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Sample records for buried soil horizons

  1. Buried soils of Late Quaternary moraines of the Wind River Mountains, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Dahms, D.E. . Geography Dept.)

    1992-01-01

    Buried soils occur on kettle floors of four Pinedale moraine catenas of the western Wind River Mountains of Wyoming. Radiocarbon ages from bulk samples of Ab horizons indicate the soils were buried during the mid-Holocene. Soils on kettle floors have silty A and Bw horizons that overlie buried A and B horizons that also formed in silt-rich sediments. Crests and backslope soils also have A and Bw horizons of sandy loam formed over 2BCb and 2Cb horizons of stony coarse loamy sand. Recent data show the silty textures of the A and B horizons are due to eolian silt and clay from the Green River Basin just west of the mountains. The buried soils appear to represent alternate periods of erosion and deposition on the moraines during the Holocene. The original soils developed on higher slopes of the moraines were eroded during the mid-Holocene and the 2BC and 2C horizons exposed at the surface. Eroded soil sediments were transported downslope onto the kettle floors. Following erosion, silt-rich eolian sediments accumulated on all surfaces and mixed with the BC and C horizons (the mixed loess of Shroba and Birkeland). The present surface soils developed within this silt-rich material. Stone lines often occur at the Bw-2BCb/2Cb boundary, and mark the depth to which the earlier soils were eroded. Thus, soil profiles at the four localities result from two periods of soil formation, interrupted by an interval of erosion during the mid-Holocene. Moraines of this study are adjacent to the Fremont Lake type area for the Pinedale glaciation of the Rocky Mountains. Buried soils in kettles of the moraines indicates the soil characteristics of the Pinedale type region are not necessarily due to continuous post-Pinedale development, but may result from more than one episode of soil formation.

  2. Phosphatase activity in the surface and buried chestnut soils of the Volga-Don interfluve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomutova, T. E.; Demkina, T. S.; Kashirskaya, N. N.; Demkin, V. A.

    2012-04-01

    The phosphatase activity (PA) was studied in the chestnut paleosols buried in 1718-1720 under the Anna Ivanovna rampart in the southern part of the Privolzhskaya Upland and in the middle of the third millennium BC under the burial mound of the Bronze Age on the Northern Yergeni Upland; the background analogues of these soils were also examined. The PA values in the fresh soil samples varied from 2.5 to 37 mg of P2O5/10 g of soil per h with maximums in the A1 horizon of the surface soils and in the B1 horizon of the paleosols. The PA values depended on the time of storage of the samples: with time, they increased by 2.6-2.9 times in the A1 horizon of the background surface soil and decreased by 20-60% in the other soil samples. The specific distribution patterns of the PA values in the soil profiles remained the same independently of the time of storage of the samples. Relatively small amounts of the soil samples were sufficient for the reliable determination of the PA: 1-2 g for the A1 horizon and 3-5 g for the B1 and B2 horizons. The time of incubation with the substrate had to be increased up to 4 h for the long-stored samples.

  3. Distinct microbial communities associated with buried soils in the Siberian tundra

    PubMed Central

    Gittel, Antje; Bárta, Ji?í; Kohoutová, Iva; Mikutta, Robert; Owens, Sarah; Gilbert, Jack; Schnecker, Jörg; Wild, Birgit; Hannisdal, Bjarte; Maerz, Joeran; Lashchinskiy, Nikolay; ?apek, Petr; Šantr??ková, Hana; Gentsch, Norman; Shibistova, Olga; Guggenberger, Georg; Richter, Andreas; Torsvik, Vigdis L; Schleper, Christa; Urich, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Cryoturbation, the burial of topsoil material into deeper soil horizons by repeated freeze–thaw events, is an important storage mechanism for soil organic matter (SOM) in permafrost-affected soils. Besides abiotic conditions, microbial community structure and the accessibility of SOM to the decomposer community are hypothesized to control SOM decomposition and thus have a crucial role in SOM accumulation in buried soils. We surveyed the microbial community structure in cryoturbated soils from nine soil profiles in the northeastern Siberian tundra using high-throughput sequencing and quantification of bacterial, archaeal and fungal marker genes. We found that bacterial abundances in buried topsoils were as high as in unburied topsoils. In contrast, fungal abundances decreased with depth and were significantly lower in buried than in unburied topsoils resulting in remarkably low fungal to bacterial ratios in buried topsoils. Fungal community profiling revealed an associated decrease in presumably ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi. The abiotic conditions (low to subzero temperatures, anoxia) and the reduced abundance of fungi likely provide a niche for bacterial, facultative anaerobic decomposers of SOM such as members of the Actinobacteria, which were found in significantly higher relative abundances in buried than in unburied topsoils. Our study expands the knowledge on the microbial community structure in soils of Northern latitude permafrost regions, and attributes the delayed decomposition of SOM in buried soils to specific microbial taxa, and particularly to a decrease in abundance and activity of ECM fungi, and to the extent to which bacterial decomposers are able to act as their functional substitutes. PMID:24335828

  4. Soil Horizons Some Noteworthy Soil Science in Wisconsin

    E-print Network

    Meyers, Stephen R.

    Soil Horizons Some Noteworthy Soil Science in Wisconsin Alfred E. Hartemink The impact and benefits of soil science have only partly been documented. Here I highlight four noteworthy soil science achievements from the state of Wisconsin that took place between 1870 and the early 1980s: (i) the first soil

  5. Aeolian cliff-top deposits and buried soils in the White River Badlands, South Dakota, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rawling, J. E., III; Fredlund, G.G.; Mahan, S.

    2003-01-01

    Aeolian deposits in the North American Great Plains are important sources of Holocene palaeo-environmental records. Although there are extensive studies on loess and dune records in the region, little is known about records in aeolian cliff-top deposits. These are common on table (mesa) edges in the White River Badlands. These sediments typically have loam and sandy-loam textures with dominantly very fine sand, 0.5-1% organic carbon and 0.5-5% CaCO3. Some of these aeolian deposits are atypically coarse and contain granules and fine pebbles. Buried soils within these deposits are weakly developed with A-C and A-AC-C profiles. Beneath these are buried soils with varying degrees of pedogenic development formed in fluvial, aeolian or colluvial deposits. Thickness and number of buried soils vary. However, late-Holocene soils from several localities have ages of approximately 1300, 2500 and 3700 14C yrs BP. The 1300 14C yr BP soil is cumulic, with a thicker and lighter A horizon. Soils beneath the cliff-top deposits are early-Holocene (typically 7900 but as old as 10000 14C yrs BP) at higher elevation (???950 m) tables, and late-Holocene (2900 14C yrs BP) at lower (???830 m) tables. These age estimates are based on total organic matter 14C ages from the top 5 cm of buried soils, and agreement is good between an infrared stimulated luminescence age and bracketing 14C ages. Our studies show that cliff-top aeolian deposits have a history similar to that of other aeolian deposits on the Great Plains, and they are another source of palaeoenvironmental data.

  6. Detection of a buried horizon with a high thermal diffusivity using thermal remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nash, David B.

    1988-01-01

    A field investigation using thermal remote sensing was performed to test the feasibility of detecting the surface topography of granite bedrock beneath a thin cover of alluvium. Imagery of a region of the Mojave Desert were taken with an airborne multispectral scanner with thermal spectral bandwidths of 10.4 and 12.5 microns an instantaneous field of view of 2.5 mrad. It is suggested that a buried high thermal diffusivity horizon measurably lowers the surface temperature of the overlying lower diffusivity material during the peak of the annual heating cycle.

  7. Temperature dependence of the activity of polyphenol peroxidases and polyphenol oxidases in modern and buried soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakushev, A. V.; Kuznetsova, I. N.; Blagodatskaya, E. V.; Blagodatsky, S. A.

    2014-05-01

    Under conditions of the global climate warming, the changes in the reserves of soil humus depend on the temperature sensitivities of polyphenol peroxidases (PPPOs) and polyphenol oxidases (PPOs). They play an important role in lignin decomposition, mineralization, and humus formation. The temperature dependence of the potential enzyme activity in modern and buried soils has been studied during incubation at 10 or 20°C. The experimental results indicate that it depends on the availability of the substrate and the presence of oxygen. The activity of PPOs during incubation in the absence of oxygen for two months decreases by 2-2.5 times, which is balanced by an increase in the activity of PPPOs by 2-3 times. The increase in the incubation temperature to 20°C and the addition of glucose accelerates this transition due to the more abrupt decrease in the activity of PPOs. The preincubation of the soil with glucose doubles the activity of PPPOs but has no significant effect on the activity of PPOs. The different effects of temperature on two groups of the studied oxidases and the possibility of substituting enzymes by those of another type under changing aeration conditions should be taken into consideration in predicting the effect of the climate warming on the mineralization of the soil organic matter. The absence of statistically significant differences in the enzymatic activity between the buried and modern soil horizons indicates the retention by the buried soil of some of its properties (soil memory) and the rapid restoration of high enzymatic activity during the preincubation.

  8. Buried soil organic inclusions in non-sorted circles fields in northern Sweden: Age and Paleoclimatic context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becher, Marina; Olid, Carolina; Klaminder, Jonatan

    2013-03-01

    Although burial of surface organic soil horizons into deeper mineral soil layers helps drive the long-term buildup of carbon in arctic soils, when and why buried horizons formed as result of cryoturbation in northern Sweden remain unclear. In this study, we used 14C and 210Pb dating to assess when organic matter was buried within non-sorted circles fields near Abisko in northern Sweden. In addition, we used aerial photos from 1959 and 2008 to detect eventual trends in cryogenic activities during this period. We found that organic matter from former organic horizons (stratigraphically intact or partly fragmented) corresponds to three major periods: 0-100 A.D., 900-1250 A.D., and 1650-1950 A.D. The latter two periods were indicated by several dated samples, while the extent of the oldest period is more uncertainty (indicated by only one sample). The aerial photos suggest a net overgrowth by shrub vegetation of previously exposed mineral soil surfaces since 1959. This overgrowth trend was seen in most of the studied fields (92 out of 137 analyzed fields), indicating that the cryogenic activity has mainly decreased in studied non-sorted circles fields since the 1950s. This latter interpretation is also supported by the absence of buried organic layers formed during the last decades. We suggest that the organic matter was buried during the transition from longer cold periods to warmer conditions. We believe these climatic shifts could have triggered regional scale burial of soil organic matter and thus affected how these soils sequestered carbon.

  9. Original article The influence of soil moisture on losses of buried seeds to fungi

    E-print Network

    Kotanen, Peter M.

    Original article The influence of soil moisture on losses of buried seeds to fungi Michelle Schafer Although soil fungi are likely to be a major cause of mortality for buried seeds, few ecological studies investigated whether losses of seeds to soil fungi are habitat-dependent. We used fungicide treatments

  10. Characterization of the microbial communities in the modern and buried under kurgans soils of solonetzic complexes in the dry steppes of the Lower Volga region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demkina, T. S.; Popova, I. V.; Demkin, V. A.

    2013-07-01

    The microbial communities were studied in the modern and buried under kurgans (1st century AD) soils of solonetzic complexes on the dry steppes of the northern part of the Yergeni Upland. It was found that the changes in the numbers of microorganisms from different trophic groups and in the biomass of the fungal mycelium along the profiles of the modern and buried solonetzic chestnut soils and solonetzes do not differ significantly. The quantitative estimate of the impact of the solonetzic process on the spatial variability of the microbiological parameters of the soils was given on the basis of the ANOVA. As a rule, the values of the microbiological parameters in all the horizons of the modern and buried chestnut soils were 1.2-2.8 times higher than those in the modern and buried solonetzes. The influence of the degree of solonetzicity of the buried paleosols on the microbiological parameters manifested itself in the entire profile, though in each particular horizon it was only seen in the numbers of some particular trophic groups of microorganisms. The comparison between the mean weighted values of the microbiological parameters in the entire soil profiles (the A1 + B1 + B2 horizons) demonstrated an inverse relationship between the population density of the microorganisms utilizing easily available organic matter and the degree of solonetzicity of the buried paleosols. The maximum biomass of the fungal mycelium was found in the solonetzic chestnut paleosol; it exceeded the biomass of the fungal mycelium in the other paleosols (which did not differ significantly in that parameter from one another) by 1.5-1.6 times.

  11. Soil effects on thermal signatures of buried nonmetallic landmines Remke L. van Dam*a

    E-print Network

    Borchers, Brian

    Soil effects on thermal signatures of buried nonmetallic landmines Remke L. van Dam*a , Brian for temperature propagation through homogeneous and layered soils is presented to predict surface temperatures as a function of soil heat flux amplitude, soil texture, soil water content, and thermal properties and burial

  12. RECONSTRUCTING CLIMATE ON THE GREAT PLAINS FROM BURIED SOILS: A QUANTITATIVE APPROACH

    E-print Network

    Zung, Ashley B.

    2013-05-31

    The Great Plains, U.S.A. lack quantitative paleoclimatic data for the late Quaternary largely because two common sources of paleoclimatic data, tree ring and pollen records, are rare in the region. Sequences of buried soils, however, are commonly...

  13. Geochemical soil sampling for deeply-buried mineralized breccia pipes, northwestern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wenrich, K.J.; Aumente-Modreski, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    Thousands of solution-collapse breccia pipes crop out in the canyons and on the plateaus of northwestern Arizona; some host high-grade uranium deposits. The mineralized pipes are enriched in Ag, As, Ba, Co, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, V and Zn. These breccia pipes formed as sedimentary strata collapsed into solution caverns within the underlying Mississippian Redwall Limestone. A typical pipe is approximately 100 m (300 ft) in diameter and extends upward from the Redwall Limestone as much as 1000 m (3000 ft). Unmineralized gypsum and limestone collapses rooted in the Lower Permian Kaibab Limestone or Toroweap Formation also occur throughout this area. Hence, development of geochemical tools that can distinguish these unmineralized collapse structures, as well as unmineralized breccia pipes, from mineralized breccia pipes could significantly reduce drilling costs for these orebodies commonly buried 300-360 m (1000-1200 ft) below the plateau surface. Design and interpretation of soil sampling surveys over breccia pipes are plagued with several complications. (1) The plateau-capping Kaibab Limestone and Moenkopi Formation are made up of diverse lithologies. Thus, because different breccia pipes are capped by different lithologies, each pipe needs to be treated as a separate geochemical survey with its own background samples. (2) Ascertaining true background is difficult because of uncertainties in locations of poorly-exposed collapse cones and ring fracture zones that surround the pipes. Soil geochemical surveys were completed on 50 collapse structures, three of which are known mineralized breccia pipes. Each collapse structure was treated as an independent geochemical survey. Geochemical data from each collapse feature were plotted on single-element geochemical maps and processed by multivariate factor analysis. To contrast the results between geochemical surveys (collapse structures), a means of quantifying the anomalousness of elements at each site was developed. This degree of anomalousness, named the "correlation value", was used to rank collapse features by their potential to overlie a deeply-buried mineralized breccia pipe. Soil geochemical results from the three mineralized breccia pipes (the only three of the 50 that had previously been drilled) show that: (1) Soils above the SBF pipe contain significant enrichment of Ag, Al, As, Ba, Ga, K, La, Mo, Nd, Ni, Pb, Sc, Th, U and Zn, and depletion in Ca, Mg and Sr, in contrast to soils outside the topographic and structural rim; (2) Soils over the inner treeless zone of the Canyon pipe show Mo and Pb enrichment anf As and Ga depletion, in contrast to soils from the surrounding forest; and (3) The soil survey of the Mohawk Canyon pipe was a failure because of the rocky terrane and lack of a B soil horizon, or because the pipe plunges. At least 11 of the 47 other collapse structures studied contain anomalous soil enrichments similar to the SBF uranium ore-bearing pipe, and thus have good potential as exploration targets for uranium. One of these 11, #1102, does contain surface mineralized rock. These surveys suggest that soil geochemical sampling is a useful tool for the recognition of many collapse structures with underlying ore-bearing breccia pipes. ?? 1994.

  14. SOLUBLE ALUMINUM IN ACIDIFIED ORGANIC HORIZONS OF FOREST SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concentrations of labile and total Al in soil extracts were measured as a function of equilibrium solution pH in six forest soil organic horizons acidified with HNO, (0-20 cmol H+.kg-1) under controlled conditions of ionic strength (0.05 M NaNO3), temperature (23 C), and solution...

  15. Predicting the preservation of cultural artefacts and buried materials in soil.

    PubMed

    Kibblewhite, Mark; Tóth, Gergely; Hermann, Tamás

    2015-10-01

    This study identifies factors affecting the fate of buried objects in soil and develops a method for assessing where preservation of different materials and stratigraphic evidence is more or less likely in the landscape. The results inform the extent of the cultural service that soil supports by preserving artefacts from and information about past societies. They are also relevant to predicting the state of existing and planned buried infrastructure and the persistence of materials spread on land. Soils are variable and preserve different materials and stratigraphic evidence differently. This study identifies the material and soil properties that affect preservation and relates these to soil types; it assesses their preservation capacities for bones, teeth and shells, organic materials, metals (Au, Ag, Cu, Fe, Pb and bronze), ceramics, glass and stratigraphic evidence. Preservation of Au, Pb and ceramics, glass and phytoliths is good in most soils but degradation rates of other materials (e.g. Fe and organic materials) is strongly influenced by soil type. A method is proposed for using data on the distribution of soil types to map the variable preservation capacities of soil for different materials. This is applied at a continental scale across the EU for bones, teeth and shells, organic materials, metals (Cu, bronze and Fe) and stratigraphic evidence. The maps produced demonstrate how soil provides an extensive but variable preservation of buried objects. PMID:26022409

  16. Role and development of soil parameters for seismic responses of buried lifelines

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L.R.L.

    1983-01-01

    Buried lifelines, e.g. oil, gas, water and sewer pipelines have been damaged heavily in recent earthquakes such as 1971 San Fernando Earthquake, in U.S.A., 1976 Tangshan Earthquake, in China, and 1978 MiyagiKen-Oki Earthquake, in Japan, among others. Researchers on the seismic performance of these buried lifelines have been initiated in the United States and many other countries. Various analytical models have been proposed. However, only limited experimental investigations are available. The sources of earthquake damage to buried lifelines include landslide, tectonic uplift-subsidence, soil liquefaction, fault displacement and ground shaking (effects of wave propagation). This paper is concerned with the behavior of buried lifeline systems subjected to surface faulting and ground shaking. The role and development of soil parameters that significantly influence the seismic responses are discussed. The scope of this paper is to examine analytically the influence of various soil and soilstructure interaction parameters to the seismic responses of buried pipelines, to report the currently available physical data of these and related parameters for immediate applications, and to describe the experiments to obtain additional information on soil resistant characteristics to longitudinal pipe motions.

  17. Genesis of petroduric and petrocalcic horizons in Latinamerica volcanic soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quantin, Paul

    2010-05-01

    Introduction. In Latinamerica, from Mexico to Chile, there are indurated volcanic soils horizons, named 'tepetate' in Mexico or cangahua in the Andes Mountains. Apart from original volcanic tuffs, these horizons were produced by pedogenesis: either through a former weathering of volcanic ash layers into fragic and later to petrocalcic horizons; or after a former soil formation through a second process of transformation from clayey volcanic soils to silicified petroduric horizons. This oral presentation will briefly deal with the formation of petroduric horizons in Mexico and petrocalcic horizon in Ecuador. Petroduric horizon genesis in Mexico. A soil climato-toposequence, near to Veracruz (Rossignol & Quantin, 1997), shows downwards an evolution from a ferralic Nitisol to a petroduric Durisol. A Durisol profile comports these successive horizons: at the top A and Eg, then columnar Btg-sim, laminar Bt-sim , prismatic Bsim, plinthite Cg, over andesite lava flow. Among its main features are especially recorded: clay mineralogy, microscopy and HRTEM. These data show: an increase in cristobalite at the expenses of 0.7 nm halloysite in Egsiltans, laminar Bt-sim, around or inside the columns or prisms of Btg-sim and Bsimhorizons. HRTEM (Elsass & al 2000) on ultra thin sections reveals an 'epigenesis' of clay sheets by amorphous silica, to form successively A-opal, Ct-opal and microcrystalline cristobalite. From these data and some groundwater chemical analyses, a scenario of duripan formation from a past clayey Nitisol is inferred: clay eluviation-illuviation process? alternate redoximorphy? clay degradation, Al leaching and Si accumulation, to form successively A-opal, Ct-opal and cristobalite. Petrocalcic horizon genesis in Ecuador. A soil climato-toposequence on pyroclastic flows, near to Bolivar in Ecuador (Quantin & Zebrowski, 1997), shows downwards the evolution from fragic-eutric-vitric Cambisols to petrocalcic-vitric Phaeozems, at the piedmont under semi-arid climate. A complex soil profile of petrocalcic Phaeozem, derived from 4 pyroclastic layers, shows among its successive horizons: in layer 3 the 'upper cangahua' with petrocalcic features and in layer 4 the 'lower cangahua' with hard fragipan properties. The features of the petrocalcic cangahua differ from a Mexican fragipan (Hidalgo & al 1997) by: a hard calcrete, higher alkalinity, stability in water after HCl and NaOH treatment, 2-4% of 'free silica'. The macro and micro-morphology shows: the laminar calcite crust, at the top of cangahua, with alternate micrite-sparite layers; downwards, microcalcite infillings in the voids of a prismatic structure, invading the groundmass by epigenesis of clay sheets, together whith microcrystalline opal. From these data this scenario is inferred: after a former weathering of volcanic glass to form a clayey matrix, as well amorphous silica and microcalcite coatings and infillings, then a second process, perhaps due to drier climate, produced the laminar crust formation, by invasion of microcalcite in the matrix. Conclusion. The petrocalcic horizon in Ecuador was produced by two processes: from a former phase of weathering giving a fragic horizon to a second producing the accumulation of calcite and some opal over and inside the matrix, due to climate change. The petroduric horizon in Mexico, is the product of a very complex soil transformation, from a former clayey Nitisol, through four successive processes: clay eluviation-illuviation, alternate redoximorphy, clay degradation, finally a progressive silicification over and inside the groundmass, probably due to pedoclimate change. References F. Elsass, D. Dubroeucq & M. Thiry. 2000. Clay Minerals, 35, 477-489. C. Hidalgo, P. Quantin & F. Elsass. 1997. Memorias del III Simposio Internacional sobre Suelos volcanicos endurecidos (Quito 1996), p. 65-72. - P. Quantin & C. Zebrowski. 1997. idem, p. 29-47.- J.P. Rossignol & P. Quantin. 1997. idem, p. 73-82.

  18. Mercury in humus horizons of soils in the Transbaikal region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, G. M.; Kashin, V. K.

    2010-01-01

    The total mercury content has been determined in gray forest soils, chernozems, chestnut soils, and in different parent materials in the Transbaikal region. The mercury content is below the clarke value in the intrusive, effusive, and alluvial soil-forming rocks (0.004-0.024 mg/kg). In the humus horizons of the soils, it reaches 0.011-0.026 mg/kg, which is higher than the clarke value for the pedosphere. The mean background content of mercury in the soils of the Transbaikal region is 0.018 mg/kg. No significant positive correlation between the mercury content and the humus content of the soils has been revealed.

  19. Soil organic matter transformation in cryoturbated horizons of permafrost affected soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capek, Petr; Diakova, Katerina; Dickopp, Jan-Erik; Barta, Jiri; Santruckova, Hana; Wild, Birgit; Schnecker, Joerg; Guggenberg, Georg; Gentsch, Norman; Hugelius, Gustaf; Kuhry, Peter; Lashchinsky, Nikolaj; Gittel, Antje; Schleper, Christa; Mikutta, Robert; Palmtag, Juri; Shibistova, Olga; Urich, Tim; Zimov, Sergey; Richter, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Cryoturbated soil horizons are special feature of permafrost affected soils. These soils are known to store great amount of organic carbon and cryoturbation undoubtedly contribute to it to large extent. Despite this fact there is almost no information about soil organic matter (SOM) transformation in cryoturbated horizons. Therefore we carried out long term incubation experiment in which we inspect SOM transformation in cryoturbated as well as in organic and mineral soil horizons under different temperature and redox regimes as potential drivers. We found out that lower SOM transformation in cryoturbated horizons compared to organic horizons was mainly limited by the amount of microbial biomass, which is extremely low in absolute numbers or expressed to SOM concentration. The biochemical transformation ensured by extracellular enzymes is relatively high leading to high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon in cryoturbated horizons. Nevertheless the final step of SOM transformation leading to C mineralization to CO2 or CH4 seems to be restricted by low microbial biomass. Critical step of biochemical transformation of complex SOM is dominated by phenoloxidases, which break down complex organic compounds to simple ones. Their oxygen consumption greatly overwhelms oxygen consumption of the whole microbial community. However the phenoloxidase activity shows strong temperature response with optimum at 13.7° C. Therefore we suggest that apparent SOM stability in cryoturbated horizons, which is expressed in old C14 dated age, is caused by low amount of microbial biomass and restricted diffusion of oxygen to extracellular enzymes in field.

  20. Impact of varying soil structure on transport processes in different diagnostic horizons of three soil types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodešová, Radka; Vignozzi, Nadia; Rohošková, Marcela; Hájková, Tereza; Ko?árek, Martin; Pagliai, Marcello; Kozák, Josef; Šim?nek, Jirka

    2009-02-01

    When soil structure varies in different soil types and the horizons of these soil types, it has a significant impact on water flow and contaminant transport in soils. This paper focuses on the effect of soil structure variations on the transport of pesticides in the soil above the water table. Transport of a pesticide (chlorotoluron) initially applied on soil columns taken from various horizons of three different soil types (Haplic Luvisol, Greyic Phaeozem and Haplic Cambisol) was studied using two scenarios of ponding infiltration. The highest infiltration rate and pesticide mobility were observed for the Bt 1 horizon of Haplic Luvisol that exhibited a well-developed prismatic structure. The lowest infiltration rate was measured for the Bw horizon of Haplic Cambisol, which had a poorly developed soil structure and a low fraction of large capillary pores and gravitational pores. Water infiltration rates were reduced during the experiments by a soil structure breakdown, swelling of clay and/or air entrapped in soil samples. The largest soil structure breakdown and infiltration decrease was observed for the Ap horizon of Haplic Luvisol due to the low aggregate stability of the initially well-aggregated soil. Single-porosity and dual-permeability (with matrix and macropore domains) flow models in HYDRUS-1D were used to estimate soil hydraulic parameters via numerical inversion using data from the first infiltration experiment. A fraction of the macropore domain in the dual-permeability model was estimated using the micro-morphological images. Final soil hydraulic parameters determined using the single-porosity and dual-permeability models were subsequently used to optimize solute transport parameters. To improve numerical inversion results, the two-site sorption model was also applied. Although structural changes observed during the experiment affected water flow and solute transport, the dual-permeability model together with the two-site sorption model proved to be able to approximate experimental data.

  1. Impact of varying soil structure on transport processes in different diagnostic horizons of three soil types.

    PubMed

    Kodesová, Radka; Vignozzi, Nadia; Rohosková, Marcela; Hájková, Tereza; Kocárek, Martin; Pagliai, Marcello; Kozák, Josef; Sim?nek, Jirka

    2009-02-16

    When soil structure varies in different soil types and the horizons of these soil types, it has a significant impact on water flow and contaminant transport in soils. This paper focuses on the effect of soil structure variations on the transport of pesticides in the soil above the water table. Transport of a pesticide (chlorotoluron) initially applied on soil columns taken from various horizons of three different soil types (Haplic Luvisol, Greyic Phaeozem and Haplic Cambisol) was studied using two scenarios of ponding infiltration. The highest infiltration rate and pesticide mobility were observed for the Bt(1) horizon of Haplic Luvisol that exhibited a well-developed prismatic structure. The lowest infiltration rate was measured for the Bw horizon of Haplic Cambisol, which had a poorly developed soil structure and a low fraction of large capillary pores and gravitational pores. Water infiltration rates were reduced during the experiments by a soil structure breakdown, swelling of clay and/or air entrapped in soil samples. The largest soil structure breakdown and infiltration decrease was observed for the Ap horizon of Haplic Luvisol due to the low aggregate stability of the initially well-aggregated soil. Single-porosity and dual-permeability (with matrix and macropore domains) flow models in HYDRUS-1D were used to estimate soil hydraulic parameters via numerical inversion using data from the first infiltration experiment. A fraction of the macropore domain in the dual-permeability model was estimated using the micro-morphological images. Final soil hydraulic parameters determined using the single-porosity and dual-permeability models were subsequently used to optimize solute transport parameters. To improve numerical inversion results, the two-site sorption model was also applied. Although structural changes observed during the experiment affected water flow and solute transport, the dual-permeability model together with the two-site sorption model proved to be able to approximate experimental data. PMID:19062128

  2. Predicting the long-term fate of buried organic carbon in colluvial soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhengang; Van Oost, Kristof; Govers, Gerard

    2015-04-01

    A significant part of the soil organic carbon (SOC) that is eroded in uplands is deposited and buried in colluvial settings. Understanding the fate of this deposited soil organic carbon is of key importance for the understanding of the role of (accelerated) erosion in the global C cycle: the residence time of the deposited carbon will determine if, and for how long, accelerated erosion due to human disturbance will induce sequestration of SOC from the atmosphere to the soil. Experimental studies may provide useful information, but, given the time scale under consideration, the response of the colluvial SOC can only be simulated using numerical models which need careful calibration using field data. In this study, we present a depth explicit SOC model (ICBM-DE) including soil profile evolution due to sedimentation to simulate the long-term C dynamics in colluvial soils. The SOC profile predicted by our model is in good agreement with field observations. The C burial efficiency (the ratio of current C content of the buried sediments to the original C content at the time of sedimentation) of deposited sediments exponentially decreases with time and gradually reached an equilibrium value. This equilibrium C burial efficiency is positively correlated with the sedimentation rate. The sedimentation rate is crucial for the long-term dynamics of the deposited SOC as it controls the time that buried sediments spend at a given soil depth, thereby determining its temporal evolution of C input and decomposition rate during the burial process: C input and decomposition rate vary with depth due to the vertical variation of root distribution and soil environmental factors such as (but not limited to) humidity, temperature and aeration. The model demonstrates that, for the profiles studied, it takes ca. 300 yr for the buried SOC to lose half of its C load. It would also take centuries for the SOC accumulated in colluvial soils over the past decades due to soil redistribution under mechanized agriculture to be released to the atmosphere after the application of soil conservation measures such as conservation tillage.

  3. Lanthanides in humic acids of soils, paleosols and cultural horizons (Southern Urals, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dergacheva, Maria; Nekrasova, Olga

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, commercial interest in this element group increases. As consequence, their content may increase in environment, including soil and soil components. This requires quantitative estimations of rare metal accumulation by soils and their humic acids. The latter began to be actively used as fertilizers and it is alarming, because information about rare element participation (including lanthanides) in metabolism of live organisms is inconsistent. There was investigated lanthanide content in humic acids extracted from humus horizons of different objects of archaeological site Steppe 7 (Southern Urals, Russia). Humic acids were extracted from modern background soils and paleosols and cultural horizons of the Bronze Age as well. According to archaeological data burial of paleosols under a barrow and formation of the cultural layer (CL) took place 3600 and 3300-3200 years BP, respectively. The area of the site is located in the forest-steppe landscape, far from industrial plants. Lanthanides in soils are immobile elements, and such number of objects will allow to receive information about their content changing over time and to have more detailed basis for the future monitoring of this territory as well. Humic acids were precipitated from 0,1 n NaOH extraction after preliminary decalcification. Cleaning of humic acid preparations by 6N HCl or HF+HCl was not carried out. Determination of La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu was performed by multi-element neutron-activation analysis. According to carried out diagnostics and reconstruction of natural conditions of all object formation, all objects correspond to steppe type landscape with a different level of humidity. Analysis of received data has shown that cerium is presented in humic acid preparations in the largest quantities among lanthanides (on average 4,0-6,6 mg/kg of preparation mass). The average content of samarium, europium, ytterbium and lutetium in the humic acids in the order of magnitude ranges from 0.13 to 0.49 mg/kg, terbium and lutetium - two orders of magnitude. The quantities determined by us for lanthanum is also high at 1,9-3,3 mg/kg. In this case all lanthanides in modern soils have the degree of accumulation in humic acids distinguished from other objects: Ce>La>Sm>Yb>Eu>Tb>Lu. In the paleosols and cultural layer these series are identical: Ce>La>Yb>Sm>Eu>Lu>Tb. There is suggested the approach to direct estimation of share of the lanthanides connected by humic acids in the their total soil pool which includes recalculation of the content of separate elements in humic acid preparations on carbon of soil humic acids (in mg/kg) and the subsequent correlation of their quantities. The content of the total organic carbon in soil, a share of humic acids as a humus part, the lanthanide content and weight carbon percentage in humic acid preparations were considered during recalculations. The results have shown that the highest shares of all elements are found in modern background soils, the lowest - in the soils buried under barrows. The total percentage of all lanthanides in humic acids is 4.63% in relation to their content in modern soil, 1.56% - in CL and 1.36% - in buried paleosols.

  4. Discordant 14C ages from buried tidal-marsh soils in the Cascadia subduction zone, southern Oregon coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, A.R.

    1992-01-01

    Peaty, tidal-marsh soils interbedded with estuarine mud in late Holocene stratigraphic sequences near Coos Bay, Oregon, may have been submerged and buried during great (M > 8) subduction earthquakes, smaller localized earthquakes, or by nontectonic processes. Radiocarbon dating might help distinguish among these alternatives by showing that soils at different sites were submerged at different times along this part of the Cascadia subduction zone. But comparison of conventional 14C ages for different materials from the same buried soils shows that they contain materials that differ in age by many hundreds of years. Errors in calibrated soil ages represent about the same length of time as recurrence times for submergence events (150-500 yr)-this similarity precludes using conventional 14C ages to distinguish buried soils along the southern Oregon coast. Accelerator mass spectrometer 14C ages of carefully selected macrofossils from the tops of peaty soils should provide more precise estimates of the times of submergence events. ?? 1992.

  5. A disconnect between O horizon and mineral soil carbon - Implications for soil C sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Garten Jr, Charles T

    2009-01-01

    Changing inputs of carbon to soil is one means of potentially increasing carbon sequestration in soils for the purpose of mitigating projected increases in atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. The effect of manipulations of aboveground carbon input on soil carbon storage was tested in a temperate, deciduous forest in east Tennessee, USA. A 4.5-year experiment included exclusion of aboveground litterfall and supplemental litter additions (three times ambient) in an upland and a valley that differed in soil nitrogen availability. The estimated decomposition rate of the carbon stock in the O horizon was greater in the valley than in the upland due to higher litter quality (i.e., lower C/N ratios). Short-term litter exclusion or addition had no effect on carbon stock in the mineral soil, measured to a depth of 30 cm, or the partitioning of carbon in the mineral soil between particulate- and mineral-associated organic matter. A two-compartment model was used to interpret results from the field experiments. Field data and a sensitivity analysis of the model were consistent with little carbon transfer between the O horizon and the mineral soil. Increasing aboveground carbon input does not appear to be an effective means of promoting carbon sequestration in forest soil at the location of the present study because a disconnect exists in carbon dynamics between O horizon and mineral soil. Factors that directly increase inputs to belowground soil carbon, via roots, or reduce decomposition rates of organic matter are more likely to benefit efforts to increase carbon sequestration in forests where carbon dynamics in the O horizon are uncoupled from the mineral soil.

  6. The effects of soil horizons and faunal excrement on bacterial distribution in an upland grassland soil.

    PubMed

    Bruneau, Patricia M C; Davidson, Donald A; Grieve, Ian C; Young, Iain M; Nunan, Naoise

    2005-03-01

    The density and spatial location of bacteria were investigated within different horizons of an upland grassland soil before and after a liming treatment to increase the numbers of large soil fauna. Bacterial cells were located by image analysis of stained thin sections and densities calculated from these data. Excrement from macro- and meso-fauna was identified using micromorphology and the densities of bacteria on specific areas of excrement measured by image analysis. There were significant differences among horizons in the density of bacterial cells, with the minimum density found in the horizon with least evidence of earthworm activity, but no difference in density between the organic H and organo-mineral Ah horizons. Soil improvement by liming significantly increased bacterial densities in all three horizons, with the greatest increase found in the horizon with the smallest density before liming. There were no differences in bacterial density between areas dominated by excrement from earthworms and excrement from enchytraeids, although densities in both areas were significantly increased by liming. Variability in bacterial density at spatial scales of less than 1 mm was linked to the occurrence of excrement. Bacterial densities within areas of both types of excrement were significantly greater than those in the surrounding soil. However, the frequency distribution of the ratios of density in excrement to that in the soil was bimodal, with a majority of occurrences having a ratio near 1 and only some 20-30% having a much larger ratio. These variations can probably be explained by variations in the age of the excrement and its suitability as a substrate. PMID:16329900

  7. Radiocarbon dating of buried soils-- Humate fractionation, delta C-13 correction and paleoclimatic signals: Geoarchaeological implications in the central Great Plains

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, W.C. . Dept. of Geography); Martin, C.W. . Dept. of Geography)

    1992-01-01

    Due to perceived uncertainties associated with humate-derived C-14 ages from buried soils, samples were collected and dated from buried A horizons developed in alluvium and loess within the Kansas River basin of Kansas, Nebraska, and Colorado. Soils range in age from c. 30ka to latest Holocene. Samples were split, sent to two laboratories (SMU and Pittsburgh), and fractionated. Ages were determined from three fractions: total bulk, base-soluble (humic acid), and residue (humins). For individual samples, a significant age difference exists among the three fractions, with very little interlaboratory variation. No apparent relationship exists among the three fractions dated; the residual fraction is not consistently the oldest as anticipated, and the total humate fraction is not the youngest. Percent variation among fractions may be a depth/age function for soils within a given profile of sequence. Delta C-13 values derived from the different fractions indicate more negative values for the total humate fraction. Percent variation in delta C-13 values among the three fractions seems unrelated to age or depth. A strong paleoclimatic signal is contained within the temporal record of delta C-13 values derived from soils dating c. 36-1ka. Warm-season (C4-type) grasses were apparently more important in the middle Holocene period of aridity (Altithermal). Change from a cooler environment of the latest Pleistocene to the relatively warmer conditions of the earliest Holocene is recorded in the humates distributed within the A horizon of the Brady geosol. Humates from the Gilman Canyon Formation geosol dating c. 36-20ka exhibit delta C-13 values indicating an initial warm-season grass environment which subsequently evolved into a cool-season grass environment.

  8. Acidity field of soils as ion-exchange systems and the diagnostics of genetic soil horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokotov, Yu. A.; Sukhacheva, E. Yu.; Aparin, B. F.

    2014-12-01

    For the comprehensive description of the acidity of a two-phase ion-exchange system, we should analyze two curves of the ionite titration by a strong base in water and salt solutions and find the quantitative relationships between the corresponding pH characteristics. An idea of the three-dimensional field of acidity of ion-exchange systems (the phase space of the soil acidity characteristics) and its three two-dimensional projections is suggested. For soils, three interrelated characteristics—the pH values of the salt and water extracts and the degree of base saturation—can serve as spatial coordinates for the acidity field. Representation of factual data in this field makes it possible to compare and analyze the acidity characteristics of different soils and soil horizons and to determine their specific features. Differentiation of the field into separate volumes allows one to present the data in a discrete form. We have studied the distribution patterns of the groups of soil horizons from Leningrad oblast and other regions of northwestern Russia in the acidity field. The studied samples are grouped in different partially overlapping areas of the projections of the acidity field. The results of this grouping attest to the correctness of the modern classification of Russian soils. A notion of the characteristic soil area in the acidity field is suggested; it can be applied to all the soils with a leaching soil water regime.

  9. Disturbances in the soil: finding buried bodies and other evidence using ground penetrating radar.

    PubMed

    Miller, P S

    1996-07-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is an efficient and effective means to search for buried evidence, whether it be a clandestine grave, formal burial, or certain missing articles from a crime scene. The procedures for GPR used by the U.S. Army Central Identification Laboratory, Hawaii (CILHI), are the result of several years of experimentation on a variety of ground surfaces in Hawaii, Southeast Asia and the mainland U.S. This remote sensing method does not usually provide direct information that there is a body or other specific object beneath the ground. Most of the time the GPR has been used to determine where a target object is not located. The key feature of GPR is that it can detect recent changes in shallow soil conditions caused by the disturbance of soil and the intrusion of different material. Using the methods described here, the investigator should be able to determine the precise metric grid coordinates for a subsurface disturbance, as well as the approximate size, the general shape, and the depth of the buried material. Success will vary with soil conditions. The conditions suitable or not practical for using GPR are summarized. This remote sensing technology can have wider use in crime scene investigations due to the recent introduction of more user-friendly software and more portable hardware. PMID:8754575

  10. PH BUFFERING IN FOREST SOIL ORGANIC HORIZONS: RELEVANCE TO ACID PRECIPITATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Samples of organic surface horizons (Oi, Oe, Oa) from New York State forest soils were equilibrated with 0 to 20 cmol HNO3 Kg(-1) soil in the laboratory by a batch technique designed to simulate reactions of acid precipitation with forest floors. Each organic horizon retained a c...

  11. Horizons

    E-print Network

    Olaf Müller

    2015-08-13

    We define different notions of black holes, event horizons and Killing horizons for a general time-oriented manifold $(M,g)$ extending previous notions but without the assumption of asymptotical flatness. The notions of 'horizon' are always conformally invariant while the notions of 'black hole' are genuinely geometric. Some connections between the different notions are found. Finally, we put the definitions into the context of the weak cosmic censorship conjecture.

  12. Production of CO2 by surface and buried soils of the steppe zone under native and moistened conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demkina, T. S.; Borisov, A. V.; Demkin, V. A.

    2010-09-01

    Modern light chestnut and chestnut soils and their analogues buried under steppe kurgans in the southeastern part of the Russian Plain were studied in order to determine the rates of the CO2 production by these soils under the native (with the natural moisture content) and moistened (60% of the total water capacity) conditions. It was found that the rates of the CO2 production by the soil samples in the native state are relatively close to one another and vary from 0.3 to 1.4 ?g of C/100 g of soil/h. The rates of the CO2 production in the moistened state increased by two orders of magnitude for the modern surface soils and by an order of magnitude for the buried soils.

  13. Site- and horizon-specific patterns of microbial community structure and enzyme activities in permafrost-affected soils of Greenland

    PubMed Central

    Gittel, Antje; Bárta, Ji?í; Kohoutová, Iva; Schnecker, Jörg; Wild, Birgit; ?apek, Petr; Kaiser, Christina; Torsvik, Vigdis L.; Richter, Andreas; Schleper, Christa; Urich, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Permafrost-affected soils in the Northern latitudes store huge amounts of organic carbon (OC) that is prone to microbial degradation and subsequent release of greenhouse gasses to the atmosphere. In Greenland, the consequences of permafrost thaw have only recently been addressed, and predictions on its impact on the carbon budget are thus still highly uncertain. However, the fate of OC is not only determined by abiotic factors, but closely tied to microbial activity. We investigated eight soil profiles in northeast Greenland comprising two sites with typical tundra vegetation and one wet fen site. We assessed microbial community structure and diversity (SSU rRNA gene tag sequencing, quantification of bacteria, archaea and fungi), and measured hydrolytic and oxidative enzyme activities. Sampling site and thus abiotic factors had a significant impact on microbial community structure, diversity and activity, the wet fen site exhibiting higher potential enzyme activities and presumably being a hot spot for anaerobic degradation processes such as fermentation and methanogenesis. Lowest fungal to bacterial ratios were found in topsoils that had been relocated by cryoturbation (“buried topsoils”), resulting from a decrease in fungal abundance compared to recent (“unburied”) topsoils. Actinobacteria (in particular Intrasporangiaceae) accounted for a major fraction of the microbial community in buried topsoils, but were only of minor abundance in all other soil horizons. It was indicated that the distribution pattern of Actinobacteria and a variety of other bacterial classes was related to the activity of phenol oxidases and peroxidases supporting the hypothesis that bacteria might resume the role of fungi in oxidative enzyme production and degradation of phenolic and other complex substrates in these soils. Our study sheds light on the highly diverse, but poorly-studied communities in permafrost-affected soils in Greenland and their role in OC degradation. PMID:25360132

  14. A geophysical and biochemical investigation of buried remains in contrasting soil textures in southern Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, Amanda C.

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is a non-invasive, geophysical tool used for the detection of clandestine graves. GPR operates by detecting density differences in soil by the transmission of high frequency electromagnetic (EM) waves from an antenna. A 500 Megahertz (MHz) frequency antenna is typically used for forensic investigations, as it provides a suitable compromise between depth of penetration and sub-surface resolution. Domestic pig (Sus scrofa) carcasses were clothed in 100% cotton t-shirts and 50% cotton/50% polyester briefs, and buried at a consistent depth at three field sites of contrasting soil texture (silty clay loam, fine sand and fine sandy loam) in southern Ontario. GPR was used to detect and monitor the graves for a period of 14 months post burial. Analysis of collected data revealed that GPR had applicability in the detection of clandestine graves containing remains in silty clay loam and fine sandy loam soils, but was not suitable for detection in fine sandy soil. Specifically, within a fine sandy loam soil, there is the potential to estimate the post burial interval (PBI), as hyperbolic grave response was well defined at the beginning of the 14 month burial duration, but became less distinctive near the completion of the study. Following the detection of a clandestine grave containing a carcass, collection of gravesoil, tissue and textile samples is important for the estimation of the stage of decomposition and the post burial interval (PBI) of the remains. Throughout the decomposition process of a carcass, adipose tissue is subjected to hydrolytic enzymes that convert triglycerides to their corresponding unsaturated, saturated and salts of fatty acids. The composition of fatty acids in the decomposed tissue will vary with the post mortem period, but it is unknown what affect the soil texture has on lipid degradation. As decomposition proceeds, fatty acids can leach from the tissues into the surrounding burial environment. Fatty acid analysis of gravesoil, tissue and textile samples, exhumed at two, eleven and fourteen month post burial intervals, was conducted using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS), attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Infrared (IR) spectroscopy analysis of the samples provided a qualitative profile of lipid degradation. Analysis of gravesoil samples did not reveal IR spectroscopy bands attributable to fatty acid degradation or adipocere formation. IR spectroscopy analysis of tissue samples is applicable for the estimation of carcass decomposition in all of the soil textures tested. Results of textile IR spectroscopy analysis revealed limited potential to estimate the stage of carcass decomposition in silty clay loam soil. GC-MS was used to quantify the peak area ratio (area/int std area) (PAR) of myristic (C14:0), palmitic (C16:0), palmitoleic (C16:1), stearic (C18:0) and oleic (C18:1) acids. GC-MS results revealed that analysis of both tissue and textile samples can be useful in the estimation of the stage of decomposition and the PBI of carcasses in all three of the soil textures tested. The results of this research may have applicability within forensic investigations involving decomposing bodies by aiding in the location of clandestine graves in silty clay loam and fine sandy loam soil through the use of GPR. Infrared spectroscopy and GC-MS analysis of the fatty acid composition of tissue and textile samples may also be incorporated into investigational protocols to aid in the estimation of the stage of decomposition and the PBI of a body. Key Words: forensic science, ground penetrating radar, soil texture, buried remains, fatty acids, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), infrared spectroscopy

  15. Uplifting behavior of shallow buried pipe in liquefiable soil by dynamic centrifuge test.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bo; Liu, Jingwen; Lin, Peng; Ling, Daosheng

    2014-01-01

    Underground pipelines are widely applied in the so-called lifeline engineerings. It shows according to seismic surveys that the damage from soil liquefaction to underground pipelines was the most serious, whose failures were mainly in the form of pipeline uplifting. In the present study, dynamic centrifuge model tests were conducted to study the uplifting behaviors of shallow-buried pipeline subjected to seismic vibration in liquefied sites. The uplifting mechanism was discussed through the responses of the pore water pressure and earth pressure around the pipeline. Additionally, the analysis of force, which the pipeline was subjected to before and during vibration, was introduced and proved to be reasonable by the comparison of the measured and the calculated results. The uplifting behavior of pipe is the combination effects of multiple forces, and is highly dependent on the excess pore pressure. PMID:25121140

  16. Uplifting Behavior of Shallow Buried Pipe in Liquefiable Soil by Dynamic Centrifuge Test

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jingwen; Ling, Daosheng

    2014-01-01

    Underground pipelines are widely applied in the so-called lifeline engineerings. It shows according to seismic surveys that the damage from soil liquefaction to underground pipelines was the most serious, whose failures were mainly in the form of pipeline uplifting. In the present study, dynamic centrifuge model tests were conducted to study the uplifting behaviors of shallow-buried pipeline subjected to seismic vibration in liquefied sites. The uplifting mechanism was discussed through the responses of the pore water pressure and earth pressure around the pipeline. Additionally, the analysis of force, which the pipeline was subjected to before and during vibration, was introduced and proved to be reasonable by the comparison of the measured and the calculated results. The uplifting behavior of pipe is the combination effects of multiple forces, and is highly dependent on the excess pore pressure. PMID:25121140

  17. Late quaternary temperature record from buried soils of the North American Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nordt, L.; Von Fischer, J.; Tieszen, L.

    2007-01-01

    We present the first comprehensive late Quaternary record of North American Great Plains temperature by assessing the behavior of the stable isotopic composition (??13C) of buried soils. After examining the relationship between the ??13C of topsoil organic matter and July temperature from 61 native prairies within a latitudinal range of 46??-38??N, we applied the resulting regression equation to 64 published ??13C values from buried soils of the same region to construct a temperature curve for the past 12 k.y. Estimated temperatures from 12 to 10 ka (1 k.y. = 1000 14C yr B.P.) fluctuated with a periodicity of ???1 k.y. with two cool excursions between -4.5 and -3.5 ??C and two warmer excursions between -1 and 0 ??C, relative to modern. Early Holocene temperatures from ca. 10-7.5 ka were -1.0 to -2.0 ??C before rising to +1.0 ??C in the middle Holocene between 6.0 and 4.5 ka. After a cool interlude from 4.2 to 2.6 ka, when temperatures dropped to slightly below modern, another warm interval ensued from 2.6 to 1 ka as temperatures increased to ???+0.5 ??C. A final decline in temperature to below modern occurred beginning ca. 0.5 ka. Cooler than present temperatures in the Great Plains indicate telecommunications with cool-water episodes in the Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic potentially governed by a combination of glacial meltwater pulses and low solar irradiance. ?? 2007 Geological Society of America.

  18. Transport of four pharmaceuticals in different horizons of three soil types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodesova, Radka; Svatkova, Paula; Klement, Ales; Jaksik, Ondrej; Golovko, Oksana; Fer, Miroslav; Kocarek, Martin; Nikodem, Antonin; Grabic, Roman

    2015-04-01

    Soil structure, which varies in different soil types and the horizons of these soil types, has a significant impact on water flow and contaminant transport in soils. Transport of many contaminants is in addition strongly influenced by their sorption on soil particles. Transport of four pharmaceuticals (sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, atenolol and carbamazepine) was studied in soil columns (a diameter of 10.5 cm and a height of 13 cm) taken from all diagnostic horizons of three different soil types (Haplic Luvisol, Greyic Phaeozem and Haplic Cambisol). The irrigation by water contaminated by a mixture of all four compounds followed by ponding infiltration of distilled water was simulated and water outflow and solute concentrations from the bottom of the soil sample was monitored in time. The highest infiltration rates were observed for soil samples from the Bt horizons of the Greyic Phaeozem that exhibited prismatic structure, followed by rates observed in the Ap horizons of the Haplic Luvisol, Greyic Phaeozem and Haplic Cambisol (due to their granular soil structure and presence of root channels). The lowest infiltration rate was measured for the Bw horizon of the Haplic Cambisol, which had a poorly developed soil structure and a low fraction of macropores. Compound discharge was however also highly affected by their sorption on solids. The highest mobility was observed for sulfamethoxazole followed by carbamazepine atenolol and trimethoprim, which corresponds to measured sorption isotherms. Mobility of ionizable compounds in different soil samples was influenced by pH (i.e. degree and form of their ionization) and sites available for absorption. Mobility of sulfamethoxazole decreased with decreasing pH (i.e. the largest sorption measured in horizons of the Haplic Cambisol). While mobility of atenolol and trimethoprim decreased with increasing base cation saturation, and with increasing organic matter content for carbamazepine. As result of both affects (i.e. soil structure and compounds' sorption) the highest discharge of all compounds was observed from the Ap horizon of the Greyic Phaeozem followed by compound discharge from the C horizons of the Greyic Phaeozem and the C and Bt2 horizons of the Haplic Luvisol. Acknowledgement: The authors acknowledge the financial support of the Czech Science Foundation (Project No. 13-12477S, Transport of pharmaceuticals in soils). References: Kodesova, R., Grabic, R., Kocarek, M., Klement, A., Golovko, O., Fer, M., Nikodem, A., Jaksik, O., Pharmaceuticals' sorptions relative to properties of thirteen different soils. Science of the Total Environment 511 (2015) 435-443.

  19. Pedotransfer functions for Irish soils - estimation of bulk density (?b) per horizon type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reidy, B.; Simo, I.; Sills, P.; Creamer, R. E.

    2015-10-01

    Soil bulk density is a key property in defining soil characteristics. It describes the packing structure of the soil and is also essential for the measurement of soil carbon stock and nutrient assessment. In many older surveys this property was neglected and in many modern surveys this property is omitted due to cost both in laboratory and labour and in cases where the core method cannot be applied. To overcome these oversights pedotransfer functions are applied using other known soil properties to estimate bulk density. Pedotransfer functions have been derived from large international datasets across many studies, with their own inherent biases, many ignoring horizonation and depth variances. Initially pedotransfer functions from the literature were used to predict different horizon types using local known bulk density datasets. Then the best performing of the pedotransfer functions, were selected to recalibrate and then were validated again using the known data. The predicted co-efficient of determination was 0.5 or greater in 12 of the 17 horizon types studied. These new equations allowed gap filling where bulk density data was missing in part or whole soil profiles. This then allowed the development of an indicative soil bulk density map for Ireland at 0-30 and 30-50 cm horizon depths. In general the horizons with the largest known datasets had the best predictions, using the recalibrated and validated pedotransfer functions.

  20. A Soil-Based Methodology for Locating Buried Early Prehistoric Cultural Deposits in Draws on the High Plains of Eastern Colorado and Western Kansas

    E-print Network

    West, Kristopher R.

    2013-05-31

    Based on the results of recent geomorphological and geoarchaeological investigations at the Kanorado locality in northwestern Kansas, it may be possible to target landforms with potential for buried Paleoindian cultural deposits using soil series...

  1. The effectiveness of magnetic methods in delineating soil horizons: A case study of volcanic soil from Lembang, West Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agustine, Eleonora; Safiuddin, La Ode; Tamuntuan, Gerald; Fitriani, Dini; Bijaksana, Satria

    2015-04-01

    Rock magnetic methods are used widely in many studies ranging from environmental studies to exploration geophysics. The main advantages of these methods are their simplicity and non-destructiveness as well as their low cost. In this study, we test the effectiveness of rock magnetic methods in delineating soil horizons in highly magnetic volcanic soil. A soil outcrop in Lembang, West Java is used as a test bed. Samples were taken in duplicate at an interval of about 10 cm from the 3 meters outcrop. At the site, soil horizons are clearly defined based on their colorations and textures. A series of magnetic methods, in the form of bulk magnetic and frequency-dependent susceptibility measurements as well as measurement of anhysteretic remanent magnetization, were conducted on all samples. The results show that magnetic properties, especially bulk magnetic susceptibility correlate well with soil horizons. The three visually distinct horizons possess distinctive magnetic properties. The magnetic properties could even infer pedogenic changes in the third horizon, which visually homogeneous.

  2. Eucalyptus obliqua seedling growth in organic vs. mineral soil horizons.

    PubMed

    Barry, Karen M; Janos, David P; Nichols, Scott; Bowman, David M J S

    2015-01-01

    Eucalyptus obliqua, the most widespread timber tree in Tasmania, is a pioneer after fire which can eliminate the organic layer of forest soil, exposing the underlying mineral soil. We compared seedling growth, mycorrhiza formation, and mineral nutrient limitation in organic layer vs. mineral soil. We grew E. obliqua seedlings separately in pots of organic layer and mineral soil in a glasshouse. Additional treatments of organic soil only, involved fully crossed methyl-bromide fumigation and fertilization. Fertilization comprised chelated iron for 121 days after transplant (DAT) followed by soluble phosphorus. At 357 DAT, whole plant dry weight was three times greater in ambient organic than in mineral soil. In organic soil, fumigation halved ectomycorrhiza abundance and reduced seedling growth at 149 DAT, but by 357 DAT when negative effects of fumigation on seedling growth had disappeared, neither fumigation nor fertilization affected mycorrhiza abundance. Iron fertilization diminished seedling growth, but subsequent phosphorus fertilization improved it. E. obliqua seedlings grow much better in organic layer soil than in mineral soil, although phosphorus remains limiting. The prevalent forestry practice of burning to mineral soil after timber harvest exposes a poor growth medium likely only partially compensated by fire-induced mineral soil alterations. PMID:25750650

  3. Eucalyptus obliqua seedling growth in organic vs. mineral soil horizons

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Karen M.; Janos, David P.; Nichols, Scott; Bowman, David M. J. S.

    2015-01-01

    Eucalyptus obliqua, the most widespread timber tree in Tasmania, is a pioneer after fire which can eliminate the organic layer of forest soil, exposing the underlying mineral soil. We compared seedling growth, mycorrhiza formation, and mineral nutrient limitation in organic layer vs. mineral soil. We grew E. obliqua seedlings separately in pots of organic layer and mineral soil in a glasshouse. Additional treatments of organic soil only, involved fully crossed methyl-bromide fumigation and fertilization. Fertilization comprised chelated iron for 121 days after transplant (DAT) followed by soluble phosphorus. At 357 DAT, whole plant dry weight was three times greater in ambient organic than in mineral soil. In organic soil, fumigation halved ectomycorrhiza abundance and reduced seedling growth at 149 DAT, but by 357 DAT when negative effects of fumigation on seedling growth had disappeared, neither fumigation nor fertilization affected mycorrhiza abundance. Iron fertilization diminished seedling growth, but subsequent phosphorus fertilization improved it. E. obliqua seedlings grow much better in organic layer soil than in mineral soil, although phosphorus remains limiting. The prevalent forestry practice of burning to mineral soil after timber harvest exposes a poor growth medium likely only partially compensated by fire-induced mineral soil alterations. PMID:25750650

  4. Assessing the Utility of Soil DNA Extraction Kits for Increasing DNA Yields and Eliminating PCR Inhibitors from Buried Skeletal Remains.

    PubMed

    Hebda, Lisa M; Foran, David R

    2015-09-01

    DNA identification of human remains is often necessary when decedents are skeletonized; however, poor DNA recovery and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) inhibition are frequently encountered, a situation exacerbated by burial. In this research, the utility of integrating soil DNA isolation kits into buried skeletal DNA analysis was evaluated and compared to a standard human DNA extraction kit and organic extraction. The soil kits successfully extracted skeletal DNA at quantities similar to standard methods, although the two kits tested, which differ mechanistically, were not equivalent. Further, the PCR inhibitors calcium and humic acid were effectively removed using the soil kits, whereas collagen was less so. Finally, concordant control region sequences were obtained from human skeletal remains using all four methods. Based on these comparisons, soil DNA isolation kits, which quickened the extraction process, proved to be a viable extraction technique for skeletal remains that resulted in positive identification of a decedent. PMID:26258388

  5. The functional role of carbonate-cemented soil horizons in desert ecosystems: Spatial and temporal dynamics of plant water availability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In water limited ecosystems, soil profile characteristics can control plant community composition and production through their effects on spatial and temporal patterns of plant available water. Little is known, however, about water availability in soil horizons cemented with carbonates (petrocalcic ...

  6. Expanding the horizons of soil science to the public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindbo, David L.; Hopmans, Jan; Olson, Carolyn; Fisk, Susan; Chapman, Susan

    2015-04-01

    Soils are critical to all life on the planet yet most individuals treat soil like dirt. As soil scientist we have long recognized this and have struggled to find ways to communicate the importance of soils to the public. The goal is not purely altruistic as we recognize that society funds or research and provides the workforce in soils that we need to continue to gain knowledge and expertise in soil science. In 2006 the Soil Science Society of America took a bold move and created its K12 Committee in part to compliment the Dig It! The Secrets of Soil exhibit that opened in July 2008 at the Smithsonian's Institution's Nation Museum of Natural History (of which SSS was a founding sponsor). The committee's work began quickly with a website designed to provide resources for K12 teachers (primary and school teachers). The first accomplishments included reviewing and posting links to web based information already available to teachers. These links were sorted by subject and grade level to make it easier for teachers to navigate the web and find what they needed quickly. Several presentations and lessons designed for K12 teachers were also posted at this time. Concurrent with this effort a subcommittee review and organized the national teaching standards to show where soils could fit into the overall K12 curriculum. As the website was being developed another subcommittee developed a soils book (Soil! Get the Inside Scoop, 2008) to further compliment the Dig It! exhibit. This was a new endeavor for SSSA having never worked with the non-academic audience in developing a book. Peer-reviews of this book included not only scientist but also students in order to make sure the book was attractive to them. Once the book was published and the website developed it became clear more outreach was needed. SSSA K12 Committee has attended both the National Science Teachers Association (since 2008) the USA Science and Engineering Festival (since 2010) with exhibits and workshops. It has cooperated and contributed to the American Geologic Institutes' Earth Science Week materials with brochures and lesson plans and with National Association of Conservation Districts by providing peer-review and distribution of materials. The most recent developments from the committee include a web redesign that is more student and teacher friendly, the development of a peer-review system to publish K12 Lesson Plans, and finally the publication of a new soils book (Know Soils, Know Life, 2012) for the 8-12th grade audience. It is hoped that Know Soils, Know Life will be used by the Cannon Envirothon and environmental science students and teachers. Future activities planned include a state soils book, teacher's guide for Know Soils, Know Life and development of a searchable digital photo/video library. Overall this committee has been exceedingly productive in its brief 8 year history. Most recently and in part based on the success of the K12 Committee's success, SSSA created an Identity Committee with the goal of not only reaching our members and other related scientist but also to better engage the public and the media. The efforts of this committee have been to redesign our web site to make it more accessible to the general public. The opening page has interest of a general nature and links that some who knows nothing (or very little) about soils can navigate to find out more. Prominent on this home page are links to soil questions posed by the public and answered by soil scientists. There is also a soil related blog as well as a resource for soil photos. In order to encourage secondary school students to consider a career involving soils there are profiles of individuals who are researchers, consultants, teachers and artists as well as soil scientists. The hope is that all this information will inspire a new generation of soil scientist as well as help the general public understand that soil is not just dirt.

  7. Monitoring of soil temperatures in an Atlantic high mountain environment: The Forcadona buried ice patch (Picos de Europa, NW Spain).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Fernández, Jesus; Vieira, Gonçalo; Oliva, Marc; Gallinar, David; García-Hernández, Cristina

    2015-04-01

    Ground temperatures in the area of a buried ice mass located at Western Massif of the Picos de Europa (Cantabrian Mountains, Northwestern Spain) are studied. Ground temperatures were measured at depths of 10 to 50 cm at intervals 2-hour intervals from 2006 to 2011. Ground temperatures showed two distinct seasonal periods: 1) continuous thaw with diurnal oscillation, from late summer to early autumn, and 2) near-0°C, isothermal regime from mid-autumn to late summer. Snow cover thickness controls freeze-thaw cycles in the latter. Transition periods are of very short duration. The small annual number of freeze-thaw cycles in the soil (0 to 16) was controlled by the depth of the snow cover. Extreme minimum temperatures in the soil oscillated between 0.3 and -6.3°C. Monitoring of soil temperatures on the ice patch resulted in slightly negative mean annual temperatures about 0°C. These conditions may reveal that the buried ice is close to melting point and in disequilibrium with the current environmental conditions of the massif.

  8. Stand-off and up-close Raman detection of nitrates buried in sand and soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farley, Carlton; Sadate, Sandra; Kassu, Aschalew; Monono, Belther; Witt, William; Bibb, Jonathan; Sharma, Anup

    2014-09-01

    Raman measurements, using a 785nm laser, are taken of Ammonium Nitrate and Sodium Nitrate buried in sand. Nitrate is kept in clear plastic containers and buried underneath sand at various depths. Raman measurements are then taken at distances of 5m and 20m, with the sand being completely dry as well as completely wet. A different set of experiments was conducted with Nitrate buried in sand in a glass container, where no Raman signal was seen in dry sand. Water was then added at the edge of the container and allowed to migrate to the bottom. Raman measurements are then taken at a distance of 7mm over time to detect Nitrates brought to the surface by water as it wicks to the surface.

  9. The structural state of buried and surface soils of solonetzic complexes in the dry steppe zone of the Lower Volga basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolotareva, B. N.; Bukhonov, A. V.; Demkin, V. A.

    2012-07-01

    The structural state of modern (surface) soils and the soils buried under Anna Ioannovna's rampart (1718-1720) was studied. These soils are the components of solonetzic soil complexes in the southern Privolzhskaya Upland. The dehumification and the high content of calcium in the exchange complex determine the state of the macrostructure of the chestnut soil buried about 300 years ago. The dehumification drastically lowers the water stability of the soil aggregates, and the predominance of calcium ions in the soil exchange complex prevents the destruction of the chestnut paleosol aggregates and preserves their aggregate state upon moistening. For the last 300 years, no significant changes in the macrostructure of the solonetzes have been observed.

  10. Psychrotolerant actinomycetes of plants and organic horizons in tundra and taiga soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubrova, M. S.; Zenova, G. M.; Yakushev, A. V.; Manucharova, N. A.; Makarova, E. P.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.; Chernov, I. Yu.

    2013-08-01

    It has been revealed that in organic horizons and plants of the tundra and taiga ecosystems under low temperatures, actinomycetal complexes form. The population density of psychrotolerant actinomycetes in organic horizons and plants reaches tens and hundreds of thousands CFU/g of substrate or soil, and decreases in the sequence litters > plants > soils > undecomposed plant remains > moss growths. The mycelium length of psychrotolerant actinomycetes reaches 220 m/g of substrate. Application of the FISH method has demonstrated that metabolically active psychrotolerant bacteria of the phylum Actinobacteria constitute 30% of all metabolically active psychrotolerant representatives of the Bacteriŕ domain of the prokaryotic microbial community of soils and plants. Psychrotolerant actinomycetes in tundra and taiga ecosystems possess antimicrobial properties.

  11. Buried soils in a perched dunefield as indicators of late holecene lake-level change in the Lake Superior basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderton, John B.; Loope, Walter L.

    1995-01-01

    A stratigraphic analysis of buried soils within the Grand Sable Dunes, a dune field perched 90 m above the southern shore of Lake Superior, reveals a history of eolian activity apparently linked with lake-level fluctuations over the last 5500 yr. A relative rise in the water plane of the Nipissing Great Lakes initially destabilized the lakeward bluff face of the Grand Sable plateau between 5400 and 4600 14C yr B.P. This led to the burial of the Sable Creek soil by eolian sediments derived from the bluff face. Subsequent episodes of eolian activity appear to be tied to similar destabilizing events; high lake levels may have initiated at least four and perhaps eleven episodes of dune building as expressed by soil burials within the dunes. Intervening low lake levels probably correlate with soil profile development, which varies from the well-developed Sable Creek Spodosol catena to thin organic layers containing in-place stumps and tree trunks. Paleoecological reconstructions available for the area do not imply enough climatic change to account for the episodic dune activity. Burial of soils by fine-fraction sediments links dune-building episodes with destabilization of the lower lake-facing bluff, which is rich in fines.

  12. A Test Study to Display Buried Anti-Tank Landmines with GPR and Research Soil Characteristics with CRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadioglu, Selma; Kagan Kadioglu, Yusuf

    2014-05-01

    An anti-tank mine (AT mine) is a type of land mine designed to damage or destroy vehicles including tanks and armored fighting vehicles. Anti-tank mines typically have a much larger explosive charge, and a fuze designed only to be triggered by vehicles or, in some cases, tampering with the mine. There are a lot of AT mine types. In our test study, MK4 and MK5 AT mine types has been used. The Mk 5 was a cylindrical metal cased U.K. anti-tank blast mine that entered service in 1943, during the Second World War. General Specifications of them are 203 mm diameter, 127 mm height, 4.4-5.7 kg weight, 2.05-3.75 kg of TNT explosive content and 350 lbs operating pressure respectively. The aims of the test study were to image anti-tank landmine with GPR method and to analyse the soil characteristics before the mines made explode and after made be exploded and determine changing of the soil characteristics. We realized data measurement on the real 6 unexploded anti-tank landmine buried approximately 15 cm in depth. The mines spaced 3 m were buried in two lines. Space between lines was 1.5 m. We gathered data on the profiles, approximately 7 m, with a Ramac CUII system and 800 MHz shielded antenna. We collected soil samples on the mines, near and around the mines, on the area in village. We collected soil samples before exploding and after exploding mines. We imaged anti-tank landmines on the depth slices of the GPR data and in their interactive transparent 3D subsets successfully. We used polarized microscope and confocal Raman spectroscopy (CRS) to identify soil characteristic before and after exploitation. The results presented that GPR method and its 3D imaging were successful to determine AT mines, and there was no important changing on mineralogical and petrographical characterization of the soil before and after exploding processing. This project has been supported by Ankara University under grant no 11B6055002. The study is a contribution to the EU funded COST action TU1208, "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground penetrating Radar".

  13. A new compilation of depth to calcic horizons in soils for interpreting former rainfall from paleosols

    SciTech Connect

    Retallack, G.J. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    Many studies since the seminal work of Hans Jenny in 1941 have demonstrated that the depth of the calcic horizon in soils can be related to mean annual rainfall during their development. Depth to calcic horizon is not the same as depth of leaching of carbonate, which increases with time, not rainfall. A new compilation of 381 soils of known rainfall from all continents as well as New Zealand and Greenland, including only moderately developed soils on sedimentary parent materials, gave a relationship between depth to calcic horizon (D in cm) and precipitation (P in mm) of D = -40.49-0.0852P-0.002455P[sup 2] with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.78 and standard error ([sigma]) of [+-]33 cm. For interpreting paleosols the converse relationships is more useful (P = 139.6--6.388D--0.01303D[sup 2], with r = 0.79 and [sigma] = [+-]141 mm). Also worth considering for the interpretation of paleosols are the carbon dioxide composition of the atmosphere at the time they formed, the degree to which they have been eroded before burial, and the amount of compaction during burial. These problems are illustrated with the example of Eocene and Oligocene paleosols of Badlands National Park, South Dakota, which shows stepwise drying of paleoclimate during mid-Tertiary time.

  14. Comparison of buried soil sensors, surface chambers and above ground measurements of carbon dioxide fluxes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil carbon dioxide (CO2) flux is an important component of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Accurate measurements of soil CO2 flux aids determinations of carbon budgets. In this study, we investigated soil CO2 fluxes with time and depth and above ground CO2 fluxes in a bare field. CO2 concentrations w...

  15. Identifying the buried dikeland soil in a restored Bay of Fundy salt marsh John Lusby Marsh, located on the Cumberland Basin just west of Amherst, Nova

    E-print Network

    Chmura, Gail L.

    Identifying the buried dikeland soil in a restored Bay of Fundy salt marsh John Lusby Marsh restoration to salt marsh conditions. Since that time, regular tidal inundation with sediment-laden waters has Beecher developed a modern analogue of salt marsh pollen assemblages. We hope that these analogues

  16. Microbial weathering of apatite and wollastonite in a forest soil: Evidence from minerals buried in a root-free zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nezat, C. A.

    2011-12-01

    Mineral weathering is an important process in biogeochemical cycling because it releases nutrients from less labile pools (e.g., rocks) to the food chain. A field experiment was undertaken to determine the degree to which microbes - both fungi and bacteria - are responsible for weathering of Ca-bearing minerals. The experiment was performed at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF) in the northeastern USA, where acid deposition has leached plant-available calcium from soils for decades. Trees obtain soil nutrients through root uptake as well as through mycorrhizal fungi with which they are symbiotically associated. These fungi extend their hyphae from the tree roots into the soil and exude organic acids that may enhance mineral dissolution. The two most common types of symbiotic fungal-tree associations are ectomycorrhizae, which are associated with spruce (Picea), fir (Abies), and beech (Fagus); and arbuscular mycorrhizae which are commonly associated with angiosperms, such as maples (Acer). To examine the role of fungi and bacteria in weathering of Ca- and/or P-bearing minerals, mesh bags containing sand-sized grains of quartz (as a control), quartz plus 1% wollastonite (CaSiO3), or quartz plus 1% apatite (Ca5(PO4)3F) were buried ~15 cm deep in mineral soil beneath American beech, sugar maple, and mixed spruce and balsam fir stands at the HBEF. Half of the bags were constructed of 50-?m mesh to exclude roots but allow fungal hyphae and bacteria to enter the bags; the remaining bags had 1-?m mesh to exclude fungi and roots but allow bacteria to enter. The bags were retrieved ~ 1, 2 or 4 years after burial. Microbial community composition and biomass in the mesh bags and surrounding soil were characterized and quantified using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. Fungal biomass in the soil and control bags did not differ significantly among stand types. In contrast, the degree of fungal colonization in apatite- and wollastonite-amended bags varied significantly, suggesting that microbial response was due to tree species, type of mycorrhizal fungi, nutrient status of the soils, and mineral composition of the mesh bags. Mineral surfaces were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to investigate the degree of mineral dissolution as a function of stand type, microbial composition, and time.

  17. Persistence of 137Cs in the litter layers of forest soil horizons of Mount IDA/Kazdagi, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Karadeniz, Özlem; Karakurt, Hidayet; Çak?r, Rukiye; Çoban, Fatih; Büyükok, Emir; Akal, Cüneyt

    2015-01-01

    In 2010-2012, an extensive study was performed in forest sites of Mount IDA (Kazdagi)/Edremit 26 years after the Chernobyl accident. The (137)Cs activity concentrations were determined by gamma-ray spectrometry in the forest soil layers (OL, OF + OH and A horizons) separately. Based on 341 surface soil samples and 118 soil profiles, activity concentrations of (137)Cs in OL horizons varied between 0.25 ± 0.14 and 70 ± 1 Bq kg(-1), while the ranges of (137)Cs activity concentrations in OF + OH and A horizons were 13 ± 1-555 ± 3 Bq kg(-1) and 2 ± 1-253 ± 2 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Cesium-137 deposition in the study area was estimated to be in the range of 1-39 kBq m(-2) and a linear relationship between the deposition of (137)Cs and the altitude was observed. The distributions of (137)Cs activities in OL, OF + OH and A horizons throughout the region were mapped in detail. The highest (137)Cs activities were found in OF + OH horizons, with markedly lower (137)Cs activity in mineral horizons of soil profiles. It is observed that (137)Cs content of humus layer increases with the thickness of the humus layer for coniferous forest sites. The (137)Cs activity concentrations were higher than the recommended screening limits (150 Bq kg(-1)) at some of the investigated areas. The current activity concentration of top soil layers indicates that over many years since the initial deposition, (137)Cs activity is keeping still high in the organic horizons. PMID:25464048

  18. Spatial and temporal soil water variability in the plowing horizon of agriculturally used soils in two regions of Southwest Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poltoradnev, Maxim; Ingwersen, Joachim; Streck, Thilo

    2015-04-01

    Soil water dynamics plays an important role in soil-plant-atmosphere interactions. There is a lack of long-term continuous measurements of topsoil water content at the regional scale. The objective of the present study was to quantify and elucidate the seasonal dynamics of spatial soil water content variability in the plowing horizon (Ap) of agricultural soils at the regional scale. The study was conducted in the central part of the Kraichgau and the Mid Swabian Alb in Southwest Germany. In each region a soil water network embracing 21 stations was set up. All stations were installed on cropped agricultural sites and distributed across three spatial domains: an inner domain 3 km × 3 km (5 stations), a middle 9 km × 9 km (8 stations), and an outer domain 27 km × 27 km (8 stations). Each station consists of a TDT sensor (SI.99 Aquaflex Soil Moisture Sensor, Streat Instruments Ltd, New Zealand), which senses both soil water content and soil temperature, a rain gauge, and a remote transfer unit (RTU, datalogger + GSM modem), which stores and transfers data via GPRS modem to the central data server (Adcon Telemetry GmbH, Austria) located at the University of Hohenheim. The TDT sensors were installed at 0.15 m depth. A sensor consists of a three meter long and three centimeter wide flat transmission line. The relationship between the standard deviation (??) of the soil water content (SWC) and mean spatial soil water content () formed combinations of concave and convex hyperbolas. However, it strongly depended on SWC state and season. Generally, ?? was found to be changing along a convex trend during dry out and rewetting phases with a maximum in the intermediate SWC range. At the rain event scale, ??() was either ascending or converging with decreasing . A concave shape was observed when approached to dry state. The majority of ??() hysteresis loops were observed in intermediate and intermediate/wet state of SWC. All hysteretic loops were clockwise oriented. Rainfall intensity and distribution were identified as main factors driving SWC variability at the regional scale.

  19. Microbial nitrogen dynamics in organic and mineral soil horizons along a latitudinal transect in western Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, Birgit; Schnecker, Jörg; Knoltsch, Anna; Takriti, Mounir; Mooshammer, Maria; Gentsch, Norman; Mikutta, Robert; Alves, Ricardo J. Eloy; Gittel, Antje; Lashchinskiy, Nikolay; Richter, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    Soil N availability is constrained by the breakdown of N-containing polymers such as proteins to oligopeptides and amino acids that can be taken up by plants and microorganisms. Excess N is released from microbial cells as ammonium (N mineralization), which in turn can serve as substrate for nitrification. According to stoichiometric theory, N mineralization and nitrification are expected to increase in relation to protein depolymerization with decreasing N limitation, and thus from higher to lower latitudes and from topsoils to subsoils. To test these hypotheses, we compared gross rates of protein depolymerization, N mineralization and nitrification (determined using 15N pool dilution assays) in organic topsoil, mineral topsoil, and mineral subsoil of seven ecosystems along a latitudinal transect in western Siberia, from tundra (67°N) to steppe (54°N). The investigated ecosystems differed strongly in N transformation rates, with highest protein depolymerization and N mineralization rates in middle and southern taiga. All N transformation rates decreased with soil depth following the decrease in organic matter content. Related to protein depolymerization, N mineralization and nitrification were significantly higher in mineral than in organic horizons, supporting a decrease in microbial N limitation with depth. In contrast, we did not find indications for a decrease in microbial N limitation from arctic to temperate ecosystems along the transect. Our findings thus challenge the perception of ubiquitous N limitation at high latitudes, but suggest a transition from N to C limitation of microorganisms with soil depth, even in high-latitude systems such as tundra and boreal forest.

  20. The morphology of cells and the biomass of microorganisms in the buried paleosols and modern steppe soils of the Lower Volga region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashirskaya, N. N.; Khomutova, T. E.; Dmitriev, V. V.; Duda, V. I.; Suzina, N. E.; Demkin, V. A.

    2010-10-01

    The morphology of microbial cells was studied, and the biomass of microorganisms was estimated in the modern steppe soils and paleosols buried under kurgans in the Lower Volga region with the methods of electron microscopy. The shape and ultrastructure of the cells in the modern soils and paleosols were similar, though their average volumes differed (0.37 and 0.28 ?m3, respectively). The portion of cells with a volume above 1 ?m3 in the surface soils and paleosols reached 10.9 and 9.2%, respectively, and the portion of cells with a volume less than 0.01 ?m3 in the surface soils was 10% lower than that in the buried paleosols. It was found that the cells of the microorganisms have an external organomineral layer, which increases the cell volume by 4.9 times, and this fact was taken into account in the calculation of the microbial biomass. In the chestnut and light chestnut paleosols, the latter comprised 1500 and 230 ?g of C/g soil, respectively.

  1. Ectomycorrhizal-Dominated Boreal and Tropical Forests Have Distinct Fungal Communities, but Analogous Spatial Patterns across Soil Horizons

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Krista L.; Allison, Steven D.; Fierer, Noah; Treseder, Kathleen K.

    2013-01-01

    Fungi regulate key nutrient cycling processes in many forest ecosystems, but their diversity and distribution within and across ecosystems are poorly understood. Here, we examine the spatial distribution of fungi across a boreal and tropical ecosystem, focusing on ectomycorrhizal fungi. We analyzed fungal community composition across litter (organic horizons) and underlying soil horizons (0–20 cm) using 454 pyrosequencing and clone library sequencing. In both forests, we found significant clustering of fungal communities by site and soil horizons with analogous patterns detected by both sequencing technologies. Free-living saprotrophic fungi dominated the recently-shed leaf litter and ectomycorrhizal fungi dominated the underlying soil horizons. This vertical pattern of fungal segregation has also been found in temperate and European boreal forests, suggesting that these results apply broadly to ectomycorrhizal-dominated systems, including tropical rain forests. Since ectomycorrhizal and free-living saprotrophic fungi have different influences on soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics, information on the spatial distribution of these functional groups will improve our understanding of forest nutrient cycling. PMID:23874569

  2. The Influence of Organic-Soil Horizons on Thermal Dynamics in High-Latitude Soils: Identifying Thresholds for Permafrost State Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ODonnell, J. A.; Harden, J. W.; Romanovsky, V. E.

    2014-12-01

    Organic-soil horizons exert significant control on soil temperature and permafrost dynamics in high-latitude regions. Ecosystem protection of permafrost is governed by the low thermal conductivity of organic soils, which is sensitive to changes in horizon thickness (OHT), moisture content, and decomposition extent (and thus, porosity, and density) of organic matter. At broad spatial scales, the occurrence of permafrost is positively correlated with OHT when organic horizons are relatively thin (< 30 cm). Across sites where OHT is deeper, this correlation reverses and becomes negative. We hypothesize that this bi-modal relationship between OHT and permafrost occurrence is primarily governed by the contrasting thermal properties of upper organic-soil horizons and the underlying deep organic-soil and mineral-soil horizons. As documented with prior investigations on snow thermal properties, we find that that the underlying layers can have a profound impact on the insulating effect of the overlying layer. To evaluate this hypothesis, we examine the sensitivity of permafrost to soil properties (OHT, moisture content, and texture) and their variations across landscape positions and drainage class using field-based observations and generalized simulations using the Geophysical Institute Permafrost Laboratory model (GIPL). We observed significant negative correlations between minimum daily ground-surface temperature during summer and OHT across upland forest sites in interior Alaska. In peatlands, ground-surface temperature and OHT appear to be decoupled, which is likely due to variation in deposit thickness as determined by the timing of peatland formation across the region. Model results highlight the role of moisture content and water table position, both as controls on organic matter accumulation and on permafrost extent and thermal state.

  3. Investigating priming of soil organic matter decomposition with litter extract in genetic horizons of two harvested red spruce podzols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, C.; Kellman, L. M.

    2012-12-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) represents a significant store of carbon (C), and factors that influence its stability are essential to understand, particularly since rising greenhouse gases such as CO2 play an important role in exacerbating climate change. Several studies have documented losses of SOM as a result of forest harvesting, particularly in mineral soils below 20 cm, but the specific mechanism for this loss has not been identified. Priming of SOM decomposition has been observed in some soils with the addition of labile C sources, so it is important to consider whether leaching of organic matter from litter through soil profiles is a mechanism that might explain these observed harvesting-related losses. Here we present preliminary results of a study whose objective is to quantify changes in respiration rates from paired soils differing only in their harvest history, through depth and under C amendment conditions that closely mimic those found in the field setting. Composite field moist soil samples from Ae, Bf and BC (transitional) horizons were incubated to assess respiration rates (2.5 g dry weight, in triplicate) at 15 C for paired sites representing 110 yr and 35 yr post-harvest temperate forest soils. The approach combined descriptive measurements (elemental composition and C and N stable isotope ratios), with soil headspace CO2 and ?13C-CO2 measurements for soils experiencing additions of litter extract or deionized water over a 28 day period. Results indicate an order of magnitude difference in CO2 evolution rates between the shallow horizons (Ae and Bf) and the deeper soil (BC). The respired 13C-CO2 ratio was higher in the 110 yr old site soils, with a more depleted signature released from the 35 yr old site soils. The stable isotope signature of respired CO2 matched that of the bulk soil in the Ae horizon, but signatures that emerged from the Bf horizon did not necessarily follow that trend. Litter extracts produced variable results between sites, yielding insight into the role a labile C source derived from the upper profile may play in the stability of C in the profiles of harvested soils. Studies of this nature have important implications for understanding key processes governing SOM stability.

  4. Microbial nitrogen dynamics in organic and mineral soil horizons along a latitudinal transect in western Siberia

    PubMed Central

    Wild, Birgit; Schnecker, Jörg; Knoltsch, Anna; Takriti, Mounir; Mooshammer, Maria; Gentsch, Norman; Mikutta, Robert; Alves, Ricardo J Eloy; Gittel, Antje; Lashchinskiy, Nikolay; Richter, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Soil N availability is constrained by the breakdown of N-containing polymers such as proteins to oligopeptides and amino acids that can be taken up by plants and microorganisms. Excess N is released from microbial cells as ammonium (N mineralization), which in turn can serve as substrate for nitrification. According to stoichiometric theory, N mineralization and nitrification are expected to increase in relation to protein depolymerization with decreasing N limitation, and thus from higher to lower latitudes and from topsoils to subsoils. To test these hypotheses, we compared gross rates of protein depolymerization, N mineralization and nitrification (determined using 15N pool dilution assays) in organic topsoil, mineral topsoil, and mineral subsoil of seven ecosystems along a latitudinal transect in western Siberia, from tundra (67°N) to steppe (54°N). The investigated ecosystems differed strongly in N transformation rates, with highest protein depolymerization and N mineralization rates in middle and southern taiga. All N transformation rates decreased with soil depth following the decrease in organic matter content. Related to protein depolymerization, N mineralization and nitrification were significantly higher in mineral than in organic horizons, supporting a decrease in microbial N limitation with depth. In contrast, we did not find indications for a decrease in microbial N limitation from arctic to temperate ecosystems along the transect. Our findings thus challenge the perception of ubiquitous N limitation at high latitudes, but suggest a transition from N to C limitation of microorganisms with soil depth, even in high-latitude systems such as tundra and boreal forest. Key Points We compared soil N dynamics of seven ecosystems along a latitudinal transectShifts in N dynamics suggest a decrease in microbial N limitation with depthWe found no decrease in microbial N limitation from arctic to temperate zones PMID:26693204

  5. The effect of moisture content on the thermal conductivity of moss and organic soil horizons from black spruce ecosystems in interior alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Donnell, J. A.; Romanovsky, V.E.; Harden, J.W.; McGuire, A.D.

    2009-01-01

    Organic soil horizons function as important controls on the thermal state of near-surface soil and permafrost in high-latitude ecosystems. The thermal conductivity of organic horizons is typically lower than mineral soils and is closely linked to moisture content, bulk density, and water phase. In this study, we examined the relationship between thermal conductivity and soil moisture for different moss and organic horizon types in black spruce ecosystems of interior Alaska. We sampled organic horizons from feather moss-dominated and Sphagnum-dominated stands and divided horizons into live moss and fibrous and amorphous organic matter. Thermal conductivity measurements were made across a range of moisture contents using the transient line heat source method. Our findings indicate a strong positive and linear relationship between thawed thermal conductivity (Kt) and volumetric water content. We observed similar regression parameters (?? or slope) across moss types and organic horizons types and small differences in ??0 (y intercept) across organic horizon types. Live Sphagnum spp. had a higher range of Kt than did live feather moss because of the field capacity (laboratory based) of live Sphagnum spp. In northern regions, the thermal properties of organic soil horizons play a critical role in mediating the effects of climate warming on permafrost conditions. Findings from this study could improve model parameterization of thermal properties in organic horizons and enhance our understanding of future permafrost and ecosystem dynamics. ?? 2009 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

  6. Acceleration of organic matter decomposition after the input of available substrate in subsoil horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Zhuravleva, Anna; Blagodatsky, Sergey; Yakimov, Artem; Demkin, Vitaly; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2010-05-01

    Input of available substrates to soil can alter microbial activity resulting in accelerated turnover of native soil organic matter (SOM), i.e. cause priming effects (PE). Following to Fountaine et al. (2007) we hypothesized that the stability of SOM in deep soil horizons is due to the lack of input of fresh organic substrates. We also hypothesized greater PE in mineral versus organic soil horizons. These hypotheses were checked by the comparison of priming effects induced by 14C-glucose in organic and mineral horizons of modern as well as of paleo-soils (podzol sandy soil Yamalo-Nenezky region, Tumen). The following variables were determined in 50-days incubation experiment: 1) dynamics of CO2 evolution; 2) 14CO2 originated from the added glucose; 3) microbial biomass C by substrate-induced respiration; 4) activities of extracellular enzymes (?-glucosidase, chitinase, cellobiogidrolase and xylanase) with fluorogenically labeled substrates. Maximal intensity of SOM mineralization as well as of enzyme activities was observed at 2 -7 days after glucose application. The absolute values of PE were 10 times greater in modern as compared with buried horizons of paleo-soils. However, the relative increase in carbon mineralization (as compared with control soil without glucose amendment) was greater in buried than in modern soils, especially in mineral soil horizons. In organic horizons the PE amounted for 20 and 50 % of untreated control in modern and in paleo-soils, respectively. In mineral horizons the PE amount (in % of control) reached 60 % for modern and 250 % for paleo-soils. We conclude that the input of fresh organic matter in paleo-soils as well as in deep soil horizons can induce greater PE as compared with topsoil layers. This conclusion was further confirmed by the increased activity of hydrolytic enzymes during PE in modern and in buried soils. Reference: Fontaine S, Barot S, Barre P, Bdioui N, Mary B, Rumpel C (2007) Stability of organic carbon in deep soil layers controlled by fresh carbon supply. Nature 450:277-280

  7. Preliminary Systems Design Study assessment report. [Evaluation of using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1991-11-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept.

  8. Preliminary systems design study assessment report. [Evaluation of using specific technologies and system concepts for testing the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.L. ); Feizollahi, F. ); Del Signore, J.C. )

    1991-09-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept.

  9. Vertical distribution of an ectomycorrhizal community in upper soil horizons of a young Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) stand of the Bavarian Limestone Alps.

    PubMed

    Baier, Roland; Ingenhaag, Jan; Blaschke, Helmut; Göttlein, Axel; Agerer, Reinhard

    2006-05-01

    The vertical niche differentiation of genera of ectomycorrhiza (ECM) was assessed in a 17-year-old Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) plantation on a mountainous dolomitic site (1,050 m above sea level) of the Bavarian Limestone Alps. We determined ECM anatomotypes, recorded the abundance of corresponding ECM root tips and classified them into groups of ECM exploration types, which refer to the organisation and the extent of their extramatrical mycelia. The abundance of ECM was highest in the organic soil layers, compared to the mineral soil horizon. The ordination of the ECM communities and of the exploration types revealed segregation related to soil horizon properties. While Cenococcum geophilum preferred the organic soil layers, Lactarius spp., Tomentella spp. and Craterellus tubaeformis were generally most abundant in the mineral soil horizons. Cenococcum geophilum was the predominant species, possibly based on enhanced competitiveness under the prevailing site conditions. The short-distance exploration types (e.g. C. geophilum) preferentially colonised the organic soil layer, whereas the contact types (e.g. most of the Tomentella spp., C. tubaeformis) together with medium-distance types (e.g. Amphinema byssoides) were primarily associated with the underlying A-horizons. Therefore, the soil horizons had an important effect on the distribution of ECM and on their community structure. The spatial niche differentiation of ECM genera and exploration types is discussed in regard to specific physico-chemical properties of soil horizon and the assumed ecophysiological strategies of ECM. PMID:16518613

  10. Chemical Composition of Soil Horizons and Aggregate Size Fractions Under the Hawaiian Fern Dicranopteris and Angiosperm Cheirodendrom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, C. E.; Amatangelo, K.; Neff, J.

    2007-12-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) inherits much of its chemical nature from the dominant vegetation, including phenolic (lignin-derived), aromatic, and aliphatic (cutin and wax-derived) compounds. However, relatively stable recalcitrant compounds may also be formed as a result of condensation and complexation reactions through decomposition and protected with association with mineral particles. The Hawaiian fern species Dicranopteris decomposes more slowly than the angiosperm, Cheirodendrom due to high concentrations of recalcitrant C compounds. These aliphatic fern leaf waxes are well-preserved and may comprise a large portion of the recalcitrant organic matter in these soils. Our objective was to determine the chemical composition of the SOM under the O- (litter-dominated) and the A- (mineral) horizons formed under fern and angiosperm vegetation. To determine the effect of mineral-association, we fractioned the soil into four size classes; 850-590 ?m, 590-180 ?m, 180-53 ?m and <53 ?m and characterized the SOM via pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (py-GC/MS). As the soils developed from the O- to the A-horizon, there was a decrease of lignin-derived phenolic compounds and an increase in more recalcitrant, aromatic and aliphatic C. Soils under ferns had greater relative concentrations of phenolic compounds, while the angiosperms had greater concentrations of fatty-acid methyl esters and furans (some polysaccharide-derived). Differences between size fractions were most evident in the O-horizon of both species. Recalcitrant fern-derived cutin and leaf waxes (alkene and alkanes structures) occurred in the 180-53 ?m fraction, which has been shown to be the most stable of the aggregate-size fractions. Soils developed under fern versus angiosperm vegetation have distinct chemical signatures, which likely determine the recalcitrance of the SOM.

  11. The history of soil erosion: Interpreting historical sources, buried soils and colluvial sediments as archives of past soil erosion and human-environment interactions in the Longue Durée

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dotterweich, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Soil erosion threatens the environment and the sustainability of agricultural practices since the earliest societies started modifying their natural environment in the Neolithic. Almost all farming-based cultures in the world, from large civilizations to peasant groups on little islands, have suffered from soil erosion by water. The amounts of soil erosion varied largely through time and space, and extreme events have left a wide variety of imprints on the landscape over millennia. Eroded hillslopes and gullies, deposited sediments in sinks like lakes, footslopes, valleys, floodplains, and river deltas are geomorphic legacies that have been linked to changes in land use and climate by many studies during the last decades. However, a standardized analysis and interpretation of these geomorphic legacies is problematic because of the variety of methodological approaches and the nonlinearity between soil erosion, climate, and land use. Cascading effects, land use structures, soil management, soil conservation strategies, and long-term system changes have produced different signals over time. Historical records are crucial and an invaluable source to provide alternative proxies about soil erosion in the past. Direct observations of individual soil erosion events may restrict the deposition of a distinct sediment package to a certain time span. They also expand the range of alternative interpretations, particularly with respect to the long-term effects of soil erosion to ecosystem services and socioeconomic processes. However, historical records also need critical analyses regarding their origin, intention, and quality. They were often created in the context of personal interests or political issues rather than being based on scientific facts; and it is often unclear if they represent certain events, narratives, or vague assumptions. This presentation will present and discuss examples of geomorphic evidences and historical records of past soil erosion for the deciphering of human-environment interactions in the Longue Durée.

  12. Preliminary systems design study assessment report. [Evaluation of using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and surrounding contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each. This volume contains the descriptions and other relevant information of the four subsystems required for most of the ex situ processing systems. This volume covers the metal decontamination and sizing subsystem, soils processing subsystem, low-level waste subsystem, and retrieval subsystem.

  13. Structural properties of dissolved organic carbon in deep horizons of an arable soil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavaud, A.; Croué, Jp; Berwick, L.; Steffens, M.; Chabbi, A.

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this work is to quantity the DOC that percolates in deep horizons of an arable soil, and to characterize the structural properties of the main fractions. The study was conducted on the long term observatory for environmental research- biogeochemical cycles and biodiversity Lusignan site-France. DOC collected using lysimeter plates inserted to a depth of 105 cm was fractionated into 3 fractions using the two column array of XAD-8 and XAD-4 resins. The HPO (hydrophobic) fraction (i.e. humic substances) isolated from the XAD-8 resin, the TPH (Transphilic) fraction from the XAD-4 resin and the HPI (hydrophilic) fraction which corresponds to the DOC that does not adsorbed onto the two resins under the acid condition used (pH 2). DOM adsorbed onto the resins is recovered with a 75%/25% acetonitrile/water mixture and lyophilized. The hydrophilic fraction is purified according the protocol proposed by Aiken and Leenheer (1993). The isolated fractions were subjected to several characterization tools: UV/Vis, fluorescence EEM, HPSEC/UV/DOC, 13C NMR, 14C dating, FT-IR, pyrolysis, thermochemolysis and MSSV GC/MS. The DOC content ranged from 1 to 2.5 mg / L between winter and the middle of spring and then to 4-5 mg / L in summer time. For all isolated fractions HPSEC analyses indicated the predominance of low molecular structures with a low aromatic character. Fluorescence EEM confirmed the non-humic character of the DOM. 13C-NMR spectra showed that the aromatic character decreased from HPO to TPH, and HPI character. Molecular size follows the same trend. HPI DOM was found to be strongly enriched in carboxyl groups. The 14C concentration of the HPO fraction corresponds to an apparent calibrated age around AD 1500. For the same fraction isolated from the 0 - 30 cm horizon, the measured 14C concentration 131.9 pMC corresponds to that in the atmosphere around AD 1978. Significant input of terpenoid derived organic matter was confirmed in the HPO fraction of DOC, results supported by the data of 13C NMR, FT-IR and Micro Scale Sealed Vessel / pyrolysis GC / MS. Flash pyrolysis GC / MS chromatogram highlight the presence of phenol and alkyl phenols, generally attributed to structures polyhydroxyaromatic structures. Acetamide, a pyrolysis product of amino sugars constituents of microbial cell wall is also significantly present. The thermochimiolysis (TMAH)/GC/ MS confirmed the presence of hydroxy aromatic structures in the extracts; however, their precise origin (lignin, tannins ...) remains uncertain.

  14. Buried Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    29 September 2004 The circular feature in this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image is the location of a buried impact crater in southern Noachis Terra near 55.4oS, 325.1oW. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across; thus the crater is roughly 2 km in diameter, or twice the size of the famous Meteor Crater in northern Arizona. A visitor to the Arizona Crater would be quite impressed by the height of its raised rims and the depth of and distance across its bowl, relative to a person. At the human scale It is challenging to imagine a crater twice that size that has been filled and buried by sediment and debris, yet the crater shown here is simply an example. On Mars, craters over 100 km in diameter have been buried, and some have been exhumed. This image is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

  15. Contamination of the O2 soil horizon by zinc smelting and its effect on woodlouse survival

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Miller, G.W.; Cromartie, E.J.

    1984-01-01

    Samples of litter from the 02 horizon of Dekalb soil (loamyskeletal, mixed, mesic Typic Dystrochrept) were collected from 18 ridgetop sites on a transect that ran by two Zn smelters in Palmerton, Pa. Metal concentrations increased by regular gradations from a minimum at a site 105 km west of the smelters (67 mg/kg Zn, 0.85 mg/kg Cd, 150 mg/kg Pb, 11 mg/kg Cu) to a maximum 1.2 km east of the smelters (35,000 mg/kg Zn, 1300 mg/kg Cd, 3200 mg/kg Pb, 280 mg/kg Cu), and then decreased until they reached an eastern minimum at the easternmost site, 19 km from the smelters. An increase in the P concentrations near the smelters showed that the emissions were disrupting nutrient flow through the ecosystem. An increase in the pH near the smelters was attributed to the high concentrations of Zn. The log of the distance of the sites from the smelters was significantly correlated (r = - 0.80, p < 0.05) with the mortality of woodlice (Porcellio scaber Latreille} fed samples of the litter during an 8-week test. There was substantial mortality of woodlice observed even in the 02 litter collected 19 km east of the smelters. Zinc, cadmium, lead, copper, and sulfur were experimentally added, alone or in combination, to 02 litter collected far from any known source of metal emissions. The highest concentration of Zn added (20,000 mg/kg) was toxic enough to account for the mortality observed in the earlier test. A lower concentration of Zn (5000 mg/kg) as well as the concentration of Cd (500 mg/kg) tested also significantly (p < 0.05) increased the mortality of woodlice.

  16. Soil morphology of a debris flow chronosequence in a coniferous forest, southern California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turk, J.K.; Goforth, B.R.; Graham, R.C.; Kendrick, K.J.

    2008-01-01

    Soils on a series of debris flow deposits, ranging from < 1 to 244??years old, were described and sampled in order to investigate the early stages of soil development. The parent material at the site is debris flow regolith, composed mainly of gneiss, the soil moisture regime is xeric, and the vegetation is mixed coniferous forest. Ages of the deposits were assessed using dendrochronology. Morphologic trends in the organic horizons included a thickening of the humus form over time, along with the development of Fm and Hr horizons. The humus forms underwent a progression from Mormodors (20??years old), to Hemimors (26-101??years old), and finally Lignomors (163??years old) and Resimors (184-244??years old). Changes in physical properties of the uppermost mineral horizons as a function of increasing age included a decrease in the volume of coarse fragments, a linear decrease in bulk density, and a darkening and reddening of the soil color. No significant soil development took place in the subsoil during the time span of this chronosequence. The soils described were classified as Typic Xerofluvents and Typic Xerorthents (Regosols and Leptosols). Buried A horizons were observed in many of the soils. Where the A horizons could be linked to dendrochronology to assess the age of the buried surface, we found that the properties of the buried A horizons do not serve as a good indicator of the age of the surface. This study suggests rapid development of the humus form profile (organic horizons and A horizon) following debris flow deposition and rapid degradation of these horizons when the debris flow surface is buried. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  17. Electromagnetic scattering from buried objects

    SciTech Connect

    Brock, B.C.; Sorensen, K.W.

    1994-10-01

    Radar imaging and detection of objects buried in soil has potentially important applications in the areas of nonproliferation of weapons, environmental monitoring, hazardous-waste site location and assessment, and even archeology. In order to understand and exploit this potential, it is first necessary to understand how the soil responds to an electromagnetic wave, and how targets buried within the soil scatter the electromagnetic wave. We examine the response of the soil to a short pulse, and illustrate the roll of the complex dielectric permittivity of the soil in determining radar range resolution. This leads to a concept of an optimum frequency and bandwidth for imaging in a particular soil. We then propose a new definition for radar cross section which is consistent with the modified radar equation for use with buried targets. This radar cross section plays the same roll in the modified radar equation as the traditional radar cross section does in the free-space radar equation, and is directly comparable to it. The radar cross section of several canonical objects in lossy media is derived, and examples are given for several object/soil combinations.

  18. Use of the color indices of humus soil horizons as indicators of soil evolution in the steppe zone of the Transvolga region under irrigation conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoma, G. V.; Rozov, S. Yu.; Sukhanova, N. I.

    2015-05-01

    Changes that occurred in the humus parameters and humus horizon color of soils of an experimental production farm in the Saratov oblast during 50 years of irrigation indicate the development of a northern humid version of soil-forming process. Its rate is determined by the confinement of soils to mesoand microrelief elements. The qualitative differences in the character of humification in soils on watersheds and middle and lower slopes are confirmed by statistically reliable differences in the color parameters of soils in the CIE-L*a*b* color system. The lightness (L*) and the yellowness (b*) are the most informative parameters. The lightness is related to the content of humus and probably to its qualitative composition, and the changes in yellowness result from the masking of yellow-colored mineral iron compounds by the newly formed humus. These color indices are reliable criteria for color assessment and can be used for the detection and estimation of changes in the irrigated soils of the steppe regions.

  19. SULFUR DYNAMICS IN MINERAL HORIZONS OF TWO NORTHERN HARDWOOD SOILS A COLUMN STUDY WITH 35S

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sulfur dynamics of two Spodosols were ascertained using soil columns constructed from homogenized mineral soil from northern hardwood ecosystems at the Huntington Forest (HF) in the Adirondack Mountains of New York and Bear Brook Watershed in Maine (BBWM). olumns were leached for...

  20. Estimating Depth to Argillic Soil Horizons using Apparent Electrical Conductivity Response Functions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maps of apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) of the soil profile are widely used in precision agriculture practice and research. A number of ECa sensors are commercially available, each with a unique response function (i.e., the relative contribution of soil at each depth to the integrated ECa rea...

  1. Spatial Variability and Correlation of Selected Soil Properties in the AP Horizon of the CRP Grassland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of the spatial variability of soil properties in agricultural fields is important for implementing various precision agricultural management practices. This paper examines spatial variation of selected soil physical and chemical properties and explores their spatial correlation in the A ho...

  2. Preliminary Systems Design Study assessment report. [Evaluation of using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept. This volume contains introduction section containing a brief SDS background and lists the general assumptions and considerations used during the development of the system concepts. The introduction section is followed by sections describing two system concepts that produce a waste form in compliance with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) and transportation package (TRAMPAC) requirements. This system concept category is referred to as Waste Form 4, WIPP and TRAMPAC Acceptable.'' The following two system concepts are under this category: Sort, Treat, and Repackage System (4-BE-2); Volume Reduction and Packaging System (4-BE-4).

  3. A Mesophilic, Autotrophic, Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaeon of Thaumarchaeal Group I.1a Cultivated from a Deep Oligotrophic Soil Horizon

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Man-Young; Park, Soo-Je; Kim, So-Jeong; Kim, Jong-Geol; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2014-01-01

    Soil nitrification plays an important role in the reduction of soil fertility and in nitrate enrichment of groundwater. Various ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) are considered to be members of the pool of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms in soil. This study reports the discovery of a chemolithoautotrophic ammonia oxidizer that belongs to a distinct clade of nonmarine thaumarchaeal group I.1a, which is widespread in terrestrial environments. The archaeal strain MY2 was cultivated from a deep oligotrophic soil horizon. The similarity of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain MY2 to those of other cultivated group I.1a thaumarchaeota members, i.e., Nitrosopumilus maritimus and “Candidatus Nitrosoarchaeum koreensis,” is 92.9% for both species. Extensive growth assays showed that strain MY2 is chemolithoautotrophic, mesophilic (optimum temperature, 30°C), and neutrophilic (optimum pH, 7 to 7.5). The accumulation of nitrite above 1 mM inhibited ammonia oxidation, while ammonia oxidation itself was not inhibited in the presence of up to 5 mM ammonia. The genome size of strain MY2 was 1.76 Mb, similar to those of N. maritimus and “Ca. Nitrosoarchaeum koreensis,” and the repertoire of genes required for ammonia oxidation and carbon fixation in thaumarchaeal group I.1a was conserved. A high level of representation of conserved orthologous genes for signal transduction and motility in the noncore genome might be implicated in niche adaptation by strain MY2. On the basis of phenotypic, phylogenetic, and genomic characteristics, we propose the name “Candidatus Nitrosotenuis chungbukensis” for the ammonia-oxidizing archaeal strain MY2. PMID:24705324

  4. Fire, temperature and nutrient responses on the C balance of arctic tundra soils from surface, mineral horizons and permafrost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Baets, S. L.; Lewis, R.; van de Weg, M. J.; Quine, T. A.; Shaver, G. R.; Hartley, I. P.

    2013-12-01

    Models predict substantial release of carbon (C) from thawing permafrost as the climate warms. Therefore, determining how the decomposition of the organic matter stored in near surface permafrost is controlled represents a key research priority. Important questions remain regarding how readily decomposable the organic matter may be, as well as the extent to which microbial activity is limited by the low temperatures, the rate of new labile C inputs, and/or nitrogen (N) availability. Accurate model predictions require that these questions are addressed.Disturbances, including fire, which is becoming increasingly common in the tundra biome, may promote rates of permafrost thaw. In 2007, the Anaktuvuk River fire burned over 1,000 km2 of tundra on the North Slope of the Brooks Range, Alaska, USA, doubling the cumulative area burned in this region over the past 50 years. This fire enhanced active layer thickness by removing insulating plant biomass and exposing surfaces with low albedo. In this study we investigated how temperature, N and labile C additions affected rates of CO2 production over a one-year incubation of samples collected from different depths (topsoil, mineral horizons and near-surface permafrost) in burnt and unburnt sites within the Anaktuvik river catchment. The results show that respiration rates did not decline substantially during the 1-year incubation, indicating there were relatively large amounts of readily decomposable C present. However, decomposition rates per gram of C did decline with depth, especially in the burnt sites where some of the surface soil may have been lost. This indicates that the C present in the near surface permafrost may be less labile than C nearer the soil surface. In addition, respiration rates in the deeper horizons were more temperature sensitive, potentially reflecting the lower lability of the C present. Against expectations, N addition inhibited respiration in the deeper layers, especially at low temperatures. Labile C additions promoted the decomposition of soil organic matter in the deep soil samples, but not in the surface samples, with the positive priming effect being lost following N addition. This study indicates that there is the potential for considerable loss of C following the thaw of near-surface permafrost in Alaskan tussock tundra, although the C present may be slightly less readily decomposable than C stored nearer the surface. The decomposition of near-surface permafrost C was shown to be highly temperature sensitive and thus accurately simulating the soil thermal regime post-thaw is likely to be important in predicting rates of C release. In addition, root colonisation of previously frozen horizons may stimulate decomposition if labile C inputs increase. On the other hand, the inhibition of activity by N addition suggests that the positive feedback associated with reduced microbial N limitation in a warming Arctic may not be ubiquitous.

  5. Soil-landscape development and late Quaternary environmental change in coastal Estremadura, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, Michael; Haws, Jonathan; Benedetti, Michael; Bicho, Nuno

    2015-04-01

    This poster integrates soil-landscape analysis with archaeological survey and paleoenvironmental reconstruction. Soils in surface and buried contexts in Estremadura, Portugal, provide evidence of landscape stability and instability, relative age relationships between landforms, and general paleoenvironmental conditions during the late Quaternary. These factors provide insight into the distribution and condition of Paleolithic archaeological sites and help understand the record of human settlement in the region. Late Pleistocene and Holocene dunes extend inland approximately 10 km from coastal source regions. Surface soils in Holocene dunes under maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) forest exhibit A, E, C/Bh and A, C horizon sequences and classify as Quartzipsamments. Surface soils in late Pleistocene dunes exhibit A, E, Bh, Bhs, Bs horizon sequences and classify as Haplorthods. Both Pleistocene and Holocene dunes commonly bury a heavily weathered soil formed in calcareous sandstone. The boundary between underlying buried soils and overlying surface soils is characterized by a lag deposit of medium to coarse, moderately-rounded gravels, underlain immediately by subsurface Bt and Bss horizons. The lag deposit and absence of buried A horizons both indicate intense and/or prolonged surface erosion prior to burial by late Quaternary dunes. Soil-geomorphic relationships therefore suggest at least two distinct episodes of dune emplacement and subsequent landscape stability following an extensive episode late Pleistocene landscape instability and soil erosion. A conceptual model of soil-landscape evolution through the late Quaternary and Holocene results from the integration of soil profile data, proxy paleoenvironmental data, and the partial record of human settled as revealed in the archaeological record.

  6. The contribution of micrometeorites to the iron stocks of buried podzols, developed in Late-glacial aeolian sand deposits (Brabant, The Netherlands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Mourik, Jan; de Vet, Sebastiaan

    2015-04-01

    The surface geology of an extensive part of NW-Europe is dominated by coversands (Late-glacial chemical poor aeolian sand deposits). The geomorphology of coversand landscapes is dominated by ridges and planes. Podzolation is the dominant soil forming process in coversands under moderate humid climatic conditions. Umbric Podzols developed on the ridges under Quercetum-mixtum, Gleyic and Histic Podzols developed in the planes under Alnetum. Even in chemical poor coversands, iron will be released by hydrolysis from iron containing silicate minerals (such as feldspars). It is well known that the vertical iron distribution in Podzols is effected by translocation of active iron from eluvial to illuvial horizons and that iron is leaching to the aquifer. Iron stocks of Podzols, in contrasts, have not been widely studied for comparison purposes of individual soil horizons or between soils. We determined the stocks of active and immobile iron in the horizons of buried xeromorphic Podzols (soils that developed without any contact with groundwater). The results show that the total amount of iron exceeds the potential amount which can be released by hydrolysis from the parent material. Furthermore, to amount of iron that leached to the groundwater is unknown. It is evident that we must find an additional source to explain the total iron stocks in buried Podzols. It is known from analysis of ice cores that the earth atmosphere is subjected to a continuous influx of (iron rich) micrometeorites. The precipitation of micrometeorites (and other aerosols) on the earth surface is concentrated in humid climatic zones with (intensive) rain fall. We analyzed minerals, extracted from the ectorganic horizon of the Initial Podzols, developed in driftsand that stabilized around 1900 AD, overlying Palaeopodzols, buried around 1200 AD. Among blown in quartz grains, we could determine also micrometeorites, embedded in the organic skeleton of the fermentation horizon of the Initial Podzol (Mormoder). The exogenic origin of the micrometeorites could be confirmed by SEM-EDX analysis. Micrometeorites could accumulate on the surface level of the Initial Podzols during one century (between 1900 AD till the moment of sampling in 2013), on the surface level of the buried Podzols during eight millennia (between the moment of stabilization in the Preboreal and the moment of burying around 1200 AD). The soil conditions of the ectorganic horizons of (initial) Podzols are moist and acidic, promoting quick release of iron from micrometeorites. An additional source of Iron that could be added to the amount, released from the parent material. The extraction and identification of micrometeorites from ectorganic horizons of Initial Podzols helped illustrate that atmospheric deposition in the form of aerosol and aeolian (e.g. Saharan) dust, micrometeorites and other hydrolysable particles, contributes to soil development. The requisite active iron for podzolation can therefore be derived from chemical weathering of atmospheric iron sources in the acidic soil environment. Reference: 1. Van Mourik, J.M., Seijmonsbergen, A.C., Slotboom, R.T. and Wallinga, J., 2012. The impact of human land use on soils and landforms in cultural landscapes on aeolian sandy substrates (Maashorst, SE Netherlands). Quaternary International 265, 74-89. 2. Van Mourik, J.M. and de Vet, S.B. (2015). Iron stocks of buried Podzols: endogenic iron deficits and potential exogenic enrichment in the Maashorst region, SE Netherlands. Catena, accepted.

  7. Buried Markov Model Hidden Markov

    E-print Network

    Takiguchi, Tetsuya

    Buried Markov Model , , , ( ), ( ) 1 [1] [2] [3] Hidden Markov Model (HMM) HMM HMM Buried Markov Model (BMM) [4] J. Bilmes HMM BMM BMM 2 Buried Markov Model 2.1 Buried Markov Model HMM Fig. 1 BMM A Study on Dysarthric Speech Recognition using Buried Markov Model, by Chikoto Miyamoto, Yuto Komai

  8. Adsorption coefficients for TNT on soil and clay minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, Rosángela; Pabón, Julissa; Pérez, Omarie; Muńoz, Miguel A.; Mina, Nairmen

    2007-04-01

    To understand the fate and transport mechanisms of TNT from buried landmines is it essential to determine the adsorption process of TNT on soil and clay minerals. In this research, soil samples from horizons Ap and A from Jobos Series at Isabela, Puerto Rico were studied. The clay fractions were separated from the other soil components by centrifugation. Using the hydrometer method the particle size distribution for the soil horizons was obtained. Physical and chemical characterization studies such as cation exchange capacity (CEC), surface area, percent of organic matter and pH were performed for the soil and clay samples. A complete mineralogical characterization of clay fractions using X-ray diffraction analysis reveals the presence of kaolinite, goethite, hematite, gibbsite and quartz. In order to obtain adsorption coefficients (K d values) for the TNT-soil and TNT-clay interactions high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used. The adsorption process for TNT-soil was described by the Langmuir model. A higher adsorption was observed in the Ap horizon. The Freundlich model described the adsorption process for TNT-clay interactions. The affinity and relative adsorption capacity of the clay for TNT were higher in the A horizon. These results suggest that adsorption by soil organic matter predominates over adsorption on clay minerals when significant soil organic matter content is present. It was found that, properties like cation exchange capacity and surface area are important factors in the adsorption of clayey soils.

  9. Dual-band infrared capabilities for imaging buried object sites

    SciTech Connect

    Del Grande, N.K.; Durbin, P.F.; Gorvad, M.R.; Perkins, D.E.; Clark, G.A.; Hernandez, J.E.; Sherwood, R.J.

    1993-04-02

    We discuss dual-band infrared (DBIR) capabilities for imaging buried object sizes. We identify physical features affecting thermal contrast needed to distinguish buried object sites from undisturbed sites or surface clutter. Apart from atmospheric transmission and system performance, these features include: object size, shape, and burial depth; ambient soil, disturbed soil and object site thermal diffusivity differences; surface temperature, emissivity, plant-cover, slope, albedo and roughness variations; weather conditions and measurement times. We use good instrumentation to measure the time-varying temperature differences between buried object sites and undisturbed soil sites. We compare near surface soil temperature differences with radiometric infrared (IR) surface temperature differences recorded at 4.7 {plus_minus} 0.4 {mu}m and at 10.6 {plus_minus} 1.0 {mu}m. By producing selective DBIR image ratio maps, we distinguish temperature-difference patterns from surface emissivity effects. We discuss temperature differences between buried object sites, filled hole site (without buried objects), cleared (undisturbed) soil sites, and grass-covered sites (with and without different types of surface clutter). We compare temperature, emissivity-ratio, visible and near-IR reflectance signatures of surface objects, leafy plants and sod. We discuss the physical aspects of environmental, surface and buried target features affecting interpretation of buried targets, surface objects and natural backgrounds.

  10. Agronomic measures of P, Q/I parameters and lysimeter-collectable P in subsurface soil horizons of a long-term slurry experiment.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R; Xia, L

    2001-01-01

    Soils from a long-term slurry experiment established in 1970 at Hillsborough, Northern Ireland, were used in the experiment. The site has a clay loam soil overlying Silurian shale. Seven treatments were used with three replicate plots per treatment under the following manurial regimes: (1) mineral fertiliser supplying 200 kg N, 32 kg P and 160 kg K ha(-1) yr(-1); (2)-(4) pig slurry applied at 50, 100 or 200 m3 ha(-1) yr(-1); (5)-(7) cow slurry applied at 50, 100 or 200 m3 ha(-1) yr(-1). Agronomic measures of P determined on subsurface layers down to 90 cm were compared with sorption isotherm data and rates of desorption. Adsorption isotherms were fitted using a standard Langmuir model. Data were compared with soluble (molybdate-reactive) P levels in soil water collected at 35 and 90 cm using PTFE suction cup lysimeters. Agronomically available P was concentrated in the top 30 cm of soil in all treatments. The accumulation of P in surface layers of the plots was significantly greater in the pig slurry treatments compared to the cow slurry, reflecting the history of P amendments. Nevertheless, over a period of a year, molybdate-reactive phosphorus (MRP) concentrations in lysimeter collections was consistently higher at 35 cm depth in the highest cow slurry treatment (7) compared to the equivalent pig slurry treatment (4). Either the movement of soluble P down the profile is facilitated by the higher organic content of cow slurry or P movement is not directly related to P accumulation in the soils. In addition, it is hypothesised that P movement down the soil profile depends upon two separate mechanisms. First, a 'break' point above which the accumulated P in the surface horizons is less strongly held and therefore amenable to dissolution and movement down the profile. Second, a mechanism by which some solute P from the surface horizons can travel rapidly through horizons of low P status to greater depth in the soil, i.e., by preferential flow. PMID:11237295

  11. 2.5 SOIL WATER POTENTIAL ESTIMATES Soil moisture retention curves were evaluated for representative A, AE, and EB horizon soils

    E-print Network

    photon flux density (Quantum sensor, LiCor, Inc.), air temperature, and relative humidity (Model MP-100 extension troughs attached. Air and soil temperature sensors (LiCor, Inc., Lincoln, Nebraska) used thermometers (NT-3, Decagon Devices) were used to derive µV and temperature readings for conversion into water

  12. Buried paleoindian-age landscapes in stream valleys of the central plains, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mandel, R.D.

    2008-01-01

    A systematic study of late-Quaternary landscape evolution in the Central Plains documented widespread, deeply buried paleosols that represent Paleoindian-age landscapes in terrace fills of large streams (> 5th order), in alluvial fans, and in draws in areas of western Kansas with a thick loess mantle. Alluvial stratigraphic sections were investigated along a steep bio-climatic gradient extending from the moist-subhumid forest-prairie border of the east-central Plains to the dry-subhumid and semi-arid shortgrass prairie of the west-central Plains. Radiocarbon ages indicate that most large streams were characterized by slow aggradation accompanied by cumulic soil development from ca. 11,500 to 10,000??14C yr B.P. In the valleys of some large streams, such as the Ninnescah and Saline rivers, these processes continued into the early Holocene. The soil-stratigraphic record in the draws of western Kansas indicates slow aggradation punctuated by episodes of landscape stability and pedogenesis beginning as early as ca. 13,300??14C yr B.P. and spanning the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary. The development record of alluvial fans in western Kansas is similar to the record in the draws; slow aggradation was punctuated by multiple episodes of soil development between ca. 13,000 and 9000??14C yr B.P. In eastern Kansas and Nebraska, development of alluvial fans was common during the early and middle Holocene, but evidence shows fan development as early as ca. 11,300??14C yr B.P. Buried soils dating between ca. 12,600 and 9000??14C yr B.P. were documented in fans throughout the region. In stream valleys across the Central Plains, rapid alluviation after ca. 9000??14C yr B.P. resulted in deeply buried soils that may harbor Paleoindian cultural deposits. Hence, the paucity of recorded stratified Paleoindian sites in the Central Plains is probably related to poor visibility (i.e., deep burial in alluvial deposits) instead of limited human occupation in the region during the terminal Pleistocene and early Holocene. The thick, dark, cumulic A horizons of soils, representing buried Paleoindian-age landscapes, are targets for future archaeological surveys. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Soils and cultural layers in Velikii Novgorod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolgikh, A. V.; Aleksandrovskii, A. L.

    2010-05-01

    Urban pedosediments (cultural layers) dating back to the 10th-11th centuries AD and soddypodzolic soils buried under them were studied in two archaeological excavations in Velikii Novgorod. Stages of their development were described. It was found that the buried soddy-podzolic soils at the latest stages of their development were cultivated or were formed under meadow vegetation. Weakly developed garden soils were described in the thickness of urban pedosediments. The lowermost organic cultural layers in Velikii Novgorod were waterlogged and represented peatlike mass with well-preserved wood remains. The oxidation of organic matter, gleyzation, and vivianite formation were described in them. The upper mineral layers were enriched in brick debris and building lime. The processes of organic matter mineralization, alkalization, calcification, zoogenic turbation, and biogenic structuring were clearly manifested in this part. Soil solutions infiltrated from the cultural layers caused some alkalization of the buried soddy-podzolic soil. Diagenetic carbonates and vivianite appeared in some loci within the eluvial and the upper part of the illuvial horizon of this soil. The entire cultural layer was subjected to contamination with heavy metals.

  14. Accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs) in organic and mineral soil horizons from four U.S. remote forests.

    PubMed

    Obrist, Daniel; Zielinska, Barbara; Perlinger, Judith A

    2015-09-01

    We characterized distributions of 23 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (?23PAH) and nine oxygenated PAHs (?9OPAH) in four remote forests. We observed highest ?23PAH and ?9OPAH concentrations in a coniferous forest in Florida, particularly in organic layers which we attributed to frequent prescribed burning. Across sites, ?23PAH and ?9OPAH concentrations strongly increased from surface to humidified organic layers (+1626%) where concentrations reached up to 584 ng g(-1). Concentrations in mineral soils were lower (average 37 ± 8 ng g(-1)); but when standardized per unit organic carbon (OC), PAH/OC and OPAH/OC ratios were at or above levels observed in organic layers. Accumulation in litter and soils (i.e., enrichment factors with depth) negatively correlated with octanol-water partition coefficients (Kow) and therefore was linked to water solubility of compounds. Concentrations of ?9OPAHs ranged from 6 ± 6 ng g(-1) to 39 ± 25 ng g(-1) in organic layers, and from 3 ± 1 ng g(-1) to 11 ± 3 ng g(-1) in mineral soils, and were significantly and positively correlated to ?23PAHs concentrations (r(2) of 0.90) across sites and horizons. While OPAH concentrations generally decreased from organic layers to mineral soil horizons, OPAH/OC ratios increased more strongly with depth compared to PAHs, in particular for anthrone, anthraquinone, fluorenone, and acenaphthenequinone. The strong vertical accumulation of OPAH relative to OC was exponentially and negatively correlated to C/N ratios (r(2)=0.67), a measure that often is used for tissue age. In fact, C/N ratios alone explained two-thirds of the variability in OPAH/OC ratios suggesting particularly high retention, sorption, and persistency of OPAHs in old, decomposed carbon fractions. PMID:25929871

  15. Age and origin of Terra Rossa soils in the Coonawarra area of South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mee, Aija C.; Bestland, Erick A.; Spooner, Nigel A.

    2004-03-01

    The famous Terra Rossa soil in the Coonawarra area, South Australia, is dominated by locally derived aeolian detritus, which probably accumulated over the last 120-130 ka. Four soil profiles and associated limestone and lunette deposits were investigated using the following methods: mass balance geochemistry of bulk soil samples (major and trace elements), quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) mineralogy, strontium isotopes (87/86), as well as grain-size analysis and cation exchange capacity. These data show that the Terra Rossa soil from the Coonawarra has a thick, clayey B-horizon which is geochemically homogeneous and dominated by smectite and kaolinite. Mass-balance calculations show unrealistic weathering scenarios when plotted using silicate residuum from the underlying limestone as parent. Realistic weathering scenarios are produced with fine-grained silicate material from local lunette deposits as parent. Strontium isotopes of silicate residuum from Gambier Limestone (0.78) contrast strongly with the clayey B-horizon (0.726). Strontium isotope ratios of silicate material from a local lunette (0.725) are similar to the B-horizon soil values. Strontium isotope ratios from regional geological units indicate that the strontium signature in the lunette and soil B-horizon is dominated by weathering products from the Palaeozoic Kanmantoo shales, extensively exposed upwind to the west on Kangaroo Island and the Fleurieu Peninsula. Optical (optically stimulated luminescence, OSL) dating of 61 individual quartz grains (single aliquot) from three samples in the Coonawarra soil profile (one from the A-horizon and two from the B-horizon) shows that most of the quartz sand grains have been buried for only a few thousand years. Many of the grains, however, have been buried for tens of thousands of years with three grains having exposure ages of between 105 and 109 ka. The large population of young exposure dates represents quartz sands recently exposed in the A-horizon and which have been translocated down to the B-horizon. The older exposure dates are interpreted as representing grains that were buried during or soon after the accumulation of wind-blown silt and clay. Our current model concerning the timing and conditions of aeolian deposition of the Coonawarra soil is that much of it accumulated during the relatively wet, last interglacial period around 120-130 ka. During that time span, it is thought that the playa-lunette systems in the low-lying areas to the west were particularly active and generated a significant local dust flux.

  16. Transverse seismic analysis of buried pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Mavridis, G.A.; Pitilakis, K.D.

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this study is to develop an analytical procedure for calculating upper bounds for stresses and strains for the case of the transverse seismic shaking of continuous buried pipelines taking into account the soil-pipeline interaction effects. A sensibility analysis of some critical parameters is performed. The influence of various parameters such as the apparent propagation velocity, the frequency content of the seismic ground excitation, the dynamic soil properties, the pipe`s material and size, on the ratio of the pipe to ground displacements amplitudes and consequently to the induced pipe strains, are studied parametrically.

  17. Wavy Horizons?

    E-print Network

    R. C. Myers

    1998-09-14

    We describe the application of a gravity wave-generating technique to certain higher dimensional black holes. We find that the induced waves generically destroy the event horizon producing parallelly propagated curvature singularities.

  18. Molecular Investigation of the Short-term Sequestration of Natural Abundance 13C -labelled Cow Dung in the Surface Horizons of a Temperate Grassland Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dungait, J.; Bol, R.; Evershed, R. P.

    2004-12-01

    An adequate understanding of the carbon (C) sequestration potential of grasslands requires that the quantity and residence times of C inputs be measured. Herbivore dung is largely comprised of plant cell wall material, a significant source of stable C in intensively grazed temperate grassland ecosystems that contributes to the soil carbon budget. Our work uses compound-specific isotope analysis to identify the pattern of input of dung-derived compounds from natural abundance 13C/-labelled cow dung into the surface horizons of a temperate grassland soil over one year. C4 dung (? 13C \\-12.6 ‰ ) from maize fed cows was applied to a temperate grassland surface (? 13C \\-29.95 ‰ ) at IGER-North Wyke (Devon, UK), and dung remains and soil cores beneath the treatments collected at ? = 7, 14, 28, 56, 112, 224 and 372 days. Bulk dung carbon present in the 0\\-1 cm and 1\\-5 cm surface horizons of a grassland soil over one year was estimated using ? 13C between C4 dung and C3 dung, after Bol {\\et al.} (2000). The major biochemical components of dung were quantified using proximate forage fibre analyses, after Goering and Van Soest (1970) and identified using `wet' chemical and GC-MS methods. Plant cell wall polysaccharides and lignin were found to account for up to 67 {%} of dung dry matter. Hydrolysed polysaccharides were prepared as alditol acetates for analyses (after Docherty {\\et al.}, 2001), and a novel application of an off-line pyrolysis method applied to measure lignin-derived phenolic compounds (after Poole & van Bergen, 2002). This paper focuses on major events in the incorporation of dung carbon, estimated using natural abundance 13C&-slash;labelling technique. This revealed a major bulk input of dung carbon after a period of significant rainfall with a consequent decline in bulk soil ? 13C values until the end of the experiment (Dungait {\\et al.}, submitted). Findings will be presented revealing contribution of plant cell wall polysaccharides and lignin to these bulk ? 13C values, and their potential for sequestration considered. References: Bol, R., Amelung, W., Friedrich, C. Ostle, N. (2000). Tracing dung-derived carbon in temperate grassland using 13C natural abundance measurements. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 32, 1337-1343. Goering and Van Soest (1970). Forage fibre analysis (apparatus, reagents, procedures and some applications). In: USDA-ARS Agricultural Handbook, 379. U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington D.C. Docherty, G., Jones, V. and Evershed, R.P. (2001). Practical and theoretical considerations in the gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry ? 13C analysis of small polyfunctional compounds. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 15, 730-738. Poole, I. & van Bergen, P. F. (2002). Carbon isotope ratio analysis of organic moieties from fossil mummified wood: establishing optimum conditions for off-line pyrolysis extraction using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 16, 1976-1981. Dungait, J. A. J., Bol, R. and Evershed, R.P. (submitted). The Fate of Dung Carbon in Temperate Grassland Soil: 1. Preliminary Findings Based on Bulk Stable Carbon Isotope Determinations. Isotopes in Health and Environmental Studies

  19. Ionic charge, radius, and potential control root/soil concentration ratios of fifty cationic elements in the organic horizon of a beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest podzol.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Germund

    2004-08-15

    The root/organic soil concentration ratio; R/S) of 50 cationic mineral elements was related to their ionic properties, including ionic radius (r), ionic charge (z), and ionic potential (z/r or z2/r). The materials studied were ectomycorrhizal beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) roots and their almost purely organic soil substrate, the O-horizon (mor; raw humus) of a Podzol in South Sweden, developed in a site which has been untouched by forestry or other mechanical disturbance since at least 50 years and located in an area with no local sources of pollution. Elements determined by ICP-AES were aluminium, barium, calcium, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, sodium and strontium. Determined by ICP-MS were silver, beryllium, bismuth, cadmium, cerium, cobalt, chromium, caesium, copper, dysprosium, erbium, europium, gallium, gadolinium, hafnium, mercury, holmium, indium, lanthanum, lithium, lutetium, niobium, neodymium, nickel, lead, praseodymium, rubidium, scandium, samarium, tin, terbium, thorium, titanium, thallium, thulium, uranium, vanadium, yttrium, ytterbium, zinc and zirconium. The R/S ratios were most clearly related to the ionic potential of the cationic elements studied, which accounted for approximately 60% of the variability in R/S among elements. The ionic charge of an element was more important than the ionic radius. Elements with high ionic charge had low R/S ratios and vice versa. No clear differences in R/S between essential and non-essential plant nutrients were observed, especially when ions of similar charge were compared. PMID:15262169

  20. DOE complex buried waste characterization assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Kaae, P.S.; Holter, G.M.; Garrett, S.M.K.

    1993-01-01

    The work described in this report was conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to provide information to the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. The information in this report is intended to provide a complex-wide planning base for th.e BWID to ensure that BWID activities are appropriately focused to address the range of remediation problems existing across the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. This report contains information characterizing the 2.1 million m[sup 3] of buried and stored wastes and their associated sites at six major DOE facilities. Approximately 85% of this waste is low-level waste, with about 12% TRU or TRU mixed waste; the remaining 3% is low-level mixed waste. In addition, the report describes soil contamination sites across the complex. Some of the details that would be useful in further characterizing the buried wastes and contaminated soil sites across the DOE complex are either unavailable or difficult to locate. Several options for accessing this information and/or improving the information that is available are identified in the report. This document is a companion to Technology Needs for Remediation: Hanford and Other DOE Sites, PNL-8328 (Stapp 1993).

  1. Using X-Ray Computed Tomography Visualizations of Large Soil Columns to Study Hydropedologic Relationships at the Horizon Scale

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prominent contribution of macropores to water flow and solute transport points to the need for thorough characterization of their void structure. Large soil columns need to be studied to infer topological properties of macropores. We have sampled and studied undisturbed columns (7.5 cm ID, 20 cm...

  2. Sensor feature fusion for detecting buried objects

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, G.A.; Sengupta, S.K.; Sherwood, R.J.; Hernandez, J.E.; Buhl, M.R.; Schaich, P.C.; Kane, R.J.; Barth, M.J.; DelGrande, N.K.

    1993-04-01

    Given multiple registered images of the earth`s surface from dual-band sensors, our system fuses information from the sensors to reduce the effects of clutter and improve the ability to detect buried or surface target sites. The sensor suite currently includes two sensors (5 micron and 10 micron wavelengths) and one ground penetrating radar (GPR) of the wide-band pulsed synthetic aperture type. We use a supervised teaming pattern recognition approach to detect metal and plastic land mines buried in soil. The overall process consists of four main parts: Preprocessing, feature extraction, feature selection, and classification. These parts are used in a two step process to classify a subimage. Thee first step, referred to as feature selection, determines the features of sub-images which result in the greatest separability among the classes. The second step, image labeling, uses the selected features and the decisions from a pattern classifier to label the regions in the image which are likely to correspond to buried mines. We extract features from the images, and use feature selection algorithms to select only the most important features according to their contribution to correct detections. This allows us to save computational complexity and determine which of the sensors add value to the detection system. The most important features from the various sensors are fused using supervised teaming pattern classifiers (including neural networks). We present results of experiments to detect buried land mines from real data, and evaluate the usefulness of fusing feature information from multiple sensor types, including dual-band infrared and ground penetrating radar. The novelty of the work lies mostly in the combination of the algorithms and their application to the very important and currently unsolved operational problem of detecting buried land mines from an airborne standoff platform.

  3. Variation of MCPA, metribuzine, methyltriazine-amine and glyphosate degradation, sorption, mineralization and leaching in different soil horizons.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Carsten S; van der Keur, Peter; Iversen, Bo V; Rosenberg, Per; Barlebo, Heidi C; Torp, Sřren; Vosgerau, Henrik; Juhler, René K; Ernstsen, Vibeke; Rasmussen, Jim; Brinch, Ulla Catrine; Jacobsen, Ole Hřrbye

    2008-12-01

    Pesticide mineralization and sorption were determined in 75 soil samples from 15 individually drilled holes through the vadose zone along a 28km long transect of the Danish outwash plain. Mineralization of the phenoxyacetic acid herbicide MCPA was high both in topsoils and in most subsoils, while metribuzine and methyltriazine-amine was always low. Organic matter and soil pH was shown to be responsible for sorption of MCPA and metribuzine in the topsoils. The sorption of methyltriazine-amine in topsoil was positively correlated with clay and negatively correlated with the pH of the soil. Sorption of glyphosate was tested also high in the subsoils. One-dimensional MACRO modeling of the concentration of MCPA, metribuzine and methyltriazine-amine at 2m depth calculated that the average concentration of MCPA and methyltriazine-amine in the groundwater was below the administrative limit of 0.1mug/l in all tested profiles while metribuzine always exceeded the 0.1mug/l threshold value. PMID:18639963

  4. Numerical Modeling of Mechanical Behavior for Buried Steel Pipelines Crossing Subsidence Strata.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Liang, Z; Han, C J

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the mechanical behavior of buried steel pipeline crossing subsidence strata. The investigation is based on numerical simulation of the nonlinear response of the pipeline-soil system through finite element method, considering large strain and displacement, inelastic material behavior of buried pipeline and the surrounding soil, as well as contact and friction on the pipeline-soil interface. Effects of key parameters on the mechanical behavior of buried pipeline were investigated, such as strata subsidence, diameter-thickness ratio, buried depth, internal pressure, friction coefficient and soil properties. The results show that the maximum strain appears on the outer transition subsidence section of the pipeline, and its cross section is concave shaped. With the increasing of strata subsidence and diameter-thickness ratio, the out of roundness, longitudinal strain and equivalent plastic strain increase gradually. With the buried depth increasing, the deflection, out of roundness and strain of the pipeline decrease. Internal pressure and friction coefficient have little effect on the deflection of buried pipeline. Out of roundness is reduced and the strain is increased gradually with the increasing of internal pressure. The physical properties of soil have a great influence on the mechanical properties of buried pipeline. The results from the present study can be used for the development of optimization design and preventive maintenance for buried steel pipelines. PMID:26103460

  5. Numerical Modeling of Mechanical Behavior for Buried Steel Pipelines Crossing Subsidence Strata

    PubMed Central

    Han, C. J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the mechanical behavior of buried steel pipeline crossing subsidence strata. The investigation is based on numerical simulation of the nonlinear response of the pipeline-soil system through finite element method, considering large strain and displacement, inelastic material behavior of buried pipeline and the surrounding soil, as well as contact and friction on the pipeline-soil interface. Effects of key parameters on the mechanical behavior of buried pipeline were investigated, such as strata subsidence, diameter-thickness ratio, buried depth, internal pressure, friction coefficient and soil properties. The results show that the maximum strain appears on the outer transition subsidence section of the pipeline, and its cross section is concave shaped. With the increasing of strata subsidence and diameter-thickness ratio, the out of roundness, longitudinal strain and equivalent plastic strain increase gradually. With the buried depth increasing, the deflection, out of roundness and strain of the pipeline decrease. Internal pressure and friction coefficient have little effect on the deflection of buried pipeline. Out of roundness is reduced and the strain is increased gradually with the increasing of internal pressure. The physical properties of soil have a great influence on the mechanical properties of buried pipeline. The results from the present study can be used for the development of optimization design and preventive maintenance for buried steel pipelines. PMID:26103460

  6. HORIZON SENSING

    SciTech Connect

    Larry G. Stolarczyk

    2003-03-18

    With the aid of a DOE grant (No. DE-FC26-01NT41050), Stolar Research Corporation (Stolar) developed the Horizon Sensor (HS) to distinguish between the different layers of a coal seam. Mounted on mining machine cutter drums, HS units can detect or sense the horizon between the coal seam and the roof and floor rock, providing the opportunity to accurately mine the section of the seam most desired. HS also enables accurate cutting of minimum height if that is the operator's objective. Often when cutting is done out-of-seam, the head-positioning function facilitates a fixed mining height to minimize dilution. With this technology, miners can still be at a remote location, yet cut only the clean coal, resulting in a much more efficient overall process. The objectives of this project were to demonstrate the feasibility of horizon sensing on mining machines and demonstrate that Horizon Sensing can allow coal to be cut cleaner and more efficiently. Stolar's primary goal was to develop the Horizon Sensor (HS) into an enabling technology for full or partial automation or ''agile mining''. This technical innovation (R&D 100 Award Winner) is quickly demonstrating improvements in productivity and miner safety at several prominent coal mines in the United States. In addition, the HS system can enable the cutting of cleaner coal. Stolar has driven the HS program on the philosophy that cutting cleaner coal means burning cleaner coal. The sensor, located inches from the cutting bits, is based upon the physics principles of a Resonant Microstrip Patch Antenna (RMPA). When it is in proximity of the rock-coal interface, the RMPA impedance varies depending on the thickness of uncut coal. The impedance is measured by the computer-controlled electronics and then sent by radio waves to the mining machine. The worker at the machine can read the data via a Graphical User Interface, displaying a color-coded image of the coal being cut, and direct the machine appropriately. The Horizon Sensor program began development in 1998 and experienced three major design phases. The final version, termed HS-3, was commissioned in 2000 with the assistance of the DOE-Mining Industry of the Future program, commercialized in 2002, and has been used 14 times in 12 different mines within the United States. The Horizon Sensor has applications in both underground and surface mining operations. This technology is primarily used in the coal industry, but is also used to mine trona and potash. All horizon sensor components have Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) (United States) and IEC (International) certification. Horizon Sensing saves energy by maximizing cutting efficiency, cutting only desired material. This desired material is cleaner fuel, therefore reducing pollutants to the atmosphere when burned and burning more efficiently. Extracting only desired material increases productivity by reducing or eliminating the cleaning step after extraction. Additionally, this technology allows for deeper mining, resulting in more material gained from one location. The remote sensing tool allows workers to operate the machinery away from the hazards of cutting coal, including noise, breathing dust and gases, and coal and rock splintering and outbursts. The HS program has primarily revolved around the development of the technology. However, the end goal of the program has always been the commercialization of the technology and only within the last 2 years of the program has this goal been realized. Real-time horizon sensing on mining machines is becoming an industry tool. Detailed monitoring of system function, user experience, and mining benefits is ongoing.

  7. Reconstructing spatial and temporal patterns of soil formation in an anthropogenic drift sand area in Northeastern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Anna; Hirsch, Florian; Raab, Thomas; Wechler, Klaus-Peter

    2015-04-01

    On the sandy deposits of the Weichselian glaciation, soils developed during periods of landscape stability are often conserved under windblown sand. The relatively diverse morphology of dune areas and the possibilities for dating the accumulation of windblown sediment offer good opportunities to improve the understanding of spatial and temporal patterns of soil formation. However, a mapping of the buried soils and surfaces is often limited to single outcrops. In the forefield of the open-cast mine Cottbus-Nord, archaeological excavations in an about 10 ha dune and drift sand area revealed widespread buried soils, mainly podzols, of different characteristics. Archaeological findings give evidence for the age of the buried surfaces. The densely spaced excavation trenches allow for reconstructing the distribution of fossil and recent soils in a high spatial resolution. We created and analyzed digital models of the recent surface and the buried soils using a combination of methods: To characterize the recent ground surface, we used microdrone-based photogrammetry, LIDAR-based elevation data and GPS. To create a digital model of the palaeosurface and the distribution of fossil soils, we used soil and sedimentological mapping along excavation trenches, mapping of the elevation of excavated palaeosurfaces, and prospection of the fossil soils by Ground Penetrating Radar. Our studies reveal a high vertical and horizontal heterogeneity of soils, with varying thicknesses of eluvial and illuvial horizons and varying degrees of organic compound and sesquioxide accumulation. First results reflect several phases of landscape development: i) the formation of a Late Pleistocene soil on fluvio-eolian deposits, ii) a fossilization by eolian sands which underwent intensive podsolization, and iii) a land use-induced eolian remobilization of the sands. The soil characteristics' spatial distribution in relation to surface morphology indicates a high relevance of lateral leachate transport, even along very low gradients.

  8. Aeolian sands and buried soils in the Mecklenburg Lake District, NE Germany: Holocene land-use history and pedo-geomorphic response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Küster, Mathias; Fülling, Alexander; Kaiser, Knut; Ulrich, Jens

    2014-04-01

    The present study is a pedo-geomorphic approach to reconstructing Holocene aeolian sand dynamics in the Mecklenburg Lake District (NE Germany). Stratigraphical, sedimentological and soil research supplemented by morphogenetic interpretations of the genesis of dunes and aeolian sands are discussed. A complex Late Holocene aeolian stratigraphy within a drift sand area was developed at the shore of Lake Müritz. The results were confirmed using palynological records, archaeological data and regional history. Accelerated aeolian activity was triggered by the intensification of settlement and land-use activities during the 13th and in the 15th to 16th century AD. After a period of stability beginning with population decline during the ‘Thirty Years War' and continuing through the 18th century, a final aeolian phase due to the establishment of glassworks was identified during the 19th century AD. We assume a direct link between Holocene aeolian dynamics and human activities. Prehistoric Holocene drift sands on terrestrial sites have not been documented in the Mecklenburg Lake District so far. This might be explained either by erosion and incorporation of older aeolian sediments during younger aeolian phases and/or a lower regional land-use intensity in older periods of the Holocene. The investigated drift sands are stratigraphically and sedimentologically characterised by a high degree of heterogeneity, reflecting the spatial and temporal variability of Holocene human impact.

  9. Influences of quaternary climatic changes on processes of soil development on desert loess deposits of the Cima volcanic field, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McFadden, L.D.; Wells, S.G.; Dohrenwend, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    Soils formed in loess are evidence of both relict and buried landscapes developed on Pliocene-to-latest Pleistocene basalt flows of the Cima volcanic field in the eastern Mojave Desert, California. The characteristics of these soils change systematically and as functions of the age and surface morphology of the lava flow. Four distinct phases of soil development are recognized: phase 1 - weakly developed soils on flows less than 0.18 M.y. old; phase 2 - strongly developed soils with thick argillic horizons on 0.18 - 0.7 M.y. old flows; phase 3 - strongly developed soils with truncated argillic horizons massively impregnated by carbonate on 0.7 to 1.1 M.y. old flows; and phase 4 - degraded soils with petrocalcic rubble on Pliocene flows. A critical aspect of the development of stage 1 soils is the evolution of a vesicular A horizon which profoundly affects the infiltration characteristics of the loess parent materials. Laboratory studies show that secondary gypsum and possibly other salt accumulation probably occurred during the period of phase 1 soil development. Slight reddening of the interiors of peds from vesicular-A horizons of phase 1 soils and presence of weakly developed B horizons indicates a slight degree of in situ chemical alteration. However, clay and Fe oxide contents of these soils show that these constituents, as well as carbonates and soluble salts, are incorporated as eolian dust. In contrast to phase 1 soils, chemical and mineralogical analysis of argillic horizons of phase 2 soils indicate proportionally greater degrees of in-situ chemical alteration. These data, the abundant clay films, and the strong reddening in the thick argillic horizons suggest that phase 2 and phase 3 soils formed during long periods of time and periodically were subjected to leaching regimes more intense than those that now exist. Flow-age data and soil-stratigraphic evidence also indicate that several major loess-deposition events occurred during the past ??? 1.0 M.y. Loess events are attributed to past changes in climate, such as the Pleistocene-to-Holocene climatic change, that periodically caused regional desiccation of pluvial lakes, reduction of vegetational density, and exposure of loose, unconsolidated fine materials. During times of warmer interglacial climates, precipitation infiltrates to shallower depths than during glacial periods. Extensive, saline playas which developed in the Mojave Desert during the Holocene are a likely source of much of the carbonates and soluble salts that are accumulating at shallow depths both in phase 1 soils and in the formerly noncalcareous, nongypsiferous argillic horizons of phase 2 and 3 soils. ?? 1986.

  10. Soil profile dynamics in an eroding soil landscape - a catena through a kettle hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerke, Horst H.; Kaczorek, Danuta; Hierold, Wilfried; Deumlich, Detlef; Koszinski, Sylvia; Ellerbrock, Ruth H.; Sommer, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The arable hummocky ground moraine soil landscapes are characterized by a spatial continuum of more or less eroded soils at hilltops and slopes, and by colluviated soils in topographic depressions. After removal of forest in the middle ages, colluvium started covering the pre-existing Histosols and Gleysols within and Luvisols in the vicinity of kettle holes. A catena through originally peat-filled kettle-hole has hardly been described with respect to ongoing pedological modifications according to changes in landscape and hydrology. The objective was to derive the lateral continuum of soil horizons by identifying the location of the lateral boundaries between regions of clay mobilization/migration and gleisation (gleyic conditions), peat accumulation, and secondary carbonate accumulation. Data from an intensively-sampled field in northeastern Germany are presented. The start of colluviation could be dated by tree ring analyses of a buried stem. The location of the fossil topsoil A and peat horizons was determined from a dense grid of auger holes and geophysical explorations. In addition to older processes in the landscape, also younger redoximorphic processes were indicating changes in soil hydraulic properties and a modified hydrology of the arable soil landscape. We found in micromorphological analyses of soil thin sections that clay migration is an ongoing process; samples indicated vertical gradients in C-contents and secondary carbonate accumulation. The clay mobilization in the colluvium and the migration into the fossil horizons seemed to depend on the direction of soil water movement; anisotropic hydraulic conductivity indicated a potential for lateral water movement. The catena data suggest that the soil landscape development was relatively dynamic; the results may allow the reconstruction of former land surfaces, soil distributions, and erosion rates and may help predicting future developments.

  11. Vesicular Horizon Distribution, Properties, and Pedogenic Processes in Deserts of the Western United States

    E-print Network

    Turk, Judith Katherine

    2012-01-01

    by terms that quantify individual soil properties. The SDIquantify vesicular horizon expression in field descriptions from the NRCS soilquantify vesicular horizon expression. Application of the VHI using the soil

  12. DOE complex buried waste characterization assessment. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Kaae, P.S.; Holter, G.M.; Garrett, S.M.K.

    1993-01-01

    The work described in this report was conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to provide information to the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. The information in this report is intended to provide a complex-wide planning base for th.e BWID to ensure that BWID activities are appropriately focused to address the range of remediation problems existing across the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. This report contains information characterizing the 2.1 million m{sup 3} of buried and stored wastes and their associated sites at six major DOE facilities. Approximately 85% of this waste is low-level waste, with about 12% TRU or TRU mixed waste; the remaining 3% is low-level mixed waste. In addition, the report describes soil contamination sites across the complex. Some of the details that would be useful in further characterizing the buried wastes and contaminated soil sites across the DOE complex are either unavailable or difficult to locate. Several options for accessing this information and/or improving the information that is available are identified in the report. This document is a companion to Technology Needs for Remediation: Hanford and Other DOE Sites, PNL-8328 (Stapp 1993).

  13. Soils of paleocryogenic hummocky-hollow landscapes in the southern Baikal region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlova, A. A.; Kuz'min, V. A.; Zazovskaya, E. P.

    2014-05-01

    The features of ancient periglacial phenomena are widespread in landscapes lying beyond the modern permafrost zone. The specificity of the paleogeographic conditions in the south of the Baikal region resulted in the formation of paleocryogenic landscapes with hummocky-hollow landforms. The paleocryogenic mounds (hummocks) are of rounded or elongated shape, their height is up to 2-3 m, and their width is up to 20-25 m. They are separated by microlows (hollows). This paleocryogenic microtopography favors the differentiation of the pedogenesis on the mounds and in the hollows, so the soil cover pattern becomes more complicated. It is composed of polychronous soils organized in complexes with cyclic patterns. Light gray and gray forest soils and leached and ordinary chernozems are developed on the mounds; gray and dark gray forest soils and chernozems with buried horizons are developed in the hollows. The soils of the paleocryogenic complexes differ from one another in their morphology, physical and chemical properties, elemental composition, and humus composition. For the first time, radiocarbon dates have been obtained for the surface and buried humus horizons in the hollows. The results prove the heterochronous nature of the soils of the paleocryogenic landscapes in the south of the Baikal region.

  14. Development of signal processing methods for imaging buried pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Michiguchi, Y.; Hiramoto, K.; Nishi, M.; Takahashi, F.; Ohtaka, T.; Okada, M.

    1987-01-01

    A new imaging technique for subsurface radars is described for reconstructing clear images of buried pipes in soil. The method developed has two signal processing stages; preprocessing and aperture synthesis. The preprocessing extracts signals scattered from the pipes by reducing clutter noise. The synthetic-aperture processing analyzes only the scattered signals derived by the first stage and reconstructs high-quality images in a short processing time. The imaging technique developed was successfully applied to the imaging of actual buried metallic pipes. It was experimentally confirmed that the new imaging method was capable of reconstructing clear images in a short time without losing image quality.

  15. System design for buried high-pressure/high-temperature pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    A pipeline expands or contracts when temperatures or pressures vary from the conditions at the time the pipeline was installed. Buried pipelines operating at high temperatures and pressures experience extreme compressive loads. Because radial expansion is limited by soil restraint, buried pipelines expand axially. High axial forces combined with imperfections in the seabed may overstress the pipeline or result in upheaval buckling. Methods to control expansion and upheaval buckling were investigated for the design of a buried high-pressure/high temperature (HP/HT) sour-gas flowline in Mobile Bay, Alabama. After investigating conventional and unconventional methods, the decision was made to use expansion loops over the length of the pipeline to protect the risers and reduce axial force in the middle of the pipeline. Expansion loops and doglegs act as springs to absorb pipeline expansion. Methods were investigated to prevent soil from accumulating around the buried expansion loops. Commercially available concrete dog houses used to protect pipelines and expansion loops from dropped objects were not suitable for burial, and fabrication of custom concrete housing was expensive. Fabrication of a steel enclosure was the solution chosen. A mathematical model based on internal-design guidelines and ultimate soil friction was used to determine placement and size of the expansion loops.

  16. Prediction of the TNT signature from buried UXO/landmines

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, S.W.; Phelan, J.M.; Finsterle, S.A.; Pruess, K.

    1998-06-01

    The detection and removal of buried unexploded ordnance (UXO) and landmines is one of the most important problems facing the world today. Numerous detection strategies are being developed, including infrared, electrical conductivity, ground-penetrating radar, and chemical sensors. Chemical sensors rely on the detection of TNT molecules, which are transported from buried UXO/landmines by advection and diffusion in the soil. As part of this effort, numerical models are being developed to predict TNT transport in soils including the effect of precipitation and evaporation. Modifications will be made to TOUGH2 for application to the TNT chemical sensing problem. Understanding the fate and transport of TNT in the soil will affect the design, performance and operation of chemical sensors by indicating preferred sensing strategies.

  17. A layer tracking approach to buried surface detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbins, Peter J.; Wilson, Joseph N.; Smock, Brandon

    2015-05-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) devices use sensors to capture one-dimensional representations, or A-scans, of the soil and buried properties at each sampling point. Previous work uses reciprocal pointer chains (RPCs) to find one-dimensional layers in two-dimensional data (B-scans). We extend this work to find two-dimensional layers in three-dimensional data. We explore the application and differences of our technique when applied to vehicular mounted systems versus handheld systems and their distinct detection sequences. Not only can this work be used to display subsurface structure to a system operator, but we can also use changes in the subsurface structure of a local region to help identify buried objects within the data. We propose distinguishing buried objects from layers can reduce false alarm rates and may help increase probability of detection.

  18. Mt. Blanco revisited: soil-geomorphic implications for the ages of the upper Cenozoic Blanco and Blackwater Draw Formations

    SciTech Connect

    Holliday, V.T.

    1988-06-01

    Mt. Blanco, on the eastern edge of the Southern High Plains of Texas, contains stratigraphic features significant in interpreting the late Cenozoic history of the region and the vertebrate paleontology of the Great Plains; however, the stratigraphic relations are confused in the literature or are unreported. Mt. Blanco is the type locality for the Blanco Formation and the Blanco Local Fauna, which occurs throughout North America and is the type fauna for the Blancan Land Mammal Age in North America. Here also occur exposures of the Blackwater Draw Formation, an extensive (120,000 km/sup 2/) eolian sheet that is the surficial cover of the region and contains the 1.4 Ma Guaje Ash and several buried soils. A reexamination of the section shows that (1) the Blackwater Draw Formation, an eolian deposit, contains three well-expressed buried soils (5 YR hues, argillic horizons greater than or equal to 1 m thick, Stages III and IV calcic horizons) and the similar regional surface soil (Paleustalf); (2) the Guaje Ash is within the lower Blackwater Draw Formation but is separated from the Blanco Formation, a lacustrine unit, by about 1 m of sediment, including the lowest buried soil; and (3) the lowest buried soil shows a Stage IV calcrete formed at the top of the Blanco Formation and the base of the Blackwater Draw Formation and probably took about 200 ka to form. These new data suggested that deposition of the type Blanco sediments may have ended by about 1.6 Ma or earlier. Since that time, the Blackwater Draw Formation has accumulated episodically; periods of nondeposition are characterized by landscape stability and pedogenesis.

  19. Sensor system for buried waste containment sites

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Ann Marie (Pocatello, ID); Gardner, Bradley M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kostelnik, Kevin M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Partin, Judy K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Lancaster, Gregory D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Pfeifer, May Catherine (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2000-01-01

    A sensor system is disclosed for a buried waste containment site having a bottom wall barrier and/or sidewall barriers, for containing hazardous waste. The sensor system includes one or more sensor devices disposed in one or more of the barriers for detecting a physical parameter either of the barrier itself or of the physical condition of the surrounding soils and buried waste, and for producing a signal representing the physical parameter detected. Also included is a signal processor for receiving signals produced by the sensor device and for developing information identifying the physical parameter detected, either for sounding an alarm, displaying a graphic representation of a physical parameter detected on a viewing screen and/or a hard copy printout. The sensor devices may be deployed in or adjacent the barriers at the same time the barriers are deployed and may be adapted to detect strain or cracking in the barriers, leakage of radiation through the barriers, the presence and leaking through the barriers of volatile organic compounds, or similar physical conditions.

  20. Melter development needs assessment for RWMC buried wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, A.D.; Carpenedo, R.J.; Anderson, G.L.

    1992-02-01

    This report presents a survey and initial assessment of the existing state-of-the-art melter technology necessary to thermally treat (stabilize) buried TRU waste, by producing a highly leach resistant glass/ceramic waste form suitable for final disposal. Buried mixed transuranic (TRU) waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) represents an environmental hazard requiring remediation. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) placed the INEL on the National Priorities List in 1989. Remediation of the buried TRU-contaminated waste via the CERCLA decision process is required to remove INEL from the National Priorities List. A Waste Technology Development (WTD) Preliminary Systems Design and Thermal Technologies Screening Study identified joule-heated and plasma-heated melters as the most probable thermal systems technologies capable of melting the INEL soil and waste to produce the desired final waste form [Iron-Enriched Basalt (IEB) glass/ceramic]. The work reported herein then surveys the state of existing melter technology and assesses it within the context of processing INEL buried TRU wastes and contaminated soils. Necessary technology development work is recommended.

  1. Melter development needs assessment for RWMC buried wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, A.D.; Carpenedo, R.J.; Anderson, G.L.

    1992-02-01

    This report presents a survey and initial assessment of the existing state-of-the-art melter technology necessary to thermally treat (stabilize) buried TRU waste, by producing a highly leach resistant glass/ceramic waste form suitable for final disposal. Buried mixed transuranic (TRU) waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) represents an environmental hazard requiring remediation. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) placed the INEL on the National Priorities List in 1989. Remediation of the buried TRU-contaminated waste via the CERCLA decision process is required to remove INEL from the National Priorities List. A Waste Technology Development (WTD) Preliminary Systems Design and Thermal Technologies Screening Study identified joule-heated and plasma-heated melters as the most probable thermal systems technologies capable of melting the INEL soil and waste to produce the desired final waste form (Iron-Enriched Basalt (IEB) glass/ceramic). The work reported herein then surveys the state of existing melter technology and assesses it within the context of processing INEL buried TRU wastes and contaminated soils. Necessary technology development work is recommended.

  2. FTIR spectroscopic characteristics of old surface soils as compared to those of recent surface soils to determine to historical land use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellerbrock, Ruth

    2010-05-01

    The type of land use affects content and composition of soil organic matter (SOM). The aim of this study is to analyze the composition of SOM from old surface soils buried in Middle Ages and Iron Age respectively, and to compare these results with FTIR characteristics of recent forest, grassland, and arable soils. We investigate soil samples obtained from archaeological excavations at Glasow site (old soils) that are described to be former surface soils. Further recent sandy surface soils with different land use (rAp) were sampled. According to archeological data (Bork et al. 1998) the old soils are ancient surface soils from the Middle Ages (1Ap), early Middle Ages (fAh) and from the Iron Age (2Ap). SOM fractions were obtained by Na-pyrophosphate extraction and investigated by using FTIR spectroscopy. The SOM from two of the old soils (1Ap and 2Ap) show FTIR signatures similar to those found for SOM from recent arable soils. This is in accordance with archeological findings that detected for the 1Ap and 2Ap horizons traces of old ploughing procedures that were not detected for the fAh horizon.The FTIR signature of the SOM from fAh soil is similar to that found for recent surface soils that are under deciduous forest today. Assuming that the SOM composition is not changed during the last centuries due to soil processes the composition of SOM from the old soils seem to reflect the corresponding former land use. Based on these results we conclude that in the studied old surface soils the effect of land use was conserved in SOM composition.

  3. Acoustic Detection of Buried Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivansson, S.; Jacobsen, N.; Levonen, M.; Nilsson, B.; Moren, P.

    2001-12-01

    The capability to detect objects buried in the sea bottom is important for many reasons. For example bottom mines as well as dumped chemical munitions can be expected to have been buried by the sedimentation. Standard sub-bottom profilers that are routinely used for mapping sediment structures do not have good enough resolutions to detect small buried objects. Parametric sonar, with a much smaller lobe, is much more appropriate. In the report, we show results from measurements with a parametric sonar, mounted on a ROV (remotely operated vehicle). The measurements were made in the archipelago of Stockholm with a test object buried in clay. Two techniques were used to improve the detection capability, image processing and FARIM analysis. Concerning image processing, median filtering turns out to provide the best results. Isolated noisy pings are effectively suppressed in this way. FARIM analysis can be used to estimate roughness and impedance of the bottom. Our experiments show that a buried object can often be detected by an anomaly in the impedance estimate. Among three tested center frequencies for the emitted pulse, 5, 10 and 20 kHz, the highest frequency (20 kHz) turns out to provide the best detection capability. This is true for the image processing results as well as for the FARIM results. We have tried bistatic techniques to characterize a detected buried object. Sound pulses are emitted towards the object from one direction and the scattered energy is studied at another direction. We show computational results from a recently developed numerical model. The scattered field turns out to be very sensitive to the properties of the object.

  4. Thin film buried anode battery

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Se-Hee (Lakewood, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO); Liu, Ping (Denver, CO)

    2009-12-15

    A reverse configuration, lithium thin film battery (300) having a buried lithium anode layer (305) and process for making the same. The present invention is formed from a precursor composite structure (200) made by depositing electrolyte layer (204) onto substrate (201), followed by sequential depositions of cathode layer (203) and current collector (202) on the electrolyte layer. The precursor is subjected to an activation step, wherein a buried lithium anode layer (305) is formed via electroplating a lithium anode layer at the interface of substrate (201) and electrolyte film (204). The electroplating is accomplished by applying a current between anode current collector (201) and cathode current collector (202).

  5. Buried oxide layer in silicon

    DOEpatents

    Sadana, Devendra Kumar (Pleasantville, NY); Holland, Orin Wayne (Lenoir, TN)

    2001-01-01

    A process for forming Silicon-On-Insulator is described incorporating the steps of ion implantation of oxygen into a silicon substrate at elevated temperature, ion implanting oxygen at a temperature below 200.degree. C. at a lower dose to form an amorphous silicon layer, and annealing steps to form a mixture of defective single crystal silicon and polycrystalline silicon or polycrystalline silicon alone and then silicon oxide from the amorphous silicon layer to form a continuous silicon oxide layer below the surface of the silicon substrate to provide an isolated superficial layer of silicon. The invention overcomes the problem of buried isolated islands of silicon oxide forming a discontinuous buried oxide layer.

  6. Assessment of the living and total biomass of microbial communities in the background chestnut soil and in the paleosols under burial mounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomutova, T. E.; Kashirskaya, N. N.; Demkin, V. A.

    2011-12-01

    The contents of phospholipids and carbon of the total microbial biomass were determined in the modern chestnut soil and in the paleosols buried under mounds of the Bronze and Early Iron Ages (5000-1800 years ago) in the dry steppe of the Lower Volga River basin. Judging from data on the ratio between the contents of phospholipids and organic carbon in the microbial cells, the carbon content of the living microbial biomass was calculated and compared with the total microbial biomass and total organic carbon in the studied soils. In the background chestnut soil, the content of phospholipids in the A1, B1, and B2 horizons amounted to 452, 205, and 189 nmol/g, respectively; in the paleosols, it was 28-130% of the present-day level. The maximum content was measured in the paleosols buried 5000 and 2000 years ago, in the periods with an increased humidity of the climate. In the background chestnut soil, the total microbial biomass was estimated at 5680 (the A1 horizon), 3380 (B1), and 4250 (B2) ?g C/g; in the paleosols, it was by 2.5-7.0 times lower. In the upper horizons of the background soil, the portion of the living microbial biomass in the total biomass was much less than that in the paleosols under the burial mounds; it varied within 8.5-15.3% and 15-81%, respectively. The portion of living microbial biomass in the total organic carbon content of the background chestnut soil was about 4-8%. In the paleosols buried in the Early Iron Age (2000 and 1800 years ago), this value did not exceed 3-8%; in the paleosols of the Bronze Age (5000-4000 years ago), it reached 40% of the total organic carbon.

  7. Preliminary observations of arthropods associated with buried carrion on Oahu.

    PubMed

    Rysavy, Noel M; Goff, M Lee

    2015-03-01

    Several studies in Hawaii have focused on arthropod succession and decomposition patterns of surface remains, but the current research presents the first study to focus on shallow burials in this context. Three domestic pig carcasses (Sus scrofa L.) were buried at the depths of 20-40 cm in silty clay loam soil on an exposed ridge on the leeward side of the volcanically formed Koolau Mountain Range. One carcass was exhumed after 3 weeks, another after 6 weeks, and the last carcass was exhumed after 9 weeks. An inventory of arthropod taxa present on the carrion and in the surrounding soil and observations pertaining to decomposition were recorded at each exhumation. The longer the carrion was buried, the greater the diversity of arthropod species that were recovered from the remains. Biomass loss was calculated to be 49% at the 3-week interval, 56% at the 6-week interval, and 59% at the 9-week interval. PMID:25413711

  8. Degradation of carbohydrates and lignins in buried woods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedges, J.I.; Cowie, G.L.; Ertel, J.R.; James, Barbour R.; Hatcher, P.G.

    1985-01-01

    Spruce, alder, and oak woods deposited in coastal sediments were characterized versus their modern counterparts by quantification of individual neutral sugars and lignin-derived phenols as well as by scanning electron microscopy, 13C NMR, and elemental analysis. The buried spruce wood from a 2500 yr old deposit was unaltered whereas an alder wood from the same horizon and an oak wood from an open ocean sediment were profoundly degraded. Individual sugar and lignin phenol analyses indicate that at least 90 and 98 wt% of the initial total polysaccharides in the buried alder and oak woods, respectively, have been degraded along with 15-25 wt% of the lignin. At least 75% of the degraded biopolymer has been physically lost from these samples. This evidence is supported by the SEM, 13C NMR and elemental analyses, all of which indicate selective loss of the carbohydrate moiety. The following order of stability was observed for the major biochemical constituents of both buried hardwoods: vanillyl and p-hydroxyl lignin structural units > syringyl lignin structural units > pectin > ??-cellulose > hemicellulose. This sequence can be explained by selective preservation of the compound middle lamella regions of the wood cell walls. The magnitude and selectivity of the indicated diagenetic reactions are sufficient to cause major changes in the chemical compositions of wood-rich sedimentary organic mixtures and to provide a potentially large in situ nutrient source. ?? 1985.

  9. Landscape evolution and soil hydrological change: new insights from sandy soils in the Campine area, Northern Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beerten, K.; Mallants, D.

    2012-04-01

    Hydrological properties of soils and sediments as they can be measured today may evolve according to their environmental context during landscape evolution. Linking soil profile development with hydrological changes of particular soil horizons over time scales of several hundreds to thousands of years is a typical example of emerging hydropedological research and is the subject of the current study. For this purpose, a dry podzol profile buried under younger drift sands was investigated using advanced hydrological (Beerten et al., this volume (a)) and geomorphological techniques (Beerten et al., this volume (b)). The principal results suggest that during the last 10 000 years, geomorphological and pedological processes have induced changes in saturated hydraulic conductivity values (Ksat) across the podzol profile resulting in present-day differences of up to four orders of magnitude. The highest values (Ksat ~ 10-3 m/s) are found in ~ 250 year old uncompacted drift sand deposits, while low values are typical for the illuviation horizon (Bh) of podzol soils that developed in Weichselian cover sands (Ksat ~ 10-7 m/s). Detailed investigations show that landscape stabilisation and podzolisation in such sandy substrates under pine and/or heather may lower Ksat-values by an order of magnitude in less than 100 years while higher order changes may take several 1 000 years. It is concluded that soil hydrological properties display large spatial variability even within the same soil profile; this variation was shown to have a strong correlation with the development stage and thus age of the soil horizon. The established relationships may help explain past hydrological changes and improve predictions of future hydrological changes of soils in the Campine area.

  10. Validation of TOF-SIMS and FE-SEM/EDS Techniques Combined with Sorption and Desorption Experiments to Check Competitive and Individual Pb2+ and Cd2+ Association with Components of B Soil Horizons

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, María Luisa; Vega, Flora A.

    2015-01-01

    Sorption and desorption experiments were performed by the batch method on the B horizons of five natural soils: Umbric Cambisol, Endoleptic Luvisol, Mollic Umbrisol, Dystric Umbrisol, and Dystric Fluvisol. Individual and competitive sorption and desorption capacity and hysteresis were determined. The results showed that Pb2+ was sorbed and retained in a greater quantity than Cd2+ and that the hysteresis of the first was greater than that of the second. The most influential characteristics of the sorption and retention of Pb2+ were pH, ECEC, Fe and Mn oxides and clay contents. For Cd2+ they were mainly pH and, to a lesser extent, Mn oxides and clay content. The combined use of TOF-SIMS, FE-SEM/EDS and sorption and desorption analyses was suitable for achieving a better understanding of the interaction between soil components and the two heavy metals. They show the preferential association of Pb2+ with vermiculite, chlorite, Fe and Mn oxides, and of Cd2+ with the same components, although to a much lesser extent and intensity. This was due to the latter’s higher mobility as it competed unfavourably with the Pb2+ sorption sites. TOF-SIMS and FE-SEM/EDS techniques confirmed the results of the sorption experiments, and also provided valuable information on whether the soil components (individually or in association) retain Cd2+ and / or Pb2+; this could help to propose effective measures for the remediation of contaminated soils. PMID:25893518

  11. Soil Core Sample #2

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Soil core obtained from existing goose grazing lawn along the Smith River in the Teshekpuk Lake Special Area of the National Petroleum Reserve - Alaska.  Buried peat layer broken open.  Closer examination of the buried peat layer demonstrates that non-salt-tolerant vegetation from the past...

  12. Specific features of organic matter in urban soils of Rostov-on-Don

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbov, S. N.; Bezuglova, O. S.

    2014-08-01

    Data on the fractional and group composition of humus in urban soils of Rostov-on-Don are discussed. We have compared the humus profiles of chernozems under tree plantations and those buried under anthropogenic deposits (including sealed chernozems under asphalt). It is shown that the type of humus in these soils remains stable despite a decrease in its total content after the long-term burial under asphalt. Under the impact of the trees, the organic matter of the chernozems acquired some features typical of gray forest soils, i.e., the humate-fulvate type of humus in the humus horizon and the sharp drop in the humus content down the soil profile.

  13. Investigation of guided waves propagation in pipe buried in sand

    SciTech Connect

    Leinov, Eli; Cawley, Peter; Lowe, Michael J.S.

    2014-02-18

    The inspection of pipelines by guided wave testing is a well-established method for the detection of corrosion defects in pipelines, and is currently used routinely in a variety of industries, e.g. petrochemical and energy. When the method is applied to pipes buried in soil, test ranges tend to be significantly compromised because of attenuation of the waves caused by energy radiating into the soil. Moreover, the variability of soil conditions dictates different attenuation characteristics, which in-turn results in different, unpredictable, test ranges. We investigate experimentally the propagation and attenuation characteristics of guided waves in pipes buried in fine sand using a well characterized full scale experimental apparatus. The apparatus consists of an 8 inch-diameter, 5.6-meters long steel pipe embedded over 3 meters of its length in a rectangular container filled with fine sand, and an air-bladder for the application of overburden pressure. Longitudinal and torsional guided waves are excited in the pipe and recorded using a transducer ring (Guided Ultrasonics Ltd). Acoustic properties of the sand are measured independently in-situ and used to make model predictions of wave behavior in the buried pipe. We present the methodology and the systematic measurements of the guided waves under a range of conditions, including loose and compacted sand. It is found that the application of overburden pressure modifies the compaction of the sand and increases the attenuation, and that the measurement of the acoustic properties of sand allows model prediction of the attenuation of guided waves in buried pipes with a high level of confidence.

  14. Odor analysis of decomposing buried human remains

    SciTech Connect

    Vass, Arpad Alexander; Smith, Rob R; Thompson, Cyril V; Burnett, Michael N; Dulgerian, Nishan; Eckenrode, Brian A

    2008-01-01

    This study, conducted at the University of Tennessee's Anthropological Research Facility (ARF), lists and ranks the primary chemical constituents which define the odor of decomposition of human remains as detected at the soil surface of shallow burial sites. Triple sorbent traps were used to collect air samples in the field and revealed eight major classes of chemicals which now contain 478 specific volatile compounds associated with burial decomposition. Samples were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and were collected below and above the body, and at the soil surface of 1.5-3.5 ft. (0.46-1.07 m) deep burial sites of four individuals over a 4-year time span. New data were incorporated into the previously established Decompositional Odor Analysis (DOA) Database providing identification, chemical trends, and semi-quantitation of chemicals for evaluation. This research identifies the 'odor signatures' unique to the decomposition of buried human remains with projected ramifications on human remains detection canine training procedures and in the development of field portable analytical instruments which can be used to locate human remains in shallow burial sites.

  15. Cryostratigraphy and Main Physical Properties of Active Layer Soils and Upper Horizon of Permafrost at the Barrow Environmental Observatory Research Site.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kholodov, A. L.; Liljedahl, A.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Cable, W.

    2014-12-01

    Complete understanding of the results of geophysical survey, microbiological and biogeochemical analyzes of soil cores in the Arctic environment impossible without detail description of the frozen soil and its physical properties determination. Cryostratigraphyc features i.e. total ice content and forms of ice patterns reflects the important processes such as water migration due to freezing in frozen active layer soils and history of sedimentation and freezing in underlying perennially frozen deposits. That plays significant role in biogeochemical processes that take place in the Arctic ecosystem. Current research was based on description and analyzing of 8 cores taken during 2012 and 2013 coring campaigne had been done at the Barrow Environmental Observatory research site. Cores were taken from different types of polygons and analyzed on lithological composition, soil density, ice content and thermal conductivity. Volumetric ice content within the active layer composed by organic soil consists of 70 to 80% and within silt one - less than 60%. Ice content of underlying syncryogenic perennial frozen deposits is about 70%. No clear evidences of soil moisture redistribution due to freezing of active layer were noticed in the cores composed by the organic soil. Organic soil does not have any clear cryogenic structures. Ice usually fills the pores and follows the plants fibers. Mineral soil has recticulated cryogenic structure (ice forms grid like patterns with vertically oriented cells) with some thin (up to 2 cm thick) layers of soil particles and aggregates suspended in ice. Thermal conductivity of frozen samples varies in the range from 1.5 to 2.8 W/(m*°K). It has a positive correlation with soil density and negative with gravimetric ice content (see figure below). Mineral soils have a higher bulk density and average thermal conductivity in the range 2.15 W/(m*°K), organic soils have a lower density and average thermal conductivity about 2 W/(m*°K). Samples, composed by fibrous has an extremely high ice content and low bulk density. Its average thermal conductivity is close to the values typical for ice (2.3 W/(m*°K)). Current research was supported by US DOE as a part of research project Next Generation of Ecosystem Experiment (NGEE).

  16. Hard-pan soils - Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hard pans, hard layers, or compacted horizons, either surface or subsurface, are universal problems that limit crop production. Hard layers can be caused by traffic or soil genetic properties that result in horizons with high density or cemented soil particles; these horizons have elevated penetrati...

  17. In situ grouting of buried transuranic waste with polyacrylamide

    SciTech Connect

    Spalding, B.P.; Lee, S.Y.; Farmer, C.D.; Hyder, L.K.; Supaokit, P.

    1987-01-01

    This project is a demonstration and evaluation of the in situ hydrologic stabilization of buried transuranic waste at a humid site via grout injection. Two small trenches, containing buried transuranic waste, were filled with 34.000 L of polyacrylamide grout. Initial field results have indicated that voids within the trenches were totally filled by the grout and that the intratrench hydraulic conductivity was reduced to below field-measurable values. No evidence of grout constituents were observed in twelve perimeter groundwater monitoring wells indicating that grout was contained completely within the two trenches. Polyacrylamide grout was selected for field demonstration over the polyacrylate grout due to its superior performance in laboratory degradation studies. Also supporting the selection of polyacrylamide was the difficulty in controlling the set time of the acrylate polymerization. Based on preliminary degradation monitoring, the polyacrylamide was estimated to have a microbiological half-life of 362 years in the test soil. 15 refs., 9 figs., 12 tabs.

  18. Blast wave from buried charges

    SciTech Connect

    Reichenbach, H.; Behrens, K.; Kuhl, A.L.

    1993-08-01

    While much airblast data are available for height-of-burst (HOB) effects, systematic airblast data for depth-of-burst (DOB) effects are more limited. It is logical to ask whether the spherical 0.5-g Nitropenta charges that, proved to be successful for HOB tests at EMI are also suitable for experiments with buried charges in the laboratory scale; preliminary studies indicated in the alternative. Of special interest is the airblast environment generated by detonations just above or below the around surface. This paper presents a brief summary of the test results.

  19. The high water-holding capacity of petrocalcic horizons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Petrocalcic soil horizons occur in most arid and semi-arid ecosystems around the world, often within the plant rooting zone. Little is known, however, about the water holding characteristic of soils indurated with calcium carbonate. We conducted a replicated experiment to define the soil-water relea...

  20. KINETICS OF CHEMICAL WEATHERING IN B-HORIZON SPODOSOL FRACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies on a B horizon soil from Maine have been conducted to etermine the weathering rate dependence on hydrogen ion concentration in soil solution. Effects of soil concentration and solution chemistry on chemical weathering rate were also investigated. he studies used a laborat...

  1. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kostelnik, K.M.

    1991-12-01

    This document presents the plan of activities for the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program which supports the environmental restoration (ER) objectives of the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex. Discussed in this plan are the objectives, organization, roles and responsibilities, and the process for implementing and managing BWID. BWID is hosted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), but involves participants from throughout the DOE Complex, private industry, universities, and the international community. These participants will support, demonstrate, and evaluate a suite of advanced technologies representing a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. The processes for identifying technological needs, screening candidate technologies for applicability and maturity, selecting appropriate technologies for demonstration, field demonstrating, evaluation of results and transferring technologies to environmental restoration programs are also presented. This document further describes the elements of project planning and control that apply to BWID. It addresses the management processes, operating procedures, programmatic and technical objectives, and schedules. Key functions in support of each demonstration such as regulatory coordination, safety analyses, risk evaluations, facility requirements, and data management are presented.

  2. Pleistocene permafrost features in soils in the South-western Italian Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amico, Michele; Catoni, Marcella; Bonifacio, Eleonora; Zanini, Ermanno

    2015-04-01

    Because of extensive Pleistocenic glaciations which erased most of the previously existing soils, slope steepness and climatic conditions favoring soil erosion, most soils observed on the Alps (and in other mid-latitude mountain ranges) developed only during the Holocene. However, in few sites, particularly in the outermost sections of the Alpine range, Pleistocene glaciers covered only small and scattered surfaces because of the low altitude reached in the basins, and ancient soils could be preserved for long periods of time on particularly stable surfaces. In some cases, these soils retain good memories of past periglacial activity. We described and sampled soils on stable surfaces in the Upper Tanaro valley, Ligurian Alps (Southwestern Piemonte, Italy). The sampling sites were between 600 to 1600 m of altitude, under present day lower montane Castanea sativa/Ostrya carpinifolia forests, montane Fagus sylvatica and Pinus uncinata forests or montane heath/grazed grassland, on different quartzitic substrata. The surface morphology often showed strongly developed, fossil periglacial patterned ground forms, such as coarse stone circles on flat surfaces, or stone stripes on steeper slopes. The stone circles could be up to 5 m wide, while the sorted stripes could be as wide as 12-15 m. A strong lateral cryogenic textural sorting characterized the fine fraction too, with sand dominating close to the stone rims of the patterned ground features and silt and clay the central parts. The surface 60-120 cm of the soils were podzolized during the Holocene; as a result of the textural lateral sorting, the thickness of the podzolic E and Bs horizons varied widely across the patterns. The lower boundary of the Holocene Podzols was abrupt, and corresponded with dense layers with thick coarse laminar structure and illuvial silt accumulation (Cjj horizons). Dense Cjj diapiric inclusions were sometimes preserved in the central parts of the patterns. Where cover beds were developed, more superimposed podzol cycles were observed: the deeper podzols, included in the dense layer, were strongly cryoturbated and showed convoluted horizons and buried organic horizons. The presence of the dense Cjj horizons also influenced surface soil hydrology, which in turn influenced the expression of E and Bs horizons, in addition to textural lateral variability. In conclusion, surface morphology and soil properties evidence the presence of permafrost during cold Pleistocene phases, with an active layer 60-120 cm thick, associated with a particularly strong cryoturbation. However, all the permafrost features were not necessarily formed during the same periods, and dating of different materials would be necessary in order to obtain precise paleoenvironmental reconstructions of cold Quaternary phases in the Alps.

  3. 47 CFR 32.2423 - Buried cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Buried cable. 32.2423 Section 32.2423 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2423 Buried cable. (a) This account shall include the...

  4. Six Thousand Burying the Carbon Problem

    E-print Network

    Haszeldine, Stuart

    feasibility, financing, and operation, of carbon dioxide storage as one strand of cleaner energy deliverySix Thousand Feet Under Burying the Carbon Problem Stuart Haszeldine and Gil Yaron edited by Tara Thomson, Rachel Whetstone. Six Thousand Feet Under Burying the Carbon Problem Stuart Haszeldine and Gil

  5. Detection of buried objects using reflected GNSS signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notarpietro, Riccardo; De Mattia, Salvatore; Campanella, Maurizio; Pei, Yuekun; Savi, Patrizia

    2014-12-01

    The use of reflected Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals for sensing the Earth has been growing rapidly in recent years. This technique is founded on the basic principle of detecting GNSS signals after they have been reflected off the Earth's surface and using them to determine the properties of the reflecting surface remotely. This is the so-called GNSS reflectometry (GNSS-R) technique. In this paper, a new application regarding the detection of metallic buried objects is analyzed and it is validated through several experimental campaigns. Although the penetration depth of GNSS signals into the ground is not optimal and depends on the soil moisture, GNSS signals can likely interact approximately with the first 10 cm of the ground and therefore can be reflected back by any metallic object buried on the first terrain layer. A very light and low-cost GNSS receiver prototype based on a software-defined radio approach was developed. This receiver can be used as a payload on board small drones or unmanned aerial systems to detect metallic objects (mines or other explosive devices). A signal processing tool based on an open-loop GNSS signal acquisition strategy was developed. The results of two experiments which show the possibility of using GNSS-R signals to detect buried metallic objects and to provide an estimate of their dimensions are discussed.

  6. Remote Excavation System technology evaluation report: Buried Waste Robotics Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This document describes the results from the Remote Excavation System demonstration and testing conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory during June and July 1993. The purpose of the demonstration was to ascertain the feasibility of the system for skimming soil and removing various types of buried waste in a safe manner and within all regulatory requirements, and to compare the performances of manual and remote operation of a backhoe. The procedures and goals of the demonstration were previously defined in The Remote Excavation System Test Plan, which served as a guideline for evaluating the various components of the system and discussed the procedures used to conduct the tests.

  7. Sorption of Pahs To Soil Minerals and Subsurface Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, S.; Totsche, K. U.; Koegel-Knabner, I.

    In subsurface soil horizons, the sorption of hydrophobic organic contaminants may primarily be controlled by the composition and the properties of the soil minerals. Therefore this study aimed to elucidate the sorption and the sorption kinetics of hydrophobic organic contaminants to different inorganic soil constituents and subsurface soil horizons. Batch sorption experiments are conducted with three poly- cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS; phenanthrene, pyrene and benzo(a)pyrene), with the model minerals quartz sand, quartz sand coated with goethite and a quartz sand - mont- morillonite mixture, and with b and c horizons of different soil types developped in the temperate climate. Batch experiments show a considerable sorption of PAHS to all soil minerals and soil horizons except for the sorption of phenanthrene to quartz sand. The sorption process of PAHS to single minerals is rapid and completed after 4 hours of contact time. The sorption to subsurface soil horizons, however, is not in equilibrium after 120h of contact time and shows a considerable sorption kinetic. Sorption capacity is higher for clay minerals and iron oxides than for quartz sand which corresponds with a higher sorption capacity of soil horizons with a high clay content. Sorption isotherms of the soil minerals are best described by a nonlinear isotherm whereas the sorption isotherms of the subsurface soil horizons are more or less linear indicating different sorption mechanisms for mineral sorbents and soil horizons.

  8. Mining metrics for buried treasure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konkowski, D. A.; Helliwell, T. M.

    2006-06-01

    The same but different: That might describe two metrics. On the surface CLASSI may show two metrics are locally equivalent, but buried beneath may be a wealth of further structure. This was beautifully described in a paper by Malcolm MacCallum in 1998. Here I will illustrate the effect with two flat metrics — one describing ordinary Minkowski spacetime and the other describing a threeparameter family of Gal'tsov-Letelier-Tod spacetimes. I will dig out the beautiful hidden classical singularity structure of the latter (a structure first noticed by Tod in 1994) and then show how quantum considerations can illuminate the riches. I will then discuss how quantum structure can help us understand classical singularities and metric parameters in a variety of exact solutions mined from the Exact Solutions book.

  9. Mining metrics for buried treasure

    E-print Network

    D. A. Konkowski; T. M. Helliwell

    2005-01-07

    The same but different: That might describe two metrics. On the surface CLASSI may show two metrics are locally equivalent, but buried beneath one may be a wealth of further structure. This was beautifully described in a paper by M.A.H. MacCallum in 1998. Here I will illustrate the effect with two flat metrics -- one describing ordinary Minkowski spacetime and the other describing a three-parameter family of Gal'tsov-Letelier-Tod spacetimes. I will dig out the beautiful hidden classical singularity structure of the latter (a structure first noticed by Tod in 1994) and then show how quantum considerations can illuminate the riches. I will then discuss how quantum structure can help us understand classical singularities and metric parameters in a variety of exact solutions mined from the Exact Solutions book.

  10. Buried Seed Banks as Indicators of Seed Output along an Altitudinal Gradient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, K.

    1985-01-01

    Study of buried seed banks (viable seeds deposited in the soil near parent plants) provides a relatively easy way of determining cumulative effects on seed production and species' altitudinal limits. Sites, methods, validity, interpretation, problems of collection on a mountain, and germination techniques are discussed. (Author/DH)

  11. An experimental investigation of the sensitivity of a buried fiber optic intrusion sensor 

    E-print Network

    Kuppuswamy, Harini

    2006-04-12

    (OTDR). Field tests were conducted with the sensing element as a single mode fiber in a 3-mm diameter cable buried at depths ranging from 8 to 18 inches in clay soil. It was observed that the sensor could detect intruders walking transverse to the cable...

  12. In-situ vitrification of soil

    DOEpatents

    Brouns, Richard A. (Kennewick, WA); Buelt, James L. (Richland, WA); Bonner, William F. (Richland, WA)

    1983-01-01

    A method of vitrifying soil at or below a soil surface location. Two or more conductive electrodes are inserted into the soil for heating of the soil mass between them to a temperature above its melting temperature. Materials in the soil, such as buried waste, can thereby be effectively immobilized.

  13. The 2010 Horizon Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, L.; Levine, A.; Smith, R.; Stone, S.

    2010-01-01

    The annual "Horizon Report" describes the continuing work of the New Media Consortium's Horizon Project, a qualitative research project established in 2002 that identifies and describes emerging technologies likely to have a large impact on teaching, learning, or creative inquiry on college and university campuses within the next five years. The…

  14. Bend loss effects in diffused, buried waveguides.

    PubMed

    Carriere, James T A; Frantz, Jesse A; West, Brian R; Honkanen, Seppo; Kostuk, Raymond K

    2005-03-20

    Bend loss effects can be a significant concern in the design and performance of diffused, buried waveguide devices. Since diffused, buried waveguides typically do not have analytical mode solutions, the bend mode must be expressed as an expansion of straight waveguide modes. For the case of buried ion-exchanged waveguides, the bend loss is affected by bend radius, the duration of the ion exchange and burial processes, as well as the size of the mask opening used to create the waveguides and applied field during burial. The bend loss effects for each of these variables are explored under typical fabrication conditions. PMID:15813273

  15. A Natural Seismic Isolating System: The Buried Mangrove Effects

    E-print Network

    Gueguen, Philippe; Foray, Pierre; Rousseau, Christophe; Maury, Julie; 10.1785/0120100129

    2011-01-01

    The Belleplaine test site, located in the island of Guadeloupe (French Lesser Antilles) includes a three-accelerometer vertical array, designed for liquefac- tion studies. The seismic response of the soil column at the test site is computed using three methods: the spectral ratio method using the vertical array data, a numerical method using the geotechnical properties of the soil column, and an operative fre- quency domain decomposition (FDD) modal analysis method. The Belleplaine test site is characterized by a mangrove layer overlaid by a stiff sandy deposit. This con- figuration is widely found at the border coast of the Caribbean region, which is exposed to high seismic hazard. We show that the buried mangrove layer plays the role of an isolation system equivalent to those usually employed in earthquake engineering aimed at reducing the seismic shear forces by reducing the internal stress within the structure. In our case, the flexibility of the mangrove layer reduces the distortion and the stress in the...

  16. Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaetzl, Randall J.; Anderson, Sharon

    2005-06-01

    This comprehensive work on all aspects of soils includes introductory chapters on soil morphology, physics, mineralogy and organisms in anticipation of the more advanced analysis of the subject that follows. Replete with hundreds of high-quality figures and a large glossary, its global perspective makes it an invaluable text for anyone studying soils, landforms and landscape change in middle to upper-level undergraduate and graduate courses.

  17. Latex-modified grouts for in-situ stabilization of buried transuranic/mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Allan, M.L.

    1996-06-01

    The Department of Applied Science at Brookhaven national Laboratory was requested to investigate latex-modified grouts for in-situ stabilization of buried TRU/mixed waste for INEL. The waste exists in shallow trenches that were backfilled with soil. The objective was to formulate latex-modified grouts for use with the jet grouting technique to enable in-situ stabilization of buried waste. The stabilized waste was either to be left in place or retrieved for further processing. Grouting prior to retrieval reduces the potential release of contaminants. Rheological properties of latex-modified grouts were investigated and compared with those of conventional neat cement grouts used for jet grouting.

  18. Implementation of the buried waste integrated demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Kostelnik, K.M.; Merrill, S.K.

    1992-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Technology Development (OTD) has initiated the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) to resolve technological deficiencies associated with the remediation of radioactive and hazardous buried waste. The BWID mission is to identify, demonstrate, and transfer innovative technologies for the remediation of DOE buried waste. To accomplish the mission, BWID is using a systems approach which supports the development of a suite of advanced and innovative technologies for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. This systems approach includes technologies for theentire remediation cycle. Specifically, BWID sponsors technology development in the following technology categories: site and waste characterization, retrieval, preprocessing, ex situ treatment, packaging, transportation, storage, disposal, and post-disposal monitoring.

  19. Implementation of the buried waste integrated demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Kostelnik, K.M.; Merrill, S.K.

    1992-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Technology Development (OTD) has initiated the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) to resolve technological deficiencies associated with the remediation of radioactive and hazardous buried waste. The BWID mission is to identify, demonstrate, and transfer innovative technologies for the remediation of DOE buried waste. To accomplish the mission, BWID is using a systems approach which supports the development of a suite of advanced and innovative technologies for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. This systems approach includes technologies for theentire remediation cycle. Specifically, BWID sponsors technology development in the following technology categories: site and waste characterization, retrieval, preprocessing, ex situ treatment, packaging, transportation, storage, disposal, and post-disposal monitoring.

  20. Revisiting Event Horizon Finders

    E-print Network

    Michael I. Cohen; Harald P. Pfeiffer; Mark A. Scheel

    2009-02-14

    Event horizons are the defining physical features of black hole spacetimes, and are of considerable interest in studying black hole dynamics. Here, we reconsider three techniques to localise event horizons in numerical spacetimes: integrating geodesics, integrating a surface, and integrating a level-set of surfaces over a volume. We implement the first two techniques and find that straightforward integration of geodesics backward in time to be most robust. We find that the exponential rate of approach of a null surface towards the event horizon of a spinning black hole equals the surface gravity of the black hole. In head-on mergers we are able to track quasi-normal ringing of the merged black hole through seven oscillations, covering a dynamic range of about 10^5. Both at late times (when the final black hole has settled down) and at early times (before the merger), the apparent horizon is found to be an excellent approximation of the event horizon. In the head-on binary black hole merger, only {\\em some} of the future null generators of the horizon are found to start from past null infinity; the others approach the event horizons of the individual black holes at times far before merger.

  1. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration. Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that offer promising solutions to the problems associated with the remediation of buried waste. BWID addresses the difficult remediation problems associated with DOE complex-wide buried waste, particularly transuranic (TRU) contaminated buried waste. BWID has implemented a systems approach to the development and demonstration of technologies that will characterize, retrieve, treat, and dispose of DOE buried wastes. This approach encompasses the entire remediation process from characterization to post-monitoring. The development and demonstration of the technology is predicated on how a technology fits into the total remediation process. To address all of these technological issues, BWID has enlisted scientific expertise of individuals and groups from within the DOE Complex, as well as experts from universities and private industry. The BWID mission is to support development and demonstration of a suite of technologies that, when integrated with commercially-available technologies, forms a comprehensive, remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste throughout the DOE Complex. BWID will evaluate and validate demonstrated technologies and transfer this information and equipment to private industry to support the Office of Environmental Restoration (ER), Office of Waste Management (WM), and Office of Facility Transition (FT) remediation planning and implementation activities.

  2. Decoding implicit information from the soil map of Belgium and implications for spatial modelling and soil classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dondeyne, Stefaan; Legrain, Xavier; Colinet, Gilles; Van Ranst, Eric; Deckers, Jozef

    2014-05-01

    A systematic soil survey of Belgium was conducted from 1948 to 1991. Field surveys were done at the detailed scale of 1:5000 with the final maps published at a 1:20,000 scale. Soil surveyors were classifying soils in the field according to physical and morphogenetic characteristics such as texture, drainage class and profile development. Mapping units are defined as a combination of these characteristics but to which modifiers can be added such as parent material, stoniness or depth to substrata. Interpretation of the map towards predicting soil properties seems straight forward. Consequently, since the soil map has been digitized, it has been used for e.g. hydrological modelling or for estimating soil organic carbon content at sub-national and national level. Besides the explicit information provided by the legend, a wealth of implicit information is embedded in the map. Based on three cases, we illustrate that by decoding this information, properties pertaining to soil drainage or soil organic carbon content can be assessed more accurately. First, the presence/absence of fragipans affects the soil hydraulic conductivity. Although a dedicated symbol exits for fragipans (suffix "...m"), it is only used explicitly in areas where fragipans are not all that common. In the Belgian Ardennes, where fragipans are common, their occurrence is implicitly implied for various soil types mentioned in explanatory booklets. Second, whenever seasonal or permanent perched water tables were observed, these were indicated by drainage class ".h." or ".i.", respectively. Stagnic properties have been under reported as typical stagnic mottling - i.e. when the surface of soil peds are lighter and/or paler than the more reddish interior - were not distinguished from mottling due to groundwater gley. Still, by combining information on topography and the occurrence of substratum layers, stagnic properties can be inferred. Thirdly, soils with deep anthropogenic enriched organic matter (Anthrosols) are distinguished for their specific profile development (code "..m"). Obviously, when assessing soil organic carbon content these soil types need particular consideration. Soils in the Campine region with anthropogenic layers only 30 to 40 cm thick, not being Anthrosols, got a specific suffix code ("…3"). Still, as these soils may have a buried Ah horizon of up to 20 cm, their soil organic carbon content can be comparable to those of Anthrosols. The buried Ah horizon is however not explicitly mapped; its presence needs to be inferred from other environmental information. In conclusion, conventional soil maps convey more information than what transpires from just the explicit legend's semantics. Although a challenge, decoding the implicit information should be particularly useful for spatial modeling. The cases also point to the importance of classifying soil characteristics explicitly, wherever possible, and in particularly when soil maps are integrated into geographical information systems.

  3. Modeling physical and biogeochemical controls over carbon accumulation in a boreal forest soil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carrasco, J.J.; Neff, J.C.; Harden, J.W.

    2006-01-01

    Boreal soils are important to the global C cycle owing to large C stocks, repeated disturbance from fire, and the potential for permafrost thaw to expose previously stable, buried C. To evaluate the primary mechanisms responsible for both short- and long-term C accumulation in boreal soils, we developed a multi-isotope (12,14C) Soil C model with dynamic soil layers that develop through time as soil organic matter burns and reaccumulates. We then evaluated the mechanisms that control organic matter turnover in boreal regions including carbon input rates, substrate recalcitrance, soil moisture and temperature, and the presence of historical permafrost to assess the importance of these factors in boreal C accumulation. Results indicate that total C accumulation is controlled by the rate of carbon input, decomposition rates, and the presence of historical permafrost. However, unlike more temperate ecosystems, one of the key mechanisms involved in C preservation in boreal soils examined here is the cooling of subsurface soil layers as soil depth increases rather than increasing recalcitrance in subsurface soils. The propagation of the 14C bomb spike into soils also illustrates the importance of historical permafrost and twentieth century warming in contemporary boreal soil respiration fluxes. Both 14C and total C simulation data also strongly suggest that boreal SOM need not be recalcitrant to accumulate; the strong role of soil temperature controls on boreal C accumulation at our modeling test site in Manitoba, Canada, indicates that carbon in the deep organic soil horizons is probably relatively labile and thus subject to perturbations that result from changing climatic conditions in the future. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. Priming in permafrost soils: High vulnerability of arctic soil organic carbon to increased input of plant-derived compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, Birgit; Gentsch, Norman; Capek, Petr; Diakova, Katerina; Alves, Ricardo; Barta, Jiri; Gittel, Antje; Guggenberger, Georg; Lashchinskiy, Nikolay; Knoltsch, Anna; Mikutta, Robert; Santruckova, Hana; Schnecker, Jörg; Shibistova, Olga; Takriti, Mounir; Urich, Tim; Watzka, Margarete; Richter, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Arctic ecosystems are warming rapidly, resulting in a stimulation of both plant primary production and soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition. In addition to this direct stimulation, SOM decomposition might also be indirectly affected by rising temperatures mediated by the increase in plant productivity. Higher root litter production for instance might decrease SOM decomposition by providing soil microorganisms with alternative C and N sources ("negative priming"), or might increase SOM decomposition by facilitating microbial growth and enzyme production ("positive priming"). With about 1,700 Pg of organic C stored in arctic soils, and 88% of that in horizons deeper than 30 cm, it is crucial to understand the controls on SOM decomposition in different horizons of arctic permafrost soils, and thus the vulnerability of SOM to changes in C and N availability in a future climate. We here report on the vulnerability of SOM in arctic permafrost soils to an increased input of plant-derived organic compounds, and on its variability across soil horizons and sites. We simulated an increased input of plant-derived compounds by amending soil samples with 13C-labelled cellulose or protein, and compared the mineralization of native, unlabelled soil organic C (SOC) to unamended control samples. Our experiment included 119 individual samples of arctic permafrost soils, covering four sites across the Siberian Arctic, and five soil horizons, i.e., organic topsoil, mineral topsoil, mineral subsoil and cryoturbated material (topsoil material buried in the subsoil by freeze-thaw processes) from the active layer, as well as thawed material from the upper permafrost. Our findings suggest that changes in C and N availability in Arctic soils, such as mediated by plants, have a high potential to alter the decomposition of SOM, but also point at fundamental differences between soil horizons. In the organic topsoil, SOC mineralization increased by 51% after addition of protein, but was not affected by cellulose, suggesting predominant N limitation of the microbial decomposer community, and a high vulnerability of SOM to increases in N availability. In contrast, in mineral subsoil and thawed permafrost, SOC mineralization was stimulated by both cellulose and protein (between 23 and 120%), cellulose- and protein-derived C was efficiently incorporated into the microbial biomass, and effects of both cellulose and protein were significantly correlated. These findings suggest predominant C limitation of the microbial decomposer community in deeper, mineral horizons of arctic permafrost soils, and point at a high vulnerability of SOM to increased C availability, e.g., due to higher root litter production. We estimate that on a circum-arctic scale, increases in C and N availability have the potential to stimulate SOC mineralization in the order of several Tg C per day. Together with the direct stimulation of SOC mineralization by rising temperatures, this indirect stimulation can counteract the increased CO2 fixation by plants, and thus reduce the C sink strength of arctic ecosystems or even provoke net ecosystem C losses that might induce a positive feedback to global warming.

  5. Environmental fate and transport of chemical signatures from buried landmines -- Screening model formulation and initial simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Phelan, J.M.; Webb, S.W.

    1997-06-01

    The fate and transport of chemical signature molecules that emanate from buried landmines is strongly influenced by physical chemical properties and by environmental conditions of the specific chemical compounds. Published data have been evaluated as the input parameters that are used in the simulation of the fate and transport processes. A one-dimensional model developed for screening agricultural pesticides was modified and used to simulate the appearance of a surface flux above a buried landmine, estimate the subsurface total concentration, and show the phase specific concentrations at the ground surface. The physical chemical properties of TNT cause a majority of the mass released to the soil system to be bound to the solid phase soil particles. The majority of the transport occurs in the liquid phase with diffusion and evaporation driven advection of soil water as the primary mechanisms for the flux to the ground surface. The simulations provided herein should only be used for initial conceptual designs of chemical pre-concentration subsystems or complete detection systems. The physical processes modeled required necessary simplifying assumptions to allow for analytical solutions. Emerging numerical simulation tools will soon be available that should provide more realistic estimates that can be used to predict the success of landmine chemical detection surveys based on knowledge of the chemical and soil properties, and environmental conditions where the mines are buried. Additional measurements of the chemical properties in soils are also needed before a fully predictive approach can be confidently applied.

  6. Black holes: from event horizons to trapping horizons

    E-print Network

    Gourgoulhon, Eric

    Black holes: from event horizons to trapping horizons Eric Gourgoulhon Laboratoire Univers et Th, France 10 December 2009 Eric Gourgoulhon (LUTH) Black holes: trapping horizons LATT, Toulouse, 10 December 2009 1 / 38 #12;Plan 1 Concept of black hole and event horizon 2 Local approaches to black holes 3

  7. Black holes: from event horizons to trapping horizons

    E-print Network

    Gourgoulhon, Eric

    Black holes: from event horizons to trapping horizons Eric Gourgoulhon Laboratoire Univers et Th April 2009 Eric Gourgoulhon (LUTH) Black holes: trapping horizons INLN, Nice, 2 April 2009 1 / 39 #12;Plan 1 Concept of black hole and event horizon 2 Local approaches to black holes 3 Viscous fluid

  8. Black holes: from event horizons to trapping horizons

    E-print Network

    Gourgoulhon, Eric

    Black holes: from event horizons to trapping horizons Eric Gourgoulhon Laboratoire Univers et Th 2009 Eric Gourgoulhon (LUTH) Black holes: trapping horizons LPT, Orsay, 14 October 2009 1 / 39 #12;Plan 1 Concept of black hole and event horizon 2 Local approaches to black holes 3 Viscous fluid analogy

  9. Black holes: from event horizons to trapping horizons

    E-print Network

    Gourgoulhon, Eric

    Black holes: from event horizons to trapping horizons Eric Gourgoulhon Laboratoire Univers et Th) Black holes: trapping horizons CERN, 17 March 2010 1 / 38 #12;Plan 1 Concept of black hole and event horizon 2 Local approaches to black holes 3 Viscous fluid analogy 4 Angular momentum and area evolution

  10. Receding Horizon Covariance Control 

    E-print Network

    Wendel, Eric

    2012-10-19

    design a dual-mode Receding Horizon Controller (RHC) that takes a controllable, deterministic linear system from an arbitrary initial covariance to near a desired stationary covariance in finite time. The RHC solves a sequence of free-time Optimal...

  11. Black hole horizons Eric Gourgoulhon

    E-print Network

    Gourgoulhon, Eric

    Black hole horizons ´Eric Gourgoulhon Laboratoire Univers et Th´eories (LUTH) CNRS / Observatoire hole horizons SN2NS, Paris, 4 Feb 2014 1 / 37 #12;Outline 1 Concept of black hole and event horizon 2 Quasi-local horizons 3 Astrophysical black holes 4 The near-future observations of black holes ´Eric

  12. Guided wave attenuation in pipes buried in sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinov, Eli; Cawley, Peter; Lowe, Michael JS

    2015-03-01

    Long-range ultrasonic guided wave testing of pipelines is used routinely for detection of corrosion defects in a variety of industries, e.g. petrochemical and energy. When the method is applied to pipelines that are buried in soil, test ranges tend to be significantly compromised compared to those achieved for pipelines above ground because of the attenuation of the guided wave, due to energy leaking into the embedding soil. The attenuation characteristics of guided wave propagation in a pipe buried in sand are investigated using a full scale experimental rig. The apparatus consists of an 8"-diameter, 6-meters long steel pipe embedded over 3 meters in a rectangular container filled with sand and fitted with an air-bladder for the application of overburden pressure. Measurements of the attenuation of the T(0,1) and L(0,2) guided wave modes over a range of sand conditions, including loose, compacted, water saturated and drained, are presented. Attenuation values are found to be in the range of 1-5.5 dB/m. The application of overburden pressure modifies the compaction of the sand and increases the attenuation. The attenuation decreases in the fully water-saturated sand, while it increases in drained sand to values comparable with those obtained for the compacted sand. The attenuation behavior of the torsional guided wave mode is found not to be captured by a uniform soil model; comparison with predictions obtained with the Disperse software suggest that this is likely to be due to a layer of sand adhering to the surface of the pipe.

  13. Geochronology of initial soils in Late-Holocene polycyclic drift-sand deposits (Weerterbergen, S.E. Netherlands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van mourik, J. M.; Wallinga, J.

    2012-04-01

    Late glacial aeolian coversand dominates the surface geology of the eastern part of the province Noord-Brabant (Netherlands). During prehistoric and early historic time, forest grazing, wood cutting and shifting cultivation gradually transformed natural forest into heath land. During the 11th - 13th century, commercial clear cutting of forests caused sand drifting. Farmers protected the heath against drift sand and continued till 1750 AD with shallow stable management. In the course of the 18th century deep stable management was introduced and farmers started with sod digging on the heath to increase the total amount of manure. Sod digging resulted in a second period of extension of driftsand landscapes with characteristic 'cultural' landforms and soils. Polycyclic driftsand deposits are paleoecological records of alternating instable (sand drifting) and stable (soil formation) phases in landscape development. Interpretation of paleoecological information, derived from these records, requires accurate knowledge of the geochronology. Radiocarbon dating, applied on extracted soil organic matter from humic buried AE horizons is not reliable. Calibrated 14C ages of seven selected buried 'micropodzols' range from 340 - 1950 AD. To understand the geochronology of polycyclic sequences, we applied soil micromorphology to improve our knowledge about the organic matrix of micropodzols and OSL dating. Micromorphological analysis of thin sections of micropodzols provide more information about the composition of SOM of the humic horizons. SOM consists of post sedimentary compounds, related to soil formation. We can identify soil fungi, fragmented litter and fecal pellets as the results of litter decomposition. But SOM contains also sin sedimentary compounds, related to sand drifting. We can identify transported and rounded organic aggregates, mineral grains with organic cutans and charcoal fragments, originating from eroded (older) soil horizons. Consequently, the 14C dates of extracted SOM are indeed not reliable. OSL dating works excellent for aeolian sandy deposits with a high percentage of quartz grains. The OSL age is defined as the time after the last bleaching by solar radiation of mineral grains. In contrast to 14C dating, application of OSL dating provides accurate information over the age of top and bottom of deposited sand beds and consequently over the time, available for soil development. Based on OSL dates, the micropodzols developed between 1700 and 1950 AD and reflect relatively stable periods (soil formation) in the landscape development after the introduction of the deep stable management.

  14. Sensor System Fo4r Buried Waste Containment Sites

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Ann Marie (Pocatello, ID); Gardner, Bradley M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kostelnik, Kevin M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Partin, Judy K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Lancaster, Gregory D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Pfeifer, Mary Catherine (San Antonio, NM)

    2003-11-18

    A sensor system for a buried waste containment site having a bottom wall barrier and sidewall barriers, for containing hazardous waste. The sensor system includes one or more sensor devices disposed in one or more of the barriers for detecting a physical parameter either of the barrier itself or of the physical condition of the surrounding soils and buried waste, and for producing a signal representing the physical parameter detected. Also included is a signal processor for receiving signals produced by the sensor device and for developing information identifying the physical parameter detected, either for sounding an alarm, displaying a graphic representation of a physical parameter detected on a viewing screen and/or a hard copy printout. The sensor devices may be deployed in or adjacent the barriers at the same time the barriers are deployed and may be adapted to detect strain or cracking in the barriers, leakage of radiation through the barriers, the presence and leaking through the barriers of volatile organic compounds, or similar physical conditions.

  15. Sensor System Fo4r Buried Waste Containment Sites

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Ann Marie (Pocatello, ID); Gardner, Bradley M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kostelnik, Kevin M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Partin, Judy K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Lancaster, Gregory D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Pfeifer, Mary Catherine (San Antonio, NM)

    2005-09-27

    A sensor system for a buried waste containment site having a bottom wall barrier and/or sidewall barriers, for containing hazardous waste. The sensor system includes one or more sensor devices disposed in one or more of the barriers for detecting a physical parameter either of the barrier itself or of the physical condition of the surrounding soils and buried waste, and for producing a signal representing the physical parameter detected. Also included is a signal processor for receiving signals produced by the sensor device and for developing information identifying the physical parameter detected, either for sounding an alarm, displaying a graphic representation of a physical parameter detected on a viewing screen and/or a hard copy printout. The sensor devices may be deployed in or adjacent the barriers at the same time the barriers are deployed and may be adapted to detect strain or cracking in the barriers, leakage of radiation through the barriers, the presence and leaking through the barriers of volatile organic compounds, or similar physical conditions.

  16. Understanding the toxicity of buried radioactive waste and its impacts.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Bernard L

    2005-10-01

    The oral ingestion toxicities of buried high level radioactive waste from nuclear power plants and of the natural radioactivity in the ground are calculated and expressed as cancer doses, the number of fatal cancers predicted by the linear no-threshold theory if all of the material were fed to people. Unless the size of the U.S. nuclear power industry is greatly expanded, there will probably never be more than 2 trillion cancer doses (CD) in U.S. repositories, as compared with 31 trillion CD in the ground above them. Measurements of the uranium, thorium, and radium in human bodies indicate that the latter cause 500 deaths per year in U.S. The great majority of this material is derived from the top few meters of soil that are penetrated by plant roots. It is concluded that the annual number of U.S. deaths from buried nuclear wastes will be about 1.0 (or less), orders of magnitude less than the number from coal burning electricity generation, the principal competitor of nuclear power. PMID:16155457

  17. Spatial variability of magnetic soil properties Remke L. van Dama

    E-print Network

    Borchers, Brian

    in tropical soils and the possible effect on electromagnetic induction sensors for buried low-metal land mine of magnetic iron oxides in the soil can seriously hamper the performance of electromagnetic sensors . Geophysical instruments for buried object detection that use electromagnetic waves are various: time

  18. Soil response against oblique motion of pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Nyman, K.J.

    1984-03-01

    The four principal directions of buried pipeline restraint are vertical-uplift, horizontal-lateral, vertical-bearing, and longitudinal-axial. The remaining soil restraint categories out-of-plane with the primary directions are associated with oblique pipe motion. An analogy is made between restraint of buried inclined anchor plates and restraint of pipelines subjected to motion in the horizontal-vertical (lateral-uplift) direction. The behavior of soil restraint for inclined anchors is extended to buried circular pipes. Tentative design procedures are proposed to develop bilinear load-displacement relationships for soil restraint of pipelines subjected to horizontal-vertical motion.

  19. Limited Panniculectomy for Adult Buried Penis Repair.

    PubMed

    Figler, Bradley D; Chery, Lisly; Friedrich, Jeffrey B; Wessells, Hunter; Voelzke, Bryan B

    2015-11-01

    Patients with buried or hidden penis may be unable to carry out normal hygiene, void with a directable urine stream, or be sexually active as a result of the condition. Although these patients are nearly always obese, weight loss often does not reverse the problem, as the mons pannus may remain after weight loss. Furthermore, associated penile skin changes such as lichen sclerosus or stenosis of the penile shaft skin are often irreversible. Treatment includes removal of the diseased shaft skin surrounding the penis, in combination with a limited panniculectomy. The authors present their technique for this procedure in a typical patient with buried penis that prevented him from voiding effectively. PMID:26182174

  20. Dual-horizon Peridynamics

    E-print Network

    Ren, Huilong; Cai, Yongchang; Rabczuk, Timon

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we develop a new Peridynamic approach that naturally includes varying horizon sizes and completely solves the "ghost force" issue. Therefore, the concept of dual-horizon is introduced to consider the unbalanced interactions between the particles with different horizon sizes. The present formulation is proved to fulfill both the balances of linear momentum and angular momentum. Neither the "partial stress tensor" nor the "`slice" technique are needed to ameliorate the ghost force issue in \\cite{Silling2014}. The consistency of reaction forces is naturally fulfilled by a unified simple formulation. The method can be easily implemented to any existing peridynamics code with minimal changes. A simple adaptive refinement procedure is proposed minimizing the computational cost. The method is applied here to the three Peridynamic formulations, namely bond based, ordinary state based and non-ordinary state based Peridynamics. Both two- and three- dimensional examples including the Kalthof-Winkler experi...

  1. Soil response to a 3-year increase in temperature and nitrogen deposition measured in a mature boreal forest using ion-exchange membranes.

    PubMed

    D'Orangeville, Loďc; Houle, Daniel; Côté, Benoît; Duchesne, Louis

    2014-12-01

    The projected increase in atmospheric N deposition and air/soil temperature will likely affect soil nutrient dynamics in boreal ecosystems. The potential effects of these changes on soil ion fluxes were studied in a mature balsam fir stand (Abies balsamea [L.] Mill) in Quebec, Canada that was subjected to 3 years of experimentally increased soil temperature (+4 °C) and increased inorganic N concentration in artificial precipitation (three times the current N concentrations using NH4NO3). Soil element fluxes (NO3, NH4, PO4, K, Ca, Mg, SO4, Al, and Fe) in the organic and upper mineral horizons were monitored using buried ion-exchange membranes (PRS™ probes). While N additions did not affect soil element fluxes, 3 years of soil warming increased the cumulative fluxes of K, Mg, and SO4 in the forest floor by 43, 44, and 79 %, respectively, and Mg, SO4, and Al in the mineral horizon by 29, 66, and 23 %, respectively. We attribute these changes to increased rates of soil organic matter decomposition. Significant interactions of the heating treatment with time were observed for most elements although no clear seasonal patterns emerged. The increase in soil K and Mg in heated plots resulted in a significant but small K increase in balsam fir foliage while no change was observed for Mg. A 6-15 % decrease in foliar Ca content with soil warming could be related to the increase in soil-available Al in heated plots, as Al can interfere with the root uptake of Ca. PMID:25139238

  2. Surface acoustic wave devices as passive buried sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedt, J.-M.; Rétornaz, T.; Alzuaga, S.; Baron, T.; Martin, G.; Laroche, T.; Ballandras, S.; Griselin, M.; Simonnet, J.-P.

    2011-02-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices are currently used as passive remote-controlled sensors for measuring various physical quantities through a wireless link. Among the two main classes of designs—resonator and delay line—the former has the advantage of providing narrow-band spectrum informations and hence appears compatible with an interrogation strategy complying with Industry-Scientific-Medical regulations in radio-frequency (rf) bands centered around 434, 866, or 915 MHz. Delay-line based sensors require larger bandwidths as they consists of a few interdigitated electrodes excited by short rf pulses with large instantaneous energy and short response delays but is compatible with existing equipment such as ground penetrating radar (GPR). We here demonstrate the measurement of temperature using the two configurations, particularly for long term monitoring using sensors buried in soil. Although we have demonstrated long term stability and robustness of packaged resonators and signal to noise ratio compatible with the expected application, the interrogation range (maximum 80 cm) is insufficient for most geology or geophysical purposes. We then focus on the use of delay lines, as the corresponding interrogation method is similar to the one used by GPR which allows for rf penetration distances ranging from a few meters to tens of meters and which operates in the lower rf range, depending on soil water content, permittivity, and conductivity. Assuming propagation losses in a pure dielectric medium with negligible conductivity (snow or ice), an interrogation distance of about 40 m is predicted, which overcomes the observed limits met when using interrogation methods specifically developed for wireless SAW sensors, and could partly comply with the above-mentioned applications. Although quite optimistic, this estimate is consistent with the signal to noise ratio observed during an experimental demonstration of the interrogation of a delay line buried at a depth of 5 m in snow.

  3. Soils and the soil cover of the Valley of Geysers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostyuk, D. N.; Gennadiev, A. N.

    2014-06-01

    The results of field studies of the soil cover within the tourist part of the Valley of Geysers in Kamchatka performed in 2010 and 2011 are discussed. The morphology of soils, their genesis, and their dependence on the degree of hydrothermal impact are characterized; the soil cover patterns developing in the valley are analyzed. On the basis of the materials provided by the Kronotskii Biospheric Reserve and original field data, the soil map of the valley has been developed. The maps of vegetation conditions, soil temperature at the depth of 15 cm, and slopes of the surface have been used for this purpose together with satellite imagery and field descriptions of reference soil profiles. The legend to the soil map includes nine soil units and seven units of parent materials and their textures. Soil names are given according to the classification developed by I.L. Goldfarb (2005) for the soils of hydrothermal fields. The designation of soil horizons follows the new Classification and Diagnostic System of Russian Soils (2004). It is suggested that a new horizon—a thermometamorphic horizon TRM—can be introduced into this system by analogy with other metamorphic (transformed in situ) horizons distinguished in this system. This horizon is typical of the soils partly or completely transformed by hydrothermal impacts.

  4. Describing Soils: Calibration Tool for Teaching Soil Rupture Resistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seybold, C. A.; Harms, D. S.; Grossman, R. B.

    2009-01-01

    Rupture resistance is a measure of the strength of a soil to withstand an applied stress or resist deformation. In soil survey, during routine soil descriptions, rupture resistance is described for each horizon or layer in the soil profile. The lower portion of the rupture resistance classes are assigned based on rupture between thumb and…

  5. Assessing bioturbation using micromorphology and biosilicate evidence: A case study of the early-Holocene Brady Soil, central Great Plains, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodburn, T. L.; Hasiotis, S. T.; Johnson, W. C.

    2012-12-01

    The Old Wauneta Roadcut site in southwestern Nebraska exhibits a 1.2 meter-thick exposure of the Brady Soil, a buried paleosol which formed within loess during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. Excavation of the loess-paleosol sequence has revealed considerable bioturbation by plant roots, invertebrates, and small vertebrates. Bioturbation was not restricted to a single time period, but occurred continually throughout soil development, as evidenced by differing sediment fills and crosscutting relationships. The Brady Soil is an accretionary soil within the uppermost part of the Last Glacial Maximum Peoria Loess. At the base of the solum, the Bkb horizon exhibits an increased illuvial clay and carbonate content, and contains extensive, small (~2cm width), backfilled burrows typically produced by cicada nymphs (Cicadidae) or beetle larvae. The most stable period of the Brady Soil is expressed by the dark (9.8 YR 4/1), thick Ab horizon. This is overlain by an ACb horizon, where soil formation was being extinguished by the onset of Holocene-age Bignell Loess deposition. Within the upper solum and Bignell Loess, a shift in biota activity occurs as indicated by the large burrow (6-12 cm width) and chamber (30-40 cm width) systems observed. Trace sizes suggest that a burrowing rodent, such as the prairie dog (Cynomys sp.) or ground squirrel (Spermophilus sp.), was responsible for their creation. Soil micromorphology was used to distinguish sediment-size classes, mineralogy, and clay morphology of specific loess deposits and soil horizons in order to track displacement of sediment through the profile due to bioturbation. Five block samples were taken in undisturbed sediment and soil horizons for thin-section analysis. Twelve additional samples of burrow cross-sections or bioturbated sediment were analyzed for comparison. Soil features produced by faunal and floral activity were differentiated from features produced by pedologic processes through the identification and classification of granular and spongy microstructures indicative of excrement, calcitic biospheroids, infilling, meniscate backfilling, channel microstructures, and well-oriented clay coatings. Sediment morphology, mineralogy of the infill and backfill material, and biosilicate assemblages were used to trace the material to the source sediment location providing a timeline for events of bioturbation. Defining localized versus deep-mixing events provides an assessment of the disturbance to paleoclimate proxies and age data and will allow for a more accurate paleoclimate reconstruction in this heavily bioturbated paleosol.

  6. Modelling and interpreting biologically crusted dryland soil sub-surface structure using automated micropenetrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoon, Stephen R.; Felde, Vincent J. M. N. L.; Drahorad, Sylvie L.; Felix-Henningsen, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Soil penetrometers are used routinely to determine the shear strength of soils and deformable sediments both at the surface and throughout a depth profile in disciplines as diverse as soil science, agriculture, geoengineering and alpine avalanche-safety (e.g. Grunwald et al. 2001, Van Herwijnen et al. 2009). Generically, penetrometers comprise two principal components: An advancing probe, and a transducer; the latter to measure the pressure or force required to cause the probe to penetrate or advance through the soil or sediment. The force transducer employed to determine the pressure can range, for example, from a simple mechanical spring gauge to an automatically data-logged electronic transducer. Automated computer control of the penetrometer step size and probe advance rate enables precise measurements to be made down to a resolution of 10's of microns, (e.g. the automated electronic micropenetrometer (EMP) described by Drahorad 2012). Here we discuss the determination, modelling and interpretation of biologically crusted dryland soil sub-surface structures using automated micropenetrometry. We outline a model enabling the interpretation of depth dependent penetration resistance (PR) profiles and their spatial differentials using the model equations, ? {}(z) ={}? c0{}+? 1n[? n{}(z){}+anz + bnz2] and d? /dz = ? 1n[d? n(z) /dz{} {}+{}Frn(z)] where ? c0 and ? n are the plastic deformation stresses for the surface and nth soil structure (e.g. soil crust, layer, horizon or void) respectively, and Frn(z)dz is the frictional work done per unit volume by sliding the penetrometer rod an incremental distance, dz, through the nth layer. Both ? n(z) and Frn(z) are related to soil structure. They determine the form of ? {}(z){} measured by the EMP transducer. The model enables pores (regions of zero deformation stress) to be distinguished from changes in layer structure or probe friction. We have applied this method to both artificial calibration soils in the laboratory, and in-situ field studies. In particular, we discuss the nature and detection of surface and buried (fossil) subsurface Biological Soil Crusts (BSCs), voids, macroscopic particles and compositional layers. The strength of surface BSCs and the occurrence of buried BSCs and layers has been detected at sub millimetre scales to depths of 40mm. Our measurements and field observations of PR show the importance of morphological layering to overall BSC functions (Felde et al. 2015). We also discuss the effect of penetrometer shaft and probe-tip profiles upon the theoretical and experimental curves, EMP resolution and reproducibility, demonstrating how the model enables voids, buried biological soil crusts, exotic particles, soil horizons and layers to be distinguished one from another. This represents a potentially important contribution to advancing understanding of the relationship between BSCs and dryland soil structure. References: Drahorad SL, Felix-Henningsen P. (2012) An electronic micropenetrometer (EMP) for field measurements of biological soil crust stability, J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci., 175, 519-520 Felde V.J.M.N.L., Drahorad S.L., Felix-Henningsen P., Hoon S.R. (2015) Ongoing oversanding induces biological soil crust layering - a new approach for BSC structure elucidation determined from high resolution penetration resistance data (submitted) Grunwald, S., Rooney D.J., McSweeney K., Lowery B. (2001) Development of pedotransfer functions for a profile cone penetrometer, Geoderma, 100, 25-47 Van Herwijnen A., Bellaire S., Schweizer J. (2009) Comparison of micro-structural snowpack parameters derived from penetration resistance measurements with fracture character observations from compression tests, Cold Regions Sci. {& Technol.}, 59, 193-201

  7. 47 CFR 32.2423 - Buried cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... single or paired conductor cable, wire and other associated material used in constructing a physical path... privileges for the construction of cable and wire facilities shall be included in the account chargeable with... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Buried cable. 32.2423 Section...

  8. In situ vitrification on buried waste

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, S.O.

    1992-08-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is being evaluated as a remedial treatment technology for buried mixed and transuranic (TRU) wastes at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and can be related to buried wastes at other Department of Energy (DOE) sites. There are numerous locations around the DOE Complex where wastes were buried in the ground or stored for future burial. The Buried Waste Program (BWP) is conducting a comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the Department of Energy - Field Office Idaho (DOE-ID). As part of the RI/FS, an ISV scoping study on the treatability of the SDA mixed low-level and mixed TRU waste is being performed for applicability to remediation of the waste at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). The ISV project being conducted at the INEL by EG&G Idaho, Inc. consists of a treatability investigation to collect data to satisfy nine CERCLA criteria with regards to the SDA. This treatability investigation involves a series of experiments and related efforts to study the feasibility of ISV for remediation of mixed and TRU waste disposed of at the SDA.

  9. In situ vitrification on buried waste

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, S.O.

    1992-01-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is being evaluated as a remedial treatment technology for buried mixed and transuranic (TRU) wastes at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and can be related to buried wastes at other Department of Energy (DOE) sites. There are numerous locations around the DOE Complex where wastes were buried in the ground or stored for future burial. The Buried Waste Program (BWP) is conducting a comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the Department of Energy - Field Office Idaho (DOE-ID). As part of the RI/FS, an ISV scoping study on the treatability of the SDA mixed low-level and mixed TRU waste is being performed for applicability to remediation of the waste at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). The ISV project being conducted at the INEL by EG G Idaho, Inc. consists of a treatability investigation to collect data to satisfy nine CERCLA criteria with regards to the SDA. This treatability investigation involves a series of experiments and related efforts to study the feasibility of ISV for remediation of mixed and TRU waste disposed of at the SDA.

  10. The Panther Mountain circular structure, a possible buried meteorite crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isachsen, Y. W.; Wright, S. F.; Revetta, F. A.; Duneen, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    Panther Mountain, located near Phoenicia, New York, is part of the Catskill Mountains, which form the eastern end of the Allegheny Plateau in New York. It is a circular mass defined physiographically by an anomalous circular drainage pattern produced by Esopus Creek and its tributary Woodland Creek. The circular valley that rings the mountain is fracture-controlled; where bedrock is exposed, it shows a joint density 5 to 10 times greater than that on either side of the valley. Where obscured by alluvial valley fill, the bedrock's low seismic velocity suggests that this anomalous fracturing is continuous in the bedrock underlying the rim valley. North-south and east-west gravity and magnetic profiles were made across the structure. Terrane-corrected, residual gravity profiles show an 18-mgal negative anomaly, and very steep gradients indicate a near-surface source. Several possible explanations of the gravity data were modeled. We conclude that the Panther Mountain circular structure is probably a buried meteorite crater that formed contemporaneously with marine or fluvial sedimentation during Silurian or Devonian time. An examination of drill core and cuttings in the region is underway to search for ejecta deposits and possible seismic and tsunami effects in the sedimentary section. Success would result in both dating the impact and furnishing a chronostratigraphic marker horizon.

  11. Instability of enclosed horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kay, Bernard S.

    2015-03-01

    We point out that there are solutions to the scalar wave equation on dimensional Minkowski space with finite energy tails which, if they reflect off a uniformly accelerated mirror due to (say) Dirichlet boundary conditions on it, develop an infinite stress-energy tensor on the mirror's Rindler horizon. We also show that, in the presence of an image mirror in the opposite Rindler wedge, suitable compactly supported arbitrarily small initial data on a suitable initial surface will develop an arbitrarily large stress-energy scalar near where the two horizons cross. Also, while there is a regular Hartle-Hawking-Israel-like state for the quantum theory between these two mirrors, there are coherent states built on it for which there are similar singularities in the expectation value of the renormalized stress-energy tensor. We conjecture that in other situations with analogous enclosed horizons such as a (maximally extended) Schwarzschild black hole in equilibrium in a (stationary spherical) box or the (maximally extended) Schwarzschild-AdS spacetime, there will be similar stress-energy singularities and almost-singularities—leading to instability of the horizons when gravity is switched on and matter and gravity perturbations are allowed for. All this suggests it is incorrect to picture a black hole in equilibrium in a box or a Schwarzschild-AdS black hole as extending beyond the past and future horizons of a single Schwarzschild (/Schwarzschild-AdS) wedge. It would thus provide new evidence for 't Hooft's brick wall model while seeming to invalidate the picture in Maldacena's ` Eternal black holes in AdS'. It would thereby also support the validity of the author's matter-gravity entanglement hypothesis and of the paper ` Brick walls and AdS/CFT' by the author and Ortíz.

  12. Investors' horizon and stock prices

    E-print Network

    Parsa, Sahar

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three essays on the relation between investors' trading horizon and stock prices. The first chapter explores the theoretical relation between the horizon of traders and the negative externality ...

  13. Quasilocal rotating conformal Killing horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Ayan; Ghosh, Avirup

    2015-08-01

    The formulation of quasilocal conformal Killing horizons (CKH) is extended to include rotation. This necessitates that the horizon be foliated by 2-spheres which may be distorted. Matter degrees of freedom which fall through the horizon are represented by a real scalar field. We show that these rotating CKHs also admit a first law in differential form.

  14. Deepwater Horizon Natural Resource Damage Assessment Deepwater Horizon Trustees Announce Agreement in Principle for

    E-print Network

    Deepwater Horizon Natural Resource Damage Assessment Deepwater Horizon Trustees Announce Agreement) ------- The Deepwater Horizon oil spill Natural Resource Damage Assessment Trustees (Trustees) today announced another available. (more) #12;Deepwater Horizon Natural Resource Damage Assessment Page 2 Deepwater Horizon Trustees

  15. Behind the geon horizon

    E-print Network

    Guica, Monica

    2014-01-01

    We explore the Papadodimas-Raju prescription for reconstructing the region behind the horizon of one-sided black holes in AdS/CFT in the case of the RP^2 geon - a simple, analytic example of a single-sided, asymptotically AdS_3 black hole, which corresponds to a pure CFT state that thermalises at late times. We show that in this specific example, the mirror operators involved in the reconstruction of the interior have a particularly simple form: the mirror of a single trace operator at late times is just the corresponding single trace operator at early times. We use some explicit examples to explore how changes in the state modify the geometry inside the horizon.

  16. Soil response against oblique motion of pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Nyman, K.J.

    1984-03-01

    The proposed design procedures define the bilinear load-displacement relationships for soil restraint of buried pipes subjected to oblique horizontal-vertical motion. Arco derived these procedures from available theories on the behavior of soil restraint for inclined strip anchors, extending these mechanisms to the restraint of circular buried pipes. Typical pipeline design problems associated with this condition include restraint of out-of-place bends or combination bends where the net pipe thrust direction is oblique.

  17. Acceleration without Horizons

    E-print Network

    Alaric Doria; Gerardo Munoz

    2015-02-18

    We derive the metric of an accelerating observer moving with non-constant proper acceleration in flat spacetime. With the exception of a limiting case representing a Rindler observer, there are no horizons. In our solution, observers can accelerate to any desired terminal speed $v_{\\infty} accelerating observer is completely determined by the distance of closest approach and terminal velocity or, equivalently, by an acceleration parameter and terminal velocity.

  18. Refraction near the horizon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.; Liller, William

    1990-01-01

    Variations in astronomical refraction near the horizon are examined. Sunset timings, a sextant mounted on a tripod, and a temperature profile are utilized to derive the variations in refraction data, collected from 7 locations. It is determined that the refraction ranges from 0.234 to 1.678 deg with an rms deviation of 0.16, and it is observed that the variation is larger than previously supposed. Some applications for the variation of refraction value are discussed.

  19. Process for buried metallization in diamond film

    SciTech Connect

    Lake, M.L.; Ting, J.; Lagounov, A.; Tang, C.

    1996-03-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate methods of combining chemical vapor deposition diamond growth techniques with state-of-the-art physical vapor deposition or ion beam enhanced deposition to produce buried metallization of polycrystalline diamond films. The mechanical and electrical integrity of both the insulating and conducting elements following metallization and diamond overgrowth was shown. Both methods were shown to have bonding strength sufficient to withstand tape lift-off, which is regarded to be a good indication of strength needed for die attachment and wire bonding. Diamond overgrowth was also shown, thus enabling buried metallized layers to be created. Electrical resistivity property measurements on metallized layers and between metallization separated by diamond films were shown to be sufficient to allow the use of diamond as an insulating inter-layer material for multi-layer circuit boards. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. Preservation of daily tidal cycles and stacked alluvial swamp deposits: Depositional response to early compaction of buried peat bodies

    SciTech Connect

    Demko, T.M.; Gastaldo, R.A. )

    1990-05-01

    The character of the clastic depositional environments represented in the lower Mary Lee coal zone of the Pennsylvanian Pottsville Formation in the Warrior basin Alabama (tidally influenced mud flats and alluvial swamps) was controlled by the compaction of buried peat bodies. The lowest mineable coal in the Mary Lee coal zone, the Jagger, is overlain by laminated shale and sandstone exhibiting pronounced cycle bedding. This bedding records daily tidal cyclicity in the form of sand-mud couplets. These correspond to flood-current deposition of the coarser fraction followed by fallout of the finer grained fraction during ensuing slack-water periods. These couplets are cyclically bundled-sandier bundles corresponding to spring tides and muddier bundles to neap tides (lamination counts suggest a 24-30-day cycle). The clastic sequence above the overlying Blue Creek coal is characterized by a series of stacked alluvial swamp horizons. These can be identified by autochthonous fossil plants and pedological features indicative of gleyed paleosols. Catastrophic flooding buried and preserved these horizons. The rapid, early compaction of the buried Jagger and Blue Creek peat bodies created accommodation space that allowed both the preservation of tidalites in the Jagger coal to Blue Creek coal interval and the stacking of alluvial swamp paleosols above the Blue Creek seam. Carboniferous peats were comprised of highly compressible plant parts and hence, were sensitive to sediment loading. Once the peat bodies had compressed to a certain extent, stability of the overlying sediment surface created conditions amenable to resumption of peat accumulation.

  1. Coaxial inverted geometry transistor having buried emitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hruby, R. J.; Cress, S. B.; Dunn, W. R. (inventors)

    1973-01-01

    The invention relates to an inverted geometry transistor wherein the emitter is buried within the substrate. The transistor can be fabricated as a part of a monolithic integrated circuit and is particularly suited for use in applications where it is desired to employ low actuating voltages. The transistor may employ the same doping levels in the collector and emitter, so these connections can be reversed.

  2. Buried caldera of mauna kea volcano, hawaii.

    PubMed

    Porter, S C

    1972-03-31

    An elliptical caldera (2.1 by 2.8 kilometers) at the summit of Mauna Kea volcano is inferred to lie buried beneath hawaiite lava flows and pyroclastic cones at an altitude of approximately 3850 meters. Stratigraphic relationships indicate that hawaiite eruptions began before a pre-Wisconsin period of ice-cap glaciation and that the crest of the mountain attained its present altitude and gross form during a glaciation of probable Early Wisconsin age. PMID:17842285

  3. Bearingless Segment Motor with Buried Magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, Wolfgang; Amrhein, Wolfgang; Stallinger, Thomas; Grabner, Herbert

    Bearingless motors combine contactless levitation and rotation in a preferably compact system design, because bearing as well as motor windings are located on the same lamination stack. The bearingless slice motor features comparatively low complexity for a fully magnetically levitated drive system, because it allows the passive stabilization of three degrees of freedom by reluctance forces. By the use of a proper control scheme and the superposition of different current components, bearing forces and motor torque can be generated simultaneously by applying concentrated windings. This leads to a further simplification of the mechanical configuration. The bearingless segment motor features such concentrated coils on separated stator elements, which reduce the stator iron and therefore weight and cost, especially for constructions with large diameter. However, so far all bearingless slice motors are designed with surface mounted permanent magnets on the rotor, neglecting the advantages of buried permanent magnets. In this paper a novel bearingless segment motor featuring a rotor with buried permanent magnets is investigated. The motor specific mathematical model of force and torque generation is presented, a proper control scheme is introduced and the optimization of the prototype motor is outlined. Motor specific considerations concerning the angular sensors are given. Finally, the performance of the bearingless segment motor with buried permanent magnets is shown by the comparison of simulation results with measurement data of the manufactured prototype.

  4. Detection and mapping of buried waste

    SciTech Connect

    Stahl, G.; Odenweller, J.; Huff, D.

    1996-08-01

    A major environmental concern today is the characterization, remediation, and monitoring of Federal waste sites, such as those operated by the Department of Energy (DOE). A significant amount of hazardous waste is buried at known sites on DOE reservations. Determining the exact location of buried waste trenches is an important step in the characterization and remediation of these sites. Remotely sensed imagery offers a rich source of information for accomplishing this task. This paper presents a case study conducted at Solid Waste Storage Area 4 (SWSA 4) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Historical aerial photography and recently collected multispectral imagery were analyzed to determine the precise locations of the buried trenches. A comparison of the results to recent ground measurements indicates the strengths and weaknesses of the remote sensing approach. Further analysis of these ground data also provides an understanding of the phenomenology that gives rise to the imagery signatures associated with the trenches. Application of these techniques can significantly reduce the costs of site remediation. By knowing the trench locations precisely, rather than the general locations, remediation alternatives to contain and isolate the waste materials can be tailored appropriately.

  5. Soil Core Sample #1

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Soil core obtained from existing goose grazing lawn along the Smith River in the Teshekpuk Lake Special Area of the National Petroleum Reserve - Alaska.  The buried layer of peat beneath goose grazing lawn demonstrates that vegetation change has occurred in this area....

  6. Periglacial morphogenesis in the Paris basin: insight from geophysical survey and consequences for the fate of soil pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiry, Médard; van Oort, Folkert; Thiesson, Julien; Van Vliet-Lanoe, Brigitte

    2013-09-01

    Geophysical survey by Automatic Resistivity Profiling (ARP©) system of the Pierrelaye-Bessancourt area revealed remarkable conductive polygon patterns of 20- to 30-m diameter detected between 0.5- and 1.7-m depth. Trenches dug down to the limestone substrate allowed detailing of the pedological and lithological units that compose such polygonal features. The patterns are formed by greenish glauconite and carbonated sand hollows where clay-rich pedological horizons bend downward, forming narrow tongs extending up to 2- to 3-m depth. Such structures were interpreted as a buried polygonal ice-wedge network (thermokarst depressions). Geometrical relationships between the lithological units and consecutive erosional surfaces allowed the identification of successive landscape events and a landscape chronology. The sequence started during the Saalian glaciation with (1) the development of patterned grounds by thermokarstic cryoturbation; (2) the consecutive deflation/erosion during post-permafrost aridity; (3) the loess and eolian sand deposits; (4) the weathering of the former deposits with development of pedogenic horizons during the Eemian interglacial; (5) the recurrent cryoturbation and thermal cracking leading to infolding of the pedogenic horizons during the Pleniglacial optimum (Weichselian); and finally (5) the erosion that levelled the periglacial microreliefs, most probably during the last glacial stage (Weichselian), leading to the modern landscape. In this agricultural area, urban waste water has been spread for more than 100 years by flooding irrigation for food crop production and has led to high levels of metal pollution in the surface horizons of the soils. The polygonal cryogenic structures have major impacts on soil hydrology and dispersion/distribution of heavy metals toward the geological substrate. Such structures are essential to consider when conceiving proposals for future soil management of this polluted area.

  7. Mass Transport within Soils

    SciTech Connect

    McKone, Thomas E.

    2009-03-01

    Contaminants in soil can impact human health and the environment through a complex web of interactions. Soils exist where the atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere, and biosphere converge. Soil is the thin outer zone of the earth's crust that supports rooted plants and is the product of climate and living organisms acting on rock. A true soil is a mixture of air, water, mineral, and organic components. The relative proportions of these components determine the value of the soil for agricultural and for other human uses. These proportions also determine, to a large extent, how a substance added to soil is transported and/or transformed within the soil (Spositio, 2004). In mass-balance models, soil compartments play a major role, functioning both as reservoirs and as the principal media for transport among air, vegetation, surface water, deeper soil, and ground water (Mackay, 2001). Quantifying the mass transport of chemicals within soil and between soil and atmosphere is important for understanding the role soil plays in controlling fate, transport, and exposure to multimedia pollutants. Soils are characteristically heterogeneous. A trench dug into soil typically reveals several horizontal layers having different colors and textures. As illustrated in Figure 1, these multiple layers are often divided into three major horizons: (1) the A horizon, which encompasses the root zone and contains a high concentration of organic matter; (2) the B horizon, which is unsaturated, lies below the roots of most plants, and contains a much lower organic carbon content; and (3) the C horizon, which is the unsaturated zone of weathered parent rock consisting of bedrock, alluvial material, glacial material, and/or soil of an earlier geological period. Below these three horizons lies the saturated zone - a zone that encompasses the area below ground surface in which all interconnected openings within the geologic media are completely filled with water. Similarly to the unsaturated zone with three major horizons, the saturated zone can be further divided into other zones based on hydraulic and geologic conditions. Wetland soils are a special and important class in which near-saturation conditions exist most of the time. When a contaminant is added to or formed in a soil column, there are several mechanisms by which it can be dispersed, transported out of the soil column to other parts of the environment, destroyed, or transformed into some other species. Thus, to evaluate or manage any contaminant introduced to the soil column, one must determine whether and how that substance will (1) remain or accumulate within the soil column, (2) be transported by dispersion or advection within the soil column, (3) be physically, chemically, or biologically transformed within the soil (i.e., by hydrolysis, oxidation, etc.), or (4) be transported out of the soil column to another part of the environment through a cross-media transfer (i.e., volatilization, runoff, ground water infiltration, etc.). These competing processes impact the fate of physical, chemical, or biological contaminants found in soils. In order to capture these mechanisms in mass transfer models, we must develop mass-transfer coefficients (MTCs) specific to soil layers. That is the goal of this chapter. The reader is referred to other chapters in this Handbook that address related transport processes, namely Chapter 13 on bioturbation, Chapter 15 on transport in near-surface geological formations, and Chapter 17 on soil resuspention. This chapter addresses the following issues: the nature of soil pollution, composition of soil, transport processes and transport parameters in soil, transformation processes in soil, mass-balance models, and MTCs in soils. We show that to address vertical heterogeneity in soils in is necessary to define a characteristic scaling depth and use this to establish process-based expressions for soil MTCs. The scaling depth in soil and the corresponding MTCs depend strongly on (1) the composition of the soil and physical state of the soil, (2) the chemical and physic

  8. New Horizons at Pluto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Artist's concept of the New Horizons spacecraft as it approaches Pluto and its largest moon, Charon, in July 2015. The craft's miniature cameras, radio science experiment, ultraviolet and infrared spectrometers and space plasma experiments will characterize the global geology and geomorphology of Pluto and Charon, map their surface compositions and temperatures, and examine Pluto's atmosphere in detail. The spacecraft's most prominent design feature is a nearly 7-foot (2.1-meter) dish antenna, through which it will communicate with Earth from as far as 4.7 billion miles (7.5 billion kilometers) away.

  9. communications in soil scienceand

    E-print Network

    Ma, Lena

    ) IMPACT OF HIGH-VOLUME WOOD-FIRED BOILER ASH AMENDMENT ON SOIL PROPERTIES AND NUTRIENTS Tait Chirenje-0290 ABSTRACT Forest application of boiler ash is fast becoming a popular alternative to landfilling. Boiler ash following the application of large quantities of boiler ash in a sandy soil (with a spodic horizon). Two

  10. HORIZON SENSING (PROPOSAL NO.51)

    SciTech Connect

    Larry G. Stolarczyk

    2003-07-30

    Real-time horizon sensing on continuous mining (CM) machines is becoming an industry tool. Installation and testing of production-grade Horizon Sensor (HS) systems has been ongoing this quarter at Monterey Coal Company (ExxonMobil), Mountain Coal Company West Elk Mine (Arch), Deserado Mining Company (Blue Mountain Energy), and The Ohio Valley Coal Company (TOVCC). Monitoring of system function, user experience, and mining benefits is ongoing. All horizon sensor components have finished MSHA (U.S.) and IEC (International) certification.

  11. HORIZON SENSING (PROPOSAL NO.51)

    SciTech Connect

    Larry G. Stolarczyk

    2003-07-01

    Real-time horizon sensing on continuous mining machines is becoming an industry tool. Installation and testing of production-grade Horizon Sensor (HS) systems continued this quarter at Monterey Coal Company (ExxonMobil), Mountain Coal Company West Elk Mine (Arch), and Ohio Valley Coal Company (OVC). Monitoring of system function, user experience, and mining benefits is ongoing. All horizon sensor components have finished MSHA (U.S.) and IEC (International) certification.

  12. Horizon thermodynamics and spacetime mappings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faraoni, Valerio; Vitagliano, Vincenzo

    2014-03-01

    When black holes are dynamical, event horizons are replaced by apparent and trapping horizons. Conformal and Kerr-Schild transformations are widely used in relation to dynamical black holes, and we study the behavior under such transformations of quantities related to the thermodynamics of these horizons, such as the Misner-Sharp-Hernandez mass (internal energy), the Kodama vector, surface gravity, and temperature. The transformation properties are not those expected on the basis of naive arguments.

  13. The New Horizons Spacecraft

    E-print Network

    Glen H. Fountain; David Y. Kusnierkiewicz; Christopher B. Hersman; Timothy S. Herder; Thomas B. Coughlin; William C. Gibson; Deborah A. Clancy; Christopher C. DeBoy; T. Adrian Hill; James D. Kinnison; Douglas S. Mehoke; Geffrey K. Ottman; Gabe D. Rogers; S. Alan Stern; James M. Stratton; Steven R. Vernon; Stephen P. Williams

    2007-09-26

    The New Horizons spacecraft was launched on 19 January 2006. The spacecraft was designed to provide a platform for seven instruments that will collect and return data from Pluto in 2015. The design drew on heritage from previous missions developed at The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) and other missions such as Ulysses. The trajectory design imposed constraints on mass and structural strength to meet the high launch acceleration needed to reach the Pluto system prior to the year 2020. The spacecraft subsystems were designed to meet tight mass and power allocations, yet provide the necessary control and data handling finesse to support data collection and return when the one-way light time during the Pluto flyby is 4.5 hours. Missions to the outer solar system require a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) to supply electrical power, and a single RTG is used by New Horizons. To accommodate this constraint, the spacecraft electronics were designed to operate on less than 200 W. The spacecraft system architecture provides sufficient redundancy to provide a probability of mission success of greater than 0.85, even with a mission duration of over 10 years. The spacecraft is now on its way to Pluto, with an arrival date of 14 July 2015. Initial inflight tests have verified that the spacecraft will meet the design requirements.

  14. Pedogenesis along a Climosequence in Loess-Derived Soils of the Central Great Plains

    E-print Network

    Klopfenstein, Scott

    2014-05-31

    Understanding the pedogenic effects of average annual precipitation on loess-derived soils provides insight to past climate scenarios based on buried paleosols, as well as the ability to better predict future soil morphological changes due...

  15. Prehistoric Agriculture and Soil Fertility on Lava Flows in Northern Arizona, USA: Results from the San Francisco Volcanic Field REU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broadman, E.; Anderson, K. C.

    2013-12-01

    The San Francisco Volcanic Field in northern Arizona is home to ~600 cinder cones, the youngest of which is Sunset Crater (erupted ~AD 1100). This study documents trends in available phosphate and nitrate content with time, testing whether lowered soil pH from the addition of Sunset cinders increased soil fertility and became a factor in Anasazi agricultural success. Soil fertility is examined both before and after Sunset's eruption in soils of different ages that have developed from eolian deposition on top of lava flows. An increase in phosphate and nitrate levels following acidification would suggest that the presence of Sunset cinders brought the soils to the optimal pH for mobilization of these nutrients. The combined effects of the cinder layer retaining nutrients and water, wetter climates, and increases in phosphate and nitrate (both limiting nutrients for plant growth), would have contributed to Anasazi agricultural success after Sunset's eruption. Samples for this study were taken from eolian-derived soils of different ages atop lava flows in the San Francisco Volcanic Field. OSL data from these soils on Strawberry and SP Craters' lava flows yielded age estimates of ~12.3 ka (Strawberry) and ~32.7 ka (SP), on which a soil chronosequence was based. Results from the chronosequence supported these OSL ages, indicating that soils on the SP flow are older than those on the Strawberry flow. Field descriptions, Harden Development Indices, particle size analysis, and nutrient content analysis were used for this aspect of the project. An experimental acid wash method will be used to simulate the addition of Sunset's acidic cinders, and will yield data for phosphate and nitrate content after Sunset erupted. Preliminary results indicate that phosphate and nitrate accumulate in upper, eolian-derived horizons (Av, Bw) and in more deeply buried carbonate horizons (Bk). Higher concentrations of phosphate and nitrate were found in older (SP) soils than younger (Strawberry) soils, suggesting that these nutrients increase over time with eolian deposition and soil development. Results from this study will yield information on the impact of volcanic eruptions and soil development on prehistoric agriculture and soil fertility. This study contributes to our understanding of the interactions between eruptions and human populations.

  16. Fabrication of Buried Nanochannels From Nanowire Patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Daniel; Yang, Eui-Hyeok

    2007-01-01

    A method of fabricating channels having widths of tens of nanometers in silicon substrates and burying the channels under overlying layers of dielectric materials has been demonstrated. With further refinement, the method might be useful for fabricating nanochannels for manipulation and analysis of large biomolecules at single-molecule resolution. Unlike in prior methods, burying the channels does not involve bonding of flat wafers to the silicon substrates to cover exposed channels in the substrates. Instead, the formation and burying of the channels are accomplished in a more sophisticated process that is less vulnerable to defects in the substrates and less likely to result in clogging of, or leakage from, the channels. In this method, the first step is to establish the channel pattern by forming an array of sacrificial metal nanowires on an SiO2-on-Si substrate. In particular, the wire pattern is made by use of focused-ion-beam (FIB) lithography and a subsequent metallization/lift-off process. The pattern of metal nanowires is then transferred onto the SiO2 layer by reactive-ion etching, which yields sacrificial SiO2 nanowires covered by metal. After removal of the metal covering the SiO2 nanowires, what remains are SiO2 nanowires on an Si substrate. Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) is used to form a layer of a dielectric material over the Si substrate and over the SiO2 wires on the surface of the substrate. FIB milling is then performed to form trenches at both ends of each SiO2 wire. The trenches serve as openings for the entry of chemicals that etch SiO2 much faster than they etch Si. Provided that the nanowires are not so long that the diffusion of the etching chemicals is blocked, the sacrificial SiO2 nanowires become etched out from between the dielectric material and the Si substrate, leaving buried channels. At the time of reporting the information for this article, channels 3 m long, 20 nm deep, and 80 nm wide (see figure) had been fabricated by this method.

  17. Technologies on the Horizon: Teachers Respond to the Horizon Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Charles B.; Prater, Alyssa H.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate teachers' beliefs regarding the integration of technologies from the 2011 K-12 edition of the "Horizon Report" into their local, public school contexts. Teachers read the "Horizon Report" and then participated in an asynchronous, threaded discussion focusing on technologies they…

  18. Near horizon structure of extremal vanishing horizon black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghian, S.; Sheikh-Jabbari, M. M.; Vahidinia, M. H.; Yavartanoo, H.

    2015-11-01

    We study the near horizon structure of Extremal Vanishing Horizon (EVH) black holes, extremal black holes with vanishing horizon area with a vanishing one-cycle on the horizon. We construct the most general near horizon EVH and near-EVH ansatz for the metric and other fields, like dilaton and gauge fields which may be present in the theory. We prove that (1) the near horizon EVH geometry for generic gravity theory in generic dimension has a three dimensional maximally symmetric subspace; (2) if the matter fields of the theory satisfy strong energy condition either this 3d part is AdS3, or the solution is a direct product of a locally 3d flat space and a d - 3 dimensional part; (3) these results extend to the near horizon geometry of near-EVH black holes, for which the AdS3 part is replaced with BTZ geometry. We present some specific near horizon EVH geometries in 3, 4 and 5 dimensions for which there is a classification. We also briefly discuss implications of these generic results for generic (gauged) supergravity theories and also for the thermodynamics of near-EVH black holes and the EVH/CFT proposal.

  19. Virtual environmental applications for buried waste characterization technology evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The project, Virtual Environment Applications for Buried Waste Characterization, was initiated in the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program in fiscal year 1994. This project is a research and development effort that supports the remediation of buried waste by identifying and examining the issues, needs, and feasibility of creating virtual environments using available characterization and other data. This document describes the progress and results from this project during the past year.

  20. Genesis of pedons with discontinuous argillic horizons in the Holocene loess mantle of the southern Pampean landscape, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco, M. del C.; Stoops, G.

    2007-01-01

    Soil development in the plain landscape of the southern Argentinean Pampa is related to pulses of aeolian accretion of calcareous loess during the Holocene epoch. Such plain relief is associated with landform stability that favors pedogenesis. In some sectors of the Holocene loess mantle, detailed soil surveys show a great variability of soil morphology in short distances (<7 m), such that pedons with Bt horizon (Ap-Bt-C-2Ckm) coexist with pedons with an AC horizon (Ap-AC-C-2Ckm) in a plain landscape, within identical loess parent material over a tosca layer (2Ckm-calcrete-petrocalcic horizon), and in a similar pedoclimate. This article studies the origin of this spatial variation. Loess parent materials directly overlie the relic tosca layer, exhumed after erosion of preexisting soils of the Late Pleistocene. The contrast in soil morphology between the petrocalcic horizon and the overlying Holocene soils reflects the effect of polygenesis. The complex soil spatial distribution pattern over the tosca layer appears unrelated to its paleomicrotopography, because soils with Bt horizons are identified in positive and depressed microlandforms of the tosca. The absence of Bt horizons might be caused by formerly intense biological activity related to a stable pattern of two natural vegetation covers or a surface paleomicrotopography that supported distinct vegetation types depending on the soil moisture in each paleomicrolandform.

  1. System and method for removal of buried objects

    DOEpatents

    Alexander, Robert G. (Richland, WA); Crass, Dennis (Kennewick, WA); Grams, William (Kennewick, WA); Phillips, Steven J. (Sunnyside, WA); Riess, Mark (Kennewick, WA)

    2008-06-03

    The present invention is a system and method for removal of buried objects. According to one embodiment of the invention, a crane with a vibrator casing driver is used to lift and suspend a large diameter steel casing over the buried object. Then the casing is driven into the ground by the vibratory driver until the casing surrounds the buried object. Then the open bottom of the casing is sealed shut by injecting grout into the ground within the casing near its bottom. When the seal has cured and hardened, the top of the casing is lifted to retrieve the casing, with the buried object inside, from the ground.

  2. Multi channel FM reflection profiler for buried pipeline surveying

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, S.G.; LeBlanc, L.R.

    1996-12-31

    A towed multi-channel FM acoustic reflection profiler has been developed for locating and generating images of buried objects. One significant application of this sonar is buried pipeline surveying. The multi-channel reflection profiler uses 16 line arrays mounted in a towed vehicle to determine the position and burial depth of an 18 inch steel pipe filled with concrete buried under 1.5 meters of sand. This sonar will allow a survey vessel to continuously track a buried pipeline providing a continuous record of pipe burial depth and position.

  3. 78 FR 54298 - Horizons ETFs Management (USA) LLC and Horizons ETF Trust; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-03

    ...30680; 812-14178] Horizons ETFs Management (USA) LLC and Horizons ETF Trust...Applicants: Horizons ETFs Management (USA) LLC (``Horizons'') and...Actively-managed series of certain open-end management investment companies to issue...

  4. Transformation of polymetallic dust in the organic horizon of Al-Fe-humus podzol (field experiment)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyanguzova, I. V.; Goldvirt, D. K.; Fadeeva, I. K.

    2015-07-01

    Scanning electron microscopy with an X-ray spectral microanalysis showed that the ash matter from the organic horizons (after ignition) of control and experimental plots mainly (>85%) consists of different soil-forming minerals and iron oxides (particularly magnetite). From 10% to 15% of particles in the organic horizon of Al-Fe-humus podzol (Albic Rustic Podzol) of the experimental plot were represented by polymetallic ball-shaped dust particles that were preserved in the soil without significant transformation for 14 years after their artificial application. The total contents of Cu, Pb, As, and Ni in the organic horizon on the experimental plot were 22-100 times higher than those in the control; the contents of Zn and Fe were 2-5 times higher. The sequence of chemical elements according to their total contents in the samples of control and experimental plots was different. The portion of available forms of heavy metal (Ni, Cu, and Co) compounds extractable with 1.0 M HCl averaged 20-30% of their total contents in the soil. More than 80% of acid-soluble forms of heavy metals were concentrated in the organic horizon of contaminated podzol soil, which represents the biogeochemical barrier to the migration of pollutants down the soil profile. Durable fixation of heavy metals in the organic horizon and their weak migration into the mineral soil layers significantly hamper the processes of self-purification of contaminated soils.

  5. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Kostelnik, K.M.

    1991-12-01

    This document presents the plan of activities for the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program which supports the environmental restoration (ER) objectives of the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex. Discussed in this plan are the objectives, organization, roles and responsibilities, and the process for implementing and managing BWID. BWID is hosted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), but involves participants from throughout the DOE Complex, private industry, universities, and the international community. These participants will support, demonstrate, and evaluate a suite of advanced technologies representing a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. The processes for identifying technological needs, screening candidate technologies for applicability and maturity, selecting appropriate technologies for demonstration, field demonstrating, evaluation of results and transferring technologies to environmental restoration programs are also presented. This document further describes the elements of project planning and control that apply to BWID. It addresses the management processes, operating procedures, programmatic and technical objectives, and schedules. Key functions in support of each demonstration such as regulatory coordination, safety analyses, risk evaluations, facility requirements, and data management are presented.

  6. Telescopic horizon scanning.

    PubMed

    Koenderink, Jan

    2014-12-20

    The problem of "distortionless" viewing with terrestrial telescopic systems (mainly "binoculars") remains problematic. The so called "globe effect" is only partially counteracted in modern designs. Theories addressing the phenomenon have never reached definitive closure. In this paper, we show that exact distortionless viewing with terrestrial telescopic systems is not possible in general, but that it is in principle possible in-very frequent in battle field and marine applications-the case of horizon scanning. However, this involves cylindrical optical elements. For opto-electronic systems, a full solution is more readily feasible. The solution involves a novel interpretation of the relevant constraints and objectives. For final design decisions, it is not necessary to rely on a corpus of psychophysical (or ergonomic) data, although one has to decide whether the instrument is intended as an extension of the eye or as a "pictorial" device. PMID:25608206

  7. Resolving Lifshitz Horizons

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Sarah; Kachru, Shamit; Wang, Huajia; /Stanford U., ITP /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

    2012-04-24

    Via the AdS/CFT correspondence, ground states of field theories at finite charge density are mapped to extremal black brane solutions. Studies of simple gravity + matter systems in this context have uncovered wide new classes of extremal geometries. The Lifshitz metrics characterizing field theories with non-trivial dynamical critical exponent z {ne} 1 emerge as one common endpoint in doped holographic toy models. However, the Lifshitz horizon exhibits mildly singular behaviour - while curvature invariants are finite, there are diverging tidal forces. Here we show that in some of the simplest contexts where Lifshitz metrics emerge, Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theories, generic corrections lead to a replacement of the Lifshitz metric, in the deep infrared, by a re-emergent AdS{sub 2} x R{sup 2} geometry. Thus, at least in these cases, the Lifshitz scaling characterizes the physics over a wide range of energy scales, but the mild singularity is cured by quantum or stringy effects.

  8. The Horizon Report. 2005 Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Media Consortium, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This second edition of the New Media Consortium's (NMC) annual "Horizon Report" describes the continuing work of the Horizon Project, a research-oriented effort that seeks to identify and describe emerging technologies likely to have a large impact on teaching, learning, or creative expression within higher education. Drawing on an ongoing series…

  9. The Horizon Report. 2004 Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Media Consortium, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This first edition of the New Media Consortium's (NMC) annual "Horizon Report" details findings of the Horizon Project, a research-oriented effort that seeks to identify and describe emerging technologies likely to have a large impact on teaching, learning, or creative expression within higher education. Drawing on an ongoing series of interviews…

  10. The Horizon Report. 2007 Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Media Consortium, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This fourth edition of the New Media Consortium's (NMC) annual "Horizon Report" describes the continuing work of the Horizon Project, a research-oriented effort that seeks to identify and describe emerging technologies likely to have a large impact on teaching, learning, or creative expression within higher education. Drawing on ongoing…

  11. The New Horizons Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fountain, Glen H.; Kusnierkiewicz, David Y.; Hersman, Christopher B.; Herder, Timothy S.; Coughlin, Thomas B.; Gibson, William C.; Clancy, Deborah A.; Deboy, Christopher C.; Hill, T. Adrian; Kinnison, James D.; Mehoke, Douglas S.; Ottman, Geffrey K.; Rogers, Gabe D.; Stern, S. Alan; Stratton, James M.; Vernon, Steven R.; Williams, Stephen P.

    2008-10-01

    The New Horizons spacecraft was launched on 19 January 2006. The spacecraft was designed to provide a platform for seven instruments designated by the science team to collect and return data from Pluto in 2015. The design meets the requirements established by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Announcement of Opportunity AO-OSS-01. The design drew on heritage from previous missions developed at The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) and other missions such as Ulysses. The trajectory design imposed constraints on mass and structural strength to meet the high launch acceleration consistent with meeting the AO requirement of returning data prior to the year 2020. The spacecraft subsystems were designed to meet tight resource allocations (mass and power) yet provide the necessary control and data handling finesse to support data collection and return when the one-way light time during the Pluto fly-by is 4.5 hours. Missions to the outer regions of the solar system (where the solar irradiance is 1/1000 of the level near the Earth) require a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) to supply electrical power. One RTG was available for use by New Horizons. To accommodate this constraint, the spacecraft electronics were designed to operate on approximately 200 W. The travel time to Pluto put additional demands on system reliability. Only after a flight time of approximately 10 years would the desired data be collected and returned to Earth. This represents the longest flight duration prior to the return of primary science data for any mission by NASA. The spacecraft system architecture provides sufficient redundancy to meet this requirement with a probability of mission success of greater than 0.85. The spacecraft is now on its way to Pluto, with an arrival date of 14 July 2015. Initial in-flight tests have verified that the spacecraft will meet the design requirements.

  12. Dissolved Organic Carbon and Nitrogen Leaching From Soil Formed in Grass, Oak and Pine Ecosystems of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pittiglio, S. L.; Zasoski, R. J.

    2005-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) leaching from decomposing detritus accumulated above mineral soils is an important carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) flux that influences biogeochemical processes, C sequestration and the health of individual ecosystems. This study compared the retention and transformation of DOM leached through soils formed under three contrasting vegetation types. In a laboratory study, columns of surface soil (10 cm diameter, 10 cm height) from either a grass, oak or pine site were leached with DOM derived from either grass, oak or pine litter. In the field, the laboratory study was replicated by burying columns of soil from the grass, oak and pine sites under the organic horizon at each sites. Leachates from in-situ field columns were collected biweekly beginning in January 2005. Samples were analyzed for volume, pH, total N, NO3-, NH4+, DON and DOC. In the laboratory leaching studies soils retained DOC derived from its native ecosystem to a greater extent. These results suggest that the microbial community from each ecosystem is adapted to consume the native DOC. No clear trends were found with DOC in the field study. Leachates from the field columns did show significantly lower levels of DON from pine soil columns at all sampling dates and sites. Similar results were found in the laboratory study with pine soil decreasing initial total N inputs from 32.9 to 3.6 mg kg-1. While all three sites contain kaolinite, vermiculite and chlorite, soil from the pine site also has high levels of iron oxides and gibbsite. The greater iron content likely contributes to higher DON retention since these minerals are know to have high affinities for the retention of DOM. The results from the field and laboratory experiments show that both soil minerals and the soil microbial communities play an important role in DOM retention in the subsoil.

  13. Black Strings Ending on Horizons

    E-print Network

    Nidal Haddad

    2012-11-17

    We construct an approximate static gravitational solution of the Einstein equations, with negative cosmological constant, describing a test black string stretching from the boundary of the Schwarzschild-AdS_5 black brane toward the horizon. The construction builds on a derivative expansion method, assuming that the black brane metric changes slowly along the black string direction. We provide a solution up to second order in derivatives and it implies, in particular, that the black string must shrink to zero size at the horizon of the black brane. In the near horizon region of the black brane, where the two horizons intersect, we provide an exact solution of a cone that describes two intersecting horizons at different temperatures. Moreover, we show that this solution equally describes a thin and long black droplet.

  14. Dynamical evaporation of quantum horizons

    E-print Network

    Daniele Pranzetti

    2013-07-15

    We describe the black hole evaporation process driven by the dynamical evolution of the quantum gravitational degrees of freedom resident at the horizon, as identified by the loop quantum gravity kinematics. Using a parallel with the Brownian motion, we interpret the first law of quantum dynamical horizon in terms of a fluctuation-dissipation relation. In this way, the horizon evolution is described in terms of relaxation to an equilibrium state balanced by the excitation of Planck scale constituents of the horizon. This discrete quantum hair structure associated to the horizon geometry produces a deviation from thermality in the radiation spectrum. We investigate the final stage of the evaporation process and show how the dynamics leads to the formation of a massive remnant, which can eventually decay. Implications for the information paradox are discussed.

  15. Microbial community composition shapes enzyme patterns in topsoil and subsoil horizons along a latitudinal transect in Western Siberia

    PubMed Central

    Schnecker, Jörg; Wild, Birgit; Takriti, Mounir; Eloy Alves, Ricardo J.; Gentsch, Norman; Gittel, Antje; Hofer, Angelika; Klaus, Karoline; Knoltsch, Anna; Lashchinskiy, Nikolay; Mikutta, Robert; Richter, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Soil horizons below 30 cm depth contain about 60% of the organic carbon stored in soils. Although insight into the physical and chemical stabilization of soil organic matter (SOM) and into microbial community composition in these horizons is being gained, information on microbial functions of subsoil microbial communities and on associated microbially-mediated processes remains sparse. To identify possible controls on enzyme patterns, we correlated enzyme patterns with biotic and abiotic soil parameters, as well as with microbial community composition, estimated using phospholipid fatty acid profiles. Enzyme patterns (i.e. distance-matrixes calculated from these enzyme activities) were calculated from the activities of six extracellular enzymes (cellobiohydrolase, leucine-amino-peptidase, N-acetylglucosaminidase, chitotriosidase, phosphatase and phenoloxidase), which had been measured in soil samples from organic topsoil horizons, mineral topsoil horizons, and mineral subsoil horizons from seven ecosystems along a 1500 km latitudinal transect in Western Siberia. We found that hydrolytic enzyme activities decreased rapidly with depth, whereas oxidative enzyme activities in mineral horizons were as high as, or higher than in organic topsoil horizons. Enzyme patterns varied more strongly between ecosystems in mineral subsoil horizons than in organic topsoils. The enzyme patterns in topsoil horizons were correlated with SOM content (i.e., C and N content) and microbial community composition. In contrast, the enzyme patterns in mineral subsoil horizons were related to water content, soil pH and microbial community composition. The lack of correlation between enzyme patterns and SOM quantity in the mineral subsoils suggests that SOM chemistry, spatial separation or physical stabilization of SOM rather than SOM content might determine substrate availability for enzymatic breakdown. The correlation of microbial community composition and enzyme patterns in all horizons, suggests that microbial community composition shapes enzyme patterns and might act as a modifier for the usual dependency of decomposition rates on SOM content or C/N ratios. PMID:25859057

  16. Enzyme leaching of surficial geochemical samples for detecting hydromorphic trace-element anomalies associated with precious-metal mineralized bedrock buried beneath glacial overburden in northern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Robert J.; Meier, A.L.; Riddle, G.

    1990-01-01

    One objective of the International Falls and Roseau, Minnesota, CUSMAP projects was to develop a means of conducting regional-scale geochemical surveys in areas where bedrock is buried beneath complex glacially derived overburden. Partial analysis of B-horizon soils offered hope for detecting subtle hydromorphic trace-element dispersion patterns. An enzyme-based partial leach selectively removes metals from oxide coatings on the surfaces of soil materials without attacking their matrix. Most trace-element concentrations in the resulting solutions are in the part-per-trillion to low part-per-billion range, necessitating determinations by inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry. The resulting data show greater contrasts for many trace elements than with other techniques tested. Spatially, many trace metal anomalies are locally discontinuous, but anomalous trends within larger areas are apparent. In many instances, the source for an anomaly seems to be either basal till or bedrock. Ground water flow is probably the most important mechanism for transporting metals toward the surface, although ionic diffusion, electrochemical gradients, and capillary action may play a role in anomaly dispersal. Sample sites near the Rainy Lake-Seine River fault zone, a regional shear zone, often have anomalous concentrations of a variety of metals, commonly including Zn and/or one or more metals which substitute for Zn in sphalerite (Cd, Ge, Ga, and Sn). Shifts in background concentrations of Bi, Sb, and As show a trend across the area indicating a possible regional zoning of lode-Au mineralization. Soil anomalies of Ag, Co, and Tl parallel basement structures, suggesting areas that may have potential for Cobalt/Thunder Baytype silver viens. An area around Baudette, Minnesota, which is underlain by quartz-chlorite-carbonate-altered shear zones, is anomalous in Ag, As, Bi, Co, Mo, Te, Tl, and W. Anomalies of Ag, As, Bi, Te, and W tend to follow the fault zones, suggesting potential for lode-Au deposits. Soil anomalies of Co, Mo, and Tl appear to follow northwest-striking structures that cross the shear zones, suggesting that Thunder Bay-type mineralization may have overprinted earlier mineralization along the shear zones.

  17. Thermal processing system concepts and considerations for RWMC buried waste

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy, T.L.; Kong, P.C.; Raivo, B.D.; Anderson, G.L.

    1992-02-01

    This report presents a preliminary determination of ex situ thermal processing system concepts and related processing considerations for application to remediation of transuranic (TRU)-contaminated buried wastes (TRUW) at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Beginning with top-level thermal treatment concepts and requirements identified in a previous Preliminary Systems Design Study (SDS), a more detailed consideration of the waste materials thermal processing problem is provided. Anticipated waste stream elements and problem characteristics are identified and considered. Final waste form performance criteria, requirements, and options are examined within the context of providing a high-integrity, low-leachability glass/ceramic, final waste form material. Thermal processing conditions required and capability of key systems components (equipment) to provide these material process conditions are considered. Information from closely related companion study reports on melter technology development needs assessment and INEL Iron-Enriched Basalt (IEB) research are considered. Five potentially practicable thermal process system design configuration concepts are defined and compared. A scenario for thermal processing of a mixed waste and soils stream with essentially no complex presorting and using a series process of incineration and high temperature melting is recommended. Recommendations for applied research and development necessary to further detail and demonstrate the final waste form, required thermal processes, and melter process equipment are provided.

  18. Investigation of guided wave propagation and attenuation in pipe buried in sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinov, Eli; Lowe, Michael J. S.; Cawley, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Long-range guided wave testing is a well-established method for detection of corrosion defects in pipelines. The method is currently used routinely for above ground pipelines in a variety of industries, e.g. petrochemical and energy. When the method is applied to pipes buried in soil, test ranges tend to be significantly compromised and unpredictable due to attenuation of the guided wave resulting from energy leakage into the embedding soil. The attenuation characteristics of guided wave propagation in an 8 in. pipe buried in sand are investigated using a laboratory full-scale experimental rig and model predictions. We report measurements of attenuation of the T(0,1) and L(0,2) guided wave modes over a range of sand conditions, including loose, compacted, mechanically compacted, water saturated and drained. Attenuation values are found to be in the range of 1.65-5.5 dB/m and 0.98-3.2 dB/m for the torsional and longitudinal modes, respectively, over the frequency of 11-34 kHz. The application of overburden pressure modifies the compaction of the sand and increases the attenuation. Mechanical compaction of the sand yields similar attenuation values to those obtained with applied overburden pressure. The attenuation decreases in the fully water-saturated sand, and increases in drained sand to values comparable with those obtained for compacted sand. Attenuation measurements are compared with Disperse software model predictions and confirm that the attenuation phenomenon in buried pipes is essentially governed by the bulk shear velocity in the sand. The attenuation behaviour of the torsional guided wave mode is found not to be captured by a uniform soil model; comparison with predictions obtained with the Disperse software suggest that this is likely to be due to a layer of sand adhering to the surface of the pipe.

  19. Baseline tests for arc melter vitrification of INEL buried wastes. Volume II: Baseline test data appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Oden, L.L.; O`Conner, W.K.; Turner, P.C.; Soelberg, N.R.; Anderson, G.L.

    1993-11-19

    This report presents field results and raw data from the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) Arc Melter Vitrification Project Phase 1 baseline test series conducted by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM). The baseline test series was conducted using the electric arc melter facility at the USBM Albany Research Center in Albany, Oregon. Five different surrogate waste feed mixtures were tested that simulated thermally-oxidized, buried, TRU-contaminated, mixed wastes and soils present at the INEL. The USBM Arc Furnace Integrated Waste Processing Test Facility includes a continuous feed system, the arc melting furnace, an offgas control system, and utilities. The melter is a sealed, 3-phase alternating current (ac) furnace approximately 2 m high and 1.3 m wide. The furnace has a capacity of 1 metric ton of steel and can process as much as 1,500 lb/h of soil-type waste materials. The surrogate feed materials included five mixtures designed to simulate incinerated TRU-contaminated buried waste materials mixed with INEL soil. Process samples, melter system operations data and offgas composition data were obtained during the baseline tests to evaluate the melter performance and meet test objectives. Samples and data gathered during this program included (a) automatically and manually logged melter systems operations data, (b) process samples of slag, metal and fume solids, and (c) offgas composition, temperature, velocity, flowrate, moisture content, particulate loading and metals content. This report consists of 2 volumes: Volume I summarizes the baseline test operations. It includes an executive summary, system and facility description, review of the surrogate waste mixtures, and a description of the baseline test activities, measurements, and sample collection. Volume II contains the raw test data and sample analyses from samples collected during the baseline tests.

  20. Ultra wide band radar holographic imaging of buried waste at DOE sites

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, H.D.; Gribble, R.P.; Hall, T.E.; Lechelt, W.M.

    1995-04-01

    Ultra wideband linear array holography is a unique real-time imaging technique for in-situ inspection of buried waste at various DOE sites. The array can be mounted on various platforms such as crane booms, pickup trucks, ATVs, and scanned generating ``3-D`` subsurface images in real time. Inspection speeds are 0.5 to 2 meters/sec, if the image is viewed in real time, greater for off-line processing. The Ground Penetrating Holographic (GPH) system developed for inspection of DOE sites employs two 32element arrays of tapered-slot antenna operating at 5-GHz and 2.5-GHz center frequencies. The GPH system, which is mounted on a small trailer with a computer image processor, display, and power supply, is capable of imaging a wide swath (1 to 2 meters) with its linear arrays. The lower frequency array will be used at INEL (for greater depth penetration) because of high soil attenuation. Recent holographic ``3-D`` images of buried waste container lids and dielectrics obtained in Hanford sand and INEL soils at various depths graphically illustrate the unique image resolution capabilities of the system. Experimental results using the 5-GHz array will be presented showing the excellent holographic image quality of various subsurface targets in sand and INEL soil.

  1. Buried bumper syndrome: a rare complication of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy

    PubMed Central

    Baniukiewicz, Andrzej; ?widnicka-Siergiejko, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Feeding via percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is the preferred form of alimentation when oral feeding is impossible. Although it is a relatively safe method, some complications may occur. One uncommon PEG complication is buried bumper syndrome. In this paper we report a case of buried bumper syndrome, successfully managed with PEG tube repositioning.

  2. Indexes for assessing the spectral range more sensitive to the detection of the buried structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palombo, Angelo; Cavalli, Rosa Maria; Fusilli, Lorenzo; Pascucci, Simone; Santini, Federico

    2007-10-01

    Buried man-made structures, like archaeological handiworks, altering the natural trend of the soil surface can yield tonal anomalies on remotely sensed images. These anomalies differ in size and/or intensity according to either the environmental conditions at the time of acquisition or the spectral and spatial characteristics of the images. The research challenge is to identify the best wavelength to detect these anomalies. In this paper we have set up two new parameters for identifying and assessing the potential of anomaly detection: the Detection Index (DI), which counts the pixels related to the marks, and the Separation Index (SI), which relates the difference in brightness of the marks with respect to the background. These two indexes have been tested on MIVIS (Multispectral Visible Imaging Spectrometer) airborne hyperspectral data acquired on remains not yet excavated of a few archaeological sites. Results show that such indexes are an efficient, flexible and quick tool for assessing the image potential to detect buried structures. Moreover, when they are applied to hyperspectral data, they allows for identifying the spectral range more sensitive to the detection of the buried structures.

  3. Detection of Microbial sulfate-reduction associated with buried stainless steel coupons

    SciTech Connect

    Mark E. Delwiche; M. Kay Adler Flitton; Alicia Olson

    2007-03-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate applicability of an innovative radioactive isotope method for imaging microbial activity in geological materials to a comprehensive study of metal corrosion. The method was tested on a sample of stainless steel coupons that had been buried as part of a corrosion study initiated by the National Institute of Standards and Testing or NIST (known as National Bureau of Standards prior to 1988) in 1970. The images showed evidence of microbial activity that could be mapped on a millimeter scale to coupon surfaces. A second more conventional isotope tracer method was also used to provide a quantitative measure of the same type of microbial activity in soil proximal to the buried coupons. Together the techniques offer a method for evaluating low metabolic levels of activity that have the potential for significant cumulative corrosion effects. The methods are powerful tools for evaluation of potential for microbial induced corrosion to buried steel components used on pipelines, in the power and communications infrastructure, and in nuclear waste repository containers.

  4. Littoral Assessment of Mine Burial Signatures (LAMBS) buried land mine/background spectral signature analyses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kenton, A.C.; Geci, D.M.; Ray, K.J.; Thomas, C.M.; Salisbury, J.W.; Mars, J.C.; Crowley, J.K.; Witherspoon, N.H.; Holloway, J.H., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the Office of Naval Research (ONR) Rapid Overt Reconnaissance (ROR) program and the Airborne Littoral Reconnaissance Technologies (ALRT) project's LAMBS effort is to determine if electro-optical spectral discriminants exist that are useful for the detection of land mines in littoral regions. Statistically significant buried mine overburden and background signature data were collected over a wide spectral range (0.35 to 14 ??m) to identify robust spectral features that might serve as discriminants for new airborne sensor concepts. LAMBS has expanded previously collected databases to littoral areas - primarily dry and wet sandy soils - where tidal, surf, and wind conditions can severely modify spectral signatures. At AeroSense 2003, we reported completion of three buried mine collections at an inland bay, Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico beach sites.1 We now report LAMBS spectral database analyses results using metrics which characterize the detection performance of general types of spectral detection algorithms. These metrics include mean contrast, spectral signal-to-clutter, covariance, information content, and spectral matched filter analyses. Detection performance of the buried land mines was analyzed with regard to burial age, background type, and environmental conditions. These analyses considered features observed due to particle size differences, surface roughness, surface moisture, and compositional differences.

  5. Landslide Buries Valley of the Geysers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Geysers are a rare natural phenomena found only in a few places, such as New Zealand, Iceland, the United States (Yellowstone National Park), and on Russia's far eastern Kamchatka Peninsula. On June 3, 2007, one of these rare geyser fields was severely damaged when a landslide rolled through Russia's Valley of the Geysers. The landslide--a mix of mud, melting snow, trees, and boulders--tore a scar on the land and buried a number of geysers, thermal pools, and waterfalls in the valley. It also blocked the Geyser River, causing a new thermal lake to pool upstream. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this infrared-enhanced image on June 11, 2007, a week after the slide. The image shows the valley, the landslide, and the new thermal lake. Even in mid-June, just days from the start of summer, the landscape is generally covered in snow, though the geologically heated valley is relatively snow free. The tree-covered hills are red (the color of vegetation in this false-color treatment), providing a strong contrast to the aquamarine water and the gray-brown slide. According to the Russian News and Information Agency (RIA) [English language], the slide left a path roughly a kilometer and a half (one mile) long and 200 meters (600 feet) wide. Within hours of the landslide, the water in the new lake inundated a number of additional geysers. The geysers directly buried under the landslide now lie under as much as 60 meters (180 feet) of material, according to RIA reports. It is unlikely that the geysers will be able to force a new opening through this thick layer, adds RIA. Among those directly buried is Pervenets (Firstborn), the first geyser found in the valley, in 1941. Other geysers, such as the Bolshoi (Greater) and Maly (Lesser) Geysers, were silenced when buried by water building up behind the new natural dam. According to Vladimir and Andrei Leonov of the Russian Federation Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, the new lake appears to be stable and draining gradually through the earthen dam, alleviating fears of a catastrophic flood. Should the new lake drain enough, many of the inundated geysers may restart. Initial reports from the Volcanology and Seismology Institute state this has already happened for some geysers. Geysers outside of the slide region, including the Velikan (Giant) Geyser and a major section of the geyser field known as Vitrazh (Stained Glass) appear to have escaped damage. In addition to destroying a number of geysers, the landslide may have damaged habitats in the Valley of the Geysers. The thermal waters and heated steam jets made this valley warmer than the surrounding landscape, and the warmth supported a unique ecosystem. The loss of a large part of its heat source may alter the ecosystem, but it is not clear what additional longer-term changes might occur. For example, salmon that spawn in the Geyser River will be confined to the lower reaches of the river, and bears, which depended on salmon, will need to shift feeding grounds correspondingly. Thanks to Sergey Chernomorets and Boris Yurchak for information and translation. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

  6. Buried waste integrated demonstration technology integration process

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, J.S.; Ferguson, J.E.

    1992-04-01

    A Technology integration Process was developed for the Idaho National Energy Laboratories (INEL) Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) Program to facilitate the transfer of technology and knowledge from industry, universities, and other Federal agencies into the BWID; to successfully transfer demonstrated technology and knowledge from the BWID to industry, universities, and other Federal agencies; and to share demonstrated technologies and knowledge between Integrated Demonstrations and other Department of Energy (DOE) spread throughout the DOE Complex. This document also details specific methods and tools for integrating and transferring technologies into or out of the BWID program. The document provides background on the BWID program and technology development needs, demonstrates the direction of technology transfer, illustrates current processes for this transfer, and lists points of contact for prospective participants in the BWID technology transfer efforts. The Technology Integration Process was prepared to ensure compliance with the requirements of DOE's Office of Technology Development (OTD).

  7. Buried waste integrated demonstration technology integration process

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, J.S.; Ferguson, J.E.

    1992-04-01

    A Technology integration Process was developed for the Idaho National Energy Laboratories (INEL) Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) Program to facilitate the transfer of technology and knowledge from industry, universities, and other Federal agencies into the BWID; to successfully transfer demonstrated technology and knowledge from the BWID to industry, universities, and other Federal agencies; and to share demonstrated technologies and knowledge between Integrated Demonstrations and other Department of Energy (DOE) spread throughout the DOE Complex. This document also details specific methods and tools for integrating and transferring technologies into or out of the BWID program. The document provides background on the BWID program and technology development needs, demonstrates the direction of technology transfer, illustrates current processes for this transfer, and lists points of contact for prospective participants in the BWID technology transfer efforts. The Technology Integration Process was prepared to ensure compliance with the requirements of DOE`s Office of Technology Development (OTD).

  8. Soil discontinuities as potential factors of shallow landslides: a case study from Calabria, southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarciglia, Fabio; Morrone, Fabio; Pelle, Teresa; Buttafuoco, Gabriele; Conforti, Massimo; Muto, Francesco; Critelli, Salvatore; Fabbricatore, Davide; Filomena, Luciana; Rago, Valeria; Robustelli, Gaetano; Tripodi, Vincenzo; Versace, Pasquale

    2015-04-01

    Effects of chemical and physical weathering processes on different rock types as predisposing factors of a number of landslides are often investigated in detail. Conversely, very few research studies on triggering mechanisms of shallow landslides and related risk assessment are focused on evaluation of morphological and physical discontinuities caused by pedogenetic processes affecting parent materials. Also sampling strategies for geotechnical or hydrological laboratory analyses can be biased by the lack of detailed information about the soil spatial variability and of a consequent horizon-wise selection of samples from soil profiles. In this work we summarize the main results on the assessment of shallow landslide susceptibility along the A3 highway section between Cosenza Sud and Altilia in northern Calabria (southern Italy). This research is part of a wider project (PON01-01503: "Integrated systems for hydrogeological risk monitoring, early warning and mitigation along the main lifelines"), aimed at hydro-geological risk mitigation and early warning along three highway sections of southern Italy. Based on a detailed geological and geomorphological survey, the main lithological, structural and relief features of the landscape were mapped, with a special emphasis on active, dormant and inactive landslides and their geo-lithological control factors. A soil survey was also carried out in the field, showing a dominance of Entisols and Inceptisols on steep slopes, and Mollisols and Alfisols on gentle landforms. Soil observations were focused on the identification of pedological discontinuities as potential factors that might trigger shallow landslides. A number of soil profiles, often close to landslide scarps, evidenced significant morphological changes of the parent materials, such as texture, pedogenic structure, dry consistence and moisture, or hydromorphic features caused by transient water-logging conditions, and clay-illuviated horizons. Buried soils were recognized, often truncated by erosion, and overlain by younger soils developed on colluvia, debris flows and detrital slope deposits. Five representative soil profiles were selected and sampled for pedological, geotechnical and hydrological laboratory analyses. Bulk and undisturbed samples were collected for chemical and physical soil analyses (particle size distribution, organic and inorganic carbon, pH, electrical conductivity, soluble salts), for determining bulk density, Atterberg limits, cohesive strength, angle of internal friction, water retention and for thin sections to be observed under an optical polarizing microscope, respectively. Preliminary results of laboratory analyses showed irregular patterns of pedological (particle size distribution, organic matter content, bulk density), geotechnical (Atterberg limits) and hydrological data (water content, pore distribution) along the soil profiles, coherently with field observations.

  9. Killing Horizons as Equipotential Hypersurfaces

    E-print Network

    Ivica Smoli?

    2012-09-11

    In this note we present a new proof that Killing horizons are equipotential hypersurfaces for the electric and the magnetic scalar potential, that makes no use of gravitational field equations or the assumption about the existence of bifurcation surface.

  10. HORIZON SENSING (PROPOSAL No.51)

    SciTech Connect

    Larry G. Stolarczyk, Sc.D.

    2002-04-30

    Real-time horizon sensing on continuous mining machines is becoming an industry tool. Installation and testing of production-grade HS systems has been ongoing this quarter at Monterey Coal Company (EXXON), FMC Trona, Twentymile Coal Company (RAG America), and SASOL Coal. Detailed monitoring of system function, user experience, and mining benefits is ongoing. All horizon sensor components have finished MSHA (U.S.) and IEC (International) certification.

  11. Chemical Sensing for Buried Landmines - Fundamental Processes Influencing Trace Chemical Detection

    SciTech Connect

    PHELAN, JAMES M.

    2002-05-01

    Mine detection dogs have a demonstrated capability to locate hidden objects by trace chemical detection. Because of this capability, demining activities frequently employ mine detection dogs to locate individual buried landmines or for area reduction. The conditions appropriate for use of mine detection dogs are only beginning to emerge through diligent research that combines dog selection/training, the environmental conditions that impact landmine signature chemical vapors, and vapor sensing performance capability and reliability. This report seeks to address the fundamental soil-chemical interactions, driven by local weather history, that influence the availability of chemical for trace chemical detection. The processes evaluated include: landmine chemical emissions to the soil, chemical distribution in soils, chemical degradation in soils, and weather and chemical transport in soils. Simulation modeling is presented as a method to evaluate the complex interdependencies among these various processes and to establish conditions appropriate for trace chemical detection. Results from chemical analyses on soil samples obtained adjacent to landmines are presented and demonstrate the ultra-trace nature of these residues. Lastly, initial measurements of the vapor sensing performance of mine detection dogs demonstrates the extreme sensitivity of dogs in sensing landmine signature chemicals; however, reliability at these ultra-trace vapor concentrations still needs to be determined. Through this compilation, additional work is suggested that will fill in data gaps to improve the utility of trace chemical detection.

  12. Pilot study on tracing the rapidly buried rock avalanche deposits within the accumulation zone of glacier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reznichenko, Natalya; Dunning, Stuart; Rosser, Nick; McColl, Sam

    2015-04-01

    Recent studies shown that large mass failure events significantly contribute to the glacial sediment budget and affect its final deposition. However, in accumulation zone these events are exceptionally fast subsumed by snowfall and become ingested into the glacier with no evident surface expression. This leads to poor understanding of the magnitude-frequency of these events and their contribution to the sediment budget of the glaciers. The buried rock avalanches travel as englacial load within the ice that becomes the unique geomorphic horizon, which may constitute a major fraction of total glacial debris supplied to supraglacial cover of many debris-covered glaciers, but usually re-emerging in ablation zones not in a form usable to reconstruct the magnitude-frequency of these events. Here we present a first attempt to detect the rock avalanche deposit within the ice that becomes the unique geomorphic horizon or isochrones. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) was applied over the large deposit of well documented in January 2013 Mt. Haast/Dixon rock avalanche in Southern Alps of New Zealand, one year after emplacement. The large deposit 2 x 106 m3 of rock, snow and ice travelled 2.9 km over the northern margins of the Grand Plateau, just 200 m west of Plateau Hut, stalling close to the top of the Hochstetter Icefall, Aoraki/ Mt. Cook. The large deposit was lost to conventional remote sensing within 3 month after the event. In April 2014, at the time of the survey the deposit was entirely buried beneath the snow/firn cover, leaving no topographic expression of the deposit at the snow surface. The buried deposit was visible in crevasses, in the Hochstetter Ice Fall, in the Grand Plateau, and the icefall beneath Mt Haast, at depths estimated to be in the order of 5-10 m. Our subsurface data shows a good preservation of a rock avalanche deposit under about 3-5 m of snow and firn with the thickness broadly consistent along the length of the transect (1-2 m), with a thicker (5-7 m) ~170 m wide region at the south-east end of the profile. We show that GPR can be used to measure the burial depth and thickness, characterise the surface morphology, and englacial dispersion of rock-avalanche deposits. These data are essential for establishing event frequency and for contributing to insight into the interaction between large rock avalanches and glacier dynamics, glacial sediment budget and landslide contribution to relief denudation.

  13. Using soil properties as a tool to differentiate landslide generations and constrain their ages - Rogowiec landslide, Sudetes (SW Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kacprzak, Andrzej; Migo?, Piotr

    2013-04-01

    The Sudetes, at the border of Poland and the Czech Republic, are generally considered as a mountain range where landslides play a marginal geomorphic role. Only a few larger landslides have been recorded during historical times, mainly on steep valley sides undercut by rivers. Forested slopes, which dominate in the Sudetes, are usually inferred to be stable, except for near-surface bioturbation and localized accelerated surface erosion at sites subject to strong human impact. Large, apparently relict landslides in the Kamienne Mountains, Middle Sudetes, pose a considerable challenge to this view and two interpretations are possible. First, they may be indeed relict, pre-Holocene features that formed under different environmental conditions and have been completely stabilized since the origin. Second, they may be rare components of the contemporary (Holocene) geomorphic system but their frequency of occurrence is low and this is why none has been reported in written or oral records. If the second scenario captures the reality adequately, this would have significant implications for hazard and risk assessment. To address this issue, an extensive soil survey was carried out on the large landslide of Rogowiec, likely of complex flow nature as suggested by landform mapping. The rationale of the study involved an assumption that soil formation time in the area is limited to the Holocene, since harsh periglacial conditions typified the late Pleistocene. 15 soil pits were excavated within landslide terrain and on adjacent reference slopes which do not bear any evident traces of significant displacements. Despite the small area under investigation, the soil profiles are very diverse in terms of depth, horizonation, organic matter content, development of soil structure, as well as the content and lithology of coarse fragments. A great deal of this diversity can be explained by different duration of pedogenesis controlled by geomorphic processes. Very weakly developed soil profiles in the landslide body do not show evidence of protracted soil evolution under contemporary climate and hence, are interpreted as having been formed during a fraction of the Holocene. This implies a Holocene age of the landslide. In addition, an older shallow translational landslide has been recognized on the valley side, with the toe buried by the main Rogowiec landslide. The depletion area was identified through the occurrence of thin, truncated soils (compared to the neighbouring slopes). This and the occurrence of weakly horizonated and poorly structural soils in the landslide body itself suggest that this valley-side landslide is of the Holocene age too. Thus, soils proved a powerful tool to establish the relative chronology of landslides and give strong evidence of their Holocene age. Soil research is recommended as a part of landslide hazard and risk assessment for landslides of unknown age.

  14. In situ vitrification application to buried waste: Final report of intermediate field tests at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Callow, R.A.; Weidner, J.R.; Loehr, C.A.; Bates, S.O. ); Thompson, L.E.; McGrail, B.P. )

    1991-08-01

    This report describes two in situ vitrification field tests conducted on simulated buried waste pits during June and July 1990 at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. In situ vitrification, an emerging technology for in place conversion of contaminated soils into a durable glass and crystalline waste form, is being investigated as a potential remediation technology for buried waste. The overall objective of the two tests was to access the general suitability of the process to remediate waste structures representative of buried waste found at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. In particular, these tests, as part of a treatability study, were designed to provide essential information on the field performance of the process under conditions of significant combustible and metal wastes and to test a newly developed electrode feed technology. The tests were successfully completed, and the electrode feed technology successfully processed the high metal content waste. Test results indicate the process is a feasible technology for application to buried waste. 33 refs., 109 figs., 39 tabs.

  15. Dynamics of decadally cycling carbon in subsurface soils

    E-print Network

    Koarashi, Jun; Hockaday, William C; Masiello, Caroline A; Trumbore, Susan E

    2012-01-01

    of Soil, Water and Environmental Science, University ofsoil carbon and atmospheric carbon dioxide driven by temperature change, Science,soil (surface horizons, nominally the A or Ap Department of Earth System Science,

  16. Probabilistic Modeling of Landfill Subsidence Introduced by Buried Structure Collapse - 13229

    SciTech Connect

    Foye, Kevin; Soong, Te-Yang

    2013-07-01

    The long-term reliability of land disposal facility final cover systems - and therefore the overall waste containment - depends on the distortions imposed on these systems by differential settlement/subsidence. The evaluation of differential settlement is challenging because of the heterogeneity of the waste mass and buried structure placement. Deterministic approaches to long-term final cover settlement prediction are not able to capture the spatial variability in the waste mass and sub-grade properties, especially discontinuous inclusions, which control differential settlement. An alternative is to use a probabilistic model to capture the non-uniform collapse of cover soils and buried structures and the subsequent effect of that collapse on the final cover system. Both techniques are applied to the problem of two side-by-side waste trenches with collapsible voids. The results show how this analytical technique can be used to connect a metric of final cover performance (inundation area) to the susceptibility of the sub-grade to collapse and the effective thickness of the cover soils. This approach allows designers to specify cover thickness, reinforcement, and slope to meet the demands imposed by the settlement of the underlying waste trenches. (authors)

  17. The first data on the vertical REE distribution in taiga soils of the Russian Far East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryanin, S. V.; Sorokina, O. A.

    2015-10-01

    Coarse humic brown soils formed on different rocks under natural conditions of southern taiga of the Upper Priamur'e were studied. Concentration and distribution of REE in organic-mineral and metamorphic soil horizons were estimated. Soils inherit REE distribution in underlying rocks sitll at lower concentrations. The maximal REE concentrations are found in metamorphic soil horizon and the lowest ones in humic-accumulative. Soil formation processes have an effect on REE concentration in soils, but do not change their distribution.

  18. ISV technology development plan for buried waste

    SciTech Connect

    Nickelson, D.F.; Callow, R.A. ); Luey, J.K. )

    1992-07-01

    This report identifies the main technical issues facing the in situ vitrification (ISV) application to buried waste, and presents a plan showing the top-level schedule and projected resources needed to develop and demonstrate the technology for meeting Environmental Restoration Department (ERD) needs. The plan also proposes a model strategy for the technology transfer from the Department of Energy's Office of Technology Development (DOE-OTD) to the Office of Environmental Restoration (DOE-ER) as the technology proceeds from issues resolution (development) to demonstration and remedial readiness. Implementation of the plan would require $34,91 1K in total funding to be spread in the years FY-93 through FY-98. Of this amount, $10,183K is planned to be funded by DOE-OTD through the ISV Integrated Program. The remaining amount, $24,728K, is recommended to be split between the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development ($6,670K) and DOE Office of Environmental Restoration ($18,058K).

  19. ISV technology development plan for buried waste

    SciTech Connect

    Nickelson, D.F.; Callow, R.A.; Luey, J.K.

    1992-07-01

    This report identifies the main technical issues facing the in situ vitrification (ISV) application to buried waste, and presents a plan showing the top-level schedule and projected resources needed to develop and demonstrate the technology for meeting Environmental Restoration Department (ERD) needs. The plan also proposes a model strategy for the technology transfer from the Department of Energy`s Office of Technology Development (DOE-OTD) to the Office of Environmental Restoration (DOE-ER) as the technology proceeds from issues resolution (development) to demonstration and remedial readiness. Implementation of the plan would require $34,91 1K in total funding to be spread in the years FY-93 through FY-98. Of this amount, $10,183K is planned to be funded by DOE-OTD through the ISV Integrated Program. The remaining amount, $24,728K, is recommended to be split between the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development ($6,670K) and DOE Office of Environmental Restoration ($18,058K).

  20. Seismic sonar sources for buried mine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Steven R.; Muir, Thomas G.; Gaghan, Frederick E.; Fitzpatrick, Sean M.; Sheetz, Kraig E.; Guy, Jeremie

    2003-10-01

    Prior research on seismo-acoustic sonar for detection of buried targets [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 103, 2333-2343 (1998)] has continued with examination of various means for exciting interface waves (Rayleigh or Scholte) used to reflect from targets. Several seismic sources were examined for sand beach applications, including vibrating shakers, shaker devices configured to preferentially excite interface waves, linear force actuators, and arrays of shaker sources to create directional interface wave beams. Burial of some plate-like or rod-like portion of the vibrating devices was found to ensure good coupling to the beach. The preferential interface excitation device employed two degrees of freedom to mimic the two components of elliptically polarized interface waves, and was successfully demonstrated. However, it was found that at long ranges, the medium itself created two component interface waves from vibrating source radiations operating with one degree of freedom in the vertical plane. Linear force actuators were functional in this mode. An array of seven vertical shakers was utilized to create interface waves at ranges of 5 m, in the form of directional beams, some 8 deg wide at the half-power points, at frequencies around 100 Hz. Application of these devices for target detection is discussed in the companion paper. [Work sponsored by ONR.

  1. Simulation of EUV multilayer mirror buried defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brukman, Matthew J.; Deng, Yunfei; Neureuther, Andrew R.

    2000-07-01

    A new interface has been created to link existing deposition/etching and electromagnetic simulation software, allowing the user to program deposition and etching conditions and then find the reflective properties of the resultant structure. The application studied in this paper is the problem of three-dimensional defects which become buried during fabrication of multilayer mirrors for extreme ultraviolet lithography. The software link reads in surface information in the form of linked triangles, determines all nodes within the triangles, and then creates nodes lying between triangles of different layers to create a 3- dimensional inhomogeneous matrix containing the materials' indices of refraction. This allows etching and depositions to be input into SAMPLE-3D, a multi-surface topology to be generated, and then the electromagnetic properties of the structure to be assessed with TEMPEST. This capability was used to study substrate defects in multilayer mirrors by programming a defect and then sputter-depositing some forty layers on top of the defect. Specifically examined was how the topography depended on sputter conditions and determined the defects' impact on the mirrors' imaging properties. While this research was focused on application to EUV lithography, the general technique may be extended to other optical processes such as alignment and mask defects.

  2. Buried nanoantenna arrays: versatile antireflection coating.

    PubMed

    Kabiri, Ali; Girgis, Emad; Capasso, Federico

    2013-01-01

    Reflection is usually a detrimental phenomenon in many applications such as flat-panel-displays, solar cells, photodetectors, infrared sensors, and lenses. Thus far, to control and suppress the reflection from a substrate, numerous techniques including dielectric interference coatings, surface texturing, adiabatic index matching, and scattering from plasmonic nanoparticles have been investigated. A new technique is demonstrated to manage and suppress reflection from lossless and lossy substrates. It provides a wider flexibility in design versus previous methods. Reflection from a surface can be suppressed over a narrowband, wideband, or multiband frequency range. The antireflection can be dependent or independent of the incident wave polarization. Moreover, antireflection at a very wide incidence angle can be attained. The reflection from a substrate is controlled by a buried nanoantenna array, a structure composed of (1) a subwavelength metallic array and (2) a dielectric cover layer referred to as a superstrate. The material properties and thickness of the superstrate and nanoantennas' geometry and periodicity control the phase and intensity of the wave circulating inside the superstrate cavity. A minimum reflectance of 0.02% is achieved in various experiments in the mid-infrared from a silicon substrate. The design can be integrated in straightforward way in optical devices. The proposed structure is a versatile AR coating to optically impedance matches any substrate to free space in selected any narrow and broadband spectral response across the entire visible and infrared spectrum. PMID:24266700

  3. Buried waste containment system materials. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Weidner, J.R.; Shaw, P.G.

    1997-10-01

    This report describes the results of a test program to validate the application of a latex-modified cement formulation for use with the Buried Waste Containment System (BWCS) process during a proof of principle (POP) demonstration. The test program included three objectives. One objective was to validate the barrier material mix formulation to be used with the BWCS equipment. A basic mix formula for initial trials was supplied by the cement and latex vendors. The suitability of the material for BWCS application was verified by laboratory testing at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). A second objective was to determine if the POP BWCS material emplacement process adversely affected the barrier material properties. This objective was met by measuring and comparing properties of material prepared in the INEEL Materials Testing Laboratory (MTL) with identical properties of material produced by the BWCS field tests. These measurements included hydraulic conductivity to determine if the material met the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements for barriers used for hazardous waste sites, petrographic analysis to allow an assessment of barrier material separation and segregation during emplacement, and a set of mechanical property tests typical of concrete characterization. The third objective was to measure the hydraulic properties of barrier material containing a stop-start joint to determine if such a feature would meet the EPA requirements for hazardous waste site barriers.

  4. Noise and target strength degradation accompanying shallow-buried explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffney, Edward S.; Melosh, H. Jay

    1982-03-01

    Ground shock from shallow-buried explosions is commonly accompanied by acoustic `noise.' Analysis of records from a series of 10-ton chemical detonations in Gulf Coast sediments provides a basis for the first quantitative description of such noise during a cratering event. The test series included shots at depths of 3-12 m leading to craters about 20 m in radius. Most of the records studied were taken within the eventual crater; they include stress, velocity, and acceleration. Oscillations arising from reflections off the free surface or subsurface layers are evident in stress records. High-frequency oscillations, attributed to reflections or scattering from smaller scale inhomogeneities, are particularly striking in the acceleration records, where peak accelerations were 10-100 km/s2. Oscillations with frequencies of 5-25 kHz are obvious. They exhibit exponential decay with the dominant frequency decreasing with time. Approximate values of Q estimated from these accelerograms are 30±20, agreeing with Q for similar materials derived from seismic techniques. Since seismic Q's include both internal dissipation and scattering losses, whereas explosive Q's include internal dissipation and radiative losses, the magnitude of scattering and radiative losses must be comparable. The latter alone correspond to an effective Q of about 300, so that internal dissipation dominates Q in these poorly consolidated sediments. Acoustic fluidization may have occurred for a couple of milliseconds in the top 1 or 2 m of soil within the eventual crater (by this, we mean that the material was liable to flow if the threshold shear stress were exceeded). This result is inferred from ground shock stress duration, acoustic amplitude decay, and initial overburden stress. Fluidization of such limited duration and extent would have no effect on crater growth, just as would be expected for such a low yield event.

  5. Mars - Paleostratigraphic restoration of buried surfaces in Tharsis montes

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, D.H.; Tanaka, K.L.

    1981-01-01

    Volcanism in the Tharsis province of Mars occurred in several different areas and was generally continuous without large time intervals between eruptive episodes. Major lava flow units are numerous and extensive, but relatively thin. In many places, impact craters on buried surfaces project above younger flows that overlie them. A new application of crater dating methods has been developed to aid in the identification of these buried surfaces and to determine their lateral extent. The technique is especially adaptable to the Tharsis region where the stratigraphic succession of major flow units has been established by detailed geologic mapping. Knowledge of the overall stratigraphy allows correlations to be made between known and unknown surfaces by comparing their crater frequencies at diameters large enough to insure their recognition on the buried unit. The method has been applied to aid in the restoration of buried rock units and to construct a series of paleostratigraphic maps showing the sequence of major eruptive events in the Tharsis region.

  6. Scattering from sub-critically insonified buried elastic shells

    E-print Network

    Lucifredi, Irena

    2005-01-01

    Buried mines have been so far generally considered undetectable by conventional high frequency sonars mostly due to the low levels of energy penetrating into the sediment at high frequencies. Furthermore, in a shallow water ...

  7. Building America Top Innovations 2013 Profile – Buried and Encapsulated Ducts

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-09-01

    In this innovation profile, CARB research shows HVAC ducts that are encapsulated in closed-cell spray foam and buried in blown insulation in a vented attic meet the code requirements for ducts in conditioned space.

  8. Carbon limitation patterns in buried and open urban streams

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urban streams alternate between darkened buried segments dominated by heterotrophic processes and lighted open segments dominated by autotrophic processes. We hypothesized that labile carbon leaking from autotrophic cells would reduce heterotrophic carbon limitation in open chan...

  9. Delta-Doped Buried Channels In Charge-Coupled Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R.

    1992-01-01

    Buried-channel charge-couple devices (CCD's) of proposed new type contain multiple thin, highly-doped channel layers instead of single relatively thick channel layers. Benefits: better performance at low temperature and less sensitivity to damage by radiation.

  10. [Basidiomycetous laccase gene diversity in two subtropical forest soils].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiang-bi; Su, Yi-rong; He, Xun-yang; Hu, Le-ning; Liang, Yue-ming; Feng, Shu-zhen; Ge, Yun-hui; Xiao, Wei

    2011-10-01

    As one of the key enzymes involved in lignin decomposition of forest litter, laccase plays an important role in the carbon cycling in forest ecosystem. By using TA cloning and sequencing, a comparative study was conducted on the basidiomycetous laccase gene diversity in the O horizon (litter layer) and A horizon (surface soil layer, 0-20 cm) in two subtropical forests (a primeval evergreen deciduous broadleaved mixed forest and an artificial masson pine forest). For the same soil horizons, the basidiomycetous laccase gene diversity and richness were higher in the primeval forest than in the masson pine forest; for the same forest ecosystems, the basidiomycetous laccase gene diversity and richness in the primeval forest were slightly higher in O horizon than in A horizon, but those in the masson pine forest were apparently lower in O horizon than in A horizon. The two forest soils had the same dominant laccase gene-containing basidiomycetous populations, and most of the populations had high similarity of amino acid sequence to Mycena sp. or Pleurotus sp. belonging to Agaricales. Comparing with the A horizon in primeval forest and the O horizon in masson pine forest, the O horizon in primeval forest and the A horizon in masson pine forest had a relatively uniform distribution of basidiomycetous populations. The nucleotide sequence similarity of basidiomycetous laccase gene between the O and A horizons in the masson pine forest was higher than that in the primeval forest. This study showed that vegetation and soil horizon had significant effects on the basidiomycetous laccase gene diversity and community structure, and the discrepancies in the substrate availability for basidiomycetes and in the soil pH induced by the vegetation and soil horizon could be the driving forces. PMID:22263477

  11. Field tests and computational simulations of the explosion of buried charges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roger, Eve; Loret, Benjamin; Calvel, Jean Paul

    2015-09-01

    Modelling buried explosion is a matter of concern for vehicle protection. Indeed, in the battlefield, Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) are one of the major threats for land vehicles and, more specifically, for their underbelly. Two series of field tests using several masses of explosives have been performed, varying certain geometrical parameters, the nature and the physical properties of the soil. These controlled tests have shown that the impulse transmitted to the vehicle is a function of the saturation of the soil as well as of depth of burial of the explosive. In an effort to simulate the phenomena that take place during the explosions, these tests have been used to feed the data requested in computational simulations in a finite element context. Soil modelling presents its own difficulties, especially because soil is a porous medium and the three phases (solid grains, water and air) must be considered. A non linear viscoplastic cap model has been developed where the degree of saturation is variable. The yield surface includes a failure part, a cap and a tension cutoff. Soil stiffening associated with the air expulsion has been observed to be an important aspect of the model.

  12. Soil bioturbation. A commentary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdŕ, Artemi; Wilkinson, Marshall

    2010-05-01

    Organisms such as trees, ants, earthworms, termites are important components of the earth systems that have dominantly been thought of as abiotic. Despite an early focus on soil bioturbation by heavy-weights such as Charles Darwin and Nathanial Shaler in the late 19th century, sporadic attention to this theme has subsequently followed. Recent compilations demonstrate that soil bioturbation by fauna and flora is widespread across Earths terrestrial surface, and operates at geologically rapid rates that warrant further attention. Such biotic activity contributes to soil creep, soil carbon dynamics, and is critical in engineering the medium through which ecosystems draw their abiotic requirements. Soil and its biota are fundamental components of the Earth System. However, soil scientist focussed on the dominant paradigm of landscape evolution, and bioturbation was relegated. In fact, bioturbation is still not widely appreciated within the soil and earth system research community. Nevertheless, within the last decade a review of the impact of bioturbation was launched by authors such as Geoff S. Humphreys. Bioturbation is a complex process as new soil is formed, mounds are developed, soil is buried and a downslope transport of material is done. Bioturbation modify the soil texture and porosity, increase the nutrients and encourage the soil creep flux. A review of the State-of-the-Art of Bioturbation will be presented.

  13. Influence of soil surface characteristics and water repellence on soil infiltration and soil loss of Andisols (Canary Islands, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Concepción, Jiménez; Jonay, Neris; Josué, Fuentes; Marisa, Tejedor

    2010-05-01

    Infiltration is a crucial process in the hydrological cycle, since it controls - among other things - the generation of run-off, erosion and aquifer recharge. Undisturbed Andisols are considered resistant to water erosion; a characteristic closely associated with their high porosity that permits a rapid rainfall infiltration and high structural stability. In spite of that, the high content of organic C on this type of soils, and the positive relation between this property and water repellence, could allow the presence of some soil surface characteristics that may change this behaviour. The aim of this work was to study the influence of these hydrophobic layers on water infiltration and soil loss on Andisols of Tenerife. Twelve sites were chosen, all of which are located on the northern side of the island of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain), between 825-1400 m.a.s.l. The soils are allophanic Andisols (Typic/Lithic Hapludands and Typic Haplustands) and vitric Andisols (Typic Udivitrands) under pine forest. In each site, soil surface features with potential hydrological implications were described. To determine infiltration, a rainfall simulator with the following characteristics was used: 35 x 25 x 30 cm metal box with nozzles in the bottom, 2.5 cm apart (diameter of drops = 2-3 mm). The 4 box adjustable legs were set at 2 m height. Prior to installing the rainfall simulator, study zones were marked out using 30 cm-tall metal sheets. Each area measured approximately 875 cm2 and measurements were taken for slopes of 10 and 30% when it was possible. At the end of the slope a 25 cm-wide collector was semi-buried to collect runoff and sediment. Rainfall of variable intensity between 50-70 mmh-1 was simulated for periods of 30-45 minutes. Time to runoff (TR), volume to runoff (VR), steady-state infiltration rate (IR), runoff/rainfall ratio (RR), soil loss rate (SED) and sediment concentration (CSED) were measured. For some of the studied soils, the formation of horizons made up with pine needles embedded with fungi mycelia was observed. These layers were highly water-repellent and could be easily detached from the underlying soil. When comparing the soils in which these are present with those devoid of them, the former showed an average decrease of 40% in TR and VR for both slopes. The IR suffered a decrease of nearly 40% and 30%, and the RR an increase of 40% and 20% for slopes of 10 and 30% respectively. Contradictory, soil loss showed a decrease in sites where this layer was present, 20% and 40% in SED, and 15% and 50% in CSED for slopes of 10% and 30% respectively. As a conclusion, despite the reduction in IR and the increase in RR, the presence of this layer in soils seems to provide them with a high resistance to drop impact, and a modification of water dynamics leading to a decrease of soil loss.

  14. Data fusion for the detection of buried land mines

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, G.A.; Sengupta, S.K.; Schaich, P.C.; Sherwood, R.J.; Buhl, M.R.; Hernandez, J.E.; Kane, R.J.; Barth, M.J.; Fields, D.J.; Carter, M.R.

    1993-10-01

    The authors conducted experiments to demonstrate the enhanced delectability of buried land mines using sensor fusion techniques. Multiple sensors, including imagery, infrared imagery, and ground penetrating radar, have been used to acquire data on a number of buried mines and mine surrogates. The authors present this data along with a discussion of the application of sensor fusion techniques for this particular detection problem. The authors describe the data fusion architecture and discuss some relevant results of these classification methods.

  15. Biogeochemical controls on microbial CO2 and CH4 production in interstitial area polygon soils from the Barrow Environmental Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, D. E.; Roy Chowdhury, T.; Herndon, E.; Chourey, K.; Ladd, M.; Tas, N.; Jansson, J.; Elias, D. A.; Hettich, R. L.; Phelps, T. J.; Gu, B.; Liang, L.; Wullschleger, S. D.

    2013-12-01

    Organic matter buried in Arctic soils and permafrost will become accessible to increased microbial degradation as the ground warms due to climate change. The rates of organic matter degradation and the proportion of CH4 and CO2 greenhouse gasses released in a potential warming feedback cycle depend on the microbial response to warming, organic carbon structure and availability, the pore-water pH, and available electron acceptors. To adapt and improve the representation of these Arctic subsurface processes in land models for the NGEE Arctic project, we examined soil organic matter transformations from elevated and subsided areas of low- and high-centered polygons from interstitial tundra on the Barrow Environmental Observatory (Barrow, AK). Significant amounts of iron(II) in organic and mineral soils of the active layer and groundwater indicate anoxic conditions in most soil horizons. Unamended, anoxic incubations of soils at -2, +4 or +8 °C produced both CH4 and CO2, with different response curves. CO2 formed rapidly while CH4 production lagged. Rates of formation for both CH4 and CO2 were substantially higher in microcosms containing active layer O horizon (38-43% total carbon) compared to B horizon (17-18% carbon) samples. The ratio of CO2 to CH4 produced decreased with increasing temperature. A constant Q10 relationship is not adequate to explain temperature effects from -2 to +8 °C. Measurements of ionic species dissolved in soil porewater from frozen cores, humic-rich surface water, or groundwater indicated low levels of nitrate and sulfate, constraining the role of these alternative electron acceptors in anaerobic respiration. The surface water pH (4.4) was significantly lower than groundwater (5.8 to 6.3). Organic acid degradation and Fe(III) reduction increased the pH in soil water during some incubations. Substantial differences in other ionic species confirm that surface and groundwater do not mix rapidly in the field. Biomass extracted from frozen mineral soil samples or thawed microcosms was analyzed for relative protein abundance using metaproteomics, and numerous peptide spectra were matched to an Arctic genomic and metagenomic database. Signature proteins from acetoclastic methanogens were identified in frozen permafrost and active-layer samples. After microcosm incubations, however, methanogenic proteins were found only in active-layer samples, consistent with headspace gas analyses. Therefore, soil thawing and warming caused increases in microbial biomass and significant changes in microbial composition that determine the composition of greenhouse gas product mixtures. Differential microbial growth and migration through the thawing soil column may be key to changes in microbial population size and activity during prolonged thaw seasons. Methanogenesis and microbial growth account for most electron transfer from soil organic matter in O horizon samples, but iron reduction and microbial growth account for most electron transfer in the B horizon.

  16. Buried and Encapsulated Ducts, Jacksonville, Florida (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-11-01

    Ductwork installed in unconditioned attics can significantly increase the overall heating and cooling costs of residential buildings. In fact, estimated duct thermal losses for single-family residential buildings with ductwork installed in unconditioned attics range from 10% to 45%. In a study of three single-story houses in Florida, the Building America research team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) investigated the strategy of using buried and/or encapsulated ducts (BED) to reduce duct thermal losses in existing homes. The BED strategy consists of burying ducts in loose-fill insulation and/or encapsulating them in closed cell polyurethane spray foam (ccSPF) insulation. There are three possible combinations of BED strategies: (1) buried ducts; (2) encapsulated ducts (with ccSPF); and (3) buried and encapsulated ducts. The best solution for each situation depends on the climate, age of the house, and the configuration of the HVAC system and attic. For new construction projects, the team recommends that ducts be both encapsulated and buried as the minimal planning and costs required for this will yield optimal energy savings. The encapsulated/buried duct strategy, which utilizes ccSPF to address condensation concerns, is an approach that was developed specifically for humid climates.

  17. Record Blizzard Buries U.S. Northeast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    After two days of blustery weather, the skies cleared over Massachusetts on January 24, 2005. Along with other northeastern U.S. states, Massachusetts was slammed with a powerful blizzard on January 22 and 23 that shut down travel and businesses and extinguished power. The storm brought record snow to many places, but Massachusetts topped the list. The cities of Salem and Plymouth were buried in 38 inches (96.5 cm) of snow, and strong winds created drifts up to seven feet (2 meters) high, according to the National Weather Service. For Boston, the storm was the fifth worst blizzard to hit the city since 1892, dumping 22.5 inches (57 cm) of snow in two days. Of that, 13.4 inches (34 cm) fell on January 23' the most snow to fall on the city in a single day since records began. These totals gave Boston nearly twice its average snowfall for January (the average is 13.5 inches, 34.3 cm), and over half its annual average snow of 41.8 inches (106 cm). This Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image, taken on January 24 by NASA's Terra satellite, shows the effects of the storm on Massachusetts and its southern neighbors, Connecticut (left) and Rhode Island (right). New York's Long Island is in the lower left corner of the image. The entire region is coated with snow, though clouds obscure the ground on the left side of the image. The snow was accompanied by powerful hurricane-force winds that helped create white-out conditions and large snowdrifts. The wind also churned ocean waters around Cape Cod, leaving them milky with sediment. NASA image courtesy the MODIS Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC.

  18. Airblast environments from buried HE charges

    SciTech Connect

    Reichenbach, H.; Behrens, K.; Kuhl, A.

    1993-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to measure the airblast environment generated by the detonation of buried HE charges. Spherical 0.5-g charges of Nitropenta were used as the HE source. Three ground materials were used: (1) a porous, crushable grout (YTONG, {rho} = 0.4 g/cm{sup 3}); (2) a water-saturated grout ({rho} {approx_equal} 0.7 g/Cm{sup 3}) to investigate the effects of density increase; and (3) a clay-loam material ({rho} {approx_equal} 1.8 g/cm{sup 3}) to simulate some of the previous field tests conducted in clay. Diagnostics consisted of 13 flush-mounted pressure gauges, and single-frame schlieren photography. A special shock isolation system was used to eliminate the acceleration effects on the gauges that were induced by the cratering process. Analysis of the pressure measurements resulted in an experimental definition of the airblast environment as a function of ground range (GR) and depth-of-burst (DOB). Synthesis of these results allowed one to construct airblast DOB curves, similar to the airblast height-of-burst curves that we published previously for Nitropenta charges. Variables analyzed were: peak pressure, arrival time, positive phase duration and impulse. As in field tests, we found that the airblast waveforms changed character with increasing DOB. The crater characteristics (e.a., depth, radius and volume) were also measured. The cube-root-scaled crater volume was in qualitative agreement with data from field tests (e.g., charge weights up to 10{sup 4} lbs.). Since the present scaled results compare well with data from large-scale HE tests, we conclude that the present experimental technique provides a useful tool for parametric investigations of explosion effects in the laboratory.

  19. Decomposition of forest products buried in landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xiaoming; Padgett, Jennifer M.; Powell, John S.; Barlaz, Morton A.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • This study tracked chemical changes of wood and paper in landfills. • A decomposition index was developed to quantify carbohydrate biodegradation. • Newsprint biodegradation as measured here is greater than previous reports. • The field results correlate well with previous laboratory measurements. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the decomposition of selected wood and paper products in landfills. The decomposition of these products under anaerobic landfill conditions results in the generation of biogenic carbon dioxide and methane, while the un-decomposed portion represents a biogenic carbon sink. Information on the decomposition of these municipal waste components is used to estimate national methane emissions inventories, for attribution of carbon storage credits, and to assess the life-cycle greenhouse gas impacts of wood and paper products. Hardwood (HW), softwood (SW), plywood (PW), oriented strand board (OSB), particleboard (PB), medium-density fiberboard (MDF), newsprint (NP), corrugated container (CC) and copy paper (CP) were buried in landfills operated with leachate recirculation, and were excavated after approximately 1.5 and 2.5 yr. Samples were analyzed for cellulose (C), hemicellulose (H), lignin (L), volatile solids (VS), and organic carbon (OC). A holocellulose decomposition index (HOD) and carbon storage factor (CSF) were calculated to evaluate the extent of solids decomposition and carbon storage. Samples of OSB made from HW exhibited cellulose plus hemicellulose (C + H) loss of up to 38%, while loss for the other wood types was 0–10% in most samples. The C + H loss was up to 81%, 95% and 96% for NP, CP and CC, respectively. The CSFs for wood and paper samples ranged from 0.34 to 0.47 and 0.02 to 0.27 g OC g{sup ?1} dry material, respectively. These results, in general, correlated well with an earlier laboratory-scale study, though NP and CC decomposition measured in this study were higher than previously reported.

  20. The applicability of the Lamendin method to skeletal remains buried for a 16-year period: a cautionary note.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Danilo; Mele, Elia; Gibelli, Daniele; Merelli, Vera; Spagnoli, Laura; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The Lamendin method is widely reported as one of the most reliable means of age estimation of skeletal remains, but very little is known concerning the influence of burial in soil. This study aimed at verifying the reliability of the Lamendin method on corpses buried for 16 years in a cemetery. The Lamendin and the Prince and Ubelaker methods were applied. In all age groups except the 40- to 49-year-olds, the error was higher in the buried sample. The age-at-death error ranged between 10.7 and 36.8 years for the Lamendin method (vs. the reported 7.3-18.9 years) and 9.5 and 35.7 for the Prince and Ubelaker one (vs. the original 5.2-32.6 years); in all age groups, the error is closer to that found on archeological populations. These results suggest caution in applying the Lamendin method to forensic cases of human remains buried even for a brief period under soil. PMID:25413353

  1. Deepwater Horizon Situation Report #5

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-10

    At approximately 11:00 pm EDT April 20, 2010 an explosion occurred aboard the Deepwater Horizon mobile offshore drilling unit (MODU) located 52 miles Southeast of Venice, LA and 130 miles southeast of New Orleans, LA. The MODU was drilling an exploratory well and was not producing oil at the time of the incident. The Deepwater Horizon MODU sank 1,500 feet northwest of the well site. Detailed information on response and recovery operations can be found at: http://www.deepwaterhorizonresponse.com/go/site/2931/

  2. SOIL AIR CARBON DIOXIDE CONCENTRATIONS IN A NEW ENGLAND SPRUCE-FIR FORESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research and modeling efforts to evaluate soil-soil solution chemical interactions must take into account solution equilibria with soil air CO2. Measurements of soil air CO2 and soil temperature were made in the major horizons of a forest soil in eastern Maine through the 1985 gr...

  3. Neighborhoods of isolated horizons and their stationarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowski, Jerzy; Paw?owski, Tomasz

    2014-09-01

    A distinguished (invariant) Bondi-like coordinate system is defined in the spacetime neighborhood of a non-expanding horizon of arbitrary dimension via geometry invariants of the horizon. With its use, the radial expansion of a spacetime metric about the horizon is provided and the free data needed to specify it up to a given order are determined in spacetime dimension 4. For the case of an electro-vacuum horizon in four-dimensional spacetime, the necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a Killing field at its neighborhood are identified as differential conditions for the horizon data and data for the null surface transversal to the horizon.

  4. Electrogeochemical sampling with NEOCHIM - results of tests over buried gold deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leinz, R.W.; Hoover, D.B.; Fey, D.L.; Smith, D.B.; Patterson, T.

    1998-01-01

    Electrogeochemical extraction methods are based on the migration of ions in an electric field. Ions present in soil moisture are transported by an applied current into fluids contained in special electrodes placed on the soil. The fluids are then collected and analyzed. Extractions are governed by Faraday's and Ohm's laws and are modeled by the operation of a simple Hittord transference apparatus. Calculations show that the volume of soil sampled in an ideal electrogeochemical extraction can be orders of magnitude greater than the volumes used in more popular geochemical extraction methods, although this has not been verified experimentally. CHIM is a method of in-situ electrogeochemical extraction that was developed in the former Soviet Union and has been tested and applied internationally to exploration for buried mineral deposits. Tests carried out at the US Geological Survey (USGS) indicated that there were problems inherent in the use of CHIM technology. The cause of the problems was determined to be the diffusion of acid from the conventional electrode into the soil. The NEOCHIM electrode incorporates two compartments and a salt bridge in a design that inhibits diffusion of acid and enables the collection of anions or cations. Tests over a gold-enriched vein in Colorado and over buried, Carlin-type, disseminated gold deposits in northern Nevada show that there are similarities and differences between NEOCHIM results and those by partial extractions of soils which include simple extractions with water, dilute acids and solutions of salts used as collector fluids in the electrodes. Results of both differ from the results obtained by total chemical digestion. The results indicate that NEOCHIM responds to mineralized faults associated with disseminated gold deposits whereas partial and total chemical extraction methods do not. This suggests that faults are favored channels for the upward migration of metals and that NEOCHIM may be more effective in exploration for the deposits. It defines anomalies that are often narrow and intense, an observation previously made by CHIM researchers. The field tests show that NEOCHIM is less affected by surface contamination. A test over the Mike disseminated gold deposit indicates that the method may not be effective for locating deposits with impermeable cover. Faradaic extraction efficiencies of 20-30%, or more, are frequently achieved with NEOCHIM and the method generally shows good reproducibility, especially in extraction of major cations. However, ions of other metals that are useful in exploration, including Au and As, may be collected in low and temporally variable concentrations. The reason for this variability is unclear and requires further investigation.CHIM is a method of in-situ electrogeochemical extraction developed for the exploration of buried mineral deposits. However, electrode problems like diffusion of acid into the soil were encountered during the use of CHIM. The NEOCHIM electrode was developed to inhibit the diffusion of acid and enable collection of anions or cations. Tests over buried gold deposits showed that NEOCHIM responds to mineralized faults associated with disseminated gold deposits whereas partial and total chemical extraction methods do not. This suggests that faults are favored channels for the upward migration of metals and NEOCHIM may be effective in exploration for the deposits. But ions of metals may be collected in low and variable concentration.

  5. New Horizons in Education, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Kwok Keung, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This document contains the May and November 2000 issues of "New Horizons in Education," with articles in English and Chinese. The May issue includes the following articles: "A Key to Successful Environmental Education: Teacher Trainees' Attitude, Behaviour, and Knowledge" (Kevin Chung Wai Lui, Eric Po Keung Tsang, Sing Lai Chan); "Critical…

  6. Deepwater Horizon Controlled Oil Burn

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    OFF THE LOUISIANA COAST — A controlled burn of oil from the Deepwater Horizon/BP oil spill sends towers of fire hundreds of feet into the air over the Gulf of Mexico. U.S. Coast Guard Photo by Petty Officer First Class John Masson....

  7. New Horizons Mission to Pluto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delgado, Luis G.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the trajectory that will take the New Horizons Mission to Pluto. Included are photographs of the spacecraft, the launch vehicle, the assembled vehicle as it is being moved to the launch pad and the launch. Also shown are diagrams of the assembled parts with identifying part names.

  8. NIF featured on BBC "Horizon"

    ScienceCinema

    Brian Cox

    2010-09-01

    The National Ignition Facility, the world's largest laser system, located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, was featured in the BBC broadcast "Horizon" hosted by physicist Brian Cox. Here is the NIF portion of the program, which was entitled "Can We Make A Star On Earth?" This video is used with the express permission of the BBC.

  9. Annual dormancy cycles in buried seeds of shrub species: germination ecology of Sideritis serrata (Labiatae).

    PubMed

    Copete, M A; Herranz, J M; Ferrandis, P; Copete, E

    2015-07-01

    The germination ecology of Sideritis serrata was investigated in order to improve ex-situ propagation techniques and management of their habitat. Specifically, we analysed: (i) influence of temperature, light conditions and seed age on germination patterns; (ii) phenology of germination; (iii) germinative response of buried seeds to seasonal temperature changes; (iv) temperature requirements for induction and breaking of secondary dormancy; (v) ability to form persistent soil seed banks; and (vi) seed bank dynamics. Freshly matured seeds showed conditional physiological dormancy, germinating at low and cool temperatures but not at high ones (28/14 and 32/18 °C). Germination ability increased with time of dry storage, suggesting the existence of non-deep physiological dormancy. Under unheated shade-house conditions, germination was concentrated in the first autumn. S. serrata seeds buried and exposed to natural seasonal temperature variations in the shade-house, exhibited an annual conditional dormancy/non-dormancy cycle, coming out of conditional dormancy in summer and re-entering it in winter. Non-dormant seeds were clearly induced into dormancy when stratified at 5 or 15/4 °C for 8 weeks. Dormant seeds, stratified at 28/14 or 32/18 °C for 16 weeks, became non-dormant if they were subsequently incubated over a temperature range from 15/4 to 32/18 °C. S. serrata is able to form small persistent soil seed banks. The maximum seed life span in the soil was 4 years, decreasing with burial depth. This is the second report of an annual conditional dormancy/non-dormancy cycle in seeds of shrub species. PMID:25598169

  10. Genesis, hydrology, and properties of soils in mesodepressions waterlogged by surface water in the northern Ryazan forest-steppe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaidel'Man, F. R.; Shvarov, A. P.; Ginzburg, T. M.

    2007-09-01

    On the interfluves and in small depressions of the Ryazan forest-steppe, under periodic stagnation of surface water, acid chernozem-like soils with a relatively thick humus horizon, podzolic horizons, and marble-colored gleyed B1 and B2 horizons are formed. The eluvial horizons of these soils contain Mn-Fe nodules, and dark humus coatings occur in the illuvial horizons. In the spring, the eluvial horizons of these soils are excessively moistened and gravitational water stagnates on the soil surface for 3 4 weeks. The formation of the acid light-colored eluvial horizons of the soils on leached rocks is related to gleying under the conditions of the stagnant-percolative regime. Their total thickness is 15 25 cm and more. According to the properties of their solid phase, these horizons are similar to the podzolic horizons of soddy-podzolic gleyed soils. These soils have not been represented in the classification systems of soils of the USSR and Russia. Based on the principles of the substantial-genetic classification, one of the authors of this article [9] referred this soil to gleyed podzolic chernozem-like soils, thus, considering it as an individual genetic soil type. The gleyed podzolic chernozem-like soils differ from the leached chernozems by their low productivity and difficulty of tillage. In humid and moderately moist years, the death of crops or a reduction in yield are probable because of the excess of moisture.

  11. 30 CFR 823.14 - Soil replacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...considered as inhibiting or preventing root penetration if their physical or...restrict or prevent penetration by roots of plants common to the vicinity of the permit...regrade the soil horizons or other root-zone material with proper...

  12. 30 CFR 823.14 - Soil replacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...considered as inhibiting or preventing root penetration if their physical or...restrict or prevent penetration by roots of plants common to the vicinity of the permit...regrade the soil horizons or other root-zone material with proper...

  13. 30 CFR 823.14 - Soil replacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...considered as inhibiting or preventing root penetration if their physical or...restrict or prevent penetration by roots of plants common to the vicinity of the permit...regrade the soil horizons or other root-zone material with proper...

  14. 30 CFR 823.14 - Soil replacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...considered as inhibiting or preventing root penetration if their physical or...restrict or prevent penetration by roots of plants common to the vicinity of the permit...regrade the soil horizons or other root-zone material with proper...

  15. An Integration of Geophysical Methods to Explore Buried Structures on the Bench and in the Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booterbaugh, A. P.; Lachhab, A.

    2011-12-01

    In the following study, an integration of geophysical methods and devices were implemented on the bench and in the field to accurately identify buried structures. Electrical resistivity and ground penetrating radar methods, including both a fabricated electrical resistivity apparatus and an electrical resistivity device were all used in this study. The primary goal of the study was to test the accuracy and reliability of the apparatus which costs a fraction of the price of a commercially sold resistivity instrument. The apparatus consists of four electrodes, two multimeters, a 12-volt battery, a DC to AC inverter and wires. Using this apparatus, an electrical current, is injected into earth material through the outer electrodes and the potential voltage is measured across the inner electrodes using a multimeter. The recorded potential and the intensity of the current can then be used to calculate the apparent resistivity of a given material. In this study the Wenner array, which consists of four equally spaced electrodes, was used due to its higher accuracy and greater resolution when investigating lateral variations of resistivity in shallow depths. In addition, the apparatus was used with an electrical resistivity device and a ground penetrating radar unit to explore the buried building foundation of Gustavus Adolphus Hall located on Susquehanna University Campus, Selinsgrove, PA. The apparatus successfully produced consistent results on the bench level revealing the location of small bricks buried under a soil material. In the summer of 2010, seventeen electrical resistivity transects were conducted on the Gustavus Adolphus site where and revealed remnants of the foundation. In the summer of 2011, a ground penetrating radar survey and an electrical resistivity tomography survey were conducted to further explore the site. Together these methods identified the location of the foundation and proved that the apparatus was a reliable tool for regular use on the bench and in the field.

  16. Spectroscopy of a weakly isolated horizon

    E-print Network

    Ge-Rui Chen; Yong-Chang Huang

    2015-02-12

    The spectroscopy of a weakly isolated horizon (WIH) has been investigated. We obtain an equally spaced entropy spectrum with its quantum equal to the one given by Bekenstein [5]. We demonstrate that the quantization of entropy and area is a generic property of horizon, and the results exit in a wide class of spacetimes admitting weakly isolated horizons. Our results also indicate that the entropy quantum of the black hole horizon is closely related to Hawking temperature.

  17. Experimental investigation of buried tritium in plant and animal tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S. B.; Workman, W. J. G.; Davis, P. A.

    2008-07-15

    Buried exchangeable tritium appears as part of organically bound tritium (OBT) in the traditional experimental determination of OBT. Since buried tritium quickly exchanges with hydrogen atoms in the body following ingestion, assuming that it is part of OBT rather than part of tritiated water (HTO) could result in a significant overestimate of the ingestion dose. This paper documents an experimental investigation into the existence, amount and significance of buried tritium in plant and fish samples. OBT concentrations in the samples were determined in the traditional way and also following denaturing with five chemical solutions that break down large molecules and expose buried tritium to exchange with free hydrogen atoms. A comparison of the OBT concentrations before and after denaturing, together with the concentration of HTO in the supernatant obtained after denaturing, suggests that buried OBT may exist but makes up less than 5% of the OBT concentration in plants and at most 20% of the OBT concentration in fish. The effects of rinse time and rinse water volumes were investigated to optimize the removal of exchangeable OBT from the samples. (authors)

  18. The NMC Horizon Report: 2015 Museum Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, L.; Adams Becker, S.; Estrada, V.; Freeman, A.

    2015-01-01

    The internationally recognized series of "Horizon Reports" is part of the New Media Consortium's Horizon Project, a comprehensive research venture established in 2002 that identifies and describes emerging technologies likely to have a large impact over the coming years on a variety of sectors around the globe. This "2015 Horizon

  19. The Horizon Report: 2010 Museum Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, L.; Witchey, H.; Smith, R.; Levine, A.; Haywood, K.

    2010-01-01

    The internationally recognized series of "Horizon Reports" is part of the New Media Consortium's Horizon Project, a comprehensive research venture established in 2002 that identifies and describes emerging technologies likely to have a large impact over the coming five years on a variety of sectors around the globe. This volume, the "2010 Horizon

  20. The Changing Model of Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, D. D.; Yaalon, D.

    2012-12-01

    The contemporary genetic model of soil is changing rapidly in response to advances in soil science and to human and environmental forcings in the 21st century (Richter and Yaalon, 2012). Three ongoing changes in the model of soil include that: (1) lower soil boundaries are much deeper than the solum, historically the O to B horizons, (2) most soils are polygenetic paleosols, products of soil-forming processes that have ranged widely over soils' lifetimes, and (3) soils are globally human-natural bodies, no longer natural bodies. Together, these changes in the model of soil mean that human forcings are a global wave of soil polygenesis altering fluxes of matter and energy and transforming soil thermodynamics as potentially very deep systems. Because soils are non-linear systems resulting from high-order interactions of physics, chemistry, and biology, trajectories of how human forcings alter soils over decades are not readily predictable and require long-term soil observations. There is much to learn about how soils are changing internally as central components of management systems and externally in relation to wider environments. To be critical, research has been remarkably superficial in studies of soil, reductionist in approach, and lacking in time-series observations of responses to soil management. While this criticism may sound negative, it creates significant opportunities for contemporary soil scientists.

  1. Imaging of buried and foliage-obscured objects with an ultrawide-bandwidth polarimetric SAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheen, Dan R.; Lewis, Terry B.; Wei, Susan C.; Kletzli, D. W., Jr.

    1993-11-01

    The Environmental Research Institute of Michigan (ERIM) has developed a unique ground- based, portable, synthetic aperture radar (SAR). This SAR images targets in their natural backgrounds without the expense of an airborne sensor and with higher performance (bandwidth, resolution) than existing airborne systems. A horizontal 36-foot long aluminum truss supports a rail and an antenna cartridge, which is moved along the rail to allow synthetic aperture focusing. The system is fully-polarimetric and has collected data over the frequency band of 400 - 1300 MHz resulting in a nominal resolution of 0.17 m in range and 0.5 m in cross-range. The low frequency range of the system allows for penetration of soil (to shallow depths) as well as foliage and the system has been used to collect images of buried and foliage- obscured targets. The ground imagery collected to date includes steel oil drums buried at depths of up to one-meter. Both the drums as well as the disturbances due to digging the holes are visible in the imagery. Foliage imagery includes portions of a Lear jet under a mature hardwood forest. Due to the low frequency and wide bandwidth of the sensor (400 - 1300 MHz), obscured objects are clearly visible in the SAR imagery. Other responses in the foliage imagery are due to the dihedral-like ground-trunk reflections.

  2. An investigation into the persistence of textile fibres on buried carcasses.

    PubMed

    DeBattista, Roslyn; Tidy, Helen; Thompson, Tim J U; Robertson, Peter

    2014-07-01

    A significant amount of research has been carried out on fibres to aid the forensic scientist in determining the significance of these when found on a victim or suspect. This work has focused on open-air environments, and as such no research has been undertaken to examine the persistence of fibres on bodies in the burial environment. Wool and cotton fibres, known to fluoresce under ultraviolet (UV) light, were transferred onto the skin of four porcine (Sus scrofa) carcasses (two carcasses per fibre type). The number of fibres transferred was recorded from images taken under UV light. The remains were subsequently placed in four burial sites and left interred for 14 days. After this period the carcasses were excavated and lightly brushed down to remove the soil layer that had adhered to the skin. Once again photography under UV light was used to record the number of fibres which persisted on the skin. Results showed that after 14 days, wool and cotton fibres remain on the surface of the buried carcasses. In no circumstance was there a total loss of fibres suggesting that in such scenarios, the likelihood of finding fibres is high but the initial number of fibres transferred would be strongly diminished. This has important implications for both the excavation protocol for buried remains and the subsequent analysis for physical evidence. PMID:25002046

  3. Closure report for CAU Number 430: Buried Depleted Uranium Artillery Round Number 1, Tonopah Test Range

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 430 consists of the Buried Depleted Uranium (DU) Artillery Round No. 1. This Closure Report presents the information obtained from investigate actions performed to justify the decision for clean closure of CAU 430 through ``No Further Action``. The site was thought to consist of a potentially unexploded W-79 Joint Test Assembly (JTA) test artillery projectile with high explosives (HE) and DU. The DU was substituted for Special Nuclear Materials to prevent a nuclear explosion and yet retain the physical characteristics of uranium for ballistic and other mechanical tests. The projectile was reportedly buried in one pit, approximately 5 to 10 feet (ft) deep. The objectives of the activities were to prepare the site for closure through locating and identifying the projectile, destroying the projectile and any remaining components, collecting soil samples to detect residual contamination resulting from projectile destruction, and finally, remediating residual contamination. This report contains the following five sections. Section 1.0 introduces the CAU and scope of work. Section 2.0 of this report presents the closure activities performed as part of this investigation. Waste disposition is discussed in Section 3.0. Closure investigation results are presented in Section 4.0, and references are presented in Section 5.0.

  4. Operation Hardtack. Project 1. 9. Loading on buried simulated structures in high-overpressure regions. Report for April-October 1958

    SciTech Connect

    Bultmann, E.H.; McDonough, G.F.; Sinnamon, G.K.

    1984-10-31

    The objective of this project was to study some of the factors affecting the transmission of air-blast-induced pressure through soil and the loading produced on buried structures by such pressures in the high-pressure region (approximately 250 psi). Factors studied were: (1) the attenuation of pressure in a sand deposit when the water table is a few feet below the ground surface; (2) the effect of duration of positive phase of blast on the pressure transmitted through such a soil; (3) the effect of structure flexibility on the pressure acting on structures buried in such a soil; and (4) the relationship between horizontal and vertical pressures in such a soil. The project employed 43 devices, each a rigid cylinder having one rigid end and one deformable-diaphragm end. The devices were buried at depths ranging from 0 to 20 feet at each of two locations at the Eniwetok Proving Ground. The locations were chosen to give a predicted ground surface overpressure of about 250 psi from each of two shots, Cactus and Koa.

  5. Assessing the impact of soil salinity on manganese distribution in sierozem soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant availability of heavy metals from soil depends on factors such as soil type, organic matter, base saturation, texture, and salinity. Plant availability of mobile manganese (Mn) was accessed from various horizons of non-saline, medium saline, and highly saline sieriozem soils and a pasture. Man...

  6. Role of large-scale soil structure in organic carbon turnover: Evidence from California grassland soils

    E-print Network

    Role of large-scale soil structure in organic carbon turnover: Evidence from California grassland organic carbon (SOC) in upper (A) and lower (B) horizons of grassland soils from California's Central carbon turnover: Evidence from California grassland soils, J. Geophys. Res., 111, G03012, doi:10

  7. DIVISION S-2--SOIL CHEMISTRY Artifacts Caused by Collection of Soil Solution with Passive Capillary Samplers

    E-print Network

    Chorover, Jon

    DIVISION S-2--SOIL CHEMISTRY Artifacts Caused by Collection of Soil Solution with Passive Capillary) from A horizons of for- ested soils. The volume and chemistry of collected solutions were moisture conditions or suction applied. In addition, suc- measured weekly during discrete seasonal collection periods

  8. Buried waste integrated demonstration FY 94 deployment plan

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, R.A.; Walker, S.; Garcia, M.M.

    1994-05-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) is a program funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Technology Development. BWID supports the applied research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that together form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. The fiscal year (FY) 1994 effort will fund thirty-eight technologies in five areas of buried waste site remediation: site characterization, waste characterization, retrieval, treatment, and containment/stabilization. This document is the basic operational planning document for deployment of all BWID projects. Discussed in this document are the BWID preparations for INEL field demonstrations, INEL laboratory demonstrations, non-INEL demonstrations, and paper studies. Each technology performing tests will prepare a test plan to detail the specific procedures, objectives, and tasks of each test. Therefore, information specific to testing each technology is intentionally omitted from this document.

  9. Tabernaemontana divaricata leaves extract exacerbate burying behavior in mice

    PubMed Central

    Chanchal, Raj; Balasubramaniam, Arumugam; Navin, Raj; Nadeem, Sayyed

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Tabernaemontana divaricata (TD) from Apocynaceae family offers the traditional folklore medicinal benefits such as an anti-epileptic, anti-mania, brain tonic, and anti-oxidant. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract of TD leaves on burying behavior in mice. Materials and Methods: Mice were treated with oral administration (p.o.) of ethanolic extract of TD (100, 200, and 300 mg/kg). Fluoxetine (FLX, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) was used as a reference drug. Obsessive-compulsive behavior was evaluated using marble-burying apparatus. Results: TD at doses of 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg dose-dependently inhibited the obsessive and compulsive behavior. The similar results were obtained from 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg of FLX. TD and FLX did not affect motor activity. Conclusion: The results indicated that TD and FLX produced similar inhibitory effects on marble-burying behavior. PMID:26445709

  10. End effectors and attachments for buried waste excavation equipment

    SciTech Connect

    King, R.H.

    1993-09-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. Their efforts are identified and coordinated in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER&WM) Department`s needs and objectives. The present focus of BWID is to support retrieval and ex-situ treatment configuration options. Future activities will explore and support containment, and stabilization efforts in addition to the retrieval/ex situ treatment options. This report presents a literature search on the state-of-the-art in end effectors and attachments in support of excavator of buried transuranic waste. Included in the report are excavator platforms and a discussion of the various attachments. Also included is it list of vendors and specifications.

  11. Volcanic soils and landslides: a case study of the island of Ischia (southern Italy) and its relationship with other Campania events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vingiani, S.; Mele, G.; De Mascellis, R.; Terribile, F.; Basile, A.

    2015-06-01

    An integrated investigation was carried out on the volcanic soils involved in the landslide phenomena that occurred in 2006 at Mt. Vezzi on the island of Ischia (southern Italy). Chemical (soil pH, organic carbon content, exchangeable cations and cation exchange capacity, electrical conductivity, Na adsorption ratio and Al, Fe and Si forms), physical (particle and pore size distribution, pore structure), hydrological (soil water retention, saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity), mineralogical and micromorphological analyses were carried out for three soil profiles selected in two of the main head scarps. The studied soils showed a substantial abrupt discontinuity in all the studied properties at the interface with a buried fine ash layer (namely, the 2C horizon), that was only marginally involved in the sliding surface of the landslide phenomena. When compared to the overlying horizons, 2C showed (i) fine grey ash that is almost pumice free, with the silt content increasing by 20 %; (ii) ks values 1 order of magnitude lower; (iii) a pore distribution concentrated into small (15-30 ?m modal class) pores characterised by a very low percolation threshold (approximately 15-25 ?m); (iv) the presence of expandable clay minerals; and (v) increasing Na content in the exchange complex. Most of these properties indicated that 2C was a lower permeability horizon compared to the overlying ones. Nevertheless, it was possible to assume this interface to be an impeding layer to vertical water fluxes only by the identification of a thin (6.5 mm) finely stratified ash layer, on top of 2C, and of the hydromorphic features (e.g. Fe / Mn concretions) within and on top of the layer. Although Mt. Vezzi's soil environment has many properties in common with those of other Campania debris-mudflows (e.g. high gradient, north-facing slope, similar forestry, and volcanic origin of the parent material), the results of this study suggest a more complex relationship between soil properties and landslides and emphasise the role of vertical discontinuities as noteworthy predisposing factors.

  12. Effects of compaction and wetting of laterite cover soil on development and survival of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) immatures.

    PubMed

    Abu Tahir, Nurita; Ahmad, Abu Hassan

    2013-09-01

    Effects of laterite cover soil with different characteristics on survival of buried eggs, third instar larvae, and pupae of Musca domestica (L.) were studied experimentally. Soil treatments were loose dry soil, loose wet soil, compacted dry soil, and compacted wet soil (CWS). Eggs, third instar larvae, and pupae were buried under 30 cm of the different soil treatments and placed under field conditions until adults emerged. Rearing medium was provided for eggs and larvae, and control treatments of all stages were unburied immatures placed on soil surface. Egg and pupal survival to adult were significantly affected by the cover soil treatments, but third instars were more resilient. Wet soil treatments (loose wet soil and CWS) resulted in significantly reduced pupal survival, but increased survival of eggs. However, CWS significantly reduced adult emergence from buried eggs. Though emergence of house flies buried as eggs was significantly reduced, some were able to hatch and emerging first instar larvae developed to pupation. Although cover soil does not completely prevent fly emergence, it did limit development and emergence of buried house flies. PMID:24180104

  13. Penrose inequality and apparent horizons

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Dov, Ishai

    2004-12-15

    A spherically symmetric spacetime is presented with an initial data set that is asymptotically flat, satisfies the dominant energy condition, and such that on this initial data M<{radical}(A/16{pi}), where M is the total mass and A is the area of the apparent horizon. This provides a counterexample to a commonly stated version of the Penrose inequality, though it does not contradict the true Penrose inequality.

  14. Horizon universality and anomalous conductivities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gürsoy, Umut; Tarrío, Javier

    2015-10-01

    We show that the value of chiral conductivities associated with anomalous transport is universal in a general class of strongly coupled quantum field theories that admit a gravitational holographic dual in the large N limit. Our result only applies to theories in the presence of external gauge fields with no dynamical gluon fields. On the gravity side the result follows from near horizon universality of the fluctuation equations, similar to the holographic calculation of the shear viscosity.

  15. FINITE ELEMENT MODELS FOR COMPUTING SEISMIC INDUCED SOIL PRESSURES ON DEEPLY EMBEDDED NUCLEAR POWER PLANT STRUCTURES.

    SciTech Connect

    XU, J.; COSTANTINO, C.; HOFMAYER, C.

    2006-06-26

    PAPER DISCUSSES COMPUTATIONS OF SEISMIC INDUCED SOIL PRESSURES USING FINITE ELEMENT MODELS FOR DEEPLY EMBEDDED AND OR BURIED STIFF STRUCTURES SUCH AS THOSE APPEARING IN THE CONCEPTUAL DESIGNS OF STRUCTURES FOR ADVANCED REACTORS.

  16. Buried injector logic, a vertical IIL using deep ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouthaan, A. J.

    1987-12-01

    A vertically integrated alternative for integrated injection logic has been realized, named buried injector logic (BIL). 1 MeV ion implantations are used to create buried layers. The vertical pnp and npn transistors have thin base regions and exhibit a limited charge accumulation if a gate is saturated. d.c. and dynamic analysis of BIL-gate behaviour are given. A minimum gate delay of well below 1 ns is projected if collector areas are smaller than 10 ?m 2 within an oxide isolated structure. A relation between maximum injector current density and device size is derived.

  17. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration commercialization actions plans. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Kaupanger, R.M.; Glore, D.

    1994-04-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) is sponsored by US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development. BWID supports the development and demonstration of a suite of technologies that when integrated with commercially available baseline technologies form a comprehensive system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste throughout the DOE complex. BWID evaluates, validates, and demonstrates technologies and transfers this information throughout DOE and private industry to support DOE. remediation planning and implementation activities. This report documents commercialization action plans for five technologies with near-term commercialization/ implementation potential as well as provides a status of commercial and academic partners for each technology.

  18. Method of forming buried oxide layers in silicon

    DOEpatents

    Sadana, Devendra Kumar (Pleasantville, NY); Holland, Orin Wayne (Lenoir City, TN)

    2000-01-01

    A process for forming Silicon-On-Insulator is described incorporating the steps of ion implantation of oxygen into a silicon substrate at elevated temperature, ion implanting oxygen at a temperature below 200.degree. C. at a lower dose to form an amorphous silicon layer, and annealing steps to form a mixture of defective single crystal silicon and polycrystalline silicon or polycrystalline silicon alone and then silicon oxide from the amorphous silicon layer to form a continuous silicon oxide layer below the surface of the silicon substrate to provide an isolated superficial layer of silicon. The invention overcomes the problem of buried isolated islands of silicon oxide forming a discontinuous buried oxide layer.

  19. New Horizons Tracks an Asteroid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The two 'spots' in this image are a composite of two images of asteroid 2002 JF56 taken on June 11 and June 12, 2006, with the Multispectral Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC) component of the New Horizons Ralph imager. In the bottom image, taken when the asteroid was about 3.36 million kilometers (2.1 million miles) away from the spacecraft, 2002 JF56 appears like a dim star. At top, taken at a distance of about 1.34 million kilometers (833,000 miles), the object is more than a factor of six brighter. The best current, estimated diameter of the asteroid is approximately 2.5 kilometers.

    The asteroid observation was a chance for the New Horizons team to test the spacecraft's ability to track a rapidly moving object. On June 13 New Horizons came to within about 102,000 kilometers of the small asteroid, when the spacecraft was nearly 368 million kilometers (228 million miles) from the Sun and about 273 million kilometers (170 million miles) from Earth.

  20. Horizons cannot save the landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bena, Iosif; Buchel, Alex; Dias, Óscar J. C.

    2013-03-01

    Solutions with anti-D3 branes in a Klebanov-Strassler geometry with positive charge dissolved in fluxes have a certain singularity corresponding to a diverging energy density of the Ramond-Ramond and Neveu-Schwarz-Neveu-Schwarz three-form fluxes. There are many hopes and arguments for and against this singularity, and we attempt to settle the issue by examining whether this singularity can be cloaked by a regular event horizon. This is equivalent to the existence of asymptotically Klebanov-Tseytlin or Klebanov-Strassler black holes whose charge measured at the horizon has the opposite sign to the asymptotic charge. We find that no such Klebanov-Tseytlin solution exists. Furthermore, for a large class of Klebanov-Strassler black holes we considered, the charge at the horizon must also have the same sign as the asymptotic charge and is completely determined by the temperature, the number of fractional branes and the gaugino masses of the dual gauge theory. Our result suggests that antibrane singularities in backgrounds with charge in the fluxes are unphysical, which in turn raises the question as to whether antibranes can be used to uplift anti-de Sitter vacua to deSitter ones. Our results also point to a possible instability mechanism for the antibranes.

  1. Soils, time, and primate paleoenvironments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bown, T.M.; Kraus, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    Soils are the skin of the earth. From both poles to the equator, wherever rocks or sediment are exposed at the surface, soils are forming through the physical and chemical action of climate and living organisms. The physical attributes (color, texture, thickness) and chemical makeup of soils vary considerably, depending on the composition of the parent material and other variables: temperature, rainfall and soil moisture, vegetation, soil fauna, and the length of time that soil-forming processes have been at work. United States soil scientists1 have classified modern soils into ten major groups and numerous subgroups, each reflecting the composition and architecture of the soils and, to some extent, the processes that led to their formation. The physical and chemical processes of soil formation have been active throughout geologic time; the organic processes have been active at least since the Ordovician.2 Consequently, nearly all sedimentary rocks that were deposited in nonmarine settings and exposed to the elements contain a record of ancient, buried soils or paleosols. A sequence of these rocks, such as most ancient fluvial (stream) deposits, provides a record of soil paleoenvironments through time. Paleosols are also repositories of the fossils of organisms (body fossils) and the traces of those organisms burrowing, food-seeking, and dwelling activities (ichnofossils). Indeed, most fossil primates are found in paleosols. Careful study of ancient soils gives new, valuable insights into the correct temporal reconstruction of the primate fossil record and the nature of primate paleoenvironments. ?? 1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Biogeochemical Controls on Microbial CO2 and CH4 Production in Polygonal Soils From the Barrow Environmental Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, D. E.; Roy Chowdhury, T.; Herndon, E.; Gu, B.; Liang, L.; Wullschleger, S. D.

    2014-12-01

    Organic matter buried in Arctic soils and permafrost will become accessible to increased microbial degradation as the ground warms due to climate change. The rates of organic matter degradation and the proportion of CH4 and CO2 greenhouse gasses released in a potential warming feedback cycle depend on the microbial response to warming, organic carbon structure and availability, the pore-water quantity and geochemistry, and available electron acceptors. Significant amounts of iron(II) ions in organic and mineral soils of the active layer in low-centered ice wedge polygons indicate anoxic conditions in most soil horizons. To adapt and improve the representation of these Arctic subsurface processes in terrestrial ecosystem models for the NGEE Arctic project, we examined soil organic matter transformations from elevated and subsided areas of low- and high-centered polygons from interstitial tundra on the Barrow Environmental Observatory (Barrow, AK). Using microcosm incubations at fixed temperatures and controlled thawing systems for frozen soil cores, we investigated the microbiological processes and rates of soil organic matter degradation and greenhouse gas production under anoxic conditions, at ecologically relevant temperatures of -2, +4 or +8 °C. In contrast to the low-centered polygon incubations representing in situ water-saturated conditions, microcosms with unsaturated high-centered polygon samples displayed lower carbon mineralization as either CH4 or CO2. Substantial differences in CH4 and CO2 response curves from different microtopographic samples separate the thermodynamic controls on biological activity from the kinetic controls of microbial growth and migration that together determine the temperature response for greenhouse gas emissions in a warming Arctic.

  3. Baseline tests for arc melter vitrification of INEL buried wastes. Volume 1: Facility description and summary data report

    SciTech Connect

    Oden, L.L.; O`Connor, W.K.; Turner, P.C.; Soelberg, N.R.; Anderson, G.L.

    1993-11-19

    This report presents field results and raw data from the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) Arc Melter Vitrification Project Phase 1 baseline test series conducted by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM). The baseline test series was conducted using the electric arc melter facility at the USBM Albany Research Center in Albany, Oregon. Five different surrogate waste feed mixtures were tested that simulated thermally-oxidized, buried, TRU-contaminated, mixed wastes and soils present at the INEL. The USBM Arc Furnace Integrated Waste Processing Test Facility includes a continuous feed system, the arc melting furnace, an offgas control system, and utilities. The melter is a sealed, 3-phase alternating current (ac) furnace approximately 2 m high and 1.3 m wide. The furnace has a capacity of 1 metric ton of steel and can process as much as 1,500 lb/h of soil-type waste materials. The surrogate feed materials included five mixtures designed to simulate incinerated TRU-contaminated buried waste materials mixed with INEL soil. Process samples, melter system operations data and offgas composition data were obtained during the baseline tests to evaluate the melter performance and meet test objectives. Samples and data gathered during this program included (a) automatically and manually logged melter systems operations data, (b) process samples of slag, metal and fume solids, and (c) offgas composition, temperature, velocity, flowrate, moisture content, particulate loading and metals content. This report consists of 2 volumes: Volume I summarizes the baseline test operations. It includes an executive summary, system and facility description, review of the surrogate waste mixtures, and a description of the baseline test activities, measurements, and sample collection. Volume II contains the raw test data and sample analyses from samples collected during the baseline tests.

  4. Soil Science Minor School of Environment and Natural Resources

    E-print Network

    to understand the fate of chemicals and waste products that are applied to or buried in the soil. For students ecosystem services ­ including food production, water purification, carbon sequestration, nutrient recycling, and assimilation of waste products. Soil is a key component of natural agricultural, wildland, and urban ecosystems

  5. Sherm Soils - Distribution, Importance, Variability, and Management. 

    E-print Network

    Unger, Paul W.; Pringle, Fred B.

    1986-01-01

    locale. These soils met the criteria in force at the time individual county soil surveys were in progress. water retention of the different horizons of Sherm soil as affected by location in the region . Water in filtration at the different locations... and measurements on a similar soil (Pullman clay loam) at Bushland Texas (O.R. Jones, Bushland Texas' unpublished data; Unger, l'978a).' Present Water Management Systems Based on data from the North . Plains Research Field at Etter (per sonal communication...

  6. EFFECT OF ACID TREATMENT ON DISSOLVED ORGANIC CARBON RETENTION BY A SPODIC HORIZON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Processes involving the movement of organic substances in forest soils are not well understood. This study was conducted to examine the role of acidic inputs on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) mobility, processes affecting the retention of DOV by a B horizon, and SO2-4 adsorption....

  7. ACIDIFICATION AND RECOVERY OF A SPODOSOL BS HORIZON FROM ACIDIC DEPOSITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A laboratory study was conducted to examine acidification and recovery of a Spodosol Bs horizon from acidic deposition in the Bear Brook Watershed (BBW) in central Maine. echanical vacuum extractor was used to draw solutions through a soil column at three treatments containing 40...

  8. Ephemeral Gully Erosion by Preferential Flow Through a Discontinuous Soil-Pipe

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lateral flow through soil pipes has been postulated to facilitate the development of ephemeral gullies, yet these soil pipes are buried and thereby made discontinuous when gullies are filled-in. The objective was to determine the effect of flow through discontinuous soil-pipes on ephemeral gully ero...

  9. Stabilized soil organic carbon pools in subsoils under forest are potential sinks for atmospheric CO2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soil organic carbon (SOC) pool stored in sub-soil horizons in forests plays an important role in the global C cycle. Strategies are needed to increase the sub-soil SOC pool in forests because the turnover time of SOC increases with increase in soil depth as sub-soil SOC is chemically and physica...

  10. Characterization of Polarization-Mode Dispersion on Buried Standard

    E-print Network

    Kansas, University of

    Characterization of Polarization-Mode Dispersion on Buried Standard Single-Mode Fibers Pradeep Terminologies 4 2.1 Performance metrics 4 CHAPTER 3 6 Scalability test 6 3.1 Introduction 6 3.2 Test topology 6. For more information on the KU-PNNI simulator, refer to the KU-PNNI user's manual [1]. Chapter 2 provides

  11. Introduction Mining is based on the minerals on or buried

    E-print Network

    Boisvert, Jeff

    J o u r n a l P a p e r Introduction Mining is based on the minerals on or buried in the ground of the mine and plant, and whether the ore deposit is economically viable. Owing to the fact these in the decision-making process. To arrive at a solution to the project evaluation problem, one will need

  12. Modeling Blast Loading on Buried Reinforced Concrete Structures with Zapotec

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bessette, Greg C.

    2008-01-01

    A coupled Euler-Lagrange solution approach is used to model the response of a buried reinforced concrete structure subjected to a close-in detonation of a high explosive charge. The coupling algorithm is discussed along with a set of benchmark calculations involving detonations in clay and sand.

  13. 49 CFR 195.248 - Cover over buried pipeline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cover over buried pipeline. 195.248 Section 195.248 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION...

  14. 49 CFR 195.248 - Cover over buried pipeline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cover over buried pipeline. 195.248 Section 195.248 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION...

  15. Short communication Buried relic seawall mitigates Hurricane Sandy's impacts

    E-print Network

    Lynett, Patrick

    Short communication Buried relic seawall mitigates Hurricane Sandy's impacts Jennifer L. Irish a Accepted 6 June 2013 Available online xxxx Keywords: Hurricanes Storm surge Waves Storm damage Seawalls of Hurricane Sandy revealed clear differences in patterns of the impact between two neighboring boroughs along

  16. 49 CFR 195.248 - Cover over buried pipeline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... railroads 36 (914) 36 (914) Deepwater port safety zones 48 (1219) 24 (610) Gulf of Mexico and its inlets in... removal by equivalent means. (b) Except for the Gulf of Mexico and its inlets in waters less than 15 feet... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cover over buried pipeline. 195.248 Section...

  17. 49 CFR 195.248 - Cover over buried pipeline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... railroads 36 (914) 36 (914) Deepwater port safety zones 48 (1219) 24 (610) Gulf of Mexico and its inlets in... removal by equivalent means. (b) Except for the Gulf of Mexico and its inlets in waters less than 15 feet... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cover over buried pipeline. 195.248 Section...

  18. 49 CFR 195.248 - Cover over buried pipeline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... railroads 36 (914) 36 (914) Deepwater port safety zones 48 (1219) 24 (610) Gulf of Mexico and its inlets in... removal by equivalent means. (b) Except for the Gulf of Mexico and its inlets in waters less than 15 feet... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cover over buried pipeline. 195.248 Section...

  19. Buried Object Scanning Sonar for AUVs S. G. Schock

    E-print Network

    Schock, Steven

    Buried Object Scanning Sonar for AUVs S. G. Schock J. Wulf Department of Ocean Engineering Florida Atlantic University Boca Raton, FL 33431 U.S.A. schock@oe.fau.edu Abstract- A 252 channel FM sonar nearfield focusing generates a 3D map of acoustic intensity for each transmission event. As the sonar

  20. Detection of concealed and buried chemicals by using multifrequency excitations

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Yaohui; Chen, Meng-Ku; Yang, Chia-En; Chang, Yun-Ching; Yao, Jim; Cheng Jiping; Yin, Stuart; Hui Rongqing; Ruffin, Paul; Brantley, Christina; Edwards, Eugene; Luo, Claire

    2010-08-15

    In this paper, we present a new type of concealed and buried chemical detection system by stimulating and enhancing spectroscopic signatures with multifrequency excitations, which includes a low frequency gradient dc electric field, a high frequency microwave field, and higher frequency infrared (IR) radiations. Each excitation frequency plays a unique role. The microwave, which can penetrate into the underground and/or pass through the dielectric covers with low attenuation, could effectively transform its energy into the concealed and buried chemicals and increases its evaporation rate from the sample source. Subsequently, a gradient dc electric field, generated by a Van De Graaff generator, not only serves as a vapor accelerator for efficiently expediting the transportation process of the vapor release from the concealed and buried chemicals but also acts as a vapor concentrator for increasing the chemical concentrations in the detection area, which enables the trace level chemical detection. Finally, the stimulated and enhanced vapors on the surface are detected by the IR spectroscopic fingerprints. Our theoretical and experimental results demonstrate that more than sixfold increase in detection signal can be achieved by using this proposed technology. The proposed technology can also be used for standoff detection of concealed and buried chemicals by adding the remote IR and/or thermal spectroscopic and imaging detection systems.

  1. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Technology Preparedness and Status Report Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Blacker, P.B.; Bonnenberg, R.W.; Cannon, P.G.; Hyde, R.A.; Watson, L.R.

    1994-04-01

    A Technology Preparedness and Status Report is required for each Technical Task Plan funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration. This document provides guidance for the preparation of that report. Major sections of the report will include a subset of the need for the technology, objectives of the demonstration, technology description and readiness evaluation, demonstration requirements, and preparedness checklist and action plan.

  2. Investigating buried polymer interfaces using sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhan

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews recent progress in the studies of buried polymer interfaces using sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy. Both buried solid/liquid and solid/solid interfaces involving polymeric materials are discussed. SFG studies of polymer/water interfaces show that different polymers exhibit varied surface restructuring behavior in water, indicating the importance of probing polymer/water interfaces in situ. SFG has also been applied to the investigation of interfaces between polymers and other liquids. It has been found that molecular interactions at such polymer/liquid interfaces dictate interfacial polymer structures. The molecular structures of silane molecules, which are widely used as adhesion promoters, have been investigated using SFG at buried polymer/silane and polymer/polymer interfaces, providing molecular-level understanding of polymer adhesion promotion. The molecular structures of polymer/solid interfaces have been examined using SFG with several different experimental geometries. These results have provided molecular-level information about polymer friction, adhesion, interfacial chemical reactions, interfacial electronic properties, and the structure of layer-by-layer deposited polymers. Such research has demonstrated that SFG is a powerful tool to probe buried interfaces involving polymeric materials, which are difficult to study by conventional surface sensitive analytical techniques. PMID:21113334

  3. Trees Buried in Volcanic Sediment, Sandy River 1

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Trunks of forest trees, initially growing on a terrace above the Sandy River (Oregon) at Oxbow Regional Park, were buried by rapid deposition of sediment following a dome-building eruption at Mount Hood in 1781. Erosion during a flood about a week before the photo was taken exposed this

  4. Trees Buried in Volcanic Sediment, Sandy River 2

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Trunks of forest trees, initially growing on a terrace above the Sandy River (Oregon) at Oxbow Regional Park, were buried by rapid deposition of sediment following a dome-building eruption at Mount Hood in 1781. Erosion during a flood about a week before the photo was taken exposed this

  5. Introduction Interest in buried glacial ice has gained considerable

    E-print Network

    Marchant, David R.

    glacier in central Beacon Valley (Fig. 1). The age of this underlying glacier ice is debated (van derIntroduction Interest in buried glacial ice has gained considerable attention in recent years due to its potential as an archive for long-term climate change. Geochemical analyses of ice stored

  6. BURNING BURIED SUNSHINE: HUMAN CONSUMPTION OF ANCIENT SOLAR ENERGY

    E-print Network

    Dukes, Jeffrey

    BURNING BURIED SUNSHINE: HUMAN CONSUMPTION OF ANCIENT SOLAR ENERGY JEFFREY S. DUKES Department of as a vast store of solar energy from which society meets >80% of its current energy needs. Here, using of ancient solar energy decline, humans are likely to use an increasing share of modern solar resources. I

  7. Variation in seed viability and dormancy of 17 weed species after 24.7 years of burial: the concept of buried seed safe sites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 50-year study at Fairbanks, AK was started in 1984 to determine soil seed longevity of 17 weed species. Seeds were buried in mesh bags 2 and 15 cm deep and were recovered 0.7, 1.7, 2.7, 3.7, 4.7, 6.7, 9.7,19.7 and 24.7 yr later. Viability was determined using germination and tetrazolium tests. By ...

  8. 49 CFR 192.459 - External corrosion control: Examination of buried pipeline when exposed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false External corrosion control: Examination of buried pipeline...FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.459 External corrosion control: Examination of buried...

  9. 49 CFR 192.459 - External corrosion control: Examination of buried pipeline when exposed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false External corrosion control: Examination of buried pipeline...FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.459 External corrosion control: Examination of buried...

  10. Closure Report for CAU No. 430: Buried Depleted Uraniuim Artillery Round No. 1, Tonopah Test Range, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-25

    1.1 Purpose This Closure Report presents the information obtained from investigative actions performed to justify the decision for clean closure of CAU 430 through "No Further Action." The investigative actions were performed per the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan, CA UNO. 430: Buried Depleted Uranium Artille~ Round No. 1, Tonopah Test Range (DOE/NV, 1996a) (hereafter referred to as the SAFER Plan). The Buried DU Artillery Round No. 1 is located approximately 1.1 kilometers (km) (0.7 mile [mi]) south of Avenue 13 in the test area south of Area 9 (Figure 1-2). The site was thought to consist of a potentially unexploded W-79 Joint Test Assembly (JTA) test artillery projectile with high explosives (HE) and DU. The DU was substituted for Special Nuclear Material to prevent a nuclear explosion and yet retain the physical characteristics of uranium for ballistic and other mechanical tests. The projectile was reportedly buried in one pit, approximately 5 to 10 feet (ft) deep (Smith, 1993; Smith, 1996; Quas, 1996). The exact location of the burial pit is unknown; however, three disturbed areas (Sites A, B, and C) were identified through geophysical surveys, site visits, and employee interviews as possible locations of the test projectile (Figure 1-3). Results of the investigation are summarized within this Closure Report. Additional information about the site and investigation activities may be found in the SAFER Plan (DOE/NV, 1996a). 1.2 Scope The objectives of the SAFER Plan (DOE/NV, 1996a) activities were to prepare the site for closure through locating and identi~ing the projectile (Buried DU Artillery Round No. 1), destroying the projectile and any remaining components, collecting soil samples to detect residual contamination resulting from projectile destruction, and finally, remediating residual contamination.

  11. Comparison of groundwater colloids in adjoining soils of Florida flatwoods

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Z.X.; Harris, W.G.; Ma, L.Q.

    2000-02-01

    Colloids in soil water are a constituent of natural geochemical fluxes and have the potential to facilitate contaminant transport, but few data are available on their composition and concentration. This study addresses how the composition and concentration of groundwater solids relate to hydrological and soil morphological variables of the Florida flatwoods landscape. Groundwater from saturated soil horizons was sampled biweekly for 1 year along an Aquod/Udult boundary using piezometers designed specifically to minimize disturbance and to permit the valid assessment of suspended solids. Readily dispersible clay from core samples of soil horizons was collected and quantified. Groundwater and soil colloids were analyzed physically, chemically, and mineralogically. Aquod groundwater had consistently lower pH, higher electrical conductivity, and more total solids (TS) and organic carbon (OC) than did Udult groundwater. Significant decreases in both TS and OC concentrations in groundwater occurred with depth for both soils. In contrast, the mineralogy of groundwater colloids was insensitive to soil and horizon differences. Quartz dominated inorganic colloid fractions in groundwater samples from all horizons, even in argillic horizons where clay fractions contained little or no quartz. No statistical correlations were found between masses of groundwater colloids and soil water-dispersible clay. However, the proportion of organic carbon was higher in groundwater than in soil matrices. Results are consistent with carbon and colloidal quartz movement in shallow groundwater of the soil studied and document that natural colloid and solute fluxes can be highly soil specific.

  12. A comparison of soil moisture characteristics predicted by the Arya-Paris model with laboratory-measured data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arya, L. M.; Richter, J. C.; Davidson, S. A. (principal investigators)

    1982-01-01

    Soil moisture characteristics predicted by the Arya-Paris model were compared with the laboratory measured data for 181 New Jersey soil horizons. For a number of soil horizons, the predicted and the measured moisture characteristic curves are almost coincident; for a large number of other horizons, despite some disparity, their shapes are strikingly similar. Uncertainties in the model input and laboratory measurement of the moisture characteristic are indicated, and recommendations for additional experimentation and testing are made.

  13. Topological deformation of isolated horizons

    SciTech Connect

    Liko, Tomas

    2008-03-15

    We show that the Gauss-Bonnet term can have physical effects in four dimensions. Specifically, the entropy of a black hole acquires a correction term that is proportional to the Euler characteristic of the cross sections of the horizon. While this term is constant for a single black hole, it will be a nontrivial function for a system with dynamical topologies such as black-hole mergers: it is shown that for certain values of the Gauss-Bonnet parameter, the second law of black-hole mechanics can be violated.

  14. Pb-concentrations and Pb-isotope ratios in soils collected along an east-west transect across the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reimann, Clemens; Smith, David B.; Woodruff, Laurel G.; Flem, Belinda

    2011-01-01

    Analytical results for Pb-concentrations and isotopic ratios from ca. 150 samples of soil A horizon and ca. 145 samples of soil C horizon collected along a 4000-km east–west transect across the USA are presented. Lead concentrations along the transect show: (1) generally higher values in the soil A-horizon than the C-horizon (median 21 vs. 16.5 mg/kg), (2) an increase in the median value of the soil A-horizon for central to eastern USA (Missouri to Maryland) when compared to the western USA (California to Kansas) (median 26 vs. 20 mg/kg) and (3) a higher A/C ratio for the central to eastern USA (1.35 vs. 1.14). Lead isotopes show a distinct trend across the USA, with the highest 206Pb/207Pb ratios occurring in the centre (Missouri, median A-horizon: 1.245; C-horizon: 1.251) and the lowest at both coasts (e.g., California, median A-horizon: 1.195; C-horizon: 1.216). The soil C-horizon samples show generally higher 206Pb/207Pb ratios than the A-horizon (median C-horizon: 1.224; A-horizon: 1.219). The 206Pb/207Pb-isotope ratios in the soil A horizon show a correlation with the total feldspar content for the same 2500-km portion of the transect from east-central Colorado to the Atlantic coast that shows steadily increasing precipitation. No such correlation exists in the soil C horizon. The data demonstrate the importance of climate and weathering on both Pb-concentration and 206Pb/207Pb-isotope ratios in soil samples and natural shifts thereof in the soil profile during soil-forming processes.

  15. Main features of anthropogenic inner-urban soils in Szeged, Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puskás, Irén.; Farsang, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    At the beginning of the 21st century, due to the intensive urbanization it is necessary to gather more and more information on altered physical, chemical and biological parameters of urban soils in order to ensure their suitable management and protection for appropriate living conditions. Nowadays, these measures are very relevant since negative environmental effects can modify the soil forming factors in cities. Szeged, the 4th largest city of Hungary, proved to be an ideal sampling area for the research of urban soils since its original surface has been altered by intensive anthropogenic activities. The main objectives of my research are the investigation, description and evaluation of the altered soils in Szeged. For the physical and chemical analysis (humus, nitrogen, carbonate content, heavy metals, pH, artefacts etc.) of soils 124 samples were taken from the horizons of 25 profiles in Szeged and its peripherals (as control samples). The profiles were sampled at sites affected by different extent of artificial infill according to infill maps (1. profiles fully made up of infill; 2. so-called mixed profiles consisting of considerable amount of infill material and buried soil horizons; 3. natural profiles located in the peripherals of the city). With the help of the above-mentioned parameters, the studied soils of Szeged were assigned into the classification system of WRB(2006), which classifies the soils of urban and industrial areas as an individual soil group (under the term Technosols) for the first time. In accordance with the WRB(2006) nomenclature three main soil types can be identified in Szeged with respect to the degree of human influence: profiles slightly influenced, strongly modified, completely altered by human activities. During this poster, we present the peculiarities of typical urban profiles strongly and completely altered by human influence. Most profiles were placed into the group of Technosols due to the considerable transformation of their diagnostic properties (e.g. coverage by artificial objects, intensive compaction, horizontal and vertical variability, abrupt colour and textural changes usually high amount of artefacts, irregular fluctuation of diagnostic properties along the profiles, anthropogenic parent material, high pH and carbonate content, poor humus quality, mainly sand, sandy loam texture etc.). Transformations were best reflected by suffixes such as Ekranic, Urbic, Linic. Among the suffix qualifiers Calcaric, Ruptic, Densic and Arenic were used the most frequently. Furthermore, we found that some of the studied profiles were not situated in the city centre. Consequently, the location of these profiles in the city centre is not necessary since local influences can overwhelm the effect of artificial infill. Considering all the profiles, two of them in city centre can be consider to be the most anthropogenic: profile No. 11 [Ekranic Technosol (Ruptic, Toxic, Endoclayic)] and profile No. 22 [Urbic Technosol (Calcaric, Ruptic, Densic, Arenic)]. It can be claimed that profile No. 11 with "technic hard rock" has the least chance to experience pedogenetic processes since the horizons are covered by thick, surface artificial object, and isolated from the outside world. However, in case of profile No. 22 with dense vegetation and without surface artificial object, the high amount of artefact inhibits pedogenesis.

  16. Exchangeable sodium accumulation and replacement in Southeast Texas soils under turfgrass 

    E-print Network

    Najjar, Namir Fouad

    1995-01-01

    waters of low salinity. This study assessed the degree of Na accumulation in Southeast Texas soils under irrigated turfgrass, tested models predicting Na accumulation, and evaluated response of sodic soil to amendments. The Ap, E, and Bt horizons of 18...

  17. Variable horizon in a peridynamic medium.

    SciTech Connect

    Silling, Stewart A.; Littlewood, David John; Seleson, Pablo

    2014-10-01

    A notion of material homogeneity is proposed for peridynamic bodies with vari- able horizon but constant bulk properties. A relation is derived that scales the force state according to the position-dependent horizon while keeping the bulk properties un- changed. Using this scaling relation, if the horizon depends on position, artifacts called ghost forces may arise in a body under homogeneous deformation. These artifacts de- pend on the second derivative of horizon and can be reduced by use of a modified equilibrium equation using a new quantity called the partial stress . Bodies with piece- wise constant horizon can be modeled without ghost forces by using a technique called a splice between the regions. As a limiting case of zero horizon, both partial stress and splice techniques can be used to achieve local-nonlocal coupling. Computational examples, including dynamic fracture in a one-dimensional model with local-nonlocal coupling, illustrate the methods.

  18. Mechanical laws of the Rindler horizon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Eugenio; Satz, Alejandro

    2013-06-01

    Gravitational perturbations of flat Minkowski space make the Rindler horizon dynamical: the horizon satisfies mechanical laws analogous to the ones followed by black holes. We describe the gravitational perturbation of Minkowski space using perturbative field-theoretical methods. The change in the area of the Rindler horizon is described in terms of the deflection of light rays by the gravitational field. The difference between the area of the perturbed and the unperturbed horizon is related to the energy of matter crossing the horizon. We derive consistency conditions for the validity of our approximations and compare our results to similar ones present in the literature. Finally, we discuss how this setting can be used in perturbative quantum gravity to extend the classical mechanical laws to thermodynamic laws, with the entanglement of field modes across the Rindler horizon providing a notion of thermodynamic entropy.

  19. Hall scrambling on black hole horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischler, Willy; Kundu, Sandipan

    2015-08-01

    We explore the effect of the electrodynamics ? angle on the macroscopic properties of black hole horizons. Using only classical Einstein-Maxwell-Chern-Simons theory in (3 +1 ) dimensions, in the form of the membrane paradigm, we show that in the presence of the ? term, a black hole horizon behaves as a Hall conductor, for an observer hovering outside. We study how localized perturbations created on the stretched horizon scramble on the horizon by dropping a charged particle. We show that the ? angle affects the way perturbations scramble on the horizon, in particular, it introduces vortices without changing the scrambling time. This Hall scrambling of information is also expected to occur on cosmological horizons.

  20. Hall Scrambling on Black Hole Horizons

    E-print Network

    Willy Fischler; Sandipan Kundu

    2015-08-31

    We explore the effect of the electrodynamics $\\theta$-angle on the macroscopic properties of black hole horizons. Using only classical Einstein-Maxwell-Chern-Simons theory in (3+1)-dimensions, in the form of the membrane paradigm, we show that in the presence of the $\\theta$-term, a black hole horizon behaves as a Hall conductor, for an observer hovering outside. We study how localized perturbations created on the stretched horizon scramble on the horizon by dropping a charged particle. We show that the $\\theta$-angle affects the way perturbations scramble on the horizon, in particular, it introduces vortices without changing the scrambling time. This Hall scrambling of information is also expected to occur on cosmological horizons.

  1. Viscous flow lobes in central Taylor Valley, Antarctica: Origin as remnant buried glacial ice

    E-print Network

    Marchant, David R.

    its terminus, the ESL flows at a rate of 2.4 to 6.7 mm a-1 . The loose drift that caps the buried ice temperatures show that intermittent melting is most likely possible during summer months where buried ice is 35Viscous flow lobes in central Taylor Valley, Antarctica: Origin as remnant buried glacial ice Kate

  2. 49 CFR 193.2629 - External corrosion control: buried or submerged components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false External corrosion control: buried or submerged... corrosion control: buried or submerged components. (a) Each buried or submerged component that is subject to external corrosive attack must be protected from external corrosion by— (1) Material that has been...

  3. 49 CFR 193.2629 - External corrosion control: buried or submerged components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false External corrosion control: buried or submerged... corrosion control: buried or submerged components. (a) Each buried or submerged component that is subject to external corrosive attack must be protected from external corrosion by— (1) Material that has been...

  4. 49 CFR 193.2629 - External corrosion control: buried or submerged components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false External corrosion control: buried or submerged... corrosion control: buried or submerged components. (a) Each buried or submerged component that is subject to external corrosive attack must be protected from external corrosion by— (1) Material that has been...

  5. 49 CFR 193.2629 - External corrosion control: buried or submerged components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false External corrosion control: buried or submerged... corrosion control: buried or submerged components. (a) Each buried or submerged component that is subject to external corrosive attack must be protected from external corrosion by— (1) Material that has been...

  6. 49 CFR 193.2629 - External corrosion control: buried or submerged components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false External corrosion control: buried or submerged... corrosion control: buried or submerged components. (a) Each buried or submerged component that is subject to external corrosive attack must be protected from external corrosion by— (1) Material that has been...

  7. IEEE JOURNAL OF OCEANIC ENGINEERING, VOL. 26, NO. 4, OCTOBER 2001 677 Buried Object Scanning Sonar

    E-print Network

    Schock, Steven

    IEEE JOURNAL OF OCEANIC ENGINEERING, VOL. 26, NO. 4, OCTOBER 2001 677 Buried Object Scanning Sonar Abstract--A sonar, designed to scan for objects buried in the seafloor, generates images of pipe and cable sections and ordnance buried in sand. The sonar operates by illuminating a broad swath of the seabed using

  8. Buried seed populations in the subarcticforest east of Great Slave Lake, Northwest Territories

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Edward A.

    Buried seed populations in the subarcticforest east of Great Slave Lake, Northwest Territories E. A~vrtn, Srrskatoon, Saskntchrrvan S7N OW0 Received June 18, 1975 JOHNSON,E. A. 1975. Buried seed populations in the subarctic forest east of Great Slave Lake, Northwest Territories. Can. J. Bot. 53: 2933-2941. Buried seeds

  9. Temperature at Horizon in de Sitter Spacetime

    E-print Network

    Han-Ying Guo; Chao-Guang Huang; Bin Zhou

    2005-12-31

    It is found that there is no period in the imaginary Beltrami-time of the de Sitter spacetime with Beltrami metric and that the `surface-gravity' in view of inertial observers in de Sitter spacetime is zero! They show that the horizon might be at zero temperature in de Sitter spacetime and that the thermal property of the horizon in the de Sitter spacetime with a static metric should be analogous to that of the Rindler horizon in Minkowski spacetime.

  10. Spore dispersal of a resupinate ectomycorrhizal fungus, Tomentella sublilacina, via soil food webs.

    PubMed

    Lilleskov, Erik A; Bruns, Thomas D

    2005-01-01

    Patterns of fungal spore dispersal affect gene flow, population structure and fungal community structure. Many Basidiomycota produce resupinate (crust-like) basidiocarps buried in the soil. Although spores are actively discharged, they often do not appear to be well positioned for aerial dispersal. We investigated the potential spore dispersal mechanisms of one exemplar of this growth form, Tomentella sublilacina. It is a widespread ectomycorrhizal fungus that sporulates in the soil organic horizon, can establish from the spore bank shortly after disturbance, but also can be a dominant species in mature forest stands. We investigated whether its spores could be dispersed via spore-based food webs. We examined external surfaces, gut contents and feces from arthropod fungivores (mites, springtails, millipedes, beetles, fly larvae) and arthropod and vertebrate predators (centipedes, salamanders) from on and around T. sublilacina sporocarps. Spore densities were high in the guts of many individuals from all fungivore groups. Centipede gut contents, centipede feces and salamander feces contained undigested invertebrate exoskeletons and many apparently intact spores. DAPI staining of spores from feces of fungivores indicated that 7-73% of spores contained intact nuclei, whereas spores from predators had lower percentages of intact nuclei. The spiny spores often were lodged on invertebrate exoskeletons. To test the viability of spores that had passed through invertebrate guts we used fecal droppings of the millipede Harpaphe haydeniana to successfully inoculate seedlings of Pinus muricata (Bishop pine). These results indicate the potential for T. sublilacina spore dispersal via invertebrates and their predators in soil food webs and might help to explain the widespread distribution of this species. It is likely that this is a general mechanism of dispersal for fungi producing resupinate sporocarps, indicating a need to develop a fuller understanding of the linkages of soil food webs and spore dispersal. PMID:16457345

  11. Ferromanganese crusts from Necker Ridge, Horizon Guyot and S.P. Lee Guyot: Geological considerations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hein, J.R.; Manheim, F. T.; Schwab, W.C.; Davis, A.S.

    1985-01-01

    Necker Ridge, Horizon Guyot and S.P. Lee Guyot in the Central Pacific were sampled, seismically surveyed, and photographed by bottom cameras in order to better understand the distribution, origin, and evolution of ferromanganese crusts. Necker Ridge is over 600 km long with a rugged crest, pods of sediment to 146 m thick, slopes that average 12?? to 20??, and debris aprons that cover some of the lower flanks. Substrate lithologies are mostly hyaloclastite, volcaniclastic breccia, and minor alkalic basalt. Horizon Guyot, 300 km long and 75 km wide, is capped by at least 160 m of sediment, which buries stepped terraces. Substrate lithologies are similar to those on Necker Ridge, although previous workers sampled much tholeiitic basalt on Horizon. S.P. Lee Guyot, 125 km long and 80 km wide, is capped by at least 300 m of sediment, and contains talus aprons along its lower flanks. Ferromanganese-encrusted rocks were recovered in every dredge and are thickest on Necker Ridge. Crust thicknesses average about 2.5, 1.5, and 0.8 cm for Necker, Horizon, and S.P. Lee, respectively. Crusts range from smooth or porous surfaces to knobby and botryoidal. The entire crust is laminated, however, two distinct layers commonly exist, separated by a paper-thin layer of phosphorite. The dominant mineral of all crusts is vernadite (??-MnO2), while quartz, feldspar, apatite, and, in three rocks todorokite, are minor phases. Quartz and feldspar decrease with decreasing latitude of occurrence, and is suggested to be related to eolian input. On the average, apatite also increases within the crusts with decreasing latitude of occurrence, which may be related to high biological productivity in the zone of equatorial upwelling. Phosphorite substrates are more abundant on Necker Ridge and S.P. Lee Guyot than they are on Horizon Guyot. Seamount ferromanganese nodules are distinct from abyssal nodules in their chemistry and internal structure. ?? 1985.

  12. Organic and inorganic sulfur constituents of a forest soil and their relationship to microbial activity

    SciTech Connect

    David, M.B.; Mitchell, M.J.; Nakas, J.P.

    1982-07-01

    Sulfur (S) constituents, microbial biomass, and sulfohydrolase activity were determined for each soil horizon at both hardwood and conifer sites in a Becket soil (Adirondack Mountains, New York). Drying of soil before analysis altered the S constituents. There was a threefold increase (p<0.05) in sulfate in the organic horizons. Total S was greatest in the O horizons with 2,010 and 1,690 ..mu..g S/g in conifer and hardwood solums, respectively. Mineral soil had a maximum S concentration in the B21h horizon. Sulfate concentrations were a small proportion (<15%) of total S in B horizons. Organic S was dominant (93% of total S) in all horizons. Carbon-bonded S and ester sulfate were 74 and 18% of total S, respectively. Microbial biomass was greatest in the O1 horizon of both hardwood and conifer solums (59 and 70 mg biomass C per 100 g/sup -1/ dry mass, respectively). The B21h horizon contained the greatest biomass in the mineral soil. Sulfohydrolase activity exhibited the same distribution. Total S, carbon-bonded S, and ester sulfate were all positively correlated (p<0.05) to percent organic matter in the soil horizons. Correlations between microbial biomass and sulfohydrolase activity with organic S indicate the potential for microbial S transformations. Sulfate formation by mineralization may be more important than exogenous inputs. This has major implications for assessing the impact of atmospheric S deposition on soils.

  13. The variations of aluminium species in mountainous forest soils and its implications to soil acidification.

    PubMed

    Bradová, Monika; Tejnecký, Václav; Bor?vka, Luboš; N?me?ek, Karel; Ash, Christopher; Šebek, Ond?ej; Svoboda, Miroslav; Zenáhlíková, Jitka; Drábek, Ond?ej

    2015-11-01

    Aluminium (Al) speciation is a characteristic that can be used as a tool for describing the soil acidification process. The question that was answered is how tree species (beech vs spruce) and type of soil horizon affect Al speciation. Our hypotesis is that spruce and beech forest vegetation are able to modify the chemical characteristics of organic horizon, hence the content of Al species. Moreover, these characteristics are seasonally dependent. To answer these questions, a detailed chromatographic speciation of Al in forest soils under contrasting tree species was performed. The Jizera Mountains area (Czech Republic) was chosen as a representative mountainous soil ecosystem. A basic forestry survey was performed on the investigated area. Soil and precipitation samples (throughfall, stemflow) were collected under both beech and spruce stands at monthly intervals from April to November during the years 2008-2011. Total aluminium content and Al speciation, pH, and dissolved organic carbon were determined in aqueous soil extracts and in precipitation samples. We found that the most important factors affecting the chemistry of soils, hence content of the Al species, are soil horizons and vegetation cover. pH strongly affects the amount of Al species under both forests. Fermentation (F) and humified (H) organic horizons contain a higher content of water extractable Al and Al(3+) compared to organo-mineral (A) and mineral horizons (B). With increasing soil profile depth, the amount of water extractable Al, Al(3+) and moisture decreases. The prevailing water-extractable species of Al in all studied soils and profiles under both spruce and beech forests were organically bound monovalent Al species. Distinct seasonal variations in organic and mineral soil horizons were found under both spruce and beech forests. Maximum concentrations of water-extractable Al and Al(3+) were determined in the summer, and the lowest in spring. PMID:26084557

  14. Horizon entropy with loop quantum gravity methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pranzetti, Daniele; Sahlmann, Hanno

    2015-06-01

    We show that the spherically symmetric isolated horizon can be described in terms of an SU (2) connection and an su (2)-valued one-form, obeying certain constraints. The horizon symplectic structure is precisely the one of 3d gravity in a first order formulation. We quantize the horizon degrees of freedom in the framework of loop quantum gravity, with methods recently developed for 3d gravity with non-vanishing cosmological constant. Bulk excitations ending on the horizon act very similarly to particles in 3d gravity. The Bekenstein-Hawking law is recovered in the limit of imaginary Barbero-Immirzi parameter. Alternative methods of quantization are also discussed.

  15. Study Of Functioning of Bacterial Complexes in East Antarctic Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakushev, A. V.; Churilin, N. A.

    2014-11-01

    Studies of bacterial communities in the samples of Antarctic soils by different methods showed that, both in liquid soil suspensions and in situ, microbial complexes are functioning presumably by forming biofilms - the phenomenon that is more expressed in such habitat than in soils of temperate zones. Functional (trophic) diversity and physiological state of hydrolytic bacteria was studied in the samples at the upper layer (0-2 cm) of gravel pavement with algae, in the underlying peat horizon (2-4 cm) with inclusions of dead biomass and its underlying mineral horizon (4-10 cm) with signs of fungal mycelium. The investigated samples of Antarctic soils revealed different trophic diversity and the maximum specific growth rate on mineral medium with different biopolymers as the sole carbon source (starch, chitin, pectin, xylan, dextran-500, tween-20, casein); this can testify to differences in the physiological state of hydrolytic bacteria in various soil horizons and their readiness for growth. The most remarkable characteristics of the studied Antarctic soil as compared to the soils of temperate zone, was the unusual ability of hydrolytic community to consume chitin in the mineral horizon; this can be explained by the presence of fungal mycelium. Also, an almost complete lack in consumption of tween-20 (a water-soluble analogue of fat) by bacterial community of Arctic soil horizons are not explained and needs further verification. The higher functional diversity was detected in the upper horizon of the gravel pavement, which "protects" microorganisms from exposure to extreme temperatures, UV radiation, and desiccation, but the maximum specific growth rate was higher in the lower mineral horizon; this can be explained by the specificity of bacterial colonizing processes and unique formation of Antarctic soil microprofiles in the Larsemann oasis. The obtained data indicate a specific environmental strategy in the samples of Antarctic soils: development in lower mineral horizons of microorganisms with a high metabolic readiness to life revival and high maximum growth rate.

  16. ISOCELL{trademark} proof-of-concept for retrieval of wastes and contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Chatwin, T.D.; Krieg, R.K.

    1992-08-01

    ISOCELL{sup TM} cryogenic technology is designed to immobilize buried hazardous, radioactive, and mixed waste and contaminated soil by creating a block of frozen waste and soil that can be safely retrieved, stored, transported, and treated with a minimum of dust or aerosol production. A ``proof-of-concept`` test of the ISOCELL process was conducted in clean soil by RKK, Ltd., for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Results indicate ISOCELL technology successfully froze moist soil into a solid block capable of being lifted and retrieved. Test conditions were compared to characteristics of possible buried waste sites in the INEL.

  17. ISOCELL trademark proof-of-concept for retrieval of wastes and contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Chatwin, T.D. ); Krieg, R.K. )

    1992-01-01

    ISOCELL{sup TM} cryogenic technology is designed to immobilize buried hazardous, radioactive, and mixed waste and contaminated soil by creating a block of frozen waste and soil that can be safely retrieved, stored, transported, and treated with a minimum of dust or aerosol production. A proof-of-concept'' test of the ISOCELL process was conducted in clean soil by RKK, Ltd., for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Results indicate ISOCELL technology successfully froze moist soil into a solid block capable of being lifted and retrieved. Test conditions were compared to characteristics of possible buried waste sites in the INEL.

  18. Occurrence of perched saturation and interflow over an argillic horizon in a low relief hillslope.

    SciTech Connect

    Greco, James; Jackson, Rhett, C.

    2009-03-01

    Abstract. Many of the soils in the south-eastern US are characterized by an argillic, or clay horizon, that largely parallels the soil surface at depths ranging from a few centimeters to 100 cen-timeters. The degree to which these argillic horizons alter subsurface movement of infiltrated water is not well known. Interflow, or throughflow, is shallow lateral subsurface flow that moves over a horizon that restricts percolation. This research investigates how often and under what conditions a relatively deep (20-150+cm) argillic horizon on low slope (2-6%) hillsides causes interflow to oc-cur. Research is being conducted at the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina, on a small zero-order watershed. In the first phase of this research, a high resolution topographic map of the clay layer was developed. This map will be used to instrument designated “low” spots with max rise piezo-meters in order to determine if there is channelized subsurface flow. In situ conductivities of the clay layer and the surface horizons were measured using an Amoozegar meter, and bulk density samples were taken and measured. Along with soil topographic measurements, data-logging piezometers have been installed to measure the piezometric head above, in, and below the argillic horizon to further investigate interflow as a potential hydraulic routing mechanism. The stream that drains the catchment was instrumented with a 2’ H flume and data-logging pressure transducer to measure stream flow. Climate data including precipitation, barometric pressure and temperature, are being continuously collected in an open area approximately Ľ mile from the study site. Combining the shallow surface and subsurface piezometric heads with stream flow rates, we should be able to determine if and when the clay layer is contributing to inter-flow.

  19. Quantitative Relationships Between Net Volume Change and Fabric Properties During Soil Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chadwick, O. A.; Nettleton, W. D.

    1993-01-01

    The state of soil evolution can be charted by net long-term volume and elemental mass changes for individual horizons compared with parent material. Volume collapse or dilation depends on relative elemental mass fluxes associated with losses form or additions to soil horizons.

  20. Technology Solutions Case Study: Buried and Encapsulated Ducts, Jacksonville, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    2013-11-01

    Ductwork installed in unconditioned attics can significantly increase the overall heating and cooling costs of residential buildings. In fact, estimated duct thermal losses for single-family residential buildings with ductwork installed in unconditioned attics range from 10% to 45%. In a study of three single-story houses in Florida, the Building America research team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) investigated the strategy of using buried and/or encapsulated ducts (BED) to reduce duct thermal losses in existing homes. The BED strategy consists of burying ducts in loose-fill insulation and/or encapsulating them in closed cell polyurethane spray foam (ccSPF) insulation; specifically for use in humid climates.

  1. Buried Porous Silicon-Germanium Layers in Monocrystalline Silicon Lattices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fathauer, Robert W. (Inventor); George, Thomas (Inventor); Jones, Eric W. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    Monocrystalline semiconductor lattices with a buried porous semiconductor layer having different chemical composition is discussed and monocrystalline semiconductor superlattices with a buried porous semiconductor layers having different chemical composition than that of its monocrystalline semiconductor superlattice are discussed. Lattices of alternating layers of monocrystalline silicon and porous silicon-germanium have been produced. These single crystal lattices have been fabricated by epitaxial growth of Si and Si-Ge layers followed by patterning into mesa structures. The mesa structures are strain etched resulting in porosification of the Si-Ge layers with a minor amount of porosification of the monocrystalline Si layers. Thicker Si-Ge layers produced in a similar manner emitted visible light at room temperature.

  2. Buried heterostructure laser diodes fabricated using in situ processing

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, M.; Vakhshoori, D.; Grober, L.H.

    1994-03-01

    An in situ process which includes electron cyclotron resonance plasma etching and molecular beam epitaxial regrowth is applied to the fabrication of buried heterostructure vertical cavity surface-emitting laser (SEL) diodes and edge-emitting laser (EEL) diodes. The buried SEL with a 7.5 {mu}m diameter has a pulsed laser threshold current of 1 mA, and a threshold voltage of 4 V with a peak power of 0.9 mW. The burried EEL with 2.5 {mu}m stripe width and 800 {mu}m cavity length has a threshold current density of 500 A/cm{sup 2}. 14 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Aeromagnetic Expression of Buried Basaltic Volcanoes Near Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Leary, D. W.; Mankinen, E.A.; Blakely, R.J.; Langenheim, V.E.; Ponce, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    A high-resolution aeromagnetic survey has defined a number of small dipolar anomalies indicating the presence of magnetic bodies buried beneath the surface of Crater Flat and the Amargosa Desert. Results of potential-field modeling indicate that isolated, small-volume, highly magnetic bodies embedded within the alluvial deposits of both areas produce the anomalies. Their physical characteristics and the fact that they tend to be aligned along major structural trends provide strong support for the hypothesis that the anomalies reflect buried basaltic volcanic centers. Other, similar anomalies are identified as possible targets for further investigation. High-resolution gravity and ground-magnetic surveys, perhaps along with drilling sources of selected anomalies and radiometric age determinations, can provide valuable constraints in estimating potential volcanic hazard to the potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain.

  4. Direct probing of the exchange interaction at buried interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakeri, Kh.; Chuang, T.-H.; Ernst, A.; Sandratskii, L. M.; Buczek, P.; Qin, H. J.; Zhang, Y.; Kirschner, J.

    2013-11-01

    The fundamental interactions between magnetic moments at interfaces have an important impact on the properties of layered magnetic structures. Hence, a direct probing of these interactions is highly desirable for understanding a wide range of phenomena in low-dimensional solids. Here we propose a method for probing the magnetic exchange interaction at buried interfaces using spin-polarized electrons and taking advantage of the collective nature of elementary magnetic excitations (magnons). We demonstrate that, for the case of weak coupling at the interface, the low-energy magnon mode is mainly localized at the interface. Because this mode has the longest lifetime of the modes and has a finite spectral weight across the layers on top, it can be probed by electrons. A comparison of experimental data and first-principles calculations leads to the determination of the interface exchange parameters. This method may help the development of spectroscopy of buried magnetic interfaces.

  5. Field test plan: Buried waste technologies, Fiscal Year 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Heard, R.E.; Hyde, R.A.; Engleman, V.S.; Evans, J.D.; Jackson, T.W.

    1995-06-01

    The US Department of Energy, Office of Technology Development, supports the applied research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that, when integrated with commercially available baseline technologies, form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. The Fiscal Year 1995 effort is to deploy and test multiple technologies from four functional areas of buried waste remediation: site characterization, waste characterization, retrieval, and treatment. This document is the basic operational planning document for the deployment and testing of the technologies that support the field testing in Fiscal Year 1995. Discussed in this document are the scope of the tests; purpose and objective of the tests; organization and responsibilities; contingency plans; sequence of activities; sampling and data collection; document control; analytical methods; data reduction, validation, and verification; quality assurance; equipment and instruments; facilities and utilities; health and safety; residuals management; and regulatory management.

  6. Silicon buried gratings for dielectric laser electron accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Chia-Ming; Solgaard, Olav

    2014-05-05

    This paper describes design and simulations of dielectric laser electron accelerators that achieve Gigavolt-per-meter (GV/m) accelerating gradients and wide electron channels (>1??m). The accelerator design is based on a silicon buried grating structure that enables flexible phase synchronization, large electron channel fields, and low standing-wave ratio in the material. This design increases the accelerating gradients to more than double those of reported quartz grating accelerators, thereby reducing the input laser fluence by 60% for the same accelerating gradient. With a 100 fs pulsed laser, our silicon buried gratings can achieve a maximum gradient of 1.1 GV/m, indicating that these accelerators have potential for numerous electron-accelerator applications.

  7. Vertical Bipolar Charge Plasma Transistor with Buried Metal Layer

    PubMed Central

    Nadda, Kanika; Kumar, M. Jagadesh

    2015-01-01

    A self-aligned vertical Bipolar Charge Plasma Transistor (V-BCPT) with a buried metal layer between undoped silicon and buried oxide of the silicon-on-insulator substrate, is reported in this paper. Using two-dimensional device simulation, the electrical performance of the proposed device is evaluated in detail. Our simulation results demonstrate that the V-BCPT not only has very high current gain but also exhibits high BVCEO · fT product making it highly suitable for mixed signal high speed circuits. The proposed device structure is also suitable for realizing doping-less bipolar charge plasma transistor using compound semiconductors such as GaAs, SiC with low thermal budgets. The device is also immune to non-ideal current crowding effects cropping up at high current densities. PMID:25597295

  8. Final Report: Imaging of Buried Nanoscale Optically Active Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Appelbaum, Ian

    2011-07-05

    This is a final report covering work done at University of Maryland to develop a Ballistic Electron Emission Luminescence (BEEL) microscope. This technique was intended to examine the carrier transport and photon emission in deeply buried optically-active layers and thereby provide a means for materials science to unmask the detailed consequences of experimentally controllable growth parameters, such as quantum dot size, statistics and orientation, and defect density and charge recombination pathways.

  9. Optical geometry across the horizon

    E-print Network

    Rickard Jonsson

    2007-08-19

    In a companion paper (Jonsson and Westman, Class. Quantum Grav. 23 (2006) 61), a generalization of optical geometry, assuming a non-shearing reference congruence, is discussed. Here we illustrate that this formalism can be applied to a finite four-volume of any spherically symmetric spacetime. In particular we apply the formalism, using a non-static reference congruence, to do optical geometry across the horizon of a static black hole. While the resulting geometry in principle is time dependent, we can choose the reference congruence in such a manner that an embedding of the geometry always looks the same. Relative to the embedded geometry the reference points are then moving. We discuss the motion of photons, inertial forces and gyroscope precession in this framework.

  10. CROP MANAGEMENT EFFECTS ON WATER INFILTRATION FOR CLAYPAN SOILS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant water and nutrient use for claypan soils are restricted by an argillic horizon (clay content > 500 g/kg) that typically occurs 20 to 40 cm below the soil surface. Identifying water infiltration characteristics for claypan soils under different management provides crucial information needed to ...

  11. A QUANTITATIVE PEDOLOGY APPROACH TO CONTINUOUS SOIL LANDSCAPE MODELS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Continuous representations of soil profiles and landscapes are needed to provide input into process based models and to move beyond the categorical paradigm of horizons and map-units. Continuous models of soil landscapes should be driven by the factors and processes of the soil genetic model. Parame...

  12. ATRAZINE DISTRIBUTION MEASURED IN SOIL AND LEACHATE FOLLOWING INFILTRATION CONDITIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Atrazine transport through packed 10 cm soil columns representative of the 0-10 cm soil horizon was observed by measuring the atrazine recovery in the total leachate volume and in the upper and lower soil layers following infiltration of 7.5 cm water using a mechanical vacuum extractor. Measured re...

  13. Regulatory issues and assumptions associated with barriers in the vadose zone surrounding buried waste

    SciTech Connect

    Siskind, B.; Heiser, J.

    1993-02-01

    One of the options for control of contaminant migration from buried waste sites is the construction of a subsurface barrier that consists of a wall of low permeability material. The barrier material should be compatible with soil and waste conditions specific to the site and have as low an effective diffusivity as is reasonably achievable to minimize or inhibit transport of moisture and contaminants. This report addresses the regulatory issues associated with the use of non-traditional organic polymer barriers as well as the use of soil-bentonite or cement-bentonite mixtures for such barriers, considering barriers constructed from these latter materials to be a regulatory baseline. The regulatory issues fall into two categories. The first category consists of issues associated with the acceptability of such barriers to the EPA as a method for achieving site or performanceimprovement. The second category encompasses those regulatory issues concerning health, safety and the environment which must be addressed regarding barrier installation and performance, especially if non-traditional materials are to be used.

  14. Integral evaluation of the external corrosion control system for buried pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalski, A.R.

    1998-12-31

    The External Corrosion Control System of a 16 inch diameter (406 mm), 70 miles long (113 km) pipeline, was evaluated using the Direct Current Voltage Gradient DCVG, Close Interval Potential Survey CIPS and Continuous Soil Resistivity Evaluation CSRE techniques. Sixteen thousand five hundred meters (16,500 meters) of the pipeline were evaluated using the three techniques simultaneously and the rest was inspected separately in previous years. The results from the survey were taken as parameters to classify all defects found on the protective coating. A Defect Severity Classification (DSC) was established and used as an input for a maintenance program for the rehabilitation of the pipeline integrity. The parameters taken to establish the DSC were: (a) Instant Off Potential, (b) %IR, (c) Soil Resistivity, (d) defect shape, (e) Geographic location, (f) Distance from drain point. A Maintenance Program for the Pipeline External Corrosion Control System was designed by implementing the Integral Evaluation of the Corrosion Control System for Buried Pipelines (IEECCSBP). The priority was to achieve pipeline integrity and then, gradually improve the protection level of the system. The implementation of IEECCSBP will help to reduce the frequency of Electromagnetic Metal Loss Inspections, which in the future will serve only as an audit of the External Corrosion Control System performance.

  15. Remote detection of buried land-mines and IEDs using LWIR polarimetric imaging.

    PubMed

    Gurton, Kristan P; Felton, Melvin

    2012-09-24

    We report results of an ongoing study designed to assess the ability for enhanced detection of recently buried land-mines and/or improvised explosive devices (IED) devices using passive long-wave infrared (LWIR) polarimetric imaging. Polarimetric results are presented for a series of field tests conducted at various locations and soil types. Well-calibrated Stokes images, S0, S1, S2, and the degree-of-linear-polarization (DoLP) are recorded for different line-of-sight (LOS) slant paths at varying distances. Results span a three-year time period in which three different LWIR polarimetric camera systems are used. All three polarimetric imaging platforms used a spinning-achromatic-retarder (SAR) design capable of achieving high polarimetric frame rates and good radiometric throughput without the loss of spatial resolution inherent in other optical designs. Receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) analysis and a standardized contrast parameter are used to compare detectability between conventional LWIR thermal and polarimetric imagery. Results suggest improved detectability, regardless of geographic location or soil type. PMID:23037383

  16. Reconceptualizing Knowledge at the Mathematical Horizon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zazkis, Rina; Mamolo, Ami

    2011-01-01

    This article extends the notion of "knowledge at the mathematical horizon" or "horizon knowledge" introduced by Ball and colleagues as a part of teachers' subject matter knowledge. Our focus is on teachers' mathematical knowledge beyond the school curriculum, that is, on mathematics learnt during undergraduate college or university studies. We…

  17. The NMC Horizon Report: 2014 Library Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, L.; Adams Becker, S.; Estrada, V.; Freeman, A.

    2014-01-01

    The internationally recognized "NMC Horizon Report" series and regional "NMC Technology Outlooks" are part of the NMC Horizon Project, a 12-year effort established in 2002 that annually identifies and describes emerging technologies likely to have a large impact over the coming five years in every sector of education around the…

  18. Horizon Report: 2009 Economic Development Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, L.; Levine, A.; Scott, C.; Smith, R.; Stone, S.

    2009-01-01

    The New Media Consortium's Horizon Project is an ongoing research project that seeks to identify and describe emerging technologies likely to have a large impact in education and other industries around the world over a five-year time period. The chief products of the project are the "Horizon Reports", an annual series of publications that…

  19. Black holes as trapping horizons Eric Gourgoulhon

    E-print Network

    Gourgoulhon, Eric

    Black holes as trapping horizons Eric Gourgoulhon Laboratoire Univers et Th´eories (LUTH) CNRS://www.luth.obspm.fr/~luthier/gourgoulhon/ Centrum Astronomiczne im. M. Kopernika Warsaw, Poland 17 November 2008 Eric Gourgoulhon (LUTH) Black holes as trapping horizons CAMK, Warsaw, 17 Nov. 2008 1 / 36 #12;Plan 1 Local approaches to black holes 2 Viscous

  20. Battling Blaze on Deepwater Horizon Oilrig

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    NEW ORLEANS — Fire boat response crews battle the blazing remnants of the off shore oilrig Deepwater Horizon. A Coast Guard MH-65C dolphin rescue helicopter and crew document the fire aboard the mobile offshore drilling unit Deepwater Horizon, while searching for survivors. Multiple Coast Guar...

  1. Horizon Report: 2010 K-12 Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, L.; Smith, R.; Levine, A.; Haywood, K.

    2010-01-01

    The "Horizon Report" series is the most visible outcome of the New Media Consortium's Horizon Project, an ongoing research effort established in 2002 that identifies and describes emerging technologies likely to have a large impact on teaching, learning, research, or creative expression within education around the globe. This volume, the "2010…

  2. HORIZON 2020 WORK PROGRAMME 2016 2017

    E-print Network

    Hasýrcý, Vasýf

    HORIZON 2020 WORK PROGRAMME 2016 ­ 2017 DRAFT 3. Marie Sklodowska-Curie Actions #12;HORIZON 2020 ­ WORK PROGRAMME 2016-2017 Marie Sklodowska-Curie Actions Part 3 - Page 2 of 40 Table of contents................................................................................................................................ 3 2016 Call for Marie Sklodowska-Curie Innovative Training Networks (ITN

  3. Expanding your horizons in science and mathematics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, Cynthia E. A.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the 'Expanding Your Horizons in Science and Mathematics' program is to interest young women in grades six through twelve in a variety of careers where mathematics and science are important. Progress in encouraging young women to take courses in mathematics, science, and technological subjects is discussed. Also included are adult, student, and organizational information packets used for 'Expanding Your Horizons' conferences.

  4. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration FY-95 Deployment Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Stacey, D.E.

    1995-03-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) is a program funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Technology Development. BWID supports the applied research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that together form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. The FY-95 effort will fund 24 technologies in five areas of buried waste site remediation: site characterization, waste characterization, retrieval, treatment, and containment/stabilization. Ten of these technologies will take part in the integrated field demonstration that will take place at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) facilities in the summer of 1995. This document is the basic operational planning document for deployment of all BWID projects funded in FY-95. Discussed in this document are the BWID preparations for the INEL integrated field demonstration, INEL research and development (R&D) demonstrations, non-INEL R&D demonstrations, and office research and technical review meetings. Each project will have a test plan detailing the specific procedures, objectives, and tasks of the test. Therefore, information that is specific to testing each technology is intentionally limited in this document.

  5. FY-95 technology catalog. Technology development for buried waste remediation

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program, which is now part of the Landfill Stabilization Focus Area (LSFA), supports applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a multitude of advanced technologies dealing with underground radioactive and hazardous waste remediation. These innovative technologies are being developed as part of integrated comprehensive remediation systems for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste sites throughout the DOE complex. These efforts are identified and coordinated in support of Environmental Restoration (EM-40) and Waste Management (EM-30) needs and objectives. Sponsored by the DOE Office of Technology Development (EM-50), BWID and LSFA work with universities and private industry to develop technologies that are being transferred to the private sector for use nationally and internationally. This report contains the details of the purpose, logic, and methodology used to develop and demonstrate DOE buried waste remediation technologies. It also provides a catalog of technologies and capabilities with development status for potential users. Past FY-92 through FY-94 technology testing, field trials, and demonstrations are summarized. Continuing and new FY-95 technology demonstrations also are described.

  6. Buried-euxenic-basin model sets Tarim basin potential

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, K.J. )

    1994-11-28

    The Tarim basin is the largest of the three large sedimentary basins of Northwest China. The North and Southwest depressions of Tarim are underlain by thick sediments and very thin crust. The maximum sediment thickness is more than 15 km. Of the several oil fields of Tarim, the three major fields were discovered during the last decade, on the north flank of the North depression and on the Central Tarim Uplift. The major targets of Tarim, according to the buried-euxenic-basin model, should be upper Paleozoic and lower Mesozoic reservoirs trapping oil and gas condensates from lower Paleozoic source beds. The paper describes the basin and gives a historical perspective of exploration activities and discoveries. It then explains how this basin can be interpreted by the buried-euxenic-basin model. The buried-euxenic-basin model postulates four stages of geologic evolution: (1) Sinian and early Paleozoic platform sedimentation on relic arcs and deep-marine sedimentation in back-arc basins in Xinjiang; (2) Late Paleozoic foreland-basin sedimentation in north Tarim; (3) Mesozoic and Paleogene continental deposition, subsidence under sedimentary load; and (4) Neogene pull-apart basin, wrench faulting and extension.

  7. Speed of Gravity and Gravitational Horizon

    E-print Network

    Chao Yuan Yang

    2010-07-08

    Pioneer-10 unexpected anomalous deceleration hurtling through the solar system might have revealed a secret of nature that gravitational information propagating at very high but finite speed rushing to gravitational horizon opens a window to Universe neighborhood. Dark energy may be owing to interactive gravitational horizons of cousin universes. The necessary condition for the conjecture to be true is that the speed of gravity must be faster than the speed of light.The sufficient condition is that the dark energy content would be increasing with the age of our Universe, while more and more gravitational horizons of cousin universes might reach the gravitational horizon of ours in the neighborhood that may be boundless in space-time flow without beginning or end. Keys: Inseparability Principle, Scale Conversion, Speed of Gravity, Gravitational Horizon, Neighborhood of universes, Dark Energy.

  8. An oblique membrane paradigm for cosmological horizon

    E-print Network

    Tower Wang

    2014-11-24

    The membrane paradigm is a formalism for studying the event horizon of black holes. After analyzing it with some technical details and realizing it in the Reissner-Nordstrom black hole, we extend the paradigm to cosmological horizons. A standard membrane paradigm is established for the pure de Sitter horizon, and an oblique membrane paradigm is proposed for the trapping horizon of the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker universe. In the latter case, the cosmological stretched horizon is oblique, thus the running of renormalization parameter is nonzero in the timelike direction and gives a correction to the membrane pressure. In this paradigm, the cosmological equations come from continuity equations of the membrane fluid and the bulk fluid respectively.

  9. Biochar reduces short-term nitrate leaching from a horizon in an apple orchard.

    PubMed

    Ventura, M; Sorrenti, G; Panzacchi, P; George, E; Tonon, G

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen leaching in croplands is a worldwide problem with implications both on human health and on the environment. Efforts should be taken to increase nutrient use efficiency and minimize N losses from terrestrial to water ecosystems. Soil-applied biochar has been reported to increase soil fertility and decrease nutrient leaching in tropical soils and under laboratory conditions. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of biochar addition on short-term N leaching from A soil horizon in a mature apple orchard growing on subalkaline soils located in the Po Valley (Italy). In spring 2009, 10 Mg of biochar per hectare was incorporated into the surface 20-cm soil layer by soil plowing. Cumulative nitrate (NO) and ammonium (NH) leaching was measured in treated and control plots 4 mo after the addition of biochar and the following year by using ion-exchange resin lysimeters installed below the plowed soil layer. Cumulative NO leaching was not affected by biochar after 4 mo, whereas in the following year it was significantly ( < 0.05) reduced by 75% over the control (from 5.5 to 1.4 kg ha). Conversely, NH leaching was very low and unaffected by soil biochar treatment. The present study shows that soil biochar addition can significantly decrease short-term nitrate leaching from the surface layer of a subalkaline soil under temperate climatic conditions. PMID:23673741

  10. 30 CFR 823.12 - Soil removal and stockpiling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...materials. Where combinations of such soil materials created by mixing have been shown to be equally or more favorable for plant growth than the B horizon, separate handling is not necessary. (d) Stockpiles shall be placed within the permit...

  11. 30 CFR 823.12 - Soil removal and stockpiling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...materials. Where combinations of such soil materials created by mixing have been shown to be equally or more favorable for plant growth than the B horizon, separate handling is not necessary. (d) Stockpiles shall be placed within the permit...

  12. 30 CFR 823.12 - Soil removal and stockpiling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...materials. Where combinations of such soil materials created by mixing have been shown to be equally or more favorable for plant growth than the B horizon, separate handling is not necessary. (d) Stockpiles shall be placed within the permit...

  13. A global data set of soil particle size properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, Robert S.; Rosenzweig, Cynthia E.; Levine, Elissa R.

    1991-01-01

    A standardized global data set of soil horizon thicknesses and textures (particle size distributions) was compiled. This data set will be used by the improved ground hydrology parameterization designed for the Goddard Institute for Space Studies General Circulation Model (GISS GCM) Model 3. The data set specifies the top and bottom depths and the percent abundance of sand, silt, and clay of individual soil horizons in each of the 106 soil types cataloged for nine continental divisions. When combined with the World Soil Data File, the result is a global data set of variations in physical properties throughout the soil profile. These properties are important in the determination of water storage in individual soil horizons and exchange of water with the lower atmosphere. The incorporation of this data set into the GISS GCM should improve model performance by including more realistic variability in land-surface properties.

  14. Black holes and black hole thermodynamics without event horizons

    E-print Network

    Alex B. Nielsen

    2008-09-23

    We investigate whether black holes can be defined without using event horizons. In particular we focus on the thermodynamic properties of event horizons and the alternative, locally defined horizons. We discuss the assumptions and limitations of the proofs of the zeroth, first and second laws of black hole mechanics for both event horizons and trapping horizons. This leads to the possibility that black holes may be more usefully defined in terms of trapping horizons. We also show how Hawking radiation can also be seen to arise from trapping horizons and discuss which horizon area should be associated with the gravitational entropy.

  15. Organic matter controls of soil water retention in an alpine grassland and its significance for hydrological processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fei; Zhang, Gan-Lin; Yang, Jin-Ling; Li, De-Cheng; Zhao, Yu-Guo; Liu, Feng; Yang, Ren-Min; Yang, Fan

    2014-11-01

    Soil water retention influences many soil properties and soil hydrological processes. The alpine meadows and steppes of the Qilian Mountains on the northeast border of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau form the source area of the Heihe River, the second largest inland river in China. The soils of this area therefore have a large effect on water movement and storage of the entire watershed. In order to understand the controlling factors of soil water retention and how they affect regional eco-hydrological processes in an alpine grassland, thirty-five pedogenic horizons in fourteen soil profiles along two facing hillslopes in typical watersheds of this area were selected for study. Results show that the extensively-accumulated soil organic matter plays a dominant role in controlling soil water retention in this alpine environment. We distinguished two mechanisms of this control. First, at high matric potentials soil organic matter affected soil water retention mainly through altering soil structural parameters and thereby soil bulk density. Second, at low matric potentials the water adsorbing capacity of soil organic matter directly affected water retention. To investigate the hydrological functions of soils at larger scales, soil water retention was compared by three generalized pedogenic horizons. Among these soil horizons, the mattic A horizon, a diagnostic surface horizon of Chinese Soil Taxonomy defined specially for alpine meadow soils, had the greatest soil water retention over the entire range of measured matric potentials. Hillslopes with soils having these horizons are expected to have low surface runoff. This study promotes the understanding of the critical role of alpine soils, especially the vegetated surface soils in controlling the eco-hydrological processes in source regions of the Heihe River watershed.

  16. Influences of soil acidity on Streptomyces populations inhabiting forest soils.

    PubMed Central

    Hagedorn, C

    1976-01-01

    The Streptomyces populations inhabiting five acidic forest soils were examined. It was found that lowering the pH of a medium selective for streptomycetes (starch-casein agar) to the pH of the particular soil horizon being plated influenced both the total numbers and types of streptomycetes that were isolated from the soils examined in this study. On the acidified medium both the numbers of streptomycetes and the percentage of total bacteria on the plates represented by streptomycetes increased (as compared with the same medium with a pH of 7.2). These differences were greatest on the isolations from the most acid soils. The largest concentrations of streptomycetes were found in the surface horizon (0 to 15 cm) and the litter layer immediately over the surface mineral horizon. Acidity tolerance tests demonstrated that random samplings of isolates contained acidophilic, neutrophilic, and acidoduric strains, with the largest numbers of acidophiles being found on the acidified media from the most acid soils. There were no differences between overall utilization of selected carbohydrates among the isolates taken from either the neutral or acidic media, although a larger proportion of the acid media isolates produced acid from the carbohydrates. Evidence is presented which indicates that different types of streptomycetes were isolated on the acid media, and possible reasons for the presence of these acid-tolerant populations are discussed. PMID:10835

  17. NEW HORIZONS IN SENSOR DEVELOPMENT

    PubMed Central

    Intille, Stephen S.; Lester, Jonathan; Sallis, James F.; Duncan, Glen

    2011-01-01

    Background Accelerometery and other sensing technologies are important tools for physical activity measurement. Engineering advances have allowed developers to transform clunky, uncomfortable, and conspicuous monitors into relatively small, ergonomic, and convenient research tools. New devices can be used to collect data on overall physical activity and in some cases posture, physiological state, and location, for many days or weeks from subjects during their everyday lives. In this review article, we identify emerging trends in several types of monitoring technologies and gaps in the current state of knowledge. Best practices The only certainty about the future of activity sensing technologies is that researchers must anticipate and plan for change. We propose a set of best practices that may accelerate adoption of new devices and increase the likelihood that data being collected and used today will be compatible with new datasets and methods likely to appear on the horizon. Future directions We describe several technology-driven trends, ranging from continued miniaturization of devices that provide gross summary information about activity levels and energy expenditure, to new devices that provide highly detailed information about the specific type, amount, and location of physical activity. Some devices will take advantage of consumer technologies, such as mobile phones, to detect and respond to physical activity in real time, creating new opportunities in measurement, remote compliance monitoring, data-driven discovery, and intervention. PMID:22157771

  18. Soil and soil solution chemistry under red spruce stands across the northeastern united states

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    David, M.B.; Lawrence, G.B.

    1996-01-01

    Red spruce ecosystems in the northeastern United States are of interest because this species is undergoing regional decline. Their underlying soils have been examined closely at only a few sites, and information available on red spruce soils throughout this region is limited.This study was conducted to examine soil and soil solution chemistry at red spruce sites in the northeastern US that encompass the range of soil conditions in which red spruce grow. Soils and soil solutions from Oa and B horizons were obtained over a 2-year period from 12 undisturbed red spruce forests (elevations of 80-975 m) in New York, Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine. All sites had extremely acid Spodosols (Oa soil pH range 2.56 to 3.11 in 0.01 M CaCl2), with generally low concentrations of base cations and high concentrations of Al on soil exchange sites. There was considerable range in exchange chemistry across the sites, however, with exchangeable Ca in Oa horizons ranging from 2.1 to 21.6 cmolckg-1 and exchangeable Al from 3.6 to 18.3 cmolckg-1. Solution chemistry had high concentrations of DOC in the Oa horizons (1160-15200 ??mol L-1), with higher concentrations in the fall than in the spring, which was probably a reflection of fresh litter inputs. Despite high concentrations of DOC in all solutions, inorganic Al was found in some Oa solutions at concentrations as high as 26 ??mol L-1. Ratios of Ca2+ to inorganic Al concentraturns were less than 1.0 in the Oa horizon of one site, and were well below 1.0 in B horizons of all sites. That soil chemistry was related to soil solution chemistry was demonstrated by solution Al concentrations in the forest floor having significant relationships with pyrophosphate extractable Al, although it was not related in the B horizon. Soil exchangeable Ca/Al ratios in the Oa horizon explained 75% of the variation in solution Ca2+/inorganic Al ratios when mean values were used for each site. Our studies have expanded the range of soil chemical conditions measured for red spruce soils. By characterizing the regional variability, these results will enable site intensive process studies to be better applied to regional problems such as spruce decline.

  19. Parity Horizons, Black Holes, and Chronology Protection in Shape Dynamics

    E-print Network

    Gabriel Herczeg

    2015-08-27

    I introduce the notion of a parity horizon, and show that many simple solutions of shape dynamics possess them. I show that the event horizons of the known asymptotically flat black hole solutions of shape dynamics are parity horizons and that this notion of parity implies that these horizons possess a notion of CPT invariance that can in some cases be extended to the solution as a whole. I present three new solutions of shape dynamics with parity horizons and find that not only event horizons become parity horizons in shape dynamics, but observer-dependent horizons and Cauchy horizons do as well. The fact that Cauchy horizons become (singular) parity horizons suggests a general chronology protection mechanism in shape dynamics that prevents the formation of closed time-like curves.

  20. A Large Buried Felsic Component in the Ancient Martian Crust?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baratoux, D.; Monnereau, M.; Samuel, H.; Michaut, C.; Wieczorek, M. A.; Garcia, R.

    2014-12-01

    A new range of crustal density values for Mars was calculated from the major element chemistry of Martian meteorites?(3100 - 3700 kg/m3), igneous rocks at Gusev crater (3100 - 3600 kg/m3) and from the surface concentration of Fe, Al, Ca, Si, and K measured by the Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) (3250 - 3450 kg/m3) (Baratoux et al., 2014). Whereas a dense basaltic crust would be compatible with the moment of inertia factor of Mars, its thickness would exceed 100 km. Such a thick crust is not compatible with the geoid-to-topography ratios in the highlands, and would be unstable and prone to basal flow and/or crustal delamination. An alternative possibility is the existence of a buried light felsic or anorthositic component. A low-density crustal component in the highlands would be consistent with an isostatic compensation associated with a difference in elevation between the two hemispheres of Mars. This alternative is reinforced in the context of the findings of felsic or anorthositic material from visible/NIR spectroscopy (Carter and Poulet, 2013, Wray et al. 2013), and the identification of feldspar-rich rocks at Gale crater (Sautter et al., 2014), whereas felsic lithologies were already identified by Pathfinder. The recently identified outcrops could be either remnants of an ancient anorthositic crust or the result of local igneous differentiation of plutonic bodies. The latter interpretation is currently preferred as early Mars conditions should not be compatible with the formation of a plagioclase floatation crust (Elkins-Tanton et al., 2005). However, in light of the geophysical and petrological constraints discussed above, and given the absence of abundant light material at the surface, we advocate for the existence of a buried anorthositic crustal component that has been largely buried by volcanic material of basaltic composition in the late Noachian or Hesperian eras. Implications regarding the magma ocean scenario for Mars will be discussed.

  1. Technology needs for remediation: Hanford and other DOE sites. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Stapp, D.C.

    1993-01-01

    Technologies are being developed under the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program to facilitate remediation of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) buried and stored low-level radioactive, transuranic (TRU), and mixed radioactive and hazardous buried wastes. The BWID program is being coordinated by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in southeastern Idaho, a DOE site that has large volumes of buried radioactive wastes. The program is currently focusing its efforts on the problems at INEL`s Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). As specific technologies are successfully demonstrated, they will be available for transfer to applications at other DOE buried waste sites. The purpose of this study is to present buried waste technology needs that have been identified for DOE sites other than INEL.

  2. Ancient buried submarine trough, northwest Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berryhill, H.L., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A large buried submarine trough crosses the seaward margin of the continental shelf off the southwest coast of Louisiana. Original length was about 90 km, and width at the shelf edge was 16 km. Maximum eroded depth may have been as much as 305 m. Seismic characteristics of the prograded fill indicate cyclically repeated sequences of retrogressive deltaic and partly slumped sediments overlain by well-layered transgressive deposits. Slumping was increasingly prevalent toward the shelf edge. The cyclic sequences indicate that the trough was a passageway for large volumes of sediment onto the continental slope during several stages of lowered sea level. ?? 1981 A.M. Dowden, Inc.

  3. Approximation functions for airblast environments from buried charges

    SciTech Connect

    Reichenbach, H.; Behrens, K.; Kuhl, A.L.

    1993-11-01

    In EMI report E 1/93, ``Airblast Environments from Buried HE-Charges,`` fit functions were used for the compact description of blastwave parameters. The coefficients of these functions were approximated by means of second order polynomials versus DOB. In most cases, the agreement with the measured data was satisfactory; to reduce remaining noticeable deviations, an approximation by polygons (i.e., piecewise-linear approximation) was used instead of polynomials. The present report describes the results of the polygon approximation and compares them to previous data. We conclude that the polygon representation leads to a better agreement with the measured data.

  4. Ion-implanted planar-buried-heterostructure diode laser

    DOEpatents

    Brennan, Thomas M. (Albuquerque, NM); Hammons, Burrell E. (Tijeras, NM); Myers, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Vawter, Gregory A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1991-01-01

    A Planar-Buried-Heterostructure, Graded-Index, Separate-Confinement-Heterostructure semiconductor diode laser 10 includes a single quantum well or multi-quantum well active stripe 12 disposed between a p-type compositionally graded Group III-V cladding layer 14 and an n-type compositionally graded Group III-V cladding layer 16. The laser 10 includes an ion implanted n-type region 28 within the p-type cladding layer 14 and further includes an ion implanted p-type region 26 within the n-type cladding layer 16. The ion implanted regions are disposed for defining a lateral extent of the active stripe.

  5. Fusion of forward-looking infrared camera and down-looking ground penetrating radar for buried target detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuksel, Seniha E.; Akar, Gozde Bozdagi; Ozturk, Serhat

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a system to detect buried disk-shaped landmines from ground penetrating radar (GPR) and forward-looking long wave infrared (FL-LWIR) data. The data is collected from a test area of 500m2, which was prepared at the IPA Defence, Ankara, Turkey. This test area was divided into four lanes, each of size 25m length by 4m width and 1m depth. Each lane was first carefully cleaned of stones and clutter and then filled with different soil types, namely fine-medium sand, course sand, sandy silt loam and loam mix. In all lanes, various clutter objects and landmines were buried at different depths and at 1meter intervals. In the proposed approach, IR data is used as a pre-screener. Then possible target regions are further analyzed using the GPR data. IR data processing is done in three steps such as preprocessing, target detection, and postprocessing. In the pre-processing stage, bilateral noise reduction filtering is performed. The target detection stage finds circular targets by a radial transformation algorithm. The proposed approach is compared with the RX algorithm used widely for anomaly detection. The suspicious regions are further analyzed using Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG) features that are extracted from GPR images and classified by SVM. The same approach can also be applied in a parallel way where the results are combined using decision level fusion. The results of the proposed approach are given on different scenarios including different weather temperature and depth of buried targets.

  6. Migration of radionuclides and heavy metals during the bioremediation of a polluted cinnamonic soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiev, Plamen; Groudev, Stoyan; Spasova, Irena; Nikolova, Marina

    2013-04-01

    A fresh sample of cinnamonic soil polluted with radionuclides (U, Ra) and toxic heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn) was subjected to bioremediation in large-scale lysimeters by means of moulching. The aim of soil treatment was solubilization of pollutants located in horizon A, the migration of their dissolved complexes through the soil profile, and the pollutants` precipitation in the rich-in-clays below-lying horizons. The solubilization was due to the joint action of natural soil microflora and leach waters containing ammonium and phosphate ions, and in some variants-hydrocarbonate ions. The precipitation of pollutants was due to the enhanced activity of the indigenous microflora in which iron- and sulphate-reducing bacteria were the prevalent groups. After 24 months of treatment, each of the soil profiles in different lysimeters was divided into five sections reflecting the relevant soil layers (horizon A and the sub-horizons B1, B2, B3, and B4). The soil in these sections was subjected to a detailed chemical analysis and the obtained data were compared with the relevant data obtained before the start of soil bioremediation. It was found that considerable portions of the pollutants were removed from the horizon A and were migrated to the sub-horizons B3 and B4, mainly. In these sub-horizons the non-ferrous metals were precipitated mainly as the relevant sulphides, uranium was precipitated as uraninite (UO2), and radium-mainly as adsorbed ions and complexes.

  7. Characteristics of microbial communities in steppe paleosols buried under kurgans of the Sarmatian time (I-IV centuries AD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demkina, T. S.; Khomutova, T. E.; Kashirskaya, N. N.; Stretovich, I. V.; Demkin, V. A.

    2009-07-01

    Microbiological studies of paleosols buried under steppe kurgans of different ages of the Middle (I-II centuries AD) and Late Sarmatian (II-IV centuries AD) time in different regions of the Lower Volga steppes were carried out. The regularities of the soil microbial communities’ development were determined in the I-IV centuries AD by the climate dynamics and the replacement of the relatively humid conditions (the I century to the first half of the II century) by dry (the second half of the II century to the first half of the III century) and then again by humid (the end of the III century to the IV century) conditions. In the humid climatic periods, the active biomass of the microorganisms and its portion in the total microbial biomass and the Corg of the soil increased, the portion of microorganisms consuming plant residues increased in the ecological-trophic structure of the microbial community, and the index of oligotrophy decreased. These changes had an opposite direction in the arid climatic periods. The variations of the microbiological parameters relative to the century-long dynamics of the climate over the historical time were synchronous and unidirectional, though the studied soils were found in different soil-geographical zones (dry and desert steppe), natural regions (the Privolzhskaya and Ergeni uplands and the Caspian Lowland), and landforms (watersheds, river terraces, marine plains).

  8. Chance Constrained Finite Horizon Optimal Control

    E-print Network

    Ono, Masahiro

    This paper considers finite-horizon optimal control for dynamic systems subject to additive Gaussian-distributed stochastic disturbance and a chance constraint on the system state defined on a non-convex feasible space. ...

  9. THE EVENT HORIZON OF M87

    E-print Network

    Broderick, Avery E.

    The 6 × 10[superscript 9] M[subscript ?] supermassive black hole at the center of the giant elliptical galaxy M87 powers a relativistic jet. Observations at millimeter wavelengths with the Event Horizon Telescope have ...

  10. Note: Laser ablation technique for electrically contacting a buried implant layer in single crystal diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, M. P.; Baldwin, J. W.; Butler, J. E.; Pate, B. B.; Feygelson, T. I.

    2011-05-15

    The creation of thin, buried, and electrically conducting layers within an otherwise insulating diamond by annealed ion implantation damage is well known. Establishing facile electrical contact to the shallow buried layer has been an unmet challenge. We demonstrate a new method, based on laser micro-machining (laser ablation), to make reliable electrical contact to a buried implant layer in diamond. Comparison is made to focused ion beam milling.

  11. DECOMPOSTION OF GENETICALLY ENGINEERED TOBACCO UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS: PERSISTENCE OF THE PROTEINASE INHIBITOR I PRODUCT AND EFFECTS OF SOIL MICROBIAL RESPIRATION AND PROTOZOA, NEMATODE AND MICROARTHR

    EPA Science Inventory

    1. To evaluate the potential effects of genetically engineered (transgenic) plants on soil ecosystems, litterbags containing leaves of non-engineered (parental) and transgenic tobacco plants were buried in field plots. The transgenic tobacco plants were genetically engineered to ...

  12. Understanding dynamical black hole apparent horizons

    E-print Network

    Faraoni, Valerio

    2015-01-01

    Dynamical, non-asymptotically flat black holes are best characterized by their apparent horizons. Cosmological black hole solutions of General Relativity exhibit two types of apparent horizon behaviours which, thus far, appeared to be completely disconnected. By taking the limit to General Relativity of a class of Brans-Dicke spacetimes, it is shown how one of these two behaviours is really a limit of the other.

  13. Fast Scramblers And Ultrametric Black Hole Horizons

    E-print Network

    Jose L. F. Barbon; Javier M. Magan

    2013-10-30

    We propose that fast scrambling on finite-entropy stretched horizons can be modeled by a diffusion process on an effective ultrametric geometry. A scrambling time scaling logarithmically with the entropy is obtained when the elementary transition rates saturate causality bounds on the stretched horizon. The so-defined ultrametric diffusion becomes unstable in the infinite-entropy limit. A formally regularized version can be shown to follow a particular case of the Kohlrausch law.

  14. Extremely arid soils of the Ili Depression in Kazakhstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedeva, M. P.; Gerasimova, M. I.; Golovanov, D. L.; Yamnova, I. A.

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of macro- and micromorphological and analytical studies of extremely arid soils of the Ili Depression in Kazakhstan, a comparative analysis of pedogenetic processes shaping these soils on piedmont plains of different ages and heights is performed. The types of soil horizons and their combinations are analyzed in the context opf modern Russian and international soil classification systems. The genesis of extremely arid soils is controlled by the climatic conditions and by their geomorphic position on alluvial fans of piedmont plains. The following processes are diagnosed in these soils: soil crusting with vesicular porosity, the development of desert pavements with rock varnish, rubification, surface salinization, and iron depletion around the pores. It is suggested that the initial factor-based name (extremely arid) of these soils can be replaced by the name vesicular-crusty soils with the corresponding AKL diagnostic horizon, which is more consistent with the principles of substantive-genetic classification systems. In order to determine the classification position of these soils in terms of the new Russian soil classification system, new diagnostic horizons—AKL and CS—have to be introduced in this system. According to the WRB classification, the studied soils belong to the group of Gypsisols; the soil with strong salinization fits the criteria of the group of Solonchaks. A qualifier [yermic] is to be added to reflect the development of desert pavement and vesicular layer under extreme arid conditions.

  15. Phantom Energy and the Cosmic Horizon: Rh is still not a horizon!

    E-print Network

    Geraint F. Lewis

    2013-01-02

    There has been a recent spate of papers on the Cosmic Horizon, an apparently fundamental, although unrecognised, property of the universe. The misunderstanding of this horizon, it is claimed, demonstrates that our determination of the cosmological makeup of the universe is incorrect, although several papers have pointed out key flaws in these arguments. Here, we identify additional flaws in the most recent claims of the properties of the Cosmic Horizon in the presence of phantom energy, simply demonstrating that it does not act as a horizon, and that its limiting of our view of the universe is a trivial statement.

  16. Vertical distribution of soil removed by four species of burrowing rodents in disturbed and undisturbed soils

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, T.D.; Laundre, J.W.

    1988-04-01

    Burrow volumes were determined in disturbed and undisturbed soils for four species of rodents in southeastern Idaho. Comparisons were made between soil types for the average volume and the proportion of the total volume of soil excavated from 10-cm increments for each species, and the relative number of burrows and proportion of total soil removed from beneath the minimum thickness of soil covers over buried low-level radioactive wastes. Burrows of montane voles (Microtus montanus) and deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) rarely extended below 50 cm and neither volumes nor depths were influenced by soil disturbance. Townsend's ground squirrels (Spermophilus townsendii) had the deepest and most voluminous burrows that, along with Ord's kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ordii) burrows, were more prevalent beneath 50 cm in disturbed soils.

  17. Soil and sedimentary charcoal evidence for Holocene forest fires in an inland

    E-print Network

    Coxson, Darwyn

    Soil and sedimentary charcoal evidence for Holocene forest fires in an inland temperate rainforest of 147 charcoal samples recovered from colluvial and alluvial fan deposits at 29 sites was used of charcoal in buried soils and slope deposits. Median time since fire was 467 cal. yr based on ages

  18. Microwave penetration and attenuation in desert soil - A field experiment with the Shuttle Imaging Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farr, T. G.; Elachi, C.; Hartl, P.; Chowdhury, K.

    1986-01-01

    Receivers buried in the Nevada desert were used with the Shuttle Imaging Radar to measure microwave attenuation as a function of soil moisture in situ. Results agree closely with laboratory measurements of attenuation and suggest that penetration of tens of centimeters in desert soils is common for L-band (1.2-GHz) radar.

  19. Genesis of peat-bog soils in the northern taiga spruce forests of the Kola Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Nikonov, V.V.

    1981-01-01

    The characteristics of soil formation processes in the Peat-Bog soils of waterlogged spruce phytocenoses on the Kola Peninsula are investigated. It is found that the ash composition of the peat layer is determined primarily by the composition of the buried plant residues. The effect of the chemical composition of water feeding the peat bogs is determined. (Refs. 7).

  20. Discovering the essence of soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frink, D.

    2012-04-01

    Science, and what it can learn, is constrained by its paradigms and premises. Similarly, teaching and what topics can be addressed are constrained by the paradigms and premises of the subject matter. Modern soil science is founded on the five-factor model of Dokuchaev and Jenny. Combined with Retallack's universal definition of soil as geologic detritus affected by weathering and/or biology, modern soil science emphasizes a descriptive rather than an interpretive approach. Modern soil science however, emerged from the study of plants and the need to improve crop yields in the face of chronic and wide spread famine in Europe. In order to teach that dirt is fascinating we must first see soils in their own right, understand their behavior and expand soil science towards an interpretive approach rather than limited as a descriptive one. Following the advice of James Hutton given over two centuries ago, I look at soils from a physiological perspective. Digestive processes are mechanical and chemical weathering, the resulting constituents reformed into new soil constituents (e.g. clay and humus), translocated to different regions of the soil body to serve other physiological processes (e.g. lamellae, argillic and stone-line horizons), or eliminated as wastes (e.g. leachates and evolved gasses). Respiration is described by the ongoing and diurnal exchange of gasses between the soil and its environment. Circulatory processes are evident in soil pore space, drainage capacity and capillary capability. Reproduction of soil is evident at two different scales: the growth of clay crystals (with their capacity for mutation) and repair of disturbed areas such as result from the various pedo-perturbations. The interactions between biotic and abiotic soil components provide examples of both neurological and endocrine systems in soil physiology. Through this change in perspective, both biotic and abiotic soil processes become evident, providing insight into the possible behavior of ancient prebiotic soils. Furthermore, the physiological approach sheds light on the emergence of new soil components (e.g. spodic horizons) as ancient prebiotic soils adapt to a plethora of biotic carbon compounds. Other emergent soil properties and behaviors can be linked to the kinds, frequencies, order and intensities of various ubiquitous pedo-perturbations.

  1. Sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopic studies on buried heterogeneous biointerfaces.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chi; Jasensky, Joshua; Leng, Chuan; Del Grosso, Chelsey; Smith, Gary D; Wilker, Jonathan J; Chen, Zhan

    2014-05-01

    A sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational micro-spectroscopy system was developed to examine buried heterogeneous biointerfaces. A compact optical microscope was constructed with total-internal reflection (TIR) SFG geometry to monitor the tightly focused SFG laser spots on interfaces, providing the capability of selectively probing different regions on heterogeneous biointerfaces. The TIR configuration ensures and enhances the SFG signal generated only from the sample/substrate interfacial area. As an example for possible applications in biointerfaces studies, the system was used to probe and compare buried interfacial structures of different biological samples attached to underwater surfaces. We studied the interface of a single mouse oocyte on a silica prism to demonstrate the feasibility of tracing and studying a single live cell and substrate interface using SFG. We also examined the interface between a marine mussel adhesive plaque and a CaF2 substrate, showing the removal of interface-bonded water molecules. This work also paves the way for future integration of other microscopic techniques such as TIR-fluorescence microscopy or nonlinear optical imaging with SFG spectroscopy for multimodal surface or interface studies. PMID:24784085

  2. Full-scale retrieval of simulated buried transuranic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Valentich, D.J.

    1993-09-01

    This report describes the results of a field test conducted to determine the effectiveness of using conventional type construction equipment for the retrieval of buried transuranic (TRU) waste. A cold (nonhazardous and nonradioactive) test pit (1,100 yd{sup 3} volume) was constructed with boxes and drums filled with simulated waste materials, such as metal, plastic, wood, concrete, and sludge. Large objects, including truck beds, tanks, vaults, pipes, and beams, were also placed in the pit. These materials were intended to simulate the type of wastes found in TRU buried waste pits and trenches. A series of commercially available equipment items, such as excavators and tracked loaders outfitted with different end effectors, were used to remove the simulated waste. Work was performed from both the abovegrade and belowgrade positions. During the demonstration, a number of observations, measurements, and analyses were performed to determine which equipment was the most effective in removing the waste. The retrieval rates for the various excavation techniques were recorded. The inherent dust control capabilities of the excavation methods used were observed. The feasibility of teleoperating reading equipment was also addressed.

  3. Infrared thermography for condition assessment of buried district heating piping

    SciTech Connect

    Phetteplace, G.

    1999-07-01

    Infrared thermography has been used successfully for many years to find problem areas on buried district heating systems. While such information is useful for locating areas of major failures, for planning purposes some quantification of the results from an infrared survey of major portions of a district heating system would be advantageous. Some recent progress has been made toward this end by two International Energy Agency (IEA) District Heating projects in which the US Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) has participated with colleagues from the Nordic counties. The objective of these projects was to develop a method that would allow quantification of heat losses from the temperature profile of the ground's surface above the buried heat distribution pipeline. Basically, the method uses the integral of the temperature distribution at the ground's surface along with climatological and system data to arrive at an empirical estimate of the heat loss. Using this method, CRREL has conducted infrared surveys of two facilities. Results have been good, and the facilities have been provided with both heat loss estimates and prioritized replacement lists. This paper describes the TX method, as it is called, and its use. Sample results from the surveys done to date will also be presented.

  4. High-resolution subsurface imaging and neural network recognition: Non-intrusive buried substance location. Final report, January 26, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Sternberg, B.K.; Poulton, M.M.

    1998-12-31

    A high-frequency, high-resolution electromagnetic (EIVI) imaging system has been developed for environmental geophysics surveys. Some key features of this system include: (1) rapid surveying to allow dense spatial sampling over a large area, (2) high-accuracy measurements which are used to produce a high-resolution image of the subsurface, (3) measurements which have excellent signal-to-noise ratio over a wide bandwidth (31 kHz to 32 MHZ), (4) elimination of electric-field interference at high frequencies, (5) large-scale physical modeling to produce accurate theoretical responses over targets of interest in environmental geophysics surveys, (6) rapid neural network interpretation at the field site, and (7) visualization of complex structures during the survey. Four major experiments were conducted with the system: (1) Data were collected for several targets in our physical modeling facility. (2) We tested the system over targets buried in soil. (3) We conducted an extensive survey at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Cold Test Pit (CTP). The location of the buried waste, category of waste, and thickness of the clay cap were successfully mapped. (4) We ran surveys over the acid pit at INEL. This was an operational survey over a hot site. The interpreted low-resistivity region correlated closely with the known extent of the acid pit.

  5. High-resolution subsurface imaging and neural network recognition: Non-intrusive buried substance location. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sternberg, B.K.; Poulton, M.M.

    1997-01-26

    A high-frequency, high-resolution electromagnetic (EM) imaging system has been developed for environmental geophysics surveys. Some key features of this system include: (1) rapid surveying to allow dense spatial sampling over a large area, (2) high-accuracy measurements which are used to produce a high-resolution image of the subsurface, (3) measurements which have excellent signal-to-noise ratio over a wide bandwidth (31 kHz to 32 MHz), (4) elimination of electric-field interference at high frequencies, (5) large-scale physical modeling to produce accurate theoretical responses over targets of interest in environmental geophysics surveys, (6) rapid neural network interpretation at the field site, and (7) visualization of complex structures during the survey. Four major experiments were conducted with the system: (1) Data were collected for several targets in our physical modeling facility. (2) The authors tested the system over targets buried in soil. (3) The authors conducted an extensive survey at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Cold Test Pit (CTP). The location of the buried waste, category of waste, and thickness of the clay cap were successfully mapped. (4) The authors ran surveys over the acid pit at INEL. This was an operational survey over a hot site. The interpreted low-resistivity region correlated closely with the known extent of the acid pit.

  6. Using Marker Horizons and Cryogenic Coring to Monitor Sediment Deposition in Salt Marshes of the Bay of Fundy

    E-print Network

    Chmura, Gail L.

    Using Marker Horizons and Cryogenic Coring to Monitor Sediment Deposition in Salt Marshes a sample from the salt marsh. A self- pressurizing 15 litre Dewar flask delivers liquid nitrogen, a coolant out of the soil, a frozen core of marsh sediment is obtained. Using cryogenic coring to obtain salt

  7. REVIEW OF PRACTICE FOR DEEPLY EMBEDDED/BURIED NPP STRUCTURES SUBJECT TO SEISMIC LOADINGS.

    SciTech Connect

    XU,J.HOFMAYER,C.MILLER,C.GRAVES,H.

    2004-03-24

    Motivated by many design considerations, several conceptual designs for advanced reactors have proposed that the entire reactor building and a significant portion of the steam generator building will be either partially or completely embedded below grade. For the analysis of seismic events, the soil-structure interaction (SSI) effect and passive earth pressure for these types of deeply embedded structures will have a significant influence on the predicted seismic response. Sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is carrying out a research program to assess the significance of these proposed design features for advanced reactors, and to evaluate the existing analytical methods to determine their applicability and adequacy in capturing the seismic behavior of the proposed designs. This paper summarizes a literature review performed by BNL to determine the state of knowledge and practice for seismic analyses of deeply embedded and/or buried (DEB) nuclear containment type structures. Included in the paper is BNL's review of the open literature of existing standards, tests, and practices that have been used in the design and analysis of DEB structures. The paper also provides BNL's evaluation of available codes and guidelines with respect to seismic design practice of DEB structures. Based on BNL's review, a discussion is provided to highlight the applicability of the existing technologies for seismic analyses of DEB structures and to identify gaps that may exist in knowledge and potential issues that may require better understanding and further research.

  8. Regulatory issues and assumptions associated with polymers for subsurface barriers surrounding buried waste

    SciTech Connect

    Heiser, J.; Siskind, B.

    1993-11-01

    One of the options for control of contaminant migration from buried waste sites is the construction of a subsurface barrier that consists of a wall of low permeability material. Subsurface barriers will improve remediation performance by removing pathways for contaminant transport due to groundwater movement, meteorological water infiltration, vapor- and gas-phase transport, transpiration, etc. Subsurface barriers may be used to {open_quotes}direct{close_quotes} contaminant movement to collection sumps/lysimeters in cases of unexpected remediation failures or transport mechanisms, to contain leakage from underground storage tanks, and to restrict in-situ soil cleanup operation and chemicals. Brookhaven National Laboratory is currently investigating advanced polymer materials for subsurface barriers. This report addresses the regulatory aspects of using of non-traditional polymer materials as well as soil-bentonite or cement-bentonite mixtures for such barriers. The regulatory issues fall into two categories. The first category consists of issues associated with the acceptability of subsurface barriers to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as a method for achieving waste site performance improvement. The second category encompasses those regulatory issues concerning health, safety and the environment which must be addressed regarding barrier installation and performance, especially if non-traditional materials are to be used. Since many of EPA`s concerns regarding subsurface barriers focus on the chemicals used during installation of these barriers the authors discuss the results of a search of the Federal Register and the Code of Federal Regulations for references in Titles 29 and 40 pertaining to key chemicals likely to be utilized in installing non-traditional barrier materials. The use of polymeric materials in the construction industry has been accomplished with full compliance with the applicable health, safety, and environmental regulations.

  9. SURVIVAL OF TILLETIA INDICA TELIOSPORES IN ARIZONA FIELD SOILS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two methods were used to test germinability during a 42-month period in which polyester mesh bags of Tilletia indica teliospore-infested soil were buried in irrigated and non-irrigated field plots in Tucson, Arizona. One method determined the total number of viable teliospores (TNVT) whether or not ...

  10. 11/5/2007 M. Holdridge 1 New Horizons Pluto EncounterNew Horizons Pluto Encounter

    E-print Network

    Young, Leslie A.

    11/5/2007 M. Holdridge 1 New Horizons Pluto EncounterNew Horizons Pluto Encounter Baseline Review not conclude the concept development phase of planning the Pluto encounter. Continued analysis and trades, we are finding the Pluto flyby is a very unique flyby in terms of geometry and goals

  11. Fire effects on soil organic matter content, composition, and nutrients in boreal interior Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neff, J.C.; Harden, J.W.; Gleixner, G.

    2005-01-01

    Boreal ecosystems contain a substantial fraction of the earth's soil carbon stores and are prone to frequent and severe wildfires. In this study, we examine changes in element and organic matter stocks due to a 1999 wildfire in Alaska. One year after the wildfire, burned soils contained between 1071 and 1420 g/m2 less carbon than unburned soils. Burned soils had lower nitrogen than unburned soils, higher calcium, and nearly unchanged potassium, magnesium, and phosphorus stocks. Burned surface soils tended to have higher concentrations of noncombustible elements such as calcium, potassium, magnesium, and phosphorus compared with unburned soils. Combustion losses of carbon were mostly limited to surface dead moss and fibric horizons, with no change in the underlying mineral horizons. Burning caused significant changes in soil organic matter structure, with a 12% higher ratio of carbon to combustible organic matter in surface burned horizons compared with unburned horizons. Pyrolysis gas chromatography - mass spectroscopy also shows preferential volatilization of polysaccharide-derived organic matter and enrichment of lignin-and lipid-derived compounds in surface soils. The chemistry of deeper soil layers in burned and unburned sites was similar, suggesting that immediate fire impacts were restricted to the surface soil horizon. ?? 2005 NRC.

  12. Identification of a buried cadaver based on finger ridge characteristics of a hand protected by a latex glove.

    PubMed

    Klemczak, Krzysztof; Szczepa?ski, Tomasz M; Wi?ckiewicz, Urszula; Kulczyk, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the case of a cadaver buried in a pine grove, in loamy soil at a depth of about 1.8 m. The case is quite interesting due to the fact that one hand of the victim was bare and the other one was clad in a latex glove. In the laboratory, the severed hands were gently washed with water. The left palm exhibited signs of advanced decomposition. The ridges were visible only on the thumb. The gloved hand was found to be in much better condition. There were signs of saponification on the palm. Ridges on both the palm and all fingers were visible. The fingers of the right hand, palm prints, and the thumb of the left hand were successfully matched against a ten-print card. The match provided the police with a positive identification of the missing person. PMID:25425343

  13. Bioinduced weathering in Swedish boreal forest soil investigated by mineral amendment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olofsson, Madelen; Ahmed, Engy; Bylund, Dan; Holmström, Sara

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how soil mineral amendment affects microbial composition and how different mineral composition and varied depth influence these changes. Apatite, biotite and oligoclase were placed at soil horizon interfaces in a podzole in Bispgĺrden, central Sweden (63°07'N, 16°70'E), between the summer of 2009 and 2011. Continuous measurement of soil chemistry; pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and low molecular mass organic acids (LMMOAs) was performed for the surrounding soil during the frost free months of the two-year incubation period. Mineral sample surfaces were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) pre and post soil incubation to give a visual verification of weathering effects. Evaluating soil chemistry data and data received at the end of the incubation period, results show that the highest concentration of LMMOAs is found in the E horizon and that it corresponds with the highest total fungal activity in the bulk soil. Total microbial activity was found to be highest in the O horizon. Measurements on the soil of the mineral surfaces show that in all cases, apatite stimulates the microbial activity the most, followed by biotite and last oligoclase. Comparing the soil horizons, effects on total microbial activity are the highest in the E horizon, but when looking at total fungal activity the biggest changes are found in O and B horizon indicating that bacterial and fungal activities are affected differently by mineral amendment. Using ANOVA followed by pair wise comparisons according to Tukey, significant differences were found in microbial activity between the soil horizons and also between most of the different minerals, compared with the bulk soil. Looking at the SEM images taken before and after weathering, minerals placed in the O and E horizon are clearly the most affected, and the magnitude of weathering between the different minerals corresponds to the microbial activity found.

  14. Lunar Radar Scattering from Near-Surface Buried Crater Ejecta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, T. W.; Ustinov, E. A.; Heggy, E.

    2009-12-01

    The Apollo 15, 16, and 17 core tubes show that the uppermost few meters of the lunar regolith are interlaced layers of a fine grained powders and blocky crater ejecta. The layers of crater ejecta have dielectric constants in the range of 7-9 while the fine-grained powders has dielectric constant on the order of 2.7. These differences in dielectric constant, in turn, create radar reflections that are both refracted and reflected back through the space-regolith interface. Note that for a dielectric constant of 2.7 for the lunar regolith, radio waves incident on the lunar surface at the angle of 30-degrees from the normal will propagate in the regolith at an angle of 18-degrees. At the limb, radio waves incident on the lunar surface at an angle near 90-degrees from the normal will propagate in the regolith at an angle of about 37-degrees. These angles are within the range where radar backscatter is in the quasi-specular regime. When these buried crater ejecta layers are modeled using Hagfors’ formulation (Hagfors, 1963), echo powers match the behavior observed for average lunar backscatter at centimeter wavelengths for higher (30° to 90°) angles of incidence. In addition, Hagfors et al. (1965) conducted an experiment where the Moon was illuminated at 23-cm wavelength with circular polarization and the differences were observed in orthogonal linear polarizations. Modeling of these observations and assuming again that the buried crater ejecta scatter in a quasi-specular manner, echo differences in horizontal and vertical linear polarizations are in relatively good agreement with the observations. The data from Chandrayaan Mini-RF radar, which operated at S-Band (13cm) wavelength, and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Mini-RF radar, which is operating at S-Band and X-Band (4-cm) wavelengths, provide an opportunity for a new examination of whether radar backscatter from buried crater ejecta behaves like a quasi-specular scatter. These radars reproduce the geometry of the Hagfors et al. (1965) observations as they transmit circular polarization and record echoes in horizontal and vertical linear polarizations. References Hagfors, T. (1964), Backscattering from an undulating surface with application to radar returns from the Moon, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 13,319-13,346. Hagfors, T., R. A. Brockelman, H. H. Danforth, I. Hanson, and G. M. Hyde (1965), Tenuous surface layer on the Moon: Evidence derived from radar observations, Science, 150, 1153-1156.

  15. Porosity factors that control the hydraulic conductivity of soil-saprolite transitional zones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vepraskas, M.J.; Guertal, W.R.; Kleiss, H.J.; Amoozegar, A.

    1996-01-01

    Slowly permeable transitional horizons separate soil and saprolite, but these horizons cannot be identified easily in the field. The objectives of this study were to determine why the soil-saprolite transitional zone (BC and CB horizons) is slowly permeable, and to evaluate ways for identifying it in the field. Two saprolite deposits were studied in the North Carolina Piedmont. At each site, saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivities (Ksat and Kunsat) were measured for major horizons. Volume fractions of water-conducting pores were also compared with the changes in hydraulic conductivity with depth. Horizon mean Ksat values at both sites ranged from virtually 0 to approximately 3 cm h-1. The lowest Ksat values (<0.3 cm h-1) occurred in or near the transitional horizons that were directly below the Bt horizons. Changes in the volume of pores within or between mineral grains (termed inter/intraparticle pores) with depth corresponded to changes in both Ksat and Kunsat. In the transitional horizons, the inter/intraparticle pores were plugged with clay and this caused the horizons to have low K values. In situ measurements of Ksat with depth were the most accurate technique to use for identifying transitional zones in the field. Examination of both the soil and rock structures in pits was also an acceptable technique. Texture and consistence were not considered reliable for pin-pointing transitional horizons.

  16. Introduction to dynamical horizons in numerical relativity

    E-print Network

    Erik Schnetter; Badri Krishnan; Florian Beyer

    2006-06-06

    This paper presents a quasi-local method of studying the physics of dynamical black holes in numerical simulations. This is done within the dynamical horizon framework, which extends the earlier work on isolated horizons to time-dependent situations. In particular: (i) We locate various kinds of marginal surfaces and study their time evolution. An important ingredient is the calculation of the signature of the horizon, which can be either spacelike, timelike, or null. (ii) We generalize the calculation of the black hole mass and angular momentum, which were previously defined for axisymmetric isolated horizons to dynamical situations. (iii) We calculate the source multipole moments of the black hole which can be used to verify that the black hole settles down to a Kerr solution. (iv) We also study the fluxes of energy crossing the horizon, which describes how a black hole grows as it accretes matter and/or radiation. We describe our numerical implementation of these concepts and apply them to three specific test cases, namely, the axisymmetric head-on collision of two black holes, the axisymmetric collapse of a neutron star, and a non-axisymmetric black hole collision with non-zero initial orbital angular momentum.

  17. Star-Paths, Stones and Horizon Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, Bernadette

    2015-05-01

    Archaeoastronomers tend to approach ancient monuments focusing on the landscape and the horizon calendar events of sun and moon and, due to problems with precession, generally ignore the movement of the stars. However, locating the position of solar calendar points on the horizon can have other uses apart from calendar and/or cosmological purposes. This paper firstly suggests that the stars do not need to be ignored. By considering the evidence of the Phaenomena, a sky poem by Aratus of Soli, a third century BC Greek poet, and his use of second millennium BC star lore fragments, this paper argues that the stars were a part of the knowledge of horizon astronomy. Aratus' poem implied that the horizon astronomy of the late Neolithic and Bronze Age periods included knowledge of star-paths or 'linear constellations' that were defined by particular horizon calendar events and other azimuths. Knowledge of such star-paths would have enabled navigation and orientation, and by using permanent markers, constructed or natural, to define these paths, they were immune to precession as the stones could redefine a star-path for a future generation. Finally the paper presents other possible intentions behind the diverse orientation of passage tombs and some megalithic sites.

  18. On the Bartnik mass of apparent horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantoulidis, Christos; Schoen, Richard

    2015-10-01

    In this paper we characterize the intrinsic geometry of apparent horizons (outermost marginally outer trapped surfaces) in asymptotically flat spacetimes; that is, the Riemannian metrics on the two sphere which can arise. Furthermore we determine the minimal ADM mass of a spacetime containing such an apparent horizon. The results are conveniently formulated in terms of the quasi-local mass introduced by Bartnik (1989 Phys. Rev. Lett. 62 2346-8). The Hawking mass provides a lower bound for Bartnik’s quasilocal mass on apparent horizons by way of Penrose’s conjecture on time symmetric slices, proven in 1997 by Huisken and Ilmanen (2001 J. Differ. Geom. 59 353-437) and in full generality in 1999 by Bray (2001 J. Differ. Geom. 59 177-267). We compute Bartnik’s mass for all non-degenerate apparent horizons and show that it coincides with the Hawking mass. As a corollary we disprove a conjecture due to Gibbons in the spirit of Thorne’s hoop conjecture (Gibbons 2009 arXiv:0903.1580), and construct a new large class of examples of apparent horizons with the integral of the negative part of the Gauss curvature arbitrarily large.

  19. 49 CFR 192.459 - External corrosion control: Examination of buried pipeline when exposed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false External corrosion control: Examination of buried... Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.459 External corrosion control: Examination of buried pipeline when... portion must be examined for evidence of external corrosion if the pipe is bare, or if the coating...

  20. 49 CFR 192.459 - External corrosion control: Examination of buried pipeline when exposed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false External corrosion control: Examination of buried... Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.459 External corrosion control: Examination of buried pipeline when... portion must be examined for evidence of external corrosion if the pipe is bare, or if the coating...

  1. 49 CFR 192.459 - External corrosion control: Examination of buried pipeline when exposed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false External corrosion control: Examination of buried... Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.459 External corrosion control: Examination of buried pipeline when... portion must be examined for evidence of external corrosion if the pipe is bare, or if the coating...

  2. Pristine Early Eocene Wood Buried Deeply in Kimberlite from Northern Canada

    E-print Network

    Wolfe, Alexander P.

    Pristine Early Eocene Wood Buried Deeply in Kimberlite from Northern Canada Alexander P. Wolfe1 preservation of fossil wood buried deeply in a kimberlite pipe that intruded northwestern Canada's Slave in volcaniclastic kimberlite to depths .300 m, where it was mummified in a sterile environment. Anatomy

  3. Experimental study on the behavior of segmented buried concrete pipelines subject to ground movements

    E-print Network

    Michalowski, Radoslaw L.

    to contaminated water. The task of rapidly detecting damage in buried pipelines is challenging largely due to detect pipe leaks from above the ground surface, these technologies are difficult to master and are oftenExperimental study on the behavior of segmented buried concrete pipelines subject to ground

  4. 49 CFR 193.2629 - External corrosion control: buried or submerged components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false External corrosion control: buried or submerged components...Maintenance § 193.2629 External corrosion control: buried or submerged components...attack must be protected from external corrosion by— (1) Material that has...

  5. 49 CFR 193.2629 - External corrosion control: buried or submerged components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false External corrosion control: buried or submerged components...Maintenance § 193.2629 External corrosion control: buried or submerged components...attack must be protected from external corrosion by— (1) Material that has...

  6. Broadband infrared electro-optic modulator having a buried microstrip network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheo, Peter K. (Inventor); Gilden, Meyer (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A microwave infrared modulator having a novel three dimensional structure is presented. The modulator includes a waveguide and metal base with a dielectric wafer buried therebetween. The buried wafer allows for conventional microstrip structures to be employed with larger microstrip electrode dimensions than would otherwise be possible.

  7. Technical report for a fluidless directional drilling system demonstrated at Solid Waste Storage Area 6 shallow buried waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of the research was to demonstrate a fluidless directional drilling and monitoring system (FDD) specifically tailored to address environmental drilling concerns for shallow buried wasted. The major concerns are related to worker exposure, minimizing waste generation, and confining the spread of contamination. The FDD is potentially applicable to Environmental Restoration (ER) activities for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Area Grouping 6 (WAG 6) shallow buried waste disposed in unlined trenches. Major ER activities for directional drilling are to develop a drilling system for leachate collection directly beneath trenches, and to provide localized control over leachate release to the environment. Other ER FDD activities could include vadose zone and groundwater monitoring of contaminant transport. The operational constraints pointed the research in the direction of purchasing a steerable impact hammer, or mole, manufactured by Steer-Rite Ltd. of Racine, Wisconsin. This drill was selected due to the very low cost ($25,000) associated with procuring the drill, steering module, instrumentation and service lines. The impact hammer is a self propelled drill which penetrates the soil by compacting cut material along the sidewalls of the borehole. Essentially, it forces its way through the subsurface. Although the pneumatic hammer exhausts compressed air which must be handled at the borehole collar, it does not generate soil cuttings or liquids. This is the basis for the term fluidless. A stub casing muffler was attached to the entrance hole for controlling exhaust gas and any airborne releases. Other environmental compliance modifications made to the equipment included operating the tool without lubrication, and using water instead of hydraulic fluid to actuate the steering fins on the tool.

  8. Validation of OSL and 14C dating of initial soils in Late-Holocene polycyclic drift-sand deposits (Weerterbergen, S.E. Netherlands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Mourik, J. M.; Schilder, M. L. M.; Wallinga, J.

    2009-04-01

    Late glacial aeolian coversand dominates the surface geology of the eastern part of the province Noord-Brabant (Netherlands). During prehistoric and early historic time, forest grazing, wood cutting and shifting cultivation gradually transformed natural forest into heath land. Subsequently the use of the heath for the production of organic manure during the period of plaggen agriculture (from early Middle Ages to the invention of chemical fertilizers around 1900 AD) resulted in the comeback of sand drifting and locally the coversand landscape transformed into a driftsand landscape with characteristic new landforms and soils. Polycyclic driftsand deposits are paleoecological records of alternating instable (sand drifting) and stable (soil formation) phases in landscape development. Interpretation of paleoecological information, derived from these records, requires accurate knowledge of the geochronology. Traditionally radiocarbon dating was applied on SOM (soil organic matter), extracted from humic AE horizons of buried initial soils (micropodzols), developed in driftsand beds. In polycyclic driftsand sequences, micropozols indicate a stable period in landscape development. One of the research questions in driftsand landscapes was related to the distribution and age of micropodzols: Are they the result of just local or more regional events in landscape evolution? The calibrated 14C ages of seven selected of extracted humic acids of micropozols range from 340 - 1950 AD. Based on these results, the alternation of instable and stable periods in landscape development seems to be controlled by local events. But to understand the development of polycyclic sequences, we need more information than just the 14C ages of micropodzols. Every cycle of a polycyclic sequence reflects a period of landscape instability (deposition) and landscape stability (soil development). A 14C based chronological framework does not allow the indicate the available time for deposition and for soil formation. Micromorphological analysis of thin sections of micropodzols provide more information about the composition of SOM of the humic horizons. SOM consists of post sedimentary compounds, related to soil formation. We can identify soil fungi, fragmented litter and fecal pellets as the results of litter decomposition. But SOM contains also sin sedimentary compounds, related to sand drifting. We can identify transported and rounded organic aggregates, mineral grains with organic cutans and charcoal fragments, originating from eroded (older) soil horizons. Consequently, the 14C dates of extracted SOM are not reliable. Recently the optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating technique was introduced in earth science. OSL dating works excellent for aeolian sandy deposits with a high percentage of quartz grains. The OSL age is defined as the time after the last bleaching by solar radiation of mineral grains. In contrast to 14C dating, application of OSL dating provides accurate information over the age of top and bottom of deposited sand beds and consequently over the time, available for soil development. Based on OSL dates, the micropodzols developed between 1700 and 1900 AD. Application of OSL dating improves the knowledge of geochronology of polycyclic driftsand sequences in cultural sandy landscapes.

  9. An integrated systems approach to remote retrieval of buried transuranic waste using a telerobotic transport vehicle, innovative end effector, and remote excavator

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.M.; Rice, P.; Hyde, R.; Peterson, R.

    1995-02-01

    Between 1952 and 1970, over two million cubic feet of transuranic mixed waste was buried in shallow pits and trenches in the Subsurface Disposal Area at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Commingled with this two million cubic feet of waste is up to 10 million cubic feet of fill soil. The pits and trenches were constructed similarly to municipal landfills with both stacked and random dump waste forms such as barrels and boxes. The main contaminants are micron-sized particles of plutonium and americium oxides, chlorides, and hydroxides. Retrieval, treatment, and disposal is one of the options being considered for the waste. This report describes the results of a field demonstration conducted to evaluate technologies for excavating, and transporting buried transuranic wastes at the INEL, and other hazardous or radioactive waste sites throughout the US Department of Energy complex. The full-scale demonstration, conduced at RAHCO Internationals facilities in Spokane, Washington, in the summer of 1994, evaluated equipment performance and techniques for digging, dumping, and transporting buried waste. Three technologies were evaluated in the demonstration: an Innovative End Effector for dust free dumping, a Telerobotic Transport Vehicle to convey retrieved waste from the digface, and a Remote Operated Excavator to deploy the Innovative End Effector and perform waste retrieval operations. Data were gathered and analyzed to evaluate retrieval performance parameters such as retrieval rates, transportation rates, human factors, and the equipment`s capability to control contamination spread.

  10. Long-term stabilization of deep soil carbon by fire and burial during early Holocene climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin-Spiotta, Erika; Chaopricha, Nina T.; Plante, Alain F.; Diefendorf, Aaron F.; Mueller, Carsten W.; Grandy, A. Stuart; Mason, Joseph A.

    2014-06-01

    Buried soils contain large reservoirs of organic carbon at depths that are not typically included in regional and global soil carbon inventories. One such palaeosol, the Brady soil of southwestern Nebraska, USA, is buried under six metres of loess. The Brady soil developed at the land surface on the late-Pleistocene-aged Peoria Loess in a period of warmth and wetness during which dunefields and dust sources across the region were stabilized. Abrupt climate change in the early Holocene led to increased loess deposition that buried the soil. Here, we used spectroscopic and isotopic analyses to determine the composition and stability of organic carbon in the Brady soil. We identify high levels of black carbon, indicating extensive biomass burning. In addition, we found intact vascular plant lipids in soil organic matter with radiocarbon ages ranging from 10,500 to 12,400 cal yr BP, indicating decomposition was slowed by rapid burial at the start of the Holocene. We conclude that landscape disturbance caused by abrupt climate change, fire and the loss of vegetative cover contributed to deep carbon sequestration as the soil was quickly buried under accumulating loess. We suggest that terrestrial soil carbon storage in arid and semi-arid environments could undergo landscape-scale shifts in response to rising temperatures, increased fire activity or drought.

  11. Structure of ancient buried wood from Phyllocladus trichomanoides

    SciTech Connect

    Attalla, M.I.; Serra, R.G.; Vassallo, A.M.; Wilson, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    Trees of the fossil gymnosperm Phyllocladus trichomanoides were buried by a volcanic eruption at Taupo, New Zealand about 2000 years ago. Three samples of fossil heartwood and fossil sapwood from this tree have been studied by /sup 13/C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques including dipolar dephasing. The spectra of sapwood contain more resonances from carbohydrates at 66 and 75 ppm whereas the spectra of heartwood contain significantly more signal from methoxyl and other lignin derived carbons. Values obtained for the fraction of aromatic carbon that is protonated in the samples fa are of the order of 0.50, in good agreement with that expected for a lignin-based, mainly guaiacyl structure. In addition to estimating fa dipolar dephasing appears to be useful in accentuating differences in methoxyl content between heartwood and sapwood.

  12. Solid state television camera (CCD-buried channel)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The development of an all solid state television camera, which uses a buried channel charge coupled device (CCD) as the image sensor, was undertaken. A 380 x 488 element CCD array is utilized to ensure compatibility with 525 line transmission and display monitor equipment. Specific camera design approaches selected for study and analysis included (a) optional clocking modes for either fast (1/60 second) or normal (1/30 second) frame readout, (b) techniques for the elimination or suppression of CCD blemish effects, and (c) automatic light control and video gain control (i.e., ALC and AGC) techniques to eliminate or minimize sensor overload due to bright objects in the scene. Preferred approaches were determined and integrated into a deliverable solid state TV camera which addressed the program requirements for a prototype qualifiable to space environment conditions.

  13. Solid state television camera (CCD-buried channel), revision 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    An all solid state television camera was designed which uses a buried channel charge coupled device (CCD) as the image sensor. A 380 x 488 element CCD array is utilized to ensure compatibility with 525-line transmission and display monitor equipment. Specific camera design approaches selected for study and analysis included (1) optional clocking modes for either fast (1/60 second) or normal (1/30 second) frame readout, (2) techniques for the elimination or suppression of CCD blemish effects, and (3) automatic light control and video gain control techniques to eliminate or minimize sensor overload due to bright objects in the scene. Preferred approaches were determined and integrated into a deliverable solid state TV camera which addressed the program requirements for a prototype qualifiable to space environment conditions.

  14. Retrieval of Shape Characteristics for Buried Objects with GPR Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldovieri, F.; Comite, D.; Galli, A.; Valerio, G.; Barone, P. M.; Lauro, S. E.; Mattei, E.; Pettinelli, E.

    2012-04-01

    Information retrieval on the location and the geometrical features (dimensions and shape) of buried objects is of fundamental importance in geosciences areas involving environmental protection, mine clearance, archaeological investigations, space and planetary exploration, and so forth. Among the different non-invasive sensing techniques usually employed to achieve this kind of information, those based on ground-penetrating-radar (GPR) instruments are well-established and suitable to the mentioned purposes [1]. In this context, our interest in the present work is specifically focused on testing the potential performance of typical GPR instruments by means of appropriate data processing. It will be shown in particular to what extent the use of a suitable "microwave tomographic approach" [2] is able to furnish a shape estimation of the targets, possibly recognizing different kinds of canonical geometries, even having reduced cross sections and in critical conditions, where the scatterer size is comparable with resolution limits imposed by the usual measurement configurations. Our study starts by obtaining the typical "direct" information from the GPR techniques that is the scattered field in subsurface environments under the form of radargrams. In order to get a wide variety of scenarios for the operating conditions, this goal is achieved by means of two different and independent approaches [3]. One approach is based on direct measurements through an experimental laboratory setup: commercial GPR instruments (typically bistatic configurations operating around 1 GHz frequency range) are used to collect radargram profiles by investigating an artificial basin filled of liquid and/or granular materials (sand, etc.), in which targets (having different constitutive parameters, shape, and dimensions) can be buried. The other approach is based on numerical GPR simulations by means of a commercial CAD electromagnetic tool (CST), whose suitable implementation and data processing allow us to retrieve results again in the form of radargrams for the scattering features of arbitrarily-composed subsurfaces. Once these types of "direct" (measured and/or simulated) radargram data are obtained, the "inverse" problem is then handled, based on a Born approximation to linearize the scattering problem. The targets are represented in terms of anomalies ("contrast function") of dielectric permittivity and conductivity with respect to the properties of a background environment. The analysis of the relevant results for the spatial distribution of the magnitude of the contrast function shows that, in various even-challenging practical cases, this kind of approach is able to properly locate buried objects, also identifying the relevant shape features. [1] D. J. Daniels (Ed.), Ground penetrating radar. IEE Press, 2004. [2] E. Pettinelli, A. Di Matteo, E. Mattei, L. Crocco, F. Soldovieri, J. D. Redman, and A. P. Annan, "GPR response from buried pipes: measurement on field site and tomographic reconstructions," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing, vol. 47, pp. 2639-2645, Aug. 2009. [3] G. Valerio, A. Galli, P. M. Barone, S. E. Lauro, E. Mattei, and E. Pettinelli, "GPR detectability of rocks in a Martian-like shallow subsoil: a numerical approach," Planet. Space Sci., 10 pp., doi: 10.1016/j.pss.2011.12.003, 2011.

  15. System to control contamination during retrieval of buried TRU waste

    SciTech Connect

    Menkhaus, D.E.; Loomis, G.G.; Feldman, E.M.; Scott, D.W.; Mullen, C.K.; Meyer, L.C.

    1991-12-31

    Between 1950 and 1970 the Department of Energy`s Rocky Flats Plant generated transuranic (TRU) contaminated waste, which was buried at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This waste must now be retrieved and sent to a permanent disposal site. During retrieval the main contaminates to be controlled are compounds of plutonium and americium. Since these substances are small sized, and extremely mobile, airborne concentrations must be kept to a minimum to effectively eliminate personnel uptake during retrieval operations. This report describes an invention that relates to a system to control contamination due to TRU airborne particles and was developed consisting of an outer containment building, an inner containment area, a dust suppression system including an electrostatic contaminate capture subsystem, a contamination control system including a moisture control subsystem, a rapid monitoring subsystem, and a lifting and moving system including recovery and repackaging subsystems, and a lifting and moving system including recovery and repackaging subsystems.

  16. Measure Guideline: Buried and/or Encapsulated Ducts

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, C.; Zoeller, W.; Mantha, P.

    2013-08-01

    Buried and/or encapsulated ducts (BEDs) are a class of advanced, energy-efficiency strategies intended to address the significant ductwork thermal losses associated with ducts installed in unconditioned attics. BEDs are ducts installed in unconditioned attics that are covered in loose-fill insulation and/or encapsulated in closed cell polyurethane spray foam insulation. This Measure Guideline covers the technical aspects of BEDs as well as the advantages, disadvantages, and risks of BEDs compared to other alternative strategies. This guideline also provides detailed guidance on installation of BEDs strategies in new and existing homes through step-by-step installation procedures. Some of the procedures presented here, however, require specialized equipment or expertise. In addition, some alterations to duct systems may require a specialized license.

  17. Buried topography of Utopia, Mars: Persistence of a giant impact depression

    SciTech Connect

    McGill, G.E. )

    1989-12-01

    Knobs, partially buried craters, ring fractures, and some mesas permit a qualitative determination of the topography buried beneath younger northern plains materials. These features are widely distributed in the Utopia area but are absent in a large, roughly circular region centered at about 48{degree}N, 240{degree}W. This implies the existence of a circular depression about 3,300 km in diameter buried beneath Utopia Planitia that is here interpreted to represent the central part of a very large impact basin. The presence of buried curved massifs around part of this depression, and a roughly coincident mascon, lend further support. Present topography, areal geology, and paleotopography of buried surfaces all point to the persistence of this major depression for almost the entire history of Mars.

  18. Microevolution of Anthrax from a Young Ancestor (M.A.Y.A.) Suggests a Soil-Borne Life Cycle of Bacillus anthracis

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Peter; Grass, Gregor; Aceti, Angela; Serrecchia, Luigina; Affuso, Alessia; Marino, Leonardo; Grimaldi, Stefania; Pagano, Stefania; Hanczaruk, Matthias; Georgi, Enrico; Northoff, Bernd; Schöler, Anne; Schloter, Michael; Antwerpen, Markus; Fasanella, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    During an anthrax outbreak at the Pollino National Park (Basilicata, Italy) in 2004, diseased cattle were buried and from these anthrax-foci Bacillus anthracis endospores still diffuse to the surface resulting in local accumulations. Recent data suggest that B. anthracis multiplies in soil outside the animal-host body. This notion is supported by the frequent isolation of B. anthracis from soil lacking one or both virulence plasmids. Such strains represent an evolutionary dead end, as they are likely no longer able to successfully infect new hosts. This loss of virulence plasmids is explained most simply by postulating a soil-borne life cycle of the pathogen. To test this hypothesis we investigated possible microevolution at two natural anthrax foci from the 2004 outbreak. If valid, then genotypes of strains isolated from near the surface at these foci should be on a different evolutionary trajectory from those below residing in deeper-laying horizons close to the carcass. Thus, the genetic diversity of B. anthracis isolates was compared conducting Progressive Hierarchical Resolving Assays using Nucleic Acids (PHRANA) and next generation Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS). PHRANA was not discriminatory enough to resolve the fine genetic relationships between the isolates. Conversely, WGS of nine isolates from near-surface and nine from near-carcass revealed five isolate specific SNPs, four of which were found only in different near-surface isolates. In support of our hypothesis, one surface-isolate lacked plasmid pXO1 and also harbored one of the unique SNPs. Taken together, our results suggest a limited soil-borne life cycle of B. anthracis. PMID:26266934

  19. Comment on Hawking radiation and trapping horizons

    E-print Network

    Rudolf Baier; Stefan Stricker

    2015-11-23

    We consider dynamical black hole formation from a collapsing fluid described by a symmetric and flat FRW metric. Using the Hamilton-Jacobi method the local Hawking temperature for the formed trapping/apparent horizon is calculated. The local Hawking temperature depends on the tunneling path, which we take to be along a null direction $(\\Delta s=0)$. We find that the local Hawking temperature depends directly on the equation of state of the collapsing fluid. We argue that Hawking radiation by quantum tunnelling from future inner and future outer trapping horizons is possible. However, only radiation from a space-like dynamical horizon has a chance to be observed by an external observer. Some comparison to existing literature is made.

  20. Photodissolution of soil organic matter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mayer, L.M.; Thornton, K.R.; Schick, L.L.; Jastrow, J.D.; Harden, J.W.

    2012-01-01

    Sunlight has been shown to enhance loss of organic matter from aquatic sediments and terrestrial plant litter, so we tested for similar reactions in mineral soil horizons. Losses of up to a third of particulate organic carbon occurred after continuous exposure to full-strength sunlight for dozens of hours, with similar amounts appearing as photodissolved organic carbon. Nitrogen dissolved similarly, appearing partly as ammonium. Modified experiments with interruption of irradiation to include extended dark incubation periods increased loss of total organic carbon, implying remineralization by some combination of light and microbes. These photodissolution reactions respond strongly to water content, with reaction extent under air-dry to fully wet conditions increasing by a factor of 3-4 fold. Light limitation was explored using lamp intensity and soil depth experiments. Reaction extent varied linearly with lamp intensity. Depth experiments indicate that attenuation of reaction occurs within the top tens to hundreds of micrometers of soil depth. Our data allow only order-of-magnitude extrapolations to field conditions, but suggest that this type of reaction could induce loss of 10-20% of soil organic carbon in the top 10. cm horizon over a century. It may therefore have contributed to historical losses of soil carbon via agriculture, and should be considered in soil management on similar time scales. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  1. A strong enrichment of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in Nord-Trřndelag (central Norway) forest soil.

    PubMed

    Reimann, C; Fabian, K; Schilling, J; Roberts, D; Englmaier, P

    2015-12-01

    Analysis of soil C and O horizon samples in a recent regional geochemical survey of Nord-Trřndelag, central Norway (752 sample sites covering 25,000 km2), identified a strong enrichment of several potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in the O horizon. Of 53 elements analysed in both materials, Cd concentrations are, on average, 17 times higher in the O horizon than in the C horizon and other PTEs such as Ag (11-fold), Hg (10-fold), Sb (8-fold), Pb (4-fold) and Sn (2-fold) are all strongly enriched relative to the C horizon. Geochemical maps of the survey area do not reflect an impact from local or distant anthropogenic contamination sources in the data for O horizon soil samples. The higher concentrations of PTEs in the O horizon are the result of the interaction of the underlying geology, the vegetation zone and type, and climatic effects. Based on the general accordance with existing data from earlier surveys in other parts of northern Europe, the presence of a location-independent, superordinate natural trend towards enrichment of these elements in the O horizon relative to the C horizon soil is indicated. The results imply that the O and C horizons of soils are different geochemical entities and that their respective compositions are controlled by different processes. Local mineral soil analyses (or published data for the chemical composition of the average continental crust) cannot be used to provide a geochemical background for surface soil. At the regional scale used here surface soil chemistry is still dominated by natural sources and processes. PMID:26204049

  2. We have developed an autonomous system for the retrieval of buried objects. It is designed to detect, locate and retrieve

    E-print Network

    Singh, Sanjiv

    to detect, locate and retrieve buried objects. The system is equipped with a hydraulic robot, laser range in the autonomous retrieval of buried unexploded ordnance at military testing facilities. This paper presents recent

  3. 49 CFR 192.457 - External corrosion control: Buried or submerged pipelines installed before August 1, 1971.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false External corrosion control: Buried or submerged pipelines...FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.457 External corrosion control: Buried or submerged pipelines...

  4. 49 CFR 192.457 - External corrosion control: Buried or submerged pipelines installed before August 1, 1971.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false External corrosion control: Buried or submerged pipelines...FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.457 External corrosion control: Buried or submerged pipelines...

  5. Calcic, gypsic, and siliceous soil chronosequences in arid and semiarid environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harden, J.W.; Taylor, E.M.; Reheis, M.C.; McFadden, L.D.

    1991-01-01

    We studied three soil chronosequences in the western USA to compare the development of calcic, gypsic, and siliceous soils through time. We compared calcic soils from the Silver Lake playa, southeastern California, gypsic-calcic soils from the Kane Fans in Big Horn County, Wyoming, and siliceous-calcic soils from Forty-mile Wash in southwestern Nevada. In these areas, carbonate, gypsum, and opaline silica appear to be derived primarily from eolian additions and, in advanced stages typical of old soils, are dissolved and precipitated as diagnostic calcic or petrocalcic, gypsic or petrogypsic, and duripan soil horizons. These three precipitates produce somewhat similar morphologic characteristics through time. Morphological stages progress from discrete coatings under clasts, to matrix and around clasts, to significant coatings of clasts and cementation of matrix, to laminar caps above plugged horizons in cases of carbonate and silica. Significant differences among the three soil types include development of color, change of pH, and the depth to which the precipitates begin to accumulate. The tops of gypsic horizons occur below the tops of calcic horizons in simple leaching regimes; the depth to the tops of siliceous horizons is more closely related to the presence and development of argillic horizons.

  6. Aerosol physical properties from satellite horizon inversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, C. R.; Malchow, H. L.; Merritt, D. C.; Var, R. E.; Whitney, C. K.

    1973-01-01

    The feasibility is investigated of determining the physical properties of aerosols globally in the altitude region of 10 to 100 km from a satellite horizon scanning experiment. The investigation utilizes a horizon inversion technique previously developed and extended. Aerosol physical properties such as number density, size distribution, and the real and imaginary components of the index of refraction are demonstrated to be invertible in the aerosol size ranges (0.01-0.1 microns), (0.1-1.0 microns), (1.0-10 microns). Extensions of previously developed radiative transfer models and recursive inversion algorithms are displayed.

  7. Revisiting Gribov's copies inside the horizon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landim, R. R.; Lemes, V. E. R.; Ventura, O. S.; Vilar, L. C. Q.

    2014-11-01

    In this work, we revisit the problem of legitimate topologically trivial Gribov copies inside the Gribov horizon. We avoid the reducibility problem which hampered the standard construction of van Baal, and then we are able to build a valid example with spherical symmetry. We also apply the same technique in the presence of a background of a Polyakov instanton in a Euclidian 3D spacetime, in order to study the effect of a non-trivial environment in the generation of multiple copies inside the horizon.

  8. Expanding your horizons in science and mathematics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Through the presentation of its Expanding Your Horizons in Science and Mathematics career education conferences for secondary school young women, the Math/Science Network continues its efforts to remove the educational, psychological, and cultural barriers which prevent women from entering math-and science-based careers. The Expanding Your Horizons conferences were presented on 77 college, university and high school campuses across the United States. This year, these unique one day conferences reached 15,500 students, 3,000 parents and educators, and involved 3,000 career women who volunteered their services as conference planners, workshop leaders, speakers, and role models.

  9. Superradiance without event horizons in general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richartz, Maurício; Saa, Alberto

    2013-08-01

    Superradiant scattering processes are studied in general relativistic systems which, unlike rotating and/or charged black holes, do not exhibit an event horizon. Inspired by Zel’dovich’s seminal works on the amplification of waves by a rotating cylinder, we analyze, in the context of general relativity, the possibility of superradiance for electromagnetic waves reflecting off a rotating star and for charged scalar perturbations impinging on a charged sphere. The role of energy dissipation in these systems is analyzed and compared with the role of the event horizon in black hole superradiance.

  10. On the Deepwater Horizon drop size distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryerson, T. B.; Atlas, E. L.; Blake, D. R.; De Gouw, J. A.; Warneke, C.; Peischl, J.; Brock, C. A.; McKeen, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    Model simulations of the fate of gas and oil released following the Deepwater Horizon blowout in 2012 depend critically on the assumed drop size distributions. We use direct observations of surfacing time, surfacing location, and atmospheric chemical composition to infer an average drop size distribution for June 10, 2012, providing robust first-order constraints on parameterizations in models. We compare the inferred drop size distribution to published work on Deepwater Horizon and discuss the ability of this approach to determine the efficacy of subsurface dispersant injection.

  11. Horizons and plane waves: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Hubeny, Veronika E.; Rangamani, Mukund

    2003-11-06

    We review the attempts to construct black hole/string solutions in asymptotically plane wave spacetimes. First, we demonstrate that geometries admitting a covariantly constant null Killing vector cannot admit event horizons, which implies that pp-waves can't describe black holes. However, relaxing the symmetry requirements allows us to generate solutions which do possess regular event horizons while retaining the requisite asymptotic properties. In particular, we present two solution generating techniques and use them to construct asymptotically plane wave black string/brane geometries.

  12. Hair-brane Ideas on the Horizon

    E-print Network

    Martinec, Emil J

    2015-01-01

    We continue an examination of the microstate geometries program begun in arXiv:1409.6017, focussing on the role of branes that wrap the cycles which degenerate when a throat in the geometry deepens and a horizon forms. An associated quiver quantum mechanical model of minimally wrapped branes exhibits a non-negligible fraction of the gravitational entropy, which scales correctly as a function of the charges. The results suggest a picture of AdS_3/CFT_2 duality wherein the long string that accounts for BTZ black hole entropy in the CFT description, can also be seen to inhabit the horizon of BPS black holes on the gravity side.

  13. Evidence for a sedimentary siloxane horizon

    SciTech Connect

    Pellenbarg, R.E.; Tevault, D.E.

    1986-07-01

    Selected samples from two Puget Sound sediment cores have been analyzed for poly(organo)siloxanes(silicones). One core was 60 years old at 30-cm depth (ages by lead-210 dating) and showed no evidence for silicones there. The second, 15 years old at depth, exhibited silicones at depth. Clearly shown is evidence for a siloxane horizon in theses two cores, with the presence of the horizon directly related to the fact that silicones have been in widespread use only since World War II. All samples were analyzed by solvent extraction and diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. 10 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  14. Soil development on the Crimean Peninsula in the Late Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisetskii, F. N.; Ergina, E. I.

    2010-06-01

    The study of soils of different ages in different physiographic regions of the Crimean Peninsula made it possible to reveal the main regularities of pedogenesis in the Late Holocene (in the past 2800 years). With respect to the average rate of the development of soil humus horizons, the main types of soils in the studied region were arranged into the following sequence: southern chernozems and dark chestnut soils > mountainous forest brown soils > gravelly cinnamonic soils. In the newly formed soils, the accumulation of humus developed at a higher rate than the increase in the thickness of humus horizons. A sharp decrease in the rates of development of soil humus profiles and humus accumulation took place in the soils with the age of 1100-1200 years. The possibility for assessing the impact of climate changes on the pedogenetic process on the basis of instrumental meteorological data was shown. The potential centennial fluctuations of the climate in the Holocene determined the possibility of pulsating shifts of soil-geographic subzones within the steppe part of the Crimea with considerable changes in the rates of the development of soil humus horizons in comparison with those in the Late Holocene.

  15. Relic components within the soil cover of Mexico: regional variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solleiro Rebolledo, Elizabeth; Sedov, Sergey

    2015-04-01

    The case of paleosols persisting on the land surface (non-buried paleosols or relict soils) besides paleoecological interest has specific implications for studies of soil geography, ecology and management. In fact these soil bodies form part of the modern soil mantle and provide ecological services for the current (agro)ecosystems but are neither formed nor re-produced by these ecosystems, conforming locally extinct soils (although similar profiles can develop at present under other bioclimatic conditions). In consequence, they are a heritage of past climatic and biotic conditions now extinct, thus presenting a non-restorable component of the present landscape. Mexico has so abundant and diverse paleosols, both surface and buried, that really could be considered to be a "paleopedological paradise". Two groups of factors promote generation of this abundance: Major part of territory of Mexico is occupied by mountainous landscapes with high intensity of tectonic, volcanic and geomorphic processes. These processes create a complex mosaic of geological materials and landforms of different age (like alluvial and lake terraces, eroded slopes, and volcanic deposits of various eruptions). Meanwhile younger landsurfaces are occupied by the recently developed soils, the older ones could bear the relict soil bodies. The same processes produce sedimentary strata (alluvial, colluvial, pyroclastic, etc.) which frequently cover the pre-existing landsurfaces and soils, producing series of buried paleosols. In this work we present three study cases of relict paleosols that are integrated to the modern soil cover of Mexico: the case of reddish-brown soils in the arid landscapes of Sonora (in the north); the pedosediments (tepetates) in central Mexico; and the red soils developed under humid conditions in Yucatan (in the south).

  16. Quantum Corrected Schwarzschild Black Hole: Inner Horizon Thermodynamic Behaviors

    E-print Network

    Mandal, Abhijit

    2015-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties of Cauchy horizon is a matter of interest. Event horizon and Cauchy horizon together can enlighten us about the micro-states of a black hole. In addition, if we consider a black hole metric modified with quantum terms, which is not forcing the geodesics to focus at a singularity, the study of horizons becomes much more interesting. The spacelike behavior inside the Cauchy horizon has a deep impact on the related thermodynamics. We analyze different thermodynamic product to check whether a right left string theory mode's addition type representation for the concerned thermodynamic parameters is possible or not. Stability of Cauchy horizon is studied.

  17. Effect of variable soil texture, metal saturation of soil organic matter (SOM) and tree species composition on spatial distribution of SOM in forest soils in Poland.

    PubMed

    Gruba, Piotr; Socha, Jaros?aw; B?o?ska, Ewa; Lasota, Jaros?aw

    2015-07-15

    In this study we investigated the effect of fine (?<0.05mm) fraction, i.e., silt+clay (FF) content in soils, site moisture, metal (Al and Fe) of soil organic matter (SOM) and forest species composition on the spatial distribution of carbon (C) pools in forest soils at the landscape scale. We established 275 plots in regular 200×200m grid in a forested area of 14.4km(2). Fieldwork included soil sampling of the organic horizon, mineral topsoil and subsoil down to 40cm deep. We analysed the vertical and horizontal distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks, as well as the quantity of physically separated fractions including the free light (fLF), occluded light (oLF) and mineral associated fractions (MAF) in the mineral topsoil (A, AE) horizons. Distribution of C in soils was predominantly affected by the variation in the FF content. In soils richer in the FF more SOC was accumulated in mineral horizons and less in the organic horizons. Accumulation of SOC in mineral soil was also positively affected by the degree of saturation of SOM with Al and Fe. The increasing share of beech influenced the distribution of C stock in soil profiles by reducing the depth of O horizon and increasing C stored in mineral soil. The content of FF was positively correlated with the content of C in MAF and fLF fractions. The content of oLF and MAF fractions was also positively influenced by a higher degree of metal saturation, particularly Al. Our results confirmed that Al plays an important role in the stabilization of SOM inside aggregates (CoLF) and as in CMAF fractions. We also found a significant, positive effect of beech on the CfLF and fir on the CoLF content. PMID:25829288

  18. Vertical distribution of phosphorus in agricultural drainage ditch soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pedological processes such as gleization and organic matter accumulation may affect the vertical distribution of P within agricultural drainage ditch soils. The objective of this study was to assess the vertical distribution of P as a function of horizonation in ditch soils at the University of Mary...

  19. 40 CFR 796.2750 - Sediment and soil adsorption isotherm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reach ground water. If a chemical is not adsorbed, it will leach through the soil profile and may reach... arranged in the soil profile in a distinctive characteristic pattern that can be classified according to... essentially alike in all major profile characteristics except for the texture of the “A” horizon (i.e.,...

  20. 40 CFR 796.2750 - Sediment and soil adsorption isotherm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reach ground water. If a chemical is not adsorbed, it will leach through the soil profile and may reach... arranged in the soil profile in a distinctive characteristic pattern that can be classified according to... essentially alike in all major profile characteristics except for the texture of the “A” horizon (i.e.,...