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Sample records for burkina faso consequences

  1. [Emigration from Burkina Faso from 1960 to 1985. Analysis of demographic and socioeconomic consequences].

    PubMed

    Some, P

    1991-04-01

    Labor migration from Burkina Faso did not end when direct recruitment of workers by planters from the Ivory Coast was terminated at independence in 1960. Methodological problems and differences in the objectives of the 1975 and 1985 censuses and the 1960-61 sample survey have limited the usefulness of existing data on migration. Migrants from Burkina Faso have always been unskilled workers in search of wage employment. The migrant population in 1960-61 was estimated at 152,442, of whom 90% were males primarily under 40 years old. The proportion of women and children increased from 8.2% in 1961 to 12.8% in 1973. Between the 1975 and 1985 censuses, there were few significant changes in the dominant characteristics of migrants. 80% of the 808,000 residents living abroad according to official sources were male and 80% were aged 15-40 years. 53% of migrants according to a 1975 study were under 20 years old at the 1st departure, and most were single. At the national level, labor migration is viewed as a necessary evil that should continue as long as possible in the absence of employment opportunities at home. After independence in 1960, 56.6% of migrants from Burkina Faso went to the Ivory Coast, 31.3% to Ghana, and 3.9% to Mali. In 1975 and 1985 respectively, 74.4% and 91.2% went to the Ivory Coast and 11.8% and 8.8% to Ghana. The demographic consequences of migration in Burkina Faso include a lowering of the natural increase rate and a reduction of the economically active population amounting to about 16% between 1975-85. The disproportionate departure of men has left an increasing number of women in charge of agricultural operations. A strong current of return migration has also developed, including many children under 15. It was estimated in 1990 that half of migrants to the Ivory Coast receive professional training, with the other half exposed to new agricultural techniques and methods of organizing work. 87% of returning male migrants in 1985 went back to their

  2. Reflections on the Unintended Consequences of the Promotion of Institutional Pregnancy and Birth Care in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Diallo, Abdoulaye Hama; Ruano, Ana Lorena; Tylleskär, Thorkild; Moland, Karen Marie

    2016-01-01

    The policy of institutional delivery has been the cornerstone of actions aimed at monitoring and achieving MDG 5. Efforts to increase institutional births have been implemented worldwide within different cultural and health systems settings. This paper explores how communities in rural Burkina Faso perceive the promotion and delivery of facility pregnancy and birth care, and how this promotion influences health-seeking behaviour. A qualitative study was conducted in South-Western Burkina Faso between September 2011 and January 2012. A total of 21 in-depth interviews and 8 focus group discussions with women who had given birth recently and community members were conducted. The data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis and interpreted through Merton’s concept of unintended consequences of purposive social action. The study found that community members experienced a strong pressure to give birth in a health facility and perceived health workers to define institutional birth as the only acceptable option. Women and their families experienced verbal, economic and administrative sanctions if they did not attend services and adhered to health worker recommendations, and reported that they felt incapable of questioning health workers’ knowledge and practices. Women who for social and economic reasons had limited access to health facilities found that the sanctions came with increased cost for health services, led to social stigma and acted as additional barriers to seek skilled care at birth. The study demonstrates how the global and national policy of skilled pregnancy and birth care can occur in unintentional ways in local settings. The promotion of institutional care during pregnancy and at birth in the study area compromised health system trust and equal access to care. The pressure to use facility care and the sanctions experienced by women not complying may further marginalize women with poor access to facility care and contribute to worsened health

  3. Reflections on the Unintended Consequences of the Promotion of Institutional Pregnancy and Birth Care in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Melberg, Andrea; Diallo, Abdoulaye Hama; Ruano, Ana Lorena; Tylleskär, Thorkild; Moland, Karen Marie

    2016-01-01

    The policy of institutional delivery has been the cornerstone of actions aimed at monitoring and achieving MDG 5. Efforts to increase institutional births have been implemented worldwide within different cultural and health systems settings. This paper explores how communities in rural Burkina Faso perceive the promotion and delivery of facility pregnancy and birth care, and how this promotion influences health-seeking behaviour. A qualitative study was conducted in South-Western Burkina Faso between September 2011 and January 2012. A total of 21 in-depth interviews and 8 focus group discussions with women who had given birth recently and community members were conducted. The data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis and interpreted through Merton's concept of unintended consequences of purposive social action. The study found that community members experienced a strong pressure to give birth in a health facility and perceived health workers to define institutional birth as the only acceptable option. Women and their families experienced verbal, economic and administrative sanctions if they did not attend services and adhered to health worker recommendations, and reported that they felt incapable of questioning health workers' knowledge and practices. Women who for social and economic reasons had limited access to health facilities found that the sanctions came with increased cost for health services, led to social stigma and acted as additional barriers to seek skilled care at birth. The study demonstrates how the global and national policy of skilled pregnancy and birth care can occur in unintentional ways in local settings. The promotion of institutional care during pregnancy and at birth in the study area compromised health system trust and equal access to care. The pressure to use facility care and the sanctions experienced by women not complying may further marginalize women with poor access to facility care and contribute to worsened health

  4. Costs and consequences of abortions to women and their households: a cross-sectional study in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Ilboudo, Patrick G C; Greco, Giulia; Sundby, Johanne; Torsvik, Gaute

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the costs and consequences of abortions to women and their households. Our aim was to study both costs and consequences of induced and spontaneous abortions and complications. We carried out a cross-sectional study between February and September 2012 in Ouagadougou, the capital city of Burkina Faso. Quantitative data of 305 women whose pregnancy ended with either an induced or a spontaneous abortion were prospectively collected on sociodemographic, asset ownership, medical and health expenditures including pre-referral costs following the patient’s perspective. Descriptive analysis and regression analysis of costs were performed. We found that women with induced abortion were often single or never married, younger, more educated and had earlier pregnancies than women with spontaneous abortion. They also tended to be more often under parents’ guardianship compared with women with spontaneous abortion. Women with induced abortion paid much more money to obtain abortion and treatment of the resulting complications compared with women with spontaneous abortion: US$89 (44 252 CFA ie franc of the African Financial Community) vs US$56 (27 668 CFA). The results also suggested that payments associated with induced abortion were catastrophic as they consumed 15% of the gross domestic product per capita. Additionally, 11–16% of total households appeared to have resorted to coping strategies in order to face costs. Both induced and spontaneous abortions may incur high expenses with short-term economic repercussions on households’ poverty. Actions are needed in order to reduce the financial burden of abortion costs and promote an effective use of contraceptives. PMID:24829315

  5. A Climate Trend Analysis of Burkina Faso

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Funk, Christopher C.; Rowland, Jim; Eilerts, Gary; Adoum, Alkhalil; White, Libby

    2012-01-01

    This brief report, drawing from a multi-year effort by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET), examines recent trends in rainfall and air temperatures. These analyses are based on quality controlled station observations. Conclusions: * Summer rains have remained steady over the past 20 years, but remain 15 percent below the 1920-69 average. * Temperatures have increased by 0.6° Celsius since 1975, amplifying the effect of droughts. * The amount of farmland per person is low, and declining. * Burkina Faso has offset rapid population growth with improved yields. * Continued yield growth would maintain current levels of per capita food production.

  6. Population structure of Glossina palpalis gambiensis (Diptera: Glossinidae) between river basins in Burkina Faso: consequences for area-wide integrated pest management.

    PubMed

    Bouyer, Jérémy; Ravel, Sophie; Guerrini, Laure; Dujardin, Jean-Pierre; Sidibé, Issa; Vreysen, Marc J B; Solano, Philippe; De Meeûs, Thierry

    2010-03-01

    African animal trypanosomosis is a major obstacle to the development of more efficient and sustainable livestock production systems in West Africa. Riverine tsetse species such as Glossina palpalis gambiensis Vanderplank are their major vectors. A wide variety of control tactics is available to manage these vectors, but their elimination will only be sustainable if control is exercised following area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) principles, i.e. the control effort is targeting an entire tsetse population within a circumscribed area. In the present study, genetic variation at microsatellite DNA loci was used to examine the population structure of G. p. gambiensis inhabiting two adjacent river basins, i.e. the Comoé and the Mouhoun River basins in Burkina Faso. A remote sensing analysis revealed that the woodland savannah habitats between the river basins have remained unchanged during the last two decades. In addition, genetic variation was studied in two populations that were separated by a man-made lake originating from a dam built in 1991 on the Comoé. Low genetic differentiation was observed between the samples from the Mouhoun and the Comoé River basins and no differentiation was found between the samples separated by the dam. The data presented indicate that the overall genetic differentiation of G. p. gambiensis populations inhabiting two adjacent river basins in Burkina Faso is low (F(ST)=0.016). The results of this study suggest that either G. p. gambiensis populations from the Mouhoun are not isolated from those of the Comoé, or that the isolation is too recent to be detected. If elimination of the G. p. gambiensis population from the Mouhoun River basin is the selected control strategy, re-invasion from adjacent river basins may need to be prevented by establishing a buffer zone between the Mouhoun and the other river basin(s). PMID:20060501

  7. Meningitis Serogroup W135 Outbreak, Burkina Faso, 2002

    PubMed Central

    Nathan, Nicolas; Rose, Angela M.C.; Legros, Dominique; Tiendrebeogo, Sylvestre R.M.; Bachy, Catherine; Bjørløw, Egil; Firmenich, Peter; Caugant, Dominique A.

    2007-01-01

    In 2002, the largest epidemic of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W135 occurred in Burkina Faso. The highest attack rate was in children <5 years of age. We describe cases from 1 district and evaluate the performance of the Pastorex test, which had good sensitivity (84%) and specificity (89%) compared with culture or PCR. PMID:17553237

  8. Impact Evaluation of Burkina Faso's BRIGHT Program. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Dan; Sloan, Matt; Linden, Leigh; Kazianga, Harounan

    2009-01-01

    The BRIGHT program was designed to improve the educational outcomes of children in Burkina Faso. It focused on girls in particular and was implemented in 132 rural villages throughout the 10 provinces of the country in which girls' enrollment rates were lowest. It consisted of constructing primary schools with three classrooms and implementing a…

  9. Parental Death and Children's Schooling in Burkina Faso

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobiane, Jean-Francois; Calves, Anne-Emmanuele; Marcoux, Richard

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors review the literature on orphanhood, schooling, and the role of the extended family system in supporting the education of orphans in Burkina Faso. They also summarize the historical, social, and economic context of this study. The objective of this study is to assess the effect of orphanhood on children's access to…

  10. Re-Emerging Malaria Vectors in Rural Sahel (nouna, Burkina Faso): the Paluclim Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vignolles, Cécile; Sauerborn, Rainer; Dambach, Peter; Viel, Christian; Soubeyroux, Jean-Michel; Sié, Ali; Rogier, Christophe; Tourre, Yves M.

    2016-06-01

    The Paluclim project applied the tele-epidemiology approach, linking climate, environment and public health (CNES, 2008), to rural malaria in Nouna (Burkina Faso). It was to analyze the climate impact on vectorial risks, and its consequences on entomological risks forecast. The objectives were to: 1) produce entomological risks maps in the Nouna region, 2) produce dynamic maps on larvae sites and their productivity, 3) study the climate impact on malaria risks, and 4) evaluate the feasibility of strategic larviciding approach.

  11. Pilot study on agricultural pesticide poisoning in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Ouedraogo, Mustapha; Ouedraogo, Richard; Ilboudo, Sylvain; Guissou, Pierre I.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiologic data related to agricultural pesticide poisoning cases in Burkina Faso were collected. The study was carried out using retrospective (from January 2002 to June 2010) surveys conducted among farmers and healthcare centers. One hundred and fifty-three (153) pest control products were recorded during the survey and 56 active ingredients were identified. Out of the 153 pest control products, 49 (i.e. 32%) were authorized for sale in Burkina Faso. The main risk factors are socio-demographic characteristics of farmers, their low education level, and some attitudes and practices on using agricultural pesticides. Pesticide poisonings are relatively frequent and their management was not always efficacious. Actions are needed to reduce pesticide poisoning as a global public health problem and to improve management of pesticide poisoning. To this purpose, advanced investigations should be carried out over a longer period of time to complement the present pilot study. PMID:24678256

  12. Cooking fuels and the push for cleaner alternatives: a case study from Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Shelby; Sié, Ali; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    Introduction More than 95% of the population in Burkina Faso uses some form of solid biomass fuel. When these fuels are burned in traditional, inefficient stoves, pollutant levels within and outside the home can be very high. This can have important consequences for both health and climate change. Thus, the push to switch to cleaner burning fuels is advantageous. However, there are several considerations that need to be taken into account when considering the use and promotion of different fuel types. Objective In the setting of the semi-urban area of Nouna, Burkina Faso, we examine the common fuel types used (wood, charcoal and liquid petroleum gas (LPG)) in terms of consumption, energy, availability, air pollution and climate change. Results and conclusion Although biomass solid fuel does offer some advantages over LPG, the disadvantages make this option much less desirable. Lower energy efficiencies, higher pollutant emission levels, the associated health consequences and climate change effects favour the choice of LPG over solid biomass fuel use. Further studies specific to Burkina Faso, which are lacking in this region, should also be undertaken in this area to better inform policy decisions. PMID:22778710

  13. Fumonisin contamination of maize in Burkina Faso, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Nikièma, P N; Worrillow, L; Traoré, A S; Wild, C P; Turner, P C

    2004-09-01

    Maize throughout the world is frequently contaminated with a family of mycotoxins, the fumonisins, produced by species of Fusaria. The study investigated the level of fumonisin contamination of maize samples from village farms and large market traders in Burkina Faso, West Africa. Maize samples (5 kg) from each of five to six large storage barns from farms in five villages in the district of N'Dorola, Kénédougou province, western Burkina Faso, were sampled (n = 26) in Jan 1999 (> 1 year storage), and a further 26 maize samples from the same farms were collected directly from the field in October 1999. In addition, 72 maize samples were obtained in July 1999 from large markets in Bobo Dioulasso. Fumonisins were extracted from dried maize, derivatized with o-phthaldialdehyde and quantified by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. All 26 samples from the first (mean 1170 microg kg(-1), range 110-3120 microg kg(-1)) and from the second (mean 130 microg kg(-1), range 10-450 microg kg(-1)) village collection were fumonisin positive. All 72 maize samples from the large markets were also positive for fumonisins, and had the highest levels of contamination (mean 2900 microg kg(-1), range 130-16,040 microg kg(-1)). As fumonisins were a ubiquitous contaminant of maize and given that this crop is a dietary staple in this region, chronic exposure is likely. PMID:15666980

  14. Endorsement of universal health coverage financial principles in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Agier, Isabelle; Ly, Antarou; Kadio, Kadidiatou; Kouanda, Seni; Ridde, Valéry

    2016-02-01

    In West Africa, health system funding rarely involves cross-subsidization among population segments. In some countries, a few community-based or professional health insurance programs are present, but coverage is very low. The financial principles underlying universal health coverage (UHC) sustainability and solidarity are threefold: 1) anticipation of potential health risks; 2) risk sharing and; 3) socio-economic status solidarity. In Burkina Faso, where decision-makers are favorable to national health insurance, we measured endorsement of these principles and discerned which management configurations would achieve the greatest adherence. We used a sequential exploratory design. In a qualitative step (9 interviews, 12 focus groups), we adapted an instrument proposed by Goudge et al. (2012) to the local context and addressed desirability bias. Then, in a quantitative step (1255 respondents from the general population), we measured endorsement. Thematic analysis (qualitative) and logistic regressions (quantitative) were used. High levels of endorsement were found for each principle. Actual practices showed that anticipation and risk sharing were not only intentions. Preferences were given to solidarity between socio-economic status (SES) levels and progressivity. Although respondents seemed to prefer the national level for implementation, their current solidarity practices were mainly focused on close family. Thus, contribution levels should be set so that the entire family benefits from healthcare. Some critical conditions must be met to make UHC financial principles a reality through health insurance in Burkina Faso: trust, fair and mandatory contributions, and education. PMID:26803656

  15. Characterization of Shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli strains from Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Martikainen, Outi; Kagambèga, Assèta; Bonkoungou, Isidore Juste; Barro, Nicolas; Siitonen, Anja; Haukka, Kaisa

    2012-11-01

    Shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) cause serious foodborne infections that lead to diarrheal disease and sequelae worldwide. In Burkina Faso, West Africa, STEC strains from environmental and human sources have not been isolated and characterized before. In this study, 21 STEC strains were isolated from food samples of animal origin and human feces using colony hybridization of the Shiga toxin gene stx. The STEC strains belonged to 15 different serotypes, including O43:H2, O8:H(-), and O2:H2. All strains were positive for stx(1) and 10 also for stx(2). The most common stx(1) subtype was stx(1a), and the most common stx(2) subtype was stx(2b). In five strains, stx(2) subtypes stx(2a) and/or stx(2c), which were previously associated with hemolytic uremic syndrome, were present. Some of the strains possessed the gene saa, encoding autoagglutinating adhesin. None of the strains possessed the gene eae, encoding intimin. Two STEC strains carried also an enterotoxigenic E. coli-associated gene estIa, encoding heat-stable enterotoxin. The STEC isolated from food in Burkina Faso are potentially pathogenic for humans based on the virulence gene combinations that they possess and phenotypes that they express. PMID:23134285

  16. Suppressed convective rainfall by agricultural expansion in southeastern Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mande, Theophile; Ceperley, Natalie C.; Katul, Gabriel G.; Tyler, Scott W.; Yacouba, Hamma; Parlange, Marc B.

    2015-07-01

    With the "green economy" being promoted as a path to sustainable development and food security within the African continent, the influx of agricultural land is proliferating at a rapid pace often replacing natural savannah forests. Where agriculture is primarily rainfed, the possible adverse impacts of agricultural land influx on rainfall occurrences in water-limited areas such as West Africa warrant attention. Using field observations complemented by model calculations in southeastern Burkina Faso, the main causes of a 10-30% suppressed daytime rainfall recorded over agricultural fields when referenced to natural savannah forests are examined. Measurements and model runs reveal that the crossing of the mixed layer height and lifting condensation levels, a necessary condition for cloud formation and subsequent rainfall occurrence, was 30% more frequent above the natural savannah forest. This increase in crossing statistics was primarily explained by increases in measured sensible heat flux above the savannah forest rather than differences in lifting condensation heights.

  17. The Markoye Shear Zone in NE Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tshibubudze, Asinne; Hein, Kim A. A.; Marquis, Pascal

    2009-12-01

    Birimian supracrustal sequences in NE Burkina Faso are dominated by meta-volcaniclastic greywacke, intercalated meta-conglomerate, siltstone and shale. The sequences where subjected to two phases of deformation and contact metamorphosed to hornblende-hornfels facies during emplacement of pyroxenite-gabbro-norite (Yacouba Mafic complex), granodiorite-tonalite (Tin Taradat granodiorite-tonalite) and dolerite dykes. Structural studies indicated that the NE-trending, first-order crustal-scale Markoye Shear Zone (MSZ; Markoye Fault of [Jeambrun, M., Delfour, J., Gravost, M., 1970. Carte géologique de L'Oudalan. Bureau De Recherches Geologiques et Miniéres, Burkina Faso.]) has undergone at least two phases of reactivation concomitant to two phases of regional deformation. The first phase of deformation, D1, resulted in the formation of NNW-NW trending folds and thrusts during dextral-reverse displacement on the MSZ. The deformation is termed the Tangaean Event and predates the Eburnean Orogeny. D2 phase involved a period of SE-NW crustal shortening and sinistral-reverse displacement on the MSZ, and is correlated to the Eburnean Orogeny ˜2.1 Ga. Deformation in D2 is characterised by NE-trending regional folds (F2) and a pervasive NE-trending foliation (S2-C to S2). Within the MSZ, deformation is characterised by NNE-trending zones of mylonite that are bordered in the hangingwall and footwall by pseudotachylite veins. Buck quartz-carbonate veins and quartz cataclasite veins crosscut the mylonite zones and are, in turn, crosscut by quartz-chlorite-(muscovite) shears that formed during reactivation of the MSZ late in D2. Several generations of veins are recognised at the Essakane main deposit (EMZ): Arsenopyrite-pyrite-gold mineralization in quartz veins formed in D1 during metasomatic alteration of the host rocks; Vein-stockwork gold mineralization is interpreted to have formed late in D2.

  18. Prediction of performance from motivation and ability information in Burkina Faso adolescent.

    PubMed

    Dahourou, D; Koné, D; Mullet, E

    1995-07-01

    Many studies, using information integration theory, have been devoted to the prediction of performance on the basis of ability and motivation information. However, it appears that only two societies. American and East Indian, have been examined with regard to their prevalent performance prediction model. Participants in this study were school children in Burkina Faso, West Africa. Considerable differences between individuals were expected because, as a consequence of colonization, Burkina Faso has been torn between two different value systems: a collectivistic system, with traditional tribal Burkinabè values, and an individualistic system, with occidental values. The study's most notable finding was the coexistence of these two value systems within the same society. The predominant logic of Western societies, that increased motivation will result in increased rewards when initial ability is high, was utilized by 42% of the children; in contrast, 38% of the children applied the dominant logic expressed by East Indian researchers, who have found that regardless of the level of ability, any amount of motivation will result in an identical improvement in performance. PMID:7650635

  19. Social Determinants and Access to Induced Abortion in Burkina Faso: From Two Case Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ouédraogo, Ramatou

    2014-01-01

    Unsafe abortion constitutes a major public health problem in Burkina Faso and concerns mainly young women. The legal restriction and social stigma make abortions most often clandestine and risky for women who decide to terminate a pregnancy. However, the exposure to the risk of unsafe induced abortion is not the same for all the women who faced unwanted pregnancy and decide to have an abortion. Drawn from a qualitative study on the issue of abortion in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso's capital, the contrasting cases of two young women who had abortion allow us to show how the women's personal resources (such as the school level, financial resources, the compliance to social norms, the social network, etc.) may determine the degree of vulnerability of women, the delay to have an abortion, the type of care they are likely to benefit from, and the cost they have to face. This study concludes that the poorest always pay more (cost and consequences), take longer to have an abortion, and have more exposure to the risk of unsafe abortion. PMID:24790605

  20. Negotiating with Development Partners: Ten-Year Plan for the Development of Basic Education in Burkina Faso

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ki, Bourema Jacques; Ouedraogo, Louis-Honore; Luisoni, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the ten-year plan for the development of basic education in Burkina Faso. Burkina Faso has to meet a major challenge, which consists of reducing poverty among the population, reducing exposure to crises of all kinds, and reducing inequality between regions and between different socio-economic sectors. In order to achieve…

  1. Universal access to electricity in Burkina Faso: scaling-up renewable energy technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moner-Girona, M.; Bódis, K.; Huld, T.; Kougias, I.; Szabó, S.

    2016-08-01

    This paper describes the status quo of the power sector in Burkina Faso, its limitations, and develops a new methodology that through spatial analysis processes with the aim to provide a possible pathway for universal electricity access. Following the SE4All initiative approach, it recommends the more extensive use of distributed renewable energy systems to increase access to electricity on an accelerated timeline. Less than 5% of the rural population in Burkina Faso have currently access to electricity and supply is lacking at many social structures such as schools and hospitals. Energy access achievements in Burkina Faso are still very modest. According to the latest SE4All Global Tracking Framework (2015), the access to electricity annual growth rate in Burkina Faso from 2010 to 2012 is 0%. The rural electrification strategy for Burkina Faso is scattered in several electricity sector development policies: there is a need of defining a concrete action plan. Planning and coordination between grid extension and the off-grid electrification programme is essential to reach a long-term sustainable energy model and prevent high avoidable infrastructure investments. This paper goes into details on the methodology and findings of the developed Geographic Information Systems tool. The aim of the dynamic planning tool is to provide support to the national government and development partners to define an alternative electrification plan. Burkina Faso proves to be paradigm case for the methodology as its national policy for electrification is still dominated by grid extension and the government subsidising fossil fuel electricity production. However, the results of our analysis suggest that the current grid extension is becoming inefficient and unsustainable in order to reach the national energy access targets. The results also suggest that Burkina Faso’s rural electrification strategy should be driven local renewable resources to power distributed mini-grids. We find that

  2. Too poor to live? A case study of vulnerability and maternal mortality in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Storeng, Katerini T; Drabo, Seydou; Filippi, Véronique

    2013-03-01

    This paper examines the concept of vulnerability in the context of maternal morbidity and mortality in Burkina Faso, an impoverished country in West Africa. Drawing on a longitudinal cohort study into the consequences of life-threatening or 'near miss' obstetric complications, we provide an in-depth case study of one woman's experience of such morbidity and its aftermath. We follow Kalizeta's trajectory from her near miss and the stillbirth of her child to her death from pregnancy-related hypertension after a subsequent delivery less than two years later, in order to examine the impact of severe and persistent illness and catastrophic health expenditure on her health and on her family's everyday life. Kalizeta's case illustrates how vulnerability in health emerges and is maintained or exacerbated over time. Even where social arrangements are supportive, structural impediments, including unaffordable and inadequate healthcare, can severely limit individual resilience to mitigate the negative social and economic consequences of ill health. PMID:23549700

  3. Toward a Better Representation of Women in Physics in Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafando, P.; Sido-Pabyam, M. N.; Zerbo, I.

    2009-04-01

    Although 52% of Burkina Faso's population is women, boys receive preference in schooling. In 2006, only about 10% of the secondary school pupils were girls. At the University of Ouagadougou in 2000-2005 one quarter of the students were women, but just 5% of students in the sciences were women. This rate is dramatically lower in physics, both for the students (less than 1%) and for the teachers (only two women). This condition can be explained by religious and cultural considerations, financial and economic reasons, social pressure (mathematics, physics, and technology are dedicated to men), and future prospects for scientists in Burkina Faso. Some strategies to better feminize physics (and the sciences) in Burkina Faso are presented.

  4. Updating the Northern Tsetse Limit in Burkina Faso (1949–2009): Impact of Global Change

    PubMed Central

    Courtin, Fabrice; Rayaissé, Jean-Baptiste; Tamboura, Issa; Serdébéogo, Oumar; Koudougou, Zowindé; Solano, Philippe; Sidibé, Issa

    2010-01-01

    The northern distribution limit of tsetse flies was updated in Burkina Faso and compared to previous limits to revise the existing map of these vectors of African trypanosomiases dating from several decades ago. From 1949 to 2009, a 25- to 150-km shift has appeared toward the south. Tsetse are now discontinuously distributed in Burkina Faso with a western and an eastern tsetse belt. This range shift can be explained by a combination of decreased rainfall and increased human density. Within a context of international control, this study provides a better understanding of the factors influencing the distribution of tsetse flies. PMID:20617055

  5. Post-stroke epilepsy in Burkina Faso (West Africa).

    PubMed

    Napon, Christian; Dabilgou, Anselme; Kyelem, Julie; Kaboré, Jean

    2016-09-15

    Post-stroke epilepsy (PSE) is defined as "recurrent seizures following stroke with confirmed diagnosis of epilepsy". Our objective was to describe the epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic PSE aspects at the Yalgado Ouedraogo Teaching Hospital, the main reference centre for neurological conditions in Burkina Faso. We conducted a retrospective study from January 2006 to December 2014. The data on thirty-two (32) cases of PSE was collected from a total of 1616 patients hospitalized for stroke, representing a rate of 1.98%. The patients' ages ranged from 25 to 77years old with a mean age of 58±10.39. There were 21 men and 11 women, with a gender ratio of 1.9. The time of occurrence of PSE ranged between 10 and 3600days (10years). The brain CT scan helped distinguish the different subtypes of stroke. Sixty-four percent (64%) of the cases experienced ischemic stroke and 36% of the cases cerebral hemorrhage. With regard to medical treatment, 23 patients received monotherapy, and 4 patients dual therapy. Exactly 96.87% of seizures were stabilized during the hospitalization period. PSE is a symptomatic type of epilepsy occurring during stroke sequelae. It is important not to lose sight of this before the occurrence of any focal or generalized seizure after a stroke. PMID:27538600

  6. Mass measles vaccination in urban Burkina Faso, 1998.

    PubMed Central

    Zuber, P. L.; Conombo, K. S.; Traoré, A. D.; Millogo, J. D.; Ouattara, A.; Ouédraogo, I. B.; Valian, A.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of the National Immunization Days (NIDs) on measles vaccine coverage in Burkina Faso in 1998. METHODS: During the week after the campaign, in which measles vaccine was offered to children aged 9-59 months in six cities regardless of vaccination history, a cluster survey was conducted in Ouagadougou and Bobo Dioulasso, the country's two largest cities. Interviewers visited the parents of 1267 children aged up to 59 months and examined vaccination cards. We analysed the data using cluster sample methodology for the 1041 children who were aged 9-59 months. FINDINGS: A total of 604 (57%) children had received routine measles vaccination prior to the campaign, and 823 (79%) were vaccinated during the NIDs. Among those who had previously had a routine vaccination, 484 (81%) were revaccinated during the NIDs. Among those not previously vaccinated, 339 (78%) received one dose during the NIDs. After the campaign, 943 (91%) children had received at least one dose of measles vaccine. Better socioeconomic status was associated with a higher chance of having been vaccinated routinely, but it was not associated with NID coverage. CONCLUSION: The mass campaign enabled a substantial increase in measles vaccine coverage to be made because it reached a high proportion of children who were difficult to reach through routine methods. PMID:11357207

  7. Estimating abortion incidence in Burkina Faso using two methodologies.

    PubMed

    Sedgh, Gilda; Rossier, Clémentine; Kaboré, Idrissa; Bankole, Akinrinola; Mikulich, Meridith

    2011-09-01

    Abortion is illegal in Burkina Faso except in cases of incest, rape, fetal defect, or when the woman's life or physical health is endangered. As a result, abortion procedures are often conducted illegally and unsafely and measuring incidence proves difficult. We estimate incidence of abortion and associated morbidity using two methodologies. The first is the Abortion Incidence Complications Method (AICM), which uses information on women hospitalized for abortion-related complications as well as health professionals' assessments of the proportion of women who seek treatment for complications from unsafe abortions. The second is the Anonymous Third Party Reporting (ATPR) method, which entails surveying women about their confidantes' abortions. We conclude that the AICM yields a more accurate result. We estimate that 87,200 abortion procedures were carried out in 2008, representing 25 for every 1,000 women aged 15-49. More than one in four procedures resulted in complications treated at a health facility. The abortion rate estimated using the ATPR approach was 72 percent of that estimated with the AICM. The ATPR method yields information on the characteristics of the women who have abortions as well as the providers and methods they use. PMID:21972666

  8. Respectful maternity care in three health facilities in Burkina Faso: the experience of the Society of Gynaecologists and Obstetricians of Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Ouédraogo, Ali; Kiemtoré, Sibraogo; Zamané, Hyacinthe; Bonané, Blandine T; Akotionga, Michel; Lankoande, Jean

    2014-10-01

    The Society of Gynaecologists and Obstetricians of Burkina Faso (SOGOB) conducted a project to reinforce skills in respectful maternity care among its members and health workers at three facilities. The participatory process allowed health workers to self-diagnose quality of care, recognize their own responsibility, propose solutions, and pledge respectful care commitments that were specific for each unit. Key commitments included good reception; humanistic clinical examination; attentive listening and responsiveness to patient needs; privacy, discretion, and confidentiality; availability; and comfort. These commitments can potentially be modified after each evaluation by SOGOB. Poor working conditions were found to negatively impact on quality of care. High staff turnover, frequent technical malfunctions, and inadequate infrastructure were identified as issues that require future focus to ensure improvements in quality of care are sustainable. Programs that aim to improve the maternity experience by linking good practice with humanistic care merit rollout to all healthcare facilities in Burkina Faso. PMID:25087176

  9. Efficiency of primary care in rural Burkina Faso. A two-stage DEA analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Providing health care services in Africa is hampered by severe scarcity of personnel, medical supplies and financial funds. Consequently, managers of health care institutions are called to measure and improve the efficiency of their facilities in order to provide the best possible services with their resources. However, very little is known about the efficiency of health care facilities in Africa and instruments of performance measurement are hardly applied in this context. Objective This study determines the relative efficiency of primary care facilities in Nouna, a rural health district in Burkina Faso. Furthermore, it analyses the factors influencing the efficiency of these institutions. Methodology We apply a two-stage Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) based on data from a comprehensive provider and household information system. In the first stage, the relative efficiency of each institution is calculated by a traditional DEA model. In the second stage, we identify the reasons for being inefficient by regression technique. Results The DEA projections suggest that inefficiency is mainly a result of poor utilization of health care facilities as they were either too big or the demand was too low. Regression results showed that distance is an important factor influencing the efficiency of a health care institution Conclusions Compared to the findings of existing one-stage DEA analyses of health facilities in Africa, the share of relatively efficient units is slightly higher. The difference might be explained by a rather homogenous structure of the primary care facilities in the Burkina Faso sample. The study also indicates that improving the accessibility of primary care facilities will have a major impact on the efficiency of these institutions. Thus, health decision-makers are called to overcome the demand-side barriers in accessing health care. PMID:22828358

  10. The Legacy of Christianity in West Africa, with Special Reference to Burkina Faso

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouedraogo, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    In the following paper, I am going to discuss education and religion and consider the legacy of Christianity in education in West Africa with particular reference to the Evangelical churches in Burkina Faso. The paper will start with a general introduction to West Africa and the place of missionaries' activities in the region. I will then attempt…

  11. From Funding Projects to Supporting Sectors? Observation on the Aid Relationship in Burkina Faso

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samoff, Joel

    2004-01-01

    Burkina Faso is among the largest recipients of development aid in West Africa. The new aid terminology emphasizes partnership and a sectoral approach. Yet, recent research suggests more continuity than change in the aid relationship. Projects persist. Funding and technical assistance agencies cooperate more but adhere to their interests,…

  12. Politics of Language: The Struggle for Power in Schools in Mali and Burkina Faso

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kone, A'ame

    2010-01-01

    Power can be equated to the possession of a particular language used to navigate the world. In Mali and Burkina Faso, two former colonies of France, language choice for instruction in mainstream primary schools remains a struggle between the powerful and the powerless. Fifty years after independence from France, both countries continue to…

  13. Towards New Partnerships in Sector-Wide Approaches: Comparative Experiences from Burkina Faso, Ghana and Mozambique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchert, Lene

    2002-01-01

    Partnership and sector-wide approaches have become common denominators for success in educational development. It is, however, far easier to agree on the rhetoric than to implement the underlying principles. The comparative analysis of Burkina Faso, Ghana and Mozambique highlights how far governments and agencies still have to go in order to…

  14. Genetic characterization of HPAI (H5N1) viruses from poultry and wild vultures, Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Ducatez, Mariette F; Tarnagda, Zekiba; Tahita, Marc C; Sow, Adama; de Landtsheer, Sebastien; Londt, Brandon Z; Brown, Ian H; Osterhaus, D M E; Fouchier, Ron A M; Ouedraogo, Jean-Bosco B; Muller, Claude P

    2007-04-01

    Genetic analysis of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) viruses from poultry and hooded vultures in Burkina Faso shows that these viruses belong to 1 of 3 sublineages initially found in Nigeria and later in other African countries. Hooded vultures could potentially be vectors or sentinels of influenza subtype H5N1, as are cats and swans elsewhere. PMID:17553279

  15. [10 years' research in the social sciences on AIDS in Burkina Faso. Elements for prevention].

    PubMed

    Desclaux, A

    1997-01-01

    The first cases of AIDS in Burkina Faso were reported in 1986. During the past ten years, there have been several types of research conducted in Burkina Faso in the field of social sciences, including KABP, focus groups, and ethnographic studies. This article reviews approximately 100 publications and presents the results most relevant to prevention. Although general knowledge of the disease, its transmission and means of protection has improved, part of the population remains poorly informed; erroneous ideas remain prevalent and certain concepts, for example asymptomatic infection, are ignored. Young women in rural areas have the poorest knowledge. Understanding the information is conditioned by underlying perceptions of blood and physiology, the "components of the person", pre-existent and sexually transmitted diseases, and modes of transmission. Research on sexuality has elucidated the age at which individuals become sexually active, and paramatrimonial practices. The prevalence of STD is high. STD are mostly treated by traditional practitioners or by automedication. Family planning is insufficiently developed. AIDS prevention should be integrated into wider considerations of reproductive health. The popular perception that "Others" are responsible for bringing AIDS into the country has often been reinforced by health messages. Consequently, people do not sufficiently consider themselves vulnerable to HIV infection. The populations that are most vulnerable, for various reasons that have been analysed, include young girls and women, married women, prostitutes, truck drivers, and young men from rural areas. The message "Fidelity or condom" has been widely used. However, it has hindered the generalisation of the use of condoms, because asking for a condom consequently implies distrust of the partner. The interpretation of fidelity is diverse, and many people who choose this means of prevention believe erroneously that they are protected. Studies of the social

  16. Religious Differences in Female Genital Cutting: A Case Study from Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Hayford, Sarah R.; Trinitapoli, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between religious obligations and female genital cutting is explored using data from Burkina Faso, a religiously and ethnically diverse country where approximately three-quarters of adult women are circumcised. Data from the 2003 Burkina Faso Demographic and Health Survey are used to estimate multilevel models of religious variation in the intergenerational transmission of female genital cutting. Differences between Christians, Muslims, and adherents of traditional religions are reported along with an assessment of the extent to which individual and community characteristics account for religious differences. Religious variation in the intergenerational transmission of female genital cutting is largely explained by specific religious beliefs and by contextual rather than individual characteristics. Although Muslim women are more likely to have their daughter circumcised, the findings suggest the importance of a collective rather than individual Muslim identity for the continuation of the practice. PMID:21969936

  17. Reference Ranges of Cholesterol Sub-Fractions in Random Healthy Adults in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Koumaré, Alice T. C. R. Kiba; Sakandé, Linda P. L.; Kabré, Elie; Sondé, Issaka; Simporé, Jacques; Sakandé, Jean

    2015-01-01

    In Burkina Faso, the values that serve as clinical chemistry reference ranges are those provided by European manufacturers’ insert sheets based on reference of the Western population. However, studies conducted so far in some African countries reported significant differences in normal laboratory ranges compared with those of the industrialized world. The aim of this study was to determine reference values of cholesterol fractions in apparently normal adults in Burkina Faso that could be used to better assess the risks related to cardiovascular diseases. Study population was 279 healthy subjects aged from 15 to 50 years including 139 men and 140 women recruited at the Regional Center of Blood Transfusion of Ouagadougou, capital city of Burkina Faso (West Africa). Exclusion criteria based on history and clinical examination were used for defining reference individuals. The dual-step precipitation of HDL cholesterol sub-fractions using dextran sulfate was performed according to the procedure described by Hirano. The medians were calculated and reference values were determined at 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles. The median and upper ranges for total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, total HDL cholesterol and HDL2 cholesterol were observed to be higher in women in comparison to men (p <0.05). These reference ranges were similar to those derived from other African countries but lower than those recorded in France and in USA. This underscores the need for such comprehensible establishment of reference values for limited resources countries. Our study provides the first cholesterol sub-fractions (HDL2 and HDL3) reference ranges for interpretation of laboratory results for cardiovascular risk management in Burkina Faso. PMID:25611320

  18. Patients Are Paying Too Much for Tuberculosis: A Direct Cost-Burden Evaluation in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Laokri, Samia; Drabo, Maxime Koiné; Weil, Olivier; Kafando, Benoît; Dembélé, Sary Mathurin; Dujardin, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Background Paying for health care may exclude poor people. Burkina Faso adopted the DOTS strategy implementing “free care” for Tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis and treatment. This should increase universal health coverage and help to overcome social and economic barriers to health access. Methods Straddling 2007 and 2008, in-depth interviews were conducted over a year among smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients in six rural districts of Burkina Faso. Out-of-pocket expenses (direct costs) associated with TB were collected according to the different stages of their healthcare pathway. Results Median direct cost associated with TB was US$101 (n = 229) (i.e. 2.8 months of household income). Respectively 72% of patients incurred direct costs during the pre-diagnosis stage (i.e. self-medication, travel, traditional healers' services), 95% during the diagnosis process (i.e. user fees, travel costs to various providers, extra sputum smears microscopy and chest radiology), 68% during the intensive treatment (i.e. medical and travel costs) and 50% during the continuation treatment (i.e. medical and travel costs). For the diagnosis stage, median direct costs already amounted to 35% of overall direct costs. Conclusions The patient care pathway analysis in rural Burkina Faso showed substantial direct costs and healthcare system delay within a “free care” policy for TB diagnosis and treatment. Whether in terms of redefining the free TB package or rationalizing the care pathway, serious efforts must be undertaken to make “free” health care more affordable for the patients. Locally relevant for TB, this case-study in Burkina Faso has a real potential to document how health programs' weaknesses can be identified and solved. PMID:23451079

  19. Mycobacterium bovis in Burkina Faso: Epidemiologic and Genetic Links between Human and Cattle Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Sanou, Adama; Tarnagda, Zekiba; Kanyala, Estelle; Zingué, Dezemon; Nouctara, Moumini; Ganamé, Zakaria; Combary, Adjima; Hien, Hervé; Dembele, Mathurin; Kabore, Antoinette; Meda, Nicolas; Van de Perre, Philippe; Neveu, Dorine

    2014-01-01

    Background In sub-Saharan Africa, bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a potential hazard for animals and humans health. The goal of this study was to improve our understanding of bTB epidemiology in Burkina Faso and especially Mycobacterium bovis transmission within and between the bovine and human populations. Methodology/principal findings Twenty six M. bovis strains were isolated from 101 cattle carcasses with suspected bTB lesions during routine meat inspections at the Bobo Dioulasso and Ouagadougou slaughterhouses. In addition, 7 M. bovis strains were isolated from 576 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Spoligotyping, RDAf1 deletion and MIRU-VNTR typing were used for strains genotyping. The isolation of M. bovis strains was confirmed by spoligotyping and 12 spoligotype signatures were detected. Together, the spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR data allowed grouping the 33 M. bovis isolates in seven clusters including isolates exclusively from cattle (5) or humans (1) or from both (1). Moreover, these data (genetic analyses and phenetic tree) showed that the M. bovis isolates belonged to the African 1 (Af1) clonal complex (81.8%) and the putative African 5 (Af5) clonal complex (18.2%), in agreement with the results of RDAf1 deletion typing. Conclusions/Significance This is the first detailed molecular characterization of M. bovis strains from humans and cattle in Burkina Faso. The distribution of the two Af1 and putative Af5 clonal complexes is comparable to what has been reported in neighbouring countries. Furthermore, the strain genetic profiles suggest that M. bovis circulates across the borders and that the Burkina Faso strains originate from different countries, but have a country-specific evolution. The genetic characterization suggests that, currently, M. bovis transmission occurs mainly between cattle, occasionally between cattle and humans and potentially between humans. This study emphasizes the bTB risk in cattle but also in humans and the difficulty to set up

  20. [Living conditions, nutritional status and morbidity in children in prisons and detention centers in Burkina Faso].

    PubMed

    Ye, D; Zoma, A; Kabore, A; Yonaba, C; Savadogo, H; Ouedraogo, S A P; Dao, L; Koueta, F

    2015-01-01

    In Burkina Faso, although children are sometimes separated from adults in prisons, they still live in the same conditions of overcrowding, which can reach 180% of the capacity. The aim of our study was to describe living conditions, nutritional status, and morbidity of children in detention centers of Burkina Faso. The objective of this cross-sectional descriptive study is to describe the social and health conditions of children held in 20 detention centers in Burkina Faso. During the study period, 109 children, with a mean age of 16.3 years, were examined in 20 correction centers. The main reason for incarceration was theft (66% cases, n = 72). Detention exceeded more than one month for 76 children (70%), and 59% (N = 46) had had fewer than one visit per month since their incarceration. Of these 20 facilities, 6 had no separate quarters for children. The main symptoms and diseases encountered in these children were fever in 19% of the cases (N = 16), macroscopic hematuria in 13% (N = 11), urinary tract infection in 12% (N = 10) and diarrhea in 12% (N = 10). These results show that there is a need to take preventive measures to protect these children's health, especially by improving the quality of living conditions in detention center. PMID:26038843

  1. Who Is Going for VCT? A Case Study in Urban Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Kirakoya-Samadoulougou, Fati; Yaro, Seydou; Fao, Paulin; Defer, Marie-Christine; Ilboudo, François; Langani, Youssouf; Meda, Nicolas; Robert, Annie; Nagot, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Voluntary HIV counselling and testing (VCT) is a key element of treatment and is essential for prevention of vertical HIV transmission. Little information is available on the uptake of VCT in Burkina Faso. This study aims to assess the prevalence of VCT in urban Burkina Faso, where the epidemic is still highly concentrated. Methods. We conducted a two-stage clustered population-based survey among 1,694 subjects living in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. After informed consent was obtained, a behavioural questionnaire was administered to participants. Results. Overall, 10.2% of individuals had used VCT, while 9% were women. Among women who had a child after the launch of the programme to prevent mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT), only 10.4% have been tested for HIV. Almost all participants (99.3%) were aware of HIV/AIDS, and 65% knew the main methods of prevention. In multivariate analysis, older age and being married and better educated were independent factors associated with VCT. Conclusions. Despite high public knowledge and awareness about HIV, VCT uptake was still very low and PMTCT coverage was poor. New strategies are required to increase VCT uptake in urban areas, in particular among the youngest age. PMID:24052873

  2. [History of an epidemiological route between Ivory Coast and Burkina Faso: the case of the Koudougou sleeping sickness foci].

    PubMed

    Kiendrébéogo, D; Kambiré, R; Jamonneau, V; Lingué, K; Solano, P; Courtin, F

    2012-11-01

    In the first half of the XXth century, while Upper-Volta (now Burkina Faso) was suffering a terrible epidemic of sleeping sickness, the French colonial administration encouraged the movement of people from Upper-Volta to Ivory Coast to meet their demands for labour. This led to the establishment of Mossi villages, such as those of Koudougou, in the Ivorian forest with populations originating from areas of Upper-Volta that were not only densely populated but also severely affected by sleeping sickness. Since 2000, most cases of sleeping sickness in the Koudougou district of Burkina Faso have been in people originally from Ivory Coast. Who are they? Where did they settle in Burkina Faso? Where do they come from in Ivory Coast? After having retraced the epidemiological history of Koudougou villages in Burkina Faso and Ivory Coast, the history of ten cases of sleeping sickness detected passively at Koudougou hospital since 2000 were analysed. All cases originated from the forest area of Ivory Coast. Understanding the spread of sleeping sickness between Burkina Faso and Ivory Coast will assist in the identification of areas of disease risk. PMID:23193525

  3. Effectively introducing a new meningococcal A conjugate vaccine in Africa: the Burkina Faso experience.

    PubMed

    Djingarey, Mamoudou H; Barry, Rodrigue; Bonkoungou, Mete; Tiendrebeogo, Sylvestre; Sebgo, Rene; Kandolo, Denis; Lingani, Clement; Preziosi, Marie-Pierre; Zuber, Patrick L F; Perea, William; Hugonnet, Stéphane; Dellepiane de Rey Tolve, Nora; Tevi-Benissan, Carole; Clark, Thomas A; Mayer, Leonard W; Novak, Ryan; Messonier, Nancy E; Berlier, Monique; Toboe, Desire; Nshimirimana, Deo; Mihigo, Richard; Aguado, Teresa; Diomandé, Fabien; Kristiansen, Paul A; Caugant, Dominique A; Laforce, F Marc

    2012-05-30

    A new Group A meningococcal (Men A) conjugate vaccine, MenAfriVac™, was prequalified by the World Health Organization (WHO) in June 2010. Because Burkina Faso has repeatedly suffered meningitis epidemics due to Group A Neisseria meningitidis special efforts were made to conduct a country-wide campaign with the new vaccine in late 2010 and before the onset of the next epidemic meningococcal disease season beginning in January 2011. In the ensuing five months (July-November 2010) the following challenges were successfully managed: (1) doing a large safety study and registering the new vaccine in Burkina Faso; (2) developing a comprehensive communication plan; (3) strengthening the surveillance system with particular attention to improving the capacity for real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing of spinal fluid specimens; (4) improving cold chain capacity and waste disposal; (5) developing and funding a sound campaign strategy; and (6) ensuring effective collaboration across all partners. Each of these issues required specific strategies that were managed through a WHO-led consortium that included all major partners (Ministry of Health/Burkina Faso, Serum Institute of India Ltd., UNICEF, Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization, Meningitis Vaccine Project, CDC/Atlanta, and the Norwegian Institute of Public Health/Oslo). Biweekly teleconferences that were led by WHO ensured that problems were identified in a timely fashion. The new meningococcal A conjugate vaccine was introduced on December 6, 2010, in a national ceremony led by His Excellency Blaise Compaore, the President of Burkina Faso. The ensuing 10-day national campaign was hugely successful, and over 11.4 million Burkinabes between the ages of 1 and 29 years (100% of target population) were vaccinated. African national immunization programs are capable of achieving very high coverage for a vaccine desired by the public, introduced in a well-organized campaign, and supported at the highest

  4. Schistosomiasis in school-age children in Burkina Faso after a decade of preventive chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Ouedraogo, Hamado; Drabo, François; Zongo, Dramane; Bagayan, Mohamed; Bamba, Issouf; Pima, Tiba; Yago-Wienne, Fanny; Toubali, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the impact of a decade of biennial mass administration of praziquantel on schistosomiasis in school-age children in Burkina Faso. Methods In 2013, in a national assessment based on 22 sentinel sites, 3514 school children aged 7–11 years were checked for Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni infection by the examination of urine and stool samples, respectively. We analysed the observed prevalence and intensity of infections and compared these with the relevant results of earlier surveys in Burkina Faso. Findings S. haematobium was detected in 287/3514 school children (adjusted prevalence: 8.76%, range across sentinel sites: 0.0–56.3%; median: 2.5%). The prevalence of S. haematobium infection was higher in the children from the Centre-Est, Est and Sahel regions than in those from Burkina Faso’s other eight regions with sentinel sites (P < 0.001). The adjusted arithmetic mean intensity of S. haematobium infection, among all children, was 6.0 eggs per 10 ml urine. Less than 1% of the children in six regions had heavy S. haematobium infections – i.e. at least 50 eggs per 10 ml urine – but such infections were detected in 8.75% (28/320) and 11.56% (37/320) of the children from the Centre-Est and Sahel regions, respectively. Schistosoma mansoni was only detected in two regions and 43 children – i.e. 1 (0.31%) of the 320 from Centre-Sud and 42 (8.75%) of the 480 from Hauts Bassins. Conclusion By mass use of preventive chemotherapy, Burkina Faso may have eliminated schistosomiasis as a public health problem in eight regions and controlled schistosome-related morbidity in another three regions. PMID:26769995

  5. Deforestation and the limited contribution of forests to rural livelihoods in West Africa: evidence from Burkina Faso and Ghana.

    PubMed

    Pouliot, Mariève; Treue, Thorsten; Obiri, Beatrice Darko; Ouedraogo, Boureima

    2012-11-01

    Forest degradation in West Africa is generally thought to have negative consequences on rural livelihoods but there is little overview of its effects in the region because the importance of forests to rural livelihoods has never been adequately quantified. Based on data from 1014 rural households across Burkina Faso and Ghana this paper attempts to fill this knowledge gap. We demonstrate that agricultural lands and the non-forest environment including parklands are considerably more valuable to poor as well as more well-off rural households than forests. Furthermore, product types supplied by the non-forest environment are almost identical with those from forests. Accordingly, forest clearance/degradation is profitable for and, hence, probably performed by rural people at large. We attribute rural people's high reliance on non-forest versus forest resources to the two countries' restrictive and inequitable forest policies which must be reformed to promote effective forest conservation, e.g., to mitigate climate change. PMID:22669685

  6. Climate change, renewable energy and population impact on future energy demand for Burkina Faso build environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouedraogo, B. I.

    This research addresses the dual challenge faced by Burkina Faso engineers to design sustainable low-energy cost public buildings and domestic dwellings while still providing the required thermal comfort under warmer temperature conditions caused by climate change. It was found base don climate change SRES scenario A2 that predicted mean temperature in Burkina Faso will increase by 2oC between 2010 and 2050. Therefore, in order to maintain a thermally comfortable 25oC inside public buildings, the projected annual energy consumption for cooling load will increase by 15%, 36% and 100% respectively for the period between 2020 to 2039, 2040 to 2059 and 2070 to 2089 when compared to the control case. It has also been found that a 1% increase in population growth will result in a 1.38% and 2.03% increase in carbon emission from primary energy consumption and future electricity consumption respectively. Furthermore, this research has investigated possible solutions for adaptation to the severe climate change and population growth impact on energy demand in Burkina Faso. Shading devices could potentially reduce the cooling load by up to 40%. Computer simulation programming of building energy consumption and a field study has shown that adobe houses have the potential of significantly reducing energy demand for cooling and offer a formidable method for climate change adaptation. Based on the Net Present Cost, hybrid photovoltaic (PV) and Diesel generator energy production configuration is the most cost effective local electricity supply system, for areas without electricity at present, with a payback time of 8 years when compared to diesel generator stand-alone configuration. It is therefore a viable solution to increase electricity access to the majority of the population.

  7. APOBEC3G Variants and Protection against HIV-1 Infection in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Compaore, Tegwinde Rebeca; Soubeiga, Serge Theophile; Ouattara, Abdoul Karim; Obiri-Yeboah, Dorcas; Tchelougou, Damehan; Maiga, Mamoudou; Assih, Maleki; Bisseye, Cyrille; Bakouan, Didier; Compaore, Issaka Pierre; Dembele, Augustine; Martinson, Jeremy; Simpore, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Studies on host factors, particularly the APOBEC3G gene, have previously found an association with AIDS progression in some populations and against some HIV-1 strains but not others. Our study had two main objectives: firstly, to screen a population from Burkina Faso for three variants of APOBEC3G previously described, and secondly to analyze the effect of these three variants and their haplotypes on HIV-1 infection with Circulating Recombinant Forms (CRFs) present in Burkina Faso. This case control study involved 708 seropositive and seronegative individuals. Genotyping was done by the TaqMan allelic discrimination method. Minor allele frequencies of rs6001417 (p<0.05), rs8177832 (P<0.05), and rs35228531 (P<0.001) were higher in seronegative subjects. The rs6001417 and rs8177832 SNPs were associated with HIV-1 infection in an additive model (P<0.01). Furthermore the SNP rs35228531 was also associated with HIV-1 infection in a dominant model (P<0.001). Odds ratio analysis of genotypes and alleles of the different APOBEC3G variants showed that there is a strong association between the minor genetic variants, genotype of the three SNPs, and HIV-1 status. Haplotype analysis demonstrated that rs6001417, rs8177832, and rs35228531 are in linkage disequilibrium. The haplotype GGT from the rs6001417, rs8177832 and rs35228531 respectively has a protective effect OR = 0.54 [0.43-0.68] with P<0.001. There was also associations between the haplotypes GGC OR = 1.6 [1.1;-2.3] P<0.05, and CGC OR = 5.21 [2.4-11.3] P<0.001, which increase the risk of infection by HIV-1 from almost two (2) to five (5) fold. This study demonstrates an association of rs6001417, rs8177832, and rs35228531 of APOBEC3G with HIV-1 infection in a population from Burkina Faso. PMID:26741797

  8. [A comparative presentation of the population policies of Burkina Faso, Mali and Senegal].

    PubMed

    Dabo, K

    1992-07-01

    Population policies are currently at the center of debates about demography and development, and are a preoccupation of most governments, international organizations, and research institutions working in the areas of population, development, and human resources. Between 1988-93, 4 Sahel countries adopted populations policies. this article compares the policies of Senegal, Mali, and Burkina Faso. The 3 policy documents have similar structures, with preambles recalling the international agreements concerning population and development entered into by their governments. A chapter on population and development describes the demo-economic problem in each country at regional, sectorial, and global levels. After the analysis of demo-economic problems, each of the 3 has a chapter presenting the population policy. Each presentation covers the foundations and basic principles of the policy, its objectives, the strategies to be pursued, and the organizational structure. Development of each policy was technically supervised by the Planning Ministry in collaboration with the national population councils. In general terms, the 3 countries recognize in their basic principles that the population is the primary source of wealth of a nation. Each country states its desire to translate the recommendations of different African and world population conferences into concrete acts. The principles avow respect for fundamental human rights including the right to informed decision making by couples on number and spacing of children. The principles also recognize the need for an integrated approach to population and development. The ultimate objective of the population policies is improvement in the standard and quality of life. The number of general objectives outlined in the policies varied from 7 in Senegal to 13 in Burkina Faso. Senegal was the only country of the 3 to specify reduction of the fertility rate and the growth rate as an objective. Senegal and Burkina Faso included

  9. Three years of insecticide resistance monitoring in Anopheles gambiae in Burkina Faso: resistance on the rise?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and methods A longitudinal Anopheles gambiae s.l. insecticide-resistance monitoring programme was established in four sentinel sites in Burkina Faso. For three years, between 2008 and 2010, WHO diagnostic dose assays were used to measure the prevalence of resistance to all the major classes of insecticides at the beginning and end of the malaria transmission season. Species identification and genotyping for target site mutations was also performed and the sporozoite rate in adults determined. Results At the onset of the study, resistance to DDT and pyrethroids was already prevalent in An. gambiae s.l. from the south-west of the country but mosquitoes from the two sites in central Burkina Faso were largely susceptible. Within three years, DDT and permethrin resistance was established in all four sites. Carbamate and organophosphate resistance remains relatively rare and largely confined to the south-western areas although a small number of bendiocarb survivors were found in all sites by the final round of monitoring. The ace-1R target site resistance allele was present in all localities and its frequency exceeded 20% in 2010 in two of the sites. The frequency of the 1014F kdr mutation increased throughout the three years and by 2010, the frequency of 1014F in all sites combined was 0.02 in Anopheles arabiensis, 0.56 in An. gambiae M form and 0.96 in An. gambiae S form. This frequency did not differ significantly between the sites. The 1014S kdr allele was only found in An. arabiensis but its frequency increased significantly throughout the study (P = 0.0003) and in 2010 the 1014S allele frequency was 0.08 in An. arabiensis. Maximum sporozoite rates (12%) were observed in Soumousso in 2009 and the difference between sites is significant for each year. Conclusion Pyrethroid and DDT resistance is now established in An. gambiae s.l. throughout Burkina Faso. Results from diagnostic dose assays are highly variable within and between rounds of testing, and

  10. First report of the kdr mutation in Anopheles gambiae M form from Burkina Faso, west Africa.

    PubMed

    Diabaté, A; Baldet, T; Chandre, F; Guiguemdé, R T; Brengues, C; Guillet, P; Hemingway, J; Hougard, J M

    2002-12-01

    The kdr mutation, conferring resistance to pyrethroid insecticides, has been reported in several West-African populations of Anopheles gambiae S form and in the M form populations from tropical forest of Benin. We report the finding of a single M specimen collected in the rice-field area of Vallée du Kou (Burkina Faso) showing the mutation at the heterozygous state. The monitoring of kdr mutation in An. gambiae forms/species is of paramount importance to implement effective malaria control tools and may greatly improve the knowledge of the relationship between and within An. gambiae populations. PMID:12701378

  11. Health Providers’ Perceptions of Clinical Trials: Lessons from Ghana, Kenya and Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Angwenyi, Vibian; Asante, Kwaku-Poku; Traoré, Abdoulaye; Febir, Lawrence Gyabaa; Tawiah, Charlotte; Kwarteng, Anthony; Ouédraogo, Alphonse; Sirima, Sodiomon Bienvenue; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Imoukhuede, Egeruan Babatunde; Webster, Jayne; Chandramohan, Daniel; Molyneux, Sassy; Jones, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Background Clinical trials conducted in Africa often require substantial investments to support trial centres and public health facilities. Trial resources could potentially generate benefits for routine health service delivery but may have unintended consequences. Strengthening ethical practice requires understanding the potential effects of trial inputs on the perceptions and practices of routine health care providers. This study explores the influence of malaria vaccine trials on health service delivery in Ghana, Kenya and Burkina Faso. Methods We conducted: audits of trial inputs in 10 trial facilities and among 144 health workers; individual interviews with frontline providers (n=99) and health managers (n=14); and group discussions with fieldworkers (n=9 discussions). Descriptive summaries were generated from audit data. Qualitative data were analysed using a framework approach. Results Facilities involved in trials benefited from infrastructure and equipment upgrades, support with essential drugs, access to trial vehicles, and placement of additional qualified trial staff. Qualified trial staff in facilities were often seen as role models by their colleagues; assisting with supportive supervision and reducing facility workload. Some facility staff in place before the trial also received formal training and salary top-ups from the trials. However, differential access to support caused dissatisfaction, and some interviewees expressed concerns about what would happen at the end of the trial once financial and supervisory support was removed. Conclusion Clinical trials function as short-term complex health service delivery interventions in the facilities in which they are based. They have the potential to both benefit facilities, staff and communities through providing the supportive environment required for improvements in routine care, but they can also generate dissatisfaction, relationship challenges and demoralisation among staff. Minimising trial related

  12. [Influence of anthropisation on local vegetation and tsetse abundance in southern Burkina Faso].

    PubMed

    Rayaissé, J B; Courtin, F; Akoundjin, M; César, J; Solano, P

    2009-03-01

    Entomological and phyto-sociological surveys were undertaken in Folonzo, southern Burkina Faso, along the Comoé river. The purpose of this survey was to compare densities and diversity of tsetse species in a protected versus a non protected area, by the mean of transects going from the river bank to the savannah. A detailed phytological description was made in all the trapping sites. The entomological data were also compared to what was obtained in 1980 in the same trapping sites. The phytogeographical study showed great vegetation homogeneity between transects, particularly in the forest gallery, while savannah showed more heterogeneity. Four tsetse species were caught in the area, with 74% G. tachinoides, 20% G. m. submorsitans, 4% G. p. gambiensis and 2% G. medicorum. There was a significant difference in tsetse densities between the protected and the non-protected area, with in average, four times more tsetse in the protected one. This difference was particularly high for G. m. submorsitans with a ratio of 1/9. This decrease was attributed to the reduction in wildlife density in the non protected area, and can be applied to the situation of the whole country where this tsetse species is of decreasing importance. It is one of the consequences of the increase in human densities, this latter causing much less visible changes in phytological species composition. From the comparison between old (1980) and new data collected on the river bank, we see a general trend of decrease in density, which affects less G. palpalis gambiensis. PMID:19353948

  13. Rewards and challenges of providing HIV testing and counselling services: health worker perspectives from Burkina Faso, Kenya and Uganda.

    PubMed

    Bott, Sarah; Neuman, Melissa; Helleringer, Stephane; Desclaux, Alice; Asmar, Khalil El; Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf

    2015-10-01

    The rapid scale-up of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing, counselling and treatment throughout sub-Saharan Africa has raised questions about how to protect patients' rights to consent, confidentiality, counselling and care in resource-constrained settings. The Multi-country African Testing and Counselling for HIV (MATCH) study investigated client and provider experiences with different modes of testing in sub-Saharan Africa. One component of that study was a survey of 275 HIV service providers in Burkina Faso, Kenya and Uganda that gathered quantifiable indicators and qualitative descriptions using a standardized instrument. This article presents provider perspectives on the challenges of obtaining consent, protecting confidentiality, providing counselling and helping clients manage disclosure. It also explores health workers' fear of infection within the workplace and their reports on discrimination against HIV clients within health facilities. HIV care providers in Burkina Faso, Kenya and Uganda experienced substantial rewards from their work, including satisfaction from saving lives and gaining professional skills. They also faced serious resource constraints, including staff shortages, high workloads, lack of supplies and inadequate infrastructure, and they expressed concerns about accidental exposure. Health workers described heavy emotional demands from observing clients suffer emotional, social and health consequences of being diagnosed with HIV, and also from difficult ethical dilemmas related to clients who do not disclose their HIV status to those around them, including partners. These findings suggest that providers of HIV testing and counselling need more resources and support, including better protections against HIV exposure in the workplace. The findings also suggest that health facilities could improve care by increasing attention to consent, privacy and confidentiality and that health policy makers and ethicists need to address some

  14. NGO-provided free HIV treatment and services in Burkina Faso: scarcity, therapeutic rationality and unfair process

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Until 2010, Burkina Faso was an exception to the international trend of abolishing user fees for antiretroviral treatment (ART). Patients were still expected to pay 1,500F CFA (2 Euros) per month for ART. Nevertheless, many non-governmental organizations (NGOs) exempted patients from payment. The objective of this study was to investigate how NGOs selected the beneficiaries of payment exemptions for government-provided ART and rationed out complementary medical and psychosocial services. For this qualitative study, we conducted 13 individual interviews and three focus group discussions (n = 13 persons) with program staff in nine NGOs (4,000 patients), two NGO coordinating structures and one national program. These encounters were recorded and transcribed, and their content was thematically analyzed. The results were presented to the NGOs for feedback. Results indicate that there are no concrete guidelines for identifying patients warranting payment exemptions. Formerly, ART was scarce in Burkina Faso and the primary criterion for treatment selection was clinical. Our results suggest that this scarcity, mediated by an approach we call sociotherapeutic rationality (i.e. maximization of clinical success), may have led to inequities in the provision of free ART. This approach may be detrimental to assuring equity since the most impoverished lack resources to pay for services that maximize clinical success (e.g. viral load) that would increase their chances of being selected for treatment. However, once selected into treatment, attempts were made to ration-out complementary services more equitably. This study demonstrates the risks entailed by medication scarcity, which presents NGOs and health professionals with impossible choices that run counter to the philosophy of equity in access to treatment. Amid growing concerns of an international funding retreat for ART, it is important to learn from the past in order to better manage the potentially inequitable consequences

  15. Global and local alignments in HIV/AIDS prevention trainings: a case study from Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Drescher, Martina

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a linguistic analysis of data from an ongoing research project exploring HIV/AIDS education in West African Burkina Faso. I argue that we can identify different, sometimes even competing, discourses about the disease in prevention interactions. Thus, communication about HIV/AIDS in Burkina Faso--and probably in most of the Sub-Saharan countries--might be characterized by what I will call, with reference to Bakhtin, discursive heteroglossia. There is clear evidence of such discursive heteroglossia, that is, the participants' alignment to local and global HIV discourses, deployed in the communication of health workers. In my analysis of peer educators training sessions, I draw on theoretical and methodological principles from discourse analysis and interactional linguistics. I focus on the linguistic devices and conversational strategies the participants use to indicate the relevance of the local or the global discourses. Three particular devices--namely, metaphors, epistemic and evidential markers, and word explanations--will be examined in a more detailed way. I will also show how the local and the global interweave at different levels of prevention discourse. PMID:17714039

  16. Species abundance and insecticide resistance of Anopheles gambiae in selected areas of Ghana and Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Yawson, A E; McCall, P J; Wilson, M D; Donnelly, M J

    2004-12-01

    The Ghanaian National Malaria Control Programme has prioritized insecticide-treated materials as a key strategy for malaria control. We report on a survey of the distribution of the molecular forms of Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) and insecticide resistance (the kdr mutation), carried out by sampling mosquitoes from 11 locations in Ghana and one additional site in Burkina Faso. The molecular M and S forms of An. gambiae were found to occur in sympatry in southern Ghana. The S form predominated throughout its distribution in the coastal savannah, except at one location in the strand and mangrove zone where rice was cultivated. The M form was the only form collected in northern Ghana and was the predominant form (97.5%) in Burkina Faso. No M/S hybrids were detected. The kdr mutation was observed at very high frequencies (98-100%) within the S form but reached a maximum of only 3.38% in the M form in one population at an irrigation scheme in the Ghanaian coastal savannah zone. PMID:15642004

  17. The influence of health sector reform and external assistance in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Bodart, C; Servais, G; Mohamed, Y L; Schmidt-Ehry, B

    2001-03-01

    Despite health reform and increasing public investment in the health sector, utilization of curative health services, immunization coverage and patient satisfaction with the public health care system are steadily decreasing in Burkina Faso. It seems that the health care system itself is "ill". This paper examines the major symptoms associated with this illness. The central thesis suggests that any further improvement of health care performance in Burkina Faso will be subject to profound central reform in the area of human resources and financial management of the sector. Such a broad reform package cannot be achieved through the current project approach, but a sector-wide approach (SWAp) does not seem to be realistic at the present time. Policy discussions at a level higher than the Ministry of Health could be beneficial for achieving better donor coordination and increasing the commitment of the Ministry of Health to a sector-wide approach. Health sector reform issues and priorities and the role of international cooperation are reviewed and discussed. PMID:11238434

  18. Transplacental Transmission of Plasmodium falciparum in a Highly Malaria Endemic Area of Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Ouédraogo, Alphonse; Tiono, Alfred B.; Diarra, Amidou; Bougouma, Edith C. Christiane; Nébié, Issa; Konaté, Amadou T.; Sirima, Sodiomon B.

    2012-01-01

    Malaria congenital infection constitutes a major risk in malaria endemic areas. In this study, we report the prevalence of transplacental malaria in Burkina Faso. In labour and delivery units, thick and thin blood films were made from maternal, placental, and umbilical cord blood to determine malaria infection. A total of 1,309 mother/baby pairs were recruited. Eighteen cord blood samples (1.4%) contained malaria parasites (Plasmodium falciparum). Out of the 369 (28.2%) women with peripheral positive parasitemia, 211 (57.2%) had placental malaria and 14 (3.8%) had malaria parasites in their umbilical cord blood. The umbilical cord parasitemia levels were statistically associated with the presence of maternal peripheral parasitemia (OR = 9.24, P ≪ 0.001), placental parasitemia (OR = 10.74, P ≪ 0.001), high-density peripheral parasitemia (OR = 9.62, P ≪ 0.001), and high-density placental parasitemia (OR = 4.91, P = 0.03). In Burkina Faso, the mother-to-child transmission rate of malaria appears to be low. PMID:22174725

  19. The effects of zooprophylaxis and other mosquito control measures against malaria in Nouna, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background In the absence of large scale, organized vector control programmes, individual protective measures against mosquitoes are essential for reducing the transmission of diseases like malaria. Knowledge of the types and effectiveness of mosquito control methods used by households can aid in the development and promotion of preventive measures. Methods A matched, population-based case control study was carried out in the semi-urban region of Nouna, Burkina Faso. Surveys and mosquito captures were conducted for each participating household. Data were analysed using conditional logistic regression and Pearson's product-moment correlations. Results In Nouna, Burkina Faso, the main types of reported mosquito control measures used included sleeping under bed nets (insecticide-treated and untreated) and burning mosquito coils. Most of the study households kept animals within the compound or house at night. Insecticide house sprays, donkeys, rabbits and pigs were significantly associated with a reduced risk of malaria only in univariate analyses. Conclusion Given the conflicting results of the effects of zooprophylaxis from previous studies, other community-based preventive measures, such as bed nets, coils and insecticide house-spraying, may be of more benefit. PMID:20003189

  20. Sorghum malt and traditional beer (dolo) quality assessment in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Pale, Siébou; Taonda, Sibiri Jean-Baptiste; Bougouma, Boniface; Mason, Stephen C

    2010-01-01

    Sorghum malt and dolo quality evaluation criteria and parameters affecting quality were surveyed in six cities in Burkina Faso through questionnaires addressed to malt processors, dolo processors, retailers, and consumers. The major quality criteria for malt quality assessment were perceived to be taste and presence/absence of roots in the malt. Taste, alcohol content, and wort sufficiently cooked were perceived as major criteria for the dolo quality assessment. The major parameters affecting malt quality were perceived to be malt production period, proportions of grain and the amount of water entering malting, presence of pesticide residues in the malting grains, and age of grain. Processing method, yeast source, proportions of the components (crushed grain, water, mucilage, yeast) entering dolo production, malt quality, wort temperature at time of inoculation, amount of energy available for cooking, wort and sediment boiling time, quality of mucilage, malt with non-sweet taste, presence/absence of roots in the malt, and ease of filtering crushed malt were perceived as major parameters affecting the dolo quality. These results will be used in the improvement of the dolo supply chain in Burkina Faso by providing more reliable information for training programs for efficient dolo brewing processes, development of best cropping practices to improve grain quality, and providing better selection criteria for sorghum breeding programs. PMID:21883085

  1. [Health system revenue collection in Burkina Faso from 1980 to 2012].

    PubMed

    Ridde, Valéry; Belaid, Loubna; Samb, Oumar Mallé; Faye, Adama

    2014-01-01

    As a step towards universal health coverage, African countries need to develop funding systems that are effective, equitable, and tailored to national circumstances. To support policy makers in Burkina Faso, we present a review of research on interventions related to user fees, prepayment plans, and user fee subsidies. We compiled a narrative summary of articles published in scientific journals between 1980 and 2012. In all, 64 articles were selected. A thematic analysis was performed. User fees are a barrier to access to care; they curtail the use of health services and exclude the worst-off. People prefer prepayment plans in which each household pays an annual premium. However, the insurance premium remains a barrier to membership. Insurance does not benefit the poor but increases the use of health services by the insured. The subsidy for facility-based deliveries was not sufficiently well planned and difficulties have been observed in its implementation. While it helps reduce costs and improves access to care, it has not reduced inequalities. Community-based and participatory interventions have been useful for identifying the worst-off in order to exempt them from user fees. While prepayment is being promoted internationally as a financing model for universal health coverage, the evidence in favour of this system in Burkina Faso is still very limited. Further studies, more representative of the national context, must be conducted on this option, while at the same time, continuing efforts must be made to identify solutions for the poor who are unable to pay. PMID:25490231

  2. Opportunities and Challenges in Using Hydrologic Information and Decision Support Tools to Improve Livelihoods in Burkina Faso, West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirshen, P.; Jost, C.; Roncoli, M. C.; Hoogenboom, G.

    2006-12-01

    Burkina Faso is part of the Sahel-Sudan climatic zone south of the Sahara Desert. The rainfall of the region is characterized by extreme seasonal and annual temporal and spatial variability. Soils are generally of low fertility. The major livelihood activity in Burkina Faso, one of the lowest ranked countries in the world in the Human Development Index where 80 percent of the population rely on subsistence farming, is rainfed cultivation of cereal crops. Cotton is the dominant export crop and is mostly grown in the southwest. Livestock management is an important complement to farm activities, especially in the Sahelian zone. There are several major rivers flowing through the region and many ephemeral streams. Surface water resources are becoming more important to Burkina Faso as it tries to improve food security and water supplies, and increase energy production. One of the major opportunities to improve livelihoods in the region has been improvements in seasonal rainfall forecasting based upon global sea surface temperatures. In the past decade, the generation and use of forecasts in Burkina Faso has evolved from the nation just receiving forecasts almost as an after thought from USA and European meteorological services to the Burkina Faso Meteorological Services generating their own forecasts with support from these services. There is now also more focused international research on improving the forecasts for this region. The use of stochastic decision support tools (DST) that combine the seasonal forecasts with hydrologic and crop models, land conditions, and information on farmer and policy maker goals could improve both rainfed and irrigated agricultural systems. Their implementation requires overcoming many technical and socio-economic challenges. Examples include forecasting the start and end of rains, dissemination and explanation of forecasts, streamflow forecasting in data scarce regions, possible different incentives for subsistence and cash crop farmers

  3. A comparative analysis of nebkhas in central Tunisia and northern Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tengberg, Anna; Chen, Deliang

    1998-03-01

    This paper reports a comparative analysis of nebkha morphology in central Tunisia and northern Burkina Faso based on a total of 473 measured nebkhas. Nebkhas are mounds composed of wind-borne sediment that accumulated around shrubs. The size of the mounds was measured by height ( H) and a horizontal component ( L), the latter being the mean of the length and width of the mound. In the Tunisian data set, three trends of development of the mounds were distinguished for Ziziphus lotus nebkhas. Initially, the height increases linearly with the increase in the horizontal component until it reaches about 17 m. When the horizontal component exceeds 17 m, the height stabilizes before a decreasing trend of the height occurs. These results provided the basis for mathematical modelling of nebkha development. A non-linear and a linear fit were compared and a second-order polynomial function was found to best fit the data on nebkha size from Tunisia. The results indicate that nebkhas have three stages of development: a growing, a stabilizing, and a degrading stage. The model was applied to data on Acacia sp. nebkhas and Balanites aegyptiaca nebkhas from Burkina Faso with good results. The non-linear fit was slightly better than the linear fit. Nebkhas exist at all three stages of development in Tunisia, whereas Burkina Faso has nebkhas that are mainly at the growing stage. These differences are a function of time lag in land degradation between the two study areas, because the wind transport of sediment and the sediment supply are highly related to the density of the vegetation cover in semiarid areas. This conclusion in further supported by dating of nebkhas and of historical and recent vegetation changes in the study areas reported in the literature. The results show that differences in plant ecologies, however, are also very important for the rate of development of nebkhas, which is demonstrated by the much faster growth of Balanites nebkhas as compared to Acacia nebkhas

  4. APOBEC3G Variants and Protection against HIV-1 Infection in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Compaore, Tegwinde Rebeca; Soubeiga, Serge Theophile; Ouattara, Abdoul Karim; Obiri-Yeboah, Dorcas; Tchelougou, Damehan; Maiga, Mamoudou; Assih, Maleki; Bisseye, Cyrille; Bakouan, Didier; Compaore, Issaka Pierre; Dembele, Augustine; Martinson, Jeremy; Simpore, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Studies on host factors, particularly the APOBEC3G gene, have previously found an association with AIDS progression in some populations and against some HIV-1 strains but not others. Our study had two main objectives: firstly, to screen a population from Burkina Faso for three variants of APOBEC3G previously described, and secondly to analyze the effect of these three variants and their haplotypes on HIV-1 infection with Circulating Recombinant Forms (CRFs) present in Burkina Faso. This case control study involved 708 seropositive and seronegative individuals. Genotyping was done by the TaqMan allelic discrimination method. Minor allele frequencies of rs6001417 (p<0.05), rs8177832 (P<0.05), and rs35228531 (P<0.001) were higher in seronegative subjects. The rs6001417 and rs8177832 SNPs were associated with HIV-1 infection in an additive model (P<0.01). Furthermore the SNP rs35228531 was also associated with HIV-1 infection in a dominant model (P<0.001). Odds ratio analysis of genotypes and alleles of the different APOBEC3G variants showed that there is a strong association between the minor genetic variants, genotype of the three SNPs, and HIV-1 status. Haplotype analysis demonstrated that rs6001417, rs8177832, and rs35228531 are in linkage disequilibrium. The haplotype GGT from the rs6001417, rs8177832 and rs35228531 respectively has a protective effect OR = 0.54 [0.43–0.68] with P<0.001. There was also associations between the haplotypes GGC OR = 1.6 [1.1;-2.3] P<0.05, and CGC OR = 5.21 [2.4–11.3] P<0.001, which increase the risk of infection by HIV-1 from almost two (2) to five (5) fold. This study demonstrates an association of rs6001417, rs8177832, and rs35228531 of APOBEC3G with HIV-1 infection in a population from Burkina Faso. PMID:26741797

  5. An exploratory analysis of the regionalization policy for the recruitment of health workers in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Health personnel retention in remote areas is a key health systems issue wordwide. To deal with this issue, since 2002 the government of Burkina Faso has implemented a staff retention policy, the regionalized health personnel recruitment policy, aimed at front-line workers such as nurses, midwives, and birth attendants. This study aimed to describe the policy’s development, formulation, and implementation process for the regionalization of health worker recruitment in Burkina Faso. Methods We conducted a qualitative study. The unit of analysis is a single case study with several levels of analysis. This study was conducted in three remote areas in Burkina Faso for the implementation portion, and at the central level for the development portion. Indepth interviews were conducted with Ministry of Health officials in charge of human resources, regional directors, regional human resource managers, district chief medical officers, and health workers at primary health centres. In total, 46 indepth interviews were conducted (February 3 - March 16, 2011). Results Development The idea for this policy emerged after finding a highly uneven distribution of health personnel across urban and rural areas, the availability of a large number of health officers in the labour market, and the opportunity given to the Ministry of Health by the government to recruit personnel through a specific budget allocation. Formulation The formulation consisted of a call for job applications from the Ministry of Health, which indicates the number of available posts by region. The respondents interviewed unanimously acknowledged the lack of documents governing the status of this new personnel category. Implementation During the initial years of implementation (2002-2003), this policy was limited to recruiting health workers for the regions with no possibility of transfer. The possibility of job-for-job exchange was then approved for a certain time, then cancelled. Starting in 2005, a

  6. Costs of Neisseria meningitidis Group A Disease and Economic Impact of Vaccination in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Colombini, Anaïs; Trotter, Caroline; Madrid, Yvette; Karachaliou, Andromachi; Preziosi, Marie-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Background. Five years since the successful introduction of MenAfriVac in a mass vaccination campaign targeting 1- to 29-year-olds in Burkina Faso, consideration must be given to the optimal strategies for sustaining population protection. This study aims to estimate the economic impact of a range of vaccination strategies in Burkina Faso. Methods. We performed a cost-of-illness study, comparing different vaccination scenarios in terms of costs to both households and health systems over a 26-year time horizon. These scenarios are (1) reactive vaccination campaign (baseline comparator); (2) preventive vaccination campaign; (3) routine immunization at 9 months; and (4) a combination of routine and an initial catchup campaign of children under 5. Costs were estimated from a literature review, which included unpublished programmatic documents and peer-reviewed publications. The future disease burden for each vaccination strategy was predicted using a dynamic transmission model of group A Neisseria meningitidis. Results. From 2010 to 2014, the total costs associated with the preventive campaign targeting 1- to 29-year-olds with MenAfriVac were similar to the estimated costs of the reactive vaccination strategy (approximately 10 million US dollars [USD]). Between 2015 and 2035, routine immunization with or without a catch-up campaign of 1- to 4-year-olds is cost saving compared with the reactive strategy, both with and without discounting costs and cases. Most of the savings are accrued from lower costs of case management and household costs resulting from a lower burden of disease. After the initial investment in the preventive strategy, 1 USD invested in the routine strategy saves an additional 1.3 USD compared to the reactive strategy. Conclusions. Prevention strategies using MenAfriVac will be significantly cost saving in Burkina Faso, both for the health system and for households, compared with the reactive strategy. This will protect households from

  7. The lateritic profile of Balkouin, Burkina Faso: Geochemistry, mineralogy and genesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorgis, Ilaria; Bonetto, Sabrina; Giustetto, Roberto; Lawane, Abdou; Pantet, Anne; Rossetti, Piergiorgio; Thomassin, Jean-Hugues; Vinai, Raffaele

    2014-02-01

    This study reports on the geochemical and mineralogical characterization of a lateritic profile cropping out in the Balkouin area, Central Burkina Faso, aimed at obtaining a better understanding of the processes responsible for the formation of the laterite itself and the constraints to its development. The lateritic profile rests on a Paleoproterozoic basement mostly composed of granodioritic rocks related to the Eburnean magmatic cycle passing upwards to saprolite and consists of four main composite horizons (bottom to top): kaolinite and clay-rich horizons, mottled laterite and iron-rich duricrust. In order to achieve such a goal, a multi-disciplinary analytical approach was adopted, which includes inductively coupled plasma (ICP) atomic emission and mass spectrometries (ICP-AES and ICP-MS respectively), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS) and micro-Raman spectroscopy.

  8. Amniotic band syndrom at Bobo Dioulasso university teaching hospital (Burkina-Faso): about two cases

    PubMed Central

    Zaré, Cyprien; Traoré, Ibrahim Alain; Dakouré, Patrick Wendpuoiré Hamed; Gandéma, Salif; Sano, Bakary Gustave; Bénao, Lazard Bouma; Belemlilga, Hermann; Yabré, Nassirou

    2015-01-01

    Amniotic band syndrome is a rare congenital disorder. The authors report the first cases documented at Souro Sanou University Hospital in Bobo-Dioulasso (CHUSS) in 2 male new borns. The malformations found at birth, were worn only on limbs and were in the form of skin furrow necking with a major lymphedema downstream. In both cases, the constriction furrow at member pelvic was associated with a club foot and a pseudosyndactyly in one case. Surgical treatment consisted of a section of the constrictor ring and a Z-plasty. The functional outcome was satisfactory with the acquisition of a plantar support for both children. Through these two observations, epidemiological, diagnostic, and particularities of the management of this condition are discussed in the Burkina-Faso. PMID:26918082

  9. Large-scale mapping of hard-rock aquifer properties applied to Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Courtois, Nathalie; Lachassagne, Patrick; Wyns, Robert; Blanchin, Raymonde; Bougaïré, Francis D; Somé, Sylvain; Tapsoba, Aïssata

    2010-01-01

    A country-scale (1:1,000,000) methodology has been developed for hydrogeologic mapping of hard-rock aquifers (granitic and metamorphic rocks) of the type that underlie a large part of the African continent. The method is based on quantifying the "useful thickness" and hydrodynamic properties of such aquifers and uses a recent conceptual model developed for this hydrogeologic context. This model links hydrodynamic parameters (transmissivity, storativity) to lithology and the geometry of the various layers constituting a weathering profile. The country-scale hydrogeological mapping was implemented in Burkina Faso, where a recent 1:1,000,000-scale digital geological map and a database of some 16,000 water wells were used to evaluate the methodology. PMID:19754849

  10. A delicate web: household changes in health behaviour enabled by microcredit in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Hennink, Monique; McFarland, Deborah A

    2013-01-01

    Providing microcredit to women in developing countries has long been highlighted as a simple and effective strategy for poverty reduction and health improvement. However, little is known about how microcredit enables changes in health behaviour. This knowledge is critical to further strengthen microcredit initiatives. This qualitative study, conducted in Burkina Faso, shows how microcredit can not only facilitate savings and investment strategies, but also lead to changes in household decision-making, enabling women to initiate health prevention, seek health treatment and manage health emergencies. Some changes led to increased household burdens for women that impeded health gains, such as administrative loan delays by the microcredit institution and reduced household contributions by the husband. Furthermore, the study highlighted the fragile nature of health gains, which may be eroded due to economic shocks on a household, such as crop failure, drought or illness. PMID:23327537

  11. Polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of fourteen wild edible fruits from Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Lamien-Meda, Aline; Lamien, Charles Euloge; Compaoré, Moussa M Y; Meda, Roland N T; Kiendrebeogo, Martin; Zeba, Boukare; Millogo, Jeanne F; Nacoulma, Odile G

    2008-01-01

    A total of fourteen (14) species of wild edible fruits from Burkina Faso were analyzed for their phenolic and flavonoid contents, and their antioxidant activities using the DPPH, FRAP and ABTS methods. The data obtained show that the total phenolic and total flavonoid levels were significantly higher in the acetone than in the methanol extracts.Detarium microcarpum fruit had the highest phenolic and the highest flavonoid content,followed by that of Adansonia digitata, Ziziphus mauritiana, Ximenia americana and Lannea microcarpa. Significant amounts of total phenolics were also detected in the other fruit species in the following order of decreasing levels: Tamarindus indica > Sclerocaryabirrea > Dialium guineense > Gardenia erubescens > Diospyros mespiliformis > Parkiabiglobosa > Ficus sycomorus > Vitellaria paradoxa. Detarium microcarpum fruit also showed the highest antioxidant activity using the three antioxidant assays. Fruits with high antioxidant activities were also found to possess high phenolic and flavonoid contents. There was a strong correlation between total phenolic and flavonoid levels and antioxidant activities. PMID:18463567

  12. Siting guidelines for concentrating solar power plants in the Sahel: Case study of Burkina Faso

    SciTech Connect

    Azoumah, Y.; Tapsoba, G.; Thiam, S.; Ramde, E.W.

    2010-08-15

    Selecting a site that meets the technical requirements for a concentrating solar power plant (CSP) is a very critical exercise. This paper points out crucial factors and provides guidelines regarding the selection of suitable sites. It especially focuses on Sahelian countries which have their own climatic peculiarities. These countries, characterized by low access to electricity, are well endowed in solar resources. They are potentially good locations for concentrating solar power plants since their mean daily solar radiation exceeds 5.5 kWh/m{sup 2}. CSP presents therefore, a good opportunity for them to increase in a sustainable manner, their energy supply. The guidelines developed in this paper are applied to Burkina Faso as a case study. (author)

  13. The elasticity of demand for health care in Burkina Faso: differences across age and income groups.

    PubMed

    Sauerborn, R; Nougtara, A; Latimer, E

    1994-06-01

    Like many other developing countries, Burkina Faso has been exploring how community resources can be tapped to co-finance health services. Although revenue generation is important for the viability of health services, effects on utilization and on equity of access to health care must also be considered. The authors present a logistic regression model to derive price elasticities of demand for health care based on cross-sectional survey data. While demand for health care appears inelastic overall (-0.79), subgroup analysis reveals differences in elasticity across age and income groups. Elasticities of demand for infants and children (-3.6 and -1.7) and for the lowest income quartile (-1.4) are substantially greater than overall elasticity. The method used is unusual in that it allows estimation of elasticities before the introduction of user fees. This increases the value of the information to policy makers. PMID:15726780

  14. Hepatitis E Virus Exposure is Increased in Pork Butchers from Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Traoré, Kuan Abdoulaye; Ouoba, Jean Bienvenue; Huot, Nicolas; Rogée, Sophie; Dumarest, Marine; Traoré, Alfred S; Pavio, Nicole; Barro, Nicolas; Roques, Pierre

    2015-12-01

    We conducted the first survey of zoonotic risk of Hepatitis E virus (HEV) transmissions in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, through the direct contact with pork meat during professional activity. Anti-HEV antibodies were more prevalent in pork butchers, 76% than in the general population, which was 47.8% in 2013 (odds ratio = 3.46, 95% CI = 2.85-4.21, P < 0.001). Among slaughter-aged swine, HEV seroprevalence was of 80%, and HEV RNA was detected in 1% of pork livers. Phylogenetic analysis pointed out HEV genotype 3. Thus, in addition to possible HEV contamination through the water source, as in endemic region, zoonotic transmissions of HEV probably occur in west Africa. PMID:26438027

  15. Trypanosomosis: a priority disease in tsetse-challenged areas of Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Soudré, Albert; Ouédraogo-Koné, Salifou; Wurzinger, Maria; Müller, Simone; Hanotte, Olivier; Ouédraogo, Anicet Georges; Sölkner, Johann

    2013-02-01

    Trypanosomosis is an important disease affecting humans as well as animals. It remains a big constraint to livestock productions in tropical areas. The objective of this study was to assess the importance of trypanosomosis among cattle diseases in Burkina Faso, mainly in tsetse-challenged areas, and to capture information on how farmers apply available methods for controlling the disease. A survey has been carried out in 29 villages of Burkina Faso in three regions (north, southwest, and west regions). One hundred and thirty-four cattle breeders were interviewed individually with a questionnaire. The results indicate that among the 16 diseases mentioned by cattle breeders, trypanosomosis is the most important one in tsetse-challenged areas. Overall, 76.12 % of the breeders mentioned it as the most important disease, while 54.55 % of the farmers in the southwest region and 70.91 % of the farmers in the west region ranked it as a priority disease. Chemoprophylaxis/chemotherapy is widely used as a control method. Isometamidium chloride and diminazene aceturate were used by 53.49 and 46.52 % of the responders, respectively. Among farmers, 85.55 % ranked diminazene aceturate as the less efficient while 14.45 % ranked isometamidium chloride as the most efficient trypanocid. Trypanocidal drug quality and drug resistance were raised as a major concern by 30.77 and 50 % of the respondents, respectively. According to them, zebu cattle are more susceptible to trypanosomosis than taurine Baoule cattle and their crosses with zebu, emphasizing that crossing susceptible breeds with trypanotolerant ones, could be used as part of an integrated control strategy. PMID:23108586

  16. [Female genital mutilation and complications in childbirth in the province of Gourma (Burkina Faso)].

    PubMed

    Ndiaye, Papa; Diongue, Mayassine; Faye, Adama; Ouedraogo, Drissa; Tal Dia, Anta

    2010-01-01

    In order strengthen activities against female genital mutilation (FGM), this study aimed to assess the prevalence of childbirth complications due to FGM in the province of Gourma, Burkina Faso. The cross-sectional study was both descriptive and analytical; it was conducted between June 15 and August 15, 2007. The sampling was comprehensive, incorporating all of the women who gave birth in the four maternity wards in Fada Ngourma, the provincial capital. The survey included an interview, clinical examination and document analysis of archives and records. The 354 respondents were younger than 25 years-old in 58% of the cases, and 78% of all women participating were illiterate. FGM was Type I, II or III for 28%, 28% and 3% for them respectively. Obstructed labor occurred in 29% of the cases, and a caesarean section was preformed in 7% of the cases. Of all the normal vaginal deliveries, 24% required episiotomies, 18% experienced obstetric Hemorrhaging, 20% had uterine retroversion and 3% needed blood transfusions. Among the newborns, 5% were resuscitated and 4% were stillbirths. The existence of FGM has statistically increased the proportion of dystocia (OR = 11.5), cesarean section (OR = 17.6), episiotomy (OR = 64), perineal tears (OR = 10, 2), postpartum hemorrhage (OR = 13.0), retroverted uterus (OR = 14.7), blood transfusions (OR = 8.0) and stillbirths (OR = 10.2). Women with FGM Type 2 and 3 were more prone to dystocia and obstructed labor (OR = 5.7) and cesarean delivery (OR = 5.2) than those with FGM Type 1. FGM constitutes an important risk factor for complications during childbirth. It should be eradicated for good health of the mother, newborn and child in Burkina Faso. PMID:21360865

  17. An insecticide-treated bed-net campaign and childhood malaria in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Valérie R; Schoeps, Anja; Tiendrebéogo, Justin; Beiersmann, Claudia; Yé, Maurice; Damiba, Marie R; Lu, Guang Y; Mbayiha, André H; De Allegri, Manuela; Jahn, Albrecht; Sié, Ali; Becher, Heiko

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate if the first national insecticide-treated bed-net campaign in Burkina Faso, done in 2010, was followed by a decrease in childhood malaria in a district with high baseline transmission of the disease. Methods We obtained data on the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia in children aged 2 weeks to 36 months from malaria surveys in 2009 and 2011. We assessed morbidity in children younger than 5 years by comparing data from the Nouna health district’s health management information system before and after the campaign in 2010. We analysed mortality data from 2008 to 2012 from Nouna’s health and demographic surveillance system. Findings The bed-net campaign was associated with an increase in the reported use of insecticide-treated nets. In 2009, 73% (630/869) of children reportedly slept under nets. In 2011, 92% (449/487) did. The campaign had no effect on the proportion of young children with P. falciparum parasitaemia after the rainy season; 52% (442/858) in 2009 and 53% (263/499) in 2011. Cases of malaria increased markedly after the campaign, as did the number of children presenting with other diseases. The campaign was not associated with any changes in child mortality. Conclusion The 2010 insecticide-treated net campaign in Burkina Faso was not associated with a decrease in care-seeking for malaria or all-cause mortality in children younger than 5 years. The most likely explanation is the high coverage of nets in the study area before the campaign which could have had an effect on mosquito vectors, limiting the campaign’s impact. PMID:26549902

  18. Viral Etiology of Respiratory Tract Infections in Children at the Pediatric Hospital in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)

    PubMed Central

    Ouédraogo, Solange; Traoré, Blaise; Nene Bi, Zah Ange Brice; Yonli, Firmin Tiandama; Kima, Donatien; Bonané, Pierre; Congo, Lassané; Traoré, Rasmata Ouédraogo; Yé, Diarra; Marguet, Christophe; Plantier, Jean-Christophe; Vabret, Astrid; Gueudin, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children in Africa. The circulation of viruses classically implicated in ARIs is poorly known in Burkina Faso. The aim of this study was to identify the respiratory viruses present in children admitted to or consulting at the pediatric hospital in Ouagadougou. Methods From July 2010 to July 2011, we tested nasal aspirates of 209 children with upper or lower respiratory infection for main respiratory viruses (respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), metapneumovirus, adenovirus, parainfluenza viruses 1, 2 and 3, influenza A, B and C, rhinovirus/enterovirus), by immunofluorescence locally in Ouagadougou, and by PCR in France. Bacteria have also been investigated in 97 samples. Results 153 children (73.2%) carried at least one virus and 175 viruses were detected. Rhinoviruses/enteroviruses were most frequently detected (rhinovirus n = 88; enterovirus n = 38) and were found to circulate throughout the year. An epidemic of RSV infections (n = 25) was identified in September/October, followed by an epidemic of influenza virus (n = 13), mostly H1N1pdm09. This epidemic occurred during the period of the year in which nighttime temperatures and humidity were at their lowest. Other viruses tested were detected only sporadically. Twenty-two viral co-infections were observed. Bacteria were detected in 29/97 samples with 22 viral/bacterial co-infections. Conclusions This study, the first of its type in Burkina Faso, warrants further investigation to confirm the seasonality of RSV infection and to improve local diagnosis of influenza. The long-term objective is to optimize therapeutic management of infected children. PMID:25360527

  19. Evaluation of meningitis surveillance before introduction of serogroup a meningococcal conjugate vaccine - Burkina Faso and Mali.

    PubMed

    2012-12-21

    Each year, 450 million persons in a region of sub-Saharan Africa known as the "meningitis belt" are at risk for death and disability from epidemic meningitis caused by serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis. In 2009, the first serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT) developed solely for Africa (MenAfriVac, Serum Institute of India, Ltd.), was licensed for persons aged 1-29 years. During 2010-2011, the vaccine was introduced in the hyperendemic countries of Burkina Faso, Mali, and Niger through mass campaigns. Strong meningitis surveillance is critical for evaluating the impact of PsA-TT because it was licensed based on safety and immunogenicity data without field effectiveness trials. Case-based surveillance, which includes the collection of epidemiologic and laboratory data on individual cases year-round, is recommended for countries that aim to evaluate the vaccine's impact. A key component of case-based surveillance is expansion of laboratory confirmation to include every case of bacterial meningitis because multiple meningococcal serogroups and different pathogens such as Haemophilus influenzae type b and Streptococcus pneumoniae cause meningitis that is clinically indistinguishable from that caused by serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis. Before the introduction of PsA-TT, evaluations of the existing meningitis surveillance in Burkina Faso and Mali were conducted to assess the capacity for case-based surveillance. This report describes the results of those evaluations, which found that surveillance infrastructures were strong but opportunities existed for improving data management, handling of specimens shipped to reference laboratories, and laboratory capacity for confirming cases. These findings underscore the need to evaluate surveillance before vaccine introduction so that activities to strengthen surveillance are tailored to a country's needs and capacities. PMID:23254257

  20. Prevalence and Genetic Diversity of Enteric Viruses in Children with Diarrhea in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Ouédraogo, Nafissatou; Kaplon, Jérôme; Bonkoungou, Isidore Juste O.; Traoré, Alfred Sababénédjo; Pothier, Pierre; Barro, Nicolas; Ambert- Balay, Katia

    2016-01-01

    Enteric viruses are a major cause of diarrhea in children, especially those under five years old. Identifying the viral agents is critical to the development of effective preventive measures. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and genetic diversity of common enteric viruses in children under five years old in Burkina Faso. Stool samples from children with (n = 263) and without (n = 50) diarrhea disorders were collected in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso from November 2011 to September 2012. Rotavirus, norovirus, sapovirus, astrovirus, adenovirus and Aichivirus A were detected using real-time or end-point (RT-)PCR. Rotavirus strains were G and P genotyped by multiplex RT-PCR and other viral strains were characterized by sequencing of viral subgenomic segements. At least one viral agent was detected in 85.6% and 72% of the symptomatic and asymptomatic patients, respectively. Rotavirus (63.5%), adenovirus (31.2%) and genogroup II norovirus (18.2%) were the most prevalent viruses in symptomatic patients, but only rotavirus and genogroup II norovirus were significantly associated with diarrhea (OR: 7.9, 95%CI: 3.7–17; OR: 3.5, 95%CI: 1–11.7, respectively). Sapovirus (10.3%), astrovirus (4.9%), genogroup I norovirus (2.7%) and Aichivirus A (0.8%) were less prevalent. The predominant genotype of rotavirus was G9P[8] (36.5%), and the predominant norovirus strain was GII.4 variant 2012 (71.4%). Among sapovirus, the genogroup II (87.5%) predominated. Astrovirus type 1 (41.7%) was the most frequent astrovirus identified. Aichivirus A belonged to the three genotypes (A, B and C). Enteric adenoviruses type 40 and 41 were identified in 10.2% and 5.1% respectively. Several cases of co-infections were detected. The results highlight the high prevalence and the high diversity of enteric viruses in Burkinabe children. PMID:27092779

  1. Prevalence and Genetic Diversity of Enteric Viruses in Children with Diarrhea in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Ouédraogo, Nafissatou; Kaplon, Jérôme; Bonkoungou, Isidore Juste O; Traoré, Alfred Sababénédjo; Pothier, Pierre; Barro, Nicolas; Ambert-Balay, Katia

    2016-01-01

    Enteric viruses are a major cause of diarrhea in children, especially those under five years old. Identifying the viral agents is critical to the development of effective preventive measures. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and genetic diversity of common enteric viruses in children under five years old in Burkina Faso. Stool samples from children with (n = 263) and without (n = 50) diarrhea disorders were collected in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso from November 2011 to September 2012. Rotavirus, norovirus, sapovirus, astrovirus, adenovirus and Aichivirus A were detected using real-time or end-point (RT-)PCR. Rotavirus strains were G and P genotyped by multiplex RT-PCR and other viral strains were characterized by sequencing of viral subgenomic segements. At least one viral agent was detected in 85.6% and 72% of the symptomatic and asymptomatic patients, respectively. Rotavirus (63.5%), adenovirus (31.2%) and genogroup II norovirus (18.2%) were the most prevalent viruses in symptomatic patients, but only rotavirus and genogroup II norovirus were significantly associated with diarrhea (OR: 7.9, 95%CI: 3.7-17; OR: 3.5, 95%CI: 1-11.7, respectively). Sapovirus (10.3%), astrovirus (4.9%), genogroup I norovirus (2.7%) and Aichivirus A (0.8%) were less prevalent. The predominant genotype of rotavirus was G9P[8] (36.5%), and the predominant norovirus strain was GII.4 variant 2012 (71.4%). Among sapovirus, the genogroup II (87.5%) predominated. Astrovirus type 1 (41.7%) was the most frequent astrovirus identified. Aichivirus A belonged to the three genotypes (A, B and C). Enteric adenoviruses type 40 and 41 were identified in 10.2% and 5.1% respectively. Several cases of co-infections were detected. The results highlight the high prevalence and the high diversity of enteric viruses in Burkinabe children. PMID:27092779

  2. Climate, Cattle Rearing Systems and African Animal Trypanosomosis Risk in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Pagabeleguem, Soumaïla; Sangaré, Mamadou; Bengaly, Zakaria; Akoudjin, Massouroudin; Belem, Adrien M. G.; Bouyer, Jérémy

    2012-01-01

    Background In sub-Saharan countries infested by tsetse flies, African Animal Trypanosomosis (AAT) is considered as the main pathological constraint to cattle breeding. Africa has known a strong climatic change and its population was multiplied by four during the last half-century. The aim of this study was to characterize the impact of production practices and climate on tsetse occurrence and abundance, and the associated prevalence of AAT in Burkina Faso. Methodology/Principal Findings Four sites were selected along a South-north transect of increasing aridity. The study combines parasitological and entomological surveys. For the parasitological aspect, blood samples were collected from 1,041 cattle selected through a stratified sampling procedure including location and livestock management system (long transhumance, short transhumance, sedentary). Parasitological and serological prevalence specific to livestock management systems show a gradual increase from the Sahelian to the Sudano-Guinean area (P<0.05). Livestock management system had also a significant impact on parasitological prevalence (P<0.05). Tsetse diversity, apparent densities and their infection rates overall decreased with aridity, from four species, an apparent density of 53.1 flies/trap/day and an infection rate of 13.7% to an absence at the northern edge of the transect, where the density and diversity of other biting flies were on the contrary highest (p<0.001). Conclusions/Significance The climatic pressure clearly had a negative impact on tsetse abundance and AAT risk. However, the persistency of tsetse habitats along the Mouhoun river loop maintains a high risk of cyclical transmission of T. vivax. Moreover, an “epidemic mechanical livestock trypanosomosis” cycle is likely to occur in the northern site, where trypanosomes are brought in by cattle transhuming from the tsetse infested area and are locally transmitted by mechanical vectors. In Burkina Faso, the impact of tsetse thus extends

  3. The components of self-rated health among adults in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although the relationship between self-rated health (SRH) and physical and mental health is well documented in developed countries, very few studies have analyzed this association in the developing world, particularly in Africa. In this study, we examine the associations of SRH with measures of physical and mental health (chronic diseases, functional limitations, and depression) among adults in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, and how these associations vary by sex, age, and education level. Methods This study was based on 2195 individuals aged 15 years or older who participated in a cross-sectional interviewer-administered health survey conducted in 2010 in areas of the Ouagadougou Health and Demographic Surveillance System. Logistic regression models were used to analyze the associations of poor SRH with chronic diseases, functional limitations, and depression, first in the whole sample and then stratified by sex, age, and education level. Results Poor SRH was strongly correlated with chronic diseases and functional limitations, but not with depression, suggesting that in this context, physical health probably makes up most of people’s perceptions of their health status. The effect of functional limitations on poor SRH increased with age, probably because the ability to circumvent or compensate for a disability diminishes with age. The effect of functional limitations was also stronger among the least educated, probably because physical integrity is more important for people who depend on it for their livelihood. In contrast, the effect of chronic diseases appeared to decrease with age. No variation by sex was observed in the associations of SRH with chronic diseases, functional limitations, or depression. Conclusions Our findings suggest that different subpopulations delineated by age and education level weight the components of health differently in their self-rated health in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. In-depth studies are needed to understand why and

  4. Structure and emplacement of granite plutons in the Paleoproterozoic crust of Eastern Burkina Faso: rheological implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vegas, Nestor; Naba, Seta; Bouchez, Jean Luc; Jessell, Mark

    2008-11-01

    The Fada N'Gourma area in Burkina Faso is underlain by Paleoproterozoic rocks that make the northeastern West-African Craton. This region is composed of NE-trending volcano-sedimentary belts and foliated tonalites, affected by several shear zones. A generation of younger, ˜2100 Ma-old, non-foliated biotite-bearing granites intrudes the former rock units. We have investigated the younger granite pluton of Kouare that was previously considered as forming a single body with the pluton of Satenga to the west, a pluton which likely belongs to the ˜20 Ma more recent Tenkodogo-Yamba batholith. Magnetic fabric measurements have been combined with microstructural observations and the analysis of field and aeromagnetic data. The granite encloses angular enclaves of the host tonalites. Magmatic microstructures are preserved inside the pluton and solid-state, high-temperature deformation features are ubiquitous at its periphery. The presence of steeply plunging lineations in the pluton of Kouare and its adjacent host-rocks suggests that large volumes of granitic magmas became crystallized while they were ascending through the crust that was softened and steepened close to the contact. Around Kouare, the foliation in the host tonalites conforms with a map-scale, Z-shaped fold in between NNE-trending shear zones, implying a bulk clockwise rotation of the material contained in-between the shear zones, including the emplacing pluton. Regionally, the Fada N'Gourma area is concluded to result from NW-shortening associated with transcurrent shearing and vertical transfer of granitic magmas. This study concludes that the ˜2200 Myears old juvenile crust of Burkina Faso was brittle before the intrusion of the biotite-granites, became softened close to them and that gravity-driven and regional scale wrench tectonics were active together.

  5. In vitro and in vivo antiplasmodial activity of 'saye', an herbal remedy used in Burkina Faso traditional medicine.

    PubMed

    Traoré, M; Diallo, A; Nikièma, J B; Tinto, H; Dakuyo, Z P; Ouédraogo, J B; Guissou, I P; Guiguemdé, T R

    2008-04-01

    'Saye', a traditional medicine used in Burkina Faso, which consists of extracts of Cochlospermum planchonii (rhizome), Cassia alata (leaf) and Phyllanthus amarus (whole plant), showed a significant effect against Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium berghei parasites grown in vivo (IC(50) = 80.11 +/- 3.40 microg/mL; ED(50) = 112.78 +/- 32.32 mg/kg). In vitro the activity was lower. PMID:17926335

  6. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Cochlospermum planchoni Hook.f. ex Planch essential oil from Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Ouattara, Lassina; Koudou, Jean; Obame, Louis C E; Karou, Damintoti S; Traore, Alfred; Bessière, Jean Marie

    2007-11-15

    The water distilled oil obtained from rhizomes of Cochlospermum planchonii Hook.f.ex Planch (Apocynaceae) from Burkina Faso was examined by GC and GC/MS. Cochlospermum planchonii oil presents a particular chemical composition with a high rate of oxygenated components with predominance of ketones and esters (86.4%). The essential oil was tested against twelve strains of bacteria using a broth microdilution method. The results suggest that Cochlospermum planchonii essential oil has significant bactericidal activity. PMID:19090305

  7. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene polymorphisms in Burkina Faso: impact on plasma fasting homocysteine and after methionine loading test.

    PubMed

    Angius, Andrea; Simpore, Jacques; Persico, Ivana; Sassu, Alessandro; Prodi, Dionigio Antonio; Musumeci, Salvatore

    2007-01-01

    In Burkina Faso the levels of plasma homocysteine (Hcy) are lower and the methionine loading tests suggest a more effective Hcy metabolism. The polymorphisms of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) showed a relevant difference in the allele frequencies of T MTHFR-677 in young and in old subjects, while the allele frequency of C MTHFR-1298 was comparable in young and old subjects. The aim of this paper was to study the impact of the MTHFR polymorphisms on plasma fasting Hcy and after methionine loading in Burkina Faso. The young subjects with CC MTHFR-677 genotype had levels of Hcy significantly lower than CT and TT subjects. The level of Hcy in subjects who had AA, AC and CC MTHFR-1298 genotypes were comparable. The levels of Hcy after the methionine loading test were significantly higher in CT and TT MTHFR-677 genotype. These results suggest that the genetic situation in Burkina Faso is different from that of other Western countries and this guarantees the maintenance of lower plasma levels of Hcy in young and old Africans. The elevated levels of plasma Hcy in old subjects compared to young subjects, against the low prevalence of the T allele in elderly subjects, is discussed. PMID:17323822

  8. [Impact of the dynamics of human settlement on tsetse and trypanosomosis distribution in the Mouhoun river basin (Burkina Faso)].

    PubMed

    Rouamba, J; Jamonneau, V; Sidibé, I; Solano, P; Courtin, F

    2009-03-01

    In Burkina Faso, the Mouhoun river basin (formerly "Black Volta") constitutes a historical focus of Human (HAT) and Animal (AAT) African Trypanosomoses, both transmitted by tsetse flies. Nowadays, HAT seems to have disappeared from this area, while AAT still causes severe economic losses. In order to explain these different epidemiological situations, we undertook a geographical study based on the analysis of aerial pictures between 1952 and 2007, and field surveys to collect medical, entomological, and veterinary data on trypanosomoses. Our results suggest that in this area, landscapes have been dramatically modified as a consequence of population growth, and in turn have had an impact on the number and distribution of tsetse flies. Combined with the historical medical action on HAT which probably led to the disappearance of T. b. gambiense, this environmental degradation and the development of hydrological structures provide explanations for the local disappearance of HAT, and for the maintenance of AAT. It appears necessary to extrapolate these studies to other areas in order to identify the factors explaining the presence/absence of trypanosomoses in the context of human population growth and climatic changes, in order to help to target priority areas for the control of these diseases. PMID:19353947

  9. 'This year I will not put her to work': the production/reproduction nexus in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Storeng, Katerini Tagmatarchi; Akoum, Mélanie Stephanie; Murray, Susan F

    2013-04-01

    Global advocacy campaigns increasingly highlight the negative impact of reproductive morbidity on economic productivity and development in order to justify donor investment in maternal health. Anthropological approaches nuance such narrow economic estimations of reproductive health. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork from Burkina Faso in West Africa, this paper analyses the dynamic, and sometimes contradictory, relationship between women's work and reproductive health in impoverished communities. Specifically, it examines the consequences of life-threatening 'near-miss' obstetric complications for women's work across domestic, agricultural and economic spheres over a four-year period. Such events provide a window onto the diverse ways in which production and reproduction are intimately linked within women's everyday lives. Reproduction and production entail sources of potential empowerment and enhancement, as well as potential threats, to health and well-being. In the aftermath of 'near-miss' events, the realms of reproduction and production sometimes jeopardise each other and at other times reinforce each other, while strength in one domain can compensate for weakness in the other. Women's experiences thus reveal how 'production' and 'reproduction' are mutually constituted, challenging the purely instrumental accounts of pregnancy-related 'productivity loss' that dominate current global health discourse. PMID:22897630

  10. Contrasting maternal and paternal histories in the linguistic context of Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Chiara; Whitten, Mark; Beyer, Klaus; Schreiber, Henning; Li, Mingkun; Pakendorf, Brigitte

    2012-04-01

    Burkina Faso is located in the heart of West Africa and is a representative of the local structured patterns of human variability. Here, different cultures and languages are found in a geographic contiguity, as a result of several waves of migration and the succession of long- and short-term empires. However, historical documentation for this area is only partial, focusing predominantly on the recent empires, and linguistic surveys lack the power to fully elucidate the social context of the contact-induced changes. In this paper, we report Y-chromosomal data and complete mtDNA genome sequences for ten populations from Burkina Faso whose languages belong to two very distantly related branches of the Niger-Congo phylum, the Gur and Mande language families. In addition, two further populations, the Mande-speaking Mandenka from Senegal and the Yoruba from Nigeria, were included for regional comparison. We focus on the different historical trajectories undergone by the maternal and paternal lineages. Our results reveal a striking structure in the paternal line, which matches the linguistic affiliation of the ethnolinguistic groups, in contrast to the near-complete homogeneity of the populations in the maternal line. However, while the ancient structure along the linguistic lines is apparent in the Y-chromosomal haplogroup affiliation, this has clearly been overlain by more recent migrations, as shown by significant correlations between the genetic distances based on Y chromosome short tandem repeats and geographic distances between the populations, as well as by the patterns of shared haplotypes. Using the complete mtDNA sequences, we are able to reconstruct population size variation in the past, showing a strong sign of expansion in the concomitance with the Holocene Climate Optimum approximately 12,000-10,000 years ago, which has been suggested as the cause of the spread of the Niger-Congo phylum in the area. However, subsequent climatic fluctuations do not appear to

  11. Perinatal mortality in rural Burkina Faso: a prospective community-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There is a scarcity of reliable data on perinatal mortality (PNM) in Sub-Saharan Africa. The PROMISE-EBF trial, during which we promoted exclusive breastfeeding, gave us the opportunity to describe the epidemiology of PNM in Banfora Health District, South-West in Burkina Faso. Study objectives To measure the perinatal mortality rate (PNMR) in the PROMISE-EBF cohort in Banfora Health District and to identify potential risk factors for perinatal death. Methods We used data collected prospectively during the PROMISE-EBF-trial to estimate the stillbirth rate (SBR) and early neonatal mortality rate (ENMR). We used binomial regression with generalized estimating equations to identify potential risk factors for perinatal death. Results 895 pregnant women were enrolled for data collection in the EBF trial and followed-up to 7 days after birth. The PNMR, the SBR and the ENMR, were 79 per 1000 (95% CI: 59-99), 54 per 1000 (95% CI: 38-69) and 27 per 1000 (95% CI: 9-44), respectively. In a multivariable analysis, nulliparous women (RR = 2.90, 95% CI: 1.6-5.0), primiparae mothers (RR = 2.20, 95% CI: 1.2-3.9), twins (RR = 4.0, 95% CI: 2.3-6.9) and giving birth during the dry season (RR = 2.1 95% CI: 1.3-3.3) were factors associated with increased risk of perinatal death. There was no evidence that risk of perinatal death differed between deliveries at home and at a health centre Conclusion Our study observed the highest PNMR ever reported in Burkina. There is an urgent need for sustainable interventions to improve maternal and newborn health in the country. PMID:20716352

  12. In vitro antileishmanial and antitrypanosomal activities of five medicinal plants from Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Sawadogo, W R; Le Douaron, G; Maciuk, A; Bories, C; Loiseau, P M; Figadère, B; Guissou, I P; Nacoulma, O G

    2012-05-01

    After ethnobotanical surveys in central and western regions of Burkina Faso, five plants namely Lantana ukambensis (Verbenaceae), Xeoderris sthulmannii (Fabaceae), Parinari curatellifollia (Chrysobalanaceae), Ozoroa insignis (Anacardiaceae), and Ficus platyphylla (Moraceae) were selected for their traditional use in the treatment of parasitic diseases and cancer. Our previous studies have focused on the phytochemical, genotoxicity, antioxidant, and antiproliferative activities of these plants. In this study, the methanol extract of each plant was tested to reveal probable antileishmanial and antitrypanosomal activities. Colorimetric and spectrophotometric methods were used for the detection of antileishmanial and antitrypanosomal activities. Leishmania donovani (LV9 WT) and Trypanosoma brucei brucei GVR 35 were used to test the antileishmanial and antitrypanosomal activities, respectively. All extracts of tested plants showed a significant antitrypanosomal activity with minimum lethal concentrations between 1.5 and 25 μg/ml, the L. ukambensis extract being the most active. In the antileishmanial test, only the extract from L. ukambensis showed significant activity with an inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of 6.9 μg/ml. The results of this study contribute to the promotion of traditional medicine products and are preliminary for the isolation of new natural molecules for the treatment of leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis. PMID:22037827

  13. Prevalence case-control study of epilepsy in three Burkina Faso villages

    PubMed Central

    Nitiéma, Pascal; Carabin, Hélène; Hounton, Sennen; Cowan, Linda D; Ganaba, Rasmané; Kompaoré, C; Millogo, Athanase

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the association between the prevalence of epilepsy and potential risk factors in three Burkina Faso villages. Methods Three villages were selected based on local reports of high numbers of epilepsy cases and pig-rearing practices. One person aged 7 or older was selected at random from all households of selected concessions for epilepsy screening and blood sampling. Epilepsy was confirmed by a physician using the ILAE definition. The cross-sectional associations between epilepsy and selected factors and sero-response to the antigens of Taenia solium were estimated using a Bayesian hierarchical logistic regression. Prevalence odds ratios (POR) and their 95% Credible Intervals (95%BCI) were estimated. Results Of 888 individuals interviewed, 39 of 70 screened positive were confirmed to have epilepsy for a lifetime prevalence of 4.5% (95%CI: 3.3–6.0). The prevalence of epilepsy was associated with a positive reaction to cysticercosis Ag-ELISA serology (POR=3.1, 95% BCI= 1.0;8.3), past pork consumption (POR=9.7, 95% BCI=2.5;37.9), and being salaried or a trader compared to a farmer or housewife (POR=2.9, 95% BCI= 1.2;6.4). Discussion Several factors were associated with prevalent epilepsy, with Ag-ELISA suggesting the presence of neurocysticercosis. The association of epilepsy and some occupations may reflect differences in local attitudes toward epilepsy and should be further explored. PMID:22289127

  14. Diets of hartebeest and roan antelope in Burkina Faso: Support of the long-faced hypothesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuette, J.R.; Leslie, David M., Jr.; Lochmiller, R.L.; Jenks, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    Diets of hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus) and roan antelope (Hippotragus equinus) were assessed at the Nazinga Game Ranch in southern Burkina Faso, West Africa. Microhistological analysis of feces indicated that dietary overlap was high during the rainy (X?? = 73.7%) and cool-dry (68.2%) seasons, low during the hot-dry season (48.2%), and lowest during the last month of the hot-dry season (31.5%). As the hot-dry season progressed and food presumably became less available, diets of the two antelopes diverged. Hartebeest maintained a high percentage of grass in their diet, but roan antelope switched from being predominantly grazers (>95% grass) to mixed feeders (<50% grass). As grass feeders, both antelopes have skeletal features that facilitate acquisition and grinding of highly fibrous diets, but 11 of 12 mass-relative indices of the skull morphology of hartebeest exceeded those of roan antelope. Because of those differences in skull morphology, and in keeping with the "long-faced" hypothesis, hartebeest were apparently more capable than roan antelope of acquiring and masticating scarce regrowth of perennial grasses when availability of forage was lowest. Such divergence within a single foraging class of African bovids, such as grass feeders, should reduce competition and perpetuate coexistence.

  15. Neogene cratonic erosion fluxes and landform evolution processes from regional regolith mapping (Burkina Faso, West Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimaud, Jean-Louis; Chardon, Dominique; Metelka, Václav; Beauvais, Anicet; Bamba, Ousmane

    2015-07-01

    The regionally correlated and dated regolith-paleolandform sequence of Sub-Saharan West Africa offers a unique opportunity to constrain continental-scale regolith dynamics as the key part of the sediment routing system. In this study, a regolith mapping protocol is developed and applied at the scale of Southwestern Burkina Faso. Mapping combines field survey and remote sensing data to reconstruct the topography of the last pediplain that formed over West Africa in the Early and Mid-Miocene (24-11 Ma). The nature and preservation pattern of the pediplain are controlled by the spatial variation of bedrock lithology and are partitioned among large drainage basins. Quantification of pediplain dissection and drainage growth allows definition of a cratonic background denudation rate of 2 m/My and a minimum characteristic timescale of 20 Ma for shield resurfacing. These results may be used to simulate minimum export fluxes of drainage basins of constrained size over geological timescales. Background cratonic denudation results in a clastic export flux of ~ 4 t/km2/year, which is limited by low denudation efficiency of slope processes and correlatively high regolith storage capacity of tropical shields. These salient characteristics of shields' surface dynamics would tend to smooth the riverine export fluxes of shields through geological time.

  16. Primary health care and donor dependency: a case study of nongovernment assistance in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Maclure, R

    1995-01-01

    Primary health care assistance has become prominent in the rural development programs of many nongovernment organizations throughout sub-Saharan Africa. By emphasizing education and the promotion of new participatory health systems, most such programs aim to enhance the conditions of women as principal community care givers. Yet village-level health assistance in Africa is not without shortcomings. This is exemplified in a case study of two nongovernment programs in Burkina Faso's Namentenga Province. Although both programs have contributed to maternal health and infant survival, they have also induced new ties of donor dependency. This appears to present a conundrum for the sponsoring agencies which espouse self-reliance as a development assistance goal. In fact, however, where the intervention of nongovernment organizations helps to improve rural health, new dimensions of dependency may prove to be a positive first stage in the mobilization of women and the development of locally managed health systems. For this to be so, much is contingent on the capacity of these organizations to integrate local participation in their own planning and management processes, and to augment the professional status of indigenous health workers. PMID:7591380

  17. Knowledge and awareness of prostate cancer among the general public in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Kabore, Fasnéwindé Aristide; Kambou, Timothé; Zango, Barnabé; Ouédraogo, Ali

    2014-03-01

    The lack of awareness about prostate cancer and other prostate-related issues has been identified as a cause of low survival and higher mortality rates among black men. The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge of prostate cancer (PCa) among men in the general public, in the main city of Burkina Faso (Ouagadougou). The targeted population was black African men aged 25 years and older, with no history of PCa. Six hundred men who provided informed consent were invited to participate in a PCa knowledge questionnaire through face-to-face interviews. The questionnaire was composed of multiple-choice items designed to ascertain participant's characteristics (age, profession, and level of education) and knowledge of prostate and PCa (risk factors, diagnosis tests, and curative treatments). The average age of men was 42 (min 25, max 80), and 63% reported primary school or less. Sixty-two percent admitted they did not know the terms prostate and prostate cancer. Only two respondents (0.3%) cited race as a risk factor, when 90 (15%) perceived too much sexual activity as a risk factor. A majority of respondents (70.3%, n = 422) stated that they were unaware of any diagnosis tests for PCa. The level of education was strongly correlated with PCa knowledge (p < 0.001). Men in the city of Ouagadougou have poor knowledge of PCa. Educational interventions should target the entire populations to improve self-informed decision about early diagnostic possibilities of PCa. PMID:24057691

  18. Decreasing child mortality, spatial clustering and decreasing disparity in North-Western Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Becher, Heiko; Müller, Olaf; Dambach, Peter; Gabrysch, Sabine; Niamba, Louis; Sankoh, Osman; Simboro, Seraphin; Schoeps, Anja; Stieglbauer, Gabriele; Yé, Yazoume; Sié, Ali

    2016-04-01

    Within relatively small areas, there exist high spatial variations of mortality between villages. In rural Burkina Faso, with data from 1993 to 1998, clusters of particularly high child mortality were identified in the population of the Nouna Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS), a member of the INDEPTH Network. In this paper, we report child mortality with respect to temporal trends, spatial clustering and disparity in this HDSS from 1993 to 2012. Poisson regression was used to describe village-specific child mortality rates and time trends in mortality. The spatial scan statistic was used to identify villages or village clusters with higher child mortality. Clustering of mortality in the area is still present, but not as strong as before. The disparity of child mortality between villages has decreased. The decrease occurred in the context of an overall halving of child mortality in the rural area of Nouna HDSS between 1993 and 2012. Extrapolated to the Millennium Development Goals target period 1990-2015, this yields an estimated reduction of 54%, which is not too far off the aim of a two-thirds reduction. PMID:26821122

  19. Seasonal variation of land cover classification accuracy of Landsat 8 images in Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Heiskanen, J.; Aynekulu, E.; Pellikka, P. K. E.

    2015-04-01

    In the seasonal tropics, vegetation shows large reflectance variation because of phenology, which complicates land cover change monitoring. Ideally, multi-temporal images for change monitoring should be from the same season, but availability of cloud-free images is limited in wet season in comparison to dry season. Our aim was to investigate how land cover classification accuracy depends on the season in southern Burkina Faso by analyzing 14 Landsat 8 OLI images from April 2013 to April 2014. Because all the images were acquired within one year, we assumed that most of the observed variation between the images was due to phenology. All the images were cloud masked and atmospherically corrected. Field data was collected from 160 field plots located within a 10 km x 10 km study area between December 2013 and February 2014. The plots were classified to closed forest, open forest and cropland, and used as training and validation data. Random forest classifier was employed for classifications. According to the results, there is a tendency for higher classification accuracy towards the dry season. The highest classification accuracy was provided by an image from December, which corresponds to the dry season and minimum NDVI period. In contrast, an image from October, which corresponds to the wet season and maximum NDVI period provided the lowest accuracy. Furthermore, the multi-temporal classification based on dry and wet season images had higher accuracy than single image classifications, but the improvement was small because seasonal changes affect similarly to the different land cover classes.

  20. Changing land management practices and vegetation on the Central Plateau of Burkina Faso (1968-2002)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reij, C.; Tappan, G.; Belemvire, A.

    2005-01-01

    In the early 1980s, the situation on the northern part of the Central Plateau of Burkina Faso was characterized by expanding cultivation on lands marginal to agriculture, declining rainfall, low and declining cereal yields, disappearing and impoverishing vegetation, falling ground-water levels and strong outmigration. This crisis situation provoked two reactions. Farmers, as well as technicians working for non-governmental organizations, started to experiment in improving soil and water conservation (SWC) techniques. When these experiments proved successful, donor agencies rapidly designed SWC projects based on simple, effective techniques acceptable to farmers. A study looked at the impact of SWC investments in nine villages and identified a number of major impacts, including: significant increases in millet and sorghum yields since the mid-1980s, cultivated fields treated with SWC techniques have more trees than 10-15 years ago, but the vegetation on most of the non-cultivated areas continues to degrade, greater availability of forage for livestock, increased investment in livestock by men and women and a beginning change in livestock management from extensive to semi-intensive methods, improved soil fertility management by farmers, locally rising ground-water tables, a decrease in outmigration and a significant reduction in rural poverty. Finally, data are presented on the evolution of land use in three villages between 1968 and 2002. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Are healthcare workers at higher risk of HIV infection than the general population in Burkina Faso?

    PubMed

    Kirakoya-Samadoulougou, F; Fao, P; Yaro, S; Defer, M-C; Meda, N; Robert, A; Nagot, N

    2014-03-01

    In order to assess the HIV prevalence in healthcare workers (HCWs) in Burkina Faso, we conducted a national survey in 97 health facilities from urban and rural areas. Of 1570 HCWs who agreed to participate, 1013 (64·5%) provided a urine sample for HIV testing. The crude prevalence of HIV in HCWs was 3·5% (95% CI 2·3-4·6). HIV prevalence was 0·7% in students and trainees, 3·8% in nurses and midwives, 4·5% in administrative workers, and 4·6% in laboratory workers. After age and area standardization, men from the Demographic Health Survey (DHS) had a similar HIV prevalence (2·3%, 95% CI 1·4-2·9) as male HCWs (2·5%, 95% CI 1·1-4·0), while female HCWs were more infected (4·5%, 95% CI 2·5-6·0) than women from the DHS (2·1%, 95% CI 1·3-2·4). A voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) programme should be specifically implemented and adapted for female HCWs. PMID:23759388

  2. Polyphenol contents and antioxidant activities of five Indigofera species (Fabaceae) from Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Bakasso, S; Lamien-Meda, A; Lamien, C E; Kiendrebeogo, M; Millogo, J; Ouedraogo, A G; Nacoulma, O G

    2008-06-01

    Aqueous acetone extracts prepared from five Indigofera species of Burkina Faso, namely Indigofera colutea (Burm.) Murril., I. macrocalyx Guilld et Perr., I. nigritana Hook f., I. pulchra willd. and I. tinctoria L., were investigated for their phytochemical composition and their antioxidant activities. Standard methods and TLC were used to screen the phytochemical composition. The total phenolic and flavonoid content of extracts were assessed by Folin-Ciocalteu and AlCl3 methods, respectively. These extracts were also evaluated for their antioxidant potentials using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate) (ABTS) assays. Flavonoids, saponins, quinones, sterols/triterpenes and tannins were present in all these species except for I. pulchra where quinones were not found. Gallic acid, caffeic acid, rutin and myricetin in I. colutea; gallic acid, quercitrin, myricetin in I. tinctoria; galangin and myricetin in I. macrocalyx were identified by thin layer chromatography. Among these, I. colutea, I. tinctoria, I. nigritana and I. macrocalyx, which had the highest phenolic content, were also found to possess the best antioxidant activities. The results indicated a good correlation between antioxidant activities and total phenolic content (p<0.05 for FRAP/DPPH and DPPH/ABTS and p<0.01 for FRAP/ABTS). These plants represent promising sources of natural antioxidants and these findings give scientific bases to their ethnopharmacological uses. PMID:18817242

  3. Decreasing Disparities in Infant Survival using Surveillance Data from Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Schoeps, Anja; Kynast-Wolf, Gisela; Nesbitt, Robin C.; Müller, Olaf; Sié, Ali; Becher, Heiko

    2015-01-01

    We assessed changes in the effect size of risk factors for infant mortality comparing a birth cohort from 2005 to 2010 with a birth cohort from 1993 to 1999 in the Nouna Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) in Burkina Faso. Single- and three-level Cox proportional hazards regression models were used for analysis. Independent variables among others included year of birth, ethnicity, religion, age of the mother, birth order, death of the mother, being a twin, and distance to the closest health facility. We observed an infant mortality rate of about 51/1,000 person-years. The strongest risk factors were death of the mother and being a twin, which were also the strongest risk factors from the previous analysis period. Compared with the period 1993–1999, the effect of most risk factors decreased, notably ethnicity, religious affiliation, distance to the closest health facility, birth order, and season of birth. The strongest reduction in mortality occurred in the groups with the previously highest infant mortality rates in 1993–1999. PMID:25802428

  4. Evaluation of enzymes inhibition activities of medicinal plant from Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Bangou, Mindiédiba Jean; Kiendrebeogo, Martin; Meda, Nâg-Tiero Roland; Coulibaly, Ahmed Yacouba; Compaoré, Moussa; Zeba, Boukaré; Millogo-Rasolodimby, Jeanne; Nacoulma, Odile Germaine

    2011-01-15

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate some enzymes inhibitory effects of 11 plant species belonging to 9 families from Burkina Faso. Methanolic extracts were used for their Glutathione-s-transferase (GST), Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), Carboxylesterase (CES) and Xanthine Oxidase (XO) inhibitory activities at final concentration of 100 microg mL(-1). The total phenolics, flavonoids and tannins were also determined spectrophotometrically using Folin-Ciocalteu, AlCl3 and ammonium citrate iron reagents, respectively. Among the 11 species tested, the best inhibitory percentages were found with Euphorbia hirta, Sclerocarya birrea and Scoparia dulcis (inhibition > 40%) followed by Annona senegalensis, Annona squamosa, Polygala arenaria and Ceratotheca sesamoides (inhibition > 25%). The best total phenolic and tannin contents were found with S. birrea with 56.10 mg GAE/100 mg extract and 47.75 mg TAE/100 mg extract, respectively. E hirta presented the higher total flavonoids (9.96 mg QE/100 mg extract). It's was found that Sclerocarya birrea has inhibited all enzymes at more than 30% and this activity is correlated to total tannins contents. Contrary to S. birrea, the enzymatic activities of E. hirta and S. dulcis are correlated to total flavonoids contents. Present findings suggest that the methanolic extracts of those plant species are potential inhibitors of GST, AChE, CES and XO and confirm their traditional uses in the treatment of mental disorders, gout, painful inflammations and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:21916259

  5. High Contribution of Gallery Forests to Local Evaporation in Semi-Arid Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceperley, N. C.; Mande, T.; Tyler, S. W.; Van De Giesen, N.; Rinaldo, A.; Parlange, M. B.

    2014-12-01

    Management of the hydrologic cycle is critical to the primary livelihood of a large part of semi-arid West Africa's primary livelihood, rain-fed farming. We use flux measurements from an eddy-covariance station coupled with a dense network of small wireless meteorological stations to examine the relationship between land surface properties (albedo, soil moisture, and roughness) and evapotranspiration in a small (3.5 km2) catchment in Burkina Faso, West Africa. The catchment is a matrix of savanna and agricultural land maintained under various regimes, providing a comparison of multiple land use types of Sudanian Wooded Savanna including a canyon gallery forest, agroforestry parklands, occasionally grazed semi-open savanna, a semi-closed wooded slope, fallow fields, rice paddies, and ephemeral wetlands. By filtering out times when dry air was entrained, we demonstrate the small control of soil moisture and vegetation on the evaporative fraction, which was not initially visible. Additionally we document the high contribution of the gallery forest to the the catchment evaporation, despite its small size. These small meteorological stations could be paired with currently available satellite data to calculate evaporation over a much larger area, even when eddy-covariance equipment is not available. These findings reinforce local cultural beliefs of the importance of gallery forests for climate regulation and may provide tools to key local decision makers, rural farmers.

  6. Evidence of behaviour change following a hygiene promotion programme in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, V.; Kanki, B.; Cousens, S.; Diallo, I.; Kpozehouen, A.; Sangaré, M.; Nikiema, M.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine whether a large, 3-year hygiene promotion programme in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso, was effective in changing behaviours associated with the spread of diarrhoeal diseases. The programme was tailored to local customs, targeted specific types of behaviour, built on existing motivation for hygiene, and used locally appropriate channels of communication. METHODS: Two population surveys recorded the coverage of the programme among target audiences (mothers of children aged 0-35 months). Four surveys were carried out: three prior to the programme and one in 1998 (after the programme had been running for 3 years), using structured observation of hygiene behaviours in the participants' homes to document changes in target behaviours. FINDINGS: After the programme had run for 3 years, three-quarters of the mothers targeted had had contact with programme activities. Half could cite the two main messages of the programme correctly. Although the safe disposal of children's stools changed little between 1995 and 1998 (80% pre-intervention, 84% post-intervention), hand-washing with soap after cleaning a child's bottom rose from 13% to 31%. The proportion of mothers who washed their hands with soap after using the latrine increased from 1% to 17%. CONCLUSION: Hygiene promotion programmes can change behaviour and are more likely to be effective if they are built on local research and use locally appropriate channels of communication repeatedly and for an extended time. PMID:11436473

  7. Muted voices: HIV/AIDS and the young people of Burkina Faso and Senegal.

    PubMed

    Rosendal Østergaard, Lise; Samuelsen, Helle

    2004-11-01

    This article explores the discrepancies between the vocal public discourse on HIV/AIDS and sexuality as generally encouraged by policy-makers and donor communities in Africa, and the often hushed voices of their target groups: young people in African communities. Based on fieldwork among urban youth in Senegal and Burkina Faso, we describe the silence of young people with regard to HIV/AIDS and sexuality as a social phenomenon, with focus given to family relations, peer relations and gender aspects in partnerships. Drawing on Foucault and Morrell, an inability and unwillingness to speak about HIV/AIDS and sexuality are analysed as a response to an everyday life characterised by uncertainty. This response represents a certain degree of resistance, while it constitutes a major barrier to any HIV/AIDS prevention effort. Finally, we stress that despite great constraints in their everyday lives, young people have some room to manoeuvre and are able to apply some negotiating strategies to reduce sexually-related health risks. PMID:25875058

  8. Ethnobotanical survey and in vitro antiplasmodial activity of plants used in traditional medicine in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Sanon, S; Ollivier, E; Azas, N; Mahiou, V; Gasquet, M; Ouattara, C T; Nebie, I; Traore, A S; Esposito, F; Balansard, G; Timon-David, P; Fumoux, F

    2003-06-01

    In Burkina Faso, most people in particular, in rural areas, use traditional medicine and medicinal plants to treat usual diseases. In the course of new antimalarial compounds, an ethnobotanical survey has been conducted in different regions. Seven plants, often cited by traditional practitioners and not chemically investigated, have been selected for an antiplasmodial screening: Pavetta crassipes (K. Schum), Acanthospermum hispidum (DC), Terminalia macroptera (Guill. et Perr), Cassia siamea (Lam), Ficus sycomorus (L), Fadogia agrestis (Schweinf. Ex Hiern) and Crossopteryx febrifuga (AFZ. Ex G. Don) Benth. Basic, chloroform, methanol, water-methanol and aqueous crude extracts have been prepared and tested on Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-resistant W2 strain. A significant activity has been observed with alkaloid extract of P. crassipes (IC(50)<4 microg/ml), of A. hispidum, C. febrifuga, and F. agrestis (4

  9. A phyto-sociological analysis of the distribution of riverine tsetse flies in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Bouyer, J; Guerrini, L; Cesar, J; de la Rocque, S; Cuisance, D

    2005-12-01

    In Burkina Faso, Glossina palpalis gambiensis Vanderplank and G. tachinoides Westwood (Diptera: Glossinidae) are the main cyclic vectors of trypanosomiasis. The vegetation type along river banks is an important factor determining the distribution and abundance of these tsetse. The following work investigated the relation between the plant species present (including the disturbance level) and tsetse distribution and abundance, using three ecotypes, described by P.C. Morel in 1978. These were the Guinean, Sudano-Guinean and Sudanese gallery forests. In the Mouhoun River basin, these three ecotypes are found successively from upstream to downstream. Berlinia grandiflora, Syzygium guineense and Cola laurifolia and finally Acacia seyal and Mitragyna inermis were the best indicators for the Guinean, Sudano-Guinean and Sudanese gallery forest ecotypes, respectively, as suggested by Morel. However, other species such as Pterocarpus santalinoides and Mimosa pigra were not ecotype specific. Trap catches confirmed that G. palpalis and G. tachinoides are predominant in Guinean and Sudanese gallery forests, respectively, and that both species are well represented in the Sudano-Guinean ecotype. Tsetse densities dropped significantly in disturbed Sudano-Guinean and Sudanese gallery forest sites. However, this was not the case for both species in Guinean or for G. tachinoides in half-disturbed Sudanese gallery forest sites, confirming their high resilience to human-made changes. The importance of a detailed consideration of riverine ecotypes when predicting tsetse densities is discussed. PMID:16336302

  10. Key determinants of induced abortion in women seeking postabortion care in hospital facilities in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Ilboudo, Patrick GC; Somda, Serge MA; Sundby, Johanne

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Despite the universal recognition of unsafe abortion as a major public health problem, very little research has been conducted to document its precipitating factors in Burkina Faso. Our aim was to investigate the key determinants of induced abortion in a sample of women who sought postabortion care. Materials and methods A cross-sectional household survey was carried out from February to September 2012 in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Data of 37 women who had had an induced abortion and 267 women who had had a spontaneous abortion were prospectively collected on sociodemographic characteristics, pregnancy and birth history, abortion experience, including previous abortion experience, and selected clinical information, including the type of abortion. A two-step regression analysis consisting of a univariate and a multivariate logistic regression was run on Stata version 11.2 in order to identify the key determinants of induced abortion. Results The findings indicated that 12% of all abortions were certainly induced. Three key factors were significantly and positively associated with the probability of having an induced abortion: whether the woman reported that her pregnancy was unwanted (odds ratio [OR] 10.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.59–30.41); whether the woman reported was living in a household headed by her parents (OR 6.83, 95% CI 2.42–19.24); and if the woman reported was divorced or widowed (OR 3.47, 95% CI 1.08–11.10). On the contrary, being married was protective against induced abortion, with women who reported being married having an 83% (OR 0.17, CI 0.03–0.89) lower chance of having an induced abortion, even when the pregnancy was unwanted. Conclusion This study has identified three major determinants of induced abortion in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Improved targeted programs on family planning counseling, methods of contraception, and availability of contraceptives should be widely promoted. PMID:24920938

  11. Trends and patterns of modern contraceptive use and relationships with high-risk births and child mortality in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Maïga, Abdoulaye; Hounton, Sennen; Amouzou, Agbessi; Akinyemi, Akanni; Shiferaw, Solomon; Baya, Banza; Bahan, Dalomi; Barros, Aluisio J. D.; Walker, Neff; Friedman, Howard

    2015-01-01

    Background In sub-Saharan Africa, few studies have stressed the importance of spatial heterogeneity analysis in modern contraceptive use and the relationships with high-risk births. Objective This paper aims to analyse the association between modern contraceptive use, distribution of birth risk, and under-five child mortality at both national and regional levels in Burkina Faso. Design The last three Demographic and Health Surveys – conducted in Burkina Faso in 1998, 2003, and 2010 – enabled descriptions of differentials, trends, and associations between modern contraceptive use, total fertility rates (TFR), and factors associated with high-risk births and under-five child mortality. Multivariate models, adjusted by covariates of cultural and socio-economic background and contact with health system, were used to investigate the relationship between birth risk factors and modern contraceptive prevalence rates (mCPR). Results Overall, Burkina Faso's modern contraception level remains low (15.4% in 2010), despite significant increases during the last decade. However, there are substantial variations in mCPR by region, and health facility contact was positively associated with mCPR increase. Women's fertility history and cultural and socio-economic background were also significant factors in predicting use of modern contraception. Low modern contraceptive use is associated with higher birth risks and increased child mortality. This association is stronger in the Sahel, Est, and Sud-Ouest regions. Even though all factors in high-risk births were associated with under-five mortality, it should be stressed that short birth spacing ranked as the highest risk in relation to mortality of children. Conclusions Programmes that target sub-national differentials and leverage women's health system contacts to inform women about family planning opportunities may be effective in improving coverage, quality, and equity of modern contraceptive use. Improving the demand satisfied

  12. Evolution of rainfall and temperature trend and variability in Burkina Faso: Analysis of meteorological data and farmers' perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Y. B.

    2015-12-01

    Farmers in Burkina Faso are among the most exposed to climate change/ climate variability, as their livelihoods are greatly linked to climate hazards. Rainfall and in some extent temperature are among the inputs farmers use to take decisions in their farming activities. A better understanding of factors that shape farmers' perceptions of climate change and decision to adapt farming practices is needed to take appropriate measures. In the current study farmers' perception of climate change and climate variability- specifically, changes in rainfall and temperature- were compared to historical recorded climate data. Primary data was collected through village focus-group surveys and household surveys. Nine Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were conducted in the study areas' villages; 450 households were also selected randomly from three locations and sampled out through a multi-stage sampling procedure. Secondary data on the historical precipitation and temperature of Burkina Faso from 1960 to 2012 was obtained from the National Meteorological Service of Burkina Faso (DGM) and the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute. Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and temperature anomalies methodology have been used to assess anomalies in rainfall and temperature covering a period of 48 years, from 1964 to 2011; and Mann-Kendall test and Theil-Sen slope estimator to assess the significance of the trends and the Theil-Sen slope estimator is used to identify their magnitude. The analysis of farmers' perceptions of climate change indicates that most farmers perceived a declining trend of precipitation and an increasing trend of temperature in all areas. Results from recorded climate data's analysis, revealed contrasting evidence, while that farmers' perception of temperature match with historical data, their perception of rainfall evolution were not always corroboted by scientific evidence.

  13. Malaria, environmental change, and an [corrected] historical epidemiology of childhood 'cold fevers': popular interpretations from southwestern Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Giles-Vernick, Tamara; Traoré, Abdoulaye; Sirima, Sodiomon B

    2011-05-01

    We examine how southwestern Burkina Faso populations interpret political ecological and social change for the past 40 years to assert a changing epidemiology of childhood "cold fevers"-malaria-like illnesses. Lay knowledge about "cold fevers" is historically produced, reflecting political economic, social, ecological and biomedical changes, and the historical consciousness of people living with these illnesses. While informants insisted that dislocations wrought by a post-colonial irrigation scheme increased cold fevers, they offered different explanations for their increased incidence and intensity. This historical epidemiology of cold fevers may influence parents' care decisions, but global public health interventions are rapidly changing therapeutic access. PMID:21507704

  14. The impact of Xpert® MTB/RIF depends on service coordination: experience in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Moyenga, I; Roggi, A; Sulis, G; Diande, S; Tamboura, D; Tagliani, E; Castelli, F; Matteelli, A

    2015-03-01

    Translating the potential of Xpert(®) MTB/RIF into more effective tuberculosis (TB) care and control in low-income settings is challenged by operational issues. We report the experience in introducing this technology in Burkina Faso through a centralised approach. Xpert was successfully integrated into the diagnostic algorithm of multidrug-resistant TB cases. However, barriers to Xpert use for the diagnosis of TB in vulnerable populations, such as persons living with human immunodeficiency virus infection and children, were observed, mainly due to lack of coordination between services. Lessons learnt can be exploited to optimise the roll-out of this technology at country level. PMID:25686135

  15. PCR analysis and spatial repartition of trypanosomes infecting tsetse flies in Sidéradougou area of Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    De La Rocque, S; Lefrancois, T; Reifenberg, J M; Solano, P; Kabore, I; Bengaly, Z; Augusseau, X; Cuisance, D

    1998-06-29

    A parasitological and entomological survey was conducted in the Sideradougou area (south of Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso) in order to identify transmission factors of African trypanosomosis. A total of 3600 tsetse flies (Glossina tachinoides, Glossina palpalis gambiensis) were captured along 120 km of linear gallery forest and half of them were dissected. PCR analysis was undertaken on parasitologically positive flies (161 G. tachinoides, 92 G. palpalis gambiensis) to characterize the different trypanosomes. All the results were integrated in a GIS (Geographical Information System). Spatial repartition of the characterized trypanosomes enabled to recognize different areas with specific patterns of infection. Relations with environmental factors are discussed. PMID:9668447

  16. The 2008 food price crisis negatively affected household food security and dietary diversity in urban Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Martin-Prevel, Yves; Becquey, Elodie; Tapsoba, Sylvestre; Castan, Florence; Coulibaly, Dramane; Fortin, Sonia; Zoungrana, Mahama; Lange, Matthias; Delpeuch, Francis; Savy, Mathilde

    2012-09-01

    Although the 2008 food price crisis presumably plunged millions of households into poverty and food insecurity, the real impact of the crisis has rarely been documented using field data. Our objective was to assess the consequences of this crisis for household food insecurity and dietary diversity in urban Burkina Faso. Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted among randomly selected households in Ouagadougou in July 2007 (n = 3017) and July 2008 (n = 3002). At each round, food insecurity assessed by the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS), the Dietary Diversity Score of an index-member of the household (IDDS = number of food groups consumed in the last 24 h), and food expenditure were collected. Food prices of the 17 most frequently consumed food items were recorded throughout the study area. Food prices at local markets increased considerably between 2007 and 2008, especially those of fish (113%), cereals (53%), and vegetable oil (44%), increasing the household monthly food expenditure by 18%. Thirty-three percent of households were food secure in 2007 and 22% in 2008 (P = 0.02). Individuals consumed fewer fruits and vegetables, dairy products, and meat/poultry in 2008 than in 2007 (mean IDDS = 5.7 ± 1.7 food groups in 2007 vs. 5.2 ± 1.5 in 2008; P < 0.0001). Differences in IDDS and HFIAS between the 2 y were even more marked after adjustment for confounding factors and food expenditure. Food security and dietary diversity significantly decreased between 2007 and 2008, whereas food prices increased. Households increased their food expenditure, but this was not sufficient to compensate the effects of the crisis. PMID:22833656

  17. The long term economic impact of severe obstetric complications for women and their children in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Ilboudo, Patrick G C; Russell, Steve; D'Exelle, Ben

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the long term economic impact of severe obstetric complications for women and their children in Burkina Faso, focusing on measures of food security, expenditures and related quality of life measures. It uses a hospital based cohort, first visited in 2004/2005 and followed up four years later. This cohort of 1014 women consisted of two main groups of comparison: 677 women who had an uncomplicated delivery and 337 women who experienced a severe obstetric complication which would have almost certainly caused death had they not received hospital care (labelled a "near miss" event). To analyze the impact of such near miss events as well as the possible interaction with the pregnancy outcome, we compared household and individual level indicators between women without a near miss event and women with a near miss event who either had a live birth, a perinatal death or an early pregnancy loss. We used propensity score matching to remove initial selection bias. Although we found limited effects for the whole group of near miss women, the results indicated negative impacts: a) for near miss women with a live birth, on child development and education, on relatively expensive food consumption and on women's quality of life; b) for near miss women with perinatal death, on relatively expensive foods consumption and children's education and c) for near miss women who had an early pregnancy loss, on overall food security. Our results showed that severe obstetric complications have long lasting consequences for different groups of women and their children and highlighted the need for carefully targeted interventions. PMID:24224028

  18. Re-greening the Sahel: farmer-led innovation in Burkina Faso and Niger

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reij, Chris; Smale, Melinda; Tappan, Gary

    2009-01-01

    The Sahel—the belt of land that stretches across Africa on the southern edge of the Sahara—has always been a tough place to farm. Rainfall is low and droughts are frequent. The crust of hard soil is, at times, almost impermeable, and harsh winds threaten to sweep away everything in their path. Over the past three decades, however, hundreds of thousands of farmers in Burkina Faso and Niger have transformed large swaths of the region’s arid landscape into productive agricultural land, improving food security for about 3 million people. Once-denuded landscapes are now home to abundant trees, crops, and livestock. Although rainfall has improved slightly from the mid-1990s relative to earlier decades, indications are that farmer management is a stronger determinant of land and agroforestry regeneration. Sahelian farmers achieved their success by ingeniously modifying traditional agroforestry, water, and soil-management practices. To improve water availability and soil fertility in Burkina Faso’s Central Plateau, farmers have sown crops in planting pits and built stone contour bunds, which are stones piled up in long narrow rows that follow the contours of the land in order to capture rainwater runoff and soil. These practices have helped rehabilitate between 200,000 and 300,000 hectares of land and produce an additional 80,000 tons of food per year. In southern Niger, farmers have developed innovative ways of regenerating and multiplying valuable trees whose roots already lay underneath their land, thus improving about 5 million hectares of land and producing more than 500,000 additional tons of food per year. While the specific calculations of farm-level benefits are subject to various methodological and data limitations, the order of magnitude of these benefits is high, as evidenced by the wide-scale adoption of the improved practices by large numbers of farmers. Today, the agricultural landscapes of southern Niger have considerably more tree cover than they

  19. The Effects of "Girl-Friendly" Schools: Evidence from the BRIGHT School Construction Program in Burkina Faso. NBER Working Paper No. 18115

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazianga, Harounan; Levy, Dan; Linden, Leigh L.; Sloan, Matt

    2012-01-01

    We evaluate the causal effects of a program that constructed high quality "girl-friendly" primary schools in Burkina Faso, using a regression discontinuity design 2.5 years after the program started. We find that the program increased enrollment of all children between the ages of 5 and 12 by 20 percentage points and increased their test scores by…

  20. Targeted Water Quality Assessment in Small Reservoirs in Brazil, Zimbabwe, Morocco and Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boelee, Eline; Rodrigues, Lineu; Senzanje, Aidan; Laamrani, Hammou; Cecchi, Philippe

    2010-05-01

    Background Physical and chemical parameters of water in reservoirs can be affected by natural and manmade pollutants, causing damage to the aquatic life and water quality. However, the exact water quality considerations depend on what the water will be used for. Brick making, livestock watering, fisheries, irrigation and domestic uses all have their own specific water quality requirements. In turn, these uses impact on water quality. Methodology Water quality was assessed with a variety of methods in small multipurpose reservoirs in the São Francisco Basin in Brazil, Limpopo in Zimbabwe, Souss Massa in Morocco and Nakambé in Burkina Faso. In each case the first step was to select the reservoirs for which the water quality was to be monitored, then identify the main water uses, followed by a determination of key relevant water quality parameters. In addition, a survey was done in some cases to identify quality perceptions of the users. Samples were taken from the reservoir itself and related water bodies such as canals and wells where relevant. Results Accordingly in the four basins different methods gave different locally relevant results. In the Preto River in the Sao Francisco in Brazil small reservoirs are mainly used for irrigated agriculture. Chemical analysis of various small reservoirs showed that water quality was mainly influenced by geological origins. In addition there was nutrient inflow from surrounding areas of intensive agriculture with high fertilizer use. In the Limpopo basin in Zimbabwe small reservoirs are used for almost all community water needs. Plankton was selected as indicator and sampling was carried out in reservoirs in communal areas and in a national park. Park reservoirs were significantly more diversified in phytoplankton taxa compared to those in the communal lands, but not for zooplankton, though communal lands had the highest zooplankton abundance. In Souss Massa in Morocco a combination of perceptions and scientific water

  1. Volcanic facies and preliminary geochemical observations of the Goren greenstone belt, Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Luke

    2013-04-01

    Volcanic facies and preliminary geochemical observations of the Goren greenstone belt, Burkina Faso L.F.H. Peters and K.A.A Hein School of Geosciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Wits 2050, South Africa. The Goren Greenstone Belt (GGB) is a Palaeoproterozoic volcano-sedimentary belt situated in the northeast of Burkina Faso in the West African craton (WAC). Basalt is the main volcanic constituent of the GGB, specifically mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORBS), which have undergone pervasive greenschist facies metamorphism during at least 2 deformation including the Tangaean Event (2170-2130 Ma) and Eburnean Orogeny (2130-1980 Ma). Remarkably, many of the primary textures and minerals remain intact in less deformed regions of the GBB. Textural characteristics and petrographic analyses include aphyric and aphanitic textures, amygdales, hyaloclastic brecciation, pillow structures and preserved (chloritised) volcanic glass. Despite the ubiquitous presence of chlorite and epidote, plagioclase and clinopyroxene microlites are fairly common albeit altered. Phenocrysts (< 1 mm) of plagioclase and CPX are present in some samples but aphyric texture is dominant. These textures indicate that the basalts represent coherent units of sub-aqueous extrusion from a proximal volcanic facies setting relative to the original magma conduit. A repetitious succession of Fe-rich meta-siltstones, fine-grained, carbonaceous, Fe-rich exhalatives and volcaniclastic units is intercalated with the basalts. The volcaniclastic units contrast with the MORBs, which raises questions about the source region of the volcaniclastics. In hand sample, the volcaniclastic rocks show an array of various sized fragments, compared to the fine-grained nature of the MORBs. They are dominated by euhedral, zoned, brown volcanic hornblende, large (2.5-5 mm) euhedral plagioclase crystals, and sub-angular to rounded quartz grains in a poorly sorted volcanogenic sedimentary sequence. Due to the

  2. Unpacking capacity to utilize research: A tale of the Burkina Faso public health association.

    PubMed

    Hamel, Nadia; Schrecker, Ted

    2011-01-01

    One of the most important challenges in addressing global health is for institutions to monitor and use research in policy-making. In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), civil society organizations such as health professional associations can be key contributors to effective national health systems. However, there is little empirical data on their capacity to use research. This case study was used to gain insight into the factors that affect the knowledge translation performance of health professional associations in LMICs by describing the organizational elements and processes constituting capacity to use research, and examining the potential determinants of this capacity. Case study methodology was chosen for its flexibility to capture the multiple and often tacit processes within organizational routines. The Burkina Faso Public Health Association (ABSP) was studied, using in-depth, semi-structured interviews and key documents review. Five key dimensions that affect the association's capacity to use research to influence health policy emerged: organizational motivation; catalysts; organizational capacity to acquire and organizational capacity to transform research findings; moderating organizational factors. Also examined were the dissemination strategies used by ABSP and its abilities to enhance its capacity through networking, to advocate for more relevant research and to develop its potential role as knowledge broker, as well as limitations due to scarce resources. We conclude that a better understanding of the organizational capacity to use research of health professional associations in LMICs is needed to assess, improve and reinforce such capacity. Increased knowledge translation potential may leverage research resources and promote knowledge-sharing. PMID:21074923

  3. [Microbial quality assessment of some street food widely consumed in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso].

    PubMed

    Barro, Nicolas; Ouattara, Cheik A T; Nikiema, Philippe A; Ouattara, Aboubakar S; Traoré, Alfred S

    2002-01-01

    The major part of the population of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, have their breakfast, dinner and lunch in street food shops. The characteristics of street food vendors are indicated. It appeared clearly that women play a major part (75%) in street food sale. Vendors have only a slight knowledge of food processing and of hygienic practices. There is a high proportion (about 50%) of people among them. This dietary habit has some negative aspects on the consumers' health. Ours studies clearly showed that hygienic practices during sales operations are not respected by all categories of vendors of food products. Also, it was observed that street food vendors sometimes sit close to the waste water drainage system and solid wastes. Sometimes, the food is not covered and it is manipulated by consumers in areas infested by flies and others insects. The water used to wash the materials is of poor quality. The second aspects of our studies showed that, in most cases, when the safety and hygienic practices were not respected, the food became a true microorganism culture medium under tropical climatic conditions. A table reports microbial analysis and contamination rates of some important street foods consumed in Ouagadougou. In general these results showed the failure of microbial quality of some food which is not preheated (milk product, fruit juice, vegetable, fruit) and in the case of food which is not reheated after a long time of exposition (dry meat and meat on sticks). The presence of Salmonella and Shigella species in some food represents a serious danger for consumers. These aspects were observed with most street food vendors. It probably makes street food the source of most diseases caused by bacteria and other microorganisms. PMID:12626290

  4. Human vulnerability to climate variability in the Sahel: farmers' adaptation strategies in northern Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Barbier, Bruno; Yacouba, Hamma; Karambiri, Harouna; Zoromé, Malick; Somé, Blaise

    2009-05-01

    In this study, the authors investigate farmers' vulnerability to climate variability and evaluate local adoption of technology and farmers' perceptions of adaptation strategies to rainfall variability and policies. A survey was conducted in a community in northern Burkina Faso following the crop failure of 2004. In 2006, following a better harvest, another survey was conducted to compare farmers' actions and reactions during two contrasted rainy seasons. The results confirm that farmers from this community have substantially changed their practices during the last few decades. They have adopted a wide range of techniques that are intended to simultaneously increase crop yield and reduce yield variability. Micro water harvesting (Zaï) techniques have been widely adopted (41%), and a majority of fields have been improved with stone lines (60%). Hay (48%) and sorghum residues are increasingly stored to feed animals during the dry season, making bull and sheep fattening now a common practice. Dry season vegetable production also involves a majority of the population (60%). According to farmers, most of the new techniques have been adopted because of growing land scarcity and new market opportunities, rather than because of climate variability. Population pressure has reached a critical threshold, while land scarcity, declining soil fertility and reduced animal mobility have pushed farmers to intensify agricultural production. These techniques reduce farmers' dependency on rainfall but are still insufficient to reduce poverty and vulnerability. Thirty-nine percent of the population remains vulnerable after a good rainy season. Despite farmers' desire to remain in their own communities, migrations are likely to remain a major source of regular income and form of recourse in the event of droughts. PMID:19037691

  5. Fostering low-cost soil moisture monitoring techniques to improve irrigation efficiency in Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouleau, Clémence; Baracchini, Theo; Razurel, Pierre; Gorla, Lorenzo; Bolay, Jean-Claude; Perona, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    Irrigated agriculture is a significant activity in water stressed semi-arid (e.g., the Sahel) regions, thereby yield and water management are fundamental aspects of irrigation success. Small farmers have often difficulties in managing crops and in evaluating water needs resulting in low yield with excessive water consumption, elevated pumping costs and soil degradation. In different proportions, this overuse of water concerns all irrigation techniques: gravity flows from reservoirs, watering cans irrigation from groundwater wells, micro- or drip irrigation. Baseline requirements for supporting sustainable technology are low costs, easy installation, minimal maintenance, and local production. We present and discuss results from the Info4Dourou2.0 explorative project in Burkina Faso, the main goal of which is to improve small-scale agriculture by the use of sensing and communication technologies. In particular, a support system that couples autonomous and continuous measurements of meteorological variables and soil matrix potential as well as soil humidity with agronomic models has been tested in drip-irrigated fields over a three-year period. In particular, the system is collecting data from three water potential sensors at different locations per field and informs the farmers through a simple interface of the correct amount of water needed by the plant. In its simplicity this system provides an easy to use and install irrigation management setup, and is therefore an ideal candidate in favor of sustainability. Info4Dourou2.0 pilot experiments have shown that farmers can obtain significantly higher yields using lower amounts of water. Overall, this methodology allows facing multiple urgent problems such as the use of environmental data to improve agricultural production towards ecosystem conservation, food security issues and adaptation to climatic change scenarios.

  6. Spatial patterns of schistosomiasis in Burkina Faso: relevance of human mobility and water resources development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Saez, Javier; Bertuzzo, Enrico; Frohelich, Jean-Marc; Mande, Theophile; Ceperley, Natalie; Sou, Mariam; Yacouba, Hamma; Maiga, Hamadou; Sokolow, Susanne; De Leo, Giulio; Casagrandi, Renato; Gatto, Marino; Mari, Lorenzo; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    We study the spatial geography of schistosomiasis in the african context of Burkina Faso by means of a spatially explicit model of disease dynamics and spread. The relevance of our work lies in its ability to describe quantitatively a geographic stratification of the disease burden capable of reproducing important spatial differences, and drivers/controls of disease spread. Among the latters, we consider specifically the development and management of water resources which have been singled out empirically as an important risk factor for schistosomiasis. The model includes remotely acquired and objectively manipulated information on the distributions of population, infrastructure, elevation and climatic drivers. It also includes a general description of human mobility and addresses a first-order characterization of the ecology of the intermediate host of the parasite causing the disease based on maximum entropy learning of relevant environmenal covariates. Spatial patterns of the disease were analyzed about their disease-free equilibrium by proper extraction and mapping of suitable eigenvectors of the Jacobian matrix subsuming all stability properties of the system. Human mobility was found to be a primary control of both pathogen invasion success and of the overall distribution of disease burden. The effects of water resources development were studied by accounting for the (prior and posterior) average distances of human settlements from water bodies that may serve as suitable habitats to the intermediate host of the parasite. Water developments, in combination with human mobility, were quantitatively related to disease spread into regions previously nearly disease-free and to large-scale empirical incidence patterns. We concluded that while the model still needs refinements based on field and epidemiological evidence, the framework proposed provides a powerful tool for large-scale, long-term public health planning and management of schistosomiasis.

  7. Human Vulnerability to Climate Variability in the Sahel: Farmers' Adaptation Strategies in Northern Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbier, Bruno; Yacouba, Hamma; Karambiri, Harouna; Zoromé, Malick; Somé, Blaise

    2009-05-01

    In this study, the authors investigate farmers’ vulnerability to climate variability and evaluate local adoption of technology and farmers’ perceptions of adaptation strategies to rainfall variability and policies. A survey was conducted in a community in northern Burkina Faso following the crop failure of 2004. In 2006, following a better harvest, another survey was conducted to compare farmers’ actions and reactions during two contrasted rainy seasons. The results confirm that farmers from this community have substantially changed their practices during the last few decades. They have adopted a wide range of techniques that are intended to simultaneously increase crop yield and reduce yield variability. Micro water harvesting (Zaï) techniques have been widely adopted (41%), and a majority of fields have been improved with stone lines (60%). Hay (48%) and sorghum residues are increasingly stored to feed animals during the dry season, making bull and sheep fattening now a common practice. Dry season vegetable production also involves a majority of the population (60%). According to farmers, most of the new techniques have been adopted because of growing land scarcity and new market opportunities, rather than because of climate variability. Population pressure has reached a critical threshold, while land scarcity, declining soil fertility and reduced animal mobility have pushed farmers to intensify agricultural production. These techniques reduce farmers’ dependency on rainfall but are still insufficient to reduce poverty and vulnerability. Thirty-nine percent of the population remains vulnerable after a good rainy season. Despite farmers’ desire to remain in their own communities, migrations are likely to remain a major source of regular income and form of recourse in the event of droughts.

  8. Investigating rural poverty and marginality in Burkina Faso using remote sensing-based products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imran, M.; Stein, A.; Zurita-Milla, R.

    2014-02-01

    Poverty at the national and sub-national level is commonly mapped on the basis of household surveys. Typical poverty metrics like the head count index are not able to identify its underlaying factors, particularly in rural economies based on subsistence agriculture. This paper relates agro-ecological marginality identified from regional and global datasets including remote sensing products like the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and rainfall to rural agricultural production and food consumption in Burkina Faso. The objective is to analyze poverty patterns and to generate a fine resolution poverty map at the national scale. We compose a new indicator from a range of welfare indicators quantified from Georeferenced household surveys, indicating a spatially varying set of welfare and poverty states of rural communities. Next, a local spatial regression is used to relate each welfare and poverty state to the agro-ecological marginality. Our results show strong spatial dependency of welfare and poverty states over agro-ecological marginality in heterogeneous regions, indicating that environmental factors affect living conditions in rural communities. The agro-ecological stress and related marginality vary locally between rural communities within each region. About 58% variance in the welfare indicator is explained by the factors of rural agricultural production and 42% is explained by the factor of food consumption. We found that the spatially explicit approach based on multi-temporal remote sensing products effectively summarizes information on poverty and facilitates further interpretation of the newly developed welfare indicator. The proposed method was validated with poverty incidence obtained from national surveys.

  9. Trauma- and Stressor Related Disorders in the Tuareg Refugees of a Camp in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Carta, M.G.; Oumar, F. Wallet; Moro, M.F.; Moro, D.; Preti, A.; Mereu, A.; Bhugra, D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is reported to be common among refugees. We set out to explore risk of Trauma- and Stress-or-Related Disorders and the associated burden of psychological distress in a refugee camp of Malian Refugees in Burkina Faso. Methods: One out of five persons living in the camp was selected randomly and interviewed using the French version of the Short Screening Scale for PTSD and the validated K6 scale to measure psychiatric morbidity. Results: Around 60% of the interviewed sample (N=408) met the criteria for Trauma- and Stress-or-Related Disorders and also reported severe mental distress on K6 scores. Women aged 40 and over were found to be at higher risk of Trauma- and Stress-or-Related Disorders whereas young people (39 or younger) scored higher on K6 ratings. Around 83% of the surveyed subjects had a family member killed in the war, 91% a relative in the war, more than 80% had a family member suffering from physical injuries, and 90% reported problems with food and housing. The frequency of these life events was not surprisingly higher in persons with Trauma- and Stress-or-Related Disorders, with the death of a family member and severe problems with food being specifically related to them.Conclusion: These results point to important psychological suffering in a population that is often ignored by the media and international political authorities. Immediate steps are required to provide urgent legal and humanitarian protection to those who are forced to flee their homes and cross international borders because of disasters. PMID:24285982

  10. Ethical considerations of providers and clients on HIV testing campaigns in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Campaigns have been conducted in a number of low HIV prevalence African settings, as a strategy to expand HIV testing, and it is important to assess the extent to which individual rights and quality of care are protected during campaigns. In this article we investigate provider and client perceptions of ethical issues, including whether they think that accessibility of counseling and testing sites during campaigns may hinder confidentiality. Methods To examine how campaigns have functioned in Burkina Faso, we undertook a qualitative study based on individual interviews and focus group discussions with 52 people (providers and clients tested during or outside campaigns and individuals never tested). Thematic analysis was performed on discourse about perceptions and experiences of HIV-testing campaigns, quality of care and individual rights. Results Respondents value testing accessibility and attractiveness during campaigns; clients emphasize convenience, ripple effect, the sense of not being alone, and the anonymity resulting from high attendance. Confronted with numerous clients, providers develop context-specific strategies to ensure consent, counseling, confidentiality and retention in the testing process, and they adapt to workplace arrangements, local resources and social norms. Clients appreciate the quality of care during campaigns. However, new ethical issues arise about confidentiality and accessibility. Confidentiality of HIV-status may be jeopardized due to local social norms that encourage people to share their results with others, when HIV-positive people may not wish to do so. Providers’ ethical concerns are consistent with WHO norms known as the ‘5 Cs,’ though articulated differently. Clients and providers value the accessibility of testing for all during campaigns, and consider it an ethical matter. The study yields insights on the way global norms are adapted or negotiated locally. Conclusions Future global recommendations for HIV

  11. Importance of Soil Moisture and Vegetation Cover for Energy Balance partition in Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceperley, N. C.; Mande, T.; Tyler, S. W.; Bou-Zeid, E.; Van De Giesen, N.; Parlange, M. B.

    2015-12-01

    Land surface characteristics are the main control on hydrologic processes, the driver of most livelihoods, in semi arid West Africa. We use the energy and water balance measured with two eddy-covariance towers, coupled with a dense network of small, wireless meteorological stations in a small (3.5 km2) catchment to understand these relationships. Time series of monthly averages of soil moisture, rainfall, air temperature, cloud cover, components of net radiation, wind speed, and NDVI are presented in relation to the evaporative fraction and energy balance. We found that both latent and sensible heat fluxes are greater over mixed forest and savanna areas compared agricultural land. Sensible heat is found to be most different between the two land-covers at the end of the year, when the grass and vegetation is dry, and latent heat is found to be most different at the beginning of the year, when bare ground dominates. Further examination shows that soil moisture and vegetation indexes provide the main controls on evaporative fraction. These findings have implications for modeling the evaporation over large regions based on remotely sensed land surface temperature. The site is characteristic of the contrasts in vegetation and moisture availability present in the rocky escarpments found in Northern Benin and Southeastern Burkina Faso. Historically these sites are important in location for village choice and land use designation. These findings reinforce local cultural beliefs of the importance of vegetation for climate regulation and may provide support to local farmers for improving the resilience of natural resources and livelihood security.

  12. Assessment of providers' referral decisions in Rural Burkina Faso: a retrospective analysis of medical records

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A well-functioning referral system is fundamental to primary health care delivery. Understanding the providers' referral decision-making process becomes critical. This study's aim was to assess the correctness of diagnoses and appropriateness of the providers' referral decisions from health centers (HCs) to district hospitals (DHs) among patients with severe malaria and pneumonia. Methods A record review of twelve months of consultations was conducted covering eight randomly selected HCs to identify severe malaria (SM) cases among children under five and pneumonia cases among adults. The correctness of the diagnosis and appropriateness of providers' referral decisions were determined using the National Clinical Guidebook as a 'gold standard'. Results Among the 457 SM cases affecting children under five, only 66 cases (14.4%) were correctly diagnosed and of those 66 correctly diagnosed cases, 40 cases (60.6%) received an appropriate referral decision from their providers. Within these 66 correctly diagnosed SM cases, only 60.6% were appropriately referred. Among the adult pneumonia cases, 5.9% (79/1331) of the diagnoses were correctly diagnosed; however, the appropriateness rate of the provider's referral decision was 98.7% (78/79). There was only one case that should not have been referred but was referred. Conclusions The adherence to the National Guidelines among the health center providers when making a diagnosis was low for both severe malaria cases and pneumonia cases. The appropriateness of the referral decisions was particularly poor for children with severe malaria. Health center providers need to be better trained in the diagnostic process and in disease management in order to improve the performance of the referral system in rural Burkina Faso. PMID:22397326

  13. [Disclosure of infant HIV status: mothers' experiences and health workers' interpretations in Burkina Faso].

    PubMed

    Desclaux, Alice; Alfieri, Chiara

    2013-07-01

    Disclosure of HIV status in infants is a special case which does not correspond to general recommendations for counseling as defined for adults, and few norms exist. Whereas preventing mother to child transmission (PMTCT) programs should result in 700,000 annual disclosures regarding infants born to HIV-positive mothers in Africa, the actual figures are much lower and the conditions for disclosure implementation and its social dimensions in the field are not precisely documented. The aims of this article are to describe and analyze the experience of HIV status disclosure for infants and children on the basis of interviews held with mothers and PMTCT teams in Burkina Faso. The method was based on repeated interviews with 37 mothers and with health workers. Their discourses show the complexity of disclosure in a context characterized by uncertainty. They show delays due to difficulties in venipuncture and in methods for laboratory diagnosis and information management in health services. HIV disclosure is implemented by PMTCT physicians and also other professionals, sometimes in other services. The mother plays a key role, sometimes by requesting disclosure; the father is generally informed only secondarily, in spite of his legal responsibility for the child. Interactions analysis reveals some ambiguities of disclosure, regarding information that doctors keep secret, reciprocal expectations of communication between doctors and mothers, mothers' interpretation of apparent signs regarding their child's health, and uncertain information being given. The information often contains guilt-inducing elements for mothers; communication about follow-up does not reduce this effect. These results encourage the elaboration of a model for specific counseling that should provide mothers with general information, and personalized interaction and support that they need in order to receive and manage disclosure of their child's HIV status. PMID:23844803

  14. Pest-managing activities of plant extracts and anthraquinones from Cassia nigricans from Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Georges, Kambou; Jayaprakasam, Bolleddula; Dalavoy, Sanjeev S; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2008-04-01

    Insecticidal activity of eight plants collected from Burkina Faso was studied using mosquito (Ochlerotatus triseriatus), Helicoverpa zea and Heliothis virescens larvae and adult white fly (Bemisia tabaci). The n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Pseudocedrela kotschyi, Strophantus hispidus, Securidaca longepedunculata, Sapium grahamii, Swartzia madagascariensis, Cassia nigricans, Jatropha curcas and Datura innoxia were used in this study. Extracts were tested at 250 microg/mL concentration. All three extracts of C. nigricans, J. curcas (skin and seeds) and D. innoxia exhibited 100% mortality on fourth instar mosquito (O. triseriatus) larvae. In addition, the n-hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of S. hispidus, S. longepedunculata, S. grahamii showed 100% mortality. The ethyl acetate extract of S. madagascariensis was the most active on adult white fly and exhibited 80% mortality. Extracts of all other plants exhibited 30-50% mortality on B. tabaci. In the antifeedant assays against H. zea and H. virescens, the MeOH extracts of C. nigricans, S. madagascarensis and S. hispidus were more effective against H. zea as indicated by 74% larval weight reduction as compared to the control. Since C. nigricans is commonly used in West Africa to protect grain storage from insects, we have characterized the insecticidal components present in its extract. Bioassay directed isolation of C. nigricans leaf extract yielded anthraquinones emodin, citreorosein, and emodic acid and a flavonoid, luteolin. Emodin, the most abundant and active anthraquinone in C. nigricans showed approximately 85% mortality on mosquito larvae Anopheles gambiaea and adult B. tabaci at 50 and 25 microg/mL, respectively, in 24 h. These results suggest that the extract of C. nigricans has the potential to be used as an organic approach to manage some of the agricultural pests. PMID:17478091

  15. Reasons for attending dental-care services in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

    PubMed Central

    Varenne, Benoît; Msellati, Philippe; Zoungrana, Célestin; Fournet, Florence; Salem, Gérard

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine why patients attend dental-care facilities in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso and to improve understanding of the capacity of oral health-care services in urban west Africa. METHODS: We studied a randomly selected sample of patients attending 15 dental-care facilities in Ouagadougou over a 1-year period in 2004. Data were collected using a simple daily record form. FINDINGS: From a total of 44,975 patients, the final sample was established at 14,591 patients, of whom 55.4% were new patients and 44.6% were "booking patients". Most patients seeking care (71.9%) were aged 15-44 years. Nongovernmental not-for-profit dental services were used by 41.5% of all patients, 36% attended private dental-care services, and 22.5% of patients visited public services. The most common complaint causing the patient to seek dental-care services was caries with pulpal involvement (52.4%), and 60% of all complaints were associated with pain. The patients' dental-care requirements were found to differ significantly according to sex, health insurance coverage and occupation. CONCLUSION: Urban district health authorities should ensure provision of primary health-care services, at the patients' first point of contact, which are directed towards the relief of pain. In addition to the strengthening of outreach emergency care, health centres should also contribute to the implementation of community-based programmes for the prevention of oral disease and the promotion of oral health. Exchange of experiences from alternative oral health-care systems relevant to developing countries is urgently needed for tackling the growing burden of oral disease. PMID:16211155

  16. Domestic Larval Control Practices and Malaria Prevalence among Under-Five Children in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Diabaté, Souleymane; Druetz, Thomas; Millogo, Tiéba; Ly, Antarou; Fregonese, Federica; Kouanda, Seni; Haddad, Slim

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Larval source management has contributed to malaria decline over the past years. However, little is known about the impact of larval control practices undertaken at the household level on malaria transmission. Methods The study was conducted in Kaya health district after the 2010 mass distribution of insecticide treated-nets and the initiation of malaria awareness campaigns in Burkina Faso. The aim was to (i) estimate the level of domestic larval control practices (cleaning of the house and its surroundings, eradication of larval sources, and elimination of hollow objects that might collect water); (ii) identify key determinants; and (iii) explore the structural relationships between these practices, participation in awareness-raising activities and mothers’ knowledge/attitudes/practices, and malaria prevalence among under-five children. Results Overall, 2004 households were surveyed and 1,705 under-five children were examined. Half of the mothers undertook at least one action to control larval proliferation. Mothers who had gone to school had better knowledge about malaria and were more likely to undertake domestic larval control practices. Living in highly exposed rural areas significantly decreased the odds of undertaking larval control actions. Mothers’ participation in malaria information sessions increased the adoption of vector control actions and bednet use. Malaria prevalence was statistically lower among children in households where mothers had undertaken at least one vector control action or used bed-nets. There was a 0.16 standard deviation decrease in malaria prevalence for every standard deviation increase in vector control practices. The effect of bednet use on malaria prevalence was of the same magnitude. Conclusion Cleaning the house and its surroundings, eradicating breeding sites, and eliminating hollow objects that might collect water play a substantial role in preventing malaria among under-five. There is a need for national

  17. [A survey of sustainable funding mechanisms for essential drugs in Loumbila, Burkina Faso].

    PubMed

    Saouadogo, Hamado; Amoussou, Koffi Miwonovi; Ouedraogo, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    Households are the main source of health care financing in Burkina Faso. The current system based on out-of-pocket health payments is a major cause of poverty. The purpose of this study was to contribute to the improvement of local health funding in Loumbila and throughout the country. A descriptive and analytical study was conducted among 271 household heads, 3 health committee members, the prefet (the top state official in the area), and the secretary general of the municipality between 25 June and 5 August 2010. A survey guide and questionnaires were used to collect data. The standard public health survey method was used to collect, process, analyze and discuss the results. The results of the survey indicate that 82.3% of the participating households were willing to contribute to the creation of a local health fund in the village. The study found that the average contribution rate of each household amounted to 9% of their annual income. The best periods for collecting funds are during the harvest season (in the case of farmers) or any favorable period (in the case of other households). The municipal committee will need to be responsible for managing and coordinating the municipal health fund. This requires the participation of the state, health districts, NGOs and other partners. The cost of effective treatment for the top ten priority diseases in the village in 2010 is estimated to be 4,011,300 FCFA. If all the households in the village were to contribute to the municipal health fund, the total amount of contributions would amount to 15,575,515 FCFA. Under this system, all households within the village can have access to essential drugs. The municipal health fund can also support municipal development boards to improve the independence and sustainability of the system. PMID:23043742

  18. Tsetse diversity and abundance in Southern Burkina Faso in relation with the vegetation.

    PubMed

    Rayaisse, J-B; Salou, E; Kiema, S; Akoudjin, M; Kaba, D; Kagbadouno, M; Djohan, V; Camara, M; Dayo, G-K; Courtin, F; Solano, P; Bouyer, J

    2015-09-01

    The increase of human population, combined with climatic changes, contributed to the modification of spatial distribution of tsetse flies, main vector of trypanosomiasis. In order to establish and compare tsetse presence and their relationship with vegetation, entomological survey was performed using biconical traps deployed in transects, simultaneously with phyto-sociological study, on the Comoe river at its source in the village of Moussodougou, and in the semi-protected area of Folonzo, both localities in Southern Burkina Faso. In Folonzo, the survey revealed a diversity of tsetse with 4 species occurring with apparent densities as follows: Glossina tachinoides (8.9 tsetse/trap/day); G. morsitans submorsitans (1.8 tsetse/trap/day); G. palpalis gambiensis (0.6/trap/day) and G. medicorum (0.15 tsetse/trap/day). In Moussodougou, a highly anthropized area, mainly G. p. gambiensis was caught (2.06 tsetse/trap/day), and rarely G. tachinoides. The phyto-sociological study allowed discrimination of 6 types of vegetation in both localities, with 3 concordances that are riparian forest, shrubby and woody savannah. In Moussodougou, all tsetse were caught in the riparian forest. That was also the case in Folonzo where a great proportion (95 to 99 % following the season) of G. p. gambiensis and G. tachinoides were caught in the gallery, while G. m. submorsitans was occurring as well in the gallery as in the savannah, and G. medicorum in the forest gallery. This study showed that although G. tachinoides and G.p. gambiensis are both riparian, they do not have the same preference in terms of biotope. PMID:26040845

  19. Tectonic evolution of the Gaoua region, Burkina Faso: Implications for mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baratoux, L.; Metelka, V.; Naba, S.; Ouiya, P.; Siebenaller, L.; Jessell, M. W.; Naré, A.; Salvi, S.; Béziat, D.; Franceschi, G.

    2015-12-01

    The interpretation of high-resolution airborne geophysical data integrated with field structural and lithological observations were employed in the creation of a litho-structural framework for the Gaoua region, Burkina Faso. The granite-greenstone domain of Paleoproterozoic age was affected by multiple deformation and mineralization events. The early tectonic phase is characterized by the emplacement of voluminous tholeiitic and calc-alkaline lavas, probably in a volcanic arc setting. The copper mineralization in Gongondy, Dienemera and Mt Biri is concentrated in a diorite/andesite breccia, and is interpreted as porphyry-copper style formed at an early stage of the evolution of the area. Evidence for the first deformation event D1Ga corresponding to N-S shortening was only found in the E-W trending mafic unit bordering the Gaoua batholith to the south. A second deformation phase D2Ga occurred under greenschist facies conditions and lead to a development of more or less penetrative metamorphic foliation and its subsequent folding under overall E-W compression. At later stages, the D2Ga switched to a transcurrent regime characterized by intense N-S to NW-trending steeply dipping shear zones. The first significant gold mineralization event is related to this transcurrent tectonic phase. During subsequent D3Ga, intense network of brittle to brittle-ductile NW and NE faults developed. Economic gold concentrations are attributed to the D3Ga event and are associated with the remobilization of early disseminated low grade gold concentrations. Significant deposits in the area are Nassara, Gomblora, Batié West and Kampti. The last deformation event D4Ga resulted in E-W trending thrust faults and crenulation cleavage planes, under overall N-S compression. No mineralization events related to this stage have been seen.

  20. The politics of unsafe abortion in Burkina Faso: the interface of local norms and global public health practice.

    PubMed

    Storeng, Katerini T; Ouattara, Fatoumata

    2014-01-01

    In Burkina Faso, abortion is legally restricted and socially stigmatised, but also frequent. Unsafe abortions represent a significant public health challenge, contributing to the country's very high maternal mortality ratio. Inspired by an internationally disseminated public health framing of unsafe abortion, the country's main policy response has been to provide post-abortion care (PAC) to avert deaths from abortion complications. Drawing on ethnographic research, this article describes how Burkina Faso's PAC policy emerged at the interface of political and moral negotiations between public health professionals, national bureaucrats and international agencies and NGOs. Burkinabè decision-makers and doctors, who are often hostile to induced abortion, have been convinced that PAC is 'life-saving care' which should be delivered for ethical medical reasons. Moreover, by supporting PAC they not only demonstrate compliance with international standards but also, importantly, do not have to contend with any change in abortion legislation, which they oppose. Rights-based international NGOs, in turn, tactically focus on PAC as a 'first step' towards their broader institutional objective to secure safe abortion and abortion rights. Such negotiations between national and international actors result in widespread support for PAC but stifled debate about further legalisation of abortion. PMID:25132157

  1. The politics of unsafe abortion in Burkina Faso: The interface of local norms and global public health practice

    PubMed Central

    Storeng, Katerini T.; Ouattara, Fatoumata

    2014-01-01

    In Burkina Faso, abortion is legally restricted and socially stigmatised, but also frequent. Unsafe abortions represent a significant public health challenge, contributing to the country's very high maternal mortality ratio. Inspired by an internationally disseminated public health framing of unsafe abortion, the country's main policy response has been to provide post-abortion care (PAC) to avert deaths from abortion complications. Drawing on ethnographic research, this article describes how Burkina Faso's PAC policy emerged at the interface of political and moral negotiations between public health professionals, national bureaucrats and international agencies and NGOs. Burkinabè decision-makers and doctors, who are often hostile to induced abortion, have been convinced that PAC is ‘life-saving care’ which should be delivered for ethical medical reasons. Moreover, by supporting PAC they not only demonstrate compliance with international standards but also, importantly, do not have to contend with any change in abortion legislation, which they oppose. Rights-based international NGOs, in turn, tactically focus on PAC as a ‘first step’ towards their broader institutional objective to secure safe abortion and abortion rights. Such negotiations between national and international actors result in widespread support for PAC but stifled debate about further legalisation of abortion. PMID:25132157

  2. Population Dynamics of Aphthona whitfieldi (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), Pest of Jatropha curcas, and Environmental Factors Favoring Its Abundance in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Sawadogo, Alizèta; Nagalo, Estérer; Nacro, Souleymane; Rouamba, Mathurin; Kenis, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The flea beetle Aphthona whitfieldi Bryant (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is the main pest of the bioenergy crop Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) in Burkina Faso and several other West African countries. Adults severely defoliate plants, resulting in seedling mortality, poor growth, and low yields. To study the population dynamics of the pest in the Sissili Province of Burkina Faso, 12 sites were monitored weekly during a year and 31 sites were inspected for damage at the peak period of insect abundance. The effect of cropping systems (hedge, intercropping, and monoculture) and surrounding vegetation on population densities of A. whitfieldi was assessed. Beetles were rarely found in the dry season and peaked in the second half of the rainy season. The cropping system did not significantly influence the abundance and attack level. In contrast, the close vicinity of fallow lands seems to increase damage levels. Many aspects of the biology and ecology of A. whitfieldi remain to be investigated before sustainable control methods can be developed. However, this study already allows us to propose recommendations for further research on management. PMID:26206896

  3. Independent Evaluation of the Rapid Scale-Up Program to Reduce Under-Five Mortality in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Munos, Melinda; Guiella, Georges; Roberton, Timothy; Maïga, Abdoulaye; Tiendrebeogo, Adama; Tam, Yvonne; Bryce, Jennifer; Baya, Banza

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a prospective evaluation of the “Rapid Scale-Up” (RSU) program in Burkina Faso, focusing on the integrated community case management (iCCM) component of the program. We used a quasi-experimental design in which nine RSU districts were compared with seven districts without the program. The evaluation included documentation of program implementation, assessments of implementation and quality of care, baseline and endline coverage surveys, and estimation of mortality changes using the Lives Saved Tool. Although the program trained large numbers of community health workers, there were implementation shortcomings related to training, supervision, and drug stockouts. The quality of care provided to sick children was poor, and utilization of community health workers was low. Changes in intervention coverage were comparable in RSU and comparison areas. Estimated under-five mortality declined by 6.2% (from 110 to 103 deaths per 1,000 live births) in the RSU area and 4.2% (from 114 to 109 per 1,000 live births) in the comparison area. The RSU did not result in coverage increases or mortality reductions in Burkina Faso, but we cannot draw conclusions about the effectiveness of the iCCM strategy, given implementation shortcomings. The evaluation results highlight the need for greater attention to implementation of iCCM programs. PMID:26787147

  4. Population Dynamics of Aphthona whitfieldi (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), Pest of Jatropha curcas, and Environmental Factors Favoring Its Abundance in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Sawadogo, Alizèta; Nagalo, Estérer; Nacro, Souleymane; Rouamba, Mathurin; Kenis, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The flea beetle Aphthona whitfieldi Bryant (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is the main pest of the bioenergy crop Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) in Burkina Faso and several other West African countries. Adults severely defoliate plants, resulting in seedling mortality, poor growth, and low yields. To study the population dynamics of the pest in the Sissili Province of Burkina Faso, 12 sites were monitored weekly during a year and 31 sites were inspected for damage at the peak period of insect abundance. The effect of cropping systems (hedge, intercropping, and monoculture) and surrounding vegetation on population densities of A. whitfieldi was assessed. Beetles were rarely found in the dry season and peaked in the second half of the rainy season. The cropping system did not significantly influence the abundance and attack level. In contrast, the close vicinity of fallow lands seems to increase damage levels. Many aspects of the biology and ecology of A. whitfieldi remain to be investigated before sustainable control methods can be developed. However, this study already allows us to propose recommendations for further research on management. PMID:26206896

  5. The Saturation+ Approach to Behavior Change: Case Study of a Child Survival Radio Campaign in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Murray, Joanna; Remes, Pieter; Ilboudo, Rita; Belem, Mireille; Salouka, Souleymane; Snell, Will; Wood, Cathryn; Lavoie, Matthew; Deboise, Laurent; Head, Roy

    2015-12-01

    A 35-month cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted in Burkina Faso to test whether a radio campaign focused on child health, broadcast between March 2012 and January 2015, could reduce under-5 mortality. This paper describes the design and implementation of the mass media intervention in detail, including the Saturation+ principles that underpinned the approach, the creative process, the lessons learned, and recommendations for implementing this intervention at scale. The Saturation+ approach focuses on the 3 core principles of saturation (ensuring high exposure to campaign messages), science (basing campaign design on data and modeling), and stories (focusing the dramatic climax on the target behavior) to maximize the impact of behavior change campaigns. In Burkina Faso, creative partnerships with local radio stations helped us obtain free airtime in exchange for training and investing in alternative energy supplies to solve frequent energy problems faced by the stations. The campaign used both short spots and longer drama formats, but we consider the short spots as a higher priority to retain during scale-up, as they are more cost-effective than longer formats and have the potential to ensure higher exposure of the population to the messages. The implementation research synthesized in this paper is designed to enable the effective adoption and integration of evidence-based behavior change communication interventions into health care policy and practice. PMID:26681703

  6. The Saturation+ Approach to Behavior Change: Case Study of a Child Survival Radio Campaign in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Joanna; Remes, Pieter; Ilboudo, Rita; Belem, Mireille; Salouka, Souleymane; Snell, Will; Wood, Cathryn; Lavoie, Matthew; Deboise, Laurent; Head, Roy

    2015-01-01

    A 35-month cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted in Burkina Faso to test whether a radio campaign focused on child health, broadcast between March 2012 and January 2015, could reduce under-5 mortality. This paper describes the design and implementation of the mass media intervention in detail, including the Saturation+ principles that underpinned the approach, the creative process, the lessons learned, and recommendations for implementing this intervention at scale. The Saturation+ approach focuses on the 3 core principles of saturation (ensuring high exposure to campaign messages), science (basing campaign design on data and modeling), and stories (focusing the dramatic climax on the target behavior) to maximize the impact of behavior change campaigns. In Burkina Faso, creative partnerships with local radio stations helped us obtain free airtime in exchange for training and investing in alternative energy supplies to solve frequent energy problems faced by the stations. The campaign used both short spots and longer drama formats, but we consider the short spots as a higher priority to retain during scale-up, as they are more cost-effective than longer formats and have the potential to ensure higher exposure of the population to the messages. The implementation research synthesized in this paper is designed to enable the effective adoption and integration of evidence-based behavior change communication interventions into health care policy and practice. PMID:26681703

  7. Effectiveness of vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides L. Nash) for phytoremediation of endosulfan in two cotton soils from Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Abaga, Norbert Ondo Zue; Dousset, Sylvie; Munier-Lamy, Colette; Billet, David

    2014-01-01

    The influence of vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) on the fate of endosulfan was studied using a vertisol and a lixisol soils from cotton-growing areas of Burkina Faso. Endosulfan adsorption isotherms were prepared for planted and unplanted soils. Pot experiments were then conducted for six months. For both soils, endosulfan adsorption was higher on planted soils (K(f) = 6.53-9.73 mg(l-n) L(n) kg(-1)) than on unplanted soils (6.27-7.24 mg(l-n) L(n) kg(-1)). In unplanted soils, vertisol adsorbed more endosulfan than lixisol. From the pot experiments, the estimated half-lives of endosulfan in unplanted soils (40.6 to 43.1 days) were higher than in planted soils (34.5 to 40.6 days) containing a greater number of endosulfan-degrading microorganisms. Six months after treatment, endosulfan was not detected in soils. The effectiveness of vetiver in promoting adsorption and the disappearance of endosulfan in both studied soils should be validated on the cotton plot scale in Burkina Faso. PMID:24912218

  8. Diversity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from Borassus akeassii palm wines from Burkina Faso in comparison to other African beverages.

    PubMed

    Tapsoba, François; Legras, Jean-Luc; Savadogo, Aly; Dequin, Sylvie; Traore, Alfred Sababenedyo

    2015-10-15

    In South-West of Burkina Faso, palm wine is produced by spontaneous fermentation of the sap from a specific palm tree Borassus akeassii and plays an important role in people's lives. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the main agent of this alcoholic fermentation but little is known about the diversity of the isolates from palm. In this work, 39 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were isolated from palm wine samples collected from 14 sites in Burkina Faso, as well as 7 isolates obtained from sorghum beer (Dolo) from 3 distant sites. Their diversity was analyzed at 12 microsatellite loci, and compared to the genotypes obtained for other African yeast populations isolated from Cocoa hulks from Ghana, sorghum beer from Ivory Coast, palm wine from Djibouti Republic, and to our database of strains from miscellaneous origins (bread, beer, wine, sake, oaks…). The ploidy of these strains has been assessed as well by flow cytometry. Our results show that B. akeassii palm wine contains a specific yeast population of diploid strains, different from Dolo produced in the same area and from other palm wine strains from Ivory Coast, Nigeria, or Djibouti Republic. In contrast, Dolo strains appeared as a group of related and mainly tetraploid strains despite being isolated from different countries. PMID:26202324

  9. Adapting to an innovation: Solar cooking in the urban households of Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toonen, Hilde M.

    Most households in Sub-Saharan Africa rely on wood as primary energy source. The availability of wood is decreasing and deforestation is a major ecological problem in Sub-Saharan Africa. The scarcity of wood is demanding for a sustainable solution. The sun seems to provide a good alternative. Solar energy is free, without unhealthy smoke or chances to burns. The idea of using solar energy for cooking is not new: many different techniques have already been tested. Most variants are expensive, and therefore not available for most families in Sub-Saharan Africa. A cheap solar cooking device is the CooKit, a cardboard panel cooker covered with aluminium foil. In the adaptation to the CooKit, as to all innovations, it is important that the users are convinced of the advantages. An important step in the adaptation process is learning how to use the cooking device; the best way to do this is by home practice. Monitoring and evaluating the real use is needed, for it is interesting to know if the CooKit is actually used, and also to find out how women have implemented the new technique in their kitchens. In 2005, the SUPO foundation started a project in Burkina Faso: Programme Energie Solaire Grand-Ouaga (PESGO). The aim of PESGO is to introduce the CooKit in the urban households in Ouagadougou by providing training sessions and home assistance. In this paper, a mid-term review on this small-scale cooking project is presented. The possibilities and challenges of solar cooking are outlined, taking the urban context of Ouagadougou in account. In PESGO, dependence on weather conditions is found to be one of the challenges: if sunrays are blocked by clouds or dust in the air, the cooking will be slowed down. The CooKit cannot replace firewood entirely, and a complementary element has to be found. SUPO is exploring the use of Jatropha oil as a complement to the CooKit. The Jatropha plant is drought tolerant and its fruits contain oil which can be used as fuel substitute. Further

  10. [Parasitological profile of urinary schistosomiasis of the Sourou hydroagricultural complex of Burkina Faso].

    PubMed

    Poda, J N; Sorgho, H; Dianou, D; Sawadogo, B; Kambou, T; Parent, G; Sondo, B

    2001-03-01

    In the Sourou area of Burkina Faso, parasitological and malacological surveys of urinary schistosomiasis have been carried out in the constructed sites of Guédougou, Niasan and Débé dating respectively from 1967, 1986 and 1996. The investigations covered also the traditional villages of Lanfiera, Di, Poro, Tiao and Mara situated in the middle of the hydroagricultural planning for the first, very close to the lake for the second and about twenty kilometres distant for the three last. These towns represent the main sites in the Sourou area. The results of the parasitological surveys showed that urinary schistosomiasis was present in all sites. The levels of prevalence varied considerably: 70.3% in Guiédougou, 40.8% in Niassan, 8.5% in Débè in the irrigated zone, 55.6% in Lanfiéra, 56.8% in Di, 13.2% in Poro, 83.3% in Tiao and 64.7% in Mara. Concerning the malacological investigation, two species (Bulinus senegalensis and B. truncatus) were shown to be intermediate hosts of Schistosoma haematobium. The first was endemic to the area while the second was compatible with S. haematobium from the Sourou and other zones. Compared to the results of earlier investigations, the endemic had worsened with differences according to sites. This disparity of prevalence levels which has already been observed in other hydroagricultural area results from many factors, among which the impact of irrigation activities, the aquatic biotope system (irrigation canals, natural lake, pools and temporary rivers) and the type of contact of human communities with water rank high. Schistosomiasis expansion is amplified by the intermediate host dynamics and the introduction of new schistosomes carried by the new workers arriving from all over the country. In these conditions, in order to reduce rapidly prevalence levels, preventive measures should be centred on chemotherapy for the population. The treatment should be administered during a period of weak intermediate host density and be

  11. Social and environmental malaria risk factors in urban areas of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Baragatti, Meili; Fournet, Florence; Henry, Marie-Claire; Assi, Serge; Ouedraogo, Herman; Rogier, Christophe; Salem, Gérard

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite low endemicity, malaria remains a major health problem in urban areas where a high proportion of fevers are presumptively treated using anti-malarial drugs. Low acquired malaria immunity, behaviour of city-dwellers, access to health care and preventive interventions, and heterogenic suitability of urban ecosystems for malaria transmission contribute to the complexity of the malaria epidemiology in urban areas. Methods The study was designed to identify the determinants of malaria transmission estimated by the prevalence of anti-circumsporozoite (CSP) antibodies, the prevalence and density of Plasmodium falciparum infection, and the prevalence of malarial disease in areas of Ouagadougou, Burkina-Faso. Thick blood smears, dried blood spots and clinical status have been collected from 3,354 randomly chosen children aged 6 months to 12 years using two cross-sectional surveys (during the dry and rainy seasons) in eight areas from four ecological strata defined according to building density and land tenure (regular versus irregular). Demographic characteristics, socio-economic information, and sanitary and environmental data concerning the children or their households were simultaneously collected. Dependent variables were analysed using mixed multivariable models with random effects, taking into account the clustering of participants within compounds and areas. Results Overall prevalences of CSP-antibodies and P. falciparum infections were 7.7% and 16.6% during the dry season, and 12.4% and 26.1% during the rainy season, respectively, with significant differences according to ecological strata. Malaria risk was significantly higher among children who i) lived in households with lower economic or education levels, iii) near the hydrographic network, iv) in sparsely built-up areas, v) in irregularly built areas, vi) who did not use a bed net, vii) were sampled during the rainy season or ii) had traveled outside of Ouagadougou. Conclusion Malaria control

  12. Policy entrepreneurs and structural influence in integrated community case management policymaking in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Shearer, Jessica C

    2015-12-01

    Policy entrepreneurs are individuals who attempt to influence the policy process and its outcomes through their opportunistic or incremental actions. Their success in the policy-making process has been associated with the convergence of four factors: behavioural traits; institutional factors; network position and political capital. Policy entrepreneurs have received little study in low- and middle-income country policy research despite observations of individualized decision-making, informal institutions and the unequal distribution and exercise of power in policymaking. This article aims to identify whether policy entrepreneurs were present in the policy process around integrated community case management (iCCM) in Burkina Faso, whether they were successful in achieving policy change, and whether success or failure can be explained using existing policy entrepreneur frameworks from high-income polities. This mixed methods policy study collected data from in-depth qualitative interviews and social network surveys of actors involved in iCCM policymaking [known locally as C-integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI)]; data were analysed based on the framework categories. Interview data pointed to one key individual who played a significant role in the inclusion of pneumonia treatment into the country's iCCM policy, an issue that had been a point of contention between government policy elites and development partners. Social network data confirmed that this actor was strategically located in the policy network to be able to reach the most other actors and to be able to control the flow of information. Although some development partner actors were as strategically located, none had the same level of authority or trust as was imbued by being a member of the government civil service. The entrepreneur's mid-level rank in the health ministry may have encouraged him/her to invest political capital and take risks that would not have been feasible or attractive to a

  13. Policy entrepreneurs and structural influence in integrated community case management policymaking in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Policy entrepreneurs are individuals who attempt to influence the policy process and its outcomes through their opportunistic or incremental actions. Their success in the policy-making process has been associated with the convergence of four factors: behavioural traits; institutional factors; network position and political capital. Policy entrepreneurs have received little study in low- and middle-income country policy research despite observations of individualized decision-making, informal institutions and the unequal distribution and exercise of power in policymaking. This article aims to identify whether policy entrepreneurs were present in the policy process around integrated community case management (iCCM) in Burkina Faso, whether they were successful in achieving policy change, and whether success or failure can be explained using existing policy entrepreneur frameworks from high-income polities. This mixed methods policy study collected data from in-depth qualitative interviews and social network surveys of actors involved in iCCM policymaking [known locally as C-integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI)]; data were analysed based on the framework categories. Interview data pointed to one key individual who played a significant role in the inclusion of pneumonia treatment into the country’s iCCM policy, an issue that had been a point of contention between government policy elites and development partners. Social network data confirmed that this actor was strategically located in the policy network to be able to reach the most other actors and to be able to control the flow of information. Although some development partner actors were as strategically located, none had the same level of authority or trust as was imbued by being a member of the government civil service. The entrepreneur’s mid-level rank in the health ministry may have encouraged him/her to invest political capital and take risks that would not have been feasible or attractive to

  14. Situational analysis of infant and young child nutrition policies and programmatic activities in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Wuehler, Sara E; Ouedraogo, Albertine Wendpagnagdé

    2011-04-01

    Progress towards reducing mortality and malnutrition among children < 5 years of age has been less than needed to achieve related Millennium Development Goals. Therefore, several international agencies joined to 'Reposition children's right to adequate nutrition in the Sahel', starting with an analysis of current activities related to infant and young child nutrition (IYCN). The objectives of the present paper are to compare relevant national policies, training materials, programmes, and monitoring and evaluation activities with internationally accepted IYCN recommendations. These findings are available to assist countries in identifying inconsistencies and filling gaps in current programming. Between August and November 2008, key informants responsible for conducting IYCN-related activities in Burkina Faso were interviewed, and 153 documents were examined on the following themes: optimal breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices, prevention of micronutrient deficiencies, screening and treatment of acute malnutrition, prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, food security and hygienic practices. National policy documents addressed nearly all of the key IYCN topics, specifically or generally. Formative research has identified some local barriers and beliefs related to general breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices, and other formative research addressed about half of the IYCN topics included in this review. However, there was little evidence that this formative research was being utilized in developing training materials and designing programme interventions. Nevertheless, the training materials that were reviewed do provide specific guidance for nearly all of the key IYCN topics. Although many of the IYCN programmes are intended for national coverage, we could only confirm with available reports that programme coverage extended to certain regions. Some programme monitoring and evaluation were conducted, but few of these provided

  15. Equity and health policy in Africa: Using concept mapping in Moore (Burkina Faso)

    PubMed Central

    Ridde, Valéry

    2008-01-01

    Background This methodological article is based on a health policy research project conducted in Burkina Faso (West Africa). Concept mapping (CM) was used as a research method to understand the local views of equity among stakeholders, who were concerned by the health policy under consideration. While this technique has been used in North America and elsewhere, to our knowledge it has not yet been applied in Africa in any vernacular language. Its application raises many issues and certain methodological limitations. Our objective in this article is to present its use in this particular context, and to share a number of methodological observations on the subject. Methods Two CMs were done among two different groups of local stakeholders following four steps: generating ideas, structuring the ideas, computing maps using multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis methods, and interpreting maps. Fifteen nurses were invited to take part in the study, all of whom had undergone training on health policies. Of these, nine nurses (60%) ultimately attended the two-day meeting, conducted in French. Of 45 members of village health committees who attended training on health policies, only eight were literate in the local language (Moore). Seven of these (88%) came to the meeting. Results The local perception of equity seems close to the egalitarian model. The actors are not ready to compromise social stability and peace for the benefit of the worst-off. The discussion on the methodological limitations of CM raises the limitations of asking a single question in Moore and the challenge of translating a concept as complex as equity. While the translation of equity into Moore undoubtedly oriented the discussions toward social relations, we believe that, in the context of this study, the open-ended question concerning social justice has a threefold relevance. At the same time, those limitations were transformed into strengths. We understand that it was essential to resort to the

  16. La stigmatisation des PVVIH en Afrique: analyse de ses formes et manifestations au Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Ky-Zerbo, Odette; Desclaux, Alice; Asmar, Khalil El; Makhlouf-Obermeyer, Carla; Msellati, Philippe; Somé, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Introduction l’impact négatif de la stigmatisation sur la prévention du VIH et la prise en charge a été documenté. La stigmatisation a été analysée au plan qualitatif au Burkina Faso, où la prévalence VIH est faible (1 %). Des mesures quantitatives sont encore nécessaires pour identifier les formes et manifestations majeures de la stigmatisation. Méthodologie dans le cadre de l’étude MATCH (Multi-country African Study on Testing and Counselling for HIV), une étude transversale a été conduite auprès de personnes ayant déjà fait le test VIH. Les personnes séropositives ont été interrogées sur les conséquences du résultat VIH+. Leur vécu de la stigmatisation a été évalué à travers 20 indicateurs de manifestations de la stigmatisation, regroupés en trois formes de stigmatisation/discrimination. Résultats au total 219 PVVIH ont été recrutées. L’autostigmatisation est la forme majeure de stigmatisation. Elle est estimée dans cette étude à 46 % comparativement à la stigmatisation dans les relations interpersonnelles évaluée à 40 % et la stigmatisation dans les services de santé qui est de 11 %. L’expérience de la stigmatisation dans les relations interpersonnelles est davantage rapportée par les PVVIH qui ont partagé leur résultat, celles qui ont un faible niveau de scolarisation, les veufs/veuves ou séparés, et les membres d’association. La stigmatisation dans les services de santé est rapportée plus souvent par les membres d’associations. Conclusion les programmes de prise en charge doivent, parallèlement à l’extension des antirétroviraux, intégrer un volet psychologique plus adapté aux besoins. Les activités d’appui psychosocial ciblant davantage l’individu doivent être développées, surtout au sein des associations. PMID:25291886

  17. The key actors maintaining elders in functional autonomy in Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Globally, a significant increase in functional disability among the elderly is expected in the near future. It is therefore vital to begin considering how Sub-Saharan Africa countries can best start building or strengthening the care and support system for that target population. Study objectives are: 1) identify the key actors of the social system who maintain elders in functional autonomy at home in Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso) and 2) to describe the functional status of older people living at home. Methods We conducted a longitudinal descriptive study among the elderly aged 60 and above (351). Their functional status was evaluated using the Functional Autonomy Measurement System (SMAF). Data analysis was done using the statistical software package STATA (SE11). Results In Bobo-Dioulasso, 68% of seniors have good functional capacity or a slight incapacity and 32% have moderate to severe incapacities. Older people die before (3%) or during (14%) moderate to severe disabilities. This would mean that the quality of medical and/or social care is not good for maintaining functional autonomy of older people with moderate to severe disabilities. Two main groups of people contribute to maintain elders in functional autonomy: the elderly themselves and their family. Community, private or public structures for maintaining elders in functional autonomy are non-existent. The social system for maintaining elders in functional autonomy is incomplete and failing. In case of functional handicap at home, the elders die. But stakeholders are not conscious of this situation; they believe that this system is good for maintaining elders in functional autonomy. Conclusion It is likely that the absence of formal care and support structure likely shortens the lifespan of severely disabled older people. Stakeholders have not yet looked at this possibility. The stakeholders should seriously think about: 1) how to establish the third level of actors who can fulfill the needs to

  18. Which incentive package will retain regionalized health personnel in Burkina Faso: a discrete choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The lack of motivation of health workers to practice in rural areas remains a crucial problem for decision-makers, as it deprives the majority of access to health care. To solve the problem, many countries have implemented health worker retention strategies. However, the development of such strategies requires an understanding of the preferences of health workers. The objective of the study was to identify a package for attracting and retaining health workers in underserved areas. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted in three health regions of Burkina Faso in 2012. A discrete choice experiment was used to investigate preferences for incentive packages among health workers recruited under the regionalized policy. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions with health workers currently working in the East and Sahel regions and policy makers, and a literature review on attraction and retention in low income countries, were performed to identify the attributes and levels. These attributes were: the regionalized recruitment policy, health insurance, work equipment, housing, and specific incentive compensation. The final design resulted in 16 choice sets. A multinomial logistic regression was used to determine the influence of socio-demographic characteristics on choice of a given option. A probit logistic regression model was then used to analyze the effect of these difference variables on choice, to identify the incentive package best suited to health workers. In total, questionnaires were administered to 315 regional health workers. Results For all participants, choice of package was strongly influenced by length of commitment under the policy and provision of housing. Sex, number of years in profession, and location also influenced the choice of package. Women are twice more likely to choose a package with free housing and the cancellation of the policy. Conclusion It is important that governments consider health worker preferences in

  19. Malaria relevance and diagnosis in febrile Burkina Faso travellers: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a lack of information regarding the epidemiology of malaria among travellers from non-malaria endemic countries to Sahelian areas. The literature provides general statistics about imported malaria in industrialized countries or extensive recommendations about fever management, but none of these recommendations are applicable to developing countries. Methods The aim of the study was to evaluate the aetiologies of fever, malaria prevalence, and best diagnostic methods in a population of 306 non-malaria endemic travellers who, over a one-year period, consulted the French embassy’s Centre Médico-Social in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) for fever. All patients underwent a clinical examination, a questionnaire, and three different malaria tests: thick blood film, QBC-test and HRP-2-based rapid diagnostic test. Results Fever was caused by malaria in 69 cases (23%), while 37 (12%) were due to Pneumonia and 35 cases (8%) to ENT infections. Fever remained unexplained in 87 patients (51.3%). Malaria prevalence varied throughout the year: about 90% of malaria cases were diagnosed during and after the rainy season, between July and December, with up to 50% malaria prevalence for fever cases in October. Malaria diagnosis based solely on clinical signs, combined or not, leads to about 80% of unnecessary treatments.Although anti-malarial chemoprophylaxis was used in only 69% of short-stay patients (who travelled for less than three months), this was effective. Under local conditions, and using blood film examination as the reference method, the QBC test appeared to be more reliable than the HRP-2-based rapid diagnostic test, with respective sensitivities of 98.6% versus 84.1%, and specificities of 99.6% versus 98.3%. Conclusions Reliable biological diagnosis of malaria among travellers from non-malaria endemic countries in Sahelian areas is necessary because of low malaria prevalence and the poor performance of clinical diagnosis. A fever during the first half

  20. Evaluation d'un ecosysteme pastoral sahelien: Apport de la geomatique (Oursi, Burkina Faso)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabore, Seraphine Sawadogo

    L'objectif principal de cette recherche est la mise au point d'une architecture d'integration de donnees socio-bio-geographiques et de donnees satellitales dans un Systeme d'Information Geographique (SIG) en vue d'une aide a la prise de decisions dans un environnement semi-aride au nord du Burkina Faso. Elle repond a la question fondamentale de l'interpretation des effets des facteurs climatiques et socioeconomiques sur le milieu pastoral. La recherche s'est appuyee sur plusieurs hypotheses de travail: possibilite d'utilisation de modele de simulation, d'approche multicritere et de donnees de teledetection dans un cadre de systeme d'information geographique. L'evolution spatiotemporelle des parametres de productivite du milieu a ete evaluee par approche dynamique selon le modele de Wu et al. (1996) qui modelise les interactions entre le climat, le milieu physique, le vegetal et l'animal pour mieux quantifier la biomasse primaire. A ce modele, quatre parametres ont ete integres par approche floue et multicritere afin de prendre en compte la dimension socioeconomique de la productivite pastorale (apport majeur de la recherche): la sante, l'education, l'agriculture et l'eau. La teledetection (imagerie SPOT) a permis de definir la production primaire a partir de laquelle les simulations ont ete realisees sur 10 annees. Les resultats obtenus montrent une bonne correlation entre biomasse primaire in situ et celle calculee pour les deux modeles, avec toutefois une meilleure efficacite du modele modifie (4 fois plus) dans les zones de forte productivite ou l'on note un taux de surexploitation agricole eleve. A cause de la variabilite spatiale de la production primaire in situ, les erreurs des resultats de simulation (8 a 11%) sont acceptables et montrent la pertinence de l'approche grace a l'utilisation des SIG pour la spatialisation et l'integration des differents parametres des modeles. Les types de production secondaire preconises (production de lait pendant 7 mois ou

  1. Carbon dynamics with prolonged arable cropping soils in the Dano district (Southwest Burkina-Faso)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hounkpatin, Ozias; Welp, Gerhard; Amelung, Wulf

    2016-04-01

    The conversion of natural ecosystems into agricultural land affects the atmospheric CO2 concentration whose increase contributes to global warming. In the low activity clay soils (LAC) of the tropics, farming is largely dependent on the level of soil organic carbon (SOC) for sustainable crop production. In this study, we investigated the changes in SOC in Plinthosols along a cultivation chronosequence in the Dano district (Southwest Burkina-Faso). The chronosequence consisted of undisturbed savannah (Y0) and 11 agricultural fields with short and long histories of cultivation ranging from 1-year-old cropland to 29-year-old cropland (Y29). About 14 soil profiles were described and soil composite samples were taken per horizon. Particulate organic matter (POM) was fractionated according to particle size: fraction 2000 - 250 μm (POM1), 250 μm - 53 μm (POM2), 53 μm - 20 μm (POM3), and < 20 μm (nonPOM). Our results revealed that the extent of change in SOC stock varied with depth and the age of the cropland. The impact of cultivation was greater in the top 10 cm with a decrease in SOC stock of 21 t C/ha after 29 years of cropping indicating that about 60% of the initial stock in the native vegetation had been released. The SOC content and stock in the different POM fractions followed the following pattern: non POM > POM1 > POM3 > POM2 carbon no matter the duration of land use. However, SOC losses occurred not only in the labile C pools but also in the stabile nonPOM fraction with increasing duration of agricultural land use. Compared to the initial carbon content in the Y0 field, about 59% of carbon content loss occurred in the POM1 (> 250 μm), 53% in the POM2 (250 - 53 μm), 52 % in the POM3 (53 - 20 μm) and 47% in the nonPOM fraction (< 20 μm) after 11 years of cultivation while 79 % occurred in the POM1 C, 75% in the POM2C, 78 % in the POM3 C and 67% in the nonPOM C after 29 years of cultivation. Though most carbon was found as nonPOM, indicating that organo

  2. Assessing Land Management Changes and Population Dynamics in Central Burkina Faso in Response to Climate Change.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabore Bontogho, P. E.; Boubacar, I.; Afouda, A.; Joerg, H.

    2015-12-01

    Assessing landscape and population's dynamics at watershed level contribute to address anthropogenic aspect of climate change issue owing to the close link between LULC and climate changes. The objective of this study is to explore the dependencies of population to land management changes in Massili basin (2612 km²) located in central Burkina Faso. A set of three satellite scenes was acquired for the years 1990 (Landsat 7 ETM), 2002 (Landsat 7 ETM+) and 2013 (Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS) from the Global Land Cover Facility's (GLCF) website. Census data were provided by the National institute of statistics and demographic (INSD). The satellites images were classified using object-oriented classification method which was supported by historic maps and field data. Those were collected in order to allow for class definition, verification and accuracy assessments. Based on the developed land use maps, change analysis was carried out using post classification comparison in GIS. Finally, derived land use changes were compared with census data in order to explore links between population dynamics and the land use changes. It was found in 1990 that Massili watershed LULC was dominated by Tree/shrub savannah (69%, 1802.28 km2 ), Farm/Fallow was representing 22%, Gallery forest (4%), Settlement (3%), Barre soil (1%), Water bodies (1%). In 2002, the major landscape was Farm (54%). Tree/Shrub savannas were reduced to 36% while the Gallery Forest was decreased to1% of the basin area. The situation has also slightly changed in 2013 with an increase of the area devoted to farm/fallow and settlement at a rate of 3% and Gallery forest has increased to 4%. The changes in land use are in agreement with a notable increase in population. The analysis of census data showed that the number of inhabitants increased from 338 inhabitants per km2 in 1990 to 1150 inhabitants per km2 in 2013. As shown by statistical analysis (Kendall correlation tau=0.9), there is a close relation between both dynamics.

  3. Host Genetic Factors Affect Susceptibility to Norovirus Infections in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Nordgren, Johan; Nitiema, Léon W.; Ouermi, Djeneba; Simpore, Jacques; Svensson, Lennart

    2013-01-01

    Norovirus (NoV) constitutes the second most common viral pathogen causing pediatric diarrhea after rotavirus. In Africa, diarrhea is a major health problem in children, and yet few studies have been performed regarding NoV. The association of histo-blood group antigens (HBGA) and susceptibility to NoV infection is well established in Caucasian populations with non-secretors being resistant to many common NoV strains. No study regarding HBGA and NoV susceptibility has yet been performed in Africa. We collected 309 stool and 208 saliva samples from diarrheal children in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso; May 2009 to March 2010. NoV was detected using real-time PCR, and genotyped by sequencing. Saliva samples were ABO, Lewis and secretor phenotyped using in house ELISA assays. NoV was detected in 12% (n = 37) of the samples. The genotype diversity was unusually large; overall the 37 positive samples belonged to 14 genotypes. Only children <2 years of age were NoV positive and the GII.4 NoVs were more frequent in the late dry season (Jan-May). NoV infections were observed less in children with the secretor-negative phenotype or blood group A (OR 0.18; p = 0.012 and OR 0.31; p = 0.054; respectively), with two non-secretors infected with genotypes GII.7 and GII.4 respectively. Lewis-negative (Lea−b−) children, representing 32% of the study population, were susceptible to GII, but were not infected with any NoV GI. GII.4 strains preferentially infected children with blood group B whereas secretor-positive children with blood group O were infected with the largest variety of genotypes. This is the first study identifying host genetic factors associated with susceptibility to NoV in an African population, and suggests that while the non-secretor phenotype provides protection; the Lewis b antigen is not necessary for GII infection. PMID:23894502

  4. Biological Status and Dietary Intakes of Iron, Zinc and Vitamin A among Women and Preschool Children in Rural Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Prevel, Yves; Allemand, Pauline; Nikiema, Laetitia; Ayassou, Kossiwavi A.; Ouedraogo, Henri Gautier; Moursi, Mourad; De Moura, Fabiana F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Food-based approaches such as biofortification are meant to sustainably address micronutrient deficiencies in poor settings. Knowing more about micronutrient intakes and deficiencies is a prerequisite to designing and evaluating interventions. Objective The objectives of the study were to assess biological status and dietary intakes of iron, zinc and vitamin A among women and children aged 36–59 months in rural Burkina Faso and to study relationships between intake and status to better inform future food-based interventions. Design A cross-sectional survey was carried out in two rural provinces of Burkina Faso on a random cluster sample of 480 mother-child pairs. Dietary data was obtained by 24-hour recalls repeated on a random sub-selection of 37.5% of subjects to allow calculation of nutrient’s probability of adequacy (PA). Biomarkers were measured on a sub-sample of 180 mother-child pairs. Blood samples were analyzed for hemoglobin, serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptors (sTfR), C-reactive protein, alpha-1-glycoprotein, serum zinc concentration (SZnC) and retinol. For each micronutrient the relationship between biomarker and dietary intake was investigated by multiple linear regression models accounting for inflammatory biomarkers. Results Mean PA for iron, zinc and vitamin A was 0.49, 0.87 and 0.21 among women and 0.61, 0.95 and 0.33 among children, respectively. Prevalence of anemia, corrected low serum ferritin and high sTfR was 37.6%, 4.0% and 77.5% among women and 72.1%, 1.5% and 87.6% among children, respectively. Prevalence of low SZnC and corrected low serum retinol was 39.4% and 12.0% among women and 63.7% and 24.8% among children, respectively. There was a tendency for a positive relationship between vitamin A intakes and serum retinol among women (β = 0.0003, P = 0.06). Otherwise, no link was found between micronutrients biomarkers and intakes. Conclusion Our study depicted different images of micronutrient deficiencies when

  5. Measuring self-reported health in low-income countries: piloting three instruments in semi-rural Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Blomstedt, Yulia; Souares, Aurélia; Niamba, Louis; Sie, Ali; Weinehall, Lars; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Background National surveys in low-income countries increasingly rely on self-reported measures of health. The ease, speed, and economy of collecting self-reports of health make such collection attractive for rapid appraisals. However, the interpretation of these measures is complicated since different cultures understand and respond to the same question in different ways. Objective The aim of this pilot study was to develop a culturally sensitive tool to study the self-reported health (SRH) of the local adult population in Burkina Faso. Design The study was carried out in the 2009 rainy season. The sample included 27 men and 25 women aged 18 or older who live in semi-urban Nouna, Burkina Faso. Three culturally adapted instruments were tested: a SRH question, a wooden visual analogue scale (VAS), and a drawn VAS. Respondents were asked to explain their answers to each instrument. The narratives were analyzed with the content analysis technique, and the prevalence of poor SRH was estimated from the quantitative data by stratification for respondent background variables (sex, age, literacy, education, marital status, ethnicity, chronic diseases). The correlation between the instruments was tested with Spearman’s correlation test. Results The SRH question showed a 38.5% prevalence of poor SRH and 44.2% prevalence with both VAS. The correlation between the VAS was 0.89, whereas the correlation between the VAS and the SRH question was 0.60–0.64. Nevertheless, the question used as the basis of each instrument was culturally sensitive and clear to all respondents. Analysis of the narratives shows that respondents clearly differentiated between the various health statuses. Conclusion In this pilot, we developed and tested a new version of the SRH question that may be more culturally sensitive than its non-adapted equivalents. Additional insight into this population’s understanding and reporting of health was also obtained. A larger sample is needed to further study

  6. [The use of contraceptive methods by the Mossi in a rural health district of Kaya, Burkina Faso].

    PubMed

    Sondo, B; Sya, D; Paré, R; Kouanda, S; Savadogo, L

    2001-01-01

    We investigated contraceptive practices in the rural health district of Kaya in Burkina Faso with the aim of a) comparing the sociodemographic and cultural characteristics of individuals who were well and poorly informed concerning contraceptive methods; b) analyzing the pattern of use of these contraceptive methods by the populations. We carried out a two-level cluster survey by the Hendersen method. For each household investigated, the chief, his wife (or one wife selected at random in polygamous families) and an adolescent (or one adolescent selected at random if there was more than one adolescent) were interviewed. Significantly more men than women were well informed concerning contraceptive methods. Similarly, a higher proportion of male adolescents than of female adolescents were well informed concerning contraceptive methods. The individuals who were well informed concerning contraceptive methods differed from those who were not well informed in terms of age, religion, level of education and radio listening habits. The prevalence of use of contraceptive methods in this study was found to be 4 to 36%, depending on the group studied. The majority of individuals expressed an intention to use contraceptive methods in the future: 59 to 78%, depending on the group studied. The contraceptive methods chosen for current and future use were, in order: the pill, condoms and contraceptive implants and the intrauterine device. Current patterns of contraceptive use favor, in decreasing order of preference, abstinence, the pill, condoms and contraceptive implants. There was also a strong tendency for individuals to experiment with diverse contraceptive methods. Thus, in the future, there is likely to be a trend towards the abandoning of abstinence in favor of the pill, condoms and contraceptive implants. Of these newer methods, condoms are likely to be the least popular and their relegation to a lower level of importance is likely to have disastrous consequences in terms

  7. Polymerase chain reaction as a diagnosis tool for detecting trypanosomes in naturally infected cattle in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Solano, P; Michel, J F; Lefrançois, T; de La Rocque, S; Sidibé, I; Zoungrana, A; Cuisance, D

    1999-09-30

    African animal trypanosomoses constitute the most important vector-borne cattle diseases in sub-Saharan Africa. Generally it is considered that there is a great lack of accurate tools for the diagnosis of the disease. During a trypanosomosis survey in the agro-pastoral zone of Sideradougou, Burkina Faso, 1036 cattle were examined for trypanosomes using microscopy. The PCR was applied on a subset of 260 buffy-coat samples using primers specific for Trypanosoma congolense savannah and riverine-forest groups, T. vivax, and T. brucei. Parasitological examination and the molecular technique were compared, showing a better efficiency of the latter. In the near future, the PCR is likely to become an efficient tool to estimate the prevalence of African trypanosomoses in affected areas. PMID:10496693

  8. [Epidemiology of Rift Valley fever in western Africa. I. Serologic survey in domestic ruminants of Burkina Faso].

    PubMed

    Akakpo, A J; Some, M J; Bornarel, P; Jouan, A; Gonzalez, J P

    1989-01-01

    A serosurvey of Rift valley fever virus infection has been conducted among 2,410 domestic ruminants (sheep, goats and cattle) from Burkina Faso in 1985, 1986 and 1987. An active circulation of virus was demonstrated and 26.7% of the total animal tested had Rift valley fever virus reacting antibodies. An epizootic was demonstrated retrospectively for 1987 and appears to correspond to the RVF outbreak observed in the same type of sahelian environment during the same year in Mauritania. Analogous ecoclimatic and environmental risk factors are discussed. Others phleboviruses such as Arumowot, Gordil, Saint-Floris, Gabek Forest and Odrenisrou seem to be active in some areas but no evidence of pathogenesis for domestic ruminants was demonstrated. PMID:2766443

  9. Equivalent susceptibility of Anopheles gambiae M and S molecular forms and Anopheles arabiensis to Plasmodium falciparum infection in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) species complex in Burkina Faso consists of Anopheles arabiensis, and molecular forms M and S of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (s.s.). Previous studies comparing the M and S forms for level of infection with Plasmodium falciparum have yielded conflicting results. Methods Mosquito larvae were sampled from natural pools, reared to adulthood under controlled conditions, and challenged with natural P. falciparum by experimental feeding with blood from gametocyte carriers. Oocyst infection prevalence and intensity was determined one week after infection. DNA from carcasses was genotyped to identify species and molecular form. Results In total, 7,400 adult mosquitoes grown from wild-caught larvae were challenged with gametocytes in 29 experimental infections spanning four transmission seasons. The overall infection prevalence averaged 40.7% for A. gambiae M form, 41.4% for A. gambiae S form, and 40.1% for A. arabiensis. There was no significant difference in infection prevalence or intensity between the three population groups. Notably, infection experiments in which the population groups were challenged in parallel on the same infective blood displayed less infection difference between population groups, while infections with less balanced composition of population groups had lower statistical power and displayed apparent differences that fluctuated more often from the null average. Conclusion The study clearly establishes that, at the study site in Burkina Faso, there is no difference in genetic susceptibility to P. falciparum infection between three sympatric population groups of the A. gambiae s.l. complex. Feeding the mosquito groups on the same infective blood meal greatly increases statistical power. Conversely, comparison of the different mosquito groups between, rather than within, infections yields larger apparent difference between mosquito groups, resulting from lower statistical power and greater noise

  10. The Day-Hospital of the University Hospital, Bobo Dioulasso: An Example of Optimized HIV Management in Southern Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Chas, Julie; Hema, Arsène; Slama, Laurence; Kabore, Nongondo Firmin; Lescure, François-Xavier; Fontaine, Camille; Pialoux, Gilles; Sawadogo, Adrien

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the epidemiological evolution of patients with HIV (PtHIV), between 2002 and 2012, in a day-hospital that became an HIV reference centre for south-west Burkina Faso. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective study of PtHIV followed in the Bobo Dioulasso university hospital since 2002. The study was based on clinical data recorded using ESOPE software and analysed using Excel and SAS. Results A total of 7320 patients have been treated at the centre since 2002; the active file of patients increased from 147 in 2002 to 3684 patients in 2012. Mean age was stable at 38.4 years and the majority were female (71%). The delay to initiation of antiretroviral (ARV) treatment after HIV diagnosis decreased from 12.9 months in 2002 to 7.2 months in 2012. The percentage of PtHIV lost to follow-up, untreated for HIV and deaths all decreased after 2005. Voluntary anonymous screening and/or an evocative clinical picture were the main reasons for HIV diagnosis, usually at a late stage (41.1% at WHO stage 3). Virological success increased due to a decrease in time to initiation of ARV treatment and an increase in percentage of patients treated (90.5% in 2012, mainly with 1st line drugs). However, there was also a slight increase in the rate of therapeutic failures and the percentage of patients who progressed to 2nd or 3rd line-ARVs. Conclusion Our day-hospital is a good example of the implementation of a specialist centre for the management of PtHIV in a resource-limited country (Burkina Faso). PMID:25970181

  11. Genital warts and infection with human immunodeficiency virus in high-risk women in Burkina Faso: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Human papillomaviruses are the most common sexually transmitted infections, and genital warts, caused by HPV-6 and 11, entail considerable morbidity and cost. The natural history of genital warts in relation to HIV-1 infection has not been described in African women. We examined risk factors for genital warts in a cohort of high-risk women in Burkina Faso, in order to further describe their epidemiology. Methods A prospective study of 765 high-risk women who were followed at 4-monthly intervals for 27 months in Burkina Faso. Logistic and Cox regression were used to identify factors associated with prevalent, incident and persistent genital warts, including HIV-1 serostatus, CD4+ count, and concurrent sexually transmitted infections. In a subset of 306 women, cervical HPV DNA was tested at enrolment. Results Genital wart prevalence at baseline was 1.6% (8/492) among HIV-uninfected and 7.0% (19/273) among HIV-1 seropositive women. Forty women (5.2%) experienced at least one incident GW episode. Incidence was 1.1 per 100 person-years among HIV-uninfected women, 7.4 per 100 person-years among HIV-1 seropositive women with a nadir CD4+ count >200 cells/μL and 14.6 per 100 person-years among HIV-1 seropositive women with a nadir CD4+ count ≤200 cells/μL. Incident genital warts were also associated with concurrent bacterial vaginosis, and genital ulceration. Antiretroviral therapy was not protective against incident or persistent genital warts. Detection of HPV-6 DNA and abnormal cervical cytology were strongly associated with incident genital warts. Conclusions Genital warts occur much more frequently among HIV-1 infected women in Africa, particularly among those with low CD4+ counts. Antiretroviral therapy did not reduce the incidence or persistence of genital warts in this population. PMID:21251265

  12. Measuring population health: costs of alternative survey approaches in the Nouna Health and Demographic Surveillance System in rural Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Lietz, Henrike; Lingani, Moustapha; Sié, Ali; Sauerborn, Rainer; Souares, Aurelia; Tozan, Yesim

    2015-01-01

    Background There are more than 40 Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) sites in 19 different countries. The running costs of HDSS sites are high. The financing of HDSS activities is of major importance, and adding external health surveys to the HDSS is challenging. To investigate the ways of improving data quality and collection efficiency in the Nouna HDSS in Burkina Faso, the stand-alone data collection activities of the HDSS and the Household Morbidity Survey (HMS) were integrated, and the paper-based questionnaires were consolidated into a single tablet-based questionnaire, the Comprehensive Disease Assessment (CDA). Objective The aims of this study are to estimate and compare the implementation costs of the two different survey approaches for measuring population health. Design All financial costs of stand-alone (HDSS and HMS) and integrated (CDA) surveys were estimated from the perspective of the implementing agency. Fixed and variable costs of survey implementation and key cost drivers were identified. The costs per household visit were calculated for both survey approaches. Results While fixed costs of survey implementation were similar for the two survey approaches, there were considerable variations in variable costs, resulting in an estimated annual cost saving of about US$45,000 under the integrated survey approach. This was primarily because the costs of data management for the tablet-based CDA survey were considerably lower than for the paper-based stand-alone surveys. The cost per household visit from the integrated survey approach was US$21 compared with US$25 from the stand-alone surveys for collecting the same amount of information from 10,000 HDSS households. Conclusions The CDA tablet-based survey method appears to be feasible and efficient for collecting health and demographic data in the Nouna HDSS in rural Burkina Faso. The possibility of using the tablet-based data collection platform to improve the quality of population health

  13. Is vetiver grass of interest for the remediation of Cu and Cd to protect marketing gardens in Burkina Faso?

    PubMed

    Ondo Zue Abaga, Norbert; Dousset, Sylvie; Mbengue, Saliou; Munier-Lamy, Colette

    2014-10-01

    In Burkina-Faso, urban vegetable agriculture is often characterized by urban solid waste fertilizer inputs containing heavy metals such as Cu and Cd. Thus, the relevance of surrounding urban vegetable plots with vetiver hedges to reduce environmental pollution by Cu and Cd was investigated by adsorption studies and pot experiments. Vetiver biomass, its metal contents and, its total and MgCl2 extractable soil metals were monitored over 6months in the presence of a mixture of metal at two concentrations: 2-10 and 100-500mgkg(-1), for Cd and Cu, respectively. The Freundlich adsorption coefficient (Kf) values increased after vetiver growth and were significantly higher for vertisol than for lixisol. After 6months, the vetiver that was grown on lixisol accumulated more metal, increasing up to 4635mgkg(-1) for Cu and to 21.8mgkg(-1) for Cd, than did the vetiver that was grown on vertisol, increasing up to 1534mgkg(-1) for Cu and to 7.2mgkg(-1) for Cd. The metal bioconcentration factor, which was significantly higher for Cd, increased with the applied concentration and ranged from 1.6 to 14 for Cu and from 2.3 to 22 for Cd. Additionally, the translocation factors were higher for Cd (0.38-7.3) than for Cu (0.07-2.6), and the translocation was easiest from lixisol than from vertisol. Thus our results demonstrate the ability of vetiver for Cu and Cd phytoremediation in Burkina Faso soils. Nevertheless, these results should be confirmed across the field to advocate the establishment of vetiver hedges. PMID:25065788

  14. Characterisation of hepatitis C virus genotype among blood donors at the regional blood transfusion centre of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Zeba, Moctar Tokèda Abdoul; Sanou, Mahamoudou; Bisseye, Cyrille; Kiba, Alice; Nagalo, Bolni Marius; Djigma, Florencia Wendkuuni; Compaoré, Tegwindé Rebecca; Nebié, Yacouba Koumpingnin; Kienou, Kisito; Sagna, Tani; Pietra, Virginio; Moret, Rémy; Simporé, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is responsible for about 900 deaths every year in Burkina Faso. In this country, serological screening for hepatitis B and C viruses is only carried out systematically among blood donors. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and genotypes of HCV among blood donors using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR, respectively. Materials and methods Serum samples were screened for antibodies to HCV using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ARCHITECT-i1000SR-ABBOTT). All the reactive samples for HCV antibodies were re-tested using a second enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Bio-Rad, Marnes la Coquette, France) for confirmation. RNA was detected in all the reactive samples for antibodies to HCV. HCV RNA positive samples were genotyped using the HCV Real-TM Genotype kit (Sacace Biotechnologies, Italy). Results Among 2,200 blood donors, the prevalences of antibodies to HCV and viral RNA were 4.4% (95% confidence interval=3.5–5.3) and 1.5% (95% confidence interval=1.0–2.0), respectively. Among HCV RNA carriers, genotyping showed that HCV genotypes 2 and 3 were the most prevalent as they were detected in 18 (56.3%) and 5 (15.6%) individuals, respectively. HCV genotypes 1a and 4 were the least frequent among the blood donors. HCV mixed genotypes 2/3 and 2/4 were also detected among the blood donors. Conclusion The prevalence of HCV found in this study is lower than previously reported prevalences. Large-scale studies are needed to obtain a better picture of the molecular epidemiology of HCV in Burkina Faso. PMID:24599906

  15. Relying on nature's pharmacy in rural Burkina Faso: empirical evidence of the determinants of traditional medicine consumption.

    PubMed

    Pouliot, Mariève

    2011-11-01

    Traditional medicine is believed to constitute a crucial healthcare option for poor or remote households in developing countries that have limited access to allopathic medicine and/or a strong cultural attachment to traditional medicine. However, little research has been performed on medicinal plant reliance in developing countries, and the determinants of medicinal plant consumption at the household level in these countries have not been empirically studied. Quantifying the use of traditional medicine at the household level is, therefore, essential to the development of sustainable healthcare policies in the developing world. This paper quantifies household-level use of traditional medicine and identifies determinants of the choice of traditional treatment in the south central region of Burkina Faso. Structured household interviews (n = 205) were conducted in nine villages of rural Burkina Faso from November 2007 to November 2008 and in November 2009 to collect data on household characteristics (e.g., income, education, demographics), illness frequencies, illness types, and treatment strategies employed. Comprehensive analysis of treatment choice was performed through bivariate analyses. Results indicate that traditional medicine was primarily relied on by middle-aged individuals from relatively uneducated households who were living in villages with limited allopathic medicine service provision. Moreover, a differential approach to medicinal plant consumption was used to distinguish between patients using traditional medicine as a self-care treatment and those visiting a traditional healer. Although poorer households were shown to use traditional medicine as a self-treatment, traditional healers' services were relied on by wealthier households. PMID:21992735

  16. Tectonic evolution of the Oudalan-Gorouol greenstone belt in NE Burkina Faso and Niger, West African craton.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tshibubudze, Asinne; Hein, Kim A. A.

    2010-05-01

    The Oudalan-Gorouol Greenstone Belt (OGGB) forms part of the Palaeoproterozoic as the Baoulé-Mossi domain of the West African Craton (WAC) and hosts gold deposits at Essakane, Gossey, Korizena, and Falagountou in NE Burkina Faso, and Kossa goldfield in Niger. The Birimian supracrustal sequences in the OGGB are dominated by meta-volcanoclastic greywacke intercalated meta-conglomerate, siltstone and shale, carbonate (dolomite) and volcanic units pillow basalts). The belt is surrounded by plutonic rocks including granite, TTG suite granitoids and granite gneiss. The sequences where subjected to two phases of deformation, and several phases of contact metamorphosed to hornblende-hornfels facies during emplacement of pyroxenite-gabbro-norite, granodiorite-tonalite and gabbro dykes and porphyritic sills. The OGGB is bounded and/or crosscut by several major NNE to NE-trending shear zones including the steeply east-dipping Markoye Shear Zone (western margin of the OGGB), Tin Takanet-Bellekcire Shear Zone, Dori Shear Zone, Kargouna Shear Zone, Takabougou Shear Zone, and Bom Kodjelé Shear Zone (transects the centre of the OGGB). The structures were readily identified using LANDSAT, Aster, aeromagnetic and RTP magnetic data, with follow-up strategic mapping, highlighting the value of interpreting geophysical and remotely sensed data in regional mapping in Burkina Faso and Niger. Structural studies completed in 2007 adjacent to the Essakane gold mine indicated that the NE-trending, first-order crustal-scale Markoye Shear Zone (MSZ) has undergone at least two phases of reactivation concomitant to two phases of regional deformation (Tshibubudze et al., 2009). The first phase of deformation, D1, resulted in the formation of NNW-NW trending folds and thrusts during dextral-reverse displacement on the MSZ. The deformation predates the Eburnean Orogeny is termed the Tangaean Event (meaning low hills in the Moré language of Burkina Faso) and is tentatively dated at ca. 2170

  17. Dynamic of plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter gene Pfcrt K76T mutation five years after withdrawal of chloroquine in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Sondo, Paul; Derra, Karim; Tarnagda, Zekiba; Nakanabo, Seydou Diallo; Zampa, Odile; Kazienga, Adama; Valea, Innocent; Sorgho, Hermann; Ouedraogo, Jean-Bosco; Guiguemde, Tinga Robert; Tinto, Halidou

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the evolution of Pfcrt K76T mutation five years after the withdrawal of chloroquine in Burkina Faso. A total of 675 clinical isolates collected from October 2010 to September 2012 were successfully genotyped. Single nucleotide polymorphism in Pfcrt (codon 76) gene was analyzed. The prevalence of resistant Pfcrt 76T allele was 20.55%. There was a progressive decrease of the proportion of mutant type pfcrt T76 from 2010 to 2012 (X2=5.508 p=0.0189). Our results suggest a progressive return of the wild type Pfcrt K76 in Burkina Faso but the prevalence of the mutants Pfcrt T76 still remains high. PMID:26516402

  18. Dynamic of plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter gene Pfcrt K76T mutation five years after withdrawal of chloroquine in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Sondo, Paul; Derra, Karim; Tarnagda, Zekiba; Nakanabo, Seydou Diallo; Zampa, Odile; Kazienga, Adama; Valea, Innocent; Sorgho, Hermann; Ouedraogo, Jean-Bosco; Guiguemde, Tinga Robert; Tinto, Halidou

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the evolution of Pfcrt K76T mutation five years after the withdrawal of chloroquine in Burkina Faso. A total of 675 clinical isolates collected from October 2010 to September 2012 were successfully genotyped. Single nucleotide polymorphism in Pfcrt (codon 76) gene was analyzed. The prevalence of resistant Pfcrt 76T allele was 20.55%. There was a progressive decrease of the proportion of mutant type pfcrt T76 from 2010 to 2012 (X2=5.508 p=0.0189). Our results suggest a progressive return of the wild type Pfcrt K76 in Burkina Faso but the prevalence of the mutants Pfcrt T76 still remains high. PMID:26516402

  19. River contract in Wallonia (Belgium) and its application for water management in the Sourou valley (Burkina Faso).

    PubMed

    Rosillon, F; Vander Borght, P; Bado Sama, H

    2005-01-01

    Inspired by the experience of a river contract in Wallonia (Belgium) since 1990, the implementation of a first river contract has been initiated in a West African country, Burkina Faso. This application is not limited to a simple transposition of the Walloon model. The Burkina context calls for adaptation to the local environmental and socio-economical realities with an adequate partnership management. The importance of the mobilization around this project of institutional partners, as well as local collectivities, agricultural producers and water users in general reveals the great expectations of the actors concerning this new tool of water participative management. But will the latter be equal to the task? A first assessment has been drawn up one year after the launch. During the first year of the project, a participative diagnostic was implemented but the understanding of basic notions of water management such as 'river' (not translatable in the local language), 'watershed', 'contract' were not obvious. After the identification of functions and uses of water in the basin, an environmental survey was started. This approach allows study with the river committees of the priority actions to be developed as a first project of restoration of the gallery forest alongside the stream to fight against desertification. This project of integrated and participative management of water at sub-basin level is a concrete example of solidarity and exchange know-how between North and South in the context of a sustainable development. PMID:16445177

  20. Potentials for Indication of Potentially Harmful Toxic Algal Blooms Using PROBA1-CHRIS Hyperspectral Imagery- A Case Study in Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beiermann, Timo

    2010-12-01

    Toxic algal blooms are an issue affecting water quality and can cause harmful health impacts. The aim of the conducted case study is to assess such blooms by chlorophyll a and phycocyanin detection as indicators of the occurrence. Using demonstrated single reflectance ratio algorithms published as in [7] and processed with provided tools for hyperspectral Proba1-CHRIS imagery in a study site including Loumbila reservoir near Ouagadougou, capital of Burkina Faso to investigate potentials of this approach.

  1. In vitro antiplasmodial activity of some medicinal plants of Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Ouattara, Lamoussa Paul; Sanon, Souleymane; Mahiou-Leddet, Valérie; Gansané, Adama; Baghdikian, Béatrice; Traoré, Abdoulaye; Nébié, Issa; Traoré, Alfred S; Azas, Nadine; Ollivier, Evelyne; Sirima, Sodiomon Bienvenu

    2014-01-01

    Malaria remains a major public health problem due to the emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum drug resistance. There is an urgent need to investigate new sources of antimalarial drugs which are more effective against Plasmodium falciparum. One of the potential sources of antimalarial drugs is traditional medicinal plants. In this work, we studied the in vitro antiplasmodial activity of chloromethylenic, methanolic, and MeOH/H2O (1/1) crude extracts and decoction obtained from eight medicinal plants collected in Burkina Faso and of total alkaloids for five plants. Extracts were evaluated in vitro for efficacy against Plasmodium falciparum strain K1, which is resistant to chloroquine, pyrimethamine and proguanil using the fluorescence-based SYBR Green I assay. The antiproliferative activity on human-derived hepatoma cell line HepG2 and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells was evaluated using the 3-[4,5-dimethylthyazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) test in order to determine the selectivity index. Among the plant extracts tested for in vitro antiplasmodial activity, 16 were considered to be inactive (with IC50 > 10 μg/ml), six showed a moderate activity (5 < IC50 ≤ 10 μg/ml), and six were found to have a good in vitro activity with IC50 value ≤ 5 μg/ml. The highest antiplasmodial activity was found for extracts from: the alkaloid leaf extract and the chloromethylenic extracts of Combretum fragrans (IC50 = 3 μg/ml, IC50 = 5 μg/ml), the total alkaloids and the chloromethylenic leaf extracts of Combretum collinum (IC50 = 4 μg/ml), the MeOH/H2O leaf extract of Terminalia avicennioides (IC50 = 3.5 μg/ml), and the alkaloid leaf extract of Pavetta crassipes (IC50 = 5 μg/ml). Three other extracts showed moderate antiplasmodial activity (5 < IC50 ≤ 10 μg/ml): Terminalia avicennioides and Combretum fragrans methanolic extracts and Acacia kirkii alkaloid leaf extract (IC50 = 6.5, 9 and 10 μg/ml respectively). The Terminalia avicennioides crude

  2. Les péricardites tuberculeuses au centre hospitalier universitaire de Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Yaméogo, Aimé Arsène; Kyelem, Carole Gilberte; Nikiéma, Zakari; Birba, Emile; Yaméogo, Téné Marceline; Zabsonré, Patrice

    2012-01-01

    Introduction La tuberculose constitue toujours un problème de santé publique. Sa localisation péricardique reste fréquente. L’objectif de cette étude rétrospective descriptive était de décrire les caractéristiques cliniques et évolutives des cas de péricardites tuberculeuses dans le service de cardiologie du centre hospitalier universitaire de Bobo-Dioulasso. Méthodes Nous avons mené une étude rétrospective descriptive des cas de péricardite tuberculeuse colligés en deux ans à partir des dossiers et registres dans le service de cardiologie du CHU de Bobo-Dioulasso de janvier 2009 à décembre 2010. Résultats De janvier 2009 à décembre 2010, parmi 945 hospitalisations dans le service de cardiologie, une péricardite tuberculeuse a été diagnostiquée chez dix patients âgés de 18 à 82 ans. L’âge moyen était de 46,8±25 ans avec un sexe ratio de un. Soixante pour cent des patients avaient moins de 40 ans. Tous les patients avaient un niveau socio-économique bas. Une notion de contage tuberculeux a été retrouvée chez six patients. Trois patients présentaient une tuberculose pulmonaire à microscopie positive. L’insuffisance cardiaque était constante chez tous les patients avec deux cas de tamponnade à l’admission ayant nécessité une ponction péricardique d’urgence. Tous les patients avaient une sérologie VIH négative. L’échocardiographie a été importante pour le diagnostic positif et dans la prise en charge. L’évolution sous traitement antituberculeux et de l’IC a été bonne chez neuf patients à la fin de la première phase du traitement antituberculeux. Un cas de décès a cependant été enregistré chez un patient avec une HTA déjà compliquée d’accident vasculaire cérébrale ischémique. Conclusion Les péricardiques tuberculeuses sont fréquentes au Burkina Faso. Elles touchent surtout les sujets jeunes et un intérêt particulier devrait être accordé au dépistage et au traitement précoce des

  3. Soil hydrological and soil property changes resulting from termite activity on agricultural fields in Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mettrop, I.; Cammeraat, L. H.; Verbeeten, E.

    2009-04-01

    Termites are important ecosystem-engineers in subtropical and tropical regions. The effect of termite activity affecting soil infiltration is well documented in the Sahelian region. Most studies find increased infiltration rates on surfaces that are affected by termite activity in comparison to crusted areas showing non-termite presence. Crusted agricultural fields in the Sanmatenga region in Burkina Faso with clear termite activity were compared to control fields without visual ground dwelling termite activity. Fine scale rainfall simulations were carried out on crusted termite affected and control sites. Furthermore soil moisture change, bulk density, soil organic matter as well as general soil characteristics were studied. The top soils in the study area were strongly crusted (structural crust) after the summer rainfall and harvest of millet. They have a loamy sand texture underlain by a shallow sandy loam Bt horizon. The initial soil moisture conditions were significantly higher on the termite plots when compared to control sites. It was found that the amount of runoff produced on the termite plots was significantly higher, and also the volumetric soil moisture content after the experiments was significantly lower if compared to the control plots. Bulk density showed no difference whereas soil organic matter was significantly higher under termite affected areas, in comparison to the control plots. Lab tests showed no significant difference in hydrophobic behavior of the topsoil and crust material. Micro and macro-structural properties of the topsoil did not differ significantly between the termite sites and the control sites. The texture of the top 5 cm of the soil was also found to be not significantly different. The infiltration results are contradictory to the general literature, which reports increased infiltration rates after prolonged termite activity although mostly under different initial conditions. The number of nest entrances was clearly higher in

  4. Altered social cohesion and adverse psychological experiences with chronic food insecurity in the non-market economy and complex households of Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Nanama, Siméon; Frongillo, Edward A

    2012-02-01

    Food insecurity negatively impacts outcomes in adults and children including parenting practices, child development, educational achievement, school performance, diet, and nutritional status. Ethnographic and quantitative research suggests that food insecurity affects well-being not only through the lack food, poor diet, and hunger, but also through social and psychological consequences that are closely linked to it. These studies are limited in number, and have mostly been carried out in contexts with market economies where household access to food depends almost solely on income. This study considers the social and psychological experiences closely linked to food insecurity in northern Burkina Faso, a context marked by subsistence farming, chronic food insecurity with a strong seasonal pattern, and a complex social structure. A total of 33 men and women from ten households were interviewed in February 2001 using semi-structured interview guides. Data were analyzed following the principles of thematic analysis. Food insecurity is closely linked with consequences such as concern, worries, and anxiety that ultimately lead to weight and sleep loss. Food insecurity results in feelings of alienation (e.g., shame) and deprivation (e.g., guilt), and alters household cohesion leading to disputes and difficulties keeping children at home. Decisions made by household members to manage and cope with food insecurity are shaped by their fear of alienation and other cultural and social norms. These findings, although derived from data collected 10 years ago before the 2008 food and fuel crises, remain valid in the study context, and emphasize the importance of social and psychological consequences closely linked to food insecurity and their negative impact on the well-being at both individual and household levels in contexts of non-market economy and chronic food insecurity. Attention to these non-nutritional consequences will improve the design, implementation, and evaluation

  5. Anaemia during pregnancy in Burkina Faso, west Africa, 1995-96: prevalence and associated factors. DITRAME Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Meda, N.; Mandelbrot, L.; Cartoux, M.; Dao, B.; Ouangré, A.; Dabis, F.

    1999-01-01

    We report the results of a cross-sectional study carried out in 1995-96 on anaemia in pregnant women who were attending two antenatal clinics in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso, as part of a research programme including a clinical trial of zidovudine (ZDV) in pregnancy (ANRS 049 Clinical Trial). For women infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Africa, anaemia is of particular concern when considering the use of ZDV to decrease mother-to-child transmission of HIV. The objectives were to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for maternal anaemia in the study population, and the effect of HIV infection on the severity of maternal anaemia. HIV counselling and testing were offered to all women, and haemograms were determined for those women who consented to serological testing. Haemoglobin (Hb) levels were available for 2308 of the 2667 women who accepted HIV testing. The prevalence of HIV infection was 9.7% (95% confidence interval (CI): 8.6-10.8%). The overall prevalence of anaemia during pregnancy (Hb level < 11 g/dl) was 66% (95% CI: 64-68%). The prevalence of mild (10 g/dl < or = Hb < 11 g/dl), moderate (7 g/dl < or = Hb < 10 g/dl) and severe (Hb < 7 g/dl) anaemia was 30.8%, 33.5% and 1.7%, respectively. The prevalence of anaemia was 78.4% in HIV-infected women versus 64.7% in HIV-seronegative women (P < 0.001). Although the relative risk of HIV-seropositivity increased with the severity of anaemia, no significant association was found between degree of anaemia and HIV serostatus among the study women with anaemia. Logistic regression analysis showed that anaemia was significantly and independently related to HIV infection, advanced gestational age, and low socioeconomic status. This study confirms the high prevalence of anaemia during pregnancy in Burkina Faso. Antenatal care in this population must include iron supplementation. Although HIV-infected women had a higher prevalence of anaemia, severe anaemia was infrequent, possibly because few

  6. Serological diagnosis of human immuno-deficiency virus in Burkina Faso: reliable, practical strategies using less expensive commercial test kits.

    PubMed Central

    Meda, N.; Gautier-Charpentier, L.; Soudré, R. B.; Dahourou, H.; Ouedraogo-Traoré, R.; Ouangré, A.; Bambara, A.; Kpozehouen, A.; Sanou, H.; Valéa, D.; Ky, F.; Cartoux, M.; Barin, F.; Van de Perre, P.

    1999-01-01

    Reported are the results of a cross-sectional survey in Burkina Faso to identify reliable, practical strategies for the serological diagnosis of HIV-1 and/or HIV-2 infections, using less-expensive commercial test kits in various combinations, as an alternative to the conventional Western blot (WB) test, which costs US$ 60. Serum samples, collected from blood donors, patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and pregnant women, were tested between December 1995 and January 1997. Twelve commercial test kits were available: five Mixt enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), three Mixt rapid tests, and four additional tests including monospecific HIV-1 and HIV-2 ELISA. The reference strategy utilized a combination of one ELISA or one rapid test with WB, and was conducted following WHO criteria. A total of 768 serum samples were tested; 35 were indeterminate and excluded from the analysis. Seroprevalence of HIV in the remaining 733 sera was found to be 37.5% (95% confidence interval: 34.0-41.1). All the ELISA tests showed 100% sensitivity, but their specificities ranged from 81.4% to 100%. GLA (Genelavia Mixt) had the highest positive delta value, while ICE HIV-1.0.2 (ICE) produced the most distinct negative results. Among the rapid tests, COM (CombAIDS-RS) achieved 100% sensitivity and SPO (HIV Spot) 100% specificity. Various combinations of commercial tests, according to recommended WHO strategies I, II, III, gave excellent results when ICE was included in the sequence. The best combination of tests for strategy II, which achieved 100% sensitivity and specificity, was to use ICE and COM, the cost of which was US$ 2.10, compared with US$ 55.60 for the corresponding conventional strategy. For strategy III, the best combination, which achieved 100% sensitivity and specificity, was to use ICE, ZYG (Enzygnost Anti HIV-1/HIV-2 Plus) and COM, the cost of which was US$ 2.90 (19.2 times lower than the corresponding strategy requiring WB). No rapid test

  7. An implementation evaluation of a policy aiming to improve financial access to maternal health care in Djibo district, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To bring down its high maternal mortality ratio, Burkina Faso adopted a national health policy in 2007 that designed to boost the assisted delivery rate and improving quality of emergency obstetrical and neonatal care. The cost of transportation from health centres to district hospitals is paid by the policy. The worst-off are exempted from all fees. Methods The objectives of this paper are to analyze perceptions of this policy by health workers, assess how this health policy was implemented at the district level, identify difficulties faced during implementation, and highlight interactional factors that have an influence on the implementation process. A multiple site case study was conducted at 6 health centres in the district of Djibo in Burkina Faso. The following sources of data were used: 1) district documents (n = 23); 2) key interviews with district health managers (n = 10), health workers (n = 16), traditional birth attendants (n = 7), and community management committees (n = 11); 3) non-participant observations in health centres; 4) focus groups in communities (n = 62); 5) a feedback session on the findings with 20 health staff members. Results All the activities were implemented as planned except for completely subsidizing the worst-off, and some activities such as surveys for patients and the quality assurance service team aiming to improve quality of care. District health managers and health workers perceived difficulties in implementing this policy because of the lack of clarity on some topics in the guidelines. Entering the data into an electronic database and the long delay in reimbursing transportation costs were the principal challenges perceived by implementers. Interactional factors such as relations between providers and patients and between health workers and communities were raised. These factors have an influence on the implementation process. Strained relations between the groups involved may reduce the

  8. Personality and Personality Disorders in Urban and Rural Africa: Results from a Field Trial in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Rossier, Jérôme; Ouedraogo, Abdoulaye; Dahourou, Donatien; Verardi, Sabrina; Meyer de Stadelhofen, Franz

    2013-01-01

    When conducting research in different cultural settings, assessing measurement equivalence is of prime importance to determine if constructs and scores can be compared across groups. Structural equivalence implies that constructs have the same meaning across groups, metric equivalence implies that the metric of the scales remains stable across groups, and full scale or scalar equivalence implies that the origin of the scales is the same across groups. Several studies have observed that the structure underlying both normal personality and personality disorders (PDs) is stable across cultures. Most of this cross-cultural research was conducted in Western and Asian cultures. In Africa, the few studies were conducted with well-educated participants using French or English instruments. No research was conducted in Africa with less privileged or preliterate samples. The aim of this research was to study the structure and expression of normal and abnormal personality in an urban and a rural sample in Burkina Faso. The sample included 1,750 participants, with a sub-sample from the urban area of Ouagadougou (n = 1,249) and another sub-sample from a rural village, Soumiaga (n = 501). Most participants answered an interview consisting of a Mooré language adaptation of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and of the International Personality Disorders Examination. Mooré is the language of the Mossi ethnic group, and the most frequently spoken local language in Burkina Faso. A sub-sample completed the same self-report instruments in French. Demographic variables only had a small impact on normal and abnormal personality traits mean levels. The structure underlying normal personality was unstable across regions and languages, illustrating that translating a complex psychological inventory into a native African language is a very difficult task. The structure underlying abnormal personality and the metric of PDs scales were stable across regions. As scalar equivalence

  9. HIV prevention and care services for female sex workers: efficacy of a targeted community-based intervention in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Traore, Isidore T; Meda, Nicolas; Hema, Noelie M; Ouedraogo, Djeneba; Some, Felicien; Some, Roselyne; Niessougou, Josiane; Sanon, Anselme; Konate, Issouf; Van De Perre, Philippe; Mayaud, Philippe; Nagot, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although interventions to control HIV among high-risk groups such as female sex workers (FSW) are highly recommended in Africa, the contents and efficacy of these interventions are unclear. We therefore designed a comprehensive dedicated intervention targeting young FSW and assessed its impact on HIV incidence in Burkina Faso. Methods Between September 2009 and September 2011 we conducted a prospective, interventional cohort study of FSW aged 18 to 25 years in Ouagadougou, with quarterly follow-up for a maximum of 21 months. The intervention combined prevention and care within the same setting, consisting of peer-led education sessions, psychological support, sexually transmitted infections and HIV care, general routine health care and reproductive health services. At each visit, behavioural characteristics were collected and HIV, HSV-2 and pregnancy were tested. We compared the cohort HIV incidence with a modelled expected incidence in the study population in the absence of intervention, using data collected at the same time from FSW clients. Results The 321 HIV-uninfected FSW enrolled in the cohort completed 409 person-years of follow-up. No participant seroconverted for HIV during the study (0/409 person-years), whereas the expected modelled number of HIV infections were 5.05/409 person-years (95% CI, 5.01–5.08) or 1.23 infections per 100 person-years (p=0.005). This null incidence was related to a reduction in the number of regular partners and regular clients, and by an increase in consistent condom use with casual clients (adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=2.19; 95% CI, 1.16–4.14, p=0.01) and with regular clients (aOR=2.18; 95% CI, 1.26–3.76, p=0.005). Conclusions Combining peer-based prevention and care within the same setting markedly reduced the HIV incidence among young FSW in Burkina Faso, through reduced risky behaviours. PMID:26374604

  10. Pregnancy rate and birth outcomes among women receiving antiretroviral therapy in Burkina Faso: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Poda, Armel; Hema, Arsène; Konaté, Aina; Kaboré, Firmin; Zoungrana, Jacques; Kamboulé, Euloges; Soré, Ibrahim; Bado, Guillaume; Ouédraogo, Abdoul-Salam; Ouédraogo, Macaire; Meda, Nicolas; Sawadogo, Adrien Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In Sub-Saharan Africa, few studies reported pregnancy incidence and outcomes in women taking antiretroviral therapy (ART). This survey aims to estimate the incidence and outcomes of pregnancy in a cohort of HIV positive women initiating ART in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Methods We carried out a retrospective cohort study. We selected women in childbearing age initiating ART and followed up in Bobo-Dioulasso teaching hospital between January 2005 and June 2011. The incidence of pregnancies during follow-up was calculated. Childbirth was defined by the expulsion of a fetus after 22 weeks of amenorrhea. Before this term, it is an abortion. Childbirth is said premature if it occurs before 37 weeks of gestation, to term if it occurs between the 38th and the 42nd week. The annual age-standardized fertility rates were calculated using the baseline population from the 2010 demographic and health survey (DHS) in Burkina Faso. Results A total of 1,763 women of childbearing age under ART were included in the study. They ranged between 18 and 48 years old with a median of 35 years old. A total of 222 pregnancies were observed during 4639 women-years of follow-up, corresponding to an incidence density of 5 pregnancies for 100 women-years (95% CI: 4.2-5.5). Among the 222 pregnancies recorded, 9(4.0%) ended with abortion, 205(92.4%) with childbirth (including 15 premature childbirths); the outcome of 8(3.6%) pregnancies were unknown abortion. Live birth and stillborn rates were 94.0% (193/205) and 6.0% respectively. The standard fertility rate in our cohort was 45 live births for 1,000 women-years. The general decrease in fertility rates was 66.0% among women infected with HIV compared to the overall population Conclusion This study shows a low pregnancy incidence among women initiating ART as compared to their peers from the general population. Pregnancies that occurred during ART generally end with live births. Care packages for HIV infected women of

  11. Knowledge of obstetric fistula prevention amongst young women in urban and rural Burkina Faso: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Banke-Thomas, Aduragbemi O; Kouraogo, Salam F; Siribie, Aboubacar; Taddese, Henock B; Mueller, Judith E

    2013-01-01

    Obstetric fistula is a sequela of complicated labour, which, if untreated, leaves women handicapped and socially excluded. In Burkina Faso, incidence of obstetric fistula is 6/10,000 cases amongst gynaecological patients, with more patients affected in rural areas. This study aims to evaluate knowledge on obstetric fistula among young women in a health district of Burkina Faso, comparing rural and urban communities. This cross-sectional study employed multi-stage sampling to include 121 women aged 18-20 years residing in urban and rural communities of Boromo health district. Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to compare differences between the groups and to identify predictors of observed knowledge levels. Rural women were more likely to be married (p<0.000) and had higher propensity to teenage pregnancy (p=0.006). The survey showed overall poor obstetric fistula awareness (36%). Rural residents were less likely to have adequate preventive knowledge than urban residents [OR=0.35 (95%-CI, 0.16-0.79)]. This effect was only slightly explained by lack of education [OR=0.41 (95%-CI, 0.18-0.93)] and only slightly underestimated due to previous pregnancy [OR=0.27 (95%-CI, 0.09-0.79)]. Media were the most popular source of awareness amongst urban young women in contrast to their rural counterparts (68% vs. 23%). Most rural young women became 'aware' through word-of-mouth (68% vs. 14%). All participants agreed that the hospital was safer for emergency obstetric care, but only 11.0% believed they could face pregnancy complications that would require emergency treatment. There is urgent need to increase emphasis on neglected health messages such as the risks of obstetric fistula. In this respect, obstetric fistula prevention programs need to be adapted to local contexts, whether urban or rural, and multi-sectoral efforts need to be exerted to maximise use of other sectoral resources and platforms, including existing routine health

  12. Tectonic evolution of the Oudalan-Gorouol greenstone belt in NE Burkina Faso and Niger, West African craton.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tshibubudze, Asinne; Hein, Kim A. A.

    2010-05-01

    The Oudalan-Gorouol Greenstone Belt (OGGB) forms part of the Palaeoproterozoic as the Baoulé-Mossi domain of the West African Craton (WAC) and hosts gold deposits at Essakane, Gossey, Korizena, and Falagountou in NE Burkina Faso, and Kossa goldfield in Niger. The Birimian supracrustal sequences in the OGGB are dominated by meta-volcanoclastic greywacke intercalated meta-conglomerate, siltstone and shale, carbonate (dolomite) and volcanic units pillow basalts). The belt is surrounded by plutonic rocks including granite, TTG suite granitoids and granite gneiss. The sequences where subjected to two phases of deformation, and several phases of contact metamorphosed to hornblende-hornfels facies during emplacement of pyroxenite-gabbro-norite, granodiorite-tonalite and gabbro dykes and porphyritic sills. The OGGB is bounded and/or crosscut by several major NNE to NE-trending shear zones including the steeply east-dipping Markoye Shear Zone (western margin of the OGGB), Tin Takanet-Bellekcire Shear Zone, Dori Shear Zone, Kargouna Shear Zone, Takabougou Shear Zone, and Bom Kodjelé Shear Zone (transects the centre of the OGGB). The structures were readily identified using LANDSAT, Aster, aeromagnetic and RTP magnetic data, with follow-up strategic mapping, highlighting the value of interpreting geophysical and remotely sensed data in regional mapping in Burkina Faso and Niger. Structural studies completed in 2007 adjacent to the Essakane gold mine indicated that the NE-trending, first-order crustal-scale Markoye Shear Zone (MSZ) has undergone at least two phases of reactivation concomitant to two phases of regional deformation (Tshibubudze et al., 2009). The first phase of deformation, D1, resulted in the formation of NNW-NW trending folds and thrusts during dextral-reverse displacement on the MSZ. The deformation predates the Eburnean Orogeny is termed the Tangaean Event (meaning low hills in the Moré language of Burkina Faso) and is tentatively dated at ca. 2170

  13. Comparison of content in phenolic compounds, polyphenol oxidase, and peroxidase in grains of fifty sorghum varieties from burkina faso.

    PubMed

    Dicko, Mamoudou H; Hilhorst, Riet; Gruppen, Harry; Traore, Alfred S; Laane, Colja; van Berkel, Willem J H; Voragen, Alphons G J

    2002-06-19

    Analysis of fifty sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] varieties used in Burkina Faso showed that they have different contents of phenolic compounds, peroxidase (POX), and polyphenol oxidase (PPO). Most of the varieties (82%) had a tannin content less than 0.25% (w/w). POX specific activity was higher than the monophenolase and o-diphenolase specific activities of PPO. For POX, there was a diversity of isoforms among varieties. No clear correlation could be made between the quantitative composition of the grain in phenolics, PPO, and POX, and resistance of plant to pathogens. In general, varieties good for a thick porridge preparation ("tô") had low phenolic compounds content and a medium POX activity. From the red varieties, those used for local beer ("dolo") had a high content in phenolic compounds and PPO, and a low POX activity. The variety considered good for couscous had a low POX content. The characteristics might be useful as selection markers for breeding for specific applications. PMID:12059160

  14. Savannas Ecosystems Services: Local Knowledge On Vulnerability And Adaptation To Climate Change In South-Western Burkina Faso (West Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimobe, K.; Goetze, D.; Ouédraogo, A.; Thiombiano, A.; Porembski, S.

    2015-12-01

    Local knowledge could form an effective channel and base through which climate change adaptation and mitigation can be realized. This paper uses the context of savannas ecosystem services in Burkina Faso to examine local knowledge and perspectives on the changing trends in vulnerability and adaptation to climate change. The survey targeted farmers, traditional authorities and administrators at the local government level. Semi-structured questionnaires were employed for one-on-one interviews and focused group discussions for data collection. Descriptive statistics and explanatory factor analysis were used to analyze the collected data. A total of 230 farmers, 6 traditional authorities and 5 administrators belonging to 32 villages were interviewed. Most of local people (95.1-96.7%) believe that climate change is occurring, and cited general increases in average temperatures, fluctuating rainfall regimes and extended drought periods as some of their observations. They explain the increasing changes and vulnerability of savannas ecosystems through the longer time spent and distance covered to collect medicinal plants and forest food; decreasing productivity and availability of fodder, fuel wood, forest food and medicinal plant, changing uses of forest food and medicinal plant species. The views of farmers were generally shared by the traditional authorities and administrators. Adaptation actions employed by local communities are tree planting, protection of forestry resources, migration, awareness raising, conservation of soil and water resources.

  15. Operational performance of the photovoltaic-powered grain mill and water pump at Tangaye, Burkina Faso (formerly Upper Volta)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martz, J. E.; Roberts, A. F.

    1985-01-01

    A photovoltaic (PV) system powering a grain mill and water pump was installed in the remote African village of Tangaye, Burkina Faso (formerly Upper Volta) under the sponsorship of the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID) and by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center (LeRC) in early 1979. The presence reports covers the second two years of operation from April 1981 through June 1983. During this time, the grain mill and water pump were operational 96 and 88 percent of the time respectively, and the PV system generated sufficient electricity to enable the grinding of about 111 metric tons of finely ground flow and the pumping of over 5000 cm sq of water from the 10 m deep well. The report includes a description of the current configuration of the system, a review of system performance, a discussion of the socioeconomic impact of the system on the villagers and a summary of results and conclusions covering the entire four-year period.

  16. Fees-for-services, cost recovery, and equity in a district of Burkina Faso operating the Bamako Initiative.

    PubMed Central

    Ridde, Valéry

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To gauge the effects of operating the Bamako Initiative in Kongoussi district, Burkina Faso. METHODS: Qualitative and quasi-experimental quantitative methodologies were used. FINDINGS: Following the introduction of fees-for-services in July 1997, the number of consultations for curative care fell over a period of three years by an average of 15.4% at "case" health centres but increased by 30.5% at "control" health centres. Moreover, although the operational results for essential drugs depots were not known, expenditure increased on average 2.7 times more than income and did not keep pace with the decline in the utilization of services. Persons in charge of the management committees had difficulties in releasing funds to ensure access to care for the poor. CONCLUSION: The introduction of fees-for-services had an adverse effect on service utilization. The study district is in a position to bear the financial cost of taking care of the poor and the community is able to identify such people. Incentives must be introduced by the state and be swiftly applied so that the communities agree to a more equitable system and thereby allow access to care for those excluded from services because they are unable to pay. PMID:12973646

  17. Additional Selection for Insecticide Resistance in Urban Malaria Vectors: DDT Resistance in Anopheles arabiensis from Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Christopher M.; Toé, Hyacinthe K.; Sanou, Antoine; Namountougou, Moussa; Hughes, Angela; Diabaté, Abdoulaye; Dabiré, Roch; Simard, Frederic; Ranson, Hilary

    2012-01-01

    In the city of Bobo-Dioulasso in Burkina Faso, Anopheles arabiensis has superseded Anopheles gambiae s.s. as the major malaria vector and the larvae are found in highly polluted habitats normally considered unsuitable for Anopheles mosquitoes. Here we show that An. gambiae s.l. adults emerging from a highly polluted site in the city centre (Dioulassoba) have a high prevalence of DDT resistance (percentage mortality after exposure to diagnostic dose = 65.8% in the dry season and 70.4% in the rainy season, respectively). An investigation into the mechanisms responsible found an unexpectedly high frequency of the 1014S kdr mutation (allele frequency = 0.4), which is found at very low frequencies in An. arabiensis in the surrounding rural areas, and an increase in transcript levels of several detoxification genes, notably from the glutathione transferase and cytochrome P450 gene families. A number of ABC transporter genes were also expressed at elevated levels in the DDT resistant An. arabiensis. Unplanned urbanisation provides numerous breeding grounds for mosquitoes. The finding that Anopheles mosquitoes adapted to these urban breeding sites have a high prevalence of insecticide resistance has important implications for our understanding of the selective forces responsible for the rapid spread of insecticide resistant populations of malaria vectors in Africa. PMID:23049917

  18. Chemical Composition and Physical Characteristics of the Essential Oil of Cymbopogon schoenanthus (L.) Spreng of Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yentema, Onadja; Alioune, Ouedraogo; Abdoul Dorosso, Samate

    Essential oils have a significant role in the society where they are variously used in fields such as medicine, pharmacy, cosmetics, chemical and food-processing industries. This justifies interest which they cause and thus systematic studies are undertaken on aromatic species, allowing without any doubt their use advisedly. This study concerns the characterization of the essential oil of Cymbopogon schoenanthus of Burkina Faso, extracted by drive with the water vapor in a distillation operation. The analysis of the chemical composition is carried out by Gas Chromatography. It shows that the 16 made up ones identified account for 65. 2% of the essential oil composition. These compounds belong to the two classes regularly met in essential oils: the mono ones and sesquiterpenes. However, proportion of monoterpenes (53. 2%) is higher than that of sesquiterpenes (12%). Among the identified compounds two monoterpenes (the piperitone and δ-2-carene) remain the principal components in the essential oil. Then the authors determine the density d = 0.9057 by double weighing, the optical activity α = +28.175 by polarimetry and the refractive index n = 1.465 by an interferometric method which they describe. Cymbopogon schoenanthus is an aromatic plant of the family of Poaceae very often used in traditional pharmacopoeia for internal as well as external treatments.

  19. Evaluability Assessment of an immunization improvement strategy in rural Burkina Faso: intervention theory versus reality, information need and evaluations.

    PubMed

    Sanou, Aboubakary; Kouyaté, Bocar; Bibeau, Gilles; Nguyen, Vinh-Kim

    2011-08-01

    An innovative immunization improvement strategy was proposed by the CRSN (Centre de Recherche en Santé de Nouna) to improve the low coverage rate for children aged 0-11 months in the health district of Nouna in Burkina Faso. This article reports on the Evaluability Assessment (EA) study that aimed to orient decisions for its evaluation in close relationship with the information needs of the stakeholders. Various methods were used, including document reviews, individual interviews, focus group discussions, meetings, literature reviews and site visits. A description of the intervention theory and philosophy is provided with its logic models and its reality documented. Lessons on the procedure include the importance of the position of the evaluability assessor, the value of replicating some steps of the assessment and the relationships between EA and process evaluation. The evaluability study concludes that the intervention had some evaluable components. To satisfy the stakeholders' needs, the initially planned community randomized controlled trial can be maintained and complemented with a process evaluation. There is a need to provide sufficient information on the cost of the intervention. This will inform decision makers on the possibility of replicating the intervention in other contexts. PMID:21168211

  20. Physiology and development of the M and S molecular forms of Anopheles gambiae in Burkina Faso (West Africa).

    PubMed

    Mouline, K; Mamai, W; Agnew, P; Tchonfienet, M; Brengues, C; Dabire, R; Robert, V; Simard, F

    2012-12-01

    In West Africa, M and S molecular forms of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae) Giles, frequently occur together, although with different population bionomics. The S form typically breeds in rain-dependant water collections and is present during the rainy season only whereas the M form can thrive all year long in areas with permanent breeding opportunities. In the present study, we explored physiological and developmental trade-offs at play in laboratory colonies and field populations of the M and S forms that originated from an area of sympatry in Burkina Faso, where M and S larvae exhibit such habitat segregation. In the laboratory, larvae of the M form developed slower than the S form (mean values 9.51 and 8.85 days, respectively, Wilcoxon's test, P < 0.001). Although wing length and dry weight at emergence showed large variations, M females were on average 8% heavier than S females of similar wing length. Higher nutritional reserves (proteins and lipids) in teneral adults explained part of this weight difference, reflecting a better ability of the M form to garner resources at the larval stage. Furthermore, a higher rate of ovarian maturation was observed in the M form after a single bloodmeal. The relevance of these findings for parasite transmission is discussed. PMID:22681446

  1. Catastrophic household expenditure for health care in a low-income society: a study from Nouna District, Burkina Faso.

    PubMed Central

    Su, Tin Tin; Kouyaté, Bocar; Flessa, Steffen

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify the extent of catastrophic household health care expenditure and determine the factors responsible for it in Nouna District, Burkina Faso. METHODS: We used the Nouna Health District Household Survey to collect data on 800 households during 2000-01 for our analysis. The determinants of household catastrophic expenditure were identified by multivariate logistic regression method. FINDINGS: Even at very low levels of health care utilization and modest amount of health expenditure, 6-15% of total households in Nouna District incurred catastrophic health expenditure. The key determinants of catastrophic health expenditure were economic status, household health care utilization especially for modern medical care, illness episodes in an adult household member and presence of a member with chronic illness. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the poorest members of the community incurred catastrophic health expenses. Setting only one threshold/cut-off value to determine catastrophic health expenses may result in inaccurate estimation leading to misinterpretation of important factors. Our findings have important policy implications and can be used to ensure better access to health services and a higher degree of financial protection for low-income groups against the economic impact of illness. PMID:16501711

  2. Love, lifestyles and the risk of AIDS: the moral worlds of young people in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Samuelsen, Helle

    2006-01-01

    The HIV epidemic has had a profound impact on people's everyday life in most African societies. A large proportion of all new HIV infections involves young people between 15 and 25 years. The objective of this paper is to explore local moral worlds of young people in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso, and discuss how the HIVS epidemic affects their reflections on their everyday life and their perceptions of sexual relationships. Based on anthropological fieldwork, including focus-group discussions, in-depth interviews and participant observation, a total of 57 young people between 15 and 25 years were followed over a 3-month period. Using the notion of 'lifestyle', the paper shows how structural factors of unemployment and poverty paired with global discourse on AIDS present the young people with frustrations and quandaries in relation to their hopes and images of love, faithfulness and modern living. The data shows that the HIV epidemic contributes to and accelerates their feeling of living in a risk society and of being at risk. In order to cope with these uncertainties and contingencies, local discourses of trust and fidelity become extremely important and to most young people HIV prevention is synonymous with finding a faithful partner and/or using condoms. PMID:16801223

  3. Effects of a Cereal and Soy Dietary Formula on Rehabilitation of Undernourished Children at Ouagadougou, in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Douamba, Zoenabo; Martinetto, Marina; Pietra, Virginio; Pignatelli, Salavatore; Schumacher, Fabian; Nikiema, Jean-Baptiste; Simpore, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    The New Misola consists of millet soybean, peanut, vitamins, minerals, and industrial amylase. Our objective is to demonstrate that porridge made from local grains and legumes restores the nutritional balance of malnourished children. The study was carried on 304 malnourished children aged 6–48 months including 172 girls and 132 boys from Saint Camille Medical Centre. At the beginning, these malnourished children had a WHZ z-score of −3.10 and a WAZ z-score of −3.85, which reflected, according to WHO, a severe malnutrition. After eight weeks of nutritional rehabilitation, a normal WHZ of −1.41 was obtained. These children recovered more than those in a similar study performed in 2006 with the old formula of Misola. This study shows that malnutrition remains a public health problem in Burkina Faso. It should be necessary that public health services and the epidemiologists work in synergy with nutritionists and “nutrigenetics” in order to combat malnutrition efficiently. PMID:22175011

  4. The changing distribution of two riverine tsetse flies over 15 years in an increasingly cultivated area of Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    de La Rocque, S; Augusseau, X; Guillobez, S; Michel, V; De Wispelaere, G; Bauer, B; Cuisance, D

    2001-06-01

    Changes in the distribution of two riverine tsetse flies, Glossina tachinoides Westwood and Glossina palpalis gambiensis Vanderplank are described in an agro-pastoral area of Burkina Faso subject to increasing human population pressure and land use change. Two similar entomological surveys (one trap every 100 m, 120 km of river) were conducted in 1981 and 1996. Changes in tsetse distribution were compared to land use changes through high resolution remote sensing imagery (LANDSAT, SPOT). There was a close relationship between proximity of crops relative to riverine forest and the density of Glossina. Where fields encroached on riverine vegetation, tsetse populations declined. Where the geomorphological structure was not well suited to agricultural activity, riverine vegetation and tsetse fly populations were relatively unaffected, even with intense agricultural activity nearby. In contrast, increased human activity and higher cattle densities in the surrounding savannah areas were associated with increased tsetse numbers. The results demonstrated a wide diversity of tsetse distribution and habitat within a few kilometres in an agro-pastoral landscape in West Africa. PMID:11415469

  5. Population structuring of the tsetse Glossina tachinoides resulting from landscape fragmentation in the Mouhoun River basin, Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Kone, N; De Meeûs, T; Bouyer, J; Ravel, S; Guerrini, L; N'Goran, E K; Vial, L

    2010-06-01

    The impact of landscape fragmentation resulting from human- and climate-mediated factors on the structure of a population of Glossina tachinoides Westwood (Diptera: Glossinidae) in the Mouhoun River basin, Burkina Faso, was investigated. Allele frequencies at five microsatellite loci were compared in four populations. The average distance between samples was 72 km. The sampling points traversed an ecological cline in terms of rainfall and riverine forest ecotype, along a river loop that enlarged from upstream to downstream. Microsatellite DNA demonstrated no structuring among the groups studied (F(ST) = 0.015, P = 0.07), which is contrary to findings pertaining to Glossina palpalis gambiensis Vanderplank in the same geographical area. The populations of G. tachinoides showed complete panmixia (F(IS) = 0, P = 0.5 for the whole sample) and no genetic differentiation among populations or global positioning system trap locations. This is in line with the results of dispersal studies which indicated higher diffusion coefficients for G. tachinoides than for G. p. gambiensis. The impact of these findings is discussed within the framework of control campaigns currently promoted by the Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign. PMID:20141594

  6. Population structuring of Glossina palpalis gambiensis (Diptera: Glossinidae) according to landscape fragmentation in the Mouhoun river, Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Bouyer, Jeremy; Ravel, Sophie; Dujardin, Jean-Pierre; de Meeüs, Thierry; Vial, Laurence; Thévenon, Sophie; Guerrini, Laure; Sidibé, Issa; Solano, Philippe

    2007-09-01

    The impact of landscape fragmentation due to human and climatic mediated factors on the structure of a population of Glossina palpalis gambiensis Vanderplank (Diptera: Glossinidae) was investigated in the Mouhoun river basin, Burkina Faso. Allele frequencies at five microsatellite loci, and metric properties based on 11 wing landmarks, were compared between four populations. The populations originated from the Mouhoun river and one of its tributaries. The average distance between samples was 72 km with the two most widely spaced populations being 216 km apart. The sampling points traversed an ecological cline in terms of rainfall and riverine forest ecotype, along a river enlarging from downstream to upstream and oriented south to north. Microsatellite DNA comparison demonstrated structuring between the populations, but not complete isolation, with an overall Fst = 0.012 (P < 0.001). Wing geometry revealed significant centroid size and shape differences between populations, especially between the two most distant populations. There was no significant correlation between gene flow and geographic distance at this scale, but there was a positive correlation in females between metric distances (wing shape differences) and geographic distances that might be attributed to the cline of environmental conditions. The impact of the fragmentation of riparian landscapes on tsetse population structure is discussed in the context of control campaigns currently promoted by Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign. PMID:17915509

  7. Fragmentation analysis for prediction of suitable habitat for vectors: example of riverine tsetse flies in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Guerrini, L; Bord, J P; Ducheyne, E; Bouyer, J

    2008-11-01

    Tsetse flies are the cyclic vectors of sleeping sickness and African animal trypanosomosis. The possibility to classify the natural habitat of riverine tsetse species is explored in the Mouhoun River basin, Burkina Faso: the objectives were to discriminate the riverine forests community types and their fragmentation levels by using Landsat 7 enhanced thematic mapper images, to map tsetse densities. Glossina palpalis gambiensis Vanderplank 1949 (Diptera: Glossinidae) and G. tachinoides Westwood, 1850 are the vectors of trypanosomoses in this area. After a supervised classification, the community types were discriminated using the water area in 400-m-wide polygons around the river. A fragmentation analysis of the swamp forest unit, cross-tabulated with the community types, lead to identification of the final landscapes where tsetse apparent densities (ADT) were implemented using a training data set of 608 trap locations. The predicted ADT were then compared with an independent validation data set of 78 trap locations. The correlation between the model predictions and the validation data set was high, validating this approach (P < 0.001). The riverine forest community type and fragmentation level are critical factors for riverine tsetse species, which should be taken into consideration to map their suitable habitat. PMID:19058646

  8. Serological evidence in sheep suggesting phlebovirus circulation in a Rift Valley fever enzootic area in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, J P; Le Guenno, B; Some, M J; Akakpo, J A

    1992-01-01

    Within the Phlebovirus serogroup, Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus is endemo-enzootic in the African sahelian zone. Recently an RVF epizootic in West Africa prompted a serosurvey in the major sheep and cattle raising areas. Because of the close antigenic relationship between the phleboviruses it appeared of interest to evaluate the prevalence of the other phleboviruses also. In 1987, 482 sheep serum samples were collected in 2 different ecological zones of Burkina Faso and tested for the presence of phlebovirus antibodies. A sensitive but non-specific immunofluorescent antibody test and a specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used, with the following African phlebovirus antigens: Rift Valley fever (RVF), Arumowot, Gabek Forest, Gordil, Saint Floris and Odrenisrou. A total of 15.8% of the sera sampled had anti-RVF antibody in the ELISA. RVF virus appeared to be more active in drier areas such as the sahelian region, known to be an enzootic area for the disease. Antibodies to other phleboviruses were found in 11.8% of the samples, independent of RVF virus activity. It is assumed that sheep can be infected by different phleboviruses. PMID:1287944

  9. Termite mounds as hot spots of nitrous oxide emissions in South-Sudanian savanna of Burkina Faso (West Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brümmer, Christian; Papen, Hans; Wassmann, Reiner; Brüggemann, Nicolas

    2009-05-01

    Despite a considerable knowledge of the significant role of termites in the global methane budget, very little is known about their contribution to the global nitrous oxide (N2O) budget. Release of N2O from termite (Cubitermes fungifaber) mounds was measured at a natural savanna site in the southwest of Burkina Faso from May to September 2006. Termite N2O emissions were around 20 μg N2O-N m-2 h-1 at the end of the dry season, and up to two orders of magnitude higher than N2O emissions from the surrounding termite-free soil after the onset of the rainy season. The average N2O emission rate from termite mounds during the observation period was 204 μg N2O-N m-2 h-1, and termite mounds contributed 3.0% to total N2O emissions from this savanna ecosystem. However, in other tropical terrestrial ecosystems with other termite species and/or higher termite density this share might be significantly higher.

  10. The effect of trees on preferential flow and soil infiltrability in an agroforestry parkland in semiarid Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargués Tobella, A.; Reese, H.; Almaw, A.; Bayala, J.; Malmer, A.; Laudon, H.; Ilstedt, U.

    2014-04-01

    Water scarcity constrains the livelihoods of millions of people in tropical drylands. Tree planting in these environments is generally discouraged due to the large water consumption by trees, but this view may neglect their potential positive impacts on water availability. The effect of trees on soil hydraulic properties linked to groundwater recharge is poorly understood. In this study, we performed 18 rainfall simulations and tracer experiments in an agroforestry parkland in Burkina Faso to investigate the effect of trees and associated termite mounds on soil infiltrability and preferential flow. The sampling points were distributed in transects each consisting of three positions: (i) under a single tree, (ii) in the middle of an open area, and (iii) under a tree associated with a termite mound. The degree of preferential flow was quantified through parameters based on the dye infiltration patterns, which were analyzed using image analysis of photographs. Our results show that the degree of preferential flow was highest under trees associated with termite mounds, intermediate under single trees, and minimal in the open areas. Tree density also had an influence on the degree of preferential flow, with small open areas having more preferential flow than large ones. Soil infiltrability was higher under single trees than in the open areas or under trees associated with a termite mound. The findings from this study demonstrate that trees have a positive impact on soil hydraulic properties influencing groundwater recharge, and thus such effects must be considered when evaluating the impact of trees on water resources in drylands.

  11. Prevention of mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission in Burkina Faso: evaluation of vertical transmission by PCR, molecular characterization of subtypes and determination of antiretroviral drugs resistance

    PubMed Central

    Sagna, Tani; Bisseye, Cyrille; Compaore, Tegewende R.; Kagone, Therese S.; Djigma, Florencia W.; Ouermi, Djeneba; Pirkle, Catherine M.; Zeba, Moctar T. A.; Bazie, Valerie J. T.; Douamba, Zoenabo; Moret, Remy; Pietra, Virginio; Koama, Adjirita; Gnoula, Charlemagne; Sia, Joseph D.; Nikiema, Jean-Baptiste; Simpore, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Background Vertical human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission is a public health problem in Burkina Faso. The main objective of this study on the prevention of mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission was to determine the residual risk of HIV transmission in infants born to mothers receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Moreover, we detect HIV antiretroviral (ARV) drug resistance among mother–infant pairs and identify subtypes and circulating recombinant forms (CRF) in Burkina Faso. Design In this study, 3,215 samples of pregnant women were analyzed for HIV using rapid tests. Vertical transmission was estimated by polymerase chain reaction in 6-month-old infants born to women who tested HIV positive. HIV-1 resistance to ARV, subtypes, and CRFs was determined through ViroSeq kit using the ABI PRISM 3,130 sequencer. Results In this study, 12.26% (394/3,215) of the pregnant women were diagnosed HIV positive. There was 0.52% (2/388) overall vertical transmission of HIV, with rates of 1.75% (2/114) among mothers under prophylaxis and 0.00% (0/274) for those under HAART. Genetic mutations were also isolated that induce resistance to ARV such as M184V, Y115F, K103N, Y181C, V179E, and G190A. There were subtypes and CRF of HIV-1 present, the most common being: CRF06_CPX (58.8%), CRF02_AG (35.3%), and subtype G (5.9%). Conclusions ARV drugs reduce the residual rate of HIV vertical transmission. However, the virus has developed resistance to ARV, which could limit future therapeutic options when treatment is needed. Resistance to ARV therefore requires a permanent interaction between researchers, physicians, and pharmacists, to strengthen the network of monitoring and surveillance of drug resistance in Burkina Faso. PMID:25630709

  12. Droughts, Irrigation Development, and Hydropower: Different Development Priorities in Ghana and Burkina Faso and Their Effect on Management of the Volta River, West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Giesen, N.; Andreini, M.; van Edig, A.

    2001-05-01

    The Volta Basin covers 400,000 km2 of the West-African savanna zone. Ghana lies downstream and contains 42% of the basin. Most of the upstream part of the basin lies in Burkina Faso (43% of total), and the remaining 15% lies in Mali, Côte d'Ivoire, Togo, and Benin. Average rainfall is 1000 mm per year of which around 9% or 36 km3 becomes available as runoff in the Volta River. Small variations in rainfall cause relatively large variations in runoff. The Volta Basin is undergoing rapid changes in land use and water resource development, mainly driven by the high population growth of 3% per year. However, different countries pursue economic development in different ways. At independence in 1957, Ghana's leaders saw industrialization as essential to development and electric power from the Volta Dam as central to that industrialization. In 1964, the Volta Dam was built and Ghana's economic growth in the mining, industrial, and service sectors has depended on the dam's hydropower ever since. In contrast, land-locked Burkina Faso has less industrial potential and seeks to develop through its agriculture, both for subsistence and export crops. Given the extremely unreliable rainfall, irrigation development is seen as the only way to increase agricultural production. In general, irrigation in Burkina Faso takes the form of many small scale, village-based schemes of which the downstream impact is difficult to gauge. A minor drought in 1997 and 1998 caused the level of Lake Volta to drop, resulting in widespread power outages. In the ensuing public discussion, hydraulic development in Burkina Faso was seen as one of the potential causes of the lack of water. No firm data were available to substantiate this claim. In fact, over-withdrawals in previous years combined with climate variability were more likely culprits. A recently initiated multi-disciplinary research project will be presented that seeks to provide a scientific basis on which future discussions between the two

  13. In vivo selection of Plasmodium falciparum Pfcrt and Pfmdr1 variants by artemether-lumefantrine and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Baraka, Vito; Tinto, Halidou; Valea, Innocent; Fitzhenry, Robert; Delgado-Ratto, Christopher; Mbonye, Martin K; Van Overmeir, Chantal; Rosanas-Urgell, Anna; Van Geertruyden, Jean-Pierre; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Erhart, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum Pfcrt-76 and Pfmdr1-86 gene polymorphisms were determined during a clinical trial in Burkina Faso comparing the efficacies of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PPQ) and artemether-lumefantrine (AL). Significant selection of Pfcrt-K76 was observed after exposure to AL and DHA-PPQ, as well as selection of Pfmdr1-N86 after AL but not DHA-PPQ treatment, suggesting reverse selection on the Pfcrt gene by PPQ. These results support the rational use of DHA-PPQ in settings where chloroquine (CQ) resistance is high. PMID:25403659

  14. Motivation and incentives of rural maternal and neonatal health care providers: a comparison of qualitative findings from Burkina Faso, Ghana and Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Burkina Faso, Ghana and Tanzania strong efforts are being made to improve the quality of maternal and neonatal health (MNH) care. However, progress is impeded by challenges, especially in the area of human resources. All three countries are striving not only to scale up the number of available health staff, but also to improve performance by raising skill levels and enhancing provider motivation. Methods In-depth interviews were used to explore MNH provider views about motivation and incentives at primary care level in rural Burkina Faso, Ghana and Tanzania. Interviews were held with 25 MNH providers, 8 facility and district managers, and 2 policy-makers in each country. Results Across the three countries some differences were found in the reasons why people became health workers. Commitment to remaining a health worker was generally high. The readiness to remain at a rural facility was far less, although in all settings there were some providers that were willing to stay. In Burkina Faso it appeared to be particularly difficult to recruit female MNH providers to rural areas. There were indications that MNH providers in all the settings sometimes failed to treat their patients well. This was shown to be interlinked with differences in how the term ‘motivation’ was understood, and in the views held about remuneration and the status of rural health work. Job satisfaction was shown to be quite high, and was particularly linked to community appreciation. With some important exceptions, there was a strong level of agreement regarding the financial and non-financial incentives that were suggested by these providers, but there were clear country preferences as to whether incentives should be for individuals or teams. Conclusions Understandings of the terms and concepts pertaining to motivation differed between the three countries. The findings from Burkina Faso underline the importance of gender-sensitive health workforce planning. The training that all

  15. The challenges of developing an instrument to assess health provider motivation at primary care level in rural Burkina Faso, Ghana and Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Prytherch, Helen; Leshabari, Melkidezek T.; Wiskow, Christiane; Aninanya, Gifty A.; Kakoko, Deodatus C.V.; Kagoné, Moubassira; Burghardt, Juliane; Kynast-Wolf, Gisela; Marx, Michael; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Background The quality of health care depends on the competence and motivation of the health workers that provide it. In the West, several tools exist to measure worker motivation, and some have been applied to the health sector. However, none have been validated for use in sub-Saharan Africa. The complexity of such tools has also led to concerns about their application at primary care level. Objective To develop a common instrument to monitor any changes in maternal and neonatal health (MNH) care provider motivation resulting from the introduction of pilot interventions in rural, primary level facilities in Ghana, Burkina Faso, and Tanzania. Design Initially, a conceptual framework was developed. Based upon this, a literature review and preliminary qualitative research, an English-language instrument was developed and validated in an iterative process with experts from the three countries involved. The instrument was then piloted in Ghana. Reliability testing and exploratory factor analysis were used to produce a final, parsimonious version. Results and discussion This paper describes the actual process of developing the instrument. Consequently, the concepts and items that did not perform well psychometrically at pre-test are first presented and discussed. The final version of the instrument, which comprises 42 items for self-assessment and eight for peer-assessment, is then shown. This is followed by a presentation and discussion of the findings from first use of the instrument with MNH providers from 12 rural, primary level facilities in each of the three countries. Conclusions It is possible to undertake work of this nature at primary health care level, particularly if the instruments are kept as straightforward as possible and well introduced. However, their development requires very lengthy preparatory periods. The effort needed to adapt such instruments for use in different countries within the region of sub-Saharan Africa should not be underestimated. PMID

  16. [Behavioral interactions and rhythms of activity of Glossina palpalis gambiensis and G. tachinoides (Diptera: Glossinidae) in a forest gallery in Burkina Faso].

    PubMed

    Salou, E; Rayaissé, J B; Laveissière, C; Sanon, A; Solano, P

    2012-08-01

    Glossina palpalis gambiensis and G. tachinoides are the main vectors of human and animal trypanosomoses in West Africa. In some parts of their distribution area, they co-exist in sympatry, but little is known about their interactions. This study aimed to explore their respective flight height and daily activity when co-existing or alone. Attractive targets were used, made of a black/blue/black cloth covered with adhesive film, so that all tsetse that landed were caught. The study was conducted in two areas in South Burkina Faso: Kartasso, upstream the Mouhoun river, where G. p. gambiensis is the only tsetse occurring; and Folonzo, on the Comoé river, where both species occur. Out of more than 3,800 tsetses caught in total, in Folonzo, G. tachinoides occurred at higher densities than G. p. gambiensis (84 vs 16% of the total densities). The mean height of capture was 55 cm for G. tachinoides, and 65 cm for G. p. gambiensis. As a comparison, in Kartasso where G. p. gambiensis is alone, the mean height of capture was 46 cm, these differences being statistically significant. In average, females were caught higher in altitude than males, and the two species showed a similar activity profile in the day. These results are discussed in the light of differences in the nature of the forest gallery, or possible interspecies competition behaviour in relation with their limited energy metabolism and flight capacities, or also with species differences in landing behavior, linked to host feeding detection. These observations have consequences on control tools releasing attractive odours, which may have contrasted efficacy depending of the flight height of the species. PMID:22910664

  17. Biomass smoke in Burkina Faso: what is the relationship between particulate matter, carbon monoxide, and kitchen characteristics?

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, S S; Louis, V R; Sié, A; Sauerborn, R

    2014-02-01

    In Burkina Faso where cooking with biomass is very common, little information exists regarding kitchen characteristics and their impact on air pollutant levels. The measurement of air pollutants such as respirable particulate matter (PM10), an important component of biomass smoke that has been linked to adverse health outcomes, can also pose challenges in terms of cost and the type of equipment needed. Carbon monoxide could potentially be a more economical and simpler measure of air pollution. The focus of this study was to first assess the association of kitchen characteristics with measured PM10 and CO levels and second, the relationship of PM10 with CO concentrations, across these different kitchen characteristics in households in Nouna, Burkina Faso. Twenty-four-hour concentrations of PM10 (area) were measured with portable monitors and CO (area and personal) estimated using color dosimeter tubes. Data on kitchen characteristics were collected through surveys. Most households used both wood and charcoal burned in three-stone and charcoal stoves. Mean outdoor kitchen PM10 levels were relatively high (774 μg/m(3), 95 % CI 329-1,218 μg/m(3)), but lower than indoor concentrations (Satterthwaite t value, -6.14; p < 0.0001). In multivariable analyses, outdoor kitchens were negatively associated with PM10 (OR = 0.06, 95 % CI 0.02-0.16, p value <0.0001) and CO (OR = 0.03, 95 % CI 0.01-0.11, p value <0.0001) concentrations. Strong area PM10 and area CO correlations were found with indoor kitchens (Spearman's r = 0.82, p < 0.0001), indoor stove use (Spearman's r = 0.82, p < 0.0001), and the presence of a smoker in the household (Spearman's r = 0.83, p < 0.0001). Weak correlations between area PM10 and personal CO levels were observed with three-stone (Spearman's r = 0.23, p = 0.008) and improved stoves (Spearman's r = 0.34, p = 0.003). This indicates that the extensive use of biomass fuels and multiple stove types for

  18. Declining HIV Prevalence in Parallel With Safer Sex Behaviors in Burkina Faso: Evidence From Surveillance and Population-Based Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Kirakoya-Samadoulougou, Fati; Nagot, Nicolas; Samadoulougou, Sekou; Sokey, Mamadou; Guiré, Abdoulaye; Sombié, Issiaka; Meda, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate trends in HIV prevalence and changes in reported sexual behaviors between 1998 and 2014 in Burkina Faso. Methods: We obtained data on HIV prevalence from antenatal care (ANC) surveillance sites (N = 9) that were consistently included in surveillance between 1998 and 2014. We also analyzed data on HIV prevalence and reported sex behaviors from 3 population-based surveys from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), conducted in 1998–99, 2003, and 2010. Sex behavior indicators comprised never-married youth who have never had sex; sex with more than 1 partner; sex with a nonmarital, non-cohabiting partner; condom use at last sex with a nonmarital, non-cohabiting partner; and sex before age 15. We calculated survey-specific HIV prevalence with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and used the chi-square test or chi-square test for trend to compare HIV prevalence across survey years and to analyze trends in reported sex behaviors. Results: HIV prevalence among pregnant women ages 15–49 decreased by 72% in urban areas, from 7.1% in 1998 to 2.0% in 2014, and by 75% in rural areas, from 2.0% in 2003 to 0.5% in 2014. HIV declined most in younger age groups, which is a good reflection of recent incidence, with declines of 55% among 15–19-year-olds, 72% among 20–24-year-olds, 40% among 25–29-year-olds, and 7% among those ≥30 years old (considering urban and rural data combined). Data reported in the DHS corroborated these declines in HIV prevalence: between 2003 and 2010, HIV prevalence dropped significantly—by 89% among girls ages 15–19, from 0.9% (95% CI, 0.2 to 1.6) to 0.1% (95% CI, 0.0 to 0.4), and by 78% among young women ages 20–24, from 1.8% (95% CI, 1.6 to 3.0) to 0.4% (95% CI, 0.0 to 0.7). During the same time period, people reported safer sex behaviors. For example, significantly higher percentages of never-married youth reported they had never had sex, lower percentages of sexually active youth reported multiple

  19. Safer injections following a new national medicine policy in the public sector, Burkina Faso 1995 – 2000

    PubMed Central

    Logez, Sophie; Hutin, Yvan; Somda, Paul; Thuault, Jérôme; Holloway, Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    Background The common failure of health systems to ensure adequate and sufficient supplies of injection devices may have a negative impact on injection safety. We conducted an assessment in April 2001 to determine to which extent an increase in safe injection practices between 1995 and 2000 was related to the increased access to injection devices because of a new essential medicine policy in Burkina Faso. Methods We reviewed outcomes of the new medicine policy implemented in1995. In April 2001, a retrospective programme review assessed the situation between 1995 and 2000. We visited 52 health care facilities where injections had been observed during a 2000 injection safety assessment and their adjacent operational public pharmaceutical depots. Data collection included structured observations of available injection devices and an estimation of the proportion of prescriptions including at least one injection. We interviewed wholesaler managers at national and regional levels on supply of injection devices to public health facilities. Results Fifty of 52 (96%) health care facilities were equipped with a pharmaceutical depot selling syringes and needles, 37 (74%) of which had been established between 1995 and 2000. Of 50 pharmaceutical depots, 96% had single-use 5 ml syringes available. At all facilities, patients were buying syringes and needles out of the depot for their injections prescribed at the dispensary. While injection devices were available in greater quantities, the proportion of prescriptions including at least one injection remained stable between 1995 (26.5 %) and 2000 (23.8 %). Conclusion The implementation of pharmaceutical depots next to public health care facilities increased geographical access to essential medicines and basic supplies, among which syringes and needles, contributing substantially to safer injection practices in the absence of increased use of therapeutic injections. PMID:16364178

  20. The impacts of land cover change to savannah on the convective rainfall in the southeastern Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mande, T.; Ceperley, N. C.; Katul, G. G.; Yacouba, H.; Tyler, S. W.; Van De Giesen, N.; Rinaldo, A.; Parlange, M. B.

    2013-12-01

    Resolving the pathways by which landcover changes impact rainfall occurrences is essential to sustaining ecosystem goods and services in water limited areas such as West Africa (southeastern Burkina Faso) where agriculture is primarily rain-fed. The focus of this work is to investigate the main causes of enhanced rainfall observed over savannah forest versus agricultural areas within this region. These two areas experience similar synoptic scale weather patterns but there are significant differences in land-cover properties. A model for predicting the time evolution of the mixed layer (ML) height as driven by measured sensible heat flux using a thermodynamic encroachment hypothesis was combined with a model for predicting the lifting condensation level (LCL) driven by measured mean air temperature and relative humidity collected above both land-cover types. Measured convective rainfall events from tipping bucket gauges were then identified following the crossing of the LCL and ML heights. The analysis revealed that the crossing of ML and LCL was 30% more frequent above the savannah forest when compared to the agricultural area because of increased sensible heat flux and not because of significant differences in LCL heights between the two sites. These enhancements in crossing statistics were commensurate with the 10-30% increases in annual rainfall recorded above the savannah forest when compared to the agricultural site. The probability density function (pdf) of the measured intensity (mm h-1) of the identified convective rainfall events (=x) at both sites scaled as an approximate power given by pdf(x)~xa, where the exponent a=-1.5 was computed for both sites. This exponent is in good agreement with reported exponents for summertime convective rainfall in other regions, lending further confidence in the identification of convective rainfall events here. The biotic (leaf area index) and abiotic (well drained soil) factors causing the enhanced sensible heat flux at

  1. Collaborative development and implementation of a knowledge brokering program to promote research use in Burkina Faso, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Dagenais, Christian; Somé, Télesphore D; Boileau-Falardeau, Michèle; McSween-Cadieux, Esther; Ridde, Valéry

    2015-01-01

    Despite efforts expended over recent decades, there is a persistent gap between the production of scientific evidence and its use. This is mainly due to the difficulty of bringing such knowledge to health workers and decision-makers so that it can inform practices and decisions on a timely basis. One strategy for transferring knowledge to potential users, that is, gaining increasing legitimacy, is knowledge brokering (KB), effectiveness of which in certain conditions has been demonstrated through empirical research. However, little is known about how to implement such a strategy, especially in the African context. The KB program presented here is aimed specifically at narrowing the gap by making scientific knowledge available to users with the potential to improve health-related practices and decision making in Burkina Faso. The program involves Canadian and African researchers, a knowledge broker, health practitioners, and policy-makers. This article presents the collaborative development of the KB strategy and the evaluation of its implementation at year 1. The KB strategy was developed in stages, beginning with a scoping study to ensure the most recent studies were considered. Two one-day workshops were then conducted to explore the problem of low research use and to adapt the strategy to the Burkinabè context. Based on these workshops, the KB program was developed and brokers were recruited and trained. Evaluation of the program's implementation after the first year showed that: 1) the preparatory activities were greatly appreciated by participants, and most considered the content useful for their work; 2) the broker had carried out his role in accordance with the logic model; and 3) this role was seen as important by the participants targeted by the activities and outputs. Participants made suggestions for program improvements in subsequent years, stressing particularly the need to involve decision-makers at the central level. PMID:25630708

  2. Malaria related care-seeking-behaviour and expenditures in urban settings: A household survey in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Beogo, Idrissa; Huang, Nicole; Drabo, Maxime K; Yé, Yazoumé

    2016-08-01

    In Sub-Sahara Africa, malaria inflicts a high healthcare expenditure to individuals. However, little is known about healthcare expenditure to individual affected by malaria and determinants of healthcare seeking behaviour in urban settings where private sector is thriving. This study investigated the level and correlates of expenditure among individuals with self-reported malaria episode in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. A cross-sectional household survey conducted in August-November 2011 in Ouagadougou covered 8,243 individuals (1,600 households). Using Generalized Estimating Equations, the analysis included 1082 individuals from 715 households, who reported an episode of malaria. Of individuals surveyed, 38.3% sought care from public, 27.4% from private providers, and, 34.2% self-medicated. The median cost for malaria treatment was USD10.1 (4,850.0XOF) with significant different between public, private and self-medication (p<0.001). In public primary care health facilities, the median cost was USD8.4 (4,050.0XOF) for uncomplicated malaria and USD15.2 (7,333.5XOF) for severe malaria. In private-for-profit facilities run by a medical doctor, the median cost was USD30.3 (14,600.0XOF) for uncomplicated malaria and USD 43.0 (20,725.0XOF) for severe malaria. Regardless of the source of care, patients with insurance incurred significantly higher expenditure compared to those without insurance (p<0.001) and medicine accounted for the largest share of the expenditure. The type of provider, having insurance, and the severity of the malaria predict the amount of money spent. The high financial cost of malaria treatment regardless of the providers poses threat to the goal of universal access to malaria interventions, the unique way to achieve elimination goals. PMID:27154586

  3. Bioaccumulation and Trophic Transfer of Mercury and Selenium in African Sub-Tropical Fluvial Reservoirs Food Webs (Burkina Faso)

    PubMed Central

    Ouédraogo, Ousséni; Chételat, John; Amyot, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The bioaccumulation and biomagnification of mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) were investigated in sub-tropical freshwater food webs from Burkina Faso, West Africa, a region where very few ecosystem studies on contaminants have been performed. During the 2010 rainy season, samples of water, sediment, fish, zooplankton, and mollusks were collected from three water reservoirs and analysed for total Hg (THg), methylmercury (MeHg), and total Se (TSe). Ratios of δ13C and δ15N were measured to determine food web structures and patterns of contaminant accumulation and transfer to fish. Food chain lengths (FCLs) were calculated using mean δ15N of all primary consumer taxa collected as the site-specific baseline. We report relatively low concentrations of THg and TSe in most fish. We also found in all studied reservoirs short food chain lengths, ranging from 3.3 to 3.7, with most fish relying on a mixture of pelagic and littoral sources for their diet. Mercury was biomagnified in fish food webs with an enrichment factor ranging from 2.9 to 6.5 for THg and from 2.9 to 6.6 for MeHg. However, there was no evidence of selenium biomagnification in these food webs. An inverse relationship was observed between adjusted δ15N and log-transformed Se:Hg ratios, indicating that Se has a lesser protective effect in top predators, which are also the most contaminated animals with respect to MeHg. Trophic position, carbon source, and fish total length were the factors best explaining Hg concentration in fish. In a broader comparison of our study sites with literature data for other African lakes, the THg biomagnification rate was positively correlated with FCL. We conclude that these reservoir systems from tropical Western Africa have low Hg biomagnification associated with short food chains. This finding may partly explain low concentrations of Hg commonly reported in fish from this area. PMID:25875292

  4. Gender asymmetry in healthcare-facility attendance of people living with HIV/AIDS in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Bila, Blandine; Egrot, Marc

    2009-09-01

    Anthropological research in Burkina Faso indicates that more HIV-positive women than HIV-positive men are attending care facilities for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH) and accessing antiretroviral medicine. This article, situated in the field of study of interactions between gender and AIDS, offers a description of this asymmetry and an anthropological analysis of the socio-cultural determinants, through analysis of data from ethnographic research among PLWH and health actors. Examining social representations of femininity and masculinity in Burkinabe society and the organisation of the healthcare system in connection with gender shed light on the decision-making processes of both sexes around therapeutic choices and the itinerary of care. On the one hand, the social values attached to femininity, maternity and the status of wife create conditions for women that favour their attendance at care facilities for PLWH and encourage a widespread practice where wives take the place of their husbands in healthcare queues. Moreover, health policies and the effects of women's empowerment within the healthcare system strengthen women's access to health services. On the other hand, representations of masculinity are fully implicated in the cultural construction of men's reluctance to attend care facilities for PLWH. The values associated with this masculinity cause men to run great health, economic and social risks, not only for themselves, but also for their wives and children. By better understanding the interaction between gender, the experience of HIV and the institutional organisation of healthcare, we can identify ways to reduce men's reluctance to attend care facilities for PLWH and improve both prevention and treatment-oriented programmes. PMID:19539415

  5. Collaborative development and implementation of a knowledge brokering program to promote research use in Burkina Faso, West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Dagenais, Christian; Somé, Télesphore D.; Boileau-Falardeau, Michèle; McSween-Cadieux, Esther; Ridde, Valéry

    2015-01-01

    Despite efforts expended over recent decades, there is a persistent gap between the production of scientific evidence and its use. This is mainly due to the difficulty of bringing such knowledge to health workers and decision-makers so that it can inform practices and decisions on a timely basis. One strategy for transferring knowledge to potential users, that is, gaining increasing legitimacy, is knowledge brokering (KB), effectiveness of which in certain conditions has been demonstrated through empirical research. However, little is known about how to implement such a strategy, especially in the African context. The KB program presented here is aimed specifically at narrowing the gap by making scientific knowledge available to users with the potential to improve health-related practices and decision making in Burkina Faso. The program involves Canadian and African researchers, a knowledge broker, health practitioners, and policy-makers. This article presents the collaborative development of the KB strategy and the evaluation of its implementation at year 1. The KB strategy was developed in stages, beginning with a scoping study to ensure the most recent studies were considered. Two one-day workshops were then conducted to explore the problem of low research use and to adapt the strategy to the Burkinabè context. Based on these workshops, the KB program was developed and brokers were recruited and trained. Evaluation of the program's implementation after the first year showed that: 1) the preparatory activities were greatly appreciated by participants, and most considered the content useful for their work; 2) the broker had carried out his role in accordance with the logic model; and 3) this role was seen as important by the participants targeted by the activities and outputs. Participants made suggestions for program improvements in subsequent years, stressing particularly the need to involve decision-makers at the central level. PMID:25630708

  6. The effect of trees on preferential flow and soil infiltrability in an agroforestry parkland in semiarid Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Bargués Tobella, A; Reese, H; Almaw, A; Bayala, J; Malmer, A; Laudon, H; Ilstedt, U

    2014-01-01

    Water scarcity constrains the livelihoods of millions of people in tropical drylands. Tree planting in these environments is generally discouraged due to the large water consumption by trees, but this view may neglect their potential positive impacts on water availability. The effect of trees on soil hydraulic properties linked to groundwater recharge is poorly understood. In this study, we performed 18 rainfall simulations and tracer experiments in an agroforestry parkland in Burkina Faso to investigate the effect of trees and associated termite mounds on soil infiltrability and preferential flow. The sampling points were distributed in transects each consisting of three positions: (i) under a single tree, (ii) in the middle of an open area, and (iii) under a tree associated with a termite mound. The degree of preferential flow was quantified through parameters based on the dye infiltration patterns, which were analyzed using image analysis of photographs. Our results show that the degree of preferential flow was highest under trees associated with termite mounds, intermediate under single trees, and minimal in the open areas. Tree density also had an influence on the degree of preferential flow, with small open areas having more preferential flow than large ones. Soil infiltrability was higher under single trees than in the open areas or under trees associated with a termite mound. The findings from this study demonstrate that trees have a positive impact on soil hydraulic properties influencing groundwater recharge, and thus such effects must be considered when evaluating the impact of trees on water resources in drylands. Key Points Trees in dryland landscapes increase soil infiltrability and preferential flow Termite mounds in association with trees further enhance preferential flow PMID:25641996

  7. Prevalence of and Factors Associated with Human Cysticercosis in 60 Villages in Three Provinces of Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Carabin, Hélène; Millogo, Athanase; Cissé, Assana; Gabriël, Sarah; Sahlu, Ida; Dorny, Pierre; Bauer, Cici; Tarnagda, Zekiba; Ganaba, Rasmané

    2015-01-01

    Background Taenia solium, a zoonotic infection transmitted between humans and pigs, is considered an emerging infection in Sub-Saharan Africa, yet individual and community-level factors associated with the human infection with the larval stages (cysticercosis) are not well understood. This study aims to estimate the magnitude of association of individual-level and village-level factors with current human cysticercosis in 60 villages located in three Provinces of Burkina Faso. Methodology/Principal Findings Baseline cross-sectional data collected between February 2011 and January 2012 from a large community randomized-control trial were used. A total of 3609 individuals provided serum samples to assess current infection with cysticercosis. The association between individual and village-level factors and the prevalence of current infection with cysticercosis was estimated using Bayesian hierarchical logistic models. Diffuse priors were used for all regression coefficients. The prevalence of current cysticercosis varied across provinces and villages ranging from 0% to 11.5%. The results obtained suggest that increased age, being male and consuming pork as well as a larger proportion of roaming pigs and percentage of sand in the soil measured at the village level were associated with higher prevalences of infection. Furthermore, consuming pork at another village market had the highest increased prevalence odds of current infection. Having access to a latrine, living in a household with higher wealth quintiles and a higher soil pH measured at the village level decreased the prevalence odds of cysticercosis. Conclusions/Significance This is the first large-scale study to examine the association between variables measured at the individual-, household-, and village-level and the prevalence odds of cysticercosis in humans. Factors linked to people, pigs, and the environment were of importance, which further supports the need for a One Health approach to control

  8. Dynamics of tsetse natural infection rates in the Mouhoun river, Burkina Faso, in relation with environmental factors

    PubMed Central

    Bouyer, Jérémy; Koné, Naférima; Bengaly, Zakaria

    2013-01-01

    In Burkina Faso, the cyclical vectors of African animal trypanosomoses (AAT) are riverine tsetse species, namely Glossina palpalis gambiensis Vanderplank (G.p.g.) and Glossina tachinoides Westwood (G.t.) (Diptera: Glossinidae). Experimental work demonstrated that environmental stress can increase the sensitivity of tsetse to trypanosome infection. Seasonal variations of the tsetse infection rates were monitored monthly over 17 months (May 2006–September 2007) in two sites (Douroula and Kadomba). In total, 1423 flies were dissected and the infection of the proboscis, middle intestine and salivary glands was noted. All the positive organs were analyzed using monospecific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers. To investigate the role of different environmental factors, fly infection rates were analyzed using generalized linear mixed binomial models using the species, sex, and monthly averages of the maximum, minimum and mean daily temperatures, rainfalls, Land Surface Temperature day (LSTd) and night (LSTn) as fixed effects and the trap position as a random effect. The overall infection rate was 10% from which the predominant species was T. congolense (7.6% of the flies), followed by T. vivax (2.2% of the flies). The best model (lowest AICc) for the global infection rates was the one with the maximum daily temperature only as fixed effect (p < 0.001). For T. congolense, the best model was the one with the tsetse species, sex, maximum daily temperature and rainfalls as fixed effect, where the maximum daily temperature was the main effect (p < 0.001). The number of T. vivax infections was too low to allow the models to converge. The maturation rate of T. congolense was very high (94%), and G. t. harbored a higher maturation rate (p = 0.03). The results are discussed in view of former laboratory studies showing that temperature stress can increase the susceptibility of tsetse to trypanosomes, as well as the possibility to improve AAT risk mapping using satellite

  9. Carbon monoxide concentrations in outdoor wood-fired kitchens in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso--implications for women's and children's health.

    PubMed

    Thorsson, Sofia; Holmer, Björn; Andjelic, Andreas; Lindén, Jenny; Cimerman, Sandra; Barregard, Lars

    2014-07-01

    A majority of households in developing countries rely on biomass fuel for cooking, typically burned in open fires or simple stoves. The incomplete combustion of these fuels causes adverse health effects such as respiratory diseases, especially among women and children. However, quantitative data on pollution levels and on associated diseases are limited. We examined cooking habits and self-reported health in 31 households with outdoor open wood fires in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, using structured interviews. In eight households, carbon monoxide (CO) was measured using passive sampling. In addition, meteorology and ambient CO concentrations were assessed. The average CO concentration during cooking was 4.3 ppm, with a maximum of 65.3 ppm and minimum of 0.3 ppm (1-min values). A clear daily pattern was observed, with relatively low concentrations during the day and high during the evening, occasionally exceeding the World Health Organization 1- and 8-h guidelines when the air stabilised. On average, CO concentrations were 43 % higher in kitchens located in closed yards than in those located in open yards, showing that fireplace location affected the levels. Eye irritation and coughing among women and children were reported by 30 % of the households. Based on previously reported relations between CO concentrations and fine particles (<2.5 μm), the exposure to biomass smoke appears to be high enough to pose a considerable health risk among women and children in households with outdoor open wood fires. The results suggest that burning should be limited between sunset and dawn and in areas with limited ventilation to reduce pollutions levels. PMID:24652378

  10. Intermittent Preventive Treatment of Malaria in Children: A Qualitative Study of Community Perceptions and Recommendations in Burkina Faso and Mali

    PubMed Central

    Pitt, Catherine; Diawara, Halimatou; Ouédraogo, Dimlawendé J.; Diarra, Samba; Kaboré, Habibou; Kouéla, Kibsbila; Traoré, Abdoulaye; Dicko, Alassane; Konaté, Amadou T.; Chandramohan, Daniel; Diallo, Diadier A.; Greenwood, Brian; Conteh, Lesong

    2012-01-01

    Background Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in children (IPTc) is a highly efficacious method of malaria control where malaria transmission is highly seasonal. However, no studies published to date have examined community perceptions of IPTc. Methods A qualitative study was undertaken in parallel with a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of IPTc conducted in Mali and Burkina Faso in 2008–2009 to assess community perceptions of and recommendations for IPTc. Caregivers and community health workers (CHWs) were purposively sampled. Seventy-two in-depth individual interviews and 23 focus group discussions were conducted. Findings Widespread perceptions of health benefits for children led to enthusiasm for the trial and for IPTc specifically. Trust in and respect for those providing the tablets and a sense of obligation to the community to participate in sanctioned activities favoured initial adoption. IPTc fits in well with existing understandings of childhood illness. Participants did not express concerns about the specific drugs used for IPTc or about providing tablets to children without symptoms of malaria. There was no evidence that IPTc was perceived as a substitute for bed net usage, nor did it inhibit care seeking. Participants recommended that distribution be “closer to the population”, but expressed concern over caregivers' ability to administer tablets at home. Conclusions The trial context mediated perceptions of IPTc. Nonetheless, the results indicate that community perceptions of IPTc in the settings studied were largely favourable and that the delivery strategy rather than the tablets themselves presented the main areas of concern for caregivers and CHWs. The study identifies a number of key questions to consider in planning an IPTc distribution strategy. Single-dose formulations could increase the success of IPTc implementation, as could integration of IPTc within a package of activities, such as bed net distribution and

  11. Human papillomaviruses prevalence and genital co-infections in HIV-seropositive women in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso).

    PubMed

    Sagna, T; Djigma, F; Zeba, M; Bisseye, C; Karou, S D; Ouermi, D; Pietra, V; Gnoula, C; Sanogo, K; Nikiema, J B; Simpore, J

    2010-10-01

    The vaginal swabs among HIV-positive women in Africa often revealed opportunistic infections such as human Papillomavirus (HPV) and Mycoplasma that induce respectively cervix cancer and diseases such as vaginosis, abortions, infertility in through salpingitis. The purposes of this study were to: (1) seek for, the prevalence of pathogens such as HPV and Mycoplasma; (2) characterize the strains of HPV and estimate their prevalence; (3) identify among these women, those who were co-infected by these pathogens in order to cure them. From February 2009 to January 2010, 156 HIV-positive women attending our medical centers and aged from 19-45 years (mean age 33.65 +/- 5.75 years) had voluntarily accepted vaginal specimen's tests. PCR, ELISA and molecular hybridization were used for the identification and characterization of these pathogens. The results revealed the presence of Mycoplasma and HPV in 25.64 and 58.33% cases, respectively. The following HPV genotypes and the following prevalence were recorded: HPV-50'S (24.11%), HPV-18 (21.28%), HPV-30'S (18.44%) and HPV-16 (5.67%). The study also enable the identification of co-infections such as HPV-18 strains with HPV-30'S (5.67%) and HPV-30'S with HPV-50'S (3.55%). Other germs infecting the female genital tract including Candida albicans (20.51%), Escherichia coli (12.18%), Treponema pallidum (3.85%), Streptococcus agalactiae (3.21%) and Staphylococcus aureus (1.92%) were isolated. This preliminary research work showed the incidence of several genital pathogens, this could be a springboard for nationwide epidemiological study on HPV strains circulating in Burkina Faso. PMID:21313918

  12. Biodegradation of free cyanide by bacterial species isolated from cyanide-contaminated artisanal gold mining catchment area in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Razanamahandry, Lovasoa Christine; Andrianisa, Harinaivo Anderson; Karoui, Hela; Kouakou, Koffi Marcelin; Yacouba, Hamma

    2016-08-01

    Soil and water samples were collected from a watershed in Burkina Faso where illegal artisanal gold extraction using cyanidation occurs. The samples were used to evaluate cyanide contamination and the presence of cyanide degrading bacteria (CDB). Free cyanide (F-CN) was detected in all samples, with concentrations varying from 0.023 to 0.9 mg kg(-1), and 0.7-23 μg L(-1) in the soil and water samples, respectively. Potential CDB also were present in the samples. To test the effective F-CN degradation capacity of the isolated CDB species, the species were cultivated in growth media containing 40, 60 or 80 mg F-CN L(-1), with or without nutrients, at pH 9.5 and at room temperature. More than 95% of F-CN was degraded within 25 h, and F-CN degradation was associated with bacterial growth and ammonium production. However, initial concentrations of F-CN higher than 100 mg L(-1) inhibited bacterial growth and cyanide degradation. Abiotic tests showed that less than 3% of F-CN was removed by volatilization. Thus, the degradation of F-CN occurred predominately by biological mechanisms, and such mechanisms are recommended for remediation of contaminated soil and water. The bacteria consortium used in the experiment described above exist in a Sahelian climate, which is characterized by a long hot and dry season. Because the bacteria are already adapted to the local climate conditions and show the potential for cyanide biodegradation, further applicability to other contaminated areas in West Africa, where illegal gold cyanidation is widespread, should be explored. PMID:27209555

  13. Modeling land use change impacts on water resources in a tropical West African catchment (Dano, Burkina Faso)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yira, Y.; Diekkrüger, B.; Steup, G.; Bossa, A. Y.

    2016-06-01

    This study investigates the impacts of land use change on water resources in the Dano catchment, Burkina Faso, using a physically based hydrological simulation model and land use scenarios. Land use dynamic in the catchment was assessed through the analysis of four land use maps corresponding to the land use status in 1990, 2000, 2007, and 2013. A reclassification procedure levels out differences between the classification schemes of the four maps. The land use maps were used to build five land use scenarios corresponding to different levels of land use change in the catchment. Water balance was simulated by applying the Water flow and balance Simulation Model (WaSiM) using observed discharge, soil moisture, and groundwater level for model calibration and validation. Model statistical quality measures (R2, NSE and KGE) achieved during calibration and validation ranged between 0.6 and 0.9 for total discharge, soil moisture, and groundwater level, indicating a good agreement between observed and simulated variables. After a successful multivariate validation the model was applied to the land use scenarios. The land use assessment exhibited a decrease of savannah at an annual rate of 2% since 1990. Conversely, cropland and urban areas have increased. Since urban areas occupy only 3% of the catchment it can be assumed that savannah was mainly converted to cropland. The conversion rate of savannah was lower than the annual population growth of 3%. A clear increase in total discharge (+17%) and decrease in evapotranspiration (-5%) was observed following land use change in the catchment. A strong relationship was established between savannah degradation, cropland expansion, discharge increase and reduction of evapotranspiration. The increase in total discharge is related to high peak flow, suggesting (i) an increase in water resources that are not available for plant growth and human consumption and (ii) an alteration of flood risk for both the population within and

  14. Factors Affecting the Uptake of HIV Testing among Men: A Mixed-Methods Study in Rural Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    De Allegri, Manuela; Agier, Isabelle; Tiendrebeogo, Justin; Louis, Valerie Renée; Yé, Maurice; Mueller, Olaf; Sarker, Malabika

    2015-01-01

    Background This study aimed to explore factors shaping the decision to undergo Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) testing among men in rural Burkina Faso. Methods The study took place in 2009 in the Nouna Health District and adopted a triangulation mixed methods design. The quantitative component relied on data collected through a structured survey on a representative sample of 1130 households. The qualitative component relied on 38 in-depth interviews, with men purposely selected to represent variation in testing decision, age, and place of residence. A two-part model was conducted, with two distinct outcome variables, i.e. “being offered an HIV test” and “having done an HIV test”. The qualitative data analysis relied on inductive coding conducted by three independent analysts. Result Of the 937 men, 357 had been offered an HIV test and 97 had taken the test. Younger age, household wealth, living in a village under demographic surveillance, and knowing that HIV testing is available at primary health facilities were all positively associated with the probability of being offered an HIV test. Household wealth and literacy were found to be positively associated, and distance was found to be negatively associated with the probability of having taken an HIV test. Qualitative findings indicated that the limited uptake of HIV testing was linked to poor knowledge on service availability and to low risk perceptions. Conclusion With only 10% of the total sample ever having tested for HIV, our study confirmed that male HIV testing remains unacceptably low in Sub-Saharan Africa. This results from a combination of health system factors, indicating general barriers to access, and motivational factors, such as one’s own knowledge of service availability and risk perceptions. Our findings suggested that using antenatal care and curative services as the exclusive entry points into HIV testing may not be sufficient to reach large portions of the male population. Thus

  15. Using high spatial resolution remote sensing for risk mapping of malaria occurrence in the Nouna district, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Dambach, Peter; Sié, Ali; Lacaux, Jean-Pierre; Vignolles, Cécile; Machault, Vanessa; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Malaria control measures such as early diagnosis and treatment, intermittent treatment of pregnant women, impregnated bed nets, indoor spraying and larval control measures are difficult to target specifically because of imprecise estimates of risk at a small-scale level. Ways of estimating local risks for malaria are therefore important. Methods A high-resolution satellite view from the SPOT 5 satellite during 2008 was used to generate a land cover classification in the malaria endemic lowland of North-Western Burkina Faso. For the area of a complete satellite view of 60 × 60 km, a supervised land cover classification was carried out. Ten classes were built and correlated to land cover types known for acting as Anopheles mosquito breeding sites. Results According to known correlations of Anopheles larvae presence and surface water-related land cover, cultivated areas in the riverine vicinity of Kossi River were shown to be one of the most favourable sites for Anopheles production. Similar conditions prevail in the South of the study region, where clayey soils and higher precipitations benefit the occurrence of surface water. Besides pools, which are often directly detectable, rice fields and occasionally flooded crops represent most appropriate habitats. On the other hand, forests, elevated regions on porous soils, grasslands and the dryer, sandy soils in the north-western part turned out to deliver fewer mosquito breeding opportunities. Conclusions Potential high and low risks for malaria at the village level can be differentiated from satellite data. While much remains to be done in terms of establishing correlations between remotely sensed risks and malaria disease patterns, this is a potentially useful approach which could lead to more focused disease control programmes. PMID:20052428

  16. New epidemiological features on animal trypanosomiasis by molecular analysis in the pastoral zone of Sideradougou, Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Lefrançois, T; Solano, P; de la Rocque, S; Bengaly, Z; Reifenberg, J M; Kabore, I; Cuisance, D

    1998-07-01

    A multidisciplinary work was undertaken in the agropastoral zone of Sidéradougou, Burkina Faso to try to elucidate the key factors determining the presence of tsetse flies. In this study the PCR was used to characterize trypanosomes infecting the vector (Glossina tachinoides and Glossina palpalis gambiensis) and the host, i.e. cattle. A 2-year survey involved dissecting 2211 tsetse of the two Glossina species. A total of 298 parasitologically infected tsetse were analysed by PCR. Trypanosoma vivax was the most frequently identified trypanosome followed by the savannah type of T. congolense and, to a lesser extent, the riverine forest type of T. congolense, and by T brucei. No cases of T. simiae were found. From the 107 identified infections in cattle, the taxa were the same, but T. congolense savannah type was more frequent, whereas T. vivax and T. congolense riverine forest types were found less frequently. A correlation was found between midgut infection rates of tsetse, nonidentified infections and reptile bloodmeals. These rates were higher in G.p. gambiensis, and in the western part of the study area. T. vivax infections were related to cattle bloodmeals, and were more frequent in G. tachinoides and in the eastern study area. The PCR results combined with bloodmeal analysis helped us to establish the relationships between the vector and the host, to assess the trypanosome challenge in the two parts of the area, to elucidate the differences between the two types of T. congolense, and to suspect that most midgut infections were originating from reptilian trypanosomes. PMID:9691491

  17. The two faces of enhancing utilization of health-care services: determinants of patient initiation and retention in rural Burkina Faso.

    PubMed Central

    Mugisha, Frederick; Bocar, Kouyate; Dong, Hengjin; Chepng'eno, Gloria; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the factors that determine whether a patient will initiate treatment within a system of health-care services, and the factors that determine whether the patient will be retained in the chosen system, in Nouna, rural Burkina Faso. METHODS: The data used were pooled from four rounds of a household survey conducted in Nouna, rural Burkina Faso. The ongoing demographic surveillance system provided a sampling framework for this survey in which 800 households were sampled using a two-stage cluster sampling procedure. More than one treatment episode was observed for a single episode of illness per patient. The multinomial logit model was used to explore the determinants of patient initiation to systems of modern, traditional and home treatment, and a binary logit model was used to explore the determinants of patient retention within the chosen health-care provider system. FINDINGS: The results suggest that the determinants of patient initiation and their subsequent retention are different. Household income, education, urban residence and expected competency of the provider are positive predictors of initiation, but not of retention, for modern health-care services. Only perceived quality of care positively predicted retention in modern health-care services. CONCLUSION: Interventions focusing on patient initiation and patient retention are likely to be different. Policies directed at enhancing initiation for modern health-care services would primarily focus on reducing financial barriers, while those directed at increasing retention would primarily focus on attributes that improve the perceived quality of care. PMID:15375446

  18. Molecular diversity of Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus isolates and their satellite DNAs associated with okra leaf curl disease in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Okra leaf curl disease (OLCD) is a major constraint on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) production and is widespread in Africa. Using a large number of samples representative of the major growing regions in Burkina Faso (BF), we show that the disease is associated with a monopartite begomovirus and satellite DNA complexes. Twenty-three complete genomic sequences of Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus (CLCuGV) isolates associated with OLCD, sharing 95 to 99% nucleotide identity, were cloned and sequenced. Six betasatellite and four alphasatellite (DNA-1) molecules were also characterized. The six isolates of betasatellite associated with CLCuGV isolates correspond to Cotton leaf curl Gezira betasatellite (CLCuGB) (88 to 98% nucleotide identity). One isolate of alphasatellite is a variant of Cotton leaf curl Gezira alphasatellite (CLCuGA) (89% nucleotide identity), whereas the three others isolates appear to correspond to a new species of alphasatellite (CLCuGA most similar sequence present 52 to 60% nucleotide identity), provisionally named Okra leaf curl Burkina Faso alphasatellite (OLCBFA). Recombination analysis of the viruses demonstrated the interspecies recombinant origin of all CLCuGV isolates, with parents being close to Hollyhock leaf crumple virus (AY036009) and Tomato leaf curl Diana virus (AM701765). Combined with the presence of satellites DNA, these results highlight the complexity of begomoviruses associated with OLCD. PMID:20178575

  19. Clinical Variation of Plasmodium falciparum eba-175, ama-1, and msp-3 Genotypes in Young Children Living in a Seasonally High Malaria Transmission Setting in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Soulama, Issiaka; Sermé, Samuel S.; Bougouma, Edith C.; Diarra, Amidou; Tiono, Alfred B.; Ouedraogo, Alphonse; Konate, Amadou T.; Nebie, Issa; Sirima, Sodiomon B.

    2015-01-01

    The association between P. falciparum eba-175, ama-1, and msp-3 polymorphism in the pathogenicity of malaria disease was investigated. We therefore compared the prevalence of different alleles between symptomatic and asymptomatic malarial children under five years of age living in Burkina Faso. Blood filter papers were collected during the 2008 malaria transmission season from 228 symptomatic and 199 asymptomatic children under five years of age. All patients were living in the rural area of Saponé at about 50 km from Ouagadougou, the capital city of Burkina Faso. P. falciparum parasite DNA was extracted using QIAGEN kits and the alleles diversity was assessed by a nested PCR. PCR products were then digested by restriction enzymes based on already described polymorphic regions of the eba-175, ama-1, and msp-3 genes. The individual alleles eba-175_FCR3 and msp-3_K1 frequencies were statistically higher (p < 0.0001) in the asymptomatic group compared to the symptomatic ones. No statistically significant difference was noted in the prevalence of ama-1-3D7, ama-1-K1, and ama-1-HB3 genotypes between the two groups (p > 0.05). The comparative analysis of P. falciparum genotypes indicated that the polymorphism in eba-175 and msp-3 genotypes varied between asymptomatic and symptomatic clinical groups and may contribute to the pathogenesis of malaria. PMID:26634149

  20. Clinical Variation of Plasmodium falciparum eba-175, ama-1, and msp-3 Genotypes in Young Children Living in a Seasonally High Malaria Transmission Setting in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Soulama, Issiaka; Sermé, Samuel S; Bougouma, Edith C; Diarra, Amidou; Tiono, Alfred B; Ouedraogo, Alphonse; Konate, Amadou T; Nebie, Issa; Sirima, Sodiomon B

    2015-01-01

    The association between P. falciparum eba-175, ama-1, and msp-3 polymorphism in the pathogenicity of malaria disease was investigated. We therefore compared the prevalence of different alleles between symptomatic and asymptomatic malarial children under five years of age living in Burkina Faso. Blood filter papers were collected during the 2008 malaria transmission season from 228 symptomatic and 199 asymptomatic children under five years of age. All patients were living in the rural area of Saponé at about 50 km from Ouagadougou, the capital city of Burkina Faso. P. falciparum parasite DNA was extracted using QIAGEN kits and the alleles diversity was assessed by a nested PCR. PCR products were then digested by restriction enzymes based on already described polymorphic regions of the eba-175, ama-1, and msp-3 genes. The individual alleles eba-175_FCR3 and msp-3_K1 frequencies were statistically higher (p < 0.0001) in the asymptomatic group compared to the symptomatic ones. No statistically significant difference was noted in the prevalence of ama-1-3D7, ama-1-K1, and ama-1-HB3 genotypes between the two groups (p > 0.05). The comparative analysis of P. falciparum genotypes indicated that the polymorphism in eba-175 and msp-3 genotypes varied between asymptomatic and symptomatic clinical groups and may contribute to the pathogenesis of malaria. PMID:26634149

  1. Bridgehead invasion of a monomorphic plant pathogenic bacterium: Xanthomonas citri pv. citri, an emerging citrus pathogen in Mali and Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Leduc, A; Traoré, Y N; Boyer, K; Magne, M; Grygiel, P; Juhasz, C C; Boyer, C; Guerin, F; Wonni, I; Ouedraogo, L; Vernière, C; Ravigné, V; Pruvost, O

    2015-11-01

    Molecular epidemiology studies further our understanding of migrations of phytopathogenic bacteria, the major determining factor in their emergence. Asiatic citrus canker, caused by Xanthomonas citri pv. citri, was recently reported in Mali and Burkina Faso, a region remote from other contaminated areas. To identify the origin and pathways of these emergences, we used two sets of markers, minisatellites and microsatellites, for investigating different evolutionary scales. Minisatellite typing suggested the introduction of two groups of strains in Mali (DAPC 1 and DAPC 2), consistent with microsatellite typing. DAPC 2 was restricted to Bamako district, whereas DAPC 1 strains were found much more invasive. The latter strains formed a major clonal complex based on microsatellite data with the primary and secondary founders detected in commercial citrus nurseries and orchards. This suggests that human activities played a major role in the spread of DAPC 1 strains via the movement of contaminated propagative material, further supported by the frequent lack of differentiation between populations from geographically distant nurseries and orchards. Approximate Bayesian Computation analyses supported the hypothesis that strains from Burkina Faso resulted from a bridgehead invasion from Mali. Multi-locus variable number of tandem repeat analysis and Approximate Bayesian Computation are useful for understanding invasion routes and pathways of monomorphic bacterial pathogens. PMID:25866121

  2. Histoire d’un itinéraire épidémiologique entre le Burkina Faso et la Côte d’Ivoire : le cas des foyers de maladie du sommeil de Koudougou

    PubMed Central

    Kiendrébéogo, D.; Kambiré, R.; Jamonneau, V.; Lingué, K.; Solano, P.; Courtin, F.

    2012-01-01

    Dans la première moitié du XXème siècle, alors que la Haute-Volta (actuel Burkina Faso) subissait une terrible épidémie de maladie du sommeil, l’administration coloniale française a orchestré des déplacements massifs de populations de la Haute-Volta vers la Côte d’Ivoire, pour exploiter le territoire. Cela a conduit à la mise en place de villages de colonisation Mossi en zone forestière ivoirienne, comme ceux de Koudougou, issus de l’une des régions les plus peuplées de Haute-Volta, mais aussi l’une des plus touchées par la maladie du sommeil. Depuis 2000, au Burkina Faso, c’est dans le district sanitaire de Koudougou que sont dépistés passivement le plus grand nombre de trypanosomés en provenance de Côte d’Ivoire. Qui sont-ils ? Où habitent-ils au Burkina Faso ? D’où viennent-ils de Côte d’Ivoire ? Après avoir retracé l’histoire épidémiologique des villages de Koudougou au Burkina Faso et en Côte d’Ivoire, nous avons recherché les trypanosomés dépistés passivement depuis 2000 dans le district sanitaire de Koudougou au Burkina Faso. Au total, dix trypanosomés ont été enquêtés. Le processus de propagation de la maladie du sommeil dans l’espace ivoiro-burkinabé a été mis en évidence et des zones à risque de la maladie identifiées dans ce même espace. PMID:23193525

  3. Assessment of seasonal features based on Landsat time series for tree crown cover mapping in Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jinxiu; Heiskanen, Janne; Aynekuly, Ermias; Pellikka, Petri

    2016-04-01

    Tree crown cover (CC) is an important vegetation attribute for land cover characterization, and for mapping and monitoring forest cover. Free data from Landsat and Sentinel-2 allow construction of fine resolution satellite image time series and extraction of seasonal features for predicting vegetation attributes. In the savannas, surface reflectance vary distinctively according to the rainy and dry seasons, and seasonal features are useful information for CC mapping. However, it is unclear if it is better to use spectral bands or vegetation indices (VI) for computation of seasonal features, and how feasible different VI are for CC prediction in the savanna woodlands and agroforestry parklands of West Africa. In this study, the objective was to compare seasonal features based on spectral bands and VI for CC mapping in southern Burkina Faso. A total of 35 Landsat images from November 2013 to October 2014 were processed. Seasonal features were computed using a harmonic model with three parameters (mean, amplitude and phase), and spectral bands, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), green normalized difference vegetation index (GNDVI), normalized difference water index (NDWI), tasseled cap (TC) indices (brightness, greenness, wetness) as input data. The seasonal features were employed to predict field estimated CC (n = 160) using Random Forest algorithm. The most accurate results were achieved when using seasonal features based on TC indices (R2: 0.65; RMSE: 10.7%) and spectral bands (R2: 0.64; RMSE: 10.8%). GNDVI performed better than NDVI or NDWI, and NDWI resulted in the poorest results (R2: 0.56; RMSE: 11.9%). The results indicate that spectral features should be carefully selected for CC prediction as shown by relatively poor performance of commonly used NDVI. The seasonal features based on three TC indices and all the spectral bands provided superior accuracy in comparison to single VI. The method presented in this study provides a feasible method to map

  4. Targeting vulnerable households in urban Burkina Faso: effectiveness of geographical criteria but not of proxy-means testing.

    PubMed

    Fortin, Sonia; Kameli, Yves; Ouattara, Ali; Castan, Florence; Perenze, Maria L; Kankouan, Justine; Traore, Alladari; Kouanda, Seni; Conte, Annalisa; Martin-Prével, Yves

    2016-06-01

    The 2007/2008 food prices hike has increased the interest in social safety nets programmes to fight food insecurity. Targeting the most in need is central to achieve effectiveness of such interventions. In 2009 in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, a food voucher (FV) programme targeted the 25 000 most vulnerable households (8.3% of the population). Targeting used a two-stage process: first geographical selection of poorest districts (∼90 000 households); then, in those districts, identification of the most vulnerable households according to a proxy-means test (PMT). Targeted households were entitled to receive FV for 1 year. A first survey was conducted at the beginning of the FV distribution on a representative sample of 2273 households drawn from the poorest districts. One year later a second survey, conducted on a subsample of same households (n = 901), identified those who actually received FV (beneficiary). The performance of the whole process was assessed against household food expenditure, used as the reference measure for vulnerability with a cut-off point of 1513 FCFA (corresponding to the 8.3th percentile of the distribution of expenditure). The 'normalized share of transfers going to vulnerable households' (NSTVH), i.e. proportion of FVs allocated to households below the cut-point, was the main criteria of judgement. Almost twice as many FV were allocated to vulnerable households as compared with a theoretical random distribution all over Ouagadougou (NSTVH = 1.85). When considering the sole targeted districts the NSTVH was only 0.84 (i.e. no more effective than a random distribution), meaning that the geographical stage was effective to select vulnerable districts while the PMT did not perform well to identify the most vulnerable households in those districts. Results could have been improved if only targeted households had received FV (NSTVH = 2.61 and 1.18 for the whole Ouagadougou and targeted districts, respectively). Improved targeting

  5. System-level determinants of immunization coverage disparities among health districts in Burkina Faso: a multiple case study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite rapid and tangible progress in vaccine coverage and in premature mortality rates registered in sub-Saharan Africa, inequities to access remain firmly entrenched, large pockets of low vaccination coverage persist, and coverage often varies considerably across regions, districts, and health facilities' areas of responsibility. This paper focuses on system-related factors that can explain disparities in immunization coverage among districts in Burkina Faso. Methods A multiple-case study was conducted of six districts representative of different immunization trends and overall performance. A participative process that involved local experts and key actors led to a focus on key factors that could possibly determine the efficiency and efficacy of district vaccination services: occurrence of disease outbreaks and immunization days, overall district management performance, resources available for vaccination services, and institutional elements. The methodology, geared toward reconstructing the evolution of vaccine services performance from 2000 to 2006, is based on data from documents and from individual and group interviews in each of the six health districts. The process of interpreting results brought together the field personnel and the research team. Results The districts that perform best are those that assemble a set of favourable conditions. However, the leadership of the district medical officer (DMO) appears to be the main conduit and the rallying point for these conditions. Typically, strong leadership that is recognized by the field teams ensures smooth operation of the vaccination services, promotes the emergence of new initiatives and offers some protection against risks related to outbreaks of epidemics or supplementary activities that can hinder routine functioning. The same is true for the ability of nurse managers and their teams to cope with new situations (epidemics, shortages of certain stocks). Conclusion The discourse on factors

  6. Antiretroviral treatment and quality of life in Africans living with HIV: 12-month follow-up in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Jaquet, Antoine; Garanet, Franck; Balestre, Eric; Ekouevi, Didier K.; Azani, Jean Claude; Bognounou, René; Dah, Elias; Kondombo, Jean Charlemagne; Dabis, François; Drabo, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The scale-up of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has led to a significant improvement in survival of the HIV-positive patient but its effects on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) are less known and context-dependent. Our aim was to assess the temporal changes and factors associated with HRQOL among HIV-positive adults initiating HAART in Burkina Faso. Methods HIV-positive people initiating HAART were prospectively included and followed over a one-year period in three HIV clinics of Ouagadougou. HRQOL was assessed at baseline and at each follow-up visit using physical (PHS) and mental (MHS) summary scores derived from the Medical Outcome Study 36-Item short-form health survey (MOS SF-36) questionnaire. Toxicity related to HAART modification and self-reported symptoms were recorded during follow-up visits. Determinants associated with baseline and changes in both scores over a one-year period were assessed using a mixed linear model. Results A total of 344 patients were included. Their median age at baseline was 37 years [interquartile range (IQR) 30–44] and their median CD4 count was 181 cells/mm3 (IQR 97–269). The mean [standard deviation (SD)] PHS score increased from 45.4 (11.1) at baseline to 60.0 (3.1) at 12 months (p<10−4) and the mean (SD) MHS score from 42.2 (8.7) to 43.9 (3.4) (p<10−2). After one year of treatment, patients that experienced on average two symptoms during follow-up presented with significantly lower PHS (63.9) and MHS (43.8) scores compared to patients that presented no symptoms with PHS and MHS of 68.2 (p<10−4) and 45.3 (p<10−3), respectively. Discussion The use of HAART was associated with a significant increase in both physical and mental aspects of the HRQOL over a 12-month period in this urban African population. Perceived symptoms experienced during follow-up visits were associated with a significant impairment in HRQOL. The appropriate and timely management of reported symptoms during the

  7. Exploring the effects of task shifting for HIV through a systems thinking lens: the case of Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background While the impact of task shifting on quality of care and clinical outcomes has been demonstrated in several studies, evidence on its impact on the health system as a whole is limited. This study has two main objectives. The first is to conceptualize the wider range of effects of task shifting through a systems thinking lens. The second is to explore these effects using task shifting for HIV in Burkina Faso as a case study. Methods We used a case study approach, using qualitative research methods. Data sources included document reviews, reviews of available data and records, as well as interviews with key informants and health workers. Results In addition to the traditional measures of impact of task shifting on health outcomes, our study identified 20 possible effects of the strategy on the system as a whole. Moreover, our analysis highlighted the importance of differentiating between two types of health systems effects. The first are effects inherent to the task shifting strategy itself, such as job satisfaction or better access to health services. The second are effects due to health system barriers, for example the unavailability of medicines and supplies, generating a series of effects on the various components of the health system, e.g., staff frustration. Among the health systems effects that we found are positive, mostly unintended, effects and synergies such as increased health workers' sense of responsibility and worthiness, increased satisfaction due to using the newly acquired skills in other non-HIV tasks, as well as improved patient-provider relationships. Among the negative unintended effects are staff frustration due to lack of medicines and supplies or lack of the necessary infrastructure to be able to perform the new tasks. Conclusion Our analysis highlights the importance of adopting a systems thinking approach in designing, implementing and evaluating health policies to mitigate some of the design issues or system bottle-necks that may

  8. Impacts of urbanization and climate on groundwater in a growing Africa city: the case of Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouhouddine, Alihoumadi; Yameogo, Suzanne; Genthon, Pierre; Travi, Yves

    2016-04-01

    African cities are presently facing the combined impacts of growing urbanization and climate change. In several instances; providing safe drinking water for all is still a challenge, especially for cities located on basement aquifers, were groundwater is scarce. Here we assess the effects of climate change and land use change on groundwater amount and quality in the main city of Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) taking advantage of the CIEH borehole, where a mostly continuous record lasts since 1978. This record spans most of the Great African Drought (1970-1990) and recovery from the Drought since the 2000s. A piezometric network of 14 wells and boreholes was setup around the CIEH borehole and monitored during the 2013-2014 hydrologic year. The piezometric network spans an old settlement, the Ouagadougou University, a vegetable gardening area and a natural forested area. Water balance estimates are provided by a 1D box model. The study area, although it lies partly on an old settlement in Ouagadougou and on the University area, presents a rather uniform runoff coefficient of 22% and ET amounting to 80-90 % of rainfall, which usually characterizes natural areas. It is suspected that the almost absence of asphalted surfaces, the presence of trees and flow of rainwater from roofs toward bare soils or sumps could be responsible of this budget. However, the two wells located in the forested Bangr Weogo recreational area are characterized by almost no runoff and a nearly 100 % ET. While drinking water can be pumped in several places in the city of Ouagadougou, chemical major analyses show that two mechanisms impact groundwater quality during the rainy season: (i) rise of the water table at pit latrine level, mainly in old settlements, and entrainment of harmful substances from soil to the aquifer in gardening area near some artisan activities. The CIEH borehole is not fully representative of its neighboring area since (i) it lies in a piezometric low, (ii) it presents the

  9. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Bayala, Bagora; Bassole, Imaël Henri Nestor; Gnoula, Charlemagne; Nebie, Roger; Yonli, Albert; Morel, Laurent; Figueredo, Gilles; Nikiema, Jean-Baptiste; Lobaccaro, Jean-Marc A.; Simpore, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    showed the highest activity on SF-763 cells. Altogether these results justify the use of these plants in traditional medicine in Burkina Faso and open a new field of investigation in the characterization of the molecules involved in anti-proliferative processes. PMID:24662935

  10. Modeling Land Use Change Impacts on Water Resources in a Tropical West African Catchment (dano, Burkina Faso)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yira, Y.; Diekkrüger, B.; Steup, G.; Bossa, A. Y.

    2015-12-01

    This study investigates the impacts of land use change on water resources in the Dano catchment, Burkina Faso, using a physically based hydrological simulation model and land use scenarios. Land use dynamic in the catchment was assessed through the analysis of four land use maps corresponding to the land use status in 1990, 2000, 2007 and 2013. A reclassification procedure of the maps permitted to assess the major land use changes in the catchment from 1990 to 2013. The land use maps were used to build five land use scenarios corresponding to different levels of land use change in the catchment. Water balance was simulated by applying the Water flow and balance Simulation Model (WaSiM) using observed discharge, soil moisture, and groundwater level for model calibration and validation. Model statistical quality measures (R2, NSE and KGE) achieved during the calibration and the validation ranged between 0.9 and 0.6 for total discharge, soil moisture, and groundwater level, indicating satisfying to good agreements between observed and simulated variables. After a successful multi-criteria validation the model was run with the land use scenarios. The land use assessment exhibited a decrease of savannah at an annual rate of 2% since 1990. Conversely, cropland and urban areas have increased. Since urban areas occupy only 3% of the catchment in 2013 it can be assumed that savannah was mainly converted to cropland. The increase in cropland area results from the population growth and the farming system in the catchment. A clear increase in total discharge (+17%) and decrease in evapotranspiration (-5%) was observed following land use change in the catchment. A strong relationship was established between savannah degradation, cropland expansion, discharge increase and reduction of evapotranspiration. The increase in total discharge is related to high discharge and peak flow, suggesting (i) an increase in water resources that is not available for plant growth and the

  11. Characterization of vaccine antigens of meningococcal serogroup W isolates from Ghana and Burkina Faso from 2003 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Ispasanie, Emma; Pluschke, Gerd; Hodgson, Abraham; Sie, Ali; MacLennan, Calman; Koeberling, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is a major cause of bacterial meningitis and a considerable health problem in the 25 countries of the 'African Meningitis Belt' that extends from Senegal in West Africa to Ethiopia in the East. Approximately 80% of cases of meningococcal meningitis in Africa have been caused by strains belonging to capsular serogroup A. After the introduction of a serogroup A conjugate polysaccharide vaccine, MenAfriVac (™), that began in December 2010, the incidence of meningitis due to serogroup A has markedly declined in this region. Currently, serogroup W of N. meningitidis accounts for the majority of cases. Vaccines based on sub-capsular antigens, such as Generalized Modules for Membrane Antigens (GMMA), are under investigation for use in Africa. To analyse the antigenic properties of a serogroup W wave of colonisation and disease, we investigated the molecular diversity of the protein vaccine antigens PorA, Neisserial Adhesin A (NadA), Neisserial heparin-binding antigen (NHBA) and factor H binding protein (fHbp) of 31 invasive and carriage serogroup W isolates collected as part of a longitudinal study from Ghana and Burkina Faso between 2003 and 2009. We found that the isolates all expressed fHbp variant 2 ID 22 or 23, differing from each other by only one amino acid, and a single PorA subtype of P1.5,2. Of the isolates, 49% had a functional nhbA gene and 100% had the nadA allele 3, which contained the insertion sequence IS1301 in five isolates. Of the W isolates tested, 41% had high fHbp expression when compared with a reference serogroup B strain, known to be a high expresser of fHbp variant 2. Our results indicate that in this collection of serogroup W isolates, there is limited antigenic diversification over time of vaccine candidate outer membrane proteins (OMP), thus making them promising candidates for inclusion in a protein-based vaccine against meningococcal meningitis for Africa. PMID:25901274

  12. Characterization of vaccine antigens of meningococcal serogroup W isolates from Ghana and Burkina Faso from 2003 to 2009

    PubMed Central

    Ispasanie, Emma; Pluschke, Gerd; Hodgson, Abraham; Sie, Ali; MacLennan, Calman; Koeberling, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is a major cause of bacterial meningitis and a considerable health problem in the 25 countries of the ‘African Meningitis Belt’ that extends from Senegal in West Africa to Ethiopia in the East. Approximately 80% of cases of meningococcal meningitis in Africa have been caused by strains belonging to capsular serogroup A. After the introduction of a serogroup A conjugate polysaccharide vaccine, MenAfriVac ™, that began in December 2010, the incidence of meningitis due to serogroup A has markedly declined in this region. Currently, serogroup W of N. meningitidis accounts for the majority of cases. Vaccines based on sub-capsular antigens, such as Generalized Modules for Membrane Antigens (GMMA), are under investigation for use in Africa. To analyse the antigenic properties of a serogroup W wave of colonisation and disease, we investigated the molecular diversity of the protein vaccine antigens PorA, Neisserial Adhesin A (NadA), Neisserial heparin-binding antigen (NHBA) and factor H binding protein (fHbp) of 31 invasive and carriage serogroup W isolates collected as part of a longitudinal study from Ghana and Burkina Faso between 2003 and 2009. We found that the isolates all expressed fHbp variant 2 ID 22 or 23, differing from each other by only one amino acid, and a single PorA subtype of P1.5,2. Of the isolates, 49% had a functional nhbA gene and 100% had the nadA allele 3, which contained the insertion sequence IS1301 in five isolates. Of the W isolates tested, 41% had high fHbp expression when compared with a reference serogroup B strain, known to be a high expresser of fHbp variant 2. Our results indicate that in this collection of serogroup W isolates, there is limited antigenic diversification over time of vaccine candidate outer membrane proteins (OMP), thus making them promising candidates for inclusion in a protein-based vaccine against meningococcal meningitis for Africa. PMID:25901274

  13. Chemical composition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities of essential oils of plants from Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Bayala, Bagora; Bassole, Imaël Henri Nestor; Gnoula, Charlemagne; Nebie, Roger; Yonli, Albert; Morel, Laurent; Figueredo, Gilles; Nikiema, Jean-Baptiste; Lobaccaro, Jean-Marc A; Simpore, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    showed the highest activity on SF-763 cells. Altogether these results justify the use of these plants in traditional medicine in Burkina Faso and open a new field of investigation in the characterization of the molecules involved in anti-proliferative processes. PMID:24662935

  14. Meningitis Dipstick Rapid Test: Evaluating Diagnostic Performance during an Urban Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup A Outbreak, Burkina Faso, 2007

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Angela M. C.; Mueller, Judith E.; Gerstl, Sibylle; Njanpop-Lafourcade, Berthe-Marie; Page, Anne-Laure; Nicolas, Pierre; Traoré, Ramata Ouédraogo; Caugant, Dominique A.; Guerin, Philippe J.

    2010-01-01

    Meningococcal meningitis outbreaks occur every year during the dry season in the “meningitis belt” of sub-Saharan Africa. Identification of the causative strain is crucial before launching mass vaccination campaigns, to assure use of the correct vaccine. Rapid agglutination (latex) tests are most commonly available in district-level laboratories at the beginning of the epidemic season; limitations include a short shelf-life and the need for refrigeration and good technical skills. Recently, a new dipstick rapid diagnostic test (RDT) was developed to identify and differentiate disease caused by meningococcal serogroups A, W135, C and Y. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of this dipstick RDT during an urban outbreak of meningitis caused by N. meningitidis serogroup A in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso; first against an in-country reference standard of culture and/or multiplex PCR; and second against culture and/or a highly sensitive nested PCR technique performed in Oslo, Norway. We included 267 patients with suspected acute bacterial meningitis. Using the in-country reference standard, 50 samples (19%) were positive. Dipstick RDT sensitivity (N = 265) was 70% (95%CI 55–82) and specificity 97% (95%CI 93–99). Using culture and/or nested PCR, 126/259 (49%) samples were positive; dipstick RDT sensitivity (N = 257) was 32% (95%CI 24–41), and specificity was 99% (95%CI 95–100). We found dipstick RDT sensitivity lower than values reported from (i) assessments under ideal laboratory conditions (>90%), and (ii) a prior field evaluation in Niger [89% (95%CI 80–95)]. Specificity, however, was similar to (i), and higher than (ii) [62% (95%CI 48–75)]. At this stage in development, therefore, other tests (e.g., latex) might be preferred for use in peripheral health centres. We highlight the value of field evaluations for new diagnostic tests, and note relatively low sensitivity of a reference standard using multiplex vs. nested PCR. Although the former is

  15. La dépression post-accident vasculaire cérébral au Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Napon, Christian; Kaboré, Arnaud; Kaboré, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Lourde de conséquences sur la récupération motrice du patient, la dépression post-accident vasculaire cérébral (DPAVC) est souvent méconnue et sous-diagnostiquée. Notre objectif était d'en étudier les aspects épidémiologiques, cliniques, thérapeutiques en milieu hospitalier au Burkina Faso. Méthodes Il s'agissait d'une étude transversale de 21 mois. Elle a concerné tous les cas d'AVC hospitalisés durant la période d’étude dont le délai de survenue de l'ictus était supérieur ou égal à 2 semaines. Une fois le diagnostic de DPAVC posé par les critères du DSM IV, sa sévérité était évaluée par l’échelle MADRS (Montgomery and Asberg Depression Rating Scale). Les patients DPAVC étaient revus 2 mois pour réévaluer leur dépression. Résultats Sur 167 hospitalisations pour AVC, 65 patients avaient une DPAVC (38,9%). L’âge moyen était de 56,9 ans avec des extrêmes de 29 et 84 ans. Le sex ratio était de 0,9. Les AVC ischémiques étaient majoritaires (53,8%). Quarante-trois patients (66,15%) présentaient une DPAVC mineure et 22 patients (33,85%), une DPAVC majeure. La DPAVC a été précoce dans 73,8% des cas (délai inférieur ou égal à 30 jours). Un traitement antidépresseur a concerné 28 patients (43,1%). L’évolution à deux mois chez 31 patients était favorable dans 29% des cas. Conclusion La DPAVC est fréquente dans notre contexte. Elle compromet le pronostic fonctionnel et augmente le risque de morbidité et de mortalité Elle devrait être recherchée systématiquement chez tout hémiplégique, en particulier à la phase précoce, lors des entretiens réguliers avec la famille, et devant toute modification du psychisme du patient. PMID:23319139

  16. Intra-Seasonal Variability of Climate and Peasant Perception of Climate Change in Massili Basin in Burkina Faso.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabore Bontogho, P. E.

    2014-12-01

    Knowledge of climate variability is relevant and challenging for farmers, decision makers and population in general. Ninety percent of Burkina Faso active population is engaged in agriculture and livestock, which accounts for 39% of gross domestic product. Located between the coordinates 1o15'-1o55' West and 12o17'- 12o50'North, Massili basin includes Ouagadougou the capital and has four dams, of which the most important dam, Loumbila is used for the capital water supply and irrigation. A change of climate may affect the water resources most likely limit the access to safe water. In order to characterize Massili basin climate variability, daily temperature and precipitation over 1960 to 2012 was analyzed using long-term records from the Ouagadougou synoptic station. By applying R-climdex and instat tools, indices were calculated by a consistent approach recommended by the World Meteorological Organization Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices. The precipitation parameters computed were: the maximum 5-day precipitationamount; the number of days with precipitation amount ≥50 mm ; the maximum precipitation amount in consecutive wet days with RR≥ 1mm; the consecutives dry days;the extremely wet days ; the extreme precipitation in one day, the total precipitation in wet days; the temperature indices computed were : the maximum of the maximum daily temperature, the minimum of daily maximum temperature,the minimum of daily minimum temperature,the cold spell duration indices and the warm spell duration indicator. Results show a slight increase of the maximum 5-day precipitation, maximum precipitation amount in consecutive wet days with RR≥1mm, the onset delayed and the cessation is earlier meaning that the rainfall period is shortening. The total precipitationwas decreased in the basin but there is a slight increase in the occurrence of extremely wet days. CSDI is decreasing while warm spell duration indices are increasing. In parallel of the data

  17. Portrait of a lengthy vaccination trajectory in Burkina Faso: from cultural acceptance of vaccines to actual immunization

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The global recognition of vaccination is strongly related to the fact that it has proved in the past able to dramatically reduce the incidence of certain diseases. Nevertheless, reactions regarding the practice of vaccination still vary among communities, affecting the worldwide vaccination coverage. Numerous studies, conducted from varying perspectives, have focused on explaining this active refusal or resistance to vaccination. Although in some cases low immunization coverage has been well explained by active refusal or resistance to vaccination, little is known about the reasons for low coverage where those reactions are absent or play a minor role, especially outside an epidemic context. This study attempts to explain this situation, which is found in the health district of Nouna in Burkina Faso. Methods An in-depth ethnographic study was undertaken in the health district of Nouna in an effort to understand, from an anthropological point of view, the logic behind the parental decision-making process regarding the vaccination or non-vaccination of children, in a context where rejection of, and reservations concerning vaccination are not major obstacles. Results Three elements emerged from the analysis: the empirical conceptions of childhood diseases, the perceived efficacy of vaccine and the knowledge of appropriate age for vaccination uptake; the gap between the decision-making process and the actual achievement of vaccination; and the vaccination procedure leading to vaccination uptake in the particular context of the health district of Nouna. Conclusion The procedures parents must follow in order to obtain vaccination for their children appear complex and constraining, and on certain points discord with the traditional systems of meaning and idioms of distress related to pregnancy, the prevention of childhood diseases and with the cultural matrix shaping decision-making and behaviour. Attention needs to be directed at certain promotional

  18. Successful Control of Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis in School Age Children in Burkina Faso and an Example of Community-Based Assessment via Lymphatic Filariasis Transmission Assessment Survey

    PubMed Central

    Drabo, François; Ouedraogo, Hamado; Bougma, Roland; Bougouma, Clarisse; Bamba, Issouf; Zongo, Dramane; Bagayan, Mohamed; Barrett, Laura; Yago-Wienne, Fanny; Palmer, Stephanie; Chu, Brian; Toubali, Emily; Zhang, Yaobi

    2016-01-01

    Background Burkina Faso is endemic with soil-transmitted helminth infections. Over a decade of preventive chemotherapy has been implemented through annual lymphatic filariasis (LF) mass drug administration (MDA) for population aged five years and over, biennial treatment of school age children with albendazole together with schistosomiasis MDA and biannual treatment of pre-school age children through Child Health Days. Assessments were conducted to evaluate the current situation and to determine the treatment strategy for the future. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional assessment was conducted in 22 sentinel sites across the country in 2013. In total, 3,514 school age children (1,748 boys and 1,766 girls) were examined by the Kato-Katz method. Overall, soil-transmitted helminth prevalence was 1.3% (95% CI: 1.0–1.8%) in children examined. Hookworm was the main species detected, with prevalence of 1.2% (95% CI: 0.9–1.6%) and mean egg counts of 2.1 epg (95% CI: 0–4.2 epg). Among regions, the Centre Ouest region had the highest hookworm prevalence of 3.4% (95% CI: 1.9–6.1%) and mean egg counts of 14.9 epg (95% CI: 3.3–26.6 epg). A separate assessment was conducted in the Centre Nord region in 2014 using community-based cluster survey design during an LF transmission assessment survey (TAS). In this assessment, 351 children aged 6–7 years and 345 children aged 10–14 years were examined, with two cases (0.6% (95% CI: 0.2–2.1%)) and seven cases (2.0% (95% CI: 1.0–4.1%)) of hookworm infection was identified respectively. The results using both age groups categorized the region to be 2% to <10% in STH prevalence according to the pre-defined cut-off values. Conclusions/Significance Through large-scale preventive chemotherapy, Burkina Faso has effectively controlled STH in school age children in the country. Research should be conducted on future strategies to consolidate the gain and to interrupt STH transmission in Burkina Faso. It is also

  19. Pattern of sexually transmitted diseases among pregnant women in Burkina Faso, west Africa: potential for a clinical management based on simple approaches.

    PubMed Central

    Meda, N; Sangaré, L; Lankoandé, S; Sanou, P T; Compaoré, P I; Catraye, J; Cartoux, M; Soudré, R B

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: (1) To determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in pregnant women in Burkina Faso. (2) To evaluate the potential of clinical management of STDs based on screening with clinical data and urine leucocyte esterase test (LET). METHODS: Cross sectional study among antenatal clinic attendees was conducted in 1994 in Ouagadougou and Bobo-Dioulasso, the two largest urban centres in Burkina Faso, where more than 94% of the pregnant women benefit from antenatal care at least twice during their pregnancy. Each woman selected underwent an interview, general and gynaecological examination. Genital samples were collected to confirm the presence of STD pathogens. Logistic regression analysis was done to identify models that predict (a) gonorrhoea and/or chlamydia, (b) trichomoniasis and/or bacterial vaginosis, (c) candidiasis. Sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values of these models were assessed using standard methods. RESULTS: All 645 consecutive pregnant women were enrolled in the two sites. Among these women 32.4% presented at least one STD. The major STDs were: trichomoniasis (14%), bacterial vaginosis (13%), recent syphilis (3.6%), chlamydial infection (3.1%), genital warts (3%), gonococcal infection (1.6%) and genital ulcer (0.8%). Prevalence of vaginal candidiasis was 14%. The use of a risk marker (length of relationship with regular sexual partner < 3 years), and the positivity +3 of the urine LET provided a sensitivity of 80% and a positive predictive value of 7% for the screening of gonococcal and/or chlamydial infection. If clinical signs and positivity of the urine LET were taken into account sensitivity and positive predictive value of trichomoniasis and/or bacterial vaginosis screening were 77% and 37%, respectively. Clinical signs and positivity of the urine LET showed a low sensitivity (23%) for screening vaginal candidiasis. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of STDs in pregnant women is high in urban

  20. Study of floristic diversity and the structural dynamics of some species providers of non woody forest products in the vegetable formations of the Centre East of Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Ky, J M K; Gnoula, C; Zerbo, P; Simpore, J; Nikiema, J B; Canini, A; Millogo-Rasolodimby, J

    2009-07-15

    The goal of this study is to contribute to a better knowledge of certain species providing Non Woody Forest Products (NWFP) in the Centre East of Burkina Faso. This study aims to determine the state of the resources in Vitellaria paradoxa, Balanites aegyptiaca, Tamarindus indica and Lannea microcarpa. For this purpose, an inventory of the vegetation was carried out in circular pieces of land of 1250 m2, as a sample of the zone of work, based on the chart of occupation of the grounds. We are identified 158 species comprising 90 genera and 47 families. Those species represent more than 90% of the trees from which various parts are used in food, traditional pharmacopeia and the craft industry. We also showed that because of the strong anthropisation of the zone, the bad pedoclimatic conditions and the permanent bush fires, the regeneration and growth of Vitellaria paradoxa, Balanites aegyptiaca, Tamarindus indica and Lannea microcarpa are disturbed. PMID:19947178

  1. Risk factors for tuberculosis treatment failure among pulmonary tuberculosis patients in four health regions of Burkina Faso, 2009: case control study

    PubMed Central

    Sawadogo, Bernard; Tint, Khin San; Tshimanga, Mufuta; Kuonza, Lazarus; Ouedraogo, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In Burkina Faso, the tuberculosis (TB) treatment failure rate increased from 2.5% in 2000 to 8.3% in 2006. The risk factors for TB treatment failure in the country are not well known. The study aims to determine the risk factors for treatment failure among pulmonary tuberculosis patients in four health region of Burkina Faso and to recommend appropriate interventions. Methods A case control study was conducted among pulmonary TB patients who began TB treatment in 2009. A case was any patient who remained smear-positive at fifth month of TB treatment and a control was a patient who tested smear-negative at fifth month of treatment. A structured questionnaire was administered to one hundred cases and one hundred controls to collect information on exposure factors. Odds ratio were calculated using bivariate and multivariate analysis to determine the association between exposures and outcome. Results Multivariate analysis showed that independent risk factors for TB treatment failure were fail to take TB drugs for more than 14 consecutive days (OR = 18.53; 95% CI:4.56 - 75.22), sputum smear-positive at two months of treatment (OR = 11.52; 95%CI:5.18-25.60), existence of comorbidity (OR = 5.74; 95%CI:1.69-19.44), and use of traditional medicines or herbs (OR = 2.97; 95%CI:1.12-7.85). Conclusion Early identification of patients with the above risk factors for intense case management will improve TB treatment outcome. Patient with smear positive at 2ndnd month of treatment require more intense follow-up, and involving traditional healers who provide traditional medicines or herbs in the educational programme on TB are required. The national referral laboratory capacity needs to be strengthened to do drug susceptibility testing and routine drug monitoring on cases of non conversion at 2nd month of treatment. PMID:26327989

  2. Molecular Heterogeneity of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency in Burkina Faso: G-6-PD Betica Selma and Santamaria in People with Symptomatic Malaria in Ouagadougou

    PubMed Central

    Ouattara, Abdoul Karim; Yameogo, Pouiré; Diarra, Birama; Obiri-Yeboah, Dorcas; Yonli, Albert; Compaore, Tegwindé Rebeca; Soubeiga, Serge Théophile; Djigma, Florencia Wenkuuni; Simpore, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    The G-6-PD deficiency has an important polymorphism with genotypic variants such as 202A/376G, 376G/542T and 376G/968T known in West African populations. It would confer protection against severe forms of malaria although there are differences between the various associations in different studies. In this study we genotyped six (06) variants of the G-6-PD gene in people with symptomatic malaria in urban areas in Burkina Faso. One hundred and eighty-two (182) patients who tested positive using rapid detection test and microscopy were included in this study. A regular PCR with the GENESPARK G6PD African kit was run followed by electrophoresis, allowing initially to genotype six SNPs (G202A, A376G, A542T, G680T, C563T and T968C). Women carrying the mutations 202A and/or 376G were further typed by real-time PCR using TaqMan probes rs1050828 and rs1050829. In the study population the G-6-PD deficiency prevalence was 9.9%. In addition of G-6-PD A- (202A/376G) variant, 376G/542T and 376G/968T variants were also detected. Hemoglobin electrophoresis revealed that 22.5% (41/182) of the individuals had HbAC compared with2.2% with HbAS and one individual had double heterozygous HbSC. There was no correlation between the G-6-PD deficiency or haemoglobinopathies and symptomatic malaria infections in this study. Our study confirms that the G-6-PD deficiency does not confer protection against Plasmodium falciparum infections. As opposed to previous genotyping studies carried out in Burkina Faso, this study shows for the first time the presence of the variant A- (376G/968C) and warrants further investigation at the national level and in specific ethnic groups. PMID:27413522

  3. Prevalence of the dhfr and dhps Mutations among Pregnant Women in Rural Burkina Faso Five Years after the Introduction of Intermittent Preventive Treatment with Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine

    PubMed Central

    Tahita, Marc C.; Tinto, Halidou; Erhart, Annette; Kazienga, Adama; Fitzhenry, Robert; VanOvermeir, Chantal; Rosanas-Urgell, Anna; Ouedraogo, Jean-Bosco; Guiguemde, Robert T.; Van geertruyden, Jean-Pierre; D’Alessandro, Umberto

    2015-01-01

    Background The emergence and spread of drug resistance represents one of the biggest challenges for malaria control in endemic regions. Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is currently deployed as intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) to prevent the adverse effects of malaria on the mother and her offspring. Nevertheless, its efficacy is threatened by SP resistance which can be estimated by the prevalence of dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) and dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) mutations. This was measured among pregnant women in the health district of Nanoro, Burkina Faso. Methods From June to December 2010, two hundred and fifty six pregnant women in the second and third trimester, attending antenatal care with microscopically confirmed malaria infection were invited to participate, regardless of malaria symptoms. A blood sample was collected on filter paper and analyzed by PCR-RFLP for the alleles 51, 59, 108, 164 in the pfdhfr gene and 437, 540 in the pfdhps gene. Results The genes were successfully genotyped in all but one sample (99.6%; 255/256) for dhfr and in 90.2% (231/256) for dhps. The dhfr C59R and S108N mutations were the most common, with a prevalence of 61.2% (156/255) and 55.7% (142/255), respectively; 12.2% (31/255) samples had also the dhfr N51I mutation while the I164L mutation was absent. The dhps A437G mutation was found in 34.2% (79/231) isolates, but none of them carried the codon K540E. The prevalence of the dhfr double mutations NRNI and the triple mutations IRNI was 35.7% (91/255) and 11.4% (29/255), respectively. Conclusion Though the mutations in the pfdhfr and pfdhps genes were relatively common, the prevalence of the triple pfdhfr mutation was very low, indicating that SP as IPTp is still efficacious in Burkina Faso. PMID:26368675

  4. Serodiagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni infections in an endemic area of Burkina Faso: performance of several immunological tests with different parasite antigens.

    PubMed

    Sorgho, Hermann; Bahgat, Mahmoud; Poda, Jean-Noel; Song, Wenjian; Kirsten, Christa; Doenhoff, Michael J; Zongo, Issaka; Ouédraogo, Jean-Bosco; Ruppel, Andreas

    2005-02-01

    The performance of indirect haemagglutination assays (IHA), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescent antibody tests (IFAT) were compared with 450 sera from a Schistosoma mansoni-endemic area in Burkina Faso. All participants in this survey provided at least one sample each of stool, urine and serum. From those with an egg-negative Kato-Katz thick smear, a second stool sample was examined. IHA was based on either extracts of adult S. mansoni worms (SmIHA) or S. japonicum egg antigen (SjIHA). For ELISA, three antigen preparations were used, namely: (i) soluble S. mansoni adult worm antigens (SWAP); (ii) soluble S. mansoni egg antigens (SEA); and (iii) a cationic exchange fraction of S. mansoni eggs (CEF6). IFAT was performed with S. mansoni male worm sections. Among the egg-excretors, the sensitivity of ELISA was high and egg antigens performed slightly better (SEA, 96%; CEF6, 97%) than worm antigen (94%). Sensitivity of IHA was satisfactory with homologous (Sm, >85%), but not heterologous (Sj, 56%) parasite antigen. In IFAT, the parenchyma-associated fluorescence showed high sensitivity (95%), but gut-associated fluorescence, which is known to be a sensitive diagnostic marker for schistosome-infected European travelers, was observed only in 76% of a sub-sample of 100 of the endemic sera. Among sera from egg-negative individuals, many gave positive reactions in several or all of the tests employed. These reactions (formally "false positive") are considered to represent true infections, since chemotherapy had not yet been delivered to this population. For the purpose of further surveys in Burkina Faso or other resource-poor settings, we suggest IHA as an accurate diagnostic test and propose to further improve its performance by including egg rather than worm antigens. PMID:15652331

  5. Ethical considerations related to participation and partnership: an investigation of stakeholders’ perceptions of an action-research project on user fee removal for the poorest in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Healthcare user fees present an important barrier for accessing services for the poorest (indigents) in Burkina Faso and selective removal of fees has been incorporated in national healthcare planning. However, establishing fair, effective and sustainable mechanisms for the removal of user fees presents important challenges. A participatory action-research project was conducted in Ouargaye, Burkina Faso, to test mechanisms for identifying those who are indigents, and funding and implementing user fee removal. In this paper, we explore stakeholder perceptions of ethical considerations relating to participation and partnership arising in the action-research. Methods We conducted 39 in-depth interviews to examine ethical issues associated with the action-research. Respondents included 14 individuals identified as indigent through the community selection process, seven members of village selection committees, six local healthcare professionals, five members of the management committees of local health clinics, five members of the research team, and four regional or national policy-makers. Using constant comparative techniques, we carried out an inductive thematic analysis of the collected data. Results The Ouargaye project involved a participatory model, included both implementation and research components, and focused on a vulnerable group within small, rural communities. Stakeholder perceptions and experiences relating to the participatory approach and reliance on multiple partnerships in the project were associated with a range of ethical considerations related to 1) seeking common ground through communication and collaboration, 2) community participation and risk of stigmatization, 3) impacts of local funding of the user fee removal, 4) efforts to promote fairness in the selection of the indigents, and 5) power relations and the development of partnerships. Conclusions This investigation of the Ouargaye project serves to illuminate the distinctive

  6. DNA barcoding and isolation of vertically transmitted ascomycetes in sorghum from Burkina Faso: Epicoccum sorghinum is dominant in seedlings and appears as a common root pathogen.

    PubMed

    Stokholm, Michaela S; Wulff, Ednar G; Zida, Elisabeth P; Thio, Ibié G; Néya, James B; Soalla, Romain W; Głazowska, Sylwia E; Andresen, Marianne; Topbjerg, Henrik B; Boelt, Birte; Lund, Ole S

    2016-10-01

    Molecular identification of fungal taxa commonly transmitted through seeds of sorghum in Western Africa is lacking. In the present study, farm-saved seeds, collected from four villages in Northern Burkina Faso, were surface sterilized and the distribution of fungal DNA in seeds and seven-day-old seedlings was analyzed by 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) amplicon sequencing. More than 99% of the fungal rDNA was found to originate from ascomycetes. The distribution of ascomycetes at species level was subsequently analyzed by barcoding of ITS2 rDNA. Eighteen Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) were identified from seedlings, compared to 29 OTUs from seeds. The top-eight most abundant ascomycete OTUs from seedlings were annotated as: Epicoccum sorghinum, Fusarium thapsinum, four different Curvularia spp., Exserohilum rostratum and Alternaria longissima. These OTUs were also present in amplicons from seed samples collected in Central Burkina Faso confirming a common occurrence. E. sorghinum was highly predominant in seedlings both measured by DNA analysis and by isolation. The dominance of E. sorghinum was particularly strong in roots from poorly growing seedlings. Pathogenicity of E. sorghinum isolates was compared to F. thapsinum by inoculation to seeds in vitro. Both fungal species caused significant inhibition of seedling growth (P<0.001) and Koch's postulates were fulfilled. Extensive, dark necrosis in roots was a typical symptom of E. sorghinum, whereas wilting of leaves was caused primarily by F. thapsinum. This study provides the first molecular approach to characterize the seedling mycoflora of sorghum in Western Africa and suggests E. sorghinum as a common root pathogen. PMID:27524652

  7. Monitoring Dry Season Persistence of Anopheles gambiae s.l. Populations in a Contained Semi-Field System in Southwestern Burkina Faso, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Mamai, W; Simard, F; Couret, D; Ouedraogo, G A; Renault, D; Dabiré, K R; Mouline, K

    2016-01-01

    To gain insight into the dry season survival strategies of Anopheles gambiae s.l., a new contained semi-field system was developed and used for the first time in Burkina Faso, West Africa. The system consisted of a screened greenhouse within which the local environment was reproduced, including all ecological requirements for mosquito development cycle completion. The system was seeded with the progenies of female Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles coluzzii, and Anopheles arabiensis collected in the vicinity of the greenhouse during the rainy season. After successful establishment in the semi-field system, mosquito populations were monitored over a 1-yr period by regular surveys of larval and adult specimens. We provided evidence for the persistence of adult mosquitoes throughout the dry season, in the absence of any suitable larval development site. During the hot and dry periods, adult insects were observed in artificial shelters (clay pots, building blocks, and dark corners). The mosquito population rapidly built up with the return of the rainy season in the area, when artificial breeding sites were refilled in the enclosure. However, only An. coluzzii and, later, An. arabiensis were detected in the subsequent rainy season, whereas no An. gambiae specimen was found. Our findings suggest that An. coluzzii and An. arabiensis may be able to aestivate throughout the dry season in Southwestern Burkina Faso, whereas An. gambiae might adopt a different dry-season survival strategy, such as long-distance re-colonization from distant locations. These results may have important implications for malaria control through targeted vector control interventions. PMID:26576935

  8. The relative and absolute chronology of strato-tectonic events in the Gorom-Gorom granitoid terrane and Oudalan-Gorouol belt, northeast Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tshibubudze, Asinne; Hein, Kim A. A.; McCuaig, T. Campbell

    2015-12-01

    The integration of field mapping and analytical studies of magmatic units of the northeast of Burkina Faso has provided new information on the tectonic and magmatic evolution of the Oudalan-Gorouol belt and the Gorom-Gorom granitoid terrane. Structural, geochemical and geochronological analyses have helped to clarify the geological evolution of the region during the Tangaean Event (D1) and Eburnean Orogeny (D2) through to the Wabo Tampelse Event (D3). Further to this, zircon U-Pb geochronology data have demonstrated that the Oudalan-Gorouol belt and the Gorom-Gorom granitoid terrane represents some of the oldest outcropping geology in the Palaeoproterozoic Baoulé-Mossi domain recognised to date, with the oldest age at 2253 ± 9 Ma. The geochronology and geology suggests that the basement or a pre-Birimian crust to the Birimian Supergroup may be found in the northeast of Burkina Faso. The Eburnean Orogeny in the northeastern Burkina is preceded by the two phases of deformation (D1-x and D1), and two phases of magmatism. D1-x is associated with the emplacement of the Dori Batholith at the onset of D1 (2164-2141 Ma). D1 ductile-brittle deformation formed F1 folds and discrete high-strained mylonite zones that deformed the Oudalan-Gorouol belt and the Gorom-Gorom granitoid terrane during a southwest-directed palaeo-principal transport direction. The pre-Birimian to Birimian supracrustal rocks and intrusions were regionally metamorphosed during D1 to greenschist to amphibolite facies. The Eburnean Orogeny (2130-1980 Ma) is characterised by northwest-southeast shortening; it was followed by north-northwest to south-southeast shortening with development of sinistral strike-slip faults and shears. D2 brittle-(ductile) deformation is manifested by refolding of F1 by northeast-trending F2, and development of a pervasive northeast-trending S2 to S2-C foliation. Metamorphic grade attained greenschist facies during D2 with development of the mineral assemblage of quartz

  9. Les campagnes communautaires de promotion du depistage VIH en Afrique de l’Ouest : perceptions des usagers au Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Desclaux, Alice; Ky-Zerbo, Odette; Somé, Jean-François; Makhlouf-Obermeyer, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Résumé La politique actuelle de lutte contre le sida qui repose sur l’extension de l’accès aux traitements et à la prévention exige qu’une proportion élevée de la population connaisse son statut en matière de VIH. Pour cela, l’OMS a proposé le développement de stratégies communautaires délivrant le dépistage et le conseil au-delà des services de soins, comme le test à domicile ou les campagnes de sensibilisation et dépistage de grande envergure, appliqués en Afrique australe et de l’Est. Pour définir les stratégies pertinentes dans des régions de basse prévalence comme l’Afrique de l’Ouest, les expériences communautaires de promotion du dépistage doivent y être évaluées. Cet article présente une évaluation des campagnes au Burkina Faso du point de vue des usagers. Dans le cadre d’un projet sur les pratiques et l’éthique du dépistage dans quatre pays africains (MATCH), une enquête qualitative spécifique a été menée pendant la campagne de 2008, auprès de personnes ayant fait le test pendant la campagne, ayant fait le test hors campagne ou n’ayant pas fait le test. Les appréciations sont globalement très favorables aux campagnes, notamment à cause de l’information dispensée, l’accessibilité des sites, la gratuité du test, la qualité des services et l’effet d’entrainement. Les limites ou critiques sont essentiellement liées à l’affluence ou à la crainte de ne pas être soutenu en cas de résultat positif. La démarche de recours au test ne fait plus l’objet de suspicion, au moins pendant la campagne. Cette « normalisation » du recours au test et la mobilisation collective facilitent des pratiques en groupe, ce qui peut rendre difficile de garder son statut VIH secret. L’évaluation des campagnes par les usagers les présente comme une opportunité pour accéder facilement au test et pour communiquer à ce sujet dans divers espaces sociaux à partir des informations délivrées sur le VIH

  10. [Nutritional status of street children in the district of Manga (Burkina Faso)].

    PubMed

    Diongue, M; Ndiaye, P; Yameogo, I; Faye, B F; Dia, A Tal; Diousse, P

    2014-01-01

    Malnutrition is an important indicator of development, and its consequences in children and adolescents produce a serious socioeconomic burden. Children living on the street are more vulnerable than others. Thus, our objective was to analyze the nutritional status of children living on the streets of Manga, through a cross-sectional and analytical study. The snowball technique was used for sampling. Data came from individual interviews, blood samples and medical examinations. Of the 237 children studied, 84.8% were boys; the overall mean age was 11.5 years, and 72.6% were adolescents (aged 10 to 17 years). Growth retardation (15.9%) predominated among the children aged 4 to 9 years, while a weight deficit (27.9%) was most common among those aged 10 to 17. Half of the children (50.2%) with blood tests (N = 119) had anemia. There was a link between anemia and underweight (p = 0.0145). Children who ate at least three times a day were 2.63 times less likely to be anemic (p<0.001). Factors associated with anemia (p<0.005) included survival activities. We frequently found nutritional deficits and anemia in these children. A targeted nutritional program would be a good entry point for their successful reintegration.. PMID:25466289

  11. Molecular characterization of trypanosome isolates from naturally infected domestic animals in Burkina, Faso.

    PubMed

    Reifenberg, J M; Solano, P; Duvallet, G; Cuisance, D; Simpore, J; Cuny, G

    1997-08-01

    A total of 33 trypanosome cryostabilates isolated from domestic animals (bovine and dogs) were analysed using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The PCR was undertaken on diluted and treated buffy coat solutions according to an easy protocol of purification, using primers specific to Trypanosoma (Nannomonas) congolense of Savannah, Riverine-Forest, Kilifi and Tsavo types, T. (N) simiae, T. (Trypanozoon) brucei and T. (Duttonella) vivax. The results showed a lack of PCR sensitivity when target solutions were simply diluted, probably a reflection of the inaccuracy of the dilution procedure at very low trypanosome numbers. Nine mixed infections were found in purified samples whereas only three were detected in diluted crude solutions. T. congolense Savannah-type was present in all stabilates. Double infections involving this type with the Riverine-Forest type, T. vivax or T. brucei, were found. One stabilate was found to be infected with the three trypanosome types, namely T. congolense Savannah and Riverine-Forest genotypes and T. vivax. No infection attributable to T. congolense Kilifi and Tsavo types or T. simiae was detected in these stabilates. This work confirmed the abundance of mixed infections in the field, which could not have been detected by the classical parasitological methods. Amongst the T. congolense infections, the Savannah genotype was found to be predominant over the Riverine-Forest type; that could be a consequence of differences in genotype virulence in cattle. The detection of T. congolense Riverine-Forest type in vertebrate hosts living in wet areas could be confirmation of the suspected affinity of relationships between this taxa and the riverine forest tsetse fly species. PMID:9299694

  12. Pilot study on the combination of an organophosphate-based insecticide paint and pyrethroid-treated long lasting nets against pyrethroid resistant malaria vectors in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Mosqueira, Beatriz; Soma, Dieudonné D; Namountougou, Moussa; Poda, Serge; Diabaté, Abdoulaye; Ali, Ouari; Fournet, Florence; Baldet, Thierry; Carnevale, Pierre; Dabiré, Roch K; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2015-08-01

    A pilot study to test the efficacy of combining an organophosphate-based insecticide paint and pyrethroid-treated Long Lasting Insecticide Treated Nets (LLINs) against pyrethroid-resistant malaria vector mosquitoes was performed in a real village setting in Burkina Faso. Paint Inesfly 5A IGR™, comprised of two organophosphates (OPs) and an Insect Growth Regulator (IGR), was tested in combination with pyrethroid-treated LLINs. Efficacy was assessed in terms of mortality for 12 months using Early Morning Collections of malaria vectors and 30-minute WHO bioassays. Resistance to pyrethroids and OPs was assessed by detecting the frequency of L1014F and L1014S kdr mutations and Ace-1(R)G119S mutation, respectively. Blood meal origin was identified using a direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The combination of Inesfly 5A IGR™ and LLINs was effective in killing 99.9-100% of malaria vector populations for 6 months regardless of the dose and volume treated. After 12 months, mortality rates decreased to 69.5-82.2%. The highest mortality rates observed in houses treated with 2 layers of insecticide paint and a larger volume. WHO bioassays supported these results: mortalities were 98.8-100% for 6 months and decreased after 12 months to 81.7-97.0%. Mortality rates in control houses with LLINs were low. Collected malaria vectors consisted exclusively of Anopheles coluzzii and were resistant to pyrethroids, with a L1014 kdr mutation frequency ranging from 60 to 98% through the study. About 58% of An. coluzzii collected inside houses had bloodfed on non-human animals. Combining Inesfly 5A IGR™ and LLINs yielded a one year killing efficacy against An. coluzzii highly resistant to pyrethroids but susceptible to OPs that exhibited an anthropo-zoophilic behaviour in the study area. The results obtained in a real setting supported previous work performed in experimental huts and underscore the need to study the impact that this novel strategy may have on clinical

  13. Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluating Mobile Text Messaging to Promote Retention and Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy for People Living With HIV in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Ouedraogo, Denis; Artavia-Mora, Luis; Bedi, Arjun; Thiombiano, Boundia Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Background Retention in care and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) is a critical challenge in many African countries including Burkina Faso. Delivering text messaging (short message service, SMS) interventions through mobile phones may help facilitate health service delivery and improve patient health. Despite this potential, no evaluations have been delivered for national scale settings to demonstrate the impact of mobile health (mHealth) for PLHIV. Objectives This study aims to test the impact of SMS text messaging reminders for PLHIV in Burkina Faso, who are under ART. The evaluation identifies whether patients who receive SMS text messages are more likely to (1) retain in care (measured as a dichotomous variable), (2) adhere to antiretroviral regimens (measured as the number of doses missed in the past 7 days), and (3) experience slower disease progression (measured with T-lymphocytes cells). The second objective is to assess its effects on the frequency of health center visits, physical and psychosocial health, nutrition and whether the type of message (text vs image) and frequency (weekly vs semiweekly) have differential impacts including the possibility of message fatigue over time. Methods This 24-month, wide-scale intervention implements a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate the impact of four variants of a mHealth intervention versus a control group. Our sample comprises adult patients (>15 years of age) undergoing antiretroviral therapy with access to mobile phone services. Multivariate regression analysis will be used to analyze the effect of the intervention on the study population. Data collection is done at baseline and three follow-up waves 6, 12, and 24 months after the intervention starts. Results The targeted 3800 patients were recruited between February 2015 and May 2015. But political uncertainty delayed the launch of the intervention until October 2015. Data

  14. Econometric analysis to evaluate the effect of community-based health insurance on reducing informal self-care in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Robyn, Paul Jacob; Hill, Allan; Liu, Yuanli; Souares, Aurélia; Savadogo, Germain; Sié, Ali; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study examines the role of community-based health insurance (CBHI) in influencing health-seeking behaviour in Burkina Faso, West Africa. Community-based health insurance was introduced in Nouna district, Burkina Faso, in 2004 with the goal to improve access to contracted providers based at primary- and secondary-level facilities. The paper specifically examines the effect of CBHI enrolment on reducing the prevalence of seeking modern and traditional methods of self-treatment as the first choice in care among the insured population. Methods Three stages of analysis were adopted to measure this effect. First, propensity score matching was used to minimize the observed baseline differences between the insured and uninsured populations. Second, through matching the average treatment effect on the treated, the effect of insurance enrolment on health-seeking behaviour was estimated. Finally, multinomial logistic regression was applied to model demand for available health care options, including no treatment, traditional self-treatment, modern self-treatment, traditional healers and facility-based care. Results For the first choice in care sought, there was no significant difference in the prevalence of self-treatment among the insured and uninsured populations, reaching over 55% for each group. When comparing the alternative option of no treatment, CBHI played no significant role in reducing the demand for self-care (either traditional or modern) or utilization of traditional healers, while it did significantly increase consumption of facility-based care. The average treatment effect on the treated was insignificant for traditional self-care, modern self-care and traditional healer, but was significant with a positive effect for use of facility care. Discussion While CBHI does have a positive impact on facility care utilization, its effect on reducing the prevalence of self-care is limited. The policy recommendations for improving the CBHI scheme

  15. The differences in characteristics between health-care users and non-users: implication for introducing community-based health insurance in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hengjin; Gbangou, Adjima; De Allegri, Manuela; Pokhrel, Subhash; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2008-02-01

    The purposes of this study are to describe the characteristics of different health-care users, to explain such characteristics using a health demand model and to estimate the price-related probability change for different types of health care in order to provide policy guidance for the introduction of community-based health insurance (CBI) in Burkina Faso. Data were collected from a household survey using a two stage cluster sampling approach. Household interviews were carried out during April and May 2003. In the interviewed 7,939 individuals in 988 households, there were 558 people reported one or more illness episodes; two-thirds of these people did not seek professional care. Health care non-users display lower household income and expenditure, older age and lower perceived severity of disease. The main reason for choosing no-care and self-care was 'not enough money'. Multinomial logistic regression confirms these observations. Higher household cash-income, higher perceived severity of disease and acute disease significantly increased the probability of using western care. Older age and higher price-cash income ratio significantly increased the probability of no-care or self-care. If CBI were introduced the probability of using western care would increase by 4.33% and the probability of using self-care would reduce by 3.98%. The price-related probability change of using western care for lower income people is higher than for higher income although the quantity changed is relatively small. In conclusion, the introduction of CBI might increase the use of medical services, especially for the poor. Co-payment for the rich might be necessary. Premium adjusted for income or subsidies for the poor can be considered in order to absorb a greater number of poor households into CBI and further improve equity in terms of enrollment. However, the role of CBI in Burkina Faso is rather limited: it might only increase utilisation of western health care by a probability of 4

  16. Acceptability of new formulations of corn-soy blends and lipid-based nutrient supplements in Province du Passoré, Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Iuel-Brockdorf, Ann-Sophie; Dræbel, Tania Aase; Fabiansen, Christian; Cichon, Bernardette; Christensen, Vibeke Brix; Yameogo, Charles; Ritz, Christian; Frahm Olsen, Mette; Friis, Henrik

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the acceptability of new formulations of six corn-soy blended flours (CSB) and six lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) with different quantities of milk and qualities of soy to be used for the treatment of moderate acute malnutrition (MAM). Furthermore, we wanted to explore the acceptability of foods currently used for the prevention and treatment of malnutrition in Burkina Faso to identify possible barriers that could affect the acceptability of the new formulations of supplementary foods. The study was carried out prior to a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of these new formulations. The study involved an observed test-meal and a three-day take-home ration of the experimental food supplements to 6- to 30-months-old healthy children, followed by questionnaire-based interviews about the acceptability of these supplements. Interviews and focus group discussions were carried out to explore the acceptability of foods currently used for the prevention and treatment of malnutrition. The results suggest that both LNS and CSB products with different quantities of milk and qualities of soy are equally well accepted among healthy children in rural Burkina Faso based on general appreciation of the supplements and organoleptic properties. All experimental foods received good ratings and there was no significant difference between the foods. However, after the take-home ration, 58% of participants receiving CSB reported having left-overs at the end of the day compared to 37% (n = 33) of the participants receiving LNS (p = 0.004), suggesting that CSB was not as readily consumed as LNS. Yet, both CSB and LNS products were perceived as easy to administer and the frequency of feeding was estimated to be adequate. The study also found that similar foods, used for the prevention and treatment of malnutrition, were well appreciated in the study location. LNS were to a higher degree associated with medicine

  17. Patterns and trends of contraceptive use among sexually active adolescents in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, and Nigeria: evidence from cross-sectional studies

    PubMed Central

    Hounton, Sennen; Barros, Aluisio J. D.; Amouzou, Agbessi; Shiferaw, Solomon; Maïga, Abdoulaye; Akinyemi, Akanni; Friedman, Howard; Koroma, Desmond

    2015-01-01

    Background The benefits of universal access to voluntary contraception have been widely documented in terms of maternal and newborn survival, women's empowerment, and human capital. Given population dynamics, the choices and opportunities adolescents have in terms of access to sexual and reproductive health information and services could significantly affect the burden of diseases and nations’ human capital. Objectives The objectives of this paper are to assess the patterns and trends of modern contraception use among sexually active adolescents by socio-economic characteristics and by birth spacing and parity; to explore predictors of use of modern contraception in relation to the health system; and to discuss implications of the findings for family planning policy and programmes. Design Data are from the last three Demographic and Health Surveys of Ethiopia, Burkina Faso, and Nigeria. The descriptive analysis focused on sexually active adolescents (15- to 19-year age group), used modern contraception as the dependent variable, and a series of contact points with the health system (antenatal care, institutional delivery, postnatal care, immunisation) as covariates. The multivariate analysis used the same covariates, adjusting for socio-economic variables. Results There are two different groups of sexually active adolescents: those married or in a union with very low use of modern contraception and lower socio-economic status, and those unmarried, among whom nearly 50% are using modern contraception. Younger adolescents have lower modern contraceptive prevalence. There are significant inequality issues in modern contraception use by education, residence, and wealth quintile. However, while there was no significant progress in Burkina Faso and Nigeria, the data in Ethiopia point to a significant and systematic reduction of inequalities. The narrowing of the equity gap was most notable for childbearing adolescents with no education or living in rural areas. In the

  18. Seasonal And Intra-seasonal Hydrological Responses To Change In Climate Pattern And Small Dams of the Faga Watershed In Burkina-Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamounata, K.

    2015-12-01

    In response to the increasing demand for food linked to the substantial growth of population in Burkina Faso, irrigation has been widely used by the farming community to support agricultural production. Thus a promising option for water resources development in such a context is to increase the number of small dams. It is assumed that the great number of small dams may have effect on sub-basins' hydrological dynamic. This study aims to assess the seasonal and the intra-seasonal change in river basins hydrology with the case study of the Faga River sub-basin located in Burkina-Faso, West Africa, using Water Simulation Model (WaSiM). For this watershed the number of small dams is slightly very important (More than 60) and their impact on the watershed runoff has been estimated simultaneously with the change in climate pattern. The coefficient of variation for rainfall in this sub-basin from 1982 to 2010 is 0.097 and the stream flow presents a seasonal average of 25.58Km3 per month for the same period. The intra-seasonal climate variation for the same period is estimated at 0.087 in the scenario where any dam has not been considered. Results based on simulation including the five important dams over the sub-basin show that the overall effect of small dams is on average a 20.76% in runoff. Projections using the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5 climate scenarios with increase of 25% of dams' number show a probable decrease of about 29.54% and 35.25% of the average during the next fifty years runoff. The study findings show that small dams reduce significantly the runoff from their watershed and the uncertainties related to the sustainability of the resource seems to be increasing during the same period. Therefore, despite the very large number of water storage infrastructures, reservoirs operating strategies have to be achieved for water sustainability within the Faga sub-basin.

  19. Contribution of leafy vegetable sauces to dietary iron, zinc, vitamin A and energy requirements in children and their mothers in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Icard-Vernière, Christèle; Olive, Fanny; Picq, Christian; Mouquet-Rivier, Claire

    2015-03-01

    Improved leafy vegetable (LV) sauces, with amaranth, sorrel, and Ceylon spinach/spider plant leaves were formulated from traditional recipes to assess their potential use for food-to-food fortification in iron, zinc and vitamin A in the diet of young children and their mothers in Burkina Faso. Improvement was based on an increase in LV proportion and a decrease in mineral absorption inhibitors. An increase in iron content of up to 3 mg/100 g was obtained in some improved sauces in which dried fish was replaced by chicken liver, and vitamin A content was about 40 times higher than in traditional sauces. Fractional dialyzable iron was low in all sauces. Intakes of sauce were measured to assess their acceptability and no significant difference was found between traditional and improved formulations. The mean intakes of sauces were 66 ± 40 g for young children and 166 ± 65 g for their mothers. Amaranth or Ceylon spinach/spider plant sauces, consumed with the cereal based paste "tô" twice a day, would contribute 80 to 86% of children's estimated average requirement (EAR) of iron and to 90 to 170% of EAR of vitamin A but their contribution to zinc and energy needs would remain low. PMID:25665504

  20. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with worm vomit and cercarial secretions of Schistosoma mansoni to detect infections in an endemic focus of Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Bahgat, M; Sorgho, H; Ouédraogo, J B; Poda, J N; Sawadogo, L; Ruppel, A

    2006-03-01

    Cercariae and adult Schistosoma mansoni were used to prepare, respectively, cercarial secretions (CS) and worm vomit (WoV). These were used as antigens in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to test the IgG-reactivity of sera obtained in an S. mansoni-endemic area of Burkina Faso. Among the egg-excreting individuals (n = 240), 94.6% reacted positively with WoV, but only 62.9% with CS, thus suggesting a high diagnostic sensitivity of WoV, but not of CS. Among those individuals without detectable eggs in two Kato-Katz thick smears from different stool specimens (n = 215), the respective percentages of positive IgG reactivity were 78.1% and 63.3%. These positive reactions in the absence of detectable eggs are interpreted in terms of limited sensitivity of parasitological stool examinations. Optical density values in ELISA with CS, but not with WoV, correlated negatively with age, which may reflect decreasing exposure to cercariae in older individuals. PMID:16469168

  1. Year to year and seasonal variations in vector bionomics and malaria transmission in a humid savannah village in west Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Dabiré, K R; Diabaté, A; Paré-Toé, L; Rouamba, J; Ouari, A; Fontenille, D; Baldet, T

    2008-06-01

    A longitudinal entomological study was carried out from 1999 to 2001 in Lena, a humid savannah village in the western region of Burkina Faso in order to establish malaria vector bionomics and the dynamics of malaria transmission. In the first year, malaria transmission was mainly due to An. gambiae s.s., but during the two later years was due to An. funestus, which were observed in high frequency towards the end of the rainy season. PCR identification of samples of An. gambiae s.1. showed 93% to be An. gambiae s.s. and 7% An. arabiensis. An. funestus constituting more than 60% of the vectors were identified in PCR as An. funestus s.s. The persistence of intense vectorial activity in this village was probably due to the road building in a swampy area creating a semi-permanent swamp that provided large sites for larval mosquitoes. These swampy sites seemed to be more favorable for An. funestus than for An. gambiae s.s. Thus, land development must be monitored and subjected to planning to minimize vector proliferation. Such a system of planning could lead to the restriction or even elimination of the swamp that is the source of larvae developing in the heart of the village. PMID:18697309

  2. From Management to Negotiation: Technical and Institutional Innovations for Integrated Water Resource Management in the Upper Comoé River Basin, Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roncoli, Carla; Kirshen, Paul; Etkin, Derek; Sanon, Moussa; Somé, Léopold; Dembélé, Youssouf; Sanfo, Bienvenue J.; Zoungrana, Jacqueline; Hoogenboom, Gerrit

    2009-10-01

    This study focuses on the potential role of technical and institutional innovations for improving water management in a multi-user context in Burkina Faso. We focus on a system centered on three reservoirs that capture the waters of the Upper Comoé River Basin and servicing a diversity of users, including a sugar manufacturing company, a urban water supply utility, a farmer cooperative, and other downstream users. Due to variable and declining rainfall and expanding users’ needs, drastic fluctuations in water supply and demand occur during each dry season. A decision support tool was developed through participatory research to enable users to assess the impact of alternative release and diversion schedules on deficits faced by each user. The tool is meant to be applied in the context of consultative planning by a local user committee that has been created by a new national integrated water management policy. We contend that both solid science and good governance are instrumental in realizing efficient and equitable water management and adaptation to climate variability and change. But, while modeling tools and negotiation platforms may assist users in managing climate risk, they also introduce additional uncertainties into the deliberative process. It is therefore imperative to understand how these technological and institutional innovations frame water use issues and decisions to ensure that such framing is consistent with the goals of integrated water resource management.

  3. An easy and low-cost method for preprocessing and matching small-scale amateur aerial photography for assessing agricultural land use in Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wellens, Joost; Midekor, Akoly; Traore, Farid; Tychon, Bernard

    2013-08-01

    In recent decades, the Kou watershed in south-western Burkina Faso has suffered from poor water management. Despite the abundance of water, most water users regularly face water shortages because of the increase in the amount of land under irrigation. To help them achieve a more equitable allocation of irrigated land, local stakeholders need an easily managed low-cost tool for monitoring and mapping these irrigated zones. The aim of this study was to develop a fast and low-cost procedure for mosaicing and geo referencing amateur small-scale aerial photographs for land-use surveys. Sets of tens (2009) and hundreds (2007) of low-altitude aerial photographs, with a resolution of 0.4 m and 0.8 m, respectively, were used to create a detailed land-cover map of typical African small-scale irrigated agriculture. A commercially available stitching tool and GIS allowed geo referenced ‘mono-images’ to be constructed; both mosaics were warped on a high-resolution SPOT image with a horizontal root mean square error (RMSE) of about 11 m. The RMSE between the two image datasets was 2 m. This approach is less sensitive to atmospheric conditions that are non-predictable in programming satellite imagery.

  4. From management to negotiation: technical and institutional innovations for integrated water resource management in the Upper Comoé River Basin, Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Roncoli, Carla; Kirshen, Paul; Etkin, Derek; Sanon, Moussa; Somé, Léopold; Dembélé, Youssouf; Sanfo, Bienvenue J; Zoungrana, Jacqueline; Hoogenboom, Gerrit

    2009-10-01

    This study focuses on the potential role of technical and institutional innovations for improving water management in a multi-user context in Burkina Faso. We focus on a system centered on three reservoirs that capture the waters of the Upper Comoé River Basin and servicing a diversity of users, including a sugar manufacturing company, a urban water supply utility, a farmer cooperative, and other downstream users. Due to variable and declining rainfall and expanding users' needs, drastic fluctuations in water supply and demand occur during each dry season. A decision support tool was developed through participatory research to enable users to assess the impact of alternative release and diversion schedules on deficits faced by each user. The tool is meant to be applied in the context of consultative planning by a local user committee that has been created by a new national integrated water management policy. We contend that both solid science and good governance are instrumental in realizing efficient and equitable water management and adaptation to climate variability and change. But, while modeling tools and negotiation platforms may assist users in managing climate risk, they also introduce additional uncertainties into the deliberative process. It is therefore imperative to understand how these technological and institutional innovations frame water use issues and decisions to ensure that such framing is consistent with the goals of integrated water resource management. PMID:19707708

  5. Dissecting the mechanisms responsible for the multiple insecticide resistance phenotype in Anopheles gambiae s.s., M form, from Vallée du Kou, Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Kwiatkowska, Rachel M; Platt, Naomi; Poupardin, Rodolphe; Irving, Helen; Dabire, Roch K; Mitchell, Sara; Jones, Christopher M; Diabaté, Abdoulaye; Ranson, Hilary; Wondji, Charles S

    2013-04-25

    With the exception of target site mutations, insecticide resistance mechanisms in the principle malaria vector Anopheles gambiae, remains largely uncharacterized in Burkina Faso. Here we detected high prevalence of resistance in Vallée du Kou (VK) to pyrethroids, DDT and dieldrin, moderate level for carbamates and full susceptibility to organophosphates. High frequencies of L1014F kdr (75%) and Rdl (87%) mutations were observed showing strong correlation with pyrethroids/DDT and dieldrin resistance. The frequency of ace1R mutation was low even in carbamate resistant mosquitoes. Microarray analysis identified genes significantly over-transcribed in VK. These include the cytochrome P450 genes, CYP6P3 and CYP6Z2, previously associated with pyrethroid resistance. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis suggested that elevated neurotransmitter activity is associated with resistance, with the over-transcription of target site resistance genes such as acetylcholinesterase and the GABA receptor. A rhodopsin receptor gene previously associated with pyrethroid resistance in Culex pipiens pallens was also over-transcribed in VK. This study highlights the complex network of mechanisms conferring multiple resistance in malaria vectors and such information should be taken into account when designing and implementing resistance control strategies. PMID:23380570

  6. Screening of Hepatitis G and Epstein-Barr Viruses Among Voluntary non Remunerated Blood Donors (VNRBD) in Burkina Faso, West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Issoufou; Bisseye, Cyrille; Nagalo, Bolni Marius; Sanou, Mahamoudou; Kiba, Alice; Surat, Guzin; Compaoré, Tegwindé Rebeca; Traoré, Lassina; Nikiema, Jean Baptiste; Pietra, Virginio; Zongo, Jean-Didier; Simpore, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    In most sub-Saharan countries screening of blood-transmitted infections includes mainly HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis. Many viruses such as Hepatitis G (HGV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) which also carry a risk of transmission by blood transfusion raise the question of the extent of screening for these pathogens. This work aims to evaluate the prevalence of HGV and EBV in first-time blood donors in Ouagadougou. The prevalence of HGV and EBV in 551 blood donors was 7.4% and 5.4% respectively. HGV prevalence was significantly higher in blood donors with hepatitis B antigens and positive for HCV compared to donors negative for HCV and no hepatitis B antigens (respectively p<0.001 and p=0.004). EBV prevalence was higher among blood donors of < 20 years age group. HBV and HCV positive individuals are not eligible for blood donation. This study shows significant results with regard to the prevalence of HGV and EBV prevalence in blood donors in Burkina Faso and emphasizes the need for a general screening. PMID:24106603

  7. Understanding enrolment in community health insurance in sub-Saharan Africa: a population-based case-control study in rural Burkina Faso.

    PubMed Central

    De Allegri, Manuela; Kouyaté, Bocar; Becher, Heiko; Gbangou, Adjima; Pokhrel, Subhash; Sanon, Mamadou; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with decision to enrol in a community health insurance (CHI) scheme. METHODS: We conducted a population-based case-control study among 15 communities offered insurance in 2004 in rural Burkina Faso. For inclusion in the study, we selected all 154 enrolled (cases) and a random sample of 393 non-enrolled (controls) households. We used unconditional logistic regression (applying Huber-White correction to account for clustering at the community level) to explore the association between enrolment status and a set of household head, household and community characteristics. FINDINGS: Multivariate analysis revealed that enrolment in CHI was associated with Bwaba ethnicity, higher education, higher socioeconomic status, a negative perception of the adequacy of traditional care, a higher proportion of children living within the household, greater distance from the health facility, and a lower level of socioeconomic inequality within the community, but not with household health status or previous household health service utilization. CONCLUSION: Our study provides evidence that the decision to enrol in CHI is shaped by a combination of household head, household, and community factors. Policies aimed at enhancing enrolment ought to act at all three levels. On the basis of our findings, we discuss specific policy recommendations and highlight areas for further research. PMID:17143458

  8. A community-based approach to indigent selection is difficult to organize in a formal neighbourhood in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso: a mixed methods exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In most African countries, indigents treated at public health centres are supposed to be exempted from user fees. In Africa, most of the available knowledge has to do with targeting processes in rural areas, and little is known about how to select the worst-off in an urban area. In rural communities of Burkina Faso, trials of participatory community-based selection of indigents have been effective. However, the process for selecting indigents in urban areas is not yet clear. Methods This study evaluates a community-funded participatory indigent selection process in both a formal (loti) and an informal (non-loti) neighbourhood in the urban setting of Burkina Faso’s capital. This was an exploratory study to evaluate the processes and effectiveness of participatory targeting. We conducted individual interviews (n = 26) and analyzed secondary qualitative data (eight focus groups, 16 individual interviews). We also used the results of a socioeconomic survey (carried out by the Ouaga HDSS in 2011) of all the households established in the areas, including those of selected indigents. Results The coverage of indigent targeting was very low: 0.33% (loti) and 0.22% (non loti). In the non loti neighbourhood, the level of poverty among people selected was higher than the mean level of the poor who were not selected. Some indigents selected in the loti neighbourhood were not among the worst-off. The process was difficult to organize in the loti neighbourhood; people knew each other less well and were not very available, and there were cases of collusion. The process worked well in the non loti neighbourhood. Conclusions This intervention research provides new evidence about the feasibility of a community-based selection process in an urban setting in Africa by comparing two different urban settings. The participatory community-based selection process appeared to be suitable for the non loti neighbourhood, but other targeting strategies need to be found for loti

  9. [Self-medication in the treatment of acute malaria: study based on users of private health drug stores in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso].

    PubMed

    Ouédraogo, L T; Somé, I T; Diarra, M; Guissou, I P

    2008-04-01

    In order to contribute to the national debate on the change of protocol of the simple forms of malaria treatment in Burkina Faso, we conducted a transversal descriptive study among 397 private pharmacies users in Ouagadougou. The aims of the study were: - making an inventory of the antimalarials and signs which led to self-medication; - identifying the factors favouring self-treatment and the reasons why these antimalarials have been bought; - making an inventory of the misuses of antimalarial drugs by individuals practicing self-medication; - checking the knowledge base in individuals practicing self-medication in relation to resistance to antimalarials. We noticed that chloroquine (39.3%), sulfadoxine-pyrimethamin (24.4%), arthemisinin and its by products (15.1%) were the three main molecules which account for antimalarial self-treatment However the use of these molecules was inappropriate regarding the dosage (41.3%) as well as the rate of intake (40.7%). Self-medication was motivated by the common signs of malaria and the way in which this parasitosis has become an every day feature in people's minds. The choice of the molecule, the knowledge of the directions for use and the rate of intake were significantly linked to the level of education (p < 0.001). Self-medication being one of the major causes of resistance development, it is necessary together with local pharmacies retailers, to organize information campaigns on the correct use of molecules of the new antimalarial therapeutic scheme which will be adopted. PMID:18543706

  10. Herpes Simplex Virus Type-2 Cervicovaginal Shedding Among Women Living With HIV-1 and Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy in Burkina Faso: An 8-Year Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Low, Andrea J.; Nagot, Nicolas; Weiss, Helen A.; Konate, Issouf; Kania, Dramane; Segondy, Michel; Meda, Nicolas; van de Perre, Philippe; Mayaud, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Background. The impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) replication is unclear. The aim of this study was to assess factors associated with cervicovaginal HSV-2 DNA shedding and genital ulcer disease (GUD) in a cohort of women living with human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) in Burkina Faso. Methods. Participants were screened for cervicovaginal HSV-2 DNA, GUD, cervicovaginal and systemic HIV-1 RNA, and reproductive tract infections every 3–6 months over 8 years. Associations with HSV-2 shedding and quantity were examined using random-effects logistic and linear regression, respectively. Results. Of the 236 women with data on HSV-2 shedding, 151 took ART during the study period. Cervicovaginal HSV-2 DNA was detected in 42% of women (99 of 236) in 8.2% of visits (151 of 1848). ART was associated with a reduction in the odds of HSV-2 shedding, which declined for each year of ART use (odds ratio [OR], 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], .59–.92). In the multivariable model, the impact of ART was primarily associated with suppression of systemic HIV-1 RNA (adjusted OR, 0.32; 95% CI, .15–.67). A reduction in the odds of GUD was also observed during ART, mainly in those with HIV-1 suppression (adjusted OR, 0.53; 95% CI, .25–1.11). Conclusions. ART is strongly associated with a decrease in cervicovaginal HSV-2 shedding, and the impact was sustained over several years. PMID:26475931

  11. Niveau socioéconomique et processus du recours aux soins par les familles de patients souffrant de troubles psychiques au Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Yaogo, Ahmed; Sommer, Alain; Moulaï, Pierre; Chebili, Saïd; Abaoub-Germain, Agnès

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Le Burkina Faso a connu une amélioration constante depuis deux décennies de l'offre de soins en psychiatrie. De même, le taux d'alphabétisation sans cesse croissant s'accompagne d'une profonde modification des conceptions et des comportements. La présente étude visait à déterminer l′impact des déterminants socioéconomiques sur le processus du recours aux soins par les familles. Méthodes Il s'est agi d'une enquête transversale portant sur 200 familles, menée dans le service de psychiatrie du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Yalgado Ouédraogo de Ouagadougou. Variable à expliquer: premier recours aux soins par les familles (guérisseur traditionnel ou prières religieuses vs. consultations psychiatrique ou médicale). Variable explicative: catégorie socioprofessionnelle classée en suivant la nomenclature des professions et catégories socioprofessionnelles; niveau d’études. L'analyse statistique a été effectuée à l'aide du logiciel SAS version 9.2. Le test du Khi deux a été utilisé. Résultats Il existait une association entre le choix du premier recours et la Profession et la catégorie socioprofessionnelledu « décideur » (p = 0.0006) ainsi que leniveau d’études du « décideur » (p = 0.0001). Conclusion La Profession et Catégorie Sociale et le niveau d'instruction scolaire pourraient être un marqueur important dans les politiques visant à optimiser les processus de recours aux soins des patients dans le circuit de soins. PMID:25161751

  12. The lower susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum malaria of Fulani of Burkina Faso (west Africa) is associated with low frequencies of classic malaria-resistance genes.

    PubMed

    Modiano, D; Luoni, G; Sirima, B S; Lanfrancotti, A; Petrarca, V; Cruciani, F; Simporé, J; Ciminelli, B M; Foglietta, E; Grisanti, P; Bianco, I; Modiano, G; Coluzzi, M

    2001-01-01

    The gene frequencies in 1993-94 for haemoglobin S, haemoglobin C, alpha-3.7 deletional thalassaemia, G6PDA-, HLAB*5301 were estimated in Fulani, Mossi and Rimaibé ethnic groups of Burkina Faso, West Africa. The aim of the study was to verify whether the previously reported Fulani lower susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum malaria was associated with any of these malaria-resistance genes. Similar frequencies for haemoglobin S were recorded in the 3 ethnic groups (0.024 +/- 0.008, 0.030 +/- 0.011, 0.022 +/- 0.013; in Mossi, Rimaibé and Fulani, respectively). The Mossi and Rimaibé showed higher frequencies when compared to Fulani for haemoglobin C (0.117 +/- 0.018, 0.127 +/- 0.020, 0.059 +/- 0.020), alpha-3.7 deletional thalassaemia (0.227 +/- 0.040, 0.134 +/- 0.032, 0.103 +/- 0.028), G6PDA- (0.196 +/- 0.025, 0.187 +/- 0.044, 0.069 +/- 0.025) and HLA B*5301 (0.189 +/- 0.038, 0.202 +/- 0.041, 0.061 +/- 0.024). Among Fulani the proportion of individuals not having any of these protective alleles was more than 3-fold greater than in the Mossi-Rimaibé group (56.8% vs 16.7%; P < 0.001). These findings exclude the involvement of these genetic factors of resistance to P. falciparum in the lower susceptibility to malaria of Fulani. This evidence, in association with the previously reported higher immune reactivity to malaria of Fulani, further supports the existence in this ethnic group of unknown genetic factor(s) of resistance to malaria probably involved in the regulation of humoral immune responses. PMID:11355545

  13. Capitals diminished, denied, mustered and deployed. A qualitative longitudinal study of women's four year trajectories after acute health crisis, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Susan F.; Akoum, Mélanie S.; Storeng, Katerini T.

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that health crises can play a key role in precipitating or exacerbating poverty. For women of reproductive age in low-income countries, the complications of pregnancy are a common cause of acute health crisis, yet investigation of longer-term dynamics set in motion by such events, and their interactions with other aspects of social life, is rare. This article presents findings from longitudinal qualitative research conducted in Burkina Faso over 2004–2010. Guided by an analytic focus on patterns of continuity and change, and drawing on recent discussions on the notion of ‘resilience’, and the concepts of ‘social capital’ and ‘bodily capital’, we explore the trajectories of 16 women in the aftermath of costly acute healthcare episodes. The synthesis of case studies shows that, in conditions of structural inequity and great insecurity, an individual's social capital ebbs and flow over time, resulting in a trajectory of multiple adaptations. Women's capacity to harness or exploit bodily capital in its various forms (beauty, youthfulness, physical strength, fertility) to some extent determines their ability to confront and overcome adversities. With this, they are able to further mobilise social capital without incurring excessive debt, or to access and accumulate significant new social capital. Temporary self-displacement, often to the parental home, is also used as a weapon of negotiation in intra-household conflict and to remind others of the value of one's productive and domestic labour. Conversely, diminished bodily capital due to the physiological impact of an obstetric event or its complications can lead to reduced opportunities, and to further disadvantage. PMID:23063215

  14. Capitals diminished, denied, mustered and deployed. A qualitative longitudinal study of women's four year trajectories after acute health crisis, Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Murray, Susan F; Akoum, Mélanie S; Storeng, Katerini T

    2012-12-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that health crises can play a key role in precipitating or exacerbating poverty. For women of reproductive age in low-income countries, the complications of pregnancy are a common cause of acute health crisis, yet investigation of longer-term dynamics set in motion by such events, and their interactions with other aspects of social life, is rare. This article presents findings from longitudinal qualitative research conducted in Burkina Faso over 2004-2010. Guided by an analytic focus on patterns of continuity and change, and drawing on recent discussions on the notion of 'resilience', and the concepts of 'social capital' and 'bodily capital', we explore the trajectories of 16 women in the aftermath of costly acute healthcare episodes. The synthesis of case studies shows that, in conditions of structural inequity and great insecurity, an individual's social capital ebbs and flow over time, resulting in a trajectory of multiple adaptations. Women's capacity to harness or exploit bodily capital in its various forms (beauty, youthfulness, physical strength, fertility) to some extent determines their ability to confront and overcome adversities. With this, they are able to further mobilise social capital without incurring excessive debt, or to access and accumulate significant new social capital. Temporary self-displacement, often to the parental home, is also used as a weapon of negotiation in intra-household conflict and to remind others of the value of one's productive and domestic labour. Conversely, diminished bodily capital due to the physiological impact of an obstetric event or its complications can lead to reduced opportunities, and to further disadvantage. PMID:23063215

  15. A Theoretical Analysis of the Geography of Schistosomiasis in Burkina Faso Highlights the Roles of Human Mobility and Water Resources Development in Disease Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Saez, Javier; Mari, Lorenzo; Bertuzzo, Enrico; Casagrandi, Renato; Sokolow, Susanne H.; De Leo, Giulio A.; Mande, Theophile; Ceperley, Natalie; Froehlich, Jean-Marc; Sou, Mariam; Karambiri, Harouna; Yacouba, Hamma; Maiga, Amadou; Gatto, Marino; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    We study the geography of schistosomiasis across Burkina Faso by means of a spatially explicit model of water-based disease dynamics. The model quantitatively addresses the geographic stratification of disease burden in a novel framework by explicitly accounting for drivers and controls of the disease, including spatial information on the distributions of population and infrastructure, jointly with a general description of human mobility and climatic/ecological drivers. Spatial patterns of disease are analysed by the extraction and the mapping of suitable eigenvectors of the Jacobian matrix subsuming the stability of the disease-free equilibrium. The relevance of the work lies in the novel mapping of disease burden, a byproduct of the parametrization induced by regional upscaling, by model-guided field validations and in the predictive scenarios allowed by exploiting the range of possible parameters and processes. Human mobility is found to be a primary control at regional scales both for pathogen invasion success and the overall distribution of disease burden. The effects of water resources development highlighted by systematic reviews are accounted for by the average distances of human settlements from water bodies that are habitats for the parasite’s intermediate host. Our results confirm the empirical findings about the role of water resources development on disease spread into regions previously nearly disease-free also by inspection of empirical prevalence patterns. We conclude that while the model still needs refinements based on field and epidemiological evidence, the proposed framework provides a powerful tool for large-scale public health planning and schistosomiasis management. PMID:26513655

  16. Abolishing Fees at Health Centers in the Context of Community Case Management of Malaria: What Effects on Treatment-Seeking Practices for Febrile Children in Rural Burkina Faso?

    PubMed Central

    Druetz, Thomas; Fregonese, Federica; Bado, Aristide; Millogo, Tieba; Kouanda, Seni; Diabaté, Souleymane; Haddad, Slim

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Burkina Faso started nationwide community case management of malaria (CCMm) in 2010. In 2011, health center user fees for children under five were abolished in some districts. Objective To assess the effects of concurrent implementation of CCMm and user fees abolition on treatment-seeking practices for febrile children. Methods This is a natural experiment conducted in the districts of Kaya (CCMm plus user fees abolition) and Zorgho (CCMm only). Registry data from 2005 to 2014 on visits for malaria were collected from all eight rural health centers in the study area. Annual household surveys were administered during malaria transmission season in 2011 and 2012 in 1,035 randomly selected rural households. Interrupted time series models were fitted for registry data and Fine and Gray’s competing risks models for survey data. Results User fees abolition in Kaya significantly increased health center use by eligible children with malaria (incidence rate ratio for intercept change = 2.1, p <0.001). In 2011, in Kaya, likelihood of health center use for febrile children was three times higher and CHW use three times lower when caregivers knew services were free. Among the 421 children with fever in 2012, the delay before visiting a health center was significantly shorter in Kaya than in Zorgho (1.46 versus 1.79 days, p <0.05). Likelihood of visiting a health center on the first day of fever among households <2.5km or <5 km from a health center was two and three times higher in Kaya than in Zorgho, respectively (p <0.001). Conclusions User fees abolition reduced visit delay for febrile children living close to health centers. It also increased demand for and use of health center for children with malaria. Concurrently, demand for CHWs’ services diminished. User fees abolition and CCMm should be coordinated to maximize prompt access to treatment in rural areas. PMID:26501561

  17. An analysis of timing and frequency of malaria infection during pregnancy in relation to the risk of low birth weight, anaemia and perinatal mortality in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A prospective study aiming at assessing the effect of adding a third dose sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) to the standard two-dose intermittent preventive treatment for pregnant women was carried out in Hounde, Burkina Faso, between March 2006 and July 2008. Pregnant women were identified as earlier as possible during pregnancy through a network of home visitors, referred to the health facilities for inclusion and followed up until delivery. Methods Study participants were enrolled at antenatal care (ANC) visits and randomized to receive either two or three doses of SP at the appropriate time. Women were visited daily and a blood slide was collected when there was fever (body temperature > 37.5°C) or history of fever. Women were encouraged to attend ANC and deliver in the health centre, where the new-born was examined and weighed. The timing and frequency of malaria infection was analysed in relation to the risk of low birth weight, maternal anaemia and perinatal mortality. Results Data on birth weight and haemoglobin were available for 1,034 women. The incidence of malaria infections was significantly lower in women having received three instead of two doses of SP. Occurrence of first malaria infection during the first or second trimester was associated with a higher risk of low birth weight: incidence rate ratios of 3.56 (p < 0.001) and 1.72 (p = 0.034), respectively. After adjusting for possible confounding factors, the risk remained significantly higher for the infection in the first trimester of pregnancy (adjusted incidence rate ratio = 2.07, p = 0.002). The risk of maternal anaemia and perinatal mortality was not associated with the timing of first malaria infection. Conclusion Malaria infection during first trimester of pregnancy is associated to a higher risk of low birth weight. Women should be encouraged to use long-lasting insecticidal nets before and throughout their pregnancy. PMID:22433778

  18. Major reduction of malaria morbidity with combined vitamin A and zinc supplementation in young children in Burkina Faso: a randomized double blind trial

    PubMed Central

    Zeba, Augustin N; Sorgho, Hermann; Rouamba, Noël; Zongo, Issiaka; Rouamba, Jeremie; Guiguemdé, Robert T; Hamer, Davidson H; Mokhtar, Najat; Ouedraogo, Jean-Bosco

    2008-01-01

    Background Vitamin A and zinc are crucial for normal immune function, and may play a synergistic role for reducing the risk of infection including malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a single dose of 200 000 IU of vitamin A with daily zinc supplementation was done in children of Sourkoudougou village, Burkina Faso. Children aged from 6 to 72 months were randomized to receive a single dose of 200 000 IU of vitamin A plus 10 mg elemental zinc, six days a week (n = 74) or placebo (n = 74) for a period of six months. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted at the beginning and the end of the study, and children were evaluated daily for fever. Microscopic examination of blood smear was done in the case of fever (temperature ≥37.5°C) for malaria parasite detection. Results At the end of the study we observed a significant decrease in the prevalence malaria in the supplemented group (34%) compared to the placebo group (3.5%) (p < 0.001). Malaria episodes were lower in the supplemented group (p = 0.029), with a 30.2% reduction of malaria cases (p = 0.025). Time to first malaria episode was longer in the supplemented group (p = 0.015). The supplemented group also had 22% fewer fever episodes than the placebo group (p = 0.030). Conclusion These results suggest that combined vitamin A plus zinc supplementation reduces the risk of fever and clinical malaria episodes among children, and thus may play a key role in malaria control strategies for children in Africa. PMID:18237394

  19. La tuberculose cutanée: observation de six cas confirmés au CHU Souro SANOU (CHUSS) de Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso)

    PubMed Central

    Andonaba, Jean Baptiste; Barro-Traoré, Fatou; Yaméogo, Téné; Diallo, Boukary; Korsaga-Somé, Nina; Traoré, Adama

    2013-01-01

    La localisation cutanée de la maladie tuberculeuse demeure une forme rare et représente seulement 2,1% des localisations. L'objet de cette étude est de rapporter le profil épidémiologique, anatomoclinique et évolutif des cas de tuberculose ganglio-cutanée diagnostiqués dans un CHU au Burkina Faso. La fréquence de la tuberculose cutanée est très faible au CHUSS. Six cas ont été diagnostiqués entre 2004 et 2010, soit une fréquence de un cas par an. La durée d’évolution des cas allait de deux jusqu’à dix ans avant leur diagnostic. Les lésions observées étaient: trois scrofulodermes, trois gommes, une tuberculose testiculaire associée à un mal de Pott, un cas de polyadénopathies et des cicatrices atropho-rétractiles dans la plupart des cas. Sur le plan anatomopathologique, des granulomes tuberculoïdes ont été mis en évidence dans tous les cas avec une forte réaction tuberculinique à l'IDR. Sous antituberculeux pendant six mois, l’évolution a été bonne dans tous les cas mais au prix de séquelles cutanées cicatricielles inesthétiques. Son ampleur reste peut-être encore méconnue. Le renforcement du plateau technique du CHU et une bonne collaboration interdisciplinaire contribuerait à un meilleur diagnostic et prise en charge de cette affection. PMID:24648863

  20. Maternal healthcare in context: A qualitative study of women's tactics to improve their experience of public healthcare in rural Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Østergaard, Lise Rosendal

    2015-12-01

    Improving the use of public maternal health facilities to prevent maternal death is a priority in developing countries. Accumulating evidence suggests that a key factor in choosing a facility-based delivery is the collaboration and the communication between healthcare providers and women. This article attempts to provide a fine-grained understanding of health system deficiencies, healthcare provider practices and women's experiences with maternal public healthcare. This article presents findings from ethnographic research conducted in the Central-East Region of Burkina Faso over a period of eight months (January-August 2013). It is based on monthly interviews with 14 women from village (10) and town (4) and on structured observations of clinical encounters in three primary healthcare facilities (two rural and one urban) (23 days). In addition, 13 health workers were interviewed and 11 focus groups with women from village (6) and town (5) were conducted (48 participants). Guided by an analytic focus on strategies and tactics and drawing on recent discussions on the notion of 'biomedical security', the article explores what tactics women employ in their efforts to maximize their chances of having a positive experience with public maternal healthcare. The synthesis of the cases shows that, in a context of poverty and social insecurity, women employ five tactics: establishing good relations with health workers, being mindful of their 'health booklet', attending prenatal care consultations, minimizing the waiting time at the maternity unit and using traditional medicines. In this way, women strive to achieve biomedical security for themselves and their child and to preserve their social reputation. The study reveals difficulty in the collaboration and communication between health workers and women and suggests that greater attention should be paid to social relations between healthcare providers and users. PMID:26560408

  1. Women's dietary diversity scores and childhood anthropometric measurements as indices of nutrition insecurity along the urban–rural continuum in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Chagomoka, Takemore; Drescher, Axel; Glaser, Rüdiger; Marschner, Bernd; Schlesinger, Johannes; Nyandoro, George

    2016-01-01

    Background Malnutrition is still prevalent worldwide, and its severity, which differs between regions and countries, has led to international organisations proposing its inclusion in the global development framework that will succeed the Millennium Development Goals (post-2015 framework). In Sub-Saharan Africa, malnutrition is particularly severe, among women and children under 5 years. The prevalence of malnutrition has been reported worldwide, differing from region to region and country to country. Nevertheless, little is known about how malnutrition differs between multiple locations along an urban–rural continuum. Objective A survey was carried out in and around Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, between August and September 2014 to map household nutrition insecurity along the urban–rural continuum, using a transect approach to guide the data collection. Design Transects of 70 km long and 2 km wide directed radially from the city centre outwards were laid, and data were collected from randomly selected households along these transects. Women's dietary diversity scores (WDDSs) were calculated from a sample of 179 women of reproductive age (15–49 years) from randomly selected households. Additionally, anthropometric data (height/length and weight) of 133 children under 5 years of age were collected along the same transects for the computation of anthropometric indices. Results We found that relative proportions of the nutrition indices such as stunting, wasting and underweight varied across the urban–rural continuum. Rural households (15%) had the highest relative proportion of WDDS compared with urban households (11%) and periurban households (8%). There was a significant association between children under 5 years’ nutritional status (wasting, stunting and underweight) and spatial location (p=0.023). The level of agricultural activities is a possible indicator of wasting in children aged 6–59 months (p=0.032). Conclusion Childhood undernutrition certainly

  2. Land degradation in a semi-urban catchment in Burkina Faso: monitoring land use change and soil erosion with earth observations and field surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angeluccetti, Irene; Coviello, Velio; Vezza, Paolo; Grimaldi, Stefania; Steffenino, Sara; Magloire Koussoubé, Alain

    2015-04-01

    Soil erosion is currently menacing the availability of arable land in various countries worldwide. In particular the countries located in the Sahel area of Sub-Saharan Africa are extremely prone to this type of environmental degradation. The same countries rely traditionally upon subsistence farming, which makes the population more vulnerable to environmental changes. The study here presented exploits remote sensed data for identifying the main degradation processes occurring in a small catchment of central Burkina Faso (i.e., Boulbi watershed). This catchment, approximately 100 square km large, is characterized by the presence of a 30 years old dam, whose reservoir feeds 80 ha of rice-fields. This produce contributes up to 13% of the regional rice production. Nonetheless other crops, along with rain-fed rice, are grown all across the Boulbi catchment during the rainy season. Both the increasing gully erosion and the urbanization of the capital city pushing from the North are significantly threatening the farming activities. By using aerial frames acquired with a 16 years' time interval (i.e., 1996, 2012), free satellite imagery, and field surveys, the base cartography of the investigated area was updated and the most active gullies were identified. Moreover a change detection analysis was performed on both artifacts and land use features. More than 200.000 square m of erosion areas and an increase of nearly 90% in built-up areas were detected. In addition, the importance of producing up-to-date base data was proven by the exploitation of the outcomes for the production of a catchment land and water management plan.

  3. A Theoretical Analysis of the Geography of Schistosomiasis in Burkina Faso Highlights the Roles of Human Mobility and Water Resources Development in Disease Transmission.

    PubMed

    Perez-Saez, Javier; Mari, Lorenzo; Bertuzzo, Enrico; Casagrandi, Renato; Sokolow, Susanne H; De Leo, Giulio A; Mande, Theophile; Ceperley, Natalie; Froehlich, Jean-Marc; Sou, Mariam; Karambiri, Harouna; Yacouba, Hamma; Maiga, Amadou; Gatto, Marino; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    We study the geography of schistosomiasis across Burkina Faso by means of a spatially explicit model of water-based disease dynamics. The model quantitatively addresses the geographic stratification of disease burden in a novel framework by explicitly accounting for drivers and controls of the disease, including spatial information on the distributions of population and infrastructure, jointly with a general description of human mobility and climatic/ecological drivers. Spatial patterns of disease are analysed by the extraction and the mapping of suitable eigenvectors of the Jacobian matrix subsuming the stability of the disease-free equilibrium. The relevance of the work lies in the novel mapping of disease burden, a byproduct of the parametrization induced by regional upscaling, by model-guided field validations and in the predictive scenarios allowed by exploiting the range of possible parameters and processes. Human mobility is found to be a primary control at regional scales both for pathogen invasion success and the overall distribution of disease burden. The effects of water resources development highlighted by systematic reviews are accounted for by the average distances of human settlements from water bodies that are habitats for the parasite's intermediate host. Our results confirm the empirical findings about the role of water resources development on disease spread into regions previously nearly disease-free also by inspection of empirical prevalence patterns. We conclude that while the model still needs refinements based on field and epidemiological evidence, the proposed framework provides a powerful tool for large-scale public health planning and schistosomiasis management. PMID:26513655

  4. A synthetic methodology to assess Soil and Water Conservation measures effectiveness on the catchment sediment budget: the case of the Laaba watershed, Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angeluccetti, I.; Coviello, V.; Grimaldi, S.; Vezza, P.

    2012-04-01

    The Sahelian countries are increasingly affected by lack of water, soil erosion, desertification and loss of biodiversity. Land and water resources are currently facing an overwhelming pressure due to population growth and to a significant decrease in rainfall rates since the 1970s. Nevertheless, the decrease of the number of rainy days did not affect neither rainfall aggressiveness nor daily rainfall extreme values. Rill and gully erosion, the progressive disappearance of the vegetation and the extension of soil surface crusting result in the reduction of soil thickness, the decrease of nutrients holding capability and water storage loss. To cope with these issues, Soil and Water Conservation (SWC) works have been highly employed in the Sahelian area. However, a proper cost-effectiveness analysis of these interventions at catchment scale requires a quantitative survey on erosion and sedimentation processes, which is expensive and time-consuming. Where data for calibration and validation of process-based models are scarce, a synthetic method to evaluate the economical sustainability of a proposed intervention could be of paramount importance. Referring to a field data collection and to a literature survey, the study herein proposed aims to assess the effectiveness of SWC measures, employed to limit soil erosion and reservoir siltation. Using the Laaba watershed (Northern Burkina Faso, Department of Koumbri) as a case study, the catchment sediment budget is estimated by means of topographical, pedologic and land use parameters and the sedimentation rates of the reservoir and the SWC works. Finally, a cost-effectiveness analysis is performed to assess the economical sustainability of SWC interventions. Although not intended to be quantitative at a local scale, the proposed methodology can be easily implemented for land and water management to prioritize the areas of intervention when data and financial resources are limited, and it is beneficial where the application

  5. Does Jatropha curcas L. show resistance to drought in the Sahelian zone of West Africa? A case study from Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayen, P.; Sop, T. K.; Lykke, A. M.; Thiombiano, A.

    2015-05-01

    Land degradation is an environmental problem which weakens agro-sylvo-pastoral productivity in sub-Saharan Africa. The most common manifestation of land degradation is the appearance of denuded land. We carried out an experiment to test the effect of three soil and water conservation techniques on survival and growth of Jatropha curcas seedlings transplanted onto two completely denuded lands in the Sahelian and Sudanian zones of Burkina Faso. We implemented an experimental design with three replicates per restoration technique. A total of 174 seedlings were planted in each study site. The results showed that the soil water content varied according to the restoration technique used (df = 2; F = 53.21; p < 0.00) as well as according to study site (df = 1; F = 74.48; p < 0.00). Soil water content was significantly lower in the Sahel than in the Sudanian zone. Seedling survival rate varied significantly according to technique used (df = 2; F = 8.91; p = 0.000) and study site (df = 1; F = 9.74; p = 0.003). Survival rate, diameter and seedling height were highest at the Sudanian site. At the Sahelian site, all seedlings died 2 years after establishment. These results suggest that J. curcas is unsuited to denuded land in the Sahelian zone. Most of the plants died in the Sahel between April and May, which is the peak of the dry season; this may be an indication that J. curcas may not be as drought-resistant as suggested by the prolific literature which has reported on diverse claims surrounding this plant.

  6. Does Jatropha curcas L. show resistance to drought in the Sahelian zone of West Africa? A case study from Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayen, P.; Sop, T. K.; Lykke, A. M.; Thiombiano, A.

    2015-02-01

    Land degradation is an environmental problem which weakens agro-silvo-pastoral productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa. The most common manifestation of land degradation is the appearance of denuded land. We carried out an experiment to test the effect of three soil and water conservation techniques on survival and growth of Jatropha curcas seedlings transplanted onto two completely denuded lands in the Sahelian and Sudanian zones of Burkina Faso. We implemented an experimental design with three replicates per restoration technique. A total of 174 seedlings were planted in each study site. The results showed that soil water content varied according to the restoration technique used (df = 2; F = 53.21; p < 0.00) as well as according to study site (df = 1; F = 74.48; p < 0.00). Soil water content was significantly lower in the Sahel than in the Sudanian zone. Seedling survival rate varied significantly according to technique used (df = 2; F = 8.91; p = 0.000) and study site (df = 1; F = 9.74; p = 0.003). Survival rate, diameter and seedling height were highest at the Sudanian site. At the Sahelian site, all seedlings died two years after establishment. These results suggest that Jatropha curcas is unsuited to denuded land in the Sahelian zone. Most of the plants died in the Sahel between April and May, which is the peak of the dry season; this may be an indication that Jatropha may not be as drought-resistant as suggested by the prolific literature which has reported on diverse claims surrounding this plant.

  7. Costing RTS,S introduction in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Kenya, Senegal, Tanzania, and Uganda: A generalizable approach drawing on publicly available data.

    PubMed

    Galactionova, Katya; Bertram, Melanie; Lauer, Jeremy; Tediosi, Fabrizio

    2015-11-27

    Recent results from the phase 3 trial of RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine show that the vaccine induced partial protection against clinical malaria in infants and children; given the high burden of the disease it is currently considered for use in malaria endemic countries. To inform adoption decisions the paper proposes a generalizable methodology to estimate the cost of vaccine introduction using routinely collected and publicly available data from the cMYP, UNICEF, and WHO-CHOICE. Costing is carried out around a set of generic activities, assumptions, and inputs for delivery of immunization services adapted to a given country and deployment modality to capture among other factors the structure of the EPI program, distribution model, geography, and demographics particular to the setting. The methodology is applied to estimate the cost of RTS,S introduction in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Kenya, Senegal, Tanzania, and Uganda. At an assumed vaccine price of $5 per dose and given our assumptions on coverage and deployment strategy, we estimate total economic program costs for a 6-9 months cohort within $23.11-$28.28 per fully vaccinated child across the 6 countries. Net of procurement, costs at country level are substantial; for instance in Tanzania these could add as much as $4.2 million per year or an additional $2.4 per infant depending on the level of spare capacity in the system. Differences in cost of vaccine introduction across countries are primarily driven by differences in cost of labour. Overall estimates generated with the methodology result in costs within the ranges reported for other new vaccines introduced in SSA and capture multiple sources of heterogeneity in costs across countries. Further validation with data from field trials will support use of the methodology while also serving as a validation for cMYP and WHO-CHOICE as resources for costing health interventions in the region. PMID:26518406

  8. The type of fortificant and the leaf matrix both influence iron and zinc bioaccessibility in iron-fortified green leafy vegetable sauces from Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Icard-Vernière, C; Picq, C; Courbis, L; Mouquet-Rivier, C

    2016-02-01

    Leafy vegetable sauces from Burkina Faso were assessed as a potential vehicle for food fortification. First, iron and zinc bioaccessibility were measured by dialysability method in amaranth and Jew's mallow sauces and in traditional whole dishes consisting of maize paste plus leafy vegetable sauces. Iron dialysability and solubility were higher in amaranth than in Jew's mallow sauce, pointing to a marked effect of the matrix. Iron dialysability was hardly affected by the maize paste contrary to zinc dialysability, which was reduced. Second, iron and zinc bioaccessibility was assessed in the same sauces fortified with NaFeEDTA or iron sulfate. Added iron, i.e. iron supplied by fortification, represented 60% of total iron at the low fortification level and 80% at high level. In amaranth sauces with the high level of fortification using NaFeEDTA and iron sulfate, fractional dialysable iron reached respectively 66% and 26% compared to only 8.1% in the unfortified sauce. Similarly, in Jew's mallow sauces, fractional dialysable iron was 57% and 5% respectively with NaFeEDTA and iron sulfate and less than 1% in the unfortified sauce. Concomitantly, fractional dialysable zinc increased by respectively 20% and 40% in amaranth and Jew's mallow sauces fortified with NaFeEDTA whereas it remained unchanged with iron sulfate. Iron fortification could be an efficient way to greatly increase the available iron content of green leafy vegetable sauces and for this purpose NaFeEDTA is more effective than iron sulfate whatever the food matrix. PMID:26787350

  9. Characterization of Salmonella enterica and detection of the virulence genes specific to diarrheagenic Escherichia coli from poultry carcasses in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Kagambèga, Assèta; Barro, Nicolas; Traoré, Alfred S; Siitonen, Anja; Haukka, Kaisa

    2012-07-01

    One hundred chicken carcasses purchased from three markets selling poultry in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, between June 2010 and October 2010 were examined for their microbiological quality. The presence of Salmonella was investigated using standard bacteriological procedures, and the isolates obtained were serotyped and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. The presence of virulence-associated genes of the five main pathogroups of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli-Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli, and enteroinvasive E. coli-was investigated using 16-plex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on the mixed bacterial cultures from the poultry samples. Of the 100 chicken carcasses studied, 57 were contaminated by Salmonella; 16 different serotypes were identified, the most frequent being Salmonella Derby, found in 28 samples. Four Salmonella strains were resistant to tetracycline, and two were resistant to streptomycin. Based on the PCR detection of the virulence genes, in total, 45 carcasses were contaminated by three pathogroups of E. coli: STEC, EPEC, or EAEC. The STEC and EPEC virulence genes were detected on six and 39 carcasses, respectively. EAEC virulence genes were only detected in combination with those of EPEC (on 11 carcasses) or STEC (on two carcasses). The STEC-positive carcasses contained the genes stx(1), stx(2), eaeA, escV, and ent in different combinations. None of the EPEC-positive carcasses contained the bfp gene, indicating that only atypical EPEC was present. EAEC virulence genes detected were aggR and/or pic. The high proportion of chicken carcasses contaminated by Salmonella and diarrheagenic E. coli indicates a potential food safety risk for consumers and highlights the necessity of public awareness of these pathogens. PMID:22551070

  10. 'How to know what you need to do': a cross-country comparison of maternal health guidelines in Burkina Faso, Ghana and Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Initiatives to raise the quality of care provided to mothers need to be given priority in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA). The promotion of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) is a common strategy, but their implementation is often challenging, limiting their potential impact. Through a cross-country perspective, this study explored CPGs for maternal health in Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Tanzania. The objectives were to compare factors related to CPG use including their content compared with World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, their format, and their development processes. Perceptions of their availability and use in practice were also explored. The overall purpose was to further the understanding of how to increase CPGs' potential to improve quality of care for mothers in SSA. Methods The study was a multiple case study design consisting of cross-country comparisons using document review and key informant interviews. A conceptual framework to aid analysis and discussion of results was developed, including selected domains related to guidelines' implementability and use by health workers in practice in terms of usability, applicability, and adaptability. Results The study revealed few significant differences in content between the national guidelines for maternal health and WHO recommendations. There were, however, marked variations in the format of CPGs between the three countries. Apart from the Ghanaian and one of the Tanzanian CPGs, the levels of both usability and applicability were assessed as low or medium. In all three countries, the use of CPGs by health workers in practice was perceived to be limited. Conclusion Our cross-country study suggests that it is not poor quality of content or lack of evidence base that constitute the major barrier for CPGs to positively impact on quality improvement in maternal care in SSA. It rather emphasises the need to prioritise the format of guidelines to increase their usability and applicability and to consider

  11. [Functional disability in activities of daily living and instrumental or domestic activities of daily living in the elderly living at home in Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso)].

    PubMed

    Berthé, Abdramane; Berthé-Sanou, Lalla; Konaté, Blahima; Hien, Hervé; Tou, Fatoumata; Somda, Serge; Bayala, Éric; Drabo, Maxime; Badini-Kinda, Fatoumata; Macq, Jean

    2015-12-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, various studies have been conducted on severe disability in activities of daily living, instrumental or domestic activities. These studies have reported different rates without describing the social context for understanding their results. This study was conducted in Burkina Faso to fill the gaps in scientific information on disability in these areas. We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study in Bobo-Dioulasso among the older population, aged 60 and above. Their functional status was evaluated using the Functional Autonomy Measurement System (SMAF). Data analysis was done with the help of Stata. A systematic random sample of 351 aging adults was interviewed. Moderate to severe functional disability or the need for supervision or assistance was present in 7% in activities of daily living and 86% in instrumental or domestic activities of daily living. This need for assistance varied according to the different activities or items in each domain. The proportions of disability found in this study are higher than those of previous studies that measured the often severe disabilities. All persons with disability claimed to have stable human resources which help them to manage their disabilities. The social context instrumental or domestic activities of daily living are divided by generation and/or by sex. That explains some results. With this division, it's inacceptable in some family that elders and/or old men do instrumental or domestic activities of daily living as prepare meals, do laundry, carry water to wash. The variation of this division from one family to another complicates the assessment of functional disability. To best manage elders disabilities, strategies must develop to: 1) retard the resignation of the family in care of its elderly in functional disability, 2) anticipate the preparation of formal social networks, public structures to support the elderly. PMID:26707555

  12. Safety of the methylene blue plus chloroquine combination in the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in young children of Burkina Faso [ISRCTN27290841

    PubMed Central

    Meissner, Peter E; Mandi, Germain; Witte, Steffen; Coulibaly, Boubacar; Mansmann, Ulrich; Rengelshausen, Jens; Schiek, Wolfgang; Jahn, Albrecht; Sanon, Mamadou; Tapsoba, Théophile; Walter-Sack, Ingeborg; Mikus, Gerd; Burhenne, Jürgen; Riedel, Klaus-Dieter; Schirmer, Heiner; Kouyaté, Bocar; Müller, Olaf

    2005-01-01

    Background Safe, effective and affordable drug combinations against falciparum malaria are urgently needed for the poor populations in malaria endemic countries. Methylene blue (MB) combined with chloroquine (CQ) has been considered as one promising new regimen. Objectives The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the safety of CQ-MB in African children with uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Secondary objectives were to assess the efficacy and the acceptance of CQ-MB in a rural population of West Africa. Methods In this hospital-based randomized controlled trial, 226 children (6–59 months) with uncomplicated falciparum malaria were treated in Burkina Faso. The children were 4:1 randomized to CQ-MB (n = 181; 25 mg/kg CQ and 12 mg/kg MB over three days) or CQ (n = 45; 25 mg/kg over three days) respectively. The primary outcome was the incidence of severe haemolysis or other serious adverse events (SAEs). Efficacy outcomes were defined according to the WHO 2003 classification system. Patients were hospitalized for four days and followed up until day 14. Results No differences in the incidence of SAEs and other adverse events were observed between children treated with CQ-MB (including 24 cases of G6PD deficiency) compared to children treated with CQ. There was no case of severe haemolysis and also no significant difference in mean haemoglobin between study groups. Treatment failure rates were 53.7% (95% CI [37.4%; 69.3%]) in the CQ group compared to 44.0% (95% CI [36.3%; 51.9%]) in the CQ-MB group. Conclusion MB is safe for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria, even in G6PD deficient African children. However, the efficacy of the CQ-MB combination has not been sufficient at the MB dose used in this study. Future studies need to assess the efficacy of MB at higher doses and in combination with appropriate partner drugs. PMID:16179085

  13. Characterizing the HIV risks and potential pathways to HIV infection among transgender women in Côte d'Ivoire, Togo and Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Stahlman, Shauna; Liestman, Benjamin; Ketende, Sosthenes; Kouanda, Seni; Ky-Zerbo, Odette; Lougue, Marcel; Diouf, Daouda; Anato, Simplice; Tchalla, Jules; Bamba, Amara; Drame, Fatou Maria; Ezouatchi, Rebecca; Kouamé, Abo; Baral, Stefan D

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Transgender women are at high risk for the acquisition and transmission of HIV. However, there are limited empiric data characterizing HIV-related risks among transgender women in sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of these analyses is to determine what factors, including sexual behaviour stigma, condom use and engagement in sex work, contribute to risk for HIV infection among transgender women across three West African nations. Methods Data were collected via respondent-driven sampling from men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women during three- to five-month intervals from December 2012 to October 2015 across a total of six study sites in Togo, Burkina Faso and Côte d'Ivoire. During the study visit, participants completed a questionnaire and were tested for HIV. Chi-square tests were used to compare the prevalence of variables of interest between transgender women and MSM. A multilevel generalized structural equation model (GSEM) was used to account for clustering of observations within study sites in the multivariable analysis, as well as to estimate mediated associations between sexual behaviour stigma and HIV infection among transgender women. Results In total, 2456 participants meeting eligibility criteria were recruited, of which 453 individuals identified as being female/transgender. Transgender women were more likely than MSM to report selling sex to a male partner within the past 12 months (p<0.01), to be living with HIV (p<0.01) and to report greater levels of sexual behaviour stigma as compared with MSM (p<0.05). In the GSEM, sexual behaviour stigma from broader social groups was positively associated with condomless anal sex (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.33, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.09, 1.62) and with selling sex (AOR=1.23, 95% CI=1.02, 1.50). Stigma from family/friends was also associated with selling sex (AOR=1.42, 95% CI=1.13, 1.79), although no significant associations were identified with prevalent HIV infection

  14. The role of climate change and erosion processes in desertification process in a sub-Saharan peri-urban area (Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iavazzo, Pietro; Terracciano, Stefano; Topa, Maria Elena; Adamo, Paola; Coly, Adrien; De Paola, Francesco; Giordano, Simonetta; Giugni, Maurizio; Traoré, Seydou Eric

    2013-04-01

    Desertification affects about two-thirds of the countries of the world, and one-third of the earth's surface, namely one-fifth of the world population. The seriousness of desertification depends on various factors, including climate (temperature, precipitation, wind, humidity), geomorphological and geological condition, vegetation cover, water and wind erosion, soil nutrient status and salinization, land use and land management, biodiversity, etc. Even the climate changes can contribute to the advance of desertification. Indeed hotter and drier conditions would extend the area prone to desertification to encompass areas currently not at risk. In addition, the rate of desertification would increase due to increases in erosion leading to an irreversible status of desertification process. This study was carried out within the FP7-ENV-2010 CLUVA project (CLimate change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa), and aimed to estimate the effects of climate change on sensitivity to desertification in the area of Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) providing a prediction tool useful for optimization of land management. The approach was based on the implementation and adaptation to the local conditions of the Environmentally Sensitive Areas Index (ESAI), developed within the MEDALUS project (Mediterranean Desertification and Land Use). A noteworthy advantage of this methodology is the flexibility, that allows to take into account several indices (climate, soil, vegetation cover, land management) operationally defined through the inclusion or exclusion of parameters scored on the basis of their impact on sensitivity to desertification. Therefore, an upgrade of the original method was developed adding a further index (Erosion Quality Index) for the evaluation of the cumulative impact of water and wind erosion in desertification process, by the RUSLE equation and the WEQ method, respectively. Climate simulations over the time period 2010-2050 were provided by the CMCC (Centro Euro

  15. Health-Care-Seeking Patterns in the Emerging Private Sector in Burkina Faso: A Population-Based Study of Urban Adult Residents in Ouagadougou

    PubMed Central

    Beogo, Idrissa; Liu, Chieh-Yu; Chou, Yiing-Jenq; Chen, Chuan-Yu; Huang, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Background The private medical care sector is expanding in urban cities in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). However, people’s health-care-seeking behaviors in this new landscape remain poorly understood; furthermore, distinguishing between public and private providers and among various types of private providers is critical in this investigation. This study assessed, by type, the healthcare providers urban residents in Burkina Faso visit, and their choice determinants. Method We conducted a population-based survey of a representative sample of 1,600 households in Ouagadougou from July to November 2011, consisting of 5,820 adults. We assessed the types of providers people typically sought for severe and non-severe conditions. We applied generalized estimating equations in this study. Results Among those surveyed, 97.7% and 53.1% indicated that they seek a formal provider for treating severe and non-severe conditions, respectively. Among the formal provider seekers, 20.5% and 17.0% chose for-profit (FP) providers for treating severe and non-severe conditions, respectively. Insurance coverage was held by 2.0% of those surveyed. Possessing insurance was the strongest predictor for seeking FP, for both severe (odds ratio [OR] = 1.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.04–1.28), and non-severe conditions (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.07–1.39). Other predictors included being a formal jobholder and holding a higher level education. By contrast, we observed no significant difference in predisposing, enabling, or need characteristics between not-for-profit (NFP) provider seekers and public provider seekers. Proximity was the primary reason for choosing a provider. Conclusion The results suggested that FP providers play a crucial role in the urban healthcare market in SSA. Socioeconomic status and insurance status are significant predictors of provider choice. The findings can serve as a crucial reference for policymakers in response to the emergence of FP providers in

  16. Ex vivo anti-malarial drugs sensitivity profile of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from Burkina Faso five years after the national policy change

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The recent reports on the decreasing susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum to artemisinin derivatives along the Thailand and Myanmar border are worrying. Indeed it may spread to India and then Africa, repeating the same pattern observed for chloroquine resistance. Therefore, it is essential to start monitoring P. falciparum sensitivity to artemisinin derivatives and its partner drugs in Africa. Efficacy of AL and ASAQ were tested by carrying out an in vivo drug efficacy test, with an ex vivo study against six anti-malarial drugs nested into it. Results of the latter are reported here. Methods Plasmodium falciparum ex-vivo susceptibility to chloroquine (CQ), quinine (Q), lumefantrine (Lum), monodesethylamodiaquine (MDA), piperaquine (PPQ) and dihydroartemisinin (DHA) was investigated in children (6 months – 15 years) with a parasitaemia of at least ≥4,000/μl. The modified isotopic microtest technique was used. The results of cellular proliferation were analysed using ICEstimator software to determine the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values. Results DHA was the most potent among the 6 drugs tested, with IC50 values ranging from 0.8 nM to 0.9 nM (Geometric mean IC50 = 0.8 nM; 95% CI [0.8 - 0.9]). High IC50 values ranged between 0.8 nM to 166.1 nM were reported for lumefantrine (Geometric mean IC50 = 25.1 nM; 95% CI [22.4 - 28.2]). MDA and Q IC50s were significantly higher in CQ-resistant than in CQ-sensitive isolates (P = 0.0001). However, the opposite occurred for Lum and DHA (P < 0.001). No difference was observed for PPQ. Conclusion Artemisinin derivatives are still very efficacious in Burkina Faso and DHA-PPQ seems a valuable alternative ACT. The high lumefantrine IC50 found in this study is worrying as it may indicate a decreasing efficacy of one of the first-line treatments. This should be further investigated and monitored over time with large in vivo and ex vivo studies that will include also plasma drug measurements

  17. Diabète en milieu urbain de Ouagadougou au Burkina Faso: profil épidémiologique et niveau de perception de la population adulte

    PubMed Central

    Millogo, Georges Rosario Christian; Yaméogo, Clément; Samandoulougou, André; Yaméogo, Nobila Valentin; Kologo, Koudougou Jonas; Toguyeni, Jean Yves; Zabsonré, Patrice

    2015-01-01

    Introduction L'accroissement rapide de la prévalence du diabète sucré en Afrique subsaharienne constitue un problème de santé public. L'Organisation Mondiale de la Santé (OMS) estime qu’à l'horizon 2025, l'augmentation la plus significative de la prévalence du diabète sera enregistrée dans les pays en développement. Ceux-ci devraient abriter 75% des patients diabétiques du monde. Outre ses complications métaboliques, le diabète est un facteur de risque cardiovasculaire majeur. Le but de notre étude était de decrire le profil épidémiologique du diabète et d’évaluer le niveau de perception de la maladie par une population africaine en milieu urb qwqain de Ouagadougou. Méthodes Le diabète a été défini chez tout sujet ayant une glycémie casuelle supérieure à 2 g/L ou une glycémie à jeun supérieur ou égale à 1,26 g/L (≥ 7 mmol/L) à deux controles d'une semaine d'intervalle. Etaient considérés diabétique, les sujets déjà suivis et ceux nouvellement dépistés par l'etude. Résultats L’étude a inclus 1532 personnes, d’âge compris entre 25 et 64 ans dont 55,6% d'hommes et 44,4% de femmes. L’âge moyen était 36,10 ± 11,19 ans. La tranche d’âge de 25 à 34 ans était la plus représentée avec une proportion de 57,1%. La glycémie moyenne était de 1,04 g/L, la proportion des femmes ayant une hyperglycémie était statistiquement plus importante que celle des hommes (p< 0,05). Près de 81,3% de la population ignoraient que le diabète était un facteur de risque cardiovasculaire. Conclusion Il est urgent de mettre en place un programme national de lutte contre le diabète sucré et les autres maladies non transmissibles au Burkina Faso. PMID:26524982

  18. Etat des lieux des mycobactérioses atypiques au Burkina Faso: résultats d'une enquête régionale

    PubMed Central

    Zida, Sylvie; Tarnagda, Zékiba; Kaboré, Antoinette; Zingué, Dézémon; Hien, Hervé; Sanou, Adama; Michel Gomgnimbou, Kireopori; Nouctara, Moumini; Ouédraogo, Mamoudou; Ouédraogo, Oumarou; Godreuil, Sylvain; Méda, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Introduction L’étude avait pour but de déterminer la fréquence d'isolement des mycobactéries atypiques chez les patients déclarés tuberculeux pulmonaire à microscopie positive (TPM+) au Burkina Faso. Méthodes Il s'est agit d'une étude transversale qui s'est déroulée de mars 2011 à février 2012. Les patients TPM+ de plus de 15 ans ont été inclus dans l’étude de manière systématique dans les centres de diagnostic et de traitement (CDT) de la région sanitaire des Hauts Bassins. Une culture des mycobactéries et une identification biochimique ont été réalisées sur les échantillons des patients TPM+ La sérologie VIH a été réalisée par des tests rapides. Résultats Une fréquence de 11% (8/73) de mycobactéries atypiques et 89,0% (65/73) de mycobactéries du complexe tuberculosis ont été identifiées des 73 patients TPM+ inclus dans l’étude. La tranche d’âge de 20 à 40 ans était la plus touchée par les mycobactérioses en général et constituait 48% de l’échantillon. Nous avons trouvé 12,2% (8 / 66) de patients VIH positif, 83,3% (55 / 66) de patients VIH négatif et 4,5% (3 / 66) de patients dont le statut VIH était indéterminé. Conclusion Notre étude a mis en lumière l'implication des mycobactéries atypiques dans la pathogénie de certains patients déclarés TPM+. Le rôle des mycobactéries atypiques dans les infections pulmonaires est probablement sous estimé et devra être examiné avec plus de détails et sur un échantillon plus grand. PMID:25396014

  19. Présentations de l'adénite tuberculeuse de la tête et du cou au CHU de Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Béogo, Rasmané; Birba, Noraogo Emile; Coulibaly, Toua Antoine; Traoré, Ibraïma; Ouoba, Kampadilemba

    2013-01-01

    Les ganglions de la tête et du cou sont parmi les localisations les plus fréquentes de la tuberculose, un problème de santé publique dans le monde. Une étude rétrospective conduite entre 2001 et 2010 rapporte les caractéristiques épidémiologiques et cliniques de l'adénite tuberculeuse de la tête et du cou, au CHU Sanou Souro, au Burkina Faso. Au total, 115 patients ont été observés dont l'âge était compris entre 2 ans et 64 ans (moyenne 31,46 ans). Il y avait 53 patients de sexe masculin (46,1%) et 62 de sexe féminin (53,9%). Un pic de fréquence de 39,8% était observé entre 30 et 39 ans. Les adénopathies cervicales étaient multiples chez 96,5% des patients et abcédées chez 30%. Elles étaient associées à des adénopathies extra cervicales chez 16,6% des patients. Chez 83,4% des patients, il a été noté un ou plusieurs signes à type d'asthénie et ou d'amaigrissement (70,8%), de fièvre 25% ou de toux (20,8%). L'infection associée la plus fréquente était celle par le VIH, observée chez 43,3% des patients. Les résultats de cette étude commandent la recherche systématique de l'infection par le VIH chez tout patient porteur d'adénite cervicale tuberculeuse dans un contexte de double endémicité de la tuberculose et de l'infection à VIH. PMID:24319521

  20. A methodological approach to assess sensitivity to desertification in two sub-Saharan urban areas: Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) and Saint Louis (Senegal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iavazzo, P.; Terracciano, S.; Topa, M. E.; Adamo, P.; Coly, A.; De Paola, F.; Giordano, S.; Giugni, M.; Touré, H.

    2012-04-01

    The United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) defines desertification as "land degradation in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas resulting from various factors, including climatic variations and human activities". Desertification is regarded as one of the major global environmental problems of the 21st century and the African sub-Sahara is often quoted as the most seriously affected region with a significant loss of biological and economic productivity of the land. In this geographic area, desertification processes are usually generated by soil erosion due to climate characteristics and fluctuations, unsustainable land uses, overgrazing and inappropriate agricultural practices. Preventing desertification requires an improved understanding of its causes, impact, degree and association with climate, soil, water, land cover, socio-economic factors and their combined effects. The development of methodologies capable of managing large amounts of data in an integrated approach is needed because of the complexity and variety of forms of desertification processes. The study was carried out within the FP7-ENV-2010 CLUVA project (CLimate change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa), aimed to estimate the sensitivity to land degradation in the urban and peri-urban areas of both Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) and Saint Louis (Senegal) cities. The approach was based on the implementation and adaptation of the modeling methodology developed within the MEDALUS project (MEditerranean Desertification and Land Use). The model is characterized by a multi-factor approach based on the assessment of both environmental quality indicators (climate, soil, vegetation) and anthropogenic factors (land management). The methodology is adaptable to the local conditions, considering that some key indicators can be operationally defined through the inclusion or exclusion of parameters and the scores assigned in order to match the specific relevance of the factors. All local data

  1. Behavior Change After 20 Months of a Radio Campaign Addressing Key Lifesaving Family Behaviors for Child Survival: Midline Results From a Cluster Randomized Trial in Rural Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Sarrassat, Sophie; Meda, Nicolas; Ouedraogo, Moctar; Some, Henri; Bambara, Robert; Head, Roy; Murray, Joanna; Remes, Pieter; Cousens, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Background: In Burkina Faso, a comprehensive 35-month radio campaign addressed key, multiple family behaviors for improving under-5 child survival and was evaluated using a repeated cross-sectional, cluster randomized design. The primary outcome of the trial was postneonatal under-5 child mortality. This paper reports on behavior change achieved at midline. Method: Fourteen community radio stations in 14 geographic areas were selected based on their high listenership. Seven areas were randomly allocated to receive the intervention while the other 7 areas served as controls. The campaign was launched in March 2012. Cross-sectional surveys of about 5,000 mothers of under-5 children, living in villages close to the radio stations, were conducted at baseline (from December 2011 to February 2012) and at midline (in November 2013), after 20 months of campaigning. Statistical analyses were based on cluster-level summaries using a difference-in-difference (DiD) approach and adjusted for imbalances between arms at baseline. In addition, routine health facility data were analyzed for evidence of changes in health facility utilization. Results: At midline, 75% of women in the intervention arm reported recognizing radio spots from the campaign. There was some evidence of the campaign having positive effects on care seeking for diarrhea (adjusted DiD, 17.5 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.5 to 32.5; P = .03), antibiotic treatment for fast/difficult breathing (adjusted DiD, 29.6 percentage points; 95% CI, 3.5 to 55.7; P = .03), and saving money during pregnancy (adjusted DiD, 12.8 percentage points; 95% CI, 1.4 to 24.2; P = .03). For other target behaviors, there was little or no evidence of an impact of the campaign after adjustment for baseline imbalances and confounding factors. There was weak evidence of a positive correlation between the intensity of broadcasting of messages and reported changes in target behaviors. Routine health facility data

  2. Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation And Agriculture, Trade-off Or Win-win Situation: Bioeconomic Farm Modelling In The Sudanian Area of Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Some, T. E.; Barbier, B.

    2015-12-01

    Climate changes talks regularly underline that developing countries' agriculture could play a stronger role in GHGs mitigation strategies and benefit from the Kyoto Protocol program of subsidies. Scientists explain that agriculture can contribute to carbon mitigation by storing more carbon in the soil through greener cropping systems. In this context, a growing number of research projects have started to investigate how developing countries agriculture can contribute to these objectives. The clean development mechanism (CDM) proposed in the Kyoto protocol is one particular policy instrument that can incite farmers to mitigate the GHG balance towards more sequestration and less emission. Some economists such as Michael Porter think that environmental regulation lead to a win-win outcome, in which case subsidies are not necessary. If it is a trade-off between incomes and the environment, subsidies are required. CDM can be mobilized to support the mitigation strategy. Agriculture implies the use of inputs. Reducing the emission implies the reduction of those inputs which will in turn imply a yield decrease. The study aims to assess whether this measure will imply a trade-off between environmental and economic objectives or a win-win situation. I apply this study to the case of small farmers in Burkina Faso through environmental instruments such as the emissions limits and agroforestry using a bioeconomic model, in which the farmers maximize their utility subject to constraints. The study finds that the limitation of emissions in annual crops production involves a trade-off. by impacting negatively their net cash come. By integrating perennial crops in the farming system, the farmers' utility increases. Around 6,118 kg are sequestrated individually. By computing the value on this carbon balance, farmers' net cash incomes go better. Then practicing agroforestry is a win-win situation, as they reach a higher level of income, and reduce emissions. Policymakers must

  3. La singularité du patient tuberculeux dans le système de santé: l'expérience du Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Zerbo, Roger

    2013-01-01

    La démarche pluridisciplinaire s'impose de plus en plus dans le secteur de la santé dans le contexte africain, où les parcours thérapeutiques sont pluriels et les rapports des usagers des centres de santé sont complexes et peu satisfaisants. La compréhension des représentations de la maladie est nécessaire pour offrir des soins appropriés certes, mais l'expérience individuelle des malades représente également une source de savoir. Les données ont été collectées à travers des entretiens semi-directifs, le recueil des récits de vie et des observations participantes. Cet article rend compte d'une expérience d'implication de socio-anthropologue dans la mise en œuvre d'un programme de santé publique au Burkina Faso en vue d'une amélioration de la prise en charge des malades tuberculeux. L'analyse des données à été conduite dans une visée réflexive. Les perspectives socio-anthropologiques ont révélé que l'expérience des anciens malades tuberculeux peut être mise à profit afin d'apporter des changements dans les relations thérapeutiques et l'intégration sociale des autres malades. Cette idée à été mise en application pour tenir lieu d'une traduction des analyses anthropologiques en actes pour un changement. L'article évoque la manière dont l'approche socio-anthropologique au sein d'un programme de santé, peut mettre en évidence le potentiel des malades à être des acteurs importants dans le fonctionnement des services de soins et leur propre bien-être. Dans cette situation, la démarche théorique implique la réflexivité de l'anthropologue, mais également un regard critique sur les modes d'intervention en santé publique. PMID:24009798

  4. [Yellow fever virus, dengue 2 and other arboviruses isolated from mosquitos, in Burkina Faso, from 1983 to 1986. Entomological and epidemiological considerations].

    PubMed

    Robert, V; Lhuillier, M; Meunier, D; Sarthou, J L; Monteny, N; Digoutte, J P; Cornet, M; Germain, M; Cordellier, R

    1993-01-01

    An arbovirus surveillance was carried out in Burkina Faso from 1983 to 1986. It was based on crepuscular catches of mosquitoes on human bait in some wooded areas and in one town. The total collection was 228 catches with an average of 8 men per catch. The total number of mosquitoes caught was 44,956 among which 32,010 potential vector of yellow fever; all these mosquitoes were analysed for arbovirology. In the south-western part of the country (region of Bobo-Dioulasso), surveillance was conducted each year from August to November, whilst the circulation of Aedes-borne arboviruses is well known to be favoured. In 1983, 1984 and 1986, seven strains of yellow fever virus were isolated in circumstances remarkably similar. They came from selvatic areas and never from the town. They concerned only Aedes (Stegomyia) luteocephalus which is the very predominant potential vector of yellow fever in the region. They were obtained in low figure, between 1 and 4 per year. They occurred from 27th of October to 21th of November. These observations confirm that the southern portion of the Sudan savanna zone of West Africa is the setting of a customary circulation of yellow fever virus and therefore belongs to the endemic emergence zone. In 1986, two strains of dengue 2 virus were isolated. One concerned Ae. luteocephalus from the selvatic area, the other Ae. (St.) aegypti from the heart of town. These data suggest two distinct cycles for dengue 2 virus, one urban and one selvatic, which could coexist simultaneously in the same region. In the south-eastern part of the country (region of Fada-N'Gourma) a yellow fever epidemic occurred between September and December 1983; its study has enable to precise their entomological aspects. The entomological inoculation rate of yellow fever virus has been evaluated to 22 infected bites per man during the month of october, for a man living close to forest gallery. 25 strains of yellow fever virus strains was isolated from Ae. (Diceromyia

  5. HRP2 and pLDH-Based Rapid Diagnostic Tests, Expert Microscopy, and PCR for Detection of Malaria Infection during Pregnancy and at Delivery in Areas of Varied Transmission: A Prospective Cohort Study in Burkina Faso and Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Jane; Angutoko, Patrick; Ategeka, John; Compaoré, Yves-Daniel; Muehlenbachs, Atis; Somé, Fabrice A.; Ouattara, Aminata; Rouamba, Noél; Ouédraogo, Jean-Bosco; Hopkins, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    Background Intermittent screening and treatment (IST) of malaria during pregnancy has been proposed as an alternative to intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp), where IPTp is failing due to drug resistance. However, the antenatal parasitaemias are frequently very low, and the most appropriate screening test for IST has not been defined. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a multi-center prospective study of 990 HIV-uninfected women attending ANC in two different malaria transmission settings at Tororo District Hospital, eastern Uganda and Colsama Health Center in western Burkina Faso. Women were enrolled in the study in the second or third trimester of pregnancy and followed to delivery, generating 2,597 blood samples for analysis. Screening tests included rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) targeting histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2) and parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) and microscopy, compared to nPCR as a reference standard. At enrolment, the proportion of pregnant women who were positive for P. falciparum by HRP2/pan pLDH RDT, Pf pLDH/pan pLDH RDT, microscopy and PCR was 38%, 29%, 36% and 44% in Uganda and 21%, 16%, 15% and 35% in Burkina Faso, respectively. All test positivity rates declined during follow-up. In comparison to PCR, the sensitivity of the HRP2/pan pLDH RDT, Pf pLDH/pan pLDH RDT and microscopy was 75.7%, 60.1% and 69.7% in Uganda, 55.8%, 42.6% and 55.8% in Burkina Faso respectively for all antenatal visits. Specificity was greater than 96% for all three tests. Comparison of accuracy using generalized estimating equation revealed that the HRP2- detecting RDT was the most accurate test in both settings. Conclusions/Significance The study suggests that HRP2-based RDTs are the most appropriate point-of-care test currently available for use during pregnancy especially for symptomatic women, but will still miss some PCR-positive women. The clinical significance of these very low density infections needs to be better defined. PMID

  6. Measuring turbidity, and indicator to evaluate drinkability of waters in Southern countries? Approaches from Burkina Faso, Sudan and Argentina case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavie, Emilie; Robert, Elodie

    2013-04-01

    The relationship between proportion of suspended solids, dissolved oxygen and bacteriology has long been proven (Brock, 1966; Lechevallier et al., 1985; Bustina and Levallois, 2003; Chang and Liao, 2012), bacteria need coarse elements to hang on and develop. However, water bacteriology analyses are difficult to implement in southern countries. They are expensive and require sterile equipment, transport in cold conditions and a nearby laboratory, which remains difficult in remote areas under these hot latitudes. Yet, simple measurement devices allow to know in a few minutes the water turbidity. Is turbidity an efficient tool to evaluate the drinkability of water when no bacteriological analyses are possible? The results proposed here are taken from three different studies whose purposes were to measure different physical, chemical and bacteriological parameters of water used for human and/or animal consumption. One of the finalities was to propose a method, at lower cost, to evaluate the drinkability of water for consumption. Four case studies were chosen: the basin of the Doubegue River in Burkina Faso is a rural area of a developing country, where drinking water is taken from the alluvial aquifer close to the surface. Furthermore, the laundry is washed and the children play in running streams. Major expansion of the cultivated lands since 1980s has brought important soils losses, thus a chronicle contamination of surface water with suspended solids (Robert, 2012). The Mendoza and Tunuyán Rivers Basins in Argentina, an emerging country, have snow-glaciar regimes with naturally turbid waters. They supply drinking water to two towns, Mendoza and Tunuyán cities, respectively 1 million and 40,000 inhabitants. However, these two streams -whose watersheds are common- do not present the same managements: the Mendoza River has been equipped with large hydraulic infrastructures, moving the turbid waters into clear and erosive ones (Lavie, 2009), while the Tunuyán River

  7. Assessing the impact of climate change on water resources in a tropical West African catchment using an ensemble of CORDEX climate simulations (Dano, Burkina Faso)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yira, Yacouba; Diekkrüger, Bernd; Steup, Gero; Yaovi Bossa, Aymar

    2016-04-01

    This study assesses the potential impact of climate change on water resources in the Dano catchment (Burkina Faso, West Africa). There is now essential consensus on the importance of performing multi (climate)-model assessments in order to estimate the response of the West African climate to global change. Taking advantage of the results of the COordinated Regional climate Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX-Africa) project, this study evaluates climate change impacts on water resources using an ensemble of six Regional Climate Models (RCMs) in a catchment that is potentially vulnerable to climate change and presents a low adaptive capacity. The ensemble of RCMs was first evaluated to get an estimate of the historical simulated rainfall for the catchment by comparing RCM-based simulated historical rainfall to the observed rainfall data provided by the National Meteorological Service (DGM). In general, the simulated historical rainfall agrees within some degree of variability with the observed rainfall in regard to the mean annual cycle of precipitation. However, significant biases such as a double-peaked rainy season as well as the timing of the rainy season were exhibited by individual RCMs. A statistical bias correction (Quantile mapping) was then applied to the RCM-based simulated daily rainfall for the overlapping period of 1971-2000. The results confirm the effectiveness of the applied bias correction method for rainfall. Temperature and bias corrected rainfall data from the ensemble of RCMs was used as input for the Water flow and balance Simulation Model (WaSiM) to simulate river discharge, soil moisture, evapotranspiration and groundwater depth. To take into account the concern of the potential alteration of the climate change signal due to bias correction, uncorrected climate data for a single RCM was also applied to the hydrological model. The simulated hydrological variables show a similar behavior under observed and bias corrected climate data for the

  8. Evaluation of sensitivity to desertification by a modified ESAs method in two sub-Saharan peri-urban areas: Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) and Saint Louis (Senegal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topa, Maria Elena; Iavazzo, Pietro; Terracciano, Stefano; Adamo, Paola; Coly, Adrien; De Paola, Francesco; Giordano, Simonetta; Giugni, Maurizio; Traoré, Seydou Eric

    2013-04-01

    Desertification is regarded as one of the major global environmental problems of the 21st century. The African sub-Sahara is often quoted as the most seriously affected region with a significant loss of biological and economic productivity of the land due to climate characteristics and fluctuations, unsustainable land uses, overgrazing and inappropriate agricultural practices. Due to its complexity, dynamism and extent, desertification is complicated to check and assess. The absence of an agreed methodology for the identification of affected areas is a critical point in desertification monitoring and assessment. An integrated approach which uses both qualitative and quantitative measures is crucial to reach the aim of sustainable resource use and has to be reflected in application of sets of indicators. The selection of appropriate indicators and their integration and interpretation should be conducted by the objectives to be achieved and the questions to be answered. This study, carried out within the FP7-ENV-2010 CLUVA project (Climate change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa), aimed to assess the sensitivity to desertification in peri-urban areas of both Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) and Saint Louis (Senegal) cities. The approach was based on the implementation and adaptation to the local conditions of the modeling methodology developed within the MEDALUS project (Mediterranean Desertification And Land Use). The model is characterized by a multi-factor approach based on the assessment of both environmental quality indicators (vegetation, soil, climate) and anthropogenic factors (land management). All local data, arranged in a GIS environment, allowed the generation of maps identifying Environmentally Sensitive Areas (ESAs) and an Index of Environmentally Sensitive Areas (ESAI). Changes and integrations to the original methodology have been set taking into account the environmental and social features of the whole sub-Saharan west Africa in order to allow the use of

  9. [Positive impact on the Expanded Program on Immunization when sending call-back SMS through a Computerized Immunization Register, Bobo Dioulasso (Burkina Faso)].

    PubMed

    Schlumberger, M; Bamoko, A; Yaméogo, T M; Rouvet, F; Ouedraogo, R; Traoré, B; Tinto, M; Bakyono, J F; Sombie, I; Bazié, B B; Ganama, S; Savadogo, Y; Yelkoumi, G A

    2015-12-01

    The impact of a Computerized Immunization Register (CIR) on Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI), with sending SMS to parents before immunization sessions, has never been studied in sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of this study is to measure EPI quickness and completeness of vaccinations after sending call-back SMS to parents through CIR put in place in a health center. In a health center, chosen at random (Colma 1) in the city of Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso, West Africa, mothers, at first EPI session, if they had a mobile phone available at hand or in her surrounding, were randomized for receiving, or not, a call-back SMS before following EPI sessions, after child registration on a Francophone CIR (Siloxane's Intervax ©). Mothers, which were sent SMS and did not correctly followed sessions were asked through mobile phone why their child was late for EPI. 523 newborns were included in the study, with 253 whose parents were sent SMS, and 268 being informed of sessions only by ordinary methods. At second EPI session at 2 months of age, there was a statistical significant increase of coverage for children whose parents received SMS (p<0.001). Quickness to come also to this session was significantly shorter when parents received SMS (p=0.03). At third EPI session at 3 months of age, attendance to EPI for children whose parents were sent SMS was significantly better (p<0.001). Quickness to come to this session was shorter for children with SMS (p=0.02). At fourth EPI session at 4 months of age, attendance for children with SMS was significantly better for children whose parents were sent SMS (p<0.001). Quickness to come to this session was better but not significantly different (p=0.49). Out of 101 children registered as late for EPI sessions in Colma 1 CIR, even with call-back SMS, 19 (19%) parents could not be reached on the telephone. 31/82 (38%) mothers had shifted for EPI to a more proximate vaccination center (Colma 2), and 5 (6%) to private or civil

  10. Traitement préventif intermittent à la sulfadoxine – pyriméthamine du paludisme chez les femmes enceintes: efficacité et observance dans deux hôpitaux urbains du Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Bamba, Sanata; Séré, Adama; Nikiéma, Rodrigues; Halidou, Tinto; Thiéba, Blandine; Dao, Blami; Guiguemdé, Robert Tinga

    2013-01-01

    Introduction La présente étude prospective se propose dévaluer l'efficacité thérapeutique du traitement préventif intermittent à la sulfadoxine - pyriméthamine et son observance chez la femme enceinte dans deux hôpitaux urbains au Burkina Faso. Méthodes Chaque femme répondant aux critères d'inclusion a été soumise à un questionnaire pour la collecte des données socio - démographiques et des renseignements sur la grossesse. A l'accouchement, une apposition placentaire a été réalisée systématiquement. La lecture a été faite au microscope à lobjectif 100 à immersion. Résultats Au total, 542 femmes ont été incluses avec un âge moyen de 26,0 ± 6,45 ans (extrêmes 13- 43 ans). Le taux de couverture du TPI à la sulfadoxine- pyriméthamine a été de 80%. Le taux d'infestation placentaire a été de 4,7%. Il a diminué avec le nombre de dose de traitement préventif intermittent. Il a augmenté cependant de juillet à octobre. De 42,9% en octobre, il a diminué significativement à 9,5% en novembre (p < 0,05). Le taux global de bonne d'observance a été de 55%. Il a augmenté avec l’âge (p < 0,05). Conclusion Le taux de couverture de la sulfadoxine - pyriméthamine a été de 80%. Ce résultat est en conformité avec les objectifs du plan stratégique 2006-2010 de lutte contre le paludisme au Burkina Faso, qui préconisait un taux de couverture en sulfadoxine - pyriméthamine de 80% pour 2010. L'augmentation de la fréquence d'infestation de juillet à octobre, serait liée à la recrudescence de la transmission palustre pendant la saison des pluies (mai-octobre). PMID:23717719

  11. Evaluation of the PSAMAO "Roulez Protégé" mass media campaign in Burkina Faso. Prévention du SIDA sur les Axes Migratoires de l'Afrique de l'Ouest.

    PubMed

    Tambashe, B Oleko; Speizer, Ilene S; Amouzou, Agbessi; Djangone, A M Rachelle

    2003-02-01

    This study assesses the impact of the Prevention du SIDA sur les Axes Migratoires de l'Afrique de l'Ouest Roulez Protege mass media campaign in Burkina Faso on truckers' likelihood of talking with colleagues about HIV/AIDS, using condoms with an occasional sexual partner, and intending to use a condom in the future. A total of 764 and 1,032 truckers were interviewed in 1997 and 2000 along the Ouagadougou-Niangoloko trucking route. Truckers' exposure to the program has been high and the main message promoted has been greatly understood among those exposed. Logistic regression analyses suggest that the campaign did not have direct behavioral impacts. Exposure to radio spots and participation in group discussions were found to be significantly associated with truckers discussing AIDS with peers or reporting intentions to use a condom in the future. Exposure to Roulez Protege messages through television or billboards was not found to be significantly associated with interpersonal discussion or condom use intentions. Programs should seek to sustain and expand the indirect effects of these types of programs in West Africa. Reinforcing interpersonal counseling interventions should, down the road, lead to overall knowledge and behavior changes among the high-risk trucker population. PMID:12627742

  12. Combining rapid diagnostic tests and dried blood spot assays for point-of-care testing of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B and hepatitis C infections in Burkina Faso, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Kania, D; Bekalé, A M; Nagot, N; Mondain, A-M; Ottomani, L; Meda, N; Traoré, M; Ouédraogo, J B; Ducos, J; Van de Perre, P; Tuaillon, E

    2013-12-01

    People screened for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) using rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) in Africa remain generally unaware of their status for hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) infections. We evaluated a two-step screening strategy in Burkina Faso, using both HIV RDTs and Dried Blood Spot (DBS) assays to confirm an HIV-positive test, and to test for HBV and HCV infections. HIV counselling and point-of-care testing were performed at a voluntary counselling and testing centre with HBV, HCV status and HIV confirmation using DBS specimens, being assessed at a central laboratory. Serological testing on plasma was used as the reference standard assay to control for the performance of DBS assays. Nineteen out of 218 participants included in the study were positive for HIV using RDTs. A fourth-generation HIV ELISA and immunoblot assays on DBS confirmed HIV status. Twenty-four out of 25 participants infected with HBV were found positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) using DBS. One sample with a low HBsAg concentration on plasma was not detected on DBS. Five participants tested positive for HCV antibodies were confirmed positive with an immunoblot assay using DBS specimens. Laboratory results were communicated within 7 days to participants with no loss to follow up of participants between the first and second post-test counselling sessions. In conclusion, DBS collection during HIV point-of-care testing enables screening and confirmation of HBV, HCV and HIV infections. Diagnosis using DBS may assist with implementation of national programmes for HBV, HCV and HIV screening and clinical care in middle- to low-income countries. PMID:23902574

  13. Morphological and molecular description of Tenuisentis niloticus (Meyer, 1932) (Acanthocephala: Tenuisentidae) from Heterotis niloticus (Cuvier) (Actinopterygii: Arapaimidae), in Burkina Faso, with emendation of the family diagnosis and notes on new features, cryptic genetic diversity and histopathology.

    PubMed

    Amin, Omar M; Evans, R Paul; Boungou, Magloire; Heckmann, Richard

    2016-02-01

    Specimens described as Rhadinorhynchus niloticus Meyer, 1932 (Rhadinorhynchidae) from two male specimens collected from Heterotis niloticus (Cuvier) in the Egyptian Nile were later redescribed in the genus Tenuisentis Van Cleave, 1936 (Tenuisentidae) based on 12 specimens collected from the same host species in the White Nile. That redescription basically distinguished the two genera based on five traits but did not actually provide a formal description. His account left out information about cerebral ganglion, lemnisci, some reproductive structures, eggs, proboscis hook dissymmetry and roots, size of trunk and a few other structures. We provide (i) the first complete description of this species enhanced by SEM, molecular, and histo-pathological studies; (ii) expand the existing descriptions; (iii) correct questionable accounts advanced by Van Cleave on the cement gland and the hypodermal giant nuclei; and (iv) add descriptions of new features such as the para-receptacle structure which we also report from Paratenuisentis Bullock & Samuel, 1975, the only other genus in Tenuisentidae Van Cleave, 1936. The subsequent description of a few more specimens from the same host collected in Mali was more informative yet incomplete and at variance with our specimens from Burkina Faso. Genetic divergence and phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial (cytochrome oxidase c subunit I; COI) and nuclear (18S ribosomal RNA) gene relationships uncovered a cryptic species complex containing two lineages. Based on our studies, the family diagnosis is emended. The acanthocephalan causes damage to the host intestine as depicted in histopathological sections. The invading worm can extend from the mucosal layer to the muscularis externa of the host with subsequent tissue necrosis, villi compression, haemorrhaging and blood loss. PMID:26790681

  14. Benefits and burdens: researching the consequences of migration in the Sahel.

    PubMed

    Ruthven, O; David, R

    1995-01-01

    The consequences of rural out-migration for women and natural resource management are analyzed for four locations in the Sahel region of Africa, located in Burkina Faso, Senegal, Sudan, and Mali. The results show that "the impact of migration on women's management of natural resources varies considerably depending on prevailing gender divisions and relations of labour, of land access and control, and of responsibilities towards family and personal production." PMID:12289813

  15. Résultats de la chirurgie avancée de la cataracte par tunnélisation: à propos de 262 cas réalisés au CHR de Banfora (Burkina Faso)

    PubMed Central

    Djiguimdé, Pierre Windinmanégdé; Diomandé, Ibrahim Abib; Ahnoux-Zabsonré, Ahgbatouhabéba; Koffi, Konan Virgile; Meda, Tierinyê Armand; Diomandé, Gossé François; Sanou, Jerôme; Meda-Hien, Gertude; Sankara, Paté; Meda, Nonfounikoun

    2015-01-01

    La cataracte demeure la première cause de cécité dans les pays en voie de développement posant un problème de santé publique. Le but de cette étude est de faire le bilan d'une activité de chirurgie avancée de la cataracte par la technique dite de « phacoalternative » ou par tunnélisation. Il s'agissait d'une étude prospective de base réalisée au Burkina Faso portant sur la chirurgie de la cataracte par la technique de tunnélisation. L’âge moyen de nos patients atteints de cataracte était de 62,47 ± 12,77 ans avec un sex-ratio de 0,98. La majorité des patients opérés (82,82%) étaient des cultivateurs et des ménagères. L'acuité visuelle de loin était réduite à la perception lumineuse dans 68,70% des cas. La profondeur moyenne de la chambre antérieure était de 2,98 ± 0,53 mm. L’épaisseur moyenne du cristallin était de 3,55 ± 0,75 mm. La longueur axiale moyenne de l’œil de nos patients opérés de la cataracte était de 22,88 ± 0,90 mm. La puissance réfractive moyenne estimée de la cornée était de 43,21 ± 2,03 dioptries chez nos patients. La puissance moyenne estimée de l'implant intra oculaire (IOL) utilisé était de23,11 ± 2,35D. La majorité (79,6%) de nos patients avait une bonne acuité visuelle après la chirurgie de la cataracte par tunnélisation. La chirurgie de la cataracte par tunnélisation est une technique révolutionnaire adaptée aux pays pauvres d'Afrique. Elle permet une lutte efficace à moindre coût contre la cécité par cataracte dans nos régions. La tunnélisation est une technique chirurgicale adaptée pour lutter efficacement contre la cécité due à la cataracte en Afrique. PMID:27022426

  16. Morbidité et mortalité des nouveau-nés hospitalisés sur 10 années à la Clinique El Fateh-Suka (Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso)

    PubMed Central

    Nagalo, Kisito; Dao, Fousséni; Tall, François Housséini; Yé, Diarra

    2013-01-01

    Introduction La mortalité néonatale demeure un problème majeur de santé publique dans les pays en développement. Notre étude avait pour but de déterminer la morbidité et la mortalité des nouveau-nés à Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Méthodes Une étude rétrospective sur 10 années a permis d'inclure tous les nouveau-nés admis dans l'Unité de Néonatologie de la Clinique El Fateh-Suka. Résultats Au total, 697 nouveau-nés étaient hospitalisés sur la période d'étude. Les principaux diagnostics étaient les infections néonatales (23.5%), les anomalies liées à la durée de la gestation et à la croissance du fætus (17.9%) et le paludisme congénital (15.1%). Les 91 (13.1%) décès étaient dus aux anomalies liées à la durée de la grossesse et à la croissance du fætus (46.1%), à l'hypoxie intra-utérine et à l'asphyxie obstétricale (20,9%) et aux infections néonatales (17.6%). Ces décès survenaient dans 81.3% dans les 72 heures, dans 93.4% des cas dans la première semaine d'hospitalisation. Le facteur de risque associé à ces décès était la voie basse d'accouchement (p = 0.02). Conclusion Cette étude a identifié des pathologies évitables déjà décrites comme les principales causes d'hospitalisations et de décès néonatals. La voie basse d'accouchement était le facteur de risque associé à ces décès, ce qui n'avait pas encore été rapporté. Les efforts pour améliorer la qualité des services de soins périnatals doivent être intensifiés afin de réduire la mortalité néonatale dans les pays en développement. PMID:23785558

  17. Les campagnes de dépistage du VIH, une stratégie efficace pour l’accès universel à la prévention et au traitement ? L’expérience du Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Somé, J.F.; Desclaux, A.; Ky-Zerbo, O.; Lougué, M.; Kéré, S.; Obermeyer, C.; Simaga, F.

    2014-01-01

    Objectifs l’augmentation du taux de personnes qui connaissent leur statut VIH est un impératif, notamment en Afrique subsaharienne, ce qui impose d’évaluer les stratégies utilisées pour accroître la fréquentation des services de dépistage. Cet article vise à faire le bilan de la pertinence, de la faisabilité et de l’efficacité des campagnes nationales de dépistagemenées entre 2006 et 2010 au Burkina Faso. Méthodologie une analyse de toutes les données de fréquentation du conseil dépistage sur cette période a été faite, couplée à des entretiens avec les principaux acteurs intervenant dans le dépistage. Résultats les résultats montrent que les huit campagnes de dépistage organisées sur la période ont permis à 487 727 personnes de faire leur test VIH. Ce nombre représente 50 % du nombre total de personnes ayant fait leur test et contribue à hauteur de 24,6 % au dépistage des personnes séropositives identifiées au cours de cette période. Les campagnes ont touché des populations difficiles à atteindre (en particulier les jeunes), à un coût moindre. Conclusions cette stratégie est donc pertinente pour identifier les personnes VIH+. Son intérêt pour la prévention, important selon les soignants et au vu des populations jeunes qui y participent, devrait être mesuré par des études complémentaires. Les campagnes sont efficaces et coût-efficaces même dans un pays de niveau de prévalence faible. Ces résultats soulignent l’intérêt de la synergie entre les associations et les services de santé dans l’offre de services de conseil et dépistage. PMID:24681563

  18. Effect of zinc added to a daily small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplement on diarrhoea, malaria, fever and respiratory infections in young children in rural Burkina Faso: a cluster-randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Somé, Jérôme W; Abbeddou, Souheila; Yakes Jimenez, Elizabeth; Hess, Sonja Y; Ouédraogo, Zinéwendé P; Guissou, Rosemonde M; Vosti, Stephen A; Ouédraogo, Jean-Bosco; Brown, Kenneth H

    2015-01-01

    Objective Preventive zinc supplementation in the form of tablets or syrup reduces the incidence of diarrhoea and acute lower respiratory tract infections (RTI), but its effect on malaria is inconsistent. When zinc is administered with other micronutrients or foods, its effect is also uncertain. We assessed the effects of different amounts and sources of zinc on the frequency of diarrhoea, malaria, fever and RTI in young children. Design, setting and populations This community-based, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cluster-randomised trial of 2435 children 9 months of age was carried out between April 2010 and July 2012 in rural southwestern Burkina Faso. Interventions Participants were randomly assigned at the concession level to receive daily 1 of 4 interventions for 9 months: (1) 20 g small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplement (SQ-LNS) without zinc and placebo tablet, (2) 20 g SQ-LNS with 5 mg zinc and placebo tablet, (3) 20 g SQ-LNS with 10 mg zinc and placebo tablet or (4) 20 g SQ-LNS without zinc and 5 mg zinc tablet. Participants were visited weekly in their homes for morbidity surveillance for 9 months, and those with uncomplicated diarrhoea and malaria received treatment from the study field workers in the community. Main outcomes Incidence and longitudinal prevalence of diarrhoea, malaria, fever, and lower and upper RTI by intervention group. Results The incidence of diarrhoea, malaria and fever was 1.10 (±1.03 SD), 0.61 (±0.66 SD) and 1.49 (±1.12 SD) episodes per 100 child-days at risk, respectively, and did not differ by intervention group (p=0.589, p=0.856 and p=0.830, respectively). The longitudinal prevalence of acute lower RTI (0.1%; 95% IC 0.1–0.2%) and of upper RTI (7.8%; 95% IC 7.1–8.4%) did not differ among groups (p=0.234 and p=0.501, respectively). Conclusions Inclusion of 5 or 10 mg zinc in SQ-LNS and provision of 5 mg zinc dispersible tablet along with SQ-LNS had no impact on the incidence of diarrhoea

  19. Intermittent Preventive Treatment of Malaria Provides Substantial Protection against Malaria in Children Already Protected by an Insecticide-Treated Bednet in Burkina Faso: A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Konaté, Amadou T.; Yaro, Jean Baptiste; Ouédraogo, Amidou Z.; Diarra, Amidou; Gansané, Adama; Soulama, Issiaka; Kangoyé, David T.; Kaboré, Youssouf; Ouédraogo, Espérance; Ouédraogo, Alphonse; Tiono, Alfred B.; Ouédraogo, Issa N.; Chandramohan, Daniel; Cousens, Simon; Milligan, Paul J.; Sirima, Sodiomon B.; Greenwood, Brian; Diallo, Diadier A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in children (IPTc) is a promising new approach to the control of malaria in areas of seasonal malaria transmission but it is not known if IPTc adds to the protection provided by an insecticide-treated net (ITN). Methods and Findings An individually randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of seasonal IPTc was conducted in Burkina Faso in children aged 3 to 59 months who were provided with a long-lasting insecticide-treated bednet (LLIN). Three rounds of treatment with sulphadoxine pyrimethamine plus amodiaquine or placebos were given at monthly intervals during the malaria transmission season. Passive surveillance for malaria episodes was established, a cross-sectional survey was conducted at the end of the malaria transmission season, and use of ITNs was monitored during the intervention period. Incidence rates of malaria were compared using a Cox regression model and generalized linear models were fitted to examine the effect of IPTc on the prevalence of malaria infection, anaemia, and on anthropometric indicators. 3,052 children were screened and 3,014 were enrolled in the trial; 1,505 in the control arm and 1,509 in the intervention arm. Similar proportions of children in the two treatment arms were reported to sleep under an LLIN during the intervention period (93%). The incidence of malaria, defined as fever or history of fever with parasitaemia ≥5,000/µl, was 2.88 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.70–3.06) per child during the intervention period in the control arm versus 0.87 (95% CI 0.78–0.97) in the intervention arm, a protective efficacy (PE) of 70% (95% CI 66%–74%) (p<0.001). There was a 69% (95% CI 6%–90%) reduction in incidence of severe malaria (p = 0.04) and a 46% (95% CI 7%–69%) (p = 0.03) reduction in the incidence of all-cause hospital admissions. IPTc reduced the prevalence of malaria infection at the end of the malaria transmission season by 73% (95% CI 68%

  20. Assessment of MCH services in the district of Solenzo, Burkina Faso. III. Effectiveness of MCH services in detecting of and caring for mothers and children at risk.

    PubMed

    Sauerborn, R; Nougtara, A; Sorgho, G; Bidiga, J; Diesfeld, H J

    1989-06-01

    A time and motion study was carried out in all five professional MCH-facilities in the study area. The chain of decision making process--from (i) collecting information, (ii) interpreting it as indicating risk to (iii) action--was followed while taking care not to interfere with it. At each step specific shortcomings were identified: a great number of commonly accepted risk factors was not looked for (e.g. outcome of previous pregnancies in a woman in labour). On the other hand, information indicating risk was collected, but not recognized as such (e.g. weight loss). The most striking feature of both under fives' (UFC), antenatal clinics (ANC) and maternity care was the consistent lack of any action taken as a consequence of a recognized risk factor. The possible underlying causes for the poor functioning of the risk approach in the studied peripheral services are discussed: (i) implementation failure, (ii) inappropriateness of cut-off points for risk definition leading to an unmanageably great proportion of risk clients, and (iii) a conceptual problem, i.e. the reluctance of the auxiliary staff as well as the patients to act on the basis of risk prediction, i.e. something that has not yet happened. PMID:2754778

  1. [Trilateral retinoblastoma in Burkina Faso: three cases].

    PubMed

    Nikièma, Zakari; Wenceslas Diallo, Jean; Daboué, Arsène; Seydou Traoré, Sa; Zorom, Bintou Traoré; Bamouni, Abel; Sorgho, Claudine Lougué; Cissé, Rabiou

    2009-01-01

    The authors describe three cases of trilateral retinoblastoma, a rare syndrome that occurs most often in young children. Two of these children were 3 years old at diagnosis, and the other 4 years old. The retinoblastoma was unilateral in one child and bilateral in the others. All underwent computed tomography (CT) imaging, which made it possible to locate the intraocular tumor lesions, to specify the extent of the tumor and to look for a possible intracranial neoplasm. Unfortunately, the cost of CT is high, which limits its use in our context. PMID:20199945

  2. Attitude of pregnant women towards HIV testing in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire and Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. DITRAME Study Group (ANRS 049 Clinical Trial). Diminution de la Transmission Mère Enfant du VIH. Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le SIDA

    PubMed Central

    Cartoux, Michel; Msellati, Philippe; Meda, Nicolas; Welffens-Ekra, Christiane; Mandelbrot, Laurent; Leroy, Valériane; Van De Perre, Philippe; Dabis, François

    1998-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the attitude of pregnant women towards HIV testing in two cities of West Africa: Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire and Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Methods In the context of a clinical trial to prevent HIV vertical transmission, HIV counselling and testing was offered systematically to women attending antenatal clinics. Informed consent was obtained and test results were given anonymously. Multiple logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with refusal for testing and failure to return for test results. Results A total of 9724 pregnant women were interviewed from January 1995 to September 1996. In Abidjan (n = 5766) and Bobo-Dioulasso (n = 3958), 78 and 92.4% of the women consented to HIV testing, respectively, and 58.4 and 81.8% of them returned for the test results disclosure, respectively. In the two sites, the counsellors themselves and high educational level of the women appeared to be related to refusal of the test, whereas last trimester gestation was associated with failure to return for test results. In Abidjan, foreigners and employees were more likely to refuse testing, and HIV-infected women were three times less likely to return for results than uninfected women. Conclusion Future implementation of interventions to reduce vertical transmission of HIV that require antenatal HIV testing and counselling will have to solve issue of acceptability of HIV testing by pregnant women. PMID:9863877

  3. Evaluation du traitement antirétroviral chez les femmes enceintes VIH-1 positif, sur la transmission de l'infection de la mère à l'enfant: cas du Centre Médical Saint Camille de Ouagadougou, au Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Soubeiga, Serge Theophile; Compaore, Rebecca; Djigma, Florencia; Zagre, Nicaise; Assengone, Elsa; Traore, Lassina; Diarra, Birama; Bisseye, Cyrille; Ouermi, Djeneba; Sagna, Tani; Karou, Simplice; Pietra, Virginio; Simpore, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Introduction L'infection au VIH chez les nouveau-nés par leur mère peut être réduite grâce à des programmes de prévention de transmission mère-enfant du VIH (PTME). L'objectif dans cette étude était d’évaluer le traitement antirétroviral chez les femmes enceintes VIH-1 positif sur la transmission mère-enfant de l'infection au Centre Médical Saint Camille de Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Méthodes Des échantillons de spot de sang total ont été collectés chez 160 enfants âgés de 6 semaines, nés de mères VIH-1 positif et chez 40 enfants âgés de 2 à 13 mois provenant d'orphelinats et dont les mères étaient inconnues. Ces échantillons ont été testés avec le kit Abbott Real Time HIV-1 Qualitative. Un questionnaire a permis de connaitre les âges et les fonctions des femmes enceintes. Résultats Les femmes enceintes avaient un âge moyen global de 29,50±5,19 ans. Au total, 50,5% (101/200) ont été mises sous combinaison AZT/3TC/NVP et 29,5% (59/200) étaient sous prophylaxie (AZT/3TC). Le taux de transmission verticale du VIH-1 était de 0,0% (0/160) (p < 0,001) chez les enfants dont les mères étaient sous combinaison AZT/3TC/NVP ou sous prophylaxie AZT/3TC et de 15,0% (6/40) chez les enfants orphelins qui n’étaient pas inclus dans le protocole de la PTME. Conclusion Selon les résultats, le protocole de la PTME est efficace et réduit très significativement le risque de transmission du VIH-1 de la mère à l'enfant. De plus, le dépistage par PCR, des enfants orphelins infectés verticalement par le VIH, permet leur prise en charge thérapeutique précoce. PMID:26301003

  4. Analyse de la prise en charge du nouveau-né dans le cadre de la stratégie nationale de subvention des accouchements et des soins obstétricaux et néonatals d'urgence au Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Pédiatrique Charles de Gaulle, Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)

    PubMed Central

    Ouédraogo, Solange Odile Yugbaré; Yougbaré, Nestor; Kouéta, Fla; Dao; Ouédraogo, Moussa; Lougué, Claudine; Ludovic, Kam; Traoré, Ramata Ouédraogo; Yé, Diarra

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Il s'agit d'analyser la prise en charge du nouveau-né dans le cadre de la stratégie na-tionale de subvention des accouchements et des soins obstétricaux et néonatals d'urgence mis en place par le gouvernement du Burkina Faso en 2006. Méthodes Nous avons menée une étude à visée descriptive et analytique comportant un volet ré-trospectif du 01 janvier 2006 au 31 décembre 2010 portant sur les paramètres épidémiologiques, cliniques des nouveau-nés hospitalisés et un volet prospectif du 3 octobre 2011 au 29 février 2012 par une entrevue des accompagnateurs des nouveau-nés et des prestataires des services de santé. Résultats Les hospitalisations ont augmenté de 43,65% entre 2006 à 2010 Le taux de mortalité néo-natale hospitalière qui était de 11,04% a connu une réduction moyenne annuelle de 3,95%. L'entrevue a porté sur 110 accompagnateurs et 76 prestataires. La majorité des prestataires (97,44%) et des ac-compagnateurs (88,18%) étaient informés de la stratégie mais n'avait pas une connaissance exacte de sa définition. Les prestataires (94,74%) ont signalé des ruptures de médicaments, consommables médicaux et des pannes d’ appareils de laboratoire et d'imagerie. Parmi les accompagnateurs (89%) disaient être satisfaits des services offerts et (72,89%) trouvaient les coûts abordables mais évoquaient les difficultés du transport. Conclusion: La subvention a amélioré la prise en charge du nou-veau-né mais son optimisation nécessiterait une meilleur information et implication de tous les acteurs. Conclusion La subvention a amélioré la prise en charge du nouveau-né mais son optimisation nécessiterait une meilleur information et implication de tous les acteurs. PMID:26161166

  5. Flexibility of Household Structure: Child Fostering Decisions in Burkina Faso

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akresh, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Using data I collected in Africa, this paper examines a household's decision to adjust its size through child fostering, an institution where biological parents temporarily send children to live with other families. Households experiencing negative idiosyncratic income shocks, child gender imbalances, located further from primary schools, or with…

  6. Sandflies of the south part of Ouagadougou City, Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Sangare, I; Gantier, J C; Koalaga, G; Deniau, M; Ouari, A; Guiguemdé, R T

    2009-09-01

    Since 1996, the number of cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis has increased dramatically in Ouagadougou. Leishmania major, zymodeme MON74 was the only strain isolated in this focus. An epidemiological study of the phlebotomine sandflies fauna has been undertaken. Collections of sandflies have been carried out in six areas of the town during one year with two intensive collections at the end of the dry (May-June) and wet seasons (September-October). The only species of genus Phlebotomus captured was P. duboscqi. This represented 11.2% from the 4,676 collected sandflies. P. duboscqi is a well known vector of L. major, nevertheless, none of the collected sandflies were infected with L. major. 16 species of Sergentomyia were present in the south area of Ouagadougou and S. schwetzi was the most abundant sandfly. PMID:19839270

  7. [Connective tissue diseases in hospital practice in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)].

    PubMed

    Ouédraogo, D D; Korsaga-Somé, N; Zabsonné Tiendrébéogo, J; Tiéno, H; Kaboré, H; Niamba, P; Drabo, J

    2014-01-01

    To describe the semiological and immunological features of connective tissue diseases seen at the Yalgado Ouédraogo University Hospital in Ouagadougou. A retrospective study reviewed the records of patients seen in the hospital dermatology and internal medicine departments from January 1, 2004, through December 31, 2009 and diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis (ScS), dermatopolymyositis (DPM), primary Gougerot-Sjögren disease (GS), polymyositis (PM) or indeterminate connective tissue disease (ICTD) meeting the criteria of the American College of Rheumatology. The study included 42 patients, 36 women and 6 men. Their mean age was 41.2 years ±11.97 (range: 15-75). SLE was the diagnosis for 10 patients, ScS for 14, DPM for 7, primary GS for 1, PM for 1, and ICTD for 9. Hematologic (93%), cutaneous (88%), and rheumatologic (81%) abnormalities were the most frequent manifestations. The specific auto-antibodies associated with SLE patients were: anti-native DNA (3/6), anti-Sm (3/6), anti-RNP (3/6), and anti-SSA (4/6); anti-Scl 70 antibodies were present in 5 patients with ScS. Connective tissue diseases seem to be rare in Africa, south of the Sahara. However, the very fragmentary studies and the weak healthcare coverage do not allow any definitive conclusions. PMID:24921183

  8. Determinants of elephant distribution at Nazinga Game Ranch, Burkina Faso

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenks, Jonathan A.; Klaver, Robert W.; Wicks, Zeno W., III

    2007-01-01

    We used seasonal ground total counts and remote sensing and GIS technology to relate elephant (Loxodonta africana africana) distribution at Nazinga Game Ranch to environmental and anthropogenic factors. Variables used in analyses were normalized difference vegetation index, elevation, stream density, density of poaching and human illegal activities, distance to dams, distance to rivers, distance to roads, and distance to poaching risk. Contrary to our expectation, road traffic did not disturb elephants. Strong negative relationships were documented between elephant abundance and stream density, distance to dams, and poaching density. Density of poaching and other human illegal activities explained 81%, vegetation greenness 6%, and stream density 3% of the variation in elephant density. Elephant distribution represented a survival strategy affected by poaching, food quality and abundance, and water availability. 

  9. Sunlight inactivation of Escherichia coli in waste stabilization microcosms in a sahelian region (Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso).

    PubMed

    Maïga, Ynoussa; Denyigba, Kokou; Wethe, Joseph; Ouattara, Aboubakar Sidiki

    2009-02-01

    Experiments on sunlight inactivation of Escherichia coli were conducted from November 2006 to June 2007 in eight outdoors microcosms with different depths filled with maturation pond wastewater in order to determine pond depth influence on sunlight inactivation of E. coli. The long-term aim was to maximize sunlight inactivation of waterborne pathogens in waste stabilization ponds (WSPs) in sahelian regions where number of sunny days enable longer exposure of wastewater to sunlight. The inactivation was followed during daylight from 8.00 h to 17.00 h and during the night. Sunlight inactivation rates (K(S)), as a function of cumulative global solar radiation (insolation), were 16 and 24 times higher than the corresponding dark inactivation (K(D)) rates, respectively in cold and warm season. In warm season, E. coli was inactivated far more rapidly. Inactivation of E. coli follows the evolution of radiation during the day. In shallow depth microcosms, E. coli was inactivated far more rapidly than in high depth microcosms. The physical chemical parameters [pH, dissolved oxygen (DO)] of microcosms water were higher in shallow depth microcosms than in high depth microcosms suggesting a synergistic effect of sunlight and these parameters to damage E. coli. To increase the efficiency of the elimination of waterborne bacteria, the use of maturation ponds with intermediate depths (0.4m) would be advisable in view of the high temperatures and thus evaporation recorded in sahelian regions. PMID:19084427

  10. [Migration strategies and ethnic networks compared: the Burkina Faso and Senegalese groups in Italy].

    PubMed

    Schmidt Di Friedberg, O

    1996-03-01

    "African immigration towards Italy is presented as part of the wider international context. The function of emigration networks is briefly examined. A comparison is made between the Burkinabe and Senegalese groups, the latter being the most important group from West Africa. The different ways of entering the labour market are studied according to the legal situation of migrants (whether regulars or clandestines), the Italian region of settlement, and above all according to the characteristics of the ethnic networks established by the two above-mentioned nationalities.... The article shows how the choice of individual or group integration strategies depends both on cultural factors of the society of origin and on the economic and social situation of the Italian region of settlement." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND FRE) PMID:12320684

  11. Assessing effectiveness of a community based health insurance in rural Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Financial barriers are a recognized major bottleneck of access and use of health services. The aim of this study was to assess effectiveness of a community based health insurance (CBHI) scheme on utilization of health services as well as on mortality and morbidity. Methods Data were collected from April to December 2007 from the Nouna’s Demographic Surveillance System on overall mortality, utilization of health services, household characteristics, distance to health facilities, membership in the Nouna CBHI. We analyzed differentials in overall mortality and selected maternal health process measures between members and non-members of the insurance scheme. Results After adjusting for covariates there was no significant difference in overall mortality between households who could not have been members (because their area was yet to be covered by the stepped-wedged scheme), non-members but whose households could have been members (areas covered but not enrolled), and members of the insurance scheme. The risk of overall mortality increased significantly with distance to health facility (35% more outside Nouna town) and with education level (37% lower when at least primary school education achieved in households). Conclusion There was no statistically significant difference in overall mortality between members and non-members. The enrolment rates remain low, with selection bias. It is important that community based health insurances, exemptions fees policy and national health insurances be evaluated on prevention of deaths and severe morbidities instead of on drop-out rates, selection bias, adverse selection and catastrophic payments for health care only. Effective social protection will require national health insurance. PMID:23082967

  12. Molecular Characterization of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus in Women in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Traore, Ina Marie Angèle; Dembele, Adama; Obiri-Yeboah, Dorcas; Traore, Germain; Bambara, Moussa; Ouedraogo, Charlemagne; Traore, Yves

    2016-01-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is found in over 99% of cervical cancers. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HPV in a population of women in Bobo-Dioulasso and to identify the high-risk types present in these women. From May to June, 2015, 181 women who came for consultation at the Souro Sanou University Hospital of Bobo-Dioulasso have been included in this study. Uterine endocervical swabs have been taken in these women. DNA obtained by extraction from the samples thus collected was used to determine the prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus genotypes through real-time PCR. The age of the women ranged from 20 to 56 years with a mean of 35.3 ± 8.1 years. The prevalence of infection by high-risk HPV types was 25.4% (46/181). The most common high-risk HPV genotypes were HPV 39 (18.5%), HPV 52 (16.7%), HPV 18 (14.8%), and HPV 35 (13.0%). HPV 16 which is included in the HPV vaccines was not found in the population studied. This type of study which is the first one in Bobo-Dioulasso has showed a high prevalence of genotypes HPV 39, HPV 52, and HPV 35 which are not yet covered by a vaccine. PMID:27525275

  13. "Hey, Teacher, Speak Black Please": The Educational Effectiveness of Bilingual Education in Burkina Faso

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavoie, Constance

    2008-01-01

    Africa's educational systems are undergoing a quiet revolution. As these systems move away from working exclusively in the old colonial languages, usually English or French, bilingual schools which use local indigenous languages are springing up in many regions of Africa. This paper points out the historical processes driving the bilingual…

  14. [Hygienic quality of meat used in institutional food services: university cafeterias in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)].

    PubMed

    Ilboudo, A J; Savadogo, A; Barro, N; Ouedraogo, M; Traore, A S

    2009-01-01

    This present study was conducted to assess the hygienic quality of meals served in three cafeterias at the national university in Ouagadougou and the compliance of kitchen staff with good hygiene practices. Microbiological analyses assessed the hygienic quality of the raw meat and of meat-based meals. The results showed poor hygiene practices by food handlers along the food chain. These observations were confirmed by the identification of salmonella, coliform and staphylococcal bacteria in raw meat and cooked meals. Overall, 60% of the raw meat samples were unsatisfactory for aerobic mesophilic flora and 6.6% for salmonella. For the cooked meat meals, on the other hand, 45% of the samples were satisfactory for aerobic mesophilic flora, 100% for salmonella, 93.3% for fecal thermotolerant coliforms and 96.6% for staphylococci. These results showed poor hygiene in the handling of raw meat, but a clear improvement in hygienic quality after cooking. Raising the awareness of cafeteria staff about compliance with hygiene rules appears primordial. Moreover improvement of the food environment, the kitchen equipment, and organization as well as the introduction of a cleaning-disinfection programme would make it possible to provide more hygienic meals in these institutional facilities. PMID:20189903

  15. Prevalence of HPV High-Risk Genotypes in Three Cohorts of Women in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)

    PubMed Central

    Zohoncon, Theodora M.; Bisseye, Cyrille; Djigma, Florencia W.; Yonli, Albert T.; Compaore, Tegwinde R.; Sagna, Tani; Ouermi, Djeneba; Ouédraogo, Charlemagne M.R.; Pietra, Virginio; Nikiéma, Jean-Baptiste; Akpona, Simon A.; Simpore, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    The development of cervical cancer is associated with high-risk Human papilloma viruses (HPV-HR). In sub-Saharan Africa cervical cancer is the most common cancer among women and the leading cause of death attributed to malignant tumors. This study aims to identify HPV genotypes within the 30′S and 50′S HPV families found in two previous studies from our laboratory, and to determine the prevalence of twelve HPV-HR genotypes in a population of women in Ouagadougou. The twelve HPV-HR genotypes were determined by real-time multiplex PCR, in 180 samples from the general population and among a group of HIV-1 infected women. The most common genotypes found were HPV-35 (29.4%) and HPV-31 (26.1%) of the 30′S family, and HPV-52 (29.4%) and HPV-58 (20.6%) of the 50′S family. Multiple infections of HPV-HR were observed in 78.03% of infected women. The frequencies of HPV genotypes from the 30′S and 50′S families were higher, while the genotypes HPV-16 and18 were lower among the women in our study. PMID:24106609

  16. Antimicrobial resistance of abnormal vaginal discharges microorganisms in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Karou, Simplice D; Djigma, Florencia; Sagna, Tani; Nadembega, Christelle; Zeba, Moctar; Kabre, Aboudoulaye; Anani, Kokou; Ouermi, Djeneba; Gnoula, Charlemagne; Pietra, Virginio; Pignatelli, Salvatore; Simpore, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the prevalence of bacterial strains and fungal strains infecting the vaginal tract and test their sensitivity to antibiotics in women attending Saint Camille Medical Centre in Ouagadougou. Methods From January 2008 to December 2009, a total of 2 000 vaginal swabs were cultivated for bacterial and fungal identification and isolation. Furthermore, bacterial strains were tested for their susceptibility to several antibiotics used in routine in the centre. Results The results revealed that microbial isolation and identification was attempted for 1 536/2 000 sample, a positivity rate of 76.80%. Candida albicans (48.76%), followed by Escherichia coli (16.67%), Streptococcus agalactiae (8.14%) and Staphylococcus aureus (7.55%) were the major agents of genital tract infections in patients. Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum combined accounted for less than 7%. Trichomonas vaginalis was identified in 1.04% cases. The antimicrobial tests revealed that the microorganisms developed resistance to several antibiotics including beta lactams. However, antibiotics such as cefamenzol, ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin were still active on these bacteria. Conclusions The results reveal that many sexually active women are infected by one or more microbial pathogens, probably because of the lack of hygiene or the adoption of some risky behaviors, such as not using condoms or having multiple sexual partners. Efforts should be made to address these points in the country. PMID:23569916

  17. Evaluation of Interrill Erosion Under Wind-Driven Rain Events in Northern Burkina Faso

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wind changes the velocity, frequency and angle of raindrop impact and hence affects rain splash detachment rates. Many soil erosion models underpredict interrill erosion because the contribution of the wind to raindrop detachment and wind-driven transport processes are not taken into account. In thi...

  18. Genetic Structure of a Local Population of the Anopheles gambiae Complex in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Markianos, Kyriacos; Bischoff, Emmanuel; Mitri, Christian; Guelbeogo, Wamdaogo M.; Gneme, Awa; Eiglmeier, Karin; Holm, Inge; Sagnon, N’Fale; Vernick, Kenneth D.; Riehle, Michelle M.

    2016-01-01

    Members of the Anopheles gambiae species complex are primary vectors of human malaria in Africa. Population heterogeneities for ecological and behavioral attributes expand and stabilize malaria transmission over space and time, and populations may change in response to vector control, urbanization and other factors. There is a need for approaches to comprehensively describe the structure and characteristics of a sympatric local mosquito population, because incomplete knowledge of vector population composition may hinder control efforts. To this end, we used a genome-wide custom SNP typing array to analyze a population collection from a single geographic region in West Africa. The combination of sample depth (n = 456) and marker density (n = 1536) unambiguously resolved population subgroups, which were also compared for their relative susceptibility to natural genotypes of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. The population subgroups display fluctuating patterns of differentiation or sharing across the genome. Analysis of linkage disequilibrium identified 19 new candidate genes for association with underlying population divergence between sister taxa, A. coluzzii (M-form) and A. gambiae (S-form). PMID:26731649

  19. Genetic Structure of a Local Population of the Anopheles gambiae Complex in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Markianos, Kyriacos; Bischoff, Emmanuel; Mitri, Christian; Guelbeogo, Wamdaogo M; Gneme, Awa; Eiglmeier, Karin; Holm, Inge; Sagnon, N'Fale; Vernick, Kenneth D; Riehle, Michelle M

    2016-01-01

    Members of the Anopheles gambiae species complex are primary vectors of human malaria in Africa. Population heterogeneities for ecological and behavioral attributes expand and stabilize malaria transmission over space and time, and populations may change in response to vector control, urbanization and other factors. There is a need for approaches to comprehensively describe the structure and characteristics of a sympatric local mosquito population, because incomplete knowledge of vector population composition may hinder control efforts. To this end, we used a genome-wide custom SNP typing array to analyze a population collection from a single geographic region in West Africa. The combination of sample depth (n = 456) and marker density (n = 1536) unambiguously resolved population subgroups, which were also compared for their relative susceptibility to natural genotypes of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. The population subgroups display fluctuating patterns of differentiation or sharing across the genome. Analysis of linkage disequilibrium identified 19 new candidate genes for association with underlying population divergence between sister taxa, A. coluzzii (M-form) and A. gambiae (S-form). PMID:26731649

  20. Diagnostic Path of a Genetic Disease: A Case of Williams-Beuren Syndrome in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Sanogo, Bintou; Kissou, Aimée S.; Ouattara, Ad Bafa Ibrahim; Nacro, Boubacar

    2015-01-01

    Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a set of somatic, psychological, and behavioral abnormalities, which is caused by a deletion of several genes. Herein we report a 6 year-old boy, who presented with mental retardation and psychological disorders. The result of the first clinical examination was poor, since it didn’t detect any dysmorphic feature which is a major component for the clinical diagnosis of WBS. Despite the multidisciplinary and the multicenter approaches used, the diagnosis of WBS (deletion of chromosome band 7q11. 23) was established more than 3 years after the first medical consultation. Rare partial forms of WBS have been recently described and they are both clinically and genetically difficult to diagnose. Unfortunately, this disorder is still little known by health professionals. PMID:26734123

  1. Applying research to AIDS programs in villages. Burkina Faso project learns from community survey.

    PubMed

    Tankoano, F

    1994-01-01

    In 1991, 34 cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were recorded for the province of Bam, which has a population of 4239. Since 1992, PLAN and the local Ministry of Health have been conducting an AIDS prevention program in the province. An initial baseline community survey to assess knowledge, attitude, and practices about the disease was conducted in order to tailor the program to the needs and characteristics of the target population. A questionnaire was administered to 300 randomly selected adults in 10 rural villages. The sexes were equally represented. 74% of the villagers were found to be illiterate and the major sources of health information were radio, health facilities, and friends and relatives; therefore, educational activities were carried out through non-written methods (traditional and modern) that employed these communication channels. Initially, 5 men and 5 women ("Village Communicators") were selected by their communities to be trained in information, education, and communication (IEC) techniques regarding AIDS prevention; under the supervision of their trainers, they organized and conducted 2 weekly sessions. An additional 62 women and 50 men were trained as Village Communicators to promote AIDS awareness among their own gender. A team of health personnel, artists, and a traditional music group conducted collective sessions to promote condom use and address problems relating to AIDS (polygamy, remarrying of spouses of AIDS victims, availability of testing during prenuptial visits). Although 90% of respondents had heard about AIDS, 30% did not understand the disease or its routes of transmission; so messages about the effects and the transmission of AIDS were emphasized. Because 56% of respondents admitted having had 2 or more sex partners, and a similar percentage admitted having had 2 or more sexual encounters per week, messages were disseminated on sexuality using community volunteers and the folkloric band. 42% of respondents were aware of the protective effect of condoms, but only 9% used them during their last sexual encounter; so village leaders, traditional healers, and PLAN and MOH staff promoted condom use at community sessions. Since 68% of respondents approved of the sale of condoms, a community-based system, which would be managed by village committees, for the sale and distribution of condoms was established. PMID:12179556

  2. [Recent evolution of schistosomiasis in the water project of Sourou in Burkina Faso].

    PubMed

    Poda, J N; Wango, S P; Sorgho, H; Dianou, D

    2004-02-01

    In order to help the hydro-agricultural projects in the management of water resources together with a schistosomiasis control programme, it is important to evaluate the extent of the problem. This is the reason why parasitological and clinical surveys were conducted in schools associated with malacological surveys in transmission sites of several water projects including the one from Sourou. The data-collecting for the research on molluscs was carried out in surface water and as for parasitologic investigations on school-aged children, urine filtration and Kato-Katz were used to evaluate the parasitic load. The levels of prevalence were respectively in Guiédougou, Niassan, Di and Toma-île, in 2000, 60.5%, 40%, 48.8% and 51.9% for the urinary schistosomiasis, 5.3%, 0%, 6.9% and 50.6% for the intestinal schistosomiasis and in 2002, 56%, 51.9%, 51.6% and 43.4% for the urinary schistosomiasis, 10.1%, 8.2%, 22.7% and 90.8% for the intestinal schistosomiasis. The molluscs species collected and identified were: Biomphalaria pfeifferi for the intestinal schistosomiasis and Bulinus truncatus rohlfsi and B. senegalensis for the urinary schistosomiasis. B. senegalensis and B. truncatus were found naturally infested by S. haematobium. Water projects constitute amplifying factors of the proliferation of the species and parasitic exchange. All the actors (developers, populations, scientists) are questioning the means at their disposal to reduce the development of schistosomiasis which decrease the expected benefit of hydro-agricultural installations. PMID:15104151

  3. Assessment of MCH services in the district of Solenzo, Burkina Faso. II. Acceptability.

    PubMed

    Sauerborn, R; Nougtara, A; Sorgho, G; Bidiga, J; Tiebelesse, L; Diesfeld, H J

    1989-06-01

    Acceptability of professional MCH services in the district of Solenzo was assessed using the techniques of time and motion study combined with a user survey of attending mothers. A large proportion of mothers said to have difficulty in using the services. Three types of problems were identified and their relevance discussed: (i) wasting mothers' time through inappropriate opening hours, long waiting time in contrast with short contact time; (ii) organizational features, i.e. fragmentation of clinics offering single MCH components at different times; and (iii) staff behaviour, i.e. poor communication with users. While services do little to help mothers to utilize them, mothers were shown to receive little support in their work at home from their families while attending the clinic. Possible ways to increase acceptability of MCH care are outlined. PMID:2754777

  4. Ostéogenèse imparfaite: à propos de quatre cas à Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)

    PubMed Central

    Kaboré, Aïssata; Cissé, Aissata; Yonaba, Caroline; Savadogo, Hamidou; Ouédraogo, Sylvie Armelle; Dao, Lassina; Kaboret, Sonia; Nagalo, Kisito; Koueta, Fla; Bandré, Emile; Yé, Diarra; Kam, Ludovic

    2015-01-01

    L'ostéogenèse imparfaite (OI) regroupe un ensemble d'affections constitutionnelles de gravité variable dû à une anomalie de la production du collagène et de la matrice de l'os entraînant une fragilité osseuse. La présente étude rapporte quatre cas d'ostéogenèse imparfaite suivis aux Centres Hospitaliers Universitaires Charles de Gaulle et Yalgado Ouédraogo. Le but de ce travail était d'analyser les aspects cliniques, thérapeutiques et évolutifs de la maladie. Cette étude souligne la nécessité d'améliorer la prise en charge de cette maladie rare mais non exceptionnelle et handicapante. PMID:26834922

  5. [Strangulated umbilical hernia in children (Burkina Faso): differences with developed countries].

    PubMed

    Bandré, E; Kaboré, R A F; Sanou, A; Ouédraogo, I; Soré, O; Tapsoba, T; Nébié, B; Wandaogo, A; Bachy, B

    2010-05-01

    Umbilical hernias occur frequently in children but complications are rarely reported. This study assesses the incidence of complicated umbilical hernias in our patients, evaluates data for risk factors, and shows dissimilarities with those encountered in developed countries. This study reports all children operated for complications due to strangulated umbilical hernia over a period of 3 years. On the whole, 162 children had umbilical hernias treated during this period. Thirty (18.5%) of these had complicated hernias. The average age of the complicated group was 3(1/2) years. Twenty-nine cases had a painful irreducible umbilical mass. Twenty-four children had bowel obstruction, while stercoral fistula occurred in one child. The average diameter of the hernia ranged between 1 and 1.5 cm. Five patients had ischemic intestine that required resection. One patient died. When active observation and follow-up after 1 year is difficult or not feasible when the wall defect diameter is 1.5 cm or less, and in suspicion of incarceration (unexplained abdominal pain, and irreducibility), umbilical hernia should be operated. PMID:20182838

  6. [The bacterial microflora of diabetic foot infection and factors determining its spectrum in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)].

    PubMed

    Guira, O; Tiéno, H; Traoré, S; Diallo, I; Ouangré, E; Sagna, Y; Zabsonré, J; Yanogo, D; Traoré, S S; Drabo, Y J

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the bacterial microflora of diabetic foot infection and to identify the factors which determine the bacterial spectrum in order to increase empiric antibiotic prescription in Ouagadougou. The study was a cross-sectional one, carried from July 1st, 2011 to June 30, 2012 in the departments of internal medicine and general and digestive surgery in Yalgado Ouédraogo teaching hospital. Samples for bacteriological tests consisted of aspiration of pus through the healthy skin, curettage and swab of the base of the ulceration or tissue biopsy from foot lesions. The bacteria's sensitivity to antibiotics has been tested by the qualitative method (Kirby-Bauer). The frequency of diabetic foot infection was 14.45% and the monthly incidence 5.33. The mean age of patients was 56 years and the sex ratio 1.37. Foot ulcerations were chronic in 33 (51.56%), necrotic in 51 (79.69%) and associated with osteitis in 40 (62.5%) patients. Infection was grade 3 in 70.3% cases. Thirty-nine patients had received antibiotics before hospital admission. Among the 71 samples, 62 (87.32%) cultures were positive: 53 (85.48%) monomicrobial and 9 (14.52%) bimicrobial. Aerobic Gram-positive cocci (76%) were the most frequent from ulcerations: Staphylococcus aureus (32.39%), Streptococcus sp (18.30%). Negative coagulase staphylococci have been found in 23.94% cases. Aerobic gram-negative bacilli have been isolated from 24% ulcerations. No factor was associated with the type of bacteria. Gram-positive pathogen cocci showed a high sensitivity to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and oxacillin. No methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or extended-spectrum beta lactamase Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL) have been isolated. A better design is necessary to a clarification of bacterial flora in diabetic foot infections. Prevention of bacterial resistance is also needed. PMID:26187771

  7. Les calculs urinaires de l'enfant au Burkina Faso: à propos de 67 cas

    PubMed Central

    Ouédraogo, Isso; Napon, Aïcha Madina; Bandré, Emile; Ouédraogo, Francis Somkieta; Tapsoba, Wendlamita Toussaint; Wandaogo, Albert

    2015-01-01

    L'objectif de cette étude est de déterminer la fréquence, de décrire les circonstances de découverte, les signes cliniques et paracliniques, la composition chimique des calculs prélevés et les difficultés rencontrées dans le traitement des lithiases urinaires. Notre étude a été rétrospective sur une période de six ans (janvier 2005 à décembre 2010) et a eu pour cadre le CHUP-CDG et a concerné 67 patients âgés de moins de 15 ans opérés pour lithiases urinaires. Les calculs de la dernière année au nombre de douze ont fait l'objet d'une analyse spectrophotométrique. La lithiase urinaire figure parmi les dix premières pathologies du service de chirurgie et représente 1,32% des hospitalisations. L’âge moyen de nos patients est de deux ans et varie de 6 mois à 14 ans. La symptomatologie de la lithiase urinaire est polymorphe. Le diagnostic des lithiases urinaires a été essentiellement radiologique (ASP) dans 87, 50 des cas. Les localisations les plus fréquentes sont: vésicales (49,25%) et pyéliques (46,26%). L'ECBU a révélé une infection urinaire chez 9 patients. Les germes le plus fréquemment rencontrés sont: Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumoniae (22,22%) et staphyloccocus aureus (22,22%). Les difficultés du traitement sont dues à la modicité de nos moyens diagnostiques et à la nature chimique des calculs et le traitement a été dans tous les cas chirurgical. La composition chimique est dominée par les sels calciques notamment les oxalates, les phosphates et les carbonates. PMID:26175840

  8. Molecular Characterization of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus in Women in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Traore, Ina Marie Angèle; Zohoncon, Théodora Mahoukèdè; Dembele, Adama; Djigma, Florencia W; Obiri-Yeboah, Dorcas; Traore, Germain; Bambara, Moussa; Ouedraogo, Charlemagne; Traore, Yves; Simpore, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is found in over 99% of cervical cancers. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HPV in a population of women in Bobo-Dioulasso and to identify the high-risk types present in these women. From May to June, 2015, 181 women who came for consultation at the Souro Sanou University Hospital of Bobo-Dioulasso have been included in this study. Uterine endocervical swabs have been taken in these women. DNA obtained by extraction from the samples thus collected was used to determine the prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus genotypes through real-time PCR. The age of the women ranged from 20 to 56 years with a mean of 35.3 ± 8.1 years. The prevalence of infection by high-risk HPV types was 25.4% (46/181). The most common high-risk HPV genotypes were HPV 39 (18.5%), HPV 52 (16.7%), HPV 18 (14.8%), and HPV 35 (13.0%). HPV 16 which is included in the HPV vaccines was not found in the population studied. This type of study which is the first one in Bobo-Dioulasso has showed a high prevalence of genotypes HPV 39, HPV 52, and HPV 35 which are not yet covered by a vaccine. PMID:27525275

  9. Conserving wildlife amongst the cotton fields. A third of a century of experience at the Nazinga Game Ranch, Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Bouché, Philippe; Lejeune, Philippe; Bailly, Vincent; Muyle, Margaux; Zinque, Marie-Hélène; Mercier, Alizé; Cornélis, Daniel; Lungren, Clark; Portier, Bruno; Marchal, Antoine; Renault, Florent; Yaméogo, Dieudonné; Kafando, Pierre; Sawadogo, Prosper; Vermeulen, Cédric

    2016-07-01

    Established in the early 1970 as a participatory wildlife production area, the Nazinga Game Ranch turned into an island of conservation surrounded by cultivation. We asked ourselves how long-term ungulate trends are affected in a context of continuous human pressure. To find out, we compiled and analysed the data of yearly line-transect counts of mammals carried out since 1985. Results showed that large species such as the elephant (Loxodonta africana) and large antelopes increased or showed stable populations. In contrast, medium and small ungulates showed continuously decreasing trends. During the same period, rainfall, water availability from artificial water points and the crop encroaching outside Nazinga Game Ranch increased. After an initial significant reduction, illegal human signs increased. However, we showed that human signs were positively correlated with the abundance of large ungulates but negatively correlated with the abundance of medium and small ones. In conclusion, this study showed that some isolated mammal populations could be restored and maintained in the long term, in spite of being surrounded by highly cultivated areas. PMID:27350287

  10. Epidemiological profile of cutaneous leishmaniasis: Retrospective analysis of 7444 cases reported from 1999 to 2005 at Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Bamba, Sanata; Gouba, Alphonse; Drabo, Maxime Koiné; Nezien, Désiré; Bougoum, Mamadou; Guiguemdé, Tinga Robert

    2013-01-01

    This retrospective study was aimed to describe the trend of the cases and to determine the annual incidence rate of cutaneous leishmaniasis from 1999 to 2005 in the city of Ouagadougou. To achieve these objectives, a retrospective study was conducted. Data collection was conducted from January 1999 to December 2005. In total, 7444 cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis were recorded with an annual average of 1063.30 ± 270. 8 cases. The sex ratio M/F was 0.9. The average age was 22.8 ± 13.5 years. Patients more than 15 year-old accounted for 72.5%. A decrease in the cases of the disease was noted during the months of March, April, May, June, and December. The peak was recorded during the months of September and October. Over 7 years, the average incidence rate was 0.1% ± 0.04 but does not reflect the importance of this pathology. Thus, a prospective study was recommended. PMID:23717722

  11. Health worker preferences for performance-based payment schemes in a rural health district in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Yé, Maurice; Diboulo, Eric; Kagoné, Moubassira; Sié, Ali; Sauerborn, Rainer; Loukanova, Svetla

    2016-01-01

    Background One promising way to improve the motivation of healthcare providers and the quality of healthcare services is performance-based incentives (PBIs) also referred as performance-based financing. Our study aims to explore healthcare providers’ preferences for an incentive scheme based on local resources, which aimed at improving the quality of maternal and child health care in the Nouna Health District. Design A qualitative and quantitative survey was carried out in 2010 involving 94 healthcare providers within 34 health facilities. In addition, in-depth interviews involving a total of 33 key informants were conducted at health facility levels. Results Overall, 85% of health workers were in favour of an incentive scheme based on the health district's own financial resources (95% CI: [71.91; 88.08]). Most health workers (95 and 96%) expressed a preference for financial incentives (95% CI: [66.64; 85.36]) and team-based incentives (95% CI: [67.78; 86.22]), respectively. The suggested performance indicators were those linked to antenatal care services, prevention of mother-to-child human immunodeficiency virus transmission, neonatal care, and immunization. Conclusions The early involvement of health workers and other stakeholders in designing an incentive scheme proved to be valuable. It ensured their effective participation in the process and overall acceptance of the scheme at the end. This study is an important contribution towards the designing of effective PBI schemes. PMID:26739784

  12. [Noma and HIV infection: apropos of a case at the National Hospital Center in Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso)].

    PubMed

    Ki-Zerbo, G A; Guigma, Y

    2001-12-01

    Noma (Cancrum oris) is a gangrenous stomatitis arising from a periodontal infection and leading to severe soft tissue and bone destruction. The pathology involves numerous factors including local thrombosis, vascularitis, necrotizing gingivitis, immunodeficiency, gram negative and anaerobic infection. It is usually a disease of infants and malnourished children in tropical areas often occurring after a debilitating disease like measles. Recently, cases have been reported in adults especially elderly patients or during immunodeficiency states. Reconstructive surgery is often necessary to deal with destruction and sequel but is rarely accessible in developing countries. We report one case of noma (cancrum oris) in an HIV seropositive patient at the National Hospital in Bobo-Dioulasso. The noma was inaugural of AIDS in a 40 years old labourer coming back from Ivory Coast and no major opportunistic infection was associated. The course was fulminant leading to extensive facial gangrene with recurrent bacterial infections. The disease was fatal in this depressive, malnourished and diarrhoeic patient despite local surgical treatment, prolonged antibiotherapy and supportive care. Pathogenic mechanisms, management and preventive issues are discussed. PMID:11887587

  13. Artesunate-Amodiaquine and Artemether-Lumefantrine Therapies and Selection of Pfcrt and Pfmdr1 Alleles in Nanoro, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Sondo, Paul; Derra, Karim; Diallo Nakanabo, Seydou; Tarnagda, Zekiba; Kazienga, Adama; Zampa, Odile; Valéa, Innocent; Sorgho, Hermann; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Ouédraogo, Jean-Bosco; Guiguemdé, Tinga Robert; Tinto, Halidou

    2016-01-01

    The adoption of Artemisinin based combination therapies (ACT) constitutes a basic strategy for malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa. Moreover, since cases of ACT resistance have been reported in South-East Asia, the need to understand P. falciparum resistance mechanism to ACT has become a global research goal. The selective pressure of ACT and the possibility that some specific Pfcrt and Pfmdr1 alleles are associated with treatment failures was assessed in a clinical trial comparing ASAQ to AL in Nanoro. Dried blood spots collected on Day 0 and on the day of recurrent parasitaemia during the 28-day follow-up were analyzed using the restriction fragments length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Pfcrt (codon76) and Pfmdr1 (codons 86, 184, 1034, 1042, and 1246) genes. Multivariate analysis of the relationship between the presence of Pfcrt and Pfmdr1 alleles and treatment outcome was performed. AL and ASAQ exerted opposite trends in selecting Pfcrt K76T and Pfmdr1-N86Y alleles, raising the potential beneficial effect of using diverse ACT at the same time as first line treatments to reduce the selective pressure by each treatment regimen. No clear association between the presence of Pfcrt and Pfmdr1 alleles carried at baseline and treatment failure was observed. PMID:27031231

  14. Artesunate-Amodiaquine and Artemether-Lumefantrine Therapies and Selection of Pfcrt and Pfmdr1 Alleles in Nanoro, Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Sondo, Paul; Derra, Karim; Diallo Nakanabo, Seydou; Tarnagda, Zekiba; Kazienga, Adama; Zampa, Odile; Valéa, Innocent; Sorgho, Hermann; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Ouédraogo, Jean-Bosco; Guiguemdé, Tinga Robert; Tinto, Halidou

    2016-01-01

    The adoption of Artemisinin based combination therapies (ACT) constitutes a basic strategy for malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa. Moreover, since cases of ACT resistance have been reported in South-East Asia, the need to understand P. falciparum resistance mechanism to ACT has become a global research goal. The selective pressure of ACT and the possibility that some specific Pfcrt and Pfmdr1 alleles are associated with treatment failures was assessed in a clinical trial comparing ASAQ to AL in Nanoro. Dried blood spots collected on Day 0 and on the day of recurrent parasitaemia during the 28-day follow-up were analyzed using the restriction fragments length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Pfcrt (codon76) and Pfmdr1 (codons 86, 184, 1034, 1042, and 1246) genes. Multivariate analysis of the relationship between the presence of Pfcrt and Pfmdr1 alleles and treatment outcome was performed. AL and ASAQ exerted opposite trends in selecting Pfcrt K76T and Pfmdr1-N86Y alleles, raising the potential beneficial effect of using diverse ACT at the same time as first line treatments to reduce the selective pressure by each treatment regimen. No clear association between the presence of Pfcrt and Pfmdr1 alleles carried at baseline and treatment failure was observed. PMID:27031231

  15. Les infections à Pseudomonas aeruginosa au service des maladies infectieuses du CHU YO, Burkina Faso: à propos deux cas

    PubMed Central

    Mamoudou, Savadogo; Lassina, Dao; Fla, Koueta

    2015-01-01

    Nous rapportons deux cas d'infection à Pseudomonas aeruginosa: un cas de méningite et un cas d'infection urinaire. Les auteurs rappellent qu’à côté des étiologies classiques des méningites et des infections urinaires, des germes résistants comme Pseudomonas aeruginosa peuvent être responsables d'infections à localisation méningées et urinaires et dont il faut connaître pour une bonne prise en charge. Le traitement de ces infections requiert un antibiogramme au regard de la grande capacité de résistance de Pseudomonas aeruginosa en milieu hospitalier. La limitation des gestes invasifs et l'application rigoureuse des mesures de prévention des infections en milieu hospitalier contribueront à lutter efficacement contre ces infections en milieu de soins. PMID:26491521

  16. Le syndrome des brides amniotiques et ses difficultés diagnostiques et de prise en charge au Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Nagalo, Kisito; Badiel, Roger; Kouéta, Fla; Tall, François Housséini; Yé, Diarra

    2015-01-01

    Le syndrome des brides amniotiques est une embryo-foetopathie rare, d’étiopathogénie encore inconnue, caractérisé par des malformations crânio-faciales, thoraco-abdominales, des membres et des extrémités. Afin de discuter des difficultés diagnostiques et thérapeutiques du syndrome des brides amniotiques, nous rapportons cinq cas de ce syndrome. Ces cas représentaient autant de phénotypes de la maladie mais avec quelques singularités. Les deux premiers étaient des cas de maladie des brides amniotiques caractérisés l'un par une amputation d'un membre inférieur associée à des lésions cutanées et à une surdité, l'autre par des strictions avec amputation des doigts associées à une fente labio-palatine, une cataracte congénitale et un strabisme. Les trois autres cas correspondaient à des formes létales du Limb Body Wall Complex dont deux avec attache placento-crânienne et un avec attache placento-abdominale. Le renforcement du diagnostic anténatal, l'instauration du conseil génétique et la mise en place d'un registre national des malformations devraient permettre d'améliorer la prise en charge des cas du syndrome des brides amniotiques. PMID:26113939

  17. [Hemorrhagic form of dengue fever observed at the Infectious Diseases Department CHU Yalgado Ouédraogo, Burkina Faso].

    PubMed

    Mamoudou, Savadogo; Boushab, Boushab Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is a re-emerging arboviral disease in tropical countries. Haemorrhagic form may be associated with circulatory failure and produce hypovolemic shock, which is often fatal. We report a series of three cases of hemorrhagic dengue observed at the Infectious Diseases Department CHU Yalgado Ouédraogo, Ouagadougou, in order to describe its epidemiological, clinical, and evolutive characteristics. Our study included young females who had an onset age of between 35 years and 45 years, residing in the city of Ouagadougou. Despite multiple concentrated platelets transfusions and symptomatic treatment, we mourned a death. The development of antivirals and of new vaccines is a silver lining to prevent dengue lethality. PMID:27303584

  18. Amount, determining factors and spatial distribution of soil organic carbon storage in the Dano catchment (Southwest Burkina-Faso)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hounkpatin, O.; Op de Hipt, F.; Bossa, A. Y.; Welp, G.; Amelung, W.

    2015-12-01

    The ability to project and to mitigate the impacts of climate change is closely related to the evaluation of soil organic carbon (SOC) content and stock across different types of land use and soil groups. Therefore, this study aimed at estimating the surface and subsoil organic carbon stocks in different land use systems and across various soil groups. A further aim was to assess the spatial variability of SOC content and stocks and how this is controlled by climate and site properties. The Random Forest (RF) modelling was used and compared to Ordinary Kriging interpolation (OK) for the topsoil SOC and stock. About 70 soil profiles were described along 16 transects with 197 samples collected from different horizons up to 1 m depth where possible. In addition, 1205 samples were collected within an intensive auger grid mapping. Mid-infrared spectroscopy and partial least-squares analysis were used as a fast and low-cost technique to handle the large amount of samples for the SOC estimation. The natural/semi natural vegetation recorded the highest SOC stock in the topsoil (28.6 t C ha-1) as compared to the cropland (25.5 t C ha-1). Over 1 m depth, Gleysols (87.4 t C ha-1) stored the highest amount of SOC stock followed by the Cambisols (76. t C ha-1) and the Plinthosols (73.1 t C ha-1) while the lowest were found in the Lixisols (57.8 t C ha-1). For the topsoil, the RF model revealed soil properties such as cation exchange capacity (CEC) and stone content as main factors affecting SOC content variability while CEC and bulk density were the major drivers for the subsoil. The carbon stock variability was mainly affected by the CEC and the reference soil group in the topsoil while horizon thickness and bulk density constituted the main factors for the subsoil. The geostatistical evaluation proved that the SOC content in the Dano catchment has a moderate spatial autocorrelation while the carbon stock was strongly spatially dependent. The RF gave a better prediction for the topsoil SOC content with the lowest root mean square error of 4.98 g kg-1 while the OK performed better for the topsoil carbon stock with a root mean square error of 14.98 t C ha-1. About 52 % of the carbon stock over 1 m depth was held in the upper 30 cm and is proned to release upon natural vegetation clearance and non-sustainable farming practices.

  19. Left posterolateral strangulated congenital diaphragmatic hernia in children: About a case at the Charles de Gaulle Paediatric Teaching Hospital in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)

    PubMed Central

    Bandré, Emile; Wandaogo, Albert; Ouedraogo, Isso; Napon, Madina; Béré, Bernadette; Kabré, Yvette; Tapsoba, Toussaint Wend Lamita; Ouédraogo, Francis Somkieta

    2015-01-01

    Late presentation of congenital diaphragmatic hernia is uncommon. It poses considerable diagnostic challenges when it strangulates. The authors report a case of a left posterolateral strangulated congenital diaphragmatic hernia in a 5-year-old child diagnosed at the stage of acute intestinal occlusion with intestinal necrosis and managed successfully. A strangulated congenital diaphragmatic hernia should be suspected in the case of an association of sudden-onset respiratory and digestive manifestations with no sign of trauma or specific pulmonary history. It then requires an antero posterior thoracic X-ray or, even better, a thoracic-abdominal scan to confirm the diagnosis. PMID:25659558

  20. Non-Communicable Disease Mortality and Risk Factors in Formal and Informal Neighborhoods, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso: Evidence from a Health and Demographic Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Rossier, Clémentine; Soura, Abdramane Bassiahi; Duthé, Géraldine; Findley, Sally

    2014-01-01

    The expected growth in NCDs in cities is one of the most important health challenges of the coming decades in Sub-Saharan countries. This paper aims to fill the gap in our understanding of socio-economic differentials in NCD mortality and risk in low and middle income neighborhoods in urban Africa. We use data collected in the Ouagadougou Health and Demographic Surveillance System. 409 deaths were recorded between 2009–2011 among 20,836 individuals aged 35 years and older; verbal autopsies and the InterVA program were used to determine the probable cause of death. A random survey asked in 2011 1,039 adults aged 35 and over about tobacco use, heavy alcohol consumption, lack of physical activity and measured their weight, height, and blood pressure. These data reveal a high level of premature mortality due to NCDs in all neighborhoods: NCD mortality increases substantially by age 50. NCD mortality is greater in formal neighborhoods, while adult communicable disease mortality remains high, especially in informal neighborhoods. There is a high prevalence of risk factors for NCDs in the studied neighborhoods, with over one-fourth of the adults being overweight and over one-fourth having hypertension. Better-off residents are more prone to physical inactivity and excessive weight, while vulnerable populations such as widows/divorced individuals and migrants suffer more from higher blood pressure. Females have a significantly lower risk of being smokers or heavy drinkers, while they are more likely to be physically inactive or overweight, especially when married. Muslim individuals are less likely to be smokers or heavy drinkers, but have a higher blood pressure. Everything else being constant, individuals living in formal neighborhoods are more often overweight. The data presented make clear the pressing need to develop effective programs to reduce NCD risk across all types of neighborhoods in African cities, and suggest several entry points for community-based prevention programs. PMID:25493649

  1. Complications du diverticule de Meckel (DM) chez l'adulte: à propos de 11 cas au CHU-Yalgado Ouédraogo au Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Ouangré, Edgar; Zida, Maurice; Bazongo, Moussa; Sanou, Adama; Bonkoungou, Gilbert Patindé; Doamba, Rodrigue Namékinsba; Sawadogo, Elie Yamba; Ouédraogo, Sidziguin; Zongo, Nayi; Traore, Si Simon

    2015-01-01

    Le diverticule de Meckel (DM) est la persistance partielle du canal omphalomésentérique. Ses complications sont rares. Le diagnostic est le plus souvent per opératoire. L'objectif a été de décrire les complications du diverticule de Meckel chez l'adulte dans le service de chirurgie générale et digestive du CHU Yalgado Ouédraogo. Il s'est agi d'une étude transversale descriptive sur 10 ans (janvier 2004-décembre 2013) portant sur les dossiers des patients âgés de plus de 15 ans ayant présenté un DM compliqué. Durant la période d’étude, 11 cas ont été colligés. L'incidence annuelle a été de 11 cas. Nous avons noté une prédominance masculine avec un sex-ratio de 4,5. L’âge moyen des patients était de 29,8 ans. Le diagnostic préopératoire a été dans huit cas une occlusion intestinale aiguë, une appendicite aiguë dans deux cas, une péritonite aiguë généralisée dans un cas. Il a été diagnostiqué en peropératoire une occlusion intestinale dans neuf cas; une diverticulite dans un cas et un cas de perforation du DM. Tous les DM avaient été réséqués dont huit résections segmentaires iléales emportant le DM et trois résections cunéiformes. Tous les DM étaient situés à moins d'un mètre de la jonction iléo-caecale. L'histologie réalisée dans deux cas avait conclu à une diverticulite. Les suites opératoires ont été simples dans neuf cas, compliquées dans deux cas dont une éventration et un décès. Les complications du diverticule de Meckel sont rares. Le diagnostic préopératoire est difficile. Le traitement est essentiellement chirurgical. PMID:26958137

  2. Aspects épidémiologique, clinique et anatomopathologique du mélanome CHU Yalgado Ouédraogo de Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)

    PubMed Central

    Korsaga-Somé, Nina; Zongo, Nayi; Ouangré, Edgar; Tapsoba, Patrice; Ouédraogo, Muriel Sidnomam; Ilboudo, Léopold; Bassolet, Alban; Sanou, Maryam; Djimtibaye, Djounitana; Barro-Traoré, Fatou; Niamba, Pascal; Traoré, Adama

    2015-01-01

    Le mélanome est une tumeur maligne développée aux dépens des mélanocytes. Ses caractéristiques épidémiologiques restent peu étudiées dans les populations africaines. D'où le but de cette étude. Il s'est agit d'une étude rétrospective descriptive de janvier 2009 à décembre 2012 et prospective en 2013. Pour la partie rétrospective, nous avons inclus tous les patients atteints de mélanome confirmé par l'examen histopathologique et ayant un dossier clinique exploitable. Pour la partie prospective, nous avons inclus tous les cas de mélanomes recensés en 2013. Les variables étudiées étaient les caractéristiques sociodémographiques, anatomocliniques et thérapeutiques. Au total 19 patients étaient inclus, avec un âge médian de 53,42 ans et 10 patients de sexe féminin. La durée moyenne d’évolution de la maladie était de 3,7 ans. Les lésions étaient surtout ulcero-bourgeonnantes (13), hyperpigmentées (15), et siégeaient sur les plantes (14). Le type et acro-lentigineux était le plus fréquent (13). L'indice de Clarck a été mesuré dans 3 cas, l'indice de Breslow dans aucun cas. Les métastases étaient présentes chez 10 patients. Le traitement était surtout chirurgical. Les 11 patients inclus de manière retrospective étaient ont été perdus de vue. Un décès était noté parmi les 8 patients inclus de manière prospective. Le retard à la consultation semblait être le principal facteur de mauvais pronostic dans notre contexte. Une sensibilisation de la population et du personnel de santé sur les signes précoces de la maladie, permettrait probablement de réduire la morbidité. PMID:26113951

  3. Trajet de soins des personnes âgées à Bobo-Dioulasso, au Burkina Faso: une enquête transversale

    PubMed Central

    Hien, Hervé; Berthé, Abdramane; Konaté, Blahima; Drabo, Maxime koiné; Tou, Fatoumata; Somda, Désiré; Badini-Kinda, Fatoumata; Macq, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Introduction En Afrique, il y n'a pas encore une maitrise du trajet de soins des personnes âgées pour construire des modèles de soins adaptés afin d'améliorer leur prise en charge. L'objectif de cette étude était de décrire le trajet de soins des personnes âgées à Bobo-Dioulasso. Méthodes Nous avons réalisé une étude transversale à prédominance qualitative avec des personnes âgées vivant dans les ménages dans la ville de Bobo-Dioulasso de septembre à novembre 2012. Nous avons sélectionné 30 personnes âgées de manière raisonnée dans 22 secteurs. Des entretiens qualitatifs ont été réalisés. Le recours aux soins formels, informels et mixtes a été analysé. Résultats Le trajet de soins des personnes âgées à Bobo-Dioulasso était à prédominance mixte: elles utilisaient à la fois pour le même épisode de maladie les services publics et privés l'automédication à domicile, la médecine traditionnelle, l'utilisation des médicaments du marche informel de la rue. Les premiers recours aux soins étaient à l'initiative des personnes âgées elles-mêmes. Les recours aux soins formels étaient largement utilisés par les personnes âgées qui avaient un revenu de pension. Conclusion Devant la complexité de la prise en charge des personnes âgées présentant plusieurs pathologies et ayant différents recours des soins il y a une nécessité d'orienter le système d'offre de soins vers une coordination dite « collective ». PMID:26097632

  4. Environmental changes and microbiological health risks. Satellite-derived turbidity: an indicator of "health hazard" for surface water in West Africa (Bagre lake, Burkina Faso).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert, E.; Grippa, M.; Kergoat, L.; Martinez, J.; Pinet, S.; Gal, L.; Soumaguel, N.

    2015-12-01

    A significant correlation exists between the concentration of parasites, bacteria and some water quality parameters including surface suspended solids (SSS) and turbidity. Suspended particles can carry viruses and pathogenic bacteria affecting human health and foster their development. High SSS, associated with high turbidity, can therefore be considered as a vector of microbiological contaminants, causing diarrheal diseases. Few studies have focused on the turbidity parameter in rural Africa, while many cases of intestinal parasitic infections are due to the consumption of unsafe water from ponds, lakes, and rivers. Monitoring turbidity may therefore contribute to health hazard monitoring. Turbidity refers to the optical properties of water and is known to impact water reflectance in the visible and near-infrared domain. Ideally, its spatial and temporal variability requires the use of high temporal resolution (MODIS) and spatial resolution (Landsat, SPOT, Sentinel-2). Here we investigate turbidity in West-Africa. Various algorithms and indices proposed in the literature for inland waters are applied to MODIS series and to Landsat 7 and 8 CDR images, and SPOT5 images. The data and algorithms are evaluated with field measurements: turbidity, SSS, and hyperspectral ground radiometry. We show that turbidity of the Bagre Lake displays a strong increase over 2000-2015, associated with the corresponding increase of the red and NIR reflectances, as well as a reduction of the seasonal variations. Water level derived from the Jason 2 altimeter does not explain such variations. The most probable hypothesis is a change in land use (increase in bare and degraded soils), that leads to an increase in the particles transported by surface runoff to the lake. Such an increase in turbidity reinforces the health risk. We will discuss the link between turbidity and health in view of data from health centers on diarrheal diseases as well as data on practices and uses of populations.

  5. Diagnostic moléculaire du complexe Mycobacterium tuberculosis résistant à l'isoniazide et à la rifampicine au Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Désire, Ilboudo; Cyrille, Bisseye; Florencia, Djigma; Souba, Diande; Albert, Yonli; Valerie, Bazie Jean Telesphore; Rebecca, Compaore; Charlemagne, Gnoula; Tamboura, Djibril; Rémy, Moret; Virginio, Pietra; Simplice, Karou Damintoti; Martial, Ouedraogo; Jacques, Simpore

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cette étude a eu pour objectifs de diagnostiquer la tuberculose pulmonaire par l'examen microscopique et par la PCR des crachats et de déterminer les bases moléculaires de la résistance à la rifampicine et à l'isoniazide. Méthodes Le diagnostic du Complexe Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (CMTB) a été effectué par microscopie après coloration au Ziehl Nielsen et par PCR en temps réel en utilisant le kit d'identification du complexe MTB (Sacace Biotechnologie, Italie). Les résistances à la Rifampicine et à l'Isoniazide ont été étudiées par la technique de la PCR en utilisant le kit MTB résistance 8 (Sacace, Biotechnologie). Résultats Sur les 59 patients diagnostiqués pour la tuberculose pulmonaire, 59,3% étaient positifs en microscopie optique et 44,1% étaient positifs par PCR en Temps réel. Les résistances à la rifampicine (rpoB) et à l'isoniazide (katG et inhA) ont été observées chez 9 patients. La résistance à la rifampicine était due aux mutations (Asp516Val, Ser531Trp, Leu533Pro) et celle à l'isoniazide par les substitutions Ser315Thr du gène katG et C209T du gène inhA. Les multi résistances à la rifampicine et à l'isoniazide ont été observées dans 55,5% des échantillons et concernaient les associations: ropBAsp513Val + inhAC209T et rpoBLeu533Pro + katGSer315Thr. Conclusion La PCR en temps réel qui permet l'identification des allèles mutants rpoB, katG et inhA de M. tuberculosis est un outil de diagnostic épidémiologique de grande importance car elle permet de déterminer le niveau de résistance à la rifampicine et à l'isoniazide. PMID:26491516

  6. Evaluation of the acceptability of improved supplementary foods for the treatment of moderate acute malnutrition in Burkina Faso using a mixed method approach.

    PubMed

    Iuel-Brockdorf, Ann-Sophie; Draebel, Tania Aase; Ritz, Christian; Fabiansen, Christian; Cichon, Bernardette; Brix Christensen, Vibeke; Yameogo, Charles; Oummani, Rouafi; Briend, André; Michaelsen, Kim F; Ashorn, Per; Filteau, Suzanne; Friis, Henrik

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate, within the context of a randomized controlled trial of product effectiveness, the acceptability of new formulations of six corn-soy blended flours (CSB) and six lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) with different quantities of milk and qualities of soy for the treatment of children with moderate acute malnutrition (MAM). Our study included 1546 children aged 6-23 months and involved questionnaires after one month of supplementation home visits and interviews with a sub-sample of 20 trial participants and their caretakers, and nine focus group discussion. All 12 products were well accepted in terms of organoleptic qualities and received good ratings. However, LNS were more appreciated by caretakers and children. Additionally, an effect of soy isolate was detected on child appreciation where products with high milk content also received better ratings. CSB were not consumed as readily; 33.9% (n = 257) of children receiving CSB were reported to have leftovers compared to 17.3% (n = 134) of children receiving LNS (p=<0.001). Both CSB and LNS were referred to as foods with medicinal properties and perceived as beneficial to child health. They were both reported to have high priority in the daily feeding of the child. In conclusion, there were minimal differences in acceptability of the various CSB and LNS formulations, although CSB were less readily consumed and required smaller meal volumes. Since all products were well-accepted, decisions regarding whether the more expensive products should be used for the treatment of MAM will need to be based on their effect on child nutrition, growth and health. Future supplementary feeding programs in similar contexts could furthermore consider introducing supplementary foods as a medical treatment, as this may increase adherence and decrease sharing. PMID:26752599

  7. Non-Communicable Disease Mortality and Risk Factors in Formal and Informal Neighborhoods, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso: Evidence from a Health and Demographic Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Rossier, Clémentine; Soura, Abdramane Bassiahi; Duthé, Géraldine; Findley, Sally

    2014-01-01

    The expected growth in NCDs in cities is one of the most important health challenges of the coming decades in Sub-Saharan countries. This paper aims to fill the gap in our understanding of socio-economic differentials in NCD mortality and risk in low and middle income neighborhoods in urban Africa. We use data collected in the Ouagadougou Health and Demographic Surveillance System. 409 deaths were recorded between 2009-2011 among 20,836 individuals aged 35 years and older; verbal autopsies and the InterVA program were used to determine the probable cause of death. A random survey asked in 2011 1,039 adults aged 35 and over about tobacco use, heavy alcohol consumption, lack of physical activity and measured their weight, height, and blood pressure. These data reveal a high level of premature mortality due to NCDs in all neighborhoods: NCD mortality increases substantially by age 50. NCD mortality is greater in formal neighborhoods, while adult communicable disease mortality remains high, especially in informal neighborhoods. There is a high prevalence of risk factors for NCDs in the studied neighborhoods, with over one-fourth of the adults being overweight and over one-fourth having hypertension. Better-off residents are more prone to physical inactivity and excessive weight, while vulnerable populations such as widows/divorced individuals and migrants suffer more from higher blood pressure. Females have a significantly lower risk of being smokers or heavy drinkers, while they are more likely to be physically inactive or overweight, especially when married. Muslim individuals are less likely to be smokers or heavy drinkers, but have a higher blood pressure. Everything else being constant, individuals living in formal neighborhoods are more often overweight. The data presented make clear the pressing need to develop effective programs to reduce NCD risk across all types of neighborhoods in African cities, and suggest several entry points for community-based prevention programs. PMID:25493649

  8. Santé sexuelle et reproductive des adolescentes de Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso: place de la communication parents-adolescentes pour la réduction des risques

    PubMed Central

    Some, Donmozoun Télesphore; Some, Der Adolphe; Hien, Hervé; Diallo, Ramata; Zingue, Dézémon; Diallo, Ibrahim; Diagbouga, Serge; Dao, Blami

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Les adolescentes sont très vulnérables face aux Infections Sexuellement Transmissibles (IST) et au VIH/SIDA. Notre étude a pour objectifs d’explorer la qualité de la communication entre les adolescentes et leurs parents sur les IST/VIH/SIDA et de recueillir leurs suggestions pour l’amélioration de cette communication. Méthodes L’étude était transversale qualitative sur 2 mois. La population de l’étude était composée par des adolescentes de 13 à 17 ans et leurs parents habitant la ville de Bobo Dioulasso. Vingt (20) adolescentes scolarisées ont été tirés au sort dans trois établissements secondaires et 20 autres non scolarisées choisies de façon accidentelle dans la ville. Les informations ont été collectées à l’aide de 8 focus groups. Les discussions ont été enregistrées sur cassettes, retranscrites en verbatim, et analysées à l’aide du logiciel QSR NVIVO 2.0. Résultats Les adolescentes et leurs parents communiquent très peu ou pas sur les questions des IST/VIH/SIDA; l’auto-information par les paires ou les médias est la première source d’information. Pour les parents, l’information existe et est accessible aux adolescentes alors que pour ces dernières, leurs connaissances de ces maladies sont parfois erronées. L’abstinence, la fidélité et le dépistage volontaire comme moyen de prévention sont très peu évoqués par les adolescentes de même que par leurs parents. Conclusion La communication parents-adolescentes est insuffisante voire absente dans certains milieux. Il est urgent de conduire des actions auprès des adolescentes et leurs parents pour mieux les informer sur les IST/VIH/SIDA et améliorer la communication sur ces maladies. PMID:22655099

  9. The impact of clinical research activities on communities in rural Africa: the development of the Clinical Research Unit of Nanoro (CRUN) in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The opportunities for developing new drugs and vaccines for malaria control look brighter now than ten years ago. However, there are few places in sub-Saharan Africa with the necessary infrastructure and expertise to support such research in compliance to international standards of clinical research (ICH-GCP). The Clinical Research Unit of Nanoro (CRUN) was founded in 2008 to provide a much-needed GCP-compliant clinical trial platform for an imminent large-scale Phase 3 malaria vaccine trial. A dynamic approach was used that entailed developing the required infrastructure and human resources, while engaging local communities in the process as key stakeholders. This provided a better understanding and ownership of the research activities by the local population. Case description Within five years (2008–2013), the CRUN set up a fully and well-equipped GCP-compliant clinical trial research facility, which enabled to attract 25 grants. The research team grew from ten health workers prior to 2008 to 254 in 2013. A Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS), which covers a total population of about 60,000 people in 24 villages was set up in the district. The local community contributed to the development of the facility through the leadership of the king and the mayor of Nanoro. As a result of their active advocacy, the government extended the national electrical grid to the new research center, and later to the entire village. This produced a positive impact on the community’s quality of life. The quality of health care improved substantially, due to the creation of more elaborate clinical laboratory services and the acquisition of state-of-the-art equipment. Conclusion Involving the community in the key steps of establishing the centre provided the foundation for what was to become the CRUN success story. This experience demonstrates that when clinical trials research sites are carefully developed and implemented, they can have a positive and powerful impact on local communities in resource-poor settings, well beyond the task of generating expected study data. PMID:24655351

  10. Le paludisme congénital maladie à Plasmodium falciparum: aspects épidémiologiques, cliniques, biologiques, thérapeutiques et pronostiques à Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Nagalo, Kisito; Dao, Fousséni; Minodier, Philippe; Sawadogo, Oumarou; Sanon, Harouna; Tall, François Housséini; Yé, Diarra

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Le paludisme reste un problème majeur de santé publique en Afrique subsaharienne. Le but de l’étude était d’étudier le paludisme congénital maladie et les objectifs étaient de déterminer la prévalence du paludisme congénital maladie, de décrire sa présentation clinique et biologique, et de calculer son taux de mortalité. Méthodes Une étude rétrospective cas-témoins sur une période de 10 années (de Juin 1999 à Mai 2009) était menée dans l'Unité de Néonatologie de la Clinique El Fateh-Suka. Etaient inclus tous les nouveau-nés âgés de moins de sept jours hospitalisés qui avaient une recherche documentée du Plasmodium par la goutte épaisse et le frottis sanguin. Résultats La fréquence du paludisme congénital maladie était 170/697 (24,4%). Parmi les facteurs maternels, un nombre de grossesses ≥ 2 était associé au paludisme congénital maladie (OR = 1,93; IC95% [1,03-3,63]; p = 0,04). Aucun facteur propre au nouveau-né n’était associé à la maladie. La fréquence de la fièvre était 48,3%, les autres signes cliniques évoquaient une infection néonatale. Plasmodium falciparum était la seule espèce parasitaire en cause. Les décès survenaient dans 55% des cas dans les 24 heures suivant l'admission et le taux de létalité était de 20/170 (11,8%). Conclusion La prévalence du paludisme congénital maladie est élevée dans notre Unité et les facteurs de risque de la maladie sont difficiles à cerner. Parce que les symptômes ne sont pas spécifiques, la recherche de Plasmodium doit être systématique chez tout nouveau-né malade en zone d'endémie palustre. PMID:25368736

  11. Assessment of sorghum germplasm from Burkina Faso and South Africa to identify new sources of resistance to grain mold and anthracnose

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum is an important worldwide crop whose yield can be significantly reduced by anthracnose (Colletotrichum sublineola) and grain mold diseases (multiple fungi). The identification of new genetic sources of resistance to both diseases is imperative for the development of new sorghum varieties. T...

  12. Pratique de l’échocardiographie transœsophagienne au Burkina Faso: analyse situationnelle et perspectives de développement

    PubMed Central

    Yaméogo, Nobila Valentin; Kagambèga, Larissa Justine; Millogo, Georges Rosario Christian; Niankara, Aminata; Kologo, Koudougou Jonas; Toguyéni, Boubacar Jean Yves; Samadoulougou, André; Zabsonré, Patrice

    2015-01-01

    Introduction L’échocardiographie transœsophagienne (ETO) est une technique relativement récente mais elle est devenue un complément indispensable à l’écho Doppler cardiaque transthoracique dans certaines pathologies. Elle constitue encore un luxe dans certains pays en développement. Ce travail avait pour objectif de faire l’état des lieux de la réalisation de l'ETO dans notre pays. Méthodes Nous avons réalisé une étude transversale descriptive qui s'est déroulée du 1er mars 2011 au 31 juillet 2013 dans deux centres hospitaliers de la ville de Ouagadougou incluant les patients adressés pour ETO. L'examen a été réalisé par un cardiologue avec un échographe de marque Siemens muni d'une sonde d'ETO. Une surveillance de la tension artérielle et du rythme cardiaque était réalisée en cours d'examen et une mise en observation de 15 minutes était respectée après l'examen. L’épreuve de contraste était systématique en dehors des cas de communication interatrial évidente. Résultats Durant la période de l’étude, 142 ETO ont été réalisées. L’âge moyen des patients était de 44,6 ± 11,9 ans. Le sex-ratio était de 1,3 en faveur des femmes. Les indications étaient dominées par les endocardites (19%), les accidents vasculaires cérébraux ischémiques (16,9%) et les évaluations de prothèses valvulaires (15,5%). L'introduction de la sonde était facile dans 97,2% des cas et laborieuse dans les autres cas. Aucun accident n’était mentionné. L'ETO était normale dans 28,2% des cas. Les résultats pathologiques étaient représentés par les masses intracardiaques (21,1%), les anomalies du septum interatrial (19%), les endocardites (13,4%) et les pathologies de l'aorte (10,6%). Conclusion L'ETO est un examen maîtrisé dans notre pays mais reste encore à être développé. Ce développement passe par la formation du personnel et l’équipement en échographes munis de sondes d'ETO. PMID:26327994

  13. [Effect of a large scale community-based distribution of artemether-lumefantrine on its therapeutic efficacy among children living in a rural area of Burkina Faso].

    PubMed

    Siribié, M; Diarra, A; Tiono, A B; Soulama, I; Sirima, S B

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to assess the effect of an integrated community case management of malaria and pneumonia programme (iCCMmp) on the efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine (AL). Thus, we carried out two open label and unique centre clinical trials, before and after the iCCMmp, on the therapeutic efficacy of AL. A total of 210 children aged 6-59 months, were included in the study, 105 before and 105 after the iCCMmp. The adequate clinical and parasitological response was 90.5% and 86.7% respectively before and after the iCCMmp (p value = 0.516). Our findings reported no effect of iCCMmp on the therapeutic efficacy of the AL. PMID:25925810

  14. Antibodies to malaria vaccine candidates are associated with chloroquine or sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine treatment efficacy in children in an endemic area of Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Patient immune status is thought to affect the efficacy of anti-malarial chemotherapy. This is a subject of some importance, since evidence of immunity-related interactions may influence our use of chemotherapy in populations with drug resistance, as well as assessment of the value of suboptimal vaccines. The study aim was to investigate relationship between antibodies and anti-malarial drug treatment outcomes. Methods Some 248 children aged 0.5 and 15 years were recruited prior to the high malaria transmission season. Venous blood (5 ml) was obtained from each child to measure antibody levels to selected malaria antigens, using ELISA. Blood smears were also performed to assess drug efficacy and malaria infection prevalence. Children were actively followed up to record clinical malaria cases. Results IgG levels to MSP3 were always higher in the successfully treated group than in the group with treatment failure. The same observation was made for GLURP but the reverse observation was noticed for MSP1-19. Cytophilic and non-cytophilic antibodies were significantly associated with protection against all three antigens, except for IgG4 to MSP1-19 and GLURP. Conclusion Acquired anti-malarial antibodies may play an important role in the efficacy of anti-malarial drugs in younger children more susceptible to the disease. PMID:22439695

  15. [Efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine in the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in children living in a rural area of Burkina Faso in 2009].

    PubMed

    Siribié, M; Diarra, A; Tiono, A B; Soulama, I; Sirima, S B

    2012-08-01

    In order to implement community case management of malaria strategy in a rural area of intense transmission, of children using artemether-lumefantrine combination, we assessed the therapeutic efficacy of the medicine. We conducted an open label and uncontrolled clinical trial in an unique centre from September 2009 to December 2009 in children 6-59 months old who consulted at health facilities for uncomplicated malaria. The primary endpoint was clinical and parasitological cure rate at day 28 corrected by PCR. In total 106 children were enrolled. Parasite clearance at day 2 was 99.04% and the adequate clinical and parasitological response corrected by PCR at day 28 was 90.5%. Our results confirm that artemether-lumefantrine combination is still effective. PMID:22322791

  16. Seasonal performance of a malaria rapid diagnosis test at community health clinics in a malaria-hyperendemic region of Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Backgound Treatment of confirmed malaria patients with Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT) at remote areas is the goal of many anti-malaria programs. Introduction of effective and affordable malaria Rapid Diagnosis Test (RDT) in remote areas could be an alternative tool for malaria case management. This study aimed to assess performance of the OptiMAL dipstick for rapid malaria diagnosis in children under five. Methods Malaria symptomatic and asymptomatic children were recruited in a passive manner in two community clinics (CCs). Malaria diagnosis by microscopy and RDT were performed. Performance of the tests was determined. Results RDT showed similar ability (61.2%) to accurately diagnose malaria as microscopy (61.1%). OptiMAL showed a high level of sensitivity and specificity, compared with microscopy, during both transmission seasons (high & low), with a sensitivity of 92.9% vs. 74.9% and a specificity of 77.2% vs. 87.5%. Conclusion By improving the performance of the test through accurate and continuous quality control of the device in the field, OptiMAL could be suitable for use at CCs for the management and control of malaria. PMID:22647557

  17. Evaluation of Antigen Detection Tests, Microscopy, and Polymerase Chain Reaction for Diagnosis of Malaria in Peripheral Blood in Asymptomatic Pregnant Women in Nanoro, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Kattenberg, Johanna H.; Tahita, Christian M.; Versteeg, Inge A. J.; Tinto, Halidou; Traoré/Coulibaly, Maminata; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Schallig, Henk D. F. H.; Mens, Petra F.

    2012-01-01

    Rapid diagnostics tests (RDTs) detect malaria specific antigen(s) in the circulation, even when parasites are sequestered in the placenta and not visible by microscopy. However, research on their diagnostic accuracy during pregnancy is limited. Pregnant women (n = 418) were screened for malaria during routine antenatal care by using two RDTs that detect histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2) or Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with antibodies that detect dihydrofolate reductase–thymidylate synthase or heme-detoxification protein, and compared with real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and microscopy for evaluation of their diagnostic accuracy. Prevalence of malaria infection was high (53% by PCR). The RT-PCR and the HRP2 RDT detected most cases of malaria during pregnancy, whereas microscopy, the Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase RDT, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for dihydrofolate reductase–thymidylate synthase and heme-detoxification protein antibodies did not detect several low-density infections. Therefore, the HRP2 RDT could be a useful tool in high-transmission areas for diagnosis of malaria in asymptomatic pregnant women. PMID:22859362

  18. [Blood exposure accidents: Knowledge, attitudes and practices of nursing and midwifery students at the Bobo-Dioulasso teaching hospital (Burkina Faso)].

    PubMed

    Zoungrana, J; Yaméogo, T M; Kyelem, C G; Aba, Y T; Sawadogo, A; Millogo, A

    2014-01-01

    Blood exposure accidents are the source of major risks of contamination of healthcare personnel. The objective of this study was to describe the knowledge of standard precautions, and the attitudes and practices of nursing and midwifery students in relation to this accidental exposure. This cross-sectional survey, conducted in November 2011, was based on voluntary anonymous questionnaires completed by students working in the medical ward of the Bobo-Dioulasso teaching hospital. Of the 275 students asked to participate, 219 (92.8%) completed the questionnaire: 138 (63,0%) were student nurses and 81 (37.0%) student midwives. Their mean age was 27.9 ± 5 years. Among them, 64 (29.1%) acknowledged accidental exposure to blood during treatment performed as part of their hospital work. Only 30 of these 64 cases were reported at the time. The standard precautions for the prevention of these accidents were known to 131 students (59.8%); 58.4% always wore gloves for invasive procedures; 74.9% reported that the syringe container was "always" or "often" used. The needles used were "always" or "often" recapped before disposal in only 39.1% of cases. Only 11.0% were fully vaccinated against hepatitis B. Blood exposure accidents were not uncommon among these students and their knowledge of the standard precautions and actions to take in case of an accident is insufficient. These data show the need for further training and awareness campaigns to improve these hospital practices. PMID:24922618

  19. Randomized Noninferiority Trial of Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine Compared with Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine plus Amodiaquine for Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Compaore, Yves Daniel; Some, A. Fabrice; Greenwood, Brian; Tarning, Joel; Rosenthal, Philip J.; Sutherland, Colin; Nosten, Francois; Ouedraogo, Jean-Bosco

    2015-01-01

    The WHO recommends that children living in areas of highly seasonal malaria transmission in the Sahel subregion should receive seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine plus amodiaquine (SPAQ). We evaluated the use of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHAPQ) as an alternative drug that could be used if SPAQ starts to lose efficacy. A total of 1,499 children 3 to 59 months old were randomized to receive SMC with SPAQ or DHAPQ over 3 months. The primary outcome measure was the risk of clinical malaria (fever or a history of fever with a parasite density of at least 3,000/μl). A cohort of 250 children outside the trial was followed up as a control group. Molecular markers of drug resistance were assessed. The risk of a malaria attack was 0.19 in the DHAPQ group and 0.15 in the SPAQ group, an odds ratio of 1.33 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02 to 1.72). Efficacy of SMC compared to the control group was 77% (67% to 84%) for DHAPQ and 83% (74% to 89%) for SPAQ. pfdhfr and pfdhps mutations associated with antifolate resistance were more prevalent in parasites from children who received SPAQ than in children who received DHAPQ. Both regimens were highly efficacious and well tolerated. DHAPQ is a potential alternative drug for SMC. (This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00941785.) PMID:25918149

  20. Syndrome métabolique chez les patients hypertendus dans le service cardiologie du CHU Yalgado Ouedraogo de Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Millogo, Georges Rosario Christian; Samandoulougou, André; Yaméogo, Nobila Valentin; Yaméogo, Aristide Relwendé; Kologo, Koudougou Jonas; Toguyeni, Jean Yves; Zabsonré, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Le syndrome métabolique constitue de nos jours un véritable problème de santé publique. Le syndrome métabolique est le moteur d'une double épidémie mondiale de diabète type II et de maladies cardiovasculaires. L'objectif de notre étude est de décrire les aspects épidémiologiques, cliniques, para cliniques et évolutifs chez les hypertendus dans le service de Cardiologie du CHU Yalgado Ouédraogo. Méthodes Il s'agissait d'une étude rétrospective sur une période de deux ans dans le service de cardiologie chez les patients hypertendus ayant un syndrome métabolique. Résultats La fréquence du syndrome métabolique était de 17,5% des patients hypertendus. Le sex ratio était de 1,2. L’âge moyen des patients étaient de 56,1 ±10,7 ans. Les patients connus hypertendus étaient de 92,1% avec une durée moyenne d’évolution de l'HTA qui était de 8,7 ± 5,9 ans. Le suivi était irrégulier dans 60% cas et une rupture du traitement dans 37,1% des cas. La dyslipidémie était notée dans 84,2% des cas et le diabète dans 60,5% des cas. La PAS moyenne était de 184,3 ± 47,3 mmHg et la PAD moyenne était de 110,7 ± 27,7 mmHg. L'HTA était sévère dans 63,2% des cas. La glycémie moyenne était de 8,3 ± 4,3 mmol/L, le LDL cholestérol moyen était de 3,5 ± 1,0 mmol/L et le taux des triglycérides moyen était de 1,6 ± 1,1 mmol/L. L'HVG électrique était notée chez 76,3% des patients et échographique dans 58,8% des cas. Les atteintes viscérales étaient neurologique dans 44,5%, rénale dans 55,3% et cardiaque dans 31,2% des cas. Le nombre moyen d'antihypertenseurs était de 3,0 ± 1,0 et 76,3% ont reçu au moins une trithérapie antihypertensive. Le taux de mortalité était de 5,3%. Conclusion Le syndrome métabolique est une pathologie qui pose la problématique de la définition qui n'est pas consensuelle d'une part et d'autre part du contrôle de ses éléments constitutifs surtout l'HTA. PMID:25883718

  1. Formes hémorragiques de Dengue observées dans le service des maladies infectieuses du CHU Yalgado Ouédraogo, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Mamoudou, Savadogo; Boushab, Boushab Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    La dengue est une arbovirose ré émergente dans les pays tropicaux. Sa forme hémorragique peut s'accompagner d'une défaillance circulatoire pouvant conduire à un choc hypovolémique, souvent fatal. Nous rapportons une série de trois cas de formes hémorragiques de dengue observées dans le service des maladies infectieuses du CHU Yalgado Ouédraogo de Ouagadougou dont l'objectif est de décrire les caractéristiques épidémiologiques cliniques et évolutives. Les cas étaient des jeunes de sexe féminin dont l’âge variait entre 27 ans et 43 ans, résidant dans la ville de Ouagadougou. Malgré de multiples transfusions de concentrées plaquettaires et un traitement symptomatique, nous déplorons un cas de décès. Le développement d'antiviraux et la mise au point de nouveaux vaccins constituent une lueur d'espoir pour prévenir la létalité due à cette maladie. PMID:27303584

  2. Diagnostic et prévalence du syndrome métabolique chez les diabétiques suivis dans un contexte de ressources limitées: cas du Burkina-Faso

    PubMed Central

    Marceline, Yaméogo Téné; Issiaka, Sombié; Gilberte, Kyélem Carole; Nadège, Rouamba; Macaire, Ouédraogo Sampawindé; Arsène, Yaméogo Aimé; Djingri, Lankoandé; Apollinaire, Sawadogo; Joseph, Drabo Youssouf

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Les conséquences du syndrome métabolique impliquent son diagnostic effectif pour une prise en charge globale des comorbidités dépistées. Objectif: Déterminer la capacité à diagnostiquer le syndrome métabolique en routine, sa prévalence chez les diabétiques, leurs connaissances et pratiques vis-à-vis du risque cardio-métabolique. Méthodes Il s'est agi d'une étude transversale auprès de 388 diabétiques au CHU de Bobo-Dioulasso. Les critères de la fédération internationale du diabète (2009) ont été utilisés. Résultats l’âge moyen était de 53,5±13,5 ans, le sex ratio de 0,7. L'obésité abdominale était présente dans 61,9% des cas; L'HTA l’était dans 56,4% des cas. La prescription du bilan lipidique a été documentée dans 55,4% des cas pour le HDL et 56,2% pour les triglycérides pour un taux de réalisation de 49,3% et 62,9%. Le taux de dépistage des critères lipidiques était de 26,8%. Un taux de HDL bas a été noté dans 46 cas (43,4%) et une hypertriglycéridémie dans 24 cas (17,6%). In fine, la prévalence du syndrome métabolique était de 48,9% (n = 190). Seuls 27,4% savaient que d'autres facteurs de risque cardiovasculaire pouvaient être associés au diabète et seulement 6,7% pratiquaient une activité physique régulière. Conclusion Malgré la faible contribution du laboratoire, le syndrome métabolique est fréquent parmi nos diabétiques. Les patients sont peu sensibilisés sur le risque vasculaire et la pratique d'une activité physique régulière reste faible. Un programme d’éducation adaptée contribuerait à un meilleur dépistage et à une prise en charge optimale des cas. PMID:25932077

  3. Humoral Responses to Plasmodium falciparum Blood-Stage Antigens and Association with Incidence of Clinical Malaria in Children Living in an Area of Seasonal Malaria Transmission in Burkina Faso, West Africa▿

    PubMed Central

    Nebie, Issa; Diarra, Amidou; Ouedraogo, Alphonse; Soulama, Issiaka; Bougouma, Edith C.; Tiono, Alfred B.; Konate, Amadou T.; Chilengi, Roma; Theisen, Michael; Dodoo, Daniel; Remarque, Ed; Bosomprah, Samuel; Milligan, Paul; Sirima, Sodiomon B.

    2008-01-01

    There is longstanding evidence that immunoglobulin G (IgG) has a role in protection against clinical malaria, and human antibodies of the cytophilic subclasses are thought to be particularly critical in this respect. In this cohort study, 286 Burkinabè children 6 months to 15 years old were kept under malaria surveillance in order to assess the protective role of antibody responses against four antigens which are currently being evaluated as vaccine candidates: apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1), merozoite surface protein 1-19 (MSP1-19), MSP3, and glutamate-rich protein (GLURP). Total IgG, IgM, and IgG subclass responses were measured just before the malaria transmission season. The incidence of malaria was 2.4 episodes per child year of risk. After adjusting for the confounding effects of age, the level of total IgG to GLURP was strongly associated with reduced malaria incidence (incidence rate ratio associated with a doubling of total IgG, 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.66 to 0.94; P = 0.009.); there was a borderline statistically significant association between the level of total IgG to MSP3 and malaria incidence and no evidence of an association for total IgG to AMA1 and to MSP1-19. Of the IgG subclass responses studied, only IgG3 and IgG4 against GLURP and IgG1 against AMA1 were associated with reduced risk of clinical malaria. There was no evidence of an interaction between responses to AMA1 and baseline parasitemia in their effects on malaria incidence. Currently included in malaria vaccine formulations for clinical trials in humans, these blood-stage antigens, AMA1 and GLURP, offer good prospects for malaria vaccine development. PMID:18070896

  4. Analyse sérologique de la toxoplasmose pergravidique: évaluation des risques et perspectives du dépistage prénatal au centre hospitalier universitaire de Bobo Dioulasso au Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Bamba, Sanata; Some, Der Adolphe; Chemla, Cathy; Geers, Régine; Guiguemde, Tinga Robert; Villena, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Introduction La présente étude rapporte les données sérologiques de 306 sérums collectés chez des parturientes au CHU de Bobo Dioulasso et analysés rétrospectivement au CHU de Reims en 2011. Le but était de déterminer le statut sérologique de ces parturientes et d'en déduire la conduite à tenir. Méthodes La recherche des IgG et des IgM anti toxoplasmiques était systématique. Les techniques d'agglutination haute sensibilisée et celle d'Immunocapture M ont servi à la recherche respective des anticorps spécifiques IgG et des IgM. Résultats Sur 306 sérums analysés, 95 (31%) avaient des IgG positifs et aucun n'avait des IgM. Deux cent onze (211) sérums (69%) des sérums n'avaient ni IgG, ni IgM. Conclusion Nos résultats montrent que 31% des femmes en dehors d'une immunodépression sous jacente, possèdent une immunité résiduelle vis à vis de Toxoplasma gondii et n'ont pas la nécessité d'avoir une surveillance sérologique pendant la grossesse. Cependant, 69% (211) des parturientes sont à risque d'une séroconversion, et devraient bénéficier de conseils hygiéno diététiques, associés à une surveillance sérologique durant la grossesse. Ces résultats montrent l'intérêt de mettre en place des mesures de prévention contre la toxoplasmose congénitale, étant l'une des affections materno - foetales les plus fréquentes par la mise en place d'un diagnostic prénatal de la toxoplasmose en routine dans notre hôpital. PMID:22937183

  5. Troubles du sommeil, symptômes anxio-dépressifs et risque cardio-vasculaire chez les hypertendus noirs africains: étude transversale de 414 hypertendus suivis en ambulatoire au CHU de Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)

    PubMed Central

    Yaméogo, Nobila Valentin; Samadoulougou, André; Kagambèga, Larissa Justine; Yaméogo, Aimé Arsène; Ilboudo, Eric; Millogo, Georges; Kologo, Jonas; Toguyeni, Jean Yves; Simporé, Jacques; Zabsonré, Patrice

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Dans le but de déterminer la fréquence des troubles du sommeil, de l'anxiété et de la dépression, et de rechercher l'existence d'une relation entre ces troubles et le risque cardio-vasculaire global chez les hypertendus noirs africains, nous avons réalisé une étude transversale de mai 2010 à mars 2011 à l'unité de consultation externe du service de cardiologie du CHU-Yalgado Ouédraogo de Ouagadougou qui a inclut 414 hypertendus adultes suivis en ambulatoire. Après un examen clinique à la recherche des facteurs de risque cardio-vasculaire, deux auto-questionnaires ont été administrés. Méthodes Le questionnaire de l’«European Sleep Center » pour la recherche des troubles du sommeil et, l’échelle «Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale » de Zigmond et Snaith pour la recherche de l'anxiété et la dépression. Le diagnostic du syndrome d'apnée du sommeil était clinique et basé sur la présence des 4 symptômes principaux: hypersomnolence diurne, éveils nocturnes fréquents avec nycturie, asthénie matinale avec ou sans céphalées et ronflements importants. Le risque cardio-vasculaire global était calculé grâce à l’équation d'Anderson tirée de l’étude de Framingham. L'analyse des données a été réalisée par le logiciel SPSS version 17. La comparaison des variables a été effectuée grâce au test de Khi 2 pour les variables qualitatives et au test «t» de Student pour les variables quantitatives. Le seuil de signification a été fixé à 5%. Résultats L’échantillon était composé de 414 patients dont 248 femmes (59,9%). L’âge moyen était de 54,6 ± 9,3 ans. Les troubles du sommeil étaient retrouvés dans 72,2% des cas. Ils étaient dominés par l'insomnie (49,2%), le syndrome d'apnée du sommeil (33,5%) et le syndrome des jambes sans repos (25,8%). L'anxiété était retrouvée dans 37,1% des cas et la dépression dans 16,6% des cas. Le risque cardio-vasculaire global était faible dans 21,0%, modéré dans 33,6%, élevé dans 24,4% et très élevé dans 21,0% des cas. Le syndrome d'apnée du sommeil (p=0,033), le syndrome des jambes sans repos (p=0,005), l'anxiété (p=0,0021) et la dépression (p=0,0001) étaient significativement associés à un risque cardio-vasculaire élevé à très élevé. Conclusion Les troubles du sommeil, l'anxiété et la dépression sont fréquents chez les hypertendus noirs africains. Ils sont liés à un niveau de risque cardio-vasculaire élevé. Leur dépistage devrait être intégré à la prise en charge des hypertendus. PMID:26327952

  6. Cardiopathies congénitales: aspects épidémiologiques et échocardiographies à propos de 109 cas au centre hospitalier universitaire pédiatrique Charles de Gaulle (CHUP-CDG) de Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Kinda, Georges; Millogo, Georges Rosario Christian; Koueta, Fla; Dao, Lassina; Talbousouma, Sollimy; Cissé, Hassane; Djiguimdé, Aristide; Yé, Diarra; Sorgho, Claudine Lougue

    2015-01-01

    Notre travail avait pour objectif d’étudier les aspects épidémiologiques et écho-cardiographiques des cardiopathies congénitales au CHUP-CDG afin d'y faire l’état des lieux. Pour se faire, nous avons mené sur une période de 27 mois d'aout 2009 à mai 2010 et d'octobre 2011 à décembre 2011, une étude rétrospective des comptes rendus d’échocardiographies Doppler des patients admis dans le service d'imagerie médicale. Nous avons utilisé une sonde cardiaque de 5MHz sur appareil Aloka Prosound 4000 Plus. Durant la période d’étude, 380 examens écho-cardiographiques ont été réalisés et ont permis de mettre en évidence 109 cas de cardiopathies congénitales avec 138 entités nosologiques différentes. Les cardiopathies congénitales représentaient 0,98% des 11169 entrées. Les souffles étaient au premier rang des motifs de demande de l’échographie Doppler cardiaque (121 cas sur 380) soit 39,53%. Les CIV étaient au premier plan des cardiopathies congénitales (28,26%), suivies des CIA (23,19%), des sténoses pulmonaires (19,57%), des Tétralogie de Fallot (9,42%). Dans leur forme isolée, les CIA étaient les plus fréquentes avec 21,95% des cas, suivies des CIV avec 20,73%. Sur 138 cas de cardiopathies congénitales (chez 109 enfants), 53 cas ont été observés chez des enfants de sexe féminin et 56 cas chez des enfants de sexe masculin soit un sexe ration de 1,1. La tranche d’âge présentant une fréquence élevée de cardiopathie congénitale est celle de 1mois- 30 mois avec 55% des cas. Les cardiopathies congénitales de l'enfant sont une réalité en Afrique, leurs fréquences dans toutes les séries rapportées sont certainement sous estimées en raison de l'inaccessibilité de l’échocardiographie doppler. PMID:26090039

  7. Differences in timing of mating swarms in sympatric populations of Anopheles coluzzii and Anopheles gambiae s.s. (formerly An. gambiae M and S molecular forms) in Burkina Faso, West Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The M and S molecular forms of Anopheles gambiae s.s. Giles appear to have speciated in West Africa and the M form is now formally named An. coluzzii Coetzee & Wilkerson sp.n. and the S form retains the nominotypical name (abbreviated here to An. gambiae). Reproductive isolation is thought to be the main barrier to hybridisation; even though both species are found in the same mating swarms, hybrid fertilisations in copulae have not been found in the study area. The aim of the study, therefore, was to determine whether differences in circadian and/or environmental control over the timing of swarming in the two species contribute to reproductive isolation. Methods The timing of male swarming in these species was recorded four nights per month over four years at five swarming sites in each of two villages. The timing of the start and end of swarming, and the concurrent environmental parameters, temperature, humidity and light intensity, were recorded for n = 20 swarms/month/species. The timing of 'spontaneous’ activity at dusk of individual An. coluzzii and An. gambiae males was video-recorded in an actograph outdoors for 21 nights. Results Of the environmental parameters considered, swarming was most strongly correlated with sunset (r2 > 0.946). Anopheles gambiae started and stopped swarming earlier than An. coluzzii (3:35 ± 0:68 min:sec and 4:51 ± 1:21, respectively), and the mean duration of swarming was 23:37 ± 0:33 for An. gambiae and 21:39 ± 0:33 for An. coluzzii. Accordingly, in principle, whenever both species swarm over the same marker, a mean of 15.3 ± 3.1% of An. gambiae swarming would occur before An. coluzzii males arrived, and 19.5 ± 4.55% of An. coluzzii swarming would occurred after An. gambiae males had stopped swarming. These results are consistent with the finding that An. gambiae males became active in the actograph 09:35 ± 00:22 min:sec earlier than An. coluzzii males. Conclusions The timing of swarming and spontaneous activity at dusk are primarily under circadian control, with the phase linked closely to sunset throughout the year. The mating activity of these two species is temporally segregated for 15-20% of the swarming period, which may contribute to the observed reproductive isolation of these species in local sympatric populations. PMID:24330578

  8. Résultats fonctionnels de la chirurgie de la cataracte par phacoalternative avec implantation en chambre postérieure: à propos de 300 cas à Bobo Dioulasso (Burkina Faso)

    PubMed Central

    Diallo, Jean Wenceslas; Meda, Nonfounikoun; Ahnoux-Zabsonre, Ahgbatouhabéba; Yameogo, Claudette; Dolo, Mariam; Sanou, Jérôme; Daboue, Arsène

    2015-01-01

    La cataracte est la première cause de cécité curable dans le monde. Son traitement est chirurgical. Le but de notre travail a été d’évaluer les résultats de la phacoalternative ou la chirurgie de la cataracte à petite incision. Il s'est agi d'une étude transversale descriptive à collecte prospective allant du 1er janvier au 31 septembre 2014, chez des patients âgés d'au moins 40 ans. Les données socio-démographiques, l'acuité visuelle, l'astigmatisme et les complications ont été évalués. Nous avons inclus 300 yeux de 286 patients. L’âge moyen était de 66 ans (écart type 9,93) avec une prédominance masculine de 57,7%. Les co-morbidités étaient dominées par l'hypertension artérielle 30,33% des cas. L'acuité visuelle pré-opératoire était de moins de 1/20è dans 70, 7% des cas. En biométrie, la puissance moyenne était de 21,50 dioptries. L'implant posé a été adéquat dans 60%. Les principales complications per-opératoires étaient le chémosis post-anesthésie 4,67% et l'issue de vitrée moins de 2% des cas. Les complications post opératoires précoces ont été dominées par l’œdème de cornée 26,33%, et les complications tardives par la cataracte secondaire. L'astigmatisme induit était de 1, 12 dioptrie en moyenne (écart type 1,26). Sans correction, les résultats visuels étaient mauvais dans moins de 1%, limites dans 31%, et bons 68% suivants les normes de l'Organisation Mondiale de la Santé. La phacoalternative donne des résultats satisfaisants, avec peu de complications. L'amélioration du plateau technique et la disponibilité d'implants adéquats pourraient les améliorer. PMID:26140073

  9. Facteurs associes aux décès des nouveau-nés suspects d'infections bactériennes au Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Pédiatrique Charles de Gaulle de Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Ouédraogo, Solange Odile Yugbaré; Méda, Désiré; Dao, Lassina; Kouéta, Fla; Ludovic, Kam; Traoré, Ramata Ouédraogo; Yé, Diarra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Il s'agit d’étudier les facteurs associés au décès des nouveau-nés suspects d'infections bactériennes au centre hospitalier universitaire pédiatrique Charles de gaulle de Ouagadougou. Méthodes Nous avons mené une étude de cohorte rétrospective du 1er janvier 2009 au 31 décembre 2012 au centre hospitalier universitaire pédiatrique Charles de gaulle de Ouagadougou. Résultats La fréquence hospitalière des nouveau-nés suspects d'infection bactérienne sur était de 62,8%. L’âge médian à l'admission était de trois jours et le sex ratio de 1,1. Parmi ces nouveau-nés, 351 (22,8%) ont bénéficié d'au moins un examen bactériologique, et 28 (8%) ont eu la confirmation de l'origine bactérienne de l'infection. Au cours de la période néonatale, 138(9%) nouveau-nés sont décédés avec un taux de létalité précoce et tardive respectivement de 9,6% et 8,3%. Le lieu de résidence, le mode d'admission, le nombre de consultations prénatales, le poids de naissance, la présence de signes de gravité et l'année d'admission étaient les facteurs de risque indépendants associés au décès. Conclusion Les facteurs associés au décès devraient être pris en compte dans les interventions de santé pour réduire la mortalité néonatale. PMID:27583071

  10. PREFACE: 1st International Symposium on Electrical Arc and Thermal Plasmas in Africa (ISAPA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andre, Pascal; Koalaga, Zacharie

    2012-02-01

    Logos of the University of Ouagadougou, ISAPA and Universite Blaise Pascal Africa (especially Sub-Saharan Africa) is a continent where electrification is at a low level. However, the development of the electrical power sector is a prerequisite for the growth of other industrial activities, that is to say for the social and economic development of African countries. Consequently, a large number of electrification projects (rural electrification, interconnection of different country's grids) takes place in many countries. These projects need expertise and make Africa a continent of opportunity for companies in different domains for business and research: energy; energetic production, transmission, distribution and protection of electricity; the supply of cable; the construction, engineering and expertise in the field of solar and wind power. The first International Symposium on electrical Arc and thermal Plasma in Africa (ISAPA) was held for the first time in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso to progress and develop the research of new physical developments, technical breakthroughs, and ideas in the fields of electrical production and electrical applications. The ISAPA aims to encourage the advancement of the science and applications of electrical power transformation in Africa by bringing together specialists from many areas in Africa and the rest of the world. Such considerations have led us to define a Scientific Committee including representatives from many countries. This first meeting was an innovative opportunity for researchers and engineers from academic and industrial sectors to exchange views and knowledge. Both fundamental aspects such as thermal plasma, electrical arc, diagnostics and applied aspects as circuit breakers, ICP analyses, photovoltaic energy conversion and alternative energies, as well as space applications were covered. The Laboratory of Material and Environment (LAME) from Ouagadougou University and the Laboratory of Electric Arc and Thermal

  11. "Diabetes Has Instant Consequences..."

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes Stories "Diabetes has instant consequences…" Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of ... you want to chuck it all. But Diabetes has instant consequences. You learn to be responsible pretty ...

  12. Using Negative Consequences Effectively.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, Ellen H.

    1990-01-01

    Methods of dealing with students' inappropriate behavior, noncompliance, and conflict can be implemented at different levels within the school. Schoolwide interventions include expulsion, suspension, and physical punishment. Classroom interventions include time out, verbal reprimands and commands, logical consequences, and surface management…

  13. [Psychological consequences of obesity].

    PubMed

    Müller, Roland

    2013-02-01

    Overweight and obesity is associated with a broad variety of stigmatization and discrimination in every day live. Obese people have more difficulties in finding a job, have a lower income, and are less often seen in leadership positions. In society, responsibility for the weight situation in seen as lying by the individuals affected altogether, leading to chronic stress, problems with self esteem and perception of loss of control. As a consequence, there is an increased risk for developing serious psychological problems such as affective and anxiety disorders. As a reaction, coping strategies to deal with the psychological pressure such as dysfunctional eating behavior, binge eating and physical inactivity are used. Females, people belonging to another ethnic or social minority, adolescents and people with eating disorders are considered at increased risk of psychological distress. Psychological vulnerabilities and the consequences of stigmatization need to be considered. Moreover, perceived behavioral control and self esteem are key aspects of to be addressed on the treatment. PMID:23385186

  14. Phenomenological consequences of supersymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Hinchliffe, I.; Littenberg, L.

    1982-01-01

    This report deals with the phenomenological consequences of supersymmetric theories, and with the implications of such theories for future high energy machines. It is concerned only with high energy predictions of supersymmetry; low energy consequences (for example in the K/sub o/anti K/sub o/ system) are discussed in the context of future experiments by another group, and will be mentioned briefly only in the context of constraining existing models. However a brief section is included on the implication for proton decay, although detailed experimental questions are not discussed. The report is organized as follows. Section I consists of a brief review of supersymmetry and the salient features of existing supersymmetric models; this section can be ignored by those familiar with such models since it contains nothing new. Section 2 deals with the consequences for nucleon decay of SUSY. The remaining sections then discuss the physics possibilities of various machines; e anti e in Section 3, ep in Section 4, pp (or anti pp) colliders in Section 5 and fixed target hadron machines in Section 6.

  15. Renal consequences of obesity.

    PubMed

    Naumnik, Beata; Myśliwiec, Michał

    2010-08-01

    The worldwide prevalence of obesity and its associated metabolic and cardiovascular disorders has risen dramatically within the past 2 decades. Our objective is to review the mechanisms that link obesity with altered kidney function. Current evidence suggests that excess weight gain may be responsible for 65-75% of the risk for arterial hypertension. Impaired renal pressure natriuresis, initially due to increased renal tubular sodium reabsorption, is a key factor linking obesity with hypertension. Obesity increases renal sodium reabsorption by activating the renin-angiotensin and sympathetic nervous systems, and by altering intrarenal physical forces. Adipose tissue functions as an endocrine organ, secreting hormones/cytokines (e.g., leptin) which may trigger sodium retention and hypertension. Additionally, excess visceral adipose tissue may physically compress the kidneys, increasing intrarenal pressures and tubular reabsorption. Eventually, sustained obesity via hyperinsulinemia, due to resistance to insulin, causes hyperfiltration, resulting in structural changes in the kidneys--glomerular hyperthrophy and occasionally focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. The consequences of kidney injury are continuous loss of glomerular filtration rate, further increase of arterial pressure and escalation of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. There is a growing awareness of the renal consequences of obesity, and considerable progress is being made in understanding its pathophysiology. Weight reduction results in lowered proteinuria. Aside from low sodium diet and exercises, more widespread use of renoprotective therapy (e.g., ACE inhibitors and statins) in treatment of hypertension in obese subjects should be advocated. Renal protection should result in reducing the cardiovascular complications of obesity. PMID:20671624

  16. An examination of the consequences in high consequence operations

    SciTech Connect

    Spray, S.D.; Cooper, J.A.

    1996-06-01

    Traditional definitions of risk partition concern into the probability of occurrence and the consequence of the event. Most safety analyses focus on probabilistic assessment of an occurrence and the amount of some measurable result of the event, but the real meaning of the ``consequence`` partition is usually afforded less attention. In particular, acceptable social consequence (consequence accepted by the public) frequently differs significantly from the metrics commonly proposed by risk analysts. This paper addresses some of the important system development issues associated with consequences, focusing on ``high consequence operations safety.``

  17. A Comparative Study of Risk Appraisal: A New Look at Risk Assessment in Different Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Laurence; Worthley, Reginald

    1999-01-01

    Examines perceived risk data from the United States, China, Japan, and South Korea. Compares similar results collected from previous studies. Analyzes psychometric scaling scores from Burkina Faso, France, Norway, and Hungary. (Author/CCM)

  18. Consequences of genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    1998-03-01

    Female genital mutilation is associated with immediate, long-term, pregnancy-related, and psychosexual complications. Immediate complications can cause death and include severe pain, shock, hemorrhage, tetanus or sepsis, urine retention, ulceration of the genital region, and injury to adjacent tissues. Long-term complications include formation of cysts, abscesses, and keloid scars, damage to the urethra resulting in incontinence, painful sexual intercourse, sexual dysfunction, recurrent urinary tract infections, chronic pelvic inflammatory disease, and infertility. During child birth, survivors of female genital mutilation may require Cesarean section or suffer obstructed labor leading to fetal death and/or vesico-vaginal fistulae and large perineal tears. The psychological consequences of female genital mutilation may involve loss of trust and confidence in care-givers, feelings of incompleteness, anxiety, depression, chronic irritability, and sexual problems. In many women, flashbacks of the infibulation process are triggered by touch. Deinfibulation must be accompanied by adequate pain relief, but the use of local or epidural anesthesia is not appropriate. PMID:12222523

  19. Eusociality: Origin and consequences

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Edward O.; Hölldobler, Bert

    2005-01-01

    In this new assessment of the empirical evidence, an alternative to the standard model is proposed: group selection is the strong binding force in eusocial evolution; individual selection, the strong dissolutive force; and kin selection (narrowly defined), either a weak binding or weak dissolutive force, according to circumstance. Close kinship may be more a consequence of eusociality than a factor promoting its origin. A point of no return to the solitary state exists, as a rule when workers become anatomically differentiated. Eusociality has been rare in evolution, evidently due to the scarcity of environmental pressures adequate to tip the balance among countervailing forces in favor of group selection. Eusociality in ants and termites in the irreversible stage is the key to their ecological dominance and has (at least in ants) shaped some features of internal phylogeny. Their colonies are consistently superior to solitary and preeusocial competitors, due to the altruistic behavior among nestmates and their ability to organize coordinated action by pheromonal communication. PMID:16157878

  20. [Rodenticide resistance and consequences].

    PubMed

    Esther, A; Endepols, S; Freise, J; Klemann, N; Runge, M; Pelz, H-J

    2014-05-01

    Resistance to anticoagulant rodenticides, such as warfarin was first described in 1958. Polymorphisms in the vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1) gene and respective substitutions of amino acids in the VKOR enzyme are the major cause for rodenticide resistance. Resistant Norway rats in Germany are characterized by the Tyr139Cys genotype, which is spread throughout the northwest of the country. Resistant house mice with the VKOR variants Tyr139Cys, Leu128Ser and Arg12Trp/Ala26Ser/Ala48Thr/Arg61Leu (spretus type) are distributed over a number of locations in Germany. Resistance can reduce management attempts with consequences for stored product protection, hygiene and animal health. Anticoagulants of the first generation (warfarin, chlorophacinone, coumatetralyl) as well as bromadiolone and difenacoum are not an option for the control of resistant Norway rats. The same applies for house mice whereby the tolerance to compounds can be different between local incidences. Due to the higher toxicity and tendency to persist, the most potent anticoagulant rodenticides brodifacoum, flocoumafen and difethialone should be applied but only where resistance is known. In other cases less toxic anticoagulants should be preferred for rodent management in order to mitigate environmental risks. Resistance effects of further VKOR polymorphisms and their combinations, the spread of resistant rats and conditions supporting and reducing resistance should be investigated in order to improve resistance management strategies. PMID:24781908

  1. Reactor Accident Consequence Code

    SciTech Connect

    2015-11-02

    MACCS1.5 performs probabilistic calculations of potential off site consequences of the atmospheric releases of radioactive material in reactor accidents. The principal phenomena considered in MACCS are atmospheric transport, environmental contamination, emergency response, long term mitigative actions based on dose projection, dose accumulation by a number of pathways including food and water ingestion, early and latent health effects, and economic costs. MACCS can be used for a variety of applications including probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities, sensitivity studies to gain a better understanding of the parameters important to PRA, and cost benefit analysis. The time scale after the accident is divided into three phases: emergency, intermediate, and long term. The region surrounding the reactor is divided into a polar-coordinate grid, with the reactor located at the center, for the calculations. Two preprocessors, MAXGC and DOSFAC, are included. MAXGC generates the maximum allowable ground concentrations based on protective action guide (PAG) dose levels. DOSFAC generates the dose conversion data used by MACCS.

  2. Reactor Accident Consequence Code

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2015-11-02

    MACCS1.5 performs probabilistic calculations of potential off site consequences of the atmospheric releases of radioactive material in reactor accidents. The principal phenomena considered in MACCS are atmospheric transport, environmental contamination, emergency response, long term mitigative actions based on dose projection, dose accumulation by a number of pathways including food and water ingestion, early and latent health effects, and economic costs. MACCS can be used for a variety of applications including probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) ofmore » nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities, sensitivity studies to gain a better understanding of the parameters important to PRA, and cost benefit analysis. The time scale after the accident is divided into three phases: emergency, intermediate, and long term. The region surrounding the reactor is divided into a polar-coordinate grid, with the reactor located at the center, for the calculations. Two preprocessors, MAXGC and DOSFAC, are included. MAXGC generates the maximum allowable ground concentrations based on protective action guide (PAG) dose levels. DOSFAC generates the dose conversion data used by MACCS.« less

  3. [Relapse: causes and consequences].

    PubMed

    Thomas, P

    2013-09-01

    Relapse after a first episode of schizophrenia is the recurrence of acute symptoms after a period of partial or complete remission. Due to its variable aspects, there is no operational definition of relapse able to modelise the outcome of schizophrenia and measure how the treatment modifies the disease. Follow-up studies based on proxys such as hospital admission revealed that 7 of 10 patients relapsed after a first episode of schizophrenia. The effectiveness of antipsychotic medications on relapse prevention has been widely demonstrated. Recent studies claim for the advantages of atypical over first generation antipsychotic medication. Non-adherence to antipsychotic represents with addictions the main causes of relapse long before some non-consensual factors such as premorbid functioning, duration of untreated psychosis and associated personality disorders. The consequences of relapse are multiple, psychological, biological and social. Pharmaco-clinical studies have demonstrated that the treatment response decreases with each relapse. Relapse, even the first one, will contribute to worsen the outcome of the disease and reduce the capacity in general functionning. Accepting the idea of continuing treatment is a complex decision in which the psychiatrist plays a central role besides patients and their families. The development of integrated actions on modifiable risk factors such as psychosocial support, addictive comorbidities, access to care and the therapeutic alliance should be promoted. Relapse prevention is a major goal of the treatment of first-episode schizophrenia. It is based on adherence to the maintenance treatment, identification of prodromes, family active information and patient therapeutical education. PMID:24084426

  4. Consequences of sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Orzeł-Gryglewska, Jolanta

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the history of research and the results of recent studies on the effects of sleep deprivation in animals and humans. Humans can bear several days of continuous sleeplessness, experiencing deterioration in wellbeing and effectiveness; however, also a shorter reduction in the sleep time may lead to deteriorated functioning. Sleeplessness accounts for impaired perception, difficulties in keeping concentration, vision disturbances, slower reactions, as well as the appearance of microepisodes of sleep during wakefulness which lead to lower capabilities and efficiency of task performance and to increased number of errors. Sleep deprivation results in poor memorizing, schematic thinking, which yields wrong decisions, and emotional disturbances such as deteriorated interpersonal responses and increased aggressiveness. The symptoms are accompanied by brain tissue hypometabolism, particularly in the thalamus, prefrontal, frontal and occipital cortex and motor speech centres. Sleep deficiency intensifies muscle tonus and coexisting tremor, speech performance becomes monotonous and unclear, and sensitivity to pain is higher. Sleeplessness also relates to the changes in the immune response and the pattern of hormonal secretion, of the growth hormone in particular. The risk of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease increases. The impairment of performance which is caused by 20-25 hours of sleeplessness is comparable to that after ethanol intoxication at the level of 0.10% blood alcohol concentration. The consequences of chronic sleep reduction or a shallow sleep repeated for several days tend to accumulate and resemble the effects of acute sleep deprivation lasting several dozen hours. At work, such effects hinder proper performance of many essential tasks and in extreme situations (machine operation or vehicle driving), sleep loss may be hazardous to the worker and his/her environment. PMID:20442067

  5. The Consequence of Consequence: Motivation, Anxiety, and Test Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Lisa F.; Smith, Jeffrey K.

    1995-01-01

    The relationships of test consequence, motivation, anxiety, and performance were studied with 158 undergraduates taking a child development course. Results indicated that test consequence (grade or no grade) had a strong influence on motivation and a modest influence on performance. Motivation and anxiety had opposite effects on performance. (SLD)

  6. Institutional Consequences of Quality Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joao Rosa, Maria; Tavares, Diana; Amaral, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses the opinions of Portuguese university rectors and academics on the quality assessment system and its consequences at the institutional level. The results obtained show that university staff (rectors and academics, with more of the former than the latter) held optimistic views of the positive consequences of quality assessment…

  7. Global consequences of unsafe abortion.

    PubMed

    Singh, Susheela

    2010-11-01

    Unsafe abortion is a significant cause of death and ill health in women in the developing world. A substantial body of research on these consequences exists, although studies are of variable quality. However, unsafe abortion has a number of other significant consequences that are much less widely recognized. These include the economic consequences, the immediate costs of providing medical care for abortion-related complications, the costs of medical care for longer-term health consequences, lost productivity to the country, the impact on families and the community, and the social consequences that affect women and families. This article will review the scientific evidence on the consequences of unsafe abortion, highlight gaps in the evidence base, suggest areas where future research efforts are needed, and speculate on the future situation regarding consequences and evidence over the next 5-10 years. The information provided is useful and timely given the current heightened interest in the issue of unsafe abortion, growing from the recent focus of national and international agencies on reducing maternal mortality by 75% by 2015 (as one of the Millennium Development Goals established in 2000). PMID:21118043

  8. Software Systems: Consequence versus Functionality

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Ray; Winter, Victor L.

    1999-08-05

    The purpose of this panel is to present different perspectives and opinions regarding the issues surrounding why software should or shouldn't be entrusted with critical (high consequence) functionality.

  9. Uncertainties in offsite consequence analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Young, M.L.; Harper, F.T.; Lui, C.H.

    1996-03-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequences from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the European Commission began co-sponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables using a formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process. This paper focuses on the methods used in and results of this on-going joint effort.

  10. Psychological consequences of sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Mason, Fiona; Lodrick, Zoe

    2013-02-01

    Sexual violence is an important issue worldwide and can have long-lasting and devastating consequences. In this chapter, we outline the psychological reactions to serious sexual assault and rape, including development of post-traumatic stress disorder. Myths and stereotypes surrounding this subject, and their potential effect on the emotional response and legal situation, are discussed. PMID:23182852

  11. Maternal Gatekeeping: Antecedents and Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaunt, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    This study examined maternal gatekeeping, its background and psychological antecedents, and its consequences for paternal and maternal involvement in child care. In sum, 209 couples with 6- to 36-month-old children completed extensive questionnaires. Analyses revealed that various dimensions of gate-keeping were differentially associated with the…

  12. Acid Precipitation: Causes and Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babich, Harvey; And Others

    1980-01-01

    This article is the first of three articles in a series on the acid rain problem in recent years. Discussed are the causes of acid precipitation and its consequences for the abiotic and biotic components of the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and for man-made materials. (Author/SA)

  13. Consequences of Growing Up Poor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J., Ed.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne, Ed.

    The consequences and correlates of growing up poor as well as the mechanisms through which poverty influences children are explored. This book is organized with a primary focus on research findings and a secondary concern with policy implications. The chapters are: (1) "Poor Families, Poor Outcomes: The Well-Being of Children and Youth" (Jeanne…

  14. Bereavement: course, consequences, and care.

    PubMed

    Zisook, Sidney; Iglewicz, Alana; Avanzino, Julie; Maglione, Jeanne; Glorioso, Danielle; Zetumer, Samuel; Seay, Kathryn; Vahia, Ipsit; Young, Ilanit; Lebowitz, Barry; Pies, Ronald; Reynolds, Charles; Simon, Naomi; Shear, M Katherine

    2014-10-01

    This paper discusses each of several potential consequences of bereavement. First, we describe ordinary grief, followed by a discussion of grief gone awry, or complicated grief (CG). Then, we cover other potential adverse outcomes of bereavement, each of which may contribute to, but are not identical with, CG: general medical comorbidity, mood disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and substance use. PMID:25135781

  15. Leadership Styles and Their Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warrick, D. D.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses leadership style theories and offers an integration of the theories by describing typical characteristics, skills, philosophies, and consequences associated with each major style. An experiential exercise is described which portrays the major styles and the productivity and satisfaction each is likely to produce. Nine figures accompany…

  16. Consequence Management (CM) program overview.

    SciTech Connect

    Laiche, Thomas P.

    2010-06-01

    The missions is to Provide the Highest Quality Materiel Solution to our Consequence Management DoD Responder's Requirements by Applying Rapid Acquisition. To Interface With Customers in Respect to the Assessment of Needs, to Deliver Products That Exceed Expectations, to Optimize Safety, Performance, Cost, Schedule, and Sustainability, Throughout the Life Cycle of Each COTS Item. On Order, Support Other Federal, State Agencies, and Local First Responders.

  17. Cardiovascular consequences of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    McCrindle, Brian W

    2015-02-01

    Childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity is an important and increasingly prevalent public health problem in Canada and worldwide. High adiposity in youth is indicated in clinical practice by plotting body mass index on appropriate percentile charts normed for age and sex, although waist measures might be a further tool. High adiposity can lead to adiposopathy in youth, with associated increases in inflammation and oxidative stress, changes in adipokines, and endocrinopathy. This is manifest as cardiometabolic risk factors in similar patterns to those in noted in obese adults. Obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors have been shown to be associated with vascular changes indicative of early atherosclerosis, and ventricular hypertrophy, dilation, and dysfunction. These cardiovascular consequences are evident in youth, but childhood obesity is also predictive of similar consequences in adulthood. Childhood obesity and risk factors have been shown to track into adulthood and worsen in most individuals. The result is an exponential acceleration of atherosclerosis, which can be predicted to translate into an epidemic of premature cardiovascular disease and events. A change in paradigm is needed toward preventing and curing atherosclerosis and not just preventing cardiovascular disease. This would necessarily create an imperative for preventing and treating childhood obesity. Urgent attention, policy, and action are needed to avoid the enormous future social and health care costs associated with the cardiovascular consequences of obesity in youth. PMID:25661547

  18. Demographic Consequences of Defeating Aging

    PubMed Central

    Gavrilova, Natalia S.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A common objection against starting a large-scale biomedical war on aging is the fear of catastrophic population consequences (overpopulation). This fear is only exacerbated by the fact that no detailed demographic projections for radical life extension scenario have been conducted so far. This study explores different demographic scenarios and population projections, in order to clarify what could be the demographic consequences of a successful biomedical war on aging. A general conclusion of this study is that population changes are surprisingly slow in their response to a dramatic life extension. For example, we applied the cohort-component method of population projections to 2005 Swedish population for several scenarios of life extension and a fertility schedule observed in 2005. Even for very long 100-year projection horizon, with the most radical life extension scenario (assuming no aging at all after age 60), the total population increases by 22% only (from 9.1 to 11.0 million). Moreover, if some members of society reject to use new anti-aging technologies for some religious or any other reasons (inconvenience, non-compliance, fear of side effects, costs, etc.), then the total population size may even decrease over time. Thus, even in the case of the most radical life extension scenario, population growth could be relatively slow and may not necessarily lead to overpopulation. Therefore, the real concerns should be placed not on the threat of catastrophic population consequences (overpopulation), but rather on such potential obstacles to a success of biomedical war on aging, as scientific, organizational, and financial limitations. PMID:20426616

  19. Ethics committees, principles and consequences.

    PubMed

    Häyry, M

    1998-04-01

    When ethics committees evaluate the research proposals submitted to them by biomedical scientists, they can seek guidance from laws and regulations, their own beliefs, values and experiences, and from the theories of philosophers. The starting point of this paper is that philosophers can only be helpful to the members of ethics committees if they take into account in their models both the basic moral intuitions that most of us share and the consequences of people's choices. A moral view which can be labelled as a consequentialist interpretation of mid-level principlism is developed, defended and applied to some real-life and hypothetical research proposals. PMID:9602993

  20. Mechanisms and consequences of entosis.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Shefali; Overholtzer, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Multiple mechanisms have emerged where the engulfment of whole live cells, leading to the formation of what are called 'cell-in-cell' structures, induces cell death. Entosis is one such mechanism that drives cell-in-cell formation during carcinogenesis and development. Curiously, entotic cells participate actively in their own engulfment, by invading into their hosts, and are then killed non-cell-autonomously. Here we review the mechanisms of entosis and entotic cell death and the consequences of entosis on cell populations. PMID:27048820

  1. Quantum Consequences of Parameterizing Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanas, M. I.

    2002-12-01

    The marriage between geometrization and quantization is not successful, so far. It is well known that quantization of gravity , using known quantization schemes, is not satisfactory. It may be of interest to look for another approach to this problem. Recently, it is shown that geometries with torsion admit quantum paths. Such geometries should be parameterizied in order to preserve the quantum properties appeared in the paths. The present work explores the consequences of parameterizing such geometry. It is shown that quantum properties, appeared in the path equations, are transferred to other geometric entities.

  2. Functional consequences of zinc deficiency.

    PubMed

    McClain, C J; Kasarskis, E J; Allen, J J

    1985-01-01

    Zinc is an essential trace element necessary for over 200 zinc metalloenzymes and required for normal nucleic acid, protein, and membrane metabolism. During the past two decades there has been a rapid expansion of knowledge concerning zinc metabolism in both normal and disease situations, including mechanisms for zinc absorption, excretion and internal redistribution of zinc after stress or trauma. Acrodermatitis enteropathica has been recognized to be a disease of impaired zinc absorption in man. A host of disease processes now are recognized to be complicated by zinc deficiency including alcoholic liver disease, sickle cell anemia, protein calorie malnutrition, and a variety of intestinal diseases including Crohn's disease, sprue, short bowel syndrome and after jejunal ileal bypass. Zinc has proved to be an extremely interesting mineral to nutritionists and physicians because of its importance in normal physiology and biochemistry and because of the diverse presenting features of zinc deficiency. This paper reviews ten functional consequences of zinc deficiency and emphasizes certain consequences in which there have been new discoveries concerning their mechanism (e.g., anorexia) or their clinical importance (e.g., immune dysfunction). PMID:3911268

  3. Podocyte injury and its consequences.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Michio

    2016-06-01

    Podocytes maintain the glomerular filtration barrier, and the stability of this barrier depends on their highly differentiated postmitotic phenotype, which also defines the particular vulnerability of the glomerulus. Recent podocyte biology and gene disruption studies in vivo indicate a causal relationship between abnormalities of single podocyte molecules and proteinuria and glomerulosclerosis. Podocytes live under various stresses and pathological stimuli. They adapt to maintain homeostasis, but excessive stress leads to maladaptation with complex biological changes including loss of integrity and dysregulation of cellular metabolism. Podocyte injury causes proteinuria and detachment from the glomerular basement membrane. In addition to "sick" podocytes and their detachment, our understanding of glomerular responses following podocyte loss needs to address the pathways from podocyte injury to sclerosis. Studies have found a variety of glomerular responses to podocyte dysfunction in vivo, such as disruption of podocyte-endothelial cross talk and activation of podocyte-parietal cell interactions, all of which help us to understand the complex scenario of podocyte injury and its consequences. This review focuses on the cellular aspects of podocyte dysfunction and the adaptive or maladaptive glomerular responses to podocyte injury that lead to its major consequence, glomerulosclerosis. PMID:27165817

  4. Determinants and Consequences of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Hruby, Adela; Manson, JoAnn E.; Qi, Lu; Malik, Vasanti S.; Rimm, Eric B.; Sun, Qi; Willett, Walter C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To review the contribution of the Nurses’ Health Studies (NHS and NHS II) in addressing hypotheses regarding risk factors for and consequences of obesity. Methods. Narrative review of the publications of the NHS and NHS II between 1976 and 2016. Results. Long-term NHS research has shown that weight gain and being overweight or obese are important risk factors for type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, certain types of cancers, and premature death. The cohorts have elucidated the role of dietary and lifestyle factors in obesity, especially sugar-sweetened beverages, poor diet quality, physical inactivity, prolonged screen time, short sleep duration or shift work, and built environment characteristics. Genome-wide association and gene–lifestyle interaction studies have shown that genetic factors predispose individuals to obesity but that such susceptibility can be attenuated by healthy lifestyle choices. This research has contributed to evolving clinical and public health guidelines on the importance of limiting weight gain through healthy dietary and lifestyle behaviors. Conclusions. The NHS cohorts have contributed to our understanding of the risk factors for and consequences of obesity and made a lasting impact on clinical and public health guidelines on obesity prevention. PMID:27459460

  5. Structural consequences of railgun augmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, G.W.; Schuler, K.W. . Applied Mechanics Div. III)

    1989-01-01

    An augmented railgun can provide the same driving force on a projectile at a lower plasma arc current and thus less potential erosion and barrel damage as an unaugmented railgun. However, there are structural consequences to railgun augmentation which must be overcome before the advantages of lower plasma arc currents can be realized. To investigate these consequences, a bolted V-block supporting structure is considered with two cores; unaugmented (a single pair of conducting rails), and augmented (conducting rails augmented by a second tandem set of conductors). The mechanical load on the cores consist of the static bolt preload, the plasma pressure behind the projectile, and the magnetic pressure induced by currents flow