nicholson algorithm is used for time-stepping the simulation. The mine and the

  18. Wave-induced uplift force on a submarine pipeline buried in a compressible seabed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Waldemar Magda

    1997-01-01

    A two-dimensional finite-element simulation of the wave-induced hydrodynamic uplift force acting on a submarine pipeline buried in sandy seabed sediments subject to continuous loading of sinusoidal surface waves is presented. Neglecting inertia forces, a linear-elastic stress-strain relationship for the soil and Darcy's law for the flow of pore fluid are assumed. The model takes into account the compressibility of both

  19. The Panther Mountain circular structure, a possible buried meteorite crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isachsen, Y. W.; Wright, S. F.; Revetta, F. A.; Duneen, R. J.

    Panther Mountain, located near Phoenicia, New York, is part of the Catskill Mountains, which form the eastern end of the Allegheny Plateau in New York. It is a circular mass defined physiographically by an anomalous circular drainage pattern produced by Esopus Creek and its tributary Woodland Creek. The circular valley that rings the mountain is fracture-controlled; where bedrock is exposed, it shows a joint density 5 to 10 times greater than that on either side of the valley. Where obscured by alluvial valley fill, the bedrock's low seismic velocity suggests that this anomalous fracturing is continuous in the bedrock underlying the rim valley. North-south and east-west gravity and magnetic profiles were made across the structure. Terrane-corrected, residual gravity profiles show an 18-mgal negative anomaly, and very steep gradients indicate a near-surface source. Several possible explanations of the gravity data were modeled. We conclude that the Panther Mountain circular structure is probably a buried meteorite crater that formed contemporaneously with marine or fluvial sedimentation during Silurian or Devonian time. An examination of drill core and cuttings in the region is underway to search for ejecta deposits and possible seismic and tsunami effects in the sedimentary section. Success would result in both dating the impact and furnishing a chronostratigraphic marker horizon.

  20. Quasilocal rotating conformal Killing horizons

    E-print Network

    Chatterjee, Ayan

    2015-01-01

    The formulation of quasi-local conformal Killling horizons(CKH) is extended to include rotation. This necessitates that the horizon be foliated by 2-spheres which may be distorted. Matter degrees of freedom which fall through the horizon is taken to be a real scalar field. We show that these rotating CKHs also admit a first law in differential form.

  1. In situ vitrification application to buried waste: Interim report of intermediate field tests at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Revision 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Callow; J. R. Weidner; L. E. Thompson

    1991-01-01

    This report describes the two in situ vitrification field tests conducted in June and July 1990 at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. In situ vitrification, an emerging technology for in- place conversion of contaminated soils into a durable glass and crystalline waste form, is being investigated as a potential remediation technology for buried waste. The overall objective of the two tests

  2. In situ vitrification application to buried waste: Interim report of intermediate field tests at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Callow; J. R. Weidner; L. E. Thompson

    1991-01-01

    This report describes the two in situ vitrification field tests conducted in July and July 1990 at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. In situ vitrification, an emerging technology for in-place conversion of contaminated soils into a durable glass and crystalline waste form, is being investigated as a potential remediation technology for buried waste. The overall objective of the two tests was

  3. In situ vitrification application to buried waste: Interim report of intermediate field tests at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Callow; J. R. Weidner; L. E. Thompson

    1991-01-01

    This report describes the two in situ vitrification field tests conducted in June and July 1990 at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. In situ vitrification, an emerging technology for in- place conversion of contaminated soils into a durable glass and crystalline waste form, is being investigated as a potential remediation technology for buried waste. The overall objective of the two tests

  4. Detection of buried land mines using a dual-band LWIR\\/LWIR QWIP focal plane array

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arnold Goldberg; Parvez N Uppal; Michael Winn

    2003-01-01

    We report on the development and testing of a new dual-band infrared focal plane array (FPA) specifically designed to detect buried land mines. The detector response spectra were tailored to take advantage of the sharp spectral features associated with disturbed soils. The goal was to have a “blue” channel with peak response near 9.2 ?m and a “red” channel with

  5. Development of a dual-band LWIR\\/LWIR QWIP focal plane array for detection of buried land mines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arnold C. Goldberg; Theodore Fischer; Zenon I. Derzko; Parvez N. Uppal; Michael L. Winn

    2002-01-01

    We report on the development and testing of a new dual-band infrared (IR) focal plane array (FPA) specifically designed to detect buried land mines. The detector response spectra were tailored to take advantage of the sharp spectral features associated with disturbed soils. The goal was to have a blue channel with peak response near 9.2 micrometers and a red channel

  6. Soil Particle Size Distribution Protocol

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The GLOBE Program, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR)

    2003-08-01

    The purpose of this resource is to sure the distribution of different sizes of soil particles in each horizon of a soil profile. Using dry, sieved soil from a horizon, students mix the soil with water and a dispersing solution to completely separate the particles from each other. Students shake the mixture to fully suspend the soil in the water. The soil particles are then allowed to settle out of suspension, and the specific gravity and temperature of the suspension are measured using a hydrometer and thermometer. These measurements are taken after 2 minutes and 24 hours.

  7. Detection of buried mines with seismic sonar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muir, Thomas G.; Baker, Steven R.; Gaghan, Frederick E.; Fitzpatrick, Sean M.; Hall, Patrick W.; Sheetz, Kraig E.; Guy, Jeremie

    2003-10-01

    Prior research on seismo-acoustic sonar for detection of buried targets [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 103, 2333-2343 (1998)] has continued with examination of the target strengths of buried test targets as well as targets of interest, and has also examined detection and confirmatory classification of these, all using arrays of seismic sources and receivers as well as signal processing techniques to enhance target recognition. The target strengths of two test targets (one a steel gas bottle, the other an aluminum powder keg), buried in a sand beach, were examined as a function of internal mass load, to evaluate theory developed for seismic sonar target strength [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 103, 2344-2353 (1998)]. The detection of buried naval and military targets of interest was achieved with an array of 7 shaker sources and 5, three-axis seismometers, at a range of 5 m. Vector polarization filtering was the main signal processing technique for detection. It capitalizes on the fact that the vertical and horizontal components in Rayleigh wave echoes are 90 deg out of phase, enabling complex variable processing to obtain the imaginary component of the signal power versus time, which is unique to Rayleigh waves. Gabor matrix processing of this signal component was the main technique used to determine whether the target was man-made or just a natural target in the environment. [Work sponsored by ONR.

  8. Electrical Impedance Tomographic Imaging of Buried Landmines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip Church; John Elton McFee; Stephane Gagnon; Philip Wort

    2006-01-01

    A prototype confirmation landmine detector, based on electrical impedancetomography (EIT), which can operate under realistic environmental conditions, has been developed. Laboratory and field experiments demonstrated that it is possible to reliably reconstruct, on the scale of the electrode spacing (ES) (in width and depth), conductivity perturbations due to a shallow buried antitank mine or a similar object in a variety

  9. Subcritical isonifilcation of buried elastic targets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irena Veljkovic; Joseph R. Edwards; Henrik Schmidt

    2001-01-01

    The detection and classification of buried elastic targets presents a significant challenge to the shallow water mine countermeasures (MCM) community. In the shallow water environment, sub-critical insonification of the seabed is required for an acceptable sonar search rate. Previous experimental and modeling studies have shown that in the case of sub-critical insonification significant evanescent field components can be converted into

  10. Sensor technologies for hunting buried sea mines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. R. Clem; W. Highway

    2002-01-01

    Conventional high frequency sonars may be ineffective in the detection and classification of buried sea mines. Hence new approaches are required to address this problem. Under the magnetic and acoustic detection of mines (MADOM) advanced technology demonstration in 1990, the fusion of low-frequency imaging sonars and magnetic sensors was introduced and successfully demonstrated to provide detection and classification capabilities against

  11. COWBIRD EGG BURIED BY A NORTHERN ORIOLE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KEITH A. HOBSON; SPENCER G. SEALY

    A newly constructed Northern Oriole (Icterus galbula) nest collected on 9 June 1985 contained one Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) egg 80% buried in the 3-cm thick lining of grass and cottonwood down. The nest contained no oriole eggs. Burial as a defense by Northern Orioles against cowbird parasitism has been noted only once, despite careful checking of over 400 nests.

  12. In situ vitrification on buried waste

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, S.O.

    1992-08-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is being evaluated as a remedial treatment technology for buried mixed and transuranic (TRU) wastes at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and can be related to buried wastes at other Department of Energy (DOE) sites. There are numerous locations around the DOE Complex where wastes were buried in the ground or stored for future burial. The Buried Waste Program (BWP) is conducting a comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the Department of Energy - Field Office Idaho (DOE-ID). As part of the RI/FS, an ISV scoping study on the treatability of the SDA mixed low-level and mixed TRU waste is being performed for applicability to remediation of the waste at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). The ISV project being conducted at the INEL by EG&G Idaho, Inc. consists of a treatability investigation to collect data to satisfy nine CERCLA criteria with regards to the SDA. This treatability investigation involves a series of experiments and related efforts to study the feasibility of ISV for remediation of mixed and TRU waste disposed of at the SDA.

  13. In situ vitrification on buried waste

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, S.O.

    1992-01-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is being evaluated as a remedial treatment technology for buried mixed and transuranic (TRU) wastes at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and can be related to buried wastes at other Department of Energy (DOE) sites. There are numerous locations around the DOE Complex where wastes were buried in the ground or stored for future burial. The Buried Waste Program (BWP) is conducting a comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the Department of Energy - Field Office Idaho (DOE-ID). As part of the RI/FS, an ISV scoping study on the treatability of the SDA mixed low-level and mixed TRU waste is being performed for applicability to remediation of the waste at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). The ISV project being conducted at the INEL by EG G Idaho, Inc. consists of a treatability investigation to collect data to satisfy nine CERCLA criteria with regards to the SDA. This treatability investigation involves a series of experiments and related efforts to study the feasibility of ISV for remediation of mixed and TRU waste disposed of at the SDA.

  14. Sampling and Analysis of Rare Gas Isotopes for In Situ Delineation of Buried Transuranic and Tritium Waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. E. Dresel; K. B. Olsen; J. C. Hayes; J. I. McIntyre; S. R. Waichler

    2006-01-01

    Improved understanding of the type and location of buried waste is needed at several U.S. Department of Energy sites to make remedial decisions and for planning excavation and retrieval activities. Soil-gas sampling for the rare gases helium and xenon can be used to define the locations of tritium and transuranic waste. Soil-gas sampling is a minimally invasive technique, in that

  15. Fabrication of buried contact silicon solar cells using porous silicon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Vitanov; E. Goranova; V. Stavrov; P. Ivanov; P. K. Singh

    2009-01-01

    We report the fabrication of buried contact solar cells using porous silicon as sacrificial layer to create well-defined channels (for buried contacts) in silicon. In this paper, the salient features of the technology have been presented. No detrimental effect was found in the performance of buried contact solar cell with partially filled contact area compared to the solar cells having

  16. Bimanual Haptic Teleoperation for Discovering and Uncovering Buried Objects

    E-print Network

    Bimanual Haptic Teleoperation for Discovering and Uncovering Buried Objects Hanns Tappeiner operators were assigned the task of discovering a buried object while minimizing contact forces. The studies. BACKGROUND In many practical circumstances, there arises the need to uncover buried objects. For example

  17. Magnetic sensors for buried minehunting from small unmanned underwater vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Clem; G. Allen; J. Bono; R. J. McDonald; D. Overway; G. Sulzberger; S. Kumarb; D. King

    2004-01-01

    Optical identification, which can provide compelling confirmation that a proud sonar contact is a mine, is obviously not possible for fully buried mines. One interesting sensor-fusion concept under consideration to confirm buried sonar contacts is to reacquire the contacts at short range using an unmanned underwater vehicle (UUV) carrying a magnetic sensor and a bottom-looking sonar, such as the Buried

  18. Characteristics and paleomagnetic dating of thick buried vertisols, Trans-Pecos Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, M.L.W. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology); Whitelaw, M.J. (Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    Stratigraphic and paleomagnetic investigations of a closed basin in Trans-Pecos Texas indicate a history of nearly continuous deposition during the past 2.5 m.y. The authors used standard techniques to investigate seven cores from Grayton Lake basin in Hudspeth County, Texas, as part of site characterization for a low-level radioactive waste repository near Sierra Blanca, Texas. Grayton Lake is a desert playa that is the terminus of a 200 mi[sup 2] closed drainage basin. The basin lies near the eastern edge of the Basin and Range tectonic province and may have formed as part of regional extension that began about 25 mya. In the fine-grained sediments, buried vertisols are present to the maximum cored depth of 76 m. Soil characteristics include slickensides, mud-filled desiccation cracks up to 1.5 m long and 2 cm wide, and a uniform appearance reflecting the dominance of soil movement over other soil-forming processes. Primary sedimentary structures are not preserved. The soils also contain abundant root molds, calcium carbonate nodules, and pebble lines. If the upper limit of sediment-filled cracks and pebble lines are interpreted as the upper boundary of a buried soil, then a minimum of 19 buried soils may be present in the central part of the basin. Preliminary results of magnetic polarity stratigraphy analyses indicate the presence of a least eight polarity zones that encompass the fine-grained sediments to a depth of 76 m. They recognize the Brunhes, Matuyama, and uppermost Gauss Chrons, which represent a minimum duration of 2.5 m.y. These results imply that the net sediment accumulation rate in the basin is approximately 0.03 m/1,000 yr.

  19. Behind the geon horizon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guica, Monica; Ross, Simon F.

    2015-03-01

    We explore the Papadodimas-Raju prescription for reconstructing the region behind the horizon of one-sided black holes in AdS/CFT in the case of the {R}{{P}2} geon—a simple, analytic example of a single-sided, asymptotically AdS3 black hole, which corresponds to a pure CFT state that thermalizes at late times. We show that in this specific example, the mirror operators involved in the reconstruction of the interior have a particularly simple form: the mirror of a single trace operator at late times is just the corresponding single trace operator at early times. We use some explicit examples to explore how changes in the state modify the geometry inside the horizon.

  20. Behind the geon horizon

    E-print Network

    Monica Guica; Simon F. Ross

    2014-12-02

    We explore the Papadodimas-Raju prescription for reconstructing the region behind the horizon of one-sided black holes in AdS/CFT in the case of the RP^2 geon - a simple, analytic example of a single-sided, asymptotically AdS_3 black hole, which corresponds to a pure CFT state that thermalises at late times. We show that in this specific example, the mirror operators involved in the reconstruction of the interior have a particularly simple form: the mirror of a single trace operator at late times is just the corresponding single trace operator at early times. We use some explicit examples to explore how changes in the state modify the geometry inside the horizon.

  1. Acceleration without Horizons

    E-print Network

    Alaric Doria; Gerardo Munoz

    2015-02-18

    We derive the metric of an accelerating observer moving with non-constant proper acceleration in flat spacetime. With the exception of a limiting case representing a Rindler observer, there are no horizons. In our solution, observers can accelerate to any desired terminal speed $v_{\\infty} accelerating observer is completely determined by the distance of closest approach and terminal velocity or, equivalently, by an acceleration parameter and terminal velocity.

  2. New Horizons Mission Design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yanping Guo; Robert W. Farquhar

    2008-01-01

    In the first mission to Pluto, the New Horizons spacecraft was launched on January 19, 2006, and flew by Jupiter on February\\u000a 28, 2007, gaining a significant speed boost from Jupiter’s gravity assist. After a 9.5-year journey, the spacecraft will encounter\\u000a Pluto on July 14, 2015, followed by an extended mission to the Kuiper Belt objects for the first time.

  3. The New Horizons Spacecraft

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glen H. Fountain; David Y. Kusnierkiewicz; Christopher B. Hersman; Timothy S. Herder; Thomas B. Coughlin; William C. Gibson; Deborah A. Clancy; Christopher C. DeBoy; T. Adrian Hill; James D. Kinnison; Douglas S. Mehoke; Geffrey K. Ottman; Gabe D. Rogers; S. Alan Stern; James M. Stratton; Steven R. Vernon; Stephen P. Williams

    The New Horizons spacecraft was launched on 19 January 2006. The spacecraft was designed to provide a platform for seven instruments\\u000a designated by the science team to collect and return data from Pluto in 2015. The design meets the requirements established\\u000a by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Announcement of Opportunity AO-OSS-01. The design drew on heritage\\u000a from previous

  4. The New Horizons Spacecraft

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glen H. Fountain; David Y. Kusnierkiewicz; Christopher B. Hersman; Timothy S. Herder; Thomas B. Coughlin; William C. Gibson; Deborah A. Clancy; Christopher C. DeBoy; T. Adrian Hill; James D. Kinnison; Douglas S. Mehoke; Geffrey K. Ottman; Gabe D. Rogers; S. Alan Stern; James M. Stratton; Steven R. Vernon; Stephen P. Williams

    2008-01-01

    The New Horizons spacecraft was launched on 19 January 2006. The spacecraft was designed to provide a platform for seven instruments\\u000a designated by the science team to collect and return data from Pluto in 2015. The design meets the requirements established\\u000a by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Announcement of Opportunity AO-OSS-01. The design drew on heritage\\u000a from previous

  5. New Horizons Mission Design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yanping Guo; Robert W. Farquhar

    In the first mission to Pluto, the New Horizons spacecraft was launched on January 19, 2006, and flew by Jupiter on February\\u000a 28, 2007, gaining a significant speed boost from Jupiter’s gravity assist. After a 9.5-year journey, the spacecraft will encounter\\u000a Pluto on July 14, 2015, followed by an extended mission to the Kuiper Belt objects for the first time.

  6. Age-dating implications from the morphologic, petrologic, and isotopic investigations of a calcic soil, Terrell County, Texas 

    E-print Network

    Jolley, Darren Manning

    1994-01-01

    -dates in this "marginal" area. The soil has a 109 cm thick Stage IV K horizon at depths of 68-80 cm. In gravelly areas of the soil a 15-20 cm thick laminar Km horizon caps the K horizon. Microprobe analyses on portions of the Km horizon show that CACO, is the dominant...

  7. Paragon OrderNum: 0404241 Client Name: New Horizons

    E-print Network

    Paragon OrderNum: 0404241 Client Name: New Horizons Client Project Name: CSMRI Client Project:05 0404241-11H07S SOIL 22-Apr-04 13:05 0404241-12BB04 SOIL 16-Apr-04 13:10 0404241-13H07 LEACHAT 22-Apr-04 13:00 0404241-14H07S LEACHAT 22-Apr-04 13:05 Page 1 of 1 Paragon Analytics Thursday, June 17, 2004Date Printed

  8. Soil Core Sample #1

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Soil core obtained from existing goose grazing lawn along the Smith River in the Teshekpuk Lake Special Area of the National Petroleum Reserve - Alaska.  The buried layer of peat beneath goose grazing lawn demonstrates that vegetation change has occurred in this area....

  9. Shell model response analysis of buried pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Takada, Shiro [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Civil Engineering and Architecture; Katagiri, Shin [Kubota Co., Ltd., Sakai, Osaka (Japan). Plastic Pipe R and D Dept.; Shinmi, Tatsuhiko [Kobe City Office (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    A shell model analysis can calculate the cross-sectional deformation and hoop stress of buried pipelines. This paper proposes an analytical method to calculate the response of buried straight and bent pipelines modeled as cylindrical shell structures. A modified transfer matrix method is employed instead of a stiffness matrix method to avoid the problem of computational memory caused by huge matrixes. Results calculated by the developed program are compared with experimental ones obtained by a pipe bending test of straight and bent pipe segments. In addition, several differences of the pipe response between the beam model and the shell model are examined through response simulations of straight and bent pipelines subjected to ground subsidence.

  10. Geochemical characterization of loess-soil complexes on the Terek-Kuma Plain and the Azov-Kuban' Lowland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinin, P. I.; Alekseev, A. O.

    2011-12-01

    The changes in the material composition of the buried soils and loesses in relation to the dynamics of the climate and sediment accumulation were studied for revealing the pedogenetic features and assessing the natural conditions in the steppe zone of the southern Russian Plain. A comparative analysis of the chemical compositions of the different-aged Pleistocene loess-soil complexes (the Otkaznoe, Port-Katon, and Shabel'skoe profiles) on the Terek-Kuma Plain and the Azov-Kuban' Lowland was performed. An increase in the concentrations of Fe and Mn, which are intensively involved in the biological cycle, and Rb, which is accumulated due to the activation of weathering processes, was observed in the paleosols that developed in interglacial periods of activation of pedogenesis. Increased coefficients of weathering (chemical index of alteration (CIA)) = [Al/(Al + Ca + Na + K)] 100, Al/(Al + Ca + Na + Mg), Rb/Sr, and Mn/Sr), leaching (Ba/Sr), and biological activity and bioproductivity (Mn/Fe, Mn/Al) were also noted for the paleosol horizons as compared with the loess horizons. It is argued that geochemical coefficients can be used as an efficient tool in the soil and paleogeographic studies aimed at the reconstruction and refinement of the schemes of changes in the bioclimatic conditions during the Pleistocene.

  11. How Burying Biomass Can Contribute to CO2 Stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, B.; Zeng, N.; Zaitchik, B.; Gregg, J.

    2008-12-01

    To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which certain dead or live trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly being assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink. It is estimated that a sustainable long-term carbon sequestration potential for wood burial is 10 ± 5 GtC y-1, and currently about 65 GtC is on the world's forest floors in the form of coarse woody debris suitable for burial. The potential is largest in tropical forests (4.2 GtC y-1), followed by temperate (3.7 GtC y-1) and boreal forests (2.1 GtC y-1). Burying wood has other benefits including minimizing CO2 source from deforestation, extending the lifetime of reforestation carbon sink, and reducing fire danger. There are possible environmental impacts such as nutrient lock-up which nevertheless appears manageable, but other environmental concerns and factors will likely set a limit so that only part of the full potential can be realized. Based on data from North American logging industry, the cost for wood burial is estimated to be 14/tCO2 (50/tC), lower than the typical cost for power plant CO2 capture with geological storage. The low cost for carbon sequestration with wood burial is possible because the technique uses the natural process of photosynthesis to remove carbon from the atmosphere. The technique is low tech, distributed, safe, and can be stopped at any time, thus an attractive option for large-scale implementation in a world-wide carbon market.

  12. Buried Long Period Grating For Laser Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, C. H.; Reeves, J. M.; Au, L. N.; Price, K. D.; Misuinas, P. L.

    1981-02-01

    One type of aperture-sharing device, the buried long period grating (BLPG), is described in this paper. The BLPG functions as a buried segmented mirror whose primary function is to spatially redirect, by reflections, an antiparallel laser beam and its corresponding low power broad band LWIR (long wavelength infrared) return beam. The aperture sharing unit consists of a pair of BLPGs, the second BLPG being used to restore spatial coherence across the LWIR wavefront. Other system functions of the BLPG such as autoalignment and beam sampling are discussed. The optical performance of the device is discussed in terms of energy losses due to material dispersion diffraction loss, degradation of resolution resulting from diffraction, segment fabrication tolerances, and thermally induced structural deformations due to laser beam heating. Both transient and steady-state thermal and structural analysis were performed on the device. One result from the analysis was the value of the burying dielectric thickness above the segment tips that minimized the stress within the device under laser beam irradiation. Fabrication consisted of separately tooling segmented surfaces in the cooled substrate and in the burying dielectric (CVD ZnSe and ZnS) followed by application of a metallic coating. These two segmented surfaces were joined with an appropriate bonding agent. The critical fabrication step is to use the bonding materials that have the following properties: (1) approaches full cure during fabrication, (2) minimum of outgassing with temperature and with time, (3) stable with aging (minimize surface distortion), (4) high thermal conductivity, and (5) flexible bond line to absorb thermal expansion mismatch between the dissimilar substrate materials. The exposed dielectric surface is polished flat, vacuum baked, and dichoric coated to reflect a laser beam and transmit a LWIR beam. Some top surface distortion is introduced during vacuum baking and during dichroic coating. Present work is towards reducing these fabrication temperature deformations by accurately mixing the bonding components to give different compositions. Preliminary work indicates good device performance in a laser environment.

  13. Buried object detection with Synthetic Aperture Sonar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshiyuki Nakamura; Isao Yamaguchi; Toshiaki Tanaka; Yoshinori Hama

    2004-01-01

    This work presents the experimental results of buried objects detection with a prototype Low Frequency Synthetic Aperture Sonar (LF-SAS). The experiment was carried out to ensure motion compensation algorithm and to study the availability of target detection both on the seabed and in the sediments. The experimental system mainly consists of tow-fish and control equipment. The tow-fish has a transducer

  14. Coaxial inverted geometry transistor having buried emitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hruby, R. J.; Cress, S. B.; Dunn, W. R. (inventors)

    1973-01-01

    The invention relates to an inverted geometry transistor wherein the emitter is buried within the substrate. The transistor can be fabricated as a part of a monolithic integrated circuit and is particularly suited for use in applications where it is desired to employ low actuating voltages. The transistor may employ the same doping levels in the collector and emitter, so these connections can be reversed.

  15. Bearingless Segment Motor with Buried Magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, Wolfgang; Amrhein, Wolfgang; Stallinger, Thomas; Grabner, Herbert

    Bearingless motors combine contactless levitation and rotation in a preferably compact system design, because bearing as well as motor windings are located on the same lamination stack. The bearingless slice motor features comparatively low complexity for a fully magnetically levitated drive system, because it allows the passive stabilization of three degrees of freedom by reluctance forces. By the use of a proper control scheme and the superposition of different current components, bearing forces and motor torque can be generated simultaneously by applying concentrated windings. This leads to a further simplification of the mechanical configuration. The bearingless segment motor features such concentrated coils on separated stator elements, which reduce the stator iron and therefore weight and cost, especially for constructions with large diameter. However, so far all bearingless slice motors are designed with surface mounted permanent magnets on the rotor, neglecting the advantages of buried permanent magnets. In this paper a novel bearingless segment motor featuring a rotor with buried permanent magnets is investigated. The motor specific mathematical model of force and torque generation is presented, a proper control scheme is introduced and the optimization of the prototype motor is outlined. Motor specific considerations concerning the angular sensors are given. Finally, the performance of the bearingless segment motor with buried permanent magnets is shown by the comparison of simulation results with measurement data of the manufactured prototype.

  16. Resonant frequency response and surface particle velocity profiles for buried land mines: Theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatier, James M.; Velea, Doru; Xiang, Ning; Waxler, Roger

    2002-05-01

    Acoustic-to-seismic coupling is currently used to detect buried landmines by measuring a contrast in the particle velocity of the air-soil interface directly above the mine (on-target) and away from the mine (off-target). Field measurements reveal a resonance phenomenon of the mine-soil system at frequencies around 100 Hz. The resonance frequency and the spatial profile of the on/off-target velocity ratio depend on the type of the mine, depth, and soil characteristics. Experimental results for antitank mines will be presented. These results will be compared with predictions by a recently developed model for the scattering of normally incident sound off of a landmine. The model assumes that the mine has a compliant top and the soil is an effective fluid. [Work supported by the U.S. Army Communications-Electronics Command Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate and the U. S. Army Research Office.

  17. New Horizons at Pluto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Artist's concept of the New Horizons spacecraft as it approaches Pluto and its largest moon, Charon, in July 2015. The craft's miniature cameras, radio science experiment, ultraviolet and infrared spectrometers and space plasma experiments will characterize the global geology and geomorphology of Pluto and Charon, map their surface compositions and temperatures, and examine Pluto's atmosphere in detail. The spacecraft's most prominent design feature is a nearly 7-foot (2.1-meter) dish antenna, through which it will communicate with Earth from as far as 4.7 billion miles (7.5 billion kilometers) away.

  18. Cold planar horizons are floppy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartnoll, Sean A.; Santos, Jorge E.

    2014-06-01

    Extremal planar black holes of four-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell theory with a negative cosmological constant have an AdS2×R2 near horizon geometry. We show that this near horizon geometry admits a deformation to a two parameter family of extremal geometries with inhomogeneous, spatially periodic horizons. At a linear level, static inhomogeneous perturbations of AdS2×R2 decay towards the horizon and thus appear irrelevant under the holographic renormalization group flow. However we have found numerically that nonlinear effects lead to inhomogeneous near horizon geometries. A consequence of these observations is that an arbitrarily small periodic deformation of the boundary theory at nonzero charge density does not flow to AdS2×R2 in the IR, but rather to an inhomogeneous horizon. These results shed light on existing numerical studies of low temperature periodically modulated black holes and also offer a new mechanism for holographic metal-insulator crossovers or transitions.

  19. Physics-based deformations of ground penetrating radar signals to improve the detection of buried explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakaguchi, Rayn T.; Morton, Kennth D.; Collins, Leslie M.; Torrione, Peter A.

    2014-05-01

    A number of recent algorithms have shown improved performance in detecting buried explosive threats by statistically modeling target responses observed in ground penetrating radar (GPR) signals. These methods extract features from known examples of target responses to train a statistical classifier. The statistical classifiers are then used to identify targets emplaced in previously unseen conditions. Due to the variation in target GPR responses caused by factors such as differing soil conditions, classifiers require training on a large, varied dataset to encompass the signal variation expected in operational conditions. These training collections generally involve burying each target type in a number of soil conditions, at a number of burial depths. The cost associated with both burying the targets, and collecting the data is extremely high. Thus, the conditions and depths sampled cover only a subset of possible scenarios. The goal of this research is to improve the ability of a classifier to generalize to new conditions by deforming target responses in accordance with the physical properties of GPR signals. These signal deformations can simulate a target response under different conditions than those represented in the data collection. This research shows that improved detection performance in previously unseen conditions can be achieved by utilizing deformations, even when the training dataset is limited.

  20. Horizon thermodynamics and spacetime mappings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faraoni, Valerio; Vitagliano, Vincenzo

    2014-03-01

    When black holes are dynamical, event horizons are replaced by apparent and trapping horizons. Conformal and Kerr-Schild transformations are widely used in relation to dynamical black holes, and we study the behavior under such transformations of quantities related to the thermodynamics of these horizons, such as the Misner-Sharp-Hernandez mass (internal energy), the Kodama vector, surface gravity, and temperature. The transformation properties are not those expected on the basis of naive arguments.

  1. Prehistoric Agriculture and Soil Fertility on Lava Flows in Northern Arizona, USA: Results from the San Francisco Volcanic Field REU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broadman, E.; Anderson, K. C.

    2013-12-01

    The San Francisco Volcanic Field in northern Arizona is home to ~600 cinder cones, the youngest of which is Sunset Crater (erupted ~AD 1100). This study documents trends in available phosphate and nitrate content with time, testing whether lowered soil pH from the addition of Sunset cinders increased soil fertility and became a factor in Anasazi agricultural success. Soil fertility is examined both before and after Sunset's eruption in soils of different ages that have developed from eolian deposition on top of lava flows. An increase in phosphate and nitrate levels following acidification would suggest that the presence of Sunset cinders brought the soils to the optimal pH for mobilization of these nutrients. The combined effects of the cinder layer retaining nutrients and water, wetter climates, and increases in phosphate and nitrate (both limiting nutrients for plant growth), would have contributed to Anasazi agricultural success after Sunset's eruption. Samples for this study were taken from eolian-derived soils of different ages atop lava flows in the San Francisco Volcanic Field. OSL data from these soils on Strawberry and SP Craters' lava flows yielded age estimates of ~12.3 ka (Strawberry) and ~32.7 ka (SP), on which a soil chronosequence was based. Results from the chronosequence supported these OSL ages, indicating that soils on the SP flow are older than those on the Strawberry flow. Field descriptions, Harden Development Indices, particle size analysis, and nutrient content analysis were used for this aspect of the project. An experimental acid wash method will be used to simulate the addition of Sunset's acidic cinders, and will yield data for phosphate and nitrate content after Sunset erupted. Preliminary results indicate that phosphate and nitrate accumulate in upper, eolian-derived horizons (Av, Bw) and in more deeply buried carbonate horizons (Bk). Higher concentrations of phosphate and nitrate were found in older (SP) soils than younger (Strawberry) soils, suggesting that these nutrients increase over time with eolian deposition and soil development. Results from this study will yield information on the impact of volcanic eruptions and soil development on prehistoric agriculture and soil fertility. This study contributes to our understanding of the interactions between eruptions and human populations.

  2. The New Horizons Spacecraft

    E-print Network

    Fountain, Glen H; Hersman, Christopher B; Herder, Timothy S; Coughlin, Thomas B; Gibson, William C; Clancy, Deborah A; DeBoy, Christopher C; Hill, T Adrian; Kinnison, James D; Mehoke, Douglas S; Ottman, Geffrey K; Rogers, Gabe D; Stern, S Alan; Stratton, James M; Vernon, Steven R; Williams, Stephen P

    2007-01-01

    The New Horizons spacecraft was launched on 19 January 2006. The spacecraft was designed to provide a platform for seven instruments that will collect and return data from Pluto in 2015. The design drew on heritage from previous missions developed at The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) and other missions such as Ulysses. The trajectory design imposed constraints on mass and structural strength to meet the high launch acceleration needed to reach the Pluto system prior to the year 2020. The spacecraft subsystems were designed to meet tight mass and power allocations, yet provide the necessary control and data handling finesse to support data collection and return when the one-way light time during the Pluto flyby is 4.5 hours. Missions to the outer solar system require a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) to supply electrical power, and a single RTG is used by New Horizons. To accommodate this constraint, the spacecraft electronics were designed to operate on less than 200 W....

  3. Instability of enclosed horizons

    E-print Network

    Kay, Bernard S

    2013-01-01

    We study the classical massless scalar wave equation on the region of 1+1-dimensional Minkowski space between the two branches of the hyperbola $x^2-t^2=1$ with vanishing boundary conditions on it. We point out that there are initially finite-energy initially, say, right-going waves for which the stress-energy tensor becomes singular on the null-line $t+x=0$. We also construct the quantum theory of this system and show that, while there is a regular Hartle-Hawking-Israel-like state, there are coherent states built on this for which there is a similar singularity in the expectation value of the renormalized stress-energy tensor. We conjecture that in 1+3-dimensional situations with 'enclosed horizons' such as a (maximally extended) Schwarzschild black hole in equilibrium in a stationary box or the (maximally extended) Schwarzschild-AdS spacetime, there will be a similar singularity at the horizon and that would signal an instability when matter perturbations and/or gravity are switched on. Such an instability ...

  4. The New Horizons Spacecraft

    E-print Network

    Glen H. Fountain; David Y. Kusnierkiewicz; Christopher B. Hersman; Timothy S. Herder; Thomas B. Coughlin; William C. Gibson; Deborah A. Clancy; Christopher C. DeBoy; T. Adrian Hill; James D. Kinnison; Douglas S. Mehoke; Geffrey K. Ottman; Gabe D. Rogers; S. Alan Stern; James M. Stratton; Steven R. Vernon; Stephen P. Williams

    2007-09-26

    The New Horizons spacecraft was launched on 19 January 2006. The spacecraft was designed to provide a platform for seven instruments that will collect and return data from Pluto in 2015. The design drew on heritage from previous missions developed at The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) and other missions such as Ulysses. The trajectory design imposed constraints on mass and structural strength to meet the high launch acceleration needed to reach the Pluto system prior to the year 2020. The spacecraft subsystems were designed to meet tight mass and power allocations, yet provide the necessary control and data handling finesse to support data collection and return when the one-way light time during the Pluto flyby is 4.5 hours. Missions to the outer solar system require a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) to supply electrical power, and a single RTG is used by New Horizons. To accommodate this constraint, the spacecraft electronics were designed to operate on less than 200 W. The spacecraft system architecture provides sufficient redundancy to provide a probability of mission success of greater than 0.85, even with a mission duration of over 10 years. The spacecraft is now on its way to Pluto, with an arrival date of 14 July 2015. Initial inflight tests have verified that the spacecraft will meet the design requirements.

  5. Internet's critical path horizon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valverde, S.; Solé, R. V.

    2004-03-01

    Internet is known to display a highly heterogeneous structure and complex fluctuations in its traffic dynamics. Congestion seems to be an inevitable result of user's behavior coupled to the network dynamics and it effects should be minimized by choosing appropriate routing strategies. But what are the requirements of routing depth in order to optimize the traffic flow? In this paper we analyse the behavior of Internet traffic with a topologically realistic spatial structure as described in a previous study [S.-H. Yook et al., Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 99, 13382 (2002)]. The model involves self-regulation of packet generation and different levels of routing depth. It is shown that it reproduces the relevant key, statistical features of Internet's traffic. Moreover, we also report the existence of a critical path horizon defining a transition from low-efficient traffic to highly efficient flow. This transition is actually a direct consequence of the web's small world architecture exploited by the routing algorithm. Once routing tables reach the network diameter, the traffic experiences a sudden transition from a low-efficient to a highly-efficient behavior. It is conjectured that routing policies might have spontaneously reached such a compromise in a distributed manner. Internet would thus be operating close to such critical path horizon.

  6. Technologies on the Horizon: Teachers Respond to the Horizon Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Charles B.; Prater, Alyssa H.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate teachers' beliefs regarding the integration of technologies from the 2011 K-12 edition of the "Horizon Report" into their local, public school contexts. Teachers read the "Horizon Report" and then participated in an asynchronous, threaded discussion focusing on technologies they…

  7. THE ARGILLIC HORIZON AND DOMINANT CARBONATE STAGE

    E-print Network

    THE ARGILLIC HORIZON AND DOMINANT CARBONATE STAGE Map Units With More Than One Stage I,III (3,794 - 2) III,IV (20,778 - 12) Argillic horizon and stage I carbonate (13,769 - 8) Argillic horizon and stage II carbonate (1,641 - 1) Argillic horizon and stage III carbonate (26,565 - 14) Argillic horizon

  8. Running heading: Water retention properties of the clay in clayey soils Water retention properties of the clay in soils developed

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Running heading: Water retention properties of the clay in clayey soils Water retention properties of the clay in soils developed on clayey sediments: Significance of parent material and soil of clayey subsoils horizons according to the variation of clay characteristics. The horizons studied

  9. Microbial community composition shapes enzyme patterns in topsoil and subsoil horizons along a latitudinal transect in Western Siberia

    PubMed Central

    Schnecker, Jörg; Wild, Birgit; Takriti, Mounir; Eloy Alves, Ricardo J.; Gentsch, Norman; Gittel, Antje; Hofer, Angelika; Klaus, Karoline; Knoltsch, Anna; Lashchinskiy, Nikolay; Mikutta, Robert; Richter, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Soil horizons below 30 cm depth contain about 60% of the organic carbon stored in soils. Although insight into the physical and chemical stabilization of soil organic matter (SOM) and into microbial community composition in these horizons is being gained, information on microbial functions of subsoil microbial communities and on associated microbially-mediated processes remains sparse. To identify possible controls on enzyme patterns, we correlated enzyme patterns with biotic and abiotic soil parameters, as well as with microbial community composition, estimated using phospholipid fatty acid profiles. Enzyme patterns (i.e. distance-matrixes calculated from these enzyme activities) were calculated from the activities of six extracellular enzymes (cellobiohydrolase, leucine-amino-peptidase, N-acetylglucosaminidase, chitotriosidase, phosphatase and phenoloxidase), which had been measured in soil samples from organic topsoil horizons, mineral topsoil horizons, and mineral subsoil horizons from seven ecosystems along a 1500 km latitudinal transect in Western Siberia. We found that hydrolytic enzyme activities decreased rapidly with depth, whereas oxidative enzyme activities in mineral horizons were as high as, or higher than in organic topsoil horizons. Enzyme patterns varied more strongly between ecosystems in mineral subsoil horizons than in organic topsoils. The enzyme patterns in topsoil horizons were correlated with SOM content (i.e., C and N content) and microbial community composition. In contrast, the enzyme patterns in mineral subsoil horizons were related to water content, soil pH and microbial community composition. The lack of correlation between enzyme patterns and SOM quantity in the mineral subsoils suggests that SOM chemistry, spatial separation or physical stabilization of SOM rather than SOM content might determine substrate availability for enzymatic breakdown. The correlation of microbial community composition and enzyme patterns in all horizons, suggests that microbial community composition shapes enzyme patterns and might act as a modifier for the usual dependency of decomposition rates on SOM content or C/N ratios. PMID:25859057

  10. Northwest Area Foundation Horizons Program

    E-print Network

    Amin, S. Massoud

    was predicated on the theory that communities already possess many of the assets and skills to arrest social communities; 140 communities completed Horizons Two in 2008. The current cycle, Horizons Three, concluded in April, 2010, with 99 communities completing the entire program sequence. Since the pilot phase beginning

  11. The Horizon Report. 2004 Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Media Consortium, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This first edition of the New Media Consortium's (NMC) annual "Horizon Report" details findings of the Horizon Project, a research-oriented effort that seeks to identify and describe emerging technologies likely to have a large impact on teaching, learning, or creative expression within higher education. Drawing on an ongoing series of interviews…

  12. Resolving Lifshitz Horizons

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Sarah; Kachru, Shamit; Wang, Huajia; /Stanford U., ITP /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

    2012-04-24

    Via the AdS/CFT correspondence, ground states of field theories at finite charge density are mapped to extremal black brane solutions. Studies of simple gravity + matter systems in this context have uncovered wide new classes of extremal geometries. The Lifshitz metrics characterizing field theories with non-trivial dynamical critical exponent z {ne} 1 emerge as one common endpoint in doped holographic toy models. However, the Lifshitz horizon exhibits mildly singular behaviour - while curvature invariants are finite, there are diverging tidal forces. Here we show that in some of the simplest contexts where Lifshitz metrics emerge, Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theories, generic corrections lead to a replacement of the Lifshitz metric, in the deep infrared, by a re-emergent AdS{sub 2} x R{sup 2} geometry. Thus, at least in these cases, the Lifshitz scaling characterizes the physics over a wide range of energy scales, but the mild singularity is cured by quantum or stringy effects.

  13. Virtual environmental applications for buried waste characterization technology evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The project, Virtual Environment Applications for Buried Waste Characterization, was initiated in the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program in fiscal year 1994. This project is a research and development effort that supports the remediation of buried waste by identifying and examining the issues, needs, and feasibility of creating virtual environments using available characterization and other data. This document describes the progress and results from this project during the past year.

  14. Dynamical evaporation of quantum horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pranzetti, Daniele

    2013-08-01

    We describe the black hole evaporation process driven by the dynamical evolution of the quantum gravitational degrees of freedom resident at the horizon, as identified by the loop quantum gravity kinematics. Using a parallel with the Brownian motion, we interpret the first law of the quantum-dynamical horizon in terms of a fluctuation-dissipation relation applied to this fundamental discrete structure. In this way, the horizon evolution is described in terms of relaxation to an equilibrium state balanced by the excitation of Planck scale constituents of the horizon. We investigate the final stage of the evaporation process and show how, from this setting, the emergence of several conservative scenarios for the information paradox can be microscopically derived. Namely, the leakage of part of the horizon quantum geometry information prior to the Planckian phase and the stabilization of the hole surface shrinkage forming a massive remnant, which can eventually decay, are described.

  15. Dynamical evaporation of quantum horizons

    E-print Network

    Pranzetti, Daniele

    2013-01-01

    We describe the black hole evaporation process driven by the dynamical evolution of the quantum gravitational degrees of freedom resident at the horizon, as identified by the Loop Quantum Gravity kinematics. Using a parallel with the Brownian motion, we interpret the first law of quantum dynamical horizon in terms of a fluctuation-dissipation relation applied to this fundamental discrete structure. In this way, the horizon evolution is described in terms of relaxation to an equilibrium state balanced by the excitation of Planck scale constituents of the horizon. We investigate the final stage of the evaporation process and show how, from this setting, the emergence of several conservative scenarios for the information paradox can be microscopically derived. Namely, the leakage of part of the horizon quantum geometry information prior to the Planckian phase and the stabilization of the hole surface shrinkage forming a massive remnant, which can eventually decay, are described.

  16. Enzyme leaching of surficial geochemical samples for detecting hydromorphic trace-element anomalies associated with precious-metal mineralized bedrock buried beneath glacial overburden in northern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Robert J.; Meier, A.L.; Riddle, G.

    1990-01-01

    One objective of the International Falls and Roseau, Minnesota, CUSMAP projects was to develop a means of conducting regional-scale geochemical surveys in areas where bedrock is buried beneath complex glacially derived overburden. Partial analysis of B-horizon soils offered hope for detecting subtle hydromorphic trace-element dispersion patterns. An enzyme-based partial leach selectively removes metals from oxide coatings on the surfaces of soil materials without attacking their matrix. Most trace-element concentrations in the resulting solutions are in the part-per-trillion to low part-per-billion range, necessitating determinations by inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry. The resulting data show greater contrasts for many trace elements than with other techniques tested. Spatially, many trace metal anomalies are locally discontinuous, but anomalous trends within larger areas are apparent. In many instances, the source for an anomaly seems to be either basal till or bedrock. Ground water flow is probably the most important mechanism for transporting metals toward the surface, although ionic diffusion, electrochemical gradients, and capillary action may play a role in anomaly dispersal. Sample sites near the Rainy Lake-Seine River fault zone, a regional shear zone, often have anomalous concentrations of a variety of metals, commonly including Zn and/or one or more metals which substitute for Zn in sphalerite (Cd, Ge, Ga, and Sn). Shifts in background concentrations of Bi, Sb, and As show a trend across the area indicating a possible regional zoning of lode-Au mineralization. Soil anomalies of Ag, Co, and Tl parallel basement structures, suggesting areas that may have potential for Cobalt/Thunder Baytype silver viens. An area around Baudette, Minnesota, which is underlain by quartz-chlorite-carbonate-altered shear zones, is anomalous in Ag, As, Bi, Co, Mo, Te, Tl, and W. Anomalies of Ag, As, Bi, Te, and W tend to follow the fault zones, suggesting potential for lode-Au deposits. Soil anomalies of Co, Mo, and Tl appear to follow northwest-striking structures that cross the shear zones, suggesting that Thunder Bay-type mineralization may have overprinted earlier mineralization along the shear zones.

  17. Humus in some soils from Western Antarctica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Abakumov

    2009-01-01

    Soils of Antarctica are well known as a thick profile soils with low amounts of humus concentrated in the upper layers - O or A horizons. Also there are specific soils of seashore landscapes which affected by penguins guano accumulation and, therefore characterized by high stocks of organic matter in solum. These two types of soils were studied during the

  18. Slow Sorption Kinetics of Pentachlorophenol on Soil

    E-print Network

    Sparks, Donald L.

    ) on soil at a pH of 4.1 using batch techniques. A multiple spiking methodology was employed to circumvent horizon (Delaware). Physicochemical and mineralogical properties of the soil are as follows: pH ) 6 soil pH is 6.1. Due to the soil's high buffering capacity, it was necessary to preequilibrate th

  19. Hydrogen soil dynamics in northern boreal and subarctic Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, K. J.; Crill, P. M.; Oquist, M. G.; Varner, R. K.

    2011-12-01

    Wetland ecosystems store a large amount of organic carbon in the form of peat and are the largest natural source of CH4. Thawing of northern wetland permafrost results in an increase in the pool of soil carbon that is made available for decomposition processes and CH4 production. Some subarctic mire sites are also getting wetter as the climate warms. An increase in inundated areas in conjunction with increased amounts of organic matter could give rise to potential feedbacks to warming temperatures via increased emissions of reduced trace gases, such as CH4 and H2, to the atmosphere. H2 soil dynamics in peatlands and forests are complex because of the many microbial-mediated reactions driving H2 production and consumption. H2 couples oxidative and reductive processes in anaerobic environments. The aim of this project was to determine if high-latitude boreal and subarctic soils can change from a sink to a source of H2 to the atmosphere by identifying the microbial processes controlling the production and consumption of H2. Does H2 production and emissions to the atmosphere occur under temporary anoxia in organic -rich soils and soil horizons and do episodic weather events, particularly rain and freeze-thaw cycles, drive H2 production and release from natural soils due to the release of labile organic material and anaerobic conditions. Porewater soil gas profiles from different sub-habitats were determined in Stordalen mire in subarctic Sweden using buried ePTFE tubing and samples manually obtained using a stainless steel sipper. Trends in H2 concentration between the microporous tubing and sipper samples generally agree. The H2 concentration is higher in the tubing possibly due to preferential diffusion into the air-filled tubing by H2, which has a low solubility in water. The wettest site dominated by Eriophorum had the highest concentration of H2 with a maximum of 39.3 ppmv H2 at a depth of 30 cm. A mesic site dominated by Sphagnum had the next highest H2 concentration with 37.6 ppmv H2 at 20 cm below the ground surface. A Carex-dominated site also had increasing H2 concentration with depth. The concentrations of soil H2 in the dry palsa site were lower than ambient air indicating consumption at this site. Soil H2 was also measured in boreal forest soils, which typically act as a sink of atmospheric H2. Manual field sampling revealed that H2 concentrations were higher above the surface of the ground than at the base of the O horizon suggesting H2 deposition. An incubation experiment designed to test the interactions between soil moisture, temperature, and substrate addition indicated that warm, dry forest soils with added glucose are the highest consumers of H2 while warm, dry forest soils with no substrate addition produce the most H2. With the exception of the soil with the greatest glucose addition, the soils incubated at 20°C produced more H2 than soils at 12°C and 4°C.

  20. Soil discontinuities as potential factors of shallow landslides: a case study from Calabria, southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarciglia, Fabio; Morrone, Fabio; Pelle, Teresa; Buttafuoco, Gabriele; Conforti, Massimo; Muto, Francesco; Critelli, Salvatore; Fabbricatore, Davide; Filomena, Luciana; Rago, Valeria; Robustelli, Gaetano; Tripodi, Vincenzo; Versace, Pasquale

    2015-04-01

    Effects of chemical and physical weathering processes on different rock types as predisposing factors of a number of landslides are often investigated in detail. Conversely, very few research studies on triggering mechanisms of shallow landslides and related risk assessment are focused on evaluation of morphological and physical discontinuities caused by pedogenetic processes affecting parent materials. Also sampling strategies for geotechnical or hydrological laboratory analyses can be biased by the lack of detailed information about the soil spatial variability and of a consequent horizon-wise selection of samples from soil profiles. In this work we summarize the main results on the assessment of shallow landslide susceptibility along the A3 highway section between Cosenza Sud and Altilia in northern Calabria (southern Italy). This research is part of a wider project (PON01-01503: "Integrated systems for hydrogeological risk monitoring, early warning and mitigation along the main lifelines"), aimed at hydro-geological risk mitigation and early warning along three highway sections of southern Italy. Based on a detailed geological and geomorphological survey, the main lithological, structural and relief features of the landscape were mapped, with a special emphasis on active, dormant and inactive landslides and their geo-lithological control factors. A soil survey was also carried out in the field, showing a dominance of Entisols and Inceptisols on steep slopes, and Mollisols and Alfisols on gentle landforms. Soil observations were focused on the identification of pedological discontinuities as potential factors that might trigger shallow landslides. A number of soil profiles, often close to landslide scarps, evidenced significant morphological changes of the parent materials, such as texture, pedogenic structure, dry consistence and moisture, or hydromorphic features caused by transient water-logging conditions, and clay-illuviated horizons. Buried soils were recognized, often truncated by erosion, and overlain by younger soils developed on colluvia, debris flows and detrital slope deposits. Five representative soil profiles were selected and sampled for pedological, geotechnical and hydrological laboratory analyses. Bulk and undisturbed samples were collected for chemical and physical soil analyses (particle size distribution, organic and inorganic carbon, pH, electrical conductivity, soluble salts), for determining bulk density, Atterberg limits, cohesive strength, angle of internal friction, water retention and for thin sections to be observed under an optical polarizing microscope, respectively. Preliminary results of laboratory analyses showed irregular patterns of pedological (particle size distribution, organic matter content, bulk density), geotechnical (Atterberg limits) and hydrological data (water content, pore distribution) along the soil profiles, coherently with field observations.

  1. Baseline tests for arc melter vitrification of INEL buried wastes. Volume II: Baseline test data appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Oden, L.L.; O`Conner, W.K.; Turner, P.C.; Soelberg, N.R.; Anderson, G.L.

    1993-11-19

    This report presents field results and raw data from the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) Arc Melter Vitrification Project Phase 1 baseline test series conducted by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM). The baseline test series was conducted using the electric arc melter facility at the USBM Albany Research Center in Albany, Oregon. Five different surrogate waste feed mixtures were tested that simulated thermally-oxidized, buried, TRU-contaminated, mixed wastes and soils present at the INEL. The USBM Arc Furnace Integrated Waste Processing Test Facility includes a continuous feed system, the arc melting furnace, an offgas control system, and utilities. The melter is a sealed, 3-phase alternating current (ac) furnace approximately 2 m high and 1.3 m wide. The furnace has a capacity of 1 metric ton of steel and can process as much as 1,500 lb/h of soil-type waste materials. The surrogate feed materials included five mixtures designed to simulate incinerated TRU-contaminated buried waste materials mixed with INEL soil. Process samples, melter system operations data and offgas composition data were obtained during the baseline tests to evaluate the melter performance and meet test objectives. Samples and data gathered during this program included (a) automatically and manually logged melter systems operations data, (b) process samples of slag, metal and fume solids, and (c) offgas composition, temperature, velocity, flowrate, moisture content, particulate loading and metals content. This report consists of 2 volumes: Volume I summarizes the baseline test operations. It includes an executive summary, system and facility description, review of the surrogate waste mixtures, and a description of the baseline test activities, measurements, and sample collection. Volume II contains the raw test data and sample analyses from samples collected during the baseline tests.

  2. Ultra wide band radar holographic imaging of buried waste at DOE sites

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, H.D.; Gribble, R.P.; Hall, T.E.; Lechelt, W.M.

    1995-04-01

    Ultra wideband linear array holography is a unique real-time imaging technique for in-situ inspection of buried waste at various DOE sites. The array can be mounted on various platforms such as crane booms, pickup trucks, ATVs, and scanned generating ``3-D`` subsurface images in real time. Inspection speeds are 0.5 to 2 meters/sec, if the image is viewed in real time, greater for off-line processing. The Ground Penetrating Holographic (GPH) system developed for inspection of DOE sites employs two 32element arrays of tapered-slot antenna operating at 5-GHz and 2.5-GHz center frequencies. The GPH system, which is mounted on a small trailer with a computer image processor, display, and power supply, is capable of imaging a wide swath (1 to 2 meters) with its linear arrays. The lower frequency array will be used at INEL (for greater depth penetration) because of high soil attenuation. Recent holographic ``3-D`` images of buried waste container lids and dielectrics obtained in Hanford sand and INEL soils at various depths graphically illustrate the unique image resolution capabilities of the system. Experimental results using the 5-GHz array will be presented showing the excellent holographic image quality of various subsurface targets in sand and INEL soil.

  3. Littoral Assessment of Mine Burial Signatures (LAMBS) buried land mine/background spectral signature analyses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kenton, A.C.; Geci, D.M.; Ray, K.J.; Thomas, C.M.; Salisbury, J.W.; Mars, J.C.; Crowley, J.K.; Witherspoon, N.H.; Holloway, J.H., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the Office of Naval Research (ONR) Rapid Overt Reconnaissance (ROR) program and the Airborne Littoral Reconnaissance Technologies (ALRT) project's LAMBS effort is to determine if electro-optical spectral discriminants exist that are useful for the detection of land mines in littoral regions. Statistically significant buried mine overburden and background signature data were collected over a wide spectral range (0.35 to 14 ??m) to identify robust spectral features that might serve as discriminants for new airborne sensor concepts. LAMBS has expanded previously collected databases to littoral areas - primarily dry and wet sandy soils - where tidal, surf, and wind conditions can severely modify spectral signatures. At AeroSense 2003, we reported completion of three buried mine collections at an inland bay, Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico beach sites.1 We now report LAMBS spectral database analyses results using metrics which characterize the detection performance of general types of spectral detection algorithms. These metrics include mean contrast, spectral signal-to-clutter, covariance, information content, and spectral matched filter analyses. Detection performance of the buried land mines was analyzed with regard to burial age, background type, and environmental conditions. These analyses considered features observed due to particle size differences, surface roughness, surface moisture, and compositional differences.

  4. Detection of Microbial sulfate-reduction associated with buried stainless steel coupons

    SciTech Connect

    Mark E. Delwiche; M. Kay Adler Flitton; Alicia Olson

    2007-03-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate applicability of an innovative radioactive isotope method for imaging microbial activity in geological materials to a comprehensive study of metal corrosion. The method was tested on a sample of stainless steel coupons that had been buried as part of a corrosion study initiated by the National Institute of Standards and Testing or NIST (known as National Bureau of Standards prior to 1988) in 1970. The images showed evidence of microbial activity that could be mapped on a millimeter scale to coupon surfaces. A second more conventional isotope tracer method was also used to provide a quantitative measure of the same type of microbial activity in soil proximal to the buried coupons. Together the techniques offer a method for evaluating low metabolic levels of activity that have the potential for significant cumulative corrosion effects. The methods are powerful tools for evaluation of potential for microbial induced corrosion to buried steel components used on pipelines, in the power and communications infrastructure, and in nuclear waste repository containers.

  5. Discovery, mapping and interpretation of buried cultural resources non-invasively with ground-penetrating radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conyers, Lawrence B.

    2011-09-01

    Ground-penetrating radar is an extremely useful tool for the mapping and interpretation of buried cultural remains within 2-3 metres of the surface, especially when the stratigraphy is complex. Standard reflection profiles can be processed to correct for depth and distance, and also filtered and processed to make cultural features visible. When many profiles are collected in closely spaced transects in a grid, reflections can be re-sampled and displayed in amplitude slice-maps, and isosurface renderings to make buried features visible. Sometimes, however, the abundance and complexity of subsurface reflections is so complex that each individual profile must be interpreted manually, which necessitates an understanding of radar wave propagation, reflection, refraction and attenuation in the ground. In order to differentiate reflections from cultural features this understanding of radar energy must be merged with an understanding of the chemistry of the ground, soil and geological stratigraphy, and how those variables affect radar reflections. When taken as a package of visualization tools, GPR can be used as an effective tool for interpreting aspects of history and culture at buried sites in ways not possible using traditional archaeological methods.

  6. Social Pharmacology: Expanding horizons

    PubMed Central

    Maiti, Rituparna; Alloza, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    In the current modern and global society, social changes are in constant evolution due to scientific progress (technology, culture, customs, and hygiene) and produce the freedom in individuals to take decisions by themselves or with their doctors toward drug consumption. In the arena of marketed drug products which includes society, individual, administration, and pharmaceutical industry, the young discipline emerged is social pharmacology or sociopharmacology. This science arises from clinical pharmacology, and deals with different parameters, which are important in creating knowledge on marketed drugs. However, the scope of “social pharmacology” is not covered by the so-called “Phase IV” alone, but it is the science that handles the postmarketing knowledge of drugs. The social pharmacology studies the “life cycle” of any marketed pharmaceutical product in the social terrain, and evaluates the effects of the real environment under circumstances totally different in the drug development process. Therefore, there are far-reaching horizons, plural, and shared predictions among health professionals and other, for beneficial use of a drug, toward maximizing the benefits of therapy, while minimizing negative social consequences. PMID:24987168

  7. Social pharmacology: expanding horizons.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Rituparna; Alloza, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    In the current modern and global society, social changes are in constant evolution due to scientific progress (technology, culture, customs, and hygiene) and produce the freedom in individuals to take decisions by themselves or with their doctors toward drug consumption. In the arena of marketed drug products which includes society, individual, administration, and pharmaceutical industry, the young discipline emerged is social pharmacology or sociopharmacology. This science arises from clinical pharmacology, and deals with different parameters, which are important in creating knowledge on marketed drugs. However, the scope of "social pharmacology" is not covered by the so-called "Phase IV" alone, but it is the science that handles the postmarketing knowledge of drugs. The social pharmacology studies the "life cycle" of any marketed pharmaceutical product in the social terrain, and evaluates the effects of the real environment under circumstances totally different in the drug development process. Therefore, there are far-reaching horizons, plural, and shared predictions among health professionals and other, for beneficial use of a drug, toward maximizing the benefits of therapy, while minimizing negative social consequences. PMID:24987168

  8. Using the ARP-03 for high-resolution mapping of calcic horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priori, S.; Fantappi?, M.; Magini, S.; Costantini, E. A. C.

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this work is to present a fast and cheap method for high-resolutionmapping of calcic horizons in vineyards based on geoelectrical proximal sensing. The study area, 45 ha located in southern Sicily (Italy), was characterized by an old, partially dismantled marine terrace and soils with a calcic horizon at different depths. The geoelectrical investigation consisted of a survey of the soil electrical resistivity recorded with the Automatic Resistivity Profiling-03 sensor. The electrical resistivity values at three pseudo-depths, 0-50, 0-100 and 0-170 cm, were spatialized by means of ordinary kriging. A principal component analysis of the three electrical resistivity maps was carried out. During the survey, 18 boreholes, located at different electrical resistivity values, were made for soil description and sampling. The depth to the calcic horizon showed a strong correlation with electrical resistivity. The regression model between calcic horizon and the principal component analysis factors with the highest correlation coefficients was selected to spatialise the calcic horizon values. An Normalized Difference Vegetation Index map was used to validate the calcic horizon map in terms of crop response to different soil rooting depths. The strengths of this method are the quick, non-invasive kind of survey, the relevance for vine vigour, and the high spatial resolution of the final map.

  9. Classification of buried objects using a parametric sonar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David BOULINGUEZ; Andrk QUINQUIS; Marc BRUSSIEUX

    1998-01-01

    Underwater object identification has been of great interest to acousticians (detection of boulders), marines (detection of buried mines), or archaeologists (detection of wreckage). Image and signal processing succeeds in identifying objects lying on the sea bottom, however identification of an object buried in sediment remains complex. The goal of this work is to obtain a complete identification and localization of

  10. Localization of buried objects through higher order statistics techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Bendjama; S. Bourennane

    2003-01-01

    Underwater object localization is of great interest for a few years to acousticians (detection of boulders), marines (detection of buried mines), or archaeologists (detection of wreckage). Image and signal processing succeed in localizing objects lying on the sea bottom [J.A. Sunde, 1999], however localization of an object buried in sediment remains complex. The objective of this work is to propose

  11. Underwater Buried Object Recognition Using Wavelet Packets and Fourier Descriptors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Boulinguez; André Quinquis

    1999-01-01

    Underwater object identification has been of great interest for a few years to acousticians (detection of boulders), marines (detection of buried mines), or archaeologists (detection of wreckage). Image and signal processing succeed in identifying objects lying on the sea bottom, however identification of an object buried in sediment remains complex. The purpose of this work is to develop a complete

  12. Infrared Thermography for Buried Landmine Detection: Inverse Problem Setting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nguyen Trung Thanh; Hichem Sahli; Dinh Nho Hao

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with an inverse problem arising in infrared (IR) thermography for buried landmine detection. It is aimed at using a thermal model and measured IR images to detect the presence of buried objects and characterize them in terms of thermal and geometrical properties. The inverse problem is mathematically stated as an optimization one using the well-known least-square approach.

  13. Buried Oxide Densification for Low Power, Low Voltage CMOS Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, L. P.; Anc, M. J.; Dolan, B.; Jiao, J.; Guss, B.; Seraphin, S.; Liu, S. T.; Jenkins, W.

    1998-01-01

    Special technology and circuit architecture are of growing interest for implementation of circuits which operate at low supply voltages and consume low power levels without sacrificing performance[1]. Use of thin buried oxide SOI substrates is a primary approach to simultaneously achieve these goals. A significant aspect regarding SIMOX SOI for low voltage, low power applications is the reliability and performance of the thin buried oxide. In addition, when subjected to high total dose irradiation, the silicon islands within the BOX layer of SIMOX can store charges and significantly effect the back channel threshold voltages of devices. Thus, elimination of the islands within the buried oxide (BOX) layer is preferred in order to prevent leakage through these conductive islands and charge build-up within the buried oxide layer. A differential (2-step) ramp rate as applied to full and 100 nm BOX SIMOX was previously reported to play a significant role in the stoichiometry and island formation within the buried layer[2]. This paper focus is on the properties of a thin (120nm) buried oxide as a function of the anneal ramp rate and the temperature of anneal. In this research, we have found an improvement in the buried oxide stoichiometry with the use of a slower, singular ramp rate for specified thin buried oxides, with slower ramp rates and higher temperatures of anneal suggested for reducing the presence of Si islands within the BOX layer.

  14. Detecting buried objects by fusing dual-band infrared images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory A. Clark; Sailes K. Sengupta; Michael R. Buhl; Robert J. Sherwood; Paul C. Schaich; Nathan Bull; Ronald J. Kane; Marvin J. Barth; David J. Fields; Michael R. Carter

    1993-01-01

    The authors have conducted experiments to demonstrate the enhanced detectability of buried land mines using sensor fusion techniques. Multiple sensors, including visible imagery, infrared imagery, and ground penetrating radar (GPR), have been used to acquire data on a number of buried mines and mine surrogates. Because the visible wavelength and GPR data are currently incomplete, the paper focuses on the

  15. Use of Strontium Isotopes to Identify Buried Water Main Leakage

    E-print Network

    Jiao, Jiu Jimmy

    is proposed for seepage source identification. Introduction Losses of water in buried distribution networksUse of Strontium Isotopes to Identify Buried Water Main Leakage Into Groundwater in a Highly water mains. The identification of leakage locations was done by conventional water quality parameters

  16. Failure analysis of buried piping and cold drain vessel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Attia; A. R. Ragab; S. El-Raghy

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the failure analysis of a cold drain vessel used to collect hydrocarbon fluids off liquefied natural gas through a network of buried piping. The analysis deals with (i) the corrosion of the buried piping and (ii) the cracking of the head plate of the vessel. The analysis comprises visual inspection, chemical and mechanical testing, and finite element

  17. Mercury soil surveys: a good reconnaissance tool

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, C.; Ruscetta, C.A.; Foley, D. (eds.)

    1981-05-01

    Three examples of mercury soil surveys are discussed, along with the gravity data. An excellent correlation was found in southern Arizona between buried structures revealed by gravity and mercury soil surveys. The advantages of the latter over the former as a reconnaissance tool are listed. (MHR)

  18. Using Marker Horizons and Cryogenic Coring to Monitor Sediment Deposition in Salt Marshes of the Bay of Fundy

    E-print Network

    Chmura, Gail L.

    Using Marker Horizons and Cryogenic Coring to Monitor Sediment Deposition in Salt Marshes that has accumulated over the marker horizon is measured. Cryogenic coring is one method of extracting out of the soil, a frozen core of marsh sediment is obtained. Using cryogenic coring to obtain salt

  19. Phosphatase activity in relation to key litter and soil properties in mature subtropical forests in China.

    PubMed

    Hou, Enqing; Chen, Chengrong; Wen, Dazhi; Liu, Xian

    2015-05-15

    Phosphatase-mediated phosphorus (P) mineralization is one of the critical processes in biogeochemical cycling of P and determines soil P availability in forest ecosystems; however, the regulation of soil phosphatase activity remains elusive. This study investigated the potential extracellular activities of acid phosphomonoesterase (AcPME) and phosphodiesterase (PDE) and how they were related to key edaphic properties in the L horizon (undecomposed litter) and F/H horizon (fermented and humified litter) and the underlying mineral soil at the 0-15cm depth in eight mature subtropical forests in China. AcPME activity decreased significantly in the order of F/H horizon>L horizon>mineral soil horizon, while the order for PDE activity was L horizon=F/H horizon>mineral soil horizon. AcPME (X axis) and PDE (Y axis) activities were positively correlated in all horizons with significantly higher slope in the L and F/H horizons than in the mineral soil horizon. Both AcPME and PDE activities were positively related to microbial biomass C, moisture content and water-holding capacity in the L horizon, and were positively related to soil C:P, N:P and C:N ratios and fine root (diameter?2mm) biomass in the mineral soil horizon. Both enzyme activities were also interactively affected by forest and horizon, partly due to the interactive effect of forest and horizon on microbial biomass. Our results suggest that modulator(s) of the potential extracellular activity of phosphatases vary with horizon, depending on the relative C, P and water availability of the horizon. PMID:25700362

  20. Research Infrastructures in Horizon 2020

    E-print Network

    Schettini, Raimondo

    #12;Industrial leadershipSocietal challenges Health, demographic change, wellbeing Food security technologies (ICT, space, nanotechnologies, advanced materials and advanced manufacturing and processing, biotechnology) Access to risk finance Innovation in SMEs Excellent science Horizon 2020­ Framework Programme

  1. Acoustic horizons in nuclear fluids

    E-print Network

    Niladri Sarkar; Abhik Basu; Jayanta K. Bhattacharjee; Arnab K. Ray

    2014-04-13

    We consider a hydrodynamic description of the spherically symmetric outward flow of nuclear matter, accommodating dispersion in it as a very weak effect. About the resulting stationary conditions in the flow, we apply an Eulerian scheme to derive a fully nonlinear equation of a time-dependent radial perturbation. In its linearized limit, with no dispersion, this equation implies the static acoustic horizon of an analogue gravity model. We, however, show that time-dependent nonlinear effects destabilize the static horizon. We also model the perturbation as a high-frequency travelling wave, and perform a {\\it WKB} analysis, in which the effect of weak dispersion is studied iteratively. We show that even arbitrarily small values of dispersion make the horizon fully opaque to any acoustic disturbance propagating against the bulk flow, with the amplitude and the energy flux of the radial perturbation undergoing a discontinuity at the horizon, and decaying exponentially just outside it.

  2. Acoustic horizons in nuclear fluids

    E-print Network

    Sarkar, Niladri; Bhattacharjee, Jayanta K; Ray, Arnab K

    2013-01-01

    We consider a hydrodynamic description of the spherically symmetric outward flow of nuclear matter, accommodating dispersion in it as a very weak effect. About the resulting stationary conditions in the flow, we apply an Eulerian scheme to derive a fully nonlinear equation of a time-dependent radial perturbation. In its linearized limit, with no dispersion, this equation implies the static acoustic horizon of an analogue gravity model. We, however, show that time-dependent nonlinear effects destabilize the static horizon. We also model the perturbation as a high-frequency travelling wave, and perform a {\\it WKB} analysis, in which the effect of weak dispersion is studied iteratively. We show that even arbitrarily small values of dispersion make the horizon fully opaque to any acoustic disturbance propagating against the bulk flow, with the amplitude and the energy flux of the radial perturbation undergoing a discontinuity at the horizon, and decaying exponentially just outside it.

  3. Quantum Behaviors and Dynamic Horizons

    E-print Network

    James Lindesay

    2009-04-27

    Geometries with horizons offer insights into relationships between general relativity and quantum physics. Quantum mechanics constrains relationships between kinematic parameters and the coordinates describing the dynamics. Example quantum behaviors on space-times with dynamic horizons will be demonstrated, with an emphasis on examining co-gravitating quantum systems. Finally, the large scale causal structure of a multi-fluid cosmology that can describe dynamic coherent aspects of the universe as a whole will be presented.

  4. Buried waste integrated demonstration technology integration process

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, J.S.; Ferguson, J.E.

    1992-04-01

    A Technology integration Process was developed for the Idaho National Energy Laboratories (INEL) Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) Program to facilitate the transfer of technology and knowledge from industry, universities, and other Federal agencies into the BWID; to successfully transfer demonstrated technology and knowledge from the BWID to industry, universities, and other Federal agencies; and to share demonstrated technologies and knowledge between Integrated Demonstrations and other Department of Energy (DOE) spread throughout the DOE Complex. This document also details specific methods and tools for integrating and transferring technologies into or out of the BWID program. The document provides background on the BWID program and technology development needs, demonstrates the direction of technology transfer, illustrates current processes for this transfer, and lists points of contact for prospective participants in the BWID technology transfer efforts. The Technology Integration Process was prepared to ensure compliance with the requirements of DOE`s Office of Technology Development (OTD).

  5. Buried waste integrated demonstration technology integration process

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, J.S.; Ferguson, J.E.

    1992-04-01

    A Technology integration Process was developed for the Idaho National Energy Laboratories (INEL) Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) Program to facilitate the transfer of technology and knowledge from industry, universities, and other Federal agencies into the BWID; to successfully transfer demonstrated technology and knowledge from the BWID to industry, universities, and other Federal agencies; and to share demonstrated technologies and knowledge between Integrated Demonstrations and other Department of Energy (DOE) spread throughout the DOE Complex. This document also details specific methods and tools for integrating and transferring technologies into or out of the BWID program. The document provides background on the BWID program and technology development needs, demonstrates the direction of technology transfer, illustrates current processes for this transfer, and lists points of contact for prospective participants in the BWID technology transfer efforts. The Technology Integration Process was prepared to ensure compliance with the requirements of DOE's Office of Technology Development (OTD).

  6. Soil Fertility Protocol

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The GLOBE Program, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR)

    2003-08-01

    The purpose of this resource is to measure the amounts of nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium in each horizon in a soil profile. Using a NPK test kit, students mix a dry, sieved soil sample into a solution and chemically extract the N, P, and K as nitrate, phosphate, and potassium. The N, P, and K amounts in the sample are determined by comparing the solution to a color chart. Students describe the N, P, K amounts as high, medium, low, or none. These measurements are conducted three times for each horizon.

  7. USDC-based rapid penetrator of packed soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Bao; Y. Bar-Cohen; Z. Chang; S. Sherrit; M. Badescu; S. Du; T. Song; T. Peterson

    2006-01-01

    Environment protection requires more testing and analysis tools. To detect buried chemical containers or other objects embedded in soil and avoid possible damage to them, a penetrator was developed for packed soil that requires low penetration force (the force needed to push rod probe into the soil). The design was based on the novel mechanism used by the ultrasonic\\/sonic driller\\/corer

  8. New horizons in osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Oliviero, F; Ramonda, R; Punzi, L

    2010-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA), also known as degenerative joint disease, is the most frequent chronic musculoskeletal disease and the leading cause of disability in elderly persons. There are currently at least 27 million persons afflicted with OA in the United States, and the annual cost to society in medical care and wage loss is expected to reach nearly $100 billion dollars by 2020, with consequent increased spending on its diagnosis and treatment, side effect prevention, and loss of productivity. Despite this enormous burden, many aspects of OA are still unknown, with implications not only in terms of diagnosis and assessment but also with regard to therapy. Awareness of this state of affairs has attracted many researchers to this field, making OA one of the most actively studied sectors of rheumatology. Although some clinicians are unaware of recent advances, there is a large body of publications indicating that much has been achieved. Major progress has been made in formulating better definitions of risk factors, in particular in indicating the responsibility of biomechanical and genetic factors, and, with regard to pathogenesis, underlining the role of subchondral bone, cytokines and proteinases. Assessment of OA activity and its progression has been improved with the advent of biomarkers and new imaging procedures, in particular sonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), but also of better clinical instruments, including more reliable patient questionnaires. Information from ongoing studies may improve the to some extent incomplete definition of OA phenotypes. Finally, promising new horizons have been opened up even with regard to the treatment of OA, which is still for the most part unsatisfactory except for surgical replacement therapy. Numerous new substances have been formulated and the findings of trials studying their effects are encouraging, although much has yet to be done. PMID:20458653

  9. NASA's New Horizons Mission Dr. Henry Throop

    E-print Network

    Throop, Henry

    to Earth. New Horizons Spacecraft #12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;New Horizons Team #12;#12;#12;#12;Lockheed;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;New Horizons is the fastest spacecraft ever launched! Mission Time to get to the Moon's distanceNASA's New Horizons Mission To Pluto Dr. Henry Throop Planetary Science Institute Tucson

  10. Chemical Sensing for Buried Landmines - Fundamental Processes Influencing Trace Chemical Detection

    SciTech Connect

    PHELAN, JAMES M.

    2002-05-01

    Mine detection dogs have a demonstrated capability to locate hidden objects by trace chemical detection. Because of this capability, demining activities frequently employ mine detection dogs to locate individual buried landmines or for area reduction. The conditions appropriate for use of mine detection dogs are only beginning to emerge through diligent research that combines dog selection/training, the environmental conditions that impact landmine signature chemical vapors, and vapor sensing performance capability and reliability. This report seeks to address the fundamental soil-chemical interactions, driven by local weather history, that influence the availability of chemical for trace chemical detection. The processes evaluated include: landmine chemical emissions to the soil, chemical distribution in soils, chemical degradation in soils, and weather and chemical transport in soils. Simulation modeling is presented as a method to evaluate the complex interdependencies among these various processes and to establish conditions appropriate for trace chemical detection. Results from chemical analyses on soil samples obtained adjacent to landmines are presented and demonstrate the ultra-trace nature of these residues. Lastly, initial measurements of the vapor sensing performance of mine detection dogs demonstrates the extreme sensitivity of dogs in sensing landmine signature chemicals; however, reliability at these ultra-trace vapor concentrations still needs to be determined. Through this compilation, additional work is suggested that will fill in data gaps to improve the utility of trace chemical detection.

  11. Dynamics of decadally cycling carbon in subsurface soils

    E-print Network

    Koarashi, Jun; Hockaday, William C; Masiello, Caroline A; Trumbore, Susan E

    2012-01-01

    of Soil, Water and Environmental Science, University ofsoil carbon and atmospheric carbon dioxide driven by temperature change, Science,soil (surface horizons, nominally the A or Ap Department of Earth System Science,

  12. Total Organic Carbon in Red Paleosoils and Basalts from ODP Leg 197 and their Potential use as Suitable Models for Mars Soil Analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaccorsi, Rosalba

    2004-06-01

    Although on Mars no near-surface life has been detected, some preservation of organics with depth is expected. Stratigraphic and geochemical information on low-organic carbon (50% samples with Total Organic Carbon = 0.05 - 0.12%) Fe-oxides/oxyhydroxide-rich horizons of deeply buried red paleosoils (late Paleocene-early Eocene(?) in age) are presented here. They were retrieved during the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 197 (Emperor Seamounts, North Pacific Transect). Organic traces in Hole 1205A are likely to reflect a complex history of paleosoil formation. Materials from an extremely deep (sub-basement) diagenetic setting, i.e., 46.8 to 309.9 meters below seafloor (mbsf), could represent a model for possible deep subsurface soils preserved on Mars.

  13. In situ vitrification application to buried waste: Final report of intermediate field tests at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Callow, R.A.; Weidner, J.R.; Loehr, C.A.; Bates, S.O. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Thompson, L.E.; McGrail, B.P. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

    1991-08-01

    This report describes two in situ vitrification field tests conducted on simulated buried waste pits during June and July 1990 at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. In situ vitrification, an emerging technology for in place conversion of contaminated soils into a durable glass and crystalline waste form, is being investigated as a potential remediation technology for buried waste. The overall objective of the two tests was to access the general suitability of the process to remediate waste structures representative of buried waste found at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. In particular, these tests, as part of a treatability study, were designed to provide essential information on the field performance of the process under conditions of significant combustible and metal wastes and to test a newly developed electrode feed technology. The tests were successfully completed, and the electrode feed technology successfully processed the high metal content waste. Test results indicate the process is a feasible technology for application to buried waste. 33 refs., 109 figs., 39 tabs.

  14. Artificial neural network and time series models for predicting soil salt and water content

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ping Zou; Jingsong Yang; Jianrong Fu; Guangming Liu; Dongshun Li

    2010-01-01

    Volumetric water content of a silt loam soil (fluvo-aquic soil) in North China Plain was measured in situ by L-520 neutron probe (made in China) at three depths in the crop rootzone during a lysimeter experiment from 2001 to 2006. The electrical conductivity of the soil water (ECsw) was measured by salinity sensors buried in the soil during the same

  15. Computer vision and sensor fusion for detecting buried objects

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, G.A.; Hernandez, J.E.; Sengupta, S.K.; Sherwood, R.J.; Schaich, P.C.; Buhl, M.R.; Kane, R.J.; DelGrande, N.K.

    1992-10-01

    Given multiple images of the surface of the earth from dual-band infrared sensors, our system fuses information from the sensors to reduce the effects of clutter and improve the ability to detect buried or surface target sites. Supervised learning pattern classifiers (including neural networks,) are used. We present results of experiments to detect buried land mines from real data, and evaluate the usefulness of fusing information from multiple sensor types. The novelty of the work lies mostly in the combination of the algorithms and their application to the very important and currently unsolved problem of detecting buried land mines from an airborne standoff platform.

  16. Statistical analyses of field corrosion data for ductile cast iron pipes buried in sandy marine sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Kajiyama, F.; Koyama, Y. [Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd. (Japan). Fundamental Technology Research Lab.

    1997-02-01

    Field corrosion studies were conducted on bare, ductile cast iron pipes buried 17 y in sandy marine sediment classified as sandy soil and containing iron bacteria, sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), and other bacteria. Chemical and biochemical analyses of the sediment were performed in the laboratory. Correlation between the maximum corrosion depth (P{sub max}) and 21 environmental factors was evaluated by applying a correlation analysis. On that basis, the factors controlling corrosion damage were considered by quantification theory analysis. A corrosion mechanism was presented to explain the corrosion phenomena. The corrosion site had a positive correlation with the anaerobic site, characterized by particularly high levels of water content and ferrous sulfide generated by SRB. Corrosion was classified as graphitic and attributed to formation of extensive tubercles resulting from high activity of iron bacteria in the bicarbonate enriched soil.

  17. Soil Field Descriptions and Soil Forming Processes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jeff Clark

    In this field activity students break into small groups and dig soil pits. The pits are distributed among different vegetative covers and topographic positions allowing comparisons of soil profiles under different soil forming processes. Each group prepares a field description of their soil using a shortened version of the NRCS Field Book for Describing and Sampling Soils (2002). Before leaving the field the class takes a tour of the pits and each group gives a brief oral presentation of their profile. Samples from each horizon are later analyzed in the lab to determine the % soil moisture and organic matter. Data from each group is compiled on a share drive which is then utilized by the rest of the class for comparison. Designed for a geomorphology course

  18. Influence of soil surface characteristics and water repellence on soil infiltration and soil loss of Andisols (Canary Islands, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Concepción, Jiménez; Jonay, Neris; Josué, Fuentes; Marisa, Tejedor

    2010-05-01

    Infiltration is a crucial process in the hydrological cycle, since it controls - among other things - the generation of run-off, erosion and aquifer recharge. Undisturbed Andisols are considered resistant to water erosion; a characteristic closely associated with their high porosity that permits a rapid rainfall infiltration and high structural stability. In spite of that, the high content of organic C on this type of soils, and the positive relation between this property and water repellence, could allow the presence of some soil surface characteristics that may change this behaviour. The aim of this work was to study the influence of these hydrophobic layers on water infiltration and soil loss on Andisols of Tenerife. Twelve sites were chosen, all of which are located on the northern side of the island of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain), between 825-1400 m.a.s.l. The soils are allophanic Andisols (Typic/Lithic Hapludands and Typic Haplustands) and vitric Andisols (Typic Udivitrands) under pine forest. In each site, soil surface features with potential hydrological implications were described. To determine infiltration, a rainfall simulator with the following characteristics was used: 35 x 25 x 30 cm metal box with nozzles in the bottom, 2.5 cm apart (diameter of drops = 2-3 mm). The 4 box adjustable legs were set at 2 m height. Prior to installing the rainfall simulator, study zones were marked out using 30 cm-tall metal sheets. Each area measured approximately 875 cm2 and measurements were taken for slopes of 10 and 30% when it was possible. At the end of the slope a 25 cm-wide collector was semi-buried to collect runoff and sediment. Rainfall of variable intensity between 50-70 mmh-1 was simulated for periods of 30-45 minutes. Time to runoff (TR), volume to runoff (VR), steady-state infiltration rate (IR), runoff/rainfall ratio (RR), soil loss rate (SED) and sediment concentration (CSED) were measured. For some of the studied soils, the formation of horizons made up with pine needles embedded with fungi mycelia was observed. These layers were highly water-repellent and could be easily detached from the underlying soil. When comparing the soils in which these are present with those devoid of them, the former showed an average decrease of 40% in TR and VR for both slopes. The IR suffered a decrease of nearly 40% and 30%, and the RR an increase of 40% and 20% for slopes of 10 and 30% respectively. Contradictory, soil loss showed a decrease in sites where this layer was present, 20% and 40% in SED, and 15% and 50% in CSED for slopes of 10% and 30% respectively. As a conclusion, despite the reduction in IR and the increase in RR, the presence of this layer in soils seems to provide them with a high resistance to drop impact, and a modification of water dynamics leading to a decrease of soil loss.

  19. Inflationary perturbations near horizon crossing

    E-print Network

    Samuel M Leach; Andrew R Liddle

    2001-01-11

    We study the behaviour of inflationary density perturbations in the vicinity of horizon crossing, using numerical evolution of the relevant mode equations. We explore two specific scenarios. In one, inflation is temporarily ended because a portion of the potential is too steep to support inflation. We find that perturbations on super-horizon scales can be modified, usually leading to a large amplification, because of entropy perturbations in the scalar field. This leads to a broad feature in the power spectrum, and the slow-roll and Stewart--Lyth approximations, which assume the perturbations reach an asymptotic regime well outside the horizon, can fail by many orders of magnitude in this regime. In the second scenario we consider perturbations generated right at the end of inflation, which re-enter shortly after inflation ends --- such perturbations can be relevant for primordial black hole formation.

  20. Buried nanoantenna arrays: versatile antireflection coating.

    PubMed

    Kabiri, Ali; Girgis, Emad; Capasso, Federico

    2013-01-01

    Reflection is usually a detrimental phenomenon in many applications such as flat-panel-displays, solar cells, photodetectors, infrared sensors, and lenses. Thus far, to control and suppress the reflection from a substrate, numerous techniques including dielectric interference coatings, surface texturing, adiabatic index matching, and scattering from plasmonic nanoparticles have been investigated. A new technique is demonstrated to manage and suppress reflection from lossless and lossy substrates. It provides a wider flexibility in design versus previous methods. Reflection from a surface can be suppressed over a narrowband, wideband, or multiband frequency range. The antireflection can be dependent or independent of the incident wave polarization. Moreover, antireflection at a very wide incidence angle can be attained. The reflection from a substrate is controlled by a buried nanoantenna array, a structure composed of (1) a subwavelength metallic array and (2) a dielectric cover layer referred to as a superstrate. The material properties and thickness of the superstrate and nanoantennas' geometry and periodicity control the phase and intensity of the wave circulating inside the superstrate cavity. A minimum reflectance of 0.02% is achieved in various experiments in the mid-infrared from a silicon substrate. The design can be integrated in straightforward way in optical devices. The proposed structure is a versatile AR coating to optically impedance matches any substrate to free space in selected any narrow and broadband spectral response across the entire visible and infrared spectrum. PMID:24266700

  1. ISV technology development plan for buried waste

    SciTech Connect

    Nickelson, D.F.; Callow, R.A. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Luey, J.K. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1992-07-01

    This report identifies the main technical issues facing the in situ vitrification (ISV) application to buried waste, and presents a plan showing the top-level schedule and projected resources needed to develop and demonstrate the technology for meeting Environmental Restoration Department (ERD) needs. The plan also proposes a model strategy for the technology transfer from the Department of Energy`s Office of Technology Development (DOE-OTD) to the Office of Environmental Restoration (DOE-ER) as the technology proceeds from issues resolution (development) to demonstration and remedial readiness. Implementation of the plan would require $34,91 1K in total funding to be spread in the years FY-93 through FY-98. Of this amount, $10,183K is planned to be funded by DOE-OTD through the ISV Integrated Program. The remaining amount, $24,728K, is recommended to be split between the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development ($6,670K) and DOE Office of Environmental Restoration ($18,058K).

  2. ISV technology development plan for buried waste

    SciTech Connect

    Nickelson, D.F.; Callow, R.A. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Luey, J.K. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

    1992-07-01

    This report identifies the main technical issues facing the in situ vitrification (ISV) application to buried waste, and presents a plan showing the top-level schedule and projected resources needed to develop and demonstrate the technology for meeting Environmental Restoration Department (ERD) needs. The plan also proposes a model strategy for the technology transfer from the Department of Energy's Office of Technology Development (DOE-OTD) to the Office of Environmental Restoration (DOE-ER) as the technology proceeds from issues resolution (development) to demonstration and remedial readiness. Implementation of the plan would require $34,91 1K in total funding to be spread in the years FY-93 through FY-98. Of this amount, $10,183K is planned to be funded by DOE-OTD through the ISV Integrated Program. The remaining amount, $24,728K, is recommended to be split between the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development ($6,670K) and DOE Office of Environmental Restoration ($18,058K).

  3. Buried waste containment system materials. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Weidner, J.R.; Shaw, P.G.

    1997-10-01

    This report describes the results of a test program to validate the application of a latex-modified cement formulation for use with the Buried Waste Containment System (BWCS) process during a proof of principle (POP) demonstration. The test program included three objectives. One objective was to validate the barrier material mix formulation to be used with the BWCS equipment. A basic mix formula for initial trials was supplied by the cement and latex vendors. The suitability of the material for BWCS application was verified by laboratory testing at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). A second objective was to determine if the POP BWCS material emplacement process adversely affected the barrier material properties. This objective was met by measuring and comparing properties of material prepared in the INEEL Materials Testing Laboratory (MTL) with identical properties of material produced by the BWCS field tests. These measurements included hydraulic conductivity to determine if the material met the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements for barriers used for hazardous waste sites, petrographic analysis to allow an assessment of barrier material separation and segregation during emplacement, and a set of mechanical property tests typical of concrete characterization. The third objective was to measure the hydraulic properties of barrier material containing a stop-start joint to determine if such a feature would meet the EPA requirements for hazardous waste site barriers.

  4. Nutrient hotspots and O horizon runoff in a Sierra Nevada Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, D. W.; Miller, W. W.; Meadows, M.; Rau, B.

    2009-12-01

    Because of the extremely dry summers, rooting is entirely absent in the O horizons of many forest ecosystems in the eastern Sierra Nevada Mountains of Nevada and California. Thus, decomposition/N mineralization and vegetation uptake processes are spatially discoupled, and the intense competition for N between roots and decomposers in the O horizon which characterizes more humid forest ecosystems is absent. Because of this discoupling, the N returned in littterfall is not recycled to the trees until: 1) N supply exceeds microbial demand, and 2) N is leached to lower horizons where roots are present. Both O horizons and the mineral soil surface in these ecosystems are extremely hydrophobic in summer, restricting the ability of summer rainfall to wet underlying mineral soils except via preferential flowpaths. Recent studies have found very high concentrations of ionic forms of N in O horizon interflow solutions that flow over the top of mineral soils. We hypothesize that this O horizon interflow creates biogeochemical “hot spots” and “hot moments” (Schimel and Bennett, 2004) where it infiltrates into preferential flowpaths present in the mineral soil. This paper reports the initial results of a study aimed at detecting O horizon runoff and nutrient hot spots in soils of the King’s River Experimental Watershed (KREW) in the western Sierra Nevada Mountains of California, one of the Critical Zone Observatory sites. We hypothesized that 1) nutrient rich runoff would occur in the KREW watersheds, as in the eastern Sierra; and 2) this runoff would contribute to the presence of nutrient hotspots on a centimeter scale in the soil. Testing Hypothesis 1) was straightforward: we installed O horizon runoff collectors in the KREW watersheds and found substantial amounts of runoff did occur, but the runoff waters were somewhat less nutrient-rich than in the drier forests of the eastern Sierra Nevada. Testing Hypothesis 2 was less straightforward because the most precise detection of preferential flow hotspots would require destruction of the sampling plots. We opted instead for measuring nutrient variability in small plots (3 x 3 m) using resin samplers in addition to traditional litter and soil sampling. We detected hot spots for ammonium and nitrate in nearly all cases in these plots (as indicated by the presence of extreme outliers), but hotspots for more abundant nutrients such as calcium and magnesium were either non-existent (resin collectors) or very rare (litter leachates). We inferred from nutrient ratios in runoff and in the small plots which hot spots might be due to infiltration from O horizon runoff.

  5. Degradation of Trichloroacetic Acid (TCA) in Soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Lignell; H. Heinonen-Tanski; A. Uusi-Rauva

    1984-01-01

    Soil qualities have been estimated by simulation with a continuous dynamic plant growth model named “Heimdal”, which in particular describes the water movement and energy state in the soil-plant-atmosphere system. Root development of barley, soil water characteristic curves and the sequence of horizons in the profiles were field determined data inputs. As climatic data, a mean drought period of June

  6. Deepwater Horizon Situation Report #5

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2010-06-10

    At approximately 11:00 pm EDT April 20, 2010 an explosion occurred aboard the Deepwater Horizon mobile offshore drilling unit (MODU) located 52 miles Southeast of Venice, LA and 130 miles southeast of New Orleans, LA. The MODU was drilling an exploratory well and was not producing oil at the time of the incident. The Deepwater Horizon MODU sank 1,500 feet northwest of the well site. Detailed information on response and recovery operations can be found at: http://www.deepwaterhorizonresponse.com/go/site/2931/

  7. Identification of buried structures (aerial surveillance and analysis of buried waste) long-range project plan

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, K.L.

    1991-11-01

    This long-range plan presents the plan (i.e., budget, schedule, justification, and plans for technology deployment) for implementation of the Identification of Buried Structures project. Two subcontractors will test and demonstrate their technologies at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory during October and November 1991, and will analyze their data and submit final reports to EG&G Idaho, Inc., by the end of December 1991. By February 21, 1992, EG&G Idaho will present a final report to the Department of Energy, assessing the subcontractor`s results and recommending further action.

  8. Identification of buried structures (aerial surveillance and analysis of buried waste) long-range project plan

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, K.L.

    1991-11-01

    This long-range plan presents the plan (i.e., budget, schedule, justification, and plans for technology deployment) for implementation of the Identification of Buried Structures project. Two subcontractors will test and demonstrate their technologies at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory during October and November 1991, and will analyze their data and submit final reports to EG G Idaho, Inc., by the end of December 1991. By February 21, 1992, EG G Idaho will present a final report to the Department of Energy, assessing the subcontractor's results and recommending further action.

  9. 49 CFR 195.248 - Cover over buried pipeline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Cover over buried pipeline. 195.248 Section 195.248 Transportation...Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF...

  10. 49 CFR 195.248 - Cover over buried pipeline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Cover over buried pipeline. 195.248 Section 195.248 Transportation...Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF...

  11. 49 CFR 195.248 - Cover over buried pipeline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Cover over buried pipeline. 195.248 Section 195.248 Transportation...Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF...

  12. Carbon limitation patterns in buried and open urban streams

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urban streams alternate between darkened buried segments dominated by heterotrophic processes and lighted open segments dominated by autotrophic processes. We hypothesized that labile carbon leaking from autotrophic cells would reduce heterotrophic carbon limitation in open chan...

  13. 49 CFR 195.248 - Cover over buried pipeline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Cover over buried pipeline. 195.248 Section 195.248 Transportation...Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF...

  14. Scattering from sub-critically insonified buried elastic shells

    E-print Network

    Lucifredi, Irena

    2005-01-01

    Buried mines have been so far generally considered undetectable by conventional high frequency sonars mostly due to the low levels of energy penetrating into the sediment at high frequencies. Furthermore, in a shallow water ...

  15. Neighbourhoods of Isolated Horizons and their stationarity

    E-print Network

    Jerzy Lewandowski; Tomasz Pawlowski

    2014-08-09

    A distinguished (invariant) Bondi-like coordinate system is defined in the spacetime neighbourhood of a non-expanding horizon of arbitrary dimension via geometry invariants of the horizon. With its use, the radial expansion of a spacetime metric about the horizon is provided and the free data needed to specify it up to given order are determined in spacetime dimension $4$. For the case of an electro-vacuum horizon in $4$-dimensional spacetime the necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a Killing field at its neighbourhood are identified as differential conditions on the horizon data and data on null surface transversal to the horizon.

  16. Neighborhoods of isolated horizons and their stationarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowski, Jerzy; Paw?owski, Tomasz

    2014-09-01

    A distinguished (invariant) Bondi-like coordinate system is defined in the spacetime neighborhood of a non-expanding horizon of arbitrary dimension via geometry invariants of the horizon. With its use, the radial expansion of a spacetime metric about the horizon is provided and the free data needed to specify it up to a given order are determined in spacetime dimension 4. For the case of an electro-vacuum horizon in four-dimensional spacetime, the necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a Killing field at its neighborhood are identified as differential conditions for the horizon data and data for the null surface transversal to the horizon.

  17. Using the accumulation of CBD-extractable iron and clay content to estimate soil age on stable surfaces and nearby slopes, Front Range, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dethier, David P.; Birkeland, Peter W.; McCarthy, James A.

    2012-11-01

    In many transport-limited environments, morphology, pedogenic iron and clay content provide a basis for estimating the exposure age of soils and associated landforms. We measured citrate-buffered dithionite (CBD)-extractable Fe (Fed) and clay concentration in fresh rock, saprolite, morainal and colluvial materials, and soil horizons from stable surfaces and hillslopes in the Colorado Front Range. Fresh igneous and high-grade metamorphic rocks contain < 1% Fed and 1 to 5% clay. As bedrock and surficial deposits age, Fed and clay accumulate from weathering and dustfall. Late Holocene regolith at warm, dry sites contains small amounts of Fed and clay, but relatively moist soils developed on early Holocene cirque deposits contain as much as 1.5% Fed and 8% clay. Concentrations and total profile accumulation of Fed and clay increase with age in soils developed on stable surfaces of glacial deposits as old as ~ 130 kyr. On stable sites, Fed and clay accumulation from weathering and dust is ~ 0.02 g cm- 2 kyr- 1 and ~ 0.2 g cm- 2 kyr- 1, respectively. We used the Fed and clay inventory in soil profiles at dated, stable Front Range surfaces to calculate accumulation functions, which allowed us to estimate soil age at hillslope sites. Heterogeneous parent material, particularly on hillslopes, and climate-related effects add to variability in measured relations. Mobile regolith in Gordon Gulch, one of the Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory (CZO) catchments, yields profile ages from about 0.5 to 5 × 104 yr, comparable to values measured using other techniques. Calculated profile ages are older on a north- vs. south-facing slope and increase from the drainage divide to the footslope. Ages calculated for stabilized colluvium and well-developed buried profiles at nearby hillslope sites (Lefthand, Ward and Rollinsville) suggest that these soils have stabilized over periods > 105 yr. In the absence of radiometric ages, the accumulation of Fed and clay in soils on stable sites and hillslopes provides a useful, local chronofunction for 103 to ~ 3 × 105 yr. Local footslope thickening of mobile regolith, buried soils, and areas of Fed- and clay-rich stabilized colluvium suggest that steady-state models of hillslope regolith must be modified to account for observed soil properties.

  18. Melter development needs assessment for RWMC buried wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. D. Donaldson; R. J. Carpenedo; G. L. Anderson

    1992-01-01

    This report presents a survey and initial assessment of the existing state-of-the-art melter technology necessary to thermally treat (stabilize) buried TRU waste, by producing a highly leach resistant glass\\/ceramic waste form suitable for final disposal. Buried mixed transuranic (TRU) waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) represents an environmental hazard requiring remediation. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) placed the

  19. Data fusion for the detection of buried land mines

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, G.A.; Sengupta, S.K.; Schaich, P.C.; Sherwood, R.J.; Buhl, M.R.; Hernandez, J.E.; Kane, R.J.; Barth, M.J.; Fields, D.J.; Carter, M.R.

    1993-10-01

    The authors conducted experiments to demonstrate the enhanced delectability of buried land mines using sensor fusion techniques. Multiple sensors, including imagery, infrared imagery, and ground penetrating radar, have been used to acquire data on a number of buried mines and mine surrogates. The authors present this data along with a discussion of the application of sensor fusion techniques for this particular detection problem. The authors describe the data fusion architecture and discuss some relevant results of these classification methods.

  20. User performance testing of the Perimitrax buried cable sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Maki; C. Hill; C. R. Malone

    1999-01-01

    Beginning in the 1970's buried cable sensors have been used extensively to provide perimeter intrusion detection for a wide range of military, government and industrial facilities around the world. In 1998, the U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (USAERDC), in partnership with Senstar-Stellar Corporation, conducted testing of the Perimitrax buried cable sensor. Perimitrax is a new product manufactured by

  1. Chemical interactions at Ta\\/fluorinated polymer buried interfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G.-R. Yang; Y.-P. Zhao; B. Wang; E. Barnat; J. McDonald; T.-M. Lu

    1998-01-01

    In this letter, we study Ta\\/parylene-F (PA-F) buried interfaces using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We found that the Ta-F bond was formed at the Ta\\/PA-F interface after depositing a layer of thin Ta film (<50 Å). For the Ar+ or O2 plasma pretreated PA-F surface, in addition to the Ta-F bond, a Ta-C bond was observed at the buried interface after

  2. The applicability of the Lamendin method to skeletal remains buried for a 16-year period: a cautionary note.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Danilo; Mele, Elia; Gibelli, Daniele; Merelli, Vera; Spagnoli, Laura; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The Lamendin method is widely reported as one of the most reliable means of age estimation of skeletal remains, but very little is known concerning the influence of burial in soil. This study aimed at verifying the reliability of the Lamendin method on corpses buried for 16 years in a cemetery. The Lamendin and the Prince and Ubelaker methods were applied. In all age groups except the 40- to 49-year-olds, the error was higher in the buried sample. The age-at-death error ranged between 10.7 and 36.8 years for the Lamendin method (vs. the reported 7.3-18.9 years) and 9.5 and 35.7 for the Prince and Ubelaker one (vs. the original 5.2-32.6 years); in all age groups, the error is closer to that found on archeological populations. These results suggest caution in applying the Lamendin method to forensic cases of human remains buried even for a brief period under soil. PMID:25413353

  3. Effects of different methods of plant residue management on soil properties and maize yield

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. A. Osiname; F. Meppe

    1999-01-01

    The effect of different methods of plant residue management on soil properties and maize yield were studied in a field experiment conducted on a Typic Kandihumult in Bambui, Northwest Province of Cameroon. Ankara (a local practice of slow burning partially buried dry plant residues) was compared with surface burning and burying plant residues under the ridges without burning. The comparison

  4. Deepwater Horizon Controlled Oil Burn

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    OFF THE LOUISIANA COAST — A controlled burn of oil from the Deepwater Horizon/BP oil spill sends towers of fire hundreds of feet into the air over the Gulf of Mexico. U.S. Coast Guard Photo by Petty Officer First Class John Masson....

  5. New Horizons Mission to Pluto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delgado, Luis G.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the trajectory that will take the New Horizons Mission to Pluto. Included are photographs of the spacecraft, the launch vehicle, the assembled vehicle as it is being moved to the launch pad and the launch. Also shown are diagrams of the assembled parts with identifying part names.

  6. NEW HORIZONS PLUTO APPROACH NAVIGATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James K. Miller; Dale R. Stanbridge; Bobby G. Williams

    The navigation of the New Horizons spacecraft during approach to Pluto and its satellite Charon is described. The great distance of the spacecraft from the Earth and Sun presents several new challenges that are identified and described by ana- lytic formula. The two-body dynamics present a particularly interesting problem of satellite orbit determination. A complete covariance analysis is performed describ-

  7. NIF featured on BBC "Horizon"

    ScienceCinema

    Brian Cox

    2010-09-01

    The National Ignition Facility, the world's largest laser system, located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, was featured in the BBC broadcast "Horizon" hosted by physicist Brian Cox. Here is the NIF portion of the program, which was entitled "Can We Make A Star On Earth?" This video is used with the express permission of the BBC.

  8. Return to Flight New Horizons

    E-print Network

    Christian, Eric

    in the News Upcoming Highlights - 10 Goddard Bulletin 2005 VA Space Flight Camp - 11 Safety Alerts! - 11Return to Flight Pg 3 New Horizons Pg 5 Goes-N: Keeping Watch From Above Pg 5 GoddardView NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Goddard Space Flight Center Explore. Discover. Understand #12;02 Tableof

  9. Information space receding horizon control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suman Chakravorty; R. Scott Erwin

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a receding horizon so- lution to the problem of optimal sensor scheduling problem. The optimal sensor scheduling problem can be posed as a Partially Observed Markov Decision Process (POMDP) whose solution is given by an Information Space (I-space) Dynamic Programming (DP) problem. We present a simulation based stochastic optimization technique that, combined with a receding

  10. New Horizons in Education, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Kwok Keung, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This document contains the May and November 2000 issues of "New Horizons in Education," with articles in English and Chinese. The May issue includes the following articles: "A Key to Successful Environmental Education: Teacher Trainees' Attitude, Behaviour, and Knowledge" (Kevin Chung Wai Lui, Eric Po Keung Tsang, Sing Lai Chan); "Critical…

  11. Evolutionary Robotics: Exploring New Horizons

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Chapter 1 Evolutionary Robotics: Exploring New Horizons St´ephane Doncieux, Jean-Baptiste Mouret, Nicolas Bredeche, and Vincent Padois Abstract. This paper considers the field of Evolutionary Robotics (ER of research is discussed, as well as the potential use of ER in a robot design process. Four main aspects

  12. Inventory Eects and Trading Horizons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giovanni Cespa

    2000-01-01

    I study the eects of the heterogeneity of traders' horizon in the context of a 2-period NREE model where all traders are risk averse. Owing to inventory eects, myopic trading behavior generates multiplicity of equilibria. In particu- lar, two distinct patterns arise. Along the first equilibrium, short term traders anticipate higher second period price reaction to information arrival and, owing

  13. Airblast environments from buried HE charges

    SciTech Connect

    Reichenbach, H.; Behrens, K. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Kurzzeitdynamik - Ernst-Mach-Institut (EMI), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Kuhl, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., El Segundo, CA (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to measure the airblast environment generated by the detonation of buried HE charges. Spherical 0.5-g charges of Nitropenta were used as the HE source. Three ground materials were used: (1) a porous, crushable grout (YTONG, {rho} = 0.4 g/cm{sup 3}); (2) a water-saturated grout ({rho} {approx_equal} 0.7 g/Cm{sup 3}) to investigate the effects of density increase; and (3) a clay-loam material ({rho} {approx_equal} 1.8 g/cm{sup 3}) to simulate some of the previous field tests conducted in clay. Diagnostics consisted of 13 flush-mounted pressure gauges, and single-frame schlieren photography. A special shock isolation system was used to eliminate the acceleration effects on the gauges that were induced by the cratering process. Analysis of the pressure measurements resulted in an experimental definition of the airblast environment as a function of ground range (GR) and depth-of-burst (DOB). Synthesis of these results allowed one to construct airblast DOB curves, similar to the airblast height-of-burst curves that we published previously for Nitropenta charges. Variables analyzed were: peak pressure, arrival time, positive phase duration and impulse. As in field tests, we found that the airblast waveforms changed character with increasing DOB. The crater characteristics (e.a., depth, radius and volume) were also measured. The cube-root-scaled crater volume was in qualitative agreement with data from field tests (e.g., charge weights up to 10{sup 4} lbs.). Since the present scaled results compare well with data from large-scale HE tests, we conclude that the present experimental technique provides a useful tool for parametric investigations of explosion effects in the laboratory.

  14. A 0.6 ?m2 256 Mb trench DRAM cell with self-aligned BuriEd STrap (BEST)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Nesbit; J. Alsmeier; B. Chen; J. DeBrosse; P. Faheyk; M. Gall; J. Gambino; S. Gernhardt; H. Ishiuchit; R. Kleinhenz; J. Mandelman; T. Mii; M. Morikadot; A. Nitayamat; S. Parkex; H. Wong; G. Bronner

    1993-01-01

    In order to realize a small cell and a simple process for a 256 Mbit DRAM, a trench cell with the unique feature of a self-aligned BuriEd STrap (BEST) is proposed. This and other process features result in a folded bitline cell with an area of 0.605?m2 at 0.25 ?m design rules, which is the smallest of the proposed 256

  15. Electrogeochemical sampling with NEOCHIM - results of tests over buried gold deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leinz, R.W.; Hoover, D.B.; Fey, D.L.; Smith, D.B.; Patterson, T.

    1998-01-01

    Electrogeochemical extraction methods are based on the migration of ions in an electric field. Ions present in soil moisture are transported by an applied current into fluids contained in special electrodes placed on the soil. The fluids are then collected and analyzed. Extractions are governed by Faraday's and Ohm's laws and are modeled by the operation of a simple Hittord transference apparatus. Calculations show that the volume of soil sampled in an ideal electrogeochemical extraction can be orders of magnitude greater than the volumes used in more popular geochemical extraction methods, although this has not been verified experimentally. CHIM is a method of in-situ electrogeochemical extraction that was developed in the former Soviet Union and has been tested and applied internationally to exploration for buried mineral deposits. Tests carried out at the US Geological Survey (USGS) indicated that there were problems inherent in the use of CHIM technology. The cause of the problems was determined to be the diffusion of acid from the conventional electrode into the soil. The NEOCHIM electrode incorporates two compartments and a salt bridge in a design that inhibits diffusion of acid and enables the collection of anions or cations. Tests over a gold-enriched vein in Colorado and over buried, Carlin-type, disseminated gold deposits in northern Nevada show that there are similarities and differences between NEOCHIM results and those by partial extractions of soils which include simple extractions with water, dilute acids and solutions of salts used as collector fluids in the electrodes. Results of both differ from the results obtained by total chemical digestion. The results indicate that NEOCHIM responds to mineralized faults associated with disseminated gold deposits whereas partial and total chemical extraction methods do not. This suggests that faults are favored channels for the upward migration of metals and that NEOCHIM may be more effective in exploration for the deposits. It defines anomalies that are often narrow and intense, an observation previously made by CHIM researchers. The field tests show that NEOCHIM is less affected by surface contamination. A test over the Mike disseminated gold deposit indicates that the method may not be effective for locating deposits with impermeable cover. Faradaic extraction efficiencies of 20-30%, or more, are frequently achieved with NEOCHIM and the method generally shows good reproducibility, especially in extraction of major cations. However, ions of other metals that are useful in exploration, including Au and As, may be collected in low and temporally variable concentrations. The reason for this variability is unclear and requires further investigation.CHIM is a method of in-situ electrogeochemical extraction developed for the exploration of buried mineral deposits. However, electrode problems like diffusion of acid into the soil were encountered during the use of CHIM. The NEOCHIM electrode was developed to inhibit the diffusion of acid and enable collection of anions or cations. Tests over buried gold deposits showed that NEOCHIM responds to mineralized faults associated with disseminated gold deposits whereas partial and total chemical extraction methods do not. This suggests that faults are favored channels for the upward migration of metals and NEOCHIM may be effective in exploration for the deposits. But ions of metals may be collected in low and variable concentration.

  16. Searching for the buried memory of past strong earthquakes on strike-slip faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garambois, S.; Manighetti, I.; Malavieille, J.; Langridge, R. M.; Davies, T. R.

    2009-12-01

    On strike-slip faults, the effect of a large earthquake is to suddenly displace the ground surface laterally, often by up to several meters. A consequence is the lateral offset, hence lateral separation, of the preexisting ground features. In alluvial settings, the dominant surface features are the stream network and related sediments. Where ongoing sedimentation is significant, the surface imprints of an earthquake may be rapidly buried under fresh sediments so that, when the next seismic event occurs (if not too close in time from the previous one), it offsets and deforms a younger soil layer possibly holding new markers such as newly formed drainage channels. Hence as earthquakes repeat on a strike-slip fault under ongoing sedimentation, the subsurface should keep part of their memory more or less buried in the form of distinctly offset markers, lying at various depths (0-10 m) in the ground. To search for that buried memory, we need non-invasive investigation methods, allowing imaging the sub-surface down to depths of several meters to 10s of meters. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) has appropriate resolution and acquisition time, provided that the subsurface layers are not too electrically conductive. We have performed serial 2D GPR profiles using 100 MHz antennas along several major strike-slip faults in New Zealand. In particular, at the Mason river site on the Hope dextral fault, four 450 m-long profiles were recorded parallel to the fault, two on each northern and southern compartments of the fault, whose surfaces are made of the 14-26 ka-old Terako alluvial terrace. The processed GPR data show the ground architecture only down to 5 meters in such conductive sediments. The profiles however reveal a number of places along the fault where the reflector pile is deflected at depth to form concave-up patterns. Some of those buried features have their edges extending up to the ground surface, what suggests they may post-date the Terako terrace surface. Most of them have very specific shapes which, on one hand, suggest that they likely are abandoned stream channels, and on the other hand, make them clearly distinguishable from one another. Interestingly, the overall arrangement and pattern of the markers identified in the northern compartment resembles that of the southern markers, the only clear difference being the lateral dextral offset of the southern marker series with respect to the northern one. Such lateral offset is compatible with the actual dextral slip on the fault, and suggests that the shallow buried markers have been laterally displaced by up to 30 meters. Knowing the fast slip rate of the Hope fault (about 20 mm/yr), the observed offsets might be the shallow buried signature of the few last major earthquakes on the fault. Though our results are preliminary and need further refinements, they show that GPR allows rapid investigation of large zones along faults, and has the potential to recover the buried memory of the past strong earthquakes on these faults.

  17. Variations in microbial community composition through two soil depth profiles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noah Fierer; Joshua P. Schimel; Patricia A. Holden

    2003-01-01

    Soil profiles are often many meters deep, but with the majority of studies in soil microbiology focusing exclusively on the soil surface, we know very little about the nature of the microbial communities inhabiting the deeper soil horizons. We used phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis to examine the vertical distribution of specific microbial groups and to identify the patterns of

  18. NASA's New Horizons Mission Dr. Henry Throop

    E-print Network

    Throop, Henry

    't land, and it never comes back to Earth. New Horizons Spacecraft #12;Radio Battery Camera #12;Radio) ALICE (UV Spectrometer) Student Dust Counter New Horizons Spacecraft REX (Radio Experiment) #12;`Ralph;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;New Horizons is the fastest spacecraft ever launched

  19. Annual dormancy cycles in buried seeds of shrub species: germination ecology of Sideritis serrata (Labiatae).

    PubMed

    Copete, M A; Herranz, J M; Ferrandis, P; Copete, E

    2015-07-01

    The germination ecology of Sideritis serrata was investigated in order to improve ex-situ propagation techniques and management of their habitat. Specifically, we analysed: (i) influence of temperature, light conditions and seed age on germination patterns; (ii) phenology of germination; (iii) germinative response of buried seeds to seasonal temperature changes; (iv) temperature requirements for induction and breaking of secondary dormancy; (v) ability to form persistent soil seed banks; and (vi) seed bank dynamics. Freshly matured seeds showed conditional physiological dormancy, germinating at low and cool temperatures but not at high ones (28/14 and 32/18 °C). Germination ability increased with time of dry storage, suggesting the existence of non-deep physiological dormancy. Under unheated shade-house conditions, germination was concentrated in the first autumn. S. serrata seeds buried and exposed to natural seasonal temperature variations in the shade-house, exhibited an annual conditional dormancy/non-dormancy cycle, coming out of conditional dormancy in summer and re-entering it in winter. Non-dormant seeds were clearly induced into dormancy when stratified at 5 or 15/4 °C for 8 weeks. Dormant seeds, stratified at 28/14 or 32/18 °C for 16 weeks, became non-dormant if they were subsequently incubated over a temperature range from 15/4 to 32/18 °C. S. serrata is able to form small persistent soil seed banks. The maximum seed life span in the soil was 4 years, decreasing with burial depth. This is the second report of an annual conditional dormancy/non-dormancy cycle in seeds of shrub species. PMID:25598169

  20. Sensing of buried wastes through resistivity measurements 

    E-print Network

    Reddy, Bollam Muralidhar

    1991-01-01

    method was successful when the highly conductive contaminant was moving at a shallow depth, the water table was close to surface, uniform soil and vegetative conditions existed, and proper electrode spacings were used. Nerkel (1972) used resistivity... to rapidly locate and delineate contaminant plumes at greatly reduced time and cost. Because the measured earth resistivity is inversely proportional to the conductivity of ground water, bodies of water containing a high concentration of conductive wastes...

  1. The Changing Model of Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, D. D.; Yaalon, D.

    2012-12-01

    The contemporary genetic model of soil is changing rapidly in response to advances in soil science and to human and environmental forcings in the 21st century (Richter and Yaalon, 2012). Three ongoing changes in the model of soil include that: (1) lower soil boundaries are much deeper than the solum, historically the O to B horizons, (2) most soils are polygenetic paleosols, products of soil-forming processes that have ranged widely over soils' lifetimes, and (3) soils are globally human-natural bodies, no longer natural bodies. Together, these changes in the model of soil mean that human forcings are a global wave of soil polygenesis altering fluxes of matter and energy and transforming soil thermodynamics as potentially very deep systems. Because soils are non-linear systems resulting from high-order interactions of physics, chemistry, and biology, trajectories of how human forcings alter soils over decades are not readily predictable and require long-term soil observations. There is much to learn about how soils are changing internally as central components of management systems and externally in relation to wider environments. To be critical, research has been remarkably superficial in studies of soil, reductionist in approach, and lacking in time-series observations of responses to soil management. While this criticism may sound negative, it creates significant opportunities for contemporary soil scientists.

  2. Linear and Nonlinear Acoustic Measurements of Buried Landmines: Detection Schemes Near Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatier, James M.

    2003-03-01

    Measurements of the acoustic impedance of an anti-personnel and anti-tank plastic, blast-hardened landmines reveal resonances in the frequency range between 100 and 1000 Hz. The top surface resonances are due to its complicated mechanical structure vibrating in air. The lowest mode results from the blast hardened design of the landmine. Typically, a portion or cavity of the landmine is designed to absorb the shock from an explosion that is intended to detonate the landmine but still allow the landmine to trigger its explosive device when a slow steady pressure is applied. The mechanical design of the blast hardened aspects results in a high Q simple harmonic oscillator resonance of the top surface. At higher frequencies the top surface behaves like thin circular plate acoustic modes. When these landmines are buried in soils, the modes are mass loaded. Resonances from measurements of the normal component of the acoustically induced soil surface particle velocity are used for detection schemes. Since the interface between the top plate and the soil responds to pressure fluctuations nonlinearly, characteristics of landmines, the soil, and the interface are rich in nonlinear physics and allow for new methods of landmine detection not previously exploited.

  3. Volcanic soils and landslides: a case study of the island of Ischia (southern Italy) and its relationship with other Campania events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vingiani, S.; Mele, G.; De Mascellis, R.; Terribile, F.; Basile, A.

    2015-06-01

    An integrated investigation was carried out on the volcanic soils involved in the landslide phenomena that occurred in 2006 at Mt. Vezzi on the island of Ischia (southern Italy). Chemical (soil pH, organic carbon content, exchangeable cations and cation exchange capacity, electrical conductivity, Na adsorption ratio and Al, Fe and Si forms), physical (particle and pore size distribution, pore structure), hydrological (soil water retention, saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity), mineralogical and micromorphological analyses were carried out for three soil profiles selected in two of the main head scarps. The studied soils showed a substantial abrupt discontinuity in all the studied properties at the interface with a buried fine ash layer (namely, the 2C horizon), that was only marginally involved in the sliding surface of the landslide phenomena. When compared to the overlying horizons, 2C showed (i) fine grey ash that is almost pumice free, with the silt content increasing by 20 %; (ii) ks values 1 order of magnitude lower; (iii) a pore distribution concentrated into small (15-30 ?m modal class) pores characterised by a very low percolation threshold (approximately 15-25 ?m); (iv) the presence of expandable clay minerals; and (v) increasing Na content in the exchange complex. Most of these properties indicated that 2C was a lower permeability horizon compared to the overlying ones. Nevertheless, it was possible to assume this interface to be an impeding layer to vertical water fluxes only by the identification of a thin (6.5 mm) finely stratified ash layer, on top of 2C, and of the hydromorphic features (e.g. Fe / Mn concretions) within and on top of the layer. Although Mt. Vezzi's soil environment has many properties in common with those of other Campania debris-mudflows (e.g. high gradient, north-facing slope, similar forestry, and volcanic origin of the parent material), the results of this study suggest a more complex relationship between soil properties and landslides and emphasise the role of vertical discontinuities as noteworthy predisposing factors.

  4. Role of large-scale soil structure in organic carbon turnover: Evidence from California grassland soils

    E-print Network

    Wang, Yang

    Role of large-scale soil structure in organic carbon turnover: Evidence from California grassland organic carbon (SOC) in upper (A) and lower (B) horizons of grassland soils from California's Central carbon turnover: Evidence from California grassland soils, J. Geophys. Res., 111, G03012, doi:10

  5. The tri-soil experiment: do plants discriminate among vegetation soil types?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We tested if rooting mass and root nutrient uptake of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) or creeping wildrye (Leymus triticoides) were influenced by vegetation soil type. Three soil types (A horizons), similar in gross physical and chemical properties, were freshly-collected. The soils varied in the veget...

  6. Spatial arrangement of soil mantle in Glacis de Buenavista, Mexico as a product and record of landscape evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Ortega, J.; Solleiro-Rebolledo, E.; Sedov, S.

    2011-12-01

    Factors controlling spatial soil organization have recently attracted the attention of soil scientists because they can contribute to regional management of soil resources. We present here a case study in the Glacis de Buenavista (Mexico), an extended volcanic piedmont, in order to develop an integral understanding of its soil cover as a product and, at the same time, as a record of the main stages of landscape evolution. Three phenomena were considered: Luvisol and Vertisol type soils, and pedosediments, all of them analyzed in terms of their development degree (clay content, macro and micromorphology, selective extractions of Fe (Fe d, Fe o), silicon (Si o) and aluminum (Al o), weathering index and clay mineralogy). Luvisols, represented in the Ahuatenco, Mexicapa and Buenavista sections, are located in the northern and central part of the area. They are red-clayey, polygenetic soils that show strong weathering (with high kaolinitic clay content and high weathering index values), clay illuviation, and reductomorphic processes, combined with vertic features in some parts of the profiles. Vertisols dominate the central and southern portion of the Glacis. They exhibit cracking, angular blocks with wedge-like shapes, slickensides and stress-cutans. The pedogenesis of the Vertisol type is clearly associated with the presence of smectitic minerals in the clay fraction as a product of neoformation. Factors controlling this pedodiversity are: relief, which affects bioclimatic differentiation within the studied landsurface and defines the lateral redistribution of moisture and dissolved substances; and time. Luvisols represent a longer pedogenetic phase that started in the Late Pleistocene, according to the age of buried paleosols, while Vertisols mainly originated in the Late Holocene (according to the age of buried organic horizons). Pedosediments are located in the central area of the Glacis. Here, past and present geomorphic processes interact to produce the greatest soil diversity. The recent human-induced erosion partly destroyed polycyclic Luvisols and exposed ancient subsurface pedosedimentary strata. At the same time it produced patches of unconsolidated pedosediments consisting mostly of redeposited Luvisol materials.

  7. Effects of compaction and wetting of laterite cover soil on development and survival of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) immatures.

    PubMed

    Abu Tahir, Nurita; Ahmad, Abu Hassan

    2013-09-01

    Effects of laterite cover soil with different characteristics on survival of buried eggs, third instar larvae, and pupae of Musca domestica (L.) were studied experimentally. Soil treatments were loose dry soil, loose wet soil, compacted dry soil, and compacted wet soil (CWS). Eggs, third instar larvae, and pupae were buried under 30 cm of the different soil treatments and placed under field conditions until adults emerged. Rearing medium was provided for eggs and larvae, and control treatments of all stages were unburied immatures placed on soil surface. Egg and pupal survival to adult were significantly affected by the cover soil treatments, but third instars were more resilient. Wet soil treatments (loose wet soil and CWS) resulted in significantly reduced pupal survival, but increased survival of eggs. However, CWS significantly reduced adult emergence from buried eggs. Though emergence of house flies buried as eggs was significantly reduced, some were able to hatch and emerging first instar larvae developed to pupation. Although cover soil does not completely prevent fly emergence, it did limit development and emergence of buried house flies. PMID:24180104

  8. Extremal isolated horizon/CFT correspondence

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Xiaoning; Tian Yu [Institute of Mathematics, Academy of Mathematics and System Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China) and Hua Loo-Keng Key Laboratory of Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); College of Physical Sciences, Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China) and Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics China, CAS, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2009-07-15

    The near-horizon limit of the extremal (weakly) isolated horizon is obtained under the Bondi-like coordinates. For the vacuum case, explicit coordinate transformation relating the near-horizon metric under the Bondi-like coordinates and the standard Poincare-type or global near-horizon metric of the extremal Kerr black hole is found, which shows that the two geometries are the same. Combined with the known thermodynamics of the (weakly) isolated horizon, it is argued that the Kerr/conformal field theory correspondence can be generalized to the case of a large class of nonstationary extremal black holes.

  9. Eolian sedimentation and soil development on a semiarid to subhumid grassland, Tertiary Ogallala and Quaternary Blackwater Draw Formations, Texas and New Mexico High Plains

    SciTech Connect

    Gustavson, T.C. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Texas Archeological Research Lab.; Holliday, V.T. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Geography

    1999-05-01

    Eolian sediments have accumulated as non-glacigenic loess and thin sand sheets on the Central and Southern High Plains grasslands of Texas and new mexico since the late Miocene. Locally as much as 110 m of eolian sediments with numerous paleosols are preserved in the Quaternary Blackwater Draw formation and the upper part of the Miocene-Pleiocene Ogallala formation. These sediments and paleosols, which cover more than 130,000 km{sup 2}, are similar to recent surface sediments and soils and record a long period of episodic eolian transport and sedimentation, and pedogenesis on a stable low-relief grass-covered landscape. Eolian sections, which comprise the fine sand to coarse silt lithofacies of the Ogallala formation, and the very fine to fine sand and sandy mud lithofacies of the Blackwater Draw formation, generally lack primary sedimentary structures. Grain size of Ogallala sediments decreases from west to east and grain size of Blackwater Draw sediments decreases from southwest to northeast. Soil horizonation is well developed in most sections, and buried calcic and argillic horizons are common. Calcic horizons are characterized by sharply increased CaCO{sub 3} content in the form of filaments, nodules, and petrocalcic horizons (calcretes). Argillic horizons are characterized by increased illuvial clay, pedogenic structure, and darker reddish hues. Rhizocretions are common locally. Open root tubules, which are typically less than 1 mm in diameter and characteristic of small plants like grasses, are present in all Ogallala and Blackwater Draw eolian sediments. Paleosols preserved in eolian sediments of the High Plains reflect periods of sedimentation followed by episodes of landscape stability and pedogenesis, and negligible sedimentation. Episodes of sedimentation and soil development likely resulted from cyclic decreases and increases in available moisture and vegetative cover. Eolian sediments were eroded and transported eastward during dry periods when vegetation was sparse in source areas, such as the western High Plains and the Pecos Valley. During humid periods more abundant vegetation probably protected source areas from deflation, and resulted in landscape stability across the High Plains.

  10. Experimental investigation of buried tritium in plant and animal tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S. B.; Workman, W. J. G.; Davis, P. A. [AECL, Chalk River Laboratories, Environmental Technologies Branch, Chalk River, ON K0J 1J0 (Canada)

    2008-07-15

    Buried exchangeable tritium appears as part of organically bound tritium (OBT) in the traditional experimental determination of OBT. Since buried tritium quickly exchanges with hydrogen atoms in the body following ingestion, assuming that it is part of OBT rather than part of tritiated water (HTO) could result in a significant overestimate of the ingestion dose. This paper documents an experimental investigation into the existence, amount and significance of buried tritium in plant and fish samples. OBT concentrations in the samples were determined in the traditional way and also following denaturing with five chemical solutions that break down large molecules and expose buried tritium to exchange with free hydrogen atoms. A comparison of the OBT concentrations before and after denaturing, together with the concentration of HTO in the supernatant obtained after denaturing, suggests that buried OBT may exist but makes up less than 5% of the OBT concentration in plants and at most 20% of the OBT concentration in fish. The effects of rinse time and rinse water volumes were investigated to optimize the removal of exchangeable OBT from the samples. (authors)

  11. FINITE ELEMENT MODELS FOR COMPUTING SEISMIC INDUCED SOIL PRESSURES ON DEEPLY EMBEDDED NUCLEAR POWER PLANT STRUCTURES.

    SciTech Connect

    XU, J.; COSTANTINO, C.; HOFMAYER, C.

    2006-06-26

    PAPER DISCUSSES COMPUTATIONS OF SEISMIC INDUCED SOIL PRESSURES USING FINITE ELEMENT MODELS FOR DEEPLY EMBEDDED AND OR BURIED STIFF STRUCTURES SUCH AS THOSE APPEARING IN THE CONCEPTUAL DESIGNS OF STRUCTURES FOR ADVANCED REACTORS.

  12. Soils - Part 1: The Origin and Development of Soil(How Soil Gets a Life and a Name)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this lesson, you will gain an understanding of the five soil forming factors and will be able to describe how each influences soil development. You will learn to identify common parent materials, determine the age of a soil, identify the types of native vegetation associated with different soils in Nebraska and define soil horizons.[This lesson, as well as the other nine lessons in the Soils series, is taken from the "Soils Home Study Course," published in 1999 by the University of Nebraska Cooperative Extension.

  13. Emergent Horizons in the Laboratory

    E-print Network

    Ralf Schützhold

    2010-04-15

    The concept of a horizon known from general relativity describes the loss of causal connection and can be applied to non-gravitational scenarios such as out-of-equilibrium condensed-matter systems in the laboratory. This analogy facilitates the identification and theoretical study (e.g., regarding the trans-Planckian problem) and possibly the experimental verification of "exotic" effects known from gravity and cosmology, such as Hawking radiation. Furthermore, it yields a unified description and better understanding of non-equilibrium phenomena in condensed matter systems and their universal features. By means of several examples including general fluid flows, expanding Bose-Einstein condensates, and dynamical quantum phase transitions, the concepts of event, particle, and apparent horizons will be discussed together with the resulting quantum effects.

  14. Biogeochemical Controls on Microbial CO2 and CH4 Production in Polygonal Soils From the Barrow Environmental Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, D. E.; Roy Chowdhury, T.; Herndon, E.; Gu, B.; Liang, L.; Wullschleger, S. D.

    2014-12-01

    Organic matter buried in Arctic soils and permafrost will become accessible to increased microbial degradation as the ground warms due to climate change. The rates of organic matter degradation and the proportion of CH4 and CO2 greenhouse gasses released in a potential warming feedback cycle depend on the microbial response to warming, organic carbon structure and availability, the pore-water quantity and geochemistry, and available electron acceptors. Significant amounts of iron(II) ions in organic and mineral soils of the active layer in low-centered ice wedge polygons indicate anoxic conditions in most soil horizons. To adapt and improve the representation of these Arctic subsurface processes in terrestrial ecosystem models for the NGEE Arctic project, we examined soil organic matter transformations from elevated and subsided areas of low- and high-centered polygons from interstitial tundra on the Barrow Environmental Observatory (Barrow, AK). Using microcosm incubations at fixed temperatures and controlled thawing systems for frozen soil cores, we investigated the microbiological processes and rates of soil organic matter degradation and greenhouse gas production under anoxic conditions, at ecologically relevant temperatures of -2, +4 or +8 °C. In contrast to the low-centered polygon incubations representing in situ water-saturated conditions, microcosms with unsaturated high-centered polygon samples displayed lower carbon mineralization as either CH4 or CO2. Substantial differences in CH4 and CO2 response curves from different microtopographic samples separate the thermodynamic controls on biological activity from the kinetic controls of microbial growth and migration that together determine the temperature response for greenhouse gas emissions in a warming Arctic.

  15. Is life a thermal horizon ?

    E-print Network

    Pierre Martinetti

    2007-07-26

    This talk aims at questioning the vanishing of Unruh temperature for an inertial observer in Minkovski spacetime with finite lifetime, arguing that in the non eternal case the existence of a causal horizon is not linked to the non-vanishing of the acceleration. This is illustrated by a previous result, the diamonds temperature, that adapts the algebraic approach of Unruh effect to the finite case.

  16. New Horizons Launch Contingency Effort

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yale Chang; Matthew H. Lear; Brian E. McGrath; Gene A. Heyler; Naruhisa Takashima; W. Donald Owings

    2007-01-01

    On 19 January 2006 at 2:00 PM EST, the NASA New Horizons spacecraft (SC) was launched from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS), FL, onboard an Atlas V 551\\/Centaur\\/STAR™ 48B launch vehicle (LV) on a mission to explore the Pluto Charon planetary system and possibly other Kuiper Belt Objects. It carried a single Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG). As part

  17. Horizon Entropy in Modified Gravity

    E-print Network

    Peng Wang

    2005-07-18

    We present an observation about the proposal that four-dimensional modification of general relativity may explain the observed cosmic acceleration today. Assuming that the thermodynamical nature of gravity theory continues to hold in modified gravity theories, we derive the modified horizon entropy formula from the modified Friedmann equation. We argue that our results imply that there are conceptual problems in some models of four-dimensional modification of general relativity.

  18. Closure report for CAU Number 430: Buried Depleted Uranium Artillery Round Number 1, Tonopah Test Range

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 430 consists of the Buried Depleted Uranium (DU) Artillery Round No. 1. This Closure Report presents the information obtained from investigate actions performed to justify the decision for clean closure of CAU 430 through ``No Further Action``. The site was thought to consist of a potentially unexploded W-79 Joint Test Assembly (JTA) test artillery projectile with high explosives (HE) and DU. The DU was substituted for Special Nuclear Materials to prevent a nuclear explosion and yet retain the physical characteristics of uranium for ballistic and other mechanical tests. The projectile was reportedly buried in one pit, approximately 5 to 10 feet (ft) deep. The objectives of the activities were to prepare the site for closure through locating and identifying the projectile, destroying the projectile and any remaining components, collecting soil samples to detect residual contamination resulting from projectile destruction, and finally, remediating residual contamination. This report contains the following five sections. Section 1.0 introduces the CAU and scope of work. Section 2.0 of this report presents the closure activities performed as part of this investigation. Waste disposition is discussed in Section 3.0. Closure investigation results are presented in Section 4.0, and references are presented in Section 5.0.

  19. New Horizons Tracks an Asteroid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The two 'spots' in this image are a composite of two images of asteroid 2002 JF56 taken on June 11 and June 12, 2006, with the Multispectral Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC) component of the New Horizons Ralph imager. In the bottom image, taken when the asteroid was about 3.36 million kilometers (2.1 million miles) away from the spacecraft, 2002 JF56 appears like a dim star. At top, taken at a distance of about 1.34 million kilometers (833,000 miles), the object is more than a factor of six brighter. The best current, estimated diameter of the asteroid is approximately 2.5 kilometers.

    The asteroid observation was a chance for the New Horizons team to test the spacecraft's ability to track a rapidly moving object. On June 13 New Horizons came to within about 102,000 kilometers of the small asteroid, when the spacecraft was nearly 368 million kilometers (228 million miles) from the Sun and about 273 million kilometers (170 million miles) from Earth.

  20. Buried waste integrated demonstration FY 94 deployment plan

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, R.A.; Walker, S.; Garcia, M.M.

    1994-05-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) is a program funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Technology Development. BWID supports the applied research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that together form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. The fiscal year (FY) 1994 effort will fund thirty-eight technologies in five areas of buried waste site remediation: site characterization, waste characterization, retrieval, treatment, and containment/stabilization. This document is the basic operational planning document for deployment of all BWID projects. Discussed in this document are the BWID preparations for INEL field demonstrations, INEL laboratory demonstrations, non-INEL demonstrations, and paper studies. Each technology performing tests will prepare a test plan to detail the specific procedures, objectives, and tasks of each test. Therefore, information specific to testing each technology is intentionally omitted from this document.

  1. New Horizons Launch Contingency Effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yale; Lear, Matthew H.; McGrath, Brian E.; Heyler, Gene A.; Takashima, Naruhisa; Owings, W. Donald

    2007-01-01

    On 19 January 2006 at 2:00 PM EST, the NASA New Horizons spacecraft (SC) was launched from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS), FL, onboard an Atlas V 551/Centaur/STAR™ 48B launch vehicle (LV) on a mission to explore the Pluto Charon planetary system and possibly other Kuiper Belt Objects. It carried a single Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG). As part of the joint NASA/US Department of Energy (DOE) safety effort, contingency plans were prepared to address the unlikely events of launch accidents leading to a near-pad impact, a suborbital reentry, an orbital reentry, or a heliocentric orbit. As the implementing organization. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) had expanded roles in the New Horizons launch contingency effort over those for the Cassini mission and Mars Exploration Rovers missions. The expanded tasks included participation in the Radiological Control Center (RADCC) at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), preparation of contingency plans, coordination of space tracking assets, improved aerodynamics characterization of the RTG's 18 General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules, and development of spacecraft and RTG reentry breakup analysis tools. Other JHU/APL tasks were prediction of the Earth impact footprints (ElFs) for the GPHS modules released during the atmospheric reentry (for purposes of notification and recovery), prediction of the time of SC reentry from a potential orbital decay, pre-launch dissemination of ballistic coefficients of various possible reentry configurations, and launch support of an Emergency Operations Center (EOC) on the JHU/APL campus. For the New Horizons launch, JHU/APL personnel at the RADCC and at the EOC were ready to implement any real-time launch contingency activities. A successful New Horizons launch and interplanetary injection precluded any further contingency actions. The New Horizons launch contingency was an interagency effort by several organizations. This paper describes JHU/APL's roles and responsibilities in the launch contingency effort, and the specific tasks to fulfill those responsibilities. The overall effort contributed to mission safety and demonstrated successful cooperation between several agencies.

  2. Kaolin in the net-like horizon of laterite in Hubei, south China

    E-print Network

    Li, Zhaohui

    Kaolin in the net-like horizon of laterite in Hubei, south China HANLIE HONG1 , *, ZHAOHUI LI2 , 3 in a laterite profile in Hubei, south China were investigated using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron that all three portions of the laterite soil share the same origin. Also, although the white-vein and red

  3. ACIDIFICATION AND RECOVERY OF A SPODOSOL BS HORIZON FROM ACIDIC DEPOSITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A laboratory study was conducted to examine acidification and recovery of a Spodosol Bs horizon from acidic deposition in the Bear Brook Watershed (BBW) in central Maine. echanical vacuum extractor was used to draw solutions through a soil column at three treatments containing 40...

  4. Multifractal analysis of discretized X-ray CT images for the characterization of soil macropore structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Martín; F. J. Caniego; M. Tuller; A. Guber; Y. Pachepsky; C. García-Gutiérrez

    2010-01-01

    A correct statistical model of soil pore structure can be critical for understanding flow and transport processes in soils, and creating synthetic soil pore spaces for hypothetical and model testing, and evaluating similarity of pore spaces of different soils. Advanced visualization techniques such as X-ray computed tomography (CT) offer new opportunities of exploring heterogeneity of soil properties at horizon or

  5. Soil ammonium and phosphate sorption capacity decreases with prescribed ground fire Miranda A. Sinnott-Armstrong

    E-print Network

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    decrease in soil sorption capacity. Preliminary data on soil pH in organic and mineral soil indicate1 Soil ammonium and phosphate sorption capacity decreases with prescribed ground fire Miranda A fires decreased the depth of the organic horizon of soil in an experimentally burned forest in Truro, MA

  6. Gnathostoma infection in Nakhon Nayok and Prachin Buri, Central Thailand.

    PubMed

    Rojekittikhun, Wichit; Chaiyasith, Tossapon; Nuamtanong, Supaporn; Pubampen, Somchit; Maipanich, Wanna; Tungtrongchitr, Rungsunn

    2002-09-01

    Gnathostoma infection in Nakhon Nayok and Prachin Buri Provinces, Central Thailand, was investigated. The prevalence and intensity of infection of swamp eels were determined; dog fecal samples and fresh-water copepods were examined for evidence of infection. The overall prevalence of eel infection was 38.1% (117/307) in Nakhon Nayok and 24.0% (74/308) in Prachin Buri--the former rate being significantly higher than the latter. Most of the positive Nalkhon Nayok eels (53.8%) harbored only 1-9 larvae; only one eel bore more than 50 larvae. In Prachin Buri, 67.6% of the positive eels harbored 1-9 larvae; again, only one eel bore more than 50 larvae. The mean number of 11.0 +/- 10.4 larvae/eel in Nakhon Nayok was not significantly different from that of Prachin Buri (9.3 +/- 11.4). A total of 1,292 gnathostome larvae were recovered from 307 eels in Nakhon Nayok. Of these, 52.3% had accumulated in the liver and 47.7% had spread throughout the muscles. In eels from Prachin Buri, 50.6% and 49.4% of the total of 688 larvae (from 308 eels) were found in the liver and muscles, respectively. The larvae preferred encysting in ventral of muscles rather than dorsal part; they preferred the middle portion to the anterior and posterior portions. The average length of gnathostome larvae recovered from Nakhon Nayok eels was 4.0 +/- 0.5 mm (range 2.5-5.1 mm) and the average body width was 0.40 +/- 0.05 mm (range 0.29-0.51 mm). Those from eels in Prachin Buri were 3.9 +/- 0.5 mm (range 2.2-5.1 mm) and 0.34 +/- 0.05 mm (range 0.20-0.48 mm), respectively. The mean body length and width of the larvae from eels in Nakhon Nayok were significantly greater than those of the larvae from eels in Prachin Buri. In Ban Phrao, Nakhon Nayok, none of the first 44 fecal specimens examined was positive. Of the second (68) and the third (70) specimens, one (1.5%) and two (2.9%) samples were positive. However, six months after the third fecal collection, no eggs were found. In Tha Ngam, Prachin Buri, no eggs were found in all three batches (109, 115, and 100 fecal samples). A cyclops survey of 4,000-5,000 crustacea from each of two areas (Ban Phrao and Tha Ngam) found no evidence of natural cyclops infection. PMID:12693579

  7. Buried injector logic, a vertical IIL using deep ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouthaan, A. J.

    1987-12-01

    A vertically integrated alternative for integrated injection logic has been realized, named buried injector logic (BIL). 1 MeV ion implantations are used to create buried layers. The vertical pnp and npn transistors have thin base regions and exhibit a limited charge accumulation if a gate is saturated. d.c. and dynamic analysis of BIL-gate behaviour are given. A minimum gate delay of well below 1 ns is projected if collector areas are smaller than 10 ?m 2 within an oxide isolated structure. A relation between maximum injector current density and device size is derived.

  8. Training requirements and responsibilities for the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Vega, H.G.; French, S.B.; Rick, D.L.

    1992-09-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) is scheduled to conduct intrusive (hydropunch screening tests, bore hole installation, soil sampling, etc.) and nonintrusive (geophysical surveys) studies at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). These studies and activities will be limited to specific locations at the RWMC. The duration of these activities will vary, but most tasks are not expected to exceed 90 days. The BWID personnel requested that the Waste Management Operational Support Group establish the training requirements and training responsibilities for BWID personnel and BWID subcontractor personnel. This document specifies these training requirements and responsibilities. While the responsibilities of BWID and the RWMC are, in general, defined in the interface agreement, the training elements are based on regulatory requirements, DOE orders, DOE-ID guidance, state law, and the nature of the work to be performed.

  9. A comparison of soil moisture characteristics predicted by the Arya-Paris model with laboratory-measured data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arya, L. M.; Richter, J. C.; Davidson, S. A. (principal investigators)

    1982-01-01

    Soil moisture characteristics predicted by the Arya-Paris model were compared with the laboratory measured data for 181 New Jersey soil horizons. For a number of soil horizons, the predicted and the measured moisture characteristic curves are almost coincident; for a large number of other horizons, despite some disparity, their shapes are strikingly similar. Uncertainties in the model input and laboratory measurement of the moisture characteristic are indicated, and recommendations for additional experimentation and testing are made.

  10. Electromagnetic field model for the numerical computation of voltages induced on buried pipelines by high voltage overhead power lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munteanu, C.; Mates, G.; Purcar, M.; Topa, V.; Pop, I. T.; Grindei, L.; Racasan, A.

    2012-07-01

    This paper proposes an innovative, generally applicable numerical model for the calculation of the three-dimensional (3D) electromagnetic field generated by high voltage (HV) overhead power transmission lines (OHL) on the buried metallic structures (e.g., pipeline networks). The numerical analysis is based on a coupled finite element-boundary element model (FEM-BEM) designed to calculate the induced potential on buried pipelines for complex geometrical structures of HV OHL networks working on normal or fault conditions. The one-dimensional (1D) FEM technique based on pipe elements is used to discretize the mathematical model that describes the interior of the pipe and is coupled with the mathematical model that describes the exterior of the pipe using 3D-BEM integral equations. The full electromagnetic field model gives the flexibility to calculate the potential distribution in any point of the soil, providing useful information for the step and touching voltages. The computation accuracy of the numerical algorithm implemented is verified through two test problems by comparing the numerical results with those obtained using a software package based on the Transmission Line Method (TLM) and CIGRE formulae. Last part of the paper presents calculations of the induced potential on buried pipeline in the vicinity of a complex HV OHL working on normal and fault condition. The influence of the currents' direction and magnitude flowing on the HV OHL on the induced pipeline potential distribution is analyzed.

  11. Pb-concentrations and Pb-isotope ratios in soils collected along an east-west transect across the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reimann, Clemens; Smith, David B.; Woodruff, Laurel G.; Flem, Belinda

    2011-01-01

    Analytical results for Pb-concentrations and isotopic ratios from ca. 150 samples of soil A horizon and ca. 145 samples of soil C horizon collected along a 4000-km east–west transect across the USA are presented. Lead concentrations along the transect show: (1) generally higher values in the soil A-horizon than the C-horizon (median 21 vs. 16.5 mg/kg), (2) an increase in the median value of the soil A-horizon for central to eastern USA (Missouri to Maryland) when compared to the western USA (California to Kansas) (median 26 vs. 20 mg/kg) and (3) a higher A/C ratio for the central to eastern USA (1.35 vs. 1.14). Lead isotopes show a distinct trend across the USA, with the highest 206Pb/207Pb ratios occurring in the centre (Missouri, median A-horizon: 1.245; C-horizon: 1.251) and the lowest at both coasts (e.g., California, median A-horizon: 1.195; C-horizon: 1.216). The soil C-horizon samples show generally higher 206Pb/207Pb ratios than the A-horizon (median C-horizon: 1.224; A-horizon: 1.219). The 206Pb/207Pb-isotope ratios in the soil A horizon show a correlation with the total feldspar content for the same 2500-km portion of the transect from east-central Colorado to the Atlantic coast that shows steadily increasing precipitation. No such correlation exists in the soil C horizon. The data demonstrate the importance of climate and weathering on both Pb-concentration and 206Pb/207Pb-isotope ratios in soil samples and natural shifts thereof in the soil profile during soil-forming processes.

  12. Gravitational radiations of generic isolated horizons and nonrotating dynamical horizons from asymptotic expansions

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Y.-H.; Wang, C.-H. [Center for Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, National Central University and Department of Physics, National Central University, Chungli, 320, Taiwan (China); Department of Physics, National Central University, Chungli, 320, Taiwan (China)

    2009-09-15

    Instead of using a three-dimensional analysis on quasilocal horizons, we adopt a four-dimensional asymptotic expansion analysis to study the next order contributions from the nonlinearity of general relativity. From the similarity between null infinity and horizons, the proper reference frames are chosen from the compatible constant spinors for an observer to measure the energy-momentum and flux near quasilocal horizons. In particular, we focus on the similarity of Bondi-Sachs gravitational radiation for the quasilocal horizons and compare our results with Ashtekar-Kirshnan flux formula. The quasilocal energy-momentum and flux of generic isolated horizons and nonrotating dynamical horizons are discussed in this paper.

  13. 3D numerical simulation of the transport of chemical signature compounds from buried landmines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irrazabal, Maik; Borrero, Ernesto; Briano, Julio G.; Castro, Miguel; Hernandez, Samuel P.

    2005-06-01

    The transport of the chemical signature compounds from buried landmines in a three-dimensional (3D) array has been numerically modeled using the finite-volume technique. Compounds such as trinitrotoluene, dinitrotoluene, and their degradation products, are semi volatile and somewhat soluble in water. Furthermore, they can strongly adsorb to the soil and undergo chemical and biological degradation. Consequently, the spatial and temporal concentration distributions of such chemicals depend on the mobility of the water and gaseous phases, their molecular and mechanical diffusion, adsorption characteristics, soil water content, compaction, and environmental factors. A 3D framework is required since two-dimensional (2D) symmetry may easily fade due to terrain topography: non-flat surfaces, soil heterogeneity, or underground fractures. The spatial and temporal distribution of the chemical-signature-compounds, in an inclined grid has been obtained. The fact that the chemicals may migrate horizontally, giving higher surface concentrations at positions not directly on top of the objects, emphasizes the need for understanding the transport mechanism when a chemical detector is used. Deformation in the concentration contours after rainfall is observed in the inclined surface and is attributed to both: the advective flux, and to the water flux at the surface caused by the slope. The analysis of the displacements in the position of the maximum concentrations at the surface, respect to the actual location of the mine, in an inclined system, is presented.

  14. Variation in seed viability and dormancy of 17 weed species after 24.7 years of burial: the concept of buried seed safe sites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 50-year study at Fairbanks, AK was started in 1984 to determine soil seed longevity of 17 weed species. Seeds were buried in mesh bags 2 and 15 cm deep and were recovered 0.7, 1.7, 2.7, 3.7, 4.7, 6.7, 9.7,19.7 and 24.7 yr later. Viability was determined using germination and tetrazolium tests. By ...

  15. HORIZON: Accelerated General Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamics

    E-print Network

    Burkhard Zink

    2011-02-25

    We present Horizon, a new graphics processing unit (GPU)-accelerated code to solve the equations of general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics in a given spacetime. We evaluate the code in several test cases, including magnetized Riemann problems and rapidly rotating neutron stars, and measure the performance benefits of the GPU acceleration in comparison to our CPU-based code Thor. We find substantial performance gains in comparison to a quad-core CPU both in single- and double-precision accuracy, and discuss these findings in the context of future numerical modeling efforts.

  16. Topological deformation of isolated horizons

    SciTech Connect

    Liko, Tomas [Department of Physics and Physical Oceanography, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland, A1B 3X7 (Canada)

    2008-03-15

    We show that the Gauss-Bonnet term can have physical effects in four dimensions. Specifically, the entropy of a black hole acquires a correction term that is proportional to the Euler characteristic of the cross sections of the horizon. While this term is constant for a single black hole, it will be a nontrivial function for a system with dynamical topologies such as black-hole mergers: it is shown that for certain values of the Gauss-Bonnet parameter, the second law of black-hole mechanics can be violated.

  17. Variable horizon in a peridynamic medium.

    SciTech Connect

    Silling, Stewart A.; Littlewood, David John; Seleson, Pablo

    2014-10-01

    A notion of material homogeneity is proposed for peridynamic bodies with vari- able horizon but constant bulk properties. A relation is derived that scales the force state according to the position-dependent horizon while keeping the bulk properties un- changed. Using this scaling relation, if the horizon depends on position, artifacts called ghost forces may arise in a body under homogeneous deformation. These artifacts de- pend on the second derivative of horizon and can be reduced by use of a modified equilibrium equation using a new quantity called the partial stress . Bodies with piece- wise constant horizon can be modeled without ghost forces by using a technique called a splice between the regions. As a limiting case of zero horizon, both partial stress and splice techniques can be used to achieve local-nonlocal coupling. Computational examples, including dynamic fracture in a one-dimensional model with local-nonlocal coupling, illustrate the methods.

  18. 75 FR 32313 - Specifications and Drawings for Construction Direct Buried Plant

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ...Specifications and Drawings for Construction Direct Buried Plant AGENCY...Specifications for Materials, Equipment and Construction, by revising RUS Bulletin...Specifications and Drawings for Construction of Direct Buried Plant...

  19. Optical excitations of metallic nanoclusters buried in TiO2 for solar photochemistry

    E-print Network

    Optical excitations of metallic nanoclusters buried in TiO2 for solar photochemistry Fei Wang photochemistry, Ag nanoclusters, buried clusters 1. INTRODUCTION Water interactions with TiO2 and other oxide

  20. Closure Report for CAU No. 430: Buried Depleted Uraniuim Artillery Round No. 1, Tonopah Test Range, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1997-02-25

    1.1 Purpose This Closure Report presents the information obtained from investigative actions performed to justify the decision for clean closure of CAU 430 through "No Further Action." The investigative actions were performed per the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan, CA UNO. 430: Buried Depleted Uranium Artille~ Round No. 1, Tonopah Test Range (DOE/NV, 1996a) (hereafter referred to as the SAFER Plan). The Buried DU Artillery Round No. 1 is located approximately 1.1 kilometers (km) (0.7 mile [mi]) south of Avenue 13 in the test area south of Area 9 (Figure 1-2). The site was thought to consist of a potentially unexploded W-79 Joint Test Assembly (JTA) test artillery projectile with high explosives (HE) and DU. The DU was substituted for Special Nuclear Material to prevent a nuclear explosion and yet retain the physical characteristics of uranium for ballistic and other mechanical tests. The projectile was reportedly buried in one pit, approximately 5 to 10 feet (ft) deep (Smith, 1993; Smith, 1996; Quas, 1996). The exact location of the burial pit is unknown; however, three disturbed areas (Sites A, B, and C) were identified through geophysical surveys, site visits, and employee interviews as possible locations of the test projectile (Figure 1-3). Results of the investigation are summarized within this Closure Report. Additional information about the site and investigation activities may be found in the SAFER Plan (DOE/NV, 1996a). 1.2 Scope The objectives of the SAFER Plan (DOE/NV, 1996a) activities were to prepare the site for closure through locating and identi~ing the projectile (Buried DU Artillery Round No. 1), destroying the projectile and any remaining components, collecting soil samples to detect residual contamination resulting from projectile destruction, and finally, remediating residual contamination.

  1. BotEC: Depth of Buried Metamorphic Rock

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Barb Tewksbury

    Question In many high-grade metamorphic belts around the world, rocks were buried 20-30 km beneath the surface during deformation and metamorphism. How deep is that relative to the cruising altitude of a typical commercial airplane flying across the country?

  2. Frequency band selection of radars for buried object detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mikhail Cherniakov; Lidia Donskoi

    1999-01-01

    Choice of the operational frequency is one of the most responsible parts of any radar design process. Parameters of radars for buried object detection (BOD) are very sensitive to both carrier frequency and ranging signal bandwidth. Such radars have a specific propagation environment with a strong frequency-dependent attenuation and, as a result, short operational range. This fact dictates some features

  3. Thermoelectric power factor in semiconductors with buried epitaxial semimetallic nanoparticles

    E-print Network

    Bowers, John

    Thermoelectric power factor in semiconductors with buried epitaxial semimetallic nanoparticles J. M, mobility, and Seebeck coefficient of these materials and discuss their potential for use in thermoelectric on thermoelectric materials has focused on the ability of heterostructures and quantum con- finement to increase

  4. Electromagnetic Transient Response of Buried Bare Wire and Ground Grid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Motoyama

    2007-01-01

    Summary form only given. In this paper, experimental and analytical studies of the electromagnetic transient response of a buried bare wire and a ground grid are presented. The electromagnetic transient response of a ground grid has effects on induced surges in low-voltage and control circuits of power stations, substations and telecommunication stations. Therefore, the experimental and theoretical examinations for the

  5. High Temperature, Buried Permanent Magnet, Brushless DC Motor 

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Zhengxin

    2010-10-12

    degrees F (538 degrees C) is designed. HTPMs developed at Electron Energy Corporation are buried into the rotor. The high temperature motor is designed to produce 5.1kw of power at a top running speed of 20000 rpm. The numerical values of the motor voltage...

  6. FOREWORD: Special section on electromagnetic characterization of buried obstacles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dominique Lesselier; Weng Cho Chew

    2004-01-01

    This Inverse Problems special section on electromagnetic characterization of buried obstacles contains a selection of 14 invited papers, involving 41 authors and 19 research groups worldwide. (Though this section consists of invited papers, the standard refereeing procedures of Inverse Problems have been rigorously observed.) We do not claim to have reached all the high-level researchers in the field, but we

  7. Buried underwater target classification using frequency subband coherence analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neil Wachowski; Mahmood R. Azimi-Sadjadi

    2008-01-01

    This study introduces a new feature extraction method for detection and classification of buried underwater mine-like objects. Multiple sonar returns off an object are used, where each sonar return is characterized by its specific frequency subbands, which contain valuable discriminatory information that can be used to correctly determine the type of object encountered. Features are extracted from the data using

  8. Active broadband electromagnetic detection and classification of buried naval mines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. J. Won; S. Norton; B. SanFilipo; F. Kunak

    2002-01-01

    We present a new active broadband electromagnetic (EM) sensor to detect and classify buried naval mines. The sensor operates at multiple programmable frequencies suitable to a given littoral environment. Once the sensor detects a potential target, it measures the target's spectral responses over the entire operating bandwidth. The sensor then compares the measured spectrum with a library of spectra stored

  9. BISTATIC SCATTERING FROM BURIED TARGETS IN SHALLOW WATER

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henrik Schmidt

    The development of new concurrent detection and classification concepts has the potential of dramatically increasing the coverage rate of shallow water mine countermeasures, in particular for buried targets. The GOATS'98 experiment had as one of its main objectives to explore the possibility of basing such a concept on the measurement of classifying features of the 3-D acoustic scattering by such

  10. Multiplatform sonar concepts for buried target detection and classification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph R. Edwards; Te-Chih Liu; Henrik Schmidt

    2002-01-01

    Buried target classification is of paramount importance in mine countermeasures (MCM) applications. The Generic Oceanographic Array Technology Sonar (GOATS) project approaches this fundamental problem by exploiting the assets of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). Recent developments in unmanned vehicle technology have opened the door for new sonar design concepts that may be applied to create alternative target detection and classification methods

  11. GPR investigations in galleries buried inside a karstified limestone formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Rousset; G. Sénéchal; S. Gaffet

    2009-01-01

    A large scientific program of geophysical investigations is presently performed inside the Low-Noise Underground Laboratory (Laboratoire Souterrain à Bas Bruit \\/ LSBB, Rustrel, France) which is an decomissioned underground missile control center, buried in a karstified limestone formation. One of the goals of this project is the understanding of the water circulation inside the structure. This experimental site offers a

  12. Noise in buried channel charge-coupled devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Brodersen; S. P. Emmons

    1976-01-01

    A correlated double sampling technique was used to measure noise at the output of a buried channel charge-coupled device (BCCD) linear shift register. Four sources of noise - the electrical insertion of signal charge, the output amplifier, dark current, and bulk state trapping - were analyzed. The output circuit used in the measurements had a noise level equivalent to less

  13. Passive acoustic detection of gas leaks in buried pipes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Soom; H. R. Martin; J. A. Lea

    1981-01-01

    A study of the practical aspects and limitations of an acoustic leak-detection method has shown that sounds caused by small gas leaks in buried pipes are detectable underground to distances of 7-10 ft and beyond for line pressures greater than 9 psi. Fairly severe range limitations to detection do exist, however, because of low source strengths and high attenuation rates

  14. Detection of concealed and buried chemicals by using multifrequency excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yaohui; Chen, Meng-Ku; Yang, Chia-En; Chang, Yun-Ching; Yao, Jim; Cheng, Jiping; Yin, Stuart; Hui, Rongqing; Ruffin, Paul; Brantley, Christina; Edwards, Eugene; Luo, Claire

    2010-08-01

    In this paper, we present a new type of concealed and buried chemical detection system by stimulating and enhancing spectroscopic signatures with multifrequency excitations, which includes a low frequency gradient dc electric field, a high frequency microwave field, and higher frequency infrared (IR) radiations. Each excitation frequency plays a unique role. The microwave, which can penetrate into the underground and/or pass through the dielectric covers with low attenuation, could effectively transform its energy into the concealed and buried chemicals and increases its evaporation rate from the sample source. Subsequently, a gradient dc electric field, generated by a Van De Graaff generator, not only serves as a vapor accelerator for efficiently expediting the transportation process of the vapor release from the concealed and buried chemicals but also acts as a vapor concentrator for increasing the chemical concentrations in the detection area, which enables the trace level chemical detection. Finally, the stimulated and enhanced vapors on the surface are detected by the IR spectroscopic fingerprints. Our theoretical and experimental results demonstrate that more than sixfold increase in detection signal can be achieved by using this proposed technology. The proposed technology can also be used for standoff detection of concealed and buried chemicals by adding the remote IR and/or thermal spectroscopic and imaging detection systems.

  15. Trees Buried in Volcanic Sediment, Sandy River 2

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Trunks of forest trees, initially growing on a terrace above the Sandy River (Oregon) at Oxbow Regional Park, were buried by rapid deposition of sediment following a dome-building eruption at Mount Hood in 1781. Erosion during a flood about a week before the photo was taken exposed this

  16. Trees Buried in Volcanic Sediment, Sandy River 1

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Trunks of forest trees, initially growing on a terrace above the Sandy River (Oregon) at Oxbow Regional Park, were buried by rapid deposition of sediment following a dome-building eruption at Mount Hood in 1781. Erosion during a flood about a week before the photo was taken exposed this

  17. Infrared imaging of buried heat sources and material nonuniformities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Hierl; W. Gross; H. Scheuerpflug; A. Lutz; U. Schirl; Max J. Schulz

    1997-01-01

    Using a recently developed PtSi IR focal plane array imaging system, ZAE Bayern develops new IR measurement techniques for industrial and medical applications. In this paper we present three examples for the analysis of material nonuniformities and a buried heat source. A new method for detecting the surface moisture of porous solids has been developed. The water content at the

  18. Mapping suspected buried channels using gravity: Examples from southwest Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Keighley, K.E.; Atekwana, E.A.; Sauck, W.A. (Western Michigan Univ., Kalamazoo, MI (United States). Dept. of Geology)

    1994-04-01

    This study documents the successful application of the gravity method in mapping suspected buried bedrock valleys at three sites in southwest Michigan. The first site is located in Benton Harbor, Berrien County. Gravity surveys were conducted along the Jean Klock Park as part of an ongoing coastal research study of the Lake Michigan shoreline. Previous Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) studies at this site had suggested the presence of a buried valley. The results of the gravity survey confirmed the existence of a buried valley approximately 30--40 m deep and at least 2,000 m wide, which is in good agreement with information from drill cores suggesting a possible ancient river system. A detailed gravity survey was conducted at the second site located in Schoolcraft Township, Kalamazoo County, where the heavy use of pesticides has resulted in the contamination of the upper aquifers. Preliminary results suggest the presence of a broad shallow valley at least 25 m deep. Gravity surveys at the third site located southeast of the Kavco Landfill, Barry County also suggests the presence of a buried valley oriented NE-SW, confirming the interpretations of an earlier electrical resistivity study. It is possible that this channel controls groundwater flow and facilitates the transport of contaminants from the landfill to the surrounding areas.

  19. Investigating buried polymer interfaces using sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhan

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews recent progress in the studies of buried polymer interfaces using sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy. Both buried solid/liquid and solid/solid interfaces involving polymeric materials are discussed. SFG studies of polymer/water interfaces show that different polymers exhibit varied surface restructuring behavior in water, indicating the importance of probing polymer/water interfaces in situ. SFG has also been applied to the investigation of interfaces between polymers and other liquids. It has been found that molecular interactions at such polymer/liquid interfaces dictate interfacial polymer structures. The molecular structures of silane molecules, which are widely used as adhesion promoters, have been investigated using SFG at buried polymer/silane and polymer/polymer interfaces, providing molecular-level understanding of polymer adhesion promotion. The molecular structures of polymer/solid interfaces have been examined using SFG with several different experimental geometries. These results have provided molecular-level information about polymer friction, adhesion, interfacial chemical reactions, interfacial electronic properties, and the structure of layer-by-layer deposited polymers. Such research has demonstrated that SFG is a powerful tool to probe buried interfaces involving polymeric materials, which are difficult to study by conventional surface sensitive analytical techniques. PMID:21113334

  20. NASA's New Horizons Mission Dr. Henry Throop

    E-print Network

    Throop, Henry

    flying - it doesn't land, and it never comes back to Earth. New Horizons Spacecraft #12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;New Horizons Team #12;#12;#12;#12;Lockheed-Martin AtlasV Rocket Rocket: 575,198 kg Spacecraft: 478 kg spacecraft ever launched! Mission Time to get to the Moon's distance Apollo 11 96 hours New Horizons 6 hours

  1. Extremality conditions for isolated and dynamical horizons

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, Ivan; Fairhurst, Stephen [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Memorial University of Newfoundland St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, A1C 5S7 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 53201 (United States); LIGO-California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff, CF2 3YB (United Kingdom)

    2008-04-15

    A maximally rotating Kerr black hole is said to be extremal. In this paper we introduce the corresponding restrictions for isolated and dynamical horizons. These reduce to the standard notions for Kerr but in general do not require the horizon to be either stationary or rotationally symmetric. We consider physical implications and applications of these results. In particular we introduce a parameter e which characterizes how close a horizon is to extremality and should be calculable in numerical simulations.

  2. Horizon entropy with loop quantum gravity methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pranzetti, Daniele; Sahlmann, Hanno

    2015-06-01

    We show that the spherically symmetric isolated horizon can be described in terms of an SU (2) connection and an su (2)-valued one-form, obeying certain constraints. The horizon symplectic structure is precisely the one of 3d gravity in a first order formulation. We quantize the horizon degrees of freedom in the framework of loop quantum gravity, with methods recently developed for 3d gravity with non-vanishing cosmological constant. Bulk excitations ending on the horizon act very similarly to particles in 3d gravity. The Bekenstein-Hawking law is recovered in the limit of imaginary Barbero-Immirzi parameter. Alternative methods of quantization are also discussed.

  3. Apparent horizon in fluid-gravity duality

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, Ivan; Heller, Michal P.; Plewa, Grzegorz; Spalinski, Michal [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, A1C 5S7 (Canada); Instituut voor Theoretische Fysica, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1090 GL Amsterdam (Netherlands); Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Hoza 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Hoza 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland) and Physics Department, University of Bialystok, 15-424 Bialystok (Poland)

    2011-05-15

    This article develops a computational framework for determining the location of boundary-covariant apparent horizons in the geometry of conformal fluid-gravity duality in arbitrary dimensions. In particular, it is shown up to second order and conjectured to hold to all orders in the gradient expansion that there is a unique apparent horizon which is covariantly expressible in terms of fluid velocity, temperature, and boundary metric. This leads to the first explicit example of an entropy current defined by an apparent horizon and opens the possibility that in the near-equilibrium regime there is preferred foliation of apparent horizons for black holes in asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetimes.

  4. Opportunity's Heatshield on the Horizon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Opportunity's Heatshield on the Horizon (QTVR)

    This image mosaic from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the distant horizon from Opportunity's position inside a small crater at Meridiani Planum, Mars. To the left is a large crater about 700 meters (2,296 feet) away from the landing site and approximately 200 meters (656 feet) in diameter. In the center, Opportunity's heatshield and its impact mark can be seen at a distance of approximately 875 meters (one-half mile) from the landing site. To the right, a string of bounce marks left by the rover's airbags is visible. Near the mark just outside the landing site crater's rim is the largest rock in the area. This rock is about 40 centimeters (16 inches) across and 50 meters (164 feet) from the rover's position. The image is an enhanced color composite acquired on the 35th and 36th martian days, or sols, of Opportunity's journey, using three different wavelength filters.

  5. Smooth horizons and quantum ripples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovnev, Alexey

    2015-05-01

    Black holes are unique objects which allow for meaningful theoretical studies of strong gravity and even quantum gravity effects. An infalling and a distant observer would have very different views on the structure of the world. However, a careful analysis has shown that it entails no genuine contradictions for physics, and the paradigm of observer complementarity has been coined. Recently this picture was put into doubt. In particular, it was argued that in old black holes a firewall must form in order to protect the basic principles of quantum mechanics. This AMPS paradox has already been discussed in a vast number of papers with different attitudes and conclusions. Here we want to argue that a possible source of confusion is the neglect of quantum gravity effects. Contrary to widespread perception, it does not necessarily mean that effective field theory is inapplicable in rather smooth neighbourhoods of large black hole horizons. The real offender might be an attempt to consistently use it over the huge distances from the near-horizon zone of old black holes to the early radiation. We give simple estimates to support this viewpoint and show how the Page time and (somewhat more speculative) scrambling time do appear.

  6. Buried target detection based on time reversal focusing with a probe source

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianlong Li; Xiang Pan; Hangfang Zhao

    2009-01-01

    Buried target detection under the background of strong reverberation in shallow water is a complicated problem. As the target is buried, the echo of the active sonar is very weak and the echo-to-reverberation ratio (ERR) is quite low. In the paper, the technique of time reversal (TR) with a probe source is discussed to detect a buried target. By TR

  7. Buried underwater target classification using the new BOSS and canonical correlation decomposition feature extraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Makoto Yamada; Jered Cartmill; Mahmood R. Azimi-Sadjadi

    2005-01-01

    Multi-aspect detection and classification of buried underwater objects using the new Buried Object Scanning Sonar (BOSS) data is the main goal of this project. Canonical coordinate decomposition (CCD) was applied to extract the most coherent features of the buried or bottom objects in two sonar pings with a certain separation. CCD provides an elegant framework for analyzing linear dependence and

  8. Classification of buried underwater objects using the new BOSS and multichannel canonical correlation feature extraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jered Cartmill; Bryan Thompson; Mahmood R. Azimi-Sadjadi

    2006-01-01

    Developing an effective detection and classification system for use with buried underwater objects is a challenging problem. In this paper, multichannel canonical correlation analysis (MCCA) is used for feature extraction from multiple sonar returns of buried underwater objects using data collected by the new generation Buried Object Scanning Sonar (BOSS) system. Comparisons are made between the classification results of features

  9. Interpretation of Buried Electrode Resistivity Data Using a Layered Earth Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey J. Daniels

    1978-01-01

    The layered earth model is a fundamental interpretation aid for direct current resistivity data. This paper presents a solution for the layered earth problem for a buried current source and a buried receiver. The model is developed for source and receiver electrodes buried anywhere within a horizontally stratified layered earth containing an arbitrary number of resistivity layers. Model results for

  10. Occurrence of perched saturation and interflow over an argillic horizon in a low relief hillslope.

    SciTech Connect

    Greco, James; Jackson, Rhett, C.

    2009-03-01

    Abstract. Many of the soils in the south-eastern US are characterized by an argillic, or clay horizon, that largely parallels the soil surface at depths ranging from a few centimeters to 100 cen-timeters. The degree to which these argillic horizons alter subsurface movement of infiltrated water is not well known. Interflow, or throughflow, is shallow lateral subsurface flow that moves over a horizon that restricts percolation. This research investigates how often and under what conditions a relatively deep (20-150+cm) argillic horizon on low slope (2-6%) hillsides causes interflow to oc-cur. Research is being conducted at the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina, on a small zero-order watershed. In the first phase of this research, a high resolution topographic map of the clay layer was developed. This map will be used to instrument designated “low” spots with max rise piezo-meters in order to determine if there is channelized subsurface flow. In situ conductivities of the clay layer and the surface horizons were measured using an Amoozegar meter, and bulk density samples were taken and measured. Along with soil topographic measurements, data-logging piezometers have been installed to measure the piezometric head above, in, and below the argillic horizon to further investigate interflow as a potential hydraulic routing mechanism. The stream that drains the catchment was instrumented with a 2’ H flume and data-logging pressure transducer to measure stream flow. Climate data including precipitation, barometric pressure and temperature, are being continuously collected in an open area approximately ¼ mile from the study site. Combining the shallow surface and subsurface piezometric heads with stream flow rates, we should be able to determine if and when the clay layer is contributing to inter-flow.

  11. Is the Buried Bumper Syndrome a buried problem? Personal experience about a different therapeutic approach and prevention possibilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. ORSI; C. SPAGGIARI; O. PINAZZI; F. DI MARIO

    Buried Bumper Syndrome (BBS) is a major complication that can occur after per- cutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) placement when the system is made with a rigid in- ternal bumper, which can only be removed endoscopically. In this case an excessive tension between the inner and outer bumper can result in gradual tube dislocation from the stomach with occlusion of the

  12. Vertical distribution of Cd, Pb and Zn in soils near smelters in the North of France

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Sterckeman; F. Douay; N. Proix; H. Fourrier

    2000-01-01

    The analysis of the horizons of 12 soil profiles confirm occasionally significant levels of Cd, Pb and Zn contamination in the areas surrounding two lead and zinc smelters in the North of France. A pedological approach enabled the original Cd, Pb and Zn content of the horizons to be estimated, based on physico-chemical characteristics of soil unaffected by contamination. The

  13. Carbon Stabilization in Wet Tropical Forest Volcanic Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin-Spiotta, E.; Chadwick, O.; Kramer, M.

    2008-12-01

    Volcanic soils, particularly Andisols, have high carbon storage capacities due to the accumulation of highly reactive, non-crystalline minerals. Previous research along a pedogenic chronosequence on volcanic lava in Hawai'i found that soils in the intermediate weathering stage, dominated by allophane, contained the largest soil C stocks with slowest turnover rates. Potential mechanisms for long-term soil C stabilization include an accumulation of chemically recalcitrant C, microenvironmental conditions unfavorable for decomposition, and strong sorption of soluble and otherwise labile C to mineral and/or metals. In well-drained soils in wet climates, dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a likely main pathway for the transport of C from the zones of highest microbial activity to deeper mineral horizons. To address the production, transformation, and fate of dissolved organic matter (DOM), we have installed tension and zero tension lysimeters throughout sequentially deeper organic and mineral horizons in an intermediate aged soil (ca. 350k years) under wet (ca. 3000 mm mean annual rainfall) native tropical forest in Hawai'i. The soils are characterized by thick O horizons and Bh horizons 20-30 cm deep, followed by mineral horizons showing redoximorphic features. Bulk soil carbon to nitrogen ratios increase with soil depth, matching that of DOM in the surface organic horizons at 40-50 cm depth. Low pH does not seem to explain this accumulation of C-rich, N-depleted OM, as soils become less acidic with depth. Soil C:N are positively correlated with alumina, oxalate-extractable Al, and dithionite citrate-extractable Al. The greatest source of DOC is the forest floor (Oie), followed by the Oa horizon, and concentrations decrease significantly in the mineral horizons. DOC concentrations increase with total dissolved Al and Fe in the Oie horizon, and with total Fe in solution in the Bg horizon. In the Bh horizon, DOM C:N are negatively correlated with total Al and Fe in solution. Metals appear to be implicated in the mobilization of C in solution and its stabilization in mineral horizons. The formation of cracks along large peds facilitates macropore flow and downward delivery of carbon.

  14. Impact of land management on soil structure and soil hydraulic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodesova, Radka; Jirku, Veronika; Nikodem, Antonin; Muhlhanselova, Marcela; Zigova, Anna

    2010-05-01

    Study is focused on a comparison of a soil structure and soil hydraulic properties within soil profiles of a same soil type under different land management. Study was performed in Haplic Luvisol in Hnevceves the Czech Republic. Two soil profiles, which were in close distance from each other, were chosen: 1. under the conventional tillage, 2. under the permanent (30 years) grass cover. Soil sampling and field experiments were carried out immediately after the harvest of winter barley in 2008. The micromorphological images were used to evaluate the soil structure of all Ap, Bt1, Bt2 and C diagnostic horizons. The hydraulic properties of the diagnostic horizons were studied in the laboratory using multistep outflow experiments performed on the undisturbed 100-cm3 soil samples. A tension disc infiltrometer (with a disc radius of 10 cm) and minidisc tension infiltrometers (with a disc radius of 2.2 cm) were used to measure cumulative water infiltration under unsaturated conditions created using a pressure head of -2 cm. Measurements were performed at a depths of 5, 45, 75 and 110 cm, which corresponded to the Ap, Bt1, Bt2 and C horizons of studied Haplic Luvisol at both locations. The Guelph permeameter was used to measure cumulative water flux under surface ponding conditions. The depth of the drilled well was 10, 50, 80 and 115 cm, the well radius was 3 cm, and the well ponding depth was 5 cm. Both tests were used to evaluate hydraulic conductivity (K for h=-2cm, and Ks) values. Results showed, that while properties in the Bt2 and C horizons of both soil profiles were relatively similar, properties in the Ap and Bt1 horizons were different. The fraction of gravitational pores (which may cause preferential flow) in the Ap and Bt1 horizons of the soil profile under the convectional tillage was large than those in the Ap and Bt1 horizons of the soil profile under the permanent grass. This influenced for instance the Ks values measured using the Guelph permeametr. The Ks values were higher and more variable in the soil profile under the convectional tillage than those in the soil profile under the permanent grass. On the other hand, due to the periodical tillage and consequent soil structure breakdown, the fraction of the large capillary pores were smaller in the Ap horizon of the soil profile under the convectional tillage than that in the Ap horizon of the soil profile under the permanent grass. As result the K (h=-2cm) values measured using the tension infiltrometer in the soil profile under the permanent grass was higher than those in the soil profile under the convectional tillage. However, the fraction of the large capillary pores and K (h=-2cm) values were similar in the Bt1 horizons of both soil profiles. Thus the land management impacted both macropores and matrix pores in the Ap horizon and macropores (prismatic structure and biopores) in the Bt1 horizon. Acknowledgement: Authors acknowledge the financial support of the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic (grant No. GA CR 526/08/0434) and the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic (grant No. MSM 6046070901).

  15. UNDERSTANDING PRODUCTIVITY VARIATION ON UN-IRRIGATED CLAYPAN SOILS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A high clay-content argillic horizon occurring 10 to 100 cm below the surface restricts soil water movement and reduces nutrient efficiency of claypan soils, which affect soil quality related to production and environmental buffering. The objective of this study was to determine the impacts of long-...

  16. Water-soluble organic matter in forest soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. T. Kuiters; W. Mulder

    1993-01-01

    Soil culture experiments were conducted to examine the effects of water-soluble organic matter (WSOM), isolated from the Ah horizon of a forest soil on cation uptake by seedlings of Agrostis capillaris and Silene dioica. In contrast to the large effects on soil equilibria, cation uptake was only slightly affected by WSOM. Solubilized Al, Fe, Cu and Pb, were not found

  17. Variations in microbial community composition through two soil depth profiles

    E-print Network

    Fierer, Noah

    Variations in microbial community composition through two soil depth profiles Noah Fierera about the nature of the microbial communities inhabiting the deeper soil horizons. We used phospholipid and to identify the patterns of microbial abundance and community- level diversity within the soil profile

  18. CROP MANAGEMENT EFFECTS ON WATER INFILTRATION FOR CLAYPAN SOILS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant water and nutrient use for claypan soils are restricted by an argillic horizon (clay content > 500 g/kg) that typically occurs 20 to 40 cm below the soil surface. Identifying water infiltration characteristics for claypan soils under different management provides crucial information needed to ...

  19. Maximal Indecomposable Past Sets and Event Horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Królak, Andrzej

    1984-02-01

    The existence of maximal indecomposable past sets MIPs is demonstrated using the Kuratowski-Zorn lemma. A criterion for the existence of an absolute event horizon in space-time is given in terms of MIPs and a relation to black hole event horizon is shown.

  20. Project Horizon: How Utah Is Reducing Recidivism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Daimar

    2000-01-01

    Project Horizon, Utah's statute to reduce the economic and social cost of recidivism, shifted funding for correctional education to the state education agency. Parolees who participated in Project Horizon had an 18-20 percent lower recidivism rate than nonparticipants and found post-release jobs 89 percent of the time. (JOW)

  1. Black holes as trapping horizons Eric Gourgoulhon

    E-print Network

    Gourgoulhon, Eric

    Black holes as trapping horizons Eric Gourgoulhon Laboratoire Univers et Th´eories (LUTH) CNRS://www.luth.obspm.fr/~luthier/gourgoulhon/ Centrum Astronomiczne im. M. Kopernika Warsaw, Poland 17 November 2008 Eric Gourgoulhon (LUTH) Black holes as trapping horizons CAMK, Warsaw, 17 Nov. 2008 1 / 36 #12;Plan 1 Local approaches to black holes 2 Viscous

  2. Reconceptualizing Knowledge at the Mathematical Horizon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zazkis, Rina; Mamolo, Ami

    2011-01-01

    This article extends the notion of "knowledge at the mathematical horizon" or "horizon knowledge" introduced by Ball and colleagues as a part of teachers' subject matter knowledge. Our focus is on teachers' mathematical knowledge beyond the school curriculum, that is, on mathematics learnt during undergraduate college or university studies. We…

  3. Expanding your horizons in science and mathematics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, Cynthia E. A.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the 'Expanding Your Horizons in Science and Mathematics' program is to interest young women in grades six through twelve in a variety of careers where mathematics and science are important. Progress in encouraging young women to take courses in mathematics, science, and technological subjects is discussed. Also included are adult, student, and organizational information packets used for 'Expanding Your Horizons' conferences.

  4. HORIZON 2020 WORK PROGRAMME 2014 2015

    E-print Network

    Erdem, Erkut

    HORIZON 2020 WORK PROGRAMME 2014 ­ 2015 3. Marie Sklodowska-Curie Actions Important Notice (2013)8631 of 10 December 2013) #12;HORIZON 2020 ­ WORK PROGRAMME 2014-2015 Marie Sklodowska-Curie................................................................................................................................ 3 2014 Call for Marie Sklodowska-Curie Innovative Training Networks (ITN

  5. Finding KBO Flyby Targets for New Horizons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Spencer; Marc Buie; Leslie Young; Yanping Guo; Alan Stern

    2003-01-01

    Development of the New Horizons mission to Pluto and the Kuiper Belt is now fully funded by NASA (Stern and Spencer, this volume). If all goes well, New Horizons will be launched in January 2006, followed by a Jupiter gravity assist in 2007, with Pluto arrival expected in either 2015 or 2016, depending on the launch vehicle chosen. A backup

  6. Battling Blaze on Deepwater Horizon Oilrig

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    NEW ORLEANS — Fire boat response crews battle the blazing remnants of the off shore oilrig Deepwater Horizon. A Coast Guard MH-65C dolphin rescue helicopter and crew document the fire aboard the mobile offshore drilling unit Deepwater Horizon, while searching for survivors. Multiple Coast Guar...

  7. Black hole versus cosmological horizon entropy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tamara M. Davis; P C W Davies; Charles H. Lineweaver

    2003-01-01

    The generalized second law of thermodynamics states that entropy always increases when all event horizons are attributed with an entropy proportional to their area. We test the generalized second law by investigating the change in entropy when dust, radiation and black holes cross a cosmological event horizon. We generalize for flat, open and closed Friedmann–Robertson–Walker universes by using numerical calculations

  8. Horizon 2000: Seven years on

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longdon, Norman

    1991-10-01

    The objectives of the future ESA's science program for Horizon 2000 described are: (1) to contribute to the advancement of fundamental scientific knowledge; (2) to establish Europe as a major participant in the world-wide development of space science; (3) to offer a balanced distribution of opportunities for frontline research to the European scientific community; and (4) to provide major technological challenges for innovative industrial developments. The main elements of the program consists of four cornerstones, which are: (1) the Solar-Terrestrial Science Programme (STSP); (2) X-ray Multi-Mirror mission (XMM); (3) FIRST - the Far InfraRed and submillimetre Space Telescope mission; and (4) Rosetta, Comet Nucleus Sample Return Mission.

  9. Entomofauna of a buried body: study of the exhumation of a human cadaver in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Mariani, R; García-Mancuso, R; Varela, G L; Inda, A M

    2014-04-01

    This study focuses on insects and other arthropods sampled on the exhumation of an infant skeleton belonging to 'Prof. Dr. Rómulo Lambre' skeletal collection. The body was buried in soil inside a wooden coffin in a grave 40cm deep, in autumn, and stored in the cemetery deposit after exhumation. Death records were obtained from the cemetery archive. Samples of faunal remains were recovered from wrappings, clothes, bones and soil samples, and were identified at different taxonomic levels depending on the stage of conservation. The dominant taxon was the muscid fly Ophyra aenescens (Wiedemann). The relationships among the identified taxa and the moving of the corpse, from the burial context to the cemetery deposit, are discussed and used to create a hypothetical colonization sequence after death. The application of entomological data to anthropological research can provide valuable information for the interpretation of taphonomic processes and burial contexts. PMID:24530940

  10. Parameterisation of non-homogeneities in buried object detection by means of thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepani?, Josip; Malinovec, Marina; Švai?, Sre?ko; Krstelj, Vjera

    2004-05-01

    Landmines and their natural environment form a system of complex dynamics with variable characteristics. A manifestation of that complexity within the context of thermography-based landmines detection is excessive noise in thermograms. That has severely suppressed application of thermography in landmines detection for the purposes of humanitarian demining. (To be differentiated from military demining and demining for military operations other than war [Land Mine Detection DOD's Research Program Needs a Comprehensive Evaluation Strategy, US GAO Report, GAO-01 239, 2001; International Mine Action Standards, Chapter 4.--Glossary. Available at: < http://www.mineactionstandards.org/IMAS_archive/Final/04.10.pdf>].) The discrepancy between the existing role and the actual potential of thermography in humanitarian demining motivated systematic approach to sources of noise in thermograms of buried objects. These sources are variations in mine orientation relative to soil normal, which modify the shape of mine signature on thermograms, as well as non-homogeneities in soil and vegetation layer above the mine, which modify the overall quality of thermograms. This paper analyses the influence of variable mines, and more generally the influence of axially symmetric buried object orientation on the quality of its signature on thermograms. The following two angles have been extracted to serve as parameters describing variation in orientation: (i) ?--angle between the local vertical axis and mine symmetry axis and (ii) ?--angle between local vertical axis and soil surface normal. Their influence is compared to the influence of (iii) d--the object depth change, which serves as control parameter. The influences are quantified and ranked within a statistically planned experiment. The analysis has proved that among the parameters listed, the most influential one is statistical interaction d?, followed with the statistical interaction d?. According to statistical tests, these two combinations are considered the most significant influences. The results show that the currently applied analysis of thermography in humanitarian demining must be broadened by the inclusion of the variations in mine orientation, otherwise a decrease in the probability of mine detection, due to the presence of a systematic error, occurs.

  11. Characterization of soils containing adipocere.

    PubMed

    Fiedler, S; Schneckenberger, K; Graw, M

    2004-11-01

    The formation of adipocere (commonly known as grave wax), a spontaneous inhibition of postmortem changes, has been extensively analyzed in forensic science. However, soils in which adipocere formation occurs have never been described in detail. Therefore, this study is intended as a first step in the characterization of soils containing adipocere. Two grave soils (Gleyic Anthrosols) that prevent the timely reuse of graves due to the occurrence of adipocere and a control soil (Gleyic Luvisol) were selected from a cemetery in the Central Black Forest (Southwest Germany). Descriptions of soil morphology and a wide assay of physical, chemical, and microbiologic soil characteristics were accomplished. In contrast to the control soil, the grave soils were characterized by lower bulk density and pH. The degradation of the soil structure caused by digging led to a higher water table and the expansion of the reducing conditions in the graves where the prevalent absence of oxygen in range of the coffins inhibited decomposition processes. Although the formation of adipocere led to the conservation of the buried corpses, phosphorus, dissolved organic carbon, and cadavarine leaching from the graves was observed. Microbial biomass and microbial activity were higher in the control soil and hence reflected the inert character of adipocere. The study results clearly show the need for additional approaches in forensic, pedologic, and microbiologic research. PMID:15499507

  12. Vertical Bipolar Charge Plasma Transistor with Buried Metal Layer

    PubMed Central

    Nadda, Kanika; Kumar, M. Jagadesh

    2015-01-01

    A self-aligned vertical Bipolar Charge Plasma Transistor (V-BCPT) with a buried metal layer between undoped silicon and buried oxide of the silicon-on-insulator substrate, is reported in this paper. Using two-dimensional device simulation, the electrical performance of the proposed device is evaluated in detail. Our simulation results demonstrate that the V-BCPT not only has very high current gain but also exhibits high BVCEO · fT product making it highly suitable for mixed signal high speed circuits. The proposed device structure is also suitable for realizing doping-less bipolar charge plasma transistor using compound semiconductors such as GaAs, SiC with low thermal budgets. The device is also immune to non-ideal current crowding effects cropping up at high current densities. PMID:25597295

  13. Field test plan: Buried waste technologies, Fiscal Year 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Heard, R.E.; Hyde, R.A. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Engleman, V.S.; Evans, J.D.; Jackson, T.W. [Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    The US Department of Energy, Office of Technology Development, supports the applied research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that, when integrated with commercially available baseline technologies, form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. The Fiscal Year 1995 effort is to deploy and test multiple technologies from four functional areas of buried waste remediation: site characterization, waste characterization, retrieval, and treatment. This document is the basic operational planning document for the deployment and testing of the technologies that support the field testing in Fiscal Year 1995. Discussed in this document are the scope of the tests; purpose and objective of the tests; organization and responsibilities; contingency plans; sequence of activities; sampling and data collection; document control; analytical methods; data reduction, validation, and verification; quality assurance; equipment and instruments; facilities and utilities; health and safety; residuals management; and regulatory management.

  14. Buried Porous Silicon-Germanium Layers in Monocrystalline Silicon Lattices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fathauer, Robert W. (Inventor); George, Thomas (Inventor); Jones, Eric W. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    Monocrystalline semiconductor lattices with a buried porous semiconductor layer having different chemical composition is discussed and monocrystalline semiconductor superlattices with a buried porous semiconductor layers having different chemical composition than that of its monocrystalline semiconductor superlattice are discussed. Lattices of alternating layers of monocrystalline silicon and porous silicon-germanium have been produced. These single crystal lattices have been fabricated by epitaxial growth of Si and Si-Ge layers followed by patterning into mesa structures. The mesa structures are strain etched resulting in porosification of the Si-Ge layers with a minor amount of porosification of the monocrystalline Si layers. Thicker Si-Ge layers produced in a similar manner emitted visible light at room temperature.

  15. Buried heterostructure laser diodes fabricated using in situ processing

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, M.; Vakhshoori, D.; Grober, L.H. [AT& T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ (United States)] [and others] [AT& T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ (United States); and others

    1994-03-01

    An in situ process which includes electron cyclotron resonance plasma etching and molecular beam epitaxial regrowth is applied to the fabrication of buried heterostructure vertical cavity surface-emitting laser (SEL) diodes and edge-emitting laser (EEL) diodes. The buried SEL with a 7.5 {mu}m diameter has a pulsed laser threshold current of 1 mA, and a threshold voltage of 4 V with a peak power of 0.9 mW. The burried EEL with 2.5 {mu}m stripe width and 800 {mu}m cavity length has a threshold current density of 500 A/cm{sup 2}. 14 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Vertical bipolar charge plasma transistor with buried metal layer.

    PubMed

    Nadda, Kanika; Kumar, M Jagadesh

    2015-01-01

    A self-aligned vertical Bipolar Charge Plasma Transistor (V-BCPT) with a buried metal layer between undoped silicon and buried oxide of the silicon-on-insulator substrate, is reported in this paper. Using two-dimensional device simulation, the electrical performance of the proposed device is evaluated in detail. Our simulation results demonstrate that the V-BCPT not only has very high current gain but also exhibits high BVCEO · f(T) product making it highly suitable for mixed signal high speed circuits. The proposed device structure is also suitable for realizing doping-less bipolar charge plasma transistor using compound semiconductors such as GaAs, SiC with low thermal budgets. The device is also immune to non-ideal current crowding effects cropping up at high current densities. PMID:25597295

  17. Radar glory from buried craters on icy moons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eshleman, Von R.

    1986-01-01

    Three ice-covered moons of Jupiter, in comparison with rocky planets and earth's moon, produce radar echoes of astounding strengths and bizarre polarizations. Scattering from buried craters can explain these and other anomalous properties of the echoes. The role of such craters is analogous to that of the water droplets that create the apparition known as 'the glory', the optically bright region surrounding an observer's shadow on a cloud. Both situations involve the electromagnetic phenomenon of total internal reflection at a dielectric interface, operating in a geometry that strongly favors exact backscattering. Dim surface craters are transformed into bright glory holes by being buried under somewhat denser material, thereby increasing the intensity of their echoes by factors of hundreds. The dielectric interface thus formed at the crater walls nicely accounts for the unusual polarizations of the echoes.

  18. Radar glory from buried craters on icy moons.

    PubMed

    Eshleman, V R

    1986-10-31

    Three ice-covered moons of Jupiter, in comparison with rocky planets and Earth's moon, produce radar echoes of astounding strengths and bizarre polarizations. Scattering from buried craters can explain these and other anomalous properties of the echoes. The role of such craters is analogous to that of the water droplets that create the apparition known as "the glory," the optically bright region surrounding an observer's shadow on a cloud. Both situations involve the electromagnetic phenomenon of total internal reflection at a dielectric interface, operating in a geometry that strongly favors exact backscattering. Dim surface craters are transformed into bright glory holes by being buried under somewhat denser material, thereby increasing the intensity of their echoes by factors of hundreds. The dielectric interface thus formed at the crater walls nicely accounts for the unusual polarizations of the echoes. PMID:17835565

  19. Seismic response evaluation of the impact of corrosion on buried pipelines based on the Markov process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Li, Jie

    2008-09-01

    Water distribution and gas supply systems are among the infrastructure systems that have many buried steel pipelines. Corrosion gradually appears inside and outside of the pipe walls over the service life of these pipelines, the corrosion is primarily caused by the surrounding soil and the materials that flow through the pipelines. However, due to the uncertainty of the characteristics of the soil and materials, the size of the corrosion region is a stochastic variable. In this paper, using a homogeneous Markov process, a model is presented to simulate the occurrence of corrosion. Then, in combinations with a linear corrosion development model, the probability density function of the pipeline area corrosion percentage is derived. Based on the corrosion model, the pipeline seismic displacements and stresses are predicted. Furthermore, using the random perturbation approach, the mean and variance of the pipeline seismic response are given. To illustrate the validity of the proposed approach, a 200-meter long pipeline is numerically investigated and its random seismic response is obtained.

  20. Remote detection of buried land-mines and IEDs using LWIR polarimetric imaging.

    PubMed

    Gurton, Kristan P; Felton, Melvin

    2012-09-24

    We report results of an ongoing study designed to assess the ability for enhanced detection of recently buried land-mines and/or improvised explosive devices (IED) devices using passive long-wave infrared (LWIR) polarimetric imaging. Polarimetric results are presented for a series of field tests conducted at various locations and soil types. Well-calibrated Stokes images, S0, S1, S2, and the degree-of-linear-polarization (DoLP) are recorded for different line-of-sight (LOS) slant paths at varying distances. Results span a three-year time period in which three different LWIR polarimetric camera systems are used. All three polarimetric imaging platforms used a spinning-achromatic-retarder (SAR) design capable of achieving high polarimetric frame rates and good radiometric throughput without the loss of spatial resolution inherent in other optical designs. Receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) analysis and a standardized contrast parameter are used to compare detectability between conventional LWIR thermal and polarimetric imagery. Results suggest improved detectability, regardless of geographic location or soil type. PMID:23037383

  1. Integral evaluation of the external corrosion control system for buried pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalski, A.R. [Asesoria Adiestramiento y Construccion, Caracas (Venezuela)

    1998-12-31

    The External Corrosion Control System of a 16 inch diameter (406 mm), 70 miles long (113 km) pipeline, was evaluated using the Direct Current Voltage Gradient DCVG, Close Interval Potential Survey CIPS and Continuous Soil Resistivity Evaluation CSRE techniques. Sixteen thousand five hundred meters (16,500 meters) of the pipeline were evaluated using the three techniques simultaneously and the rest was inspected separately in previous years. The results from the survey were taken as parameters to classify all defects found on the protective coating. A Defect Severity Classification (DSC) was established and used as an input for a maintenance program for the rehabilitation of the pipeline integrity. The parameters taken to establish the DSC were: (a) Instant Off Potential, (b) %IR, (c) Soil Resistivity, (d) defect shape, (e) Geographic location, (f) Distance from drain point. A Maintenance Program for the Pipeline External Corrosion Control System was designed by implementing the Integral Evaluation of the Corrosion Control System for Buried Pipelines (IEECCSBP). The priority was to achieve pipeline integrity and then, gradually improve the protection level of the system. The implementation of IEECCSBP will help to reduce the frequency of Electromagnetic Metal Loss Inspections, which in the future will serve only as an audit of the External Corrosion Control System performance.

  2. Hawking Radiation and Entropy from Horizon Degrees of Freedom

    E-print Network

    Hyeyoun Chung

    2012-05-29

    We study the thermodynamic properties of horizons using the dynamical description of the gravitational degrees of freedom at a horizon found in a previous work. We use the action of the horizon degrees of freedom to posit an ansatz Liouville action in the near-horizon region, and calculate the horizon entropy using the Cardy formula. We also couple the gravitational degrees of freedom at the horizon to a classical scalar background, and show that Hawking radiation is produced.

  3. A thermal infrared hyperspectral imager (tasi) for buried landmine detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steve Achal; John E. McFee; Tyler Ivanco; Cliff Anger

    2007-01-01

    DRDC Suffeld and Itres Research have collaborated to investigate the use of hyperspectral imaging (HSI) for surface and buried landmine detection since 1989. Visible\\/near infrared (casi) and short wave infrared (sasi) families of imagers have been developed which have demonstrated reliable HSI detection of surface-laid mines, based on their reflectance spectra, from airborne and ground-based platforms. However, they have limited

  4. Quantitation of buried contamination by use of solvents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pappas, S. P.; Hsiao, P.; Hill, L. W.

    1973-01-01

    A method for determining the quantity of buried contamination using solvents is presented. A nonsporocidal method with which high spore recoveries are achievable from silicone coatings and potting compounds was developed. An extension of the method to silicon potting compound RTV 60 is reported. It is stated that spores remain viable during chemical curing of silicone potting compounds and more than ninety percent of the spore population is recoverable by amine dissolution and proper plating techniques.

  5. Detection of triazolam in skeletal remains buried for 4 years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Kudo; H. Sugie; N. Syoui; K. Kurihara; N. Jitsufuchi; T. Imamura; N. Ikeda

    1997-01-01

    Analyses of the hypnotic triazolam from the remains of two human skeletons buried underground for 4 years were made for purposes\\u000a of confirmation. The bone marrow and mummified muscle were digested with 2 M sodium hydroxide, efficiently extracted using\\u000a a 3-step solvent extraction procedure, and selectively analyzed by gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry with the negative\\u000a ion chemical ionization mode. Estazolam was

  6. Risk analysis of buried wastes from electricity generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Bernard L.

    1986-01-01

    There has been a great deal of public concern about the dangers of buried radioactive waste from the nuclear industry. The rational approach to evaluating these concerns is to develop quantitative estimates of the health impacts to be expected from these wastes, and compare them with the health impacts of wastes from alternative technologies. It is our purpose here to outline that process and develop the results.

  7. Core loss in buried magnet permanent magnet synchronous motors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Schifer; T.A. Lipo

    1989-01-01

    The steady-state core-loss characteristics of buried-magnet synchronous motors operating from a sinusoidal constant frequency voltage supply are investigated. Measured and calculated core loss, with constant shaft load, is shown to increase with decreasing terminal voltage due to an increase in armature reaction-induced stator flux-density time harmonics. Finite-element modeling is used to show that the additional loss due to the time-harmonic

  8. Final Report: Imaging of Buried Nanoscale Optically Active Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Appelbaum, Ian

    2011-07-05

    This is a final report covering work done at University of Maryland to develop a Ballistic Electron Emission Luminescence (BEEL) microscope. This technique was intended to examine the carrier transport and photon emission in deeply buried optically-active layers and thereby provide a means for materials science to unmask the detailed consequences of experimentally controllable growth parameters, such as quantum dot size, statistics and orientation, and defect density and charge recombination pathways.

  9. A global data set of soil particle size properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, Robert S.; Rosenzweig, Cynthia E.; Levine, Elissa R.

    1991-01-01

    A standardized global data set of soil horizon thicknesses and textures (particle size distributions) was compiled. This data set will be used by the improved ground hydrology parameterization designed for the Goddard Institute for Space Studies General Circulation Model (GISS GCM) Model 3. The data set specifies the top and bottom depths and the percent abundance of sand, silt, and clay of individual soil horizons in each of the 106 soil types cataloged for nine continental divisions. When combined with the World Soil Data File, the result is a global data set of variations in physical properties throughout the soil profile. These properties are important in the determination of water storage in individual soil horizons and exchange of water with the lower atmosphere. The incorporation of this data set into the GISS GCM should improve model performance by including more realistic variability in land-surface properties.

  10. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration FY-95 Deployment Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Stacey, D.E.

    1995-03-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) is a program funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Technology Development. BWID supports the applied research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that together form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. The FY-95 effort will fund 24 technologies in five areas of buried waste site remediation: site characterization, waste characterization, retrieval, treatment, and containment/stabilization. Ten of these technologies will take part in the integrated field demonstration that will take place at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) facilities in the summer of 1995. This document is the basic operational planning document for deployment of all BWID projects funded in FY-95. Discussed in this document are the BWID preparations for the INEL integrated field demonstration, INEL research and development (R&D) demonstrations, non-INEL R&D demonstrations, and office research and technical review meetings. Each project will have a test plan detailing the specific procedures, objectives, and tasks of the test. Therefore, information that is specific to testing each technology is intentionally limited in this document.

  11. FY-95 technology catalog. Technology development for buried waste remediation

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program, which is now part of the Landfill Stabilization Focus Area (LSFA), supports applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a multitude of advanced technologies dealing with underground radioactive and hazardous waste remediation. These innovative technologies are being developed as part of integrated comprehensive remediation systems for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste sites throughout the DOE complex. These efforts are identified and coordinated in support of Environmental Restoration (EM-40) and Waste Management (EM-30) needs and objectives. Sponsored by the DOE Office of Technology Development (EM-50), BWID and LSFA work with universities and private industry to develop technologies that are being transferred to the private sector for use nationally and internationally. This report contains the details of the purpose, logic, and methodology used to develop and demonstrate DOE buried waste remediation technologies. It also provides a catalog of technologies and capabilities with development status for potential users. Past FY-92 through FY-94 technology testing, field trials, and demonstrations are summarized. Continuing and new FY-95 technology demonstrations also are described.

  12. Buried-euxenic-basin model sets Tarim basin potential

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, K.J. (Tarim Associates for Oil and Mineral Exploration AG, Zurich (Switzerland))

    1994-11-28

    The Tarim basin is the largest of the three large sedimentary basins of Northwest China. The North and Southwest depressions of Tarim are underlain by thick sediments and very thin crust. The maximum sediment thickness is more than 15 km. Of the several oil fields of Tarim, the three major fields were discovered during the last decade, on the north flank of the North depression and on the Central Tarim Uplift. The major targets of Tarim, according to the buried-euxenic-basin model, should be upper Paleozoic and lower Mesozoic reservoirs trapping oil and gas condensates from lower Paleozoic source beds. The paper describes the basin and gives a historical perspective of exploration activities and discoveries. It then explains how this basin can be interpreted by the buried-euxenic-basin model. The buried-euxenic-basin model postulates four stages of geologic evolution: (1) Sinian and early Paleozoic platform sedimentation on relic arcs and deep-marine sedimentation in back-arc basins in Xinjiang; (2) Late Paleozoic foreland-basin sedimentation in north Tarim; (3) Mesozoic and Paleogene continental deposition, subsidence under sedimentary load; and (4) Neogene pull-apart basin, wrench faulting and extension.

  13. Impact of mineralogy on potassium dynamics and retention behavior in Bangladesh soils used in rice cropping systems 

    E-print Network

    Biswas, Sumitra Bose

    2008-10-10

    of "readily available" K in large areas. Five representative floodplain soils in rice production were sampled by horizon to determine physical, chemical and mineralogical properties, assess soil K, investigate plant available K, and understand impacts of redox...

  14. Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Soils of Ultramafic Origin from the Great Dyke, Zimbabwe and Gillespie County, Texas 

    E-print Network

    Bangira, Courage

    2012-02-14

    of kaolinite and feldspars. Palygorskite and serpentine occurred in specific soil horizons and at specific landscape positions. FAME profiles indicate that the soil microbial community structure is predominantly bacteria and fungi (including arbuscular...

  15. Black holes and black hole thermodynamics without event horizons

    E-print Network

    Alex B. Nielsen

    2008-09-23

    We investigate whether black holes can be defined without using event horizons. In particular we focus on the thermodynamic properties of event horizons and the alternative, locally defined horizons. We discuss the assumptions and limitations of the proofs of the zeroth, first and second laws of black hole mechanics for both event horizons and trapping horizons. This leads to the possibility that black holes may be more usefully defined in terms of trapping horizons. We also show how Hawking radiation can also be seen to arise from trapping horizons and discuss which horizon area should be associated with the gravitational entropy.

  16. Long-Term Mineral Soil Carbon Response to Forest Harvesting in New England

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Neurath; L. M. Zummo; A. J. Friedland

    2010-01-01

    Soils are the largest global terrestrial carbon reservoir. In temperate systems, mineral soil horizons contain the largest fraction of the soil carbon pool. Disturbance of mineral soil due to land-use change results in the mineralization and release of carbon as carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. The dynamics of this response are poorly understood. We examined a chronosequence of forested plots

  17. Glomalin, an arbuscular-mycorrhizal fungal soil protein, responds to land-use change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthias C. Rillig; Philip W. Ramsey; Sherri Morris; Eldor A. Paul

    2003-01-01

    Glomalin is a soil proteinaceous substance produced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Most of the information available concerning this protein has been collected in relation to its role in soil aggregation. In this study, we explored the distribution of glomalin across soil horizons, decomposition of glomalin, and relationship with soil C and N in an agricultural field, a native forest, and

  18. Effect of mesofaunal activity on the rehabilitation of sealed soil surfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcus Langmaack; Stefan Schrader; Katharina Helming

    2001-01-01

    The impact of soil mesofauna on the rehabilitation of soil surfaces sealed by rainfall was investigated in a long-term laboratory experiment. Fifteen undisturbed soil monoliths from the Ap horizon of a Gleyic Podzoluvisol\\/Haplic Luvisol derived from loess were obtained after conventional tillage and seedbed preparation. The soil of this site is known to be susceptible to surface sealing as a

  19. Universal horizons in maximally symmetric spaces

    E-print Network

    Jishnu Bhattacharyya; David Mattingly

    2014-08-27

    Universal horizons in Ho\\v{r}ava-Lifshitz gravity and Einstein-{\\ae}ther theory are the equivalent of causal horizons in general relativity and appear to have many of the same properties, including a first law of horizon thermodynamics and thermal radiation. Since universal horizons are infrared solutions of a putative power counting renormalizable quantum gravitational theory, fully understanding their thermodynamics will shed light on the interplay between black hole thermodynamics and quantum gravity. In this paper, we provide a complete classification, including asymptotic charges, of all four dimensional static and spherically symmetric universal horizon solutions with maximally symmetric asymptotics -- the equivalents of the Schwarzschild, Schwarzschild de Sitter or Schwarzschild anti-de Sitter spacetimes. Additionally we derive the associated first laws for the universal horizon solutions. Finally we prove that independent of asymptotic boundary conditions, any spherically symmetric solution in Ho\\v{r}ava-Lifshitz gravity with a universal horizon is also a solution of Einstein-{\\ae}ther theory, thereby broadening and complementing the known equivalence region of the solution spaces.

  20. Organic matter controls of soil water retention in an alpine grassland and its significance for hydrological processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fei; Zhang, Gan-Lin; Yang, Jin-Ling; Li, De-Cheng; Zhao, Yu-Guo; Liu, Feng; Yang, Ren-Min; Yang, Fan

    2014-11-01

    Soil water retention influences many soil properties and soil hydrological processes. The alpine meadows and steppes of the Qilian Mountains on the northeast border of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau form the source area of the Heihe River, the second largest inland river in China. The soils of this area therefore have a large effect on water movement and storage of the entire watershed. In order to understand the controlling factors of soil water retention and how they affect regional eco-hydrological processes in an alpine grassland, thirty-five pedogenic horizons in fourteen soil profiles along two facing hillslopes in typical watersheds of this area were selected for study. Results show that the extensively-accumulated soil organic matter plays a dominant role in controlling soil water retention in this alpine environment. We distinguished two mechanisms of this control. First, at high matric potentials soil organic matter affected soil water retention mainly through altering soil structural parameters and thereby soil bulk density. Second, at low matric potentials the water adsorbing capacity of soil organic matter directly affected water retention. To investigate the hydrological functions of soils at larger scales, soil water retention was compared by three generalized pedogenic horizons. Among these soil horizons, the mattic A horizon, a diagnostic surface horizon of Chinese Soil Taxonomy defined specially for alpine meadow soils, had the greatest soil water retention over the entire range of measured matric potentials. Hillslopes with soils having these horizons are expected to have low surface runoff. This study promotes the understanding of the critical role of alpine soils, especially the vegetated surface soils in controlling the eco-hydrological processes in source regions of the Heihe River watershed.

  1. New France, New Horizons: On French Soil in America

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Almost 400 years ago, France created its first permanent settlement in what would later become Canada. In doing so, the French embarked on a pattern of discovery and extended settlement that would continue until Britain eventually took control of the region in the late 18th century. Designed to celebrate and explore this rich history, this site was created by the Library and Archives Canada and the Direction des Archives de France in order to bring together over one million digitized images of documents, maps, plans, and other visual material related to this long period of French involvement in this part of North America. Here visitors can view a virtual exhibition, browse a list of other institutional links, and last (but certainly not least) search the massive database. The database is quite user-friendly, as visitors can elect to search by year (or time period), institutional location of document, or collection. For example, typing in Montreal returns 2900 documents alone, including numerous maps, government correspondence, and a number of city plans. The SVG Viewer plug-in allows users to zoom in, rotate, and manipulate documents in a number of ways, and is a welcome addition to this already remarkable online resource.

  2. Influences of soil acidity on Streptomyces populations inhabiting forest soils.

    PubMed Central

    Hagedorn, C

    1976-01-01

    The Streptomyces populations inhabiting five acidic forest soils were examined. It was found that lowering the pH of a medium selective for streptomycetes (starch-casein agar) to the pH of the particular soil horizon being plated influenced both the total numbers and types of streptomycetes that were isolated from the soils examined in this study. On the acidified medium both the numbers of streptomycetes and the percentage of total bacteria on the plates represented by streptomycetes increased (as compared with the same medium with a pH of 7.2). These differences were greatest on the isolations from the most acid soils. The largest concentrations of streptomycetes were found in the surface horizon (0 to 15 cm) and the litter layer immediately over the surface mineral horizon. Acidity tolerance tests demonstrated that random samplings of isolates contained acidophilic, neutrophilic, and acidoduric strains, with the largest numbers of acidophiles being found on the acidified media from the most acid soils. There were no differences between overall utilization of selected carbohydrates among the isolates taken from either the neutral or acidic media, although a larger proportion of the acid media isolates produced acid from the carbohydrates. Evidence is presented which indicates that different types of streptomycetes were isolated on the acid media, and possible reasons for the presence of these acid-tolerant populations are discussed. PMID:10835

  3. NEW HORIZONS IN SENSOR DEVELOPMENT

    PubMed Central

    Intille, Stephen S.; Lester, Jonathan; Sallis, James F.; Duncan, Glen

    2011-01-01

    Background Accelerometery and other sensing technologies are important tools for physical activity measurement. Engineering advances have allowed developers to transform clunky, uncomfortable, and conspicuous monitors into relatively small, ergonomic, and convenient research tools. New devices can be used to collect data on overall physical activity and in some cases posture, physiological state, and location, for many days or weeks from subjects during their everyday lives. In this review article, we identify emerging trends in several types of monitoring technologies and gaps in the current state of knowledge. Best practices The only certainty about the future of activity sensing technologies is that researchers must anticipate and plan for change. We propose a set of best practices that may accelerate adoption of new devices and increase the likelihood that data being collected and used today will be compatible with new datasets and methods likely to appear on the horizon. Future directions We describe several technology-driven trends, ranging from continued miniaturization of devices that provide gross summary information about activity levels and energy expenditure, to new devices that provide highly detailed information about the specific type, amount, and location of physical activity. Some devices will take advantage of consumer technologies, such as mobile phones, to detect and respond to physical activity in real time, creating new opportunities in measurement, remote compliance monitoring, data-driven discovery, and intervention. PMID:22157771

  4. Unruh effect without Rindler horizon

    E-print Network

    Nistor Nicolaevici

    2015-02-04

    We investigate the Unruh effect for a massless scalar field in the two dimensional Minkowski space in the presence of a uniformly accelerated perfect mirror, with the trajectory of the mirror chosen in such a way that the mirror completely masks the Rindler horizon from the space-time region of interest. We find that the characteristic thermodynamical properties of the effect remain unchanged, i.e. the response of a uniformly co-accelerated Unruh detector and the distribution of the Rindler particles retain their thermal form. However, since in this setup there are no unobserved degrees of freedom of the field the thermal statistics of the Rindler particles is inconsistent with an initial pure vacuum, which leads us to reconsider the problem for the more physical case when the mirror is inertial in the past. In these conditions we find that the distribution of the Rindler particles is non-thermal even in the limit of infinite acceleration times, but an effective thermal statistics can be recovered provided that one restricts to the expectation values of smeared operators associated to finite norm Rindler states. We explain how the thermal statistics in our problem can be understood in analogy with that in the conventional version of the effect.

  5. Nonlinear optics of fibre event horizons.

    PubMed

    Webb, Karen E; Erkintalo, Miro; Xu, Yiqing; Broderick, Neil G R; Dudley, John M; Genty, Goëry; Murdoch, Stuart G

    2014-01-01

    The nonlinear interaction of light in an optical fibre can mimic the physics at an event horizon. This analogue arises when a weak probe wave is unable to pass through an intense soliton, despite propagating at a different velocity. To date, these dynamics have been described in the time domain in terms of a soliton-induced refractive index barrier that modifies the velocity of the probe. Here we complete the physical description of fibre-optic event horizons by presenting a full frequency-domain description in terms of cascaded four-wave mixing between discrete single-frequency fields, and experimentally demonstrate signature frequency shifts using continuous wave lasers. Our description is confirmed by the remarkable agreement with experiments performed in the continuum limit, reached using ultrafast lasers. We anticipate that clarifying the description of fibre event horizons will significantly impact on the description of horizon dynamics and soliton interactions in photonics and other systems. PMID:25230247

  6. www.ictas.vt.edu NEW HORIZONS

    E-print Network

    Crawford, T. Daniel

    www.ictas.vt.edu NEW HORIZONS ICTAS SEMINAR SERIES Future Needs and Opportunities in Nanotechnology aerospace system. Reduced vehicle and system weight can enablereducedfuelconsumptionandemissions(aircraft),reducedlaunchcostsandcomplexity(spacecraft

  7. New Horizons At Jupiter: Overview Of Results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Moore

    2007-01-01

    NASA's New Horizons spacecraft has provided new data on the Jupiter system, acquiring new perspectives of the giant planet's atmosphere, rings, moons and magnetosphere. These new views include the closest look yet at the Earth-sized \\

  8. Numerical implementation of isolated horizon boundary conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Jaramillo, Jose Luis; Ansorg, Marcus; Limousin, Francois [Laboratoire de l'Univers et de ses Theories, UMR 8102 du C.N.R.S., Observatoire de Paris, F-92195 Meudon Cedex (France) and Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, CSIC, Apartado Postal 3004, Granada 18080 (Spain); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Am Muehlenberg 1, D-14476 Golm (Germany); Laboratoire de l'Univers et de ses Theories, UMR 8102 du C.N.R.S., Observatoire de Paris, F-92195 Meudon Cedex (France) and Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, 14853 (United States)

    2007-01-15

    We study the numerical implementation of a set of boundary conditions derived from the isolated horizon formalism, and which characterize a black hole whose horizon is in quasiequilibrium. More precisely, we enforce these geometrical prescriptions as inner boundary conditions on an excised sphere, in the numerical resolution of the conformal thin sandwich equations. As main results, we first establish the consistency of including in the set of boundary conditions a constant surface gravity prescription, interpretable as a lapse boundary condition, and second we assess how the prescriptions presented recently by Dain et al. for guaranteeing the well-posedness of the conformal transverse traceless equations with quasiequilibrium horizon conditions extend to the conformal thin sandwich elliptic system. As a consequence of the latter analysis, we discuss the freedom of prescribing the expansion associated with the ingoing null normal at the horizon.

  9. Receding horizon control of nonlinear systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAVID Q. MAYNE; HANNAH MICHALSKA

    1990-01-01

    The receding horizon control strategy provides a relatively simple method for determining feedback control for linear or nonlinear systems. The method is especially useful for the control of slow nonlinear systems, such as chemical batch processes, where it is possible to solve, sequentially, open-loop fixed-horizon, optimal control problems online. The method has been shown to yield a stable closed-loop system

  10. Vertical distribution of soil removed by four species of burrowing rodents in disturbed and undisturbed soils

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, T.D.; Laundre, J.W.

    1988-04-01

    Burrow volumes were determined in disturbed and undisturbed soils for four species of rodents in southeastern Idaho. Comparisons were made between soil types for the average volume and the proportion of the total volume of soil excavated from 10-cm increments for each species, and the relative number of burrows and proportion of total soil removed from beneath the minimum thickness of soil covers over buried low-level radioactive wastes. Burrows of montane voles (Microtus montanus) and deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) rarely extended below 50 cm and neither volumes nor depths were influenced by soil disturbance. Townsend's ground squirrels (Spermophilus townsendii) had the deepest and most voluminous burrows that, along with Ord's kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ordii) burrows, were more prevalent beneath 50 cm in disturbed soils.

  11. Soil heat flux determined from diel water content and temperature variations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil heat flux for a measurement interval is commonly determined using heat flux plates buried at some depth below the surface. The heat flux values are adjusted to represent the soil surface heat flux by determining the heat stored in the layer between the plate and surface. Heat storage is calcula...

  12. Microwave penetration and attenuation in desert soil - A field experiment with the Shuttle Imaging Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farr, T. G.; Elachi, C.; Hartl, P.; Chowdhury, K.

    1986-01-01

    Receivers buried in the Nevada desert were used with the Shuttle Imaging Radar to measure microwave attenuation as a function of soil moisture in situ. Results agree closely with laboratory measurements of attenuation and suggest that penetration of tens of centimeters in desert soils is common for L-band (1.2-GHz) radar.

  13. In situ investigation of dissolution of heavy metal containing mineral particles in an acidic forest soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Birkefeld; Rainer Schulin; Bernd Nowack

    2006-01-01

    We report the application of an in situ method to obtain field dissolution rates of fine mineral particles in soils. Samples with different metal-containing mineral and slag particles (lead oxide, copper concentrate and copper slag) from the mining and smelting industry were buried in the topsoil of an acidic forest soil for up to 18 months. In addition we studied

  14. Genesis of peat-bog soils in the northern taiga spruce forests of the Kola Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Nikonov, V.V.

    1981-01-01

    The characteristics of soil formation processes in the Peat-Bog soils of waterlogged spruce phytocenoses on the Kola Peninsula are investigated. It is found that the ash composition of the peat layer is determined primarily by the composition of the buried plant residues. The effect of the chemical composition of water feeding the peat bogs is determined. (Refs. 7).

  15. Soil and sedimentary charcoal evidence for Holocene forest fires in an inland

    E-print Network

    Sanborn, Paul

    Soil and sedimentary charcoal evidence for Holocene forest fires in an inland temperate rainforest of 147 charcoal samples recovered from colluvial and alluvial fan deposits at 29 sites was used of charcoal in buried soils and slope deposits. Median time since fire was 467 cal. yr based on ages

  16. Effect of soil parameters on the corrosion of archaeological metal finds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Werner Gerwin; Roland Baumhauer

    2000-01-01

    Archaeologists have observed an increasing tendency for freshly excavated iron artefacts to deteriorate due to accelerated corrosion. Iron artefacts and associated soil samples from German archaeological sites have therefore been examined and analysed. The approximate aggressiveness of the soil toward buried iron objects has been estimated by means of an existing rating standard. In addition, correlation coefficients have been calculated

  17. An analytical model for studies of soil modification effects on ground penetrating radar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Jenwatanavet; J. T. Johnson

    2001-01-01

    Due to the similar dielectric constants of buried nonmetallic targets and dry soils, it is often difficult to detect and identify nonmetallic targets with ground penetrating radar. The addition of properly chosen chemical agents to modify soil properties can potentially provide improved detection. Previous studies using waveguide experiments have shown that the addition of water improves dielectric contrasts but also

  18. Acidification and recovery of a Spodosol BS horizon from acidic deposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randy A. Dahlgren; Drew C. McAvoy; Charles T. Driscoll

    1990-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to examine acidification and recovery of a Spodosol Bs horizon from acidic deposition in the Bear Brook Watershed (BBW) in central Maine. A mechanical vacuum extractor was used to draw solutions through a soil column at three treatments containing 40, 100, or 160 micromol\\/L SO4(2-). Following 44 d of leaching, all treatments were decreased to

  19. Vertical distribution of Collembola (Hexapoda) and their food resources in organic horizons of beech forests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. F. Ponge

    2000-01-01

    Micro-samples of the surface organic horizons of 13 beech forests in Belgium were fixed immediately after collection in ethanol. Collembola (6255 animals) were sorted directly from micro-samples in the laboratory using a dissecting microscope, while the litter\\/soil matrix was analysed semi-quantitatively. The vertical distribution of Collembolan species was studied by correspondence analysis. Gut contents of animals were examined under a

  20. Discovering the essence of soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frink, D.

    2012-04-01

    Science, and what it can learn, is constrained by its paradigms and premises. Similarly, teaching and what topics can be addressed are constrained by the paradigms and premises of the subject matter. Modern soil science is founded on the five-factor model of Dokuchaev and Jenny. Combined with Retallack's universal definition of soil as geologic detritus affected by weathering and/or biology, modern soil science emphasizes a descriptive rather than an interpretive approach. Modern soil science however, emerged from the study of plants and the need to improve crop yields in the face of chronic and wide spread famine in Europe. In order to teach that dirt is fascinating we must first see soils in their own right, understand their behavior and expand soil science towards an interpretive approach rather than limited as a descriptive one. Following the advice of James Hutton given over two centuries ago, I look at soils from a physiological perspective. Digestive processes are mechanical and chemical weathering, the resulting constituents reformed into new soil constituents (e.g. clay and humus), translocated to different regions of the soil body to serve other physiological processes (e.g. lamellae, argillic and stone-line horizons), or eliminated as wastes (e.g. leachates and evolved gasses). Respiration is described by the ongoing and diurnal exchange of gasses between the soil and its environment. Circulatory processes are evident in soil pore space, drainage capacity and capillary capability. Reproduction of soil is evident at two different scales: the growth of clay crystals (with their capacity for mutation) and repair of disturbed areas such as result from the various pedo-perturbations. The interactions between biotic and abiotic soil components provide examples of both neurological and endocrine systems in soil physiology. Through this change in perspective, both biotic and abiotic soil processes become evident, providing insight into the possible behavior of ancient prebiotic soils. Furthermore, the physiological approach sheds light on the emergence of new soil components (e.g. spodic horizons) as ancient prebiotic soils adapt to a plethora of biotic carbon compounds. Other emergent soil properties and behaviors can be linked to the kinds, frequencies, order and intensities of various ubiquitous pedo-perturbations.

  1. A Large Buried Felsic Component in the Ancient Martian Crust?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baratoux, D.; Monnereau, M.; Samuel, H.; Michaut, C.; Wieczorek, M. A.; Garcia, R.

    2014-12-01

    A new range of crustal density values for Mars was calculated from the major element chemistry of Martian meteorites?(3100 - 3700 kg/m3), igneous rocks at Gusev crater (3100 - 3600 kg/m3) and from the surface concentration of Fe, Al, Ca, Si, and K measured by the Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) (3250 - 3450 kg/m3) (Baratoux et al., 2014). Whereas a dense basaltic crust would be compatible with the moment of inertia factor of Mars, its thickness would exceed 100 km. Such a thick crust is not compatible with the geoid-to-topography ratios in the highlands, and would be unstable and prone to basal flow and/or crustal delamination. An alternative possibility is the existence of a buried light felsic or anorthositic component. A low-density crustal component in the highlands would be consistent with an isostatic compensation associated with a difference in elevation between the two hemispheres of Mars. This alternative is reinforced in the context of the findings of felsic or anorthositic material from visible/NIR spectroscopy (Carter and Poulet, 2013, Wray et al. 2013), and the identification of feldspar-rich rocks at Gale crater (Sautter et al., 2014), whereas felsic lithologies were already identified by Pathfinder. The recently identified outcrops could be either remnants of an ancient anorthositic crust or the result of local igneous differentiation of plutonic bodies. The latter interpretation is currently preferred as early Mars conditions should not be compatible with the formation of a plagioclase floatation crust (Elkins-Tanton et al., 2005). However, in light of the geophysical and petrological constraints discussed above, and given the absence of abundant light material at the surface, we advocate for the existence of a buried anorthositic crustal component that has been largely buried by volcanic material of basaltic composition in the late Noachian or Hesperian eras. Implications regarding the magma ocean scenario for Mars will be discussed.

  2. Random Analysis on Line-Heat Source Temperature Field of Ground Source Heat Pumps Buried Pipes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Changsheng Guan; Zhuodong Liu; Kai Xia; Xuyi Chen

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the random properties of ground-source heat pump (GSHP) system. GSHP buried pipe to Kelvin one-dimensional line source of heat transfer model are discussed. The model randomness is analyzed, and the GSHP buried pipe to random excess temperature field, space-time statistics and the correlation of features are studied. The calculation results show that, heat transfer in buried pipe

  3. Marble burying reflects a repetitive and perseverative behavior more than novelty-induced anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Alexia; Burant, April; Bui, Nghiem; Graham, Deanna; Yuva-Paylor, Lisa A.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale An increasing number of investigators utilize the marble-burying assay despite the paucity of information available regarding what underlies the behavior. Objectives We tested the possibility that a genetic component underlies marble burying in mice and if there is a genetic correlation with other anxiety-like traits. Since findings reported in the literature indicate that marble-burying behavior reflects an anxiety-like response, we explored the assumption that the novel nature of a marble induces this anxiety. Finally, we investigated how the natural response of a mouse to dig relates to the marble-burying phenomenon. Methods We examined ten different inbred mouse strains to determine if marble-burying behavior is genetically regulated and correlated with anxiety-like traits in two other assays. We employed multiple variants of the “traditional” marble-burying assay to address how issues such as the novelty of marbles and digging behavior contribute to marble burying. Results Marble-burying behavior varied across strain and did not correlate with anxiety measures in other assays. Multiple tests conducted to reduce the novelty of marbles failed to alter burying behavior. Additionally, digging behavior correlated with marble burying, and the presence of marbles did not significantly impact the digging response. Conclusions Our results indicate that mouse marble burying is genetically regulated, not correlated with other anxiety-like traits, not stimulated by novelty, and is a repetitive behavior that persists/perseveres with little change across multiple exposures. Marble burying is related to digging behavior and may in fact be more appropriately considered as an indicative measure of repetitive digging. PMID:19189082

  4. Long-Term Soil Chemistry Changes in Aggrading Forest Ecosystems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer Donaldson Knoepp; Wayne T. Swank

    1994-01-01

    Assessing potential long-term forest productivity requires identifi- cation of the processes regulating chemical changes in forest soils. We resampled the litter layer and upper two mineral soil horizons, A and AB\\/BA, in two aggrading southern Appalachian watersheds 20 yr after an earlier sampling. Soils from a mixed-hardwood watershed exhibited a small but significant decrease in soil pH. Extractable base cation

  5. Approximation functions for airblast environments from buried charges

    SciTech Connect

    Reichenbach, H.; Behrens, K. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Kurzzeitdynamik - Ernst-Mach-Institut (EMI), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Kuhl, A.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., El Segundo, CA (United States)

    1993-11-01

    In EMI report E 1/93, ``Airblast Environments from Buried HE-Charges,`` fit functions were used for the compact description of blastwave parameters. The coefficients of these functions were approximated by means of second order polynomials versus DOB. In most cases, the agreement with the measured data was satisfactory; to reduce remaining noticeable deviations, an approximation by polygons (i.e., piecewise-linear approximation) was used instead of polynomials. The present report describes the results of the polygon approximation and compares them to previous data. We conclude that the polygon representation leads to a better agreement with the measured data.

  6. Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Backscatter from Buried Tunnels

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, K; Pao, H

    2006-06-21

    This progress report is submitted under a contract between the Special Project Office of DARPA and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The Project Manager at DARPA is Dr. Michael Zatman. Our purpose under this contract is to investigate interactions between electromagnetic waves and a class of buried targets located in multilayered media with rough interfaces. In this report, we investigate three preliminary problems. In each case our specific goal is to understand various aspects of the electromagnetic wave interaction mechanisms with targets in layered media. The first problem, discussed in Section 2, is that of low-frequency electromagnetic backscattering from a tunnel that is cut into a lossy dielectric half-space. In this problem, the interface between the upper (free space) region and the lower (ground) region is smooth. The tunnel is assumed to be a cylindrical free-space region of infinite extent in its axial direction and with a diameter that is small in comparison to the free-space wavelength. Because its diameter is small, the tunnel can be modeled as a buried ''wire'' described by an equivalent impedance per unit length. In Section 3 we extend the analysis to include a statistically rough interface between the air and ground regions. The interface is modeled as a random-phase screen. Such a screen reduces the coherent power in a plane wave that is transmitted through it, scattering some of the total power into an incoherent field. Our analysis of this second problem quantifies the reduction in the coherent power backscattered from the buried tunnel that is caused by the roughness of the air-ground interface. The problem of low-frequency electromagnetic backscattering from two buried tunnels, parallel to each other but at different locations in the ground, is considered in Section 4. In this analysis, we wish to determine the conditions under which the presence of more than one tunnel can be detected via backscattering. Section 5 concludes the report with a summary of the investigations discussed herein and recommendations for future work on problems of this class.

  7. Ion-implanted planar-buried-heterostructure diode laser

    DOEpatents

    Brennan, Thomas M. (Albuquerque, NM); Hammons, Burrell E. (Tijeras, NM); Myers, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Vawter, Gregory A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1991-01-01

    A Planar-Buried-Heterostructure, Graded-Index, Separate-Confinement-Heterostructure semiconductor diode laser 10 includes a single quantum well or multi-quantum well active stripe 12 disposed between a p-type compositionally graded Group III-V cladding layer 14 and an n-type compositionally graded Group III-V cladding layer 16. The laser 10 includes an ion implanted n-type region 28 within the p-type cladding layer 14 and further includes an ion implanted p-type region 26 within the n-type cladding layer 16. The ion implanted regions are disposed for defining a lateral extent of the active stripe.

  8. Ion-implanted planar-buried-heterostructure diode laser

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, T.M.; Hammons, B.E.; Myers, D.R.; Vawter, G.A.

    1991-09-10

    A Planar-Buried-Heterostructure, Graded-Index, Separate-Confinement-Heterostructure semiconductor diode laser is described that includes a single quantum well or multi-quantum well active stripe disposed between a p-type compositionally graded Group III-V cladding layer and an n-type compositionally graded Group III-V cladding layer. The laser 10 includes an ion implanted n-type region within the p-type cladding layer and further includes an ion implanted p-type region within the n-type cladding layer. The ion implanted regions are disposed for defining a lateral extent of the active stripe.

  9. Black holes and black hole thermodynamics without event horizons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alex B. Nielsen

    2009-01-01

    We investigate whether black holes can be defined without using event horizons. In particular we focus on the thermodynamic\\u000a properties of event horizons and the alternative, locally defined horizons. We discuss the assumptions and limitations of\\u000a the proofs of the zeroth, first and second laws of black hole mechanics for both event horizons and trapping horizons. This\\u000a leads to the

  10. High-resolution subsurface imaging and neural network recognition: Non-intrusive buried substance location. Final report, January 26, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Sternberg, B.K.; Poulton, M.M.

    1998-12-31

    A high-frequency, high-resolution electromagnetic (EIVI) imaging system has been developed for environmental geophysics surveys. Some key features of this system include: (1) rapid surveying to allow dense spatial sampling over a large area, (2) high-accuracy measurements which are used to produce a high-resolution image of the subsurface, (3) measurements which have excellent signal-to-noise ratio over a wide bandwidth (31 kHz to 32 MHZ), (4) elimination of electric-field interference at high frequencies, (5) large-scale physical modeling to produce accurate theoretical responses over targets of interest in environmental geophysics surveys, (6) rapid neural network interpretation at the field site, and (7) visualization of complex structures during the survey. Four major experiments were conducted with the system: (1) Data were collected for several targets in our physical modeling facility. (2) We tested the system over targets buried in soil. (3) We conducted an extensive survey at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Cold Test Pit (CTP). The location of the buried waste, category of waste, and thickness of the clay cap were successfully mapped. (4) We ran surveys over the acid pit at INEL. This was an operational survey over a hot site. The interpreted low-resistivity region correlated closely with the known extent of the acid pit.

  11. High-resolution subsurface imaging and neural network recognition: Non-intrusive buried substance location. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sternberg, B.K.; Poulton, M.M.

    1997-01-26

    A high-frequency, high-resolution electromagnetic (EM) imaging system has been developed for environmental geophysics surveys. Some key features of this system include: (1) rapid surveying to allow dense spatial sampling over a large area, (2) high-accuracy measurements which are used to produce a high-resolution image of the subsurface, (3) measurements which have excellent signal-to-noise ratio over a wide bandwidth (31 kHz to 32 MHz), (4) elimination of electric-field interference at high frequencies, (5) large-scale physical modeling to produce accurate theoretical responses over targets of interest in environmental geophysics surveys, (6) rapid neural network interpretation at the field site, and (7) visualization of complex structures during the survey. Four major experiments were conducted with the system: (1) Data were collected for several targets in our physical modeling facility. (2) The authors tested the system over targets buried in soil. (3) The authors conducted an extensive survey at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Cold Test Pit (CTP). The location of the buried waste, category of waste, and thickness of the clay cap were successfully mapped. (4) The authors ran surveys over the acid pit at INEL. This was an operational survey over a hot site. The interpreted low-resistivity region correlated closely with the known extent of the acid pit.

  12. Development of a dual-band LWIR/LWIR QWIP focal plane array for detection of buried land mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, Arnold C.; Fischer, Theodore; Derzko, Zenon I.; Uppal, Parvez N.; Winn, Michael L.

    2002-08-01

    We report on the development and testing of a new dual-band infrared (IR) focal plane array (FPA) specifically designed to detect buried land mines. The detector response spectra were tailored to take advantage of the sharp spectral features associated with disturbed soils. The goal was to have a blue channel with peak response near 9.2 micrometers and a red channel with maximum response at 10.5 micrometers . The quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) is particularly suited for this application because of the flexibility available in designing the peak wavelength of the detector and the relatively narrow width of the response spectrum. FPAs were produced and tested under the U. S. Army Research Laboratory's Advanced Sensors Collaborative Research Alliance in co-operation with the Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate. We report on laboratory measurements of the response spectra, the dark current as a function of operating temperature, and the conversion efficiency in both the blue and red channels. Imagery was taken in the field of buried anti-tank mines. The images were analyzed by combining the data from the two channels into single fused images.

  13. Detection of buried land mines using a dual-band LWIR/LWIR QWIP focal plane array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, Arnold; Uppal, Parvez N.; Winn, Michael

    2003-10-01

    We report on the development and testing of a new dual-band infrared focal plane array (FPA) specifically designed to detect buried land mines. The detector response spectra were tailored to take advantage of the sharp spectral features associated with disturbed soils. The goal was to have a "blue" channel with peak response near 9.2 ?m and a "red" channel with maximum response at 10.5 ?m. The quantum well infrared photodetector is particularly suited for this application because of the flexibility available in designing the peak wavelength of the detector and the relatively narrow width of the response spectrum. FPAs were produced and tested under the US Army Research Laboratory's Advanced Sensors Collaborative Research Alliance in co-operation with the Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate. We report on laboratory measurements of the response spectra, the dark current as a function of operating temperature, and the conversion efficiency in both the blue and red channels. Imagery was taken in the field of buried anti-tank mines. The images were analyzed by combining the data from the two channels into single fused images.

  14. Copper and lead isotopic and metallic pollution record in soils from the Kombat mining area, Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihaljevic, Martin; Ettler, Vojtech; Vanek, Ales; Chrastny, Vladislav; Kribek, Bohdan; Penizek, Vit; Sracek, Ondrej

    2013-04-01

    Copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) concentration, isotopic composition (206Pb/207Pb, 65Cu/63Cu) and speciation were studied in soils from the Kombat mining area. The Cu and Pb concentrations in the studied soils ranged between 21 mg/kg - 757 mg/kg, and 19 mg/kg - 815 mg/kg respectively. In the sequential extractions, the largest part of soil Cu appeared in the residual and reducible fractions and Pb was predominantly bound in reducible and residual fractions and was more mobile compared to Cu. Copper and Pb concentration are higher in soils close to the slime deposit. Concentration of both metals increased with increasing soil depth in irrigated and cultivated soils. In soils not contaminated by dust eroded from the slime deposit, Cu and Pb contents are not dependent on the soil depth. The Pb isotopic signatures (206Pb/207Pb) ranged between 1.15 - 1.21 in soils from the Kombat area. In most of soil samples, surface horizons exhibited lower 206Pb/207Pb ratio, which originates from the slime dust pollution (206Pb/207Pb ~ 1.15) compared to deeper soil horizons, with lithogenic Pb signatures (206Pb/207Pb > 1.2). Isotopic composition of Cu differs on contaminated and uncontaminated sites and cultivated and non-cultivated sites. The ?65Cu in the studied soil horizon ranged between -0.373 ‰ and 0.561 ‰. The most pronounced variations occurred in contaminated non cultivated and non-irrigated soils (0.529 ‰). The contaminated top horizons are enriched in isotopically heavier Cu (tailing materials), and ?65Cu decreased with depth. Irrigated (cultivated) and contaminated soils exhibited heavier Cu in the surface horizons (originated from tailing dust ?65Cu = 0.260), decrease of ?65Cu in Bt horizons (biological uptake of light isotope by crop, and their incorporation in this horizons) and increase of ?65Cu in Bc horizons. The Bc horizons of cultivated and irrigated Phaeozems are enriched in Mn nodules (0.2 - 1.5 cm diameter, prevailing Mn phase pyrochroite Mn(OH)2) which contain 400 mg/kg of Cu. Manganese nodules containing horizons are enriched in isotopically heavier Cu (?65Cu = 0.378 ‰). Similar ?65Cu patterns were found in soils without manganese nodules, but with higher secondary iron and aluminium hydroxides, which may bound Cu on their surfaces. Fractionation of Cu isotopes (enrichment in 65Cu) in soil formation processes are attributed to preferential adsorption of heavier isotopes on secondary soil components.

  15. Porosity factors that control the hydraulic conductivity of soil-saprolite transitional zones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vepraskas, M.J.; Guertal, W.R.; Kleiss, H.J.; Amoozegar, A.

    1996-01-01

    Slowly permeable transitional horizons separate soil and saprolite, but these horizons cannot be identified easily in the field. The objectives of this study were to determine why the soil-saprolite transitional zone (BC and CB horizons) is slowly permeable, and to evaluate ways for identifying it in the field. Two saprolite deposits were studied in the North Carolina Piedmont. At each site, saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivities (Ksat and Kunsat) were measured for major horizons. Volume fractions of water-conducting pores were also compared with the changes in hydraulic conductivity with depth. Horizon mean Ksat values at both sites ranged from virtually 0 to approximately 3 cm h-1. The lowest Ksat values (<0.3 cm h-1) occurred in or near the transitional horizons that were directly below the Bt horizons. Changes in the volume of pores within or between mineral grains (termed inter/intraparticle pores) with depth corresponded to changes in both Ksat and Kunsat. In the transitional horizons, the inter/intraparticle pores were plugged with clay and this caused the horizons to have low K values. In situ measurements of Ksat with depth were the most accurate technique to use for identifying transitional zones in the field. Examination of both the soil and rock structures in pits was also an acceptable technique. Texture and consistence were not considered reliable for pin-pointing transitional horizons.

  16. SURVIVAL OF TILLETIA INDICA TELIOSPORES IN ARIZONA FIELD SOILS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two methods were used to test germinability during a 42-month period in which polyester mesh bags of Tilletia indica teliospore-infested soil were buried in irrigated and non-irrigated field plots in Tucson, Arizona. One method determined the total number of viable teliospores (TNVT) whether or not ...

  17. 11/5/2007 M. Holdridge 1 New Horizons Pluto EncounterNew Horizons Pluto Encounter

    E-print Network

    Young, Leslie A.

    11/5/2007 M. Holdridge 1 New Horizons Pluto EncounterNew Horizons Pluto Encounter Baseline Review not conclude the concept development phase of planning the Pluto encounter. Continued analysis and trades, we are finding the Pluto flyby is a very unique flyby in terms of geometry and goals

  18. 78 FR 70976 - Horizons ETFs Management (USA) LLC and Horizons ETF Trust; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ...SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Investment...Horizons ETFs Management (USA) LLC and Horizons ETF Trust; Notice of...10.C of Part 2 of its Form ADV a discussion of its relationship to any Affiliated Index Provider and any material conflicts of...

  19. Bricks in urban soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nehls, T.; Rokia, S.; Mekiffer, B.; Wessolek, G.

    2012-04-01

    Bricks can be considered as anthropogenic markers since they are regularly found in urban soils worldwide. They are known to fulfill soil functions due to their pore system. The purpose of this study is to investigate abundance and functions of bricks in urban soils, focusing on plant nutrition and contamination aspects. Three different Berlin urban soils have been studied for their brick contents in the coarse and fine earth fractions by hand sorting. Light and scanning electron microscopy was then employed to investigate the bricks for rooting. Third, CEC, pH, EC, Corg, nutrient storage (XRF) and availability (2:1 extract, ion chromatography, AAS) of bricks and fine earth fractions of the corresponding soil horizons have been investigated. The fine earth fractions of the investigated soils contain 3 to 5 % of bricks, while the coarse fractions contain up to 50 %. Roots enter brick pores or attach to brick surfaces. Therefore, they can use the water and nutrients stored in bricks. The CEC of bricks is grain size dependent and reaches a maximum of 6 cmolc kg-1 for particles smaller than 0.063 mm. This dependency is not explained by a low pore connectivity. Rather, it is the result of the restricted diffusion into the brick pore system due to the short shaking time in the CEC analysis protocol. From the nutrient storage and availabilities we conclude that bricks can better supply plants with K, Mg, Ca and S than the bulk soil at the investigated site. However, in general, the nutrient availability from bricks is rather low compared to agricultural soils, except for Ca and S. Because of the water and nutrient storage, low contamination status and the possible rooting of bricks, they can be used for amelioration of poor sandy soils and for soil construction.

  20. Sub-critical insonification of buried elastic shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veljkovic, Irena; Schmidt, Henrik

    2002-11-01

    In a shallow water environment a high frequency high grazing angle mine-hunting sonar approach is vastly limited by the coverage rate, making the detection and classification of buried objects using subcritical grazing incidence an attractive alternative. One of the central issues in mine countermeasurements regarding the physics of scattering from spherical shells is the isolation and the analysis of the resonant excitations of the system distinguishing the manmade elastic targets from rocks or other clutter. Burial of an elastic target in the seabed results in a variety of modifications to the scattered response caused by different physical mechanisms, geometric constrains, and intrinsic sediment properties. The aim of this research is to identify, analyze, and explain the fundamental effects of the sediment and the proximity of the seabed interface on the scattering of sound from elastic spherical shells insonified using low frequencies at subcritical incident angles. A new, comprehensive understanding of the goats98 experimental data was obtained distinguishing the effects of the acoustics environment from the resonant signature of a buried elastic target. To achieve this and to further investigate the more intricate details of the scattering process, a numerically improved, OASES-3D modeling framework was used. [Work supported by ONR.