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1

Distinct microbial communities associated with buried soils in the Siberian tundra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cryoturbation, the burial of topsoil material into deeper soil horizons by repeated freeze-thaw events, is an important storage mechanism for soil organic matter (SOM) in permafrost-affected soils. Besides abiotic conditions, microbial community structure and the accessibility of SOM to the decomposer community are hypothesized to control SOM decomposition and thus have a crucial role in SOM accumulation in buried soils. We surveyed the microbial community structure in cryoturbated soils from nine soil profiles in the northeastern Siberian tundra using high-throughput sequencing and quantification of bacterial, archaeal and fungal marker genes. We found that bacterial abundances in buried topsoils were as high as in unburied topsoils. In contrast, fungal abundances decreased with depth and were significantly lower in buried than in unburied topsoils resulting in remarkably low fungal to bacterial ratios in buried topsoils. Fungal community profiling revealed an associated decrease in presumably ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi. The abiotic conditions (low to subzero temperatures, anoxia) and the reduced abundance of fungi likely provide a niche for bacterial, facultative anaerobic decomposers of SOM such as members of the Actinobacteria, which were found in significantly higher relative abundances in buried than in unburied topsoils. Our study expands the knowledge on the microbial community structure in soils of Northern latitude permafrost regions, and attributes the delayed decomposition of SOM in buried soils to specific microbial taxa, and particularly to a decrease in abundance and activity of ECM fungi, and to the extent to which bacterial decomposers are able to act as their functional substitutes.

Gittel, Antje; Bárta, Ji?í; Kohoutová, Iva; Mikutta, Robert; Owens, Sarah; Gilbert, Jack; Schnecker, Jörg; Wild, Birgit; Hannisdal, Bjarte; Maerz, Joeran; Lashchinskiy, Nikolay; ?apek, Petr; Šantr??ková, Hana; Gentsch, Norman; Shibistova, Olga; Guggenberger, Georg; Richter, Andreas; Torsvik, Vigdis; Schleper, Christa; Urich, Tim

2014-05-01

2

Soil Horizons Some Noteworthy Soil Science in Wisconsin  

E-print Network

Soil Horizons Some Noteworthy Soil Science in Wisconsin Alfred E. Hartemink The impact and benefits of soil science have only partly been documented. Here I highlight four noteworthy soil science countries, I arrived in September 2011 as professor of soil science at the Department of Soil Science

Mladenoff, David

3

Phosphatase activity in the surface and buried chestnut soils of the Volga-Don interfluve  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phosphatase activity (PA) was studied in the chestnut paleosols buried in 1718-1720 under the Anna Ivanovna rampart in the southern part of the Privolzhskaya Upland and in the middle of the third millennium BC under the burial mound of the Bronze Age on the Northern Yergeni Upland; the background analogues of these soils were also examined. The PA values in the fresh soil samples varied from 2.5 to 37 mg of P2O5/10 g of soil per h with maximums in the A1 horizon of the surface soils and in the B1 horizon of the paleosols. The PA values depended on the time of storage of the samples: with time, they increased by 2.6-2.9 times in the A1 horizon of the background surface soil and decreased by 20-60% in the other soil samples. The specific distribution patterns of the PA values in the soil profiles remained the same independently of the time of storage of the samples. Relatively small amounts of the soil samples were sufficient for the reliable determination of the PA: 1-2 g for the A1 horizon and 3-5 g for the B1 and B2 horizons. The time of incubation with the substrate had to be increased up to 4 h for the long-stored samples.

Khomutova, T. E.; Demkina, T. S.; Kashirskaya, N. N.; Demkin, V. A.

2012-04-01

4

50 Years of Soil Survey Horizons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil Survey Horizons (SSH) started in 1960 as the newsletter of the North Central Soil Survey, United States, with an editorial board consisting of Francis D. Hole, O.C. Rogers, and Donald F. Post. SSH was started to provide an outlet for field observations of soils because the founders of SSH felt that other outlets for such communications were disappearing. Francis Hole's office at the University of Wisconsin served as the point of publication for SSH through its first 15 years, but in 1975 the Soil Science Society of America (SSSA) began handling its publication. Initially SSSA published SSH but did not assume ownership or editorial control of the publication until 2005. Over the years there has been a steady increase in the amount of material published in each volume of SSH. Significant improvements to Soil Survey Horizons over the years have included a move to full 8.5" x 11" pages and publication in color. Future improvements will include online publication and expansion to an international audience, including recruitement of international members for the editorial board.

Brevik, E. C.

2012-04-01

5

Buried treasure: soil biodiversity and conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soils are incredibly biodiverse habitats, yet soil-dwelling organisms have received little attention within the field of conservation\\u000a biology. Due to difficulties involved in studying soil biota, and to taxonomic biases in conservation research, the full extent\\u000a of soil biodiversity is not well understood, and soil-dwelling organisms are rarely candidates for conservation. The biogeography\\u000a of soil biota differs significantly from that

Sophie S. Parker

2010-01-01

6

Aeolian cliff-top deposits and buried soils in the White River Badlands, South Dakota, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Aeolian deposits in the North American Great Plains are important sources of Holocene palaeo-environmental records. Although there are extensive studies on loess and dune records in the region, little is known about records in aeolian cliff-top deposits. These are common on table (mesa) edges in the White River Badlands. These sediments typically have loam and sandy-loam textures with dominantly very fine sand, 0.5-1% organic carbon and 0.5-5% CaCO3. Some of these aeolian deposits are atypically coarse and contain granules and fine pebbles. Buried soils within these deposits are weakly developed with A-C and A-AC-C profiles. Beneath these are buried soils with varying degrees of pedogenic development formed in fluvial, aeolian or colluvial deposits. Thickness and number of buried soils vary. However, late-Holocene soils from several localities have ages of approximately 1300, 2500 and 3700 14C yrs BP. The 1300 14C yr BP soil is cumulic, with a thicker and lighter A horizon. Soils beneath the cliff-top deposits are early-Holocene (typically 7900 but as old as 10000 14C yrs BP) at higher elevation (???950 m) tables, and late-Holocene (2900 14C yrs BP) at lower (???830 m) tables. These age estimates are based on total organic matter 14C ages from the top 5 cm of buried soils, and agreement is good between an infrared stimulated luminescence age and bracketing 14C ages. Our studies show that cliff-top aeolian deposits have a history similar to that of other aeolian deposits on the Great Plains, and they are another source of palaeoenvironmental data.

Rawling, J. E., III; Fredlund, G.G.; Mahan, S.

2003-01-01

7

Soil Water Content vs. Tension at three sites Horizon A  

E-print Network

Results Soil Water Content vs. Tension at three sites § Horizon A § Horizon Bw § Horizon BC (site 263 Water Holding Properties Soil Properties 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.1 1 10 100 1000 Site Three 0.1 1 10 100 has lower bulk density and higher porosity � Site one soil holds less water at field capacity (10 k

8

Temperature dependence of the activity of polyphenol peroxidases and polyphenol oxidases in modern and buried soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under conditions of the global climate warming, the changes in the reserves of soil humus depend on the temperature sensitivities of polyphenol peroxidases (PPPOs) and polyphenol oxidases (PPOs). They play an important role in lignin decomposition, mineralization, and humus formation. The temperature dependence of the potential enzyme activity in modern and buried soils has been studied during incubation at 10 or 20°C. The experimental results indicate that it depends on the availability of the substrate and the presence of oxygen. The activity of PPOs during incubation in the absence of oxygen for two months decreases by 2-2.5 times, which is balanced by an increase in the activity of PPPOs by 2-3 times. The increase in the incubation temperature to 20°C and the addition of glucose accelerates this transition due to the more abrupt decrease in the activity of PPOs. The preincubation of the soil with glucose doubles the activity of PPPOs but has no significant effect on the activity of PPOs. The different effects of temperature on two groups of the studied oxidases and the possibility of substituting enzymes by those of another type under changing aeration conditions should be taken into consideration in predicting the effect of the climate warming on the mineralization of the soil organic matter. The absence of statistically significant differences in the enzymatic activity between the buried and modern soil horizons indicates the retention by the buried soil of some of its properties (soil memory) and the rapid restoration of high enzymatic activity during the preincubation.

Yakushev, A. V.; Kuznetsova, I. N.; Blagodatskaya, E. V.; Blagodatsky, S. A.

2014-05-01

9

Acoustic Interrogation of Soil and Possible Remote Detection of Shallow Buried Inclusions  

E-print Network

for the remote detection and imaging of buried land mines, improvised explosive devices (IEDs) and otherAcoustic Interrogation of Soil and Possible Remote Detection of Shallow Buried Inclusions Laura E from shallow buried objects and of how such backscattering can be inexpensively and remotely detected

Sen, Surajit

10

SOLUBLE ALUMINUM IN ACIDIFIED ORGANIC HORIZONS OF FOREST SOILS  

EPA Science Inventory

Concentrations of labile and total Al in soil extracts were measured as a function of equilibrium solution pH in six forest soil organic horizons acidified with HNO, (0-20 cmol H+.kg-1) under controlled conditions of ionic strength (0.05 M NaNO3), temperature (23 C), and solution...

11

Soil science horizons: Progress and prospects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main tendencies in the development of Russian soil science after the previous congress (Novosibirsk, 2004) are analyzed. The major achievements of Russian pedologists in the field of the geography and cartography of soils are outlined, including the development of new small-scale maps of Russia and particular regions and the study of soils of northern territories. The latest data on the emission of greenhouse gases from soils of Russia are analyzed. It is shown that expectations of a sharp increase in the emission of greenhouse gases from the soils of northern territories in relation to the predicted climate warming are groundless. At the same time, the widespread development of soil degradation processes and the conversion of former agricultural lands into other land categories are the matters of deep concern of Russian soil scientists. The need in activation of the work of the Dokuchaev Soil Science Society in the field of the development of legislative regulations of soil management and rational use of land resources is stressed. The organization of the Soil Conservation Service in Russia, the adoption a federal law on soil conservation, the development of the national soil-geographic database, and the practical implementation of soil certification and soil-ecological monitoring are considered to be major challenges facing Russian soil scientists in the nearest future.

Shoba, S. A.

2009-05-01

12

Soil Texture Involvement in Germination and Emergence of Buried Weed Seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

studied in an ecological perspective to identify the physi- ological causes that prevent deeply buried seed from Laboratory trials were performed to test germination and emer- germinating; results obtained so far suggest this is partly gence characteristics of jimsonweed (Datura stramonium L.) seeds buried in 10 different soil types (with or without the control of soil due to the lack

Stefano Benvenuti

2003-01-01

13

The influence of soil moisture on losses of buried seeds to fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although soil fungi are likely to be a major cause of mortality for buried seeds, few ecological studies have examined the role these pathogens play in natural systems. In particular, few studies have investigated whether losses of seeds to soil fungi are habitat-dependent. We used fungicide treatments to investigate whether losses of buried seeds of four grasses (Bromus inermis, Danthonia

Michelle Schafer; Peter M. Kotanen

2003-01-01

14

Soil organic matter transformation in cryoturbated horizons of permafrost affected soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cryoturbated soil horizons are special feature of permafrost affected soils. These soils are known to store great amount of organic carbon and cryoturbation undoubtedly contribute to it to large extent. Despite this fact there is almost no information about soil organic matter (SOM) transformation in cryoturbated horizons. Therefore we carried out long term incubation experiment in which we inspect SOM transformation in cryoturbated as well as in organic and mineral soil horizons under different temperature and redox regimes as potential drivers. We found out that lower SOM transformation in cryoturbated horizons compared to organic horizons was mainly limited by the amount of microbial biomass, which is extremely low in absolute numbers or expressed to SOM concentration. The biochemical transformation ensured by extracellular enzymes is relatively high leading to high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon in cryoturbated horizons. Nevertheless the final step of SOM transformation leading to C mineralization to CO2 or CH4 seems to be restricted by low microbial biomass. Critical step of biochemical transformation of complex SOM is dominated by phenoloxidases, which break down complex organic compounds to simple ones. Their oxygen consumption greatly overwhelms oxygen consumption of the whole microbial community. However the phenoloxidase activity shows strong temperature response with optimum at 13.7° C. Therefore we suggest that apparent SOM stability in cryoturbated horizons, which is expressed in old C14 dated age, is caused by low amount of microbial biomass and restricted diffusion of oxygen to extracellular enzymes in field.

Capek, Petr; Diakova, Katerina; Dickopp, Jan-Erik; Barta, Jiri; Santruckova, Hana; Wild, Birgit; Schnecker, Joerg; Guggenberg, Georg; Gentsch, Norman; Hugelius, Gustaf; Kuhry, Peter; Lashchinsky, Nikolaj; Gittel, Antje; Schleper, Christa; Mikutta, Robert; Palmtag, Juri; Shibistova, Olga; Urich, Tim; Zimov, Sergey; Richter, Andreas

2014-05-01

15

Using the NRCS Hydric Soil Indicators with Soils with Thick A Horizons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this technical note is to assist hydric soil determination in soils with thick A horizons using the Field indicators of hydric soils in the United States (Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) 1998); hereafter referred to as 'NRCS I...

1999-01-01

16

Impact of varying soil structure on transport processes in different diagnostic horizons of three soil types  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When soil structure varies in different soil types and the horizons of these soil types, it has a significant impact on water flow and contaminant transport in soils. This paper focuses on the effect of soil structure variations on the transport of pesticides in the soil above the water table. Transport of a pesticide (chlorotoluron) initially applied on soil columns taken from various horizons of three different soil types (Haplic Luvisol, Greyic Phaeozem and Haplic Cambisol) was studied using two scenarios of ponding infiltration. The highest infiltration rate and pesticide mobility were observed for the Bt 1 horizon of Haplic Luvisol that exhibited a well-developed prismatic structure. The lowest infiltration rate was measured for the Bw horizon of Haplic Cambisol, which had a poorly developed soil structure and a low fraction of large capillary pores and gravitational pores. Water infiltration rates were reduced during the experiments by a soil structure breakdown, swelling of clay and/or air entrapped in soil samples. The largest soil structure breakdown and infiltration decrease was observed for the Ap horizon of Haplic Luvisol due to the low aggregate stability of the initially well-aggregated soil. Single-porosity and dual-permeability (with matrix and macropore domains) flow models in HYDRUS-1D were used to estimate soil hydraulic parameters via numerical inversion using data from the first infiltration experiment. A fraction of the macropore domain in the dual-permeability model was estimated using the micro-morphological images. Final soil hydraulic parameters determined using the single-porosity and dual-permeability models were subsequently used to optimize solute transport parameters. To improve numerical inversion results, the two-site sorption model was also applied. Although structural changes observed during the experiment affected water flow and solute transport, the dual-permeability model together with the two-site sorption model proved to be able to approximate experimental data.

Kodešová, Radka; Vignozzi, Nadia; Rohošková, Marcela; Hájková, Tereza; Ko?árek, Martin; Pagliai, Marcello; Kozák, Josef; Šim?nek, Jirka

2009-02-01

17

Impact of varying soil structure on transport processes in different diagnostic horizons of three soil types.  

PubMed

When soil structure varies in different soil types and the horizons of these soil types, it has a significant impact on water flow and contaminant transport in soils. This paper focuses on the effect of soil structure variations on the transport of pesticides in the soil above the water table. Transport of a pesticide (chlorotoluron) initially applied on soil columns taken from various horizons of three different soil types (Haplic Luvisol, Greyic Phaeozem and Haplic Cambisol) was studied using two scenarios of ponding infiltration. The highest infiltration rate and pesticide mobility were observed for the Bt(1) horizon of Haplic Luvisol that exhibited a well-developed prismatic structure. The lowest infiltration rate was measured for the Bw horizon of Haplic Cambisol, which had a poorly developed soil structure and a low fraction of large capillary pores and gravitational pores. Water infiltration rates were reduced during the experiments by a soil structure breakdown, swelling of clay and/or air entrapped in soil samples. The largest soil structure breakdown and infiltration decrease was observed for the Ap horizon of Haplic Luvisol due to the low aggregate stability of the initially well-aggregated soil. Single-porosity and dual-permeability (with matrix and macropore domains) flow models in HYDRUS-1D were used to estimate soil hydraulic parameters via numerical inversion using data from the first infiltration experiment. A fraction of the macropore domain in the dual-permeability model was estimated using the micro-morphological images. Final soil hydraulic parameters determined using the single-porosity and dual-permeability models were subsequently used to optimize solute transport parameters. To improve numerical inversion results, the two-site sorption model was also applied. Although structural changes observed during the experiment affected water flow and solute transport, the dual-permeability model together with the two-site sorption model proved to be able to approximate experimental data. PMID:19062128

Kodesová, Radka; Vignozzi, Nadia; Rohosková, Marcela; Hájková, Tereza; Kocárek, Martin; Pagliai, Marcello; Kozák, Josef; Sim?nek, Jirka

2009-02-16

18

The influence of time on the magnetic properties of late Quaternary periglacial and alluvial surface and buried soils along the Delaware River, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic susceptibility of soils has been used as a proxy for rainfall, but other factors can contribute to magnetic enhancement in soils. Here we explore influence of century- to millennial-scale duration of soil formation on periglacial and alluvial soil magnetic properties by assessing three terraces with surface and buried soils ranging in exposure ages from <0.01 to ~16 kyrs along the Delaware River in northeastern USA. The A and B soil horizons have higher Xlf, Ms, and S-ratios compared to parent material, and these values increase in a non-linear fashion with increasing duration of soil formation. Magnetic remanence measurements show a mixed low- and high-coercivity mineral assemblage likely consisting of goethite, hematite and maghemite that contributes to the magnetic enhancement of the soil. Room-temperature and low-temperature field-cooled and zero field-cooled remanence curves confirm the presence of goethite and magnetite and show an increase in magnetization with increasing soil age. These data suggest that as the Delaware alluvial soils weather, the concentration of secondary ferrimagnetic minerals increase in the A and B soil horizons. We then compared the time-dependent Xlf from several age-constrained buried alluvial soils with known climate data for the region during the Quaternary. Contradictory to most studies that suggest a link between increases in magnetic susceptibility and high moisture, increased magnetic enhancement of Delaware alluvial soils coincides with dry climate intervals. Early Holocene enhanced soil Xlf (9.5 – 8.5 ka) corresponds with a well-documented cool-dry climate episode. This relationship is probably related to less frequent flooding during dry intervals allowing more time for low-coercive pedogenic magnetic minerals to form and accumulate, which resulted in increased Xlf. Middle Holocene enhanced Xlf (6.1 – 4.3 ka) corresponds with a transitional wet/dry phase and a previously documented incision event.......

Stinchcomb, Gary; Peppe, Daniel

2014-08-01

19

The effect of soil horizon and mineral type on the distribution of siderophores in soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iron is a key component of the chemical architecture of the biosphere. Due to the low bioavailability of iron in the environment, microorganisms have developed specific uptake strategies like production of siderophores. Siderophores are operationally defined as low-molecular-mass biogenic Fe(III)-binding compounds, that can increase the bioavailability of iron by promoting the dissolution of iron-bearing minerals. In the present study, we investigated the composition of dissolved and adsorbed siderophores of the hydroxamate family in the soil horizons of podzol and the effect of specific mineral types on siderophores. Three polished mineral specimens of 3 cm × 4 cm × 3 mm (apatite, biotite and oligioclase) were inserted in the soil horizons (O (organic), E (eluvial) and B (upper illuvial)). After two years, soil samples were collected from both the bulk soil of the whole profile and from the soil attached to the mineral surfaces. The concentration of ten different fungal tri-hydroxamates within ferrichromes, fusigen and coprogens families, and five bacterial hydroxamates within the ferrioxamine family were detected. All hydroxamate types were determined in both soil water (dissolved) and soil methanol (adsorbed) extracts along the whole soil profile by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS); hence, the study is the most extensive of its kind. We found that coprogens and fusigen were present in much higher concentrations in bulk soil than were ferrioxamines and ferrichromes. On the other hand, the presence of the polished mineral completely altered the distribution of siderophores. In addition, each mineral had a unique interaction with the dissolved and adsorbed hydroxamates in the different soil horizons. Thus siderophore composition in the soil environment is controlled by the chemical, physical and biological characteristics of each soil horizon and also by the available mineral types.

Ahmed, Engy; Holmström, Sara J. M.

2014-04-01

20

Lanthanides in humic acids of soils, paleosols and cultural horizons (Southern Urals, Russia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, commercial interest in this element group increases. As consequence, their content may increase in environment, including soil and soil components. This requires quantitative estimations of rare metal accumulation by soils and their humic acids. The latter began to be actively used as fertilizers and it is alarming, because information about rare element participation (including lanthanides) in metabolism of live organisms is inconsistent. There was investigated lanthanide content in humic acids extracted from humus horizons of different objects of archaeological site Steppe 7 (Southern Urals, Russia). Humic acids were extracted from modern background soils and paleosols and cultural horizons of the Bronze Age as well. According to archaeological data burial of paleosols under a barrow and formation of the cultural layer (CL) took place 3600 and 3300-3200 years BP, respectively. The area of the site is located in the forest-steppe landscape, far from industrial plants. Lanthanides in soils are immobile elements, and such number of objects will allow to receive information about their content changing over time and to have more detailed basis for the future monitoring of this territory as well. Humic acids were precipitated from 0,1 n NaOH extraction after preliminary decalcification. Cleaning of humic acid preparations by 6N HCl or HF+HCl was not carried out. Determination of La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu was performed by multi-element neutron-activation analysis. According to carried out diagnostics and reconstruction of natural conditions of all object formation, all objects correspond to steppe type landscape with a different level of humidity. Analysis of received data has shown that cerium is presented in humic acid preparations in the largest quantities among lanthanides (on average 4,0-6,6 mg/kg of preparation mass). The average content of samarium, europium, ytterbium and lutetium in the humic acids in the order of magnitude ranges from 0.13 to 0.49 mg/kg, terbium and lutetium - two orders of magnitude. The quantities determined by us for lanthanum is also high at 1,9-3,3 mg/kg. In this case all lanthanides in modern soils have the degree of accumulation in humic acids distinguished from other objects: Ce>La>Sm>Yb>Eu>Tb>Lu. In the paleosols and cultural layer these series are identical: Ce>La>Yb>Sm>Eu>Lu>Tb. There is suggested the approach to direct estimation of share of the lanthanides connected by humic acids in the their total soil pool which includes recalculation of the content of separate elements in humic acid preparations on carbon of soil humic acids (in mg/kg) and the subsequent correlation of their quantities. The content of the total organic carbon in soil, a share of humic acids as a humus part, the lanthanide content and weight carbon percentage in humic acid preparations were considered during recalculations. The results have shown that the highest shares of all elements are found in modern background soils, the lowest - in the soils buried under barrows. The total percentage of all lanthanides in humic acids is 4.63% in relation to their content in modern soil, 1.56% - in CL and 1.36% - in buried paleosols.

Dergacheva, Maria; Nekrasova, Olga

2013-04-01

21

Soil effects on thermal signatures of buried nonmetallic landmines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal sensors hold much promise for the detection of non-metallic landmines. However, the prediction of their thermal signatures depends on a large number of factors. In this paper, an analytical solution for temperature propagation through homogeneous and layered soils is presented to predict surface temperatures as a function of soil heat flux amplitude, soil texture, soil water content, and thermal

Remke L. Van Dam; Brian Borchers; Jan M. H. Hendrickx; Sung-ho Hong

2003-01-01

22

Soil effects on thermal signatures of buried nonmetallic landmines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal sensors hold much promise for the detection of non-metallic landmines. However, the prediction of their thermal signatures depends on a large number of factors. In this paper, an analytical solution for temperature propagation through homogeneous and layered soils is presented to predict surface temperatures as a function of soil heat flux amplitude, soil texture, soil water content, and thermal

Remke L. van Dam; Brian Borchers; Jan M. H. Hendrickx; Sung-ho Hong

23

PH BUFFERING IN FOREST SOIL ORGANIC HORIZONS: RELEVANCE TO ACID PRECIPITATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Samples of organic surface horizons (Oi, Oe, Oa) from New York State forest soils were equilibrated with 0 to 20 cmol HNO3 Kg(-1) soil in the laboratory by a batch technique designed to simulate reactions of acid precipitation with forest floors. Each organic horizon retained a c...

24

Buried black soils surrounding the white roof of Africa as regional carbon storage hotspot  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mt. Kilimanjaro, the at least still "white roof" of Africa, attracts much attention because of its dramatically shrinking ice caps. By contrast, it was discovered only recently that intriguing paleosol sequences with buried and often strikingly black soils developed along the slopes of Mt. Kilimanjaro during the Late Quaternary. In our study we investigated in detail the soil organic carbon (SOC) contents and SOC stocks of soil profiles which are situated along two altitudinal transects; one along the humid southern slopes and the other one along the more arid northern slopes. We found up to 3 m thick paleosol sequences occurring almost area-wide particularly in the montane forest zone. SOC contents are remarkable high with values of up to more than 10%, indicating high preservation of soil organic matter (SOM). We suggest that the SOM preservation is favoured by several factors, such as (i) the burial by aeolian deposition, (ii) lower temperatures and (iii) more resistant Erica litter during glacial periods, (iv) formation of stable organo-mineral complexes and (v) high black carbon (BC) contents. The SOC-rich buried black soils account for mean SOC stocks of ~82 kg m-2 in the montane rainforest. Extrapolating this SOC storage and comparing it with the SOC storage achieved by the surrounding savannah soils of the Maasai Steppe highlights that the buried black soils are a prominent regional carbon storage hotspot.

Zech, M.; Hörold, C.; Leiber-Sauheitl, K.; Hemp, A.; Zech, W.

2012-04-01

25

Development of a microbial community on cellulose buried in waterlogged soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a microbial community on cellulose (cellophane film and filter paper) buried in waterlogged soil was observed under a microscope. Throughout the decomposition of the cellulose, the biomass, immobilized N, ATP and gas metabolism of the microbial community were examined. As cellulose decomposition progressed, a microbial succession was recognized. This succession was divided into two stages. In the

M. Saito; H. Wada; Y. Takai

1990-01-01

26

The influence of soil moisture on losses of buried seeds to fungi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although soil fungi are likely to be a major cause of mortality for buried seeds, few ecological studies have examined the role these pathogens play in natural systems. In particular, few studies have investigated whether losses of seeds to soil fungi are habitat-dependent. We used fungicide treatments to investigate whether losses of buried seeds of four grasses ( Bromus inermis, Danthonia spicata, Glyceria striata, and Poa pratensis) to soil fungi differed among meadows differing in soil moisture. We also applied water to some treatments, to determine whether this increased losses of seeds to fungi. For all four grasses, fungicide additions improved one or more measures of seed viability, though this effect was small. For Danthonia and Glyceria, fungicide was less likely to improve viability in dry meadows than in wet and/or mesic meadows. Adding water reduced some measures of viability of seeds of Danthonia and Poa in dry meadows, but fungicide partly counteracted these negative effects, suggesting that adding water reduced performance by increasing fungal attack. These results indicate that fungi represent a hazard for buried seeds of these species, particularly in wetter soils, and potentially may contribute to the reduction of populations of vulnerable species in wetter sites.

Schafer, Michelle; Kotanen, Peter M.

2003-12-01

27

Chemical Soil Physics Phenomena for Chemical Sensing of Buried UXO  

SciTech Connect

Technology development efforts are under way to apply chemical sensors to discriminate inert ordnance and clutter from live munitions that remain a threat to reutilization of military ranges. However, the chemical signature is affected by multiple environmental phenomena that can enhance or reduce its presence and transport behavior, and can affect the distribution of the chemical signature in the environment. For example, the chemical can be present in the vapor, aqueous, and solid phases. The distribution of the chemical among these phases, including the spatial distribution, is key in designing appropriate detectors, e.g., gas, aqueous or solid phase sampling instruments. A fundamental understanding of the environmental conditions that affect the chemical signature is needed to describe the favorable and unfavorable conditions of a chemical detector based survey to minimize the consequences of a false negative. UXO source emission measurements are being made to estimate the chemical flux from a limited set of ordnance items. Phase partitioning analysis has been completed to show what the expected concentrations of chemical analytes would be fi-om total concentrations measured in the soil. The soil moisture content in the dry region has been shown to be critical in the attenuation of soil gas concentrations by increased sorption to soil particles. Numerical simulation tools have been adapted to include surface boundary conditions such as solar radiation, surface boundary layer (which is a function of wind speed), precipitation and evaporation, and plant cover/root density to allow transport modeling and evaluate long term processes. Results of this work will provide performance targets for sensor developers and support operational decisions regarding field deployments.

Phelan, James, M.; Webb, Stephen W.

1999-06-14

28

Soil animal communities in holm oak forests: influence of horizon, altitude and year  

E-print Network

1 Soil animal communities in holm oak forests: influence of horizon, altitude and year Nassima-francois.ponge@wanadoo.fr Running title: Soil animals in holm oak forests hal-00498459,version1-7Jul2010 Author manuscript, published in "European Journal of Soil Biology 39, 4 (2003) 197-207" DOI : 10.1016/j.ejsobi.2003.06.001 #12

Boyer, Edmond

29

Organic matter formation in sandy subsurface horizons of Dutch coastal dunes in relation to soil acidification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subsurface horizons contain considerable amounts of soil organic matter (SOM), which has generally a relatively recalcitrant nature and may be an important key in the examination of the role of soils in the sequestration of carbon. Nonetheless, this part of SOM is hardly studied. This paper focuses on the effects of soil acidification on the formation of SOM in sandy

Klaas G. J Nierop; Jacobus M Verstraten

2003-01-01

30

Site- and horizon-specific patterns of microbial community structure and enzyme activities in permafrost-affected soils of Greenland  

PubMed Central

Permafrost-affected soils in the Northern latitudes store huge amounts of organic carbon (OC) that is prone to microbial degradation and subsequent release of greenhouse gasses to the atmosphere. In Greenland, the consequences of permafrost thaw have only recently been addressed, and predictions on its impact on the carbon budget are thus still highly uncertain. However, the fate of OC is not only determined by abiotic factors, but closely tied to microbial activity. We investigated eight soil profiles in northeast Greenland comprising two sites with typical tundra vegetation and one wet fen site. We assessed microbial community structure and diversity (SSU rRNA gene tag sequencing, quantification of bacteria, archaea and fungi), and measured hydrolytic and oxidative enzyme activities. Sampling site and thus abiotic factors had a significant impact on microbial community structure, diversity and activity, the wet fen site exhibiting higher potential enzyme activities and presumably being a hot spot for anaerobic degradation processes such as fermentation and methanogenesis. Lowest fungal to bacterial ratios were found in topsoils that had been relocated by cryoturbation (“buried topsoils”), resulting from a decrease in fungal abundance compared to recent (“unburied”) topsoils. Actinobacteria (in particular Intrasporangiaceae) accounted for a major fraction of the microbial community in buried topsoils, but were only of minor abundance in all other soil horizons. It was indicated that the distribution pattern of Actinobacteria and a variety of other bacterial classes was related to the activity of phenol oxidases and peroxidases supporting the hypothesis that bacteria might resume the role of fungi in oxidative enzyme production and degradation of phenolic and other complex substrates in these soils. Our study sheds light on the highly diverse, but poorly-studied communities in permafrost-affected soils in Greenland and their role in OC degradation. PMID:25360132

Gittel, Antje; Barta, Jiri; Kohoutova, Iva; Schnecker, Jorg; Wild, Birgit; Capek, Petr; Kaiser, Christina; Torsvik, Vigdis L.; Richter, Andreas; Schleper, Christa; Urich, Tim

2014-01-01

31

Site- and horizon-specific patterns of microbial community structure and enzyme activities in permafrost-affected soils of Greenland.  

PubMed

Permafrost-affected soils in the Northern latitudes store huge amounts of organic carbon (OC) that is prone to microbial degradation and subsequent release of greenhouse gasses to the atmosphere. In Greenland, the consequences of permafrost thaw have only recently been addressed, and predictions on its impact on the carbon budget are thus still highly uncertain. However, the fate of OC is not only determined by abiotic factors, but closely tied to microbial activity. We investigated eight soil profiles in northeast Greenland comprising two sites with typical tundra vegetation and one wet fen site. We assessed microbial community structure and diversity (SSU rRNA gene tag sequencing, quantification of bacteria, archaea and fungi), and measured hydrolytic and oxidative enzyme activities. Sampling site and thus abiotic factors had a significant impact on microbial community structure, diversity and activity, the wet fen site exhibiting higher potential enzyme activities and presumably being a hot spot for anaerobic degradation processes such as fermentation and methanogenesis. Lowest fungal to bacterial ratios were found in topsoils that had been relocated by cryoturbation ("buried topsoils"), resulting from a decrease in fungal abundance compared to recent ("unburied") topsoils. Actinobacteria (in particular Intrasporangiaceae) accounted for a major fraction of the microbial community in buried topsoils, but were only of minor abundance in all other soil horizons. It was indicated that the distribution pattern of Actinobacteria and a variety of other bacterial classes was related to the activity of phenol oxidases and peroxidases supporting the hypothesis that bacteria might resume the role of fungi in oxidative enzyme production and degradation of phenolic and other complex substrates in these soils. Our study sheds light on the highly diverse, but poorly-studied communities in permafrost-affected soils in Greenland and their role in OC degradation. PMID:25360132

Gittel, Antje; Bárta, Ji?í; Kohoutová, Iva; Schnecker, Jörg; Wild, Birgit; Capek, Petr; Kaiser, Christina; Torsvik, Vigdis L; Richter, Andreas; Schleper, Christa; Urich, Tim

2014-01-01

32

Detection of buried objects using infrared imaging of impulse laser heated soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we examine the time-dependent aspects of thermal imaging of buried metallic and non-metallic objects, when impulse heating of the soil surface is performed. A 1500W carbon dioxide laser is used to provide the thermal impulse. Time-dependent thermal images are obtained using an infrared focal plane array camera and a gated data acquisition\\/analysis system. Experimental studies are conducted

D. E. Poulain; D. R. Alexander; S. A. Schaub; J. K. Krause

1999-01-01

33

Cloud cover effects on physical soil temperatures with buried targets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cloud cover affects direct and diffuse solar radiation and IR downwelling, and the values for these 3 components are calculated using measured meterological data and varying the values of cloud cover and cloud type using algorithms from the literature. The effects of these 3 transient forcing function components on surface, subsurface and target interior temperatures are studied in this work. The cloud cover effects are isolated from the varying multi-day diurnal cycles by repeating the meteorological data for 1 day. Cloud cover is a subgrid variable and hence, is often reported as 0 or 100%. This study includes a comparison of the effects of these two cloud cover values on a single geographical location for 6 days, with each day repeating the meterological conditions of day 1. This work involves using predictions from the Countermine Computational Test Bed (CTB), a 3D finite element model that accounts for coupled heat and moisture transfer in soil and targets.

Derzko, Zenon; Nguyen, Oanh; Phan, Chung; Lydic, Richard; Broach, J. Thomas; Moore, Timothy

2012-06-01

34

Discordant 14C ages from buried tidal-marsh soils in the Cascadia subduction zone, southern Oregon coast  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Peaty, tidal-marsh soils interbedded with estuarine mud in late Holocene stratigraphic sequences near Coos Bay, Oregon, may have been submerged and buried during great (M > 8) subduction earthquakes, smaller localized earthquakes, or by nontectonic processes. Radiocarbon dating might help distinguish among these alternatives by showing that soils at different sites were submerged at different times along this part of the Cascadia subduction zone. But comparison of conventional 14C ages for different materials from the same buried soils shows that they contain materials that differ in age by many hundreds of years. Errors in calibrated soil ages represent about the same length of time as recurrence times for submergence events (150-500 yr)-this similarity precludes using conventional 14C ages to distinguish buried soils along the southern Oregon coast. Accelerator mass spectrometer 14C ages of carefully selected macrofossils from the tops of peaty soils should provide more precise estimates of the times of submergence events. ?? 1992.

Nelson, A. R.

1992-01-01

35

Radiocarbon dating of buried soils-- Humate fractionation, delta C-13 correction and paleoclimatic signals: Geoarchaeological implications in the central Great Plains  

SciTech Connect

Due to perceived uncertainties associated with humate-derived C-14 ages from buried soils, samples were collected and dated from buried A horizons developed in alluvium and loess within the Kansas River basin of Kansas, Nebraska, and Colorado. Soils range in age from c. 30ka to latest Holocene. Samples were split, sent to two laboratories (SMU and Pittsburgh), and fractionated. Ages were determined from three fractions: total bulk, base-soluble (humic acid), and residue (humins). For individual samples, a significant age difference exists among the three fractions, with very little interlaboratory variation. No apparent relationship exists among the three fractions dated; the residual fraction is not consistently the oldest as anticipated, and the total humate fraction is not the youngest. Percent variation among fractions may be a depth/age function for soils within a given profile of sequence. Delta C-13 values derived from the different fractions indicate more negative values for the total humate fraction. Percent variation in delta C-13 values among the three fractions seems unrelated to age or depth. A strong paleoclimatic signal is contained within the temporal record of delta C-13 values derived from soils dating c. 36-1ka. Warm-season (C4-type) grasses were apparently more important in the middle Holocene period of aridity (Altithermal). Change from a cooler environment of the latest Pleistocene to the relatively warmer conditions of the earliest Holocene is recorded in the humates distributed within the A horizon of the Brady geosol. Humates from the Gilman Canyon Formation geosol dating c. 36-20ka exhibit delta C-13 values indicating an initial warm-season grass environment which subsequently evolved into a cool-season grass environment.

Johnson, W.C. (Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States). Dept. of Geography); Martin, C.W. (Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States). Dept. of Geography)

1992-01-01

36

The effect of soil texture on the degradation of textiles associated with buried bodies.  

PubMed

There are many factors which affect the rate of decomposition in a grave site including; the depth of burial, climatic conditions, physical conditions of the soil (e.g. texture, pH, moisture), and method of burial (e.g. clothing, wrappings). Clothing is often studied as a factor that can slow the rate of soft tissue decomposition. In contrast, the effect of soft tissue decomposition on the rate of textile degradation is usually reported as anecdotal evidence rather than being studied under controlled conditions. The majority of studies in this area have focused on the degradation of textiles buried directly in soil. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of soil texture on the degradation and/or preservation of textile materials associated with buried bodies. The study involved the burial of clothed domestic pig carcasses and control clothing in contrasting soil textures (silty clay loam, fine sand and fine sandy loam) at three field sites in southern Ontario, Canada. Graves were exhumed after 2, 12 and 14 months burial to observe the degree of degradation for both natural and synthetic textiles. Recovered textile samples were chemically analyzed using infrared (IR) spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to investigate the lipid decomposition by-products retained in the textiles. The findings of this study demonstrate that natural textile in contact with a buried decomposing body will be preserved for longer periods of time when compared to the same textile buried directly in soil and not in contact with a body. The soil texture did not visually impact the degree of degradation or preservation. Furthermore, the natural-synthetic textile blend was resistant to degradation, regardless of soil texture, contact with the body or time since deposition. Chemical analysis of the textiles using GC-MS correctly identified a lipid degradation profile consistent with the degree of soft tissue decomposition. Such information may be important for estimating time since deposition in instances where only grave goods and associated materials are recovered from a burial site. PMID:23890657

Lowe, A C; Beresford, D V; Carter, D O; Gaspari, F; O'Brien, R C; Stuart, B H; Forbes, S L

2013-09-10

37

Semianalytic mode matching techniques for detecting nonmetallic mines buried in realistic soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ultra-Wideband detection of plastic land mines buried in lossy, dielectric soils is simulated design a new semi- analytic mode matching (SAMM) algorithm. Here, we apply SAMM to the 3D canonical problem of finding the nonspecular reflection of an obliquely-incident plane wave ona lossy dielectric half-space containing a small, shallowly-varying convex-shaped mines buried under modestly rough ground. In the SAMM algorithm, the frequency-dependent scattered fields are constructed form moderately rough ground. In the SAMM algorithm, the frequency-dependent scattered fields are constructed form moderately low-order modal superpositions of spherical waves, each satisfying the Helmholtz equation in its respective material. By least squares fitting, mode coefficients are found which optimally match all boundary conditions at designated points along the boundary surfaces. Spherical wave expansions are chosen at multiple coordinate centers so that small numbers of modes are needed to given convergent results.

Morgenthaler, Ann W.; Rappaport, Carey M.

2000-08-01

38

Sorption of acetochlor, S-metolachlor, and atrazine in surface and subsurface soil horizons of Argentina.  

PubMed

Understanding herbicide sorption within soil profiles is the first step to predicting their behavior and leaching potential. Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the influence of surface and subsurface soil properties on acetochlor, atrazine, and S-metolachlor sorption. Soil samples were taken from horizons A, B, and C of two loamy soils of the humid pampas of Argentina under no-till management; horizon A was divided into two layers, A(0) (0-5 cm) and A(1) (5 cm to the full thickness of an A horizon). Sorption isotherms were determined from each sampled horizon using the batch equilibrium method and seven concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.5, 2.0, 5.0, 10.0, and 20.0 mg?L(-1)). Sorption affinity of herbicides was approximated by the Freundlich equation. The sorption strength K(f) (mg(1 - 1/n) kg(-1) L(1/n) ) over the soils and horizons studied followed the order S-metolachlor (16.51-29.19)?>?atrazine (4.85-12.34) ? acetochlor (5.17-11.97), which was closely related to the hydrophobicity of herbicides expressed as octanol-water partition coefficient (K(OW) ). The K(f) values of the three herbicides were positively correlated with soil organic carbon, with a significance of p < 0.01. Values of K(f) for the three herbicides decreased with depth in the two soils, indicating greater sorption onto surficial soil horizons and possibly a delayed transport toward subsurface soils and subsequent pollution of groundwater. PMID:21692102

Bedmar, Francisco; Daniel, Peter E; Costa, José L; Giménez, Daniel

2011-09-01

39

Soil N biochemical diversity and numerical taxonomy as tools in the pedogenetic study of a fossil profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distribution and diversity of the soil biochemical N fractions were studied in a fossil profile, a Podzol (IIA1 and IIBhs horizons) buried under a Cambisol (IA1 and IB horizons), to elucidate the genesis and evolution of the profile. The buried IIA1 horizon showed the lowest N biochemical diversity, which suggested a strong change in the pedogenetic conditions, probably not related

J. Abad??n; S. J. González-Prieto; T. Carballas

1998-01-01

40

Disturbances in the soil: finding buried bodies and other evidence using ground penetrating radar.  

PubMed

Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is an efficient and effective means to search for buried evidence, whether it be a clandestine grave, formal burial, or certain missing articles from a crime scene. The procedures for GPR used by the U.S. Army Central Identification Laboratory, Hawaii (CILHI), are the result of several years of experimentation on a variety of ground surfaces in Hawaii, Southeast Asia and the mainland U.S. This remote sensing method does not usually provide direct information that there is a body or other specific object beneath the ground. Most of the time the GPR has been used to determine where a target object is not located. The key feature of GPR is that it can detect recent changes in shallow soil conditions caused by the disturbance of soil and the intrusion of different material. Using the methods described here, the investigator should be able to determine the precise metric grid coordinates for a subsurface disturbance, as well as the approximate size, the general shape, and the depth of the buried material. Success will vary with soil conditions. The conditions suitable or not practical for using GPR are summarized. This remote sensing technology can have wider use in crime scene investigations due to the recent introduction of more user-friendly software and more portable hardware. PMID:8754575

Miller, P S

1996-07-01

41

Soil Biology & Biochemistry 40 (2008) 8596 Microbially available carbon in buried riparian soils  

E-print Network

Blazejewskid , Mark Stoltd a Cornell University Program in Biogeochemistry, Department of Natural Resources, NY 12545, USA d Department of Natural Resource Science, Kingston Coastal Institute, 1 Greenhouse Road of organic matter at the time of horizon formation or burial, rather than by duration since burial

Gurwick, Noel P.

42

Mercury Binding and Mobilization in Post-fire Soil Horizons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fires affect watersheds in many ways, including through increased erosion and sediment transport, decreased water quality, and transport and cycling of nutrients and metals. This research addresses mercury (Hg) mobilization within post-fire stream systems, focusing on the influence of soil particle size on binding affinity and potential transport. Using a network of sampling sites within the Piru Creek watershed, affected by the Day Fire during September 2006, total mercury (THg) was measured in soils collected before, during, and after the 2006- 07 storm season. Unburned and burned soil samples from various levels of burn intensity were collected in one- inch increments to a depth of 6 inches and partitioned into fine, medium and coarse fractions. THg concentrations within each grain fraction were measured in triplicate using a Milestone Direct Mercury Analyzer. Initial findings indicate a loss of THg at the surface in the burned soils, as well as increased levels of THg at depths of 2-4 inches. We hypothesize this to be due to volatilization of Hg due to burning, which is either released upward into the atmosphere, or becomes bound to organic matter and settles just below the surface during the formation of a hydrophobic layer. Surface loss may also be attributed to post-fire erosional processes and storm transport. Additionally, analysis of the size fractionated soils reveals that the highest readings of THg in unburned soils occurred in the fine sediments in every case. THg concentrations in fine sediments in the burned soils were not significantly higher than THg concentrations in medium or coarse sands. More recently collected samples show evidence of continuing atmospheric deposition of Hg at the soil surface. Leaching tests are also being performed on this same set of soils to aid in evaluating potential mobilization of THg from transported soils during storm events.

Burke, M. P.; Navarro, B.; Mendez, C.; Lopez, S.; Ferreira, M.; Rademacher, L.; Jay, J.; Hogue, T. S.

2007-12-01

43

A Receding Horizon Control algorithm for adaptive management of soil moisture and chemical levels during irrigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capacity to adaptively manage irrigation and associated contaminant transport is desirable from the perspectives of water conservation, groundwater quality protection, and other concerns. This paper introduces the application of a feedback-control strategy known as Receding Horizon Control (RHC) to the problem of irrigation management. The RHC method incorporates sensor measurements, predictive models, and optimization algorithms to maintain soil moisture

Jeff S. Shamma; Thomas C. Harmon

2009-01-01

44

A geophysical and biochemical investigation of buried remains in contrasting soil textures in southern Ontario  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is a non-invasive, geophysical tool used for the detection of clandestine graves. GPR operates by detecting density differences in soil by the transmission of high frequency electromagnetic (EM) waves from an antenna. A 500 Megahertz (MHz) frequency antenna is typically used for forensic investigations, as it provides a suitable compromise between depth of penetration and sub-surface resolution. Domestic pig (Sus scrofa) carcasses were clothed in 100% cotton t-shirts and 50% cotton/50% polyester briefs, and buried at a consistent depth at three field sites of contrasting soil texture (silty clay loam, fine sand and fine sandy loam) in southern Ontario. GPR was used to detect and monitor the graves for a period of 14 months post burial. Analysis of collected data revealed that GPR had applicability in the detection of clandestine graves containing remains in silty clay loam and fine sandy loam soils, but was not suitable for detection in fine sandy soil. Specifically, within a fine sandy loam soil, there is the potential to estimate the post burial interval (PBI), as hyperbolic grave response was well defined at the beginning of the 14 month burial duration, but became less distinctive near the completion of the study. Following the detection of a clandestine grave containing a carcass, collection of gravesoil, tissue and textile samples is important for the estimation of the stage of decomposition and the post burial interval (PBI) of the remains. Throughout the decomposition process of a carcass, adipose tissue is subjected to hydrolytic enzymes that convert triglycerides to their corresponding unsaturated, saturated and salts of fatty acids. The composition of fatty acids in the decomposed tissue will vary with the post mortem period, but it is unknown what affect the soil texture has on lipid degradation. As decomposition proceeds, fatty acids can leach from the tissues into the surrounding burial environment. Fatty acid analysis of gravesoil, tissue and textile samples, exhumed at two, eleven and fourteen month post burial intervals, was conducted using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS), attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Infrared (IR) spectroscopy analysis of the samples provided a qualitative profile of lipid degradation. Analysis of gravesoil samples did not reveal IR spectroscopy bands attributable to fatty acid degradation or adipocere formation. IR spectroscopy analysis of tissue samples is applicable for the estimation of carcass decomposition in all of the soil textures tested. Results of textile IR spectroscopy analysis revealed limited potential to estimate the stage of carcass decomposition in silty clay loam soil. GC-MS was used to quantify the peak area ratio (area/int std area) (PAR) of myristic (C14:0), palmitic (C16:0), palmitoleic (C16:1), stearic (C18:0) and oleic (C18:1) acids. GC-MS results revealed that analysis of both tissue and textile samples can be useful in the estimation of the stage of decomposition and the PBI of carcasses in all three of the soil textures tested. The results of this research may have applicability within forensic investigations involving decomposing bodies by aiding in the location of clandestine graves in silty clay loam and fine sandy loam soil through the use of GPR. Infrared spectroscopy and GC-MS analysis of the fatty acid composition of tissue and textile samples may also be incorporated into investigational protocols to aid in the estimation of the stage of decomposition and the PBI of a body. Key Words: forensic science, ground penetrating radar, soil texture, buried remains, fatty acids, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), infrared spectroscopy

Lowe, Amanda C.

45

Survival of two enterobacteria in feces buried in soil under field conditions.  

PubMed Central

Feces samples, inoculated with 10(6) Escherichia coli resistant to streptomycin and nalidixic acid and with 10(5) Salmonella typhimurium per g, were buried at five mountain field sites ranging from 2,005 to 2,730 m in elevation. Counts of each bacterium rose initially and then declined to 10(3) or 10(4) per g of feces in 8 weeks. The survival pattern was similar at all sites regardless of marked differences in elevation, soil, moisture, exposure, and vegetation. S. typhimurium numbers were consistently higher than E. coli numbers after week 3. The test encompassed most of the time that the area is snow-free and accessible for hiking. The results were judged to discredit the recommendation for shallow burial of feces and to indicate a potential health hazard under intensive use. PMID:6999999

Temple, K L; Camper, A K; McFeters, G A

1980-01-01

46

Fungal colonization of soil-buried plasticized polyvinyl chloride (pPVC) and the impact of incorporated biocides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasticized polyvinyl chloride (pPVC) with or without incorporated biocides was buried in grassland and forest soil for up to 10 months. The change with time in viable counts of fungi on the plastic surface was followed, together with the percentage capable of clearing the two plasticizers dioctyl adipate (DOA) and dioctyl phthalate (DOP). With time fungal total viable counts (TVC)

H. A. Sabev; P. S. Handley; G. D. Robson

2006-01-01

47

Psychrotolerant actinomycetes of plants and organic horizons in tundra and taiga soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been revealed that in organic horizons and plants of the tundra and taiga ecosystems under low temperatures, actinomycetal complexes form. The population density of psychrotolerant actinomycetes in organic horizons and plants reaches tens and hundreds of thousands CFU/g of substrate or soil, and decreases in the sequence litters > plants > soils > undecomposed plant remains > moss growths. The mycelium length of psychrotolerant actinomycetes reaches 220 m/g of substrate. Application of the FISH method has demonstrated that metabolically active psychrotolerant bacteria of the phylum Actinobacteria constitute 30% of all metabolically active psychrotolerant representatives of the Bacterià domain of the prokaryotic microbial community of soils and plants. Psychrotolerant actinomycetes in tundra and taiga ecosystems possess antimicrobial properties.

Dubrova, M. S.; Zenova, G. M.; Yakushev, A. V.; Manucharova, N. A.; Makarova, E. P.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.; Chernov, I. Yu.

2013-08-01

48

A new compilation of depth to calcic horizons in soils for interpreting former rainfall from paleosols  

SciTech Connect

Many studies since the seminal work of Hans Jenny in 1941 have demonstrated that the depth of the calcic horizon in soils can be related to mean annual rainfall during their development. Depth to calcic horizon is not the same as depth of leaching of carbonate, which increases with time, not rainfall. A new compilation of 381 soils of known rainfall from all continents as well as New Zealand and Greenland, including only moderately developed soils on sedimentary parent materials, gave a relationship between depth to calcic horizon (D in cm) and precipitation (P in mm) of D = -40.49-0.0852P-0.002455P[sup 2] with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.78 and standard error ([sigma]) of [+-]33 cm. For interpreting paleosols the converse relationships is more useful (P = 139.6--6.388D--0.01303D[sup 2], with r = 0.79 and [sigma] = [+-]141 mm). Also worth considering for the interpretation of paleosols are the carbon dioxide composition of the atmosphere at the time they formed, the degree to which they have been eroded before burial, and the amount of compaction during burial. These problems are illustrated with the example of Eocene and Oligocene paleosols of Badlands National Park, South Dakota, which shows stepwise drying of paleoclimate during mid-Tertiary time.

Retallack, G.J. (Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

1992-01-01

49

Study of soils buried under embankments to determine the potential of burial as a preservation technique for archaeological sites  

E-print Network

and content by: Ch stopher C. Mathewson (Chair of Committee) Charles T. Hallmark (Member) Kenneth L. White (Member) John H. ang (Head of Department) December 1989 ABSTRACT Study of Soils Buried Under Embankments to Determine the Potential of Burial.... James J. Hester and Ms. Anne MacDonald at the U. S. Army Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station. My appreciation extends to Mr. Newman Boils from the Board of Mississippi Levee Commissioners, Mr. Charles J. Gordon, Project Engineer at the Greenville...

Gonzalez, Tania

2012-06-07

50

RECONSTRUCTING CLIMATE ON THE GREAT PLAINS FROM BURIED SOILS: A QUANTITATIVE APPROACH  

E-print Network

The Great Plains, U.S.A. lack quantitative paleoclimatic data for the late Quaternary largely because two common sources of paleoclimatic data, tree ring and pollen records, are rare in the region. Sequences of buried ...

Zung, Ashley B.

2013-05-31

51

Mechanical Energy Propagation and Backscattering in Nominally Dry Soil: Imaging Buried Land Mines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The imaging of shallow buried objects in a complex medium, e.g., nominally dry sand, is an outstanding challenge. Such imaging is of relevance in connection with the detection and subsequent imaging of buried non-metallic anti-personnel land mines and in other applications. It has been shown that gentle mechanical impulses and low frequency sound waves with frequencies roughly between 150-350 Hz

Surajit Sen

2003-01-01

52

Impact of spruce forest and grass vegetation cover on soil micromorphology and hydraulic properties of organic matter horizon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two organic matter horizons developed under a spruce forest and grass vegetation were chosen to demonstrate the impact of\\u000a a different vegetation cover on the micromorphology, porous system and hydraulic properties of surface soils. Micromorphological\\u000a studies showed that the decomposed organic material in the organic matter horizon under the grass vegetation was more compact\\u000a compared to the decomposed organic material

Radka Kodešová; Lenka Pavl?; Vít Kodeš; Anna Žigová; Antonín Nikodem

2007-01-01

53

Stand-off and up-close Raman detection of nitrates buried in sand and soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Raman measurements, using a 785nm laser, are taken of Ammonium Nitrate and Sodium Nitrate buried in sand. Nitrate is kept in clear plastic containers and buried underneath sand at various depths. Raman measurements are then taken at distances of 5m and 20m, with the sand being completely dry as well as completely wet. A different set of experiments was conducted with Nitrate buried in sand in a glass container, where no Raman signal was seen in dry sand. Water was then added at the edge of the container and allowed to migrate to the bottom. Raman measurements are then taken at a distance of 7mm over time to detect Nitrates brought to the surface by water as it wicks to the surface.

Farley, Carlton; Sadate, Sandra; Kassu, Aschalew; Monono, Belther; Witt, William; Bibb, Jonathan; Sharma, Anup

2014-09-01

54

Buried soils in a perched dunefield as indicators of late holecene lake-level change in the Lake Superior basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A stratigraphic analysis of buried soils within the Grand Sable Dunes, a dune field perched 90 m above the southern shore of Lake Superior, reveals a history of eolian activity apparently linked with lake-level fluctuations over the last 5500 yr. A relative rise in the water plane of the Nipissing Great Lakes initially destabilized the lakeward bluff face of the Grand Sable plateau between 5400 and 4600 14C yr B.P. This led to the burial of the Sable Creek soil by eolian sediments derived from the bluff face. Subsequent episodes of eolian activity appear to be tied to similar destabilizing events; high lake levels may have initiated at least four and perhaps eleven episodes of dune building as expressed by soil burials within the dunes. Intervening low lake levels probably correlate with soil profile development, which varies from the well-developed Sable Creek Spodosol catena to thin organic layers containing in-place stumps and tree trunks. Paleoecological reconstructions available for the area do not imply enough climatic change to account for the episodic dune activity. Burial of soils by fine-fraction sediments links dune-building episodes with destabilization of the lower lake-facing bluff, which is rich in fines.

Anderton, John B.; Loope, Walter L.

1995-01-01

55

Three-dimensional time-harmonic Green's functions of saturated soil under buried loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three-dimensional time-harmonic response of a poroelastic half space subjected to an arbitrary buried loading is investigated. The analysis starts with the field equations in cylindrical coordinates based on Biot's general theory of poroelasticity. General solutions for the displacements are first derived using the Fourier expansions and Hankel integral transform with respect to the circumferential and radial coordinates, respectively. The transformed-domain

S. L. Chen; L. Z. Chen; E. Pan

2007-01-01

56

Vertical Distribution of PhysicoChemical Properties and Number of Sulfur-Oxidizing Bacteria in the Buried Layer of Soil Profiles with Marine-Reduced Sulfur Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

We observed the presence of reduced sulfur compounds in the buried soil layer of a paddy field on Sado Island, Niigata Prefecture. We sampled the paddy field soil from 0 to 300 cm depth and analyzed the physico-chemical properties of the soil and the numbers of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria and iron-oxidizing bacteria in order to elucidate both the sulfur-oxidizing mechanism and

Hirotomo Ohba; Naoto Owa

2005-01-01

57

Ectomycorrhizal-Dominated Boreal and Tropical Forests Have Distinct Fungal Communities, but Analogous Spatial Patterns across Soil Horizons  

PubMed Central

Fungi regulate key nutrient cycling processes in many forest ecosystems, but their diversity and distribution within and across ecosystems are poorly understood. Here, we examine the spatial distribution of fungi across a boreal and tropical ecosystem, focusing on ectomycorrhizal fungi. We analyzed fungal community composition across litter (organic horizons) and underlying soil horizons (0–20 cm) using 454 pyrosequencing and clone library sequencing. In both forests, we found significant clustering of fungal communities by site and soil horizons with analogous patterns detected by both sequencing technologies. Free-living saprotrophic fungi dominated the recently-shed leaf litter and ectomycorrhizal fungi dominated the underlying soil horizons. This vertical pattern of fungal segregation has also been found in temperate and European boreal forests, suggesting that these results apply broadly to ectomycorrhizal-dominated systems, including tropical rain forests. Since ectomycorrhizal and free-living saprotrophic fungi have different influences on soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics, information on the spatial distribution of these functional groups will improve our understanding of forest nutrient cycling. PMID:23874569

McGuire, Krista L.; Allison, Steven D.; Fierer, Noah; Treseder, Kathleen K.

2013-01-01

58

Original article The influence of soil moisture on losses of buried seeds to fungi  

E-print Network

striata, and Poa pratensis) to soil fungi differed among meadows differing in soil moisture. We also and Poa in dry meadows, but fungicide partly counteracted these negative effects, suggesting that adding

59

Premining evaluation of forage grass growth on mine soil materials from an east-central Texas lignite site: 2. soil profile horizons  

SciTech Connect

Several warm-season forage grasses and a cool-season pasture mix of oats plus clover were grown in a greenhouse on mixtures of soil profile horizon materials from an unmined lignite site in east-central Texas and then evaluated as to the suitability of the various soil materials for selective placement over regraded lignite mine spoil during land reclamation. Mixtures of the clayey subsoil horizon materials with the sandy loam topsoil (A horizon) produced soils that had sandy clay loam textures. Whereas the topsoil had a pH of 6.3 and an electrical conductivity of 0.2 millimhos per centimeter, the pH of the soil mixtures ranged from 5.1 to 6.0, and the conductivities from 0.3 to 1.7 mmho/cm. Dry matter production was greater on the topsoil during early stages of plant growth, especially where no fertilizer was added. Differences among soils declined with fertilizer application and degree of plant establishment through successive harvests. Chemical analysis of plant tissue showed adequate uptake of added nitrogen and phosphorus plus indigenous iron, manganese, and zinc from all soils. There were no indications of physical or chemical properties that would adversely affect forage growth on any of the soils. I concluded that, given an adequate regime of water and nutrient supply, the various mixtures of soil profile horizon materials evaluated had the same potential for forage grass production as the genetic topsoil that occurred on the mine site. Any one or a combination of them could probably be used successfully in selective placement over mine spoil for revegetation. Because short-term greenhouse studies may not account for agronomic problems that might arise due to weathering of previously unexposed subsurface soil profile materials, these conclusions are currently being field tested.

Chichester, F.W.

1983-04-01

60

The implications of microbial and substrate limitation for the fates of carbon in different organic soil horizon types: a mechanistically based model analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The large magnitudes of soil carbon stocks provide potentially large feedbacks to climate changes, highlighting the need to better understand and represent the environmental sensitivity of soil carbon decomposition. Most soil carbon decomposition models rely on empirical relationships omitting key biogeochemical mechanisms and their response to climate change is highly uncertain. In this study, we developed a multi-layer mechanistically based soil decomposition model framework for boreal forest ecosystems. A global sensitivity analysis was conducted to identify dominating biogeochemical processes and to highlight structural limitations. Our results indicate that substrate availability (limited by soil water diffusion and substrate quality) is likely to be a major constraint on soil decomposition in the fibrous horizon (40-60% of SOC pool size variation), while energy limited microbial activity in the amorphous horizon exerts a predominant control on soil decomposition (>70% of SOC pool size variation). Elevated temperature alleviated the energy constraint of microbial activity most notably in amorphous soils; whereas moisture only exhibited a marginal effect on dissolved substrate supply and microbial activity. Our study highlights the different decomposition properties and underlying mechanisms of soil dynamics between fibrous and amorphous soil horizons. Soil decomposition models should consider explicitly representing different boreal soil horizons and soil-microbial interactions to better characterize biogeochemical processes in boreal ecosystems. A more comprehensive representation of critical biogeochemical mechanisms of soil moisture effects may be required to improve the performance of the soil model we analyzed in this study.

He, Y.; Zhuang, Q.; Harden, J. W.; McGuire, A. D.; Fan, Z.; Liu, Y.; Wickland, K. P.

2014-02-01

61

Accretion and canal impacts in a rapidly subsiding wetland. III. A new soil horizon marker method for measuring recent accretion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new methodology used on a large scale is reported by which short-term (?1 yr) marsh accretion rates were measured in saltwater\\u000a and brackish marshes and compared to first-time measurements made in freshwater marshes. The stable rare-earth elements (REE)\\u000a dysprosium and samarium were used for soil horizon markers that were collected by a cryogenic field coring method and detected\\u000a by

R. M. Knaus; D. L. Van Gent

1989-01-01

62

Microbial weathering of apatite and wollastonite in a forest soil: Evidence from minerals buried in a root-free zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mineral weathering is an important process in biogeochemical cycling because it releases nutrients from less labile pools (e.g., rocks) to the food chain. A field experiment was undertaken to determine the degree to which microbes - both fungi and bacteria - are responsible for weathering of Ca-bearing minerals. The experiment was performed at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF) in the northeastern USA, where acid deposition has leached plant-available calcium from soils for decades. Trees obtain soil nutrients through root uptake as well as through mycorrhizal fungi with which they are symbiotically associated. These fungi extend their hyphae from the tree roots into the soil and exude organic acids that may enhance mineral dissolution. The two most common types of symbiotic fungal-tree associations are ectomycorrhizae, which are associated with spruce (Picea), fir (Abies), and beech (Fagus); and arbuscular mycorrhizae which are commonly associated with angiosperms, such as maples (Acer). To examine the role of fungi and bacteria in weathering of Ca- and/or P-bearing minerals, mesh bags containing sand-sized grains of quartz (as a control), quartz plus 1% wollastonite (CaSiO3), or quartz plus 1% apatite (Ca5(PO4)3F) were buried ~15 cm deep in mineral soil beneath American beech, sugar maple, and mixed spruce and balsam fir stands at the HBEF. Half of the bags were constructed of 50-?m mesh to exclude roots but allow fungal hyphae and bacteria to enter the bags; the remaining bags had 1-?m mesh to exclude fungi and roots but allow bacteria to enter. The bags were retrieved ~ 1, 2 or 4 years after burial. Microbial community composition and biomass in the mesh bags and surrounding soil were characterized and quantified using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. Fungal biomass in the soil and control bags did not differ significantly among stand types. In contrast, the degree of fungal colonization in apatite- and wollastonite-amended bags varied significantly, suggesting that microbial response was due to tree species, type of mycorrhizal fungi, nutrient status of the soils, and mineral composition of the mesh bags. Mineral surfaces were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to investigate the degree of mineral dissolution as a function of stand type, microbial composition, and time.

Nezat, C. A.

2011-12-01

63

Structural properties of dissolved organic carbon in deep horizons of an arable soil.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this work is to quantity the DOC that percolates in deep horizons of an arable soil, and to characterize the structural properties of the main fractions. The study was conducted on the long term observatory for environmental research- biogeochemical cycles and biodiversity Lusignan site-France. DOC collected using lysimeter plates inserted to a depth of 105 cm was fractionated into 3 fractions using the two column array of XAD-8 and XAD-4 resins. The HPO (hydrophobic) fraction (i.e. humic substances) isolated from the XAD-8 resin, the TPH (Transphilic) fraction from the XAD-4 resin and the HPI (hydrophilic) fraction which corresponds to the DOC that does not adsorbed onto the two resins under the acid condition used (pH 2). DOM adsorbed onto the resins is recovered with a 75%/25% acetonitrile/water mixture and lyophilized. The hydrophilic fraction is purified according the protocol proposed by Aiken and Leenheer (1993). The isolated fractions were subjected to several characterization tools: UV/Vis, fluorescence EEM, HPSEC/UV/DOC, 13C NMR, 14C dating, FT-IR, pyrolysis, thermochemolysis and MSSV GC/MS. The DOC content ranged from 1 to 2.5 mg / L between winter and the middle of spring and then to 4-5 mg / L in summer time. For all isolated fractions HPSEC analyses indicated the predominance of low molecular structures with a low aromatic character. Fluorescence EEM confirmed the non-humic character of the DOM. 13C-NMR spectra showed that the aromatic character decreased from HPO to TPH, and HPI character. Molecular size follows the same trend. HPI DOM was found to be strongly enriched in carboxyl groups. The 14C concentration of the HPO fraction corresponds to an apparent calibrated age around AD 1500. For the same fraction isolated from the 0 - 30 cm horizon, the measured 14C concentration 131.9 pMC corresponds to that in the atmosphere around AD 1978. Significant input of terpenoid derived organic matter was confirmed in the HPO fraction of DOC, results supported by the data of 13C NMR, FT-IR and Micro Scale Sealed Vessel / pyrolysis GC / MS. Flash pyrolysis GC / MS chromatogram highlight the presence of phenol and alkyl phenols, generally attributed to structures polyhydroxyaromatic structures. Acetamide, a pyrolysis product of amino sugars constituents of microbial cell wall is also significantly present. The thermochimiolysis (TMAH)/GC/ MS confirmed the presence of hydroxy aromatic structures in the extracts; however, their precise origin (lignin, tannins ...) remains uncertain.

Lavaud, A.; Croué, Jp; Berwick, L.; Steffens, M.; Chabbi, A.

2010-05-01

64

Chemical Composition of Soil Horizons and Aggregate Size Fractions Under the Hawaiian Fern Dicranopteris and Angiosperm Cheirodendrom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil organic matter (SOM) inherits much of its chemical nature from the dominant vegetation, including phenolic (lignin-derived), aromatic, and aliphatic (cutin and wax-derived) compounds. However, relatively stable recalcitrant compounds may also be formed as a result of condensation and complexation reactions through decomposition and protected with association with mineral particles. The Hawaiian fern species Dicranopteris decomposes more slowly than the angiosperm, Cheirodendrom due to high concentrations of recalcitrant C compounds. These aliphatic fern leaf waxes are well-preserved and may comprise a large portion of the recalcitrant organic matter in these soils. Our objective was to determine the chemical composition of the SOM under the O- (litter-dominated) and the A- (mineral) horizons formed under fern and angiosperm vegetation. To determine the effect of mineral-association, we fractioned the soil into four size classes; 850-590 ?m, 590-180 ?m, 180-53 ?m and <53 ?m and characterized the SOM via pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (py-GC/MS). As the soils developed from the O- to the A-horizon, there was a decrease of lignin-derived phenolic compounds and an increase in more recalcitrant, aromatic and aliphatic C. Soils under ferns had greater relative concentrations of phenolic compounds, while the angiosperms had greater concentrations of fatty-acid methyl esters and furans (some polysaccharide-derived). Differences between size fractions were most evident in the O-horizon of both species. Recalcitrant fern-derived cutin and leaf waxes (alkene and alkanes structures) occurred in the 180-53 ?m fraction, which has been shown to be the most stable of the aggregate-size fractions. Soils developed under fern versus angiosperm vegetation have distinct chemical signatures, which likely determine the recalcitrance of the SOM.

Stewart, C. E.; Amatangelo, K.; Neff, J.

2007-12-01

65

Degradation behavior of biocomposites based on cassava starch buried under indoor soil conditions.  

PubMed

Degradation of cassava (tapioca) starch based composite films during indoor soil burial experiments was analyzed using five factors, three levels Box-Behnken response surface design. From the results, it was observed that, increased water sorption promotes the entry of soil microorganism and it utilizes the starch films as a source of energy for their growth. The reduction in weight and mechanical property was associated with preferential loss of matrix components of the films. The microorganisms associated with the degradation of films were quantified and identified. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis showed the formation of patterns and cracks on the surface of the materials aged in the soils. From the results, second order polynomial models were developed for the responses. The results of the study demonstrated that, the tapioca starch based composites were showed a limited lifetime in biotic environment which make them suitable for being disposed in landfills after their use. PMID:24299744

Maran, J Prakash; Sivakumar, V; Thirugnanasambandham, K; Sridhar, R

2014-01-30

66

Contamination of the O2 soil horizon by zinc smelting and its effect on woodlouse survival  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Samples of litter from the 02 horizon of Dekalb soil (loamyskeletal, mixed, mesic Typic Dystrochrept) were collected from 18 ridgetop sites on a transect that ran by two Zn smelters in Palmerton, Pa. Metal concentrations increased by regular gradations from a minimum at a site 105 km west of the smelters (67 mg/kg Zn, 0.85 mg/kg Cd, 150 mg/kg Pb, 11 mg/kg Cu) to a maximum 1.2 km east of the smelters (35,000 mg/kg Zn, 1300 mg/kg Cd, 3200 mg/kg Pb, 280 mg/kg Cu), and then decreased until they reached an eastern minimum at the easternmost site, 19 km from the smelters. An increase in the P concentrations near the smelters showed that the emissions were disrupting nutrient flow through the ecosystem. An increase in the pH near the smelters was attributed to the high concentrations of Zn. The log of the distance of the sites from the smelters was significantly correlated (r = - 0.80, p < 0.05) with the mortality of woodlice (Porcellio scaber Latreille} fed samples of the litter during an 8-week test. There was substantial mortality of woodlice observed even in the 02 litter collected 19 km east of the smelters. Zinc, cadmium, lead, copper, and sulfur were experimentally added, alone or in combination, to 02 litter collected far from any known source of metal emissions. The highest concentration of Zn added (20,000 mg/kg) was toxic enough to account for the mortality observed in the earlier test. A lower concentration of Zn (5000 mg/kg) as well as the concentration of Cd (500 mg/kg) tested also significantly (p < 0.05) increased the mortality of woodlice.

Beyer, W.N.; Miller, G.W.; Cromartie, E.J.

1984-01-01

67

Effects of surface roughness on microwave heating of soil for detection of buried land mines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two common techniques proposed for detection of landmines are ground-penetrating radar (GPR.) and IR imagery. Because of the wide diversity of mines, the clutter which is encountered in minefields, and variation caused by the ground surface, the task of interpreting GPR. signals is daunting. Likewise, variations in thermal properties of soil, solar heating, clutter, and surface irregularities lead to limited performance for IR imaging systems.

Oktar, Taner R.; Rappaport, Carey M.; DiMarzio, Charles A.

2000-08-01

68

Viking Lander's Buried Footpad #3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of Viking l's three feet, which should be visible in this view, lies buried beneath a cover of loose Martian soil. This picture, taken Sunday (August 1), is the first to show the buried footpad #3. If not buried, the edge of the foot would be seen extending across the picture about midway between top and bottom. The foot sank about five inches, and fine-grained soil slumped into the depression and over the foot. The cracked nature of the surface near the slump area and the small, steep cliff at left indicates that the material is weakly cohesive. The surface material here is very similar mechanically to lunar soil.

1976-01-01

69

UHF ground penetration measurements of buried and partially buried trihedrals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lincoln Laboratory ground-based rail SAR was used to collect UHF band data on buried and partially buried trihedral corner reflectors in Yuma soil. The frequency range was 0.25 to 1 GHz in discrete steps. Both HH and VV polarization data were collected in the vicinity of the pseudo-Brewster angle. The partially buried trihedrals revealed two principal components for the returned signals: (1) a surface reflected component, and (2) a ground penetrated component. A model is described for partially buried trihedrals that accounts for these two components and the model is used in estimating ground penetration parameters.

Blejer, Dennis J.; Frost, Carl E.; Scarborough, Steven M.

1994-07-01

70

Experimental validation of forensic evidence: a study of the decomposition of buried pigs in a heavy clay soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a murder investigation, where the victim had been strangled and buried in a shallow grave, there were discrepancies between the post mortem interval (PMI) as estimated from entomological studies and estimations determined from other evidence. This inconsistency provided the impetus for examining the decay process using pig carcasses as analogues for the human cadaver. The pigs were buried in

Bryan Turner; Patricia Wiltshire

1999-01-01

71

The implications of microbial and substrate limitation for the fates of carbon in different organic soil horizon types of boreal forest ecosystems: a mechanistically based model analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The large amount of soil carbon in boreal forest ecosystems has the potential to influence the climate system if released in large quantities in response to warming. Thus, there is a need to better understand and represent the environmental sensitivity of soil carbon decomposition. Most soil carbon decomposition models rely on empirical relationships omitting key biogeochemical mechanisms and their response to climate change is highly uncertain. In this study, we developed a multi-layer microbial explicit soil decomposition model framework for boreal forest ecosystems. A thorough sensitivity analysis was conducted to identify dominating biogeochemical processes and to highlight structural limitations. Our results indicate that substrate availability (limited by soil water diffusion and substrate quality) is likely to be a major constraint on soil decomposition in the fibrous horizon (40-60% of soil organic carbon (SOC) pool size variation), while energy limited microbial activity in the amorphous horizon exerts a predominant control on soil decomposition (>70% of SOC pool size variation). Elevated temperature alleviated the energy constraint of microbial activity most notably in amorphous soils, whereas moisture only exhibited a marginal effect on dissolved substrate supply and microbial activity. Our study highlights the different decomposition properties and underlying mechanisms of soil dynamics between fibrous and amorphous soil horizons. Soil decomposition models should consider explicitly representing different boreal soil horizons and soil-microbial interactions to better characterize biogeochemical processes in boreal forest ecosystems. A more comprehensive representation of critical biogeochemical mechanisms of soil moisture effects may be required to improve the performance of the soil model we analyzed in this study.

He, Y.; Zhuang, Q.; Harden, J. W.; McGuire, A. D.; Fan, Z.; Liu, Y.; Wickland, K. P.

2014-08-01

72

Prestressing buried pipelines by heating with air  

Microsoft Academic Search

Buried pipelines operating at elevated temperatures experience high longitudinal compressive stresses because the surrounding soil prevents thermal expansion. At high operating temperatures, buried pipelines can push through the soil at bends and buckle catastrophically. In soft soils they can lose lateral stability, and they can develop plastic failures. Thermally induced problems can be prevented with varying degrees of success by

G. King

1993-01-01

73

Laser ablation ICP-MS and traditional micromorphological techniques applied to the study of different genetic horizons in thin sections: soil genesis and trace element distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work focuses on an innovative methodological approach to investigate in situ chemical composition of trace and rare earth (REE) elements in discrete soil features from different soil horizons: laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was applied to clay coatings, pedogenic matrix and skeletal parent rock fragments in thin sections, coupled with traditional pedological investigations, specially clay mineralogy and micromorphology. Analyses were performed on 80 ?m-thick sections obtained from undisturbed soil samples, which represent three reddish argillic (Bt) horizons from an Alfisol developed on late Pleistocene slope deposits and three brown organic-mineral (A) horizons from an Entisol formed on Holocene aggrading fluvial sediments in the Muravera area (southeast Sardinia, Italy). Validation of the LA-ICP-MS technique provides in situ accurate and reproducible (RSD 13-18%) analysis of low concentration trace elements in the studied soil samples (0.001-0.1 ppm). Our results showed a high reliability of this method on soil thin sections and revealed that concentrations of trace and rare earth elements in the different portions of a soil profile can be used to investigate their distribution, as a response to soil-forming processes. A general trend of increase of most trace elements from rock fragments to (both clayey and organic-rich) soil matrix, to clay coatings in argillic horizons is clearly highlighted. On this basis a prominent role of pedogenetic processes in element fractionation and distribution during weathering can be supposed. In particular, element adsorption onto reactive sites of organic matter and clay particles (and possibly Fe-oxyhydroxides) and clay illuviation appear the main pedogenetic processes able to promote element enrichment after their release from the weathering of primary minerals. As clay coatings exhibit the highest concentration of trace elements, and specifically of REEs, and represent the most mobile solid phase in the soil profile, this tool can be used as a reliable indicator of soil weathering after a preliminary assessment of illuvial clay pedofeatures. This feature is consistent with a progressively increasing time of soil development, testified by the older age of the Alfisol than the Entisol profile. Such a result is also supported by a comparison of trace element concentrations between the clay and the fine earth fractions of the bulk soil horizons performed with ICP-MS in solution, showing REE enrichment in the clays from the former soil. Moreover, trace element patterns show some discontinuous trends among soil features of different horizons, coherently with erosive and/or depositional discontinuities described in the field.

Scarciglia, Fabio; Barca, Donatella; de Rosa, Rosanna; Pulice, Iolanda; Vacca, Andrea

2010-05-01

74

Dynamics of oxidation of inorganic sulphur compounds in upper soil horizons of spruce forests.  

PubMed

Dynamics of oxidation of inorganic sulphur compounds to sulphate by the soil of spruce forests was investigated. Sulphide, sulphite and thiosulphate are oxidized to sulphate at a maximal rate at the beginning of the reaction, oxidation of elemental sulphur exhibits a lag phase. Linear relationships between the amounts of the produced sulphate and concentrations of substrates in the soil could be detected. On the basis of ;this finding a method for comparison of the oxidative activity of various soils was proposed. PMID:7203284

Lettl, A; Langkramer, O; Lochman, V

1981-01-01

75

Soil morphology of a debris flow chronosequence in a coniferous forest, southern California, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Soils on a series of debris flow deposits, ranging from < 1 to 244??years old, were described and sampled in order to investigate the early stages of soil development. The parent material at the site is debris flow regolith, composed mainly of gneiss, the soil moisture regime is xeric, and the vegetation is mixed coniferous forest. Ages of the deposits were assessed using dendrochronology. Morphologic trends in the organic horizons included a thickening of the humus form over time, along with the development of Fm and Hr horizons. The humus forms underwent a progression from Mormodors (20??years old), to Hemimors (26-101??years old), and finally Lignomors (163??years old) and Resimors (184-244??years old). Changes in physical properties of the uppermost mineral horizons as a function of increasing age included a decrease in the volume of coarse fragments, a linear decrease in bulk density, and a darkening and reddening of the soil color. No significant soil development took place in the subsoil during the time span of this chronosequence. The soils described were classified as Typic Xerofluvents and Typic Xerorthents (Regosols and Leptosols). Buried A horizons were observed in many of the soils. Where the A horizons could be linked to dendrochronology to assess the age of the buried surface, we found that the properties of the buried A horizons do not serve as a good indicator of the age of the surface. This study suggests rapid development of the humus form profile (organic horizons and A horizon) following debris flow deposition and rapid degradation of these horizons when the debris flow surface is buried. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

Turk, J.K.; Goforth, B.R.; Graham, R.C.; Kendrick, K.J.

2008-01-01

76

Preliminary Systems Design Study assessment report. [Evaluation of using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil  

SciTech Connect

The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept.

Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

1991-11-01

77

SULFUR DYNAMICS IN MINERAL HORIZONS OF TWO NORTHERN HARDWOOD SOILS A COLUMN STUDY WITH 35S  

EPA Science Inventory

Sulfur dynamics of two Spodosols were ascertained using soil columns constructed from homogenized mineral soil from northern hardwood ecosystems at the Huntington Forest (HF) in the Adirondack Mountains of New York and Bear Brook Watershed in Maine (BBWM). olumns were leached for...

78

Preliminary systems design study assessment report. [Evaluation of using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and surrounding contaminated soil  

SciTech Connect

The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each. This volume contains the descriptions and other relevant information of the four subsystems required for most of the ex situ processing systems. This volume covers the metal decontamination and sizing subsystem, soils processing subsystem, low-level waste subsystem, and retrieval subsystem.

Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

1992-01-01

79

Fire, temperature and nutrient responses on the C balance of arctic tundra soils from surface, mineral horizons and permafrost  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Models predict substantial release of carbon (C) from thawing permafrost as the climate warms. Therefore, determining how the decomposition of the organic matter stored in near surface permafrost is controlled represents a key research priority. Important questions remain regarding how readily decomposable the organic matter may be, as well as the extent to which microbial activity is limited by the low temperatures, the rate of new labile C inputs, and/or nitrogen (N) availability. Accurate model predictions require that these questions are addressed.Disturbances, including fire, which is becoming increasingly common in the tundra biome, may promote rates of permafrost thaw. In 2007, the Anaktuvuk River fire burned over 1,000 km2 of tundra on the North Slope of the Brooks Range, Alaska, USA, doubling the cumulative area burned in this region over the past 50 years. This fire enhanced active layer thickness by removing insulating plant biomass and exposing surfaces with low albedo. In this study we investigated how temperature, N and labile C additions affected rates of CO2 production over a one-year incubation of samples collected from different depths (topsoil, mineral horizons and near-surface permafrost) in burnt and unburnt sites within the Anaktuvik river catchment. The results show that respiration rates did not decline substantially during the 1-year incubation, indicating there were relatively large amounts of readily decomposable C present. However, decomposition rates per gram of C did decline with depth, especially in the burnt sites where some of the surface soil may have been lost. This indicates that the C present in the near surface permafrost may be less labile than C nearer the soil surface. In addition, respiration rates in the deeper horizons were more temperature sensitive, potentially reflecting the lower lability of the C present. Against expectations, N addition inhibited respiration in the deeper layers, especially at low temperatures. Labile C additions promoted the decomposition of soil organic matter in the deep soil samples, but not in the surface samples, with the positive priming effect being lost following N addition. This study indicates that there is the potential for considerable loss of C following the thaw of near-surface permafrost in Alaskan tussock tundra, although the C present may be slightly less readily decomposable than C stored nearer the surface. The decomposition of near-surface permafrost C was shown to be highly temperature sensitive and thus accurately simulating the soil thermal regime post-thaw is likely to be important in predicting rates of C release. In addition, root colonisation of previously frozen horizons may stimulate decomposition if labile C inputs increase. On the other hand, the inhibition of activity by N addition suggests that the positive feedback associated with reduced microbial N limitation in a warming Arctic may not be ubiquitous.

De Baets, S. L.; Lewis, R.; van de Weg, M. J.; Quine, T. A.; Shaver, G. R.; Hartley, I. P.

2013-12-01

80

A Mesophilic, Autotrophic, Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaeon of Thaumarchaeal Group I.1a Cultivated from a Deep Oligotrophic Soil Horizon  

PubMed Central

Soil nitrification plays an important role in the reduction of soil fertility and in nitrate enrichment of groundwater. Various ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) are considered to be members of the pool of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms in soil. This study reports the discovery of a chemolithoautotrophic ammonia oxidizer that belongs to a distinct clade of nonmarine thaumarchaeal group I.1a, which is widespread in terrestrial environments. The archaeal strain MY2 was cultivated from a deep oligotrophic soil horizon. The similarity of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain MY2 to those of other cultivated group I.1a thaumarchaeota members, i.e., Nitrosopumilus maritimus and “Candidatus Nitrosoarchaeum koreensis,” is 92.9% for both species. Extensive growth assays showed that strain MY2 is chemolithoautotrophic, mesophilic (optimum temperature, 30°C), and neutrophilic (optimum pH, 7 to 7.5). The accumulation of nitrite above 1 mM inhibited ammonia oxidation, while ammonia oxidation itself was not inhibited in the presence of up to 5 mM ammonia. The genome size of strain MY2 was 1.76 Mb, similar to those of N. maritimus and “Ca. Nitrosoarchaeum koreensis,” and the repertoire of genes required for ammonia oxidation and carbon fixation in thaumarchaeal group I.1a was conserved. A high level of representation of conserved orthologous genes for signal transduction and motility in the noncore genome might be implicated in niche adaptation by strain MY2. On the basis of phenotypic, phylogenetic, and genomic characteristics, we propose the name “Candidatus Nitrosotenuis chungbukensis” for the ammonia-oxidizing archaeal strain MY2. PMID:24705324

Jung, Man-Young; Park, Soo-Je; Kim, So-Jeong; Kim, Jong-Geol; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

2014-01-01

81

A mesophilic, autotrophic, ammonia-oxidizing archaeon of thaumarchaeal group I.1a cultivated from a deep oligotrophic soil horizon.  

PubMed

Soil nitrification plays an important role in the reduction of soil fertility and in nitrate enrichment of groundwater. Various ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) are considered to be members of the pool of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms in soil. This study reports the discovery of a chemolithoautotrophic ammonia oxidizer that belongs to a distinct clade of nonmarine thaumarchaeal group I.1a, which is widespread in terrestrial environments. The archaeal strain MY2 was cultivated from a deep oligotrophic soil horizon. The similarity of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain MY2 to those of other cultivated group I.1a thaumarchaeota members, i.e., Nitrosopumilus maritimus and "Candidatus Nitrosoarchaeum koreensis," is 92.9% for both species. Extensive growth assays showed that strain MY2 is chemolithoautotrophic, mesophilic (optimum temperature, 30°C), and neutrophilic (optimum pH, 7 to 7.5). The accumulation of nitrite above 1 mM inhibited ammonia oxidation, while ammonia oxidation itself was not inhibited in the presence of up to 5mM ammonia. The genome size of strain MY2 was 1.76 Mb, similar to those of N. maritimus and "Ca. Nitrosoarchaeum koreensis," and the repertoire of genes required for ammonia oxidation and carbon fixation in thaumarchaeal group I.1a was conserved. A high level of representation of conserved orthologous genes for signal transduction and motility in the noncore genome might be implicated in niche adaptation by strain MY2. On the basis of phenotypic, phylogenetic, and genomic characteristics, we propose the name "Candidatus Nitrosotenuis chungbukensis" for the ammonia-oxidizing archaeal strain MY2. PMID:24705324

Jung, Man-Young; Park, Soo-Je; Kim, So-Jeong; Kim, Jong-Geol; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S; Jeon, Che Ok; Rhee, Sung-Keun

2014-06-01

82

The distribution and genesis of calcic horizons in some soils of the Texas Coast Prairie  

E-print Network

result of moisture flow patterns in these landscapes, which results in leaching of primary carbonates from micro- lows and secondary concentration of carbonates in the micro-highs. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT S I would like to thank Dr. Larry P. Wilding for his... of the world, but are particularly characteristic of arid and semiarid regions because of the decreased leaching potential in these climatic zones (Jenny, 1941), To find such carbonate-enriched soils in a humid region like southeastern Texas contradicts...

Sobecki, Terrence Michael

2012-06-07

83

Effect of O horizon and Forest Harvest Residue Manipulations on Soil Organic Matter Content and Composition of a Loblolly Pine Plantation in the Southeastern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest harvest residues and forest floor materials are significant sources of mineral soil organic matter and nutrients for regenerating and establishing forests. Harvest residues in particular are occasionally removed, piled, or burned following harvesting. While the forest floor is never purposely removed during operational harvesting and site preparation, they could become in high demand as bioenergy markets develop. Weyerhaeuser Company established an experimental study to evaluate the effect of forest-floor manipulation on site productivity and soil carbon. This study was installed in a loblolly pine plantation near Millport, Alabama, USA on the Upper Gulf Coastal Plain to test both extremes from complete removal of harvest residues and forest floor to doubling of these materials. This study has been continuously monitored since its establishment in 1994. We have examined the effects of varying forest floor levels on the biomass, soil carbon content, and soil carbon composition in the context of these management activities. Above- and below-ground productivity, soil moisture, soil temperature, and nutrient dynamics have been related to soil organic carbon in mineral soil size/density fractionation and lignin and cutin biomarkers from the cupric oxide (CuO) oxidation technique. We have found that while removing litter and harvest residues has little effect on biomass production and soil carbon, importing litter and harvest residues increases forest productivity and soil carbon content. Interestingly, increased carbon was observed in all depths assessed (O horizon, 0-20, 20-40, and 40-60cm) suggesting that this practice may sequester organic carbon in deep soil horizons. Our biomarker analysis indicated that importing litter and harvest residues increased relative contributions from above ground sources at the 20-40cm depth and increased relative contributions from belowground sources at the 40-60cm depth. These results suggest that organic matter manipulations in managed forests can have significant effects on deep soil carbon that may be resistant to mineralization or the effects of other perturbations such as climate change.

Hatten, J.; Mack, J.; Dewey, J.; Sucre, E.; Leggett, Z.

2012-04-01

84

IIB horizons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We solve the Killing spinor equations for all near-horizon IIB geometries which preserve at least one supersymmetry. We show that generic horizon sections are eight-dimensional almost Hermitian spinc manifolds. Special cases include horizon sections with a Spin(7) structure and those for which the Killing spinor is pure. We also explain how the common sector horizons and the horizons with only 5-form flux are included in our general analysis. We investigate several special cases mainly focusing on the horizons with constant scalars admitting a pure Killing spinor and find that some of these exhibit a generalization of the 2-SCYT condition that arises in the horizons with 5-form fluxes only. We use this to construct new examples of near-horizon geometries with both 3-form and 5-form fluxes.

Gran, U.; Gutowski, J.; Papadopoulos, G.

2013-10-01

85

Soil Taxonomy and Soil Properties.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 16 papers in this report deal with the following areas: soil taxonomy; an overview; diagnostic soil horizons in soil taxonomy; soil moisture and temperature regimes in soil taxonomy; particle size and mineralogy in soil taxonomy; soil series and soil ...

1977-01-01

86

Electromagnetic scattering from buried objects  

SciTech Connect

Radar imaging and detection of objects buried in soil has potentially important applications in the areas of nonproliferation of weapons, environmental monitoring, hazardous-waste site location and assessment, and even archeology. In order to understand and exploit this potential, it is first necessary to understand how the soil responds to an electromagnetic wave, and how targets buried within the soil scatter the electromagnetic wave. We examine the response of the soil to a short pulse, and illustrate the roll of the complex dielectric permittivity of the soil in determining radar range resolution. This leads to a concept of an optimum frequency and bandwidth for imaging in a particular soil. We then propose a new definition for radar cross section which is consistent with the modified radar equation for use with buried targets. This radar cross section plays the same roll in the modified radar equation as the traditional radar cross section does in the free-space radar equation, and is directly comparable to it. The radar cross section of several canonical objects in lossy media is derived, and examples are given for several object/soil combinations.

Brock, B.C.; Sorensen, K.W.

1994-10-01

87

Accumulation of heavy metals in dietary vegetables and cultivated soil horizon in organic farming system in relation to atmospheric deposition in a seasonally dry tropical region of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing consciousness about future sustainable agriculture and hazard free food production has lead organic farming to\\u000a be a globally emerging alternative farm practice. We investigated the accumulation of air-borne heavy metals in edible parts\\u000a of vegetables and in cultivated soil horizon in organic farming system in a low rain fall tropical region of India. The factorial\\u000a design of whole experiment

J. Pandey; Usha Pandey

2009-01-01

88

Horizon Pretracking  

E-print Network

We introduce horizon pretracking as a method for analysing numerically generated spacetimes of merging black holes. Pretracking consists of following certain modified constant expansion surfaces during a simulation before a common apparent horizon has formed. The tracked surfaces exist at all times, and are defined so as to include the common apparent horizon if it exists. The method provides a way for finding this common apparent horizon in an efficient and reliable manner at the earliest possible time. We can distinguish inner and outer horizons by examining the distortion of the surface. Properties of the pretracking surface such as its expansion, location, shape, area, and angular momentum can also be used to predict when a common apparent horizon will appear, and its characteristics. The latter could also be used to feed back into the simulation by adapting e.g. boundary or gauge conditions even before the common apparent horizon has formed.

Erik Schnetter; Frank Herrmann; Denis Pollney

2004-10-18

89

2.5 SOIL WATER POTENTIAL ESTIMATES Soil moisture retention curves were evaluated for representative A, AE, and EB horizon soils  

E-print Network

measurements of soil water content (Fig. 5). Thermocouple psychrometers (SC-10, Decagon Devices, Inc., Pullman thermometers (NT-3, Decagon Devices) were used to derive µV and temperature readings for conversion into water#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;2.5 SOIL WATER POTENTIAL

90

Preliminary Systems Design Study assessment report. [Evaluation of using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil  

SciTech Connect

The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept. This volume contains introduction section containing a brief SDS background and lists the general assumptions and considerations used during the development of the system concepts. The introduction section is followed by sections describing two system concepts that produce a waste form in compliance with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) and transportation package (TRAMPAC) requirements. This system concept category is referred to as Waste Form 4, WIPP and TRAMPAC Acceptable.'' The following two system concepts are under this category: Sort, Treat, and Repackage System (4-BE-2); Volume Reduction and Packaging System (4-BE-4).

Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

1992-01-01

91

Wavy Horizons?  

E-print Network

We describe the application of a gravity wave-generating technique to certain higher dimensional black holes. We find that the induced waves generically destroy the event horizon producing parallelly propagated curvature singularities.

R. C. Myers

1998-09-14

92

Buried late holocene paleosols of the nienshants cultural-historical monument in St. Petersburg  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Buried Late Holocene paleosols of the Nienshants historical monument at the junction of the Neva and Okhta rivers (St. Petersburg) have been studied. These soils developed from estuary deposits of the Littorina basin with abundant artifacts of the Neolithic and Early Iron ages (7-2 ka BP). The soil cover of the area consists of the mature dark-humus profile-gleyed soils on elevated elements of the mesotopography (3.0-3.5 a.s.l.) and dark-humus gley soils in the local depressions (2.0-2.6 m a.s.l.). The soils are characterized by the low to moderate content of humus of the fulvate-humate type. The beginning of humus formation in the dark-humus gley soil on the slope facing the Neva River is estimated at about 2600 yrs ago; for the darkhumus profile-gleyed soils of the studied paleocatena, at about 2000 and 1780 yrs ago; and for the darkhumus gley soil, at about 1440 years ago. Judging from the spore-pollen spectra, the development of these soils took place in the Subatlantic period under birch and pine-birch forests with the admixture of spruce and alder trees. The gleyed horizons of the buried soil at the depth of 1.6-1.2 m on the Neva-facing slope date back to the Late Subboreal period (2500-2600 yrs ago), when pine-birch-spruce forests were widespread in the area. The new data contribute to our knowledge of the environmental conditions during the Neolithic and Iron ages.

Rusakov, A. V.; Nikonov, A. A.; Savelieva, L. A.; Pinakhina, D. V.

2013-01-01

93

Substrate discrimination in burying beetles, Nicrophorus orbicollis (Coleoptera: Silphidae)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Burying beetles Nicrophorus orbicollis (Coleoptera: Silphidae) secure and bury small vertebrate carcasses as a food resource for their offspring and themselves. Burial may take place at the point of carcass discovery or at some distance from that site. Burying beetles were tested to determine if they discriminate between different substrates when burying a carcass. Three substrates were presented simultaneously. Substrate one contained soil from typical beetle habitat; substrates two and three contained 2:1 and 5:1 ratios, respectively, of soil and a senescent prairie grass (Panicum virgatum), which added a bulk structural component to the soil. Beetles generally moved and buried the carcass within 24 hours. Results for both paired and individual trials suggest that burying beetles discriminate between substrates, preferring substrates with added bulk over those without.

Muths, Erin Louise

1991-01-01

94

Location and chemical composition of stabilized organic carbon in topsoil and subsoil horizons of two acid forest soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 14C age of soil organic matter is known to increase with soil depth. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the stabilization of carbon compounds in the entire soil profile using particle size fractionation to distinguish SOM pools with different turnover rates. Samples were taken from a Dystric Cambisol and a Haplic Podzol under forest, which are

Cornelia Rumpel; Karin Eusterhues; Ingrid Kögel-Knabner

2004-01-01

95

Nano-scale investigation of the association of microbial nitrogen residues with iron (hydr)oxides in a forest soil O-horizon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amino sugars in fungal cell walls (such as chitin) represent an important source of nitrogen (N) in many forest soil ecosystems. Despite the importance of this material in soil nitrogen cycling, comparatively little is known about abiotic and biotic controls on and the timescale of its turnover. Part of the reason for this lack of information is the inaccessibility of these materials to classic bulk extraction methods. To address this issue, we used advanced visualization tools to examine transformation pathways of chitin-rich fungal cell wall residues as they interact with microorganisms, soil organic matter and mineral surfaces. Our goal was to document initial micro-scale dynamics of the incorporation of 13C- and 15N-labeled chitin into fungi-dominated microenvironments in O-horizons of old-growth forest soils. At the end of a 3-week incubation experiment, high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry imaging of hyphae-associated soil microstructures revealed a preferential association of 15N with Fe-rich particles. Synchrotron-based scanning transmission X-ray spectromicroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS) of the same samples showed that thin organic coatings on these soil microstructures are enriched in aliphatic C and amide N on Fe (hydr)oxides, suggesting a concentration of microbial lipids and proteins on these surfaces. A possible explanation for the results of our micro-scale investigation of chemical and spatial patterns is that amide N from chitinous fungal cell walls was assimilated by hyphae-associated bacteria, resynthesized into proteinaceous amide N, and subsequently concentrated onto Fe (hydr)oxide surfaces. If confirmed in other soil ecosystems, such rapid association of microbial N with hydroxylated Fe oxide surfaces may have important implications for mechanistic models of microbial cycling of C and N.

Keiluweit, Marco; Bougoure, Jeremy J.; Zeglin, Lydia H.; Myrold, David D.; Weber, Peter K.; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Kleber, Markus; Nico, Peter S.

2012-10-01

96

Horizon Calendar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity enables students to better understand the motion of the Sun and how we use it to measure time. Students create a "horizon calendar" at their school by carefully observing and recording the horizon and the Sun at sunset (or sunrise, for early risers) over a period of weeks or months. Part 1 of this activity can be done as a whole group and involves selecting and drawing a detailed map of the site. Part 2 of this activity can be done as a whole group and involves determining the direction west and drawing the horizon line. Part 3 should be done by the teacher since it involves making weekly observations at sunset (or sunrise), which is outside of regular school hours. Part 4 can be done with the whole class and involves using the data from the observations to calculate the average rate of change in sunset time and respond to discussion questions. The activity is not time-consuming, but must be conducted over a period of at least a few weeks. It is best as a semester unit, or even a project for the entire school year. Also, the best time of year to run this activity is around the equinoxes: March and September. The lesson plan includes discussion questions, background information about desert horizons, and a math extension activity in which students calculate how the time of sunrise or sunset changes from day to day. This activity is the sixth lesson in the Ancient Eyes Look to the Skies curriculum guide.

97

HORIZON SENSING  

SciTech Connect

With the aid of a DOE grant (No. DE-FC26-01NT41050), Stolar Research Corporation (Stolar) developed the Horizon Sensor (HS) to distinguish between the different layers of a coal seam. Mounted on mining machine cutter drums, HS units can detect or sense the horizon between the coal seam and the roof and floor rock, providing the opportunity to accurately mine the section of the seam most desired. HS also enables accurate cutting of minimum height if that is the operator's objective. Often when cutting is done out-of-seam, the head-positioning function facilitates a fixed mining height to minimize dilution. With this technology, miners can still be at a remote location, yet cut only the clean coal, resulting in a much more efficient overall process. The objectives of this project were to demonstrate the feasibility of horizon sensing on mining machines and demonstrate that Horizon Sensing can allow coal to be cut cleaner and more efficiently. Stolar's primary goal was to develop the Horizon Sensor (HS) into an enabling technology for full or partial automation or ''agile mining''. This technical innovation (R&D 100 Award Winner) is quickly demonstrating improvements in productivity and miner safety at several prominent coal mines in the United States. In addition, the HS system can enable the cutting of cleaner coal. Stolar has driven the HS program on the philosophy that cutting cleaner coal means burning cleaner coal. The sensor, located inches from the cutting bits, is based upon the physics principles of a Resonant Microstrip Patch Antenna (RMPA). When it is in proximity of the rock-coal interface, the RMPA impedance varies depending on the thickness of uncut coal. The impedance is measured by the computer-controlled electronics and then sent by radio waves to the mining machine. The worker at the machine can read the data via a Graphical User Interface, displaying a color-coded image of the coal being cut, and direct the machine appropriately. The Horizon Sensor program began development in 1998 and experienced three major design phases. The final version, termed HS-3, was commissioned in 2000 with the assistance of the DOE-Mining Industry of the Future program, commercialized in 2002, and has been used 14 times in 12 different mines within the United States. The Horizon Sensor has applications in both underground and surface mining operations. This technology is primarily used in the coal industry, but is also used to mine trona and potash. All horizon sensor components have Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) (United States) and IEC (International) certification. Horizon Sensing saves energy by maximizing cutting efficiency, cutting only desired material. This desired material is cleaner fuel, therefore reducing pollutants to the atmosphere when burned and burning more efficiently. Extracting only desired material increases productivity by reducing or eliminating the cleaning step after extraction. Additionally, this technology allows for deeper mining, resulting in more material gained from one location. The remote sensing tool allows workers to operate the machinery away from the hazards of cutting coal, including noise, breathing dust and gases, and coal and rock splintering and outbursts. The HS program has primarily revolved around the development of the technology. However, the end goal of the program has always been the commercialization of the technology and only within the last 2 years of the program has this goal been realized. Real-time horizon sensing on mining machines is becoming an industry tool. Detailed monitoring of system function, user experience, and mining benefits is ongoing.

Larry G. Stolarczyk

2003-03-18

98

Earthworms increase the ratio of bacteria to fungi in northern hardwood forest soils, primarily by eliminating the organic horizon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exotic earthworm invasion in hardwood forests of the northern United States is associated with many ecosystem-level changes. However, less is known about the effects of the invasion on the composition of the soil microbial community through which ecosystem-level changes are mediated. Further, earthworm effects on soil microbial community composition have not been well studied in the field. To evaluate

Mark A. Dempsey; Melany C. Fisk; Timothy J. Fahey

2011-01-01

99

Remote technologies for buried waste retrieval  

SciTech Connect

The DOE is evaluating what should be done with this buried waste. Although the radioactive waste is not particularly mobile unless airborne, some of it was buried with volatile organics and/or other substances that tend to spread easily to surrounding soil or water tables. Volatile organics are hazardous materials (such as trichloroethylene) and require clean-up at certain levels in drinking water. There is concern that the buried volatile organics will spread into the water table and contaminate drinking water. Because of this, the DOE is considering options for handling this buried waste and reducing the risks of spreading or exposure. There are two primary options: containment and stabilization, or retrieval. Containment and stabilization systems would include systems that would leave the waste where it is, but contain and stabilize it so that the radioactive and hazardous materials would not spread to the surrounding soil, water, or air. For example, an in situ vitrification system could be used to melt the waste into a composite glass-like material that would not leach into the surrounding soil, water, or air. Retrieval systems are those that would remove the waste from its burial location for treatment and/or repackaging for long term storage. The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate remote technologies that would minimize dust generation and the spread of airborne contaminants during buried waste retrieval. Remote technologies are essential for the retrieval of buried waste because they remove workers from the hazardous environment and provide greater automation, reducing the chances of human error. Minimizing dust generation is also essential to increased safety for the workers and the environment during buried waste retrieval. The main contaminants within the waste are micron-sized particles of plutonium and americium oxides, chlorides, and hydroxides, which are easily suspended in air and spread if disturbed.

Smith, A.M.; Rice, P.

1995-10-01

100

Chemical detection of buried landmines  

SciTech Connect

Of all the buried landmine identification technologies currently available, sensing the chemical signature from the explosive components found in landmines is the only technique that can classify non-explosive objects from the real threat. In the last two decades, advances in chemical detection methods has brought chemical sensing technology to the foreground as an emerging technological solution. In addition, advances have been made in the understanding of the fundamental transport processes that allow the chemical signature to migrate from the buried source to the ground surface. A systematic evaluation of the transport of the chemical signature from inside the mine into the soil environment, and through the soil to the ground surface is being explored to determine the constraints on the use of chemical sensing technology. This effort reports on the results of simulation modeling using a one-dimensional screening model to evaluate the impacts on the transport of the chemical signature by variation of some of the principal soil transport parameters.

Phelan, J.M.; Webb, S.W.

1998-03-01

101

Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry for the forensic study of cadaveric volatile organic compounds released in soil by buried decaying pig carcasses.  

PubMed

This article reports on the use of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS) for forensic geotaphonomy application. Gravesoil samples were collected at various depths and analyzed for their volatile organic compound (VOC) profile. A data processing procedure was developed to highlight potential candidate marker molecules related to the decomposition process that could be isolated from the soil matrix. Some 20 specific compounds were specifically found in the soil sample taken below the carcass and 34 other compounds were found at all depths of the gravesoil samples. The group of the 20 compounds consisted of ketones, nitriles, sulfurs, heterocyclic compounds, and benzene derivatives like aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, ethers and nitriles. The group of the 34 compounds consisted of methyl-branched alkane isomers including methyl-, dimethyl-, trimethyl-, tetramethyl-, and heptamethyl-isomers ranging from C(12) to C(16). A trend in the relative presence of these alkanes over the various layers of soils was observed, with an increase in the amount of the specific alkanes when coming from the carcass to the surface. Based on the specific presence of these methyl-branched alkanes in gravesoils, we created a processing method that applies a specific script to search raw data for characteristic mass spectral features related to recognizable mass fragmentation pattern. Such screening of soil samples for cadaveric decomposition signature was successfully applied on two gravesoil sites and clearly differentiates soils at proximity of buried decaying pig carcasses from control soils. PMID:22520639

Brasseur, Catherine; Dekeirsschieter, Jessica; Schotsmans, Eline M J; de Koning, Sjaak; Wilson, Andrew S; Haubruge, Eric; Focant, Jean-Francois

2012-09-14

102

Temporal change in molecular weight distribution of hot-water extractable organic nitrogen from cattle manure compost buried in soil using high-performance size exclusion chromatography with chemiluminescent nitrogen detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of compost can improve the fertility of the agricultural soils. The compost organic nitrogen is absorbed by plants after degradation and mineralization. To investigate the degradation process of compost organic nitrogen in soil, we conducted soil burial test of compost and observed the molecular weight distribution of hot-water extractable organic nitrogen from the compost. The cattle manure compost (1g) was mixed with soil (25g), put into glass fiber-filter paper bag and buried in 15 cm under surface of the ground for 6 months. The soils used were Andosol, Gray Lowland soil, and Yellow soil without organic matter application for 25 years in Tsukuba, Japan. Organic matter was extracted from the buried sample with 80° C of water for 16 hours. The molecular weight distribution of the hot-water extractable organic matter (HWEOM) was measured by high-performance size exclusion chromatography and chemiluminescent nitrogen detection (HPSEC/CLND). In this system, N-containing compound eluted from a SEC column was introduced into a furnace at 1050° C, and N in the compound was oxidized to nitric oxide and then detected using a chemiluminescent reaction with ozone. The N chromatogram showed that N in the HWEOM from the soil with compost had various molecular weights ranging from 0.1 to 100 kDa. A void peak (>100 kDa), a broad peak around 30 kDa, and several sharp peaks less than 30 kDa were observed in the chromatogram. The broad peak (~ 30kDa) was likely to be derived from the compost, because it was not observed in the chromatogram of HWEOM from soil alone. The N intensities of all peaks decreased with burial time, especially, the broad peak (~30 kDa) intensity rapidly decreased by 10 - 50 % in only first 2 months. The decreasing rates of the broad peak were higher than that of the sharp peaks, indicating that the organic nitrogen with a larger molecular weight decomposed faster. The broad peak (~ 30 kDa) had visible (420nm) absorption and less fulvic acid like florescence (Ex340nm, Em440 nm). The several sharp peaks had small visible absorption and intense florescence. Further studies are needed to assign the chemical forms for each peak.

Moriizumi, M.; Mutsunaga, T.

2012-04-01

103

-Early succession on plots with the upper soil horizon removed -259 Journal of Vegetation Science 11: 259-264, 2000  

E-print Network

.Onfine-grainedsoilsspecies- poorcommunitiesdominatedbygrasses(Calamagrostisvillosa, Deschampsia flexuosa) and on coarse-grained soils species-rich communities Bohemia, and 2Institute of Entomology, Czech Academy of Science, Branisovská 31, CZ-370 05 Ceské Budjovice, Czech Republic; 3Regional Museum, Zámek 1, CZ-356 01 Sokolov, Czech Republic; 4Institute of Botany

Leps, Jan "Suspa"

104

Buried paleoindian-age landscapes in stream valleys of the central plains, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A systematic study of late-Quaternary landscape evolution in the Central Plains documented widespread, deeply buried paleosols that represent Paleoindian-age landscapes in terrace fills of large streams (> 5th order), in alluvial fans, and in draws in areas of western Kansas with a thick loess mantle. Alluvial stratigraphic sections were investigated along a steep bio-climatic gradient extending from the moist-subhumid forest-prairie border of the east-central Plains to the dry-subhumid and semi-arid shortgrass prairie of the west-central Plains. Radiocarbon ages indicate that most large streams were characterized by slow aggradation accompanied by cumulic soil development from ca. 11,500 to 10,000??14C yr B.P. In the valleys of some large streams, such as the Ninnescah and Saline rivers, these processes continued into the early Holocene. The soil-stratigraphic record in the draws of western Kansas indicates slow aggradation punctuated by episodes of landscape stability and pedogenesis beginning as early as ca. 13,300??14C yr B.P. and spanning the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary. The development record of alluvial fans in western Kansas is similar to the record in the draws; slow aggradation was punctuated by multiple episodes of soil development between ca. 13,000 and 9000??14C yr B.P. In eastern Kansas and Nebraska, development of alluvial fans was common during the early and middle Holocene, but evidence shows fan development as early as ca. 11,300??14C yr B.P. Buried soils dating between ca. 12,600 and 9000??14C yr B.P. were documented in fans throughout the region. In stream valleys across the Central Plains, rapid alluviation after ca. 9000??14C yr B.P. resulted in deeply buried soils that may harbor Paleoindian cultural deposits. Hence, the paucity of recorded stratified Paleoindian sites in the Central Plains is probably related to poor visibility (i.e., deep burial in alluvial deposits) instead of limited human occupation in the region during the terminal Pleistocene and early Holocene. The thick, dark, cumulic A horizons of soils, representing buried Paleoindian-age landscapes, are targets for future archaeological surveys. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Mandel, R.D.

2008-01-01

105

Magnetic Pattern of Luvisol Sequences From Mexico and Russia: An Alternative Analysis of Soil Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, soil has been consolidated like a worthy and complementary source of information to environmental and paleo-climatic reconstruction research. The study of magnetic mineralogy present in soil horizons play an important role to understand a lot of complex process which to allow obtain information about environment condition present during genesis and evolution of soil. The main aim of this study is to compare soils with different parent material, as well as to obtain a magnetic sign from soils profile which could be used to determinate the responsible of pedogenic process of their magnetic behavior of each horizon, and their possible relationship with environmental condition. Study carried out of two complete profiles of buried interglacial Luvisols, one formed in loess in Russia (Alexandrovsky quarry, AQ) and the other in volcaniclastics in Mexico (Barranca Tlalpan, BT). In the AQ, the magnetic susceptibility is enhanced in the paleosol compared to parent material. In the BT sequence, susceptibility enhancement is absent in the soil profile. Increase of fine-grained magnetic components in the soil is attributed to neoformed minerals. However, this process cannot compensate for the loss of lithogenic magnetic minerals in any of the genetic horizons, and the resulting trend is susceptibility depletion in the whole soil profile. The pedogenic environment of eluvial horizons in both Luvisols is destructive to all magnetic components, both primary and secondary. Higher concentrations of antiferromagnetic components (hematite and goethite) found in E horizons are related to redoximorphic processes.

Rivas Ortiz, J. F.; Ortega Guerrero, B.; Solleiro Rebolledo, E.; Sedov, S.

2007-05-01

106

Digital Horizons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Digital Horizons was established in 2007 by a consortium that includes Prairie Public Broadcasting, the State Historical Society of North Dakota, and several other organizations. The goal of their work is to provide and maintain access to "a wide range of historical and significant content related to North Dakota and Minnesota." Visitors can use the search engine here to look for items by general subject heading or collection. All told, there are over fifteen collections included in this archive, including "Korean War Propaganda Leaflets", "Dakota Lithographs and Engravings", and "North Dakota Blue Books". For those looking for a place to start, they can take advantage of the "Popular Searches" list, which includes topical headings such as "floods", "bonanza farms", and "homesteading". This last heading is a great place to check out, as visitors will find evocative (and sometimes quite lonely) photographs of 19th century homesteads.

107

Sensor feature fusion for detecting buried objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given multiple registered images of the earth's surface from dual-band infrared sensors, our system fuses information from the sensors to reduce the effects of clutter and improve the ability to detect buried or surface target sites. The sensor suite currently includes two infrared sensors (5 micron and 10 micron wavelengths) and one ground penetrating radar (GPR) of the wide-band pulsed synthetic aperture type. We use a supervised learning pattern recognition approach to detect metal and plastic land mines buried in soil. The overall process consists of four main parts: preprocessing, feature extraction, feature selection, and classification. We present results of experiments to detect buried land mines from real data, and evaluate the usefulness of fusing feature information from multiple sensor types, including dual-band infrared and ground penetrating radar. The novelty of the work lies mostly in the combination of the algorithms and their application to the very important and currently unsolved operational problem of detecting buried land mines from an airborne standoff platform.

Clark, Gregory A.; Sengupta, Sailes K.; Sherwood, Robert J.; Hernandez, Jose D.; Buhl, Michael R.; Schaich, Paul C.; Kane, Ronald J.; Barth, Marvin J.; DelGrande, Nancy

1993-11-01

108

DOE complex buried waste characterization assessment  

SciTech Connect

The work described in this report was conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to provide information to the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. The information in this report is intended to provide a complex-wide planning base for th.e BWID to ensure that BWID activities are appropriately focused to address the range of remediation problems existing across the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. This report contains information characterizing the 2.1 million m[sup 3] of buried and stored wastes and their associated sites at six major DOE facilities. Approximately 85% of this waste is low-level waste, with about 12% TRU or TRU mixed waste; the remaining 3% is low-level mixed waste. In addition, the report describes soil contamination sites across the complex. Some of the details that would be useful in further characterizing the buried wastes and contaminated soil sites across the DOE complex are either unavailable or difficult to locate. Several options for accessing this information and/or improving the information that is available are identified in the report. This document is a companion to Technology Needs for Remediation: Hanford and Other DOE Sites, PNL-8328 (Stapp 1993).

Kaae, P.S.; Holter, G.M.; Garrett, S.M.K.

1993-01-01

109

Sensor feature fusion for detecting buried objects  

SciTech Connect

Given multiple registered images of the earth`s surface from dual-band sensors, our system fuses information from the sensors to reduce the effects of clutter and improve the ability to detect buried or surface target sites. The sensor suite currently includes two sensors (5 micron and 10 micron wavelengths) and one ground penetrating radar (GPR) of the wide-band pulsed synthetic aperture type. We use a supervised teaming pattern recognition approach to detect metal and plastic land mines buried in soil. The overall process consists of four main parts: Preprocessing, feature extraction, feature selection, and classification. These parts are used in a two step process to classify a subimage. Thee first step, referred to as feature selection, determines the features of sub-images which result in the greatest separability among the classes. The second step, image labeling, uses the selected features and the decisions from a pattern classifier to label the regions in the image which are likely to correspond to buried mines. We extract features from the images, and use feature selection algorithms to select only the most important features according to their contribution to correct detections. This allows us to save computational complexity and determine which of the sensors add value to the detection system. The most important features from the various sensors are fused using supervised teaming pattern classifiers (including neural networks). We present results of experiments to detect buried land mines from real data, and evaluate the usefulness of fusing feature information from multiple sensor types, including dual-band infrared and ground penetrating radar. The novelty of the work lies mostly in the combination of the algorithms and their application to the very important and currently unsolved operational problem of detecting buried land mines from an airborne standoff platform.

Clark, G.A.; Sengupta, S.K.; Sherwood, R.J.; Hernandez, J.E.; Buhl, M.R.; Schaich, P.C.; Kane, R.J.; Barth, M.J.; DelGrande, N.K.

1993-04-01

110

Bury Me Not!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into decomposition. Groups of learners will carefully observe and record the appearance of items, such as an apple, that can decompose, taking weights, measurements, and noting other physical markings. The items are then buried in buckets of various earth materials for at least two weeks. Learners will then dig up the objects to inspect, record observations to compare with their previous notes, and graph changes over time. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV GPS: Bogs.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2006-01-01

111

Evidence for an underground runoff and soil permeability at the Ouled Fayet (Algiers, Algeria) buried waste pilot project: needs for a specific landfill implantation code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results from geophysical investigations (electrical resistivity, electromagnetic mapping and seismic refraction) on an empty excavated rack of the Ouled Fayet (Algiers, Algeria) pilot landfill evidenced a more permeable soil than found by a feasibility study and the presence of an underground runoff underneath the rack. The problem was to evaluate the degree of confidence of the feasibility study, based on 76 10-m drilling cores only, 6 of them performed on the studied rack. To the contrary of what is claimed in the feasibility study a threat of lixiviate pollution is real. It is more than urgent to elaborate a code for landfill implantation in Algeria, which should include mandatory geophysical prospecting and deeper drilling cores. Keywords: Landfill, Geophysical prospecting, Underground runoff, Permeability, Algeria.

Djadia, Leila; Abtout, Abdslam; Boudella, Amar

2014-05-01

112

Supersymmetric isolated horizons  

E-print Network

We construct a covariant phase space for rotating weakly isolated horizons in Einstein-Maxwell-Chern-Simons theory in all (odd) $D\\geq5$ dimensions. In particular, we show that horizons on the corresponding phase space satisfy the zeroth and first laws of black-hole mechanics. We show that the existence of a Killing spinor on an isolated horizon in four dimensions (when the Chern-Simons term is dropped) and in five dimensions requires that the induced (normal) connection on the horizon has to vanish, and this in turn implies that the surface gravity and rotation one-form are zero. This means that the gravitational component of the horizon angular momentum is zero, while the electromagnetic component (which is attributed to the bulk radiation field) is unconstrained. It follows that an isolated horizon is supersymmetric only if it is extremal and nonrotating. A remarkable property of these horizons is that the Killing spinor only has to exist on the horizon itself. It does not have to exist off the horizon. In addition, we find that the limit when the surface gravity of the horizon goes to zero provides a topological constraint. Specifically, the integral of the scalar curvature of the cross sections of the horizon has to be positive when the dominant energy condition is satisfied and the cosmological constant $\\Lambda$ is zero or positive, and in particular rules out the torus topology for supersymmetric isolated horizons (unless $\\Lambda<0$) if and only if the stress-energy tensor $T_{ab}$ is of the form such that $T_{ab}\\ell^{a}n^{b}=0$ for any two null vectors $\\ell$ and $n$ with normalization $\\ell_{a}n^{a}=-1$ on the horizon.

Tomas Liko; Ivan Booth

2007-12-19

113

Soils of paleocryogenic hummocky-hollow landscapes in the southern Baikal region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The features of ancient periglacial phenomena are widespread in landscapes lying beyond the modern permafrost zone. The specificity of the paleogeographic conditions in the south of the Baikal region resulted in the formation of paleocryogenic landscapes with hummocky-hollow landforms. The paleocryogenic mounds (hummocks) are of rounded or elongated shape, their height is up to 2-3 m, and their width is up to 20-25 m. They are separated by microlows (hollows). This paleocryogenic microtopography favors the differentiation of the pedogenesis on the mounds and in the hollows, so the soil cover pattern becomes more complicated. It is composed of polychronous soils organized in complexes with cyclic patterns. Light gray and gray forest soils and leached and ordinary chernozems are developed on the mounds; gray and dark gray forest soils and chernozems with buried horizons are developed in the hollows. The soils of the paleocryogenic complexes differ from one another in their morphology, physical and chemical properties, elemental composition, and humus composition. For the first time, radiocarbon dates have been obtained for the surface and buried humus horizons in the hollows. The results prove the heterochronous nature of the soils of the paleocryogenic landscapes in the south of the Baikal region.

Kozlova, A. A.; Kuz'min, V. A.; Zazovskaya, E. P.

2014-05-01

114

Buried, viable seeds in two California bunchgrass sites and their bearing on the definition of a flora  

Microsoft Academic Search

A complete description of a plant community must include the buried viable seeds in the soil. The plants occurring in this form are a part of the flora, which helps to determine the community, even though they are not readily evident. The importance of defining an ecosystem's flora is reviewed. When the soil's buried viable seed population is used to

Jack Major; William T. Pyott

1966-01-01

115

Soil stratigraphy and plant soil interactions on a Late Glacial Holocene fluvial terrace sequence, Sierra Nevada National Park, northern Venezuelan Andes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of a flight of alluvial terraces in the Sierra Nevada National Park near Pico Mucuñuque in the Eastern Mérida Andes has yielded information on geomorphic, pedogenic, and vegetational changes from Late Glacial time to the present. The terraces formed in large part due to stream incision/migration triggered by neotectonic uplift (>7000 yr BP) of a Late Glacial/Early Holocene glaciolacustrine lithosequence and, with the exception of the oldest/highest terrace, exhibit near-uniform lithology/parent materials. Soils developed in the terrace materials range from thin, weakly developed profiles (O/C/Cu horizons) to Entisols with O/Ah/Cox/Cu horizons and similar buried counterparts representing former short periods of floodplain stability or slow aggradation. The buried soils provide organic-rich material that yields radiocarbon ages, which provide time constraints on individual pedons and the geomorphic development of the site. Iron and aluminum extracts of soil matrix material provide information on the formation and accumulation of goethite and hematite, the relative accumulation of ferrihydrite (gain/loss), and the downward translocation of organically complexed Al as a function of soil development and age. SEM analysis of heavy mineral grains indicates varying material sources and degrees of weathering in the soil chronosequence. A qualitative study of plant functional types across the terrace sequence shows that older surfaces support greater plant diversity. The study also suggests ways in which the plant communities influence soil development at the site through varying organic matter inputs and varying soil moisture use by specific species (e.g., ferns on the oldest terrace), which may explain the absence of B horizons in the Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene soils.

Mahaney, William C.; Dirszowsky, Randy W.; Milner, Michael W.; Harmsen, Rudolf; Finkelstein, Sarah A.; Kalm, Volli; Bezada, Maximilano; Hancock, R. G. V.

2007-01-01

116

DOE complex buried waste characterization assessment. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program  

SciTech Connect

The work described in this report was conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to provide information to the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. The information in this report is intended to provide a complex-wide planning base for th.e BWID to ensure that BWID activities are appropriately focused to address the range of remediation problems existing across the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. This report contains information characterizing the 2.1 million m{sup 3} of buried and stored wastes and their associated sites at six major DOE facilities. Approximately 85% of this waste is low-level waste, with about 12% TRU or TRU mixed waste; the remaining 3% is low-level mixed waste. In addition, the report describes soil contamination sites across the complex. Some of the details that would be useful in further characterizing the buried wastes and contaminated soil sites across the DOE complex are either unavailable or difficult to locate. Several options for accessing this information and/or improving the information that is available are identified in the report. This document is a companion to Technology Needs for Remediation: Hanford and Other DOE Sites, PNL-8328 (Stapp 1993).

Kaae, P.S.; Holter, G.M.; Garrett, S.M.K.

1993-01-01

117

Dynamics of organic nitrogen in cryoturbated Arctic soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arctic soils are estimated to store about twice the amount of carbon as today's atmosphere, with a large proportion of this C in subsoil horizons. Within the subsoil, cryoturbated organic matter (OM), i.e. OM buried by freeze-thaw processes, represents a large store of poorly decomposed material. Although soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition is known to be affected by nitrogen status of the microbial biomass, knowledge about N dynamics and N availability in the subsoil of arctic soils is particularly scarce. We here report on microbial transformations of organic N, i.e. protein/peptide depolymerization (the rate limiting step for the soil N cycle), microbial amino acid uptake and N mineralization. We hypothesized that gross rates of N transformations would decrease with increasing SOM decomposition, while N availability would increase as a consequence of decreasing C/N ratio. We sampled topsoil (organic), cryoturbated and subsoil horizons of tundra sites in Greenland and Siberia, and applied a set of 15N pool dilution assays to measure gross rates of protein depolymerization, microbial amino acid uptake and N mineralization. From these assays we also calculated microbial N use efficiency (NUE), i.e. the efficiency of microorganisms to incorporate organic N into the biomass, as an indicator of N availability for microorganisms. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of easily available organic C and N sources on soil microbial processes: We incubated soils amended with 13C labelled amino acids, protein, glucose and cellulose, and measured C and N mineralization rates as well as microbial community composition and potential activities of extracellular enzymes. We found that all gross N transformation rates decreased significantly from topsoil organic over cryoturbated to subsoil mineral horizons. While the differences between topsoil organic and subsoil mineral horizons were sufficiently explained by SOM content, cryoturbated horizons had significantly lower rates even when calculated on a carbon basis. NUE was generally high, did not differ significantly between horizons, and was not correlated to the C/N ratio of SOM, suggesting that N limitation for microorganisms was similar across the soil profile. The addition of organic N (amino acids and protein), however, resulted in a two-fold increase in SOM mineralization in cryoturbated horizons, while the addition of organic C only (glucose and cellulose) had no effect. Taken together, our results suggest that an increased N availability in cryoturbated horizons might lead to an increase in SOM decomposition by altering the function of the microbial decomposer community. Increasing SOM decomposition in turn is likely to increase N availability for microbes, which may lead to a positive feedback on SOM decomposition.

Wild, B.; Schnecker, J.; Rusalimova, O.; Mikutta, R.; Guggenberger, G.; Richter, A.

2012-12-01

118

Electrical impedance tomography for underwater detection of buried mines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detection of buried land mines in soil is a well-studied problem; many existing technologies are designed and optimized for performance in different soil types. Research on mine detection in shallow water environments such as beaches, however, is much less developed. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) shows promise for this application. EIT uses current-stimulating and voltage-recording electrode pairs to measure trans-impedances

Gail Bouchette; Stéphane Gagnon; Philip Church; Tim Luu; John McFee

2008-01-01

119

Electromagnetic modeling of buried objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, radar cross section (RCS) models of buried dipoles, surface steel pipe, and buried steel pipes are dicussed. In all these models, the ground is assumed to be a uniform half space. The calculated results for the buried dipoles and the surface steel pipe compare favorably with those measured in the 1993 Yuma ground penetration radar (GPR) experiment. For the buried dipoles, a first-order RCS model is developed. In this model, a solution for an infinitely long conducting cylinder, together with a mirror image approximation (which accounts for the coupling between the dipole and the ground-air interface) is used to calculate the dipole RCS. This RCS model of the buried dipoles explains the observed loss of dipole RCS. For the surface steel pipe, a geometrical optics model, which includes the multipath interaction, is developed. This model explains the observed multipath gain/loss. For the buried steel pipes, a zero order physical optics model is developed. Also discussed is desert radar clutter statistics as a function of depression angle. Preliminary analysis, based on samples of Yuma desert suface profiles, indicates that simple rough-surface models cannot explain the observed average backscatter from desert clutter.

Lee, Check F.

1994-07-01

120

Electromagnetic modeling of buried objects  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, radar cross section (RCS) models of buried dipoles, surface steel pipe, and buried steel pipes are discussed. In all these models, the ground is assumed to be a uniform half space. The calculated results for the buried dipoles and the surface steel pipe compare favorably with those measured in the 1993 Yuma ground penetration radar (GPR) experiment. For the buried dipoles, a first-order RCS model is developed. In this model, a solution for an infinitely long conducting cylinder, together with a mirror image approximation (which accounts for the coupling between the dipole and the ground-air interface) is used to calculate the dipole RCS. This RCS model of the buried dipoles explains the observed loss of dipole RCS. For the surface steel pipe, a geometrical optics model, which includes the multipath interaction, is developed. This model explains the observed multipath gain/loss. For the buried steel pipes, a zero order physical optics model is developed. Also discussed is desert radar clutter statistics as a function of depression angle. Preliminary analysis, based on samples of Yuma desert surface profiles, indicates that simple rough-surface models cannot explain the observed average backscatter from desert clutter.

Lee, C.F. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Lexington, MA (United States). Lincoln Lab.

1994-12-31

121

Coleoptera associated with buried carrion: potential forensic importance and seasonal composition.  

PubMed

Burial has a unique effect on carrion fauna and this may affect the decomposition rate, consequently interfering with postmortem estimates. We surveyed the Coleoptera on buried rabbit carcasses between April 2008 and March 2009. The insects of forensic importance totaled 1,502 individuals, constituting 87.12% of the Coleoptera collected. The composition of the beetle community varied seasonally. Exposed carcasses lost weight much faster than buried ones. The weight lost by exposed cadavers in a week was greater than those carcasses buried for 10 wk. The temperature variations of the buried carcasses and the soil were around three times less variable than the environmental temperature. The proximity between the temperature variations of the soil and buried carcasses was because of the absence of larval masses. The results show differences in decomposition and faunal composition, demonstrating their relevance in the interpretation of cases with bodies in a similar situation. PMID:25276937

Corr?a, R C; Moura, M O

2014-09-01

122

Black holes: from event horizons to trapping horizons  

E-print Network

Black holes: from event horizons to trapping horizons Eric Gourgoulhon Laboratoire Univers et Th, France 10 December 2009 Eric Gourgoulhon (LUTH) Black holes: trapping horizons LATT, Toulouse, 10 December 2009 1 / 38 #12;Plan 1 Concept of black hole and event horizon 2 Local approaches to black holes 3

Gourgoulhon, Eric

123

Black holes: from event horizons to trapping horizons  

E-print Network

Black holes: from event horizons to trapping horizons Eric Gourgoulhon Laboratoire Univers et Th April 2009 Eric Gourgoulhon (LUTH) Black holes: trapping horizons INLN, Nice, 2 April 2009 1 / 39 #12;Plan 1 Concept of black hole and event horizon 2 Local approaches to black holes 3 Viscous fluid

Gourgoulhon, Eric

124

Black holes: from event horizons to trapping horizons  

E-print Network

Black holes: from event horizons to trapping horizons Eric Gourgoulhon Laboratoire Univers et Th) Black holes: trapping horizons CERN, 17 March 2010 1 / 38 #12;Plan 1 Concept of black hole and event horizon 2 Local approaches to black holes 3 Viscous fluid analogy 4 Angular momentum and area evolution

Gourgoulhon, Eric

125

Black holes: from event horizons to trapping horizons  

E-print Network

Black holes: from event horizons to trapping horizons Eric Gourgoulhon Laboratoire Univers et Th 2009 Eric Gourgoulhon (LUTH) Black holes: trapping horizons LPT, Orsay, 14 October 2009 1 / 39 #12;Plan 1 Concept of black hole and event horizon 2 Local approaches to black holes 3 Viscous fluid analogy

Gourgoulhon, Eric

126

Sminaire stratgique Horizon 2020  

E-print Network

Séminaire stratégique Horizon 2020 Un nouveau défi européen pour la R&I genevoise 24 mai 2013'innovation « Horizon 2020 » sera lancé dans 8 mois (janvier 2014) avec un budget de 10 milliards d'euros par an et des opportunités dans tous les domaines scientifiques et technologiques. Une participation avec succès à H2020 ne s

Halazonetis, Thanos

127

Spherically symmetric dynamical horizons  

E-print Network

We determine sufficient and necessary conditions for a spherically symmetric initial data set to satisfy the dynamical horizon conditions in the spacetime development. The constraint equations reduce to a single second order linear master equation, which leads to a systematic construction of all spherically symmetric dynamical horizons (SSDH) satisfying certain boundedness conditions. We also find necessary and sufficient conditions for a given spherically symmetric spacetime to contain a SSDH.

Robert Bartnik; Jim Isenberg

2005-12-15

128

Soil Composition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Soil is essential for life on Earth. It is needed for food, air, clothing and so much more. Discussion topics include the terms 'soil', 'dirt', and 'sediment', factors affecting the formation of soils, soil horizons, and the twelve orders of soils. In a hands-on activity, students will collect soil samples from three different locations, use online resources to determine texture and particle makeup, and record their observations.

Fox, Chris; Pratte, John

129

Mt. Blanco revisited: soil-geomorphic implications for the ages of the upper Cenozoic Blanco and Blackwater Draw Formations  

SciTech Connect

Mt. Blanco, on the eastern edge of the Southern High Plains of Texas, contains stratigraphic features significant in interpreting the late Cenozoic history of the region and the vertebrate paleontology of the Great Plains; however, the stratigraphic relations are confused in the literature or are unreported. Mt. Blanco is the type locality for the Blanco Formation and the Blanco Local Fauna, which occurs throughout North America and is the type fauna for the Blancan Land Mammal Age in North America. Here also occur exposures of the Blackwater Draw Formation, an extensive (120,000 km/sup 2/) eolian sheet that is the surficial cover of the region and contains the 1.4 Ma Guaje Ash and several buried soils. A reexamination of the section shows that (1) the Blackwater Draw Formation, an eolian deposit, contains three well-expressed buried soils (5 YR hues, argillic horizons greater than or equal to 1 m thick, Stages III and IV calcic horizons) and the similar regional surface soil (Paleustalf); (2) the Guaje Ash is within the lower Blackwater Draw Formation but is separated from the Blanco Formation, a lacustrine unit, by about 1 m of sediment, including the lowest buried soil; and (3) the lowest buried soil shows a Stage IV calcrete formed at the top of the Blanco Formation and the base of the Blackwater Draw Formation and probably took about 200 ka to form. These new data suggested that deposition of the type Blanco sediments may have ended by about 1.6 Ma or earlier. Since that time, the Blackwater Draw Formation has accumulated episodically; periods of nondeposition are characterized by landscape stability and pedogenesis.

Holliday, V.T.

1988-06-01

130

Buried antenna analysis at VHF. Part 1: The buried horizontal electric dipole  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method was developed to find the far field radiation pattern of a buried horizontal electric dipole (HED) at 37.5 MHz. The imaginary part of the index of refraction was shown to be negligible for dry soil at this frequency so standard antenna theory and ray optic theory was used. The effect of the ground-air interface was modeled using the transmission coefficient and Snell's law for a dielectric interface. Because the current distribution for the buried HED depends on antenna construction, results are shown for the far field pattern in the air for different current distributions on the HED. The literature on this problem was reviewed; most used the Sommerfeld or moment methods to make the same calculations. The results of one of the reports using the Sommerfeld method could be compared and were found to be similar. An extensive bibliography is included. The analysis was then applied to a buried antenna array. The current distribution was known and was used to calculate the far field pattern. It was concluded that the far field pattern is highly dependent on the current distribution. This part is classified.

Burks, J. W.

1984-01-01

131

Geochronology of Holocene Soil Forming Processes in the Baikal Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chronology of soil formation in the Baikal Region is worked out poorly, and the issues concerning the soil cover development during the Holocene, still remain not fully understood. In this connection, the study of paleosols sequences which located on western Lake Baikal coast is interesting in all aspects. Features of pedogenic allow us to trace soil evolution in response to climatic and landscape changes, using morphological (color, texture, etc.) and analytical data (total organic carbon and nitrogen, humus content and composition, carbonate content, particle-size distribution, major and minor elemental compositions). Paleosols features suggest that the soils which were spread on the Primorsky Range piedmont about 7200±140 year BP coincide to Luvisols (WRB). The paleosols which were spread along the coast of the Lake Baikal between 7000-3200 calendar years ago are comparable to Chernozems (WRB). The principal attributes of the buried soil horizons with the age 4120±95 BP show maximum humus accumulation. This soil is distinguished by darker (black) color and high (up to 6%) humus content, and by the predominance of humic acids in humus composition. The Subatlantic pedogenesis is shown in the buried soil horizon with age of 2400, 1900 and 400 years. These soils are similar to the typical contemporaneous soils of this territory - Leptosols (WRB), except lower content of humus and exchange calcium for the Subatlantic soils. On the whole, the soils evolution of the studied area consists of three stages. First and foremost, it is the stage of Early Holocene shaping of the soil cover with pedogenic intermittence and weakness as a result of erosion and permafrost influence, with formation of skeletal soils of the organic-accumulation type. The next soil formation stage (Middle Holocene) characterized by a more stable state of soil cover, and by shaping of the Luvisols and Chernozems. Humus accumulation, carbonization and lessivage process dominated during this stage. Throughout the Late Holocene the soils were evolving that could be related to changing paleoenvironment. Strong erosion took place before 6200 BP, between 4900 BP and 4200 BP, from 3300 BP to 2200 BP, about 1300 and 1000 BP, and 400 years ago. Transform of the soil formation type, decrease rate of the humus formation and humus accumulation processes, and intensification of erosion and cryogenic processes were appeared as result of paleoenvironmental changes in the Baikal Region.

Danko, L.

2012-04-01

132

Black hole horizons Eric Gourgoulhon  

E-print Network

Black hole horizons ´Eric Gourgoulhon Laboratoire Univers et Th´eories (LUTH) CNRS / Observatoire hole horizons SN2NS, Paris, 4 Feb 2014 1 / 37 #12;Outline 1 Concept of black hole and event horizon 2 Quasi-local horizons 3 Astrophysical black holes 4 The near-future observations of black holes ´Eric

Gourgoulhon, Eric

133

HORIZON 2020 PROSPETTIVE E OPPORTUNITA'  

E-print Network

HORIZON 2020 PROSPETTIVE E OPPORTUNITA' DEI NUOVI PROGRAMMI DI RICERCA UE RAGIONARE INSIEME SU HORIZON 2020RAGIONARE INSIEME SU HORIZON 2020 GENNAIO 2013GENNAIO 2013 ­­ Universita'Universita' degli Quadro HORIZON 2020 (programma di ricerca e di innovazione) e come i FESR a livello maxi-innovazione) e

Robbiano, Lorenzo

134

Changes in soil properties and soil cover structure due to intensive erosion and accumulation processes in loess soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intensive water and tillage erosion and consequent accumulation are the most important processes affecting the agroecosystems in loess regions and changing soil properties, e.g. organic carbon content, carbonate content or structure stability, and general distribution of soil units in the landscape. South Moravian loess belt, formerly covered mostly by Haplic Chernozem, is now formed by a highly diversified soil mosaic. At a morphologically heterogenous study plot (6 ha), a study on relationship between soil properties and terrain characteristics was held. DTM analysis, detailed terrain survey and laboratory analysis were the main methods adopted in the study. Three main soil units were identified: Haplic Chernozem, calcareous Regosol and Colluvial soil. The distribution of each soil unit correlates with different terrain attributes. Regosols are significatly connected to the steep slope, while their correlation with the curvature or hydrological indexes is lower. On the contrary, the Colluvial soils distribution depends mainly on values of curvature and topographical wetness index and is independent on the slope. Chernozem is related to a specific terrain position more than to any of the terrain attributes. Soil depth and humus horizon thickness vary extremelly - from 0.2 m at the erosionally exposed slopes to more than 2.5 m at the concave parts and the toeslope. Soil depth is significantly correlated with all of the tested terrain attributes except of the slope - the strongest correlation was proved in case of mean curvature, topographical wetness index and catchment area. Different degree of changes in particular soil properties results from the specificity of both erosion process and parent material character. Organic carbon content in the topsoil varies significantly. Humus is practically absent in the steepest parts of the slope where the loess is exposed. High amounts of Corg were identified in the undisturbed A horizons of the Chernozem unit. In the concave parts of the slope and at the toeslope, the Corg content in the plough layer is lower due to an admixture of non-humus material transported from the steep parts of the plot. Nevertheless, the deeper (0.7 - 2 m), buried parts of the colluvial profiles are very rich in organic carbon (up to 4 %). These horizons may represent fossil chernic horizons of former Chernozems, buried by intensive sedimentation of humic material. Similar variability was found in carbonate content values, always due to amount of loess admixture in the plough horizon. While the soil structure stability, depending strongly on humus content, was the highest in the Chernozem unit, in the eroded parts it was highly unstable. Changes in the cation exchange capacity and pH are less distinctive. CEC slightly increases in humus-rich soils and pH is higher in the eroded parts of the plot due to the loess exposition. Acknowledgement: Authors acknowledge the financial support of the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic (grant No. GA CR 526/08/0434) and the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic (grant No. MSM 6046070901).

Zadorova, Tereza; Penizek, Vit; Jaksik, Ondrej; Kodesova, Radka; Jirku, Veronika; Fer, Miroslav

2010-05-01

135

Thin film buried anode battery  

DOEpatents

A reverse configuration, lithium thin film battery (300) having a buried lithium anode layer (305) and process for making the same. The present invention is formed from a precursor composite structure (200) made by depositing electrolyte layer (204) onto substrate (201), followed by sequential depositions of cathode layer (203) and current collector (202) on the electrolyte layer. The precursor is subjected to an activation step, wherein a buried lithium anode layer (305) is formed via electroplating a lithium anode layer at the interface of substrate (201) and electrolyte film (204). The electroplating is accomplished by applying a current between anode current collector (201) and cathode current collector (202).

Lee, Se-Hee (Lakewood, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO); Liu, Ping (Denver, CO)

2009-12-15

136

Melter development needs assessment for RWMC buried wastes  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a survey and initial assessment of the existing state-of-the-art melter technology necessary to thermally treat (stabilize) buried TRU waste, by producing a highly leach resistant glass/ceramic waste form suitable for final disposal. Buried mixed transuranic (TRU) waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) represents an environmental hazard requiring remediation. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) placed the INEL on the National Priorities List in 1989. Remediation of the buried TRU-contaminated waste via the CERCLA decision process is required to remove INEL from the National Priorities List. A Waste Technology Development (WTD) Preliminary Systems Design and Thermal Technologies Screening Study identified joule-heated and plasma-heated melters as the most probable thermal systems technologies capable of melting the INEL soil and waste to produce the desired final waste form [Iron-Enriched Basalt (IEB) glass/ceramic]. The work reported herein then surveys the state of existing melter technology and assesses it within the context of processing INEL buried TRU wastes and contaminated soils. Necessary technology development work is recommended.

Donaldson, A.D.; Carpenedo, R.J.; Anderson, G.L.

1992-02-01

137

Melter development needs assessment for RWMC buried wastes  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a survey and initial assessment of the existing state-of-the-art melter technology necessary to thermally treat (stabilize) buried TRU waste, by producing a highly leach resistant glass/ceramic waste form suitable for final disposal. Buried mixed transuranic (TRU) waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) represents an environmental hazard requiring remediation. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) placed the INEL on the National Priorities List in 1989. Remediation of the buried TRU-contaminated waste via the CERCLA decision process is required to remove INEL from the National Priorities List. A Waste Technology Development (WTD) Preliminary Systems Design and Thermal Technologies Screening Study identified joule-heated and plasma-heated melters as the most probable thermal systems technologies capable of melting the INEL soil and waste to produce the desired final waste form (Iron-Enriched Basalt (IEB) glass/ceramic). The work reported herein then surveys the state of existing melter technology and assesses it within the context of processing INEL buried TRU wastes and contaminated soils. Necessary technology development work is recommended.

Donaldson, A.D.; Carpenedo, R.J.; Anderson, G.L.

1992-02-01

138

Buried Wetlands: The Origin and Evolution of Pre-Settlement Piedmont Valley Bottoms in Pennsylvania and Maryland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Walter and Merritts (2008) we describe the stratigraphy of Mid-Atlantic Piedmont stream banks to consist of 1-5 m stacks of post-settlement fine-grained sediments overlying a thin organic-rich horizon, which in turn overlies a veneer of gravels on bedrock. We attribute the widespread deposition of the fine-grained sediments to an increase in base level caused by the construction of Early American milldams that lined valley bottoms by the mid 19th Century, and to the filling of extensive millponds with eroded upland soil. Several earlier researchers noted the existence of a dark organic-rich horizon near the base of stream banks in this region, but little attention was paid to their nature or origin. Our studies show that this dark layer formed during the Holocene, and was hydro-climatically stable for at least the last 5,000 yrs. Analyses of extracted seeds reveal obligate and facultative wetland plants, indicating that this horizon should be classified as a hydric (wetland) soil. Trenches and bank exposures show that this wetland soil can be traced across valley bottoms where it overlies coarse, generally quartz-rich gravels that are angular to subangular except where underlain by bedrock composed of rounded gravels. We interpret these basal gravels to be a concentrated lag from denudation of adjacent hillslopes over millions of years, and in places this lag was reworked by periglacial processes. The angularity of the clasts and the lack of fluvial depositional structures indicate that the basal gravels were not transported or deposited by river action. We have found no evidence of a pre-settlement stream channel form in the 1st to 3rd order streams of the 20+ watersheds we have studied to date. The widespread occurrence of hydric soils and the lack of discernable pre-settlement stream channels indicate that valley bottoms were dominated by broad wetland ecosystems. Given that state and federal agencies are spending millions of dollars to create new wetlands, the recognition of buried pre- settlement wetlands presents new opportunities, and a testable model, to guide future stream restoration practices in the region.

Walter, R. C.; Merritts, D. J.; Voli, M. T.; Scheid, C. R.; Hartranft, J. L.; Hilgartner, W. B.; Rahnis, M. A.

2008-12-01

139

Static M-horizons  

E-print Network

We determine the geometry of all static black hole horizons of M-theory preserving at least one supersymmetry. We demonstrate that all such horizons are either warped products R^{1,1} *_w S or AdS_2 *_w S, where S admits an appropriate Spin(7) or SU(4) structure respectively; and we derive the conditions imposed by supersymmetry on these structures. We show that for electric static horizons with Spin(7) structure, the near horizon geometry is a product R^{1,1} * S, where S is a compact Spin(7) holonomy manifold. For electric static solutions with SU(4) structure, we show that the horizon section S is a circle fibration over an 8-dimensional Kahler manifold which satisfies an additional condition involving the Ricci scalar and the length of the Ricci tensor. Solutions include AdS_2 * S^3 * CY_6 as well as many others constructed from taking the 8-dimensional Kahler manifold to be a product of Kahler-Einstein and Calabi-Yau spaces.

J. Gutowski; G. Papadopoulos

2011-06-15

140

Static M-horizons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We determine the geometry of all static black hole horizons of M-theory pre-serving at least one supersymmetry. We demonstrate that all such horizons are either warped products {mathbb{R}^{1,1}}{ ×_w}mathcal{S} or Ad{S_2}{ ×_w}mathcal{S} , where mathcal{S} admits an appropriate Spin(7) or SU(4) structure respectively; and we derive the conditions imposed by supersymmetry on these structures. We show that for electric static horizons with Spin(7) structure, the near horizon geometry is a product {mathbb{R}^{1,1}} × mathcal{S} , where mathcal{S} is locally a compact Spin(7) holonomy manifold. For electric static solutions with SU(4) structure, we show that the horizon section mathcal{S} is a circle fibration over an 8-dimensional Kähler manifold which satisfies an additional condition involving the Ricci scalar and the length of the Ricci tensor. Solutions include AdS 2× S 3× CY 6 as well as many others constructed from taking the 8-dimensional Kähler manifold to be a product of Kähler-Einstein and Calabi-Yau spaces.

Gutowski, Jan; Papadopoulos, George

2012-01-01

141

Field-Measured Infiltration Properties of Mojave Desert Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characteristics typical of alluvial desert soils, such as depositional stratification, desert pavement, biotic crusts, and vesicular horizons strongly influence soil moisture and its variability. Knowledge of infiltration capacity, water retention, and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity is central to the assessment of water availability to plants and animals after infiltration events. These hydraulic parameters are directly related to the degree of soil development. The frequency and magnitude of storm events in conjunction with degree of soil development also affect runoff and erosion. Our purpose is to examine field soil-water behavior and determine unsaturated hydraulic properties needed for large-scale modeling of soil moisture. The results of this study will be used in conjunction with surficial geologic mapping of the Mojave Desert in evaluations of ecological habitat quality. We conducted infiltration/redistribution experiments on three different-aged deposits in the Mojave National Preserve: (1) recently deposited wash sediments, (2) a soil of early Holocene age, and (3) a highly developed soil of late Pleistocene age. In each experiment we ponded water in a 1-m-diameter infiltration ring for 2.3 hr. For several weeks we monitored water content and matric pressure to depths of 1.5 m, and distances of 6 m from the infiltration ring. Measuring techniques included surface electrical resistance tomography, dielectric-constant probes, heat-dissipation probes, and tensiometers. Analysis of the subsurface measurements using an instantaneous-profile technique gives the retention and K properties that will be used in predictive modeling. In each experiment the infiltration rate was nearly constant in time, with infiltration capacity 4 times greater in the youngest than in the oldest soil. Average infiltration flux densities within the ring during the period of ponding were 0.80 m/hr in the active wash, 0.45 m/hr in the Holocene soil, and 0.21 m/hr in the Pleistocene soil. All three deposits have significant gravel (30-70% within the uppermost 1.5 m) with the percentage of silt and clay increasing with deposit age. The low infiltration capacity in the oldest soil is consistent with the presence of the more highly developed vesicular horizon and accumulation of illuvial silt. Depositional stratification in the active wash did not impede downward flow to the same degree as in the early Holocene-age soil, which has some soil horizon development and sparse biotic crust. Infiltrated water spread laterally to at least 1 m beyond the ring perimeter at all sites; the presence of a buried clay-rich horizon in the active wash enhanced spreading at depth to 2 m.

Perkins, K. S.; Nimmo, J. R.; Winfield, K. A.; Schmidt, K. M.; Miller, D. M.; Stock, J. D.; Singha, K.

2005-12-01

142

Tracing buried pipelines using multi frequency electromagnetic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper the application of multi frequency electromagnetic techniques to locate buried pipelines is described. The survey site has two pipelines of SUMED, one of the world chokepoints. At desert or arid areas, regular geophysical surveys usually are difficult to carry out. EM techniques could be the best among geophysical techniques to be used for this target at these conditions. The EM survey was performed using a GEM-300 multi-frequency electromagnetic profiler. It is of handheld electromagnetic induction-type that measures in-phase and quadrature terrain conductivity without electrodes or direct soil contact. An area of 60 × 15 m was surveyed, that supposed SUMED pipeline existed. Six different frequencies, typically 2025, 2875, 4125, 5875, 8425, 12,025 Hz, have been used simultaneously. The slice maps for in-phase and conductivity distribution at each frequency could help to trace the extension of the pipeline. Two pipelines were traced successfully with 20 m spacing of each others.

El-Qady, Gad; Metwaly, Mohamed; Khozaym, Ashraf

2014-06-01

143

Degradation of carbohydrates and lignins in buried woods  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Spruce, alder, and oak woods deposited in coastal sediments were characterized versus their modern counterparts by quantification of individual neutral sugars and lignin-derived phenols as well as by scanning electron microscopy, 13C NMR, and elemental analysis. The buried spruce wood from a 2500 yr old deposit was unaltered whereas an alder wood from the same horizon and an oak wood from an open ocean sediment were profoundly degraded. Individual sugar and lignin phenol analyses indicate that at least 90 and 98 wt% of the initial total polysaccharides in the buried alder and oak woods, respectively, have been degraded along with 15-25 wt% of the lignin. At least 75% of the degraded biopolymer has been physically lost from these samples. This evidence is supported by the SEM, 13C NMR and elemental analyses, all of which indicate selective loss of the carbohydrate moiety. The following order of stability was observed for the major biochemical constituents of both buried hardwoods: vanillyl and p-hydroxyl lignin structural units > syringyl lignin structural units > pectin > ??-cellulose > hemicellulose. This sequence can be explained by selective preservation of the compound middle lamella regions of the wood cell walls. The magnitude and selectivity of the indicated diagenetic reactions are sufficient to cause major changes in the chemical compositions of wood-rich sedimentary organic mixtures and to provide a potentially large in situ nutrient source. ?? 1985.

Hedges, J.I.; Cowie, G.L.; Ertel, J.R.; James, Barbour R.; Hatcher, P.G.

1985-01-01

144

The Buried Town of Beaver.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Local history as source material for environmental education is uniquely portrayed in this resource kit. Utilizing a Winona County Historical Society publication, "The Beaver Story" and accompanied by a teacher's guide, "The Buried Town of Beaver," and other teaching aids, a case study of the area can be developed. Based on the reminiscences of…

Jostad, Karen

145

M-Horizons  

E-print Network

We solve the Killing spinor equations and determine the near horizon geometries of M-theory that preserve at least one supersymmetry. The M-horizon spatial sections are 9-dimensional manifolds with a Spin(7) structure restricted by geometric constraints which we give explicitly. We also provide an alternative characterization of the solutions of the Killing spinor equation, utilizing the compactness of the horizon section and the field equations, by proving a Lichnerowicz type of theorem which implies that the zero modes of a Dirac operator coupled to 4-form fluxes are Killing spinors. We use this, and the maximum principle, to solve the field equations of the theory for some special cases and present some examples.

J. Gutowski; G. Papadopoulos

2012-07-30

146

M-Horizons  

E-print Network

We solve the Killing spinor equations and determine the near horizon geometries of M-theory that preserve at least one supersymmetry. The M-horizon spatial sections are 9-dimensional manifolds with a Spin(7) structure restricted by geometric constraints which we give explicitly. We also provide an alternative characterization of the solutions of the Killing spinor equation, utilizing the compactness of the horizon section and the field equations, by proving a Lichnerowicz type of theorem which implies that the zero modes of a Dirac operator coupled to 4-form fluxes are Killing spinors. We use this, and the maximum principle, to solve the field equations of the theory for some special cases and present some examples.

Gutowski, J

2012-01-01

147

M-horizons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We solve the Killing spinor equations and determine the near horizon geometries of M-theory that preserve at least one supersymmetry. The M-horizon spatial sections are 9-dimensional manifolds with a Spin(7) structure restricted by geometric constraints which we give explicitly. We also provide an alternative characterization of the solutions of the Killing spinor equation, utilizing the compactness of the horizon section and the field equations, by proving a Lichnerowicz type of theorem which implies that the zero modes of a Dirac operator coupled to 4-form fluxes are Killing spinors. We use this, and the maximum principle, to solve the field equations of the theory for some special cases and present some examples.

Gutowski, J.; Papadopoulos, G.

2012-12-01

148

Torsion and Particle Horizons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inthe present work we show that the existence of non-vanishing torsion field may solve, at least, one of the problems FRW-cosmology, the particle horizons problem. The field equations of general relativity (GR) are written in a space having non-vanishing torsion, the absolute parallelism (AP) space. An AP-Structure, satisfying the cosmological principle, is used to construct a world model. Energy density and pressure, purely induced by torsion, are defined from the building blocks of the AP-geometry using GR. When these quantities are used in the FRW-dynamical equations, we get a world model free from particle horizons.

Wanas, M. I.; Hassan, H. A.

2014-11-01

149

Common causes of material degradation in buried piping  

SciTech Connect

Buried pipe may fail for innumerable reasons. Causes can be mechanical damage/breakage, chemically initiated corrosion, or a combination. Failures may originate either internally or externally on the pipe. They may be related to flaws in the design, to excessive or unanticipated internal pressure or ground level loading, and/or to poor or uncertain installation practice. Or the pipe may simply ``wear out`` in service. Steel is strong and very forgiving in underground applications, especially with regard to backfill. However, soil support developed through densification or compaction is critical for brittle concrete and vitrified clay tile pipe, and is very important for cast iron and plastic pipe. Chemistry of the soil determines whether or not it will enhance corrosion or other types of degradation. Various causes and mechanisms for deterioration of buried pipe are indicated. Some peculiarities of the different materials of construction are characterized. Repair methods and means to circumvent special problems are described.

Jenkins, C.F.

1997-01-20

150

The New Horizons Spacecraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

The New Horizons spacecraft was launched on 19 January 2006. The spacecraft was designed to provide a platform for seven instruments designated by the science team to collect and return data from Pluto in 2015. The design meets the requirements established by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Announcement of Opportunity AO-OSS-01. The design drew on heritage from previous

Glen H. Fountain; David Y. Kusnierkiewicz; Christopher B. Hersman; Timothy S. Herder; Thomas B. Coughlin; William C. Gibson; Deborah A. Clancy; Christopher C. Deboy; T. Adrian Hill; James D. Kinnison; Douglas S. Mehoke; Geffrey K. Ottman; Gabe D. Rogers; S. Alan Stern; James M. Stratton; Steven R. Vernon; Stephen P. Williams

2008-01-01

151

Specific features of organic matter in urban soils of Rostov-on-Don  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data on the fractional and group composition of humus in urban soils of Rostov-on-Don are discussed. We have compared the humus profiles of chernozems under tree plantations and those buried under anthropogenic deposits (including sealed chernozems under asphalt). It is shown that the type of humus in these soils remains stable despite a decrease in its total content after the long-term burial under asphalt. Under the impact of the trees, the organic matter of the chernozems acquired some features typical of gray forest soils, i.e., the humate-fulvate type of humus in the humus horizon and the sharp drop in the humus content down the soil profile.

Gorbov, S. N.; Bezuglova, O. S.

2014-08-01

152

Investors' horizon and stock prices  

E-print Network

This dissertation consists of three essays on the relation between investors' trading horizon and stock prices. The first chapter explores the theoretical relation between the horizon of traders and the negative externality ...

Parsa, Sahar

2011-01-01

153

Buried Water Ice on Mars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 2001, the Mars Odyssey spacecraft discovered significant amounts of water ice buried in the high latitude regions of Mars. This exciting discovery, based upon data from the Mars Gamma Ray Spectrometer, helped motivate the development of the Mars Phoenix Lander mission, which will arrive in the Martian arctic in 2008 to investigate this buried water ice. The product includes five classroom activities related to the discovery of water ice. These field-tested activities involve both guided and open inquiry activities using real data to investigate and learn about processes occurring on Mars. Each lesson includes a teacher guide and student guide. In addition, some of the lessons are accompanied by PowerPoint presentations and one extension activity utilizes an educational Flash animation.

2011-05-18

154

Phase imaging of buried structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report magnetic and electrostatic phase imaging of micron-scale metallic lines covered with 525nm of SiO2. Magnetic force microscopy (MFM) has been used to image a buried current-carrying line, to resolve its micron-scale defects, and characterize current crowding around those defects. The MFM phase signal from this structure compares quantitatively to the MFM signal from the same structure, taken prior

R. Yongsunthon; P. J. Rous; A. Stanishevsky; K. Siegrist; E. D. Williams

2003-01-01

155

Receding horizon recursive state estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Describes a receding horizon discrete-time state observer using the deterministic least squares framework. The state estimation horizon, which determines the number of past measurement samples used to reconstruct the state vector, is introduced as a tuning parameter for the proposed state observer. A stability result concerning the choice of the state estimation horizon is established. It is also shown that

K. V. Ling; K. W. Lim

1999-01-01

156

Odor analysis of decomposing buried human remains  

SciTech Connect

This study, conducted at the University of Tennessee's Anthropological Research Facility (ARF), lists and ranks the primary chemical constituents which define the odor of decomposition of human remains as detected at the soil surface of shallow burial sites. Triple sorbent traps were used to collect air samples in the field and revealed eight major classes of chemicals which now contain 478 specific volatile compounds associated with burial decomposition. Samples were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and were collected below and above the body, and at the soil surface of 1.5-3.5 ft. (0.46-1.07 m) deep burial sites of four individuals over a 4-year time span. New data were incorporated into the previously established Decompositional Odor Analysis (DOA) Database providing identification, chemical trends, and semi-quantitation of chemicals for evaluation. This research identifies the 'odor signatures' unique to the decomposition of buried human remains with projected ramifications on human remains detection canine training procedures and in the development of field portable analytical instruments which can be used to locate human remains in shallow burial sites.

Vass, Arpad Alexander [ORNL; Smith, Rob R [ORNL; Thompson, Cyril V [ORNL; Burnett, Michael N [ORNL; Dulgerian, Nishan [ORNL; Eckenrode, Brian A [ORNL

2008-01-01

157

Investigation of guided waves propagation in pipe buried in sand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inspection of pipelines by guided wave testing is a well-established method for the detection of corrosion defects in pipelines, and is currently used routinely in a variety of industries, e.g. petrochemical and energy. When the method is applied to pipes buried in soil, test ranges tend to be significantly compromised because of attenuation of the waves caused by energy radiating into the soil. Moreover, the variability of soil conditions dictates different attenuation characteristics, which in-turn results in different, unpredictable, test ranges. We investigate experimentally the propagation and attenuation characteristics of guided waves in pipes buried in fine sand using a well characterized full scale experimental apparatus. The apparatus consists of an 8 inch-diameter, 5.6-meters long steel pipe embedded over 3 meters of its length in a rectangular container filled with fine sand, and an air-bladder for the application of overburden pressure. Longitudinal and torsional guided waves are excited in the pipe and recorded using a transducer ring (Guided Ultrasonics Ltd). Acoustic properties of the sand are measured independently in-situ and used to make model predictions of wave behavior in the buried pipe. We present the methodology and the systematic measurements of the guided waves under a range of conditions, including loose and compacted sand. It is found that the application of overburden pressure modifies the compaction of the sand and increases the attenuation, and that the measurement of the acoustic properties of sand allows model prediction of the attenuation of guided waves in buried pipes with a high level of confidence.

Leinov, Eli; Cawley, Peter; Lowe, Michael J. S.

2014-02-01

158

The New Horizons Spacecraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

The New Horizons spacecraft was launched on 19 January 2006. The spacecraft was designed to provide a platform for seven instruments\\u000a designated by the science team to collect and return data from Pluto in 2015. The design meets the requirements established\\u000a by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Announcement of Opportunity AO-OSS-01. The design drew on heritage\\u000a from previous

Glen H. Fountain; David Y. Kusnierkiewicz; Christopher B. Hersman; Timothy S. Herder; Thomas B. Coughlin; William C. Gibson; Deborah A. Clancy; Christopher C. DeBoy; T. Adrian Hill; James D. Kinnison; Douglas S. Mehoke; Geffrey K. Ottman; Gabe D. Rogers; S. Alan Stern; James M. Stratton; Steven R. Vernon; Stephen P. Williams

159

The New Horizons Spacecraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

The New Horizons spacecraft was launched on 19 January 2006. The spacecraft was designed to provide a platform for seven instruments\\u000a designated by the science team to collect and return data from Pluto in 2015. The design meets the requirements established\\u000a by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Announcement of Opportunity AO-OSS-01. The design drew on heritage\\u000a from previous

Glen H. Fountain; David Y. Kusnierkiewicz; Christopher B. Hersman; Timothy S. Herder; Thomas B. Coughlin; William C. Gibson; Deborah A. Clancy; Christopher C. DeBoy; T. Adrian Hill; James D. Kinnison; Douglas S. Mehoke; Geffrey K. Ottman; Gabe D. Rogers; S. Alan Stern; James M. Stratton; Steven R. Vernon; Stephen P. Williams

2008-01-01

160

30 CFR 823.14 - Soil replacement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...descriptions containing soil-horizon depths, soil densities, soil pH, and other specifications such that reconstructed soils will have the capability of achieving levels of yield equal to, or higher than,...

2012-07-01

161

30 CFR 823.14 - Soil replacement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...descriptions containing soil-horizon depths, soil densities, soil pH, and other specifications such that reconstructed soils will have the capability of achieving levels of yield equal to, or higher than,...

2011-07-01

162

30 CFR 823.14 - Soil replacement.  

...descriptions containing soil-horizon depths, soil densities, soil pH, and other specifications such that reconstructed soils will have the capability of achieving levels of yield equal to, or higher than,...

2014-07-01

163

30 CFR 823.14 - Soil replacement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...descriptions containing soil-horizon depths, soil densities, soil pH, and other specifications such that reconstructed soils will have the capability of achieving levels of yield equal to, or higher than,...

2013-07-01

164

30 CFR 823.14 - Soil replacement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...descriptions containing soil-horizon depths, soil densities, soil pH, and other specifications such that reconstructed soils will have the capability of achieving levels of yield equal to, or higher than,...

2010-07-01

165

How to detect buried structures through electrical measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The experiment reported here, performed by advanced undergraduates as a final laboratory work, was intended as an example of the application of the electricity theory to solve problems related to environmental physics. In particular, the aim of the work was to show how we can get the electrical image of the soil and detect the presence of buried structures from simple geoelectrical measurements. First, we developed scale models in the laboratory to recognize the electrical responses of different layered structures and to evaluate the sensitivity of the method and we interpreted the results using one-dimensional inversion codes. Then we proposed a configuration which permitted simulating a buried pipeline and analyzed the electrical response applying a simple two-dimensional numerical code. Finally, we performed field work in order to compare the results with ones obtained through the laboratory scale models.

Osella, Ana; Chao, Gabriel; Sánchez, Federico

2001-04-01

166

Buried object location based on frequency-domain UWB measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a wideband ground penetrating radar (GPR) system and a proposed frequency-domain data analysis technique are presented for the detection of shallow buried objects such as anti-personnel landmines. The GPR system uses one transmitting antenna and an array of six monopole receiving antenna elements and operates from 1 GHz to 20 GHz. This system is able to acquire, save and analyse data in the frequency domain. A common source or wide-angle reflection and refraction technique has been used for acquiring and processing the data. This technique is effective for the rejection of ground surface clutter. By applying the C-scan scheme, metallic and plastic mine-like targets buried in dry soil will be located.

Soliman, M.; Wu, Z.

2008-06-01

167

Chapter 3. Concepts of Basic Soil Science W. Lee Daniels  

E-print Network

Chapter 3. Concepts of Basic Soil Science W. Lee Daniels Kathryn C. Haering Department of Crop and Soil Environmental Sciences, Virginia Tech Table of Contents Soil formation and soil horizons................................................................................................................... 33 Soil composition by volume

Kaye, Jason P.

168

New Horizons Web Site  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA launched its New Horizons spacecraft mission on January 19, 2006. The purpose of the mission is to provide the first fly-by of the Pluto-Charon system and the first up-close exploration of the area at the edge of the solar system called the Kuyper Belt. This mission webpage provides daily updates about the location of the vehicle with graphics that show its position in relation to the planets and its planned course through the solar system from several perspectives.

Laboratory, Nasa J.; Nasa

169

Black Hole Event Horizons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comparisons of the luminosities of Black Hole (BH) and Neutron Star X-ray Nova (XN) provide the first direct observational evidence that black holes have event horizons. Central to the interpretation of this evidence is the understanding of the accretion flow in X-ray Nova as Advection Dominated Accretion Flows (ADAFs) when the systems are "quiescent". These observations will allow qualitative improvement in our ability to test the ADAF (or any other) model by providing the second high-quality spectrum of a quiescent BHXN, and the first high-quality spectrum of a short-period BHXN.

Garmire, Gordon

1999-09-01

170

Entropy of isolated horizons revisited  

SciTech Connect

The decade-old formulation of the isolated horizon classically and within loop quantum gravity, and the extraction of the microcanonical entropy of such a horizon from this formulation, is reviewed, in view of recent renewed interest. There are two main approaches to this problem: one employs an SU(2) Chern-Simons theory describing the isolated horizon degrees of freedom, while the other uses a reduced U(1) Chern-Simons theory obtained from the SU(2) theory, with appropriate constraints imposed on the spectrum of boundary states ''living'' on the horizon. It is shown that both these ways lead to the same infinite series asymptotic in the horizon area for the microcanonical entropy of an isolated horizon. The leading area term is followed by an unambiguous correction term logarithmic in area with a coefficient -(3/2), with subleading corrections dropping off as inverse powers of the area.

Basu, Rudranil; Kaul, Romesh K.; Majumdar, Parthasarathi [SN Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Kolkata 700 098 (India); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Chennai 600 113 (India); Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata 700 064 (India)

2010-07-15

171

Near-field synthetic aperture imaging of buried objects and fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes imaging of buried objects and fluids. The motivations are to locate pipe leakage and unexploded ordnance. The method is to radiate and receive continuous, discrete frequency radio waves with antennas near the ground, to synthesize sampled area arrays of reflectance data, and to process the data into images with an algorithm based on angular spectrum diffraction theory. Experimental results are presented for three setups. An initial, laboratory setup had a single, spatially scanned antenna; it was used to image buried mud. The second with an array of five antennas on a vehicle, images a buried creosote pit. The third, with a vehicular array of seven antennas, imaged buried metallic objects and depressions in the soil surface.

Nilles, James T.; Tricoles, Gus P.; Vance, Gary L.

1995-06-01

172

HORIZON SENSING (PROPOSAL NO.51)  

SciTech Connect

Real-time horizon sensing on continuous mining (CM) machines is becoming an industry tool. Installation and testing of production-grade Horizon Sensor (HS) systems has been ongoing this quarter at Monterey Coal Company (ExxonMobil), Mountain Coal Company West Elk Mine (Arch), Deserado Mining Company (Blue Mountain Energy), and The Ohio Valley Coal Company (TOVCC). Monitoring of system function, user experience, and mining benefits is ongoing. All horizon sensor components have finished MSHA (U.S.) and IEC (International) certification.

Larry G. Stolarczyk

2003-07-30

173

HORIZON SENSING (PROPOSAL NO.51)  

SciTech Connect

Real-time horizon sensing on continuous mining machines is becoming an industry tool. Installation and testing of production-grade Horizon Sensor (HS) systems continued this quarter at Monterey Coal Company (ExxonMobil), Mountain Coal Company West Elk Mine (Arch), and Ohio Valley Coal Company (OVC). Monitoring of system function, user experience, and mining benefits is ongoing. All horizon sensor components have finished MSHA (U.S.) and IEC (International) certification.

Larry G. Stolarczyk

2003-07-01

174

Technologies on the Horizon: Teachers Respond to the Horizon Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate teachers' beliefs regarding the integration of technologies from the 2011 K-12 edition of the "Horizon Report" into their local, public school contexts. Teachers read the "Horizon Report" and then participated in an asynchronous, threaded discussion focusing on technologies they…

Hodges, Charles B.; Prater, Alyssa H.

2014-01-01

175

Mining metrics for buried treasure  

E-print Network

The same but different: That might describe two metrics. On the surface CLASSI may show two metrics are locally equivalent, but buried beneath one may be a wealth of further structure. This was beautifully described in a paper by M.A.H. MacCallum in 1998. Here I will illustrate the effect with two flat metrics -- one describing ordinary Minkowski spacetime and the other describing a three-parameter family of Gal'tsov-Letelier-Tod spacetimes. I will dig out the beautiful hidden classical singularity structure of the latter (a structure first noticed by Tod in 1994) and then show how quantum considerations can illuminate the riches. I will then discuss how quantum structure can help us understand classical singularities and metric parameters in a variety of exact solutions mined from the Exact Solutions book.

D. A. Konkowski; T. M. Helliwell

2004-12-30

176

Stress State of Bent Buried Pipelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors consider edge effects in buried pipelines that occur in the region of joining of a straight buried pipe and a bent insert (factory bend, elbow, or an elastically bent segment). The action of those effects results in the appearance of additional bending moments, which are proportional to the difference between the axial force in an infinite straight pipeline

I. V. Orynyak; S. A. Radchenko

2003-01-01

177

Electrical impedance tomography for underwater detection of buried mines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detection of buried land mines in soil is a well-studied problem; many existing technologies are designed and optimized for performance in different soil types. Research on mine detection in shallow water environments such as beaches, however, is much less developed. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) shows promise for this application. EIT uses current-stimulating and voltage-recording electrode pairs to measure trans-impedances in the volume directly beneath the electrode array, which sits flat over the ground surface. The trans-impedances are used to construct a conductivity profile of the volume. Non-metallic and metallic explosives appear as perturbations in the conductivity profile, and their location and size can be estimated. Lab testing has yielded promising results using a submerged array positioned over a sand bed. The instrument has also successfully detected surrogate mines in a traditional soil environment during field trials. Resolution of the detector is roughly half the pitch of electrodes in the array. In underwater lab testing, non-conducting targets buried in the sand are detected at a depth of 1.5 times the electrode pitch with the array positioned up to one electrode pitch above the sand bed. Results will be presented for metallic and non-metallic targets of various shapes and sizes.

Bouchette, Gail; Gagnon, Stéphane; Church, Philip; Luu, Tim; McFee, John

2008-04-01

178

Resolving Lifshitz Horizons  

SciTech Connect

Via the AdS/CFT correspondence, ground states of field theories at finite charge density are mapped to extremal black brane solutions. Studies of simple gravity + matter systems in this context have uncovered wide new classes of extremal geometries. The Lifshitz metrics characterizing field theories with non-trivial dynamical critical exponent z {ne} 1 emerge as one common endpoint in doped holographic toy models. However, the Lifshitz horizon exhibits mildly singular behaviour - while curvature invariants are finite, there are diverging tidal forces. Here we show that in some of the simplest contexts where Lifshitz metrics emerge, Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theories, generic corrections lead to a replacement of the Lifshitz metric, in the deep infrared, by a re-emergent AdS{sub 2} x R{sup 2} geometry. Thus, at least in these cases, the Lifshitz scaling characterizes the physics over a wide range of energy scales, but the mild singularity is cured by quantum or stringy effects.

Harrison, Sarah; Kachru, Shamit; Wang, Huajia; /Stanford U., ITP /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

2012-04-24

179

The New Horizons Spacecraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The New Horizons spacecraft was launched on 19 January 2006. The spacecraft was designed to provide a platform for seven instruments designated by the science team to collect and return data from Pluto in 2015. The design meets the requirements established by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Announcement of Opportunity AO-OSS-01. The design drew on heritage from previous missions developed at The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) and other missions such as Ulysses. The trajectory design imposed constraints on mass and structural strength to meet the high launch acceleration consistent with meeting the AO requirement of returning data prior to the year 2020. The spacecraft subsystems were designed to meet tight resource allocations (mass and power) yet provide the necessary control and data handling finesse to support data collection and return when the one-way light time during the Pluto fly-by is 4.5 hours. Missions to the outer regions of the solar system (where the solar irradiance is 1/1000 of the level near the Earth) require a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) to supply electrical power. One RTG was available for use by New Horizons. To accommodate this constraint, the spacecraft electronics were designed to operate on approximately 200 W. The travel time to Pluto put additional demands on system reliability. Only after a flight time of approximately 10 years would the desired data be collected and returned to Earth. This represents the longest flight duration prior to the return of primary science data for any mission by NASA. The spacecraft system architecture provides sufficient redundancy to meet this requirement with a probability of mission success of greater than 0.85. The spacecraft is now on its way to Pluto, with an arrival date of 14 July 2015. Initial in-flight tests have verified that the spacecraft will meet the design requirements.

Fountain, Glen H.; Kusnierkiewicz, David Y.; Hersman, Christopher B.; Herder, Timothy S.; Coughlin, Thomas B.; Gibson, William C.; Clancy, Deborah A.; Deboy, Christopher C.; Hill, T. Adrian; Kinnison, James D.; Mehoke, Douglas S.; Ottman, Geffrey K.; Rogers, Gabe D.; Stern, S. Alan; Stratton, James M.; Vernon, Steven R.; Williams, Stephen P.

2008-10-01

180

Detection of buried objects using reflected GNSS signals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of reflected Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals for sensing the Earth has been growing rapidly in recent years. This technique is founded on the basic principle of detecting GNSS signals after they have been reflected off the Earth's surface and using them to determine the properties of the reflecting surface remotely. This is the so-called GNSS reflectometry (GNSS-R) technique. In this paper, a new application regarding the detection of metallic buried objects is analyzed and it is validated through several experimental campaigns. Although the penetration depth of GNSS signals into the ground is not optimal and depends on the soil moisture, GNSS signals can likely interact approximately with the first 10 cm of the ground and therefore can be reflected back by any metallic object buried on the first terrain layer. A very light and low-cost GNSS receiver prototype based on a software-defined radio approach was developed. This receiver can be used as a payload on board small drones or unmanned aerial systems to detect metallic objects (mines or other explosive devices). A signal processing tool based on an open-loop GNSS signal acquisition strategy was developed. The results of two experiments which show the possibility of using GNSS-R signals to detect buried metallic objects and to provide an estimate of their dimensions are discussed.

Notarpietro, Riccardo; De Mattia, Salvatore; Campanella, Maurizio; Pei, Yuekun; Savi, Patrizia

2014-12-01

181

Remote Excavation System technology evaluation report: Buried Waste Robotics Program  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the results from the Remote Excavation System demonstration and testing conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory during June and July 1993. The purpose of the demonstration was to ascertain the feasibility of the system for skimming soil and removing various types of buried waste in a safe manner and within all regulatory requirements, and to compare the performances of manual and remote operation of a backhoe. The procedures and goals of the demonstration were previously defined in The Remote Excavation System Test Plan, which served as a guideline for evaluating the various components of the system and discussed the procedures used to conduct the tests.

Not Available

1993-09-01

182

The Horizon Report. 2004 Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This first edition of the New Media Consortium's (NMC) annual "Horizon Report" details findings of the Horizon Project, a research-oriented effort that seeks to identify and describe emerging technologies likely to have a large impact on teaching, learning, or creative expression within higher education. Drawing on an ongoing series of interviews…

New Media Consortium, 2004

2004-01-01

183

The Horizon Report. 2007 Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This fourth edition of the New Media Consortium's (NMC) annual "Horizon Report" describes the continuing work of the Horizon Project, a research-oriented effort that seeks to identify and describe emerging technologies likely to have a large impact on teaching, learning, or creative expression within higher education. Drawing on ongoing…

New Media Consortium, 2007

2007-01-01

184

Black Strings Ending on Horizons  

E-print Network

We construct an approximate static gravitational solution of the Einstein equations, with negative cosmological constant, describing a test black string stretching from the boundary of the Schwarzschild-AdS_5 black brane toward the horizon. The construction builds on a derivative expansion method, assuming that the black brane metric changes slowly along the black string direction. We provide a solution up to second order in derivatives and it implies, in particular, that the black string must shrink to zero size at the horizon of the black brane. In the near horizon region of the black brane, where the two horizons intersect, we provide an exact solution of a cone that describes two intersecting horizons at different temperatures. Moreover, we show that this solution equally describes a thin and long black droplet.

Nidal Haddad

2012-07-10

185

Dynamical evaporation of quantum horizons  

E-print Network

We describe the black hole evaporation process driven by the dynamical evolution of the quantum gravitational degrees of freedom resident at the horizon, as identified by the loop quantum gravity kinematics. Using a parallel with the Brownian motion, we interpret the first law of quantum dynamical horizon in terms of a fluctuation-dissipation relation. In this way, the horizon evolution is described in terms of relaxation to an equilibrium state balanced by the excitation of Planck scale constituents of the horizon. This discrete quantum hair structure associated to the horizon geometry produces a deviation from thermality in the radiation spectrum. We investigate the final stage of the evaporation process and show how the dynamics leads to the formation of a massive remnant, which can eventually decay. Implications for the information paradox are discussed.

Daniele Pranzetti

2012-11-12

186

Wormhole Thermodynamics at Apparent Horizons  

E-print Network

In this paper, we discuss the thermodynamic properties of the evolving Lorentzian wormhole. For the shape function $b(r) = r_{0}^2/r$, it is shown that the wormhole spacetime admits two apparent horizons, the inner and the outer one. The inner horizon expands while the outer contracts with the passage of time. Corresponding to these horizons, we have three types of wormholes, regular, extreme and the naked wormholes. Moreover, it is shown that the Einstein field equations can be rewritten as a first law of thermodynamics $dE=TdS+WdV$, at the apparent horizons of the wormhole, where $E=\\rho V$, $T = \\kappa/2\\pi$, $S=A/4G$, $W=(\\rho-P)/2$ and $V = {4/3}\\pi \\tilde{r}_{A+}^3$ are the total matter energy, horizon temperature, wormhole entropy, work density and the volume of the wormhole respectively.

Jamil, Mubasher

2009-01-01

187

Time as An Important Soil-Forming Factor Influencing Modern and Ancient Magnetic Susceptibility Enhancement Along the Delaware River Valley, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic susceptibility is an increasingly popular low-cost method for rapidly assessing paleoclimate and paleoenvironmental impact on buried soils. The goal of this study is to determine the primary influence(s) on soil magnetic susceptibility along floodplain, terrace and upland soils in the middle Delaware River Valley, USA, using environmental magnetic, pedologic, and stratigraphic techniques. Two-hundred thirty samples were collected from age-constrained sandy, quartz-rich, floodplain, terrace, and upland soils (Entisols, Inceptisols). A Kruskal-Wallis (K-W) and post-hoc Tukey-Kramer (T-K) (?=0.05) multiple comparisons analysis on 176 mass-specific low-field susceptibility (Xlf) assays show that A and B horizons are magnetically enhanced compared to C and E horizons (p<0.0001). Results of descriptive soil micromorphology show that A and B horizons contain anywhere from 10-50% more amorphous organic matter and clay films along pores than do C and E horizons. Enhanced Xlf values also correlate positively (R^2=0.63) with the soil molecular weathering ratio of Alumina/Bases, suggesting that increased weathering likely results in the formation of pedogenic magnetic minerals and enhanced magnetic susceptibility signal. Additional K-W and T-K testing show that Xlf results, when grouped by floodplain-terrace designation (i.e., chronofunction) are significantly different (p<0.0001). The older T3 terrace and upland Xlf values (0.34±0.14 10^-6 m^3 kg^-1) are greater than the younger T2 terrace (0.18±0.06 10^-6 m^3 kg^-1) values, which are greater than modern floodplain (0.09±0.01 10^-6 m^3 kg^-1) Xlf values. These data suggest that longer intervals of soil formation enhance the ?lf value. This hypothesis is further supported when 159 Xlf values are plotted vs. age for the entire Holocene. A locally-weighted regression smoothing curve (LOESS) shows two distinct intervals of magnetic enhancement during previously established dry intervals, the early and late-middle Holocene. We hypothesize that prolonged drought during the early and middle Holocene reduced flood frequency and magnitude and the likelihood of soil burial, resulting in longer soil forming intervals and higher Xlf values. Although precipitation influences the Xlf signature, the results from this study suggest that the magnetic susceptibility values of well-drained buried floodplain soils along the Delaware River Valley are partly a function of time.

Stinchcomb, G. E.; Peppe, D. J.; Driese, S. G.

2011-12-01

188

Training requirements and responsibilities for the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) is scheduled to conduct intrusive (hydropunch screening tests, bore hole installation, soil sampling, etc.) and nonintrusive (geophysical surveys) studies at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). These studies and activities will be limited to specific locations at the RWMC. The duration of these activities will vary, but most tasks are not expected to exceed

H. G. Vega; S. B. French; D. L. Rick

1992-01-01

189

Experimental study on the behavior of segmented buried concrete pipelines subject to ground movements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seismic damage to buried pipelines is mainly caused by permanent ground displacements, typically concentrated in the vicinity of the fault line in the soil. In particular, a pipeline crossing the fault plane is subjected to significant bending, shear, and axial forces. While researchers have explored the behavior of segmented metallic pipelines under permanent ground displacement, comparatively less experimental work has

Junhee Kim; Jerome P. Lynch; Radoslaw L. Michalowski; Russell A. Green; Mohammed Pour-Ghaz; W. Jason Weiss; Aaron Bradshaw

2009-01-01

190

Social pharmacology: expanding horizons.  

PubMed

In the current modern and global society, social changes are in constant evolution due to scientific progress (technology, culture, customs, and hygiene) and produce the freedom in individuals to take decisions by themselves or with their doctors toward drug consumption. In the arena of marketed drug products which includes society, individual, administration, and pharmaceutical industry, the young discipline emerged is social pharmacology or sociopharmacology. This science arises from clinical pharmacology, and deals with different parameters, which are important in creating knowledge on marketed drugs. However, the scope of "social pharmacology" is not covered by the so-called "Phase IV" alone, but it is the science that handles the postmarketing knowledge of drugs. The social pharmacology studies the "life cycle" of any marketed pharmaceutical product in the social terrain, and evaluates the effects of the real environment under circumstances totally different in the drug development process. Therefore, there are far-reaching horizons, plural, and shared predictions among health professionals and other, for beneficial use of a drug, toward maximizing the benefits of therapy, while minimizing negative social consequences. PMID:24987168

Maiti, Rituparna; Alloza, José Luis

2014-01-01

191

Resolving Lifshitz horizons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Via the AdS/CFT correspondence, ground states of field theories at finite charge density are mapped to extremal black brane solutions. Studies of simple gravity + matter systems in this context have uncovered wide new classes of extremal geometries. The Lifshitz metrics characterising field theories with non-trivial dynamical critical exponent z ? 1 emerge as one common endpoint in doped holographic toy models. However, the Lifshitz horizon exhibits mildly singular behaviour - while curvature invariants are finite, there are diverging tidal forces. Here we show that in some of the simplest contexts where Lifshitz metrics emerge, Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theories, toy models of generic corrections can lead (presumably as one possibility among many) to a replacement of the Lifshitz metric, in the deep infrared, by a re-emergent AdS 2 × R 2 geometry. Thus, at least in these cases, the Lifshitz scaling characterises the physics over a wide range of energy scales, but the mild singularity is cured by quantum or stringy effects.

Harrison, Sarah; Kachru, Shamit; Wang, Huajia

2014-02-01

192

Instability of enclosed horizons  

E-print Network

We study the classical massless scalar wave equation on the region of 1+1 dimensional Minkowski space between the two branches of the hyperbola $x^2-t^2=1$ with vanishing boundary conditions on it. We show there are initially, say, right-going waves with initially finite (Minkowski or Rindler) energy tails for which the stress-energy tensor becomes singular on the null line $t+x=0$. For the quantum theory, we show that, while there is a regular Hartle-Hawking-Israel-like state, there are coherent states built on this for which there is a similar singularity in the expectation value of the renormalized $T_{ab}$. We further show that, in any Lorentz frame, there are smooth solutions with compactly supported initial data with arbitrarily small initial energy and arbitrarily small $T_{ab}$ on an initial surface $t^2-x^2=\\rm{const}^2$, $tbeyond the past and future horizons of a single Schwarzschild (/Schwarzschild-AdS) wedge. It would thus provide new evidence for 't Hooft's 'brick wall' model while seeming to invalidate the picture in Maldacena's 'Eternal black holes in AdS'. It would thereby also support the validity of the author's 'matter-gravity entanglement hypothesis' and of the paper 'Brick walls and AdS/CFT' by the author and Ortiz.

Bernard S. Kay

2013-10-28

193

Modelling the buried human body environment in upland climes using three contrasting field sites.  

PubMed

Despite an increasing literature on the decomposition of human remains, whether buried or exposed, it is important to recognise the role of specific microenvironments which can either trigger or delay the rate of decomposition. Recent casework in Northern England involving buried and partially buried human remains has demonstrated a need for a more detailed understanding of the effect of contrasting site conditions on cadaver decomposition and on the microenvironment created within the grave itself. Pigs (Sus scrofa) were used as body analogues in three inter-related taphonomy experiments to examine differential decomposition of buried human remains. They were buried at three contrasting field sites (pasture, moorland, and deciduous woodland) within a 15 km radius of the University of Bradford, West Yorkshire, UK. Changes to the buried body and the effect of these changes on hair and associated death-scene textile materials were monitored as was the microenvironment of the grave. At recovery, 6, 12 and 24 months post-burial, the extent of soft tissue decomposition was recorded and samples of fat and soil were collected for gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) analysis. The results of these studies demonstrated that (1) soil conditions at these three burial sites has a marked effect on the condition of the buried body but even within a single site variation can occur; (2) the process of soft tissue decomposition modifies the localised burial microenvironment in terms of microbiological load, pH, moisture and changes in redox status. These observations have widespread application for the investigation of clandestine burial and time since deposition, and in understanding changes within the burial microenvironment that may impact on biomaterials such as hair and other associated death scene materials. PMID:16973322

Wilson, Andrew S; Janaway, Robert C; Holland, Andrew D; Dodson, Hilary I; Baran, Eve; Pollard, A Mark; Tobin, Desmond J

2007-06-14

194

Horizons and Ergoregions in Superfluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ripplons—gravity-capillary waves on the free surface of a liquid or at the interfaces between two superfluids—are the most\\u000a favorable excitations for simulation of the general-relativistic effects related to horizons and ergoregions. The white-hole\\u000a horizon for the “relativistic” ripplons at the surface of the shallow liquid is easily simulated using the kitchen-bath hydraulic\\u000a jump. The same white-hole horizon is observed in

G. E. Volovik

2006-01-01

195

Soils âField Characterization, Collection, and Laboratory Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Field characterization of soil profiles in coniferous and deciduous settings; sample collection of soils from different horizons; laboratory analysis of soil moisture, soil organic carbon (by loss on ignition), and grain size distribution (by sieving)

Biswas, Abir

196

Corrosion rates of buried pipelines caused by geomagnetic storms  

SciTech Connect

Telluric effects associated with geomagnetic field variations caused currents to flow in buried pipelines, which present a continuing problem for monitoring cathodic protection. Protection methods involving the application of a noncorrosive coating with cathodic protection should present the circulation of erratic currents. Nevertheless, often these currents cannot be compensated. During days of high geomagnetic activity, an excess of current that cannot be drained circulates along the pipe. This effect has a strong dependence on the electrical resistivity of the host soil, produces a strong current channeling along the pipes, and increases the risk of corrosion. A method was proposed to quantify the corrosion effects over the pipelines, assuming the geomagnetic field as the external source responsible for the erratic currents. Nondisturbed fields and geomagnetic storms were modeled and pipeline currents were calculated as a function of the characteristics of the soils and pipe sizes using a numerical code previously developed.

Osella, A.; Favetto, A.; Lopez, E.

1999-07-01

197

Detction of Buried Objects by Microwave Means  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system is described for the detection of non-metallic buried objects by microwave means. It utilises an FMCw radar operating in the range 2-4GHz and incorporates a forward-looking focussed beam antenna. This gives 26dB improvement in signal\\/clutter over a downward-looking antenna sysem. Experimental results have been obtained with different targets which include buried plastic boxes and plastic pipes. The design

P. J. B. Clarricoats; R. Kularajah; R. R. Lentz; G. T. Poulton

1977-01-01

198

Information space receding horizon control.  

PubMed

In this paper, we present a receding horizon solution to the optimal sensor scheduling problem. The optimal sensor scheduling problem can be posed as a partially observed Markov decision problem whose solution is given by an information space (I-space) dynamic programming (DP) problem. We present a simulation-based stochastic optimization technique that, combined with a receding horizon approach, obviates the need to solve the computationally intractable I-space DP problem. The technique is tested on a sensor scheduling problem, in which a sensor must choose among the measurements of N dynamical systems in a manner that maximizes information regarding the aggregate system over an infinite horizon. While simple, such problems nonetheless lead to very high dimensional DP problems to which the receding horizon approach is well suited. PMID:23757584

Sunberg, Z; Chakravorty, S; Scott Erwin, R

2013-12-01

199

TNX Burying Ground: Environmental information document  

SciTech Connect

The TNX Burying Ground, located within the TNX Area of the Savannah River Plant (SRP), was originally built to dispose of debris from an experimental evaporator explosion at TNX in 1953. This evaporator contained approximately 590 kg of uranyl nitrate. From 1980 to 1984, much of the waste material buried at TNX was excavated and sent to the SRP Radioactive Waste Burial Grounds for reburial. An estimated 27 kg of uranyl nitrate remains buried at TNX. The TNX Burying Ground consists of three sites known to contain waste and one site suspected of containing waste material. All four sites are located within the TNX security fenceline. Groundwater at the TNX Burying Ground was not evaluated because there are no groundwater monitoring wells installed in the immediate vicinity of this waste site. The closure options considered for the TNX Burying Ground are waste removal and closure, no waste removal and closure, and no action. The predominant pathways for human exposure to chemical and/or radioactive constituents are through surface, subsurface, and atmospheric transport. Modeling calculations were made to determine the risks to human population via these general pathways for the three postulated closure options. An ecological assessment was conducted to predict the environmental impacts on aquatic and terrestrial biota. The relative costs for each of the closure options were estimated.

Dunaway, J.K.W.; Johnson, W.F.; Kingley, L.E.; Simmons, R.V.; Bledsoe, H.W.

1987-03-01

200

Trapping Centers in Unibond Buried Oxides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

/ The charge trapping properties of Unibond buried oxides have been characterized with electron spin /resonance (ESR) and capacitance-voltage (CV) measurements. Unibond is a revolutionary new /silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology that seemingly combines the best of both separated-by-implanted-oxygen /(SIMOX) and bond-and-etchback-silicon-on-insulator (BESOI). SOI materials have several advantages over bulk /silicon, including speed, power, and radiation hardness for outerspace applications. / We find that the E' family of oxide defects dominate charge trapping in Unibond buried oxides. In many /ways the charge trapping properties of Unibond buried oxides are very similar to those of thermally grown oxides. /However, the presence of hydrogen complexed E' centers in Unibond buried oxides, indicates a difference /between the defect structures responsible for charge trapping in Unibond buried oxides and thermally grown /oxides. / Our results suggest that, the buried oxide quality of the Unibond wafers are very similar to those of /thermally grown oxides, and thus the Unibond process is a promising new SOI technology.

Wallace, Brian; Lenahan, Patrick; Conely, John

1997-03-01

201

Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration. Technology summary  

SciTech Connect

The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that offer promising solutions to the problems associated with the remediation of buried waste. BWID addresses the difficult remediation problems associated with DOE complex-wide buried waste, particularly transuranic (TRU) contaminated buried waste. BWID has implemented a systems approach to the development and demonstration of technologies that will characterize, retrieve, treat, and dispose of DOE buried wastes. This approach encompasses the entire remediation process from characterization to post-monitoring. The development and demonstration of the technology is predicated on how a technology fits into the total remediation process. To address all of these technological issues, BWID has enlisted scientific expertise of individuals and groups from within the DOE Complex, as well as experts from universities and private industry. The BWID mission is to support development and demonstration of a suite of technologies that, when integrated with commercially-available technologies, forms a comprehensive, remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste throughout the DOE Complex. BWID will evaluate and validate demonstrated technologies and transfer this information and equipment to private industry to support the Office of Environmental Restoration (ER), Office of Waste Management (WM), and Office of Facility Transition (FT) remediation planning and implementation activities.

Not Available

1994-03-01

202

Horizons and Ergoregions in Superfluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ripplons -- gravity-capillary waves on the free surface of a liquid or at the interfaces between two superfluids -- are the most favourable excitations for simulation of the general-relativistic effects related to horizons and ergoregions. The white-hole horizon for the ``relativistic'' ripplons at the surface of the shallow liquid is easily simulated using the kitchen-bath hydraulic jump. The same white-hole

G. E. Volovik

2006-01-01

203

Latex-modified grouts for in-situ stabilization of buried transuranic/mixed waste  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Applied Science at Brookhaven national Laboratory was requested to investigate latex-modified grouts for in-situ stabilization of buried TRU/mixed waste for INEL. The waste exists in shallow trenches that were backfilled with soil. The objective was to formulate latex-modified grouts for use with the jet grouting technique to enable in-situ stabilization of buried waste. The stabilized waste was either to be left in place or retrieved for further processing. Grouting prior to retrieval reduces the potential release of contaminants. Rheological properties of latex-modified grouts were investigated and compared with those of conventional neat cement grouts used for jet grouting.

Allan, M.L.

1996-06-01

204

In-situ vitrification of soil  

DOEpatents

A method of vitrifying soil at or below a soil surface location. Two or more conductive electrodes are inserted into the soil for heating of the soil mass between them to a temperature above its melting temperature. Materials in the soil, such as buried waste, can thereby be effectively immobilized.

Brouns, Richard A. (Kennewick, WA); Buelt, James L. (Richland, WA); Bonner, William F. (Richland, WA)

1983-01-01

205

Simulation of the environmental fate and transport of chemical signatures from buried landmines  

SciTech Connect

The fate and transport of chemical signature molecules that emanate from buried landmines is strongly influenced by physical chemical properties and by environmental conditions of the specific chemical compounds. Published data have been evaluated as the input parameters that are used in the simulation of the fate and transport processes. A one-dimensional model developed for screening agricultural pesticides was modified and used to simulate the appearance of a surface flux above a buried landmine and estimate the subsurface total concentration. The physical chemical properties of TNT cause a majority of the mass released to the soil system to be bound to the solid phase soil particles. The majority of the transport occurs in the liquid phase with diffusion and evaporation driven advection of soil water as the primary mechanisms for the flux to the ground surface. The simulations provided herein should only be used for initial conceptual designs of chemical pre-concentration subsystems or complete detection systems. The physical processes modeled required necessary simplifying assumptions to allow for analytical solutions. Emerging numerical simulation tools will soon be available that should provide more realistic estimates that can be used to predict the success of landmine chemical detection surveys based on knowledge of the chemical and soil properties, and environmental conditions where the mines are buried. Additional measurements of the chemical properties in soils are also needed before a fully predictive approach can be confidently applied.

Phelan, J.M.; Webb, S.W.

1998-03-01

206

Horizons and Ergoregions in Superfluids  

E-print Network

Ripplons -- gravity-capillary waves on the free surface of a liquid or at the interfaces between two superfluids -- are the most favourable excitations for simulation of the general-relativistic effects related to horizons and ergoregions. The white-hole horizon for the ``relativistic'' ripplons at the surface of the shallow liquid is easily simulated using the kitchen-bath hydraulic jump. The same white-hole horizon is observed in quantum liquid -- superfluid 4He. The ergoregion for the ``non-relativistic'' ripplons is generated in the experiments with two sliding 3He superfluids. The common property experienced by all these ripplons is the Miles instability inside the ergoregion or horizon. Because of the universality of the Miles instability, one may expect that it could take place inside the horizon of the astrophysical black holes, if there is a preferred reference frame which comes from the trans-Planckian physics. If this is the case, the black hole would evapotate much faster than due to the Hawking radiation. Hawking radiation from the artificial black hole in terms of the quantum tunneling of phonons and ripplons is also discussed.

G. E. Volovik

2006-03-23

207

Assessing bioturbation using micromorphology and biosilicate evidence: A case study of the early-Holocene Brady Soil, central Great Plains, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Old Wauneta Roadcut site in southwestern Nebraska exhibits a 1.2 meter-thick exposure of the Brady Soil, a buried paleosol which formed within loess during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. Excavation of the loess-paleosol sequence has revealed considerable bioturbation by plant roots, invertebrates, and small vertebrates. Bioturbation was not restricted to a single time period, but occurred continually throughout soil development, as evidenced by differing sediment fills and crosscutting relationships. The Brady Soil is an accretionary soil within the uppermost part of the Last Glacial Maximum Peoria Loess. At the base of the solum, the Bkb horizon exhibits an increased illuvial clay and carbonate content, and contains extensive, small (~2cm width), backfilled burrows typically produced by cicada nymphs (Cicadidae) or beetle larvae. The most stable period of the Brady Soil is expressed by the dark (9.8 YR 4/1), thick Ab horizon. This is overlain by an ACb horizon, where soil formation was being extinguished by the onset of Holocene-age Bignell Loess deposition. Within the upper solum and Bignell Loess, a shift in biota activity occurs as indicated by the large burrow (6-12 cm width) and chamber (30-40 cm width) systems observed. Trace sizes suggest that a burrowing rodent, such as the prairie dog (Cynomys sp.) or ground squirrel (Spermophilus sp.), was responsible for their creation. Soil micromorphology was used to distinguish sediment-size classes, mineralogy, and clay morphology of specific loess deposits and soil horizons in order to track displacement of sediment through the profile due to bioturbation. Five block samples were taken in undisturbed sediment and soil horizons for thin-section analysis. Twelve additional samples of burrow cross-sections or bioturbated sediment were analyzed for comparison. Soil features produced by faunal and floral activity were differentiated from features produced by pedologic processes through the identification and classification of granular and spongy microstructures indicative of excrement, calcitic biospheroids, infilling, meniscate backfilling, channel microstructures, and well-oriented clay coatings. Sediment morphology, mineralogy of the infill and backfill material, and biosilicate assemblages were used to trace the material to the source sediment location providing a timeline for events of bioturbation. Defining localized versus deep-mixing events provides an assessment of the disturbance to paleoclimate proxies and age data and will allow for a more accurate paleoclimate reconstruction in this heavily bioturbated paleosol.

Woodburn, T. L.; Hasiotis, S. T.; Johnson, W. C.

2012-12-01

208

Earthworm casting: Stabilization or destabilization of soil structure?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to determine the effect of the gut passage through earthworms on the aggregate stability of soils varying in texture, carbonate and organic matter content. The soil material used originated from the Ap and B horizon of a loam soil (Gleyic Luvisol) and from the Ap and P horizon of a clay soil (Calcaric-Vertic Cambisol).

Stefan Schrader; Haiquan Zhang

1997-01-01

209

Field-scale permeation testing of jet-grouted buried waste sites  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) conducted field-scale hydraulic conductivity testing of simulated buried waste sites with improved confinement. The improved confinement was achieved by jet grouting the buried waste, thus creating solid monoliths. The hydraulic conductivity of the monoliths was determined using both the packer technique and the falling head method. The testing was performed on simulated buried waste sites utilizing a variety of encapsulating grouts, including high-sulfate-resistant Portland cement, TECT, (a proprietary iron oxide cement) and molten paraffin. By creating monoliths using in-situ jet grouting of encapsulating materials, the waste is simultaneously protected from subsidence and contained against further migration of contaminants. At the INEL alone there is 56,000 m{sup 3} of buried transuranic waste commingled with 170,000--224,000 m{sup 3} of soil in shallow land burial. One of the options for this buried waste is to improve the confinement and leave it in place for final disposal. Knowledge of the hydraulic conductivity for these monoliths is important for decision-makers. The packer tests involved coring the monolith, sealing off positions within the core with inflatable packers, applying pressurized water to the matrix behind the seal, and observing the water flow rate. The falling head tests were performed in full-scale 3-m-diameter, 3-m-high field-scale permeameters. In these permeameters, both water inflow and outflow were measured and equated to a hydraulic conductivity.

Loomis, G.G. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zdinak, A.P. [MSE Technology Applications Inc., Butte, MT (United States)

1996-12-31

210

Soils and the soil cover of the Valley of Geysers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of field studies of the soil cover within the tourist part of the Valley of Geysers in Kamchatka performed in 2010 and 2011 are discussed. The morphology of soils, their genesis, and their dependence on the degree of hydrothermal impact are characterized; the soil cover patterns developing in the valley are analyzed. On the basis of the materials provided by the Kronotskii Biospheric Reserve and original field data, the soil map of the valley has been developed. The maps of vegetation conditions, soil temperature at the depth of 15 cm, and slopes of the surface have been used for this purpose together with satellite imagery and field descriptions of reference soil profiles. The legend to the soil map includes nine soil units and seven units of parent materials and their textures. Soil names are given according to the classification developed by I.L. Goldfarb (2005) for the soils of hydrothermal fields. The designation of soil horizons follows the new Classification and Diagnostic System of Russian Soils (2004). It is suggested that a new horizon—a thermometamorphic horizon TRM—can be introduced into this system by analogy with other metamorphic (transformed in situ) horizons distinguished in this system. This horizon is typical of the soils partly or completely transformed by hydrothermal impacts.

Kostyuk, D. N.; Gennadiev, A. N.

2014-06-01

211

Soil response to a 3-year increase in temperature and nitrogen deposition measured in a mature boreal forest using ion-exchange membranes.  

PubMed

The projected increase in atmospheric N deposition and air/soil temperature will likely affect soil nutrient dynamics in boreal ecosystems. The potential effects of these changes on soil ion fluxes were studied in a mature balsam fir stand (Abies balsamea [L.] Mill) in Quebec, Canada that was subjected to 3 years of experimentally increased soil temperature (+4 °C) and increased inorganic N concentration in artificial precipitation (three times the current N concentrations using NH4NO3). Soil element fluxes (NO3, NH4, PO4, K, Ca, Mg, SO4, Al, and Fe) in the organic and upper mineral horizons were monitored using buried ion-exchange membranes (PRS™ probes). While N additions did not affect soil element fluxes, 3 years of soil warming increased the cumulative fluxes of K, Mg, and SO4 in the forest floor by 43, 44, and 79 %, respectively, and Mg, SO4, and Al in the mineral horizon by 29, 66, and 23 %, respectively. We attribute these changes to increased rates of soil organic matter decomposition. Significant interactions of the heating treatment with time were observed for most elements although no clear seasonal patterns emerged. The increase in soil K and Mg in heated plots resulted in a significant but small K increase in balsam fir foliage while no change was observed for Mg. A 6-15 % decrease in foliar Ca content with soil warming could be related to the increase in soil-available Al in heated plots, as Al can interfere with the root uptake of Ca. PMID:25139238

D'Orangeville, Loïc; Houle, Daniel; Côté, Benoît; Duchesne, Louis

2014-12-01

212

The Panther Mountain circular structure, a possible buried meteorite crater  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Panther Mountain, located near Phoenicia, New York, is part of the Catskill Mountains, which form the eastern end of the Allegheny Plateau in New York. It is a circular mass defined physiographically by an anomalous circular drainage pattern produced by Esopus Creek and its tributary Woodland Creek. The circular valley that rings the mountain is fracture-controlled; where bedrock is exposed, it shows a joint density 5 to 10 times greater than that on either side of the valley. Where obscured by alluvial valley fill, the bedrock's low seismic velocity suggests that this anomalous fracturing is continuous in the bedrock underlying the rim valley. North-south and east-west gravity and magnetic profiles were made across the structure. Terrane-corrected, residual gravity profiles show an 18-mgal negative anomaly, and very steep gradients indicate a near-surface source. Several possible explanations of the gravity data were modeled. We conclude that the Panther Mountain circular structure is probably a buried meteorite crater that formed contemporaneously with marine or fluvial sedimentation during Silurian or Devonian time. An examination of drill core and cuttings in the region is underway to search for ejecta deposits and possible seismic and tsunami effects in the sedimentary section. Success would result in both dating the impact and furnishing a chronostratigraphic marker horizon.

Isachsen, Y. W.; Wright, S. F.; Revetta, F. A.; Duneen, R. J.

1992-01-01

213

Deepwater Horizon Situation Report #5  

SciTech Connect

At approximately 11:00 pm EDT April 20, 2010 an explosion occurred aboard the Deepwater Horizon mobile offshore drilling unit (MODU) located 52 miles Southeast of Venice, LA and 130 miles southeast of New Orleans, LA. The MODU was drilling an exploratory well and was not producing oil at the time of the incident. The Deepwater Horizon MODU sank 1,500 feet northwest of the well site. Detailed information on response and recovery operations can be found at: http://www.deepwaterhorizonresponse.com/go/site/2931/

none,

2010-06-10

214

Mechanics of multidimensional isolated horizons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, a multidimensional generalization of the isolated horizon framework has been proposed (Lewandowski and Pawlowski 2005 Class. Quantum Grav. 22 1573 98). Therein the geometric description was easily generalized to higher dimensions and the structure of the constraints induced by the Einstein equations was analysed. In particular, the geometric version of the zeroth law of black-hole thermodynamics was proved. In this work, we show how the IH mechanics can be formulated in a dimension-independent fashion and derive the first law of BH thermodynamics for arbitrarily dimensional IH. We also propose a definition of energy for non-rotating horizons.

Korzynski, Mikolaj; Lewandowski, Jerzy; Pawlowski, Tomasz

2005-06-01

215

Sensor System Fo4r Buried Waste Containment Sites  

DOEpatents

A sensor system for a buried waste containment site having a bottom wall barrier and sidewall barriers, for containing hazardous waste. The sensor system includes one or more sensor devices disposed in one or more of the barriers for detecting a physical parameter either of the barrier itself or of the physical condition of the surrounding soils and buried waste, and for producing a signal representing the physical parameter detected. Also included is a signal processor for receiving signals produced by the sensor device and for developing information identifying the physical parameter detected, either for sounding an alarm, displaying a graphic representation of a physical parameter detected on a viewing screen and/or a hard copy printout. The sensor devices may be deployed in or adjacent the barriers at the same time the barriers are deployed and may be adapted to detect strain or cracking in the barriers, leakage of radiation through the barriers, the presence and leaking through the barriers of volatile organic compounds, or similar physical conditions.

Smith, Ann Marie (Pocatello, ID); Gardner, Bradley M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kostelnik, Kevin M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Partin, Judy K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Lancaster, Gregory D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Pfeifer, Mary Catherine (San Antonio, NM)

2003-11-18

216

Understanding the toxicity of buried radioactive waste and its impacts.  

PubMed

The oral ingestion toxicities of buried high level radioactive waste from nuclear power plants and of the natural radioactivity in the ground are calculated and expressed as cancer doses, the number of fatal cancers predicted by the linear no-threshold theory if all of the material were fed to people. Unless the size of the U.S. nuclear power industry is greatly expanded, there will probably never be more than 2 trillion cancer doses (CD) in U.S. repositories, as compared with 31 trillion CD in the ground above them. Measurements of the uranium, thorium, and radium in human bodies indicate that the latter cause 500 deaths per year in U.S. The great majority of this material is derived from the top few meters of soil that are penetrated by plant roots. It is concluded that the annual number of U.S. deaths from buried nuclear wastes will be about 1.0 (or less), orders of magnitude less than the number from coal burning electricity generation, the principal competitor of nuclear power. PMID:16155457

Cohen, Bernard L

2005-10-01

217

Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration stakeholder involvement model  

SciTech Connect

The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) is a program funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development. BWID supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that together form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. Stakeholder participation in the DOE Environmental Management decision-making process is critical to remediation efforts. Appropriate mechanisms for communication with the public, private sector, regulators, elected officials, and others are being aggressively pursued by BWID to permit informed participation. This document summarizes public outreach efforts during FY-93 and presents a strategy for expanded stakeholder involvement during FY-94.

Kaupanger, R.M.; Kostelnik, K.M.; Milam, L.M.

1994-04-01

218

Silicon on insulator with active buried regions  

DOEpatents

A method is disclosed for forming patterned buried components, such as collectors, sources and drains, in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices. The method is carried out by epitaxially growing a suitable sequence of single or multiple etch stop layers ending with a thin silicon layer on a silicon substrate, masking the silicon such that the desired pattern is exposed, introducing dopant and activating in the thin silicon layer to form doped regions. Then, bonding the silicon layer to an insulator substrate, and removing the silicon substrate. The method additionally involves forming electrical contact regions in the thin silicon layer for the buried collectors. 10 figs.

McCarthy, A.M.

1998-06-02

219

Describing Soils: Calibration Tool for Teaching Soil Rupture Resistance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rupture resistance is a measure of the strength of a soil to withstand an applied stress or resist deformation. In soil survey, during routine soil descriptions, rupture resistance is described for each horizon or layer in the soil profile. The lower portion of the rupture resistance classes are assigned based on rupture between thumb and…

Seybold, C. A.; Harms, D. S.; Grossman, R. B.

2009-01-01

220

Using Marker Horizons and Cryogenic Coring to Monitor Sediment Deposition in Salt Marshes of the Bay of Fundy  

E-print Network

Using Marker Horizons and Cryogenic Coring to Monitor Sediment Deposition in Salt Marshes that has accumulated over the marker horizon is measured. Cryogenic coring is one method of extracting out of the soil, a frozen core of marsh sediment is obtained. Using cryogenic coring to obtain salt

Chmura, Gail L.

221

New Horizons in Education, 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains the May and November 2000 issues of "New Horizons in Education," with articles in English and Chinese. The May issue includes the following articles: "A Key to Successful Environmental Education: Teacher Trainees' Attitude, Behaviour, and Knowledge" (Kevin Chung Wai Lui, Eric Po Keung Tsang, Sing Lai Chan); "Critical…

Ho, Kwok Keung, Ed.

2000-01-01

222

NIF featured on BBC "Horizon"  

ScienceCinema

The National Ignition Facility, the world's largest laser system, located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, was featured in the BBC broadcast "Horizon" hosted by physicist Brian Cox. Here is the NIF portion of the program, which was entitled "Can We Make A Star On Earth?" This video is used with the express permission of the BBC.

Brian Cox

2010-09-01

223

Evolutionary Robotics: Exploring New Horizons  

E-print Network

Chapter 1 Evolutionary Robotics: Exploring New Horizons St´ephane Doncieux, Jean-Baptiste Mouret, Nicolas Bredeche, and Vincent Padois Abstract. This paper considers the field of Evolutionary Robotics (ER of research is discussed, as well as the potential use of ER in a robot design process. Four main aspects

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

224

Thermal analysis of directly buried conduit heat-distribution systems  

SciTech Connect

The calculations of heat losses and temperature field for directly buried conduit heat distribution systems were performed using the finite element computer programs. The finite element analysis solved two-dimensional, steady-state heat transfer problems involving two insulated parallel pipes encased in the same conduit casing and in separate casings, and the surrounding earth. Descriptions of the theoretical basis, computational scheme, and the data input and outputs of the developed computer programs are presented. Numerical calculations were carried out for predicting the temperature distributions within the existing high temperature hot water distribution system and two insulated pipes covered in the same metallic conduit and the surrounding soil. The predicted results generally agree with the experimental data obtained at the test site.

Fang, J.B.

1990-08-01

225

47 CFR 32.2423 - Buried cable.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...This account shall include the original cost of buried cable as well as the cost of other material used in the construction...transmission of telecommunications signals. (b) The cost of pumping water out of manholes and of cleaning manholes and ducts in...

2010-10-01

226

Micromachining of buried micro channels in silicon  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for the fabrication of micro structures for fluidic applications, such as channels, cavities, and connector holes in the bulk of silicon wafers, called buried channel technology (BCT), is presented in this paper. The micro structures are constructed by trench etching, coating of the sidewalls of the trench, removal of the coating at the bottom of the trench,

Meint J. de Boer; R. Willem Tjerkstra; J. W. Berenschot; Henri V. Jansen; G. J. Burger; J. G. E. Gardeniers; Miko Elwenspoek; Berg van den Albert

2000-01-01

227

Burying as a defensive response in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Notes that in typical laboratory settings, the defensive reactions of animals appear to be limited to freezing, fleeing, and attacking. However, 95 naive adult male hooded rats tested in the presence of bedding material incorporated it into a striking and adaptive behavioral sequence. Ss shocked once through a stationary prod buried this shock source, even when the shock–test interval was

John P. Pinel; Dallas Treit

1978-01-01

228

Xenon Isotope Releases from Buried Transuranic Waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Xenon is an inert rare gas produced as a fission product in nuclear reactors and through spontaneous fission of some transuranic isotopes. Thus, xenon will be released from buried transuranic waste. Two complementary methods are used to measure xenon isotopes: radiometric analysis for short-lived radioxenon isotopes and mass spectrometry for detection of stable xenon isotopes. Initial measurements near disposal facilities

P. E. Dresel; S. R. Waichler; B. M. Kennedy; J. C. Hayes; J. I. McIntyre; J. R. Giles; A. J. Sondrup

2004-01-01

229

Surface acoustic wave devices as passive buried sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices are currently used as passive remote-controlled sensors for measuring various physical quantities through a wireless link. Among the two main classes of designs—resonator and delay line—the former has the advantage of providing narrow-band spectrum informations and hence appears compatible with an interrogation strategy complying with Industry-Scientific-Medical regulations in radio-frequency (rf) bands centered around 434, 866, or 915 MHz. Delay-line based sensors require larger bandwidths as they consists of a few interdigitated electrodes excited by short rf pulses with large instantaneous energy and short response delays but is compatible with existing equipment such as ground penetrating radar (GPR). We here demonstrate the measurement of temperature using the two configurations, particularly for long term monitoring using sensors buried in soil. Although we have demonstrated long term stability and robustness of packaged resonators and signal to noise ratio compatible with the expected application, the interrogation range (maximum 80 cm) is insufficient for most geology or geophysical purposes. We then focus on the use of delay lines, as the corresponding interrogation method is similar to the one used by GPR which allows for rf penetration distances ranging from a few meters to tens of meters and which operates in the lower rf range, depending on soil water content, permittivity, and conductivity. Assuming propagation losses in a pure dielectric medium with negligible conductivity (snow or ice), an interrogation distance of about 40 m is predicted, which overcomes the observed limits met when using interrogation methods specifically developed for wireless SAW sensors, and could partly comply with the above-mentioned applications. Although quite optimistic, this estimate is consistent with the signal to noise ratio observed during an experimental demonstration of the interrogation of a delay line buried at a depth of 5 m in snow.

Friedt, J.-M.; Rétornaz, T.; Alzuaga, S.; Baron, T.; Martin, G.; Laroche, T.; Ballandras, S.; Griselin, M.; Simonnet, J.-P.

2011-02-01

230

Soil Particle Size Distribution Protocol  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this resource is to sure the distribution of different sizes of soil particles in each horizon of a soil profile. Using dry, sieved soil from a horizon, students mix the soil with water and a dispersing solution to completely separate the particles from each other. Students shake the mixture to fully suspend the soil in the water. The soil particles are then allowed to settle out of suspension, and the specific gravity and temperature of the suspension are measured using a hydrometer and thermometer. These measurements are taken after 2 minutes and 24 hours.

The GLOBE Program, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR)

2003-08-01

231

Variations in microbial community composition through two soil depth profiles  

E-print Network

Variations in microbial community composition through two soil depth profiles Noah Fierera: Microbial diversity; Phospholipid fatty acid; Soil profile; Community composition; Microbial biomass 1 about the microbial communities residing in the deeper soil horizons. Microbial community composition

Fierer, Noah

232

HORIZON 2020 WORK PROGRAMME 2014 2015  

E-print Network

HORIZON 2020 WORK PROGRAMME 2014 ­ 2015 3. Marie Sklodowska-Curie Actions Important Notice on the First Horizon 2020 Work Programme This Work Programme covers 2014 and 2015. Due to the launching phase of Horizon 2020, parts of the Work Programme that relate to 2015 (dates, budget) are provided at this stage

Erdem, Erkut

233

Rapport d'information Horizon 2020  

E-print Network

Rapport d'information n o 1009 Horizon 2020 : l'Europepourla recherche, l'Europeparla recherche-cadre, expressément axé sur l'innovation en plus de la recherche, est rebaptisé «Horizon2020» afin de souligner son communautaires; la mise en synergie des moyens de recherchenationaux. Horizon2020 s

Pouyanne, Nicolas

234

Horizons in de-Sitter Supergravity  

E-print Network

We classify all pseudo-supersymmetric extremal near-horizon geometries in minimal five-dimensional de-Sitter supergravity. It is shown that the only such near-horizon geometry is the near-horizon geometry of the de-Sitter BMPV solution, and hence there are no regular extremal pseudo-supersymmetric asymptotically de-Sitter black rings.

J. Grover; J. Gutowski

2010-01-14

235

Wave-induced uplift force on a submarine pipeline buried in a compressible seabed  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-dimensional finite-element simulation of the wave-induced hydrodynamic uplift force acting on a submarine pipeline buried in sandy seabed sediments subject to continuous loading of sinusoidal surface waves is presented. Neglecting inertia forces, a linear-elastic stress-strain relationship for the soil and Darcy's law for the flow of pore fluid are assumed. The model takes into account the compressibility of both

Waldemar Magda

1997-01-01

236

Use of microcomputer in mapping depth of stratigraphic horizons in National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

REGIONAL MAPPER is a menu-driven system in the BASIC language for computing and plotting (1) time, depth, and average velocity to geologic horizons, (2) interval time, thickness, and interval velocity of stratigraphic intervals, and (3) subcropping and onlapping intervals at unconformities. The system consists of three programs: FILER, TRAVERSER, and PLOTTER. A control point is a shot point with velocity analysis or a shot point at or near a well with velocity check-shot survey. Reflection time to and code number of seismic horizons are filed by digitizing tablet from record sections. TRAVERSER starts at a point of geologic control and, in traversing to another, parallels seismic events, records loss of horizons by onlap and truncation, and stores reflection time for geologic horizons at traversed shot points. TRAVERSER is basically a phantoming procedure. Permafrost thickness and velocity variations, buried canyons with low-velocity fill, and error in seismically derived velocity cause velocity anomalies that complicate depth mapping. Two depths to the top of the pebble is based shale are computed for each control point. One depth, designated Zs on seismically derived velocity. The other (Zw) is based on interval velocity interpolated linearly between wells and multiplied by interval time (isochron) to give interval thickness. Z w is computed for all geologic horizons by downward summation of interval thickness. Unknown true depth (Z) to the pebble shale may be expressed as Z = Zs + es and Z = Zw + ew where the e terms represent error. Equating the two expressions gives the depth difference D = Zs + Zw = ew + es A plot of D for the top of the pebble shale is readily contourable but smoothing is required to produce a reasonably simple surface. Seismically derived velocity used in computing Zs includes the effect of velocity anomalies but is subject to some large randomly distributed errors resulting in depth errors (es). Well-derived velocity used in computing Zw does not include the effect of velocity anomalies, but the error (ew) should reflect these anomalies and should be contourable (non-random). The D surface as contoured with smoothing is assumed to represent ew, that is, the depth effect of variations in permafrost thickness and velocity and buried canyon depth. Estimated depth (Zest) to each geologic horizon is the sum of Z w for that horizon and a constant e w as contoured for the pebble shale, which is the first highly continuous seismic horizon below the zone of anomalous velocity. Results of this 'depthing' procedure are compared with those of Tetra Tech, Inc., the subcontractor responsible for geologic and geophysical interpretation and mapping.

Payne, Thomas G.

1982-01-01

237

Relevance of mineral-organic associations in cryoturbated permafrost soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Enhanced microbial decomposition of deep buried organic matter (OM) increase the release of CO2and CH4from high latitude ecosystems, thus being an uncertain but potentially crucial positive feedback to global warming. The role of soil minerals as stabilization agents of OM against microbial attack gain in importance as soon abiotic soil conditions will change in permafrost soils. We investigated changes in storage and turnover of soil organic carbon (OC) and total nitrogen (TN) associated with minerals in 27 cryoturbated permafrost soils from the west to the east Siberian Arctic. Furthermore, we studied the mineral composition and the potential of OM to interact with soil minerals via different binding mechanisms. Mineral-associated organic matter (MOM) was separated from particulate plant debris by density fractionation in sodium polytungstate (density cut-off 1.6 g cm-3). Their apparent 14C ages were determined by accelerator mass spectrometry and potential mineralization rates were analyzed in a 180 days incubation experiments at 5 and 15° C. The mineral composition was analyzed by X-ray diffraction and selective extractions. Desorption experiments (stepwise extraction with KCl and NaH2PO4) using the permafrost soils as well as reference soils from temperate regions (three Stagnolsols from Germany) were performed to study OM sorbed to mineral surfaces or complexed with polyvalent metal ions. The proportion of OC associated with minerals (MOC) ranged from 5.1 to 14.9 kg m-2 (average: 11.0 kg m-2), corresponding to ~55% from the total soil OC storage (average: 20.2 ± 8.0 kg m-2) in the first meter of the Cryosols. In contrast to temperate soils, where maximum MOC concentrations are present in topsoils, cambic, or spodic horizons, cryoturbation in permafrost soils leads to high MOC concentrations within the whole solum. Cryoturbated OM-rich pockets in the subsoil store 18% (2.0 ± 1.3 kg m-2) of the MOC while another 34% (3.8 ± 3.5 kg m-2) was located in the uppermost permafrost. In topsoil horizons, mineralization rates showed a similar pattern for MOM and the bulk soil controls. In contrast, even higher MOM respiration rates then the bulk control were found in the cryoturbated OM-rich pockets and permafrost horizons. These findings deviate from temperate soil environments where MOM is considered to contribute to a 'stabilized pool' with mean residence times from hundreds to thousands of years. Statistical analysis indicated that mineral-organic interactions primarily occurred with poorly crystalline Fe and Al phases and Fe/Al-OM complexes. However, the minor desorption of organic polyelectrolytes by NaH2PO4 in permafrost soils indicated that significantly lower amounts of OC were bound by ligand exchange to Fe and Al minerals or the edges of clay minerals in permafrost soils compared to the temperate reference soils. Therefore, stabilization of OM by mineral surfaces or polyvalent metal ions appears to be of minor relevance in arctic environments compared to temperate soils.

Gentsch, Norman; Mikutta, Robert; Bárta, Ji?í; ?apek, Petr; Gittel, Antje; Richter, Andreas; Šantr??ková, Hanna; Schnecker, Jörg; Shibistova, Olga; Urich, Tim; Wild, Birgit; Guggenberger, Georg

2014-05-01

238

The ability of the blowflies Calliphora vomitoria (Linnaeus), Calliphora vicina (Rob-Desvoidy) and Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and the muscid flies Muscina stabulans (Fallén) and Muscina prolapsa (Harris) (Diptera: Muscidae) to colonise buried remains.  

PubMed

The blowflies Calliphora vomitoria (Linnaeus), Calliphora vicina (Rob-Desvoidy) and Lucilia sericata (Meigen) exhibited a limited ability to colonise pig liver baits buried in loose soil. Calliphora vomitoria colonised baits buried at 5 cm but no deeper whilst C. vicina and L. sericata colonised remains at 10 cm but not at 20 cm. The baits were colonised by larvae hatching from eggs laid on the surface of the soil. Both C. vomitoria and L. sericata were able to develop from eggs through to adulthood on baits that were infested before being buried and the larvae developed at similar rates and pupariated at similar depths to larvae developing on baits on the soil surface. The muscid flies Muscina stabulans (Fallén) and Muscina prolapsa (Harris) colonised remains buried in loose soil at a depth of 40 cm and even when presented with baits on the soil surface their larvae tended to remain in the soil beneath the baits. In compacted soil, M. stabulans colonised baits buried at 10 cm but M. prolapsa only colonised those buried at 5 cm. In both muscid species, the adult flies were instantly attracted to feed on fresh blood and laid eggs in the soil above buried baits within 30min of them being introduced into the cages. The adult muscid flies did not attempt to burrow into the soil and their larvae colonised the baits from eggs laid on the soil surface. This information could be useful in determining whether a body was stored above ground before being buried and/or the time since burial occurred. PMID:21071161

Gunn, Alan; Bird, Jerry

2011-04-15

239

Is life a thermal horizon ?  

E-print Network

This talk aims at questioning the vanishing of Unruh temperature for an inertial observer in Minkovski spacetime with finite lifetime, arguing that in the non eternal case the existence of a causal horizon is not linked to the non-vanishing of the acceleration. This is illustrated by a previous result, the diamonds temperature, that adapts the algebraic approach of Unruh effect to the finite case.

Pierre Martinetti

2006-12-24

240

On the formation of an inverted weathering profile on Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania: Buried paleosol or groundwater weathering?  

E-print Network

On the formation of an inverted weathering profile on Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania: Buried paleosol or groundwater weathering? Mark Gabriel Little , Cin-Ty Aeolus Lee Department of Earth Sciences, MS-126, Rice into the degree and nature of chemical weathering during soil formation on a volcanic (phonolite) substrate

Lee, Cin-Ty Aeolus

241

Detection of buried land mines using a dual-band LWIR\\/LWIR QWIP focal plane array  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the development and testing of a new dual-band infrared focal plane array (FPA) specifically designed to detect buried land mines. The detector response spectra were tailored to take advantage of the sharp spectral features associated with disturbed soils. The goal was to have a “blue” channel with peak response near 9.2 ?m and a “red” channel with

Arnold Goldberg; Parvez N Uppal; Michael Winn

2003-01-01

242

I. INTRODUCTION We are developing the means to autonomously retrieve buried objects. The most immediate application of this tech-  

E-print Network

of an autonomous system that detects, locates and retrieves buried objects. Our system consists of an excavator use the excavator to retrieve the object. Otherwise we roughly locate the object and use the excavator and execute digs to produce such trenches. The proposed approach optimizes the amount of soil excavated

Singh, Sanjiv

243

Data-model comparison of field landmine soil chemical signatures at Ft. Leonard Wood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical signatures from buried landmines vary widely due to landmine and environmental conditions. The simulation model T2TNT was developed to evaluate the nature of chemical transport in the soil surrounding a buried landmine. This model uses landmine chemical emission, soil physics, soil-chemical interaction, and surface weather data to estimate surface and subsurface concentrations to help understand the phenomenology of landmine

James M. Phelan; Stephen W. Webb

2003-01-01

244

An experience in using the world reference base for soil resources for the soils of western Georgia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New and previously published data on the soils of western Georgia are generalized, and traditional soil names are correlated with the units of the World Reference Base for Soil Resources. It is argued that krasnozems (red ferrallitic soils) can be attributed to the group of Nitisols (the soils characterized by intense weathering (ferralization) and having shiny ped faces in the nitic horizon); yellow and yellow-brown soils (zheltozems), to the group of Luvisols (the soils with relatively high adsorption capacity in the eluvial horizons and with the horizon of the illuvial accumulation of clay); yellow-podzolic (zheltozem-podzolic) soils, to Alisols (slightly acid soils with the low adsorption capacity, poor aggregation of the upper horizons, low-activity (kaolinite) clay, and with the horizon of clay accumulation (argic horizon)); brown forest soils, to Cambisols (the soils with the cambic horizon characterized by some alteration of the lithogenic texture and structure into the pedogenic texture and structure); and mountainous forest-meadow and meadow soils, to Umbrisols (the soils with the dark-colored unsaturated umbric horizon).

Urushadze, T. F.; Kvrivishvili, T. O.; Sanadze, E. V.

2014-08-01

245

Shell model response analysis of buried pipelines  

SciTech Connect

A shell model analysis can calculate the cross-sectional deformation and hoop stress of buried pipelines. This paper proposes an analytical method to calculate the response of buried straight and bent pipelines modeled as cylindrical shell structures. A modified transfer matrix method is employed instead of a stiffness matrix method to avoid the problem of computational memory caused by huge matrixes. Results calculated by the developed program are compared with experimental ones obtained by a pipe bending test of straight and bent pipe segments. In addition, several differences of the pipe response between the beam model and the shell model are examined through response simulations of straight and bent pipelines subjected to ground subsidence.

Takada, Shiro [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Civil Engineering and Architecture; Katagiri, Shin [Kubota Co., Ltd., Sakai, Osaka (Japan). Plastic Pipe R and D Dept.; Shinmi, Tatsuhiko [Kobe City Office (Japan)

1995-12-31

246

Trapping Centers in Unibond Buried Oxides  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\/ The charge trapping properties of Unibond buried oxides have been characterized with electron spin \\/resonance (ESR) and capacitance-voltage (CV) measurements. Unibond is a revolutionary new \\/silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology that seemingly combines the best of both separated-by-implanted-oxygen \\/(SIMOX) and bond-and-etchback-silicon-on-insulator (BESOI). SOI materials have several advantages over bulk \\/silicon, including speed, power, and radiation hardness for outerspace applications. \\/ We

Brian Wallace; Patrick Lenahan; John Conely

1997-01-01

247

The Insects Colonisation of Buried Remains  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In our society, burial of a deceased person is a common habit in a normal situation. In opposition, manmade burial by authors\\u000a of homicide and\\/or their accomplices to hide the body of their victim is more seldom.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Exhumation of a buried corpse can be ordered by legal decision (second expert conclusion). It can also be accidental or required\\u000a by authorities

Emmanuel Gaudry

248

http://www.ukro.ac.uk Horizon 2020  

E-print Network

http://www.ukro.ac.uk Horizon 2020 Royal Holloway, University of London 6 November 2012 Inga Benner inga.benner@bbsrc.ac.uk #12;Horizon 2020 - background #12;What is Horizon 2020? · Commission proposal), etc. DevelopmentofHorizon2020 #12;Horizon 2020 - overview #12;What's new? June Sept Dec Horizon2020

Royal Holloway, University of London

249

Spacetime near isolated and dynamical trapping horizons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the near-horizon spacetime for isolated and dynamical trapping horizons (equivalently marginally outer trapped tubes). The metric is expanded relative to an ingoing Gaussian null coordinate and the terms of that expansion are explicitly calculated to second order. For the spacelike case, knowledge of the intrinsic and extrinsic geometry of the (dynamical) horizon is sufficient to determine the near-horizon spacetime, while for the null case (an isolated horizon) more information is needed. In both cases spacetime is allowed to be of arbitrary dimension and the formalism accommodates both general relativity as well as more general field equations. The formalism is demonstrated for two applications. First, spacetime is considered near an isolated horizon and the construction is both checked against the Kerr-Newman solution and compared to the well-known near-horizon limit for stationary extremal black hole spacetimes. Second, spacetime is examined in the vicinity of a slowly evolving horizon and it is demonstrated that there is always an event horizon candidate in this region. The geometry and other properties of this null surface match those of the slowly evolving horizon to leading order and in this approximation the candidate evolves in a locally determined way. This generalizes known results for Vaidya as well as certain spacetimes known from studies of the fluid-gravity correspondence.

Booth, Ivan

2013-01-01

250

Lovelock black holes with nonmaximally symmetric horizons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new class of black hole solutions in third-order Lovelock gravity whose horizons are Einstein space with two supplementary conditions on their Weyl tensors. The existence of these solutions is due to the higher curvature terms in Lovelock gravity. We find that while the solution of third-order Lovelock gravity with constant-curvature horizon in the absence of a mass parameter is the anti-de Sitter (AdS) metric, this kind of solution with nonconstant-curvature horizon is only asymptotically AdS and may have horizon. We also find that one may have an extreme black hole with nonconstant-curvature horizon whose Ricci scalar is zero or a positive constant, while there is no such black hole with constant-curvature horizon. Furthermore, the thermodynamics of the black holes in the two cases of constant- and nonconstant-curvature horizons are different drastically. Specially, we consider the thermodynamics of black holes with vanishing Ricci scalar and find that in contrast to the case of black holes of Lovelock gravity with constant-curvature horizon, the area law of entropy is not satisfied. Finally, we investigate the stability of these black holes both locally and globally and find that while the black holes with constant-curvature horizons are stable both locally and globally, those with nonconstant-curvature horizons have unstable phases.

Farhangkhah, N.; Dehghani, M. H.

2014-08-01

251

Gravitational radiations of generic isolated horizons and nonrotating dynamical horizons from asymptotic expansions  

SciTech Connect

Instead of using a three-dimensional analysis on quasilocal horizons, we adopt a four-dimensional asymptotic expansion analysis to study the next order contributions from the nonlinearity of general relativity. From the similarity between null infinity and horizons, the proper reference frames are chosen from the compatible constant spinors for an observer to measure the energy-momentum and flux near quasilocal horizons. In particular, we focus on the similarity of Bondi-Sachs gravitational radiation for the quasilocal horizons and compare our results with Ashtekar-Kirshnan flux formula. The quasilocal energy-momentum and flux of generic isolated horizons and nonrotating dynamical horizons are discussed in this paper.

Wu, Y.-H.; Wang, C.-H. [Center for Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, National Central University and Department of Physics, National Central University, Chungli, 320, Taiwan (China); Department of Physics, National Central University, Chungli, 320, Taiwan (China)

2009-09-15

252

Physics-based deformations of ground penetrating radar signals to improve the detection of buried explosives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of recent algorithms have shown improved performance in detecting buried explosive threats by statistically modeling target responses observed in ground penetrating radar (GPR) signals. These methods extract features from known examples of target responses to train a statistical classifier. The statistical classifiers are then used to identify targets emplaced in previously unseen conditions. Due to the variation in target GPR responses caused by factors such as differing soil conditions, classifiers require training on a large, varied dataset to encompass the signal variation expected in operational conditions. These training collections generally involve burying each target type in a number of soil conditions, at a number of burial depths. The cost associated with both burying the targets, and collecting the data is extremely high. Thus, the conditions and depths sampled cover only a subset of possible scenarios. The goal of this research is to improve the ability of a classifier to generalize to new conditions by deforming target responses in accordance with the physical properties of GPR signals. These signal deformations can simulate a target response under different conditions than those represented in the data collection. This research shows that improved detection performance in previously unseen conditions can be achieved by utilizing deformations, even when the training dataset is limited.

Sakaguchi, Rayn T.; Morton, Kennth D.; Collins, Leslie M.; Torrione, Peter A.

2014-05-01

253

The beginnings of black hole horizons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The beginning of a black hole horizon is the set of points where generators enter the horizon. Several properties of this "entry set" and the early horizon near it are shown: It is the locus of the horizon's self-intersections, and it is spacelike of dimension zero, one or two, where this is defined. It is connected but can bifurcate in possibly complicated ways. On spacelike surfaces the entry of generators manifests itself in a kink in the horizon. The kinks propagate at superluminal speed until they "run out of steam," slow down to light speed and disappear. Kinks generally run from the main collapse region to secondary collapse events until no more new generators enter the horizon. This is illustrated by collapse of two mass concentrations, and by the case of a large number of particles.

Brill, Dieter

2011-04-01

254

Geometric Characterizations of the Kerr Isolated Horizon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We formulate conditions on the geometry of a nonexpanding horizon ? which are sufficient for the spacetime metric to coincide on ? with the Kerr metric. We introduce an invariant which can be used as a measure of how different the geometry of a given nonexpanding horizon is from the geometry of the Kerr horizon. Directly, our results concern the spacetime metric at ? at the zeroth and the first orders. Combined with the results of Ashtekar, Beetle and Lewandowski, our conditions can be used to compare the spacetime geometry at the nonexpanding horizon with that of Kerr to every order. The results should be useful to numerical relativity in analyzing the sense in which the final black hole horizon produced by a collapse or a merger approaches the Kerr horizon.

Lewandowski, Jerzy; Pawlowski, Tomasz; Ashtekar, A.

255

Smooth horizons and quantum ripples  

E-print Network

Black Holes are unique objects which allow for meaningful theoretical studies of strong gravity and even quantum gravity effects. An infalling and a distant observer would have very different views on the structure of the world. However, a careful analysis has shown that it entails no genuine contradictions for physics, and the paradigm of observer complementarity has been coined. Recently this picture was put into doubt. In particular, it was argued that in old Black Holes a firewall must form in order to protect the basic principles of quantum mechanics. This AMPS paradox has already been discussed in a vast number of papers with different attitudes and conclusions. Here we want to argue that a possible source of confusion is neglection of quantum gravity effects. Contrary to widespread perception, it does not necessarily mean that effective field theory is inapplicable in rather smooth neighbourhoods of large Black Hole horizons. The real offender might be an attempt to consistently use it over the huge distances from the near-horizon zone of old Black Holes to the early radiation. We give simple estimates to support this viewpoint and show how the Page time and (somewhat more speculative) scrambling time do appear.

Alexey Golovnev

2014-01-13

256

MANIFESTATION JOURNEE EUROPE INFORMATIONS PROGRAMME HORIZON 2020  

E-print Network

MANIFESTATION JOURNEE EUROPE ­ INFORMATIONS PROGRAMME HORIZON 2020 ET EUROPAID 16 décembre 2013 9, Zoraïda MARTINEZ 16 décembre 2013 10 :00 Matin JOURNEE D'INFORMATION HORIZON 2020 / EUROPAID CESBIO- Salle de conférence - Présentation générale d'HORIZON 2020 et son intérêt pour l'IRD - Les nouveautés et

Dintrans, Boris

257

Prehistoric Agriculture and Soil Fertility on Lava Flows in Northern Arizona, USA: Results from the San Francisco Volcanic Field REU  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The San Francisco Volcanic Field in northern Arizona is home to ~600 cinder cones, the youngest of which is Sunset Crater (erupted ~AD 1100). This study documents trends in available phosphate and nitrate content with time, testing whether lowered soil pH from the addition of Sunset cinders increased soil fertility and became a factor in Anasazi agricultural success. Soil fertility is examined both before and after Sunset's eruption in soils of different ages that have developed from eolian deposition on top of lava flows. An increase in phosphate and nitrate levels following acidification would suggest that the presence of Sunset cinders brought the soils to the optimal pH for mobilization of these nutrients. The combined effects of the cinder layer retaining nutrients and water, wetter climates, and increases in phosphate and nitrate (both limiting nutrients for plant growth), would have contributed to Anasazi agricultural success after Sunset's eruption. Samples for this study were taken from eolian-derived soils of different ages atop lava flows in the San Francisco Volcanic Field. OSL data from these soils on Strawberry and SP Craters' lava flows yielded age estimates of ~12.3 ka (Strawberry) and ~32.7 ka (SP), on which a soil chronosequence was based. Results from the chronosequence supported these OSL ages, indicating that soils on the SP flow are older than those on the Strawberry flow. Field descriptions, Harden Development Indices, particle size analysis, and nutrient content analysis were used for this aspect of the project. An experimental acid wash method will be used to simulate the addition of Sunset's acidic cinders, and will yield data for phosphate and nitrate content after Sunset erupted. Preliminary results indicate that phosphate and nitrate accumulate in upper, eolian-derived horizons (Av, Bw) and in more deeply buried carbonate horizons (Bk). Higher concentrations of phosphate and nitrate were found in older (SP) soils than younger (Strawberry) soils, suggesting that these nutrients increase over time with eolian deposition and soil development. Results from this study will yield information on the impact of volcanic eruptions and soil development on prehistoric agriculture and soil fertility. This study contributes to our understanding of the interactions between eruptions and human populations.

Broadman, E.; Anderson, K. C.

2013-12-01

258

The daily evaporation characteristics of deeply buried phreatic water in an extremely arid region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of the daily evaporation characteristics of deeply buried phreatic water in an extremely arid area are reported. The results are used to analyze the mechanism responsible for water movement in the groundwater-soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. A closed PVC greenhouse was set up on Gobi land at the top of the Mogao Grottoes where phreatic water is more than 200 m deep. An air-conditioning unit and an automatic weighing scale were placed inside the greenhouse to condense and monitor phreatic evaporation and soil water changes in this extremely arid region. Soil temperature and humidity at various depths (0-40 cm) and other meteorological factors were also recorded on a sub-hourly basis. The relationship between evaporated water and soil water movement was analyzed by observing changes in soil weight, the condensate from the air-conditioning unit, and air moisture. The results show that phreatic water evaporation occurs from this deeply buried source in this extremely arid zone. The daily characteristics are consistent with the variation in the Sun’s radiation intensity (i.e. both show a sinusoidal behavior). In the daytime, most of the soil water does not evaporate but moves to cooler sub-layers. In the afternoon, the shallow soil layer absorbs moisture as the temperature decreases. At night, an abundance of water vapor moves upwards from the sub-layers and supplements the evaporated and downward-moving moisture of the superstratum in the daytime, but there is no evaporation. The stable, upwardly migrating vapor and film water is supported by geothermy and comes from phreatic water, the daily evaporation characteristics of which changes according to soil temperature when it reaches the ground.

Li, Hongshou; Wang, Wanfu; Liu, Benli

2014-06-01

259

The available-water capacities of North Auckland soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Available-water capacities of the principal groups of soils of high clay content in North Auckland have been determined. Within each main soil group they are markedly uniform.Among the soils on sedimentary parent rocks podzolisation is accompanied by larger available-water capacities in the A horizons and smaller ones in some B horizons than are found for unpodzolised soils. Of the soils

M. W. Gradwell

1971-01-01

260

Early Presentation of Buried Bumper Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is a relatively safe and effective method of providing nutrition to patients with neurologic deficits or proximal gastrointestinal pathology. Complications that follow this common procedure include dislodgement, dysfunction, infection and aspiration. The “Buried Bumper Syndrome” (BBS) is an infrequent and late complication of PEG tubes that can result in tube dysfunction, gastric perforation, bleeding, peritonitis or death. The emergency physician should be aware of historical and exam features that suggest BBS and distinguish it from other, more benign, PEG-tube related complaints. We report a case of a woman presenting with BBS 3 weeks after having a PEG tube placed. PMID:24106531

Geer, Walter; Jeanmonod, Rebecca

2013-01-01

261

Development stages of Holocene soils formed in loess and loess bearing sediments at the Roman wall (Limes) in the Wetterau (Hesse, Germany)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

About 2000 years ago the Romans built a wall through Europe - named Limes (lat. border) in Middle Europe and Hadrian's wall in UK - with the aim to protect the borders of their empire. In many parts the Limes was constructed by digging a trench and by accumulating the excavated soil material at one side of the trench. The upper decimetres of the wall are mainly made of calcareous sediments, because the trench was dug to a depth of C horizons which are composed of loess with high carbonate content. One prerequisite for research on pedogenesis is to obtain most precise data about the age of the parent material of soil formation. Regarding this, the Limes gives an excellent opportunity to distinguish different stages of Late Holocene soil development. The study area is part of the soilscape of the Wetterau (100 - 250 m asl) situated between Taunus and Vogelsberg in Hesse, Germany. The precipitation is around 500 mm per year. Wetterau's gentle rolling hills were originally covered with loess and periglacial slope deposits. The soilscape is characterized by (Albic) Luvisols, Haplic Phaeozems, Luvic Phaeozems as well as Calcaric Regosols on upper slopes and Anthrosols in footslope positions. Particulary Haplic Phaeozems and Luvic Phaeozems have been of a wider interest of pedogenic research, since they have been formed in the Early and Mid-Holocene and, therefore, they are relic. It is supposed that the Wetterau was a Chernozem soilscape during the Early Holocene changing to a soilscape characterised by (Luvic) Phaeozems and Luvisols during the Atlantic period. Results of archaeological research on the Roman wall in the Wetterau showed that the wall was constructed in the 2nd century AD and that it had different functions over time. In this context soil investigations revealed three different stages of Holocene soil development: (i) a youngest (recent) soil situated in the wall, (ii) a paleosol conserved below the wall and (iii) a soil developed in the area nearby the wall A section through the Roman wall in the northern part of the Wetterau reveals (i) a Luvisol with limpid to dusty yellow brown and brown clay coatings in the Bt horizon developed in the sediments of the wall during the last 1800 to 1900 years. A trampling horizon can be inferred from platy microplates and horizontally oriented organ residues in a depth of around 160 cm representing the old land surface. The former Ah horizon was most possibly removed before building up the wall. Below the wall (ii) a Luvic Phaeozem was found with dark brown and yellow brown clay coatings in the upper AhBt horizon. The lower humic Bt horizon reveals numerous fragments of clay coatings beside undisturbed yellow brown clay coatings. The buried Luvic Phaeozem is an archetype of the soil development stage at Roman times in that area. Since calcareous material was put on the upper decimetres of the wall, the following decalcification led to precipitation of carbonate in the humic Bt horizon of the Luvic Phaeozem and so conserved this stage of soil formation. The investigated (iii) Albic Luvisol situated about 30 m next to the wall section represents the present stage of soil development with (meanwhile) no macroscopic signs of the Chernozem/Phaeozem predecessors. To figure out soil development stages micromorphological data were combined with soil physical and chemical data as well as results from clay mineralogy. Due to secondary calcification the pH of the paleosol is around 7, whereas the occurrence of secondary chlorites in the upper part of the paleosol points at pH values ranging from 4-5 at Roman times.

Kühn, P.; Felix-Henningsen, P.

2009-04-01

262

Elementary GLOBE: Getting to Know Soil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A learning activity for the Scoop on Soils book in the Elementary GLOBE Series. Each student will make predictions about the properties of various soil samples. Then they will examine several types of soils and record their observations. Next, they will learn about soil profiles and horizons by both examining a soil sample in a jar and by creating a soil profile flip chart. The purpose of the activity is to provide the opportunity for students to ask questions and make observations about soil and introduce students to the properties of soil and to the concept of soil profiles and horizons. After completing this activity, students will know about soil's different properties and about soil profiles. Students will know that soils have different properties including texture, color, and size. They will know that soil forms layers based on these properties.

2008-12-01

263

Enzyme leaching of surficial geochemical samples for detecting hydromorphic trace-element anomalies associated with precious-metal mineralized bedrock buried beneath glacial overburden in northern Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

One objective of the International Falls and Roseau, Minnesota, CUSMAP projects was to develop a means of conducting regional-scale geochemical surveys in areas where bedrock is buried beneath complex glacially derived overburden. Partial analysis of B-horizon soils offered hope for detecting subtle hydromorphic trace-element dispersion patterns. An enzyme-based partial leach selectively removes metals from oxide coatings on the surfaces of soil materials without attacking their matrix. Most trace-element concentrations in the resulting solutions are in the part-per-trillion to low part-per-billion range, necessitating determinations by inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry. The resulting data show greater contrasts for many trace elements than with other techniques tested. Spatially, many trace metal anomalies are locally discontinuous, but anomalous trends within larger areas are apparent. In many instances, the source for an anomaly seems to be either basal till or bedrock. Ground water flow is probably the most important mechanism for transporting metals toward the surface, although ionic diffusion, electrochemical gradients, and capillary action may play a role in anomaly dispersal. Sample sites near the Rainy Lake-Seine River fault zone, a regional shear zone, often have anomalous concentrations of a variety of metals, commonly including Zn and/or one or more metals which substitute for Zn in sphalerite (Cd, Ge, Ga, and Sn). Shifts in background concentrations of Bi, Sb, and As show a trend across the area indicating a possible regional zoning of lode-Au mineralization. Soil anomalies of Ag, Co, and Tl parallel basement structures, suggesting areas that may have potential for Cobalt/Thunder Baytype silver viens. An area around Baudette, Minnesota, which is underlain by quartz-chlorite-carbonate-altered shear zones, is anomalous in Ag, As, Bi, Co, Mo, Te, Tl, and W. Anomalies of Ag, As, Bi, Te, and W tend to follow the fault zones, suggesting potential for lode-Au deposits. Soil anomalies of Co, Mo, and Tl appear to follow northwest-striking structures that cross the shear zones, suggesting that Thunder Bay-type mineralization may have overprinted earlier mineralization along the shear zones.

Clark, Robert J.; Meier, A.L.; Riddle, G.

1990-01-01

264

Buried landmine detection using multivariate normal clustering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Bayesian classification algorithm is presented for discriminating buried land mines from buried and surface clutter in Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) signals. This algorithm is based on multivariate normal (MVN) clustering, where feature vectors are used to identify populations (clusters) of mines and clutter objects. The features are extracted from two-dimensional images created from ground penetrating radar scans. MVN clustering is used to determine the number of clusters in the data and to create probability density models for target and clutter populations, producing the MVN clustering classifier (MVNCC). The Bayesian Information Criteria (BIC) is used to evaluate each model to determine the number of clusters in the data. An extension of the MVNCC allows the model to adapt to local clutter distributions by treating each of the MVN cluster components as a Poisson process and adaptively estimating the intensity parameters. The algorithm is developed using data collected by the Mine Hunter/Killer Close-In Detector (MH/K CID) at prepared mine lanes. The Mine Hunter/Killer is a prototype mine detecting and neutralizing vehicle developed for the U.S. Army to clear roads of anti-tank mines.

Duston, Brian M.

2001-10-01

265

Optical geometry across the horizon  

E-print Network

In a companion paper (Jonsson and Westman, Class. Quantum Grav. 23 (2006) 61), a generalization of optical geometry, assuming a non-shearing reference congruence, is discussed. Here we illustrate that this formalism can be applied to a finite four-volume of any spherically symmetric spacetime. In particular we apply the formalism, using a non-static reference congruence, to do optical geometry across the horizon of a static black hole. While the resulting geometry in principle is time dependent, we can choose the reference congruence in such a manner that an embedding of the geometry always looks the same. Relative to the embedded geometry the reference points are then moving. We discuss the motion of photons, inertial forces and gyroscope precession in this framework.

Rickard Jonsson

2007-08-19

266

Dissolved Organic Carbon and Nitrogen Leaching From Soil Formed in Grass, Oak and Pine Ecosystems of California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dissolved organic matter (DOM) leaching from decomposing detritus accumulated above mineral soils is an important carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) flux that influences biogeochemical processes, C sequestration and the health of individual ecosystems. This study compared the retention and transformation of DOM leached through soils formed under three contrasting vegetation types. In a laboratory study, columns of surface soil (10 cm diameter, 10 cm height) from either a grass, oak or pine site were leached with DOM derived from either grass, oak or pine litter. In the field, the laboratory study was replicated by burying columns of soil from the grass, oak and pine sites under the organic horizon at each sites. Leachates from in-situ field columns were collected biweekly beginning in January 2005. Samples were analyzed for volume, pH, total N, NO3-, NH4+, DON and DOC. In the laboratory leaching studies soils retained DOC derived from its native ecosystem to a greater extent. These results suggest that the microbial community from each ecosystem is adapted to consume the native DOC. No clear trends were found with DOC in the field study. Leachates from the field columns did show significantly lower levels of DON from pine soil columns at all sampling dates and sites. Similar results were found in the laboratory study with pine soil decreasing initial total N inputs from 32.9 to 3.6 mg kg-1. While all three sites contain kaolinite, vermiculite and chlorite, soil from the pine site also has high levels of iron oxides and gibbsite. The greater iron content likely contributes to higher DON retention since these minerals are know to have high affinities for the retention of DOM. The results from the field and laboratory experiments show that both soil minerals and the soil microbial communities play an important role in DOM retention in the subsoil.

Pittiglio, S. L.; Zasoski, R. J.

2005-12-01

267

School of Social Sciences Social Horizons  

E-print Network

School of Social Sciences Social Horizons Welcome to Social Horizons, the undergraduate news bulletin from the School of Social Sciences which features our most recent developments and stories. The School of Social Sciences provides a vibrant, supportive learning environment where you can explore

Evans, Paul

268

Black holes as trapping horizons Eric Gourgoulhon  

E-print Network

Black holes as trapping horizons Eric Gourgoulhon Laboratoire Univers et Th´eories (LUTH) CNRS://www.luth.obspm.fr/~luthier/gourgoulhon/ Centrum Astronomiczne im. M. Kopernika Warsaw, Poland 17 November 2008 Eric Gourgoulhon (LUTH) Black holes as trapping horizons CAMK, Warsaw, 17 Nov. 2008 1 / 36 #12;Plan 1 Local approaches to black holes 2 Viscous

Gourgoulhon, Eric

269

Finding KBO Flyby Targets for New Horizons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of the New Horizons mission to Pluto and the Kuiper Belt is now fully funded by NASA (Stern and Spencer, this volume). If all goes well, New Horizons will be launched in January 2006, followed by a Jupiter gravity assist in 2007, with Pluto arrival expected in either 2015 or 2016, depending on the launch vehicle chosen. A backup

John Spencer; Marc Buie; Leslie Young; Yanping Guo; Alan Stern

2003-01-01

270

Expanding your horizons in science and mathematics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the 'Expanding Your Horizons in Science and Mathematics' program is to interest young women in grades six through twelve in a variety of careers where mathematics and science are important. Progress in encouraging young women to take courses in mathematics, science, and technological subjects is discussed. Also included are adult, student, and organizational information packets used for 'Expanding Your Horizons' conferences.

Palmer, Cynthia E. A.

1995-01-01

271

Super-horizon primordial black holes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss a new class of solutions to the Einstein equations which describe a primordial black hole (PBH) in a flat Friedmann background. Such solutions arise if a Schwarzschild black hole is patched onto a Friedmann background via a transition region. They are possible providing the black hole event horizon is larger than the cosmological apparent horizon. Such solutions have

Tomohiro Haradaand; B. J. Carr

2005-01-01

272

Cosmological event horizons, thermodynamics, and particle creation  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that the close connection between event horizons and thermodynamics which has been found in the case of black holes can be extended to cosmological models with a repulsive cosmological constant. An observer in these models will have an event horizon whose area can be interpreted as the entropy or lack of information of the observer about the

G. W. Gibbons; S. W. Hawking

1977-01-01

273

ACIDIFICATION AND RECOVERY OF A SPODOSOL BS HORIZON FROM ACIDIC DEPOSITION  

EPA Science Inventory

A laboratory study was conducted to examine acidification and recovery of a Spodosol Bs horizon from acidic deposition in the Bear Brook Watershed (BBW) in central Maine. echanical vacuum extractor was used to draw solutions through a soil column at three treatments containing 40...

274

Something special at the event horizon  

E-print Network

We calculate the free-fall energy density of scalar fields semi-classically by employing the trace anomaly on a two-dimensional Schwarzschild black hole with respect to various black hole states in order to clarify whether something special at the horizon happens or not. For the Boulware state, the energy density at the horizon is always negative divergent, which is independent of initial free-fall positions. However, in the Unruh state the initial free-fall position is responsible for the energy density at the horizon and there is a critical point to determine the sign of the energy density at the horizon. In particular, a huge negative energy density appears when the freely falling observer is dropped just near the horizon. For the Hartle-Hawking state, it may also be positive or negative depending on the initial free-fall position, but it is always finite. Finally, we discuss physical consequences of these calculations.

Eune, Myungseok; Kim, Wontae

2014-01-01

275

Something special at the event horizon  

E-print Network

We calculate the free-fall energy density of scalar fields semi-classically by employing the trace anomaly on a two-dimensional Schwarzschild black hole with respect to various black hole states in order to clarify whether something special at the horizon happens or not. For the Boulware state, the energy density at the horizon is always negative divergent, which is independent of initial free-fall positions. However, in the Unruh state the initial free-fall position is responsible for the energy density at the horizon and there is a critical point to determine the sign of the energy density at the horizon. In particular, a huge negative energy density appears when the freely falling observer is dropped just near the horizon. For the Hartle-Hawking state, it may also be positive or negative depending on the initial free-fall position, but it is always finite. Finally, we discuss physical consequences of these calculations.

Myungseok Eune; Yongwan Gim; Wontae Kim

2014-01-15

276

Thermal processing system concepts and considerations for RWMC buried waste  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a preliminary determination of ex situ thermal processing system concepts and related processing considerations for application to remediation of transuranic (TRU)-contaminated buried wastes (TRUW) at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Beginning with top-level thermal treatment concepts and requirements identified in a previous Preliminary Systems Design Study (SDS), a more detailed consideration of the waste materials thermal processing problem is provided. Anticipated waste stream elements and problem characteristics are identified and considered. Final waste form performance criteria, requirements, and options are examined within the context of providing a high-integrity, low-leachability glass/ceramic, final waste form material. Thermal processing conditions required and capability of key systems components (equipment) to provide these material process conditions are considered. Information from closely related companion study reports on melter technology development needs assessment and INEL Iron-Enriched Basalt (IEB) research are considered. Five potentially practicable thermal process system design configuration concepts are defined and compared. A scenario for thermal processing of a mixed waste and soils stream with essentially no complex presorting and using a series process of incineration and high temperature melting is recommended. Recommendations for applied research and development necessary to further detail and demonstrate the final waste form, required thermal processes, and melter process equipment are provided.

Eddy, T.L.; Kong, P.C.; Raivo, B.D.; Anderson, G.L.

1992-02-01

277

Soil and biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that the soil diversity-biodiversity system in terrestrial ecosystems operates in spatiotemporal unity, which\\u000a manifests itself at different hierarchical levels of their structural-functional organization: successional-evolutionary,\\u000a zonal geographic, landscape, biogeocenotic, soil-type, horizon-layer, geochemical, and the levels of elementary soil processes\\u000a and soil fertility. Arguments confirming the functional relationship between organisms and soils are considered. Effective\\u000a biodiversity conservation is possible

F. Kh. Khaziev

2011-01-01

278

Landslide Buries Valley of the Geysers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Geysers are a rare natural phenomena found only in a few places, such as New Zealand, Iceland, the United States (Yellowstone National Park), and on Russia's far eastern Kamchatka Peninsula. On June 3, 2007, one of these rare geyser fields was severely damaged when a landslide rolled through Russia's Valley of the Geysers. The landslide--a mix of mud, melting snow, trees, and boulders--tore a scar on the land and buried a number of geysers, thermal pools, and waterfalls in the valley. It also blocked the Geyser River, causing a new thermal lake to pool upstream. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this infrared-enhanced image on June 11, 2007, a week after the slide. The image shows the valley, the landslide, and the new thermal lake. Even in mid-June, just days from the start of summer, the landscape is generally covered in snow, though the geologically heated valley is relatively snow free. The tree-covered hills are red (the color of vegetation in this false-color treatment), providing a strong contrast to the aquamarine water and the gray-brown slide. According to the Russian News and Information Agency (RIA) [English language], the slide left a path roughly a kilometer and a half (one mile) long and 200 meters (600 feet) wide. Within hours of the landslide, the water in the new lake inundated a number of additional geysers. The geysers directly buried under the landslide now lie under as much as 60 meters (180 feet) of material, according to RIA reports. It is unlikely that the geysers will be able to force a new opening through this thick layer, adds RIA. Among those directly buried is Pervenets (Firstborn), the first geyser found in the valley, in 1941. Other geysers, such as the Bolshoi (Greater) and Maly (Lesser) Geysers, were silenced when buried by water building up behind the new natural dam. According to Vladimir and Andrei Leonov of the Russian Federation Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, the new lake appears to be stable and draining gradually through the earthen dam, alleviating fears of a catastrophic flood. Should the new lake drain enough, many of the inundated geysers may restart. Initial reports from the Volcanology and Seismology Institute state this has already happened for some geysers. Geysers outside of the slide region, including the Velikan (Giant) Geyser and a major section of the geyser field known as Vitrazh (Stained Glass) appear to have escaped damage. In addition to destroying a number of geysers, the landslide may have damaged habitats in the Valley of the Geysers. The thermal waters and heated steam jets made this valley warmer than the surrounding landscape, and the warmth supported a unique ecosystem. The loss of a large part of its heat source may alter the ecosystem, but it is not clear what additional longer-term changes might occur. For example, salmon that spawn in the Geyser River will be confined to the lower reaches of the river, and bears, which depended on salmon, will need to shift feeding grounds correspondingly. Thanks to Sergey Chernomorets and Boris Yurchak for information and translation. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

2007-01-01

279

Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill; Draft Programmatic and Phase III Early  

E-print Network

Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill; Draft Programmatic and Phase III Early Restoration Plan of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. The restoration alternatives are comprised of early restoration project types Addressing Injuries Resulting from the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill (Framework Agreement). Criteria

280

Resolution requirements for thermal detection of buried land mines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal properties and shape of a buried land mine can, by natural means such as diurnal cycles, result in a temperature profile on the ground surface. By exploiting the presence of this thermal signature, IR imaging has demonstrated the ability to detect buried mine-like objects. Of importance to the practical success of this technology is the ability to obtain

Pierre Soelberg; Jesper Storm; Bjarne Stage; Helge B. Sorensen

2000-01-01

281

Information processing in buried pipeline leak detection system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detecting leak noises of buried pipelines is the most effective method of pinpointing a leak or leaks in buried pipelines. However, the acquired leak signals are usually blurred with ambient noises and therefore they have low signal-to-noise ratio. It is essential to use appropriate information processing scheme in order to acquire the leak signatures. The sensors are positioned on either

Yumei Wen; Ping Li; Jin Yang; Zhangmin Zhou

2004-01-01

282

Distributed Soil Moisture Estimation in a Mountainous Semiarid Basin: Constraining Soil Parameter Uncertainty through Field Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A common practice in distributed hydrological modeling is to assign soil hydraulic properties based on coarse textural datasets. For semiarid regions with poor soil information, the performance of a model can be severely constrained due to the high model sensitivity to near-surface soil characteristics. Neglecting the uncertainty in soil hydraulic properties, their spatial variation and their naturally-occurring horizonation can potentially

S. Yatheendradas; E. Vivoni

2007-01-01

283

Littoral Assessment of Mine Burial Signatures (LAMBS) buried land mine/background spectral signature analyses  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The objective of the Office of Naval Research (ONR) Rapid Overt Reconnaissance (ROR) program and the Airborne Littoral Reconnaissance Technologies (ALRT) project's LAMBS effort is to determine if electro-optical spectral discriminants exist that are useful for the detection of land mines in littoral regions. Statistically significant buried mine overburden and background signature data were collected over a wide spectral range (0.35 to 14 ??m) to identify robust spectral features that might serve as discriminants for new airborne sensor concepts. LAMBS has expanded previously collected databases to littoral areas - primarily dry and wet sandy soils - where tidal, surf, and wind conditions can severely modify spectral signatures. At AeroSense 2003, we reported completion of three buried mine collections at an inland bay, Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico beach sites.1 We now report LAMBS spectral database analyses results using metrics which characterize the detection performance of general types of spectral detection algorithms. These metrics include mean contrast, spectral signal-to-clutter, covariance, information content, and spectral matched filter analyses. Detection performance of the buried land mines was analyzed with regard to burial age, background type, and environmental conditions. These analyses considered features observed due to particle size differences, surface roughness, surface moisture, and compositional differences.

Kenton, A.C.; Geci, D.M.; Ray, K.J.; Thomas, C.M.; Salisbury, J.W.; Mars, J.C.; Crowley, J.K.; Witherspoon, N.H.; Holloway, J.H., Jr.

2004-01-01

284

Detection of Microbial sulfate-reduction associated with buried stainless steel coupons  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to demonstrate applicability of an innovative radioactive isotope method for imaging microbial activity in geological materials to a comprehensive study of metal corrosion. The method was tested on a sample of stainless steel coupons that had been buried as part of a corrosion study initiated by the National Institute of Standards and Testing or NIST (known as National Bureau of Standards prior to 1988) in 1970. The images showed evidence of microbial activity that could be mapped on a millimeter scale to coupon surfaces. A second more conventional isotope tracer method was also used to provide a quantitative measure of the same type of microbial activity in soil proximal to the buried coupons. Together the techniques offer a method for evaluating low metabolic levels of activity that have the potential for significant cumulative corrosion effects. The methods are powerful tools for evaluation of potential for microbial induced corrosion to buried steel components used on pipelines, in the power and communications infrastructure, and in nuclear waste repository containers.

Mark E. Delwiche; M. Kay Adler Flitton; Alicia Olson

2007-03-01

285

[Visual illusions and moving horizon].  

PubMed

Results of psychological "additional investigation" of the crash of Boeing-737, "Aeroflot-Nord" on 14.09.2008 near Perm are presented. 37 pilots from the one of the leading airline companies sensed the attitude and rolling out the aircraft to the forward flight under the moving horizon with straight display of bank and tangage (view from the aircraft to the ground) in model conditions. 29 pilots (78.4%) made a mistake at determining the roll direction and tangage, they made a mistake at determining the roll direction 61 times (16.4%) and 44 times at determining the tangage direction, in other words they confused left and right bank and also nose-up and nose-down. Visual illusions of mobility of space and handling of ground (instead of aircraft) during the flight were revealed in pilots. These illusions may be the important cause of the following crashes. The necessity of "back" faultless display of bank in all aircrafts of civil aviation and development of computer complex for training of visual spatial orientation is proved. PMID:23156114

Zhdan'ko, I M; Chulaevski?, A O; Kovalenko, P A

2012-09-01

286

NEW HORIZONS IN SENSOR DEVELOPMENT  

PubMed Central

Background Accelerometery and other sensing technologies are important tools for physical activity measurement. Engineering advances have allowed developers to transform clunky, uncomfortable, and conspicuous monitors into relatively small, ergonomic, and convenient research tools. New devices can be used to collect data on overall physical activity and in some cases posture, physiological state, and location, for many days or weeks from subjects during their everyday lives. In this review article, we identify emerging trends in several types of monitoring technologies and gaps in the current state of knowledge. Best practices The only certainty about the future of activity sensing technologies is that researchers must anticipate and plan for change. We propose a set of best practices that may accelerate adoption of new devices and increase the likelihood that data being collected and used today will be compatible with new datasets and methods likely to appear on the horizon. Future directions We describe several technology-driven trends, ranging from continued miniaturization of devices that provide gross summary information about activity levels and energy expenditure, to new devices that provide highly detailed information about the specific type, amount, and location of physical activity. Some devices will take advantage of consumer technologies, such as mobile phones, to detect and respond to physical activity in real time, creating new opportunities in measurement, remote compliance monitoring, data-driven discovery, and intervention. PMID:22157771

Intille, Stephen S.; Lester, Jonathan; Sallis, James F.; Duncan, Glen

2011-01-01

287

Black holes and black hole thermodynamics without event horizons  

E-print Network

We investigate whether black holes can be defined without using event horizons. In particular we focus on the thermodynamic properties of event horizons and the alternative, locally defined horizons. We discuss the assumptions and limitations of the proofs of the zeroth, first and second laws of black hole mechanics for both event horizons and trapping horizons. This leads to the possibility that black holes may be more usefully defined in terms of trapping horizons. We also show how Hawking radiation can also be seen to arise from trapping horizons and discuss which horizon area should be associated with the gravitational entropy.

Alex B. Nielsen

2008-09-23

288

Soil Biology & Biochemistry 39 (2007) 22502263 Dynamics of labile and recalcitrant soil carbon pools in a sorghum  

E-print Network

-adequate (wet) and water-deficient (dry) treatments. We found that on average 53% of the final soil organic for the upper soil horizon (0­30 cm) where new carbon in recalcitrant soil pools of FACE wet and dry treatmentsSoil Biology & Biochemistry 39 (2007) 2250­2263 Dynamics of labile and recalcitrant soil carbon

Williams, David G.

289

Black hole entropy and isolated horizons thermodynamics.  

PubMed

We present a statistical mechanical calculation of the thermodynamical properties of (nonrotating) isolated horizons. The introduction of the Planck scale allows for the definition of a universal horizon temperature (independent of the mass of the black hole) and a well-defined notion of energy (as measured by suitable local observers) proportional to the horizon area in Planck units. The microcanonical and canonical ensembles associated with the system are introduced. Black hole entropy and other thermodynamical quantities can be consistently computed in both ensembles and results are in agreement with Hawking's semiclassical analysis for all values of the Immirzi parameter. PMID:22242986

Ghosh, Amit; Perez, Alejandro

2011-12-01

290

Wave-induced uplift force acting on a submarine buried pipeline: Finite element formulation and verification of computations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a two-dimensional finite element model developed to simulate the wave-induced hydrodynamic uplift force acting on a submarine pipeline buried in sandy seabed sediments subjected to continuous loading of sinusoidal surface waves. Neglecting inertia forces, a linear-elastic stress-strain relationship for the soil, and Darcy's law for the flow of pore fluid are assumed. The model takes into account

W. Magda

1996-01-01

291

Nonlinear optics of fibre event horizons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nonlinear interaction of light in an optical fibre can mimic the physics at an event horizon. This analogue arises when a weak probe wave is unable to pass through an intense soliton, despite propagating at a different velocity. To date, these dynamics have been described in the time domain in terms of a soliton-induced refractive index barrier that modifies the velocity of the probe. Here we complete the physical description of fibre-optic event horizons by presenting a full frequency-domain description in terms of cascaded four-wave mixing between discrete single-frequency fields, and experimentally demonstrate signature frequency shifts using continuous wave lasers. Our description is confirmed by the remarkable agreement with experiments performed in the continuum limit, reached using ultrafast lasers. We anticipate that clarifying the description of fibre event horizons will significantly impact on the description of horizon dynamics and soliton interactions in photonics and other systems.

Webb, Karen E.; Erkintalo, Miro; Xu, Yiqing; Broderick, Neil G. R.; Dudley, John M.; Genty, Goëry; Murdoch, Stuart G.

2014-09-01

292

Cauchy horizon stability and cosmic censorship  

E-print Network

Some interesting consequences of spacelike matter shells are presented, in particular the possibility of travelling through Cauchy horizons and violating the strong cosmic censorship principle. These show that the weak energy condition does not guarentee cosmic censorship.

Wenceslao S. German; Ian G. Moss

2001-03-22

293

Deepwater Horizon Disaster Professor Satish Nagarajaiah  

E-print Network

Impact of the Oil Spill Oil Spill Response and Containment Measures Ongoing Investigationsg g g;Collapse / Oil Spill Offshore and Marine Systems Research @ Rice Source: NYT/AP/flickr #12;Horizon Before

Nagarajaiah, Satish

294

Nonlinear optics of fibre event horizons  

E-print Network

The nonlinear interaction of light in an optical fibre can mimic the physics at an event horizon. This analogue arises when a weak probe wave is unable to pass through an intense soliton, despite propagating at a different velocity. To date, these dynamics have been described in the time domain in terms of a soliton-induced refractive index barrier that modifies the velocity of the probe. Here, we complete the physical description of fibre-optic event horizons by presenting a full frequency-domain description in terms of cascaded four-wave mixing between discrete single-frequency fields, and experimentally demonstrate signature frequency shifts using continuous wave lasers. Our description is confirmed by the remarkable agreement with experiments performed in the continuum limit, reached using ultrafast lasers. We anticipate that clarifying the description of fibre event horizons will significantly impact on the description of horizon dynamics and soliton interactions in photonics and other systems.

Webb, Karen E; Xu, Yiqing; Broderick, Neil G R; Dudley, John M; Genty, Goery; Murdoch, Stuart G

2014-01-01

295

Information Horizons in Complex Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate how the structure constrain specific communication in social-, man-made and biological networks. We find that human networks of governance and collaboration are predictable on teat-a-teat level, reflecting well defined pathways, but globally inefficient (1). In contrast, the Internet tends to have better overall communication abilities, more alternative pathways, and is therefore more robust. Between these extremes are the molecular network of living organisms. Further, for most real world networks we find that communication ability is favored by topology on small distances, but disfavored at larger distances (2,3,4). We discuss the topological implications in terms of modularity and the positioning of hubs in the networks (5,6). Finally we introduce some simple models which demonstarte how communication may shape the structure of in particular man made networks (7,8). 1) K. Sneppen, A. Trusina, M. Rosvall (2004). Hide and seek on complex networks [cond-mat/0407055] 2) M. Rosvall, A. Trusina, P. Minnhagen and K. Sneppen (2004). Networks and Cities: An Information Perspective [cond-mat/0407054]. In PRL. 3) A. Trusina, M. Rosvall, K. Sneppen (2004). Information Horizons in Networks. [cond-mat/0412064] 4) M. Rosvall, P. Minnhagen, K. Sneppen (2004). Navigating Networks with Limited Information. [cond-mat/0412051] 5) S. Maslov and K. Sneppen (2002). Specificity and stability in topology of protein networks Science 296, 910-913 [cond-mat/0205380]. 6) A. Trusina, S. Maslov, P. Minnhagen, K. Sneppen Hierarchy Measures in Complex Networks. Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 178702 [cond-mat/0308339]. 7) M. Rosvall and K. Sneppen (2003). Modeling Dynamics of Information Networks. Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 178701 [cond-mat/0308399]. 8) B-J. Kim, A. Trusina, P. Minnhagen, K. Sneppen (2003). Self Organized Scale-Free Networks from Merging and Regeneration. nlin.AO/0403006. In European Journal of Physics.

Sneppen, Kim

2005-03-01

296

Magnetohydrodynamics of Schwarzschild Plasmas near the Horizon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Very close to the horizon of a blackhole, the gravitational acceleration becomes so large that vacuum can begin to radiate (Hawking radiation). The temperature of this radiation can exceed (twice of) the rest mass of electrons at the position Delta r=lambda_P (M\\/m_e)(1\\/2) away from the horizon, where lambda_P is the Planck length, M and m_e are the mass of the

W. Chou; T. Tajima

1997-01-01

297

Long-horizon regressions: theoretical results andapplications  

Microsoft Academic Search

I use asymptotic arguments to show that the t-statistics in long-horizon regressions do not converge to well-defined distributions. In some cases, moreover, the ordinary least squares estimator is not consistent andthe R2 is an inadequate measure of the goodness of fit. These findings can partially explain the tendency of long-horizon regressions to find ''significant'' results where previous short-term approaches findnone.

Rossen Valkanov

2002-01-01

298

Biogeochemical controls on microbial CO2 and CH4 production in interstitial area polygon soils from the Barrow Environmental Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic matter buried in Arctic soils and permafrost will become accessible to increased microbial degradation as the ground warms due to climate change. The rates of organic matter degradation and the proportion of CH4 and CO2 greenhouse gasses released in a potential warming feedback cycle depend on the microbial response to warming, organic carbon structure and availability, the pore-water pH, and available electron acceptors. To adapt and improve the representation of these Arctic subsurface processes in land models for the NGEE Arctic project, we examined soil organic matter transformations from elevated and subsided areas of low- and high-centered polygons from interstitial tundra on the Barrow Environmental Observatory (Barrow, AK). Significant amounts of iron(II) in organic and mineral soils of the active layer and groundwater indicate anoxic conditions in most soil horizons. Unamended, anoxic incubations of soils at -2, +4 or +8 °C produced both CH4 and CO2, with different response curves. CO2 formed rapidly while CH4 production lagged. Rates of formation for both CH4 and CO2 were substantially higher in microcosms containing active layer O horizon (38-43% total carbon) compared to B horizon (17-18% carbon) samples. The ratio of CO2 to CH4 produced decreased with increasing temperature. A constant Q10 relationship is not adequate to explain temperature effects from -2 to +8 °C. Measurements of ionic species dissolved in soil porewater from frozen cores, humic-rich surface water, or groundwater indicated low levels of nitrate and sulfate, constraining the role of these alternative electron acceptors in anaerobic respiration. The surface water pH (4.4) was significantly lower than groundwater (5.8 to 6.3). Organic acid degradation and Fe(III) reduction increased the pH in soil water during some incubations. Substantial differences in other ionic species confirm that surface and groundwater do not mix rapidly in the field. Biomass extracted from frozen mineral soil samples or thawed microcosms was analyzed for relative protein abundance using metaproteomics, and numerous peptide spectra were matched to an Arctic genomic and metagenomic database. Signature proteins from acetoclastic methanogens were identified in frozen permafrost and active-layer samples. After microcosm incubations, however, methanogenic proteins were found only in active-layer samples, consistent with headspace gas analyses. Therefore, soil thawing and warming caused increases in microbial biomass and significant changes in microbial composition that determine the composition of greenhouse gas product mixtures. Differential microbial growth and migration through the thawing soil column may be key to changes in microbial population size and activity during prolonged thaw seasons. Methanogenesis and microbial growth account for most electron transfer from soil organic matter in O horizon samples, but iron reduction and microbial growth account for most electron transfer in the B horizon.

Graham, D. E.; Roy Chowdhury, T.; Herndon, E.; Chourey, K.; Ladd, M.; Tas, N.; Jansson, J.; Elias, D. A.; Hettich, R. L.; Phelps, T. J.; Gu, B.; Liang, L.; Wullschleger, S. D.

2013-12-01

299

EUROPEAN SOIL BUREAU ? RESEARCH REPORT NO. 7 Urban soils classification for Russian cities of the taiga zone  

E-print Network

Urban soils are formed under the combined influence of natural and anthropogenic factors. The latter are determined by specific land use practices in the urban environment. The first Russia classification of soils and soil-like bodies within a town was proposed by Stroganova et. al. (1997-1999). In this paper we distinguish and describe two new groups of urban soils 3"urbanozems " which are opened urban soils and "ekranozems " which are urban soils sealed by road surfaces). Soils of towns comprise natural (undisturbed) and human-transformed soils, which are further subdivided into surface-transformed, and deeply transformed soils. There are also human-made, or technogenic, soil-like bodies-technozems. The urbic diagnostic horizon is an individual horizon with individual features and to be chearacterized by the pedogenetic agents responsible for its properties, as well as by the processes inherent to this horizon. The Urbic horizon is considered as a diagnostic one for the majority of urban soils and a criterion to differentiate urban soils from natural soils. Keywords: Human-transformed soils, urban soils classification, urbanozem, urbic diagnostic horizon.

Stroganova Marina; Prokofieva Tatiana

300

IEEE Trans. Geoscience & Remote Sensing, vol 38, No 1,480-495, 2000 Broadband Bistatic Coherent and Incoherent Detection of Buried Objects  

E-print Network

a metallic object beneath a randomly rough soil surface is sought by ground penetrating radar (GPR). ACF, including the nature of the process generating clutter, which in this study is ground surface roughness only and Incoherent Detection of Buried Objects beneath Randomly Rough Surfaces Kevin O'Neill Cold Regions Research

Shubitidze, Fridon

301

Chemical Sensing for Buried Landmines - Fundamental Processes Influencing Trace Chemical Detection  

SciTech Connect

Mine detection dogs have a demonstrated capability to locate hidden objects by trace chemical detection. Because of this capability, demining activities frequently employ mine detection dogs to locate individual buried landmines or for area reduction. The conditions appropriate for use of mine detection dogs are only beginning to emerge through diligent research that combines dog selection/training, the environmental conditions that impact landmine signature chemical vapors, and vapor sensing performance capability and reliability. This report seeks to address the fundamental soil-chemical interactions, driven by local weather history, that influence the availability of chemical for trace chemical detection. The processes evaluated include: landmine chemical emissions to the soil, chemical distribution in soils, chemical degradation in soils, and weather and chemical transport in soils. Simulation modeling is presented as a method to evaluate the complex interdependencies among these various processes and to establish conditions appropriate for trace chemical detection. Results from chemical analyses on soil samples obtained adjacent to landmines are presented and demonstrate the ultra-trace nature of these residues. Lastly, initial measurements of the vapor sensing performance of mine detection dogs demonstrates the extreme sensitivity of dogs in sensing landmine signature chemicals; however, reliability at these ultra-trace vapor concentrations still needs to be determined. Through this compilation, additional work is suggested that will fill in data gaps to improve the utility of trace chemical detection.

PHELAN, JAMES M.

2002-05-01

302

Computer vision and sensor fusion for detecting buried objects  

SciTech Connect

Given multiple images of the surface of the earth from dual-band infrared sensors, our system fuses information from the sensors to reduce the effects of clutter and improve the ability to detect buried or surface target sites. Supervised learning pattern classifiers (including neural networks,) are used. We present results of experiments to detect buried land mines from real data, and evaluate the usefulness of fusing information from multiple sensor types. The novelty of the work lies mostly in the combination of the algorithms and their application to the very important and currently unsolved problem of detecting buried land mines from an airborne standoff platform.

Clark, G.A.; Hernandez, J.E.; Sengupta, S.K.; Sherwood, R.J.; Schaich, P.C.; Buhl, M.R.; Kane, R.J.; DelGrande, N.K.

1992-10-01

303

Buried waste containment system materials. Final Report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of a test program to validate the application of a latex-modified cement formulation for use with the Buried Waste Containment System (BWCS) process during a proof of principle (POP) demonstration. The test program included three objectives. One objective was to validate the barrier material mix formulation to be used with the BWCS equipment. A basic mix formula for initial trials was supplied by the cement and latex vendors. The suitability of the material for BWCS application was verified by laboratory testing at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). A second objective was to determine if the POP BWCS material emplacement process adversely affected the barrier material properties. This objective was met by measuring and comparing properties of material prepared in the INEEL Materials Testing Laboratory (MTL) with identical properties of material produced by the BWCS field tests. These measurements included hydraulic conductivity to determine if the material met the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements for barriers used for hazardous waste sites, petrographic analysis to allow an assessment of barrier material separation and segregation during emplacement, and a set of mechanical property tests typical of concrete characterization. The third objective was to measure the hydraulic properties of barrier material containing a stop-start joint to determine if such a feature would meet the EPA requirements for hazardous waste site barriers.

Weidner, J.R.; Shaw, P.G.

1997-10-01

304

Buried nanoantenna arrays: versatile antireflection coating.  

PubMed

Reflection is usually a detrimental phenomenon in many applications such as flat-panel-displays, solar cells, photodetectors, infrared sensors, and lenses. Thus far, to control and suppress the reflection from a substrate, numerous techniques including dielectric interference coatings, surface texturing, adiabatic index matching, and scattering from plasmonic nanoparticles have been investigated. A new technique is demonstrated to manage and suppress reflection from lossless and lossy substrates. It provides a wider flexibility in design versus previous methods. Reflection from a surface can be suppressed over a narrowband, wideband, or multiband frequency range. The antireflection can be dependent or independent of the incident wave polarization. Moreover, antireflection at a very wide incidence angle can be attained. The reflection from a substrate is controlled by a buried nanoantenna array, a structure composed of (1) a subwavelength metallic array and (2) a dielectric cover layer referred to as a superstrate. The material properties and thickness of the superstrate and nanoantennas' geometry and periodicity control the phase and intensity of the wave circulating inside the superstrate cavity. A minimum reflectance of 0.02% is achieved in various experiments in the mid-infrared from a silicon substrate. The design can be integrated in straightforward way in optical devices. The proposed structure is a versatile AR coating to optically impedance matches any substrate to free space in selected any narrow and broadband spectral response across the entire visible and infrared spectrum. PMID:24266700

Kabiri, Ali; Girgis, Emad; Capasso, Federico

2013-01-01

305

Assess Plan Restore DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL NRDA TRUSTEES  

E-print Network

Assess Plan Restore DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL NRDA TRUSTEES Early Restoration, Phase III A guide Environmental Impact Statement JUNE 2014 #12;Early Restoration, Phase III DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL NATURAL/PEIS and will be available to the public this summer. The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill NRDA Trustees Deepwater Horizon

306

Hyperspectral Analysis of Soil Nitrogen, Carbon, Carbonate, and Organic Matter Using Regression Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characterization of soil attributes using hyperspectral sensors has revealed patterns in soil spectra that are known to respond to mineral composition, organic matter, soil moisture and particle size distribution. Soil samples from different soil horizons of replicated soil series from sites located within Washington and Oregon were analyzed with the FieldSpec Spectroradiometer to measure their spectral signatures across the

Stephan Gmur; Daniel Vogt; Darlene Zabowski; L. Monika Moskal

2012-01-01

307

In situ vitrification application to buried waste: Final report of intermediate field tests at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

This report describes two in situ vitrification field tests conducted on simulated buried waste pits during June and July 1990 at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. In situ vitrification, an emerging technology for in place conversion of contaminated soils into a durable glass and crystalline waste form, is being investigated as a potential remediation technology for buried waste. The overall objective of the two tests was to access the general suitability of the process to remediate waste structures representative of buried waste found at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. In particular, these tests, as part of a treatability study, were designed to provide essential information on the field performance of the process under conditions of significant combustible and metal wastes and to test a newly developed electrode feed technology. The tests were successfully completed, and the electrode feed technology successfully processed the high metal content waste. Test results indicate the process is a feasible technology for application to buried waste. 33 refs., 109 figs., 39 tabs.

Callow, R.A.; Weidner, J.R.; Loehr, C.A.; Bates, S.O. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Thompson, L.E.; McGrail, B.P. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

1991-08-01

308

Carbon fluxes in soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terrestrial ecosystems represent the second largest carbon reservoir, and the C balance in terrestrial ecosystems can be directly\\u000a impacted by human activities such as agricultural management practices and land-use changes. This paper focuses on the C-sequestration\\u000a in soil. Although many studies showed that the concentration of SOC is much higher in the shallow soils (0–30 cm), the deeper\\u000a horizons represent

John F. McCarthy

2005-01-01

309

Soil Field Descriptions and Soil Forming Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this field activity students break into small groups and dig soil pits. The pits are distributed among different vegetative covers and topographic positions allowing comparisons of soil profiles under different soil forming processes. Each group prepares a field description of their soil using a shortened version of the NRCS Field Book for Describing and Sampling Soils (2002). Before leaving the field the class takes a tour of the pits and each group gives a brief oral presentation of their profile. Samples from each horizon are later analyzed in the lab to determine the % soil moisture and organic matter. Data from each group is compiled on a share drive which is then utilized by the rest of the class for comparison. Designed for a geomorphology course

Clark, Jeff

310

Data fusion for the detection of buried land mines  

SciTech Connect

The authors conducted experiments to demonstrate the enhanced delectability of buried land mines using sensor fusion techniques. Multiple sensors, including imagery, infrared imagery, and ground penetrating radar, have been used to acquire data on a number of buried mines and mine surrogates. The authors present this data along with a discussion of the application of sensor fusion techniques for this particular detection problem. The authors describe the data fusion architecture and discuss some relevant results of these classification methods.

Clark, G.A.; Sengupta, S.K.; Schaich, P.C.; Sherwood, R.J.; Buhl, M.R.; Hernandez, J.E.; Kane, R.J.; Barth, M.J.; Fields, D.J.; Carter, M.R.

1993-10-01

311

Stability analysis of buried flexible pipes: a biaxial buckling equation  

E-print Network

STABILITY ANALYSIS OF BURIED FLEXIBLE PIPES: A BIAXIAL BUCKLING EQUATION A Thesis by MELISSA TUYET-MAI CHAU Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas AkM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1990 Major Subject: Civil Engineering STABLILITY ANALYSIS OF BURIED FLEXIBLE PIPES: A BIAXIAL BUCKLING EQUATION A Thesis by MELISSA TUYET-MAI CHAU Approved as to style and content by: r. obert L. Lytt n (Chair of Committee...

Chau, Melissa Tuyet-Mai

2012-06-07

312

Record Blizzard Buries U.S. Northeast  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

After two days of blustery weather, the skies cleared over Massachusetts on January 24, 2005. Along with other northeastern U.S. states, Massachusetts was slammed with a powerful blizzard on January 22 and 23 that shut down travel and businesses and extinguished power. The storm brought record snow to many places, but Massachusetts topped the list. The cities of Salem and Plymouth were buried in 38 inches (96.5 cm) of snow, and strong winds created drifts up to seven feet (2 meters) high, according to the National Weather Service. For Boston, the storm was the fifth worst blizzard to hit the city since 1892, dumping 22.5 inches (57 cm) of snow in two days. Of that, 13.4 inches (34 cm) fell on January 23' the most snow to fall on the city in a single day since records began. These totals gave Boston nearly twice its average snowfall for January (the average is 13.5 inches, 34.3 cm), and over half its annual average snow of 41.8 inches (106 cm). This Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image, taken on January 24 by NASA's Terra satellite, shows the effects of the storm on Massachusetts and its southern neighbors, Connecticut (left) and Rhode Island (right). New York's Long Island is in the lower left corner of the image. The entire region is coated with snow, though clouds obscure the ground on the left side of the image. The snow was accompanied by powerful hurricane-force winds that helped create white-out conditions and large snowdrifts. The wind also churned ocean waters around Cape Cod, leaving them milky with sediment. NASA image courtesy the MODIS Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC.

2005-01-01

313

Decomposition of forest products buried in landfills.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate the decomposition of selected wood and paper products in landfills. The decomposition of these products under anaerobic landfill conditions results in the generation of biogenic carbon dioxide and methane, while the un-decomposed portion represents a biogenic carbon sink. Information on the decomposition of these municipal waste components is used to estimate national methane emissions inventories, for attribution of carbon storage credits, and to assess the life-cycle greenhouse gas impacts of wood and paper products. Hardwood (HW), softwood (SW), plywood (PW), oriented strand board (OSB), particleboard (PB), medium-density fiberboard (MDF), newsprint (NP), corrugated container (CC) and copy paper (CP) were buried in landfills operated with leachate recirculation, and were excavated after approximately 1.5 and 2.5yr. Samples were analyzed for cellulose (C), hemicellulose (H), lignin (L), volatile solids (VS), and organic carbon (OC). A holocellulose decomposition index (HOD) and carbon storage factor (CSF) were calculated to evaluate the extent of solids decomposition and carbon storage. Samples of OSB made from HW exhibited cellulose plus hemicellulose (C+H) loss of up to 38%, while loss for the other wood types was 0-10% in most samples. The C+H loss was up to 81%, 95% and 96% for NP, CP and CC, respectively. The CSFs for wood and paper samples ranged from 0.34 to 0.47 and 0.02 to 0.27gOCg(-1) dry material, respectively. These results, in general, correlated well with an earlier laboratory-scale study, though NP and CC decomposition measured in this study were higher than previously reported. PMID:23942265

Wang, Xiaoming; Padgett, Jennifer M; Powell, John S; Barlaz, Morton A

2013-11-01

314

Airblast environments from buried HE charges  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory experiments were conducted to measure the airblast environment generated by the detonation of buried HE charges. Spherical 0.5-g charges of Nitropenta were used as the HE source. Three ground materials were used: (1) a porous, crushable grout (YTONG, {rho} = 0.4 g/cm{sup 3}); (2) a water-saturated grout ({rho} {approx_equal} 0.7 g/Cm{sup 3}) to investigate the effects of density increase; and (3) a clay-loam material ({rho} {approx_equal} 1.8 g/cm{sup 3}) to simulate some of the previous field tests conducted in clay. Diagnostics consisted of 13 flush-mounted pressure gauges, and single-frame schlieren photography. A special shock isolation system was used to eliminate the acceleration effects on the gauges that were induced by the cratering process. Analysis of the pressure measurements resulted in an experimental definition of the airblast environment as a function of ground range (GR) and depth-of-burst (DOB). Synthesis of these results allowed one to construct airblast DOB curves, similar to the airblast height-of-burst curves that we published previously for Nitropenta charges. Variables analyzed were: peak pressure, arrival time, positive phase duration and impulse. As in field tests, we found that the airblast waveforms changed character with increasing DOB. The crater characteristics (e.a., depth, radius and volume) were also measured. The cube-root-scaled crater volume was in qualitative agreement with data from field tests (e.g., charge weights up to 10{sup 4} lbs.). Since the present scaled results compare well with data from large-scale HE tests, we conclude that the present experimental technique provides a useful tool for parametric investigations of explosion effects in the laboratory.

Reichenbach, H.; Behrens, K. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Kurzzeitdynamik - Ernst-Mach-Institut (EMI), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Kuhl, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., El Segundo, CA (United States)

1993-01-01

315

11/5/2007 M. Holdridge 1 New Horizons Pluto EncounterNew Horizons Pluto Encounter  

E-print Network

11/5/2007 M. Holdridge 1 New Horizons Pluto EncounterNew Horizons Pluto Encounter Baseline Review not conclude the concept development phase of planning the Pluto encounter. Continued analysis and trades, we are finding the Pluto flyby is a very unique flyby in terms of geometry and goals

Young, Leslie A.

316

Characteristics of pimple mounds associated with the Morey soil of southeast Texas  

E-print Network

separate distribution of four soil profiles of a mound-intermound complex 158 Summary of significance of statistical tests for skeleton grain discontinuities at the upper surface of the 82t horizons for four soil profiles of a mound- intermound complex.... Soil horizons developed. Then drier conditions prevailed during which only rounded clumps of bushes remained. These bushes prevented erosion of the attached soil and provided a means of trapping soil which 21 was eroding from adjacent areas...

Carty, David Jerome

2012-06-07

317

Finding KBO Flyby Targets for New Horizons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of the New Horizons mission to Pluto and the Kuiper Belt is now fully funded by NASA (Stern and Spencer, this volume). If all goes well, New Horizons will be launched in January 2006, followed by a Jupiter gravity assist in 2007, with Pluto arrival expected in either 2015 or 2016, depending on the launch vehicle chosen. A backup launch date of early 2007, without a Jupiter flyby, would give a Pluto arrival in 2019 or 2020. In either case, a flyby of at least one Kuiper Belt object (KBO) is planned following the Pluto encounter, sometime before the spacecraft reaches a heliocentric distance of 50 AU, in 2021 or 2023 for the 2006 launch, and 2027 or 2029 for the 2007 launch. However, none of the almost 1000 currently-known KBOs will pass close enough to the spacecraft trajectory to be targeted by New Horizons, so the KBO flyby depends on finding a suitable target among the estimated 500,000 KBOs larger than 40 km in diameter. This paper discusses the issues involved in finding one or more KBO targets for New Horizons. The New Horizons team plans its own searches for mission KBOs but will welcome other U.S, or international team who wish to become involved in exchange for mission participation at the KBO.

Spencer, John; Buie, Marc; Young, Leslie; Guo, Yanping; Stern, Alan

2003-06-01

318

Super-horizon primordial black holes  

SciTech Connect

We discuss a new class of solutions to the Einstein equations which describe a primordial black hole (PBH) in a flat Friedmann background. Such solutions arise if a Schwarzschild black hole is patched onto a Friedmann background via a transition region. They are possible providing the black hole event horizon is larger than the cosmological apparent horizon. Such solutions have a number of strange features. In particular, one has to define the black hole and cosmological horizons carefully and one then finds that the mass contained within the black hole event horizon decreases when the black hole is larger than the Friedmann cosmological apparent horizon, although its area always increases. These solutions involve two distinct future null infinities and are interpreted as the conversion of a white hole into a black hole. Although such solutions may not form from gravitational collapse in the same way as standard PBHs, there is nothing unphysical about them, since all energy and causality conditions are satisfied. Their conformal diagram is a natural amalgamation of the Kruskal diagram for the extended Schwarzschild solution and the conformal diagram for a black hole in a flat Friedmann background. In this paper, such solutions are obtained numerically for a spherically symmetric universe containing a massless scalar field, but it is likely that they exist for more general matter fields and less symmetric systems.

Harada, Tomohiro [Astronomy Unit, School of Mathematical Sciences, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Carr, B.J. [Astronomy Unit, School of Mathematical Sciences, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

2005-08-15

319

Original article Soil nitrogen mineralization in adjacent stands of larch,  

E-print Network

Original article Soil nitrogen mineralization in adjacent stands of larch, pine and oak in central January 1996; accepted 23 May 1996) Summary - To examine the effects of tree species on soil nitrogen (N) mineralization we monitored rates of soil nitrogen mineralization and nitrification using the buried bag

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

320

Albert Munsell and His Impact on Soil Science and  

E-print Network

Albert Munsell and His Impact on Soil Science and Other Natural Disciplines Edward Landa Research recognition in soil science, where color description of soil horizons is a critical step in classification.P.H. in radiological health, and an M.S. and Ph.D. in soil science from the University of Minnesota. His research has

Zanibbi, Richard

321

Phosphorus fertilization by active dust deposition in a super-humid, temperate environment—Soil phosphorus fractionation and accession processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inventory of soil phosphorus (P) is subject to significant changes over time. The main primary form, bedrock-derived apatite P, becomes progressively lost through leaching, or transformed into more immobile and less plant-accessible, secondary organic and mineral forms. Here we studied the rejuvenating effect of dust deposition on soil P along an active dust flux gradient downwind of a braided river. Along the gradient, we measured soil P fractions to 50 cm depth of six Spodosols and one Inceptisol, supplemented by tree foliage P concentrations. While an increasing dust flux correlates with a twofold increase of foliar P and soil organic P along the gradient, apatite P declines from ~50 to 3 g m-2 and total P shows no response. Compared to dust-unaffected Spodosols, depth distribution of total P becomes increasingly uniform and organic P propagates deeper into the soil under dust flux. Further, the effect of topsoil P eluviation attenuates due to higher organic P content and the zone of high apatite P concentrations associated with un-weathered subsoil becomes progressively removed from the upper 50 cm. We interpret these patterns as being consistent with upbuilding pedogenesi and conclude that dust-derived mineral P is assimilated in the organic surface horizon and does not reach the mineral soil. Dust-derived mineral P is temporarily stored in the living biomass and returns to the soil with plant and microbial detritus as organic P, which is subsequently buried by further dust increments. We further conclude that (1) the efficiency of P fertilization of the ecosystem by dust accession is higher than through P advection in dust-unaffected Spodosols and (2) organic P may serve as an important source of labile P in a high-leaching environment.

Eger, Andre; Almond, Peter C.; Condron, Leo M.

2013-01-01

322

Water use by woody plants on contrasting soils in a savanna parkland: assessment with ?2H and ?18O  

Microsoft Academic Search

In savanna parklands of southern Texas, patches of grassland and ‘discrete clusters’ of small trees and shrubs occur on sandy loam surface soils underlain by an argillic horizon (claypan) at 40 cm. Large trees and shrubs in ‘groves’ occur on deep (2 m) sandy loam soils without an argillic horizon. d2H and d18O of rainfall, groundwater, and soil and plant

A. J. Midwood; T. W. Boutton; S. R. Archer; S. E. Watts

1998-01-01

323

WEATHERING OF IRONBEARING MINERALS IN SOILS AND SAPROLITE ON THE NORTH CAROLINA BLUE RIDGE FRONT: II. CLAY MINERALOGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mineralogy of the clay fraction was studied for soils and saprolite on two Blue Ridge Front mountain slopes. The clay fraction contained the weathering products of primary minerals in the mica gneiss and schist parent rocks. Gibbsite is most abundant in the saprolite and residual soil horizons, where only chemical weathering has been operable. In colluvial soil horizons, where

D. D. AMARASIRIWARDENA; S. W. BUOL

324

New France, New Horizons: On French Soil in America  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Almost 400 years ago, France created its first permanent settlement in what would later become Canada. In doing so, the French embarked on a pattern of discovery and extended settlement that would continue until Britain eventually took control of the region in the late 18th century. Designed to celebrate and explore this rich history, this site was created by the Library and Archives Canada and the Direction des Archives de France in order to bring together over one million digitized images of documents, maps, plans, and other visual material related to this long period of French involvement in this part of North America. Here visitors can view a virtual exhibition, browse a list of other institutional links, and last (but certainly not least) search the massive database. The database is quite user-friendly, as visitors can elect to search by year (or time period), institutional location of document, or collection. For example, typing in Montreal returns 2900 documents alone, including numerous maps, government correspondence, and a number of city plans. The SVG Viewer plug-in allows users to zoom in, rotate, and manipulate documents in a number of ways, and is a welcome addition to this already remarkable online resource.

325

Expanding your horizons in science and mathematics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Through the presentation of its Expanding Your Horizons in Science and Mathematics career education conferences for secondary school young women, the Math/Science Network continues its efforts to remove the educational, psychological, and cultural barriers which prevent women from entering math-and science-based careers. The Expanding Your Horizons conferences were presented on 77 college, university and high school campuses across the United States. This year, these unique one day conferences reached 15,500 students, 3,000 parents and educators, and involved 3,000 career women who volunteered their services as conference planners, workshop leaders, speakers, and role models.

1985-01-01

326

Local existence of dynamical and trapping horizons  

E-print Network

Given a spacelike foliation of a spacetime and a marginally outer trapped surface S on some initial leaf, we prove that under a suitable stability condition S is contained in a ``horizon'', i.e. a smooth 3-surface foliated by marginally outer trapped slices which lie in the leaves of the given foliation. We also show that under rather weak energy conditions this horizon must be either achronal or spacelike everywhere. Furthermore, we discuss the relation between ``bounding'' and ``stability'' properties of marginally outer trapped surfaces.

Lars Andersson; Marc Mars; Walter Simon

2005-06-02

327

Aerosol physical properties from satellite horizon inversion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility is investigated of determining the physical properties of aerosols globally in the altitude region of 10 to 100 km from a satellite horizon scanning experiment. The investigation utilizes a horizon inversion technique previously developed and extended. Aerosol physical properties such as number density, size distribution, and the real and imaginary components of the index of refraction are demonstrated to be invertible in the aerosol size ranges (0.01-0.1 microns), (0.1-1.0 microns), (1.0-10 microns). Extensions of previously developed radiative transfer models and recursive inversion algorithms are displayed.

Gray, C. R.; Malchow, H. L.; Merritt, D. C.; Var, R. E.; Whitney, C. K.

1973-01-01

328

Using the accumulation of CBD-extractable iron and clay content to estimate soil age on stable surfaces and nearby slopes, Front Range, Colorado  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many transport-limited environments, morphology, pedogenic iron and clay content provide a basis for estimating the exposure age of soils and associated landforms. We measured citrate-buffered dithionite (CBD)-extractable Fe (Fed) and clay concentration in fresh rock, saprolite, morainal and colluvial materials, and soil horizons from stable surfaces and hillslopes in the Colorado Front Range. Fresh igneous and high-grade metamorphic rocks contain < 1% Fed and 1 to 5% clay. As bedrock and surficial deposits age, Fed and clay accumulate from weathering and dustfall. Late Holocene regolith at warm, dry sites contains small amounts of Fed and clay, but relatively moist soils developed on early Holocene cirque deposits contain as much as 1.5% Fed and 8% clay. Concentrations and total profile accumulation of Fed and clay increase with age in soils developed on stable surfaces of glacial deposits as old as ~ 130 kyr. On stable sites, Fed and clay accumulation from weathering and dust is ~ 0.02 g cm- 2 kyr- 1 and ~ 0.2 g cm- 2 kyr- 1, respectively. We used the Fed and clay inventory in soil profiles at dated, stable Front Range surfaces to calculate accumulation functions, which allowed us to estimate soil age at hillslope sites. Heterogeneous parent material, particularly on hillslopes, and climate-related effects add to variability in measured relations. Mobile regolith in Gordon Gulch, one of the Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory (CZO) catchments, yields profile ages from about 0.5 to 5 × 104 yr, comparable to values measured using other techniques. Calculated profile ages are older on a north- vs. south-facing slope and increase from the drainage divide to the footslope. Ages calculated for stabilized colluvium and well-developed buried profiles at nearby hillslope sites (Lefthand, Ward and Rollinsville) suggest that these soils have stabilized over periods > 105 yr. In the absence of radiometric ages, the accumulation of Fed and clay in soils on stable sites and hillslopes provides a useful, local chronofunction for 103 to ~ 3 × 105 yr. Local footslope thickening of mobile regolith, buried soils, and areas of Fed- and clay-rich stabilized colluvium suggest that steady-state models of hillslope regolith must be modified to account for observed soil properties.

Dethier, David P.; Birkeland, Peter W.; McCarthy, James A.

2012-11-01

329

Role of large-scale soil structure in organic carbon turnover: Evidence from California grassland soils  

E-print Network

Role of large-scale soil structure in organic carbon turnover: Evidence from California grassland organic carbon (SOC) in upper (A) and lower (B) horizons of grassland soils from California's Central carbon turnover: Evidence from California grassland soils, J. Geophys. Res., 111, G03012, doi:10

Wang, Yang

330

Electrogeochemical sampling with NEOCHIM - results of tests over buried gold deposits  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Electrogeochemical extraction methods are based on the migration of ions in an electric field. Ions present in soil moisture are transported by an applied current into fluids contained in special electrodes placed on the soil. The fluids are then collected and analyzed. Extractions are governed by Faraday's and Ohm's laws and are modeled by the operation of a simple Hittord transference apparatus. Calculations show that the volume of soil sampled in an ideal electrogeochemical extraction can be orders of magnitude greater than the volumes used in more popular geochemical extraction methods, although this has not been verified experimentally. CHIM is a method of in-situ electrogeochemical extraction that was developed in the former Soviet Union and has been tested and applied internationally to exploration for buried mineral deposits. Tests carried out at the US Geological Survey (USGS) indicated that there were problems inherent in the use of CHIM technology. The cause of the problems was determined to be the diffusion of acid from the conventional electrode into the soil. The NEOCHIM electrode incorporates two compartments and a salt bridge in a design that inhibits diffusion of acid and enables the collection of anions or cations. Tests over a gold-enriched vein in Colorado and over buried, Carlin-type, disseminated gold deposits in northern Nevada show that there are similarities and differences between NEOCHIM results and those by partial extractions of soils which include simple extractions with water, dilute acids and solutions of salts used as collector fluids in the electrodes. Results of both differ from the results obtained by total chemical digestion. The results indicate that NEOCHIM responds to mineralized faults associated with disseminated gold deposits whereas partial and total chemical extraction methods do not. This suggests that faults are favored channels for the upward migration of metals and that NEOCHIM may be more effective in exploration for the deposits. It defines anomalies that are often narrow and intense, an observation previously made by CHIM researchers. The field tests show that NEOCHIM is less affected by surface contamination. A test over the Mike disseminated gold deposit indicates that the method may not be effective for locating deposits with impermeable cover. Faradaic extraction efficiencies of 20-30%, or more, are frequently achieved with NEOCHIM and the method generally shows good reproducibility, especially in extraction of major cations. However, ions of other metals that are useful in exploration, including Au and As, may be collected in low and temporally variable concentrations. The reason for this variability is unclear and requires further investigation.CHIM is a method of in-situ electrogeochemical extraction developed for the exploration of buried mineral deposits. However, electrode problems like diffusion of acid into the soil were encountered during the use of CHIM. The NEOCHIM electrode was developed to inhibit the diffusion of acid and enable collection of anions or cations. Tests over buried gold deposits showed that NEOCHIM responds to mineralized faults associated with disseminated gold deposits whereas partial and total chemical extraction methods do not. This suggests that faults are favored channels for the upward migration of metals and NEOCHIM may be effective in exploration for the deposits. But ions of metals may be collected in low and variable concentration.

Leinz, R.W.; Hoover, D.B.; Fey, D.L.; Smith, D.B.; Patterson, T.

1998-01-01

331

Buried object remote detection technology for law enforcement  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a precise airborne temperature-sensing technology to detect buried objects for use by law enforcement. Demonstrations have imaged the sites of buried foundations, walls and trenches; mapped underground waterways and aquifers; and been used to locate underground military objects. Our patented methodology is incorporated in a commercially available, high signal-to-noise, dual-band infrared scanner with real-time, 12-bit digital image processing software and display. Our method creates color-coded images based on surface temperature variations of 0.2 {degrees}C. Unlike other less-sensitive methods, it maps true (corrected) temperatures by removing the (decoupled) surface emissivity mask equivalent to 1{degrees}C or 2{degrees}C; this mask hinders interpretation of apparent (blackbody) temperatures. Once removed, were are able to identify surface temperature patterns from small diffusivity changes at buried object sites which heat and cool differently from their surroundings. Objects made of different materials and buried at different depths are identified by their unique spectra, spatial, thermal, temporal, emissivity and diffusivity signatures. We have successfully located the sites of buried (inert) simulated land mines 0.1 to 0.2 m deep; sod-covered rock pathways alongside dry ditches, deeper than 0.2 m; pavement covered burial trenches and cemetery structures as deep as 0.8 m; and aquifers more than 6 m and less 60 m deep. Our technology could be adapted for drug interdiction and pollution control. 16 refs., 14 figs.

Del Grande, N.K.; Clark, G.A.; Durbin, P.F.; Fields, D.J.; Hernandez, J.E.; Sherwood, R.J.

1991-03-01

332

Organic and inorganic sulfur constituents of a forest soil and their relationship to microbial activity  

SciTech Connect

Sulfur (S) constituents, microbial biomass, and sulfohydrolase activity were determined for each soil horizon at both hardwood and conifer sites in a Becket soil (Adirondack Mountains, New York). Drying of soil before analysis altered the S constituents. There was a threefold increase (p<0.05) in sulfate in the organic horizons. Total S was greatest in the O horizons with 2,010 and 1,690 ..mu..g S/g in conifer and hardwood solums, respectively. Mineral soil had a maximum S concentration in the B21h horizon. Sulfate concentrations were a small proportion (<15%) of total S in B horizons. Organic S was dominant (93% of total S) in all horizons. Carbon-bonded S and ester sulfate were 74 and 18% of total S, respectively. Microbial biomass was greatest in the O1 horizon of both hardwood and conifer solums (59 and 70 mg biomass C per 100 g/sup -1/ dry mass, respectively). The B21h horizon contained the greatest biomass in the mineral soil. Sulfohydrolase activity exhibited the same distribution. Total S, carbon-bonded S, and ester sulfate were all positively correlated (p<0.05) to percent organic matter in the soil horizons. Correlations between microbial biomass and sulfohydrolase activity with organic S indicate the potential for microbial S transformations. Sulfate formation by mineralization may be more important than exogenous inputs. This has major implications for assessing the impact of atmospheric S deposition on soils.

David, M.B.; Mitchell, M.J.; Nakas, J.P.

1982-07-01

333

www.ictas.vt.edu NEW HORIZONS  

E-print Network

www.ictas.vt.edu NEW HORIZONS ICTAS SEMINAR SERIES Using Sunlight to turn Water and Carbon Dioxide, water, and carbon dioxide. This talk will include a discussion of a feasible and functional prototype into Fuel In the DOE Energy Innovation Hub, the Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis, we are de

Crawford, T. Daniel

334

New horizons spacecraft comprehensive performance test development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The New Horizons spacecraft was launched on January 19, 2006, from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station aboard a Lockheed Martin Atlas V launch vehicle. It is the first mission of NASA's New Frontiers program and will be the first spacecraft to visit Pluto and its moon Charon, arriving July 14, 2015. An extended mission would include visits to one

M. L. Hill

2007-01-01

335

Three Dimensional Receding Horizon Control for UAVs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a receding horizon controller (RHC) that can be used to design trajectories for an aerial vehicle flying through a three dimensional terrain with obstacles and no-fly zones. To avoid exposure to threats, the paths are chosen to stay as close to the terrain as possible, but the vehicle can choose to pop-up over the obstacles if neces-

Yoshiaki Kuwata

2004-01-01

336

www.ictas.vt.edu NEW HORIZONS  

E-print Network

) but will largely ignore the false alarms about genetically modified foods ("frankenfoods"), thimerosal in vaccineswww.ictas.vt.edu NEW HORIZONS ICTAS SEMINAR SERIES Nanotechnology and Food Safety "Pigs oink, dogsYoung, is likely very prescient when it comes to the subject of nanotechnology and the food supply. Although FDA

Crawford, T. Daniel

337

Horizon 2020 Health/biotech opportunities  

E-print Network

Horizon 2020 Health/biotech opportunities Università Milano Bicocca (questa ppt contiene slides della Commissione Europea) Caterina BUONOCORE APRE #12;AGENDA · H2020 ­ Health/Biotech opportunities, manufacturing, space Access to risk finance Leveraging private finance and venture capital for research

Schettini, Raimondo

338

How far away is the horizon?  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis is presented for calculating the distance of the visible horizon as a function of the altitude of the observer, taking account of the variation of atmospheric refractive index with height. The results are applied to the specific case (valid up to about 10 km in the Earth's atmosphere) in which the atmospheric density falls off exponentially with altitude.

A. P. French

1982-01-01

339

Volume of a black hole event horizon  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe, in detail, methods of calculating the volume of a black hole event horizon in different coordinate systems. While the process is relatively straightforward, we notice that some interesting properties arise when the coordinate systems are time-dependent, as in the case of Novikov and Kruskal coordinates.

Brandon Dinunno; R. A. Matzner

2006-01-01

340

Infinite horizon autonomous systems with unbounded cost  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss control systems defined on an infinite horizon, where typically all the associated costs become unbounded as the time grows indefinitely. It is proved, under certain lower semicontinuity and controllability assumptions, that a linear time function can be subtracted from the cost, resulting in a modified cost, which is bounded on the infinite time interval. The cost evaluated over

A. Leizarowitz

1985-01-01

341

Gateway's Horizon: A Center of Excellence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes Gateway Technical College's Horizon Center for Transportation Technology, located in Kenosha, Wisconsin, which was the product of collaboration with business and industry, community support and a U.S. Department of Labor (DOL) grant. The center, which opened this fall, is a prime example of a sustainable community…

Herring, Jayne; Colony, Lee

2007-01-01

342

The hidden horizon and black hole unitarity  

E-print Network

We motivate through a detailed analysis of the Hawking radiation in a Schwarzschild background a scheme in accordance with quantum unitarity. In this scheme the semi-classical approximation of the unitary quantum - horizonless - black hole S-matrix leads to the conventional description of the Hawking radiation from a classical black hole endowed with an event horizon. Unitarity is borne out by the detailed exclusive S-matrix amplitudes. There, the fixing of generic out-states, in addition to the in-state, yields in asymptotic Minkowski space-time saddle-point contributions which are dominated by Planckian metric fluctuations when approaching the Schwarzschild radius. We argue that these prevent the corresponding macroscopic "exclusive backgrounds" to develop an event horizon. However, if no out-state is selected, a distinct saddle-point geometry can be defined, in which Planckian fluctuations are tamed. Such "inclusive background" presents an event horizon and constitutes a coarse-grained average over the aforementioned exclusive ones. The classical event horizon appears as a coarse-grained structure, sustaining the thermodynamic significance of the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. This is reminiscent of the tentative fuzzball description of extremal black holes: the role of microstates is played here by a complete set of out-states. Although the computations of unitary amplitudes would require a detailed theory of quantum gravity, the proposed scheme itself, which appeals to the metric description of gravity only in the vicinity of stationary points, does not.

Francois Englert; Philippe Spindel

2010-09-30

343

NASA's New Horizons Mission Dr. Henry Throop  

E-print Network

Radio NASA's New Horizons Mission To Pluto Dr. Henry Throop Planetary Science Institute Tucson 100,000,000,000 stars. The Sun is just one star in the Galaxy. #12;Kuiper Belt Jupiter Saturn Uranus Moon Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Hard to see: Uranus Neptune Pluto Asteroids #12

Throop, Henry

344

NASA's New Horizons Mission Dr. Henry Throop  

E-print Network

NASA's New Horizons Mission To Pluto Dr. Henry Throop Planetary Science Institute Tucson Sun Our Solar System #12;Kuiper Belt Jupiter Saturn Uranus Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto Sun Our Saturn Hard to see: Uranus Neptune Pluto Asteroids #12;1874: French Astronomer LeVerrier found errors

Throop, Henry

345

The horizon of the BTZ black hole  

E-print Network

This paper is a sequel of "Solvable symmetric black hole in anti de Sitter spaces" [arXiv:math.DG/0510442]. In the latter, we described the BTZ black hole in every dimension by defining the singularity as the closed orbits of the Iwasawa subgroup of SO(2,n). In this article, we study the horizon of the black hole and we show that it is expressed as lateral classes of one point of the space. The computation is given in the four-dimensional case, but it makes no doubt that it can be generalized to any dimension. The main idea is to define an "inclusion map" from AdS_3 into AdS_4 and to show that all the relevant structure pass trough the inclusion. We prove, for example, that the inclusion of the three dimensional horizon into AdS_4 belongs to the four dimensional horizon. Then we deduce the expression of the horizon in AdS_4.

Laurent Claessens

2009-12-11

346

Horizon Boundary Condition for Black Hole Spacetimes  

E-print Network

It was recently shown that spacetime singularities in numerical relativity could be avoided by excising a region inside the apparent horizon in numerical evolutions. In this paper we report on the details of the implementation of this scheme. The scheme is based on using (1)~a horizon locking coordinate which locks the coordinate system to the geometry, and (2)~a finite differencing scheme which respects the causal structure of the spacetime. We show that the horizon locking coordinate can be affected by a number of shift conditions, such as a ``distance freezing'' shift, an ``area freezing'' shift, an ``expansion freezing'' shift, or the minimal distortion shift. The causal differencing scheme is illustrated with the evolution of scalar fields, and its use in evolving the Einstein equations is studied. We compare the results of numerical evolutions with and without the use of this horizon boundary condition scheme for spherical black hole spacetimes. With the boundary condition a black hole can be evolved accurately well beyond $t=1000 M$, where $M$ is the black hole mass.

Peter Anninos; Greg Daues; Joan Masso; Edward Seidel; Wai-Mo Suen

1994-12-22

347

Soil bioturbation. A commentary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organisms such as trees, ants, earthworms, termites are important components of the earth systems that have dominantly been thought of as abiotic. Despite an early focus on soil bioturbation by heavy-weights such as Charles Darwin and Nathanial Shaler in the late 19th century, sporadic attention to this theme has subsequently followed. Recent compilations demonstrate that soil bioturbation by fauna and flora is widespread across Earths terrestrial surface, and operates at geologically rapid rates that warrant further attention. Such biotic activity contributes to soil creep, soil carbon dynamics, and is critical in engineering the medium through which ecosystems draw their abiotic requirements. Soil and its biota are fundamental components of the Earth System. However, soil scientist focussed on the dominant paradigm of landscape evolution, and bioturbation was relegated. In fact, bioturbation is still not widely appreciated within the soil and earth system research community. Nevertheless, within the last decade a review of the impact of bioturbation was launched by authors such as Geoff S. Humphreys. Bioturbation is a complex process as new soil is formed, mounds are developed, soil is buried and a downslope transport of material is done. Bioturbation modify the soil texture and porosity, increase the nutrients and encourage the soil creep flux. A review of the State-of-the-Art of Bioturbation will be presented.

Cerdà, Artemi; Wilkinson, Marshall

2010-05-01

348

End effectors and attachments for buried waste excavation equipment  

SciTech Connect

The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. Their efforts are identified and coordinated in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER&WM) Department`s needs and objectives. The present focus of BWID is to support retrieval and ex-situ treatment configuration options. Future activities will explore and support containment, and stabilization efforts in addition to the retrieval/ex situ treatment options. This report presents a literature search on the state-of-the-art in end effectors and attachments in support of excavator of buried transuranic waste. Included in the report are excavator platforms and a discussion of the various attachments. Also included is it list of vendors and specifications.

King, R.H.

1993-09-01

349

Buried waste integrated demonstration FY 94 deployment plan  

SciTech Connect

The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) is a program funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Technology Development. BWID supports the applied research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that together form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. The fiscal year (FY) 1994 effort will fund thirty-eight technologies in five areas of buried waste site remediation: site characterization, waste characterization, retrieval, treatment, and containment/stabilization. This document is the basic operational planning document for deployment of all BWID projects. Discussed in this document are the BWID preparations for INEL field demonstrations, INEL laboratory demonstrations, non-INEL demonstrations, and paper studies. Each technology performing tests will prepare a test plan to detail the specific procedures, objectives, and tasks of each test. Therefore, information specific to testing each technology is intentionally omitted from this document.

Hyde, R.A.; Walker, S.; Garcia, M.M.

1994-05-01

350

Soils - Part 1: The Origin and Development of Soil(How Soil Gets a Life and a Name)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, you will gain an understanding of the five soil forming factors and will be able to describe how each influences soil development. You will learn to identify common parent materials, determine the age of a soil, identify the types of native vegetation associated with different soils in Nebraska and define soil horizons.[This lesson, as well as the other nine lessons in the Soils series, is taken from the "Soils Home Study Course," published in 1999 by the University of Nebraska Cooperative Extension.

351

Fiber-optical analogue of the event horizon  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a realistic scheme for an artificial event horizon in optics with ultrashort pulses in microstructured fibers that can probe the quantum effects of horizons, particularly Hawking radiation. We also show experimental progress.

U. Leonhardt; Thomas G. Philbin; C. E. Kuklewicz; S. Robertson; S. Hill

2008-01-01

352

The Changing Model of Soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contemporary genetic model of soil is changing rapidly in response to advances in soil science and to human and environmental forcings in the 21st century (Richter and Yaalon, 2012). Three ongoing changes in the model of soil include that: (1) lower soil boundaries are much deeper than the solum, historically the O to B horizons, (2) most soils are polygenetic paleosols, products of soil-forming processes that have ranged widely over soils' lifetimes, and (3) soils are globally human-natural bodies, no longer natural bodies. Together, these changes in the model of soil mean that human forcings are a global wave of soil polygenesis altering fluxes of matter and energy and transforming soil thermodynamics as potentially very deep systems. Because soils are non-linear systems resulting from high-order interactions of physics, chemistry, and biology, trajectories of how human forcings alter soils over decades are not readily predictable and require long-term soil observations. There is much to learn about how soils are changing internally as central components of management systems and externally in relation to wider environments. To be critical, research has been remarkably superficial in studies of soil, reductionist in approach, and lacking in time-series observations of responses to soil management. While this criticism may sound negative, it creates significant opportunities for contemporary soil scientists.

Richter, D. D.; Yaalon, D.

2012-12-01

353

An investigation into the persistence of textile fibres on buried carcasses.  

PubMed

A significant amount of research has been carried out on fibres to aid the forensic scientist in determining the significance of these when found on a victim or suspect. This work has focused on open-air environments, and as such no research has been undertaken to examine the persistence of fibres on bodies in the burial environment. Wool and cotton fibres, known to fluoresce under ultraviolet (UV) light, were transferred onto the skin of four porcine (Sus scrofa) carcasses (two carcasses per fibre type). The number of fibres transferred was recorded from images taken under UV light. The remains were subsequently placed in four burial sites and left interred for 14 days. After this period the carcasses were excavated and lightly brushed down to remove the soil layer that had adhered to the skin. Once again photography under UV light was used to record the number of fibres which persisted on the skin. Results showed that after 14 days, wool and cotton fibres remain on the surface of the buried carcasses. In no circumstance was there a total loss of fibres suggesting that in such scenarios, the likelihood of finding fibres is high but the initial number of fibres transferred would be strongly diminished. This has important implications for both the excavation protocol for buried remains and the subsequent analysis for physical evidence. PMID:25002046

DeBattista, Roslyn; Tidy, Helen; Thompson, Tim J U; Robertson, Peter

2014-07-01

354

Data of hydraulic properties of North East and Central German soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a data base of soil hydrological properties of North East and Central German soils. Included are measured data of the soil water retention curve and the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity function. Information to geo reference, soil type and horizon are given. Additional soil physical data like particle size distribution, dry bulk density, organic matter content and other variables

U. Schindler; L. Müller

2010-01-01

355

Machine learning approaches for soil classification in a multi-agent deficit irrigation control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a novel approach to automating soil texture classification from in situ sensors in the field. This approach exploits the features of a soil water retention model using machine learning algorithms. Knowledge of the soil textures is then used to learn the composition of the field and its soil horizons. We discuss the role of soil texture classification within

Daniel Smith; Wei Peng

2009-01-01

356

Surface Localization of Buried III-V Semiconductor Nanostructures.  

PubMed

In this work, we study the top surface localization of InAs quantum dots once capped by a GaAs layer grown by molecular beam epitaxy. At the used growth conditions, the underneath nanostructures are revealed at the top surface as mounding features that match their density with independence of the cap layer thickness explored (from 25 to 100 nm). The correspondence between these mounds and the buried nanostructures is confirmed by posterior selective strain-driven formation of new nanostructures on top of them, when the distance between the buried and the superficial nanostructures is short enough (d = 25 nm). PMID:20596455

Alonso-González, P; González, L; Fuster, D; Martín-Sánchez, J; González, Yolanda

2009-01-01

357

Transverse wave loading on partially buried marine pipelines  

E-print Network

TRANSVERSE WAVE LOADING ON PARTIALLY BURIED MARINE PIPELINES A Thesis by RICHARD EDGAR WEBB Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December l988 Ma)or Subject: Civil Engineering TRANSVERSE WAVE LOADING ON PARTIALLY BURIED MARINE PIPELINES A Thesis bY RICHARD EDGAR WEBB Approved as to style and content by: Derek V. M ris (Chair of Committee) Calvin E. Woods (Member) Norman R...

Webb, Richard Edgar

2012-06-07

358

Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration commercialization actions plans. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) is sponsored by US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development. BWID supports the development and demonstration of a suite of technologies that when integrated with commercially available baseline technologies form a comprehensive system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste throughout the DOE complex. BWID evaluates, validates, and demonstrates technologies and transfers this information throughout DOE and private industry to support DOE. remediation planning and implementation activities. This report documents commercialization action plans for five technologies with near-term commercialization/ implementation potential as well as provides a status of commercial and academic partners for each technology.

Kaupanger, R.M. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Glore, D. [Advanced Sciences, Inc. (United States)

1994-04-01

359

Physicochemical and mineralogical diagnostic features of solonetzic process in soils of the Lower Volga region in the late holocene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern solonetzes and paleosolonetzes buried under steppe kurgans 3800–600 years ago were studied in the Lower Volga region.\\u000a Overall, 28 quantitative parameters used in the description of the solonetzic process were examined. These parameters included\\u000a the textural (the clay content, the ratio of the clay (<0.001 mm) content in the B horizon to that in the A horizon, the degree

T. V. Alekseeva; A. O. Alekseev; V. A. Demkin; V. A. Alekseeva; Z. Sokolowska; M. Hajnos; P. I. Kalinin

2010-01-01

360

Effects of different methods of plant residue management on soil properties and maize yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of different methods of plant residue management on soil properties and maize yield were studied in a field experiment conducted on a Typic Kandihumult in Bambui, Northwest Province of Cameroon. Ankara (a local practice of slow burning partially buried dry plant residues) was compared with surface burning and burying plant residues under the ridges without burning. The comparison

O. A. Osiname; F. Meppe

1999-01-01

361

Quantitative Relationships Between Net Volume Change and Fabric Properties During Soil Evolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The state of soil evolution can be charted by net long-term volume and elemental mass changes for individual horizons compared with parent material. Volume collapse or dilation depends on relative elemental mass fluxes associated with losses form or additions to soil horizons.

Chadwick, O. A.; Nettleton, W. D.

1993-01-01

362

Vertical distribution of Cd, Pb and Zn in soils near smelters in the North of France  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of the horizons of 12 soil profiles confirm occasionally significant levels of Cd, Pb and Zn contamination in the areas surrounding two lead and zinc smelters in the North of France. A pedological approach enabled the original Cd, Pb and Zn content of the horizons to be estimated, based on physico-chemical characteristics of soil unaffected by contamination. The

T. Sterckeman; F. Douay; N. Proix; H. Fourrier

2000-01-01

363

Informationsveranstaltung zu Horizon 2020 Sehr geehrte Damen und Herren,  

E-print Network

Informationsveranstaltung zu Horizon 2020 Sehr geehrte Damen und Herren, Horizont 2020 ist das Informationsveranstaltung ,,Horizon 2020" einladen. Teilnehmerkreis: Das Angebot richtet sich an Wissenschaftler Teilnahmebedingen in Horizon 2020 vorstellen. Sie haben die M�glichkeit sich �ber die n�chsten Ausschreibungen zu

364

9 December 2013 Fact sheet: Gender Equality in Horizon 2020  

E-print Network

9 December 2013 Fact sheet: Gender Equality in Horizon 2020 A renewed commitment The promotion establishing Horizon 2020, with the following objectives: o Gender balance in research teams o Gender balance is constantly growing, Horizon 2020 wants to guarantee both a high level of expertise and the respect of gender

Fitze, Patrick

365

Horizon 2020 -MSC at the University of Potsdam  

E-print Network

Horizon 2020 - MSC at the University of Potsdam Dr. K. Czempinski Universität Potsdam Workshop, 16 for the region Horizon 2020 projects #12;3 Our support · EU-Team · UP- International Research Cooperation as horizontal task in Horizon 2020 projects · Involving non-academic and industry partners (incl. SME) · Assist

Potsdam, Universität

366

UK Higher Education Sector Position on the Horizon 2020  

E-print Network

UK Higher Education Sector Position on the Horizon 2020 Framework for Research and Innovation UK on Horizon 2020 UK higher education sector position on the future of the Framework Programme ­ key points Summary of key UK higher education sector positions on Horizon 2020 The UK higher education sector

Müller, Jens-Dominik

367

Swiss participation in Horizon 2020 (Situation on 26 February 2014)  

E-print Network

Swiss participation in Horizon 2020 (Situation on 26 February 2014) As the negotiations on Switzerland's association to Horizon 2020 could not be completed, Switzerland has to be considered a non will be in accordance with Horizon 2020 provisions governing the participation of third country entities. The attached

Haller-Dintelmann, Robert

368

Stability analysis of sonic horizons in Bose-Einstein condensates  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the linear stability of various configurations in Bose-Einstein condensates with steplike sonic horizons. These configurations are chosen in analogy with gravitational systems with a black hole horizon, a white hole horizon, and a combination of both. We discuss the role of different boundary conditions in this stability analysis, paying special attention to their meaning in gravitational terms. We

C. Barceló; A. Cano; L. J. Garay; G. Jannes

2006-01-01

369

The New Horizons Distant Flyby of Asteroid 2002 JF56  

Microsoft Academic Search

On June 13, 2006 New Horizons flew within approximately 102,000 km of the small asteroid 2002 JF56. The large angular velocity ( 40 arcsec\\/sec) of the asteroid relative to New Horizons at closest approach provided a stringent test of the mission's imaging capabilities during flybys. The other solar system objects that New Horizons will encounter on its journey to Pluto,

Catherine B. Olkin; D. Reuter; A. Lunsford; R. P. Binzel; S. A. Stern

2006-01-01

370

Carbon Stabilization in Wet Tropical Forest Volcanic Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volcanic soils, particularly Andisols, have high carbon storage capacities due to the accumulation of highly reactive, non-crystalline minerals. Previous research along a pedogenic chronosequence on volcanic lava in Hawai'i found that soils in the intermediate weathering stage, dominated by allophane, contained the largest soil C stocks with slowest turnover rates. Potential mechanisms for long-term soil C stabilization include an accumulation of chemically recalcitrant C, microenvironmental conditions unfavorable for decomposition, and strong sorption of soluble and otherwise labile C to mineral and/or metals. In well-drained soils in wet climates, dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a likely main pathway for the transport of C from the zones of highest microbial activity to deeper mineral horizons. To address the production, transformation, and fate of dissolved organic matter (DOM), we have installed tension and zero tension lysimeters throughout sequentially deeper organic and mineral horizons in an intermediate aged soil (ca. 350k years) under wet (ca. 3000 mm mean annual rainfall) native tropical forest in Hawai'i. The soils are characterized by thick O horizons and Bh horizons 20-30 cm deep, followed by mineral horizons showing redoximorphic features. Bulk soil carbon to nitrogen ratios increase with soil depth, matching that of DOM in the surface organic horizons at 40-50 cm depth. Low pH does not seem to explain this accumulation of C-rich, N-depleted OM, as soils become less acidic with depth. Soil C:N are positively correlated with alumina, oxalate-extractable Al, and dithionite citrate-extractable Al. The greatest source of DOC is the forest floor (Oie), followed by the Oa horizon, and concentrations decrease significantly in the mineral horizons. DOC concentrations increase with total dissolved Al and Fe in the Oie horizon, and with total Fe in solution in the Bg horizon. In the Bh horizon, DOM C:N are negatively correlated with total Al and Fe in solution. Metals appear to be implicated in the mobilization of C in solution and its stabilization in mineral horizons. The formation of cracks along large peds facilitates macropore flow and downward delivery of carbon.

Marin-Spiotta, E.; Chadwick, O.; Kramer, M.

2008-12-01

371

Nonaxisymmetric dynamic response of imperfectly bonded buried fluid-filled orthotropic cylindrical shells  

SciTech Connect

This paper is concerned with the nonaxisymmetric dynamic response of an imperfectly bonded fluid-filled buried orthotropic cylindrical shell excited by a plane longitudinal wave. A thick shell model, including the effect of shear deformation and rotary inertia, has been taken. For the wave propagation in the fluid inside the pipe, linear acoustic equation has been used. The effects of fluid presence on the shell displacements have been studied for different soil conditions and at various angles of incidence of the longitudinal wave. The effects of bond imperfection on the shell response have been compared with the effects realized due to the presence of fluid inside the pipeline. Effects of changes in the fluid density are also discussed. It is found that magnitude of the response of fluid-filled pipeline can become even more than that of an empty pipeline (without fluid), and, hence, it cannot be assumed that a fluid-filled pipeline will always furnish safe and conservative response.

Dwivedi, J.P.; Singh, V.P.; Upadhyay, P.C. [Banaras Hindu Univ., Varanasi (India)

1996-02-01

372

Horizons, Constraints, and Black Hole Entropy  

E-print Network

Black hole entropy appears to be ``universal''--many independent calculations, involving models with very different microscopic degrees of freedom, all yield the same density of states. I discuss the proposal that this universality comes from the behavior of the underlying symmetries of the classical theory. To impose the condition that a black hole be present, we must partially break the classical symmetries of general relativity, and the resulting Goldstone boson-like degrees of freedom may account for the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. In particular, I demonstrate that the imposition of a ``stretched horizon'' constraint modifies the algebra of symmetries at the horizon, allowing the use of standard conformal field theory techniques to determine the asymptotic density of states. The results reproduce the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy without any need for detailed assumptions about the microscopic theory.

S. Carlip

2006-01-10

373

Soil formation in Phobjikha Valley, Central Bhutan with special regard to the redistribution of loessic sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil development and landscape evolution were studied in the basin-shaped Phobjikha Valley at 2900-3200 m a.s.l., to the west of the Black Mountain Range, West Central Bhutan. The local environmental setting with strong along-valley winds, frequent freeze-thaw cycles, extensive dry periods and sparse vegetation cover seems to encourage the generation and short-distance transport of silt-sized particles. The effects of this process are evidenced in the smooth valley morphology and in the nature of the examined pedons. Their involvement in continuing redistribution of local sediments is reflected by a homogeneous silty-clayey and stone-free texture, varying profile depths, buried topsoils and weakly developed recent A horizons. In protected locations, in situ weathering of metamorphic parent materials results in alu-andic features with bulk densities <0.9 g cm -3, (Al o + ½Fe o) > 2%, and phosphate retention >95%. Dominance by Al-hydroxy interlayered clay minerals and large amounts of well-crystallised iron oxides indicate an advanced stage of weathering. In areas of preferred eolian deposition, argic and ferralic features emerge, with clay contents of up to 60% and surface areas of >50 m 2 g -1. Under forest, umbric horizons can develop. CEC eff is below 10 cmol c kg -1 at all sites. Cluster and factor analyses of soil chemical and physical parameters confirm the redistribution of local sediments as a dominant factor behind the measured variables. No clear indication of glacial activities in the area was found, whereas the massive silty sediments in the lower parts of most profiles, the presence of debris slopes, and the asymmetric cross sections of the side valleys suggest periglacial conditions. Buried topsoils dated at about 2000 conventional 14C years BP indicate a weakening or absence of sediment influx under wetter conditions towards the end of the Holocene climate optimum. Charcoal on top of paleosols suggests that human activities of deforestation, grazing and arable agriculture may have contributed to the reactivation of local sediment redistribution until today.

Caspari, T.; Bäumler, R.; Norbu, C.; Tshering, K.; Baillie, I.

2009-03-01

374

Baseline tests for arc melter vitrification of INEL buried wastes. Volume 1: Facility description and summary data report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents field results and raw data from the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) Arc Melter Vitrification Project Phase 1 baseline test series conducted by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM). The baseline test series was conducted using the electric arc melter facility at the USBM Albany Research Center in Albany, Oregon. Five different surrogate waste feed mixtures were tested that simulated thermally-oxidized, buried, TRU-contaminated, mixed wastes and soils present at the INEL. The USBM Arc Furnace Integrated Waste Processing Test Facility includes a continuous feed system, the arc melting furnace, an offgas control system, and utilities. The melter is a sealed, 3-phase alternating current (ac) furnace approximately 2 m high and 1.3 m wide. The furnace has a capacity of 1 metric ton of steel and can process as much as 1,500 lb/h of soil-type waste materials. The surrogate feed materials included five mixtures designed to simulate incinerated TRU-contaminated buried waste materials mixed with INEL soil. Process samples, melter system operations data and offgas composition data were obtained during the baseline tests to evaluate the melter performance and meet test objectives. Samples and data gathered during this program included (a) automatically and manually logged melter systems operations data, (b) process samples of slag, metal and fume solids, and (c) offgas composition, temperature, velocity, flowrate, moisture content, particulate loading and metals content. This report consists of 2 volumes: Volume I summarizes the baseline test operations. It includes an executive summary, system and facility description, review of the surrogate waste mixtures, and a description of the baseline test activities, measurements, and sample collection. Volume II contains the raw test data and sample analyses from samples collected during the baseline tests.

Oden, L.L.; O`Connor, W.K.; Turner, P.C.; Soelberg, N.R.; Anderson, G.L.

1993-11-19

375

GEOPHYSICAL TECHNIQUES FOR SENSING BURIED WASTES AND WASTE MIGRATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Descriptions of the use of six geophysical techniques are presented to provide a broad understanding of the application of these techniques for sensing buried wastes and waste migration. Technical language and jargon are avoided as much as possible so that those with limited tech...

376

Buried mine detection using ground-penetrating impulse radar  

SciTech Connect

LLNL is developing a side-looking, ground-penetrating impulse radar system that can eventually be mounted on a robotic vehicle or an airborne platform to locate buried land mines. The system is described and results from field experiments are presented.

Sargis, P.D.

1995-03-01

377

Detection of concealed and buried chemicals by using multifrequency excitations  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we present a new type of concealed and buried chemical detection system by stimulating and enhancing spectroscopic signatures with multifrequency excitations, which includes a low frequency gradient dc electric field, a high frequency microwave field, and higher frequency infrared (IR) radiations. Each excitation frequency plays a unique role. The microwave, which can penetrate into the underground and/or pass through the dielectric covers with low attenuation, could effectively transform its energy into the concealed and buried chemicals and increases its evaporation rate from the sample source. Subsequently, a gradient dc electric field, generated by a Van De Graaff generator, not only serves as a vapor accelerator for efficiently expediting the transportation process of the vapor release from the concealed and buried chemicals but also acts as a vapor concentrator for increasing the chemical concentrations in the detection area, which enables the trace level chemical detection. Finally, the stimulated and enhanced vapors on the surface are detected by the IR spectroscopic fingerprints. Our theoretical and experimental results demonstrate that more than sixfold increase in detection signal can be achieved by using this proposed technology. The proposed technology can also be used for standoff detection of concealed and buried chemicals by adding the remote IR and/or thermal spectroscopic and imaging detection systems.

Gao Yaohui; Chen, Meng-Ku; Yang, Chia-En; Chang, Yun-Ching; Yao, Jim; Cheng Jiping; Yin, Stuart [Department of Electrical Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Hui Rongqing [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66045 (United States); Ruffin, Paul; Brantley, Christina; Edwards, Eugene [US Army Aviation and Missile Research Development and Engineering Center Redstone Arsenal, Alabama 35898 (United States); Luo, Claire [General Opto Solutions, LLC State College, Pennsylvania 16803 (United States)

2010-08-15

378

Short communication Buried relic seawall mitigates Hurricane Sandy's impacts  

E-print Network

Short communication Buried relic seawall mitigates Hurricane Sandy's impacts Jennifer L. Irish a Accepted 6 June 2013 Available online xxxx Keywords: Hurricanes Storm surge Waves Storm damage Seawalls of Hurricane Sandy revealed clear differences in patterns of the impact between two neighboring boroughs along

Lynett, Patrick

379

Field Weakening in Buried Permanent Magnet AC Motor Drives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The usual uncoupled d - q model of salient pole synchronous machines (Park's model) may be insufficient for accurate modeling of buried magnet permanent magnet machines. The addition of a nonbilateral coupling between the direct and quadrature axis equivalent circuits is shown to improve the steady-state model greatly. The cross coupling reactance has important implications in improving operation in the

Brigette Sneyers; Donald W. Novotny; Thomas A. Lipo

1985-01-01

380

Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration: Selection of potential demonstration locations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first step towards identifying primary Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration locations is the selection of potential demonstration sites within the Subsurface Disposal Area. The sites selected are Pits 4, 5, 6, and 9, containing transuranic waste of Rocky Flats origin, the Acid Pit, and Pad A. The criteria and methodology for selection of these sites, as well as a description

D. A. Arrenholz; J. L. Knight

1991-01-01

381

The microbial biosphere of sediment-buried oceanic basement.  

PubMed

Low-temperature hydrothermal fluids, circulating within the vast volume of sediment-buried upper oceanic basement on the flanks of the global mid-ocean ridge system, represent a largely unexplored habitat that could potentially host a significant and unique microbial biosphere. The present state of knowledge and many remaining challenges are discussed. PMID:15313248

Cowen, James P

2004-09-01

382

Detection of Shallowly Buried Objects Using Impulse Radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impulse radar has shown promising results for detecting buriedobjects, even non-metallic ones. One problem with ground penetratingradars is the strong backscattered signal from the ground surface.If the object is buried deeply below the surface this is no problem sincethe backscattered signal from the surface will arrive earlier than thetarget signal and we only have to gate the time signal.

H. Brunzell

1996-01-01

383

Fabrication of buried corrugated waveguides by wafer direct bonding  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new fabrication method of deeply buried corrugated waveguides is presented. It uses a direct bonding process and allows us to make efficient grating couplers in waveguides. The efficiency of the grating is enhanced by enclosing air in its grooves during the fabrication process. A demonstrator based on a waveguide produced by ion exchange has been fabricated and tested. Theoretical

S. Pelissier; G. Pandraud; A. Mure-Ravaud; A. V. Tishchenko; B. Biasse

2000-01-01

384

High efficiency, low cost buried contact silicon solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The buried contact (BC) technology has demonstrated both an efficiency and cost advantage over conventional screen printed solar cells. New BC structures, in particular the double sided (DS) BC cell, allow further improvements in cost and efficiency. Improvements in efficiency arise through improved rear surface passivation. Experimental results from DSBC cells using various passivation methods demonstrate that a floating junction

C. B. Honsberg; S. R. Wenham; A. Ebong; M. Taouk; Y.-H. Tang; S. Ghozati; F. Yun; A. Grados; M. A. Green; W. Warta

1994-01-01

385

FOREWORD: Special section on electromagnetic characterization of buried obstacles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Inverse Problems special section on electromagnetic characterization of buried obstacles contains a selection of 14 invited papers, involving 41 authors and 19 research groups worldwide. (Though this section consists of invited papers, the standard refereeing procedures of Inverse Problems have been rigorously observed.) We do not claim to have reached all the high-level researchers in the field, but we

Dominique Lesselier; Weng Cho Chew

2004-01-01

386

Thermoelectric power factor in semiconductors with buried epitaxial semimetallic nanoparticles  

E-print Network

Thermoelectric power factor in semiconductors with buried epitaxial semimetallic nanoparticles J. M, mobility, and Seebeck coefficient of these materials and discuss their potential for use in thermoelectric on thermoelectric materials has focused on the ability of heterostructures and quantum con- finement to increase

Bowers, John

387

Main features of anthropogenic inner-urban soils in Szeged, Hungary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the beginning of the 21st century, due to the intensive urbanization it is necessary to gather more and more information on altered physical, chemical and biological parameters of urban soils in order to ensure their suitable management and protection for appropriate living conditions. Nowadays, these measures are very relevant since negative environmental effects can modify the soil forming factors in cities. Szeged, the 4th largest city of Hungary, proved to be an ideal sampling area for the research of urban soils since its original surface has been altered by intensive anthropogenic activities. The main objectives of my research are the investigation, description and evaluation of the altered soils in Szeged. For the physical and chemical analysis (humus, nitrogen, carbonate content, heavy metals, pH, artefacts etc.) of soils 124 samples were taken from the horizons of 25 profiles in Szeged and its peripherals (as control samples). The profiles were sampled at sites affected by different extent of artificial infill according to infill maps (1. profiles fully made up of infill; 2. so-called mixed profiles consisting of considerable amount of infill material and buried soil horizons; 3. natural profiles located in the peripherals of the city). With the help of the above-mentioned parameters, the studied soils of Szeged were assigned into the classification system of WRB(2006), which classifies the soils of urban and industrial areas as an individual soil group (under the term Technosols) for the first time. In accordance with the WRB(2006) nomenclature three main soil types can be identified in Szeged with respect to the degree of human influence: profiles slightly influenced, strongly modified, completely altered by human activities. During this poster, we present the peculiarities of typical urban profiles strongly and completely altered by human influence. Most profiles were placed into the group of Technosols due to the considerable transformation of their diagnostic properties (e.g. coverage by artificial objects, intensive compaction, horizontal and vertical variability, abrupt colour and textural changes usually high amount of artefacts, irregular fluctuation of diagnostic properties along the profiles, anthropogenic parent material, high pH and carbonate content, poor humus quality, mainly sand, sandy loam texture etc.). Transformations were best reflected by suffixes such as Ekranic, Urbic, Linic. Among the suffix qualifiers Calcaric, Ruptic, Densic and Arenic were used the most frequently. Furthermore, we found that some of the studied profiles were not situated in the city centre. Consequently, the location of these profiles in the city centre is not necessary since local influences can overwhelm the effect of artificial infill. Considering all the profiles, two of them in city centre can be consider to be the most anthropogenic: profile No. 11 [Ekranic Technosol (Ruptic, Toxic, Endoclayic)] and profile No. 22 [Urbic Technosol (Calcaric, Ruptic, Densic, Arenic)]. It can be claimed that profile No. 11 with "technic hard rock" has the least chance to experience pedogenetic processes since the horizons are covered by thick, surface artificial object, and isolated from the outside world. However, in case of profile No. 22 with dense vegetation and without surface artificial object, the high amount of artefact inhibits pedogenesis.

Puskás, Irén.; Farsang, Andrea

2010-05-01

388

Index theory and supersymmetry of 5D horizons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We prove that the near-horizon geometries of minimal gauged five-dimensional supergravity preserve at least half of the supersymmetry. If the near-horizon geometries preserve a larger fraction, then they are locally isometric to AdS 5. Our proof is based on Lichnerowicz type theorems for two horizon Dirac operators constructed from the supercovariant connection restricted to the horizon sections, and on an application of the index theorem. An application is that all half-supersymmetric five-dimensional horizons admit an sl(2 , ) symmetry subalgebra.

Grover, J.; Gutowski, J.; Papadopoulos, G.; Sabra, W. A.

2014-06-01

389

Finding KBO flyby targets for New Horizons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose to continue the search for Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) that can be reached by the New Horizons spacecraft after its 2015 Pluto flyby. This first flyby of a small (~50 km) KBO would revolutionize our understanding of KBOs, providing information that can be extrapolated to hundreds of thousands of similar KBOs. Our 2011 search discovered three objects that could be targeted with only about twice the fuel that New Horizons has available during excellent seeing, but seeing was insufficient to achieve this depth over the entire search area in 2012 or 2013. Deepening the search in 2014, taking advantage of lower star density and the shrinking search area, has a good chance of finding a targetable object given sufficiently good seeing, especially with Hyper Suprime Cam. We expect about 2.5 targetable objects with R less 26.0 in the HSC field of view. We will also refine the orbits of previously discovered objects, including ones that can be observed from a distance by New Horizons on its passage through the Kuiper Belt.

Spencer, John; Trilling, David; Buie, Marc; Parker, Alex; Tholen, David; Stern, S. Alan

2014-02-01

390

Finding KBO flyby targets for New Horizons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is one of a consortium of proposals to continue the search for Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) that can be reached by the New Horizons spacecraft after its 2015 Pluto flyby. This first flyby of a small ( 50 km) KBO would revolutionize our understanding of KBOs, providing information that can be extrapolated to hundreds of thousands of similar KBOs. Seeing was too poor in 2012 to allow new Subaru discoveries, but our 2011 search discovered three objects that could be targeted with only about twice the fuel that New Horizons has available, so deepening the search in 2013 has a good chance of finding a targetable object. Our highest priority is two deep SuprimeCam stares in which, with good seeing, we expect to detect about 2 targetable objects with R textless 26.0. Additional fields will be covered if time permits, further improving our odds. We will also refine the orbits of previously discovered objects, including ones that can be observed from a distance by New Horizons on its passage through the Kuiper Belt.

Spencer, John; Trilling, David; Buie, Marc; Parker, Alex; Tholen, David; Fuentes, Cesar; Stern, S. Alan; Kavelaars, J. J.

2013-02-01

391

49 CFR 192.459 - External corrosion control: Examination of buried pipeline when exposed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false External corrosion control: Examination of buried pipeline...FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.459 External corrosion control: Examination of buried...

2012-10-01

392

49 CFR 192.459 - External corrosion control: Examination of buried pipeline when exposed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false External corrosion control: Examination of buried pipeline...FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.459 External corrosion control: Examination of buried...

2011-10-01

393

49 CFR 192.459 - External corrosion control: Examination of buried pipeline when exposed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false External corrosion control: Examination of buried pipeline...FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.459 External corrosion control: Examination of buried...

2010-10-01

394

49 CFR 192.459 - External corrosion control: Examination of buried pipeline when exposed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false External corrosion control: Examination of buried pipeline...FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.459 External corrosion control: Examination of buried...

2013-10-01

395

75 FR 38042 - Specifications and Drawings for Construction of Direct Buried Plant  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Rural Utilities Service 7 CFR Part 1755 Specifications and Drawings for Construction of Direct Buried Plant AGENCY: Rural Utilities...comments on revising RUS Bulletin 1753F-150, Specifications and Drawings for Construction of Direct Buried Plant (Form 515a)....

2010-07-01

396

75 FR 32313 - Specifications and Drawings for Construction Direct Buried Plant  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Service 7 CFR Part 1755 Specifications and Drawings for Construction Direct Buried Plant...Bulletin 1753F- 150, Specifications and Drawings for Construction of Direct Buried Plant...Effective date of Specifications and Drawings final rule]. for Construction of...

2010-06-08

397

Impact of land management on soil structure and soil hydraulic properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Study is focused on a comparison of a soil structure and soil hydraulic properties within soil profiles of a same soil type under different land management. Study was performed in Haplic Luvisol in Hnevceves the Czech Republic. Two soil profiles, which were in close distance from each other, were chosen: 1. under the conventional tillage, 2. under the permanent (30 years) grass cover. Soil sampling and field experiments were carried out immediately after the harvest of winter barley in 2008. The micromorphological images were used to evaluate the soil structure of all Ap, Bt1, Bt2 and C diagnostic horizons. The hydraulic properties of the diagnostic horizons were studied in the laboratory using multistep outflow experiments performed on the undisturbed 100-cm3 soil samples. A tension disc infiltrometer (with a disc radius of 10 cm) and minidisc tension infiltrometers (with a disc radius of 2.2 cm) were used to measure cumulative water infiltration under unsaturated conditions created using a pressure head of -2 cm. Measurements were performed at a depths of 5, 45, 75 and 110 cm, which corresponded to the Ap, Bt1, Bt2 and C horizons of studied Haplic Luvisol at both locations. The Guelph permeameter was used to measure cumulative water flux under surface ponding conditions. The depth of the drilled well was 10, 50, 80 and 115 cm, the well radius was 3 cm, and the well ponding depth was 5 cm. Both tests were used to evaluate hydraulic conductivity (K for h=-2cm, and Ks) values. Results showed, that while properties in the Bt2 and C horizons of both soil profiles were relatively similar, properties in the Ap and Bt1 horizons were different. The fraction of gravitational pores (which may cause preferential flow) in the Ap and Bt1 horizons of the soil profile under the convectional tillage was large than those in the Ap and Bt1 horizons of the soil profile under the permanent grass. This influenced for instance the Ks values measured using the Guelph permeametr. The Ks values were higher and more variable in the soil profile under the convectional tillage than those in the soil profile under the permanent grass. On the other hand, due to the periodical tillage and consequent soil structure breakdown, the fraction of the large capillary pores were smaller in the Ap horizon of the soil profile under the convectional tillage than that in the Ap horizon of the soil profile under the permanent grass. As result the K (h=-2cm) values measured using the tension infiltrometer in the soil profile under the permanent grass was higher than those in the soil profile under the convectional tillage. However, the fraction of the large capillary pores and K (h=-2cm) values were similar in the Bt1 horizons of both soil profiles. Thus the land management impacted both macropores and matrix pores in the Ap horizon and macropores (prismatic structure and biopores) in the Bt1 horizon. Acknowledgement: Authors acknowledge the financial support of the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic (grant No. GA CR 526/08/0434) and the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic (grant No. MSM 6046070901).

Kodesova, Radka; Jirku, Veronika; Nikodem, Antonin; Muhlhanselova, Marcela; Zigova, Anna

2010-05-01

398

Classification of Moscow soils and parent materials and its possible inclusion in the classification system of Russian soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Law on Urban Soils was adopted by the Moscow Government in 2007. In the course of working out by-laws for its implementation, the systematization of Moscow soils was developed aimed at providing scientific grounds for the urban soils' inventory, mapping, and evaluation. The classification of Moscow soils comprises a description of the diagnostic horizons and soil types with the subtype subdivision fitting the principles of the new All-Russia soil classification. The authors hope that the developed system may trigger new discussions about the place of anthropogenically transformed soils and soil-like bodies in the Classification and Diagnostics of the Soils of Russia.

Prokofyeva, T. V.; Martynenko, I. A.; Ivannikov, F. A.

2011-05-01

399

Wave-induced cyclic pore-pressure perturbation effects in hydrodynamic uplift force acting on submarine pipeline buried in seabed sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among all environmental loads usually considered in the design procedure, the most critical problem in determining a vertical stability of a submarine pipeline buried in permeable soils under progressive surface-water-wave loading is the prediction of the wave-induced cyclic pore-pressure response of a seabed in the vicinity of a submarine pipeline. A study of the hydrodynamic (i.e., wave-induced) uplift force acting

W. Magda

2000-01-01

400

Water-soluble organic matter in forest soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil culture experiments were conducted to examine the effects of water-soluble organic matter (WSOM), isolated from the Ah horizon of a forest soil on cation uptake by seedlings of Agrostis capillaris and Silene dioica. In contrast to the large effects on soil equilibria, cation uptake was only slightly affected by WSOM. Solubilized Al, Fe, Cu and Pb, were not found

A. T. Kuiters; W. Mulder

1993-01-01

401

75 FR 59933 - Specifications and Drawings for Construction of Direct Buried Plant  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Service 7 CFR Part 1755 Specifications and Drawings for Construction of Direct Buried Plant...Bulletin 1753F-150, Specifications and Drawings for Construction of Direct Buried Plant...Bulletin 1753F-150, Specifications and Drawings for Construction of Direct Buried...

2010-09-29

402

Buried Barrett's Epithelium Following Photodynamic Therapy Shows Reduced Crypt Proliferation and Absence of DNA Content Abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is increasingly used for the treatment of patients with Barrett's esophagus (BE) with dysplasia or early carcinoma. Post-PDT, some patients show residual BE either exposed to the luminal surface (nonburied) or buried underneath reepithelialized squamous mucosa (buried BE). Buried BE may be a serious clinical problem since it can go unnoticed during surveillance endoscopies. The neoplastic potential

Jason L Hornick; Mari Mino-Kenudson; Gregory Y Lauwers; Weitian Liu; Raj Goyal; Robert D Odze

2008-01-01

403

Impulse-backscattering based detection and imaging of buried objects in granular beds  

Microsoft Academic Search

We establish that weak impulses can be effectively used to detect and image buried objects in disordered granular beds. The image carries information about the approximate shape of the surface of the buried object and its approximate location. Impulse backscattering can serve as a powerful tool to detect and to image the identity of buried metallic and non-metallic objects.

Surajit Sen; Marian Manciu; Kelly M. Campbell; Jochen Schein; Rahul R. Prasad; Mahadevan Krishnan

2001-01-01

404

Modelling the buried human body environment in upland climes using three contrasting field sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite an increasing literature on the decomposition of human remains, whether buried or exposed, it is important to recognise the role of specific microenvironments which can either trigger or delay the rate of decomposition. Recent casework in Northern England involving buried and partially buried human remains has demonstrated a need for a more detailed understanding of the effect of contrasting

Andrew S. Wilson; Robert C. Janaway; Andrew D. Holland; Hilary I. Dodson; Eve Baran; A. Mark Pollard; Desmond J. Tobin

2007-01-01

405

Use of a chemical equilibrium model to understand soil chemical processes that influence soil solution and surface water alkalinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A chemical equilibrium model was applied to soil chemistry data (Spodosols) collected from 30 and 21 forested watersheds in New York and Maine, respectively, during the EPA Pilot Soil Survey. Chemistry data were evaluated between states using lumped series and within New York using three series (Adams, Becket, and Canaan). All New York horizons had soil characteristics that tend to

Mark B. David; John O. Reuss; P. Mark Walthall

1988-01-01

406

The Influence of Pedology and Changes in Soil Moisture Status on Manganese Release from Upland Catchments: Soil  

E-print Network

The Influence of Pedology and Changes in Soil Moisture Status on Manganese Release from Upland /Accepted: 14 January 2007 # Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2007 Abstract Manganese (Mn . Manganese . Mobilisation . Soil horizon . Soil water . Upland catchments 1 Introduction The trace metal

Heal, Kate

407

Soils, time, and primate paleoenvironments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Soils are the skin of the earth. From both poles to the equator, wherever rocks or sediment are exposed at the surface, soils are forming through the physical and chemical action of climate and living organisms. The physical attributes (color, texture, thickness) and chemical makeup of soils vary considerably, depending on the composition of the parent material and other variables: temperature, rainfall and soil moisture, vegetation, soil fauna, and the length of time that soil-forming processes have been at work. United States soil scientists1 have classified modern soils into ten major groups and numerous subgroups, each reflecting the composition and architecture of the soils and, to some extent, the processes that led to their formation. The physical and chemical processes of soil formation have been active throughout geologic time; the organic processes have been active at least since the Ordovician.2 Consequently, nearly all sedimentary rocks that were deposited in nonmarine settings and exposed to the elements contain a record of ancient, buried soils or paleosols. A sequence of these rocks, such as most ancient fluvial (stream) deposits, provides a record of soil paleoenvironments through time. Paleosols are also repositories of the fossils of organisms (body fossils) and the traces of those organisms burrowing, food-seeking, and dwelling activities (ichnofossils). Indeed, most fossil primates are found in paleosols. Careful study of ancient soils gives new, valuable insights into the correct temporal reconstruction of the primate fossil record and the nature of primate paleoenvironments. ?? 1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Bown, T.M.; Kraus, M.J.

1993-01-01

408

Time Horizon and Social Scale in Communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2009 our center (CRED) published a first version of The Psychology of Climate Change Communication. In it, we attempted to summarize facts and concepts from psychological research that could help guide communication. While this work focused on climate change, most of the ideas are at least partly applicable for communication about a variety of natural hazards. Of the many examples in this guide, I mention three. Single-action bias is the human tendency to stop considering further actions that might be needed to deal with a given hazard, once a single action has been taken. Another example is the importance of group affiliation in motivating voluntary contributions to joint action. A third concerns the finding that group participation enhances understanding of probabilistic concepts and promotes action in the face of uncertainty. One current research direction, which goes beyond those included in the above publication, focuses on how time horizons arise in the thinking of individuals and groups, and how these time horizons might influence hazard preparedness. On the one hand, individuals sometimes appear impatient, organizations look for immediate results, and officials fail to look beyond the next election cycle. Yet under some laboratory conditions and in some subcultures, a longer time horizon is adopted. We are interested in how time horizon is influenced by group identity and by the very architecture of planning and decision making. Institutional changes, involving long-term contractual relationships among communities, developers, insurers, and governments, could greatly increase resilience in the face of natural hazards. Communication about hazards, in the context of such long-term contractual relationships might look very different from communication that is first initiated by immediate threat. Another new direction concerns the social scale of institutions and of communication about hazards. Traditionally, insurance contracts share risk among a large number of insurees: each contributes a small premium toward a fund that is adequate to cover the large losses that occasionally occur. Participatory processes are needed that extend risk sharing to larger social scales and that reduce adversarial relationships between insurers, insurees, insurance regulators, and governments that intervene or fail to intervene on an ad hoc rather than a contractual basis.

Krantz, D. H.

2010-12-01

409

Peripheral Vision Horizon Display (PVHD). Corrected Copy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Canadian invention, the peripheral vision horizon display (PVHD), shows promise in alleviating vertigo or disorientation in pilots flying under instrument conditions and easing the piloting task when flying in weather or other conditions requiring close attention to aircraft attitude instruments. A diversity of research and applied work was being done to investigate and validate the benefits of the PVHD during the years immediately preceding this conference. Organizers of the conference were able to assemble a group of outstanding presenters representing academic, industrial, and military. The theoretical foundation and applied use of the PVHD are discussed, and results from operational tests are presented.

1984-01-01

410

A Secret Tunnel Through The Horizon  

E-print Network

Hawking radiation is often intuitively visualized as particles that have tunneled across the horizon. Yet, at first sight, it is not apparent where the barrier is. Here I show that the barrier depends on the tunneling particle itself. The key is to implement energy conservation, so that the black hole contracts during the process of radiation. A direct consequence is that the radiation spectrum cannot be strictly thermal. The correction to the thermal spectrum is of precisely the form that one would expect from an underlying unitary quantum theory. This may have profound implications for the black hole information puzzle.

Maulik K. Parikh

2004-05-19

411

New horizons mapping of Europa and Ganymede.  

PubMed

The New Horizons spacecraft observed Jupiter's icy satellites Europa and Ganymede during its flyby in February and March 2007 at visible and infrared wavelengths. Infrared spectral images map H2O ice absorption and hydrated contaminants, bolstering the case for an exogenous source of Europa's "non-ice" surface material and filling large gaps in compositional maps of Ganymede's Jupiter-facing hemisphere. Visual wavelength images of Europa extend knowledge of its global pattern of arcuate troughs and show that its surface scatters light more isotropically than other icy satellites. PMID:17932288

Grundy, W M; Buratti, B J; Cheng, A F; Emery, J P; Lunsford, A; McKinnon, W B; Moore, J M; Newman, S F; Olkin, C B; Reuter, D C; Schenk, P M; Spencer, J R; Stern, S A; Throop, H B; Weaver, H A

2007-10-12

412

Stability of event horizons against neutrino flux  

E-print Network

We construct a thought experiment in which an extremal Kerr black hole interacts with a test massless Dirac field, i.e. a "neutrino field". Evaluating the flux integrals imposed by the energy momentum tensor for fermionic fields and the Killing vectors of the space-time, we prove that this interaction can indeed destroy the event horizon of the black hole and convert it to a naked singularity. The range of frequencies of the test neutrino field that can be used to destroy the black hole turns out to be the superradiant range for bosonic fields. We comment on back reaction and quantum effects.

Koray Duztas

2014-08-07

413

Black hole thermodynamics from Euclidean horizon constraints.  

PubMed

To explain black hole thermodynamics in quantum gravity, one must introduce constraints to ensure that a black hole is actually present. I show that for a large class of black holes, such "horizon constraints" allow the use of conformal field theory techniques to compute the density of states, reproducing the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy in a nearly model-independent manner. One standard string theory approach to black hole entropy arises as a special case, lending support to the claim that the mechanism may be "universal." I argue that the relevant degrees of freedom are Goldstone-boson-like excitations arising from the weak breaking of symmetry by the constraints. PMID:17678209

Carlip, S

2007-07-13

414

Hydrodynamics, horizons, holography and black hole entropy  

E-print Network

The usual discussions about black hole dynamics involve analogies with laws of thermodynamics especially in connection with black hole entropy and the associated holographic principle. We explore complementary aspects involving hydrodynamics of the horizon geometry through the membrane paradigm. New conceptual connections complementing usual thermodynamic arguments suggest deep links between diverse topics like black hole decay, quantum circulation and viscosity. Intriguing connections between turbulence cascades, quantum diffusion via quantum paths following Fokker- Planck equation and Hawking decay also result from this combination of thermodynamic and hydrodynamic analogies to black hole dynamics.

C. Sivaram

2011-05-20

415

Thermoelectric DC conductivities from black hole horizons  

E-print Network

An analytic expression for the DC electrical conductivity in terms of black hole horizon data was recently obtained for a class of holographic black holes exhibiting momentum dissipation. We generalise this result to obtain analogous expressions for the DC thermoelectric and thermal conductivities. We illustrate our results using some holographic Q-lattice black holes as well as for some black holes with linear massless axions, in both $D=4$ and $D=5$ bulk spacetime dimensions, which include both spatially isotropic and anisotropic examples. We show that some recently constructed ground states of holographic Q-lattices, which can be either electrically insulating or metallic, are all thermal insulators.

Donos, Aristomenis

2014-01-01

416

Thermoelectric DC conductivities from black hole horizons  

E-print Network

An analytic expression for the DC electrical conductivity in terms of black hole horizon data was recently obtained for a class of holographic black holes exhibiting momentum dissipation. We generalise this result to obtain analogous expressions for the DC thermoelectric and thermal conductivities. We illustrate our results using some holographic Q-lattice black holes as well as for some black holes with linear massless axions, in both $D=4$ and $D=5$ bulk spacetime dimensions, which include both spatially isotropic and anisotropic examples. We show that some recently constructed ground states of holographic Q-lattices, which can be either electrically insulating or metallic, are all thermal insulators.

Aristomenis Donos; Jerome P. Gauntlett

2014-06-18

417

Buried Porous Silicon-Germanium Layers in Monocrystalline Silicon Lattices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Monocrystalline semiconductor lattices with a buried porous semiconductor layer having different chemical composition is discussed and monocrystalline semiconductor superlattices with a buried porous semiconductor layers having different chemical composition than that of its monocrystalline semiconductor superlattice are discussed. Lattices of alternating layers of monocrystalline silicon and porous silicon-germanium have been produced. These single crystal lattices have been fabricated by epitaxial growth of Si and Si-Ge layers followed by patterning into mesa structures. The mesa structures are strain etched resulting in porosification of the Si-Ge layers with a minor amount of porosification of the monocrystalline Si layers. Thicker Si-Ge layers produced in a similar manner emitted visible light at room temperature.

Fathauer, Robert W. (Inventor); George, Thomas (Inventor); Jones, Eric W. (Inventor)

1998-01-01

418

Evaluating soil resilience in long-term cultivation: a study of pre-Columbian terraces from the Paca Valley, Peru  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the soil properties of pre-Hispanic stone-walled terraces by comparing soil quality along terraced catenas in the Paca Valley, a tributary of the Mantaro Valley, Peru. Micromorphological and bulk analyses of terrace soils revealed that despite terracing soil horizonation largely followed the catena. Upland terraced fields had deeper A-horizons with higher biotic activity than uncultivated controls, but less

Melissa Goodman-Elgar

2008-01-01

419

Defensive burying in rodents: ethology, neurobiology and psychopharmacology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Defensive burying refers to the typical rodent behavior of displacing bedding material with vigorous treading-like movements of their forepaws and shoveling movements of their heads directed towards a variety of noxious stimuli that pose a near and immediate threat, such as a wall-mounted electrified shock-prod. Since its introduction 25 years ago by Pinel and Treit [J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 92

Sietse F. De Boer; Jaap M. Koolhaas

2003-01-01

420

Distinguishing shape details of buried nonmetallic minelike objects with GPR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The finite difference frequency domain is used to study the scattering of buried non-metallic mine-like targets to determine the feasibility of identifying mines form shape features. It is shown that for constant cross-sectional target area - approximately 100 cm2 - the scattered fields of targets with roughly the same height-to-width aspect ratio at 500 MHz are virtually indistinguishable regardless of

Carey M. Rappaport; Shuang Wu; Misha E. Kilmer; Eric L. Miller

1999-01-01

421

Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration FY-95 Deployment Plan  

SciTech Connect

The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) is a program funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Technology Development. BWID supports the applied research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that together form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. The FY-95 effort will fund 24 technologies in five areas of buried waste site remediation: site characterization, waste characterization, retrieval, treatment, and containment/stabilization. Ten of these technologies will take part in the integrated field demonstration that will take place at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) facilities in the summer of 1995. This document is the basic operational planning document for deployment of all BWID projects funded in FY-95. Discussed in this document are the BWID preparations for the INEL integrated field demonstration, INEL research and development (R&D) demonstrations, non-INEL R&D demonstrations, and office research and technical review meetings. Each project will have a test plan detailing the specific procedures, objectives, and tasks of the test. Therefore, information that is specific to testing each technology is intentionally limited in this document.

Stacey, D.E.

1995-03-01

422

FY-95 technology catalog. Technology development for buried waste remediation  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program, which is now part of the Landfill Stabilization Focus Area (LSFA), supports applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a multitude of advanced technologies dealing with underground radioactive and hazardous waste remediation. These innovative technologies are being developed as part of integrated comprehensive remediation systems for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste sites throughout the DOE complex. These efforts are identified and coordinated in support of Environmental Restoration (EM-40) and Waste Management (EM-30) needs and objectives. Sponsored by the DOE Office of Technology Development (EM-50), BWID and LSFA work with universities and private industry to develop technologies that are being transferred to the private sector for use nationally and internationally. This report contains the details of the purpose, logic, and methodology used to develop and demonstrate DOE buried waste remediation technologies. It also provides a catalog of technologies and capabilities with development status for potential users. Past FY-92 through FY-94 technology testing, field trials, and demonstrations are summarized. Continuing and new FY-95 technology demonstrations also are described.

NONE

1995-10-01

423

The NEON Soil Archive - A community resource  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a 30-year National Science Foundation-funded facility for understanding and forecasting the impacts of climate change, land use change, and invasive species on aspects of continental-scale ecology such as biodiversity, biogeochemistry, infectious diseases, and ecohydrology. NEON will measure a wide range of properties at 60 terrestrial and 36 aquatic sites throughout the US using in situ sensors, sample collection/lab analysis, and remote sensing, and all data will be made freely available. The Observatory is currently under construction and will be fully operational by 2017, however, limited data collection and release will begin in 2013. In addition, NEON is archiving large numbers of samples, including surface soils (top ~30 cm) collected from locations across each site, and soils collected by horizon to 2 m deep from a single soil pit at each site. Here I present information about the latter, focusing on sampling and processing, metadata, and currently available samples. At each terrestrial site the soil pit is dug in the locally dominant soil type and soil is collected by horizon, mixed, and ~4-8 liters soil is sent for processing. Soil samples are air-dried and sieved (mineral soil) or air-dried (organic soil) and 1.2 kg is split between 4 glass jars for archiving (protocol available upon request). To date 15 soil pits have been sampled, representing 7 soil orders, and soils from 110 horizons have been archived or are being processed. Metadata associated with each archive sample include a soil profile description, photos, and soil properties (total C, N, S, Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Si, Sr, Ti, Zr, bulk density, pH, and texture). The procedure for requesting samples from the archive is under development and I encourage scientists to use the archive in their future research. Collecting and processing samples for the NEON Soil Archive

Ayres, E.

2013-12-01

424

Energy and Information Near Black Hole Horizons  

E-print Network

The central challenge in trying to resolve the firewall paradox is to identify excitations in the near-horizon zone of a black hole that can carry information without injuring a freely falling observer. By analyzing the problem from the point of view of a freely falling observer, I arrive at a simple proposal for the degrees of freedom that carry information out of the black hole. An infalling observer experiences the information-carrying modes as ingoing, negative energy excitations of the quantum fields. In these states, freely falling observers who fall in from infinity do not encounter a firewall, but freely falling observers who begin their free fall from a location close to the horizon are "frozen" by a flux of negative energy. When the black hole is "mined," the number of information-carrying modes increases, increasing the negative energy flux in the infalling frame without violating the equivalence principle. Finally, I point out a loophole in recent arguments that an infalling observer must detect a...

Freivogel, Ben

2014-01-01

425

Energy and Information Near Black Hole Horizons  

E-print Network

The central challenge in trying to resolve the firewall paradox is to identify excitations in the near-horizon zone of a black hole that can carry information without injuring a freely falling observer. By analyzing the problem from the point of view of a freely falling observer, I arrive at a simple proposal for the degrees of freedom that carry information out of the black hole. An infalling observer experiences the information-carrying modes as ingoing, negative energy excitations of the quantum fields. In these states, freely falling observers who fall in from infinity do not encounter a firewall, but freely falling observers who begin their free fall from a location close to the horizon are "frozen" by a flux of negative energy. When the black hole is "mined," the number of information-carrying modes increases, increasing the negative energy flux in the infalling frame without violating the equivalence principle. Finally, I point out a loophole in recent arguments that an infalling observer must detect a violation of unitarity, effective field theory, or free infall.

Ben Freivogel

2014-01-21

426

Energy and information near black hole horizons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The central challenge in trying to resolve the firewall paradox is to identify excitations in the near-horizon zone of a black hole that can carry information without injuring a freely falling observer. By analyzing the problem from the point of view of a freely falling observer, I arrive at a simple proposal for the degrees of freedom that carry information out of the black hole. An infalling observer experiences the information-carrying modes as ingoing, negative energy excitations of the quantum fields. In these states, freely falling observers who fall in from infinity do not encounter a firewall, but freely falling observers who begin their free fall from a location close to the horizon are ``frozen'' by a flux of negative energy. When the black hole is ``mined,'' the number of information-carrying modes increases, increasing the negative energy flux in the infalling frame without violating the equivalence principle. Finally, I point out a loophole in recent arguments that an infalling observer must detect a violation of unitarity, effective field theory, or free infall.

Freivogel, Ben

2014-07-01

427

Magnetohydrodynamics of Schwarzschild Plasmas near the Horizon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Very close to the horizon of a blackhole, the gravitational acceleration becomes so large that vacuum can begin to radiate (Hawking radiation). The temperature of this radiation can exceed (twice of) the rest mass of electrons at the position Delta r=lambda_P (M/m_e)(1/2) away from the horizon, where lambda_P is the Planck length, M and m_e are the mass of the blackhole and the electron. In this vicinity a electron-positron plasma is realized even within 3R_s (R_s is the Schwarzschild's radius). We study this plasma in the 3+1 paradigm of general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics. We present various equilibrium solutions of such a plasma in a local frame (co-moving Rindler's coordinates). We also carry out a dynamical study and present MHD results of 3D simulation. The plasma is subject to magnetic buoyancy (Parker) instability, shear (Balbus-Hawley) instability, and vertical slot convection, depending on the parameters adopted. We also find jet is formed in such a system according to our simulation.

Chou, W.; Tajima, T.

1997-05-01

428

Gribov's horizon and the ghost dressing function  

SciTech Connect

We study a relation recently derived by K. Kondo at zero momentum between the Zwanziger's horizon function, the ghost dressing function and Kugo's functions u and w. We agree with this result as far as bare quantities are considered. However, assuming the validity of the horizon gap equation, we argue that the solution w(0)=0 is not acceptable since it would lead to a vanishing renormalized ghost dressing function. On the contrary, when the cutoff goes to infinity, u(0){yields}{infinity}, w(0){yields}-{infinity} such that u(0)+w(0){yields}-1. Furthermore w and u are not multiplicatively renormalizable. Relaxing the gap equation allows w(0)=0 with u(0){yields}-1. In both cases the bare ghost dressing function, F(0,{lambda}), goes logarithmically to infinity at infinite cutoff. We show that, although the lattice results provide bare results not so different from the F(0,{lambda})=3 solution, this is an accident due to the fact that the lattice cutoffs lie in the range 1-3 GeV{sup -1}. We show that the renormalized ghost dressing function should be finite and nonzero at zero momentum and can be reliably estimated on the lattice up to powers of the lattice spacing; from published data on a 80{sup 4} lattice at {beta}=5.7 we obtain F{sub R}(0,{mu}=1.5 GeV){approx_equal}2.2.

Boucaud, Ph.; Leroy, J. P.; Le Yaouanc, A.; Micheli, J.; Pene, O. [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique1 Universite de Paris XI, Batiment 210, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Rodriguez-Quintero, J. [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada, Fac. Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain)

2009-11-01

429

Near-horizon brane-scan revived  

E-print Network

In 1987 two versions of the brane-scan of D-dimensional super p-branes were put forward. The first pinpointed those (p,D) slots consistent with kappa-symmetric Green-Schwarz type actions; the second generalized the "membrane at the end of the universe" idea to all those superconformal groups describing p-branes on the boundary of AdS_{p+2} x S^{D-p-2}. Although the second version predicted D3 and M5 branes in addition to those of the first, it came unstuck because the 1/2 BPS solitonic branes failed to exhibit the required symmetry enhancement in the near-horizon limit, except in the non-dilatonic cases (p=2,D=11), (p=3,D=10) and (p=5,D=11). Just recently, however, it has been argued that the fundamental D=10 heterotic string does indeed display a near-horizon enhancement to OSp(8|2) as predicted by the brane-scan, provided alpha' corrections are taken into account. If this logic could be extended to the other strings and branes, it would resolve this 21-year-old paradox and provide new AdS/CFT dualities, which we tabulate.

M. J. Duff

2008-04-23

430

Black Hole Initial Data with a Horizon of Prescribed Geometry  

E-print Network

The purpose of this work is to construct asymptotically flat, time symmetric initial data with an apparent horizon of prescribed intrinsic geometry. To do this, we use the parabolic partial differential equation for prescribing scalar curvature. In this equation the horizon geometry is contained within the freely specifiable part of the metric. This contrasts with the conformal method in which the geometry of the horizon can only be specified up to a conformal factor.

Brian Smith

2007-10-04

431

Entomofauna of a buried body: study of the exhumation of a human cadaver in Buenos Aires, Argentina.  

PubMed

This study focuses on insects and other arthropods sampled on the exhumation of an infant skeleton belonging to 'Prof. Dr. Rómulo Lambre' skeletal collection. The body was buried in soil inside a wooden coffin in a grave 40cm deep, in autumn, and stored in the cemetery deposit after exhumation. Death records were obtained from the cemetery archive. Samples of faunal remains were recovered from wrappings, clothes, bones and soil samples, and were identified at different taxonomic levels depending on the stage of conservation. The dominant taxon was the muscid fly Ophyra aenescens (Wiedemann). The relationships among the identified taxa and the moving of the corpse, from the burial context to the cemetery deposit, are discussed and used to create a hypothetical colonization sequence after death. The application of entomological data to anthropological research can provide valuable information for the interpretation of taphonomic processes and burial contexts. PMID:24530940

Mariani, R; García-Mancuso, R; Varela, G L; Inda, A M