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1

Buried organic horizons represent amino acid reservoirs in boreal forest soils Nancy R. Werdin-Pfisterer, Knut Kielland*, Richard D. Boone  

E-print Network

Buried organic horizons represent amino acid reservoirs in boreal forest soils Nancy R. Werdin Keywords: Amino acids Boreal forest Buried organic horizons Floodplain soils Nitrogen cycle Organic nitrogen Succession a b s t r a c t We examined the composition and concentration of amino acids by soil

Wagner, Diane

2

Soil Horizons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity involves previously collected soils from each horizon of a soil profile. The bags from one soil profile are given to a group and the students put the bags in the proper order. This involves student groups looking at each other's sample bags as well as their own and sharing information. After some discussion, during which the instructor makes certain that the students have gotten the soil samples into their correct horizon sequence, the bags are opened and examined to let the students see the different textures and properties of each horizon. Students will discover that each soil is different due to different bedrock and weathering conditions. Some soils may not show all of the above horizons, while other soils may clearly show the development of each layer. The thickness of the individual layers may vary greatly also.

3

Soil Biology & Biochemistry 40 (2008) 8596 Microbially available carbon in buried riparian soils  

E-print Network

Soil Biology & Biochemistry 40 (2008) 85­96 Microbially available carbon in buried riparian soils 2007 Available online 9 August 2007 Abstract Buried horizons and lenses in riparian soil profiles 14 riparian zones Rhode Island, USA, where soil profiles are characterized by glacial outwash

Gurwick, Noel P.

4

Comparison of soil erosion and deposition rates using radiocesium, RUSLE, and buried soils in dolines in East Tennessee  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three dolines (sinkholes), each representing different land uses (crop, grass, and forest) in a karst area in East Tennesse,\\u000a were selected to determine soil erosional and depositional rates. Three methods were used to estimate the rates: fallout radiocesium\\u000a (137Cs) redistribution, buried surface soil horizons (Ab horizon), and the revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE). When\\u000a 137Cs redistribution was examined, the

K. M. Turnage; S. Y. Lee; J. E. Foss; K. H. Kim; I. L. Larsen

1997-01-01

5

Distinct microbial communities associated with buried soils in the Siberian tundra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cryoturbation, the burial of topsoil material into deeper soil horizons by repeated freeze-thaw events, is an important storage mechanism for soil organic matter (SOM) in permafrost-affected soils. Besides abiotic conditions, microbial community structure and the accessibility of SOM to the decomposer community are hypothesized to control SOM decomposition and thus have a crucial role in SOM accumulation in buried soils. We surveyed the microbial community structure in cryoturbated soils from nine soil profiles in the northeastern Siberian tundra using high-throughput sequencing and quantification of bacterial, archaeal and fungal marker genes. We found that bacterial abundances in buried topsoils were as high as in unburied topsoils. In contrast, fungal abundances decreased with depth and were significantly lower in buried than in unburied topsoils resulting in remarkably low fungal to bacterial ratios in buried topsoils. Fungal community profiling revealed an associated decrease in presumably ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi. The abiotic conditions (low to subzero temperatures, anoxia) and the reduced abundance of fungi likely provide a niche for bacterial, facultative anaerobic decomposers of SOM such as members of the Actinobacteria, which were found in significantly higher relative abundances in buried than in unburied topsoils. Our study expands the knowledge on the microbial community structure in soils of Northern latitude permafrost regions, and attributes the delayed decomposition of SOM in buried soils to specific microbial taxa, and particularly to a decrease in abundance and activity of ECM fungi, and to the extent to which bacterial decomposers are able to act as their functional substitutes.

Gittel, Antje; Bárta, Ji?í; Kohoutová, Iva; Mikutta, Robert; Owens, Sarah; Gilbert, Jack; Schnecker, Jörg; Wild, Birgit; Hannisdal, Bjarte; Maerz, Joeran; Lashchinskiy, Nikolay; ?apek, Petr; Šantr??ková, Hana; Gentsch, Norman; Shibistova, Olga; Guggenberger, Georg; Richter, Andreas; Torsvik, Vigdis; Schleper, Christa; Urich, Tim

2014-05-01

6

Phosphatase activity in the surface and buried chestnut soils of the Volga-Don interfluve  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phosphatase activity (PA) was studied in the chestnut paleosols buried in 1718-1720 under the Anna Ivanovna rampart in the southern part of the Privolzhskaya Upland and in the middle of the third millennium BC under the burial mound of the Bronze Age on the Northern Yergeni Upland; the background analogues of these soils were also examined. The PA values in the fresh soil samples varied from 2.5 to 37 mg of P2O5/10 g of soil per h with maximums in the A1 horizon of the surface soils and in the B1 horizon of the paleosols. The PA values depended on the time of storage of the samples: with time, they increased by 2.6-2.9 times in the A1 horizon of the background surface soil and decreased by 20-60% in the other soil samples. The specific distribution patterns of the PA values in the soil profiles remained the same independently of the time of storage of the samples. Relatively small amounts of the soil samples were sufficient for the reliable determination of the PA: 1-2 g for the A1 horizon and 3-5 g for the B1 and B2 horizons. The time of incubation with the substrate had to be increased up to 4 h for the long-stored samples.

Khomutova, T. E.; Demkina, T. S.; Kashirskaya, N. N.; Demkin, V. A.

2012-04-01

7

Distinct microbial communities associated with buried soils in the Siberian tundra.  

PubMed

Cryoturbation, the burial of topsoil material into deeper soil horizons by repeated freeze-thaw events, is an important storage mechanism for soil organic matter (SOM) in permafrost-affected soils. Besides abiotic conditions, microbial community structure and the accessibility of SOM to the decomposer community are hypothesized to control SOM decomposition and thus have a crucial role in SOM accumulation in buried soils. We surveyed the microbial community structure in cryoturbated soils from nine soil profiles in the northeastern Siberian tundra using high-throughput sequencing and quantification of bacterial, archaeal and fungal marker genes. We found that bacterial abundances in buried topsoils were as high as in unburied topsoils. In contrast, fungal abundances decreased with depth and were significantly lower in buried than in unburied topsoils resulting in remarkably low fungal to bacterial ratios in buried topsoils. Fungal community profiling revealed an associated decrease in presumably ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi. The abiotic conditions (low to subzero temperatures, anoxia) and the reduced abundance of fungi likely provide a niche for bacterial, facultative anaerobic decomposers of SOM such as members of the Actinobacteria, which were found in significantly higher relative abundances in buried than in unburied topsoils. Our study expands the knowledge on the microbial community structure in soils of Northern latitude permafrost regions, and attributes the delayed decomposition of SOM in buried soils to specific microbial taxa, and particularly to a decrease in abundance and activity of ECM fungi, and to the extent to which bacterial decomposers are able to act as their functional substitutes. PMID:24335828

Gittel, Antje; Bárta, Ji?í; Kohoutová, Iva; Mikutta, Robert; Owens, Sarah; Gilbert, Jack; Schnecker, Jörg; Wild, Birgit; Hannisdal, Bjarte; Maerz, Joeran; Lashchinskiy, Nikolay; Capek, Petr; Santr??ková, Hana; Gentsch, Norman; Shibistova, Olga; Guggenberger, Georg; Richter, Andreas; Torsvik, Vigdis L; Schleper, Christa; Urich, Tim

2014-04-01

8

Soil Horizons Some Noteworthy Soil Science in Wisconsin  

E-print Network

Soil Horizons Some Noteworthy Soil Science in Wisconsin Alfred E. Hartemink The impact and benefits of soil science have only partly been documented. Here I highlight four noteworthy soil science countries, I arrived in September 2011 as professor of soil science at the Department of Soil Science

Mladenoff, David

9

Continuum soil modeling in the static analysis of buried structures  

SciTech Connect

Soil loading traditionally has been modeled as a hydrostatic pressure, a practice acceptable for many design applications. In the analyses of buried structure with predictive goals, soil compliance and load redistribution in the presence of soil plasticity are important factors to consider in determining the appropriate response of the structure. In the analysis of existing buried waste-storage tanks at the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site, three soil-tank interaction modeling considerations are addressed. First, the soil interacts with the tank as the tank expands and contracts during thermal cycles associated with changes in the heat generated by the waste material as a result of additions and subtractions of the waste. Second, the soil transfers loads from the surface to the tank and provides support by resisting radial displacement of the tank haunch. Third, conventional finite-element mesh development causes artificial stress concentrations in the soil associated with differential settlement.

Julyk, L.J.; Marlow, R.S.; Moore, C.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Day, J.P.; Dyrness, A.D. [Advent Engineering Services, Inc., San Ramon, CA (United States)

1993-10-01

10

Aeolian cliff-top deposits and buried soils in the White River Badlands, South Dakota, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Aeolian deposits in the North American Great Plains are important sources of Holocene palaeo-environmental records. Although there are extensive studies on loess and dune records in the region, little is known about records in aeolian cliff-top deposits. These are common on table (mesa) edges in the White River Badlands. These sediments typically have loam and sandy-loam textures with dominantly very fine sand, 0.5-1% organic carbon and 0.5-5% CaCO3. Some of these aeolian deposits are atypically coarse and contain granules and fine pebbles. Buried soils within these deposits are weakly developed with A-C and A-AC-C profiles. Beneath these are buried soils with varying degrees of pedogenic development formed in fluvial, aeolian or colluvial deposits. Thickness and number of buried soils vary. However, late-Holocene soils from several localities have ages of approximately 1300, 2500 and 3700 14C yrs BP. The 1300 14C yr BP soil is cumulic, with a thicker and lighter A horizon. Soils beneath the cliff-top deposits are early-Holocene (typically 7900 but as old as 10000 14C yrs BP) at higher elevation (???950 m) tables, and late-Holocene (2900 14C yrs BP) at lower (???830 m) tables. These age estimates are based on total organic matter 14C ages from the top 5 cm of buried soils, and agreement is good between an infrared stimulated luminescence age and bracketing 14C ages. Our studies show that cliff-top aeolian deposits have a history similar to that of other aeolian deposits on the Great Plains, and they are another source of palaeoenvironmental data.

Rawling, J. E., III; Fredlund, G.G.; Mahan, S.

2003-01-01

11

Detection of a buried horizon with a high thermal diffusivity using thermal remote sensing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A field investigation using thermal remote sensing was performed to test the feasibility of detecting the surface topography of granite bedrock beneath a thin cover of alluvium. Imagery of a region of the Mojave Desert were taken with an airborne multispectral scanner with thermal spectral bandwidths of 10.4 and 12.5 microns an instantaneous field of view of 2.5 mrad. It is suggested that a buried high thermal diffusivity horizon measurably lowers the surface temperature of the overlying lower diffusivity material during the peak of the annual heating cycle.

Nash, David B.

1988-01-01

12

Temperature dependence of the activity of polyphenol peroxidases and polyphenol oxidases in modern and buried soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under conditions of the global climate warming, the changes in the reserves of soil humus depend on the temperature sensitivities of polyphenol peroxidases (PPPOs) and polyphenol oxidases (PPOs). They play an important role in lignin decomposition, mineralization, and humus formation. The temperature dependence of the potential enzyme activity in modern and buried soils has been studied during incubation at 10 or 20°C. The experimental results indicate that it depends on the availability of the substrate and the presence of oxygen. The activity of PPOs during incubation in the absence of oxygen for two months decreases by 2-2.5 times, which is balanced by an increase in the activity of PPPOs by 2-3 times. The increase in the incubation temperature to 20°C and the addition of glucose accelerates this transition due to the more abrupt decrease in the activity of PPOs. The preincubation of the soil with glucose doubles the activity of PPPOs but has no significant effect on the activity of PPOs. The different effects of temperature on two groups of the studied oxidases and the possibility of substituting enzymes by those of another type under changing aeration conditions should be taken into consideration in predicting the effect of the climate warming on the mineralization of the soil organic matter. The absence of statistically significant differences in the enzymatic activity between the buried and modern soil horizons indicates the retention by the buried soil of some of its properties (soil memory) and the rapid restoration of high enzymatic activity during the preincubation.

Yakushev, A. V.; Kuznetsova, I. N.; Blagodatskaya, E. V.; Blagodatsky, S. A.

2014-05-01

13

Original article The influence of soil moisture on losses of buried seeds to fungi  

E-print Network

Original article The influence of soil moisture on losses of buried seeds to fungi Michelle Schafer Although soil fungi are likely to be a major cause of mortality for buried seeds, few ecological studies investigated whether losses of seeds to soil fungi are habitat-dependent. We used fungicide treatments

14

Characterization of the microbial communities in the modern and buried under kurgans soils of solonetzic complexes in the dry steppes of the Lower Volga region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The microbial communities were studied in the modern and buried under kurgans (1st century AD) soils of solonetzic complexes on the dry steppes of the northern part of the Yergeni Upland. It was found that the changes in the numbers of microorganisms from different trophic groups and in the biomass of the fungal mycelium along the profiles of the modern and buried solonetzic chestnut soils and solonetzes do not differ significantly. The quantitative estimate of the impact of the solonetzic process on the spatial variability of the microbiological parameters of the soils was given on the basis of the ANOVA. As a rule, the values of the microbiological parameters in all the horizons of the modern and buried chestnut soils were 1.2-2.8 times higher than those in the modern and buried solonetzes. The influence of the degree of solonetzicity of the buried paleosols on the microbiological parameters manifested itself in the entire profile, though in each particular horizon it was only seen in the numbers of some particular trophic groups of microorganisms. The comparison between the mean weighted values of the microbiological parameters in the entire soil profiles (the A1 + B1 + B2 horizons) demonstrated an inverse relationship between the population density of the microorganisms utilizing easily available organic matter and the degree of solonetzicity of the buried paleosols. The maximum biomass of the fungal mycelium was found in the solonetzic chestnut paleosol; it exceeded the biomass of the fungal mycelium in the other paleosols (which did not differ significantly in that parameter from one another) by 1.5-1.6 times.

Demkina, T. S.; Popova, I. V.; Demkin, V. A.

2013-07-01

15

Soil Texture Involvement in Germination and Emergence of Buried Weed Seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

studied in an ecological perspective to identify the physi- ological causes that prevent deeply buried seed from Laboratory trials were performed to test germination and emer- germinating; results obtained so far suggest this is partly gence characteristics of jimsonweed (Datura stramonium L.) seeds buried in 10 different soil types (with or without the control of soil due to the lack

Stefano Benvenuti

2003-01-01

16

The microbial biomass in paleosols buried under kurgans and in recent soils in the steppe zone of the Lower Volga region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The total microbial biomass (TMB) was assessed in the chestnut and light chestnut soils and in the paleosols under burial mounds (steppe kurgans) in the Lower Volga region on the basis of data on the organic carbon content in the extracted microbial fraction supplemented with the data on the extraction completeness as a conversion coefficient. The completeness of the microbial fraction extraction was determined by direct counting of the microbial cells and colony-forming units (on plates with soil agar). The total microbial biomass varied from 400 to 6600 ?g of C/soil. Its values in the buried soils were 3-5 times lower than those in the surface soils. The TMB distribution in the buried chestnut soil profile was close to that in its modern analogue (with the minimum in the B1 horizon). In the buried light chestnut paleosols, the TMB values usually increased down the profile; in the recent light chestnut soils, the maximum TMB values were found in the uppermost horizon.

Kashirskaya, N. N.; Khomutova, T. E.; Demkina, T. S.; Demkin, V. A.

2009-05-01

17

SOLUBLE ALUMINUM IN ACIDIFIED ORGANIC HORIZONS OF FOREST SOILS  

EPA Science Inventory

Concentrations of labile and total Al in soil extracts were measured as a function of equilibrium solution pH in six forest soil organic horizons acidified with HNO, (0-20 cmol H+.kg-1) under controlled conditions of ionic strength (0.05 M NaNO3), temperature (23 C), and solution...

18

Copper distribution in surface and subsurface soil horizons.  

PubMed

The horizons of four natural soils were treated with Cu(2+) in an acid medium to study the retention capacity of Cu. The possible mineralogical changes arising because of the treatment were also studied. The soil properties and characteristics with the greatest influence on the metal retention and its distribution among the different soil fractions were determined. Crystalline phases of each horizon were determined by X-ray diffraction (XDR). The morphology, structural distribution and particle chemical composition of soil samples were investigated using field emission scanning electron microscopy. Cu distribution in the different geochemical phases of the soil was studied using a sequential extraction. The treatment led to an increase in the amorphous phases and the formation of new crystalline phases, such as rouaite (Cu2(NO3)(OH)3) and nitratine (NaNO3). Cu was also found superficially sorbed on amorphous hydroxy compounds of Fe that interact with albite, muscovite and gibbsite, and also on spherical and curved particles of aluminium clays. The largest amount of Cu retained was in an exchangeable form, and the smallest amount associated with the crystalline Fe oxides and residual fraction. In the surface horizons, the predominant Cu retention process is complexation in organomineral associations, while in the subsurface horizons it is adsorption. PMID:24888620

Arenas-Lago, Daniel; Vega, Flora A; Silva, Luis Felipe O; Andrade, María Luisa

2014-09-01

19

Transformation of lignin in surface and buried soils of mountainous landscapes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The content and composition of the lignin phenols in plants and soils of vertical natural zones were studied in the Northern Caucasus region and Northwestern Tien Shan. Three types of lignin transformation were revealed: steppe, forest, and meadow ones. It was shown that the degree of oxidation of the biopolymer during the transformation of organic matter increased when going from the living plant tissues to humic acids in surface and buried soils. The portion of lignin fragments remained unchanged during the biopolymer transformation in the following series: plant tissues-falloff-litter-soil-humic acids-buried humic acids. It was also shown that the biochemical composition of the plants had a decisive effect on the structure of the humic acids in the soils. The quantitative analysis of the lignin phenols and the 13C NMR spectroscopy proved that the lignin in higher plants was involved in the formation of specific compounds of soil humus, including aliphatic and aromatic molecular fragments. The first analysis of the lignin content and composition in buried soils of different ages was performed, and an increase in the degree of oxidation of the lignin structures was revealed in the soil chronoseries. It was proposed to use the proportions of lignin phenols in surface and buried soils as diagnostic criteria of the vegetation types in different epochs.

Kovaleva, N. O.; Kovalev, I. V.

2009-11-01

20

Genesis of petroduric and petrocalcic horizons in Latinamerica volcanic soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction. In Latinamerica, from Mexico to Chile, there are indurated volcanic soils horizons, named 'tepetate' in Mexico or cangahua in the Andes Mountains. Apart from original volcanic tuffs, these horizons were produced by pedogenesis: either through a former weathering of volcanic ash layers into fragic and later to petrocalcic horizons; or after a former soil formation through a second process of transformation from clayey volcanic soils to silicified petroduric horizons. This oral presentation will briefly deal with the formation of petroduric horizons in Mexico and petrocalcic horizon in Ecuador. Petroduric horizon genesis in Mexico. A soil climato-toposequence, near to Veracruz (Rossignol & Quantin, 1997), shows downwards an evolution from a ferralic Nitisol to a petroduric Durisol. A Durisol profile comports these successive horizons: at the top A and Eg, then columnar Btg-sim, laminar Bt-sim , prismatic Bsim, plinthite Cg, over andesite lava flow. Among its main features are especially recorded: clay mineralogy, microscopy and HRTEM. These data show: an increase in cristobalite at the expenses of 0.7 nm halloysite in Egsiltans, laminar Bt-sim, around or inside the columns or prisms of Btg-sim and Bsimhorizons. HRTEM (Elsass & al 2000) on ultra thin sections reveals an 'epigenesis' of clay sheets by amorphous silica, to form successively A-opal, Ct-opal and microcrystalline cristobalite. From these data and some groundwater chemical analyses, a scenario of duripan formation from a past clayey Nitisol is inferred: clay eluviation-illuviation process? alternate redoximorphy? clay degradation, Al leaching and Si accumulation, to form successively A-opal, Ct-opal and cristobalite. Petrocalcic horizon genesis in Ecuador. A soil climato-toposequence on pyroclastic flows, near to Bolivar in Ecuador (Quantin & Zebrowski, 1997), shows downwards the evolution from fragic-eutric-vitric Cambisols to petrocalcic-vitric Phaeozems, at the piedmont under semi-arid climate. A complex soil profile of petrocalcic Phaeozem, derived from 4 pyroclastic layers, shows among its successive horizons: in layer 3 the 'upper cangahua' with petrocalcic features and in layer 4 the 'lower cangahua' with hard fragipan properties. The features of the petrocalcic cangahua differ from a Mexican fragipan (Hidalgo & al 1997) by: a hard calcrete, higher alkalinity, stability in water after HCl and NaOH treatment, 2-4% of 'free silica'. The macro and micro-morphology shows: the laminar calcite crust, at the top of cangahua, with alternate micrite-sparite layers; downwards, microcalcite infillings in the voids of a prismatic structure, invading the groundmass by epigenesis of clay sheets, together whith microcrystalline opal. From these data this scenario is inferred: after a former weathering of volcanic glass to form a clayey matrix, as well amorphous silica and microcalcite coatings and infillings, then a second process, perhaps due to drier climate, produced the laminar crust formation, by invasion of microcalcite in the matrix. Conclusion. The petrocalcic horizon in Ecuador was produced by two processes: from a former phase of weathering giving a fragic horizon to a second producing the accumulation of calcite and some opal over and inside the matrix, due to climate change. The petroduric horizon in Mexico, is the product of a very complex soil transformation, from a former clayey Nitisol, through four successive processes: clay eluviation-illuviation, alternate redoximorphy, clay degradation, finally a progressive silicification over and inside the groundmass, probably due to pedoclimate change. References F. Elsass, D. Dubroeucq & M. Thiry. 2000. Clay Minerals, 35, 477-489. C. Hidalgo, P. Quantin & F. Elsass. 1997. Memorias del III Simposio Internacional sobre Suelos volcanicos endurecidos (Quito 1996), p. 65-72. - P. Quantin & C. Zebrowski. 1997. idem, p. 29-47.- J.P. Rossignol & P. Quantin. 1997. idem, p. 73-82.

Quantin, Paul

2010-05-01

21

Soils with gypsic horizon in Mediterranean climate: a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to latest data, the extension of gypsiferous soils can be assumed to exceed 100 million hectares, and it is admitted that they are found mainly in arid and semi-arid zones with less than 400 mm of annual rainfall. It is reasonable to consider that, such assessment is found on the definition of gypsic horizon which is reported in the

DAZZI Carmelo; SCALENGHE Riccardo

22

Revisiting the definitions of gypsic and petrogypsic horizons in Soil Taxonomy and World Reference Base for Soil Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gypsic and petrogypsic horizons occur in large areas of arid and semiarid regions of the world. The occurrence of gypsum in soils is considered a key feature by most soil classification and mapping systems that have coined specific names for these soils and horizons. However, the current methodology for description and definition of gypsic and petrogypsic horizons in the two

J. Herrero

2004-01-01

23

Role and development of soil parameters for seismic responses of buried lifelines  

SciTech Connect

Buried lifelines, e.g. oil, gas, water and sewer pipelines have been damaged heavily in recent earthquakes such as 1971 San Fernando Earthquake, in U.S.A., 1976 Tangshan Earthquake, in China, and 1978 MiyagiKen-Oki Earthquake, in Japan, among others. Researchers on the seismic performance of these buried lifelines have been initiated in the United States and many other countries. Various analytical models have been proposed. However, only limited experimental investigations are available. The sources of earthquake damage to buried lifelines include landslide, tectonic uplift-subsidence, soil liquefaction, fault displacement and ground shaking (effects of wave propagation). This paper is concerned with the behavior of buried lifeline systems subjected to surface faulting and ground shaking. The role and development of soil parameters that significantly influence the seismic responses are discussed. The scope of this paper is to examine analytically the influence of various soil and soilstructure interaction parameters to the seismic responses of buried pipelines, to report the currently available physical data of these and related parameters for immediate applications, and to describe the experiments to obtain additional information on soil resistant characteristics to longitudinal pipe motions.

Wang, L.R.L.

1983-01-01

24

Mercury in humus horizons of soils in the Transbaikal region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The total mercury content has been determined in gray forest soils, chernozems, chestnut soils, and in different parent materials in the Transbaikal region. The mercury content is below the clarke value in the intrusive, effusive, and alluvial soil-forming rocks (0.004-0.024 mg/kg). In the humus horizons of the soils, it reaches 0.011-0.026 mg/kg, which is higher than the clarke value for the pedosphere. The mean background content of mercury in the soils of the Transbaikal region is 0.018 mg/kg. No significant positive correlation between the mercury content and the humus content of the soils has been revealed.

Ivanov, G. M.; Kashin, V. K.

2010-01-01

25

Effects of buried obstacles on penetration resistance in cohesionless soils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent experiments concerning penetration of cohesionless soils in special molds that include solid obstacles embedded within the soil matrix are reported. The relative effects of these obstacles with respect to the soil properties of relative density, texture, and gradation are also discussed. Because lunar soil is fairly cohesionless, special attention was given to the Apollo lunar simulant, AP-12.

Deluca, E. W.; Carrasco, L. H.

1972-01-01

26

Soil organic matter transformation in cryoturbated horizons of permafrost affected soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cryoturbated soil horizons are special feature of permafrost affected soils. These soils are known to store great amount of organic carbon and cryoturbation undoubtedly contribute to it to large extent. Despite this fact there is almost no information about soil organic matter (SOM) transformation in cryoturbated horizons. Therefore we carried out long term incubation experiment in which we inspect SOM transformation in cryoturbated as well as in organic and mineral soil horizons under different temperature and redox regimes as potential drivers. We found out that lower SOM transformation in cryoturbated horizons compared to organic horizons was mainly limited by the amount of microbial biomass, which is extremely low in absolute numbers or expressed to SOM concentration. The biochemical transformation ensured by extracellular enzymes is relatively high leading to high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon in cryoturbated horizons. Nevertheless the final step of SOM transformation leading to C mineralization to CO2 or CH4 seems to be restricted by low microbial biomass. Critical step of biochemical transformation of complex SOM is dominated by phenoloxidases, which break down complex organic compounds to simple ones. Their oxygen consumption greatly overwhelms oxygen consumption of the whole microbial community. However the phenoloxidase activity shows strong temperature response with optimum at 13.7° C. Therefore we suggest that apparent SOM stability in cryoturbated horizons, which is expressed in old C14 dated age, is caused by low amount of microbial biomass and restricted diffusion of oxygen to extracellular enzymes in field.

Capek, Petr; Diakova, Katerina; Dickopp, Jan-Erik; Barta, Jiri; Santruckova, Hana; Wild, Birgit; Schnecker, Joerg; Guggenberg, Georg; Gentsch, Norman; Hugelius, Gustaf; Kuhry, Peter; Lashchinsky, Nikolaj; Gittel, Antje; Schleper, Christa; Mikutta, Robert; Palmtag, Juri; Shibistova, Olga; Urich, Tim; Zimov, Sergey; Richter, Andreas

2014-05-01

27

The Magnetic Fingerprint of Alaskan Loess from Their Modern and Buried Soils to Their Petrostratigraphic Markers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Halfway House loess and paleosol profile of Central Alaska is investigated with the goal of developing a magnetic approach for the recognition of (1) pedogenic mineralization of maghemite and (2) volcanic tephra. The characteristics of the modern soil will be used as a baseline for subsequent studies of buried soils at this site. The magnetic study of the Old Crow tephra (OCt) is motivated by the possibility of identifying tephra beds gone unnoticed in the field. The magnetic fingerprint of the upper 2.00m is investigated and interpreted in terms of the observed stratigraphy. The organic O and A horizons are 0.25m thick and are underlain by a layer of well-preserved wood fragments and leaves between 0.35 and 0.50m depth. Below the wood layer, we find slightly oxidized and sandy parent material (loess), which grades into less weathered loess by 1.00m depth. Several magnetic parameters indicate that at 0.60m the magnetic mineral assemblage undergoes a compositional change, which coincides with the contact between the modern soil above 0.60m and the parent material below. Maghemite is the mineral phase increasing non-proportionally in concentration below the modern soil. This is supported by a two-fold increase, below 0.60m, in the differential isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) measured in backfields of 100mT and 200mT normalized by the saturation IRM acquired in a field of 1T [?IRM{(-100mT, -200mT)}/SIRM(1T)]. The ratio between the ferromagnetic susceptibility and the saturation magnetization (?f/Ms) traces the abundance of superparamagnetic (SP) particles which decreases exponentially downwards from the surface with the exception of the wood layer that has values of the same magnitude as the O horizon. The relative concentration of single-domain (SD) particles, represented by the ratio of anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM) and SIRM, is 2.5 times greater above 0.60m than below 1.00m, with a gradual decrease in abundance between 0.60m and 1.00m. In modern soils SP particles have a likely bacterial origin. Here, there is a good negative correlation (R=0.86) between the abundance of SP particles and the concentration of maghemite. We propose that as the bacterial zone migrates upwards with deposition finer particles and eventually larger particles are oxidized to maghemite. The magnetic fingerprint of the OCt found at 11.50m is characterized through numerous experiments. Of these, the temperature dependence of magnetization between 25 and 700°C in a field of 1T reveals Curie temperatures at ~400, 520 and 580°C which we attribute to titanohematite [y?0.30], titanomagnetite [x?0.10], and pure magnetite, respectively. Low-temperature dependence of AC susceptibility, both in-phase and quadrature components, reveals a N´ {e}el temperature at 210K which we attribute to titanohematite [y?0.70]. The presence of an exsolution of the hemo-ilmenite series would be consistent with the rhyolitic nature of the OCt. Work, by others, indicates that four tephra beds are present at the Halfway House site. The OCt aside, the thickness of these beds is on the order of 1 to 5cm but is variable laterally. Along our profile, only the OCt was observed in the field, however magnetically, we have identified a second tephra at a depth that agrees with the work of others. The OCt bed is a key petrostratigraphic marker across Alaska and the Yukon. Magnetic identification of thinner discrete tephra beds along profiles would increase our ability to correlate sites and more importantly improve age models of deposition.

Lagroix, F.; Banerjee, S. K.; Jackson, M. J.

2002-12-01

28

Buried black soils surrounding the white roof of Africa as regional carbon storage hotspot  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mt. Kilimanjaro, the at least still "white roof" of Africa, attracts much attention because of its dramatically shrinking ice caps. By contrast, it was discovered only recently that intriguing paleosol sequences with buried and often strikingly black soils developed along the slopes of Mt. Kilimanjaro during the Late Quaternary. In our study we investigated in detail the soil organic carbon (SOC) contents and SOC stocks of soil profiles which are situated along two altitudinal transects; one along the humid southern slopes and the other one along the more arid northern slopes. We found up to 3 m thick paleosol sequences occurring almost area-wide particularly in the montane forest zone. SOC contents are remarkable high with values of up to more than 10%, indicating high preservation of soil organic matter (SOM). We suggest that the SOM preservation is favoured by several factors, such as (i) the burial by aeolian deposition, (ii) lower temperatures and (iii) more resistant Erica litter during glacial periods, (iv) formation of stable organo-mineral complexes and (v) high black carbon (BC) contents. The SOC-rich buried black soils account for mean SOC stocks of ~82 kg m-2 in the montane rainforest. Extrapolating this SOC storage and comparing it with the SOC storage achieved by the surrounding savannah soils of the Maasai Steppe highlights that the buried black soils are a prominent regional carbon storage hotspot.

Zech, M.; Hörold, C.; Leiber-Sauheitl, K.; Hemp, A.; Zech, W.

2012-04-01

29

The solonetzic process in surface soils and buried paleosols and its reflection in the mineralogical soil memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of the solonetzic process in paleosols buried under kurgans and in the modern surface soils has been studied\\u000a on the basis of the analysis of the clay (<1 µm) fraction. The revealed changes in the textural differentiation of the soils\\u000a and the mineralogical composition of the clay fraction during 4500 years are assessed from the viewpoint of the

N. P. Chizhikova; I. V. Kovda; A. V. Borisov; N. I. Shishlina

2009-01-01

30

Lanthanides in humic acids of soils, paleosols and cultural horizons (Southern Urals, Russia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, commercial interest in this element group increases. As consequence, their content may increase in environment, including soil and soil components. This requires quantitative estimations of rare metal accumulation by soils and their humic acids. The latter began to be actively used as fertilizers and it is alarming, because information about rare element participation (including lanthanides) in metabolism of live organisms is inconsistent. There was investigated lanthanide content in humic acids extracted from humus horizons of different objects of archaeological site Steppe 7 (Southern Urals, Russia). Humic acids were extracted from modern background soils and paleosols and cultural horizons of the Bronze Age as well. According to archaeological data burial of paleosols under a barrow and formation of the cultural layer (CL) took place 3600 and 3300-3200 years BP, respectively. The area of the site is located in the forest-steppe landscape, far from industrial plants. Lanthanides in soils are immobile elements, and such number of objects will allow to receive information about their content changing over time and to have more detailed basis for the future monitoring of this territory as well. Humic acids were precipitated from 0,1 n NaOH extraction after preliminary decalcification. Cleaning of humic acid preparations by 6N HCl or HF+HCl was not carried out. Determination of La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu was performed by multi-element neutron-activation analysis. According to carried out diagnostics and reconstruction of natural conditions of all object formation, all objects correspond to steppe type landscape with a different level of humidity. Analysis of received data has shown that cerium is presented in humic acid preparations in the largest quantities among lanthanides (on average 4,0-6,6 mg/kg of preparation mass). The average content of samarium, europium, ytterbium and lutetium in the humic acids in the order of magnitude ranges from 0.13 to 0.49 mg/kg, terbium and lutetium - two orders of magnitude. The quantities determined by us for lanthanum is also high at 1,9-3,3 mg/kg. In this case all lanthanides in modern soils have the degree of accumulation in humic acids distinguished from other objects: Ce>La>Sm>Yb>Eu>Tb>Lu. In the paleosols and cultural layer these series are identical: Ce>La>Yb>Sm>Eu>Lu>Tb. There is suggested the approach to direct estimation of share of the lanthanides connected by humic acids in the their total soil pool which includes recalculation of the content of separate elements in humic acid preparations on carbon of soil humic acids (in mg/kg) and the subsequent correlation of their quantities. The content of the total organic carbon in soil, a share of humic acids as a humus part, the lanthanide content and weight carbon percentage in humic acid preparations were considered during recalculations. The results have shown that the highest shares of all elements are found in modern background soils, the lowest - in the soils buried under barrows. The total percentage of all lanthanides in humic acids is 4.63% in relation to their content in modern soil, 1.56% - in CL and 1.36% - in buried paleosols.

Dergacheva, Maria; Nekrasova, Olga

2013-04-01

31

The effect of soil horizon and mineral type on the distribution of siderophores in soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iron is a key component of the chemical architecture of the biosphere. Due to the low bioavailability of iron in the environment, microorganisms have developed specific uptake strategies like production of siderophores. Siderophores are operationally defined as low-molecular-mass biogenic Fe(III)-binding compounds, that can increase the bioavailability of iron by promoting the dissolution of iron-bearing minerals. In the present study, we investigated the composition of dissolved and adsorbed siderophores of the hydroxamate family in the soil horizons of podzol and the effect of specific mineral types on siderophores. Three polished mineral specimens of 3 cm × 4 cm × 3 mm (apatite, biotite and oligioclase) were inserted in the soil horizons (O (organic), E (eluvial) and B (upper illuvial)). After two years, soil samples were collected from both the bulk soil of the whole profile and from the soil attached to the mineral surfaces. The concentration of ten different fungal tri-hydroxamates within ferrichromes, fusigen and coprogens families, and five bacterial hydroxamates within the ferrioxamine family were detected. All hydroxamate types were determined in both soil water (dissolved) and soil methanol (adsorbed) extracts along the whole soil profile by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS); hence, the study is the most extensive of its kind. We found that coprogens and fusigen were present in much higher concentrations in bulk soil than were ferrioxamines and ferrichromes. On the other hand, the presence of the polished mineral completely altered the distribution of siderophores. In addition, each mineral had a unique interaction with the dissolved and adsorbed hydroxamates in the different soil horizons. Thus siderophore composition in the soil environment is controlled by the chemical, physical and biological characteristics of each soil horizon and also by the available mineral types.

Ahmed, Engy; Holmström, Sara J. M.

2014-04-01

32

Effect of Biostimulation and Bioaugmentation on Degradation of Polyurethane Buried in Soil?  

PubMed Central

This work investigated biostimulation and bioaugmentation as strategies for removing polyurethane (PU) waste in soil. Soil microcosms were biostimulated with the PU dispersion agent “Impranil” and/or yeast extract or were bioaugmented with PU-degrading fungi, and the degradation of subsequently buried PU was determined. Fungal communities in the soil and colonizing buried PU were enumerated on solid media and were analyzed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Biostimulation with yeast extract alone or in conjunction with Impranil increased PU degradation 62% compared to the degradation in untreated control soil and was associated with a 45% increase in putative PU degraders colonizing PU. Specific fungi were enriched in soil following biostimulation; however, few of these fungi colonized the surface of buried PU. Fungi used for soil bioaugmentation were cultivated on the surface of sterile wheat to form a mycelium-rich inoculum. Wheat, when added alone to soil, increased PU degradation by 28%, suggesting that wheat biomass had a biostimulating effect. Addition of wheat colonized with Nectria haematococca, Penicillium viridicatum, Penicillium ochrochloron, or an unidentified Mucormycotina sp. increased PU degradation a further 30 to 70%, suggesting that biostimulation and bioaugmentation were operating in concert to enhance PU degradation. Interestingly, few of the inoculated fungi could be detected by DGGE in the soil or on the surface of the PU 4 weeks after inoculation. Bioaugmentation did, however, increase the numbers of indigenous PU-degrading fungi and caused an inoculum-dependent change in the composition of the native fungal populations, which may explain the increased degradation observed. These results demonstrate that both biostimulation and bioaugmentation may be viable tools for the remediation of environments contaminated with polyurethane waste. PMID:19948849

Cosgrove, L.; McGeechan, P. L.; Handley, P. S.; Robson, G. D.

2010-01-01

33

Detecting buried radium contamination using soil-gas and surface-flux radon meaurements  

SciTech Connect

The Technical Measurements Center (TMC) has investigated the effectiveness of using radon soil-gas under surface-flux measurments to locate radium contamination that is buried sufficiently deep to be undetectable by surface gamma methods. At the first test site studied, an indication of a buried source was revealed by mapping anomalous surface-flux and soil-gas concentrations in the near surface overburden. The mapped radon anomalies were found to correspond in rough outline to the shape of the areal extent of the deposit as determined by borehole gamma-ray logs. The 5.9pCi/g radium deposit, buried 2 feet below the surface, went undetected by conventional surface gamma measurements. Similar results were obtained at the second test site where radon and conventional surface gamma measurements were taken in an area having radium concentrations ranging from 13.3 to 341.0 pCi/g at a depth of 4 feet below the surface. The radon methods were found to have a detection limit for buried radium lower than that of the surface gamma methods, as evidenced by the discovery of the 13.3 pCi/g deposit which went undetected by the surface gamma methods. 15 refs., 33 figs., 8 tabs.

Karp, K.E.

1988-06-01

34

A disconnect between O horizon and mineral soil carbon - Implications for soil C sequestration  

SciTech Connect

Changing inputs of carbon to soil is one means of potentially increasing carbon sequestration in soils for the purpose of mitigating projected increases in atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. The effect of manipulations of aboveground carbon input on soil carbon storage was tested in a temperate, deciduous forest in east Tennessee, USA. A 4.5-year experiment included exclusion of aboveground litterfall and supplemental litter additions (three times ambient) in an upland and a valley that differed in soil nitrogen availability. The estimated decomposition rate of the carbon stock in the O horizon was greater in the valley than in the upland due to higher litter quality (i.e., lower C/N ratios). Short-term litter exclusion or addition had no effect on carbon stock in the mineral soil, measured to a depth of 30 cm, or the partitioning of carbon in the mineral soil between particulate- and mineral-associated organic matter. A two-compartment model was used to interpret results from the field experiments. Field data and a sensitivity analysis of the model were consistent with little carbon transfer between the O horizon and the mineral soil. Increasing aboveground carbon input does not appear to be an effective means of promoting carbon sequestration in forest soil at the location of the present study because a disconnect exists in carbon dynamics between O horizon and mineral soil. Factors that directly increase inputs to belowground soil carbon, via roots, or reduce decomposition rates of organic matter are more likely to benefit efforts to increase carbon sequestration in forests where carbon dynamics in the O horizon are uncoupled from the mineral soil.

Garten Jr, Charles T [ORNL

2009-01-01

35

Chemical Soil Physics Phenomena for Chemical Sensing of Buried UXO  

SciTech Connect

Technology development efforts are under way to apply chemical sensors to discriminate inert ordnance and clutter from live munitions that remain a threat to reutilization of military ranges. However, the chemical signature is affected by multiple environmental phenomena that can enhance or reduce its presence and transport behavior, and can affect the distribution of the chemical signature in the environment. For example, the chemical can be present in the vapor, aqueous, and solid phases. The distribution of the chemical among these phases, including the spatial distribution, is key in designing appropriate detectors, e.g., gas, aqueous or solid phase sampling instruments. A fundamental understanding of the environmental conditions that affect the chemical signature is needed to describe the favorable and unfavorable conditions of a chemical detector based survey to minimize the consequences of a false negative. UXO source emission measurements are being made to estimate the chemical flux from a limited set of ordnance items. Phase partitioning analysis has been completed to show what the expected concentrations of chemical analytes would be fi-om total concentrations measured in the soil. The soil moisture content in the dry region has been shown to be critical in the attenuation of soil gas concentrations by increased sorption to soil particles. Numerical simulation tools have been adapted to include surface boundary conditions such as solar radiation, surface boundary layer (which is a function of wind speed), precipitation and evaporation, and plant cover/root density to allow transport modeling and evaluate long term processes. Results of this work will provide performance targets for sensor developers and support operational decisions regarding field deployments.

Phelan, James, M.; Webb, Stephen W.

1999-06-14

36

Acidity field of soils as ion-exchange systems and the diagnostics of genetic soil horizons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the comprehensive description of the acidity of a two-phase ion-exchange system, we should analyze two curves of the ionite titration by a strong base in water and salt solutions and find the quantitative relationships between the corresponding pH characteristics. An idea of the three-dimensional field of acidity of ion-exchange systems (the phase space of the soil acidity characteristics) and its three two-dimensional projections is suggested. For soils, three interrelated characteristics—the pH values of the salt and water extracts and the degree of base saturation—can serve as spatial coordinates for the acidity field. Representation of factual data in this field makes it possible to compare and analyze the acidity characteristics of different soils and soil horizons and to determine their specific features. Differentiation of the field into separate volumes allows one to present the data in a discrete form. We have studied the distribution patterns of the groups of soil horizons from Leningrad oblast and other regions of northwestern Russia in the acidity field. The studied samples are grouped in different partially overlapping areas of the projections of the acidity field. The results of this grouping attest to the correctness of the modern classification of Russian soils. A notion of the characteristic soil area in the acidity field is suggested; it can be applied to all the soils with a leaching soil water regime.

Kokotov, Yu. A.; Sukhacheva, E. Yu.; Aparin, B. F.

2014-12-01

37

PH BUFFERING IN FOREST SOIL ORGANIC HORIZONS: RELEVANCE TO ACID PRECIPITATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Samples of organic surface horizons (Oi, Oe, Oa) from New York State forest soils were equilibrated with 0 to 20 cmol HNO3 Kg(-1) soil in the laboratory by a batch technique designed to simulate reactions of acid precipitation with forest floors. Each organic horizon retained a c...

38

Site- and horizon-specific patterns of microbial community structure and enzyme activities in permafrost-affected soils of Greenland.  

PubMed

Permafrost-affected soils in the Northern latitudes store huge amounts of organic carbon (OC) that is prone to microbial degradation and subsequent release of greenhouse gasses to the atmosphere. In Greenland, the consequences of permafrost thaw have only recently been addressed, and predictions on its impact on the carbon budget are thus still highly uncertain. However, the fate of OC is not only determined by abiotic factors, but closely tied to microbial activity. We investigated eight soil profiles in northeast Greenland comprising two sites with typical tundra vegetation and one wet fen site. We assessed microbial community structure and diversity (SSU rRNA gene tag sequencing, quantification of bacteria, archaea and fungi), and measured hydrolytic and oxidative enzyme activities. Sampling site and thus abiotic factors had a significant impact on microbial community structure, diversity and activity, the wet fen site exhibiting higher potential enzyme activities and presumably being a hot spot for anaerobic degradation processes such as fermentation and methanogenesis. Lowest fungal to bacterial ratios were found in topsoils that had been relocated by cryoturbation ("buried topsoils"), resulting from a decrease in fungal abundance compared to recent ("unburied") topsoils. Actinobacteria (in particular Intrasporangiaceae) accounted for a major fraction of the microbial community in buried topsoils, but were only of minor abundance in all other soil horizons. It was indicated that the distribution pattern of Actinobacteria and a variety of other bacterial classes was related to the activity of phenol oxidases and peroxidases supporting the hypothesis that bacteria might resume the role of fungi in oxidative enzyme production and degradation of phenolic and other complex substrates in these soils. Our study sheds light on the highly diverse, but poorly-studied communities in permafrost-affected soils in Greenland and their role in OC degradation. PMID:25360132

Gittel, Antje; Bárta, Ji?í; Kohoutová, Iva; Schnecker, Jörg; Wild, Birgit; Capek, Petr; Kaiser, Christina; Torsvik, Vigdis L; Richter, Andreas; Schleper, Christa; Urich, Tim

2014-01-01

39

Site- and horizon-specific patterns of microbial community structure and enzyme activities in permafrost-affected soils of Greenland  

PubMed Central

Permafrost-affected soils in the Northern latitudes store huge amounts of organic carbon (OC) that is prone to microbial degradation and subsequent release of greenhouse gasses to the atmosphere. In Greenland, the consequences of permafrost thaw have only recently been addressed, and predictions on its impact on the carbon budget are thus still highly uncertain. However, the fate of OC is not only determined by abiotic factors, but closely tied to microbial activity. We investigated eight soil profiles in northeast Greenland comprising two sites with typical tundra vegetation and one wet fen site. We assessed microbial community structure and diversity (SSU rRNA gene tag sequencing, quantification of bacteria, archaea and fungi), and measured hydrolytic and oxidative enzyme activities. Sampling site and thus abiotic factors had a significant impact on microbial community structure, diversity and activity, the wet fen site exhibiting higher potential enzyme activities and presumably being a hot spot for anaerobic degradation processes such as fermentation and methanogenesis. Lowest fungal to bacterial ratios were found in topsoils that had been relocated by cryoturbation (“buried topsoils”), resulting from a decrease in fungal abundance compared to recent (“unburied”) topsoils. Actinobacteria (in particular Intrasporangiaceae) accounted for a major fraction of the microbial community in buried topsoils, but were only of minor abundance in all other soil horizons. It was indicated that the distribution pattern of Actinobacteria and a variety of other bacterial classes was related to the activity of phenol oxidases and peroxidases supporting the hypothesis that bacteria might resume the role of fungi in oxidative enzyme production and degradation of phenolic and other complex substrates in these soils. Our study sheds light on the highly diverse, but poorly-studied communities in permafrost-affected soils in Greenland and their role in OC degradation. PMID:25360132

Gittel, Antje; Bárta, Ji?í; Kohoutová, Iva; Schnecker, Jörg; Wild, Birgit; ?apek, Petr; Kaiser, Christina; Torsvik, Vigdis L.; Richter, Andreas; Schleper, Christa; Urich, Tim

2014-01-01

40

Production of CO2 by surface and buried soils of the steppe zone under native and moistened conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern light chestnut and chestnut soils and their analogues buried under steppe kurgans in the southeastern part of the Russian Plain were studied in order to determine the rates of the CO2 production by these soils under the native (with the natural moisture content) and moistened (60% of the total water capacity) conditions. It was found that the rates of the CO2 production by the soil samples in the native state are relatively close to one another and vary from 0.3 to 1.4 ?g of C/100 g of soil/h. The rates of the CO2 production in the moistened state increased by two orders of magnitude for the modern surface soils and by an order of magnitude for the buried soils.

Demkina, T. S.; Borisov, A. V.; Demkin, V. A.

2010-09-01

41

Soil animal communities in holm oak forests: influence of horizon, altitude and year  

E-print Network

1 Soil animal communities in holm oak forests: influence of horizon, altitude and year Nassima-francois.ponge@wanadoo.fr Running title: Soil animals in holm oak forests hal-00498459,version1-7Jul2010 Author manuscript, published in "European Journal of Soil Biology 39, 4 (2003) 197-207" DOI : 10.1016/j.ejsobi.2003.06.001 #12

Boyer, Edmond

42

Horizons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gravitational force harbours a fundamental instability against collapse. In standard General Relativity without Quantum Mechanics, this implies the existence of black holes as natural, stable solutions of Einstein's equations. If one attempts to quantize the gravitational force, one should also consider the question how Quantum Mechanics affects the behaviour of black holes. In this lecture, we concentrate on the horizon. One would have expected that its properties could be derived from general coordinate transformations out of a vacuum state. In contrast, it appears that much new physics is needed. Much of that is still poorly understood, but one may speculate on the way information is organized at a horizon, and how refined versions of Quantum Theory may lead to answers.

't Hooft, Gerard

2005-06-01

43

Mach stem due to an underground explosion near a rigid structure buried in soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents recent results of an analysis of pressure distributions along the circumference of underground structures of various shapes due to a nearby buried explosion. The present study examines the effect of the standoff distance on the results and special attention is given to the soil medium equation of state characteristics and their effect on the Mach stem. It was found that for a short standoff distance and a steep growth of pressure beyond the full compaction point that characterizes dense soils, the envelope of the pressure distributions shows a maximum value, which is located at some distance away from the plane of symmetry rather than along it, as is the case for a distant explosion. This phenomenon causes the distortion of the frontal part of the explosive cavity. This effect is more pronounced for more dense soils that show a sharper pressure increase in the equation of state. It has been proven that these pressure distributions and associated shapes of the explosion cavities are caused by the Mach stem effect appearing in a soil medium with full locking.

Karinski, Y. S.; Feldgun, V. R.; Racah, E.; Yankelevsky, D. Z.

2015-01-01

44

A geophysical and biochemical investigation of buried remains in contrasting soil textures in southern Ontario  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is a non-invasive, geophysical tool used for the detection of clandestine graves. GPR operates by detecting density differences in soil by the transmission of high frequency electromagnetic (EM) waves from an antenna. A 500 Megahertz (MHz) frequency antenna is typically used for forensic investigations, as it provides a suitable compromise between depth of penetration and sub-surface resolution. Domestic pig (Sus scrofa) carcasses were clothed in 100% cotton t-shirts and 50% cotton/50% polyester briefs, and buried at a consistent depth at three field sites of contrasting soil texture (silty clay loam, fine sand and fine sandy loam) in southern Ontario. GPR was used to detect and monitor the graves for a period of 14 months post burial. Analysis of collected data revealed that GPR had applicability in the detection of clandestine graves containing remains in silty clay loam and fine sandy loam soils, but was not suitable for detection in fine sandy soil. Specifically, within a fine sandy loam soil, there is the potential to estimate the post burial interval (PBI), as hyperbolic grave response was well defined at the beginning of the 14 month burial duration, but became less distinctive near the completion of the study. Following the detection of a clandestine grave containing a carcass, collection of gravesoil, tissue and textile samples is important for the estimation of the stage of decomposition and the post burial interval (PBI) of the remains. Throughout the decomposition process of a carcass, adipose tissue is subjected to hydrolytic enzymes that convert triglycerides to their corresponding unsaturated, saturated and salts of fatty acids. The composition of fatty acids in the decomposed tissue will vary with the post mortem period, but it is unknown what affect the soil texture has on lipid degradation. As decomposition proceeds, fatty acids can leach from the tissues into the surrounding burial environment. Fatty acid analysis of gravesoil, tissue and textile samples, exhumed at two, eleven and fourteen month post burial intervals, was conducted using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS), attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Infrared (IR) spectroscopy analysis of the samples provided a qualitative profile of lipid degradation. Analysis of gravesoil samples did not reveal IR spectroscopy bands attributable to fatty acid degradation or adipocere formation. IR spectroscopy analysis of tissue samples is applicable for the estimation of carcass decomposition in all of the soil textures tested. Results of textile IR spectroscopy analysis revealed limited potential to estimate the stage of carcass decomposition in silty clay loam soil. GC-MS was used to quantify the peak area ratio (area/int std area) (PAR) of myristic (C14:0), palmitic (C16:0), palmitoleic (C16:1), stearic (C18:0) and oleic (C18:1) acids. GC-MS results revealed that analysis of both tissue and textile samples can be useful in the estimation of the stage of decomposition and the PBI of carcasses in all three of the soil textures tested. The results of this research may have applicability within forensic investigations involving decomposing bodies by aiding in the location of clandestine graves in silty clay loam and fine sandy loam soil through the use of GPR. Infrared spectroscopy and GC-MS analysis of the fatty acid composition of tissue and textile samples may also be incorporated into investigational protocols to aid in the estimation of the stage of decomposition and the PBI of a body. Key Words: forensic science, ground penetrating radar, soil texture, buried remains, fatty acids, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), infrared spectroscopy

Lowe, Amanda C.

45

Survival of two enterobacteria in feces buried in soil under field conditions.  

PubMed Central

Feces samples, inoculated with 10(6) Escherichia coli resistant to streptomycin and nalidixic acid and with 10(5) Salmonella typhimurium per g, were buried at five mountain field sites ranging from 2,005 to 2,730 m in elevation. Counts of each bacterium rose initially and then declined to 10(3) or 10(4) per g of feces in 8 weeks. The survival pattern was similar at all sites regardless of marked differences in elevation, soil, moisture, exposure, and vegetation. S. typhimurium numbers were consistently higher than E. coli numbers after week 3. The test encompassed most of the time that the area is snow-free and accessible for hiking. The results were judged to discredit the recommendation for shallow burial of feces and to indicate a potential health hazard under intensive use. PMID:6999999

Temple, K L; Camper, A K; McFeters, G A

1980-01-01

46

Uplifting Behavior of Shallow Buried Pipe in Liquefiable Soil by Dynamic Centrifuge Test  

PubMed Central

Underground pipelines are widely applied in the so-called lifeline engineerings. It shows according to seismic surveys that the damage from soil liquefaction to underground pipelines was the most serious, whose failures were mainly in the form of pipeline uplifting. In the present study, dynamic centrifuge model tests were conducted to study the uplifting behaviors of shallow-buried pipeline subjected to seismic vibration in liquefied sites. The uplifting mechanism was discussed through the responses of the pore water pressure and earth pressure around the pipeline. Additionally, the analysis of force, which the pipeline was subjected to before and during vibration, was introduced and proved to be reasonable by the comparison of the measured and the calculated results. The uplifting behavior of pipe is the combination effects of multiple forces, and is highly dependent on the excess pore pressure. PMID:25121140

Liu, Jingwen; Ling, Daosheng

2014-01-01

47

Late quaternary temperature record from buried soils of the North American Great Plains  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We present the first comprehensive late Quaternary record of North American Great Plains temperature by assessing the behavior of the stable isotopic composition (??13C) of buried soils. After examining the relationship between the ??13C of topsoil organic matter and July temperature from 61 native prairies within a latitudinal range of 46??-38??N, we applied the resulting regression equation to 64 published ??13C values from buried soils of the same region to construct a temperature curve for the past 12 k.y. Estimated temperatures from 12 to 10 ka (1 k.y. = 1000 14C yr B.P.) fluctuated with a periodicity of ???1 k.y. with two cool excursions between -4.5 and -3.5 ??C and two warmer excursions between -1 and 0 ??C, relative to modern. Early Holocene temperatures from ca. 10-7.5 ka were -1.0 to -2.0 ??C before rising to +1.0 ??C in the middle Holocene between 6.0 and 4.5 ka. After a cool interlude from 4.2 to 2.6 ka, when temperatures dropped to slightly below modern, another warm interval ensued from 2.6 to 1 ka as temperatures increased to ???+0.5 ??C. A final decline in temperature to below modern occurred beginning ca. 0.5 ka. Cooler than present temperatures in the Great Plains indicate telecommunications with cool-water episodes in the Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic potentially governed by a combination of glacial meltwater pulses and low solar irradiance. ?? 2007 Geological Society of America.

Nordt, L.; Von Fischer, J.; Tieszen, L.

2007-01-01

48

Preferential Flow Paths Allow Deposition of Mobile Organic Carbon Deep into Soil B Horizons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of our understanding of soil carbon (C) dynamics derives from the top 10 to 20 cm, although globally the majority of the bulk soil C pool is found below those depths. Mineral associated C in deep soil is more stable than that held in surface horizons, and its long-term persistence may contribute to sequestration of anthropogenic C. Carbon can enter deep soil horizons in multiple ways: through biologically-mediated or abiotic physical mixing, illuviation, root inputs, or through a physical disturbance that would cause the burial of an originally shallow organic horizon. In this study, we investigated the role of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the transport and stabilization of soil C in tropical rainforest volcanic soils, where high rainfall, a highly productive forest, and dominance of highly reactive, non-crystalline minerals contribute to large soil C stocks at depth with long mean residence times. DOM plays an important role in many biological and chemical processes in soils, including nutrient transfer within and across ecosystems. Carbon storage in these soils is linked to movement of both DOC and particulate organic C along infiltration pathways. Climate and soil mineralogical properties create the right conditions for C to be pumped from the organic horizons where microbial activity is highest, to deep mineral horizons, where the potential for stabilization is greatest. High rainfall preserves hydrated short-range order minerals that are subject to strong shrinkage during occasional drought periods. The resulting cracks in subsurface B horizons become pathways for DOM complexed with Fe and Al moving in soil solution during subsequent wet periods. Preferential flow of these organically rich solutes and/or colloids moves C to depth where C, Fe and Al are preferentially deposited on near-vertical crack surfaces and along near-horizonal flow surfaces at horizon boundaries. Long-term deposition forms discontinuous Fe- and OM-cemented lamella that serve to reinforce preferential flow paths. SOM in the deepest mineral horizons has C:N ratios similar to that of the forest floor which is dominated by recent litter inputs, suggesting an accumulation of plant-derived material that has undergone little microbial processing. SOM accumulating at depth differs chemically from decomposing roots as determined by 13C-NMR spectrometry, and shows strong contributions of organic acids, pointing to a likely DOM source. NMR spectra and radiocarbon concentrations of SOM at depth also match material in the surface humic mineral horizons (Bh), where the network of cracks and channels are first observable. Microbial biomass is significantly lower in the deepest mineral horizons but the differences with soil depth disappear when corrected for total soil C. Radiocarbon concentrations of bulk soils and of respired CO2 from incubated mineral horizons at 50 cm show that SOM at depth is a mixture of modern and old C, providing further evidence for the downward movement of significant amounts of fresh C from the surface horizons.

Marin-Spiotta, E.; Chadwick, O.; Kramer, M. G.

2009-12-01

49

Stabilization of ancient organic matter in deep buried paleosols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Buried soils representing ancient surface horizons can contain large organic carbon reservoirs that may interact with the atmosphere if exposed by erosion, road construction, or strip mining. Paleosols in long-term depositional sites provide a unique opportunity for studying the importance of different mechanisms on the persistence of organic matter (OM) over millennial time-scales. We report on the chemistry and bioavailability of OM stored in the Brady soil, a deeply buried (7 m) paleosol in loess deposits of southwestern Nebraska, USA. The Brady Soil developed 9,000-13,500 years ago during a time of warming and drying. The Brady soil represents a dark brown horizon enriched in C relative to loess immediately above and below. Spanning much of the central Great Plains, this buried soil contains large C stocks due to the thickness of its A horizon (0.5 to 1 m) and wide geographic extent. Our research provides a unique perspective on long-term OM stabilization in deep soils using multiple analytical approaches. Soils were collected from the Brady soil A horizon (at 7 m depth) and modern surface A horizons (0-15 cm) at two sites for comparison. Soils were separated by density fractionation using 1.85 g ml-1 sodium polytungstate into: free particulate organic matter (fPOM) and aggregate-occluded (oPOM) of two size classes (large: >20 ?m, and small: < 20 ?m). The remaining dense fraction was separated into sand, silt, and clay size fractions. The distribution and age of C among density and particle-size fractions differed between surface and Brady soils. We isolated the source of the characteristic dark coloring of the Brady soil to the oPOM-small fraction, which also contained 20% of the total organic C pool in the Brady soil. The oPOM-small fraction and the bulk soil in the middle of the Brady A horizon had 14C ages of 10,500-12,400 cal yr BP, within the time that the soil was actively forming at the land surface. Surface soils showed modern ages. Lipid analyses of the Brady soil indicate a predominance of terrestrial vegetation biomarkers. The strong presence of vascular plant-derived terpenoids and long-chain n-alkyl lipids suggest a grassland origin. Respiration rates of the buried soil in a laboratory incubation were negligible compared to modern surface A and B horizons, and responded little to wetting. These results suggest that moisture alone does not limit decomposition in the buried soil, at least over the 120-day incubation. Solid-state 13C-NMR spectroscopy reveals that the Brady soil is enriched in aromatic C, with high contributions of char, especially in the oPOM-small fraction. Thermal analysis showed high thermal stability of oPOM-small and bulk soils in the Brady soil compared to modern surface horizons. Radiocarbon ages and chemical composition of OM isolated from a deep paleosol suggest little modification since burial and may indicate rapid stabilization of plant-derived organic C by burial. The accumulation of char in the aggregate-protected fraction of the Brady soil provides additional evidence for warming and drying conditions during the time of loess deposition at this site. Developing a better understanding of the mechanisms that control long-term SOM stabilization is important for understanding how soil C is sequestered over millennia and for predicting how future disturbances may affect deep soil C.

Marin-Spiotta, E.; Chaopricha, N. T.; Mueller, C.; Diefendorf, A. F.; Plante, A. F.; Grandy, S.; Mason, J. A.

2012-12-01

50

RECONSTRUCTING CLIMATE ON THE GREAT PLAINS FROM BURIED SOILS: A QUANTITATIVE APPROACH  

E-print Network

The Great Plains, U.S.A. lack quantitative paleoclimatic data for the late Quaternary largely because two common sources of paleoclimatic data, tree ring and pollen records, are rare in the region. Sequences of buried ...

Zung, Ashley B.

2013-05-31

51

Psychrotolerant actinomycetes of plants and organic horizons in tundra and taiga soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been revealed that in organic horizons and plants of the tundra and taiga ecosystems under low temperatures, actinomycetal complexes form. The population density of psychrotolerant actinomycetes in organic horizons and plants reaches tens and hundreds of thousands CFU/g of substrate or soil, and decreases in the sequence litters > plants > soils > undecomposed plant remains > moss growths. The mycelium length of psychrotolerant actinomycetes reaches 220 m/g of substrate. Application of the FISH method has demonstrated that metabolically active psychrotolerant bacteria of the phylum Actinobacteria constitute 30% of all metabolically active psychrotolerant representatives of the Bacterià domain of the prokaryotic microbial community of soils and plants. Psychrotolerant actinomycetes in tundra and taiga ecosystems possess antimicrobial properties.

Dubrova, M. S.; Zenova, G. M.; Yakushev, A. V.; Manucharova, N. A.; Makarova, E. P.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.; Chernov, I. Yu.

2013-08-01

52

Functional Assays and Metagenomic Analyses Reveals Differences between the Microbial Communities Inhabiting the Soil Horizons of a Norway Spruce Plantation  

PubMed Central

In temperate ecosystems, acidic forest soils are among the most nutrient-poor terrestrial environments. In this context, the long-term differentiation of the forest soils into horizons may impact the assembly and the functions of the soil microbial communities. To gain a more comprehensive understanding of the ecology and functional potentials of these microbial communities, a suite of analyses including comparative metagenomics was applied on independent soil samples from a spruce plantation (Breuil-Chenue, France). The objectives were to assess whether the decreasing nutrient bioavailability and pH variations that naturally occurs between the organic and mineral horizons affects the soil microbial functional biodiversity. The 14 Gbp of pyrosequencing and Illumina sequences generated in this study revealed complex microbial communities dominated by bacteria. Detailed analyses showed that the organic soil horizon was significantly enriched in sequences related to Bacteria, Chordata, Arthropoda and Ascomycota. On the contrary the mineral horizon was significantly enriched in sequences related to Archaea. Our analyses also highlighted that the microbial communities inhabiting the two soil horizons differed significantly in their functional potentials according to functional assays and MG-RAST analyses, suggesting a functional specialisation of these microbial communities. Consistent with this specialisation, our shotgun metagenomic approach revealed a significant increase in the relative abundance of sequences related glycoside hydrolases in the organic horizon compared to the mineral horizon that was significantly enriched in glycoside transferases. This functional stratification according to the soil horizon was also confirmed by a significant correlation between the functional assays performed in this study and the functional metagenomic analyses. Together, our results suggest that the soil stratification and particularly the soil resource availability impact the functional diversity and to a lesser extent the taxonomic diversity of the bacterial communities. PMID:23418476

Uroz, Stéphane; Ioannidis, Panos; Lengelle, Juliette; Cébron, Aurélie; Morin, Emmanuelle; Buée, Marc; Martin, Francis

2013-01-01

53

Stand-off and up-close Raman detection of nitrates buried in sand and soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Raman measurements, using a 785nm laser, are taken of Ammonium Nitrate and Sodium Nitrate buried in sand. Nitrate is kept in clear plastic containers and buried underneath sand at various depths. Raman measurements are then taken at distances of 5m and 20m, with the sand being completely dry as well as completely wet. A different set of experiments was conducted with Nitrate buried in sand in a glass container, where no Raman signal was seen in dry sand. Water was then added at the edge of the container and allowed to migrate to the bottom. Raman measurements are then taken at a distance of 7mm over time to detect Nitrates brought to the surface by water as it wicks to the surface.

Farley, Carlton; Sadate, Sandra; Kassu, Aschalew; Monono, Belther; Witt, William; Bibb, Jonathan; Sharma, Anup

2014-09-01

54

The structural state of buried and surface soils of solonetzic complexes in the dry steppe zone of the Lower Volga basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structural state of modern (surface) soils and the soils buried under Anna Ioannovna's rampart (1718-1720) was studied. These soils are the components of solonetzic soil complexes in the southern Privolzhskaya Upland. The dehumification and the high content of calcium in the exchange complex determine the state of the macrostructure of the chestnut soil buried about 300 years ago. The dehumification drastically lowers the water stability of the soil aggregates, and the predominance of calcium ions in the soil exchange complex prevents the destruction of the chestnut paleosol aggregates and preserves their aggregate state upon moistening. For the last 300 years, no significant changes in the macrostructure of the solonetzes have been observed.

Zolotareva, B. N.; Bukhonov, A. V.; Demkin, V. A.

2012-07-01

55

Modeling the effects of fire severity on soil organic horizons and forest composition in Interior Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fire regime in the boreal region of interior Alaska has been intensifying in terms of both area burned and severity over the last three decades. Based on projections of climate change, this trend is expected to continue throughout the 21st century. Fire causes abrupt changes in energy, nutrient and water balances influencing habitat and vegetation composition. An important factor influencing these changes is the reduction of the soil organic horizon because of differential regeneration capabilities of conifer and evergreen shrubs vs. deciduous and herbaceous vegetation on organic vs. mineral soils. The goal of this study is to develop a prognostic model to simulate the effects of fire severity on soil organic horizons and to evaluate its long-term consequences on forest composition in interior Alaska. Existing field observations were analyzed to build a predictive model of the depth of burning of soil organic horizon after a fire. The model is driven by data sets of fire occurrence, climate, and topography. Post-fire vegetation succession was simulated as a function of post-fire organic horizon depth. The fire severity and post-fire vegetation succession models were then implemented within a biogeochemistry model, the process-based Terrestrial Ecosystem Model. Simulations for 21st century climate scenarios at a 1 by 1km resolution for the Alaska Yukon River Basin were conducted to evaluate the effects of considering vs. ignoring post-fire vegetation succession on carbon dynamics. The results of these simulations indicate that it is important for ecosystem models to represent the influence of fire severity on post-fire vegetation succession in order to fully understand the consequences of changes in climate and disturbance regimes on boreal ecosystems.

Genet, H.; Barrett, K. M.; Johnstone, J. F.; McGuire, A. D.; Yuan, F.; Euskirchen, E. S.; Kasischke, E. S.; Rupp, S. T.; Turetsky, M. R.

2012-12-01

56

Buried soils in a perched dunefield as indicators of late holecene lake-level change in the Lake Superior basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A stratigraphic analysis of buried soils within the Grand Sable Dunes, a dune field perched 90 m above the southern shore of Lake Superior, reveals a history of eolian activity apparently linked with lake-level fluctuations over the last 5500 yr. A relative rise in the water plane of the Nipissing Great Lakes initially destabilized the lakeward bluff face of the Grand Sable plateau between 5400 and 4600 14C yr B.P. This led to the burial of the Sable Creek soil by eolian sediments derived from the bluff face. Subsequent episodes of eolian activity appear to be tied to similar destabilizing events; high lake levels may have initiated at least four and perhaps eleven episodes of dune building as expressed by soil burials within the dunes. Intervening low lake levels probably correlate with soil profile development, which varies from the well-developed Sable Creek Spodosol catena to thin organic layers containing in-place stumps and tree trunks. Paleoecological reconstructions available for the area do not imply enough climatic change to account for the episodic dune activity. Burial of soils by fine-fraction sediments links dune-building episodes with destabilization of the lower lake-facing bluff, which is rich in fines.

Anderton, John B.; Loope, Walter L.

1995-01-01

57

Quantitative assessment of the piping erosion susceptibility of loess-derived soil horizons using the pinhole test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pinhole test is an empirical test based on the qualitative evaluation of the dispersivity (colloidal erodibility) of compacted fined-grained soils. This paper evaluates the pinhole test device for the quantitative assessment of the susceptibility of soil horizons to piping, assesses the effects of hydraulic head, water quality, antecedent soil moisture content and soil disturbance on the hydrological and erosion response during pipeflow, and formulates recommendations for the application of the pinhole test to study piping erosion processes. In total, 255 pinhole test experiments were conducted. The results obtained from disturbed soil samples (A p horizon) indicate: (i) a significant positive linear increase in pipeflow discharge ( Qw) and sediment discharge ( Qs) with increasing hydraulic head, (ii) no relationship between Qw and antecedent soil moisture content ( ASM), but significant and negative relationship between Qs and ASM, and (iii) significantly higher Qs for distilled water than for tap water. The use of disturbed soil samples resulted in significantly more rapid flow responses and lower sediment discharges than for undisturbed soil samples. The pinhole test experiments performed on different loess-derived soil horizons show that the plowed topsoil (A p) and the underlying clay-enriched horizon (B t) are at least two times less susceptible to piping than the decalcified (C 1) and the calcareous horizons (C 2). This confirms field observations indicating that loess-derived soil horizons are very susceptible for piping erosion, especially when the C horizon crops out. This study demonstrates that the pinhole test is suitable for assessing the susceptibility of soil horizons to piping in a quantitative way (i.e. Qw, Qs, the time to outflow and the cross-section of the pipe after the test). We recommend the use of: (i) two different hydraulic heads (i.e. 180 and 1020 mm), (ii) distilled water, (iii) contrasting antecedent soil moisture contents of the soil samples to be tested, and (iv) different soil sampling methods to investigate the effect of soil disturbance, and particularly to obtain a better understanding of the sediment response during pipeflow.

Nadal-Romero, E.; Verachtert, E.; Maes, R.; Poesen, J.

2011-12-01

58

Temporal Changes in the Ectomycorrhizal Community in Two Soil Horizons of a Temperate Oak Forest? †  

PubMed Central

The species structure of an ectomycorrhizal (ECM) community was assessed monthly for 15 months in the two horizons (A1 and A2) of an oak temperate forest in northeastern France. Ectomycorrhizal species were identified each month by internal transcribed spacer sequencing. Seventy-five fungal symbionts were identified. The community was dominated by Tomentellaceae, Russulaceae, Cortinariaceae, and Boletales. Four species are abundant in the study site: Lactarius quietus, Tomentella sublilacina, Cenococcum geophilum, and Russula sp1. The relative abundance of each species varied depending on the soil horizon and over time. Some species, such as L. quietus, were present in the A1 and A2 horizons. C. geophilum was located particularly in the A2 horizon, whereas T. sublilacina was more abundant in A1. Some species, such as Clavulina sp., were detected in winter, while T. sublilacina and L. quietus were present all year long. Our results support the hypothesis that a rapid turnover of species composition of the ECM community occurs over the course of a month. The spatial and temporal unequal distribution of ECM species could be explained by their ecological preferences, driven by such factors as root longevity, competition for resources, and resistance to environmental variability. PMID:18658284

Courty, Pierre-Emmanuel; Franc, Alain; Pierrat, Jean-Claude; Garbaye, Jean

2008-01-01

59

A Test Study to Display Buried Anti-Tank Landmines with GPR and Research Soil Characteristics with CRS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An anti-tank mine (AT mine) is a type of land mine designed to damage or destroy vehicles including tanks and armored fighting vehicles. Anti-tank mines typically have a much larger explosive charge, and a fuze designed only to be triggered by vehicles or, in some cases, tampering with the mine. There are a lot of AT mine types. In our test study, MK4 and MK5 AT mine types has been used. The Mk 5 was a cylindrical metal cased U.K. anti-tank blast mine that entered service in 1943, during the Second World War. General Specifications of them are 203 mm diameter, 127 mm height, 4.4-5.7 kg weight, 2.05-3.75 kg of TNT explosive content and 350 lbs operating pressure respectively. The aims of the test study were to image anti-tank landmine with GPR method and to analyse the soil characteristics before the mines made explode and after made be exploded and determine changing of the soil characteristics. We realized data measurement on the real 6 unexploded anti-tank landmine buried approximately 15 cm in depth. The mines spaced 3 m were buried in two lines. Space between lines was 1.5 m. We gathered data on the profiles, approximately 7 m, with a Ramac CUII system and 800 MHz shielded antenna. We collected soil samples on the mines, near and around the mines, on the area in village. We collected soil samples before exploding and after exploding mines. We imaged anti-tank landmines on the depth slices of the GPR data and in their interactive transparent 3D subsets successfully. We used polarized microscope and confocal Raman spectroscopy (CRS) to identify soil characteristic before and after exploitation. The results presented that GPR method and its 3D imaging were successful to determine AT mines, and there was no important changing on mineralogical and petrographical characterization of the soil before and after exploding processing. This project has been supported by Ankara University under grant no 11B6055002. The study is a contribution to the EU funded COST action TU1208, "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground penetrating Radar".

Kadioglu, Selma; Kagan Kadioglu, Yusuf

2014-05-01

60

Comparison of buried soil sensors, surface chambers and above ground measurements of carbon dioxide fluxes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil carbon dioxide (CO2) flux is an important component of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Accurate measurements of soil CO2 flux aids determinations of carbon budgets. In this study, we investigated soil CO2 fluxes with time and depth and above ground CO2 fluxes in a bare field. CO2 concentrations w...

61

Paleopedologic interpretations of soils buried by tertiary and Pleistocene-age volcanic ashes: Southcentral Kansas, Western Oklahoma, and northwestern Texas, U.S.A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deposits of volcanic ash from major eruptions during the late Tertiary and early-to-middle Pleistocene in the western U.S. are interbedded with unconsolidated sediments in parts of Oklahoma, Kansas, and Texas. Soils and sediments at the land surface at the time of the eruptions were buried by the relatively pure (>95% glass shards) ash. The former surface soils, or paleosols, contain

Phillip A. Ward

1998-01-01

62

Soil Phosphorus Analysis as an Integrative Tool for Recognizing Buried Ancient Ploughsoils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two different methods of analysis of the phosphorus content of the soil were applied to two different archaeological areas, already interpreted as probable Roman ploughsoils through the study of the archaeological indicators. Both the fractionation method and the comparison of the organic versus total phosphorus content supported the interpretation of an ancient agricultural use of these soils, but it is

Giovanni Leonardi; Mara Miglavacca; Serenella Nardi

1999-01-01

63

Persistence of (137)Cs in the litter layers of forest soil horizons of Mount IDA/Kazdagi, Turkey.  

PubMed

In 2010-2012, an extensive study was performed in forest sites of Mount IDA (Kazdagi)/Edremit 26 years after the Chernobyl accident. The (137)Cs activity concentrations were determined by gamma-ray spectrometry in the forest soil layers (OL, OF + OH and A horizons) separately. Based on 341 surface soil samples and 118 soil profiles, activity concentrations of (137)Cs in OL horizons varied between 0.25 ± 0.14 and 70 ± 1 Bq kg(-1), while the ranges of (137)Cs activity concentrations in OF + OH and A horizons were 13 ± 1-555 ± 3 Bq kg(-1) and 2 ± 1-253 ± 2 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Cesium-137 deposition in the study area was estimated to be in the range of 1-39 kBq m(-2) and a linear relationship between the deposition of (137)Cs and the altitude was observed. The distributions of (137)Cs activities in OL, OF + OH and A horizons throughout the region were mapped in detail. The highest (137)Cs activities were found in OF + OH horizons, with markedly lower (137)Cs activity in mineral horizons of soil profiles. It is observed that (137)Cs content of humus layer increases with the thickness of the humus layer for coniferous forest sites. The (137)Cs activity concentrations were higher than the recommended screening limits (150 Bq kg(-1)) at some of the investigated areas. The current activity concentration of top soil layers indicates that over many years since the initial deposition, (137)Cs activity is keeping still high in the organic horizons. PMID:25464048

Karadeniz, Ozlem; Karakurt, Hidayet; Cak?r, Rukiye; Coban, Fatih; Büyükok, Emir; Akal, Cüneyt

2015-01-01

64

Microbial weathering of apatite and wollastonite in a forest soil: Evidence from minerals buried in a root-free zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mineral weathering is an important process in biogeochemical cycling because it releases nutrients from less labile pools (e.g., rocks) to the food chain. A field experiment was undertaken to determine the degree to which microbes - both fungi and bacteria - are responsible for weathering of Ca-bearing minerals. The experiment was performed at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF) in the northeastern USA, where acid deposition has leached plant-available calcium from soils for decades. Trees obtain soil nutrients through root uptake as well as through mycorrhizal fungi with which they are symbiotically associated. These fungi extend their hyphae from the tree roots into the soil and exude organic acids that may enhance mineral dissolution. The two most common types of symbiotic fungal-tree associations are ectomycorrhizae, which are associated with spruce (Picea), fir (Abies), and beech (Fagus); and arbuscular mycorrhizae which are commonly associated with angiosperms, such as maples (Acer). To examine the role of fungi and bacteria in weathering of Ca- and/or P-bearing minerals, mesh bags containing sand-sized grains of quartz (as a control), quartz plus 1% wollastonite (CaSiO3), or quartz plus 1% apatite (Ca5(PO4)3F) were buried ~15 cm deep in mineral soil beneath American beech, sugar maple, and mixed spruce and balsam fir stands at the HBEF. Half of the bags were constructed of 50-?m mesh to exclude roots but allow fungal hyphae and bacteria to enter the bags; the remaining bags had 1-?m mesh to exclude fungi and roots but allow bacteria to enter. The bags were retrieved ~ 1, 2 or 4 years after burial. Microbial community composition and biomass in the mesh bags and surrounding soil were characterized and quantified using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. Fungal biomass in the soil and control bags did not differ significantly among stand types. In contrast, the degree of fungal colonization in apatite- and wollastonite-amended bags varied significantly, suggesting that microbial response was due to tree species, type of mycorrhizal fungi, nutrient status of the soils, and mineral composition of the mesh bags. Mineral surfaces were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to investigate the degree of mineral dissolution as a function of stand type, microbial composition, and time.

Nezat, C. A.

2011-12-01

65

Structural properties of dissolved organic carbon in deep soil horizons of an arable and temporarily grassland.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is commonly accepted that dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is the bio-available fraction of the largest amount of soil organic matter (SOM), even if it does represent only a very small proportion. Because most of the studies on DOC dynamics were mainly restricted to forest soils, studies on the factors governing the dynamics of DOC in deep soil horizons (>1 m) in arable system are still very little limited. The objective of this work is to better define the proportion of DOC in deep soil horizons and indicate their main characteristics and structural properties. The study was conducted on the long term observatory for environmental research- biogeochemical cycles and biodiversity Lusignan site). DOC collected using lysimeters plates inserted to a depth of 105 cm was fractionated into 3 fractions using the two column array of XAD-8 and XAD-4 resins. The HPO (hydrophobic) fraction (i.e. humic substances) isolated from the XAD-8 resin, the TPH (Transphilic) fraction from the XAD-4 resin and the HPI (hydrophilic) fraction which corresponds to the DOC that does not adsorbed onto the two resins under the acid condition used (pH 2). DOM adsorbed onto the resins is recovered with a 75%/25% acetonitrile/water mixture and lyophilized. Depend on the amount of material; the chemical composition of DOC was performed using UV254 nm, fluorescence EEM, NMR and HPSEC/UV/COD. The results show that the concentration and structural properties of DOC in deep soil horizon were similar to those of groundwater (low SUVA (1.2 m-1.L.mg C-1), structures composed mainly of low molecular weight). Because of the relatively recent establishment of the treatment, the monitoring of the dynamics of the DOC concentrations did not show significant differences between arable and grassland. However, the temporal dynamic shows a slight increase in the DOC content regardless of the of land use. DOC concentrations between winter and the middle of spring tend to double going from 1 to 2.5 mg / L and then to 4-5 mg / L in summer time. The structural analysis reveals significant input of terpenoid derived organic matter was confirmed in the HPO fraction of DOC a results supported by the data of 13C NMR, Infra Red and Micro Scale Sealed Vessel / pyrolysis GC / MS. The chromatographic profiles obtained by flash pyrolysis GC / MS highlight the presence of phenol and alkyl phenols, generally attributed to structures polyhydroxyaromatiques (lignin / tannins), but acetamide, pyrolysis product of amino sugars constituents of the wall microbial cells. The thermochimiolyse (TMAH) / GC / MS confirmed the presence of hydroxy aromatic structures in the extracts, however, their precise origin (lignin, tannins ...) remains uncertain. The results so far indicate that the DOC in deep soil horizons is marked by low aromaticity and dominated by small size molecules. This would consist of carbon derived from terpenoids, lignin degraded and amino sugars.

Lavaud, A.; Chabbi, A.; Croue, J. P.

2009-04-01

66

Estimating the effect of tree uprooting on variation of soil horizon depth by confronting pedogenetic simulations to measurements in a Belgian loess area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

patterns of soil often do not reflect those of topographic controls. We attempted to identify possible causes of this by comparing observed and simulated soil horizon depths. Observed depths of E, Bt, BC, C1, and C2 horizons in loess-derived soils in Belgium showed a weak to absent relation to terrain attributes in a sloping area. We applied the soil genesis model SoilGen2.16 onto 108 1 × 1 m2 locations in a 1329 ha area to find possible causes. Two scenarios were simulated. Model 1 simulated soil development under undisturbed conditions, taking slope, aspect, and loess thickness as the only sources of variations. Model 2 additionally included a stochastic submodel to generate tree-uprooting events based on the exposure of trees to the wind. Outputs of both models were converted to depths of transitions between horizons, using an algorithm calibrated to horizon depths observed in the field. Model 1 showed strong correlations between terrain attributes and depths for all horizons, although surprisingly, regression kriging was not able to model all variations. Model 2 showed a weak to absent correlation for the upper horizons but still a strong correlation for the deeper horizons BC, C1, and C2. For the upper horizons the spatial variation strongly resembled that of the measurements. This is a strong indication that bioturbation in the course of soil formation due to treefalls influences spatial patterns of horizon depths.

Finke, P. A.; Vanwalleghem, T.; Opolot, E.; Poesen, J.; Deckers, J.

2013-12-01

67

SOIL-PIPE INTERACTION OF FAULT CROSSING SEGMENTED BURIED DUCTILE IRON PIPELINES SUBJECTED TO DIP FAULTINGS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates the necessity of considering different soil resistance against pipeline relative movement in upward and downward directions. In this way, results of FEM analyses are verified by experimental tests on a segmented ductile iron pipeline with 93mm diameter and 15m length installed at a 60cm depth from the ground surface in the moderate dense sand backfill condition. Fault movement, totally 35cm, has three same steps occurring in reverse way and intersection angle of 60 degrees with the pipe. This study demonstrates how assuming same resistance for soil against both upward and downward relative movements of pipeline, as suggested in JGA guideline, eventuates in imprecise FEM models.

Erami, Mohammad Hossein; Miyajima, Masakatsu; Kaneko, Shougo

68

Ectomycorrhizal-Dominated Boreal and Tropical Forests Have Distinct Fungal Communities, but Analogous Spatial Patterns across Soil Horizons  

PubMed Central

Fungi regulate key nutrient cycling processes in many forest ecosystems, but their diversity and distribution within and across ecosystems are poorly understood. Here, we examine the spatial distribution of fungi across a boreal and tropical ecosystem, focusing on ectomycorrhizal fungi. We analyzed fungal community composition across litter (organic horizons) and underlying soil horizons (0–20 cm) using 454 pyrosequencing and clone library sequencing. In both forests, we found significant clustering of fungal communities by site and soil horizons with analogous patterns detected by both sequencing technologies. Free-living saprotrophic fungi dominated the recently-shed leaf litter and ectomycorrhizal fungi dominated the underlying soil horizons. This vertical pattern of fungal segregation has also been found in temperate and European boreal forests, suggesting that these results apply broadly to ectomycorrhizal-dominated systems, including tropical rain forests. Since ectomycorrhizal and free-living saprotrophic fungi have different influences on soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics, information on the spatial distribution of these functional groups will improve our understanding of forest nutrient cycling. PMID:23874569

McGuire, Krista L.; Allison, Steven D.; Fierer, Noah; Treseder, Kathleen K.

2013-01-01

69

Ectomycorrhizal-dominated boreal and tropical forests have distinct fungal communities, but analogous spatial patterns across soil horizons.  

PubMed

Fungi regulate key nutrient cycling processes in many forest ecosystems, but their diversity and distribution within and across ecosystems are poorly understood. Here, we examine the spatial distribution of fungi across a boreal and tropical ecosystem, focusing on ectomycorrhizal fungi. We analyzed fungal community composition across litter (organic horizons) and underlying soil horizons (0-20 cm) using 454 pyrosequencing and clone library sequencing. In both forests, we found significant clustering of fungal communities by site and soil horizons with analogous patterns detected by both sequencing technologies. Free-living saprotrophic fungi dominated the recently-shed leaf litter and ectomycorrhizal fungi dominated the underlying soil horizons. This vertical pattern of fungal segregation has also been found in temperate and European boreal forests, suggesting that these results apply broadly to ectomycorrhizal-dominated systems, including tropical rain forests. Since ectomycorrhizal and free-living saprotrophic fungi have different influences on soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics, information on the spatial distribution of these functional groups will improve our understanding of forest nutrient cycling. PMID:23874569

McGuire, Krista L; Allison, Steven D; Fierer, Noah; Treseder, Kathleen K

2013-01-01

70

Investigating priming of soil organic matter decomposition with litter extract in genetic horizons of two harvested red spruce podzols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil organic matter (SOM) represents a significant store of carbon (C), and factors that influence its stability are essential to understand, particularly since rising greenhouse gases such as CO2 play an important role in exacerbating climate change. Several studies have documented losses of SOM as a result of forest harvesting, particularly in mineral soils below 20 cm, but the specific mechanism for this loss has not been identified. Priming of SOM decomposition has been observed in some soils with the addition of labile C sources, so it is important to consider whether leaching of organic matter from litter through soil profiles is a mechanism that might explain these observed harvesting-related losses. Here we present preliminary results of a study whose objective is to quantify changes in respiration rates from paired soils differing only in their harvest history, through depth and under C amendment conditions that closely mimic those found in the field setting. Composite field moist soil samples from Ae, Bf and BC (transitional) horizons were incubated to assess respiration rates (2.5 g dry weight, in triplicate) at 15 C for paired sites representing 110 yr and 35 yr post-harvest temperate forest soils. The approach combined descriptive measurements (elemental composition and C and N stable isotope ratios), with soil headspace CO2 and ?13C-CO2 measurements for soils experiencing additions of litter extract or deionized water over a 28 day period. Results indicate an order of magnitude difference in CO2 evolution rates between the shallow horizons (Ae and Bf) and the deeper soil (BC). The respired 13C-CO2 ratio was higher in the 110 yr old site soils, with a more depleted signature released from the 35 yr old site soils. The stable isotope signature of respired CO2 matched that of the bulk soil in the Ae horizon, but signatures that emerged from the Bf horizon did not necessarily follow that trend. Litter extracts produced variable results between sites, yielding insight into the role a labile C source derived from the upper profile may play in the stability of C in the profiles of harvested soils. Studies of this nature have important implications for understanding key processes governing SOM stability.

Gabriel, C.; Kellman, L. M.

2012-12-01

71

The effect of moisture content on the thermal conductivity of moss and organic soil horizons from black spruce ecosystems in interior alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Organic soil horizons function as important controls on the thermal state of near-surface soil and permafrost in high-latitude ecosystems. The thermal conductivity of organic horizons is typically lower than mineral soils and is closely linked to moisture content, bulk density, and water phase. In this study, we examined the relationship between thermal conductivity and soil moisture for different moss and organic horizon types in black spruce ecosystems of interior Alaska. We sampled organic horizons from feather moss-dominated and Sphagnum-dominated stands and divided horizons into live moss and fibrous and amorphous organic matter. Thermal conductivity measurements were made across a range of moisture contents using the transient line heat source method. Our findings indicate a strong positive and linear relationship between thawed thermal conductivity (Kt) and volumetric water content. We observed similar regression parameters (?? or slope) across moss types and organic horizons types and small differences in ??0 (y intercept) across organic horizon types. Live Sphagnum spp. had a higher range of Kt than did live feather moss because of the field capacity (laboratory based) of live Sphagnum spp. In northern regions, the thermal properties of organic soil horizons play a critical role in mediating the effects of climate warming on permafrost conditions. Findings from this study could improve model parameterization of thermal properties in organic horizons and enhance our understanding of future permafrost and ecosystem dynamics. ?? 2009 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

O'Donnell, J. A.; Romanovsky, V.E.; Harden, J.W.; McGuire, A.D.

2009-01-01

72

I. Buried seed populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numbers of buried legume seeds in the upper layers of soil were determined in a survey over an area of hill country pasture at the Grasslands Division research station, Ballantrae. Seeds of suckling clover (Trifolium dubium L.) and white clover (T. repens L.) were most numerous, mean numbers per m being average for this particular type of pasture (2541 and

J. F. L. Charlton

1977-01-01

73

Acceleration of organic matter decomposition after the input of available substrate in subsoil horizons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Input of available substrates to soil can alter microbial activity resulting in accelerated turnover of native soil organic matter (SOM), i.e. cause priming effects (PE). Following to Fountaine et al. (2007) we hypothesized that the stability of SOM in deep soil horizons is due to the lack of input of fresh organic substrates. We also hypothesized greater PE in mineral versus organic soil horizons. These hypotheses were checked by the comparison of priming effects induced by 14C-glucose in organic and mineral horizons of modern as well as of paleo-soils (podzol sandy soil Yamalo-Nenezky region, Tumen). The following variables were determined in 50-days incubation experiment: 1) dynamics of CO2 evolution; 2) 14CO2 originated from the added glucose; 3) microbial biomass C by substrate-induced respiration; 4) activities of extracellular enzymes (?-glucosidase, chitinase, cellobiogidrolase and xylanase) with fluorogenically labeled substrates. Maximal intensity of SOM mineralization as well as of enzyme activities was observed at 2 -7 days after glucose application. The absolute values of PE were 10 times greater in modern as compared with buried horizons of paleo-soils. However, the relative increase in carbon mineralization (as compared with control soil without glucose amendment) was greater in buried than in modern soils, especially in mineral soil horizons. In organic horizons the PE amounted for 20 and 50 % of untreated control in modern and in paleo-soils, respectively. In mineral horizons the PE amount (in % of control) reached 60 % for modern and 250 % for paleo-soils. We conclude that the input of fresh organic matter in paleo-soils as well as in deep soil horizons can induce greater PE as compared with topsoil layers. This conclusion was further confirmed by the increased activity of hydrolytic enzymes during PE in modern and in buried soils. Reference: Fontaine S, Barot S, Barre P, Bdioui N, Mary B, Rumpel C (2007) Stability of organic carbon in deep soil layers controlled by fresh carbon supply. Nature 450:277-280

Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Zhuravleva, Anna; Blagodatsky, Sergey; Yakimov, Artem; Demkin, Vitaly; Kuzyakov, Yakov

2010-05-01

74

The morphology of cells and the biomass of microorganisms in the buried paleosols and modern steppe soils of the Lower Volga region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The morphology of microbial cells was studied, and the biomass of microorganisms was estimated in the modern steppe soils and paleosols buried under kurgans in the Lower Volga region with the methods of electron microscopy. The shape and ultrastructure of the cells in the modern soils and paleosols were similar, though their average volumes differed (0.37 and 0.28 ?m3, respectively). The portion of cells with a volume above 1 ?m3 in the surface soils and paleosols reached 10.9 and 9.2%, respectively, and the portion of cells with a volume less than 0.01 ?m3 in the surface soils was 10% lower than that in the buried paleosols. It was found that the cells of the microorganisms have an external organomineral layer, which increases the cell volume by 4.9 times, and this fact was taken into account in the calculation of the microbial biomass. In the chestnut and light chestnut paleosols, the latter comprised 1500 and 230 ?g of C/g soil, respectively.

Kashirskaya, N. N.; Khomutova, T. E.; Dmitriev, V. V.; Duda, V. I.; Suzina, N. E.; Demkin, V. A.

2010-10-01

75

Wavenumber prediction and measurement of axisymmetric waves in buried fluid-filled pipes: Inclusion of shear coupling at a lubricated pipe/soil interface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acoustic methods have been widely used to detect water leaks in buried fluid-filled pipes, and these technologies also have the potential to locate buried pipes and cables. Relatively predictable for metal pipes, there is considerably more uncertainty with plastic pipes, as the wave propagation behaviour becomes highly coupled between the pipe wall, the contained fluid and surrounding medium. Based on the fully three-dimensional effect of the surrounding soil, pipe equations for n=0 axisymmetric wave motion are derived for a buried, fluid-filled pipe. The characteristics of propagation and attenuation are analysed for two n=0 waves, the s=1 wave and s=2 wave, which correspond to a predominantly fluid-borne wave and a compressional wave predominantly in the shell, respectively. At the pipe/soil interface, two extreme cases may be considered in order to investigate the effects of shear coupling: the "slip" condition representing lubricated contact; and the "no slip" condition representing compact contact. Here, the "slip" case is considered, for which, at low frequencies, analytical expressions can be derived for the two wavenumbers, corresponding to the s=1 and s=2 waves. These are both then compared with the situations in which there is no surrounding soil and in which the pipe is surrounded by fluid only, which cannot support shear. It is found that the predominant effect of shear at the pipe/soil interface is to add stiffness along with damping due to radiation. For the fluid-dominated wave, this causes the wavespeed to increase and increases the wave attenuation. For the shell-dominated wave there is little effect on the wavespeed but a marked increase in wave attenuation. Comparison with experimental measurements confirms the theoretical findings.

Muggleton, J. M.; Yan, J.

2013-03-01

76

Accretion and canal impacts in a rapidly subsiding wetland. III. A new soil horizon marker method for measuring recent accretion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new methodology used on a large scale is reported by which short-term (?1 yr) marsh accretion rates were measured in saltwater\\u000a and brackish marshes and compared to first-time measurements made in freshwater marshes. The stable rare-earth elements (REE)\\u000a dysprosium and samarium were used for soil horizon markers that were collected by a cryogenic field coring method and detected\\u000a by

R. M. Knaus; D. L. Van Gent

1989-01-01

77

Phenolic compounds and terpenes in soil organic horizon layers under silver birch, Norway spruce and Scots pine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to monitor the concentration of some plant secondary metabolites, such as low- and high-molecular-weight\\u000a phenolics, condensed tannins (proanthocyanidins), and sesqui-, di- and triterpenes, in litter (L), fermentation (F) and humified\\u000a (H) layers of the soil organic horizon in stands dominated by silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and Scots

Sanna Kanerva; Veikko Kitunen; Jyrki Loponen; Aino Smolander

2008-01-01

78

Buried Ends  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

7 August 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a flow or landslide feature on a hillslope facing north (toward top/upper right) that is buried on both ends. Both the uphill portion of the slide (just below the center of the image) and the bottom end of the slide, or flow feature (near the upper right corner of the image), is buried. Whether this partially buried landform was formed by simple, dry mass movement (a landslide) or by flow of an ice-rich material, is unclear. The features in this image occur among the massifs located east of the Hellas basin.

Location near: 45.6oS, 248.5oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Autumn

2006-01-01

79

Structural properties of dissolved organic carbon in deep horizons of an arable soil.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this work is to quantity the DOC that percolates in deep horizons of an arable soil, and to characterize the structural properties of the main fractions. The study was conducted on the long term observatory for environmental research- biogeochemical cycles and biodiversity Lusignan site-France. DOC collected using lysimeter plates inserted to a depth of 105 cm was fractionated into 3 fractions using the two column array of XAD-8 and XAD-4 resins. The HPO (hydrophobic) fraction (i.e. humic substances) isolated from the XAD-8 resin, the TPH (Transphilic) fraction from the XAD-4 resin and the HPI (hydrophilic) fraction which corresponds to the DOC that does not adsorbed onto the two resins under the acid condition used (pH 2). DOM adsorbed onto the resins is recovered with a 75%/25% acetonitrile/water mixture and lyophilized. The hydrophilic fraction is purified according the protocol proposed by Aiken and Leenheer (1993). The isolated fractions were subjected to several characterization tools: UV/Vis, fluorescence EEM, HPSEC/UV/DOC, 13C NMR, 14C dating, FT-IR, pyrolysis, thermochemolysis and MSSV GC/MS. The DOC content ranged from 1 to 2.5 mg / L between winter and the middle of spring and then to 4-5 mg / L in summer time. For all isolated fractions HPSEC analyses indicated the predominance of low molecular structures with a low aromatic character. Fluorescence EEM confirmed the non-humic character of the DOM. 13C-NMR spectra showed that the aromatic character decreased from HPO to TPH, and HPI character. Molecular size follows the same trend. HPI DOM was found to be strongly enriched in carboxyl groups. The 14C concentration of the HPO fraction corresponds to an apparent calibrated age around AD 1500. For the same fraction isolated from the 0 - 30 cm horizon, the measured 14C concentration 131.9 pMC corresponds to that in the atmosphere around AD 1978. Significant input of terpenoid derived organic matter was confirmed in the HPO fraction of DOC, results supported by the data of 13C NMR, FT-IR and Micro Scale Sealed Vessel / pyrolysis GC / MS. Flash pyrolysis GC / MS chromatogram highlight the presence of phenol and alkyl phenols, generally attributed to structures polyhydroxyaromatic structures. Acetamide, a pyrolysis product of amino sugars constituents of microbial cell wall is also significantly present. The thermochimiolysis (TMAH)/GC/ MS confirmed the presence of hydroxy aromatic structures in the extracts; however, their precise origin (lignin, tannins ...) remains uncertain.

Lavaud, A.; Croué, Jp; Berwick, L.; Steffens, M.; Chabbi, A.

2010-05-01

80

Effects of Future Warming and Fire Regime Change on Boreal Soil Organic Horizons and Permafrost Dynamics in Interior Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is evidence that ongoing climate change is affecting fire frequency, extent, and severity in the interior boreal region of Alaska, and these changes are likely to continue into the future. In this study we couple a landscape fire dynamics model with an ecosystem model in an application to evaluate the long term effects of changes in climate and fire regime on soil organic horizons and permafrost dynamics in interior Alaska. Changes in fire regime were simulated by the Alaska Frame-based Ecosystem Code (ALFRESCO) model driven by downscaled GCM climate outputs from CCCMA-CGCM3.1 and MPI ECHAM5 models using the A1B scenario at 1km x 1 km resolution for the Yukon River Basin in Alaska. The outputs of ALFRESCO were used to drive the dynamic organic soil version of the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (DOS-TEM). ALFRESCO simulated fire activity would be enhanced through the middle of the 21st Century, after which fire activity would revert to pre-1990 levels because of a shift in forest composition (i.e., fuels) to a greater fraction of deciduous forest. The model framework estimated that the fibrous organic horizon would lose C through the middle of the 21st Century for the warmer ECHAM5 scenario, but would gain C throughout the 21st Century for the CCCMA scenario. The amorphous organic horizon lost C through the 21st Century for both scenarios. The active layer deepened across the basin from about 1 m to between 1.6 and 1.8 m by the middle of the century and then returned to current depth by the end of the 21st Century. These results suggest that it is important to couple changes in the soil organic horizons of boreal ecosystems to permafrost dynamics in order to fully understand the effects of changes in climate and fire regime on regional boreal ecosystem C storage.

Yuan, F.; McGuire, A. D.; Yi, S.; Euskirchen, E. S.; Rupp, T. S.; Breen, A. L.; Kurkowski, T.; Kasischke, E. S.; Harden, J. W.

2011-12-01

81

Contamination of the O2 soil horizon by zinc smelting and its effect on woodlouse survival  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Samples of litter from the 02 horizon of Dekalb soil (loamyskeletal, mixed, mesic Typic Dystrochrept) were collected from 18 ridgetop sites on a transect that ran by two Zn smelters in Palmerton, Pa. Metal concentrations increased by regular gradations from a minimum at a site 105 km west of the smelters (67 mg/kg Zn, 0.85 mg/kg Cd, 150 mg/kg Pb, 11 mg/kg Cu) to a maximum 1.2 km east of the smelters (35,000 mg/kg Zn, 1300 mg/kg Cd, 3200 mg/kg Pb, 280 mg/kg Cu), and then decreased until they reached an eastern minimum at the easternmost site, 19 km from the smelters. An increase in the P concentrations near the smelters showed that the emissions were disrupting nutrient flow through the ecosystem. An increase in the pH near the smelters was attributed to the high concentrations of Zn. The log of the distance of the sites from the smelters was significantly correlated (r = - 0.80, p < 0.05) with the mortality of woodlice (Porcellio scaber Latreille} fed samples of the litter during an 8-week test. There was substantial mortality of woodlice observed even in the 02 litter collected 19 km east of the smelters. Zinc, cadmium, lead, copper, and sulfur were experimentally added, alone or in combination, to 02 litter collected far from any known source of metal emissions. The highest concentration of Zn added (20,000 mg/kg) was toxic enough to account for the mortality observed in the earlier test. A lower concentration of Zn (5000 mg/kg) as well as the concentration of Cd (500 mg/kg) tested also significantly (p < 0.05) increased the mortality of woodlice.

Beyer, W.N.; Miller, G.W.; Cromartie, E.J.

1984-01-01

82

Preliminary systems design study assessment report. [Evaluation of using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and surrounding contaminated soil  

SciTech Connect

The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each. This volume contains the descriptions and other relevant information of the four subsystems required for most of the ex situ processing systems. This volume covers the metal decontamination and sizing subsystem, soils processing subsystem, low-level waste subsystem, and retrieval subsystem.

Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

1992-01-01

83

Metal(loid) bioaccessibility dictates microbial community composition in acid sulfate soil horizons and sulfidic drain sediments.  

PubMed

Microbial community compositions were determined for three soil horizons and drain sediments within an anthropogenically disturbed coastal acid sulfate landscape using 16S rRNA gene tagged 454 pyrosequencing. Diversity analyses were problematic due to the high microbiological heterogeneity between each geochemical replicate. Taxonomic analyses combined with measurements of metal(loid) bioaccessibility identified significant correlations to genera (5% phylogenetic distance) abundances. A number of positive correlations between genera abundance and bioaccessible metals concentrations were observed, indicating that metal(loid) tolerance influences microbial community compositions in these types of landscapes. Of note, Mn was highly bioaccessible (? 24% total soil Mn); and Mn bioaccessibility positively correlated to Acidobacterium abundance, but negatively correlated to Holophaga abundance. Two unidentified archaeal genera belonging to Crenarchaeota were also correlated to bioaccessible Mn concentrations, suggesting these genera can exploit Mn redox chemistry. PMID:25000450

Stroud, Jacqueline L; Low, Adrian; Collins, Richard N; Manefield, Mike

2014-08-01

84

Evaluation of the graphite electrode DC arc furnace for the treatment of INEL buried wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The past practices of DOE and its predecessor agencies in burying radioactive and hazardous wastes have left DOE with the responsibility of remediating large volumes of buried wastes and contaminated soils. The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID), has chosen to evaluate treatment of buried wastes at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Because of the characteristics of the buried wastes,

J. E. Surma; C. J. Freeman; T. D. Powell; D. R. Cohn; D. L. Smatlak; P. Thomas; P. P. Woskov; R. A. Hamilton; C. H. Titus; J. K. Wittle

1993-01-01

85

Laser ablation ICP-MS and traditional micromorphological techniques applied to the study of different genetic horizons in thin sections: soil genesis and trace element distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work focuses on an innovative methodological approach to investigate in situ chemical composition of trace and rare earth (REE) elements in discrete soil features from different soil horizons: laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was applied to clay coatings, pedogenic matrix and skeletal parent rock fragments in thin sections, coupled with traditional pedological investigations, specially clay mineralogy and micromorphology. Analyses were performed on 80 ?m-thick sections obtained from undisturbed soil samples, which represent three reddish argillic (Bt) horizons from an Alfisol developed on late Pleistocene slope deposits and three brown organic-mineral (A) horizons from an Entisol formed on Holocene aggrading fluvial sediments in the Muravera area (southeast Sardinia, Italy). Validation of the LA-ICP-MS technique provides in situ accurate and reproducible (RSD 13-18%) analysis of low concentration trace elements in the studied soil samples (0.001-0.1 ppm). Our results showed a high reliability of this method on soil thin sections and revealed that concentrations of trace and rare earth elements in the different portions of a soil profile can be used to investigate their distribution, as a response to soil-forming processes. A general trend of increase of most trace elements from rock fragments to (both clayey and organic-rich) soil matrix, to clay coatings in argillic horizons is clearly highlighted. On this basis a prominent role of pedogenetic processes in element fractionation and distribution during weathering can be supposed. In particular, element adsorption onto reactive sites of organic matter and clay particles (and possibly Fe-oxyhydroxides) and clay illuviation appear the main pedogenetic processes able to promote element enrichment after their release from the weathering of primary minerals. As clay coatings exhibit the highest concentration of trace elements, and specifically of REEs, and represent the most mobile solid phase in the soil profile, this tool can be used as a reliable indicator of soil weathering after a preliminary assessment of illuvial clay pedofeatures. This feature is consistent with a progressively increasing time of soil development, testified by the older age of the Alfisol than the Entisol profile. Such a result is also supported by a comparison of trace element concentrations between the clay and the fine earth fractions of the bulk soil horizons performed with ICP-MS in solution, showing REE enrichment in the clays from the former soil. Moreover, trace element patterns show some discontinuous trends among soil features of different horizons, coherently with erosive and/or depositional discontinuities described in the field.

Scarciglia, Fabio; Barca, Donatella; de Rosa, Rosanna; Pulice, Iolanda; Vacca, Andrea

2010-05-01

86

Contribution of separate solid-phase components to the formation of the cation exchange capacity in the main genetic horizons of meadow-chestnut soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different types of cation exchange capacity (CEC) and related chemical properties were determined in the main genetic horizons of meadow-chestnut soils in the mesodepressions at the Dzhanybek Research Station of the Institute of Forestry of the Russian Academy of Sciences. In the A horizon, the CEC is mainly due to the organic matter from the clay and coarse fractions, which provides 36% of the soil CEC, and to labile silicates and other clay minerals of the clay fraction. In the Bt horizon, the CEC is mainly provided by the labile minerals of the clay fraction and organic matter of the clay and coarse fractions. The standard soil CEC was found to be significantly higher than the sum of the exchangeable cations in the A horizon and slightly lower than the sum of the exchangeable cations in the Bt and Bca2 horizons. This difference can be related to the fact that the NH{4/+} ion, which is selectively adsorbed by clay minerals, is used as a displacing cation during the determination of the exchangeable bases, while the Ba2+ ion, which is more selectively adsorbed by organic matter, is used during the determination of the standard CEC. In all the genetic horizons, the experimentally determined value of the standard CEC almost coincides with the CEC value obtained by summing the standard CECs of the different particle-size fractions with account for their contents; hence, this parameter is additive in nature.

Shashkova, G. V.; Tolpeshta, I. I.; Sizemskaya, M. L.; Sokolova, T. A.

2009-12-01

87

Temporal Changes in the Ectomycorrhizal Community in Two Soil Horizons of a Temperate Oak Forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

The species structure of an ectomycorrhizal (ECM) community was assessed monthly for 15 months in the two horizons (A1 and A2) of an oak temperate forest in northeastern France. Ectomycorrhizal species were identified each month by internal transcribed spacer sequencing. Seventy-five fungal symbionts were identified. The community was dominated by Tomentellaceae, Russulaceae, Cortinariaceae, and Boletales. Four species are abundant in

Pierre-Emmanuel Courty; Alain Franc; Jean-Claude Pierrat; Jean Garbaye

2008-01-01

88

Soils  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of the handout is to identify the three major types of soils: pedalfer, pedocal, and laterite, and to understand the soil profile. This is accomplished with brief descriptions of the soil horizons and the designation of common elements to pedalfers, pedocals, and laterite soils. The handout is concluded with a discussion of soil erosion. Links are provided to the online Physical Geology resources at Georgia Perimeter College.

Gore, Pamela

1995-08-29

89

Modeling of buried explosions  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory has been and continues developing techniques for modeling buried explosions using a large geotechnical centrifuge. When fully developed, the techniques should permit the accurate modeling of large explosions in complex geometries. Our intentional application is to study the phenomena of explosive cavity formation and collapse. However, the same methods should also be applicable to simulation of bursts shallow enough to produce craters, and perhaps even of airbursts in situations where soil overburden is important. We have placed primary emphasis on test bed construction methods and on accurate measurement of the ground shock produced by the explosions. 8 refs., 7 figs.

Gaffney, E.S.; Wohletz, K.H.; House, J.W.; Brown, J.A.

1987-01-01

90

Electromagnetic scattering from buried objects  

SciTech Connect

Radar imaging and detection of objects buried in soil has potentially important applications in the areas of nonproliferation of weapons, environmental monitoring, hazardous-waste site location and assessment, and even archeology. In order to understand and exploit this potential, it is first necessary to understand how the soil responds to an electromagnetic wave, and how targets buried within the soil scatter the electromagnetic wave. We examine the response of the soil to a short pulse, and illustrate the roll of the complex dielectric permittivity of the soil in determining radar range resolution. This leads to a concept of an optimum frequency and bandwidth for imaging in a particular soil. We then propose a new definition for radar cross section which is consistent with the modified radar equation for use with buried targets. This radar cross section plays the same roll in the modified radar equation as the traditional radar cross section does in the free-space radar equation, and is directly comparable to it. The radar cross section of several canonical objects in lossy media is derived, and examples are given for several object/soil combinations.

Brock, B.C.; Sorensen, K.W.

1994-10-01

91

Sarret G., Balesdent J., Bouziri L., Garnier J. M., Marcus M. A., Geoffroy N., Panfili F., and Manceau A. (2004) Zn speciation in the organic horizon of a contaminated soil by micro X-ray fluorescence,  

E-print Network

., and Manceau A. (2004) Zn speciation in the organic horizon of a contaminated soil by micro X-ray fluorescence speciation in the organic horizon of a contaminated soil by micro X-ray fluorescence, micro and powder EXAFS, micro and powder EXAFS spectroscopy and isotopic dilution. Environ. Sci. Technol. 38, 2792-2801. Zn

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

92

The distribution and genesis of calcic horizons in some soils of the Texas Coast Prairie  

E-print Network

. Ehrlich et al. (1967) found that high carbonate levels in parent materials were related to thinner sola and retarded soil development; no direct link to clay illuviation was cited however. A gravelly soil formed in Wisconsin-age glacial deposits dated...

Sobecki, Terrence Michael

2012-06-07

93

Spatial Variability and Correlation of Selected Soil Properties in the AP Horizon of the CRP Grassland  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Knowledge of the spatial variability of soil properties in agricultural fields is important for implementing various precision agricultural management practices. This paper examines spatial variation of selected soil physical and chemical properties and explores their spatial correlation in the A ho...

94

A classification system for buried paleosols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paleosols formed on prior surfaces of the geologic past and include buried, exhumed, and relict kinds. Exhumed and relict ones are subaerial and have been classified according to systems of classification for other soils at this interface. One of these systems, Soil Taxonomy, includes relict and exhumed paleosols with the subaerial (ground) soils, but would need extensive modification to include

W. D. Nettleton; B. R. Brasher; E. C. Benham; R. J. Ahrens

1998-01-01

95

Fire, temperature and nutrient responses on the C balance of arctic tundra soils from surface, mineral horizons and permafrost  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Models predict substantial release of carbon (C) from thawing permafrost as the climate warms. Therefore, determining how the decomposition of the organic matter stored in near surface permafrost is controlled represents a key research priority. Important questions remain regarding how readily decomposable the organic matter may be, as well as the extent to which microbial activity is limited by the low temperatures, the rate of new labile C inputs, and/or nitrogen (N) availability. Accurate model predictions require that these questions are addressed.Disturbances, including fire, which is becoming increasingly common in the tundra biome, may promote rates of permafrost thaw. In 2007, the Anaktuvuk River fire burned over 1,000 km2 of tundra on the North Slope of the Brooks Range, Alaska, USA, doubling the cumulative area burned in this region over the past 50 years. This fire enhanced active layer thickness by removing insulating plant biomass and exposing surfaces with low albedo. In this study we investigated how temperature, N and labile C additions affected rates of CO2 production over a one-year incubation of samples collected from different depths (topsoil, mineral horizons and near-surface permafrost) in burnt and unburnt sites within the Anaktuvik river catchment. The results show that respiration rates did not decline substantially during the 1-year incubation, indicating there were relatively large amounts of readily decomposable C present. However, decomposition rates per gram of C did decline with depth, especially in the burnt sites where some of the surface soil may have been lost. This indicates that the C present in the near surface permafrost may be less labile than C nearer the soil surface. In addition, respiration rates in the deeper horizons were more temperature sensitive, potentially reflecting the lower lability of the C present. Against expectations, N addition inhibited respiration in the deeper layers, especially at low temperatures. Labile C additions promoted the decomposition of soil organic matter in the deep soil samples, but not in the surface samples, with the positive priming effect being lost following N addition. This study indicates that there is the potential for considerable loss of C following the thaw of near-surface permafrost in Alaskan tussock tundra, although the C present may be slightly less readily decomposable than C stored nearer the surface. The decomposition of near-surface permafrost C was shown to be highly temperature sensitive and thus accurately simulating the soil thermal regime post-thaw is likely to be important in predicting rates of C release. In addition, root colonisation of previously frozen horizons may stimulate decomposition if labile C inputs increase. On the other hand, the inhibition of activity by N addition suggests that the positive feedback associated with reduced microbial N limitation in a warming Arctic may not be ubiquitous.

De Baets, S. L.; Lewis, R.; van de Weg, M. J.; Quine, T. A.; Shaver, G. R.; Hartley, I. P.

2013-12-01

96

A Mesophilic, Autotrophic, Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaeon of Thaumarchaeal Group I.1a Cultivated from a Deep Oligotrophic Soil Horizon  

PubMed Central

Soil nitrification plays an important role in the reduction of soil fertility and in nitrate enrichment of groundwater. Various ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) are considered to be members of the pool of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms in soil. This study reports the discovery of a chemolithoautotrophic ammonia oxidizer that belongs to a distinct clade of nonmarine thaumarchaeal group I.1a, which is widespread in terrestrial environments. The archaeal strain MY2 was cultivated from a deep oligotrophic soil horizon. The similarity of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain MY2 to those of other cultivated group I.1a thaumarchaeota members, i.e., Nitrosopumilus maritimus and “Candidatus Nitrosoarchaeum koreensis,” is 92.9% for both species. Extensive growth assays showed that strain MY2 is chemolithoautotrophic, mesophilic (optimum temperature, 30°C), and neutrophilic (optimum pH, 7 to 7.5). The accumulation of nitrite above 1 mM inhibited ammonia oxidation, while ammonia oxidation itself was not inhibited in the presence of up to 5 mM ammonia. The genome size of strain MY2 was 1.76 Mb, similar to those of N. maritimus and “Ca. Nitrosoarchaeum koreensis,” and the repertoire of genes required for ammonia oxidation and carbon fixation in thaumarchaeal group I.1a was conserved. A high level of representation of conserved orthologous genes for signal transduction and motility in the noncore genome might be implicated in niche adaptation by strain MY2. On the basis of phenotypic, phylogenetic, and genomic characteristics, we propose the name “Candidatus Nitrosotenuis chungbukensis” for the ammonia-oxidizing archaeal strain MY2. PMID:24705324

Jung, Man-Young; Park, Soo-Je; Kim, So-Jeong; Kim, Jong-Geol; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

2014-01-01

97

Effect of O horizon and Forest Harvest Residue Manipulations on Soil Organic Matter Content and Composition of a Loblolly Pine Plantation in the Southeastern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest harvest residues and forest floor materials are significant sources of mineral soil organic matter and nutrients for regenerating and establishing forests. Harvest residues in particular are occasionally removed, piled, or burned following harvesting. While the forest floor is never purposely removed during operational harvesting and site preparation, they could become in high demand as bioenergy markets develop. Weyerhaeuser Company established an experimental study to evaluate the effect of forest-floor manipulation on site productivity and soil carbon. This study was installed in a loblolly pine plantation near Millport, Alabama, USA on the Upper Gulf Coastal Plain to test both extremes from complete removal of harvest residues and forest floor to doubling of these materials. This study has been continuously monitored since its establishment in 1994. We have examined the effects of varying forest floor levels on the biomass, soil carbon content, and soil carbon composition in the context of these management activities. Above- and below-ground productivity, soil moisture, soil temperature, and nutrient dynamics have been related to soil organic carbon in mineral soil size/density fractionation and lignin and cutin biomarkers from the cupric oxide (CuO) oxidation technique. We have found that while removing litter and harvest residues has little effect on biomass production and soil carbon, importing litter and harvest residues increases forest productivity and soil carbon content. Interestingly, increased carbon was observed in all depths assessed (O horizon, 0-20, 20-40, and 40-60cm) suggesting that this practice may sequester organic carbon in deep soil horizons. Our biomarker analysis indicated that importing litter and harvest residues increased relative contributions from above ground sources at the 20-40cm depth and increased relative contributions from belowground sources at the 40-60cm depth. These results suggest that organic matter manipulations in managed forests can have significant effects on deep soil carbon that may be resistant to mineralization or the effects of other perturbations such as climate change.

Hatten, J.; Mack, J.; Dewey, J.; Sucre, E.; Leggett, Z.

2012-04-01

98

Frost heave induced mechanics of buried pipelines  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines the problem of the flexural interaction between a long-distance buried pipeline embedded in a soil medium that experiences differential frost heave. The modeling takes into consideration the interaction at a transition zone between a frozen region and a frost-susceptible region that experiences a time-dependent growth of a frost bulb around the buried pipeline. The heave that accompanies the development of a frost bulb induces the soil-pipeline interaction process. The analysis focuses on the development of a computational scheme that addresses the three-dimensional nature of the soil-pipeline interaction problem, the creep susceptibility of the frozen region, and a prescribed time- and stress-dependent heave in an evolving frost bulb zone. The numerical results presented in the paper illustrate the influence of the heave process and the creep behavior of the frozen soil on the displacements and stresses in the buried pipeline.

Selvadurai, A.P.S. [McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Shinde, S.B. [Canada Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada). Engineering Research and Technology Div.

1993-12-01

99

Substrate discrimination in burying beetles, Nicrophorus orbicollis (Coleoptera: Silphidae)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Burying beetles Nicrophorus orbicollis (Coleoptera: Silphidae) secure and bury small vertebrate carcasses as a food resource for their offspring and themselves. Burial may take place at the point of carcass discovery or at some distance from that site. Burying beetles were tested to determine if they discriminate between different substrates when burying a carcass. Three substrates were presented simultaneously. Substrate one contained soil from typical beetle habitat; substrates two and three contained 2:1 and 5:1 ratios, respectively, of soil and a senescent prairie grass (Panicum virgatum), which added a bulk structural component to the soil. Beetles generally moved and buried the carcass within 24 hours. Results for both paired and individual trials suggest that burying beetles discriminate between substrates, preferring substrates with added bulk over those without.

Muths, Erin Louise

1991-01-01

100

Buried late holocene paleosols of the nienshants cultural-historical monument in St. Petersburg  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Buried Late Holocene paleosols of the Nienshants historical monument at the junction of the Neva and Okhta rivers (St. Petersburg) have been studied. These soils developed from estuary deposits of the Littorina basin with abundant artifacts of the Neolithic and Early Iron ages (7-2 ka BP). The soil cover of the area consists of the mature dark-humus profile-gleyed soils on elevated elements of the mesotopography (3.0-3.5 a.s.l.) and dark-humus gley soils in the local depressions (2.0-2.6 m a.s.l.). The soils are characterized by the low to moderate content of humus of the fulvate-humate type. The beginning of humus formation in the dark-humus gley soil on the slope facing the Neva River is estimated at about 2600 yrs ago; for the darkhumus profile-gleyed soils of the studied paleocatena, at about 2000 and 1780 yrs ago; and for the darkhumus gley soil, at about 1440 years ago. Judging from the spore-pollen spectra, the development of these soils took place in the Subatlantic period under birch and pine-birch forests with the admixture of spruce and alder trees. The gleyed horizons of the buried soil at the depth of 1.6-1.2 m on the Neva-facing slope date back to the Late Subboreal period (2500-2600 yrs ago), when pine-birch-spruce forests were widespread in the area. The new data contribute to our knowledge of the environmental conditions during the Neolithic and Iron ages.

Rusakov, A. V.; Nikonov, A. A.; Savelieva, L. A.; Pinakhina, D. V.

2013-01-01

101

Treatment Horizon  

MedlinePLUS

What We Know Today Major Milestones Treatment Horizon Earlier Diagnosis Prevention Treatment Horizon "The science of Alzheimer's has advanced to show potential underlying drivers of the disease. And we have candidate ...

102

Adsorption coefficients for TNT on soil and clay minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To understand the fate and transport mechanisms of TNT from buried landmines is it essential to determine the adsorption process of TNT on soil and clay minerals. In this research, soil samples from horizons Ap and A from Jobos Series at Isabela, Puerto Rico were studied. The clay fractions were separated from the other soil components by centrifugation. Using the hydrometer method the particle size distribution for the soil horizons was obtained. Physical and chemical characterization studies such as cation exchange capacity (CEC), surface area, percent of organic matter and pH were performed for the soil and clay samples. A complete mineralogical characterization of clay fractions using X-ray diffraction analysis reveals the presence of kaolinite, goethite, hematite, gibbsite and quartz. In order to obtain adsorption coefficients (K d values) for the TNT-soil and TNT-clay interactions high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used. The adsorption process for TNT-soil was described by the Langmuir model. A higher adsorption was observed in the Ap horizon. The Freundlich model described the adsorption process for TNT-clay interactions. The affinity and relative adsorption capacity of the clay for TNT were higher in the A horizon. These results suggest that adsorption by soil organic matter predominates over adsorption on clay minerals when significant soil organic matter content is present. It was found that, properties like cation exchange capacity and surface area are important factors in the adsorption of clayey soils.

Rivera, Rosángela; Pabón, Julissa; Pérez, Omarie; Muñoz, Miguel A.; Mina, Nairmen

2007-04-01

103

Effect of Dissemination of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid (2,4-D) Degradation Plasmids on 2,4-D Degradation and on Bacterial Community Structure in Two Different Soil Horizons  

PubMed Central

Transfer of the 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) degradation plasmids pEMT1 and pJP4 from an introduced donor strain, Pseudomonas putida UWC3, to the indigenous bacteria of two different horizons (A horizon, depth of 0 to 30 cm; B horizon, depth of 30 to 60 cm) of a 2,4-D-contaminated soil was investigated as a means of bioaugmentation. When the soil was amended with nutrients, plasmid transfer and enhanced degradation of 2,4-D were observed. These findings were most striking in the B horizon, where the indigenous bacteria were unable to degrade any of the 2,4-D (100 mg/kg of soil) during at least 22 days but where inoculation with either of the two plasmid donors resulted in complete 2,4-D degradation within 14 days. In contrast, in soils not amended with nutrients, inoculation of donors in the A horizon and subsequent formation of transconjugants (105 CFU/g of soil) could not increase the 2,4-D degradation rate compared to that of the noninoculated soil. However, donor inoculation in the nonamended B-horizon soil resulted in complete degradation of 2,4-D within 19 days, while no degradation at all was observed in noninoculated soil during 89 days. With plasmid pEMT1, this enhanced degradation seemed to be due only to transconjugants (105 CFU/g of soil), since the donor was already undetectable when degradation started. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rRNA genes showed that inoculation of the donors was followed by a shift in the microbial community structure of the nonamended B-horizon soils. The new 16S rRNA gene fragments in the DGGE profile corresponded with the 16S rRNA genes of 2,4-D-degrading transconjugant colonies isolated on agar plates. This result indicates that the observed change in the community was due to proliferation of transconjugants formed in soil. Overall, this work clearly demonstrates that bioaugmentation can constitute an effective strategy for cleanup of soils which are poor in nutrients and microbial activity, such as those of the B horizon. PMID:10919784

Dejonghe, Winnie; Goris, Johan; El Fantroussi, Saïd; Höfte, Monica; De Vos, Paul; Verstraete, Willy; Top, Eva M.

2000-01-01

104

Temperature Field and Heat Transfer Analysis of Underground Buried Pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy delivering pipes which are buried in the ground will change the surrounding temperature field accompanied by energy loss. This paper established the two- dimensional temperature field mathematical model of the soil around the underground burying pipes, and simplified the third order boundary condition as the first kind of boundary condition by adopting the hypothesized surface law. Besides, it solved

Zhang Chenghu; Wang Haiyan; Sun Qiong; Sun Dexing

2011-01-01

105

The chronological position of the Lohne Soil in the Nussloch loess section - re-evaluation for a European loess-marker horizon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The loess section of Nussloch in southwestern Germany is a key profile for the reconstruction of the terrestrial palaeo-environment of central Europe at the time of the Last Glacial and Interglacial. Recently, the significance of the site for palaeo-environmental and geoarchaeological research increased additionally, with the discovery of unique Palaeolithic cultural remains from anatomically and culturally modern humans that invaded southwestern Germany during the Weichselian (Würmian) Pleniglacial period. At Nussloch, a chrono-stratigraphical key position is taken by a Middle Pleniglacial Cambisol remain which, under the designation Lohne Soil, serves as an important pedostratigraphic marker horizon for the greater area. Repeatedly, Greenland interstadial (GIS) 8 was suggested as a likely period of soil formation for the Lohne Soil. This interpretation is yet not justified on the basis of published chronometric data. Critical assessment of the data points to a later period of soil formation, likely during GIS7 to GIS5. This conclusion is supported by a new set of radiocarbon ages for the Nussloch site which are presented here for the first time. Consequences of a revised chronology for correlations of Pleniglacial Cryosols below and above the Lohne Soil with Greenland interstadials are discussed. The implications are important for European loess research as the Nussloch section serves as a reference base for loess sections throughout Europe.

Kadereit, Annette; Kind, Claus-Joachim; Wagner, Günther A.

2013-01-01

106

Dual-band infrared capabilities for imaging buried object sites  

SciTech Connect

We discuss dual-band infrared (DBIR) capabilities for imaging buried object sizes. We identify physical features affecting thermal contrast needed to distinguish buried object sites from undisturbed sites or surface clutter. Apart from atmospheric transmission and system performance, these features include: object size, shape, and burial depth; ambient soil, disturbed soil and object site thermal diffusivity differences; surface temperature, emissivity, plant-cover, slope, albedo and roughness variations; weather conditions and measurement times. We use good instrumentation to measure the time-varying temperature differences between buried object sites and undisturbed soil sites. We compare near surface soil temperature differences with radiometric infrared (IR) surface temperature differences recorded at 4.7 {plus_minus} 0.4 {mu}m and at 10.6 {plus_minus} 1.0 {mu}m. By producing selective DBIR image ratio maps, we distinguish temperature-difference patterns from surface emissivity effects. We discuss temperature differences between buried object sites, filled hole site (without buried objects), cleared (undisturbed) soil sites, and grass-covered sites (with and without different types of surface clutter). We compare temperature, emissivity-ratio, visible and near-IR reflectance signatures of surface objects, leafy plants and sod. We discuss the physical aspects of environmental, surface and buried target features affecting interpretation of buried targets, surface objects and natural backgrounds.

Del Grande, N.K.; Durbin, P.F.; Gorvad, M.R.; Perkins, D.E.; Clark, G.A.; Hernandez, J.E.; Sherwood, R.J.

1993-04-02

107

Buried paleoindian-age landscapes in stream valleys of the central plains, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A systematic study of late-Quaternary landscape evolution in the Central Plains documented widespread, deeply buried paleosols that represent Paleoindian-age landscapes in terrace fills of large streams (> 5th order), in alluvial fans, and in draws in areas of western Kansas with a thick loess mantle. Alluvial stratigraphic sections were investigated along a steep bio-climatic gradient extending from the moist-subhumid forest-prairie border of the east-central Plains to the dry-subhumid and semi-arid shortgrass prairie of the west-central Plains. Radiocarbon ages indicate that most large streams were characterized by slow aggradation accompanied by cumulic soil development from ca. 11,500 to 10,000 14C yr B.P. In the valleys of some large streams, such as the Ninnescah and Saline rivers, these processes continued into the early Holocene. The soil-stratigraphic record in the draws of western Kansas indicates slow aggradation punctuated by episodes of landscape stability and pedogenesis beginning as early as ca. 13,300 14C yr B.P. and spanning the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary. The development record of alluvial fans in western Kansas is similar to the record in the draws; slow aggradation was punctuated by multiple episodes of soil development between ca. 13,000 and 9000 14C yr B.P. In eastern Kansas and Nebraska, development of alluvial fans was common during the early and middle Holocene, but evidence shows fan development as early as ca. 11,300 14C yr B.P. Buried soils dating between ca. 12,600 and 9000 14C yr B.P. were documented in fans throughout the region. In stream valleys across the Central Plains, rapid alluviation after ca. 9000 14C yr B.P. resulted in deeply buried soils that may harbor Paleoindian cultural deposits. Hence, the paucity of recorded stratified Paleoindian sites in the Central Plains is probably related to poor visibility (i.e., deep burial in alluvial deposits) instead of limited human occupation in the region during the terminal Pleistocene and early Holocene. The thick, dark, cumulic A horizons of soils, representing buried Paleoindian-age landscapes, are targets for future archaeological surveys.

Mandel, Rolfe D.

2008-10-01

108

Nano-scale investigation of the association of microbial nitrogen residues with iron (hydr)oxides in a forest soil O-horizon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amino sugars in fungal cell walls (such as chitin) represent an important source of nitrogen (N) in many forest soil ecosystems. Despite the importance of this material in soil nitrogen cycling, comparatively little is known about abiotic and biotic controls on and the timescale of its turnover. Part of the reason for this lack of information is the inaccessibility of these materials to classic bulk extraction methods. To address this issue, we used advanced visualization tools to examine transformation pathways of chitin-rich fungal cell wall residues as they interact with microorganisms, soil organic matter and mineral surfaces. Our goal was to document initial micro-scale dynamics of the incorporation of 13C- and 15N-labeled chitin into fungi-dominated microenvironments in O-horizons of old-growth forest soils. At the end of a 3-week incubation experiment, high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry imaging of hyphae-associated soil microstructures revealed a preferential association of 15N with Fe-rich particles. Synchrotron-based scanning transmission X-ray spectromicroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS) of the same samples showed that thin organic coatings on these soil microstructures are enriched in aliphatic C and amide N on Fe (hydr)oxides, suggesting a concentration of microbial lipids and proteins on these surfaces. A possible explanation for the results of our micro-scale investigation of chemical and spatial patterns is that amide N from chitinous fungal cell walls was assimilated by hyphae-associated bacteria, resynthesized into proteinaceous amide N, and subsequently concentrated onto Fe (hydr)oxide surfaces. If confirmed in other soil ecosystems, such rapid association of microbial N with hydroxylated Fe oxide surfaces may have important implications for mechanistic models of microbial cycling of C and N.

Keiluweit, Marco; Bougoure, Jeremy J.; Zeglin, Lydia H.; Myrold, David D.; Weber, Peter K.; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Kleber, Markus; Nico, Peter S.

2012-10-01

109

Soils and cultural layers in Velikii Novgorod  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban pedosediments (cultural layers) dating back to the 10th-11th centuries AD and soddypodzolic soils buried under them were studied in two archaeological excavations in Velikii Novgorod. Stages of their development were described. It was found that the buried soddy-podzolic soils at the latest stages of their development were cultivated or were formed under meadow vegetation. Weakly developed garden soils were described in the thickness of urban pedosediments. The lowermost organic cultural layers in Velikii Novgorod were waterlogged and represented peatlike mass with well-preserved wood remains. The oxidation of organic matter, gleyzation, and vivianite formation were described in them. The upper mineral layers were enriched in brick debris and building lime. The processes of organic matter mineralization, alkalization, calcification, zoogenic turbation, and biogenic structuring were clearly manifested in this part. Soil solutions infiltrated from the cultural layers caused some alkalization of the buried soddy-podzolic soil. Diagenetic carbonates and vivianite appeared in some loci within the eluvial and the upper part of the illuvial horizon of this soil. The entire cultural layer was subjected to contamination with heavy metals.

Dolgikh, A. V.; Aleksandrovskii, A. L.

2010-05-01

110

Earthworms increase the ratio of bacteria to fungi in northern hardwood forest soils, primarily by eliminating the organic horizon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exotic earthworm invasion in hardwood forests of the northern United States is associated with many ecosystem-level changes. However, less is known about the effects of the invasion on the composition of the soil microbial community through which ecosystem-level changes are mediated. Further, earthworm effects on soil microbial community composition have not been well studied in the field. To evaluate

Mark A. Dempsey; Melany C. Fisk; Timothy J. Fahey

2011-01-01

111

Prediction of soil water retention properties after stratification by combining texture, bulk density and the type of horizon  

E-print Network

1 Prediction of soil water retention properties after stratification by combining texture, bulk water retention properties at continental and national scales because only very basic soils data (topsoil and subsoil). The performance of these class-PTFs was validated against water retained at -33

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

112

Wavy Horizons?  

E-print Network

We describe the application of a gravity wave-generating technique to certain higher dimensional black holes. We find that the induced waves generically destroy the event horizon producing parallelly propagated curvature singularities.

R. C. Myers

1998-09-14

113

Molecular Investigation of the Short-term Sequestration of Natural Abundance 13C -labelled Cow Dung in the Surface Horizons of a Temperate Grassland Soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An adequate understanding of the carbon (C) sequestration potential of grasslands requires that the quantity and residence times of C inputs be measured. Herbivore dung is largely comprised of plant cell wall material, a significant source of stable C in intensively grazed temperate grassland ecosystems that contributes to the soil carbon budget. Our work uses compound-specific isotope analysis to identify the pattern of input of dung-derived compounds from natural abundance 13C/-labelled cow dung into the surface horizons of a temperate grassland soil over one year. C4 dung (? 13C \\-12.6 ‰ ) from maize fed cows was applied to a temperate grassland surface (? 13C \\-29.95 ‰ ) at IGER-North Wyke (Devon, UK), and dung remains and soil cores beneath the treatments collected at ? = 7, 14, 28, 56, 112, 224 and 372 days. Bulk dung carbon present in the 0\\-1 cm and 1\\-5 cm surface horizons of a grassland soil over one year was estimated using ? 13C between C4 dung and C3 dung, after Bol {\\et al.} (2000). The major biochemical components of dung were quantified using proximate forage fibre analyses, after Goering and Van Soest (1970) and identified using `wet' chemical and GC-MS methods. Plant cell wall polysaccharides and lignin were found to account for up to 67 {%} of dung dry matter. Hydrolysed polysaccharides were prepared as alditol acetates for analyses (after Docherty {\\et al.}, 2001), and a novel application of an off-line pyrolysis method applied to measure lignin-derived phenolic compounds (after Poole & van Bergen, 2002). This paper focuses on major events in the incorporation of dung carbon, estimated using natural abundance 13C&-slash;labelling technique. This revealed a major bulk input of dung carbon after a period of significant rainfall with a consequent decline in bulk soil ? 13C values until the end of the experiment (Dungait {\\et al.}, submitted). Findings will be presented revealing contribution of plant cell wall polysaccharides and lignin to these bulk ? 13C values, and their potential for sequestration considered. References: Bol, R., Amelung, W., Friedrich, C. Ostle, N. (2000). Tracing dung-derived carbon in temperate grassland using 13C natural abundance measurements. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 32, 1337-1343. Goering and Van Soest (1970). Forage fibre analysis (apparatus, reagents, procedures and some applications). In: USDA-ARS Agricultural Handbook, 379. U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington D.C. Docherty, G., Jones, V. and Evershed, R.P. (2001). Practical and theoretical considerations in the gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry ? 13C analysis of small polyfunctional compounds. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 15, 730-738. Poole, I. & van Bergen, P. F. (2002). Carbon isotope ratio analysis of organic moieties from fossil mummified wood: establishing optimum conditions for off-line pyrolysis extraction using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 16, 1976-1981. Dungait, J. A. J., Bol, R. and Evershed, R.P. (submitted). The Fate of Dung Carbon in Temperate Grassland Soil: 1. Preliminary Findings Based on Bulk Stable Carbon Isotope Determinations. Isotopes in Health and Environmental Studies

Dungait, J.; Bol, R.; Evershed, R. P.

2004-12-01

114

Diversity of cultured microfungal communities in surface horizons of soils on different lithologies in Upper Galilee, Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Topsoil microfungal communities from two closely spaced sites on different lithologies in the Upper Galilee area, Israel, were analyzed and compared. The sites are located in a pasture, with pristine Mediterranean maquis completely destroyed, presumably, about 2000years ago. The bedrock lithology in the area determines the key differences in mineralogical composition of the soils on chalk and basaltic rocks. Because

Isabella Grishkan; Alexander Tsatskin; Eviatar Nevo

2008-01-01

115

Horizon Calendar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity enables students to better understand the motion of the Sun and how we use it to measure time. Students create a "horizon calendar" at their school by carefully observing and recording the horizon and the Sun at sunset (or sunrise, for early risers) over a period of weeks or months. Part 1 of this activity can be done as a whole group and involves selecting and drawing a detailed map of the site. Part 2 of this activity can be done as a whole group and involves determining the direction west and drawing the horizon line. Part 3 should be done by the teacher since it involves making weekly observations at sunset (or sunrise), which is outside of regular school hours. Part 4 can be done with the whole class and involves using the data from the observations to calculate the average rate of change in sunset time and respond to discussion questions. The activity is not time-consuming, but must be conducted over a period of at least a few weeks. It is best as a semester unit, or even a project for the entire school year. Also, the best time of year to run this activity is around the equinoxes: March and September. The lesson plan includes discussion questions, background information about desert horizons, and a math extension activity in which students calculate how the time of sunrise or sunset changes from day to day. This activity is the sixth lesson in the Ancient Eyes Look to the Skies curriculum guide.

116

Variation of MCPA, metribuzine, methyltriazine-amine and glyphosate degradation, sorption, mineralization and leaching in different soil horizons.  

PubMed

Pesticide mineralization and sorption were determined in 75 soil samples from 15 individually drilled holes through the vadose zone along a 28km long transect of the Danish outwash plain. Mineralization of the phenoxyacetic acid herbicide MCPA was high both in topsoils and in most subsoils, while metribuzine and methyltriazine-amine was always low. Organic matter and soil pH was shown to be responsible for sorption of MCPA and metribuzine in the topsoils. The sorption of methyltriazine-amine in topsoil was positively correlated with clay and negatively correlated with the pH of the soil. Sorption of glyphosate was tested also high in the subsoils. One-dimensional MACRO modeling of the concentration of MCPA, metribuzine and methyltriazine-amine at 2m depth calculated that the average concentration of MCPA and methyltriazine-amine in the groundwater was below the administrative limit of 0.1mug/l in all tested profiles while metribuzine always exceeded the 0.1mug/l threshold value. PMID:18639963

Jacobsen, Carsten S; van der Keur, Peter; Iversen, Bo V; Rosenberg, Per; Barlebo, Heidi C; Torp, Søren; Vosgerau, Henrik; Juhler, René K; Ernstsen, Vibeke; Rasmussen, Jim; Brinch, Ulla Catrine; Jacobsen, Ole Hørbye

2008-12-01

117

HORIZON SENSING  

SciTech Connect

With the aid of a DOE grant (No. DE-FC26-01NT41050), Stolar Research Corporation (Stolar) developed the Horizon Sensor (HS) to distinguish between the different layers of a coal seam. Mounted on mining machine cutter drums, HS units can detect or sense the horizon between the coal seam and the roof and floor rock, providing the opportunity to accurately mine the section of the seam most desired. HS also enables accurate cutting of minimum height if that is the operator's objective. Often when cutting is done out-of-seam, the head-positioning function facilitates a fixed mining height to minimize dilution. With this technology, miners can still be at a remote location, yet cut only the clean coal, resulting in a much more efficient overall process. The objectives of this project were to demonstrate the feasibility of horizon sensing on mining machines and demonstrate that Horizon Sensing can allow coal to be cut cleaner and more efficiently. Stolar's primary goal was to develop the Horizon Sensor (HS) into an enabling technology for full or partial automation or ''agile mining''. This technical innovation (R&D 100 Award Winner) is quickly demonstrating improvements in productivity and miner safety at several prominent coal mines in the United States. In addition, the HS system can enable the cutting of cleaner coal. Stolar has driven the HS program on the philosophy that cutting cleaner coal means burning cleaner coal. The sensor, located inches from the cutting bits, is based upon the physics principles of a Resonant Microstrip Patch Antenna (RMPA). When it is in proximity of the rock-coal interface, the RMPA impedance varies depending on the thickness of uncut coal. The impedance is measured by the computer-controlled electronics and then sent by radio waves to the mining machine. The worker at the machine can read the data via a Graphical User Interface, displaying a color-coded image of the coal being cut, and direct the machine appropriately. The Horizon Sensor program began development in 1998 and experienced three major design phases. The final version, termed HS-3, was commissioned in 2000 with the assistance of the DOE-Mining Industry of the Future program, commercialized in 2002, and has been used 14 times in 12 different mines within the United States. The Horizon Sensor has applications in both underground and surface mining operations. This technology is primarily used in the coal industry, but is also used to mine trona and potash. All horizon sensor components have Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) (United States) and IEC (International) certification. Horizon Sensing saves energy by maximizing cutting efficiency, cutting only desired material. This desired material is cleaner fuel, therefore reducing pollutants to the atmosphere when burned and burning more efficiently. Extracting only desired material increases productivity by reducing or eliminating the cleaning step after extraction. Additionally, this technology allows for deeper mining, resulting in more material gained from one location. The remote sensing tool allows workers to operate the machinery away from the hazards of cutting coal, including noise, breathing dust and gases, and coal and rock splintering and outbursts. The HS program has primarily revolved around the development of the technology. However, the end goal of the program has always been the commercialization of the technology and only within the last 2 years of the program has this goal been realized. Real-time horizon sensing on mining machines is becoming an industry tool. Detailed monitoring of system function, user experience, and mining benefits is ongoing.

Larry G. Stolarczyk

2003-03-18

118

In situ vitrification of buried waste: Containment issues and suppression systems  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are developing a remedial action technology for buried waste through the adaptation of the in situ vitrification (ISV) process. The ISV process is a thermal treatment process originally developed for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to stabilize soils contaminated with transuranic waste. ISV tests with buried waste forms have demonstrated that the processing of buried waste is more dynamic than the processing of soils. This paper will focus on the issue of containment of the gases released during the processing of buried waste and on engineered suppression systems to alleviate transient events associated with dynamic off-gassing from the ISV melt.

Luey, J.; Powell, T.D.

1992-03-01

119

DOE complex buried waste characterization assessment  

SciTech Connect

The work described in this report was conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to provide information to the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. The information in this report is intended to provide a complex-wide planning base for th.e BWID to ensure that BWID activities are appropriately focused to address the range of remediation problems existing across the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. This report contains information characterizing the 2.1 million m[sup 3] of buried and stored wastes and their associated sites at six major DOE facilities. Approximately 85% of this waste is low-level waste, with about 12% TRU or TRU mixed waste; the remaining 3% is low-level mixed waste. In addition, the report describes soil contamination sites across the complex. Some of the details that would be useful in further characterizing the buried wastes and contaminated soil sites across the DOE complex are either unavailable or difficult to locate. Several options for accessing this information and/or improving the information that is available are identified in the report. This document is a companion to Technology Needs for Remediation: Hanford and Other DOE Sites, PNL-8328 (Stapp 1993).

Kaae, P.S.; Holter, G.M.; Garrett, S.M.K.

1993-01-01

120

Variability of organic material in surface horizons of the hyper-arid Mars-like soils of the Atacama Desert  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this work was to investigate the variability of surface organic carbon within the hyper-arid Yungay region of the Atacama Desert. The fraction of Labile Organic Carbon (LOC) in these samples varied from 2 to 73 ?g per gram of soil with a bi-modal distribution with average content of 17 ± 9 ?g LOC and 69 ± 3 ?g LOC for "low" and "high" samples, respectively. Interestingly, there was no relation between organic levels and geomorphologic shapes. While organics are deposited and distributed in these soils via eolic processes, it is suggested that fog is the dynamic mechanism that is responsible for the variability and peaks in organic carbon throughout the area, where a "high" LOC content sample could be indicative of a biological process. It was determined that there was no significant difference between topological feature or geographical position within the hyper-arid samples and LOC. This very curious result has implications for the investigation of run-off gullies on the planet Mars as our work suggests a need for careful consideration of the expectation of increases in concentrations of organic materials associated with following aqueous altered topology.

Fletcher, Lauren E.; Valdivia-Silva, Julio E.; Perez-Montaño, Saul; Condori-Apaza, Renee M.; Conley, Catharine A.; McKay, Christopher P.

2012-01-01

121

Bury Me Not!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into decomposition. Groups of learners will carefully observe and record the appearance of items, such as an apple, that can decompose, taking weights, measurements, and noting other physical markings. The items are then buried in buckets of various earth materials for at least two weeks. Learners will then dig up the objects to inspect, record observations to compare with their previous notes, and graph changes over time. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV GPS: Bogs.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2006-01-01

122

Influences of quaternary climatic changes on processes of soil development on desert loess deposits of the Cima volcanic field, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Soils formed in loess are evidence of both relict and buried landscapes developed on Pliocene-to-latest Pleistocene basalt flows of the Cima volcanic field in the eastern Mojave Desert, California. The characteristics of these soils change systematically and as functions of the age and surface morphology of the lava flow. Four distinct phases of soil development are recognized: phase 1 - weakly developed soils on flows less than 0.18 M.y. old; phase 2 - strongly developed soils with thick argillic horizons on 0.18 - 0.7 M.y. old flows; phase 3 - strongly developed soils with truncated argillic horizons massively impregnated by carbonate on 0.7 to 1.1 M.y. old flows; and phase 4 - degraded soils with petrocalcic rubble on Pliocene flows. A critical aspect of the development of stage 1 soils is the evolution of a vesicular A horizon which profoundly affects the infiltration characteristics of the loess parent materials. Laboratory studies show that secondary gypsum and possibly other salt accumulation probably occurred during the period of phase 1 soil development. Slight reddening of the interiors of peds from vesicular-A horizons of phase 1 soils and presence of weakly developed B horizons indicates a slight degree of in situ chemical alteration. However, clay and Fe oxide contents of these soils show that these constituents, as well as carbonates and soluble salts, are incorporated as eolian dust. In contrast to phase 1 soils, chemical and mineralogical analysis of argillic horizons of phase 2 soils indicate proportionally greater degrees of in-situ chemical alteration. These data, the abundant clay films, and the strong reddening in the thick argillic horizons suggest that phase 2 and phase 3 soils formed during long periods of time and periodically were subjected to leaching regimes more intense than those that now exist. Flow-age data and soil-stratigraphic evidence also indicate that several major loess-deposition events occurred during the past ??? 1.0 M.y. Loess events are attributed to past changes in climate, such as the Pleistocene-to-Holocene climatic change, that periodically caused regional desiccation of pluvial lakes, reduction of vegetational density, and exposure of loose, unconsolidated fine materials. During times of warmer interglacial climates, precipitation infiltrates to shallower depths than during glacial periods. Extensive, saline playas which developed in the Mojave Desert during the Holocene are a likely source of much of the carbonates and soluble salts that are accumulating at shallow depths both in phase 1 soils and in the formerly noncalcareous, nongypsiferous argillic horizons of phase 2 and 3 soils. ?? 1986.

McFadden, L.D.; Wells, S.G.; Dohrenwend, J.C.

1986-01-01

123

Filial cannibalism in burying beetles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infanticide is a common phenomenon in many animal groups, but filial cannibalism, the deliberate killing and consumption by parents of their own young, is extremely unusual. The burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides Herbst has a limited food supply, in the form of a buried corpse, on which to raise its young. On corpses weighing 10–15 g, clutch size in the lab

J. Bartlett

1987-01-01

124

High water-loss rates and rapid dehydration in the burying beetle, Nicrophorus marginatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the summer months, there is a high mortality of burying beetle (Coleoptera: Silphidae) species in pitfall traps containing dry soil. The present study investigated the possibility that the burying beetle Nicrophorus marginatus is highly susceptible to death from desiccation. In the laboratory, adult beetles lose 1-5% body mass per hour in low humidity conditions (25-30% relative humid- ity), depending

JON C. B EDICK; W. W Y ATT; C. A LBRECHT

125

Soils of paleocryogenic hummocky-hollow landscapes in the southern Baikal region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The features of ancient periglacial phenomena are widespread in landscapes lying beyond the modern permafrost zone. The specificity of the paleogeographic conditions in the south of the Baikal region resulted in the formation of paleocryogenic landscapes with hummocky-hollow landforms. The paleocryogenic mounds (hummocks) are of rounded or elongated shape, their height is up to 2-3 m, and their width is up to 20-25 m. They are separated by microlows (hollows). This paleocryogenic microtopography favors the differentiation of the pedogenesis on the mounds and in the hollows, so the soil cover pattern becomes more complicated. It is composed of polychronous soils organized in complexes with cyclic patterns. Light gray and gray forest soils and leached and ordinary chernozems are developed on the mounds; gray and dark gray forest soils and chernozems with buried horizons are developed in the hollows. The soils of the paleocryogenic complexes differ from one another in their morphology, physical and chemical properties, elemental composition, and humus composition. For the first time, radiocarbon dates have been obtained for the surface and buried humus horizons in the hollows. The results prove the heterochronous nature of the soils of the paleocryogenic landscapes in the south of the Baikal region.

Kozlova, A. A.; Kuz'min, V. A.; Zazovskaya, E. P.

2014-05-01

126

Digital Horizons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Digital Horizons was established in 2007 by a consortium that includes Prairie Public Broadcasting, the State Historical Society of North Dakota, and several other organizations. The goal of their work is to provide and maintain access to "a wide range of historical and significant content related to North Dakota and Minnesota." Visitors can use the search engine here to look for items by general subject heading or collection. All told, there are over fifteen collections included in this archive, including "Korean War Propaganda Leaflets", "Dakota Lithographs and Engravings", and "North Dakota Blue Books". For those looking for a place to start, they can take advantage of the "Popular Searches" list, which includes topical headings such as "floods", "bonanza farms", and "homesteading". This last heading is a great place to check out, as visitors will find evocative (and sometimes quite lonely) photographs of 19th century homesteads.

127

Soil Characterization Protocol  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this resource is to characterize the physical and chemical properties for each horizon in a soil profile. Students identify the horizons of a soil profile at a soil characterization site, then measure and record the top and bottom depth for each horizon. For each horizon, students describe the structure, color, consistence, texture, and abundance of roots, rocks, and carbonates. Samples are collected and prepared for additional laboratory analysis.

The GLOBE Program, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR)

2003-08-01

128

DOE complex buried waste characterization assessment. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program  

SciTech Connect

The work described in this report was conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to provide information to the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. The information in this report is intended to provide a complex-wide planning base for th.e BWID to ensure that BWID activities are appropriately focused to address the range of remediation problems existing across the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. This report contains information characterizing the 2.1 million m{sup 3} of buried and stored wastes and their associated sites at six major DOE facilities. Approximately 85% of this waste is low-level waste, with about 12% TRU or TRU mixed waste; the remaining 3% is low-level mixed waste. In addition, the report describes soil contamination sites across the complex. Some of the details that would be useful in further characterizing the buried wastes and contaminated soil sites across the DOE complex are either unavailable or difficult to locate. Several options for accessing this information and/or improving the information that is available are identified in the report. This document is a companion to Technology Needs for Remediation: Hanford and Other DOE Sites, PNL-8328 (Stapp 1993).

Kaae, P.S.; Holter, G.M.; Garrett, S.M.K.

1993-01-01

129

30 CFR 823.14 - Soil replacement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...minimum, physical and chemical characteristics of reconstructed soils and soil descriptions containing soil-horizon depths, soil densities, soil pH, and other specifications such that reconstructed soils will have the capability of achieving...

2013-07-01

130

30 CFR 823.14 - Soil replacement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...minimum, physical and chemical characteristics of reconstructed soils and soil descriptions containing soil-horizon depths, soil densities, soil pH, and other specifications such that reconstructed soils will have the capability of achieving...

2010-07-01

131

30 CFR 823.14 - Soil replacement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...minimum, physical and chemical characteristics of reconstructed soils and soil descriptions containing soil-horizon depths, soil densities, soil pH, and other specifications such that reconstructed soils will have the capability of achieving...

2011-07-01

132

30 CFR 823.14 - Soil replacement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...minimum, physical and chemical characteristics of reconstructed soils and soil descriptions containing soil-horizon depths, soil densities, soil pH, and other specifications such that reconstructed soils will have the capability of achieving...

2012-07-01

133

30 CFR 823.14 - Soil replacement.  

...minimum, physical and chemical characteristics of reconstructed soils and soil descriptions containing soil-horizon depths, soil densities, soil pH, and other specifications such that reconstructed soils will have the capability of achieving...

2014-07-01

134

Soil stratigraphy and plant soil interactions on a Late Glacial Holocene fluvial terrace sequence, Sierra Nevada National Park, northern Venezuelan Andes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of a flight of alluvial terraces in the Sierra Nevada National Park near Pico Mucuñuque in the Eastern Mérida Andes has yielded information on geomorphic, pedogenic, and vegetational changes from Late Glacial time to the present. The terraces formed in large part due to stream incision/migration triggered by neotectonic uplift (>7000 yr BP) of a Late Glacial/Early Holocene glaciolacustrine lithosequence and, with the exception of the oldest/highest terrace, exhibit near-uniform lithology/parent materials. Soils developed in the terrace materials range from thin, weakly developed profiles (O/C/Cu horizons) to Entisols with O/Ah/Cox/Cu horizons and similar buried counterparts representing former short periods of floodplain stability or slow aggradation. The buried soils provide organic-rich material that yields radiocarbon ages, which provide time constraints on individual pedons and the geomorphic development of the site. Iron and aluminum extracts of soil matrix material provide information on the formation and accumulation of goethite and hematite, the relative accumulation of ferrihydrite (gain/loss), and the downward translocation of organically complexed Al as a function of soil development and age. SEM analysis of heavy mineral grains indicates varying material sources and degrees of weathering in the soil chronosequence. A qualitative study of plant functional types across the terrace sequence shows that older surfaces support greater plant diversity. The study also suggests ways in which the plant communities influence soil development at the site through varying organic matter inputs and varying soil moisture use by specific species (e.g., ferns on the oldest terrace), which may explain the absence of B horizons in the Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene soils.

Mahaney, William C.; Dirszowsky, Randy W.; Milner, Michael W.; Harmsen, Rudolf; Finkelstein, Sarah A.; Kalm, Volli; Bezada, Maximilano; Hancock, R. G. V.

2007-01-01

135

Instrumentation for monitoring buried pipe behavior during backfilling  

SciTech Connect

An extensive instrumentation plan was devised to monitor buried pipe behavior, soil behavior and pipe-soil interaction during backfilling. The emphasis of the instrumentation plan was to monitor these parameters under different installation techniques without impeding construction operations. Different types and sizes of pipe were selected for installation in trenches excavated in undisturbed in situ soil conditions. Installation variables included in situ soil conditions, trench widths, backfill material (including controlled low strength material), haunching effort, and compaction methods. A total of fourteen tests, each including reinforced concrete, corrugated steel, and corrugated HDPE, were conducted. Eleven of the installations were conducted with 900 mm inside diameter pipe and three with 1,500 mm inside diameter pipe. The pipes were buried to a cover depth of 1.2 m. Measurements of pipe shape, pipe strains, pipe-soil interface pressures, soil density, soil stresses, and soil strains were collected. Pipe shape changes were measured by a custom built profilometer. Custom designed bending beam pressure transducers were used in the steel pipe to measure interface pressures. Most of the instrumentation performed well and measured results were within the range expected. Pipe-soil interaction effects were effectively measured with the instruments selected. Pipe shape changes were a very valuable parameter for investigating pipe-soil interaction.

McGrath, T.J.; Selig, E.T.; Webb, M.C.

1999-07-01

136

HORIZOnS and OPPORTUNITIES in  

E-print Network

#12;HORIZOnS and OPPORTUNITIES in LUNAR SAMPLE SCIEnCE BY LUNAR AND PLANETARY SAMPLE TEAM (LAPST may be cited as: Lunar and Planetary Sample Team (LAPST) (1985) Horizons and Opportunities in Lunar is distributedby LIBRARY/INFORMATION CENTER Lunar and PlanetaryInstitute 3303 NASA Road 1 Houston, TX 77058

Rathbun, Julie A.

137

Indiana Soil and Landscape  

E-print Network

in Wisconsinan till. The soil has distinctive O, A, and E, horizons in the upper 12 inches (30 cm), Bt horizons 12 to 42 inches (107 cm), and dense till (Cd horizons) below 42 inches. The soil is found in central of information relayed by evaluators. The first three chapters deal with the nature of the site--its location

Holland, Jeffrey

138

Electromagnetic modeling of buried objects  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, radar cross section (RCS) models of buried dipoles, surface steel pipe, and buried steel pipes are discussed. In all these models, the ground is assumed to be a uniform half space. The calculated results for the buried dipoles and the surface steel pipe compare favorably with those measured in the 1993 Yuma ground penetration radar (GPR) experiment. For the buried dipoles, a first-order RCS model is developed. In this model, a solution for an infinitely long conducting cylinder, together with a mirror image approximation (which accounts for the coupling between the dipole and the ground-air interface) is used to calculate the dipole RCS. This RCS model of the buried dipoles explains the observed loss of dipole RCS. For the surface steel pipe, a geometrical optics model, which includes the multipath interaction, is developed. This model explains the observed multipath gain/loss. For the buried steel pipes, a zero order physical optics model is developed. Also discussed is desert radar clutter statistics as a function of depression angle. Preliminary analysis, based on samples of Yuma desert surface profiles, indicates that simple rough-surface models cannot explain the observed average backscatter from desert clutter.

Lee, C.F. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Lexington, MA (United States). Lincoln Lab.

1994-12-31

139

Dynamics of organic nitrogen in cryoturbated Arctic soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arctic soils are estimated to store about twice the amount of carbon as today's atmosphere, with a large proportion of this C in subsoil horizons. Within the subsoil, cryoturbated organic matter (OM), i.e. OM buried by freeze-thaw processes, represents a large store of poorly decomposed material. Although soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition is known to be affected by nitrogen status of the microbial biomass, knowledge about N dynamics and N availability in the subsoil of arctic soils is particularly scarce. We here report on microbial transformations of organic N, i.e. protein/peptide depolymerization (the rate limiting step for the soil N cycle), microbial amino acid uptake and N mineralization. We hypothesized that gross rates of N transformations would decrease with increasing SOM decomposition, while N availability would increase as a consequence of decreasing C/N ratio. We sampled topsoil (organic), cryoturbated and subsoil horizons of tundra sites in Greenland and Siberia, and applied a set of 15N pool dilution assays to measure gross rates of protein depolymerization, microbial amino acid uptake and N mineralization. From these assays we also calculated microbial N use efficiency (NUE), i.e. the efficiency of microorganisms to incorporate organic N into the biomass, as an indicator of N availability for microorganisms. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of easily available organic C and N sources on soil microbial processes: We incubated soils amended with 13C labelled amino acids, protein, glucose and cellulose, and measured C and N mineralization rates as well as microbial community composition and potential activities of extracellular enzymes. We found that all gross N transformation rates decreased significantly from topsoil organic over cryoturbated to subsoil mineral horizons. While the differences between topsoil organic and subsoil mineral horizons were sufficiently explained by SOM content, cryoturbated horizons had significantly lower rates even when calculated on a carbon basis. NUE was generally high, did not differ significantly between horizons, and was not correlated to the C/N ratio of SOM, suggesting that N limitation for microorganisms was similar across the soil profile. The addition of organic N (amino acids and protein), however, resulted in a two-fold increase in SOM mineralization in cryoturbated horizons, while the addition of organic C only (glucose and cellulose) had no effect. Taken together, our results suggest that an increased N availability in cryoturbated horizons might lead to an increase in SOM decomposition by altering the function of the microbial decomposer community. Increasing SOM decomposition in turn is likely to increase N availability for microbes, which may lead to a positive feedback on SOM decomposition.

Wild, B.; Schnecker, J.; Rusalimova, O.; Mikutta, R.; Guggenberger, G.; Richter, A.

2012-12-01

140

New Horizons Digital Age  

E-print Network

New Horizons for the Digital Age York University Libraries' 2012-2015 Strategic Plan #12;New Horizons for the Digital Age This Strategic Plan, New Horizons for the Digital Age, describes York' 2012-2015 Strategic Plan: New Horizons for the Digital Age reflects the importance of these emergent

141

Soil Composition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Soil is essential for life on Earth. It is needed for food, air, clothing and so much more. Discussion topics include the terms 'soil', 'dirt', and 'sediment', factors affecting the formation of soils, soil horizons, and the twelve orders of soils. In a hands-on activity, students will collect soil samples from three different locations, use online resources to determine texture and particle makeup, and record their observations.

Fox, Chris; Pratte, John

142

Physical observability of horizons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Event horizons are (generically) not physically observable. In contrast, apparent horizons (and the closely related trapping horizons) are generically physically observable—in the sense that they can be detected by observers working in finite-size regions of spacetime. Consequently event horizons are inappropriate tools for defining astrophysical black holes, or indeed for defining any notion of an evolving black hole (evolving either due to accretion or Hawking radiation). The only situation in which an event horizon becomes physically observable is for the very highly idealized stationary or static black holes, when the event horizon is a Killing horizon which is degenerate with the apparent and trapping horizons, and then it is the physical observability of the apparent/trapping horizons that is fundamental—the event horizon merely comes along for the ride.

Visser, Matt

2014-12-01

143

Mt. Blanco revisited: soil-geomorphic implications for the ages of the upper Cenozoic Blanco and Blackwater Draw Formations  

SciTech Connect

Mt. Blanco, on the eastern edge of the Southern High Plains of Texas, contains stratigraphic features significant in interpreting the late Cenozoic history of the region and the vertebrate paleontology of the Great Plains; however, the stratigraphic relations are confused in the literature or are unreported. Mt. Blanco is the type locality for the Blanco Formation and the Blanco Local Fauna, which occurs throughout North America and is the type fauna for the Blancan Land Mammal Age in North America. Here also occur exposures of the Blackwater Draw Formation, an extensive (120,000 km/sup 2/) eolian sheet that is the surficial cover of the region and contains the 1.4 Ma Guaje Ash and several buried soils. A reexamination of the section shows that (1) the Blackwater Draw Formation, an eolian deposit, contains three well-expressed buried soils (5 YR hues, argillic horizons greater than or equal to 1 m thick, Stages III and IV calcic horizons) and the similar regional surface soil (Paleustalf); (2) the Guaje Ash is within the lower Blackwater Draw Formation but is separated from the Blanco Formation, a lacustrine unit, by about 1 m of sediment, including the lowest buried soil; and (3) the lowest buried soil shows a Stage IV calcrete formed at the top of the Blanco Formation and the base of the Blackwater Draw Formation and probably took about 200 ka to form. These new data suggested that deposition of the type Blanco sediments may have ended by about 1.6 Ma or earlier. Since that time, the Blackwater Draw Formation has accumulated episodically; periods of nondeposition are characterized by landscape stability and pedogenesis.

Holliday, V.T.

1988-06-01

144

Assessment of the living and total biomass of microbial communities in the background chestnut soil and in the paleosols under burial mounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contents of phospholipids and carbon of the total microbial biomass were determined in the modern chestnut soil and in the paleosols buried under mounds of the Bronze and Early Iron Ages (5000-1800 years ago) in the dry steppe of the Lower Volga River basin. Judging from data on the ratio between the contents of phospholipids and organic carbon in the microbial cells, the carbon content of the living microbial biomass was calculated and compared with the total microbial biomass and total organic carbon in the studied soils. In the background chestnut soil, the content of phospholipids in the A1, B1, and B2 horizons amounted to 452, 205, and 189 nmol/g, respectively; in the paleosols, it was 28-130% of the present-day level. The maximum content was measured in the paleosols buried 5000 and 2000 years ago, in the periods with an increased humidity of the climate. In the background chestnut soil, the total microbial biomass was estimated at 5680 (the A1 horizon), 3380 (B1), and 4250 (B2) ?g C/g; in the paleosols, it was by 2.5-7.0 times lower. In the upper horizons of the background soil, the portion of the living microbial biomass in the total biomass was much less than that in the paleosols under the burial mounds; it varied within 8.5-15.3% and 15-81%, respectively. The portion of living microbial biomass in the total organic carbon content of the background chestnut soil was about 4-8%. In the paleosols buried in the Early Iron Age (2000 and 1800 years ago), this value did not exceed 3-8%; in the paleosols of the Bronze Age (5000-4000 years ago), it reached 40% of the total organic carbon.

Khomutova, T. E.; Kashirskaya, N. N.; Demkin, V. A.

2011-12-01

145

Sensor system for buried waste containment sites  

DOEpatents

A sensor system is disclosed for a buried waste containment site having a bottom wall barrier and/or sidewall barriers, for containing hazardous waste. The sensor system includes one or more sensor devices disposed in one or more of the barriers for detecting a physical parameter either of the barrier itself or of the physical condition of the surrounding soils and buried waste, and for producing a signal representing the physical parameter detected. Also included is a signal processor for receiving signals produced by the sensor device and for developing information identifying the physical parameter detected, either for sounding an alarm, displaying a graphic representation of a physical parameter detected on a viewing screen and/or a hard copy printout. The sensor devices may be deployed in or adjacent the barriers at the same time the barriers are deployed and may be adapted to detect strain or cracking in the barriers, leakage of radiation through the barriers, the presence and leaking through the barriers of volatile organic compounds, or similar physical conditions.

Smith, Ann Marie (Pocatello, ID); Gardner, Bradley M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kostelnik, Kevin M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Partin, Judy K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Lancaster, Gregory D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Pfeifer, May Catherine (Idaho Falls, ID)

2000-01-01

146

Modeling the electromagnetic detection of buried cylindrical conductors  

SciTech Connect

The remote detection of buried structures and tunnels is important to the mining, construction, and defense industries. It is often desirable to identify underground power lines, pipe lines, and utility tunnels which have unique electromagnetic cross sections. A computational model for the electromagnetic detection of buried conducting cylinders is described in this paper. The source of electromagnetic radiation is either current injection into the soil or a surface based magnetic dipole with possible extensions to airborne platforms. Frequency ranges from a few kHz to 100 kHz are considered. The target conductor is a cylinder buried directly in the soil or placed inside an insulating pipe. The receiver is a magnetic gradiometer held 1m above the ground, separate from the transmitter. Data are taken widely over the terrain under investigation. Cases where the target conductor is grounded at both ends, one end, or not at all are modeled. The scattered field and field gradient are computed at or above ground level and compared in magnitude and phase with the transmitted signal. Calculated results are compared with experimental tests done to detect a buried wire at Sandia National Laboratory and a tunnel at Yucca Mountain. Essential factors affecting detection performance are frequency optimization, dynamic range of reception and proper data processing.

Moses, R.W.; Kelly, R.E.; Mack, J.M.

1996-05-01

147

Melter development needs assessment for RWMC buried wastes  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a survey and initial assessment of the existing state-of-the-art melter technology necessary to thermally treat (stabilize) buried TRU waste, by producing a highly leach resistant glass/ceramic waste form suitable for final disposal. Buried mixed transuranic (TRU) waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) represents an environmental hazard requiring remediation. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) placed the INEL on the National Priorities List in 1989. Remediation of the buried TRU-contaminated waste via the CERCLA decision process is required to remove INEL from the National Priorities List. A Waste Technology Development (WTD) Preliminary Systems Design and Thermal Technologies Screening Study identified joule-heated and plasma-heated melters as the most probable thermal systems technologies capable of melting the INEL soil and waste to produce the desired final waste form (Iron-Enriched Basalt (IEB) glass/ceramic). The work reported herein then surveys the state of existing melter technology and assesses it within the context of processing INEL buried TRU wastes and contaminated soils. Necessary technology development work is recommended.

Donaldson, A.D.; Carpenedo, R.J.; Anderson, G.L.

1992-02-01

148

Melter development needs assessment for RWMC buried wastes  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a survey and initial assessment of the existing state-of-the-art melter technology necessary to thermally treat (stabilize) buried TRU waste, by producing a highly leach resistant glass/ceramic waste form suitable for final disposal. Buried mixed transuranic (TRU) waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) represents an environmental hazard requiring remediation. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) placed the INEL on the National Priorities List in 1989. Remediation of the buried TRU-contaminated waste via the CERCLA decision process is required to remove INEL from the National Priorities List. A Waste Technology Development (WTD) Preliminary Systems Design and Thermal Technologies Screening Study identified joule-heated and plasma-heated melters as the most probable thermal systems technologies capable of melting the INEL soil and waste to produce the desired final waste form [Iron-Enriched Basalt (IEB) glass/ceramic]. The work reported herein then surveys the state of existing melter technology and assesses it within the context of processing INEL buried TRU wastes and contaminated soils. Necessary technology development work is recommended.

Donaldson, A.D.; Carpenedo, R.J.; Anderson, G.L.

1992-02-01

149

Changes in soil properties and soil cover structure due to intensive erosion and accumulation processes in loess soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intensive water and tillage erosion and consequent accumulation are the most important processes affecting the agroecosystems in loess regions and changing soil properties, e.g. organic carbon content, carbonate content or structure stability, and general distribution of soil units in the landscape. South Moravian loess belt, formerly covered mostly by Haplic Chernozem, is now formed by a highly diversified soil mosaic. At a morphologically heterogenous study plot (6 ha), a study on relationship between soil properties and terrain characteristics was held. DTM analysis, detailed terrain survey and laboratory analysis were the main methods adopted in the study. Three main soil units were identified: Haplic Chernozem, calcareous Regosol and Colluvial soil. The distribution of each soil unit correlates with different terrain attributes. Regosols are significatly connected to the steep slope, while their correlation with the curvature or hydrological indexes is lower. On the contrary, the Colluvial soils distribution depends mainly on values of curvature and topographical wetness index and is independent on the slope. Chernozem is related to a specific terrain position more than to any of the terrain attributes. Soil depth and humus horizon thickness vary extremelly - from 0.2 m at the erosionally exposed slopes to more than 2.5 m at the concave parts and the toeslope. Soil depth is significantly correlated with all of the tested terrain attributes except of the slope - the strongest correlation was proved in case of mean curvature, topographical wetness index and catchment area. Different degree of changes in particular soil properties results from the specificity of both erosion process and parent material character. Organic carbon content in the topsoil varies significantly. Humus is practically absent in the steepest parts of the slope where the loess is exposed. High amounts of Corg were identified in the undisturbed A horizons of the Chernozem unit. In the concave parts of the slope and at the toeslope, the Corg content in the plough layer is lower due to an admixture of non-humus material transported from the steep parts of the plot. Nevertheless, the deeper (0.7 - 2 m), buried parts of the colluvial profiles are very rich in organic carbon (up to 4 %). These horizons may represent fossil chernic horizons of former Chernozems, buried by intensive sedimentation of humic material. Similar variability was found in carbonate content values, always due to amount of loess admixture in the plough horizon. While the soil structure stability, depending strongly on humus content, was the highest in the Chernozem unit, in the eroded parts it was highly unstable. Changes in the cation exchange capacity and pH are less distinctive. CEC slightly increases in humus-rich soils and pH is higher in the eroded parts of the plot due to the loess exposition. Acknowledgement: Authors acknowledge the financial support of the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic (grant No. GA CR 526/08/0434) and the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic (grant No. MSM 6046070901).

Zadorova, Tereza; Penizek, Vit; Jaksik, Ondrej; Kodesova, Radka; Jirku, Veronika; Fer, Miroslav

2010-05-01

150

Buried oxide layer in silicon  

DOEpatents

A process for forming Silicon-On-Insulator is described incorporating the steps of ion implantation of oxygen into a silicon substrate at elevated temperature, ion implanting oxygen at a temperature below 200.degree. C. at a lower dose to form an amorphous silicon layer, and annealing steps to form a mixture of defective single crystal silicon and polycrystalline silicon or polycrystalline silicon alone and then silicon oxide from the amorphous silicon layer to form a continuous silicon oxide layer below the surface of the silicon substrate to provide an isolated superficial layer of silicon. The invention overcomes the problem of buried isolated islands of silicon oxide forming a discontinuous buried oxide layer.

Sadana, Devendra Kumar (Pleasantville, NY); Holland, Orin Wayne (Lenoir, TN)

2001-01-01

151

Tracing buried pipelines using multi frequency electromagnetic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper the application of multi frequency electromagnetic techniques to locate buried pipelines is described. The survey site has two pipelines of SUMED, one of the world chokepoints. At desert or arid areas, regular geophysical surveys usually are difficult to carry out. EM techniques could be the best among geophysical techniques to be used for this target at these conditions. The EM survey was performed using a GEM-300 multi-frequency electromagnetic profiler. It is of handheld electromagnetic induction-type that measures in-phase and quadrature terrain conductivity without electrodes or direct soil contact. An area of 60 × 15 m was surveyed, that supposed SUMED pipeline existed. Six different frequencies, typically 2025, 2875, 4125, 5875, 8425, 12,025 Hz, have been used simultaneously. The slice maps for in-phase and conductivity distribution at each frequency could help to trace the extension of the pipeline. Two pipelines were traced successfully with 20 m spacing of each others.

El-Qady, Gad; Metwaly, Mohamed; Khozaym, Ashraf

2014-06-01

152

Common causes of material degradation in buried piping  

SciTech Connect

Buried pipe may fail for innumerable reasons. Causes can be mechanical damage/breakage, chemically initiated corrosion, or a combination. Failures may originate either internally or externally on the pipe. They may be related to flaws in the design, to excessive or unanticipated internal pressure or ground level loading, and/or to poor or uncertain installation practice. Or the pipe may simply ``wear out`` in service. Steel is strong and very forgiving in underground applications, especially with regard to backfill. However, soil support developed through densification or compaction is critical for brittle concrete and vitrified clay tile pipe, and is very important for cast iron and plastic pipe. Chemistry of the soil determines whether or not it will enhance corrosion or other types of degradation. Various causes and mechanisms for deterioration of buried pipe are indicated. Some peculiarities of the different materials of construction are characterized. Repair methods and means to circumvent special problems are described.

Jenkins, C.F.

1997-01-20

153

Ecology of soil fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of soil type and soil horizon on the distribution of microfungi in five natural grassland soils at Lakenheath Warren has been investigated. The soils, which are all very dry and sandy, vary from a shallow, highly alkaline soil to a deep, highly acid podsol. One hundred and forty-eight species of fungi have been isolated from these soils by

J. H. Warcup

1951-01-01

154

Numerical Analysis of Wave-Induced Liquefaction around Buried Pipeline  

Microsoft Academic Search

This extended abstract presents the numerical solutions from the Finite Element analyses based on a wave flume test in order to investigate the instability of a buried marine pipeline due to wave-induced liquefaction. A soil model based on the Generalised Plasticity Concept namely Pastor-Zienkiewicz Model Mark-III (PZ3) implemented in a Finite element program namely SWANDYNE II is used to predict

Pui Lee Vun; Andrew H. C. Chan; Scott Dunn

155

Buried Wetlands: The Origin and Evolution of Pre-Settlement Piedmont Valley Bottoms in Pennsylvania and Maryland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Walter and Merritts (2008) we describe the stratigraphy of Mid-Atlantic Piedmont stream banks to consist of 1-5 m stacks of post-settlement fine-grained sediments overlying a thin organic-rich horizon, which in turn overlies a veneer of gravels on bedrock. We attribute the widespread deposition of the fine-grained sediments to an increase in base level caused by the construction of Early American milldams that lined valley bottoms by the mid 19th Century, and to the filling of extensive millponds with eroded upland soil. Several earlier researchers noted the existence of a dark organic-rich horizon near the base of stream banks in this region, but little attention was paid to their nature or origin. Our studies show that this dark layer formed during the Holocene, and was hydro-climatically stable for at least the last 5,000 yrs. Analyses of extracted seeds reveal obligate and facultative wetland plants, indicating that this horizon should be classified as a hydric (wetland) soil. Trenches and bank exposures show that this wetland soil can be traced across valley bottoms where it overlies coarse, generally quartz-rich gravels that are angular to subangular except where underlain by bedrock composed of rounded gravels. We interpret these basal gravels to be a concentrated lag from denudation of adjacent hillslopes over millions of years, and in places this lag was reworked by periglacial processes. The angularity of the clasts and the lack of fluvial depositional structures indicate that the basal gravels were not transported or deposited by river action. We have found no evidence of a pre-settlement stream channel form in the 1st to 3rd order streams of the 20+ watersheds we have studied to date. The widespread occurrence of hydric soils and the lack of discernable pre-settlement stream channels indicate that valley bottoms were dominated by broad wetland ecosystems. Given that state and federal agencies are spending millions of dollars to create new wetlands, the recognition of buried pre- settlement wetlands presents new opportunities, and a testable model, to guide future stream restoration practices in the region.

Walter, R. C.; Merritts, D. J.; Voli, M. T.; Scheid, C. R.; Hartranft, J. L.; Hilgartner, W. B.; Rahnis, M. A.

2008-12-01

156

New Horizons Annual Report  

E-print Network

New Horizons Paths to Annual Report 2012-13 #12;#12;Paths to New HorizonsSection name or title 1 on a new blueprint for inventing our future, embodied in the strategic plan "A Plan for a New Horizon have been achieved. It is fitting, then, to transition to new leadership as the university embarks

Buehrer, R. Michael

157

The 2011 Horizon Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The internationally recognized series of "Horizon Reports" is part of the New Media Consortium's Horizon Project, a comprehensive research venture established in 2002 that identifies and describes emerging technologies likely to have a large impact over the coming five years on a variety of sectors around the globe. This volume, the "2011 Horizon

Johnson, L.; Smith, R.; Willis, H.; Levine, A.; Haywood, K.

2011-01-01

158

Degradation of carbohydrates and lignins in buried woods  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Spruce, alder, and oak woods deposited in coastal sediments were characterized versus their modern counterparts by quantification of individual neutral sugars and lignin-derived phenols as well as by scanning electron microscopy, 13C NMR, and elemental analysis. The buried spruce wood from a 2500 yr old deposit was unaltered whereas an alder wood from the same horizon and an oak wood from an open ocean sediment were profoundly degraded. Individual sugar and lignin phenol analyses indicate that at least 90 and 98 wt% of the initial total polysaccharides in the buried alder and oak woods, respectively, have been degraded along with 15-25 wt% of the lignin. At least 75% of the degraded biopolymer has been physically lost from these samples. This evidence is supported by the SEM, 13C NMR and elemental analyses, all of which indicate selective loss of the carbohydrate moiety. The following order of stability was observed for the major biochemical constituents of both buried hardwoods: vanillyl and p-hydroxyl lignin structural units > syringyl lignin structural units > pectin > ??-cellulose > hemicellulose. This sequence can be explained by selective preservation of the compound middle lamella regions of the wood cell walls. The magnitude and selectivity of the indicated diagenetic reactions are sufficient to cause major changes in the chemical compositions of wood-rich sedimentary organic mixtures and to provide a potentially large in situ nutrient source. ?? 1985.

Hedges, J.I.; Cowie, G.L.; Ertel, J.R.; James, Barbour R.; Hatcher, P.G.

1985-01-01

159

Experimental study of heat transfer of buried finned pipe for ground source heat pump applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground heat exchangers have vital importance for ground source heat pump applications. Various configurations tried to improve heat transfer in the soil. A new kind of aluminium finned pipe buried in the soil for this aim. In order to compare effectiveness of the Al finned pipe over the traditional PPRC pipe an experimental study carried out. The experimental GSHP system

Ahmet Koyun; Hakan Demir; Zakir Torun

2009-01-01

160

Specific features of organic matter in urban soils of Rostov-on-Don  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data on the fractional and group composition of humus in urban soils of Rostov-on-Don are discussed. We have compared the humus profiles of chernozems under tree plantations and those buried under anthropogenic deposits (including sealed chernozems under asphalt). It is shown that the type of humus in these soils remains stable despite a decrease in its total content after the long-term burial under asphalt. Under the impact of the trees, the organic matter of the chernozems acquired some features typical of gray forest soils, i.e., the humate-fulvate type of humus in the humus horizon and the sharp drop in the humus content down the soil profile.

Gorbov, S. N.; Bezuglova, O. S.

2014-08-01

161

Technology status report: In situ vitrification applied to buried wastes  

SciTech Connect

This document is a technical status report on In Situ Vitrification (ISV) as applied to buried waste; the report takes both technical and institutional concerns into perspective. The ISV process involves electrically melting such contaminated solid media as soil, sediment, sludge, and mill tailings. The resultant product is a high-quality glass-and-crystalline waste form that possesses high resistance to corrosion and leaching and is capable of long-term environmental exposure without significant degradation. The process also significantly reduces the volume of the treated solid media due to the removal of pore spaces in the soil.

Thompson, L.E. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bates, S.O. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hansen, J.E. [Geosafe Corp., Richland, WA (United States)

1992-09-01

162

Soil Core Sample #2  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Soil core obtained from existing goose grazing lawn along the Smith River in the Teshekpuk Lake Special Area of the National Petroleum Reserve - Alaska.  Buried peat layer broken open.  Closer examination of the buried peat layer demonstrates that non-salt-tolerant vegetation from the past...

163

KINETICS OF CHEMICAL WEATHERING IN B-HORIZON SPODOSOL FRACTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Studies on a B horizon soil from Maine have been conducted to etermine the weathering rate dependence on hydrogen ion concentration in soil solution. Effects of soil concentration and solution chemistry on chemical weathering rate were also investigated. he studies used a laborat...

164

Investigation of guided waves propagation in pipe buried in sand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inspection of pipelines by guided wave testing is a well-established method for the detection of corrosion defects in pipelines, and is currently used routinely in a variety of industries, e.g. petrochemical and energy. When the method is applied to pipes buried in soil, test ranges tend to be significantly compromised because of attenuation of the waves caused by energy radiating into the soil. Moreover, the variability of soil conditions dictates different attenuation characteristics, which in-turn results in different, unpredictable, test ranges. We investigate experimentally the propagation and attenuation characteristics of guided waves in pipes buried in fine sand using a well characterized full scale experimental apparatus. The apparatus consists of an 8 inch-diameter, 5.6-meters long steel pipe embedded over 3 meters of its length in a rectangular container filled with fine sand, and an air-bladder for the application of overburden pressure. Longitudinal and torsional guided waves are excited in the pipe and recorded using a transducer ring (Guided Ultrasonics Ltd). Acoustic properties of the sand are measured independently in-situ and used to make model predictions of wave behavior in the buried pipe. We present the methodology and the systematic measurements of the guided waves under a range of conditions, including loose and compacted sand. It is found that the application of overburden pressure modifies the compaction of the sand and increases the attenuation, and that the measurement of the acoustic properties of sand allows model prediction of the attenuation of guided waves in buried pipes with a high level of confidence.

Leinov, Eli; Cawley, Peter; Lowe, Michael J. S.

2014-02-01

165

Investigation of guided waves propagation in pipe buried in sand  

SciTech Connect

The inspection of pipelines by guided wave testing is a well-established method for the detection of corrosion defects in pipelines, and is currently used routinely in a variety of industries, e.g. petrochemical and energy. When the method is applied to pipes buried in soil, test ranges tend to be significantly compromised because of attenuation of the waves caused by energy radiating into the soil. Moreover, the variability of soil conditions dictates different attenuation characteristics, which in-turn results in different, unpredictable, test ranges. We investigate experimentally the propagation and attenuation characteristics of guided waves in pipes buried in fine sand using a well characterized full scale experimental apparatus. The apparatus consists of an 8 inch-diameter, 5.6-meters long steel pipe embedded over 3 meters of its length in a rectangular container filled with fine sand, and an air-bladder for the application of overburden pressure. Longitudinal and torsional guided waves are excited in the pipe and recorded using a transducer ring (Guided Ultrasonics Ltd). Acoustic properties of the sand are measured independently in-situ and used to make model predictions of wave behavior in the buried pipe. We present the methodology and the systematic measurements of the guided waves under a range of conditions, including loose and compacted sand. It is found that the application of overburden pressure modifies the compaction of the sand and increases the attenuation, and that the measurement of the acoustic properties of sand allows model prediction of the attenuation of guided waves in buried pipes with a high level of confidence.

Leinov, Eli; Cawley, Peter; Lowe, Michael J.S. [NDE Group, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

2014-02-18

166

Buried Water Ice on Mars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This product includes five classroom activities related to the discovery of water ice on Mars. In 2001, the Mars Odyssey spacecraft discovered significant amounts of water ice buried in the high latitude regions of Mars. This discovery, based upon data from the Mars Gamma Ray Spectrometer, helped motivate the development of the Mars Phoenix Lander mission, which arrived in the Martian arctic in 2008 to investigate this buried water ice. These classroom activities involve both guided and open inquiry approaches, using real data to allow students to investigate and learn about processes occurring on Mars. Each lesson includes a teacher guide and student guide. In addition, some of the lessons are accompanied by PowerPoint presentations and one extension activity uses an educational Flash animation.

2007-04-27

167

Buried-mesa avalanche photodiodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a low-cost buried-mesa avalanche photodiode (APD) primarily targeted for 2.5-Gb\\/s lightwave applications. These APDs are made by a simple batch process that produces a robust and reliable device with potentially high yield and thus low cost. The entire base structure of our InGaAs-InP APD is grown in one epitaxial step and the remaining process consists of four

Ghulam Hasnain; Wayne G. Bi; S. Song; John T. Anderson; Nick Moll; Chung-Yi Su; James N. Hollenhorst; Nicholas D. Baynes; I. Athroll; Sean Amos; R. M. Ash

1998-01-01

168

Odor analysis of decomposing buried human remains  

SciTech Connect

This study, conducted at the University of Tennessee's Anthropological Research Facility (ARF), lists and ranks the primary chemical constituents which define the odor of decomposition of human remains as detected at the soil surface of shallow burial sites. Triple sorbent traps were used to collect air samples in the field and revealed eight major classes of chemicals which now contain 478 specific volatile compounds associated with burial decomposition. Samples were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and were collected below and above the body, and at the soil surface of 1.5-3.5 ft. (0.46-1.07 m) deep burial sites of four individuals over a 4-year time span. New data were incorporated into the previously established Decompositional Odor Analysis (DOA) Database providing identification, chemical trends, and semi-quantitation of chemicals for evaluation. This research identifies the 'odor signatures' unique to the decomposition of buried human remains with projected ramifications on human remains detection canine training procedures and in the development of field portable analytical instruments which can be used to locate human remains in shallow burial sites.

Vass, Arpad Alexander [ORNL; Smith, Rob R [ORNL; Thompson, Cyril V [ORNL; Burnett, Michael N [ORNL; Dulgerian, Nishan [ORNL; Eckenrode, Brian A [ORNL

2008-01-01

169

Discrimination of UXO in Soil Using Broadband Polarimetric GPR Backscatter  

E-print Network

problem. While some large bombs may be several meters deep, most buried UXO is in the top meter or so of soil [6]. In previous work [7] we have concentrated on detection of buried metallic objects by standoff

Shubitidze, Fridon

170

SASW test in location of buried objects  

SciTech Connect

The ability to detect underground objects is of significant importance in certain aspects of civil (geotechnical) and environmental engineering. A number of geophysical techniques have shown excellent results in location of certain types underground obstacles (anomalies). The Spectral-Analysis-of-Surface-Waves (SASW) method is a seismic nondestructive technique, that has so far been typically used in the evaluation of elastic moduli and layer thicknesses of layered systems, like soils and pavements. One of the assumptions of the test is that the system tested consists of infinite homogeneous layers of a constant thickness. This assumption is violated whenever heterogeneity of the system exists due presence of buried objects and cavities, presence of discontinuities, like pavement edges, variation of layer thicknesses, etc. The problem is of special importance in SASW testing of pavements in an urban environment, where obstacles like utility conduits, subways, and foundation structures cause wave reflections that can affect significantly test results. The effects of anomalies on propagation of elastic waves have been examined by a number of authors. On the other hand, Haupt, Dravinsky and Curro demonstrated numerically and experimentally that surface waves are sensitive to anomalies close to the surface. Recently Al-Shayea demonstrated experimentally that results of the SASW test are affected by underground objects. They showed that an underground cavity artificially created in a homogeneous sand layer can cause significant decrease in the phase velocity of the Rayleigh wave in a broad frequency range. Later, numerical simulations by Gucunski confirmed findings of Al-Shayea. The following paragraphs discuss the most important findings on the effects of underground obstacles on the Rayleigh wave dispersion obtained from the SASW test, and the application of the test in detection of buried objects.

Gucunski, N.; Ganji, V.; Maher, M.H. [Rutgers Univ., Piscatway, NJ (United States)

1996-11-01

171

Distance to Horizon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet allows students to explore the relationship between their height above the Earth and the distance they can see to the horizon. Learners can change the height above sea level by dragging the point labeled Height. Based on the height, the distance to the horizon is automatically calculated. Students are challenged to find a relationship between the height of a person above sea level and the distance he/she can see to the horizon.

Illuminations, Nctm

2000-01-01

172

Soil Particle Density Protocol  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this resource is to measure the soil particle density of each horizon in a soil profile. Students weigh a sample of dry, sieved soil from a horizon, mix it with distilled water and then boil the mixture to remove any air. The mixture cools for a day and then students add water until the volume of the mixture is 100 mL. Students measure the temperature and mass of the final mixture and use the Soil Particle Density Data Sheet to calculate the soil particle density. Three samples should be measured for each horizon.

The GLOBE Program, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR)

2003-08-01

173

Chapter 3. Concepts of Basic Soil Science W. Lee Daniels  

E-print Network

Chapter 3. Concepts of Basic Soil Science W. Lee Daniels Kathryn C. Haering Department of Crop and Soil Environmental Sciences, Virginia Tech Table of Contents Soil formation and soil horizons................................................................................................................... 33 Soil composition by volume

Kaye, Jason P.

174

Scanning the Conservation Horizon  

E-print Network

.S. Geological Survey Fundamental Science Practices. Scanning the Conservation Horizon is available online at Sciences Evan Girvetz, The Nature Conservancy Patty Glick, National Wildlife Federation John GrossScanning the Conservation Horizon A Guide to Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment #12;Scanning

175

The 2010 Horizon Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The annual "Horizon Report" describes the continuing work of the New Media Consortium's Horizon Project, a qualitative research project established in 2002 that identifies and describes emerging technologies likely to have a large impact on teaching, learning, or creative inquiry on college and university campuses within the next five years. The…

Johnson, L.; Levine, A.; Smith, R.; Stone, S.

2010-01-01

176

Semiclassical ultraextremal horizons  

SciTech Connect

We examine backreaction of quantum massive fields on multiply-degenerate (ultraextremal) horizons. It is shown that, under influence of the quantum backreaction, the horizon of such a kind moves to a new position near which the metric does not change its asymptotics, so the ultraextremal black holes and cosmological spacetimes do exist as self-consistent solutions of the semiclassical field equations.

Matyjasek, Jerzy; Zaslavskii, O.B. [Institute of Physics, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, pl. Marii Sklodowskiej-Curie 1, 20-031 Lublin (Poland); Department of Mechanics and Mathematics, Kharkov V. N. Karazin's National University, Svoboda Sq.4, Kharkov 61077 (Ukraine)

2005-04-15

177

PROPOSED CHANGES TO SOIL TAXONOMY THAT MAY AFFECT MINE SOIL CLASSIFICATION1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mine soils begin developing horizons from natural processes after mining excavation and transportation of spoil ceases. Spoil deposits and altered landforms are easily recognized from a distance but the soils in those landforms seldom contain proof of their origin. Soil Taxonomy provides a few diagnostic horizons and materials and classes for mine soils. Most excavated or transported mine soils are

J. M. Galbraith

178

Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Plan  

SciTech Connect

This document presents the plan of activities for the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program which supports the environmental restoration (ER) objectives of the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex. Discussed in this plan are the objectives, organization, roles and responsibilities, and the process for implementing and managing BWID. BWID is hosted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), but involves participants from throughout the DOE Complex, private industry, universities, and the international community. These participants will support, demonstrate, and evaluate a suite of advanced technologies representing a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. The processes for identifying technological needs, screening candidate technologies for applicability and maturity, selecting appropriate technologies for demonstration, field demonstrating, evaluation of results and transferring technologies to environmental restoration programs are also presented. This document further describes the elements of project planning and control that apply to BWID. It addresses the management processes, operating procedures, programmatic and technical objectives, and schedules. Key functions in support of each demonstration such as regulatory coordination, safety analyses, risk evaluations, facility requirements, and data management are presented.

Kostelnik, K.M.

1991-12-01

179

Killing Horizons and Spinors  

E-print Network

We study the near horizon geometry of generic Killing horizons constructing suitable coordinates and taking the appropriate scaling limit. We are able to show that the geometry will always show an enhancement of symmetries, and, in the extremal case, will develop a causally disconnected "throat" as expected. We analyze the implications of this to the Kerr/CFT conjecture and the attractor mechanism. We are also able to construct a set of special (pure) spinors associated with the horizon structure using their interpretation as maximally isotropic planes. The structure generalizes the usual reduced holonomy manifold in an interesting way and may be fruitful to the search of new types of compactification backgrounds.

Bruno Carneiro da Cunha; Amilcar de Queiroz

2014-06-19

180

Analytical information horizon maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sonnenwald, D.H. (1999) introduced information horizons as a theoretical\\u000a\\u0009framework for information behavior. Later, she and her colleagues\\u000a\\u0009developed a data-gathering method based on information horizons theory\\u000a\\u0009and user-drawn information horizon maps. The method provides a good\\u000a\\u0009basis for in-depth discussions and complements interviewing as a\\u000a\\u0009way to gather data. Based on interview records of Finnish and Swedish\\u000a\\u0009archaeology professionals,

Isto Huvila

2009-01-01

181

Weak Isolated Horizons  

SciTech Connect

Weak Isolated Horizon (WIH) is the most general definition of a black hole horizon so far i.e. WIH is defined through the weakest possible set of boundary conditions imposed on a generic null surface. We will also show that the laws of black hole mechanics can be derived for these horizons. In addition, the definition enables us to put the extremal and non-extremal black holes on the same phase-space so that one can make sense of extremal limit.

Chatterjee, Ayan [Theory Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata-700064 (India)

2007-10-03

182

Remote Excavation System technology evaluation report: Buried Waste Robotics Program  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the results from the Remote Excavation System demonstration and testing conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory during June and July 1993. The purpose of the demonstration was to ascertain the feasibility of the system for skimming soil and removing various types of buried waste in a safe manner and within all regulatory requirements, and to compare the performances of manual and remote operation of a backhoe. The procedures and goals of the demonstration were previously defined in The Remote Excavation System Test Plan, which served as a guideline for evaluating the various components of the system and discussed the procedures used to conduct the tests.

Not Available

1993-09-01

183

Evaluation of the graphite electrode DC arc furnace for the treatment of INEL buried wastes  

SciTech Connect

The past practices of DOE and its predecessor agencies in burying radioactive and hazardous wastes have left DOE with the responsibility of remediating large volumes of buried wastes and contaminated soils. The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID), has chosen to evaluate treatment of buried wastes at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Because of the characteristics of the buried wastes, the potential for using high-temperature thermal treatment technologies is being evaluated. The soil-waste mixture at INEL, when melted or vitrified, produces a glass/ceramic referred to as iron-enriched basalt (IEB). One potential problem with producing the IEB material is the high melting temperature of the waste and soil (1,400-1,600{degrees}C). One technology that has demonstrated capabilities to process high melting point materials is the plasma arc heated furnace. A three-party program was initiated and the program involved testing an engineering-scale DC arc furnace to gain preliminary operational and waste processibility information. It also included the design, fabrication, and evaluation of a second-generation, pilot-scale graphite electrode DC arc furnace. Widely ranging simulants of INEL buried waste were prepared and processed in the Mark I furnace. The tests included melting of soils with metals, sludges, combustibles, and simulated drums. Very promising results in terms of waste product quality, volume reduction, heating efficiency, and operational reliability and versatility were obtained. The results indicate that the graphite electrode DC arc technology would be very well suited for treating high melting point wastes such as those found at INEL. The graphite electrode DC arc furnace has been demonstrated to be very simple, yet effective, with excellent prospects for remote or semi-remote operation.

Surma, J.E.; Freeman, C.J.; Powell, T.D. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Cohn, D.R.; Smatlak, D.L.; Thomas, P.; Woskov, P.P. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (US). Plasma Fusion Center; Hamilton, R.A.; Titus, C.H.; Wittle, J.K. [Electro-Pyrolysis, Inc., Wayne, PA (US)

1993-06-01

184

Black holes: from event horizons to trapping horizons  

E-print Network

Black holes: from event horizons to trapping horizons Eric Gourgoulhon Laboratoire Univers et Th, France 10 December 2009 Eric Gourgoulhon (LUTH) Black holes: trapping horizons LATT, Toulouse, 10 December 2009 1 / 38 #12;Plan 1 Concept of black hole and event horizon 2 Local approaches to black holes 3

Gourgoulhon, Eric

185

Black holes: from event horizons to trapping horizons  

E-print Network

Black holes: from event horizons to trapping horizons Eric Gourgoulhon Laboratoire Univers et Th 2009 Eric Gourgoulhon (LUTH) Black holes: trapping horizons LPT, Orsay, 14 October 2009 1 / 39 #12;Plan 1 Concept of black hole and event horizon 2 Local approaches to black holes 3 Viscous fluid analogy

Gourgoulhon, Eric

186

Black holes: from event horizons to trapping horizons  

E-print Network

Black holes: from event horizons to trapping horizons Eric Gourgoulhon Laboratoire Univers et Th April 2009 Eric Gourgoulhon (LUTH) Black holes: trapping horizons INLN, Nice, 2 April 2009 1 / 39 #12;Plan 1 Concept of black hole and event horizon 2 Local approaches to black holes 3 Viscous fluid

Gourgoulhon, Eric

187

Black holes: from event horizons to trapping horizons  

E-print Network

Black holes: from event horizons to trapping horizons Eric Gourgoulhon Laboratoire Univers et Th) Black holes: trapping horizons CERN, 17 March 2010 1 / 38 #12;Plan 1 Concept of black hole and event horizon 2 Local approaches to black holes 3 Viscous fluid analogy 4 Angular momentum and area evolution

Gourgoulhon, Eric

188

The Dirt on Soil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page is from Discoveryschool.com. It has three sections. The first one, Down and Dirty, describes the various soil horizons. The second section, Field Guide, identifies some soil organisms and the third section, Soil Safari, is an animated tour of the soil beneath your feet.

2008-01-01

189

Horizon 2020 Proposal Workshop  

E-print Network

Horizon 2020 Proposal Workshop "Marie Sklodowska Curie ­ Proposals for Individual fellowships" 16th Research Cooperation, University of Potsdam) 10:40 ­ 11:30 Marie Sklodowska Curie Actions ­ Individual

Potsdam, Universität

190

Buried Seed Banks as Indicators of Seed Output along an Altitudinal Gradient.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study of buried seed banks (viable seeds deposited in the soil near parent plants) provides a relatively easy way of determining cumulative effects on seed production and species' altitudinal limits. Sites, methods, validity, interpretation, problems of collection on a mountain, and germination techniques are discussed. (Author/DH)

Thompson, K.

1985-01-01

191

Numerical investigation on thermal performance of vertical U buried pipe heat exchanger with intermittent operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of intermittent operation on the heat transfer performance of vertical U buried pipe heat exchangers is studied by method of numerical simulation and analytical solution. The calculation area is divided into two parts by the boundary of the borehole wall. For the area in the borehole, the calculation method is steady analytical solution, and for the soil area,

Yuan Yanping; Cao Xiaoling; Lei Bo; Yang Conghui

2010-01-01

192

Pore-pressure gradients in the proximity of a submarine buried pipeline  

SciTech Connect

This paper is concerned with the two-dimensional finite-element modeling of the wave-induced pore-pressure field in the proximity of a submarine pipeline buried in sandy seabed sediments subject to continuous loading of regular surface waves. Neglecting inertial forces, a linear elastic stress-strain relationship for the soil, and Darcy`s law for the flow of pore-fluid are assumed. The model takes into account the compressibility of both components (i.e., pore-fluid and soil skeleton) of the two-phase medium. The results of numerical computations are discussed with respect to the hydraulic gradient in the upper part of seabed sediments just above the buried submarine pipeline. The pore-pressure gradient is studied as a function of geometry (depth of burial) as well as soil and pore-fluid compressibility parameters where the later of which is defined in terms of soil saturation conditions.

Magda, W. [Technical Univ. of Gdansk (Poland). Marine Civil Engineering Dept.

1995-12-31

193

Black hole horizons Eric Gourgoulhon  

E-print Network

Black hole horizons ´Eric Gourgoulhon Laboratoire Univers et Th´eories (LUTH) CNRS / Observatoire hole horizons SN2NS, Paris, 4 Feb 2014 1 / 37 #12;Outline 1 Concept of black hole and event horizon 2 Quasi-local horizons 3 Astrophysical black holes 4 The near-future observations of black holes ´Eric

Gourgoulhon, Eric

194

In-situ vitrification of soil  

DOEpatents

A method of vitrifying soil at or below a soil surface location. Two or more conductive electrodes are inserted into the soil for heating of the soil mass between them to a temperature above its melting temperature. Materials in the soil, such as buried waste, can thereby be effectively immobilized.

Brouns, Richard A. (Kennewick, WA); Buelt, James L. (Richland, WA); Bonner, William F. (Richland, WA)

1983-01-01

195

A Natural Seismic Isolating System: The Buried Mangrove Effects  

E-print Network

The Belleplaine test site, located in the island of Guadeloupe (French Lesser Antilles) includes a three-accelerometer vertical array, designed for liquefac- tion studies. The seismic response of the soil column at the test site is computed using three methods: the spectral ratio method using the vertical array data, a numerical method using the geotechnical properties of the soil column, and an operative fre- quency domain decomposition (FDD) modal analysis method. The Belleplaine test site is characterized by a mangrove layer overlaid by a stiff sandy deposit. This con- figuration is widely found at the border coast of the Caribbean region, which is exposed to high seismic hazard. We show that the buried mangrove layer plays the role of an isolation system equivalent to those usually employed in earthquake engineering aimed at reducing the seismic shear forces by reducing the internal stress within the structure. In our case, the flexibility of the mangrove layer reduces the distortion and the stress in the...

Gueguen, Philippe; Foray, Pierre; Rousseau, Christophe; Maury, Julie; 10.1785/0120100129

2011-01-01

196

Buried plastic scintillator muon telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Muon telescopes can have several applications, ranging from astrophysical to solar-terrestrial interaction studies, and fundamental particle physics. We show the design parameters, characterization and end-to-end simulations of a detector composed by a set of three parallel dual-layer scintillator planes, buried at fix depths ranging from 0.30 m to 3 m. Each layer is 4 m2 and is composed by 50 rectangular pixels of 4cm x 2 m, oriented at a 90 deg angle with respect to its companion layer. The scintillators are MINOS extruded polystyrene strips with two Bicron wavelength shifting fibers mounted on machined grooves. Scintillation light is collected by multi-anode PMTs of 64 pixels, accommodating two fibers per pixel. The front-end electronics has a time resolution of 7.5 nsec. Any strip signal above threshold opens a GPS-tagged 2 micro-seconds data collection window. All data, including signal and background, are saved to hard disk. Separation of extensive air shower signals from secondary cosmic-ray background muons and electrons is done offline using the GPS-tagged threefold coincidence signal from surface water cerenkov detectors located nearby in a triangular array. Cosmic-ray showers above 6 PeV are selected. The data acquisition system is designed to keep both, background and signals from extensive air showers for a detailed offline data.

Sanchez, F.; Medina-Tanco, G. A.; D'Olivo, J. C.; et al.

197

Soils âField Characterization, Collection, and Laboratory Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Field characterization of soil profiles in coniferous and deciduous settings; sample collection of soils from different horizons; laboratory analysis of soil moisture, soil organic carbon (by loss on ignition), and grain size distribution (by sieving)

Biswas, Abir

198

7 CFR 1755.505 - Buried services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...100 mm) above final grade. (6) Uninsulated attachment devices may be used to attach buried service wire and cable to masonry and other types of noncombustible buildings and on any type of building if fuseless primary station protectors...

2012-01-01

199

7 CFR 1755.505 - Buried services.  

...100 mm) above final grade. (6) Uninsulated attachment devices may be used to attach buried service wire and cable to masonry and other types of noncombustible buildings and on any type of building if fuseless primary station protectors...

2014-01-01

200

7 CFR 1755.505 - Buried services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...100 mm) above final grade. (6) Uninsulated attachment devices may be used to attach buried service wire and cable to masonry and other types of noncombustible buildings and on any type of building if fuseless primary station protectors...

2013-01-01

201

Implementation of the buried waste integrated demonstration  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Technology Development (OTD) has initiated the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) to resolve technological deficiencies associated with the remediation of radioactive and hazardous buried waste. The BWID mission is to identify, demonstrate, and transfer innovative technologies for the remediation of DOE buried waste. To accomplish the mission, BWID is using a systems approach which supports the development of a suite of advanced and innovative technologies for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. This systems approach includes technologies for theentire remediation cycle. Specifically, BWID sponsors technology development in the following technology categories: site and waste characterization, retrieval, preprocessing, ex situ treatment, packaging, transportation, storage, disposal, and post-disposal monitoring.

Kostelnik, K.M.; Merrill, S.K.

1992-01-01

202

Implementation of the buried waste integrated demonstration  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Technology Development (OTD) has initiated the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) to resolve technological deficiencies associated with the remediation of radioactive and hazardous buried waste. The BWID mission is to identify, demonstrate, and transfer innovative technologies for the remediation of DOE buried waste. To accomplish the mission, BWID is using a systems approach which supports the development of a suite of advanced and innovative technologies for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. This systems approach includes technologies for theentire remediation cycle. Specifically, BWID sponsors technology development in the following technology categories: site and waste characterization, retrieval, preprocessing, ex situ treatment, packaging, transportation, storage, disposal, and post-disposal monitoring.

Kostelnik, K.M.; Merrill, S.K.

1992-09-01

203

Modeling physical and biogeochemical controls over carbon accumulation in a boreal forest soil  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Boreal soils are important to the global C cycle owing to large C stocks, repeated disturbance from fire, and the potential for permafrost thaw to expose previously stable, buried C. To evaluate the primary mechanisms responsible for both short- and long-term C accumulation in boreal soils, we developed a multi-isotope (12,14C) Soil C model with dynamic soil layers that develop through time as soil organic matter burns and reaccumulates. We then evaluated the mechanisms that control organic matter turnover in boreal regions including carbon input rates, substrate recalcitrance, soil moisture and temperature, and the presence of historical permafrost to assess the importance of these factors in boreal C accumulation. Results indicate that total C accumulation is controlled by the rate of carbon input, decomposition rates, and the presence of historical permafrost. However, unlike more temperate ecosystems, one of the key mechanisms involved in C preservation in boreal soils examined here is the cooling of subsurface soil layers as soil depth increases rather than increasing recalcitrance in subsurface soils. The propagation of the 14C bomb spike into soils also illustrates the importance of historical permafrost and twentieth century warming in contemporary boreal soil respiration fluxes. Both 14C and total C simulation data also strongly suggest that boreal SOM need not be recalcitrant to accumulate; the strong role of soil temperature controls on boreal C accumulation at our modeling test site in Manitoba, Canada, indicates that carbon in the deep organic soil horizons is probably relatively labile and thus subject to perturbations that result from changing climatic conditions in the future. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

Carrasco, J.J.; Neff, J.C.; Harden, J.W.

2006-01-01

204

Redistribution of soil nitrogen, carbon and organic matter by mechanical disturbance during whole-tree harvesting in northern hardwoods  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To investigate whether mechanical mixing during harvesting could account for losses observed from forest floor, we measured surface disturbance on a 22 ha watershed that was whole-tree harvested. Surface soil on each 10 cm interval along 81, randomly placed transects was classified immediately after harvesting as mineral or organic, and as undisturbed, depressed, rutted, mounded, scarified, or scalped (forest floor scraped away). We quantitatively sampled these surface categories to collect soil in which preharvest forest floor might reside after harvest. Mechanically mixed mineral and organic soil horizons were readily identified. Buried forest floor under mixed mineral soil occurred in 57% of mounds with mineral surface soil. Harvesting disturbed 65% of the watershed surface and removed forest floor from 25% of the area. Mechanically mixed soil under ruts with organic or mineral surface soil, and mounds with mineral surface soil contained organic carbon and nitrogen pools significantly greater than undisturbed forest floor. Mechanical mixing into underlying mineral soil could account for the loss of forest floor observed between the preharvest condition and the second growing season after whole-tree harvesting. ?? 1992.

Ryan, D.F.; Huntington, T.G.; Wayne, Martin C.

1992-01-01

205

Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration. Technology summary  

SciTech Connect

The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that offer promising solutions to the problems associated with the remediation of buried waste. BWID addresses the difficult remediation problems associated with DOE complex-wide buried waste, particularly transuranic (TRU) contaminated buried waste. BWID has implemented a systems approach to the development and demonstration of technologies that will characterize, retrieve, treat, and dispose of DOE buried wastes. This approach encompasses the entire remediation process from characterization to post-monitoring. The development and demonstration of the technology is predicated on how a technology fits into the total remediation process. To address all of these technological issues, BWID has enlisted scientific expertise of individuals and groups from within the DOE Complex, as well as experts from universities and private industry. The BWID mission is to support development and demonstration of a suite of technologies that, when integrated with commercially-available technologies, forms a comprehensive, remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste throughout the DOE Complex. BWID will evaluate and validate demonstrated technologies and transfer this information and equipment to private industry to support the Office of Environmental Restoration (ER), Office of Waste Management (WM), and Office of Facility Transition (FT) remediation planning and implementation activities.

Not Available

1994-03-01

206

Middle Pennsylvanian pioneer plant assemblage buried in situ by volcanic ash-fall, central Bohemia, Czech Republic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Palaeoecological analysis of a single-age plant assemblage of the middle Westphalian age (Bolsovian = middle Moscovian) preserved in the tuff bed at the base of the Whetstone Horizon in the roof of the Lower Radnice Coal of the Štilec opencast mine in central Bohemia is provided. This plant assemblage represents a peat-forming phytocoenosis buried in situ by volcanic ash-fall as

Milan Libertín; Stanislav Opluštil; Josef Pšeni?ka; Ji?í Bek; Ivana Sýkorová; Ji?ina Dašková

2009-01-01

207

The spatial relation between the event horizon and trapping horizon  

E-print Network

The relation between event horizons and trapping horizons is investigated in a number of different situations with emphasis on their role in thermodynamics. A notion of constant change is introduced that in certain situations allows the location of the event horizon to be found locally. When the black hole is accreting matter the difference in area between the two different horizons can be many orders of magnitude larger than the Planck area. When the black hole is evaporating the difference is small on the Planck scale. A model is introduced that shows how trapping horizons can be expected to appear outside the event horizon before the black hole starts to evaporate. Finally a modified definition is introduced to invariantly define the location of the trapping horizon under a conformal transformation. In this case the trapping horizon is not always a marginally outer trapped surface.

Alex B. Nielsen

2010-06-12

208

Environmental fate and transport of chemical signatures from buried landmines -- Screening model formulation and initial simulations  

SciTech Connect

The fate and transport of chemical signature molecules that emanate from buried landmines is strongly influenced by physical chemical properties and by environmental conditions of the specific chemical compounds. Published data have been evaluated as the input parameters that are used in the simulation of the fate and transport processes. A one-dimensional model developed for screening agricultural pesticides was modified and used to simulate the appearance of a surface flux above a buried landmine, estimate the subsurface total concentration, and show the phase specific concentrations at the ground surface. The physical chemical properties of TNT cause a majority of the mass released to the soil system to be bound to the solid phase soil particles. The majority of the transport occurs in the liquid phase with diffusion and evaporation driven advection of soil water as the primary mechanisms for the flux to the ground surface. The simulations provided herein should only be used for initial conceptual designs of chemical pre-concentration subsystems or complete detection systems. The physical processes modeled required necessary simplifying assumptions to allow for analytical solutions. Emerging numerical simulation tools will soon be available that should provide more realistic estimates that can be used to predict the success of landmine chemical detection surveys based on knowledge of the chemical and soil properties, and environmental conditions where the mines are buried. Additional measurements of the chemical properties in soils are also needed before a fully predictive approach can be confidently applied.

Phelan, J.M.; Webb, S.W.

1997-06-01

209

New Horizons in Earth Reinforcement Otani, Miyata & Mukunoki (eds) 2008 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-45775-0  

E-print Network

New Horizons in Earth Reinforcement ­ Otani, Miyata & Mukunoki (eds) © 2008 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-45775-0 New horizons in reinforced soil technology J.G. Zornberg The University

Zornberg, Jorge G.

210

Holocene Fire History of an Eastern Oregon Forest Based on Soil Charcoal Radiocarbon Dates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Limited research has been done on long-term forest fire histories in northeastern Oregon. As part of an investigation to determine the minimum age of a 300 ha landslide in the Blue Mountains, a pit was excavated near the toe of the slide. The pit, located in a depression between the landslide and a ridge, contains massive clays and silts, and an 8000-year sequence of forest fires recorded in 7 buried charcoal layers. Eight- thousand-year-old Mazama Ash (Crater Lake, Oregon) is common in the area, but no tephra was found in the excavation. The upper 17 cm is organic rich soil. Seven horizons of charcoal are present; the upper six are subhorizontal and occur at depths of 17, 36, 41, 46, 52, and 57 cm. The lowest charcoal horizon follows a disconformity that cuts diagonally across the pit from 85 to 125 cm below the surface; oxidation in the form of orange mottling occurs above this disconformity (interpreted to be a paleoslope) and is prominent below it. The charcoal horizons provide evidence of large-scale forest fires in the vicinity, with differing intensities represented by the amount of charcoal in each horizon. The layers vary in thickness from 2 to 6 cm. Five charcoal horizons were radiocarbon dated (AMS) and calendar calibrated. The charcoal at the base of the soil (at 17 cm) provided an age of AD 1670 to 1960; this horizon correlates with widespread fires in the Blue Mountains in AD 1855. The horizon second closest to the surface (at 36 cm) provided an age of 1310 ± 40 B.P. The thickest horizon (at 46 cm) yielded an age of 2420 ± 40 B.P. The lowest horizontal horizon (at 57 cm) provided an age of 3460 ± 40 B.P. The lowest charcoal (at the disconformity) yielded an age of 7990 ± 40 B.P. Based on radiocarbon dates, the mean rate of sedimentation in the closed depression is approximately 1.2 cm/century. Fire episodes (which correspond remarkably well with a lake core site approximately 150 km south), indicate relatively long periods (from 400 to over 4000 years) between large, stand-replacing fires, and are suggestive of changing climate and ecological conditions in this forest setting. Past fire sequences provide important clues to predicting future climate-wildfire scenarios.

Carson, R. J.; Malkemus, D.; Clifton, C. F.

2006-12-01

211

New Horizons Mission Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the first mission to Pluto, the New Horizons spacecraft was launched on January 19, 2006, and flew by Jupiter on February 28, 2007, gaining a significant speed boost from Jupiter’s gravity assist. After a 9.5-year journey, the spacecraft will encounter Pluto on July 14, 2015, followed by an extended mission to the Kuiper Belt objects for the first time. The mission design for New Horizons went through more than five years of numerous revisions and updates, as various mission scenarios regarding routes to Pluto and launch opportunities were investigated in order to meet the New Horizons mission’s objectives, requirements, and goals. Great efforts have been made to optimize the mission design under various constraints in each of the key aspects, including launch window, interplanetary trajectory, Jupiter gravity-assist flyby, Pluto-Charon encounter with science measurement requirements, and extended mission to the Kuiper Belt and beyond. Favorable encounter geometry, flyby trajectory, and arrival time for the Pluto-Charon encounter were found in the baseline design to enable all of the desired science measurements for the mission. The New Horizons mission trajectory was designed as a ballistic flight from Earth to Pluto, and all energy and the associated orbit state required for arriving at Pluto at the desired time and encounter geometry were computed and specified in the launch targets. The spacecraft’s flight thus far has been extremely efficient, with the actual trajectory error correction ? V being much less than the budgeted amount.

Guo, Yanping; Farquhar, Robert W.

2008-10-01

212

Generic weak isolated horizons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weak isolated horizon boundary conditions have been relaxed supposedly to their weakest form so that both zeroth and first laws of black hole mechanics hold. This makes the formulation more amenable for applications in both analytic and numerical relativities. It also unifies the phase spaces of non-extremal and extremal black holes.

Chatterjee, Ayan; Ghosh, Amit

2006-12-01

213

Instability of enclosed horizons  

E-print Network

We point out that there are solutions to the scalar wave equation on 1+1 dimensional Minkowski space with finite energy tails which, if they reflect off a uniformly accelerated mirror due to (say) Dirichlet boundary conditions on it, develop an infinite stress-energy tensor on the mirror's Rindler horizon. We also show that, in the presence of an image mirror in the opposite Rindler wedge, suitable compactly supported arbitrarily small initial data on a suitable initial surface will develop an arbitrarily large stress-energy scalar near where the two horizons cross. Also, while there is a regular Hartle-Hawking-Israel-like state for the quantum theory between these two mirrors, there are coherent states built on it for which there are similar singularities in the expectation value of the renormalized stress-energy tensor. We conjecture that in other situations with analogous enclosed horizons such as a (maximally extended) Schwarzschild black hole in equilibrium in a (stationary spherical) box or the (maximally extended) Schwarzschild-AdS spacetime, there will be similar stress-energy singularities and almost-singularities -- leading to instability of the horizons when gravity is switched on and matter and gravity perturbations are allowed for. All this suggests it is incorrect to picture a black hole in equilibrium in a box or a Schwarzschild-AdS black hole as extending beyond the past and future horizons of a single Schwarzschild (/Schwarzschild-AdS) wedge. It would thus provide new evidence for 't Hooft's brick wall model while seeming to invalidate the picture in Maldacena's 'Eternal black holes in AdS'. It would thereby also support the validity of the author's matter-gravity entanglement hypothesis and of the paper 'Brick walls and AdS/CFT' by the author and Ort\\'iz.

Bernard S. Kay

2015-01-05

214

Spacetimes containing slowly evolving horizons  

SciTech Connect

Slowly evolving horizons are trapping horizons that are ''almost'' isolated horizons. This paper reviews their definition and discusses several spacetimes containing such structures. These include certain Vaidya and Tolman-Bondi solutions as well as (perturbatively) tidally distorted black holes. Taking into account the mass scales and orders of magnitude that arise in these calculations, we conjecture that slowly evolving horizons are the norm rather than the exception in astrophysical processes that involve stellar-scale black holes.

Kavanagh, William; Booth, Ivan [Department of Physics and Physical Oceanography, Memorial University of Newfoundland St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, A1B 3X7 (Canada); Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Memorial University of Newfoundland St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, A1C 5S7 (Canada)

2006-08-15

215

Field-scale permeation testing of jet-grouted buried waste sites  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) conducted field-scale hydraulic conductivity testing of simulated buried waste sites with improved confinement. The improved confinement was achieved by jet grouting the buried waste, thus creating solid monoliths. The hydraulic conductivity of the monoliths was determined using both the packer technique and the falling head method. The testing was performed on simulated buried waste sites utilizing a variety of encapsulating grouts, including high-sulfate-resistant Portland cement, TECT, (a proprietary iron oxide cement) and molten paraffin. By creating monoliths using in-situ jet grouting of encapsulating materials, the waste is simultaneously protected from subsidence and contained against further migration of contaminants. At the INEL alone there is 56,000 m{sup 3} of buried transuranic waste commingled with 170,000--224,000 m{sup 3} of soil in shallow land burial. One of the options for this buried waste is to improve the confinement and leave it in place for final disposal. Knowledge of the hydraulic conductivity for these monoliths is important for decision-makers. The packer tests involved coring the monolith, sealing off positions within the core with inflatable packers, applying pressurized water to the matrix behind the seal, and observing the water flow rate. The falling head tests were performed in full-scale 3-m-diameter, 3-m-high field-scale permeameters. In these permeameters, both water inflow and outflow were measured and equated to a hydraulic conductivity.

Loomis, G.G. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zdinak, A.P. [MSE Technology Applications Inc., Butte, MT (United States)

1996-12-31

216

Sensor System Fo4r Buried Waste Containment Sites  

DOEpatents

A sensor system for a buried waste containment site having a bottom wall barrier and/or sidewall barriers, for containing hazardous waste. The sensor system includes one or more sensor devices disposed in one or more of the barriers for detecting a physical parameter either of the barrier itself or of the physical condition of the surrounding soils and buried waste, and for producing a signal representing the physical parameter detected. Also included is a signal processor for receiving signals produced by the sensor device and for developing information identifying the physical parameter detected, either for sounding an alarm, displaying a graphic representation of a physical parameter detected on a viewing screen and/or a hard copy printout. The sensor devices may be deployed in or adjacent the barriers at the same time the barriers are deployed and may be adapted to detect strain or cracking in the barriers, leakage of radiation through the barriers, the presence and leaking through the barriers of volatile organic compounds, or similar physical conditions.

Smith, Ann Marie (Pocatello, ID); Gardner, Bradley M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kostelnik, Kevin M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Partin, Judy K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Lancaster, Gregory D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Pfeifer, Mary Catherine (San Antonio, NM)

2005-09-27

217

Sensor System Fo4r Buried Waste Containment Sites  

DOEpatents

A sensor system for a buried waste containment site having a bottom wall barrier and sidewall barriers, for containing hazardous waste. The sensor system includes one or more sensor devices disposed in one or more of the barriers for detecting a physical parameter either of the barrier itself or of the physical condition of the surrounding soils and buried waste, and for producing a signal representing the physical parameter detected. Also included is a signal processor for receiving signals produced by the sensor device and for developing information identifying the physical parameter detected, either for sounding an alarm, displaying a graphic representation of a physical parameter detected on a viewing screen and/or a hard copy printout. The sensor devices may be deployed in or adjacent the barriers at the same time the barriers are deployed and may be adapted to detect strain or cracking in the barriers, leakage of radiation through the barriers, the presence and leaking through the barriers of volatile organic compounds, or similar physical conditions.

Smith, Ann Marie (Pocatello, ID); Gardner, Bradley M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kostelnik, Kevin M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Partin, Judy K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Lancaster, Gregory D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Pfeifer, Mary Catherine (San Antonio, NM)

2003-11-18

218

Centrifuge modeling of buried continuous pipelines subjected to normal faulting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic ground faulting is the greatest hazard for continuous buried pipelines. Over the years, researchers have attempted to understand pipeline behavior mostly via numerical modeling such as the finite element method. The lack of well-documented field case histories of pipeline failure from seismic ground faulting and the cost and complicated facilities needed for full-scale experimental simulation mean that a centrifuge-based method to determine the behavior of pipelines subjected to faulting is best to verify numerical approaches. This paper presents results from three centrifuge tests designed to investigate continuous buried steel pipeline behavior subjected to normal faulting. The experimental setup and procedure are described and the recorded axial and bending strains induced in a pipeline are presented and compared to those obtained via analytical methods. The influence of factors such as faulting offset, burial depth and pipe diameter on the axial and bending strains of pipes and on ground soil failure and pipeline deformation patterns are also investigated. Finally, the tensile rupture of a pipeline due to normal faulting is investigated.

Moradi, Majid; Rojhani, Mahdi; Galandarzadeh, Abbas; Takada, Shiro

2013-03-01

219

Behind the geon horizon  

E-print Network

We explore the Papadodimas-Raju prescription for reconstructing the region behind the horizon of one-sided black holes in AdS/CFT in the case of the RP^2 geon - a simple, analytic example of a single-sided, asymptotically AdS_3 black hole, which corresponds to a pure CFT state that thermalises at late times. We show that in this specific example, the mirror operators involved in the reconstruction of the interior have a particularly simple form: the mirror of a single trace operator at late times is just the corresponding single trace operator at early times. We use some explicit examples to explore how changes in the state modify the geometry inside the horizon.

Guica, Monica

2014-01-01

220

Behind the geon horizon  

E-print Network

We explore the Papadodimas-Raju prescription for reconstructing the region behind the horizon of one-sided black holes in AdS/CFT in the case of the RP^2 geon - a simple, analytic example of a single-sided, asymptotically AdS_3 black hole, which corresponds to a pure CFT state that thermalises at late times. We show that in this specific example, the mirror operators involved in the reconstruction of the interior have a particularly simple form: the mirror of a single trace operator at late times is just the corresponding single trace operator at early times. We use some explicit examples to explore how changes in the state modify the geometry inside the horizon.

Monica Guica; Simon F. Ross

2014-12-02

221

Soils and the soil cover of the Valley of Geysers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of field studies of the soil cover within the tourist part of the Valley of Geysers in Kamchatka performed in 2010 and 2011 are discussed. The morphology of soils, their genesis, and their dependence on the degree of hydrothermal impact are characterized; the soil cover patterns developing in the valley are analyzed. On the basis of the materials provided by the Kronotskii Biospheric Reserve and original field data, the soil map of the valley has been developed. The maps of vegetation conditions, soil temperature at the depth of 15 cm, and slopes of the surface have been used for this purpose together with satellite imagery and field descriptions of reference soil profiles. The legend to the soil map includes nine soil units and seven units of parent materials and their textures. Soil names are given according to the classification developed by I.L. Goldfarb (2005) for the soils of hydrothermal fields. The designation of soil horizons follows the new Classification and Diagnostic System of Russian Soils (2004). It is suggested that a new horizon—a thermometamorphic horizon TRM—can be introduced into this system by analogy with other metamorphic (transformed in situ) horizons distinguished in this system. This horizon is typical of the soils partly or completely transformed by hydrothermal impacts.

Kostyuk, D. N.; Gennadiev, A. N.

2014-06-01

222

Assessing bioturbation using micromorphology and biosilicate evidence: A case study of the early-Holocene Brady Soil, central Great Plains, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Old Wauneta Roadcut site in southwestern Nebraska exhibits a 1.2 meter-thick exposure of the Brady Soil, a buried paleosol which formed within loess during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. Excavation of the loess-paleosol sequence has revealed considerable bioturbation by plant roots, invertebrates, and small vertebrates. Bioturbation was not restricted to a single time period, but occurred continually throughout soil development, as evidenced by differing sediment fills and crosscutting relationships. The Brady Soil is an accretionary soil within the uppermost part of the Last Glacial Maximum Peoria Loess. At the base of the solum, the Bkb horizon exhibits an increased illuvial clay and carbonate content, and contains extensive, small (~2cm width), backfilled burrows typically produced by cicada nymphs (Cicadidae) or beetle larvae. The most stable period of the Brady Soil is expressed by the dark (9.8 YR 4/1), thick Ab horizon. This is overlain by an ACb horizon, where soil formation was being extinguished by the onset of Holocene-age Bignell Loess deposition. Within the upper solum and Bignell Loess, a shift in biota activity occurs as indicated by the large burrow (6-12 cm width) and chamber (30-40 cm width) systems observed. Trace sizes suggest that a burrowing rodent, such as the prairie dog (Cynomys sp.) or ground squirrel (Spermophilus sp.), was responsible for their creation. Soil micromorphology was used to distinguish sediment-size classes, mineralogy, and clay morphology of specific loess deposits and soil horizons in order to track displacement of sediment through the profile due to bioturbation. Five block samples were taken in undisturbed sediment and soil horizons for thin-section analysis. Twelve additional samples of burrow cross-sections or bioturbated sediment were analyzed for comparison. Soil features produced by faunal and floral activity were differentiated from features produced by pedologic processes through the identification and classification of granular and spongy microstructures indicative of excrement, calcitic biospheroids, infilling, meniscate backfilling, channel microstructures, and well-oriented clay coatings. Sediment morphology, mineralogy of the infill and backfill material, and biosilicate assemblages were used to trace the material to the source sediment location providing a timeline for events of bioturbation. Defining localized versus deep-mixing events provides an assessment of the disturbance to paleoclimate proxies and age data and will allow for a more accurate paleoclimate reconstruction in this heavily bioturbated paleosol.

Woodburn, T. L.; Hasiotis, S. T.; Johnson, W. C.

2012-12-01

223

Acceleration without Horizons  

E-print Network

We derive the metric of an accelerating observer moving with non-constant proper acceleration in flat spacetime. With the exception of a limiting case representing a Rindler observer, there are no horizons. In our solution, observers can accelerate to any desired terminal speed $v_{\\infty} accelerating observer is completely determined by the distance of closest approach and terminal velocity or, equivalently, by an acceleration parameter and terminal velocity.

Alaric Doria; Gerardo Munoz

2015-02-18

224

Acceleration without Horizons  

E-print Network

We derive the metric of an accelerating observer moving with non-constant proper acceleration in flat spacetime. With the exception of a limiting case representing a Rindler observer, there are no horizons. In our solution, observers can accelerate to any desired terminal speed $v_{\\infty} accelerating observer is completely determined by the distance of closest approach and terminal velocity or, equivalently, by an acceleration parameter and terminal velocity.

Doria, Alaric

2015-01-01

225

Refraction near the horizon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Variations in astronomical refraction near the horizon are examined. Sunset timings, a sextant mounted on a tripod, and a temperature profile are utilized to derive the variations in refraction data, collected from 7 locations. It is determined that the refraction ranges from 0.234 to 1.678 deg with an rms deviation of 0.16, and it is observed that the variation is larger than previously supposed. Some applications for the variation of refraction value are discussed.

Schaefer, Bradley E.; Liller, William

1990-01-01

226

Describing Soils: Calibration Tool for Teaching Soil Rupture Resistance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rupture resistance is a measure of the strength of a soil to withstand an applied stress or resist deformation. In soil survey, during routine soil descriptions, rupture resistance is described for each horizon or layer in the soil profile. The lower portion of the rupture resistance classes are assigned based on rupture between thumb and…

Seybold, C. A.; Harms, D. S.; Grossman, R. B.

2009-01-01

227

Silicon on insulator with active buried regions  

DOEpatents

A method is disclosed for forming patterned buried components, such as collectors, sources and drains, in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices. The method is carried out by epitaxially growing a suitable sequence of single or multiple etch stop layers ending with a thin silicon layer on a silicon substrate, masking the silicon such that the desired pattern is exposed, introducing dopant and activating in the thin silicon layer to form doped regions. Then, bonding the silicon layer to an insulator substrate, and removing the silicon substrate. The method additionally involves forming electrical contact regions in the thin silicon layer for the buried collectors. 10 figs.

McCarthy, A.M.

1996-01-30

228

Silicon on insulator with active buried regions  

DOEpatents

A method for forming patterned buried components, such as collectors, sources and drains, in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices. The method is carried out by epitaxially growing a suitable sequence of single or multiple etch stop layers ending with a thin silicon layer on a silicon substrate, masking the silicon such that the desired pattern is exposed, introducing dopant and activating in the thin silicon layer to form doped regions. Then, bonding the silicon layer to an insulator substrate, and removing the silicon substrate. The method additionally involves forming electrical contact regions in the thin silicon layer for the buried collectors.

McCarthy, Anthony M. (Menlo Park, CA)

1998-06-02

229

Prioritization for rehabilitation of buried lifelines  

SciTech Connect

Seismic rehabilitation or retrofit is a cost-effective way to prevent pipeline damage caused by future earthquakes. In general, it is very difficult, if not impossible, to rehabilitate all buried pipelines at the same time because of limited funds and time available. The purpose of this study is to establish a priority strategy for rehabilitation of buried pipelines considering several important factors such as pipeline damage probability, rehabilitation cost, rehabilitation rate (e.g. km/day), pipeline importance and total funds available.

Wang, L.R.L.; Ishibashi, I. [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Li, H.

1995-12-31

230

Earthworm casting: Stabilization or destabilization of soil structure?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to determine the effect of the gut passage through earthworms on the aggregate stability of soils varying in texture, carbonate and organic matter content. The soil material used originated from the Ap and B horizon of a loam soil (Gleyic Luvisol) and from the Ap and P horizon of a clay soil (Calcaric-Vertic Cambisol).

Stefan Schrader; Haiquan Zhang

1997-01-01

231

The role of soil-forming processes in the definition of taxa in Soil Taxonomy and the World Soil Reference Base  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern soil taxonomic systems, including Soil Taxonomy (ST) and the World Reference Base (WRB) for Soil Resources, classify soils using diagnostic horizons, properties, and materials. Although these systems are based on genetic principles, the approaches used have de-emphasized the role of soil processes in soil taxonomic systems. Meanwhile, a consideration of soil processes is important for understanding the genetic underpinnings

J. G. Bockheim; A. N. Gennadiyev

2000-01-01

232

Soil Science Society of America Journal Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 78:14581468  

E-print Network

cm of mineral soil to track the fate of the added Ca. We also measured soil pH and exchangeable horizon or the top 10 cm of mineral soil. Soil pH and exchangeable Ca concentrations increasedSoil Science Society of America Journal Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 78:1458­1468 doi:10.2136/sssaj2014

Battles, John

233

The Panther Mountain circular structure, a possible buried meteorite crater  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Panther Mountain, located near Phoenicia, New York, is part of the Catskill Mountains, which form the eastern end of the Allegheny Plateau in New York. It is a circular mass defined physiographically by an anomalous circular drainage pattern produced by Esopus Creek and its tributary Woodland Creek. The circular valley that rings the mountain is fracture-controlled; where bedrock is exposed, it shows a joint density 5 to 10 times greater than that on either side of the valley. Where obscured by alluvial valley fill, the bedrock's low seismic velocity suggests that this anomalous fracturing is continuous in the bedrock underlying the rim valley. North-south and east-west gravity and magnetic profiles were made across the structure. Terrane-corrected, residual gravity profiles show an 18-mgal negative anomaly, and very steep gradients indicate a near-surface source. Several possible explanations of the gravity data were modeled. We conclude that the Panther Mountain circular structure is probably a buried meteorite crater that formed contemporaneously with marine or fluvial sedimentation during Silurian or Devonian time. An examination of drill core and cuttings in the region is underway to search for ejecta deposits and possible seismic and tsunami effects in the sedimentary section. Success would result in both dating the impact and furnishing a chronostratigraphic marker horizon.

Isachsen, Y. W.; Wright, S. F.; Revetta, F. A.; Duneen, R. J.

1992-01-01

234

In situ vitrification on buried waste  

SciTech Connect

In situ vitrification (ISV) is being evaluated as a remedial treatment technology for buried mixed and transuranic (TRU) wastes at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and can be related to buried wastes at other Department of Energy (DOE) sites. There are numerous locations around the DOE Complex where wastes were buried in the ground or stored for future burial. The Buried Waste Program (BWP) is conducting a comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the Department of Energy - Field Office Idaho (DOE-ID). As part of the RI/FS, an ISV scoping study on the treatability of the SDA mixed low-level and mixed TRU waste is being performed for applicability to remediation of the waste at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). The ISV project being conducted at the INEL by EG G Idaho, Inc. consists of a treatability investigation to collect data to satisfy nine CERCLA criteria with regards to the SDA. This treatability investigation involves a series of experiments and related efforts to study the feasibility of ISV for remediation of mixed and TRU waste disposed of at the SDA.

Bates, S.O.

1992-01-01

235

In situ vitrification on buried waste  

SciTech Connect

In situ vitrification (ISV) is being evaluated as a remedial treatment technology for buried mixed and transuranic (TRU) wastes at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and can be related to buried wastes at other Department of Energy (DOE) sites. There are numerous locations around the DOE Complex where wastes were buried in the ground or stored for future burial. The Buried Waste Program (BWP) is conducting a comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the Department of Energy - Field Office Idaho (DOE-ID). As part of the RI/FS, an ISV scoping study on the treatability of the SDA mixed low-level and mixed TRU waste is being performed for applicability to remediation of the waste at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). The ISV project being conducted at the INEL by EG&G Idaho, Inc. consists of a treatability investigation to collect data to satisfy nine CERCLA criteria with regards to the SDA. This treatability investigation involves a series of experiments and related efforts to study the feasibility of ISV for remediation of mixed and TRU waste disposed of at the SDA.

Bates, S.O.

1992-08-01

236

COWBIRD EGG BURIED BY A NORTHERN ORIOLE  

Microsoft Academic Search

A newly constructed Northern Oriole (Icterus galbula) nest collected on 9 June 1985 contained one Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) egg 80% buried in the 3-cm thick lining of grass and cottonwood down. The nest contained no oriole eggs. Burial as a defense by Northern Orioles against cowbird parasitism has been noted only once, despite careful checking of over 400 nests.

KEITH A. HOBSON; SPENCER G. SEALY

237

Micromachining of buried micro channels in silicon  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for the fabrication of micro structures for fluidic applications, such as channels, cavities, and connector holes in the bulk of silicon wafers, called buried channel technology (BCT), is presented in this paper. The micro structures are constructed by trench etching, coating of the sidewalls of the trench, removal of the coating at the bottom of the trench,

Meint J. de Boer; R. Willem Tjerkstra; J. W. Berenschot; Henri V. Jansen; G. J. Burger; J. G. E. Gardeniers; Miko Elwenspoek; Berg van den Albert

2000-01-01

238

47 CFR 32.2423 - Buried cable.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...cable as well as the cost of other material used in the construction of such plant. This account shall also include the cost of trenching for and burying cable run in conduit not classifiable to Account 2441, Conduit Systems. Subsidiary record...

2010-10-01

239

THE ECOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR OF BURYING BEETLES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Burying beetles conceal small vertebrate carcasses underground and prepare them for consumption by their young. This review places their complex social behavior in an ecological context that focuses on the evolution of biparental care and communal breeding. Both males and females provide extensive parental care, and the major benefit of male assistance is to help defend the brood and carcass

Michelle Pellissier Scott

1998-01-01

240

Microwave life detector for buried victims  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a microwave life detector for buried victims after earthquakes, landslips, explosions or breaking down in buildings, etc.... The complementarity of this equipment with respect to other already existing techniques is discussed. Preliminary in situ results obtained with a prototype demonstrate the potentialities of such an microwave equipment and allow to identify possible improvements for a fully operational

J. Bel Hadj Tahar; J. Ch. Bolomey; M. Cauterman

1993-01-01

241

Soil Particle Size Distribution Protocol  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this resource is to sure the distribution of different sizes of soil particles in each horizon of a soil profile. Using dry, sieved soil from a horizon, students mix the soil with water and a dispersing solution to completely separate the particles from each other. Students shake the mixture to fully suspend the soil in the water. The soil particles are then allowed to settle out of suspension, and the specific gravity and temperature of the suspension are measured using a hydrometer and thermometer. These measurements are taken after 2 minutes and 24 hours.

The GLOBE Program, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR)

2003-08-01

242

Transient Heat Transfer from an Offshore Buried Pipeline during Start-up Working Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2D heat transfer from offshore, completely buried pipelines is studied with reference to transient working conditions. In particular, the start-up case is considered (i.e., the case of a pipeline initially at equilibrium with the surrounding soil). Two different start-up cases are investigated: the step-rising case and the smooth-rising case. (In the latter, the steady-state wall temperature is reached in

A. Barletta; S. Lazzari; E. Zanchini; A. Terenzi

2008-01-01

243

Seismic response evaluation of the impact of corrosion on buried pipelines based on the Markov process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water distribution and gas supply systems are among the infrastructure systems that have many buried steel pipelines. Corrosion\\u000a gradually appears inside and outside of the pipe walls over the service life of these pipelines, the corrosion is primarily\\u000a caused by the surrounding soil and the materials that flow through the pipelines. However, due to the uncertainty of the characteristics\\u000a of

Wei Liu; Jie Li

2008-01-01

244

Buried vertic paleosols of the North Caucasus in the third millennia BC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paleosols buried under kurgans dating back to the Yamnaya, Catacomb, and Post-Catacomb cultural epochs of the Bronze Age (4600–3900\\u000a BP) on the territory of the Stavropol Upland (the North Caucasus) in the area occupied by vertic chernozems were studied.\\u000a It was found that solonchakous and deeply solonchakous and solonetzic chestnut soils and solonetzes proper predominated in\\u000a the study area during

A. V. Borisov; I. V. Kovda; A. B. Belinskii; S. V. Lyakhov; V. A. Demkin

2008-01-01

245

Effect of earthworm cast formation on the stabilization of organic matter in fine soil fractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the effects of earthworm casting on organic matter dynamics, control soil and casts were added as a surface layer (Horizon I) to perspex cylinders containing a ‘base’ soil depleted in organic C (Horizon II). Three treatments with different Horizon I were used; a control containing uningested soil and oak litter (Quercus petraea (Mattuschka) Lieblein), cast derived from the

Michael McInerney; Declan J Little; Thomas Bolger

2001-01-01

246

New Horizons at Pluto  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Artist's concept of the New Horizons spacecraft as it approaches Pluto and its largest moon, Charon, in July 2015. The craft's miniature cameras, radio science experiment, ultraviolet and infrared spectrometers and space plasma experiments will characterize the global geology and geomorphology of Pluto and Charon, map their surface compositions and temperatures, and examine Pluto's atmosphere in detail. The spacecraft's most prominent design feature is a nearly 7-foot (2.1-meter) dish antenna, through which it will communicate with Earth from as far as 4.7 billion miles (7.5 billion kilometers) away.

2007-01-01

247

New Horizons Web Site  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA launched its New Horizons spacecraft mission on January 19, 2006. The purpose of the mission is to provide the first fly-by of the Pluto-Charon system and the first up-close exploration of the area at the edge of the solar system called the Kuyper Belt. This mission webpage provides daily updates about the location of the vehicle with graphics that show its position in relation to the planets and its planned course through the solar system from several perspectives.

Laboratory, Nasa J.; Nasa

248

On the formation of an inverted weathering profile on Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania: Buried paleosol or groundwater weathering?  

E-print Network

On the formation of an inverted weathering profile on Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania: Buried paleosol or groundwater weathering? Mark Gabriel Little , Cin-Ty Aeolus Lee Department of Earth Sciences, MS-126, Rice into the degree and nature of chemical weathering during soil formation on a volcanic (phonolite) substrate

Lee, Cin-Ty Aeolus

249

Relevance of mineral-organic associations in cryoturbated permafrost soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Enhanced microbial decomposition of deep buried organic matter (OM) increase the release of CO2and CH4from high latitude ecosystems, thus being an uncertain but potentially crucial positive feedback to global warming. The role of soil minerals as stabilization agents of OM against microbial attack gain in importance as soon abiotic soil conditions will change in permafrost soils. We investigated changes in storage and turnover of soil organic carbon (OC) and total nitrogen (TN) associated with minerals in 27 cryoturbated permafrost soils from the west to the east Siberian Arctic. Furthermore, we studied the mineral composition and the potential of OM to interact with soil minerals via different binding mechanisms. Mineral-associated organic matter (MOM) was separated from particulate plant debris by density fractionation in sodium polytungstate (density cut-off 1.6 g cm-3). Their apparent 14C ages were determined by accelerator mass spectrometry and potential mineralization rates were analyzed in a 180 days incubation experiments at 5 and 15° C. The mineral composition was analyzed by X-ray diffraction and selective extractions. Desorption experiments (stepwise extraction with KCl and NaH2PO4) using the permafrost soils as well as reference soils from temperate regions (three Stagnolsols from Germany) were performed to study OM sorbed to mineral surfaces or complexed with polyvalent metal ions. The proportion of OC associated with minerals (MOC) ranged from 5.1 to 14.9 kg m-2 (average: 11.0 kg m-2), corresponding to ~55% from the total soil OC storage (average: 20.2 ± 8.0 kg m-2) in the first meter of the Cryosols. In contrast to temperate soils, where maximum MOC concentrations are present in topsoils, cambic, or spodic horizons, cryoturbation in permafrost soils leads to high MOC concentrations within the whole solum. Cryoturbated OM-rich pockets in the subsoil store 18% (2.0 ± 1.3 kg m-2) of the MOC while another 34% (3.8 ± 3.5 kg m-2) was located in the uppermost permafrost. In topsoil horizons, mineralization rates showed a similar pattern for MOM and the bulk soil controls. In contrast, even higher MOM respiration rates then the bulk control were found in the cryoturbated OM-rich pockets and permafrost horizons. These findings deviate from temperate soil environments where MOM is considered to contribute to a 'stabilized pool' with mean residence times from hundreds to thousands of years. Statistical analysis indicated that mineral-organic interactions primarily occurred with poorly crystalline Fe and Al phases and Fe/Al-OM complexes. However, the minor desorption of organic polyelectrolytes by NaH2PO4 in permafrost soils indicated that significantly lower amounts of OC were bound by ligand exchange to Fe and Al minerals or the edges of clay minerals in permafrost soils compared to the temperate reference soils. Therefore, stabilization of OM by mineral surfaces or polyvalent metal ions appears to be of minor relevance in arctic environments compared to temperate soils.

Gentsch, Norman; Mikutta, Robert; Bárta, Ji?í; ?apek, Petr; Gittel, Antje; Richter, Andreas; Šantr??ková, Hanna; Schnecker, Jörg; Shibistova, Olga; Urich, Tim; Wild, Birgit; Guggenberger, Georg

2014-05-01

250

Cold planar horizons are floppy  

E-print Network

Extremal planar black holes of four dimensional Einstein-Maxwell theory with a negative cosmological constant have an AdS$_2 \\times \\R^2$ near horizon geometry. We show that this near horizon geometry admits a deformation to a two parameter family of extremal geometries with inhomogeneous, spatially periodic horizons. At a linear level, static inhomogeneous perturbations of AdS$_2 \\times \\R^2$ decay towards the horizon and thus appear irrelevant under the holographic RG flow. However we have found numerically that nonlinear effects lead to inhomogeneous near horizon geometries. A consequence of these observations is that an arbitrarily small periodic deformation of the boundary theory at nonzero charge density does not flow to AdS$_2 \\times \\R^2$ in the IR, but rather to an inhomogeneous horizon. These results shed light on existing numerical studies of low temperature periodically modulated black holes and also offer a new mechanism for holographic metal-insulator crossovers or transitions.

Sean A. Hartnoll; Jorge E. Santos

2014-04-03

251

Entropy of isolated horizons revisited  

SciTech Connect

The decade-old formulation of the isolated horizon classically and within loop quantum gravity, and the extraction of the microcanonical entropy of such a horizon from this formulation, is reviewed, in view of recent renewed interest. There are two main approaches to this problem: one employs an SU(2) Chern-Simons theory describing the isolated horizon degrees of freedom, while the other uses a reduced U(1) Chern-Simons theory obtained from the SU(2) theory, with appropriate constraints imposed on the spectrum of boundary states ''living'' on the horizon. It is shown that both these ways lead to the same infinite series asymptotic in the horizon area for the microcanonical entropy of an isolated horizon. The leading area term is followed by an unambiguous correction term logarithmic in area with a coefficient -(3/2), with subleading corrections dropping off as inverse powers of the area.

Basu, Rudranil; Kaul, Romesh K.; Majumdar, Parthasarathi [SN Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Kolkata 700 098 (India); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Chennai 600 113 (India); Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata 700 064 (India)

2010-07-15

252

Groundwater Flow Dynamic Simulations of a Buried Valley Aquifer Calibrated with Field and Remotely Sensed Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Buried valleys are a common occurrence in the North American prairie landscape. They are often characterized as high yield sources of groundwater in regions where low yield shale and tills dominate the hydrogeological setting. Firstly, 3D conceptual and geological models have been generated and used as a basis for creating a 3D finite element groundwater flow model. Field data, including piezometric readings, base flow measurements, and soil moisture probe data were collected between 2011 and 2013 and are used for calibrating the flow model. Secondly, the study aims to improve the spatial discretization of recharge estimates and include these refined values in the flow model. A temporal series of C-band Radar data and several land surface models were compared with the soil moisture probe data from the Spiritwood buried valley aquifer. The radar backscatter was used to develop moisture estimates at the regional scale. These estimates were then input into the HELP multi-parameter recharge model with the aim of assisting in estimates of a spatial discretization for groundwater recharge. Preliminary groundwater simulation results, with uniform recharge, show good agreement with piezometer readings and measured base flow readings. The temporal series of C-band radar backscatter, moisture probe data, and land surface models show corresponding variations between October, 2011 and October, 2012. The high resolution and regional extent of the radar data has a high potential to help develop a better understanding of recharge patterns in buried valley settings. Integrating a temporal series of high-resolution data into conceptual and numerical model development will refine our mapping, understanding and assessment of buried valley aquifers. Future work will include incorporating the spatially variable recharge estimates into the 3D finite element flow model. Additionally, various interpretations of the geological model will be tested to determine the extent, if any, that a geophysical dataset (airborne electromagnetic AEM or seismic) can help yield a more realistic flow pattern in buried valley aquifers.

Calderhead, A. I.; Hinton, M. J.; Logan, C. E.; Sharpe, D.; Russel, H. A.; Oldenborger, G. A.; Pugin, A.; Rivera, A.; Castellazzi, P.; Martel, R.

2013-12-01

253

92 JOURNAL OF RANGE MANAGEMENT 52(1), January 1999 Despite the importance of soil characteristics for classifying  

E-print Network

information exists on western riparian area soils or the factors that influence them. We examined the effects sites had thick Oe horizons, dark, fine-textured A hori- zons, no B horizons, and lower C horizons high and organic-rich A horizons, cambic B horizons, and deep rooting profiles. High water tables sites had higher

254

Quantifying Vapor Flow Within Sublimation Tills Over Buried Glacier ice in Antarctica: Implications for the Origin and Modification of Near-Surface ice on Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Buried glacier ice rests beneath a 40-80 cm thick layer of sublimation till in central Beacon Valley, Antarctica. We applied a diffusion model to track vapor flux within the till to assess long-term stability of subsurface ice. As input, we used meteorological data from HOBO data loggers that captured changes in solar radiance, atmospheric temperature, relative humidity, soil temperature, soil

D. E. Kowalewski

2007-01-01

255

First Results in the Autonomous Retrieval of Buried Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed an autonomous system for the retrieval of buried objects. It is designed to detect, locate and retrieve buried objects. The system is equipped with a hydraulic robot, laser range finder and a subsurface sensor. First, subsurface sensing is used to detect and locate buried objects. If an object can be reached with one dig, the excavator retrieves

Herman Herman; Sanjiv Singh

1994-01-01

256

Black holes as local horizons  

E-print Network

This talk gives a brief introduction to black hole horizons and their role in black hole thermodynamics. In particular a distinction is made between quasi-locally defined horizons and event horizons. Currently some new techniques have led to interesting developments and the field seems to be growing in two distinct directions. We will show how thermodynamics can equally well be applied to locally defined horizons and discuss some recent results. The emphasis is on giving simple intuitive pictures and mathematical details are largely omitted.

Alex B. Nielsen

2007-11-02

257

The New Horizons Spacecraft  

E-print Network

The New Horizons spacecraft was launched on 19 January 2006. The spacecraft was designed to provide a platform for seven instruments that will collect and return data from Pluto in 2015. The design drew on heritage from previous missions developed at The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) and other missions such as Ulysses. The trajectory design imposed constraints on mass and structural strength to meet the high launch acceleration needed to reach the Pluto system prior to the year 2020. The spacecraft subsystems were designed to meet tight mass and power allocations, yet provide the necessary control and data handling finesse to support data collection and return when the one-way light time during the Pluto flyby is 4.5 hours. Missions to the outer solar system require a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) to supply electrical power, and a single RTG is used by New Horizons. To accommodate this constraint, the spacecraft electronics were designed to operate on less than 200 W. The spacecraft system architecture provides sufficient redundancy to provide a probability of mission success of greater than 0.85, even with a mission duration of over 10 years. The spacecraft is now on its way to Pluto, with an arrival date of 14 July 2015. Initial inflight tests have verified that the spacecraft will meet the design requirements.

Glen H. Fountain; David Y. Kusnierkiewicz; Christopher B. Hersman; Timothy S. Herder; Thomas B. Coughlin; William C. Gibson; Deborah A. Clancy; Christopher C. DeBoy; T. Adrian Hill; James D. Kinnison; Douglas S. Mehoke; Geffrey K. Ottman; Gabe D. Rogers; S. Alan Stern; James M. Stratton; Steven R. Vernon; Stephen P. Williams

2007-09-26

258

New Horizons at Jupiter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The New Horizons Pluto-Kuiper Belt Mission was launched on a Jupiter Gravity Assist (JGA) trajectory on 19 January 2006. Jupiter closest approach occurred on 28 February 2007. The primary objective of the JGA was to target the spacecraft to its Pluto system flyby on 14 July 2015. This was successfully accomplished. The secondary objectives of the JGA were to (i) exercise the spacecraft and instrument payload with a real world flyby prior to Pluto, and to (ii) to conduct scientific observations of the Jupiter system. Both secondary objectives were also accomplished. Over 700 scientific observations were conducted, and all but a tiny fraction were carried out successfully. A few observations were however lost to high radiation levels which reset the Alice UV spectrometer a number of times near closest approach. Observations of Jupiter itself, its magnetosphere, satellites, aurora, and rings were conducted over a span of time from January to June 2007. In this talk we will present an overview of the New Horizons Jupiter flyby and enumerate some of the scientific highlights that early data analysis have revealed.

Stern, S. A.; Weaver, H. A.; Moore, J.; Spencer, J.; Horizons Science, New; Mission Team

2007-10-01

259

Technologies on the Horizon: Teachers Respond to the Horizon Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate teachers' beliefs regarding the integration of technologies from the 2011 K-12 edition of the "Horizon Report" into their local, public school contexts. Teachers read the "Horizon Report" and then participated in an asynchronous, threaded discussion focusing on technologies they…

Hodges, Charles B.; Prater, Alyssa H.

2014-01-01

260

HEGGY ET PAILLOU. 2005: PROBING BURIED CRATERS Probing Structural Elements of Small Buried Craters Using Ground-Penetrating Radar  

E-print Network

BURIED CRATERS Index Terms: (0933) Remote sensing, (5420) Impact phenomena, (6022, 8136) Cratering, (5494HEGGY ET PAILLOU. 2005: PROBING BURIED CRATERS Probing Structural Elements of Small Buried Craters on a recently discovered impact field in the southwestern Egyptian desert, using a 270 MHz Ground

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

261

Preservation of labile organic matter in soils of drained thaw lakes in Northern Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large number of studies predict changing organic matter (OM) dynamics in arctic soils due to global warming. In contrast to rather slowly altering bulk soil properties, single soil organic matter (SOM) fractions can provide a more detailed picture of the dynamics of differently preserved SOM pools in climate sensitive arctic regions. By the study of the chemical composition of such distinctive SOM fractions using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) together with radiocarbon analyses it is possible to evaluate the stability of the major OM pools. Approximately 50-75% of Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain is covered with thaw lakes and drained thaw lakes that follow a 5,000 yr cycle of development (between creation and final drainage), thus forming a natural soil chronosequence. The drained thaw lakes offer the possibility to study SOM dynamics affected by permafrost processes over millennial timescales. In April 2010 we sampled 16 soil cores (including the active and permanent layer) reaching from young drained lakes (0-50 years since drainage) to ancient drained lakes (3000-5500 years since drainage). Air dried soil samples from soil horizons of the active and permanent layer were subjected to density fractionation in order to differentiate particulate OM and mineral associated OM. The chemical composition of the SOM fractions was analyzed by 13C CPMAS NMR spectroscopy. For a soil core of a young and an ancient drained thaw lake basin we also analyzed the 14C content. For the studied soils we can show that up to over 25 kg OC per square meter are stored mostly as labile, easily degradable organic matter rich in carbohydrates. In contrast only 10 kg OC per square meter were sequestered as presumably more stable mineral associated OC dominated by aliphatic compounds. Comparable to soils of temperate regions, we found small POM (< 20 µm) occluded in aggregated soil structures which differed in the chemical composition from larger organic particles. This was clearly shown by increased amounts of aliphatic C in these small POM fractions. As revealed by 13C CPMAS NMR, with advancing soil age increasing aliphaticity was also detected in occluded small POM fractions. By 14C dating we could show the stabilization of younger more labile OM at greater depth in buried O horizons. Additionally the study of the microscale elemental distributions, using nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) showed the initial formation of aggregates and organo-mineral interfaces in the studied permafrost soils.

Mueller, Carsten W.; Rethemeyer, Janet; Kao-Kniffin, Jenny; Löppmann, Sebastian; Hinkel, Kenneth; Bockheim, James

2014-05-01

262

Mass Transport within Soils  

SciTech Connect

Contaminants in soil can impact human health and the environment through a complex web of interactions. Soils exist where the atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere, and biosphere converge. Soil is the thin outer zone of the earth's crust that supports rooted plants and is the product of climate and living organisms acting on rock. A true soil is a mixture of air, water, mineral, and organic components. The relative proportions of these components determine the value of the soil for agricultural and for other human uses. These proportions also determine, to a large extent, how a substance added to soil is transported and/or transformed within the soil (Spositio, 2004). In mass-balance models, soil compartments play a major role, functioning both as reservoirs and as the principal media for transport among air, vegetation, surface water, deeper soil, and ground water (Mackay, 2001). Quantifying the mass transport of chemicals within soil and between soil and atmosphere is important for understanding the role soil plays in controlling fate, transport, and exposure to multimedia pollutants. Soils are characteristically heterogeneous. A trench dug into soil typically reveals several horizontal layers having different colors and textures. As illustrated in Figure 1, these multiple layers are often divided into three major horizons: (1) the A horizon, which encompasses the root zone and contains a high concentration of organic matter; (2) the B horizon, which is unsaturated, lies below the roots of most plants, and contains a much lower organic carbon content; and (3) the C horizon, which is the unsaturated zone of weathered parent rock consisting of bedrock, alluvial material, glacial material, and/or soil of an earlier geological period. Below these three horizons lies the saturated zone - a zone that encompasses the area below ground surface in which all interconnected openings within the geologic media are completely filled with water. Similarly to the unsaturated zone with three major horizons, the saturated zone can be further divided into other zones based on hydraulic and geologic conditions. Wetland soils are a special and important class in which near-saturation conditions exist most of the time. When a contaminant is added to or formed in a soil column, there are several mechanisms by which it can be dispersed, transported out of the soil column to other parts of the environment, destroyed, or transformed into some other species. Thus, to evaluate or manage any contaminant introduced to the soil column, one must determine whether and how that substance will (1) remain or accumulate within the soil column, (2) be transported by dispersion or advection within the soil column, (3) be physically, chemically, or biologically transformed within the soil (i.e., by hydrolysis, oxidation, etc.), or (4) be transported out of the soil column to another part of the environment through a cross-media transfer (i.e., volatilization, runoff, ground water infiltration, etc.). These competing processes impact the fate of physical, chemical, or biological contaminants found in soils. In order to capture these mechanisms in mass transfer models, we must develop mass-transfer coefficients (MTCs) specific to soil layers. That is the goal of this chapter. The reader is referred to other chapters in this Handbook that address related transport processes, namely Chapter 13 on bioturbation, Chapter 15 on transport in near-surface geological formations, and Chapter 17 on soil resuspention. This chapter addresses the following issues: the nature of soil pollution, composition of soil, transport processes and transport parameters in soil, transformation processes in soil, mass-balance models, and MTCs in soils. We show that to address vertical heterogeneity in soils in is necessary to define a characteristic scaling depth and use this to establish process-based expressions for soil MTCs. The scaling depth in soil and the corresponding MTCs depend strongly on (1) the composition of the soil and physical state of the soil, (2) the chemical and physic

McKone, Thomas E.

2009-03-01

263

Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Strategy Plan  

SciTech Connect

The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. These efforts are identified and coordinated in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) needs and objectives. The present focus of BWID is to support retrieval and ex situ treatment configuration options. Future activities will explore and support containment and stabilization efforts in addition to the retrieval/ex situ treatment options. Long and short term strategies of the BWID are provided. Processes for identifying technological needs, screening candidate technologies for BWID applicability, researching technical issues, field demonstrating technologies, evaluating demonstration results to determine each technology's threshold of capability, and commercializing successfully demonstrated technologies for implementation for environmental restoration also are presented in this report.

Kostelnik, K.M.

1993-02-01

264

Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Strategy Plan  

SciTech Connect

The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. These efforts are identified and coordinated in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) needs and objectives. The present focus of BWID is to support retrieval and ex situ treatment configuration options. Future activities will explore and support containment and stabilization efforts in addition to the retrieval/ex situ treatment options. Long and short term strategies of the BWID are provided. Processes for identifying technological needs, screening candidate technologies for BWID applicability, researching technical issues, field demonstrating technologies, evaluating demonstration results to determine each technology`s threshold of capability, and commercializing successfully demonstrated technologies for implementation for environmental restoration also are presented in this report.

Kostelnik, K.M.

1993-02-01

265

Burying by rats in response to aversive and nonaversive stimuli  

PubMed Central

Previous investigations have shown that rats bury a variety of conditioned and unconditioned aversive stimuli. Such burying has been considered as a species-typical defensive reaction. In the present studies, rats buried spouts filled with Tabasco sauce, or condensed milk to which a taste aversion was conditioned, but did not bury water-filled spouts or spouts filled with a palatable novel food (apple juice) to which a taste aversion was not conditioned. However, in other experiments rats consistently and repeatedly buried Purina Rat Chow, Purina Rat Chow coated with quinine, and glass marbles. This indicates that a variety of stimuli, not all aversive or novel, evoke burying by rats. Whereas the behavior may reasonably be considered as a species-typical defensive behavior in some situations, the wide range of conditions that occasion burying suggests that the behavior has no single biological function. PMID:16812198

Poling, Alan; Cleary, James; Monaghan, Michael

1981-01-01

266

Buried Long Period Grating For Laser Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One type of aperture-sharing device, the buried long period grating (BLPG), is described in this paper. The BLPG functions as a buried segmented mirror whose primary function is to spatially redirect, by reflections, an antiparallel laser beam and its corresponding low power broad band LWIR (long wavelength infrared) return beam. The aperture sharing unit consists of a pair of BLPGs, the second BLPG being used to restore spatial coherence across the LWIR wavefront. Other system functions of the BLPG such as autoalignment and beam sampling are discussed. The optical performance of the device is discussed in terms of energy losses due to material dispersion diffraction loss, degradation of resolution resulting from diffraction, segment fabrication tolerances, and thermally induced structural deformations due to laser beam heating. Both transient and steady-state thermal and structural analysis were performed on the device. One result from the analysis was the value of the burying dielectric thickness above the segment tips that minimized the stress within the device under laser beam irradiation. Fabrication consisted of separately tooling segmented surfaces in the cooled substrate and in the burying dielectric (CVD ZnSe and ZnS) followed by application of a metallic coating. These two segmented surfaces were joined with an appropriate bonding agent. The critical fabrication step is to use the bonding materials that have the following properties: (1) approaches full cure during fabrication, (2) minimum of outgassing with temperature and with time, (3) stable with aging (minimize surface distortion), (4) high thermal conductivity, and (5) flexible bond line to absorb thermal expansion mismatch between the dissimilar substrate materials. The exposed dielectric surface is polished flat, vacuum baked, and dichoric coated to reflect a laser beam and transmit a LWIR beam. Some top surface distortion is introduced during vacuum baking and during dichroic coating. Present work is towards reducing these fabrication temperature deformations by accurately mixing the bonding components to give different compositions. Preliminary work indicates good device performance in a laser environment.

Chi, C. H.; Reeves, J. M.; Au, L. N.; Price, K. D.; Misuinas, P. L.

1981-02-01

267

Buried caldera of mauna kea volcano, hawaii.  

PubMed

An elliptical caldera (2.1 by 2.8 kilometers) at the summit of Mauna Kea volcano is inferred to lie buried beneath hawaiite lava flows and pyroclastic cones at an altitude of approximately 3850 meters. Stratigraphic relationships indicate that hawaiite eruptions began before a pre-Wisconsin period of ice-cap glaciation and that the crest of the mountain attained its present altitude and gross form during a glaciation of probable Early Wisconsin age. PMID:17842285

Porter, S C

1972-03-31

268

Coaxial inverted geometry transistor having buried emitter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The invention relates to an inverted geometry transistor wherein the emitter is buried within the substrate. The transistor can be fabricated as a part of a monolithic integrated circuit and is particularly suited for use in applications where it is desired to employ low actuating voltages. The transistor may employ the same doping levels in the collector and emitter, so these connections can be reversed.

Hruby, R. J.; Cress, S. B.; Dunn, W. R. (inventors)

1973-01-01

269

The Insects Colonisation of Buried Remains  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In our society, burial of a deceased person is a common habit in a normal situation. In opposition, manmade burial by authors\\u000a of homicide and\\/or their accomplices to hide the body of their victim is more seldom.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Exhumation of a buried corpse can be ordered by legal decision (second expert conclusion). It can also be accidental or required\\u000a by authorities

Emmanuel Gaudry

270

Layerwise reaction at a buried interface  

SciTech Connect

X-ray diffraction was used to monitor the {ital in} {ital situ} reaction of Pd deposited on Si(111) at room temperature. An ordered silicide forms spontaneously beneath a poorly ordered overlayer. It is commensurate and strained at low coverage, but relaxes to an unstrained state above a critical thickness of 18 A. During both phases of growth sustained intensity oscillations are seen that correspond to a layerwise consumption of the substrate at the buried interface.

Bennett, P.A.; DeVries, B. (Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)); Robinson, I.K.; Eng, P.J. (AT T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, New Jersey 07974 (United States))

1992-10-26

271

Buried bumper--the endoscopic approach.  

PubMed

Buried bumper syndrome--ingrowth of the internal bumper of a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) into the gastric wall--is one of the serious long-term complications of enteral nutrition using PEG systems. There are various endoscopic methods of managing the problem. We report here on a case successfully and rapidly treated with the method described by Müller-Gerbes et al., using a papillotome introduced over a guide wire. PMID:25097052

Born, Peter; Winker, Jürgen; Jung, Andreas; Strebel, Hendrik

2014-06-01

272

The Horizon Report. 2006 Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This third edition of the New Media Consortium's (NMC) annual "Horizon Report" describes the continuing work of the Horizon Project, a research-oriented effort that seeks to identify and describe emerging technologies likely to have a large impact on teaching, learning, or creative expression within higher education. Drawing on ongoing discussions…

New Media Consortium, 2006

2006-01-01

273

The Horizon Report. 2007 Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This fourth edition of the New Media Consortium's (NMC) annual "Horizon Report" describes the continuing work of the Horizon Project, a research-oriented effort that seeks to identify and describe emerging technologies likely to have a large impact on teaching, learning, or creative expression within higher education. Drawing on ongoing…

New Media Consortium, 2007

2007-01-01

274

Losing information outside the horizon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suppose we allow a system to fall freely from infinity to a point near (but not beyond) the horizon of a black hole. We note that in a sense the information in the system is already lost to an observer at infinity. Once the system is too close to the horizon it does not have enough energy to send its

Samir D. Mathur

2011-01-01

275

The Horizon Report. 2005 Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This second edition of the New Media Consortium's (NMC) annual "Horizon Report" describes the continuing work of the Horizon Project, a research-oriented effort that seeks to identify and describe emerging technologies likely to have a large impact on teaching, learning, or creative expression within higher education. Drawing on an ongoing series…

New Media Consortium, 2005

2005-01-01

276

Resolving Lifshitz Horizons  

SciTech Connect

Via the AdS/CFT correspondence, ground states of field theories at finite charge density are mapped to extremal black brane solutions. Studies of simple gravity + matter systems in this context have uncovered wide new classes of extremal geometries. The Lifshitz metrics characterizing field theories with non-trivial dynamical critical exponent z {ne} 1 emerge as one common endpoint in doped holographic toy models. However, the Lifshitz horizon exhibits mildly singular behaviour - while curvature invariants are finite, there are diverging tidal forces. Here we show that in some of the simplest contexts where Lifshitz metrics emerge, Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theories, generic corrections lead to a replacement of the Lifshitz metric, in the deep infrared, by a re-emergent AdS{sub 2} x R{sup 2} geometry. Thus, at least in these cases, the Lifshitz scaling characterizes the physics over a wide range of energy scales, but the mild singularity is cured by quantum or stringy effects.

Harrison, Sarah; Kachru, Shamit; Wang, Huajia; /Stanford U., ITP /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

2012-04-24

277

Soil Core Sample #1  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Soil core obtained from existing goose grazing lawn along the Smith River in the Teshekpuk Lake Special Area of the National Petroleum Reserve - Alaska.  The buried layer of peat beneath goose grazing lawn demonstrates that vegetation change has occurred in this area....

278

Dynamical evaporation of quantum horizons  

E-print Network

We describe the black hole evaporation process driven by the dynamical evolution of the quantum gravitational degrees of freedom resident at the horizon, as identified by the loop quantum gravity kinematics. Using a parallel with the Brownian motion, we interpret the first law of quantum dynamical horizon in terms of a fluctuation-dissipation relation. In this way, the horizon evolution is described in terms of relaxation to an equilibrium state balanced by the excitation of Planck scale constituents of the horizon. This discrete quantum hair structure associated to the horizon geometry produces a deviation from thermality in the radiation spectrum. We investigate the final stage of the evaporation process and show how the dynamics leads to the formation of a massive remnant, which can eventually decay. Implications for the information paradox are discussed.

Daniele Pranzetti

2012-11-12

279

An experience in using the world reference base for soil resources for the soils of western Georgia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New and previously published data on the soils of western Georgia are generalized, and traditional soil names are correlated with the units of the World Reference Base for Soil Resources. It is argued that krasnozems (red ferrallitic soils) can be attributed to the group of Nitisols (the soils characterized by intense weathering (ferralization) and having shiny ped faces in the nitic horizon); yellow and yellow-brown soils (zheltozems), to the group of Luvisols (the soils with relatively high adsorption capacity in the eluvial horizons and with the horizon of the illuvial accumulation of clay); yellow-podzolic (zheltozem-podzolic) soils, to Alisols (slightly acid soils with the low adsorption capacity, poor aggregation of the upper horizons, low-activity (kaolinite) clay, and with the horizon of clay accumulation (argic horizon)); brown forest soils, to Cambisols (the soils with the cambic horizon characterized by some alteration of the lithogenic texture and structure into the pedogenic texture and structure); and mountainous forest-meadow and meadow soils, to Umbrisols (the soils with the dark-colored unsaturated umbric horizon).

Urushadze, T. F.; Kvrivishvili, T. O.; Sanadze, E. V.

2014-08-01

280

Field investigation and analysis of buried pipelines under various seismic environments. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

A research project is proposed in which the behavior of oil, water, sewer, and gas pipelines under various seismic environments, including seismic shaking and large ground deformation would be investigated. It is suggested that the investigation be conducted in the Beijing and Tangshan areas. Three major hazards to underground pipelines are identified: the effect of wave propagation; ground rupture and differential movement along fault lines; and soil liquefaction induced by ground shaking. Ruptures or severe distortions of the pipe are most often associated with fault movements, landslides, or ground squeeze associated with fault zones. A model is presented to evaluate the general longitudinal responses of buried pipelines, both segmented and continuous, subjected to ground shakings and vibrations. The results of these tests will be used to develop aseismic codes for buried pipelines.

Wang, L.R.L.

1982-08-01

281

Dualities near the horizon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 4-dimensional supergravity theories, covariant under symplectic electricmagnetic duality rotations, a significant role is played by the symplectic matrix ( ?), related to the coupling of scalars ? to vector field-strengths. In particular, this matrix enters the twisted self-duality condition for 2-form field strengths in the symplectic formulation of generalized Maxwell equations in the presence of scalar fields. In this investigation, we compute several properties of this matrix in relation to the attractor mechanism of extremal (asymptotically flat) black holes. At the attractor points with no flat directions (as in the = 2 BPS case), this matrix enjoys a universal form in terms of the dyonic charge vector and the invariants of the corresponding symplectic representation of the duality group G, whenever the scalar manifold is a symmetric space with G simple and non-degenerate of type E7. At attractors with flat directions, still depends on flat directions, but not , defining the so-called Freudenthal dual of itself. This allows for a universal expression of the symplectic vector field strengths in terms of , in the near-horizon Bertotti-Robinson black hole geometry.

Ferrara, Sergio; Marrani, Alessio; Orazi, Emanuele; Trigiante, Mario

2013-11-01

282

Elementary GLOBE: Getting to Know Soil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A learning activity for the Scoop on Soils book in the Elementary GLOBE Series. Each student will make predictions about the properties of various soil samples. Then they will examine several types of soils and record their observations. Next, they will learn about soil profiles and horizons by both examining a soil sample in a jar and by creating a soil profile flip chart. The purpose of the activity is to provide the opportunity for students to ask questions and make observations about soil and introduce students to the properties of soil and to the concept of soil profiles and horizons. After completing this activity, students will know about soil's different properties and about soil profiles. Students will know that soils have different properties including texture, color, and size. They will know that soil forms layers based on these properties.

2008-12-01

283

1LDRD Expanding Professional Horizons 2 SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES 3LDRD Expanding Professional Horizons 3LDRD Expanding Professional Horizons  

E-print Network

Professional Horizons For further information, contact: Henry R. Westrich LDRD Program Manager hrwestr1LDRD · Expanding Professional Horizons #12;2 SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES 3LDRD · Expanding Professional Horizons 3LDRD · Expanding Professional Horizons #12;4 SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES 5LDRD

284

Buried waste integrated demonstration configuration management plan  

SciTech Connect

This document defines plans for the configuration management requirements for the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) Program. Since BWID is managed programmatically by the Waste Technology Development Department (WTDD), WTDD Program Directive (PD) 1.5 (Document Preparation, Review, Approval, Publication, Management and Change Control) is to be followed for all internal EG&G Idaho, Inc., BWID programmatic documentation. BWID documentation generated by organizations external to EG&G Idaho is not covered by this revision of the Configuration Management Plan (CMP), but will be addressed in subsequent revisions.

Cannon, P.G.

1992-02-01

285

Buried waste integrated demonstration configuration management plan  

SciTech Connect

This document defines plans for the configuration management requirements for the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) Program. Since BWID is managed programmatically by the Waste Technology Development Department (WTDD), WTDD Program Directive (PD) 1.5 (Document Preparation, Review, Approval, Publication, Management and Change Control) is to be followed for all internal EG G Idaho, Inc., BWID programmatic documentation. BWID documentation generated by organizations external to EG G Idaho is not covered by this revision of the Configuration Management Plan (CMP), but will be addressed in subsequent revisions.

Cannon, P.G.

1992-02-01

286

ALUMINUM PRECIPITATION AND DISSOLUTION RATES IN SPODOSOL BS HORIZONS IN THE NORTHEASTERN USA  

EPA Science Inventory

The kinetics of Al precipitation/dissolution reactions in Spodosol Bs horizons from sites at Hubbard Brook, NH and Bear Brook, ME were examined. echanical vacuum extractor was employed to draw solutions through soil columns at solution/soil residence times between 0.3 and 100 h. ...

287

Acoustic horizons in nuclear fluids  

E-print Network

We consider a hydrodynamic description of the spherically symmetric outward flow of nuclear matter, accommodating dispersion in it as a very weak effect. About the resulting stationary conditions in the flow, we apply an Eulerian scheme to derive a fully nonlinear equation of a time-dependent radial perturbation. In its linearized limit, with no dispersion, this equation implies the static acoustic horizon of an analogue gravity model. We, however, show that time-dependent nonlinear effects destabilize the static horizon. We also model the perturbation as a high-frequency travelling wave, and perform a {\\it WKB} analysis, in which the effect of weak dispersion is studied iteratively. We show that even arbitrarily small values of dispersion make the horizon fully opaque to any acoustic disturbance propagating against the bulk flow, with the amplitude and the energy flux of the radial perturbation undergoing a discontinuity at the horizon, and decaying exponentially just outside it.

Niladri Sarkar; Abhik Basu; Jayanta K. Bhattacharjee; Arnab K. Ray

2014-04-13

288

Virtual environmental applications for buried waste characterization technology evaluation report  

SciTech Connect

The project, Virtual Environment Applications for Buried Waste Characterization, was initiated in the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program in fiscal year 1994. This project is a research and development effort that supports the remediation of buried waste by identifying and examining the issues, needs, and feasibility of creating virtual environments using available characterization and other data. This document describes the progress and results from this project during the past year.

NONE

1995-05-01

289

Higher levels of description—approaches to the micromorphological characterisation of Russian soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several attempts were made in the past to identify high-level soil microfabrics, following the ideas of Kubiëna. They resulted in proposals to identify specific fabric types, soil materials, somas, formations, or morphotypes, based on the combinations of micromorphological characteristics of the studied horizons of soils. These units present complex (integrated, typical, and central) micromorphological images of soil horizons or materials.

Maria Gerasimova

2003-01-01

290

New horizons in osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

Osteoarthritis (OA), also known as degenerative joint disease, is the most frequent chronic musculoskeletal disease and the leading cause of disability in elderly persons. There are currently at least 27 million persons afflicted with OA in the United States, and the annual cost to society in medical care and wage loss is expected to reach nearly $100 billion dollars by 2020, with consequent increased spending on its diagnosis and treatment, side effect prevention, and loss of productivity. Despite this enormous burden, many aspects of OA are still unknown, with implications not only in terms of diagnosis and assessment but also with regard to therapy. Awareness of this state of affairs has attracted many researchers to this field, making OA one of the most actively studied sectors of rheumatology. Although some clinicians are unaware of recent advances, there is a large body of publications indicating that much has been achieved. Major progress has been made in formulating better definitions of risk factors, in particular in indicating the responsibility of biomechanical and genetic factors, and, with regard to pathogenesis, underlining the role of subchondral bone, cytokines and proteinases. Assessment of OA activity and its progression has been improved with the advent of biomarkers and new imaging procedures, in particular sonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), but also of better clinical instruments, including more reliable patient questionnaires. Information from ongoing studies may improve the to some extent incomplete definition of OA phenotypes. Finally, promising new horizons have been opened up even with regard to the treatment of OA, which is still for the most part unsatisfactory except for surgical replacement therapy. Numerous new substances have been formulated and the findings of trials studying their effects are encouraging, although much has yet to be done. PMID:20458653

Oliviero, F; Ramonda, R; Punzi, L

2010-01-01

291

Multi channel FM reflection profiler for buried pipeline surveying  

SciTech Connect

A towed multi-channel FM acoustic reflection profiler has been developed for locating and generating images of buried objects. One significant application of this sonar is buried pipeline surveying. The multi-channel reflection profiler uses 16 line arrays mounted in a towed vehicle to determine the position and burial depth of an 18 inch steel pipe filled with concrete buried under 1.5 meters of sand. This sonar will allow a survey vessel to continuously track a buried pipeline providing a continuous record of pipe burial depth and position.

Schock, S.G.; LeBlanc, L.R. [Florida Atlantic Univ., Boca Raton, FL (United States). Dept. of Ocean Engineering

1996-12-31

292

System and method for removal of buried objects  

SciTech Connect

The present invention is a system and method for removal of buried objects. According to one embodiment of the invention, a crane with a vibrator casing driver is used to lift and suspend a large diameter steel casing over the buried object. Then the casing is driven into the ground by the vibratory driver until the casing surrounds the buried object. Then the open bottom of the casing is sealed shut by injecting grout into the ground within the casing near its bottom. When the seal has cured and hardened, the top of the casing is lifted to retrieve the casing, with the buried object inside, from the ground.

Alexander, Robert G. (Richland, WA); Crass, Dennis (Kennewick, WA); Grams, William (Kennewick, WA); Phillips, Steven J. (Sunnyside, WA); Riess, Mark (Kennewick, WA)

2008-06-03

293

Slow Sorption Kinetics of Pentachlorophenol on Soil  

E-print Network

) on soil at a pH of 4.1 using batch techniques. A multiple spiking methodology was employed to circumvent horizon (Delaware). Physicochemical and mineralogical properties of the soil are as follows: pH ) 6 soil pH is 6.1. Due to the soil's high buffering capacity, it was necessary to preequilibrate th

Sparks, Donald L.

294

Enzyme leaching of surficial geochemical samples for detecting hydromorphic trace-element anomalies associated with precious-metal mineralized bedrock buried beneath glacial overburden in northern Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

One objective of the International Falls and Roseau, Minnesota, CUSMAP projects was to develop a means of conducting regional-scale geochemical surveys in areas where bedrock is buried beneath complex glacially derived overburden. Partial analysis of B-horizon soils offered hope for detecting subtle hydromorphic trace-element dispersion patterns. An enzyme-based partial leach selectively removes metals from oxide coatings on the surfaces of soil materials without attacking their matrix. Most trace-element concentrations in the resulting solutions are in the part-per-trillion to low part-per-billion range, necessitating determinations by inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry. The resulting data show greater contrasts for many trace elements than with other techniques tested. Spatially, many trace metal anomalies are locally discontinuous, but anomalous trends within larger areas are apparent. In many instances, the source for an anomaly seems to be either basal till or bedrock. Ground water flow is probably the most important mechanism for transporting metals toward the surface, although ionic diffusion, electrochemical gradients, and capillary action may play a role in anomaly dispersal. Sample sites near the Rainy Lake-Seine River fault zone, a regional shear zone, often have anomalous concentrations of a variety of metals, commonly including Zn and/or one or more metals which substitute for Zn in sphalerite (Cd, Ge, Ga, and Sn). Shifts in background concentrations of Bi, Sb, and As show a trend across the area indicating a possible regional zoning of lode-Au mineralization. Soil anomalies of Ag, Co, and Tl parallel basement structures, suggesting areas that may have potential for Cobalt/Thunder Baytype silver viens. An area around Baudette, Minnesota, which is underlain by quartz-chlorite-carbonate-altered shear zones, is anomalous in Ag, As, Bi, Co, Mo, Te, Tl, and W. Anomalies of Ag, As, Bi, Te, and W tend to follow the fault zones, suggesting potential for lode-Au deposits. Soil anomalies of Co, Mo, and Tl appear to follow northwest-striking structures that cross the shear zones, suggesting that Thunder Bay-type mineralization may have overprinted earlier mineralization along the shear zones.

Clark, Robert J.; Meier, A.L.; Riddle, G.

1990-01-01

295

Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Plan. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This document presents the plan of activities for the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program which supports the environmental restoration (ER) objectives of the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex. Discussed in this plan are the objectives, organization, roles and responsibilities, and the process for implementing and managing BWID. BWID is hosted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), but involves participants from throughout the DOE Complex, private industry, universities, and the international community. These participants will support, demonstrate, and evaluate a suite of advanced technologies representing a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. The processes for identifying technological needs, screening candidate technologies for applicability and maturity, selecting appropriate technologies for demonstration, field demonstrating, evaluation of results and transferring technologies to environmental restoration programs are also presented. This document further describes the elements of project planning and control that apply to BWID. It addresses the management processes, operating procedures, programmatic and technical objectives, and schedules. Key functions in support of each demonstration such as regulatory coordination, safety analyses, risk evaluations, facility requirements, and data management are presented.

Kostelnik, K.M.

1991-12-01

296

Thermal processing system concepts and considerations for RWMC buried waste  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a preliminary determination of ex situ thermal processing system concepts and related processing considerations for application to remediation of transuranic (TRU)-contaminated buried wastes (TRUW) at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Beginning with top-level thermal treatment concepts and requirements identified in a previous Preliminary Systems Design Study (SDS), a more detailed consideration of the waste materials thermal processing problem is provided. Anticipated waste stream elements and problem characteristics are identified and considered. Final waste form performance criteria, requirements, and options are examined within the context of providing a high-integrity, low-leachability glass/ceramic, final waste form material. Thermal processing conditions required and capability of key systems components (equipment) to provide these material process conditions are considered. Information from closely related companion study reports on melter technology development needs assessment and INEL Iron-Enriched Basalt (IEB) research are considered. Five potentially practicable thermal process system design configuration concepts are defined and compared. A scenario for thermal processing of a mixed waste and soils stream with essentially no complex presorting and using a series process of incineration and high temperature melting is recommended. Recommendations for applied research and development necessary to further detail and demonstrate the final waste form, required thermal processes, and melter process equipment are provided.

Eddy, T.L.; Kong, P.C.; Raivo, B.D.; Anderson, G.L.

1992-02-01

297

Baseline tests for arc melter vitrification of INEL buried wastes. Volume II: Baseline test data appendices  

SciTech Connect

This report presents field results and raw data from the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) Arc Melter Vitrification Project Phase 1 baseline test series conducted by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM). The baseline test series was conducted using the electric arc melter facility at the USBM Albany Research Center in Albany, Oregon. Five different surrogate waste feed mixtures were tested that simulated thermally-oxidized, buried, TRU-contaminated, mixed wastes and soils present at the INEL. The USBM Arc Furnace Integrated Waste Processing Test Facility includes a continuous feed system, the arc melting furnace, an offgas control system, and utilities. The melter is a sealed, 3-phase alternating current (ac) furnace approximately 2 m high and 1.3 m wide. The furnace has a capacity of 1 metric ton of steel and can process as much as 1,500 lb/h of soil-type waste materials. The surrogate feed materials included five mixtures designed to simulate incinerated TRU-contaminated buried waste materials mixed with INEL soil. Process samples, melter system operations data and offgas composition data were obtained during the baseline tests to evaluate the melter performance and meet test objectives. Samples and data gathered during this program included (a) automatically and manually logged melter systems operations data, (b) process samples of slag, metal and fume solids, and (c) offgas composition, temperature, velocity, flowrate, moisture content, particulate loading and metals content. This report consists of 2 volumes: Volume I summarizes the baseline test operations. It includes an executive summary, system and facility description, review of the surrogate waste mixtures, and a description of the baseline test activities, measurements, and sample collection. Volume II contains the raw test data and sample analyses from samples collected during the baseline tests.

Oden, L.L.; O`Conner, W.K.; Turner, P.C.; Soelberg, N.R.; Anderson, G.L.

1993-11-19

298

Mechanics of buried chilled gas pipelines  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines the factors influencing the modelling of soil-pipeline interaction for a pipeline which is used to transport chilled gas. The soil-pipeline interaction is induced by the generation of discontinuous frost heave at a boundary between soils with differing frost susceptibility. The three-dimensional modelling takes into consideration the time-dependent evolution of frost heave due to moisture migration, the creep and elastic behavior of the frozen soil and flexural behavior of the embedded pipeline. The results of the computational model are compared with experimental results obtained from the frost heave induced soil-pipeline interaction test performed at the full scale test facilities in Caen, France.

Selvadurai, A.P.S.; Hu, J. [McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering and Applied Mechanics

1996-12-31

299

Habitat Fragmentation and Burying Beetle Abundance and Success  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four species of burying beetle (Nicrophorus marginatus F., N. tomentosus Weber, N. orbicollis Say and N. defodiens Mannerheim) are attracted to small, fresh mouse carcasses in northern Michigan. The number of burying beetles and their success (burial of a carcass) were greater in woodlands than in edge or field habitats. Species diversity was least in open fields as assessed by

Stephen T. Trumbo; Philip L. Bloch

2000-01-01

300

Littoral assessment of mine burial signatures (LAMBS): buried landmine/background spectral-signature analyses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of the Office of Naval Research (ONR) Rapid Overt Reconnaissance (ROR) program and the Airborne Littoral Reconnaissance Technologies (ALRT) project's LAMBS effort is to determine if electro-optical spectral discriminants exist that are useful for the detection of land mines in littoral regions. Statistically significant buried mine overburden and background signature data were collected over a wide spectral range (0.35 to 14 ?m) to identify robust spectral features that might serve as discriminants for new airborne sensor concepts. LAMBS has expanded previously collected databases to littoral areas - primarily dry and wet sandy soils - where tidal, surf, and wind conditions can severely modify spectral signatures. At AeroSense 2003, we reported completion of three buried mine collections at an inland bay, Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico beach sites. We now report LAMBS spectral database analyses results using metrics which characterize the detection performance of general types of spectral detection algorithms. These metrics include mean contrast, spectral signal-to-clutter, covariance, information content, and spectral matched filter analyses. Detection performance of the buried land mines was analyzed with regard to burial age, background type, and environmental conditions. These analyses considered features observed due to particle size differences, surface roughness, surface moisture, and compositional differences.

Kenton, Arthur C.; Geci, Duane M.; Ray, Kristofer J.; Thomas, Clayton M.; Salisbury, John W.; Mars, John C.; Crowley, James K.; Witherspoon, Ned H.; Holloway, John H., Jr.

2004-09-01

301

Littoral Assessment of Mine Burial Signatures (LAMBS) buried land mine/background spectral signature analyses  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The objective of the Office of Naval Research (ONR) Rapid Overt Reconnaissance (ROR) program and the Airborne Littoral Reconnaissance Technologies (ALRT) project's LAMBS effort is to determine if electro-optical spectral discriminants exist that are useful for the detection of land mines in littoral regions. Statistically significant buried mine overburden and background signature data were collected over a wide spectral range (0.35 to 14 ??m) to identify robust spectral features that might serve as discriminants for new airborne sensor concepts. LAMBS has expanded previously collected databases to littoral areas - primarily dry and wet sandy soils - where tidal, surf, and wind conditions can severely modify spectral signatures. At AeroSense 2003, we reported completion of three buried mine collections at an inland bay, Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico beach sites.1 We now report LAMBS spectral database analyses results using metrics which characterize the detection performance of general types of spectral detection algorithms. These metrics include mean contrast, spectral signal-to-clutter, covariance, information content, and spectral matched filter analyses. Detection performance of the buried land mines was analyzed with regard to burial age, background type, and environmental conditions. These analyses considered features observed due to particle size differences, surface roughness, surface moisture, and compositional differences.

Kenton, A.C.; Geci, D.M.; Ray, K.J.; Thomas, C.M.; Salisbury, J.W.; Mars, J.C.; Crowley, J.K.; Witherspoon, N.H.; Holloway, J.H., Jr.

2004-01-01

302

78 FR 70976 - Horizons ETFs Management (USA) LLC and Horizons ETF Trust; Notice of Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Applicants: Horizons ETFs Management...10036. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Courtney...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The following...ETF''). 2. Horizons will be the investment...In addition, Horizons has adopted policies...material non-public information by the...

2013-11-27

303

78 FR 54298 - Horizons ETFs Management (USA) LLC and Horizons ETF Trust; Notice of Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...20549-1090. Applicants: Horizons and the Trust: Horizons ETFs Management...10036. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Deepak T...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The following is...Trust will be the Horizons Active Global...

2013-09-03

304

Buried waste integrated demonstration technology integration process  

SciTech Connect

A Technology integration Process was developed for the Idaho National Energy Laboratories (INEL) Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) Program to facilitate the transfer of technology and knowledge from industry, universities, and other Federal agencies into the BWID; to successfully transfer demonstrated technology and knowledge from the BWID to industry, universities, and other Federal agencies; and to share demonstrated technologies and knowledge between Integrated Demonstrations and other Department of Energy (DOE) spread throughout the DOE Complex. This document also details specific methods and tools for integrating and transferring technologies into or out of the BWID program. The document provides background on the BWID program and technology development needs, demonstrates the direction of technology transfer, illustrates current processes for this transfer, and lists points of contact for prospective participants in the BWID technology transfer efforts. The Technology Integration Process was prepared to ensure compliance with the requirements of DOE`s Office of Technology Development (OTD).

Ferguson, J.S.; Ferguson, J.E.

1992-04-01

305

Buried waste integrated demonstration technology integration process  

SciTech Connect

A Technology integration Process was developed for the Idaho National Energy Laboratories (INEL) Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) Program to facilitate the transfer of technology and knowledge from industry, universities, and other Federal agencies into the BWID; to successfully transfer demonstrated technology and knowledge from the BWID to industry, universities, and other Federal agencies; and to share demonstrated technologies and knowledge between Integrated Demonstrations and other Department of Energy (DOE) spread throughout the DOE Complex. This document also details specific methods and tools for integrating and transferring technologies into or out of the BWID program. The document provides background on the BWID program and technology development needs, demonstrates the direction of technology transfer, illustrates current processes for this transfer, and lists points of contact for prospective participants in the BWID technology transfer efforts. The Technology Integration Process was prepared to ensure compliance with the requirements of DOE's Office of Technology Development (OTD).

Ferguson, J.S.; Ferguson, J.E.

1992-04-01

306

Backyard bolides: finding a buried impact crater.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The author reports the scientific activities that led to his discovery of a huge submerged impact crater in Chesapeake Bay, some 140 km east of Atlantic City, New Jersey. This crater, buried under 350 m of sediment is 80 km wide and almost 1 km deep. Microfossil evidence shows that the crater is approximately 35 million years old. The author futher identified 14 small secondary craters with diamters of 0.4 to 0.5 km diameter within 60 km of the primary crater. These were caused by the impact of huge blocks of material ejected by the primary impact event. In addition, the author identified an intermediate-size primary crater (19 km diameter) in Toms Canyon, some 300 km from the Chesapeake crater and, again from microfossil evidence, identical in age.

Poag, C. W.

1998-10-01

307

Landslide Buries Valley of the Geysers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Geysers are a rare natural phenomena found only in a few places, such as New Zealand, Iceland, the United States (Yellowstone National Park), and on Russia's far eastern Kamchatka Peninsula. On June 3, 2007, one of these rare geyser fields was severely damaged when a landslide rolled through Russia's Valley of the Geysers. The landslide--a mix of mud, melting snow, trees, and boulders--tore a scar on the land and buried a number of geysers, thermal pools, and waterfalls in the valley. It also blocked the Geyser River, causing a new thermal lake to pool upstream. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this infrared-enhanced image on June 11, 2007, a week after the slide. The image shows the valley, the landslide, and the new thermal lake. Even in mid-June, just days from the start of summer, the landscape is generally covered in snow, though the geologically heated valley is relatively snow free. The tree-covered hills are red (the color of vegetation in this false-color treatment), providing a strong contrast to the aquamarine water and the gray-brown slide. According to the Russian News and Information Agency (RIA) [English language], the slide left a path roughly a kilometer and a half (one mile) long and 200 meters (600 feet) wide. Within hours of the landslide, the water in the new lake inundated a number of additional geysers. The geysers directly buried under the landslide now lie under as much as 60 meters (180 feet) of material, according to RIA reports. It is unlikely that the geysers will be able to force a new opening through this thick layer, adds RIA. Among those directly buried is Pervenets (Firstborn), the first geyser found in the valley, in 1941. Other geysers, such as the Bolshoi (Greater) and Maly (Lesser) Geysers, were silenced when buried by water building up behind the new natural dam. According to Vladimir and Andrei Leonov of the Russian Federation Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, the new lake appears to be stable and draining gradually through the earthen dam, alleviating fears of a catastrophic flood. Should the new lake drain enough, many of the inundated geysers may restart. Initial reports from the Volcanology and Seismology Institute state this has already happened for some geysers. Geysers outside of the slide region, including the Velikan (Giant) Geyser and a major section of the geyser field known as Vitrazh (Stained Glass) appear to have escaped damage. In addition to destroying a number of geysers, the landslide may have damaged habitats in the Valley of the Geysers. The thermal waters and heated steam jets made this valley warmer than the surrounding landscape, and the warmth supported a unique ecosystem. The loss of a large part of its heat source may alter the ecosystem, but it is not clear what additional longer-term changes might occur. For example, salmon that spawn in the Geyser River will be confined to the lower reaches of the river, and bears, which depended on salmon, will need to shift feeding grounds correspondingly. Thanks to Sergey Chernomorets and Boris Yurchak for information and translation. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

2007-01-01

308

Integrated test schedule for buried waste integrated demonstration  

SciTech Connect

The Integrated Test Schedule incorporates the various schedules the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports into one document. This document contains the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order schedules for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Hanford Reservation, Oak Ridge Reservation, and Fernald Environmental Materials Center. Included in the Integrated Test Schedule is the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration windows of opportunity'' schedule. The windows of opportunity'' schedule shows periods of time in which Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program-sponsored technology demonstrations could support key decisions in the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order. Schedules for the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration-sponsored technology task plans are categorized by technology area and divided by current fiscal year and out-year. Total estimated costs for Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration-sponsored Technology Task Plans for FY-92 through FY-97 are $74.756M.

Brown, J.T.; McDonald, J.K.

1992-05-01

309

Integrated test schedule for buried waste integrated demonstration  

SciTech Connect

The Integrated Test Schedule incorporates the various schedules the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports into one document. This document contains the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order schedules for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Hanford Reservation, Oak Ridge Reservation, and Fernald Environmental Materials Center. Included in the Integrated Test Schedule is the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration ``windows of opportunity`` schedule. The ``windows of opportunity`` schedule shows periods of time in which Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program-sponsored technology demonstrations could support key decisions in the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order. Schedules for the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration-sponsored technology task plans are categorized by technology area and divided by current fiscal year and out-year. Total estimated costs for Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration-sponsored Technology Task Plans for FY-92 through FY-97 are $74.756M.

Brown, J.T.; McDonald, J.K.

1992-05-01

310

Influence of the spatial variability of soil type and tree colonization on the dynamics of1 Molinia caerulea (L.) Moench in managed heathland2  

E-print Network

in ericaceous heath.36 We focused our study on spatial variability of soil properties (soil horizons, pH, water, soil horizons, soil pH, kriging procedure.44 45 hal-00722957,version1-6Aug2012 #12;3 1. Introduction461 Influence of the spatial variability of soil type and tree colonization on the dynamics of1

Boyer, Edmond

311

Morphologic Development and Clay Redistribution in Lys:imeter Soils under Chaparral and Pine  

E-print Network

), composed largely of worm casts, that were darker and enriched in clay compared with underlying C horizons- velopment was apparent. The soil under pine, where earthworms were absent, had a clay-depleted A horizon (1

Ahmad, Sajjad

312

Soil profile method for soil thermal diffusivity, conductivity and heat flux:Comparison to soil heat flux plates  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Diffusive heat flux at the soil surface is commonly determined as a mean value over a time period using heat flux plates buried at some depth (e.g., 5 to 8 cm) below the surface with a correction to surface flux based on the change in heat storage during the corresponding time period in the soil lay...

313

Deepwater Horizon Situation Report #5  

SciTech Connect

At approximately 11:00 pm EDT April 20, 2010 an explosion occurred aboard the Deepwater Horizon mobile offshore drilling unit (MODU) located 52 miles Southeast of Venice, LA and 130 miles southeast of New Orleans, LA. The MODU was drilling an exploratory well and was not producing oil at the time of the incident. The Deepwater Horizon MODU sank 1,500 feet northwest of the well site. Detailed information on response and recovery operations can be found at: http://www.deepwaterhorizonresponse.com/go/site/2931/

none,

2010-06-10

314

Butterflies on the Stretched Horizon  

E-print Network

In this paper I return to the question of what kind of perturbations on Alice's side of an Einstein-Rosen bridge can send messages to Bob as he enters the horizon at the other end. By definition "easy" operators do not activate messages and "hard" operators do, but there are no clear criteria to identify the difference between easy and hard. In this paper I argue that the difference is related to the time evolution of a certain measure of computational complexity, associated with the stretched horizon of Alice's black hole. The arguments suggest that the AMPSS commutator argument is more connected with butterflies than with firewalls.

Leonard Susskind

2013-12-07

315

Butterflies on the Stretched Horizon  

E-print Network

In this paper I return to the question of what kind of perturbations on Alice's side of an Einstein-Rosen bridge can send messages to Bob as he enters the horizon at the other end. By definition "easy" operators do not activate messages and "hard" operators do, but there are no clear criteria to identify the difference between easy and hard. In this paper I argue that the difference is related to the time evolution of a certain measure of computational complexity, associated with the stretched horizon of Alice's black hole. The arguments suggest that the AMPSS commutator argument is more connected with butterflies than with firewalls.

Susskind, Leonard

2013-01-01

316

A 2D Model for Characterising First-order Variability in Sublimation of Buried Glacier Ice, Antarctica: Assessing the Influence of Polygon Troughs, Desert  

E-print Network

, Providence, RI, USA ABSTRACT To assess the role of thermal contraction-crack polygons (sublimation polygons) in modulating sublimation of buried glacier ice in Antarctica, we applied a 2D numerical model using COMSOL approach ~1-m depth, the cooler atmo- spheric and soil temperatures that arise from solar shielding reduce

Marchant, David R.

317

Using soil properties as a tool to differentiate landslide generations and constrain their ages - Rogowiec landslide, Sudetes (SW Poland)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sudetes, at the border of Poland and the Czech Republic, are generally considered as a mountain range where landslides play a marginal geomorphic role. Only a few larger landslides have been recorded during historical times, mainly on steep valley sides undercut by rivers. Forested slopes, which dominate in the Sudetes, are usually inferred to be stable, except for near-surface bioturbation and localized accelerated surface erosion at sites subject to strong human impact. Large, apparently relict landslides in the Kamienne Mountains, Middle Sudetes, pose a considerable challenge to this view and two interpretations are possible. First, they may be indeed relict, pre-Holocene features that formed under different environmental conditions and have been completely stabilized since the origin. Second, they may be rare components of the contemporary (Holocene) geomorphic system but their frequency of occurrence is low and this is why none has been reported in written or oral records. If the second scenario captures the reality adequately, this would have significant implications for hazard and risk assessment. To address this issue, an extensive soil survey was carried out on the large landslide of Rogowiec, likely of complex flow nature as suggested by landform mapping. The rationale of the study involved an assumption that soil formation time in the area is limited to the Holocene, since harsh periglacial conditions typified the late Pleistocene. 15 soil pits were excavated within landslide terrain and on adjacent reference slopes which do not bear any evident traces of significant displacements. Despite the small area under investigation, the soil profiles are very diverse in terms of depth, horizonation, organic matter content, development of soil structure, as well as the content and lithology of coarse fragments. A great deal of this diversity can be explained by different duration of pedogenesis controlled by geomorphic processes. Very weakly developed soil profiles in the landslide body do not show evidence of protracted soil evolution under contemporary climate and hence, are interpreted as having been formed during a fraction of the Holocene. This implies a Holocene age of the landslide. In addition, an older shallow translational landslide has been recognized on the valley side, with the toe buried by the main Rogowiec landslide. The depletion area was identified through the occurrence of thin, truncated soils (compared to the neighbouring slopes). This and the occurrence of weakly horizonated and poorly structural soils in the landslide body itself suggest that this valley-side landslide is of the Holocene age too. Thus, soils proved a powerful tool to establish the relative chronology of landslides and give strong evidence of their Holocene age. Soil research is recommended as a part of landslide hazard and risk assessment for landslides of unknown age.

Kacprzak, Andrzej; Migo?, Piotr

2013-04-01

318

Chemical Sensing for Buried Landmines - Fundamental Processes Influencing Trace Chemical Detection  

SciTech Connect

Mine detection dogs have a demonstrated capability to locate hidden objects by trace chemical detection. Because of this capability, demining activities frequently employ mine detection dogs to locate individual buried landmines or for area reduction. The conditions appropriate for use of mine detection dogs are only beginning to emerge through diligent research that combines dog selection/training, the environmental conditions that impact landmine signature chemical vapors, and vapor sensing performance capability and reliability. This report seeks to address the fundamental soil-chemical interactions, driven by local weather history, that influence the availability of chemical for trace chemical detection. The processes evaluated include: landmine chemical emissions to the soil, chemical distribution in soils, chemical degradation in soils, and weather and chemical transport in soils. Simulation modeling is presented as a method to evaluate the complex interdependencies among these various processes and to establish conditions appropriate for trace chemical detection. Results from chemical analyses on soil samples obtained adjacent to landmines are presented and demonstrate the ultra-trace nature of these residues. Lastly, initial measurements of the vapor sensing performance of mine detection dogs demonstrates the extreme sensitivity of dogs in sensing landmine signature chemicals; however, reliability at these ultra-trace vapor concentrations still needs to be determined. Through this compilation, additional work is suggested that will fill in data gaps to improve the utility of trace chemical detection.

PHELAN, JAMES M.

2002-05-01

319

Soil Science Education Homepage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site covers numerous aspects of soil science and addresses many soil related issues at a level that can be presented to school age children. Several sections are devoted to the relationship between humans and soil in terms of agriculture, society, ecosystems, and why soil should be studied. Also included are photographs of different soil types or soil horizons with descriptions that explain what is being seen and what processes may have contributed to the soil characteristics. There are a host of activities that can be performed in the classroom or out in the field. The features of this site appear to be updated frequently and present different issues, activities, and discussions relating to soil.

2002-03-19

320

NIF featured on BBC "Horizon"  

ScienceCinema

The National Ignition Facility, the world's largest laser system, located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, was featured in the BBC broadcast "Horizon" hosted by physicist Brian Cox. Here is the NIF portion of the program, which was entitled "Can We Make A Star On Earth?" This video is used with the express permission of the BBC.

Brian Cox

2010-09-01

321

New Horizons Mission to Pluto  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the trajectory that will take the New Horizons Mission to Pluto. Included are photographs of the spacecraft, the launch vehicle, the assembled vehicle as it is being moved to the launch pad and the launch. Also shown are diagrams of the assembled parts with identifying part names.

Delgado, Luis G.

2011-01-01

322

Evolutionary Robotics: Exploring New Horizons  

E-print Network

Chapter 1 Evolutionary Robotics: Exploring New Horizons St´ephane Doncieux, Jean-Baptiste Mouret, Nicolas Bredeche, and Vincent Padois Abstract. This paper considers the field of Evolutionary Robotics (ER of research is discussed, as well as the potential use of ER in a robot design process. Four main aspects

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

323

New Horizons in Education, 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains the May and November 2000 issues of "New Horizons in Education," with articles in English and Chinese. The May issue includes the following articles: "A Key to Successful Environmental Education: Teacher Trainees' Attitude, Behaviour, and Knowledge" (Kevin Chung Wai Lui, Eric Po Keung Tsang, Sing Lai Chan); "Critical…

Ho, Kwok Keung, Ed.

2000-01-01

324

Information space receding horizon control  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a receding horizon so- lution to the problem of optimal sensor scheduling problem. The optimal sensor scheduling problem can be posed as a Partially Observed Markov Decision Process (POMDP) whose solution is given by an Information Space (I-space) Dynamic Programming (DP) problem. We present a simulation based stochastic optimization technique that, combined with a receding

Suman Chakravorty; R. Scott Erwin

2011-01-01

325

Common Ground: Expanding Our Horizons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In "Common Ground: Dialogue, Understanding, and the Teaching of Composition," Kurt Spellmeyer seeks to familiarize students and teachers with the linguistic and cultural no-man's-land separating them. Reinstating the value of two writing conventions often used by traditional students--expressive and commonplaces--can help expand on the horizons of…

McDevitt, Michele J.

326

Soil description & analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will have been through lectures on weathering & erosion, sediments and soils. Students go to the field and pull soil cores across a hill. They describe & measure the horizons, determine soil texture and structure. Using the data, they create a fence diagram and verbally describe what they see. Then they relate the changes in the soil profile downhill to climate, weathering, and the local geology. Students get to learn how to express information in multiple ways & make connections between "different" lecture topics, creating a continuity in the class.

Koy, Karen

327

In situ vitrification application to buried waste: Final report of intermediate field tests at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

This report describes two in situ vitrification field tests conducted on simulated buried waste pits during June and July 1990 at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. In situ vitrification, an emerging technology for in place conversion of contaminated soils into a durable glass and crystalline waste form, is being investigated as a potential remediation technology for buried waste. The overall objective of the two tests was to access the general suitability of the process to remediate waste structures representative of buried waste found at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. In particular, these tests, as part of a treatability study, were designed to provide essential information on the field performance of the process under conditions of significant combustible and metal wastes and to test a newly developed electrode feed technology. The tests were successfully completed, and the electrode feed technology successfully processed the high metal content waste. Test results indicate the process is a feasible technology for application to buried waste. 33 refs., 109 figs., 39 tabs.

Callow, R.A.; Weidner, J.R.; Loehr, C.A.; Bates, S.O. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Thompson, L.E.; McGrail, B.P. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

1991-08-01

328

Biogeochemical controls on microbial CO2 and CH4 production in interstitial area polygon soils from the Barrow Environmental Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic matter buried in Arctic soils and permafrost will become accessible to increased microbial degradation as the ground warms due to climate change. The rates of organic matter degradation and the proportion of CH4 and CO2 greenhouse gasses released in a potential warming feedback cycle depend on the microbial response to warming, organic carbon structure and availability, the pore-water pH, and available electron acceptors. To adapt and improve the representation of these Arctic subsurface processes in land models for the NGEE Arctic project, we examined soil organic matter transformations from elevated and subsided areas of low- and high-centered polygons from interstitial tundra on the Barrow Environmental Observatory (Barrow, AK). Significant amounts of iron(II) in organic and mineral soils of the active layer and groundwater indicate anoxic conditions in most soil horizons. Unamended, anoxic incubations of soils at -2, +4 or +8 °C produced both CH4 and CO2, with different response curves. CO2 formed rapidly while CH4 production lagged. Rates of formation for both CH4 and CO2 were substantially higher in microcosms containing active layer O horizon (38-43% total carbon) compared to B horizon (17-18% carbon) samples. The ratio of CO2 to CH4 produced decreased with increasing temperature. A constant Q10 relationship is not adequate to explain temperature effects from -2 to +8 °C. Measurements of ionic species dissolved in soil porewater from frozen cores, humic-rich surface water, or groundwater indicated low levels of nitrate and sulfate, constraining the role of these alternative electron acceptors in anaerobic respiration. The surface water pH (4.4) was significantly lower than groundwater (5.8 to 6.3). Organic acid degradation and Fe(III) reduction increased the pH in soil water during some incubations. Substantial differences in other ionic species confirm that surface and groundwater do not mix rapidly in the field. Biomass extracted from frozen mineral soil samples or thawed microcosms was analyzed for relative protein abundance using metaproteomics, and numerous peptide spectra were matched to an Arctic genomic and metagenomic database. Signature proteins from acetoclastic methanogens were identified in frozen permafrost and active-layer samples. After microcosm incubations, however, methanogenic proteins were found only in active-layer samples, consistent with headspace gas analyses. Therefore, soil thawing and warming caused increases in microbial biomass and significant changes in microbial composition that determine the composition of greenhouse gas product mixtures. Differential microbial growth and migration through the thawing soil column may be key to changes in microbial population size and activity during prolonged thaw seasons. Methanogenesis and microbial growth account for most electron transfer from soil organic matter in O horizon samples, but iron reduction and microbial growth account for most electron transfer in the B horizon.

Graham, D. E.; Roy Chowdhury, T.; Herndon, E.; Chourey, K.; Ladd, M.; Tas, N.; Jansson, J.; Elias, D. A.; Hettich, R. L.; Phelps, T. J.; Gu, B.; Liang, L.; Wullschleger, S. D.

2013-12-01

329

Probabilistic Modeling of Landfill Subsidence Introduced by Buried Structure Collapse - 13229  

SciTech Connect

The long-term reliability of land disposal facility final cover systems - and therefore the overall waste containment - depends on the distortions imposed on these systems by differential settlement/subsidence. The evaluation of differential settlement is challenging because of the heterogeneity of the waste mass and buried structure placement. Deterministic approaches to long-term final cover settlement prediction are not able to capture the spatial variability in the waste mass and sub-grade properties, especially discontinuous inclusions, which control differential settlement. An alternative is to use a probabilistic model to capture the non-uniform collapse of cover soils and buried structures and the subsequent effect of that collapse on the final cover system. Both techniques are applied to the problem of two side-by-side waste trenches with collapsible voids. The results show how this analytical technique can be used to connect a metric of final cover performance (inundation area) to the susceptibility of the sub-grade to collapse and the effective thickness of the cover soils. This approach allows designers to specify cover thickness, reinforcement, and slope to meet the demands imposed by the settlement of the underlying waste trenches. (authors)

Foye, Kevin; Soong, Te-Yang [CTI and Associates, Inc., 51331 W. Pontiac Trail, Wixom, MI 48393 (United States)] [CTI and Associates, Inc., 51331 W. Pontiac Trail, Wixom, MI 48393 (United States)

2013-07-01

330

Soil Field Descriptions and Soil Forming Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this field activity students break into small groups and dig soil pits. The pits are distributed among different vegetative covers and topographic positions allowing comparisons of soil profiles under different soil forming processes. Each group prepares a field description of their soil using a shortened version of the NRCS Field Book for Describing and Sampling Soils (2002). Before leaving the field the class takes a tour of the pits and each group gives a brief oral presentation of their profile. Samples from each horizon are later analyzed in the lab to determine the % soil moisture and organic matter. Data from each group is compiled on a share drive which is then utilized by the rest of the class for comparison. Designed for a geomorphology course

Clark, Jeff

331

ISV technology development plan for buried waste  

SciTech Connect

This report identifies the main technical issues facing the in situ vitrification (ISV) application to buried waste, and presents a plan showing the top-level schedule and projected resources needed to develop and demonstrate the technology for meeting Environmental Restoration Department (ERD) needs. The plan also proposes a model strategy for the technology transfer from the Department of Energy's Office of Technology Development (DOE-OTD) to the Office of Environmental Restoration (DOE-ER) as the technology proceeds from issues resolution (development) to demonstration and remedial readiness. Implementation of the plan would require $34,91 1K in total funding to be spread in the years FY-93 through FY-98. Of this amount, $10,183K is planned to be funded by DOE-OTD through the ISV Integrated Program. The remaining amount, $24,728K, is recommended to be split between the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development ($6,670K) and DOE Office of Environmental Restoration ($18,058K).

Nickelson, D.F.; Callow, R.A. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Luey, J.K. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

1992-07-01

332

ISV technology development plan for buried waste  

SciTech Connect

This report identifies the main technical issues facing the in situ vitrification (ISV) application to buried waste, and presents a plan showing the top-level schedule and projected resources needed to develop and demonstrate the technology for meeting Environmental Restoration Department (ERD) needs. The plan also proposes a model strategy for the technology transfer from the Department of Energy`s Office of Technology Development (DOE-OTD) to the Office of Environmental Restoration (DOE-ER) as the technology proceeds from issues resolution (development) to demonstration and remedial readiness. Implementation of the plan would require $34,91 1K in total funding to be spread in the years FY-93 through FY-98. Of this amount, $10,183K is planned to be funded by DOE-OTD through the ISV Integrated Program. The remaining amount, $24,728K, is recommended to be split between the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development ($6,670K) and DOE Office of Environmental Restoration ($18,058K).

Nickelson, D.F.; Callow, R.A. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Luey, J.K. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1992-07-01

333

New properties of Cauchy and event horizons  

E-print Network

We present several recent results concerning Cauchy and event horizons. In the first part of the paper we review the differentiablity properties of the Cauchy and the event horizons. In the second part we discuss compact Cauchy horizons and summarize their main properties.

Robert Budzynski; Witold Kondracki; Andrzej Krolak

2000-11-08

334

NASA's New Horizons Mission Dr. Henry Throop  

E-print Network

Radio NASA's New Horizons Mission To Pluto Dr. Henry Throop Planetary Science Institute Tucson flying - it doesn't land, and it never comes back to Earth. New Horizons Spacecraft #12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;New Horizons Team #12;#12;#12;#12;Lockheed-Martin AtlasV Rocket Rocket: 575,198 kg Spacecraft: 478 kg

Throop, Henry

335

Deepwater Horizon Disaster Professor Satish Nagarajaiah  

E-print Network

;Collapse / Oil Spill Offshore and Marine Systems Research @ Rice Source: NYT/AP/flickr #12;Horizon BeforeDeepwater Horizon Disaster Professor Satish Nagarajaiah Dept. of Civil & Env. Eng. , Dept SG)Member, Deepwater Horizon Study Group (DHSG) Univ. of California, Berkeley Dedicated To The Men

Nagarajaiah, Satish

336

Effective information loss outside the horizon  

Microsoft Academic Search

If a system falls through a black hole horizon, then its information is lost to an observer at infinity. But we argue that the accessible information is lost before the horizon is crossed. The temperature of the hole limits information carrying signals from a system that has fallen too close to the horizon. Extremal holes have T = 0, but

Samir D. Mathur

2011-01-01

337

The horizon problem for prevalent surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the box dimensions of the horizon of a fractal surface defined by a function $f \\\\in C[0,1]^2 $. In particular we show that a prevalent surface satisfies the `horizon property', namely that the box dimension of the horizon is one less than that of the surface. Since a prevalent surface has box dimension 3, this does not give

K. J. Falconer; J. M. Fraser

2011-01-01

338

Rapport d'information Horizon 2020  

E-print Network

Rapport d'information n o 1009 Horizon 2020 : l'Europepourla recherche, l'Europeparla recherche-cadre, expressément axé sur l'innovation en plus de la recherche, est rebaptisé «Horizon2020» afin de souligner son communautaires; la mise en synergie des moyens de recherchenationaux. Horizon2020 s

Pouyanne, Nicolas

339

The Horizon Report: 2010 Museum Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The internationally recognized series of "Horizon Reports" is part of the New Media Consortium's Horizon Project, a comprehensive research venture established in 2002 that identifies and describes emerging technologies likely to have a large impact over the coming five years on a variety of sectors around the globe. This volume, the "2010 Horizon

Johnson, L.; Witchey, H.; Smith, R.; Levine, A.; Haywood, K.

2010-01-01

340

Unidata Summer 2003 WorkshopUnidata Summer 2003 Workshop --Expanding HorizonsExpanding Horizons  

E-print Network

Unidata Summer 2003 WorkshopUnidata Summer 2003 Workshop -- Expanding HorizonsExpanding Horizons Center #12;Unidata Summer 2003 WorkshopUnidata Summer 2003 Workshop -- Expanding HorizonsIDV as an Integrator SummarySummary #12;Unidata Summer 2003 WorkshopUnidata Summer 2003 Workshop -- Expanding Horizons

341

New horizons for over-the-horizon radar?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Science stands to benefit from the quarter century of research and development, and $1.5 billion spent by the Air Force, to deploy six over-the-horizon (OTH-B) air-defense radars, now targeted for shutdown. Opportunities for environmental research and services on a grand scale beckon to anyone who can afford to operate and maintain them. Tests show the radars' potential for high-resolution mapping

T. M. Georges; J. A. Harlan

1994-01-01

342

The amount of secondary Al in two ploughed podzolic forest soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

In ploughing of coniferous forest soils the soil profile down to the illuvial B horizon is inverted on a soil surface. As a result, aluminium once immobilized in the B horizon during podzolization might start to remobilize. In order to test this hypothesis, selective extractions with dithionite-citrate (d), acid ammonium oxalate (o) and sodium pyrophosphate (p) were used to determine

Niina Tanskanen; Hannu Ilvesniemi

2004-01-01

343

Chemical and mineral composition of ectomycorrhizosphere soils of subalpine fir (Abies  

E-print Network

Chemical and mineral composition of ectomycorrhizosphere soils of subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa- zosphere soils of subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt.) in the Ae horizon of a Luvisol. Can. J'ectomycorhi- zosphère sous sapin subalpin (Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt.) dans l'horizon Ae d'un luvisol. Can. J. Soil

Massicotte, Hugues

344

The Q 10 relationship of microbial respiration in a temperate forest soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our objective was to study the effect of temperature on rates of soil respiration in the A-, E- and B-horizons of a temperate forest (Durham, North Carolina, USA). Soil samples were incubated for several months at 4, 15, 22 and 38°C and respiration was measured frequently during incubation. For each soil horizon, rates of CO2 evolution varied significantly with time

Julia Palmer Winkler; Robert S. Cherry; William H. Schlesinger

1996-01-01

345

SOIL AIR CARBON DIOXIDE CONCENTRATIONS IN A NEW ENGLAND SPRUCE-FIR FORESTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Research and modeling efforts to evaluate soil-soil solution chemical interactions must take into account solution equilibria with soil air CO2. Measurements of soil air CO2 and soil temperature were made in the major horizons of a forest soil in eastern Maine through the 1985 gr...

346

Scattering from sub-critically insonified buried elastic shells  

E-print Network

Buried mines have been so far generally considered undetectable by conventional high frequency sonars mostly due to the low levels of energy penetrating into the sediment at high frequencies. Furthermore, in a shallow water ...

Lucifredi, Irena

2005-01-01

347

Evaluation of Factors Affecting Earth Pressures on Buried Box Culverts.  

E-print Network

??Factors affecting the earth pressures acting on buried box culverts under deep embankments were evaluated by field instrumentation and numerical analyses. Two instrumented cast-in-place concrete… (more)

Yang, Michael Zhiqiang

2000-01-01

348

49 CFR 195.248 - Cover over buried pipeline.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Cover over buried pipeline. 195.248 Section 195.248 Transportation...Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF...

2011-10-01

349

49 CFR 195.248 - Cover over buried pipeline.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Cover over buried pipeline. 195.248 Section 195.248 Transportation...Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF...

2012-10-01

350

49 CFR 195.248 - Cover over buried pipeline.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Cover over buried pipeline. 195.248 Section 195.248 Transportation...Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF...

2013-10-01

351

Mars - Paleostratigraphic restoration of buried surfaces in Tharsis montes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volcanism in the Tharsis province of Mars occurred in several different areas and was generally continuous without large time intervals between eruptive episodes. Major lava flow units are numerous and extensive, but relatively thin. In many places, impact craters on buried surfaces project above younger flows that overlie them. A new application of crater dating methods has been developed to aid in the identification of these buried surfaces and to determine their lateral extent. The technique is especially adaptable to the Tharsis region where the stratigraphic succession of major flow units has been established by detailed geologic mapping. Knowledge of the overall stratigraphy allows correlations to be made between known and unknown surfaces by comparing their crater frequencies at diameters large enough to insure their recognition on the buried unit. The method has been applied to aid in the restoration of buried rock units and to construct a series of paleostratigraphic maps showing the sequence of major eruptive events in the Tharsis region.

Scott, D. H.; Tanaka, K. L.

1981-02-01

352

Soil bioturbation. A commentary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organisms such as trees, ants, earthworms, termites are important components of the earth systems that have dominantly been thought of as abiotic. Despite an early focus on soil bioturbation by heavy-weights such as Charles Darwin and Nathanial Shaler in the late 19th century, sporadic attention to this theme has subsequently followed. Recent compilations demonstrate that soil bioturbation by fauna and flora is widespread across Earths terrestrial surface, and operates at geologically rapid rates that warrant further attention. Such biotic activity contributes to soil creep, soil carbon dynamics, and is critical in engineering the medium through which ecosystems draw their abiotic requirements. Soil and its biota are fundamental components of the Earth System. However, soil scientist focussed on the dominant paradigm of landscape evolution, and bioturbation was relegated. In fact, bioturbation is still not widely appreciated within the soil and earth system research community. Nevertheless, within the last decade a review of the impact of bioturbation was launched by authors such as Geoff S. Humphreys. Bioturbation is a complex process as new soil is formed, mounds are developed, soil is buried and a downslope transport of material is done. Bioturbation modify the soil texture and porosity, increase the nutrients and encourage the soil creep flux. A review of the State-of-the-Art of Bioturbation will be presented.

Cerdà, Artemi; Wilkinson, Marshall

2010-05-01

353

communications in soil scienceand  

E-print Network

-0290 ABSTRACT Forest application of boiler ash is fast becoming a popular alternative to landfilling. Boiler ash and leachability of plant nutrients. MATERIALS AND METHODS Site Preparation and Treatments The soil used for this study (located in Hawthorne, FL)was an acidic fine sand (Typic Quartzipsamment) with a spodic horizon

Ma, Lena

354

Imaging of buried objects by low frequency SAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Search for buried objects are normally done by normal incidence sonar, working with wide-band low frequency signals. Especially the parametric sonar has proven to be a reliable tool to detect buried objects, as well as for mapping of internal stratification in sub-bottom layers. However, due to the small foot-print searching with normal incidence sonar is tedious. Also, in a mine

M. Jonsson; Jorgen Pihl; M. Aklint

2005-01-01

355

Buried object remote detection technology for law enforcement  

Microsoft Academic Search

A precise airborne temperature-sensing technology to detect buried objects for use by law enforcement is developed. Demonstrations have imaged the sites of buried foundations, walls and trenches; mapped underground waterways and aquifers; and been used to locate underground military objects. The methodology is incorporated in a commercially available, high signal-to-noise, dual-band infrared scanner with real-time, 12-bit digital image processing software

Nancy K. del Grande; Gregory A. Clark; Philip F. Durbin; David J. Fields; Jose E. Hernandez; Robert J. Sherwood

1991-01-01

356

Odor analysis of decomposing buried human remains  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study, conducted at the University of Tennessee's Anthropological Research Facility (ARF), lists and ranks the primary chemical constituents which define the odor of decomposition of human remains as detected at the soil surface of shallow burial sites. Triple sorbent traps were used to collect air samples in the field and revealed eight major classes of chemicals which now contain

Arpad Alexander Vass; Rob R. Smith; Cyril V. Thompson; Michael N. Burnett; Nishan Dulgerian; Brian A. Eckenrode

2008-01-01

357

Extremal isolated horizon/CFT correspondence  

SciTech Connect

The near-horizon limit of the extremal (weakly) isolated horizon is obtained under the Bondi-like coordinates. For the vacuum case, explicit coordinate transformation relating the near-horizon metric under the Bondi-like coordinates and the standard Poincare-type or global near-horizon metric of the extremal Kerr black hole is found, which shows that the two geometries are the same. Combined with the known thermodynamics of the (weakly) isolated horizon, it is argued that the Kerr/conformal field theory correspondence can be generalized to the case of a large class of nonstationary extremal black holes.

Wu Xiaoning; Tian Yu [Institute of Mathematics, Academy of Mathematics and System Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China) and Hua Loo-Keng Key Laboratory of Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); College of Physical Sciences, Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China) and Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics China, CAS, Beijing 100190 (China)

2009-07-15

358

Buried and Encapsulated Ducts, Jacksonville, Florida (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Ductwork installed in unconditioned attics can significantly increase the overall heating and cooling costs of residential buildings. In fact, estimated duct thermal losses for single-family residential buildings with ductwork installed in unconditioned attics range from 10% to 45%. In a study of three single-story houses in Florida, the Building America research team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) investigated the strategy of using buried and/or encapsulated ducts (BED) to reduce duct thermal losses in existing homes. The BED strategy consists of burying ducts in loose-fill insulation and/or encapsulating them in closed cell polyurethane spray foam (ccSPF) insulation. There are three possible combinations of BED strategies: (1) buried ducts; (2) encapsulated ducts (with ccSPF); and (3) buried and encapsulated ducts. The best solution for each situation depends on the climate, age of the house, and the configuration of the HVAC system and attic. For new construction projects, the team recommends that ducts be both encapsulated and buried as the minimal planning and costs required for this will yield optimal energy savings. The encapsulated/buried duct strategy, which utilizes ccSPF to address condensation concerns, is an approach that was developed specifically for humid climates.

Not Available

2013-11-01

359

Is life a thermal horizon ?  

E-print Network

This talk aims at questioning the vanishing of Unruh temperature for an inertial observer in Minkovski spacetime with finite lifetime, arguing that in the non eternal case the existence of a causal horizon is not linked to the non-vanishing of the acceleration. This is illustrated by a previous result, the diamonds temperature, that adapts the algebraic approach of Unruh effect to the finite case.

Pierre Martinetti

2007-07-26

360

Horizon universality and anomalous conductivities  

E-print Network

We show that the value of chiral conductivities associated with anomalous transport is universal in a general class of strongly coupled quantum field theories. Our result applies to theories with no dynamical gluon fields and admitting a gravitational holographic dual in the large N limit. On the gravity side the result follows from near horizon universality of the fluctuation equations, similar to the holographic calculation of the shear viscosity.

Umut Gursoy; Javier Tarrio

2014-10-06

361

Horizon Entropy in Modified Gravity  

E-print Network

We present an observation about the proposal that four-dimensional modification of general relativity may explain the observed cosmic acceleration today. Assuming that the thermodynamical nature of gravity theory continues to hold in modified gravity theories, we derive the modified horizon entropy formula from the modified Friedmann equation. We argue that our results imply that there are conceptual problems in some models of four-dimensional modification of general relativity.

Peng Wang

2005-07-18

362

Record Blizzard Buries U.S. Northeast  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

After two days of blustery weather, the skies cleared over Massachusetts on January 24, 2005. Along with other northeastern U.S. states, Massachusetts was slammed with a powerful blizzard on January 22 and 23 that shut down travel and businesses and extinguished power. The storm brought record snow to many places, but Massachusetts topped the list. The cities of Salem and Plymouth were buried in 38 inches (96.5 cm) of snow, and strong winds created drifts up to seven feet (2 meters) high, according to the National Weather Service. For Boston, the storm was the fifth worst blizzard to hit the city since 1892, dumping 22.5 inches (57 cm) of snow in two days. Of that, 13.4 inches (34 cm) fell on January 23' the most snow to fall on the city in a single day since records began. These totals gave Boston nearly twice its average snowfall for January (the average is 13.5 inches, 34.3 cm), and over half its annual average snow of 41.8 inches (106 cm). This Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image, taken on January 24 by NASA's Terra satellite, shows the effects of the storm on Massachusetts and its southern neighbors, Connecticut (left) and Rhode Island (right). New York's Long Island is in the lower left corner of the image. The entire region is coated with snow, though clouds obscure the ground on the left side of the image. The snow was accompanied by powerful hurricane-force winds that helped create white-out conditions and large snowdrifts. The wind also churned ocean waters around Cape Cod, leaving them milky with sediment. NASA image courtesy the MODIS Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC.

2005-01-01

363

Decomposition of forest products buried in landfills  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: • This study tracked chemical changes of wood and paper in landfills. • A decomposition index was developed to quantify carbohydrate biodegradation. • Newsprint biodegradation as measured here is greater than previous reports. • The field results correlate well with previous laboratory measurements. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the decomposition of selected wood and paper products in landfills. The decomposition of these products under anaerobic landfill conditions results in the generation of biogenic carbon dioxide and methane, while the un-decomposed portion represents a biogenic carbon sink. Information on the decomposition of these municipal waste components is used to estimate national methane emissions inventories, for attribution of carbon storage credits, and to assess the life-cycle greenhouse gas impacts of wood and paper products. Hardwood (HW), softwood (SW), plywood (PW), oriented strand board (OSB), particleboard (PB), medium-density fiberboard (MDF), newsprint (NP), corrugated container (CC) and copy paper (CP) were buried in landfills operated with leachate recirculation, and were excavated after approximately 1.5 and 2.5 yr. Samples were analyzed for cellulose (C), hemicellulose (H), lignin (L), volatile solids (VS), and organic carbon (OC). A holocellulose decomposition index (HOD) and carbon storage factor (CSF) were calculated to evaluate the extent of solids decomposition and carbon storage. Samples of OSB made from HW exhibited cellulose plus hemicellulose (C + H) loss of up to 38%, while loss for the other wood types was 0–10% in most samples. The C + H loss was up to 81%, 95% and 96% for NP, CP and CC, respectively. The CSFs for wood and paper samples ranged from 0.34 to 0.47 and 0.02 to 0.27 g OC g{sup ?1} dry material, respectively. These results, in general, correlated well with an earlier laboratory-scale study, though NP and CC decomposition measured in this study were higher than previously reported.

Wang, Xiaoming, E-mail: xwang25@ncsu.edu [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, Campus Box 7908, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7908 (United States); Padgett, Jennifer M. [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, Campus Box 7908, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7908 (United States); Powell, John S. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Campus Box 7905, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7905 (United States); Barlaz, Morton A. [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, Campus Box 7908, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7908 (United States)

2013-11-15

364

Airblast environments from buried HE charges  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory experiments were conducted to measure the airblast environment generated by the detonation of buried HE charges. Spherical 0.5-g charges of Nitropenta were used as the HE source. Three ground materials were used: (1) a porous, crushable grout (YTONG, {rho} = 0.4 g/cm{sup 3}); (2) a water-saturated grout ({rho} {approx_equal} 0.7 g/Cm{sup 3}) to investigate the effects of density increase; and (3) a clay-loam material ({rho} {approx_equal} 1.8 g/cm{sup 3}) to simulate some of the previous field tests conducted in clay. Diagnostics consisted of 13 flush-mounted pressure gauges, and single-frame schlieren photography. A special shock isolation system was used to eliminate the acceleration effects on the gauges that were induced by the cratering process. Analysis of the pressure measurements resulted in an experimental definition of the airblast environment as a function of ground range (GR) and depth-of-burst (DOB). Synthesis of these results allowed one to construct airblast DOB curves, similar to the airblast height-of-burst curves that we published previously for Nitropenta charges. Variables analyzed were: peak pressure, arrival time, positive phase duration and impulse. As in field tests, we found that the airblast waveforms changed character with increasing DOB. The crater characteristics (e.a., depth, radius and volume) were also measured. The cube-root-scaled crater volume was in qualitative agreement with data from field tests (e.g., charge weights up to 10{sup 4} lbs.). Since the present scaled results compare well with data from large-scale HE tests, we conclude that the present experimental technique provides a useful tool for parametric investigations of explosion effects in the laboratory.

Reichenbach, H.; Behrens, K. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Kurzzeitdynamik - Ernst-Mach-Institut (EMI), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Kuhl, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., El Segundo, CA (United States)

1993-01-01

365

New Horizons Tracks an Asteroid  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The two 'spots' in this image are a composite of two images of asteroid 2002 JF56 taken on June 11 and June 12, 2006, with the Multispectral Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC) component of the New Horizons Ralph imager. In the bottom image, taken when the asteroid was about 3.36 million kilometers (2.1 million miles) away from the spacecraft, 2002 JF56 appears like a dim star. At top, taken at a distance of about 1.34 million kilometers (833,000 miles), the object is more than a factor of six brighter. The best current, estimated diameter of the asteroid is approximately 2.5 kilometers.

The asteroid observation was a chance for the New Horizons team to test the spacecraft's ability to track a rapidly moving object. On June 13 New Horizons came to within about 102,000 kilometers of the small asteroid, when the spacecraft was nearly 368 million kilometers (228 million miles) from the Sun and about 273 million kilometers (170 million miles) from Earth.

2007-01-01

366

Losing information outside the horizon  

E-print Network

Suppose we allow a system to fall freely from infinity to a point near (but not beyond) the horizon of a black hole. We note that in a sense the information in the system is already lost to an observer at infinity. Once the system is too close to the horizon it does not have enough energy to send its information back because the information carrying quanta would get redshifted to a point where they get confused with Hawking radiation. If one attempts to turn the infalling system around and bring it back to infinity for observation then it will experience Unruh radiation from the required acceleration. This radiation can excite the bits in the system carrying the information, thus reducing the fidelity of this information. We find the radius where the information is essentially lost in this way, noting that this radius depends on the energy gap (and coupling) of the system. We look for some universality by using the highly degenerate BPS ground states of a quantum gravity theory (string theory) as our information storage device. For such systems one finds that the critical distance to the horizon set by Unruh radiation is the geometric mean of the black hole radius and the radius of the extremal hole with quantum numbers of the BPS bound state. Overall, the results suggest that information in gravity theories should be regarded not as a quantity contained in a system, but in terms of how much of this information is accessible to another observer.

Samir D. Mathur

2011-04-04

367

The Applicability of the Lamendin Method to Skeletal Remains Buried for a 16-Year Period: A Cautionary Note.  

PubMed

The Lamendin method is widely reported as one of the most reliable means of age estimation of skeletal remains, but very little is known concerning the influence of burial in soil. This study aimed at verifying the reliability of the Lamendin method on corpses buried for 16 years in a cemetery. The Lamendin and the Prince and Ubelaker methods were applied. In all age groups except the 40- to 49-year-olds, the error was higher in the buried sample. The age-at-death error ranged between 10.7 and 36.8 years for the Lamendin method (vs. the reported 7.3-18.9 years) and 9.5 and 35.7 for the Prince and Ubelaker one (vs. the original 5.2-32.6 years); in all age groups, the error is closer to that found on archeological populations. These results suggest caution in applying the Lamendin method to forensic cases of human remains buried even for a brief period under soil. PMID:25413353

De Angelis, Danilo; Mele, Elia; Gibelli, Daniele; Merelli, Vera; Spagnoli, Laura; Cattaneo, Cristina

2014-11-20

368

Albert Munsell and His Impact on Soil Science and  

E-print Network

Albert Munsell and His Impact on Soil Science and Other Natural Disciplines Edward Landa Research recognition in soil science, where color description of soil horizons is a critical step in classification.P.H. in radiological health, and an M.S. and Ph.D. in soil science from the University of Minnesota. His research has

Zanibbi, Richard

369

Electrogeochemical sampling with NEOCHIM - results of tests over buried gold deposits  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Electrogeochemical extraction methods are based on the migration of ions in an electric field. Ions present in soil moisture are transported by an applied current into fluids contained in special electrodes placed on the soil. The fluids are then collected and analyzed. Extractions are governed by Faraday's and Ohm's laws and are modeled by the operation of a simple Hittord transference apparatus. Calculations show that the volume of soil sampled in an ideal electrogeochemical extraction can be orders of magnitude greater than the volumes used in more popular geochemical extraction methods, although this has not been verified experimentally. CHIM is a method of in-situ electrogeochemical extraction that was developed in the former Soviet Union and has been tested and applied internationally to exploration for buried mineral deposits. Tests carried out at the US Geological Survey (USGS) indicated that there were problems inherent in the use of CHIM technology. The cause of the problems was determined to be the diffusion of acid from the conventional electrode into the soil. The NEOCHIM electrode incorporates two compartments and a salt bridge in a design that inhibits diffusion of acid and enables the collection of anions or cations. Tests over a gold-enriched vein in Colorado and over buried, Carlin-type, disseminated gold deposits in northern Nevada show that there are similarities and differences between NEOCHIM results and those by partial extractions of soils which include simple extractions with water, dilute acids and solutions of salts used as collector fluids in the electrodes. Results of both differ from the results obtained by total chemical digestion. The results indicate that NEOCHIM responds to mineralized faults associated with disseminated gold deposits whereas partial and total chemical extraction methods do not. This suggests that faults are favored channels for the upward migration of metals and that NEOCHIM may be more effective in exploration for the deposits. It defines anomalies that are often narrow and intense, an observation previously made by CHIM researchers. The field tests show that NEOCHIM is less affected by surface contamination. A test over the Mike disseminated gold deposit indicates that the method may not be effective for locating deposits with impermeable cover. Faradaic extraction efficiencies of 20-30%, or more, are frequently achieved with NEOCHIM and the method generally shows good reproducibility, especially in extraction of major cations. However, ions of other metals that are useful in exploration, including Au and As, may be collected in low and temporally variable concentrations. The reason for this variability is unclear and requires further investigation.CHIM is a method of in-situ electrogeochemical extraction developed for the exploration of buried mineral deposits. However, electrode problems like diffusion of acid into the soil were encountered during the use of CHIM. The NEOCHIM electrode was developed to inhibit the diffusion of acid and enable collection of anions or cations. Tests over buried gold deposits showed that NEOCHIM responds to mineralized faults associated with disseminated gold deposits whereas partial and total chemical extraction methods do not. This suggests that faults are favored channels for the upward migration of metals and NEOCHIM may be effective in exploration for the deposits. But ions of metals may be collected in low and variable concentration.

Leinz, R.W.; Hoover, D.B.; Fey, D.L.; Smith, D.B.; Patterson, T.

1998-01-01

370

Buried object remote detection technology for law enforcement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A precise airborne temperature-sensing technology to detect buried objects for use by law enforcement is developed. Demonstrations have imaged the sites of buried foundations, walls and trenches; mapped underground waterways and aquifers; and been used to locate underground military objects. The methodology is incorporated in a commercially available, high signal-to-noise, dual-band infrared scanner with real-time, 12-bit digital image processing software and display. The method creates color-coded images based on surface temperature variations of 0.2 degree(s)C. Unlike other less-sensitive methods, it maps true (corrected) temperatures by removing the (decoupled) surface emissivity mask equivalent to 1 degree(s)C or 2 degree(s)C; this mask hinders interpretation of apparent (blackbody) temperatures. Once removed, it is possible to identify surface temperature patterns from small diffusivity changes at buried object sites which heat and cool differently from their surroundings. Objects made of different materials and buried at different depths are identified by their unique spectral, spatial, thermal, temporal, emissivity and diffusivity signatures. The authors have successfully located the sites of buried (inert) simulated land mines 0.1 to 0.2 m deep; sod-covered rock pathways alongside dry ditches, deeper than 0.2 m; pavement covered burial trenches and cemetery structures as deep as 0.8 m; and aquifers more than 6 m and less than 60 m deep. The technology could be adapted for drug interdiction and pollution control. For the former, buried tunnels, underground structures built beneath typical surface structures, roof-tops disguised by jungle canopies, and covered containers used for contraband would be located. For the latter, buried waste containers, sludge migration pathways from faulty containers, and the juxtaposition of groundwater channels, if present, nearby, would be depicted. The precise airborne temperature-sensing technology has a promising potential to detect underground epicenters of smuggling and pollution.

del Grande, Nancy K.; Clark, Gregory A.; Durbin, Philip F.; Fields, David J.; Hernandez, Jose E.; Sherwood, Robert J.

1991-08-01

371

Buried Quaternary Valleys In NW Europe - Aquifers and Drilling Hazards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Buried Quaternary valleys are extremely widespread in the formerly glaciated, low- land areas of NW Europe (Huuse &Lykke-Andersen 2000, Fig. 4). The valleys may be several hundred metres deep, some kilometres across and few to several tens of kilometres long. Most of the deep valleys have irregular length profiles with sills and basins, unlike standard subaerial river systems. We interpret these as overdeepened valleys, formed mainly by subglacial meltwater erosion. Buried valleys located on- shore often provide sheltered reservoirs of clean groundwater, and much attention is presently focused on locating onshore valleys and quantifying their potential as groundwater aquifers. In nearshore areas, buried valleys may be a risk factor by pro- viding pathways of salt-water intrusion of onshore groundwater aquifers. Far offshore, buried valleys are located in the shallow subsurface above the prolific oil and gas fields of the central North Sea. Here, the valleys pose a risk for drilling operations by hosting shallow gas and potentially unstable sediments. The central North Sea is now largely covered by 3D seismic data, which often image the buried valleys in a level of de- tail much greater than that available onshore. Hence offshore valleys imaged by 3D seismic data may be used as analogues for groundwater reservoirs onshore NW Eu- rope. Here, we present examples of buried valleys from onshore, nearshore and far offshore locations, to illustrate how genetically and morphologically identical valleys may benefit or hamper the exploitation of subsurface accummulations of groundwater and hydrocarbons. Huuse, M. &Lykke-Andersen, H. 2000. Buried Quaternary valleys in the eastern Dan- ish North Sea: morphology and origin. Quaternary Science Reviews 19, 1233-1253.

Huuse, M.; Lykke-Andersen, H.; Piotrowski, J.

372

Lovelock black holes with nonmaximally symmetric horizons  

E-print Network

We present a new class of black hole solutions in third-order Lovelock gravity whose horizons are Einstein space with two supplementary conditions on their Weyl tensors. These solutions are obtained with the advantage of higher curvature terms appearing in Lovelock gravity. We find that while the solution of third-order Lovelock gravity with constant-curvature horizon in the absence of a mass parameter is the anti de Sitter (AdS) metric, this kind of solution with nonconstant- curvature horizon is only asymptotically AdS and may have horizon. We also find that one may have an extreme black hole with non-constant curvature horizon whose Ricci scalar is zero or a positive constant, while there is no such black hole with constant-curvature horizon. Furthermore, the thermodynamics of the black holes in the two cases of constant- and nonconstant-curvature horizons are different drastically. Specially, we consider the thermodynamics of black holes with vanishing Ricci scalar and find that in contrast to the case of black holes of Lovelock gravity with constant-curvature horizon, the area law of entropy is not satisfied. Finally, we investigate the stability of these black holes both locally and globally and find that while the black holes with constant curvature horizons are stable both locally and globally, those with nonconstant-curvature horizons have unstable phases.

N. Farhangkhah; M. H. Dehghani

2014-09-04

373

Lovelock black holes with nonmaximally symmetric horizons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new class of black hole solutions in third-order Lovelock gravity whose horizons are Einstein space with two supplementary conditions on their Weyl tensors. The existence of these solutions is due to the higher curvature terms in Lovelock gravity. We find that while the solution of third-order Lovelock gravity with constant-curvature horizon in the absence of a mass parameter is the anti-de Sitter (AdS) metric, this kind of solution with nonconstant-curvature horizon is only asymptotically AdS and may have horizon. We also find that one may have an extreme black hole with nonconstant-curvature horizon whose Ricci scalar is zero or a positive constant, while there is no such black hole with constant-curvature horizon. Furthermore, the thermodynamics of the black holes in the two cases of constant- and nonconstant-curvature horizons are different drastically. Specially, we consider the thermodynamics of black holes with vanishing Ricci scalar and find that in contrast to the case of black holes of Lovelock gravity with constant-curvature horizon, the area law of entropy is not satisfied. Finally, we investigate the stability of these black holes both locally and globally and find that while the black holes with constant-curvature horizons are stable both locally and globally, those with nonconstant-curvature horizons have unstable phases.

Farhangkhah, N.; Dehghani, M. H.

2014-08-01

374

ACIDIFICATION AND RECOVERY OF A SPODOSOL BS HORIZON FROM ACIDIC DEPOSITION  

EPA Science Inventory

A laboratory study was conducted to examine acidification and recovery of a Spodosol Bs horizon from acidic deposition in the Bear Brook Watershed (BBW) in central Maine. echanical vacuum extractor was used to draw solutions through a soil column at three treatments containing 40...

375

EFFECT OF ACID TREATMENT ON DISSOLVED ORGANIC CARBON RETENTION BY A SPODIC HORIZON  

EPA Science Inventory

Processes involving the movement of organic substances in forest soils are not well understood. This study was conducted to examine the role of acidic inputs on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) mobility, processes affecting the retention of DOV by a B horizon, and SO2-4 adsorption....

376

Gravitational radiations of generic isolated horizons and nonrotating dynamical horizons from asymptotic expansions  

SciTech Connect

Instead of using a three-dimensional analysis on quasilocal horizons, we adopt a four-dimensional asymptotic expansion analysis to study the next order contributions from the nonlinearity of general relativity. From the similarity between null infinity and horizons, the proper reference frames are chosen from the compatible constant spinors for an observer to measure the energy-momentum and flux near quasilocal horizons. In particular, we focus on the similarity of Bondi-Sachs gravitational radiation for the quasilocal horizons and compare our results with Ashtekar-Kirshnan flux formula. The quasilocal energy-momentum and flux of generic isolated horizons and nonrotating dynamical horizons are discussed in this paper.

Wu, Y.-H.; Wang, C.-H. [Center for Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, National Central University and Department of Physics, National Central University, Chungli, 320, Taiwan (China); Department of Physics, National Central University, Chungli, 320, Taiwan (China)

2009-09-15

377

DIVISION S-2--SOIL CHEMISTRY Artifacts Caused by Collection of Soil Solution with Passive Capillary Samplers  

E-print Network

) from A horizons of for- ested soils. The volume and chemistry of collected solutions were moisture wicking samplers are required to represent adequately soil vari-material utilized in the PCAPS fiberglass to collect soil solution, including zero-tension samplers ropes ("wicks") that create a hanging

Chorover, Jon

378

Assessing the impact of soil salinity on manganese distribution in sierozem soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Plant availability of heavy metals from soil depends on factors such as soil type, organic matter, base saturation, texture, and salinity. Plant availability of mobile manganese (Mn) was accessed from various horizons of non-saline, medium saline, and highly saline sieriozem soils and a pasture. Man...

379

Role of large-scale soil structure in organic carbon turnover: Evidence from California grassland soils  

E-print Network

Role of large-scale soil structure in organic carbon turnover: Evidence from California grassland organic carbon (SOC) in upper (A) and lower (B) horizons of grassland soils from California's Central carbon turnover: Evidence from California grassland soils, J. Geophys. Res., 111, G03012, doi:10

Wang, Yang

380

The tri-soil experiment: do plants discriminate among vegetation soil types?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We tested if rooting mass and root nutrient uptake of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) or creeping wildrye (Leymus triticoides) were influenced by vegetation soil type. Three soil types (A horizons), similar in gross physical and chemical properties, were freshly-collected. The soils varied in the veget...

381

Linear and Nonlinear Acoustic Measurements of Buried Landmines: Detection Schemes Near Resonance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of the acoustic impedance of an anti-personnel and anti-tank plastic, blast-hardened landmines reveal resonances in the frequency range between 100 and 1000 Hz. The top surface resonances are due to its complicated mechanical structure vibrating in air. The lowest mode results from the blast hardened design of the landmine. Typically, a portion or cavity of the landmine is designed to absorb the shock from an explosion that is intended to detonate the landmine but still allow the landmine to trigger its explosive device when a slow steady pressure is applied. The mechanical design of the blast hardened aspects results in a high Q simple harmonic oscillator resonance of the top surface. At higher frequencies the top surface behaves like thin circular plate acoustic modes. When these landmines are buried in soils, the modes are mass loaded. Resonances from measurements of the normal component of the acoustically induced soil surface particle velocity are used for detection schemes. Since the interface between the top plate and the soil responds to pressure fluctuations nonlinearly, characteristics of landmines, the soil, and the interface are rich in nonlinear physics and allow for new methods of landmine detection not previously exploited.

Sabatier, James M.

2003-03-01

382

Mobile aluminum compounds in soils of the southern taiga (soils of the central forest reserve as an example)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The profile distributions of aluminum extracted by the Tamm and Bascomb reagents and of the exchangeable aluminum were studied in soils of automorphic, transitive, and accumulative positions in the landscapes of the southern taiga. In the mineral horizons of the gleyic peaty-podzolic soils developed on poorly drained flat surfaces and in the floodplain soils, the distribution of oxalate- and pyrophosphate-soluble aluminum has a strongly pronounced accumulative character. In the podzolic soils of the automorphic positions and slopes, an eluvial-illuvial distribution was characteristic with the maximal aluminum content in the podzolic horizons. The strong differentiation of the upper part of the profile in the automorphic podzolic soils in terms of the Al content in the Tamm and Bascomb extracts is mainly related to an increase of the pedogenic chlorite content upon the transition from the AE to the E horizon. In the podzolic horizons of these soils, aluminum can accumulate in the form of proto-imogolite structures. The exchangeable aluminum displays an accumulative type of distribution. On the basis of calculating the reserves of the different aluminum compounds, two main accumulative zones for the mobile compounds of this element were recorded in the soils of the landscapes studied: the E horizon in the automorphic podzolic soils, where Al accumulates as soil chlorite or, probably, as proto-imogolite, and the A1 horizon of the floodplain soils, where Al accumulates in aluminoorganic complexes.

Tolpeshta, I. I.; Sokolova, T. A.

2010-08-01

383

Geomorphic Analysis of Soils  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are taken to a former plantation along a tidal river near Charleston, SC. The students are then shown how to sample and describe soils using an push-auger sampler, similar to those used in industry. After the demonstration, the students are taken to various locations on the plantation, including upland areas, wetlands, former agricultural areas, lowlands, and tidal marshes, to sample and make field descriptions of the various soils encountered. Students describe depths to horizons, soil color using Munsell Color Charts, soil texture, and any other pertinent properties. Students then prepare a formal technical write-up on the soils, their distribution, and how their sampling results compare to published soil data for the area. Designed for a geomorphology course Uses online and/or real-time data

Briget Doyle

384

Observation of buried object detection by a dolphin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acoustic buried object detection by a dolphin was observed by means of a hydrophone placed directly above the object. Dolphins are known to be adept at locating prey and objects that are buried in the sediment. This involves the detection and some level of identification of the prey. Since sediment is opaque, it is unlikely that vision is involved. It is likely that the dolphin uses sound to detect buried objects. Direct observation of the sound pulses arriving at the buried object provides information about the sound pulses employed by the dolphin. The observations show that the acoustic pulses are broad band, spanning the frequency range from a few tens of kilohertz to well over one hundred kilohertz. Modeling of the acoustic penetration of such a broad band pulse indicates that it will change shape as it is transmitted through the water-sediment interface. The change will depend on the sediment type and signal grazing angle. As the pulse penetrates into the sediment, it will undergo further distortion due to the frequency dependence of acoustic absorption. Acoustic penetration of the sediment has been modelled and the signal distortion may be expressed as a filter function, with certain characteristics, particularly a phase shift and a reduction at the higher end of the spectrum. These features provide an indication of whether a detected object is buried or not, and the depth of burial.

Chotiros, Nicholas P.; Krueger, Kenneth L.; Crow, Nathan S.; Altenburg, Robert A.

1997-07-01

385

Experimental investigation of buried tritium in plant and animal tissues  

SciTech Connect

Buried exchangeable tritium appears as part of organically bound tritium (OBT) in the traditional experimental determination of OBT. Since buried tritium quickly exchanges with hydrogen atoms in the body following ingestion, assuming that it is part of OBT rather than part of tritiated water (HTO) could result in a significant overestimate of the ingestion dose. This paper documents an experimental investigation into the existence, amount and significance of buried tritium in plant and fish samples. OBT concentrations in the samples were determined in the traditional way and also following denaturing with five chemical solutions that break down large molecules and expose buried tritium to exchange with free hydrogen atoms. A comparison of the OBT concentrations before and after denaturing, together with the concentration of HTO in the supernatant obtained after denaturing, suggests that buried OBT may exist but makes up less than 5% of the OBT concentration in plants and at most 20% of the OBT concentration in fish. The effects of rinse time and rinse water volumes were investigated to optimize the removal of exchangeable OBT from the samples. (authors)

Kim, S. B.; Workman, W. J. G.; Davis, P. A. [AECL, Chalk River Laboratories, Environmental Technologies Branch, Chalk River, ON K0J 1J0 (Canada)

2008-07-15

386

Horizon dynamics of distorted rotating black holes  

SciTech Connect

We present numerical simulations of a rotating black hole distorted by a pulse of ingoing gravitational radiation. For strong pulses, we find up to five concentric marginally outer trapped surfaces. These trapped surfaces appear and disappear in pairs, so that the total number of such surfaces at any given time is odd. The world tubes traced out by the marginally outer trapped surfaces are found to be spacelike during the highly dynamical regime, approaching a null hypersurface at early and late times. We analyze the structure of these marginally trapped tubes in the context of the dynamical horizon formalism, computing the expansion of outgoing and incoming null geodesics, as well as evaluating the dynamical horizon flux law and the angular momentum flux law. Finally, we compute the event horizon. The event horizon is well-behaved and approaches the apparent horizon before and after the highly dynamical regime. No new generators enter the event horizon during the simulation.

Chu, Tony; Cohen, Michael I. [Theoretical Astrophysics 350-17, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Pfeiffer, Harald P. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George Street, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada)

2011-05-15

387

Hall Scrambling on Black Hole Horizon  

E-print Network

We explore the effect of the electrodynamics $\\theta$-angle on the macroscopic properties of black hole horizons. Using only classical Einstein-Maxwell-Chern-Simons theory in (3+1)-dimensions, in the form of the membrane paradigm, we show that in the presence of the $\\theta$-term, a black hole horizon behaves as a Hall conductor, for an observer hovering outside. We study how localized perturbations created on the stretched horizon scramble on the horizon by dropping a charged particle. We show that the $\\theta$-angle affects the way perturbations scramble on the horizon, in particular, it introduces vortices without changing the scrambling time. This Hall scrambling of information is also expected to occur on cosmological horizons.

Willy Fischler; Sandipan Kundu

2015-01-06

388

Hall Scrambling on Black Hole Horizon  

E-print Network

We explore the effect of the electrodynamics $\\theta$-angle on the macroscopic properties of black hole horizons. Using only classical Einstein-Maxwell-Chern-Simons theory in (3+1)-dimensions, in the form of the membrane paradigm, we show that in the presence of the $\\theta$-term, a black hole horizon behaves as a Hall conductor, for an observer hovering outside. We study how localized perturbations created on the stretched horizon scramble on the horizon by dropping a charged particle. We show that the $\\theta$-angle affects the way perturbations scramble on the horizon, in particular, it introduces vortices without changing the scrambling time. This Hall scrambling of information is also expected to occur on cosmological horizons.

Fischler, Willy

2015-01-01

389

Variable horizon in a peridynamic medium.  

SciTech Connect

A notion of material homogeneity is proposed for peridynamic bodies with vari- able horizon but constant bulk properties. A relation is derived that scales the force state according to the position-dependent horizon while keeping the bulk properties un- changed. Using this scaling relation, if the horizon depends on position, artifacts called ghost forces may arise in a body under homogeneous deformation. These artifacts de- pend on the second derivative of horizon and can be reduced by use of a modified equilibrium equation using a new quantity called the partial stress . Bodies with piece- wise constant horizon can be modeled without ghost forces by using a technique called a splice between the regions. As a limiting case of zero horizon, both partial stress and splice techniques can be used to achieve local-nonlocal coupling. Computational examples, including dynamic fracture in a one-dimensional model with local-nonlocal coupling, illustrate the methods.

Silling, Stewart A.; Littlewood, David John; Seleson, Pablo

2014-10-01

390

Soils - Part 1: The Origin and Development of Soil(How Soil Gets a Life and a Name)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, you will gain an understanding of the five soil forming factors and will be able to describe how each influences soil development. You will learn to identify common parent materials, determine the age of a soil, identify the types of native vegetation associated with different soils in Nebraska and define soil horizons.[This lesson, as well as the other nine lessons in the Soils series, is taken from the "Soils Home Study Course," published in 1999 by the University of Nebraska Cooperative Extension.

391

Dynamical symmetry enhancement near IIA horizons  

E-print Network

We show that smooth type IIA Killing horizons with compact spatial sections preserve an even number of supersymmetries, and that the symmetry algebra of horizons with non-trivial fluxes includes an sl(2,R) subalgebra. This confirms the conjecture of [1] for type IIA horizons. As an intermediate step in the proof, we also demonstrate new Lichnerowicz type theorems for spin bundle connections whose holonomy is contained in a general linear group.

U. Gran; J. Gutowski; U. Kayani; G. Papadopoulos

2014-09-22

392

A PLAN FOR A NEW HORIZON  

E-print Network

A PLAN FOR A NEW HORIZON ENVISIONING VIRGINIA TECH 2012-2018 STRATEGIC PLAN #12;Envisioning VirginiaTech 2012-2018 II Contents A PLAN FOR A NEW HORIZON E n v i s i o n i n g V i r g i n i a T e c h 2 a new horizon defined by a future characterized by geopolitical and geo-economic transition

Buehrer, R. Michael

393

Effective information loss outside the horizon  

Microsoft Academic Search

If a system falls through a black hole horizon, then its information is lost to an observer at infinity. But we argue that\\u000a the accessible information is lost before the horizon is crossed. The temperature of the hole limits information carrying signals from a system that has fallen too\\u000a close to the horizon. Extremal holes have T = 0, but there is

Samir D. Mathur

394

MANIFESTATION JOURNEE EUROPE INFORMATIONS PROGRAMME HORIZON 2020  

E-print Network

MANIFESTATION JOURNEE EUROPE ­ INFORMATIONS PROGRAMME HORIZON 2020 ET EUROPAID 16 décembre 2013 9, Zoraïda MARTINEZ 16 décembre 2013 10 :00 Matin JOURNEE D'INFORMATION HORIZON 2020 / EUROPAID CESBIO- Salle de conférence - Présentation générale d'HORIZON 2020 et son intérêt pour l'IRD - Les nouveautés et

Dintrans, Boris

395

The horizon problem for prevalent surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the box dimensions of the horizon of a fractal surface defined\\u000aby a function $f \\\\in C[0,1]^2 $. In particular we show that a prevalent surface\\u000asatisfies the `horizon property', namely that the box dimension of the horizon\\u000ais one less than that of the surface. Since a prevalent surface has box\\u000adimension 3, this does not give

Kenneth J. Falconer; Jonathan M. Fraser

2011-01-01

396

Extremality conditions for isolated and dynamical horizons  

SciTech Connect

A maximally rotating Kerr black hole is said to be extremal. In this paper we introduce the corresponding restrictions for isolated and dynamical horizons. These reduce to the standard notions for Kerr but in general do not require the horizon to be either stationary or rotationally symmetric. We consider physical implications and applications of these results. In particular we introduce a parameter e which characterizes how close a horizon is to extremality and should be calculable in numerical simulations.

Booth, Ivan; Fairhurst, Stephen [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Memorial University of Newfoundland St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, A1C 5S7 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 53201 (United States); LIGO-California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff, CF2 3YB (United Kingdom)

2008-04-15

397

Closure report for CAU Number 430: Buried Depleted Uranium Artillery Round Number 1, Tonopah Test Range  

SciTech Connect

Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 430 consists of the Buried Depleted Uranium (DU) Artillery Round No. 1. This Closure Report presents the information obtained from investigate actions performed to justify the decision for clean closure of CAU 430 through ``No Further Action``. The site was thought to consist of a potentially unexploded W-79 Joint Test Assembly (JTA) test artillery projectile with high explosives (HE) and DU. The DU was substituted for Special Nuclear Materials to prevent a nuclear explosion and yet retain the physical characteristics of uranium for ballistic and other mechanical tests. The projectile was reportedly buried in one pit, approximately 5 to 10 feet (ft) deep. The objectives of the activities were to prepare the site for closure through locating and identifying the projectile, destroying the projectile and any remaining components, collecting soil samples to detect residual contamination resulting from projectile destruction, and finally, remediating residual contamination. This report contains the following five sections. Section 1.0 introduces the CAU and scope of work. Section 2.0 of this report presents the closure activities performed as part of this investigation. Waste disposition is discussed in Section 3.0. Closure investigation results are presented in Section 4.0, and references are presented in Section 5.0.

NONE

1997-02-01

398

Operation Hardtack. Project 1. 9. Loading on buried simulated structures in high-overpressure regions. Report for April-October 1958  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to study some of the factors affecting the transmission of air-blast-induced pressure through soil and the loading produced on buried structures by such pressures in the high-pressure region (approximately 250 psi). Factors studied were: (1) the attenuation of pressure in a sand deposit when the water table is a few feet below the ground surface; (2) the effect of duration of positive phase of blast on the pressure transmitted through such a soil; (3) the effect of structure flexibility on the pressure acting on structures buried in such a soil; and (4) the relationship between horizontal and vertical pressures in such a soil. The project employed 43 devices, each a rigid cylinder having one rigid end and one deformable-diaphragm end. The devices were buried at depths ranging from 0 to 20 feet at each of two locations at the Eniwetok Proving Ground. The locations were chosen to give a predicted ground surface overpressure of about 250 psi from each of two shots, Cactus and Koa.

Bultmann, E.H.; McDonough, G.F.; Sinnamon, G.K.

1984-10-31

399

Apparent horizon in fluid-gravity duality  

SciTech Connect

This article develops a computational framework for determining the location of boundary-covariant apparent horizons in the geometry of conformal fluid-gravity duality in arbitrary dimensions. In particular, it is shown up to second order and conjectured to hold to all orders in the gradient expansion that there is a unique apparent horizon which is covariantly expressible in terms of fluid velocity, temperature, and boundary metric. This leads to the first explicit example of an entropy current defined by an apparent horizon and opens the possibility that in the near-equilibrium regime there is preferred foliation of apparent horizons for black holes in asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetimes.

Booth, Ivan; Heller, Michal P.; Plewa, Grzegorz; Spalinski, Michal [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, A1C 5S7 (Canada); Instituut voor Theoretische Fysica, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1090 GL Amsterdam (Netherlands); Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Hoza 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Hoza 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland) and Physics Department, University of Bialystok, 15-424 Bialystok (Poland)

2011-05-15

400

Soil Redox Potential as a Control of Soil Total Gaseous Mercury Fluxes in Background Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of our study was to examine how environmental parameters influence the surface atmosphere exchange of gaseous mercury in background soils of western Maryland. The parameters included soil temperature, redox potential, and volumetric water content. We also wanted to determine if soil pore air total gaseous mercury (TGM) concentrations were influencing atmospheric exchange. All parameters were measured at four depths below the soil surface, at the Oe - A soil horizon interface, A - E soil horizon interface, 5 cm into the E horizon, and 10 cm into the E horizon. Three plots were delineated in a forested area and three in a cleared area at the Piney Reservoir Ambient Air Monitoring Station (PRAAMS) in western Maryland. TGM fluxes were measured with a dynamic flux chamber and soil pore air concentrations were measured with our newly developed soil pore TGM sampling method. Plots were sampled for soil pore air TGM concentrations and TGM flux every third week from July 2009 through June 2010. The other parameters were measured every 10 minutes semi-continuously for the same period. Soil pore air TGM concentrations were significantly higher in the forested area (mean = 2.14 ng m-3) than the cleared area (mean = 1.62 ng m-3) (p=0.0001). Soil pore air TGM was significantly higher in the high organic content Oe layer for the forested site (p < 0.00001 for all depths and ambient air). Soil TGM concentrations for both the cleared and forested areas increased at higher temperature but were not related to other soil parameters. Soil TGM concentrations were also not correlated with soil TGM fluxes. The parameter that had the greatest influence on soil TGM fluxes was soil redox potential. Soil TGM fluxes were strongly, negatively correlated with soil redox potential at all depths for both the forested and cleared areas (R2=0.56 forested area A-E horizon, R2=0.47 cleared area A-E horizon). From this relationship between soil redox potential and TGM flux, we were able to develop a model that could be used to predict the soil TGM fluxes for the period that we measured soil redox potential. From this model we determined a net of deposition of ~0.4 ug m-2 to the soils at the cleared site from July to December 2009. From March to July 2010, there was a net emission of ~3.4 ug m-2 from the cleared area. We also used the model to estimate that the soils at the forested site emitted ~0.1 ug m-2 from July to December 2009 and ~2.3 ug m-2 from March to July 2010. More measurements of TGM flux and soil redox are needed in other areas to further validate the use of soil redox potentials as surrogates for direct measurements of soil TGM flux.

Moore, C. W.; Castro, M. S.

2010-12-01

401

End effectors and attachments for buried waste excavation equipment  

SciTech Connect

The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. Their efforts are identified and coordinated in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER&WM) Department`s needs and objectives. The present focus of BWID is to support retrieval and ex-situ treatment configuration options. Future activities will explore and support containment, and stabilization efforts in addition to the retrieval/ex situ treatment options. This report presents a literature search on the state-of-the-art in end effectors and attachments in support of excavator of buried transuranic waste. Included in the report are excavator platforms and a discussion of the various attachments. Also included is it list of vendors and specifications.

King, R.H.

1993-09-01

402

Pb-concentrations and Pb-isotope ratios in soils collected along an east-west transect across the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Analytical results for Pb-concentrations and isotopic ratios from ca. 150 samples of soil A horizon and ca. 145 samples of soil C horizon collected along a 4000-km east–west transect across the USA are presented. Lead concentrations along the transect show: (1) generally higher values in the soil A-horizon than the C-horizon (median 21 vs. 16.5 mg/kg), (2) an increase in the median value of the soil A-horizon for central to eastern USA (Missouri to Maryland) when compared to the western USA (California to Kansas) (median 26 vs. 20 mg/kg) and (3) a higher A/C ratio for the central to eastern USA (1.35 vs. 1.14). Lead isotopes show a distinct trend across the USA, with the highest 206Pb/207Pb ratios occurring in the centre (Missouri, median A-horizon: 1.245; C-horizon: 1.251) and the lowest at both coasts (e.g., California, median A-horizon: 1.195; C-horizon: 1.216). The soil C-horizon samples show generally higher 206Pb/207Pb ratios than the A-horizon (median C-horizon: 1.224; A-horizon: 1.219). The 206Pb/207Pb-isotope ratios in the soil A horizon show a correlation with the total feldspar content for the same 2500-km portion of the transect from east-central Colorado to the Atlantic coast that shows steadily increasing precipitation. No such correlation exists in the soil C horizon. The data demonstrate the importance of climate and weathering on both Pb-concentration and 206Pb/207Pb-isotope ratios in soil samples and natural shifts thereof in the soil profile during soil-forming processes.

Reimann, Clemens; Smith, David B.; Woodruff, Laurel G.; Flem, Belinda

2011-01-01

403

A comparison of soil moisture characteristics predicted by the Arya-Paris model with laboratory-measured data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Soil moisture characteristics predicted by the Arya-Paris model were compared with the laboratory measured data for 181 New Jersey soil horizons. For a number of soil horizons, the predicted and the measured moisture characteristic curves are almost coincident; for a large number of other horizons, despite some disparity, their shapes are strikingly similar. Uncertainties in the model input and laboratory measurement of the moisture characteristic are indicated, and recommendations for additional experimentation and testing are made.

Arya, L. M.; Richter, J. C.; Davidson, S. A. (principal investigators)

1982-01-01

404

Soil ammonium and phosphate sorption capacity decreases with prescribed ground fire Miranda A. Sinnott-Armstrong  

E-print Network

decrease in soil sorption capacity. Preliminary data on soil pH in organic and mineral soil indicate1 Soil ammonium and phosphate sorption capacity decreases with prescribed ground fire Miranda A fires decreased the depth of the organic horizon of soil in an experimentally burned forest in Truro, MA

Vallino, Joseph J.

405

Method of forming buried oxide layers in silicon  

DOEpatents

A process for forming Silicon-On-Insulator is described incorporating the steps of ion implantation of oxygen into a silicon substrate at elevated temperature, ion implanting oxygen at a temperature below 200.degree. C. at a lower dose to form an amorphous silicon layer, and annealing steps to form a mixture of defective single crystal silicon and polycrystalline silicon or polycrystalline silicon alone and then silicon oxide from the amorphous silicon layer to form a continuous silicon oxide layer below the surface of the silicon substrate to provide an isolated superficial layer of silicon. The invention overcomes the problem of buried isolated islands of silicon oxide forming a discontinuous buried oxide layer.

Sadana, Devendra Kumar (Pleasantville, NY); Holland, Orin Wayne (Lenoir City, TN)

2000-01-01

406

Soils, time, and primate paleoenvironments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Soils are the skin of the earth. From both poles to the equator, wherever rocks or sediment are exposed at the surface, soils are forming through the physical and chemical action of climate and living organisms. The physical attributes (color, texture, thickness) and chemical makeup of soils vary considerably, depending on the composition of the parent material and other variables: temperature, rainfall and soil moisture, vegetation, soil fauna, and the length of time that soil-forming processes have been at work. United States soil scientists1 have classified modern soils into ten major groups and numerous subgroups, each reflecting the composition and architecture of the soils and, to some extent, the processes that led to their formation. The physical and chemical processes of soil formation have been active throughout geologic time; the organic processes have been active at least since the Ordovician.2 Consequently, nearly all sedimentary rocks that were deposited in nonmarine settings and exposed to the elements contain a record of ancient, buried soils or paleosols. A sequence of these rocks, such as most ancient fluvial (stream) deposits, provides a record of soil paleoenvironments through time. Paleosols are also repositories of the fossils of organisms (body fossils) and the traces of those organisms burrowing, food-seeking, and dwelling activities (ichnofossils). Indeed, most fossil primates are found in paleosols. Careful study of ancient soils gives new, valuable insights into the correct temporal reconstruction of the primate fossil record and the nature of primate paleoenvironments. ?? 1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Bown, T.M.; Kraus, M.J.

1993-01-01

407

Occurrence of perched saturation and interflow over an argillic horizon in a low relief hillslope.  

SciTech Connect

Abstract. Many of the soils in the south-eastern US are characterized by an argillic, or clay horizon, that largely parallels the soil surface at depths ranging from a few centimeters to 100 cen-timeters. The degree to which these argillic horizons alter subsurface movement of infiltrated water is not well known. Interflow, or throughflow, is shallow lateral subsurface flow that moves over a horizon that restricts percolation. This research investigates how often and under what conditions a relatively deep (20-150+cm) argillic horizon on low slope (2-6%) hillsides causes interflow to oc-cur. Research is being conducted at the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina, on a small zero-order watershed. In the first phase of this research, a high resolution topographic map of the clay layer was developed. This map will be used to instrument designated “low” spots with max rise piezo-meters in order to determine if there is channelized subsurface flow. In situ conductivities of the clay layer and the surface horizons were measured using an Amoozegar meter, and bulk density samples were taken and measured. Along with soil topographic measurements, data-logging piezometers have been installed to measure the piezometric head above, in, and below the argillic horizon to further investigate interflow as a potential hydraulic routing mechanism. The stream that drains the catchment was instrumented with a 2’ H flume and data-logging pressure transducer to measure stream flow. Climate data including precipitation, barometric pressure and temperature, are being continuously collected in an open area approximately ¼ mile from the study site. Combining the shallow surface and subsurface piezometric heads with stream flow rates, we should be able to determine if and when the clay layer is contributing to inter-flow.

Greco, James; Jackson, Rhett, C.

2009-03-01

408

The effect of bioturbation on soil formation; Simulations and measurement in a Belgian loess area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatial patterns of soil often do not reflect those of topographic controls. We attempted to identify possible causes of this by comparing observed and simulated soil horizon depths. Observed depths of E, Bt, BC, C1, and C2 horizons in loess-derived soils in Belgium showed a weak to absent relation to terrain attributes in a sloping area. We applied the soil genesis model SoilGen2.16 onto 108 1 × 1 m2 locations in a 1329 ha area to find possible causes. Two scenarios were simulated. Model 1 simulated soil development under undisturbed conditions, taking slope, aspect, and loess thickness as the only sources of variations. Model 2 additionally included a stochastic submodel to generate tree-uprooting events based on the exposure of trees to the wind. Outputs of both models were converted to depths of transitions between horizons, using an algorithm calibrated to horizon depths observed in the field. Model 1 showed strong correlations between terrain attributes and depths for all horizons, although surprisingly, regression kriging was not able to model all variations. Model 2 showed a weak to absent correlation for the upper horizons but still a strong correlation for the deeper horizons BC, C1, and C2. For the upper horizons the spatial variation strongly resembled that of the measurements. This is a strong indication that bioturbation in the course of soil formation due to treefalls influences spatial patterns of horizon depths.

Finke, Peter; Opelot, Emmanuel; Poesen, Jean; Deckers, Seppe; Vanwalleghem, Tom

2014-05-01

409

The First Law for Acceleration Horizons  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many reasons to believe that the notion of black hole entropy extends to all causal horizons. The first law should presumably therefore apply as well. However, the area change of an asymptotic Rindler horizon is infinite when energy falls freely across it. It will be argued that the resolution of this puzzle is that the process is out

Ted Jacobson

2005-01-01

410

The horizon supercomputing system: architecture and software  

Microsoft Academic Search

Horizon is the name currently being used to refer to a shared-memory Multiple Instruction stream - Multiple Data stream (MIMD) computer architecture under study by independent groups at the Supercomputing Research Center and at Tera Computer Company. Its performance target is a sustained rate of 100 giga (1011) Floating Point Operations Per Second (FLOPS). Horizon achieves this speed with a

James T. Kuehn; Burton J. Smith

1988-01-01

411

The University of Oklahoma The New Horizon  

E-print Network

The University of Oklahoma The New Horizon for OU Libraries ® #12;We are eager to share With you electronic mediums. instead, we need to re-conceptualize a paradigm for library The New Horizon for Hallway our new strategic direction for the ou Libraries. our perspective has been shaped by eight months

Droegemeier, Kelvin K.

412

Cosmological event horizons, thermodynamics, and particle creation  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that the close connection between event horizons and thermodynamics which has been found in the case of black holes can be extended to cosmological models with a repulsive cosmological constant. An observer in these models will have an event horizon whose area can be interpreted as the entropy or lack of information of the observer about the

G. W. Gibbons; S. W. Hawking

1977-01-01

413

Battling Blaze on Deepwater Horizon Oilrig  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

NEW ORLEANS — Fire boat response crews battle the blazing remnants of the off shore oilrig Deepwater Horizon. A Coast Guard MH-65C dolphin rescue helicopter and crew document the fire aboard the mobile offshore drilling unit Deepwater Horizon, while searching for survivors. Multiple Coast Guar...

414

Receding Horizon Control of HIV John David  

E-print Network

Receding Horizon Control of HIV John David Hien Tran H.T. Banks December 22, 2009 Abstract) in individuals. It then illustrates how a Receding Horizon Control (RHC) methodology can be used to drive and initial conditions, without later revising the treatment based on newly-available information. An example

415

Expanding your horizons in science and mathematics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the 'Expanding Your Horizons in Science and Mathematics' program is to interest young women in grades six through twelve in a variety of careers where mathematics and science are important. Progress in encouraging young women to take courses in mathematics, science, and technological subjects is discussed. Also included are adult, student, and organizational information packets used for 'Expanding Your Horizons' conferences.

Palmer, Cynthia E. A.

1995-01-01

416

Black holes as trapping horizons Eric Gourgoulhon  

E-print Network

Black holes as trapping horizons Eric Gourgoulhon Laboratoire Univers et Th´eories (LUTH) CNRS://www.luth.obspm.fr/~luthier/gourgoulhon/ Centrum Astronomiczne im. M. Kopernika Warsaw, Poland 17 November 2008 Eric Gourgoulhon (LUTH) Black holes as trapping horizons CAMK, Warsaw, 17 Nov. 2008 1 / 36 #12;Plan 1 Local approaches to black holes 2 Viscous

Gourgoulhon, Eric

417

HORIZON 2020 WORK PROGRAMME 2014 2015  

E-print Network

HORIZON 2020 WORK PROGRAMME 2014 ­ 2015 3. Marie Sklodowska-Curie Actions Important Notice (2013)8631 of 10 December 2013) #12;HORIZON 2020 ­ WORK PROGRAMME 2014-2015 Marie Sklodowska-Curie................................................................................................................................ 3 2014 Call for Marie Sklodowska-Curie Innovative Training Networks (ITN

Erdem, Erkut

418

Horizon Report: 2010 K-12 Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Horizon Report" series is the most visible outcome of the New Media Consortium's Horizon Project, an ongoing research effort established in 2002 that identifies and describes emerging technologies likely to have a large impact on teaching, learning, research, or creative expression within education around the globe. This volume, the "2010…

Johnson, L.; Smith, R.; Levine, A.; Haywood, K.

2010-01-01

419

The Path to Disaster The Deepwater Horizon  

E-print Network

21/08/2013 1 The Path to Disaster The Deepwater Horizon BP's disaster in the Gulf of Mexico was not disconnected · The escaping gas ignited · 11 dead · The drilling rig Deepwater Horizon sank after 2 days #12 · They drilled on to get below the pay-zone · An initial plan was produced on April 12th · Feedback

Pym, David J.

420

Horizon Report: 2009 Economic Development Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The New Media Consortium's Horizon Project is an ongoing research project that seeks to identify and describe emerging technologies likely to have a large impact in education and other industries around the world over a five-year time period. The chief products of the project are the "Horizon Reports", an annual series of publications that…

Johnson, L.; Levine, A.; Scott, C.; Smith, R.; Stone, S.

2009-01-01

421

Gravitational collapse and formation of universal horizons  

E-print Network

In this paper, we first generalize the definition of stationary universal horizons to the dynamical ones, and then show that dynamical universal horizons can be formed from realistic gravitational collapse. This is done explicitly by constructing an analytical solution of a collapsing spherically symmetric star with finite thickness in the Einstein-aether theory.

Tian, Miao; da Silva, M F; Wang, Anzhong

2015-01-01

422

Reconceptualizing Knowledge at the Mathematical Horizon  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article extends the notion of "knowledge at the mathematical horizon" or "horizon knowledge" introduced by Ball and colleagues as a part of teachers' subject matter knowledge. Our focus is on teachers' mathematical knowledge beyond the school curriculum, that is, on mathematics learnt during undergraduate college or university studies. We…

Zazkis, Rina; Mamolo, Ami

2011-01-01

423

Can matter really cross a horizon?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been taken as a truth that collapsing matter can eventually cross the horizon and enter into the interior of a black hole in a finite proper time. However, the Rindler/tachyon dual description we suggested recently implies that this should not be the case. A test particle falling towards the event horizon of a nonextreme black hole can actually be viewed as an unstable particle, whose dynamics is described by the tachyon field theory. This means that the collapsing process of a free particle in Rindler space is essentially a tachyon condensation process. In terms of the results in tachyon condensation, we learn that the infalling particle should strongly couple to bulk gravitational modes and should decay completely into something like gravitons before reaching the horizon. Hence, there should be no matter that can cross a horizon as still matter. The matter will get "dissolved" into spacetime when approaching the horizon.

Li, Huiquan

2014-10-01

424

Buried Object Scanning Sonar for AUVs S. G. Schock  

E-print Network

Buried Object Scanning Sonar for AUVs S. G. Schock J. Wulf Department of Ocean Engineering Florida Atlantic University Boca Raton, FL 33431 U.S.A. schock@oe.fau.edu Abstract- A 252 channel FM sonar nearfield focusing generates a 3D map of acoustic intensity for each transmission event. As the sonar

Schock, Steven

425

GEOPHYSICAL TECHNIQUES FOR SENSING BURIED WASTES AND WASTE MIGRATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Descriptions of the use of six geophysical techniques are presented to provide a broad understanding of the application of these techniques for sensing buried wastes and waste migration. Technical language and jargon are avoided as much as possible so that those with limited tech...

426

Buried mine detection using ground-penetrating impulse radar  

SciTech Connect

LLNL is developing a side-looking, ground-penetrating impulse radar system that can eventually be mounted on a robotic vehicle or an airborne platform to locate buried land mines. The system is described and results from field experiments are presented.

Sargis, P.D.

1995-03-01

427

Introduction Interest in buried glacial ice has gained considerable  

E-print Network

glacier in central Beacon Valley (Fig. 1). The age of this underlying glacier ice is debated (van derIntroduction Interest in buried glacial ice has gained considerable attention in recent years due to its potential as an archive for long-term climate change. Geochemical analyses of ice stored

Marchant, David R.

428

Detection of concealed and buried chemicals by using multifrequency excitations  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we present a new type of concealed and buried chemical detection system by stimulating and enhancing spectroscopic signatures with multifrequency excitations, which includes a low frequency gradient dc electric field, a high frequency microwave field, and higher frequency infrared (IR) radiations. Each excitation frequency plays a unique role. The microwave, which can penetrate into the underground and/or pass through the dielectric covers with low attenuation, could effectively transform its energy into the concealed and buried chemicals and increases its evaporation rate from the sample source. Subsequently, a gradient dc electric field, generated by a Van De Graaff generator, not only serves as a vapor accelerator for efficiently expediting the transportation process of the vapor release from the concealed and buried chemicals but also acts as a vapor concentrator for increasing the chemical concentrations in the detection area, which enables the trace level chemical detection. Finally, the stimulated and enhanced vapors on the surface are detected by the IR spectroscopic fingerprints. Our theoretical and experimental results demonstrate that more than sixfold increase in detection signal can be achieved by using this proposed technology. The proposed technology can also be used for standoff detection of concealed and buried chemicals by adding the remote IR and/or thermal spectroscopic and imaging detection systems.

Gao Yaohui; Chen, Meng-Ku; Yang, Chia-En; Chang, Yun-Ching; Yao, Jim; Cheng Jiping; Yin, Stuart [Department of Electrical Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Hui Rongqing [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66045 (United States); Ruffin, Paul; Brantley, Christina; Edwards, Eugene [US Army Aviation and Missile Research Development and Engineering Center Redstone Arsenal, Alabama 35898 (United States); Luo, Claire [General Opto Solutions, LLC State College, Pennsylvania 16803 (United States)

2010-08-15

429

Design of buried type polymer based waveguide optical directional coupler  

Microsoft Academic Search

A design of buried square core (BSC) waveguide structure for a polymer based directional coupler at third telecommunication window is presented. The optimization of the waveguide dimension, the waveguide spacing, the coupling length and the thickness of the claddings have been determined. The device length of BSC S-bend waveguide at the input and output ports to form a directional coupler

A. S. M. Supa'at; Abu Balar Mohammad; N. M. Kassim

2002-01-01

430

Investigating buried polymer interfaces using sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews recent progress in the studies of buried polymer interfaces using sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy. Both buried solid/liquid and solid/solid interfaces involving polymeric materials are discussed. SFG studies of polymer/water interfaces show that different polymers exhibit varied surface restructuring behavior in water, indicating the importance of probing polymer/water interfaces in situ. SFG has also been applied to the investigation of interfaces between polymers and other liquids. It has been found that molecular interactions at such polymer/liquid interfaces dictate interfacial polymer structures. The molecular structures of silane molecules, which are widely used as adhesion promoters, have been investigated using SFG at buried polymer/silane and polymer/polymer interfaces, providing molecular-level understanding of polymer adhesion promotion. The molecular structures of polymer/solid interfaces have been examined using SFG with several different experimental geometries. These results have provided molecular-level information about polymer friction, adhesion, interfacial chemical reactions, interfacial electronic properties, and the structure of layer-by-layer deposited polymers. Such research has demonstrated that SFG is a powerful tool to probe buried interfaces involving polymeric materials, which are difficult to study by conventional surface sensitive analytical techniques. PMID:21113334

Chen, Zhan

2010-01-01

431

Risk and cost tradeoffs for remote retrieval of buried waste  

SciTech Connect

The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration is supporting the development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation of a suite of technologies that, when integrated with commercially available technologies, form a comprehensive system for the remediation of radioactive and hazardous buried waste. As a part of the program`s technology development, remote retrieval equipment is being developed and tested for the remediation of buried waste. During remedial planning, several factors are considered when choosing remote versus manual retrieval systems. Time that workers are exposed to radioactivity, chemicals, air particulate, and industrial hazards is one consideration. The generation of secondary waste is also a consideration because it amounts to more waste to treat and some wastes may require special handling or treatment. Cost is also a big factor in determining whether remote or manual operations will be used. Other considerations include implementability, effectiveness, and the number of required personnel. This paper investigates each of these areas to show the risk and cost benefits and limitations for remote versus manual retrieval of buried waste.

Hyde, R.A.; Grienbenow, B.E.; Nickelson, D.F.

1994-12-31

432

Mutation choice to eliminate buried free cysteines in protein therapeutics.  

PubMed

Buried free-cysteine (Cys) residues can contribute to an irreversible unfolding pathway that promotes protein aggregation, increases immunogenic potential, and significantly reduces protein functional half-life. Consequently, mutation of buried free-Cys residues can result in significant improvement in the storage, reconstitution, and pharmacokinetic properties of protein-based therapeutics. Mutational design to eliminate buried free-Cys residues typically follows one of two common heuristics: either substitution by Ser (polar and isosteric), or substitution by Ala or Val (hydrophobic); however, a detailed structural and thermodynamic understanding of Cys mutations is lacking. We report a comprehensive structure and stability study of Ala, Ser, Thr, and Val mutations at each of the three buried free-Cys positions (Cys16, Cys83, and Cys117) in fibroblast growth factor-1. Mutation was almost universally destabilizing, indicating a general optimization for the wild-type Cys, including van der Waals and H-bond interactions. Structural response to Cys mutation characteristically involved changes to maintain, or effectively substitute, local H-bond interactions-by either structural collapse to accommodate the smaller oxygen radius of Ser/Thr, or conversely, expansion to enable inclusion of novel H-bonding solvent. Despite the diverse structural effects, the least destabilizing average substitution at each position was Ala, and not isosteric Ser. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 104:566-576, 2015. PMID:25312595

Xia, Xue; Longo, Liam M; Blaber, Michael

2015-02-01

433

BotEC: Depth of Buried Metamorphic Rock  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Question In many high-grade metamorphic belts around the world, rocks were buried 20-30 km beneath the surface during deformation and metamorphism. How deep is that relative to the cruising altitude of a typical commercial airplane flying across the country?

Tewksbury, Barb

434

INLET CHANNEL, EGRESS OF BURIED CONDUIT SEGMENT TO PEN CHANNEL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INLET CHANNEL, EGRESS OF BURIED CONDUIT SEGMENT TO PEN CHANNEL NEAR GATE TOWER, LOOKING WEST FORM LEFT BANK OF INLET CHANNEL. KACHESS RIVER CHANNEL (1910) TO REAR BEYOND INLET CHANNEL - Kachess Dam, Inlet Channel, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

435

Field Weakening in Buried Permanent Magnet AC Motor Drives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The usual uncoupled d - q model of salient pole synchronous machines (Park's model) may be insufficient for accurate modeling of buried magnet permanent magnet machines. The addition of a nonbilateral coupling between the direct and quadrature axis equivalent circuits is shown to improve the steady-state model greatly. The cross coupling reactance has important implications in improving operation in the

Brigette Sneyers; Donald W. Novotny; Thomas A. Lipo

1985-01-01

436

Trees Buried in Volcanic Sediment, Sandy River 1  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Trunks of forest trees, initially growing on a terrace above the Sandy River (Oregon) at Oxbow Regional Park, were buried by rapid deposition of sediment following a dome-building eruption at Mount Hood in 1781. Erosion during a flood about a week before the photo was taken exposed this

437

Trees Buried in Volcanic Sediment, Sandy River 2  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Trunks of forest trees, initially growing on a terrace above the Sandy River (Oregon) at Oxbow Regional Park, were buried by rapid deposition of sediment following a dome-building eruption at Mount Hood in 1781. Erosion during a flood about a week before the photo was taken exposed this

438

Electromagnetic Induction Technique for Locating a Buried Source  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field structure of a buried vertical oscillating magnetic dipole is examined. For an observer on the earth's surface, it is indicated that the finite conductivity of the earth will modify the geometrical character of the vertical and horizontal magnetic field components. However, this effect is quite small if the burial depth is less than an electrical skin depth.

James Wait

1971-01-01

439

Identification of buried unexploded ordnance from broadband electromagnetic induction data  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure is described for computing range and orientation invariant spectral signatures of buried unexploded ordnance (UXO) from electromagnetic induction (EMI) data. The normalized eigenvalues of the magnetic polarizability tensor that characterizes the target response are used as the orientation-invariant spectral signatures. It is shown that the eigenvalues can be normalized with respect to depth under the assumption that a

Stephen J. Norton; I. J. Won

2001-01-01

440

Variation in seed viability and dormancy of 17 weed species after 24.7 years of burial: the concept of buried seed safe sites  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A 50-year study at Fairbanks, AK was started in 1984 to determine soil seed longevity of 17 weed species. Seeds were buried in mesh bags 2 and 15 cm deep and were recovered 0.7, 1.7, 2.7, 3.7, 4.7, 6.7, 9.7,19.7 and 24.7 yr later. Viability was determined using germination and tetrazolium tests. By ...

441

Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill; Draft Programmatic and Phase III Early  

E-print Network

Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill; Draft Programmatic and Phase III Early Restoration Plan of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. The restoration alternatives are comprised of early restoration project types Addressing Injuries Result