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1

Oral burn contractures in children.  

PubMed

Oral burn contractures in children present major reconstructive problem. Only few reports in literature discussed oral burns in children. Electrical, chemical, and thermal agents are the main causative agents for oral burns. Oral contractures can be classified into anterior, posterior, and total. Anterior contractures are usually caused by electrical burns and involve the oral commissure, lips, anterior buccal sulcus and surrounding mucosa, and anterior tongue. Posterior oral contractures are caused by caustic ingestion and involve the posterior buccal mucosa, posterior tongue, retro-molar area and oro-pharynx. Total oral contractures involve the lips, tongue, oral cavity, and oro-pharyngeal mucosa and are caused by lye caustic ingestion. This report reviews three children; one with posterior, two with total oral cavity contracture. All cases were managed by linear release of scar contracture and skin grafting followed by a prolonged intra-oral splinting with a fixed mouth-block and commissural splint. A successful outcome was observed in all cases. PMID:14595182

Hashem, Fuad K; Al Khayal, Zikra

2003-11-01

2

Longitudinal burn scar quantification.  

PubMed

Quantitative studies of the clinical recovery of burn scars are currently lacking. Previous reports validate the objective, precise, diagnostic capabilities of high-frequency ultrasound to measure thickness, the Cutometer(®) to measure pliability and the Mexameter(®) to measure erythema and pigmentation of scars. Thus, we prospectively quantified clinical characteristics of patient-matched, after burn hypertrophic scar (HSc), donor site scar (D) and normal skin (N) using these instruments. One investigator measured 3 sites (HSc, D, N) in 46 burn survivors at 3, 6, and 12 months after-burn. A mixed model regression analysis, adjusting p-values for multiplicity of testing, was used to compare means among sites and time points. Participants were 41.2±13.5 years old, 87% males, predominantly Caucasian, with an average of 19.5% body surface area burned. HSc thickness decreased significantly between 3 and 6, 6 and 12, and 3 and 12 months (all p<0.0001), but remained thicker than D and N skin (all p<0.0001). Pliability differed significantly between HSc, D and N sites at all time points (all p<0.0001), with HSc and D increasing between 3 and 12 months (p<0.05) but not reaching normal. HSc and D sites were significantly more erythematous than normal skin (p<0.05) at 3 and 6 months but D sites approached normal by 12 months. The only time points at which pigmentation significantly differed were the HSc and D sites at 6 months. Thickness, pliability, erythema and pigmentation of N skin remained similar over the 12 months. We found that post-burn HSc thickness, pliability and erythema differed significantly from D and N skin at 3, 6, and 12 months and does not return to normal by 12 months after-injury; however, significant improvements towards normal can be expected. Donor sites are redder than normal skin at 3 and 6 months but can be expected to return to normal by 12 months. Although the color of HSc and D sites change markedly with time these color changes are primarily due to changes in redness of the site, not melanin in this primarily Caucasian population. PMID:24703337

Nedelec, Bernadette; Correa, José A; de Oliveira, Ana; LaSalle, Leo; Perrault, Isabelle

2014-12-01

3

Post-burn axillary contracture: A therapeutic challenge!  

PubMed Central

Background: Axillary post-burn scar contracture is a challenging problem to the reconstructive surgeon owing to the wide range of abduction that should be achieved. The aim of this paper was to highlight the various options used in managing axillary contractures in our hospital. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective hospital-based study of axillary contractures managed at Safdarjung Hospital (a tertiary care hospital) from 2009 to 2013. The study consisted of 44 patients from all age group and both sex included in it. Patients with a bilateral axillary contracture were excluded. Axillary contracture was released and resurfaced using split skin graft and/or with different types of flaps including the propeller flap, parascapular flap. All the reconstructed cases were followed-up for a period of 12 months. Assessment was done on the basis of functional and aesthetic outcome. Results: Forty-four patients consisting of 25 males and 19 females presented with axillary contractures that involved 44 axillae. The mean age of the study group was 17.1 years. Injuries involved the anterior axillary fold in 8 (18.18%), posterior fold in ten (22.72%), both folds and axillary fossa in 14 (31.81%) and both folds plus part of the chest wall and arm (sparing the axillary fossa) in 12 (27.27%) axillae. Surgical treatment included split-thickness skin graft in 15 (34.1%), local skin flaps in 4 (9.1%), Z-plasties in 4 (9.1%), parascapular flaps in 3 (6.82%), while propeller flaps in 12 (27.27%) and square flap were used in 6 (13.64%) patients. The percentage of improvement in abduction had a mean of 156°. The functional and aesthetic results were satisfactory. Conclusion: The choice of surgical procedure for reconstruction of post-burn axillary contractures can be made according to the pattern of scar contracture and the state of the surrounding skin. The choice of a flap should have priority over the skin graft because of the superior functional and aesthetic results of flaps.

Karki, Durga; Mehta, Nikhil; Narayan, Ravi Prakash

2014-01-01

4

The Supraclavicular Flap for Reconstruction of Post-Burn Mentosternal Contractures  

PubMed Central

Background The thin and pliable skin of the neck is a region with multidirectional activity, and postburn scar contractures tend to form there easily. The supraclavicular flap is used to correct neck scar contractures. Its main vascular supply is the supraclavicular artery, and it can be harvested as either a skin pedicle flap or an island flap (vascular pedicle flap). Objective In this article, a total of 41 flaps are studied retrospectively and their efficacy in reconstruction of post-burn neck scar contractures is discussed. Also donor-site morbidity, patient satisfaction, and complications were evaluated. Patients and Methods Between November of 2004 and January of 2009, 41 supraclavicular flaps were used for reconstructions in 32 patients at the authors’ hospital. Twenty-four of these flaps were skin pedicle flaps, and 17 were island flaps. The range of flap size was 18 ± 6 cm in length, and 9 ± 3 cm in width. Pre-expansion was performed in 14 flaps. Primary closure of donor site was performed in 35 flaps. Results Thirty-seven of the 41 flaps survived completely, but there were three cases of distal necrosis (10-30%), and one case of complete flap necrosis. Twenty-nine of the 32 patients were satisfied with both the functional and aesthetic results. Conclusions Scarring of the neck produces problems with function, and appearance. In our view, the supraclavicular flap, a thin flap of good texture, is an excellent and highly reliable flap for covering defects of the anterior neck. This flap is easy to harvest, with good functional and aesthetic results. PMID:24083000

Loghmani, Shahriar; Eidy, Mohammad; Mohammadzadeh, Mahdi; Loghmani, Alireza; Raigan, Fahimeh

2013-01-01

5

A novel immune competent murine hypertrophic scar contracture model: A tool to elucidate disease mechanism and develop new therapies.  

PubMed

Hypertrophic scar (HSc) contraction following burn injury causes contractures. Contractures are painful and disfiguring. Current therapies are marginally effective. To study pathogenesis and develop new therapies, a murine model is needed. We have created a validated immune-competent murine HSc model. A third-degree burn was created on dorsum of C57BL/6 mice. Three days postburn, tissue was excised and grafted with ear skin. Graft contraction was analyzed and tissue harvested on different time points. Outcomes were compared with human condition to validate the model. To confirm graft survival, green fluorescent protein (GFP) mice were used, and histologic analysis was performed to differentiate between ear and back skin. Role of panniculus carnosus in contraction was analyzed. Cellularity was assessed with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole. Collagen maturation was assessed with Picro-sirius red. Mast cells were stained with Toluidine blue. Macrophages were detected with F4/80 immune. Vascularity was assessed with CD31 immune. RNA for contractile proteins was detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Elastic moduli of skin and scar tissue were analyzed using a microstrain analyzer. Grafts contracted to ?45% of their original size by day 14 and maintained their size. Grafting of GFP mouse skin onto wild-type mice, and analysis of dermal thickness and hair follicle density, confirmed graft survival. Interestingly, hair follicles disappeared after grafting and regenerated in ear skin configuration by day 30. Radiological analysis revealed that panniculus carnosus doesn't contribute to contraction. Microscopic analyses showed that grafts show increase in cellularity. Granulation tissue formed after day 3. Collagen analysis revealed increases in collagen maturation over time. CD31 stain revealed increased vascularity. Macrophages and mast cells were increased. qRT-PCR showed up-regulation of transforming growth factor beta, alpha smooth muscle actin, and rho-associated protein kinase 2 in HSc. Tensile testing revealed that human skin and scar tissues are tougher than mouse skin and scar tissues. PMID:25327261

Ibrahim, Mohamed Magdy; Bond, Jennifer; Bergeron, Andrew; Miller, Kyle J; Ehanire, Tosan; Quiles, Carlos; Lorden, Elizabeth R; Medina, Manuel A; Fisher, Mark; Klitzman, Bruce; Selim, M Angelica; Leong, Kam W; Levinson, Howard

2014-11-01

6

Marjolin's ulcers arising in burn scars.  

PubMed

Epidermoid carcinoma in nonhealing scar tissue, known as Marjolin's ulcer, is not uncommon and is thought to behave in a more aggressive fashion than those from other causes. Between 1982 and 1997, 56 patients with Marjolin's ulcer were treated at our center, Ege University Medical School, Izmir, Turkey. All lesions were secondary to various kinds of burns. Forty of these patients could be followed up 5 years or more. These 40 patients' medical records were reviewed retrospectively. PMID:11761388

Ozek, C; Cankayali, R; Bilkay, U; Guner, U; Gundogan, H; Songur, E; Akin, Y; Cagdas, A

2001-01-01

7

Burn Scar Near the Hanford Nuclear Reservation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) image pair shows 'before and after' views of the area around the Hanford Nuclear Reservation near Richland, Washington. On June 27, 2000, a fire in the dry sagebrush was sparked by an automobile crash. The flames were fanned by hot summer winds. By the day after the accident, about 100,000 acres had burned, and the fire's spread forced the closure of highways and loss of homes. These images were obtained by MISR's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. Compare the area just above and to the right of the line of cumulus clouds in the May 15 image with the same area imaged on August 3. The darkened burn scar measures approximately 35 kilometers across. The Columbia River is seen wending its way around Hanford. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/JPL, MISR Science Team

2002-01-01

8

Extensive Burn Scars in Russia's Amur Region  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vast areas of southeastern Russia have been scorched by fires over the last few weeks. All across Siberia fires have been raging, and this Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from May 15, 2002, shows extensive, dark burn scars along with actively burning fires (red dots) on the north side of the Amur River, which separates Russia (north) and China (south). The southern Amur region is largely devoted to farming and other agriculture, and these fires may have been set intentionally to prepare the land for the growing season. Fire is often used to clear land of unwanted vegetation, and to return the nutrients stored in vegetation back to the soil. However, fires that are too frequent or severe can devastate the soil, eventually making it unsuitable for farming or grazing. Fires can also escape control and spread into protected areas. In this image, fires are mostly concentrated in a lowland area within the drainage basin of the Zeya River, which drains from the frozen lake at the top of the image. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

2002-01-01

9

Biology and principles of scar management and burn reconstruction.  

PubMed

Hypertrophic scarring is extremely common and is the source of most morbidity related to burns. The biology of hypertrophic healing is complex and poorly understood. Multiple host and injury factors contribute, but protracted healing of partial thickness injury is a common theme. Hypertrophic scarring and heterotopic ossification may share some basic causes involving marrow-derived cells. Several traditional clinical interventions exist to modify hypertrophic scar. All have limited efficacy. Laser interventions for scar modification show promise, but as yet do not provide a definitive solution. Their efficacy is only seen when used as part of a multimodality scar management program. PMID:25085089

Tredget, Edward E; Levi, Benjamin; Donelan, Matthias B

2014-08-01

10

Australia fires and burn scars as seen from STS-62  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This view of southern Australia about 100 miles northwest of Melbourne shows areas of protected reserves of natural forests in the midst of agricultural crop lands. The green patch seen here has been recently burned as indicated by the irregular large scar. The impact of winds on the scar is clearly visible.

1994-01-01

11

The menace of post-burn contractures: a developing country’s perspective  

PubMed Central

Summary A study was carried out regarding 213 patients of either gender and all ages who presented with post-burn contractures. The commonest site of contracture was the neck. 92 patients (43.19%) had received their initial burn injury management in general surgery units in tertiary care hospitals compared to 43 patients (20.18%) in district headquarter hospitals. Only 26 patients (12.20%) were managed in plastic surgery/burn wards, and 52 patients (24.41%) received no regular treatment from any hospital. The majority of patients (n=197) had a history of conservative management, with only 16 patients (7.51%) having a split thickness skin graft for part of their initial burns. None of the patients had the appropriate anti-deformity splintage in the affected parts or any physiotherapy during the acute phase of their burns. PMID:23466805

Saaiq, M.; Zaib, S.; Ahmad, S.

2012-01-01

12

Three-dimensional Reconstruction of Scar Contracture-bearing Axilla and Digital Webs Using the Square Flap Method  

PubMed Central

Background: Joint scar contractures are characterized by tight bands of soft tissue that bridge the 2 ends of the joint like a web. Classical treatment methods such as Z-plasties are mainly based on 2-dimensional designs. Our square flap method is an alternative surgical method that restores the span of the web in a stereometric fashion, thereby reconstructing joint function. Methods: In total, 20 Japanese patients with joint scar contractures on the axillary (n = 10) or first digital web (n = 10) underwent square flap surgery. The maximum range of motion and commissure length were measured before and after surgery. A theoretical stereometric geometrical model of the square flap was established to compare it to the classical single (60 degree), 4-flap (45 degree), and 5-flap (60 degree) Z-plasties in terms of theoretical web reconstruction efficacy. Results: All cases achieved 100% contracture release. The maximum range of motion and web space improved after square flap surgery (P = 0.001). Stereometric geometrical modeling revealed that the standard square flap (? = 45 degree; ? = 90 degree) yields a larger flap area, length/width ratio, and postsurgical commissure length than the Z-plasties. It can also be adapted by varying angles ? and ?, although certain angle thresholds must be met to obtain the stereometric advantages of this method. Conclusions: When used to treat joint scar contractures, the square flap method can fully span the web space in a stereometric manner, thus yielding a close-to-original shape and function. Compared with the classical Z-plasties, it also provides sufficient anatomical blood supply while imposing the least physiological tension on the adjacent skin. PMID:25289342

Huang, Chenyu

2014-01-01

13

Scars  

MedlinePLUS

... permanent patch of skin that grows over a wound. It forms when your body heals itself after a cut, scrape, burn, or sore. You can also get scars from surgery that cuts through the skin, infections like chickenpox, or skin conditions like acne. Scars ...

14

Controlled collagen crosslinking process in tissue-engineered fibroblast sheets for preventing scar contracture on the surface of lungs.  

PubMed

For preventing the scar contracture of host tissue and adjusting the tensile strength of covering cell sheets, a controlled collagen crosslinking step process in the preparation of skin-fibroblast sheets for repairing wound was investigated by using ?-aminopropionitrile (BAPN), a collagen crosslinking inhibitor, in the culture medium. Skin fibroblasts obtained from neonatal rats were cultured in medium with and without 0.25?mm BAPN for 7?days and seeded on temperature-responsive culture dishes. After the confluent cells were non-invasively harvested as a monolithic cell sheet, two cell sheets were transplanted to a lung-injury site of athymic rats, which was closed by neither fibrin glue nor suturing. Four weeks after the transplantation the animals were sacrificed and the lungs with the transplanted cell sheets were examined. Although the control cell sheet-transplanted lungs contracted the surrounding tissue, BAPN-treated cell sheet-transplanted lungs showed no contraction of the tissue. Collagen fibres of control cell sheets were more dense and thick than those of BAPN-treated cell sheets, where the crosslinking of collagen fibres was clearly inhibited. Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) showed that BAPN-treated cell sheets gave no ?-chain band, indicating that the collagen crosslinkings of the fibroblast sheets were able to be controlled by BAPN. BAPN-treated fibroblast sheets promise to allow wound clefts to be repaired without scar contractures. PMID:22298460

Kanzaki, Masato; Yamato, Masayuki; Takagi, Ryo; Kikkawa, Takuma; Isaka, Tamami; Okano, Teruo; Onuki, Takamasa

2013-05-01

15

Remote sensing and hydrological modeling of burn scars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined the potential usefulness of combining remote sensing data with hydrologic models and mapping tools available from Geographic Information Systems (GIS), to evaluate the effects of wildfire. Four subprojects addressed this issue: (1) validation of burn scar maps derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) with the National Fire Occurrence Database; (2) testing the potential of thermal MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data for near-real time burn scar and fire severity mapping; (3) evaluation of Landsat derived burn severity maps within WEPP through the Geo-spatial interface for the Water Erosion Prediction Project (GeoWEPP), and (4) predicting potential post-fire erosion for western U.S. forests utilizing existing datasets and models. Wildfire poses incredibly complex management problems in all of its stages. Today's land managers have the option of trying to mitigate the effects of a severe fire before it occurs by fuel management practices. This process is expensive especially considering the uncertainty of when and where the next fire in a given region will occur. When a wildfire does occur, deciding when to let it burn and when to suppress it may lead to controversial decisions. In addition to the threat to life and property from the fire itself, smoke emissions from large fires can cause air quality problems in distant airsheds. Even after the fire is extinguished, erosion and water quality problems may pose difficult management questions. Contributions stemming from these studies include improved burn scar maps for studying historical fire extent and demonstration of the feasibility of using thermal satellite data to predict burn scar extent when clouds and smoke obscure visible bands. The incorporation of Landsat derived burn severity maps was shown to improve post-fire erosion modeling results. Finally the potential post-fire burn severity and erosion risk maps generated for western US forests will be used for planning pre-fire fuel reduction treatments.

Miller, Mary Ellen

16

Marjolin's ulcers in the post-burned lesions and scars.  

PubMed

Marjolin's ulcer (MU) represents malignant degeneration that typically ensues over a period of time in the post-burned lesions and scars or any other chronic wound. This review highlights various facets of the presentation and management of MUs that originate from post-burned lesions. The incidence of MUs in such lesions is reported to be 0.77%-2%. This malignancy characteristically develops in the areas of full thickness skin burns that had been allowed for weeks to months to heal spontaneously by secondary intention, or burn wounds which never healed completely over years and the unstable post-burned scars. In the majority of cases, the MU is a squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The MUs contribute to an overall 2% of all SCCs and 0.03% of all basal cell carcinomas of the skin. Clinically MUs present in two major morphologic forms. The commoner form is the flat, indurated, ulcerative variety while the less common form is the exophytic papillary variety. Lower limbs represent the most frequently affected body parts. Surgical resection of the primary tumor with 2-4 cm horizontal clearance margin, nodal clearance and radiotherapy constitute the cornerstones of effective oncologic management. Despite best efforts, the overall mortality is reported to be 21%. PMID:25325060

Saaiq, Muhammad; Ashraf, Bushra

2014-10-16

17

[Advances in the research of scar stricture after esophageal burn].  

PubMed

Caustic esophageal burn is a common ailment in clinical practice. In some patients, scar stricture was formed in the late stage of injury, and it seriously undermined quality of life of the patients. We adopted various clinical interventions at an early stage in order to relieve and alleviate the formation and development of corrosive esophageal stricture as a result of chemical injury as well as to avoid invasive operations to make it more acceptable for the patients. This article summarized the progress in etiology, pathological changes, identification, early prevention, and surgical management of corrosive esophageal stricture. PMID:24360005

Zhao, Shi-lei; Gu, Chun-dong

2013-10-01

18

Post-burn axillary contractures in pediatric patients: a retrospective survey of management and outcome.  

PubMed

Over a 5-year period, 63 children aged 15 years and less had surgical correction of 74 axillary contractures in our center. They were grouped into three severity categories based on the Kurtzman and Stern's classification. Accordingly, 56 were type I, 11 were type II and 7 were type III axillary contractures. While local flaps sufficed in all the type I contractures, skin grafts and fasciocutaneous flaps were required in types II and III. The principal movements at the shoulder joint were assessed at 2 years after, and functional outcome classified into three outcome categories. Excellent result (A) was obtained in all the type I contractures, 82% of the type II contractures and 28% of the type III contractures. Good result (B) was obtained in 18% of the type II and 57% of the type III contractures and poor result (C) was obtained in 14% of the type III contractures. PMID:18692966

Asuku, Malachy E; Ibrahim, Abdulrasheed; Ijekeye, Ferdinand O

2008-12-01

19

Perforator Plus Fasciocutaneous Flaps in the Reconstruction of Post-Burn Flexion Contractures of the Knee Joint  

PubMed Central

Background: A post-burn flexion contracture of the knee joint is a disabling condition which interferes with an upright posture and a bipedal locomotion. Islanded perforator flaps have been used to resurface the tissue defect which is produced as a result of the contracture release. Despite their various advantages, they are limited by an increased tendency to undergo venous congestion. Perforator-plus flaps can be used to overcome this limitation, while retaining the merits of the islanded perforator flaps. Methods: Ninteen patients with post flame burn flexion contractures of the knee joints underwent surgical releases and coverages by various local fasciocutaneous perforator-plus flaps. The patients were followed up for 6 months and the various aspects of the functional and the aesthetic rehabilitations were assessed. Results: All the local fasciocutaneous perforator-plus flaps resurfaced the tissue defect over popliteal fossa with good colour and texture match and maintenance of the contour. None of the flaps had any significant early or delayed complications (which included venous congestions) which necessitated reoperations. All the patients were satisfied with the functional and aesthetic outcomes. Conclusion: Local fasciocutaneous perforator-plus flaps can be considered as one of the primary treatment modalities for the surgical release and reconstruction of post burn flexion contractures of the knee. PMID:23814737

Gupta, Madhumita; Pai, Ashwin A.; Setty, Ravi R.; Sawarappa, Raghavendra; Majumdar, Bijay Kumar; Banerjee, Tibar; Kanoi, Aditya; Bhattacharya, Abhimanyu

2013-01-01

20

Advances in Research in Animal Models of Burn-Related Hypertrophic Scarring.  

PubMed

Skin burn injuries affect approximately 500,000 people per year in France. After deep burns, functional sequelae associated with hypertrophic and retractile scars are an important public health problem. To understand the pathophysiology of sequelae and evaluate new therapeutic approaches, the use of animal models that should be standard tools is necessary. Some pre-clinical models of hypertrophic scars after burns have been described, but the choice of the appropriate and relevant experimental model is crucial to accurately investigate any therapeutic approach. A variety of hypertrophic scar animal models have been described after burn lesions; none of which being totally satisfactory. The most frequently used is the hypertrophic scar model after skin excision of the ear rabbit, but this model does not reflect burn injuries. The red Duroc pig seems to be the more relevant model of human hypertrophic scarring after burns; however, because of costs and the lack of studies evaluating burn injuries in this species, the domestic pig is most commonly used in burn research. Elevated hypertrophic scars are obtained, but they spontaneously resolve within a year. Although mortality in small animals is higher and creates technical difficulties, many models on nude mice are used in research. Indeed, transplantation of human hypertrophic scar tissue or human skin grafts may induce hypertrophic scarring that can last more than a year permitting additional manipulation and experimentation. PMID:25356852

Domergue, Sophie; Jorgensen, Christian; Noël, Danièle

2014-10-29

21

LOW LEVEL CO2 LASER THERAPY IN BURN SCARS: WHICH PATIENTS BENEFIT MOST?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the influence of age of burn scars on the degree of responsiveness to low level CO2 laser therapy. Patients and Methods: Patients who had suffered from burn scars were allocated into three groups according to the age of their scars: 0 to 6 (n=120), 7 to 12 (n=100) and over 12 months (n=100). A single weekly CO2

Abdol Azim Ghalambor; Mohammad H. Pipelzadeh

22

Paediatric post-burn scar management in the UK: A national survey.  

PubMed

Thermal injuries affect 250,000 people annually in the United Kingdom. As burn survival improves, good scar management is paramount to help individuals living with the resultant scars lead a life without restrictions. Post-burn hypertrophic scars can limit growth in children, interfere with function and cause psychological problems. In the current literature there is great variation in post-burn scar management across the world and in the evidence available for the efficacy of these management modalities. The aim of this study was to investigate the variances if any, in the management of post-burn scarring in children across the UK. A telephone survey of UK paediatric burn services was conducted to obtain information on post-burn scar management and advice given to patients/carers. Of the 19 burn services that participated, all advised moisturising of scars but with variable emphasis on massaging. Silicones and pressure therapy were used by 18 services but commencement of use varied from soon after healing to onset of hypertrophic scarring. Laser therapy, ultrasound therapy and steroid therapy were used sporadically. This study highlights the common modalities of post-burn scar management in children across the UK. However, there is marked variation in timing and selection of the commonly used modalities. Although this study did not investigate the outcomes of scar management, it clearly identifies the need for a well-designed multi-centred study to establish evidence-based best practice in the management of post-burn scarring in children as these modalities are time consuming and not without potential complications. Evidence based practice could potentially lead to significant financial savings to the health service. PMID:25468478

Liuzzi, Francesca; Chadwick, Sarah; Shah, Mamta

2015-03-01

23

Study of burn scar extraction automatically based on level set method using remote sensing data.  

PubMed

Burn scar extraction using remote sensing data is an efficient way to precisely evaluate burn area and measure vegetation recovery. Traditional burn scar extraction methodologies have no well effect on burn scar image with blurred and irregular edges. To address these issues, this paper proposes an automatic method to extract burn scar based on Level Set Method (LSM). This method utilizes the advantages of the different features in remote sensing images, as well as considers the practical needs of extracting the burn scar rapidly and automatically. This approach integrates Change Vector Analysis (CVA), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) to obtain difference image and modifies conventional Level Set Method Chan-Vese (C-V) model with a new initial curve which results from a binary image applying K-means method on fitting errors of two near-infrared band images. Landsat 5 TM and Landsat 8 OLI data sets are used to validate the proposed method. Comparison with conventional C-V model, OSTU algorithm, Fuzzy C-mean (FCM) algorithm are made to show that the proposed approach can extract the outline curve of fire burn scar effectively and exactly. The method has higher extraction accuracy and less algorithm complexity than that of the conventional C-V model. PMID:24503563

Liu, Yang; Dai, Qin; Liu, Jianbo; Liu, ShiBin; Yang, Jin

2014-01-01

24

Study of Burn Scar Extraction Automatically Based on Level Set Method using Remote Sensing Data  

PubMed Central

Burn scar extraction using remote sensing data is an efficient way to precisely evaluate burn area and measure vegetation recovery. Traditional burn scar extraction methodologies have no well effect on burn scar image with blurred and irregular edges. To address these issues, this paper proposes an automatic method to extract burn scar based on Level Set Method (LSM). This method utilizes the advantages of the different features in remote sensing images, as well as considers the practical needs of extracting the burn scar rapidly and automatically. This approach integrates Change Vector Analysis (CVA), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) to obtain difference image and modifies conventional Level Set Method Chan-Vese (C-V) model with a new initial curve which results from a binary image applying K-means method on fitting errors of two near-infrared band images. Landsat 5 TM and Landsat 8 OLI data sets are used to validate the proposed method. Comparison with conventional C-V model, OSTU algorithm, Fuzzy C-mean (FCM) algorithm are made to show that the proposed approach can extract the outline curve of fire burn scar effectively and exactly. The method has higher extraction accuracy and less algorithm complexity than that of the conventional C-V model. PMID:24503563

Liu, Yang; Dai, Qin; Liu, JianBo; Liu, ShiBin; Yang, Jin

2014-01-01

25

Wildfires, smoke, and burn scars, near Yakutsk, Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Lena River in central Siberia is hidden beneath a veil of smoke from multiple wildfires burning around the city of Yakutsk, Russia. Fires have been burning in the region off and on since late May 2002, and may be agricultural in cause. This image was acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra satellite on July 23, 2002. In the false=-color image, vegetation is bright green, smoke is blueish-white, and burned areas are reddish-brown. In both images, fire detections are marked with red outlines. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

2002-01-01

26

Splinting: Positioning, Edema, and Scar Management Due to Burn Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a To achieve optimal function and independence, an individual relies on the combined use of a number of treatment modalities\\u000a available to therapists (Simons et al., 2003). This chapter provides an overview of (1) classification and epidemiology of burn injury; and (2) intervention modalities\\u000a that aim to minimize impairment to body structures and body functions after burn injury, by using positioning

Megan Simons

27

Exploring reliability of scar rating scales using photographs of burns from children aged up to 15 years.  

PubMed

Assessing burn scars from photographs is a common practice given the growing trend to support health service delivery via electronic media (eg, email, videoconferencing). Scar rating scales, originally designed for in-person assessment, have been used to rate scars from photographic images. Evidence for the reliability of this practice is lacking. Five raters completed three scar rating scales (Patient and Observer Scar Scale, Manchester Scar Scale, modified Vancouver Scar Scale), both in-person and using photographs on 12 participants (seven male, five female) with 18 scar areas (3?×?3?cm). Interrater reliability for the scar parameters of vascularity, color, contour, pliability, and overall opinion achieved intraclass correlation coefficient values of between 0.71 and 0.87 (in-person) and 0.72 and 0.77 (using photographs) for multiple raters. The level of agreement between in-person and photographic assessment was below acceptable levels, which brings into question construct validity when scar rating scales are used in a way for which they were not designed. Reliability estimates in this study were likely reduced by the underrepresentation of scars in the more severe range. This limitation needs to be addressed in future research. Advances are required in the development and refinement of burn scar rating scales, specifically for photographic use, given their routine use in clinical care. PMID:23271058

Simons, Megan; Ziviani, Jenny; Thorley, Michelle; McNee, Jessamine; Tyack, Zephanie

2013-01-01

28

Reconstructive Surgery of Extensive Face and Neck Burn Scars Using Tissue Expanders  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Neck reconstruction is considered as one of the most important surgeries in cosmetic and reconstructive surgery. The present study aimed to assess the results of reconstructive surgery of extensive face and neck burning scars using tissue expanders. METHODS This descriptive prospective study was conducted on 36 patients with extensive burning scars on the neck and face. Operation for tissue expander insertion was performed and tissue distension started two or three weeks later, depending on the patients’ incisions. After sufficient time for tissue expansion, while removing the expander and excision of the lesion, the expanded flap was used to cover the lesion. Overall, 43 cosmetic surgeries were done. RESULTS Rectangular expanders were employed in most patients (73.81%) and were located in the neck in most of them (60.78%). Complications were detected in five patients (13.89%), with exposure of the prosthesis being the most common one. Scar tissues at the reconstruction site and the flap donor site were acceptable in 94.44% and 98.18% of the cases, respectively. Overall, most of the patients (77.78%) were satisfied with the operation results.  CONCLUSION Using tissue expanders in tissue reconstruction of extensive neck and facial burning scars results in highly desirable outcomes. PMID:25606476

Ashab Yamin, Mohammad Reza; Mozafari, Naser; Mozafari, Mohadase; Razi, Zahra

2015-01-01

29

Marjolin’s ulcers in the post-burned lesions and scars  

PubMed Central

Marjolin’s ulcer (MU) represents malignant degeneration that typically ensues over a period of time in the post-burned lesions and scars or any other chronic wound. This review highlights various facets of the presentation and management of MUs that originate from post-burned lesions. The incidence of MUs in such lesions is reported to be 0.77%-2%. This malignancy characteristically develops in the areas of full thickness skin burns that had been allowed for weeks to months to heal spontaneously by secondary intention, or burn wounds which never healed completely over years and the unstable post-burned scars. In the majority of cases, the MU is a squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The MUs contribute to an overall 2% of all SCCs and 0.03% of all basal cell carcinomas of the skin. Clinically MUs present in two major morphologic forms. The commoner form is the flat, indurated, ulcerative variety while the less common form is the exophytic papillary variety. Lower limbs represent the most frequently affected body parts. Surgical resection of the primary tumor with 2-4 cm horizontal clearance margin, nodal clearance and radiotherapy constitute the cornerstones of effective oncologic management. Despite best efforts, the overall mortality is reported to be 21%. PMID:25325060

Saaiq, Muhammad; Ashraf, Bushra

2014-01-01

30

Using MODIS imagery to assign dates to maps of burn scars in Portugal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the European context, Portugal presents the highest number of fire occurrences and has the largest area affected by wildfires. Like other southern regions of Europe, Portugal has experienced a dramatic increase in fire incidence during the last few decades that has been attributed to modifications in land-use as well as to climatic changes and associated occurrence of weather extremes. Wildfire activity also presents a large inter-annual variability that has been related to changes in the frequency of occurrence of atmospheric conditions favorable to the onset and spreading of large-fires. Since 1990, the Portuguese Authority for Forests (AFN) has been producing yearly maps of fire perimeters under a protocol with the Department of Forest Engineering of the Institute of Agronomy (DEF/ISA). The AFN fire atlas uses end of fire season Landsat TM/ETM imagery to map all fire perimeters with area larger than 5ha. Because it relies on end-of-season imagery, the atlas provides a spatial snapshot of the yearly area burned, and dates of burn for individual events cannot be estimated. Such information is nevertheless crucial to understand the fire regime and fire seasonality and to disentangle the complex interactions among fire, land cover and meteorology. The aim of the present work is to develop an automated procedure that allows using time series of moderate resolution imagery, such as the one provided by the MODIS instrument on-board TERRA and AQUA, to assign dates of burning to scars larger than 500 ha in the Landsat based fire atlas. The procedure relies on the so-called (V,W) burned index that uses daily reflectance obtained from the 1km MODIS Level 1B calibrated radiance from bands 2 (NIR) and 20 (MIR). The algorithm detects persistent changes in the (V,W) burned index time series, within each Landsat burned scar. The day of maximum change is then identified by means of a discrimination index, together with thresholds from the (V,W) time series. A spatial filter is finally applied to remove the outliers. An assessment of the temporal accuracy of the algorithm was conducted for the year 2005. For this year, Landsat based fire scars larger than 500ha have an associated detection date, based on field information provided by the AFN. The detection date is here assumed as ignition date of each scar. It is also assumed that each scar corresponds to a single fire event. Using 78 fire scars, we computed the time difference, in days, between the detection date and the date of burn, estimated by the algorithm. Our results show that 70% of all scars were correctly dated by the algorithm with differences to the AFN detection date up to three days. These correspond to 83% of the overall burned area used in the accuracy assessment.

DaCamara, C. C.; Libonati, R.; Barros, A.; Gaspar, G.; Calado, T. J.

2012-04-01

31

Predicting severity of pathological scarring due to burn injuries: a clinical decision making tool using Bayesian networks.  

PubMed

It is important for clinicians to understand which are the clinical signs, the patient characteristics and the procedures that are related with the occurrence of hypertrophic burn scars in order to carry out a possible prognostic assessment. Providing clinicians with an easy-to- use tool for predicting the risk of pathological scars. A total of 703 patients with 2440 anatomical burn sites who were admitted to the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Burn Center of the Traumatological Hospital in Torino between January 1994 and May 2006 were included in the analysis. A Bayesian network (BN) model was implemented. The probability of developing a hypertrophic scar was evaluated on a number of scenarios. The error rate of the BN model was assessed internally and it was equal to 24·83%. While classical statistical method as logistic models can infer only which variables are related to the final outcome, the BN approach displays a set of relationships between the final outcome (scar type) and the explanatory covariates (patient's age and gender, burn surface area, full-thickness burn surface area, burn anatomical area and wound-healing time; burn treatment options such as advanced dressings, type of surgical approach, number of surgical procedures, type of skin graft, excision and coverage timing). A web-based interface to handle the BN model was developed on the website www.pubchild.org (burns header). Clinicians who registered at the website could submit their data in order to get from the BN model the predicted probability of observing a pathological scar type. PMID:22958613

Berchialla, Paola; Gangemi, Ezio Nicola; Foltran, Francesca; Haxhiaj, Arber; Buja, Alessandra; Lazzarato, Fulvio; Stella, Maurizio; Gregori, Dario

2014-06-01

32

Spatial and temporal corroboration of a fire-scar-based fire history in a frequently burned ponderosa pine forest.  

PubMed

Fire scars are used widely to reconstruct historical fire regime parameters in forests around the world. Because fire scars provide incomplete records of past fire occurrence at discrete points in space, inferences must be made to reconstruct fire frequency and extent across landscapes using spatial networks of fire-scar samples. Assessing the relative accuracy of fire-scar fire history reconstructions has been hampered due to a lack of empirical comparisons with independent fire history data sources. We carried out such a comparison in a 2780-ha ponderosa pine forest on Mica Mountain in southern Arizona (USA) for the time period 1937-2000. Using documentary records of fire perimeter maps and ignition locations, we compared reconstructions of key spatial and temporal fire regime parameters developed from documentary fire maps and independently collected fire-scar data (n = 60 plots). We found that fire-scar data provided spatially representative and complete inventories of all major fire years (> 100 ha) in the study area but failed to detect most small fires. There was a strong linear relationship between the percentage of samples recording fire scars in a given year (i.e., fire-scar synchrony) and total area burned for that year (y = 0.0003x + 0.0087, r2 = 0.96). There was also strong spatial coherence between cumulative fire frequency maps interpolated from fire-scar data and ground-mapped fire perimeters. Widely reported fire frequency summary statistics varied little between fire history data sets: fire-scar natural fire rotations (NFR) differed by < 3 yr from documentary records (29.6 yr); mean fire return intervals (MFI) for large-fire years (i.e., > or = 25% of study area burned) were identical between data sets (25.5 yr); fire-scar MFIs for all fire years differed by 1.2 yr from documentary records. The known seasonal timing of past fires based on documentary records was furthermore reconstructed accurately by observing intra-annual ring position of fire scars and using knowledge of tree-ring growth phenology in the Southwest. Our results demonstrate clearly that representative landscape-scale fire histories can be reconstructed accurately from spatially distributed fire-scar samples. PMID:20945762

Farris, Calvin A; Baisan, Christopher H; Falk, Donald A; Yool, Stephen R; Swetnam, Thomas W

2010-09-01

33

Reduction of burn scar formation by halofuginone-eluting silicone gel sheets: a controlled study on nude mice.  

PubMed

Burn scar formations can cause disfiguration and loss of dermal function. The purpose of this study was to examine whether application of modified silicone gel sheets with an antifibrotic drug halofuginone-eluting hybrid surface produce an effect on scar development. There were a total of 2 animal groups. The athymic nude mice (nu/nu) of both groups underwent transplantation of full-thickness human skin grafts onto their backs and setting of partial thickness burn injury. The status of local scar development was observed over a period of 3 months after the application of silicone gel sheets and also after application of surface-modified halofuginone-eluting silicone gel sheets. Subsequently, via real-time polymerase chain reaction, the cDNA levels from key mediators of scar formation (transforming growth factor beta, COL1A1, connective tissue growth factor, fibroblast growth factor 2, matrix metalloproteinase 2, matrix metalloproteinase 9) were established and statistically evaluated. In comparison with uncoated silicone gel sheets, the application of halofuginone-eluting silicone gel sheets lead to a significant difference in gene expression activity in scar tissue. Halofuginone-eluting hybrid surface silicone gel sheets significantly increase the antiscarring effect of adhesive silicone gel sheets by deceleration and downregulation of scar development by normalization of the expression activity. PMID:22356780

Zeplin, Philip H

2012-03-01

34

Pirfenidone Nanoparticles Improve Corneal Wound Healing and Prevent Scarring Following Alkali Burn  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the effects of pirfenidone nanoparticles on corneal re-epithelialization and scarring, major clinical challenges after alkali burn. Methods Effect of pirfenidone on collagen I and ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) synthesis by TGF? induced primary corneal fibroblast cells was evaluated by immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry. Pirfenidone loaded poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles were prepared, characterized and their cellular entry was examined in primary corneal fibroblast cells by fluorescence microscopy. Alkali burn was induced in one eye of Sprague Dawley rats followed by daily topical treatment with free pirfenidone, pirfenidone nanoparticles or vehicle. Corneal re-epithelialization was assessed daily by flourescein dye test; absence of stained area indicated complete re-epithelialization and the time for complete re-epithelialization was determined. Corneal haze was assessed daily for 7 days under slit lamp microscope and graded using a standard method. After 7 days, collagen I deposition in the superficial layer of cornea was examined by immunohistochemistry. Results Pirfenidone prevented (P<0.05) increase in TGF ? induced collagen I and ?-SMA synthesis by corneal fibroblasts in a dose dependent manner. Pirfenidone could be loaded successfully within PLGA nanoparticles, which entered the corneal fibroblasts within 5 minutes. Pirfenidone nanoparticles but not free pirfenidone significantly (P<0.05) reduced collagen I level, corneal haze and the time for corneal re-epithelialization following alkali burn. Conclusion Pirfenidone decreases collagen synthesis and prevents myofibroblast formation. Pirfenidone nanoparticles improve corneal wound healing and prevent fibrosis. Pirfenidone nanoparticles are of potential value in treating corneal chemical burns and other corneal fibrotic diseases. PMID:23940587

Chowdhury, Sushovan; Guha, Rajdeep; Trivedi, Ruchit; Kompella, Uday B.; Konar, Aditya; Hazra, Sarbani

2013-01-01

35

Derivation of Burn Scar Depths with Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) in Indonesian Peatlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tropical deforestation and forest degradation contribute to about 20% of the global greenhouse gas emissions and Indonesia is a leading emitter. Forests are certainly critical; but the peat soils beneath can store 30 times more carbon than the trees above. Indonesia has the fourth-largest area of peatland in the world, ranging from 30 to 45 million ha, which is approximately 10 - 12% of the global peatland resource. Fire has a long tradition in Indonesian land clearing, where almost all fires are related to human activities. The 1997 - 1998 fires throughout Indonesia caused significant haze and smoke-related health problems across Southeast Asia. Strong and weak El Niño events in 1998 and 2002 accelerated burning as soil was parched. Green house gas emissions from the fires were the source of 60% of all anomalies globally for 1997 - 2000, particularly from drained peatlands. In 2007/08 we participated in a study conducted by the World Wildlife Fund which focused on Sumatra's 8.3 million ha province of Riau, along the island's northeastern coastline. In this study CO2 emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, peat decomposition and burning over 17 years from 1990 - 2007 were estimated. Fire hotspot data for the years 1997 - 2000 from the NOAA AVHRR and MODIS sensors was used to identify burned peatland. Based on soil water availability the depths of peat burns were estimated. El Nino years with a water table of lower than 1.5 m propel intense burning so that a peat burn depth of 0.50 m was assumed, while normally only a peat burn depth of 0.15 m. Total emissions for the 1990 - 2007 period were estimated at 3.66 Gt CO2, composed of 1.17 Gt CO2 from deforestation, 0.32 Gt CO2 from forest degradation, 0.78 Gt CO2 from peat decomposition, and 1.39 Gt CO2 from peat burning. Average annual CO2 emissions were 0.22 Gt, equal to 58% of Australia's total CO2 annual emissions (including emissions/removals from LULUCF, in 2005); between 1990 and 2007, Riau produced more CO2 per year than the fourth-largest industrial nation, Germany, saved to achieve its Kyoto target. Since 1990, emissions from peat burning and peat decomposition have exceeded that of above ground biomass deforestation. These numbers show how important it is to have more accurate estimations for peat burn depth in the future. Until now few field measurements were made, which would require to know the fire affected area in advance or ignite peatland on purpose. Furthermore fire scars are quickly covered by regenerating vegetation. Another problem is the lack of a method without actually having to go into the field (e.g. through remote sensing techniques), due to the fact that many of the fire locations are remote and very difficult to access. We investigated if airborne light detection and ranging (LIDAR), an active laser pulse technology by which the height of objects can be precisely measured, can be used to determine the amount of peat burned during a fire event. From a LIDAR data set acquired in Central Kalimantan, Borneo, in 2007, one year after severe fires resulting from the 2006 El Niño drought, we calculated that the average depth of a burn scar was 0.30 ± 0.15 m .This was achieved through the construction of digital terrain models (DTMs) by interpolating the LIDAR ground return signals in burnt and adjacent unburned peatland. These calculated depths were compared to in situ measurements, which came to similar results. We believe that the method presented here to estimate burnt peat depth has the potential to considerably improve the accuracy of regional and global carbon emission models but would also be helpful for monitoring projects under the Kyoto Protocol like the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) or the proposed Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) mechanism.

Ballhorn, U.; Siegert, F.

2009-04-01

36

Derivation of burn scar depths and estimation of carbon emissions with LIDAR in Indonesian peatlands  

PubMed Central

During the 1997/98 El Niño-induced drought peatland fires in Indonesia may have released 13–40% of the mean annual global carbon emissions from fossil fuels. One major unknown in current peatland emission estimations is how much peat is combusted by fire. Using a light detection and ranging data set acquired in Central Kalimantan, Borneo, in 2007, one year after the severe peatland fires of 2006, we determined an average burn scar depth of 0.33 ± 0.18 m. Based on this result and the burned area determined from satellite imagery, we estimate that within the 2.79 million hectare study area 49.15 ± 26.81 megatons of carbon were released during the 2006 El Niño episode. This represents 10–33% of all carbon emissions from transport for the European Community in the year 2006. These emissions, originating from a comparatively small area (approximately 13% of the Indonesian peatland area), underline the importance of peat fires in the context of green house gas emissions and global warming. In the past decade severe peat fires occurred during El Niño-induced droughts in 1997, 2002, 2004, 2006, and 2009. Currently, this important source of carbon emissions is not included in IPCC carbon accounting or in regional and global carbon emission models. Precise spatial measurements of peat combusted and potential avoided emissions in tropical peat swamp forests will also be required for future emission trading schemes in the framework of Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation in developing countries. PMID:19940252

Ballhorn, Uwe; Siegert, Florian; Mason, Mike; Limin, Suwido

2009-01-01

37

Quality of pediatric second-degree burn wound scars following the application of basic fibroblast growth factor: results of a randomized, controlled pilot study ?.  

PubMed

????????????????Pediatric burn wounds present unique challenges. Second-degree burns may increase in size and depth, raising concerns about healing and long-term scarring. Results of a clinical study in adults with second-degree burn wounds suggest that application of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) may reduce time to second-intention healing and result in a more cosmetically acceptable scar. To evaluate the effect of this treatment on pediatric patients with deep second- degree burn wounds, 20 pediatric patients ranging in age from 8 months to 3 years (average 1 year, 3 months [± 6 months]) with a total of 30 burn wounds from various causes were allocated either the growth factor (treatment, n = 15) or an impregnated gauze treatment (control, n = 15). Wounds still exudative (not healed) after 21 days were covered with a split-thickness skin graft. All wounds were clinically assessed until healed and after 1 year. A moisture meter was used to assess scars of wounds healing by secondary intention. A color meter was used to evaluate grafted wounds. Five wounds in each group required grafting. Skin/scar color match was significantly closer to 100% in the treatment than in the control group (P <0.01). Wounds not requiring grafting were no longer exudative after 13.8 (± 2.4) and 17.5 (± 3.1) days in the treatment (n = 10) and control group (n = 10), respectively (P <0.01). After 1 year, scar pigmentation, pliability, height, and vascularity were also significantly different (P <0.01) between the groups. Hypertrophic scars developed in 0 of 10 wounds in the treatment and in three of 10 wounds in the control group, and effective contact coefficient, transepidermal water loss, water content, and scar thickness were significantly greater in control group (P <0.01). Both the short- and long-term results of this treatment in pediatric burn patients are encouraging and warrant further research. PMID:22879314

Hayashida, Kenji; Akita, Sadanori

2012-08-01

38

Post-traumatic stress disorder due to devastitang burns overcome by a single session of eye movement desensitization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary - This article reports on the effective use of a single session of eye movement desensitization (EMD) in the treatment of an exceptionally severe case of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The patient was the survivor of burns that left him with massive scarring, total deafness, bilateral amputations of the upper extremities above the elbow, severe contractures, and severely damaged

DAVID L. MCCANN

1992-01-01

39

Physical rehabilitation of pediatric burns  

PubMed Central

Summary Significant improvements have been made in the acute treatment of pediatric burn injuries over the past 3 decades which have significantly decreased mortality. Each year, more burned children are necessitating serious medical attention during their convalescence. For children with serious consequences resulting from burns that can persist from childhood through adolescence into adulthood, the value of long-term rehabilitation cannot be over stated. Burn injury management should not focus only on the immediate treatment. Long-term functional outcome and the required rehabilitation that burn victims must go through should be given equal if not more attention. The present is a review of the available modalities utilized for the physical rehabilitation of convalescent pediatric burns in order to overcome the catabolic state, improve muscle power and fitness, reduce disfiguring scars and prevent contractures. PMID:25249846

Atiyeh, B.; Janom, H.H.

2014-01-01

40

Fat Injection for Cases of Severe Burn Outcomes: A New Perspective of Scar Remodeling and Reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Despite civilization and progress, burns occur frequently in the world. Remarkable discoveries of wound healing mechanisms\\u000a have been reported. On the other hand, long-term outcomes from burn injuries represent a barrier to improvement of patients’\\u000a social, functional, and psychological condition. Lipofilling, described since the 1980s, currently is used for several clinical\\u000a applications. This study aimed to verify whether lipofilling could

M. Klinger; M. Marazzi; D. Vigo; M. Torre

2008-01-01

41

Reconstruction of severe hand contractures: An illustrative series  

PubMed Central

Aim: An overview of a series of severe burn contractures in 44 hands reconstructed over a 20 month period with an easy to follow algorithm. Settings and Design: The series was carried out by a single surgeon at Green Pastures Rehabilitation Centre in Pokhara, Nepal. All patients attending with severe burn contractures to the hand were included in the series. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective review of burn contractures in a total of 44 hands. All the contractures involved limitation of movement by 60 degrees in two or more joints or by 80 degrees in one joint. The decision making process is presented as a flow chart indicating when and which flaps were used. Results: Illustrations demonstrate what was achieved, with all hands obtaining an improvement in function. Conclusions: Although many of these contractures can be dealt with by skin grafting the series clearly illustrates the indications for flap coverage. PMID:21713162

Tucker, S. C.

2011-01-01

42

Rehabilitation of the burn patient  

PubMed Central

Rehabilitation is an essential and integral part of burn treatment. It is not something which takes place following healing of skin grafts or discharge from hospital; instead it is a process that starts from day one of admission and continues for months and sometimes years after the initial event. Burns rehabilitation is not something which is completed by one or two individuals but should be a team approach, incorporating the patient and when appropriate, their family. The term ‘Burns Rehabilitation’ incorporates the physical, psychological and social aspects of care and it is common for burn patients to experience difficulties in one or all of these areas following a burn injury. Burns can leave a patient with severely debilitating and deforming contractures, which can lead to significant disability when left untreated. The aims of burn rehabilitation are to minimise the adverse effects caused by the injury in terms of maintaining range of movement, minimising contracture development and impact of scarring, maximising functional ability, maximising psychological wellbeing, maximising social integration PMID:21321643

Procter, Fiona

2010-01-01

43

Topical clobetasol in conjunction with topical tretinoin is effective in preventing scar formation after superficial partial-thickness burn ulcers of the skin: a retrospective study.  

PubMed

Abstract Background: Deep erythema and inflammation after re-epithelialization of superficial wounds is a sign of scar formation. Corticosteroids may prevent scarring by suppression of inflammation and fibroblast activity. Tretinoin may increase the efficacy of corticosteroids in this setting. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of corticosteroids plus tretinoin for prevention of scars after superficial wounds. Methods: In a retrospective study of patients with superficial partial thickness thermal skin burn, we compared the patients who received clobetasol plus tretinoin after re-epithelialization with patients who did not receive any medication. Clobetasol propionate 0.05% ointment was used twice daily with overnight occlusive dressing in conjunction with twice weekly topical tretinoin 0.05% cream. Results: Among 43 patients who had light pink or no erythema after re-epithelialization and consequently did not receive clobetasol+tretinoin, no scar was developed. Among patients who had deep erythema after re-epithelialization, rate of scar formation was significantly higher in 14 patients who did not receive clobetasol+tretinoin than in 21 patients who received clobetasol+tretinoin (64% and 19% respectively; P=0.01). Conclusion: Clobetasol+tretinoin can significantly decrease the incidence of scar formation in patients with inflammation after re-epithelialization of superficial wounds. PMID:25424054

Taheri, Arash; Moradi Tuchayi, Sara; Alinia, Hossein; Orscheln, Courtney S; Mansoori, Parisa; Feldman, Steven R

2014-11-26

44

A fully automatic processing chain to produce Burn Scar Mapping products, using the full Landsat archive over Greece  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote sensing tools for the accurate, robust and timely assessment of the damages inflicted by forest wildfires provide information that is of paramount importance to public environmental agencies and related stakeholders before, during and after the crisis. The Institute for Astronomy, Astrophysics, Space Applications and Remote Sensing of the National Observatory of Athens (IAASARS/NOA) has developed a fully automatic single and/or multi date processing chain that takes as input archived Landsat 4, 5 or 7 raw images and produces precise diachronic burnt area polygons and damage assessments over the Greek territory. The methodology consists of three fully automatic stages: 1) the pre-processing stage where the metadata of the raw images are extracted, followed by the application of the LEDAPS software platform for calibration and mask production and the Automated Precise Orthorectification Package, developed by NASA, for image geo-registration and orthorectification, 2) the core-BSM (Burn Scar Mapping) processing stage which incorporates a published classification algorithm based on a series of physical indexes, the application of two filters for noise removal using graph-based techniques and the grouping of pixels classified as burnt to form the appropriate pixels clusters before proceeding to conversion from raster to vector, and 3) the post-processing stage where the products are thematically refined and enriched using auxiliary GIS layers (underlying land cover/use, administrative boundaries, etc.) and human logic/evidence to suppress false alarms and omission errors. The established processing chain has been successfully applied to the entire archive of Landsat imagery over Greece spanning from 1984 to 2012, which has been collected and managed in IAASARS/NOA. The number of full Landsat frames that were subject of process in the framework of the study was 415. These burn scar mapping products are generated for the first time to such a temporal and spatial extent and are ideal to use in further environmental time series analyzes, production of statistical indexes (frequency, geographical distribution and number of fires per prefecture) and applications, including change detection and climate change models, urban planning, correlation with manmade activities, etc.

Kontoes, Charalampos; Papoutsis, Ioannis; Herekakis, Themistoklis; Michail, Dimitrios; Ieronymidi, Emmanuela

2013-04-01

45

Joint Contracture Orthosis (JCO)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this project was to develop an advanced orthosis which is effective in reducing upper and lower limb contractures in significantly less time than currently required with conventional methods. The team that developed the JCO consisted of an engineer, orthotist, therapist, and physician.

Lunsford, Thomas R.; Parsons, Ken; Krouskop, Thomas; McGee, Kevin

1997-01-01

46

Burns  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... the body's outer covering. It protects us against heat, light, injury, and infection. It also regulates body ... Burns A burn is damaged tissue caused by heat, chemicals, electricity, sunlight, or nuclear radiation. Burns caused ...

47

Burns  

MedlinePLUS

... control and nutritional support. What is on the horizon for burn research? Improving methods for wound healing ... hypothesis-driven testing. Where can I find more information about burns? The Alisa Ann Ruch Burn Foundation ...

48

Barnacle scars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The nearly circular scars of barnacle encrustation are noticeable even when the barnacle shells are broken off. A scallop with barnacle scars from the Yorktown Formation was the first described and illustrated fossil in North America.

2001-03-01

49

Scar revision  

PubMed Central

Most surgical patients end up with a scar and most of these would want at least some improvement in the appearance of the scar. Using sound techniques for wound closure surgeons can, to a certain extent, prevent suboptimal scars. This article reviews the principles of prevention and treatment of suboptimal scars. Surgical techniques of scar revision, i.e., Z plasty, W plasty, and geometrical broken line closure are described. Post-operative care and other adjuvant therapies of scars are described. A short description of dermabrasion and lasers for management of scars is given. It is hoped that this review helps the surgeon to formulate a comprehensive plan for management of scars of these patients. PMID:24516292

Sharma, Mohit; Wakure, Abhijeet

2013-01-01

50

Management of severe burn injuries with topical heparin: the first evidence-based study in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Conventional therapy for burns has always produced a nightmarish illness for patients. The lack of the ability to prevent contractures often produces dysfunctional limbs and the ugly scars resulting from severe burns are an ongoing reminder of this lengthy painful illness. This study is to determine the effectiveness of topical heparin in burns management among some patients at the Burns Intensive Care Unit (BICU) of the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH), Kumasi, Ghana. Patients for this prospective study were burns victims who were transported to the Accident and Emergency Center of KATH. Complete clerking of the patients and related information were taken. Six patients with ages ranging from 5-35 years, TBSA 5-42% and a combination of 2° and 3° burns were enrolled in the case study. Anatomical locations of the burns included: face, neck, trunk and limbs. Using topical heparin produced smooth skin in two patients: Patients 3 and 5 who reported on Post-burn Day 85 and 116 at the BICU. Five out of the six patients assessed the degree of pain; before treatment with heparin, all five patients stated they were experiencing severe pains, however, three (60.0%) of the patients stated they experienced no pain at all while two (40.0%) were experiencing mild pain after topical heparin application. Heparin was observed to be very effective in the management of burn injuries in the patients studied. It was effective in reduction of pain and prevention of scars and contractures. However, due to the small number of patients and lack of control for the wound healing, a firm recommendation for the use of heparin therapy in burns cannot be made and further studies would be required to establish its use especially in the African population. PMID:23386983

Agbenorku, Pius; Fugar, Setri; Akpaloo, Joseph; Hoyte-Williams, Paa E; Alhassan, Zainab; Agyei, Fareeda

2013-01-01

51

Outcome of Split Thickness Skin Grafting and Multiple Z-Plasties in Postburn Contractures of Groin and Perineum: A 15-Year Experience  

PubMed Central

Background. Groin and perineal burn contracture is a rare postburn sequel. Such postburn contractures causes distressing symptoms to the patients and in the management of these contractures, both functional and cosmetic appearance should be the primary concern. Aims. To study the outcome of surgical treatment (STSG and multiple Z-plasties) in postburn contractures of groin and perineum. Material and Methods. We conducted a study of 49 patients, with postburn groin and perineal contractures. Release of contracture with split thickness skin grafting (STSG) was done in 44 (89.79%) patients and release of contracture and closure by multiple Z-plasties was done in 5 (10.21%) patients. Results. Satisfactory functional and cosmetic outcome was seen in 44 (89.79%) patients. Minor secondary contractures of the graft were seen in 3 (6.81%) patients who were managed by physiotherapy and partial recurrence of the contracture in 4 (8.16%) patients required secondary surgery. Conclusion. We conclude that postburn contractures of the groin and perineum can be successfully treated with release of contracture followed by STSG with satisfactory functional and cosmetic results. Long term measures like regular physiotherapy, use of pressure garments, and messaging with emollient creams should not be neglected and should be instituted postoperatively to prevent secondary contractures of the graft and recurrence of the contracture. PMID:24967100

Sajad, Wani; Hamid, Raashid

2014-01-01

52

Safety and efficacy of excision and direct closure in acute burns surgery: outcome analysis in a prospective series of 100 patients and a survey of UK burns surgeons' attitudes.  

PubMed

Many burns surgeons avoid excision and direct closure of acute burns owing to concerns over wound dehiscence, scarring and infection. There is no evidence in the literature to support this practice. We present outcomes of a prospective series of 100 patients who underwent excision and direct closure of 138 burns over a 2-year period, along with results from a survey sent to 33 senior burns surgeons to gauge attitudes towards direct closure in burns surgery. 47% of survey respondents never perform direct closure. Dehiscence was cited as the most common concern, followed by hypertrophic scarring (HTS). In our cohort, the superficial dehiscence rate was 12% and the HTS rate was 16%, with no scarring contractures. Patients with healing time greater than 14 days were more likely to develop HTS (p=0.008), as were those with wound dehiscence (p=0.014). Patients undergoing part-grafting in addition to direct closure took significantly longer to heal than those undergoing direct closure alone (p=0.0002), with the donor site or graft delaying healing in the majority. Excision and direct closure of acute burn wounds avoids donor site morbidity and has an acceptable complication rate. It is a safe and effective treatment for full thickness burns in selected cases. PMID:24685067

Bain, Charles J; Wang, Tim; McArthur, Gordon; Williams, Greg; Atkins, Joanne; Jones, Isabel

2014-12-01

53

Burns  

MedlinePLUS

... antibiotics is performed until the wounds are healed. Wound healing occurs within two to three weeks. Some 2nd degree burns may need excision of damaged skin followed by skin grafting. 3rd Degree (Full Thickness Burns): The dead skin will need to be ...

54

Burns  

MedlinePLUS

A burn is damage to your body's tissues caused by heat, chemicals, electricity, sunlight or radiation. Scalds from hot liquids and steam, building fires and flammable liquids and gases are the most common causes of ...

55

Burns  

MedlinePLUS

... is. The burn is caused by chemicals or electricity. The person shows signs of shock . The person ... smoke alarms in your home. Check and change batteries regularly. Teach children about fire safety and the ...

56

Story on Scars  

MedlinePLUS

... Page The Pink Locker Society The Story on Scars KidsHealth > Kids > Staying Safe > Learning About Emergencies & First ... have a huge scar." What Exactly Is a Scar? A scar is the pale pink, brown, or ...

57

Burns functional disabilities among burn survivors: a study in Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Ghana  

PubMed Central

Aim: To determine the types of functional disabilities in adult and paediatric burns survivors, with specific emphasis on potential risk and socio-economic factors of burn disabilities present in Ghana. Patients and Methods: The descriptive study was carried out in Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana from May 2011 to April 2012. Burn survivors who came for follow-up visits after been discharged home and had functional disability were the participants of the study. They were physically examined and interviewed using a pre-tested questionnaire after their informed consent/or that of their parents (in the cases of paediatrics burns survivors) was sought. Results: A total of 70 participants consented for the study. Their ages ranged from 8/12 – 78 years, with a mean age of 12±1.7 years. Majority (60.0%, N=42) of the participants had third degree burns. The nature of disabilities of participants were mostly scar contractures (42.9%, N=30) of which 36.7% (N=11) had impeded arm elevation; 23.3% (N=7) could not fold the palm or move the digits. From the multiple regression analysis risk factors for burn victim to have disability were paediatric age (OR=11.1, P=0.043), third degree of burn (OR=6.2, P=0.001) and anatomical part affected (OR=18.3, P=0.031). Socio-economic factors that affected burn disability victims were nuclear family compensation (OR=4.2, P=0.021), community mockery/stigmatization (OR=0.1, P=0.052) and caretakers time and finance (OR=5.2, P=0.033). Conclusion: The commonest functional disabilities recorded were scar contractions of the axilla region which had impeded the ability of the patients to lift the arm. Risk factors for burns disability included childhood age, third degree of burn incurred and anatomical part affected. Social factors influencing the lives of burn survivors with disability were good family and negative community interactions. Significant economical factors recorded were caretakers’ time and financial constrains. PMID:23638325

Agbenorku, Pius

2013-01-01

58

[Update on the treatment and care of scars].  

PubMed

Scars due to burns cause important aesthetic and functional squeal, causing psicologic disorders that can limit personal and social relationships of these patients. In this article we review the type of scars, the factors influencing its function, its characteristics, and we update the different options to prevent and treat pathologic scars in these patients. The text concludes with an exhibition of camouflage techniques of scars through make-up. PMID:24738173

Peñas Raigoso, Carmen; Varga del Hoyo, Raquel; Blanco Arrien, Gloria; Díez Sanz, Ma Jesus

2014-02-01

59

Estimation of Crown Biomass of Pinus spp. From Landsat TM and Its Effect on Burn Severity in a Spanish Fire Scar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Remote sensing has been shown to be an efficient tool in the study of forest-fire processes. However, a lack of information on the amount of biomass burnt reduces the accuracy of fire severity and emission models. In this study, we use imagery from the Landsat Thematic Mapper to map crown biomass and burn severity for a large Mediterranean area. Considering

Alberto Garcia-Martin; Fernando Perez-Cabello; Juan de la Riva Fernandez; Raquel Montorio Lloveria

2008-01-01

60

Application of acellular dermal xenografts in full-thickness skin burns  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to explore the clinical value of the porcine acellular dermal xenograft (ADX) in combination with autologous split-thickness skin and pure autologous split-thickness skin grafting applied in deep full-thickness burns and scar wounds. A total of 30 patients with deep burns were randomly divided into experimental and control groups following escharectomy. The patients were separately treated with porcine acellular dermal xenograft (ADX) in combination with autologous split-thickness skin and pure autologous split-thickness skin graft. The wound healing was observed routinely and the scores were evaluated using Vancouver scar scale at different times following transplant surgery. The samples of cograft regions and the control group (pure transplant split-thickness skin autograft) were observed using light microscopy and electron microscopy, and the follow-up results were recorded. No conspicuous rejections on the cograft wound surface were observed. Compared with the control group, the cograft wounds were smooth, presented no scar contracture and exhibited good skin elasticity and recovery of the joint function. The cografted skin combined well and displayed a clear and continuous basal membrane, as well as gradually combined skin structure, a mature stratum corneum, downward extended rete pegs, a mainly uniform dermal collagen fiber structure, regular alignment, and fewer blood capillaries. Clear desmosome cograft regions were identified among heckle cells, as well as a clear and continuous basal membrane. The cografted skin of the combined split-thickness autograft and the acellular heterologous (porcine) dermal matrix showed an improved shape and functional recovery compared with the pure split-thickness skin autograft. The combination of the meshed ADX and the split-thickness skin autograft applied in deep full-thickness burns and scar wounds may induce tissue regeneration via dermis aiming. This method also has superior shape and functional recovery, and has an extensive clinical application value. PMID:23935745

CHEN, XIAODONG; FENG, XIANGSHENG; XIE, JULIN; RUAN, SHUBIN; LIN, YAN; LIN, ZEPENG; SHEN, RUI; ZHANG, FENGGANG

2013-01-01

61

Hypertrophic Scarring and Keloids: Pathomechanisms and Current and Emerging Treatment Strategies  

PubMed Central

Excessive scars form as a result of aberrations of physiologic wound healing and may arise following any insult to the deep dermis. By causing pain, pruritus and contractures, excessive scarring significantly affects the patient’s quality of life, both physically and psychologically. Multiple studies on hypertrophic scar and keloid formation have been conducted for decades and have led to a plethora of therapeutic strategies to prevent or attenuate excessive scar formation. However, most therapeutic approaches remain clinically unsatisfactory, most likely owing to poor understanding of the complex mechanisms underlying the processes of scarring and wound contraction. In this review we summarize the current understanding of the pathophysiology underlying keloid and hypertrophic scar formation and discuss established treatments and novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:20927486

Gauglitz, Gerd G; Korting, Hans C; Pavicic, Tatiana; Ruzicka, Thomas; Jeschke, Marc G

2011-01-01

62

Dendrochronology of a Fire-Scarred Ponderosa Pine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historical fire frequency in a stand of southwestern ponderosa pine has been doc- umented in a master fire chronology developed for a prescribed burning study area in Arizona. One of the 12 specimens used to assemble this chronology was a small, suppressed tree that contained 42 fire scars. Standard crossdating techniques were used to date the fire scars accurately, locate

John H. Dieterich; Thomas W. Swetnam

1984-01-01

63

Fetal Bovine Collagen Matrix in the Treatment of a Full Thickness Burn Wound: A Case Report With Long-Term Follow-Up.  

PubMed

The treatment of full thickness skin wounds commonly associated with large burns continues to represent a challenging clinical entity. The current treatment for large TBSA burns is split thickness autologous skin grafting; however, this treatment often results in poor textural durability, hypertrophic scarring, and fibrotic contractures. In this case report, the authors describe our experience and long-term follow-up results after the application of fetal bovine collagen (FBC) matrix (PriMatrix, TEI Biosciences, Boston, MA) to burn wounds clinically assessed as full thickness that healed without the need for subsequent skin grafting. The patient presented with 25% TBSA burns and was debrided and covered with FBC on postburn day 7. By postoperative day 12, the patient had large areas of reepithelialization distributed throughout the wound bed. By postoperative day 26, the patient had significantly more areas of wound closure and was discharged. Reepithelialization and repigmentation continued, and long-term follow-up after 26 months demonstrated complete reepithelialization and nearly complete repigmentation, without the appearance of contractures or hypertrophic scarring. This case report highlights the use of FBC as a scaffold capable of dermal regeneration and spontaneous reepithelialization with an excellent long-term functional and cosmetic outcome.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives 3.0 License, where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially. PMID:25494213

Strong, Amy L; Bennett, Danielle K; Spreen, Elizabeth B; Adhvaryu, Dhaval V; Littleton, Jeffrey C; Mencer, Ernest J

2014-12-01

64

Scars and Wounds  

MedlinePLUS

... more References Previous Topic Prostheses Next Topic Seizures Scars and wounds A wound is a physical injury ... protect it from infection and help it heal. Scars are healed wounds. What to look for Redness ...

65

Facial Scar Revision: Understanding Facial Scar Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... the Campaign Campaign Update Member Donors Corporate Partners Recognition Program 1887 Annual Giving Annual Report Donate Contact Us Trust your face to a facial plastic surgeon Facial Scar Revision ...

66

Functional and mechanistic investigation of Shikonin in scarring.  

PubMed

Scarring is a significant medical burden; financially to the health care system and physically and psychologically for patients. Importantly, there have been numerous case reports describing the occurrence of cancer in burn scars. Currently available therapies are not satisfactory due to their undesirable side-effects, complex delivery routes, requirements for long-term use and/or expense. Radix Arnebiae (Zi Cao), a perennial herb, has been clinically applied to treat burns and manage scars for thousands of years in Asia. Shikonin, an active component extracted from Radix Arnebiae, has been demonstrated to induce apoptosis in cancer cells. Apoptosis is an essential process during scar tissue remodelling. It was therefore hypothesized that Shikonin may induce apoptosis in scar-associated cells. This investigation presents the first detailed in vitro study examining the functional responses of scar-associated cells to Shikonin, and investigates the mechanisms underlying these responses. The data obtained suggests that Shikonin inhibits cell viability and proliferation and reduces detectable collagen in scar-derived fibroblasts. Further investigation revealed that Shikonin induces apoptosis in scar fibroblasts by differentially regulating the expression of caspase 3, Bcl-2, phospho-Erk1/2 and phospho-p38. In addition, Shikonin down-regulates the expression of collagen I, collagen III and alpha-smooth muscle actin genes hence attenuating collagen synthesis in scar-derived fibroblasts. In summary, it is demonstrated that Shikonin induces apoptosis and decreases collagen production in scar-associated fibroblasts and may therefore hold potential as a novel scar remediation therapy. PMID:25591861

Xie, Yan; Fan, Chen; Dong, Ying; Lynam, Emily; Leavesley, David I; Li, Kun; Su, Yonghua; Yang, Yinxue; Upton, Zee

2015-02-25

67

Raised Acne Scars: Treatment Can Ease Pain, Diminish Scars  

MedlinePLUS

... Injections These injections, which your dermatologist may call “intralesional injections,” help shrink raised scars. Injections of corticosteroids can soften and flatten thick, raised scars. Interferon ...

68

[Physical therapy for scars].  

PubMed

Physical therapy consists notably of hand or mechanical massages, pressure therapy using various fabrics or splints, cryotherapy, laser therapy, etc. It forms part of the range of therapies used to treat pathological scars, including medical and surgical treatment. While the results are often satisfactory for hypertrophic scars, they remain uncertain for major keloids. PMID:23539850

Masanovic, Marguerite Guillot

2013-01-01

69

Laser scar revision.  

PubMed

A variety of lasers can be used to treat scars and striae effectively. It is of paramount importance that the type of scar be properly classified on initial examination so that the most appropriate method of treatment can be chosen. Classification also allows the laser surgeon to discuss with the patient the anticipated response to treatment. The 585-nm pulsed dye laser (PDL) is the most appropriate system for treating hypertrophic scars, keloids, erythematous scars, and striae. The PDL carries a low risk of side effects and complications when operated at appropriate treatment parameters and time intervals. Atrophic scars are best treated with ablative CO2 and Er:YAG lasers; however, proliferative keloids and hypertrophic scars should not be vaporized because of the high risk of scar recurrence or progression. The appropriate choice and use of lasers can significantly improve most scars. As research in laser-skin interaction continues, further refinements in laser technology coupled with the addition of alternate treatment procedures will allow improved clinical efficacy and predictability. PMID:11859594

Lupton, Jason R; Alster, Tina S

2002-01-01

70

Acne Scars: Treatment and Outcome  

MedlinePLUS

... the scar. Bringing a scar closer to the surface of the skin tends to make it less ... protection, an SPF of 30 or greater, and water resistance. Best for : Depressed acne scars. Sometimes, skin ...

71

Atrophic Acne Scarring  

PubMed Central

Background: Scarring is an unfortunate and frequent complication of acne, resulting in significant psychological distress for patients. Fortunately, numerous treatment options exist for acne scarring. Objectives: To extensively review the literature on treatment options for atrophic acne scarring. Materials and methods: A comprehensive literature search was conducted on the following topics: dermabrasion, subcision, punch techniques, chemical peels, tissue augmentation, and lasers. Results: The literature supports the use of various treatment modalities; superior results may be achieved when multiple modalities are combined for a multi-step approach to scarring. Conclusion: The safety and efficacy of various treatment devices for acne scarring is well established, but there is a paucity of split-face trials comparing modalities. PMID:25610524

Graber, Emmy M.

2015-01-01

72

Human hypertrophic and keloid scar models: principles, limitations and future challenges from a tissue engineering perspective.  

PubMed

Most cutaneous wounds heal with scar formation. Ideally, an inconspicuous normotrophic scar is formed, but an abnormal scar (hypertrophic scar or keloid) can also develop. A major challenge to scientists and physicians is to prevent adverse scar formation after severe trauma (e.g. burn injury) and understand why some individuals will form adverse scars even after relatively minor injury. Currently, many different models exist to study scar formation, ranging from simple monolayer cell culture to 3D tissue-engineered models even to humanized mouse models. Currently, these high-/medium-throughput test models avoid the main questions referring to why an adverse scar forms instead of a normotrophic scar and what causes a hypertrophic scar to form rather than a keloid scar and also, how is the genetic predisposition of the individual and the immune system involved. This information is essential if we are to identify new drug targets and develop optimal strategies in the future to prevent adverse scar formation. This viewpoint review summarizes the progress on in vitro and animal scar models, stresses the limitations in the current models and identifies the future challenges if scar-free healing is to be achieved in the future. PMID:24750541

van den Broek, Lenie J; Limandjaja, Grace C; Niessen, Frank B; Gibbs, Susan

2014-06-01

73

Smoke, Clouds, and Radiation-Brazil (SCAR-B) experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Smoke, Clouds, and Radiation-Brazil (SCAR-B) field project took place in the Brazilian Amazon and cerrado regions in August-September 1995 as a collaboration between Brazilian and American scientists. SCAR-B, a comprehensive experiment to study biomass burning, emphasized measurements of surface biomass, fires, smoke aerosol and trace gases, clouds, and radiation, their climatic effects, and remote sensing from aircraft and satellites.

Y. J. Kaufman; P. V. Hobbs; V. W. J. H. Kirchhoff; P. Artaxo; L. A. Remer; B. N. Holben; M. D. King; D. E. Ward; E. M. Prins; K. M. Longo; L. F. Mattos; C. A. Nobre; J. D. Spinhirne; Q. Ji; A. M. Thompson; J. F. Gleason; S. A. Christopher; S.-C. Tsay

1998-01-01

74

A polarized multispectral imaging system for quantitative assessment of hypertrophic scars.  

PubMed

Hypertrophic scars (HTS) are a pathologic reaction of the skin and soft tissue to burn or other traumatic injury. Scar tissue can cause patients serious functional and cosmetic issues. Scar management strategies, specifically scar assessment techniques, are vital to improve clinical outcome. To date, no entirely objective method for scar assessment has been embraced by the medical community. In this study, we introduce for the first time, a novel polarized multispectral imaging system combining out-of-plane Stokes polarimetry and Spatial Frequency Domain Imaging (SFDI). This imaging system enables us to assess the pathophysiology (hemoglobin, blood oxygenation, water, and melanin) and structural features (cellularity and roughness) of HTS. To apply the proposed technique in an in vivo experiment, dermal wounds were created in a porcine model and allowed to form into scars. The developed scars were then measured at various time points using the imaging system. Results showed a good agreement with clinical Vancouver Scar Scale assessment and histological examinations. PMID:25360354

Ghassemi, Pejhman; Travis, Taryn E; Moffatt, Lauren T; Shupp, Jeffrey W; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C

2014-10-01

75

A polarized multispectral imaging system for quantitative assessment of hypertrophic scars  

PubMed Central

Hypertrophic scars (HTS) are a pathologic reaction of the skin and soft tissue to burn or other traumatic injury. Scar tissue can cause patients serious functional and cosmetic issues. Scar management strategies, specifically scar assessment techniques, are vital to improve clinical outcome. To date, no entirely objective method for scar assessment has been embraced by the medical community. In this study, we introduce for the first time, a novel polarized multispectral imaging system combining out-of-plane Stokes polarimetry and Spatial Frequency Domain Imaging (SFDI). This imaging system enables us to assess the pathophysiology (hemoglobin, blood oxygenation, water, and melanin) and structural features (cellularity and roughness) of HTS. To apply the proposed technique in an in vivo experiment, dermal wounds were created in a porcine model and allowed to form into scars. The developed scars were then measured at various time points using the imaging system. Results showed a good agreement with clinical Vancouver Scar Scale assessment and histological examinations. PMID:25360354

Ghassemi, Pejhman; Travis, Taryn E.; Moffatt, Lauren T.; Shupp, Jeffrey W.; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C.

2014-01-01

76

Scar revision - series (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... of skin has been lost in the original injury, when a thin scar will not heal, and when improved function (rather than aesthetic reasons) are the primary concern. Secondary procedures may later be necessary to achieve appropriate ...

77

[Razemon's lateral digital rotation flap in severe Dupuytren contracture of the fifth finger].  

PubMed

In Dupuytren's disease, correction of severe contracture deformities and excision of dermal lesions are often responsible for palmar skin defects. This study aimed to assess the results of the lateral digital flap described by Razemon. Thirty-seven patients were analysed retrospectively for functional and trophic results. Twelve months of follow-up were at least required. The lack of extension was appreciated through Thomine's coefficient. Subjective patient's opinion was noted about function of fifth finger and hand. The flap trophicity was evaluated through softness, coverage quality and esthetic aspect. In the preoperative period, the average lack of extension was 105°; 89% of the patients were ranked as stages 3 or 4 of Tubiana's classification. At the 12th month, the average Thomine's coefficient was 0.74; 70% of the patients were very satisfied. Two patients exhibited some lack of suppleness and seven a dyschromic scars. The lateral digital rotation flap is a quite simple surgical procedure. It allows satisfactory results corresponding to functional and trophic coverage in severe Dupuytren's contracture involving the fifth finger. PMID:24094664

Ould-Slimane, M; Guinet, V; Foulongne, E; Melconian, A; Beccari, R; Milliez, P-Y; Auquit-Auckbur, I

2013-10-01

78

Surgical scar endometriosis.  

PubMed

Endometriosis is a common disorder in females of reproductive age. Surgical scar endometrioma after cesarean section develops in 1-2% of patients, and usually presents as a tender and painful abdominal wall mass. The diagnosis is suggested by pre or perimenstrual pelvic pain and is often established only by histology. In this retrospective observational cohort study, we reviewed the medical records of five patients with a histopathological diagnosis of scar endometriosis. A scar mass was found on a previous Pfannenstiel incision in four patients and in a median cesarean section in one patient. The mean age at diagnosis (38.6 years, median 38) was older than reported elsewhere. A histological examination of the surgical specimen confirmed the diagnosis of endometriosis in all cases. During the follow-up period (mean 34.6 months), local recurrence (n = 1) and pelvic recurrence (n = 1) were treated surgically. Surgery is the treatment of choice for surgical scar endometriosis. Excision with histologically proven free surgical margins of 1 cm is mandatory to prevent recurrence. As scar endometriosis may be associated with pelvic localization, explorative abdominal laparoscopy may be indicated to exclude the intraperitoneal spread of the disease in symptomatic patients. PMID:23307296

Mistrangelo, Massimiliano; Gilbo, Nicholas; Cassoni, Paola; Micalef, Salvatore; Faletti, Riccardo; Miglietta, Claudio; Brustia, Raffaele; Bonnet, Gisella; Gregori, Gianluca; Morino, Mario

2014-04-01

79

Body image and noticeable self-inflicted scars.  

PubMed

Scars from burn injuries have a negative influence on body image. Patients with borderline symptoms with nonsuicidal self-injuries (NSSIs), which often result in scars, report body image disturbances. We study whether the origin and characteristics of scars are associated with body image. Altogether, 125 female participants (n = 65 with NSSI) filled in multidimensional body image questionnaires. The participants with NSSI reported a significantly more negative body image on most subscales compared with the participants with scars of other origins. This result remained significant after partialling out scar characteristics from regression equations. On a scale assessing body image after injuries, a significant correlation with origin of scars was found after additionally partialling out body mass index and borderline symptoms. These results indicate that self-inflicted scars may adversely affect body image. Addressing NSSI, which is relevant in a multitude of disorders, early in treatment might help to reduce the extent of scarification and therefore reduce the disturbance of body image. PMID:24284644

Dyer, Anne; Hennrich, Linda; Borgmann, Elisabeth; White, Andrew J; Alpers, Georg W

2013-12-01

80

Surgical Scar Revision: An Overview  

PubMed Central

Scar formation is an inevitable consequence of wound healing from either a traumatic or a surgical intervention. The aesthetic appearance of a scar is the most important criteria to judge the surgical outcome. An understanding of the anatomy and wound healing along with experience, meticulous planning and technique can reduce complications and improve the surgical outcome. Scar revision does not erase a scar but helps to make it less noticeable and more acceptable. Both surgical and non-surgical techniques, used either alone or in combination can be used for revising a scar. In planning a scar revision surgeon should decide on when to act and the type of technique to use for scar revision to get an aesthetically pleasing outcome. This review article provides overview of methods applied for facial scar revision. This predominantly covers surgical methods. PMID:24761092

Garg, Shilpa; Dahiya, Naveen; Gupta, Somesh

2014-01-01

81

Helping Others Heal: Burn Survivors and Peer Support  

Microsoft Academic Search

Burns require psychosocial healing in addition to physical recovery as survivors face challenges such as scarring and altered appearance. An adjunct to interventions provided by social workers and other professionals is peer support from fellow burn survivors. But how do burn survivors view this intervention? This study examined a sample of burn survivors to learn about their views of peer

Karen Badger; David Royse

2010-01-01

82

Ablative fractionated CO2 resurfacing yields excellent result for severely atrophic traumatic scar on the face.  

PubMed

Ablative fractionated resurfacing has gained significant traction as an effective treatment for acne, burn, traumatic, and surgical scars over recent years. We report a case of a severely depressed, atrophic scar on the cheek of a middle aged woman treated with a 10,600 nm factionated CO2 laser. Serial treatments were performed, resulting in marked improvement in scar contour, texture, and overall cosmesis. Our report highlights the utility of ablative fractionated resurfacing for the treatment of post-traumatic, atrophic scars on the face. PMID:25007371

Jensen, J Daniel; Keane, Cooper; Huang, Conway C; Northington, Marian E

2014-07-01

83

The successful treatment of pain associated with scar tissue using acupuncture.  

PubMed

In this case report, a 48-year-old female who had suffered severe scar pain for 3 months was treated with acupuncture using the Wei Ci technique (surrounding the dragon). Scar tissue usually forms after deep trauma, such as piercings, burns, and surgery, to the dermis. In Chinese Medicine, scar tissue causes local Qi and blood stagnation which lead to pain. The Wei Ci technique (surrounding the dragon) and distal points Hegu-LI-4, Taichong-LIV-3, Zusanli-ST-36 were used. The patient received a total of eight treatments in 5 weeks. The scar pain decreased from 7 to 1 or 2 on a Likert scale of 0-10, with 0 being no pain and 10 being the worst pain. Acupuncture may have a good short-term pain-relieving effect on scar pain but its long-term scar-pain-relieving effects are still unclear. PMID:25441952

Fang, Sheng

2014-10-01

84

Arthroscopic gluteal muscle contracture release with radiofrequency energy.  

PubMed

Gluteal muscle contracture is common after repeated intramuscular injections and sometimes is sufficiently debilitating to require open surgery. We asked whether arthroscopic release of gluteal muscle contracture using radiofrequency energy would decrease complications with clinically acceptable results. We retrospectively reviewed 108 patients with bilateral gluteal muscle contractures (57 males, 51 females; mean age, 23.7 years). We used inferior, anterosuperior, and posterosuperior portals. With the patient lying laterally, we developed and enlarged a potential space between the gluteal muscle group and the subcutaneous fat using blunt dissection. Under arthroscopic guidance through the inferior portal, we débrided and removed fatty tissue overlying the contractile band of the gluteal muscle group using a motorized shaver introduced through the superior portal. Radiofrequency then was introduced through the superior portal to gradually excise the contracted bands from superior to inferior. Finally, hemostasis was ensured using radiofrequency. Patients were followed a minimum of 7 months (mean, 17.4 months; range, 7-42 months). At last followup, the adduction and flexion ranges of the hip were 45.3 degrees +/- 8.7 degrees and 110.2 degrees +/- 11.9 degrees, compared with 10.4 degrees +/- 7.2 degrees and 44.8 degrees +/- 14.1 degrees before surgery. No hip abductor contracture recurred and no patient had residual hip pain or gluteal muscle wasting. We found gluteal muscle contracture could be released effectively with radiofrequency energy. PMID:18975040

Liu, Yu-Jie; Wang, Yan; Xue, Jing; Lui, Pauline Po-Yee; Chan, Kai-Ming

2009-03-01

85

Scars, Keloids, and Stretch Marks  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Large controlled studies are needed to comprehensively evaluate current laser modalities and treatment protocols. Characterization\\u000a of the scar subtype is essential for selection of appropriate laser modalities and treatment parameters. Both ablative and\\u000a nonablative lasers targeting vessels within scar tissue or water surrounding collagen can improve the appearance of scars.\\u000a Fractional resurfacing modalities that allow for deep penetration of light

Hilda Justiniano; Andrea Willey; Suzanne L. Kilmer

86

Dune Avalanche Scars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

05 August 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows large, low albedo (dark) sand dunes in Kaiser Crater near 47.2oS, 340.4oW. The dunes are--ever so slowly--moving east to west (right to left) as sand avalanches down the steeper, slip face slopes of each. Avalanching sand in the Kaiser dune field has left deep scars on these slopes, suggesting that the sand is not loose but is instead weakly cemented. The image covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

2004-01-01

87

Turning scar into muscle.  

PubMed

After the demonstration that somatic cells could be reprogrammed to a pluripotent state, exciting new prospects were opened for the cardiac regeneration field. It did not take long for the development of strategies to convert somatic cells directly into cardiomyocytes. Despite the intrinsic difficulties of cell reprogramming, such as low efficiency, the therapeutic possibilities created by the ability to turn scar into muscle are enormous. Here, we discuss some of the major advances and strategies used in direct cardiac reprogramming and examine discrepancies and concerns that still need to be resolved in the field. PMID:23024837

de Carvalho, Antonio Carlos Campos; Carvalho, Adriana Bastos

2012-09-26

88

Ultrastructural Differentiation of Abnormal Scars  

PubMed Central

Summary Aim: To evaluate the differences between keloid and hypertrophic scars by biochemical and ultrastructural techniques. Method: Over 1000 patients with different types of scars were studied and followed up for a period of 20 years. The histochemical and biochemical analysis with respect to the composition of the extracellular matrix of the dermis was conducted. At the ultrastructural level, collagen deposition and assembly were studied using electron microscopy. The rate of proliferation and metabolic activity of the dermal fibroblasts isolated from the normal skin and scar biopsies were studied to assess the cause of excess matrix deposition in scar tissues. Results: Evaluation of different types of scars showed that both keloid and hypertrophic scars have excess matrix deposition in terms of collagen and proteoglycans. Keloid shows a high amount of acid-soluble collagen. The assembly of collagen fibrils is also abnormal in keloids. Studies on the proliferation and metabolic activity showed that keloid fibroblasts have a higher rate of proliferation and metabolic activity than fibroblasts from hypertrophic scars and normal skin. Finally, keloid fibroblasts show high and intense staining for the endoplasmic reticulum, suggesting a possible reason for high activity of these fibroblasts. Conclusion: Keloids and hypertrophic scars show distinct ultrastructural patterns of both collagen deposition and assembly. These parameters could be refined by further research, and they would thus serve as a useful tool for surgeons to distinguish different types of scars and adopt suitable therapeutic strategies. PMID:21990984

Meenakshi, J.; Jayaraman, V.; Ramakrishnan, K.M..; Babu, M.

2005-01-01

89

Periarticular fractures after manipulation for knee contractures in children.  

PubMed

We report two cases, each of which sustained two separate periarticular fractures from overzealous manipulation for knee contracture. The four fractures reported in this study involve one normal child sustaining asynchronous ipsilateral distal femoral and proximal tibial fractures and a child with the diagnosis of amyoplasia sustaining bilateral proximal tibial fractures. The child with knee contracture must be treated carefully and not exposed to overzealous physiotherapy or manipulation. The child who has developed a joint contracture secondary to lengthy immobilization may be at increased risk for periarticular fracture secondary to disuse osteopenia. The knee joint is at particular risk because of the long lever arm of the leg. These concerns should be conveyed to anyone involved in the patient's care, including the parents, therapists, nurses, and physicians. Passive range of motion in the child should never be painful. Normal children often can obtain maximal range of motion if left alone and not restricted. PMID:7790480

Simonian, P T; Staheli, L T

1995-01-01

90

Burn Institute  

MedlinePLUS

... do each year – a burn injury. Learn more Fire and Burn Prevention Each year, the Burn Institute ... thousands of children and adults each year through fire and burn prevention education, burn survivor support programs ...

91

Multiple collagenase injections are safe for treatment of Dupuytren's contractures.  

PubMed

The authors report the case of a 65-year-old, right-hand-dominant man who had severe Dupuytren's disease with multiple cords and flexion contractures of the metacarpophalangeal and proximal interphalangeal joints of both hands and underwent repeated collagenase injections for treatment. Collagenase has been shown to be safe and effective in the treatment of Dupuytren's contractures when administered as a single dose, but the results of multiple injections over a prolonged period are unknown. Antibodies to collagenase develop in all patients after several treatments, raising concerns about safety and efficacy as a result of sensitization from repeated exposures. The antibodies generated as a result of repeated exposure to collagenase could theoretically render it less effective with time and could also lead to immune reactions as severe as anaphylaxis. The authors present the case of a single patient who experienced continued correction of his contractures with only minor and self-limited adverse reactions after administration of 12 collagenase doses through 15 injections during a 4-year period. Over time, the injections continued to be effective at correcting metacarpophalangeal joint contractures, but less effective at correcting proximal interphalangeal joint contractures. The patient did eventually require a fasciectomy, but the safety and modest success of the repeated collagenase injections shows promise for a less invasive treatment with a better risk profile than open fasciectomy. Although further studies are needed, repeated administration of collagenase appears to be safe and modestly effective for severe Dupuytren's contractures, although a fasciectomy may ultimately be required in the most severe cases. PMID:24992063

Gajendran, Varun K; Hentz, Vincent; Kenney, Deborah; Curtin, Catherine M

2014-07-01

92

Laser management of acne scarring.  

PubMed

Acne scarring is often challenging to manage. Various laser treatments are helpful in addressing abnormal color and texture in order to improve the appearance of an acne scar. This paper will review the appropriate use and side-effects of these laser treatments. PMID:22358306

Kwok, Tiffany; Rao, Jaggi

2012-02-01

93

An automated image processing method to quantify collagen fibre organization within cutaneous scar tissue.  

PubMed

Standard approaches to evaluate scar formation within histological sections rely on qualitative evaluations and scoring, which limits our understanding of the remodelling process. We have recently developed an image analysis technique for the rapid quantification of fibre alignment at each pixel location. The goal of this study was to evaluate its application for quantitatively mapping scar formation in histological sections of cutaneous burns. To this end, we utilized directional statistics to define maps of fibre density and directional variance from Masson's trichrome-stained sections for quantifying changes in collagen organization during scar remodelling. Significant increases in collagen fibre density are detectable soon after burn injury in a rat model. Decreased fibre directional variance in the scar was also detectable between 3 weeks and 6 months after injury, indicating increasing fibre alignment. This automated analysis of fibre organization can provide objective surrogate endpoints for evaluating cutaneous wound repair and regeneration. PMID:25256009

Quinn, Kyle P; Golberg, Alexander; Broelsch, G Felix; Khan, Saiqa; Villiger, Martin; Bouma, Brett; Austen, William G; Sheridan, Robert L; Mihm, Martin C; Yarmush, Martin L; Georgakoudi, Irene

2015-01-01

94

Intelligent stretching of ankle joints with contracture\\/spasticity  

Microsoft Academic Search

An intelligent stretching device was developed to treat the spastic\\/contractured ankle of neurologically impaired patients. The device stretched the ankle safely throughout the range of motion (ROM) to extreme dorsiflexion and plantarflexion until a specified peak resistance torque was reached with the stretching velocity controlled based on the resistance torque. The ankle was held at the extreme position for a

Li-Qun Zhang; Sun G. Chung; Zhiqiang Bai; Dali Xu; Elton M. T. van Rey; Mark W. Rogers; Marjorie E. Johnson; Elliot J. Roth

2002-01-01

95

Unique microRNA profile in Dupuytren's contracture supports deregulation  

E-print Network

related to the b-catenin pathway: WNT5A, ZIC1, and TGFB1. Expression profiles of these genes reanalyzed from published gene-expression data from similar patient material correlated with our miRNA results the molecular pathogenesis of Dupuytren's contracture. These include gene-expression profiling,5

Kaski, Samuel

96

Dupuytren's contracture and occupational exposure to hand-transmitted vibration  

PubMed Central

Aims The relation between Dupuytren's contracture and occupational exposure to hand-transmitted vibration (HTV) has frequently been debated. We explored associations in a representative national sample of workers with well-characterised exposure to HTV. Methods We mailed a questionnaire to 21?201 subjects aged 16–64?years, selected at random from the age-sex registers of 34 general practices in Great Britain and to 993 subjects chosen randomly from military pay records, asking about occupational exposure to 39 sources of HTV and about fixed flexion contracture of the little or ring finger. Analysis was restricted to men at work in the previous week. Estimates were made of average daily vibration dose (A(8) root mean squared velocity (rms)) over that week. Associations with Dupuytren's contracture were estimated by Poisson regression, for lifetime exposure to HTV and for exposures in the past week >A(8) of 2.8?ms?2 rms. Estimates of relative risk (prevalence ratio (PR)) were adjusted for age, smoking status, social class and certain manual activities at work. Results In all 4969 eligible male respondents supplied full information on the study variables. These included 72 men with Dupuytren's contracture, 2287 with occupational exposure to HTV and 409 with A(8)>2.8?ms?2 in the past week. PRs for occupational exposure to HTV were elevated 1.5-fold. For men with an A(8)>2.8?ms?2 in the past week, the adjusted PR was 2.85 (95% CI 1.37 to 5.97). Conclusions Our findings suggest that risk of Dupuytren's contracture is more than doubled in men with high levels of weekly exposure to HTV. PMID:24449599

Palmer, Keith T; D'Angelo, Stefania; Syddall, Holly; Griffin, Michael J; Cooper, Cyrus; Coggon, David

2014-01-01

97

Can Acne Scars Be Removed?  

MedlinePLUS

... of Acne Scars from acne can seem like double punishment — first you had to deal with the ... dermatologist's office. The laser removes the damaged top layer of skin and tightens the middle layer, leaving ...

98

Secret scar free gracilis flap.  

PubMed

The gracilis free flap is a workhorse in plastic surgery. We present a modified technique that relies on a single horizontal thigh-lift-type approach, which (1) gives wide pedicle exposure, (2) provides material for skin grafting, and (3) allows for distal flap transection without an additional incision. Eighteen gracilis free flaps were performed from 2007 to 2009 for lower extremity reconstruction. Complete flap survival was observed in 17 patients with one partial necrosis distally. Our approach allowed access to divide the distal gracilis tendon without a second incision in all cases. The mean scar length was 16 ± 3 cm and no hypertrophic scars were observed. In 15 patients, no visible scar was observed in the upright position, and in three patients, the scar was visible dorsally (2 ± 1 cm). No sensory deficits were observed 6 months postoperatively. In addition, the split-thickness skin graft harvested from the skin paddle was sufficient to cover all defects. PMID:22588799

Tremp, Mathias; Wettstein, Reto; Raffoul, Wassim; Schaefer, Dirk J; Kalbermatten, Daniel F

2012-06-01

99

[The scars of Andy Warhol].  

PubMed

The biographical and artistic documents describing to the attempted assassination of the artist Andy Warhol are reviewed. The visible scars are interpreted as symbols of the damaged integrity of the skin. PMID:8868460

Scholz, A

1996-02-01

100

Burning Issue: Handling Household Burns  

MedlinePLUS

... hot objects or liquid, fire, friction, the sun, electricity, or certain chemicals. Each year, about a half- ... infant or elderly. the burn was caused by electricity, which can lead to “invisible” burns. Burns Burns ...

101

[Metabolism of collagen in patients with Dupuitren's contracture].  

PubMed

Results of investigation of collagen metabolism in Dupuitren's contracture (DC) were summarized. The patients were operated for calculous cholecystitis and DC stages II - III. The changes revealed witnessed about more expressed degradation of collagen and affection of the elastin components of connective tissue. On background of the pathological process progress in palmar aponeurosis in patients, suffering DC, a content of oxyproline have enhanced trustworthy in urine and reduced in tissue of a changed palmar aponeurosis. PMID:25252418

Iskra, N I; Hur'iev, S O; Shatrova, K M; Roshchin, H H; Kuz'min, V Iu

2014-07-01

102

MISR Views a Fire-Scarred Landscape  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This MISR image pair shows 'before and after' views of the area around the Hanford Nuclear Reservation near Richland, Washington. On June 27, 2000, a fire in the dry sagebrush was sparked by an automobile crash. The flames were fanned by hot summer winds. By the day after the accident, about 100,000 acres had burned, and the fire's spread forced the closure of highways and loss of homes.

These images, from Terra orbits 2176 and 3341, were obtained by MISR's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. Compare the area just above and to the right of the line of cumulus clouds in the May 15 image with the same area imaged on August 3. The darkened burn scar measures approximately 35 kilometers across. The Columbia River is seen wending its way around the area, and the Snake River branches off to the right.

According to Idaho's National Interagency Fire Center, the US has been experiencing the worst fire season since 1996.

MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

2000-01-01

103

Scar remodeling after strabismus surgery.  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE: Patients with overcorrected strabismus (and several patients with undercorrection after extraocular muscle resection) underwent exploration of previously operated muscles, with the intention of advancing their tendons to prevent the need for surgery on additional muscles. Unexpectedly, it was found that, in many cases, an elongated scar segment of variable length was interposed between the muscle and its insertion site on the sclera. Laboratory investigations were carried out to elucidate the underlying mechanism(s) and to create an animal model of the disorder. METHODS: Lengthened scars were repaired on 198 muscles during 134 procedures performed on 123 patients. The scars consisted of amorphous connective tissue interposed between the globe and normal tendon. Repair was accomplished by excision of the scar and reattachment of the muscle to sclera, using absorbable sutures in 64 cases and nonabsorbable sutures in 70 cases. Histopathologic examination was performed on 82 clinical specimens, and tissue culture studies were performed on 7 specimens. To develop an animal model, 10 New Zealand white rabbits underwent bilateral superior rectus resection. Half of the eyes received sub-Tenon's injections of collagenase over the operative site during weeks 2, 3, 5, and 6 postoperatively; the other half received saline solution injections on the same schedule. At 10 weeks, half the sites were studied histologically, and the other half underwent collagen creep analysis. In a second study, the use of absorbable versus nonabsorbable sutures was compared in the rabbit model. RESULTS: In the clinical cases, the mean length of the elongated scar segments was 4.2 mm. A total of 105 of the 134 repair procedures were judged successful. Thirty-one procedures resulted in recurrence of the original overcorrection; 7 of these had documented restretches. Factors that distinguished patients with stretched scars from patients with classic slipped muscles included minimal or no limitation of versions, less separation of the tendons from sclera, and thicker appearance of the scar segments. The use of nonabsorbable sutures in the repair procedure reduced the recurrence rate. Histologic examination of the clinical stretched scar specimens showed dense connective tissue that was less well organized compared with normal tendon. In the tissue culture studies, cells cultured from the stretched scar specimens grew rapidly and were irregularly shaped. A high-molecular-weight protein was identified in the culture medium. By contrast, cells cultured from normal tendon (controls) grew more slowly and regularly, stopped growing at 4 days, and produced less total protein than cultured stretched scar specimens. In the animal model studies, the collagenase-treated sites showed elongated scars with increased collagen between the muscle and the sclera, as well as increased collagen creep rates, compared with the saline-treated controls. The use of nonabsorbable sutures in collagenase-treated animal model surgery sites was associated with shorter, thicker scars compared with similar sites sutured with absorbable sutures. CONCLUSIONS: A lengthened or stretched, remodeled scar between an operated muscle tendon and sclera is a common occurrence and is a factor contributing to the variability of outcome after strabismus repair, even years later. This abnormality may be revealed by careful exploration of previously operated muscles. Definitive repair requires firm reattachment of tendon to sclera with nonabsorbable suture support. Images FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 FIGURE 24 FIGURE 25 FIGURE 26 FIGURE 27 FIGURE 28 FIGURE 29 FIGURE 30 FIGURE 31 FIGURE 32 FIGURE 33 FIGURE 34 FIGURE 35 FIGURE 36 FIGURE 37 FIGURE 38 FIGURE 39 FIGURE 40 FIGURE 41 FIGURE 42 FIGURE 43 FIGURE 44 FIGURE 45 FIGURE 46 FIGURE 52 FIGURE 53 FIGURE 54 FIGURE 55 FIGURE 58 FIGURE 59 FIGURE 60 FIGURE 61 FIGURE 62 FIGURE 63

Ludwig, I H

1999-01-01

104

Fire scars and ancient sand dunes in southern Australia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The rectangular green areas in this view of southern Australia are protected areas of natural forest (national parks and biospheric reserves), and the lighter surrounding colors (tan-brown) are agricultural croplands occupying land which once must have looked as green as the nature reserves but are now cleared of forest. The major green patch has been recently burned, as shown by the irregular pattern of a large, multiple burn scar. The pattern of the fire scar indicates that the fires were driven by winds blowing from left to right. Close examination of the view shows that the forests are rooted in a soil made up of a widespread sheet of ancient dune sand. The dunes can be seen best within the area of the large fire scar where the characteristic wavy, scalloped pattern of crescent dunes can be detected. The crescents indicate that the sand was heaped up by winds blowing from right to left in this view, in the opposite direction to the winds which fanned the fires. A few straight dunes

1994-01-01

105

In vitro mechanical compression induces apoptosis and regulates cytokines release in hypertrophic scars.  

PubMed

Hypertrophic scars resulting from severe burns are usually treated by continuous elastic compression. Although pressure therapy reaches success rates of 60-85% its mechanisms of action are still poorly understood. In this study, apoptosis induction and release of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) were evaluated in normal (n = 3) and hypertrophic (=7) scars from burns after in vitro mechanical compression. In the absence of compression (basal condition) apoptotic cells, scored using terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase assay, were present after 24 hours in the derma of both normal scar (23 +/- 0.4% of total cell) and hypertrophic scar (11.3 +/- 1.4%). Mechanical compression (constant pressure of 35 mmHg for 24 hours) increased apoptotic cell percentage both in normal scar (29.5 +/- 0.4%) and hypertrophic scar (29 +/- 1.7%). IL-1beta released in the medium was undetectable in normal scar under basal conditions while in hypertrophic scar the IL-1beta concentration was 3.48 +/- 0.2 ng/g. Compression in hypertrophic scar-induced secretion of IL-1beta twofold higher compared to basal condition. (7.72 +/- 0.2 ng/g). TNF-alpha basal concentration measured in normal scar medium was 8.52 +/- 4.01 ng/g and compression did not altered TNF-alpha release (12.86 +/- 7.84 ng/g). TNF-alpha basal release was significantly higher in hypertrophic scar (14.74 +/- 1.42 ng/g) compared to normal scar samples and TNF-alpha secretion was diminished (3.52 +/- 0.97 ng/g) after compression. In conclusion, in our in vitro model, mechanical compression resembling the clinical use of elastocompression was able to strongly increase apoptosis in the hypertrophic scar derma as observed during granulation tissue regression in normal wound healing. Moreover, the observed modulation of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha release by mechanical loading could play a key role in hypertrophy regression induced by elastocompression. PMID:12950636

Renò, Filippo; Sabbatini, Maurizio; Lombardi, Francesca; Stella, Maurizio; Pezzuto, Carla; Magliacani, Gilberto; Cannas, Mario

2003-01-01

106

Iatrogenic ocular silver nitrate burn.  

PubMed

Two cases of silver nitrate burn occurred after treatment of superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis with a solid silver nitrate applicator. After medical treatment and several months of observation, visual acuity eventually returned to acceptable levels with minimal corneal scarring. These cases emphasize the fact that silver nitrate should be used very cautiously around the eye and only in a fresh 0.5-1% solution. The use of solid silver nitrate should be prohibited around the eye. PMID:4092479

Laughrea, P A; Arentsen, J J; Laibson, P R

107

Burns: Treatment and Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Burns can cause extensive and devastating injuries of the head and neck. Prevention of the initial injury must always be a priority, but once an injury has occurred, then prevention of progression of the damage together with survival of the patient must be the immediate goals. The acute care will have a major influence on the subsequent scarring, reconstructive need, and long-term outcome. In the majority of cases, the reconstruction will involve restoration of form and function to the soft tissues, and the methods used will depend very much on the extent of scarring locally and elsewhere in the body. In nearly all cases, a significant improvement in functional and aesthetic outcomes can be achieved, which, in conjunction with intensive psychosocial rehabilitation, can lead to high-quality patient outcomes. With the prospect of facial transplantation being a clinical reality, the reconstructive spectrum has opened up even further, and, with appropriate reconstruction and support, no patient should be left economically deprived or socially isolated after a burn injury. PMID:22550448

Burd, Andrew

2010-01-01

108

Forest fire scar detection in the boreal forest with multitemporal SPOT-VEGETATION data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disturbance events, such as fire, have a major impact on boreal forest dynamics, succession, and the global carbon cycle. Methods using satellite imagery are well established for detecting forest fires in real time and mapping the burned area (fire scars) within one year of the fire. This paper focuses on the detection of older fire disturbance-regeneration patterns in the boreal

France Gerard; Stephen Plummer; Richard Wadsworth; Andrea Ferreruela Sanfeliu; Luke Iliffe; Heiko Balzter; Barry Wyatt

2003-01-01

109

Scars of torture: A Sri Lankan study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interpretation of scars of torture is not an easy task as our understanding of evolution of scars of different methods of torture is still in its infancy. The objectives of this study were to produce the features of a typical scar of a few selected methods of torture and determine their characteristic distribution. To achieve this, 100 medico-legal records of

Priyanjith Perera

2007-01-01

110

A Second Trimester Caesarean Scar Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Caesarean scar pregnancy, where conceptus is implanted on previous scar, is a rare entity. We present one such case of scar pregnancy presenting to us in the second trimester and was managed with methotrexate and uterine artery embolization, followed by hysterotomy. Uterus could be conserved and hysterectomy could be avoided. PMID:24782936

Sikka, Pooja; Suri, Vanita; Chopra, Seema; Aggarwal, Neelam

2014-01-01

111

Orbital socket contracture: a complication of inflammatory orbital disease in patients with Wegener’s granulomatosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: To describe the clinical characteristics of orbital socket contracture in patients with Wegener’s granulomatosis (WG).Methods: A retrospective cohort study The medical records of 256 patients with WG examined at the National Institutes of Health from 1967 to 2004 were reviewed to identify patients with orbital socket contracture. Details of the orbital disease including Hertel exophthalmometry readings, radiological findings, and

C Talar-Williams; M C Sneller; C A Langford; J A Smith; T A Cox; M R Robinson

2005-01-01

112

Pilot Study of Association of Bacteria on Breast Implants with Capsular Contracture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capsular contracture is the most common and frustrating complication in women who have undergone breast implantation. Its cause and, accordingly, treatment and prevention remain to be elucidated fully. The aim of this prospective observational pilot study was to test the hypothesis that the presence of bacteria on breast implants is associated with capsular contracture. We prospectively studied consecutive patients who

Jose L. Del Pozo; Nho V. Tran; Paul M. Petty; Craig H. Johnson; Molly F. Walsh; Uldis Bite; Ricky P. Clay; Jayawant N. Mandrekar; Kerryl E. Piper; James M. Steckelberg; Robin Patel

113

Breast augmentation: Part II--Adverse capsular contracture.  

PubMed

Although adverse capsular contracture (ACC) following breast augmentation remains an enigmatic phenomenon, significant progress has been made in diminishing its occurrence during the previous surgical generation. Given the rising global frequency of breast augmentation, however, ACC is likely to be with us for the foreseeable future and an understanding of its nature, and particularly prevention, will continue to be of foremost importance as breast augmentation undergoes a paradigm shift from anti-contracture to aesthetic result as the key outcome measure. Whilst clinical research has hitherto been the mainstay of investigation, providing both understanding and practical guidance, further improvements may derive from new developments in the fields of immunology and molecular biology: convergence of these complementary avenues may eventually yield a non-surgical treatment for ACC. This review presents a summary of our extant knowledge, providing evidence where it exists and a consensus view where it does not. It aims at providing a sound comprehension of the underlying aetiopathology that has provoked the measures seen to date and guides selection of the appropriate therapeutic strategy, which will be expanded in a future review. PMID:20579948

Berry, M G; Cucchiara, V; Davies, D M

2010-12-01

114

The Mast Cell Stabilizer Ketotifen Fumarate Lessens Contracture Severity and Myofibroblast Hyperplasia: A Study of a Rabbit Model of Posttraumatic Joint Contractures  

PubMed Central

Background The propensity of the elbow to become stiff after trauma is widely appreciated and in this setting, the joint capsule is commonly recognized as the major motion-limiting anatomical structure. Affected joint capsules become fibrotic, characterized by myofibroblast hyperplasia and excessive collagen deposition. Mast cell hyperplasia is common within fibrotic tissue and mast cells are known to synthesize many profibrotic mediators. We have hypothesized that mast cell inhibition after skeletal injury will lessen the degree of contracture severity and will reduce myofibroblast hyperplasia within the joint capsule. Methods Posttraumatic contractures of the knee were created using a combination of intra-articular injury coupled to internal immobilization in skeletally mature, New Zealand white rabbits. Four groups of animals were studied: a non-operative control group (CON), an operative contracture group (ORC) and two-operative groups treated with a mast cell stabilizer, Ketotifen fumarate at doses of 0.5mg/kg (KF0.5) and 1.0mg/kg (KF1.0) twice daily, respectively. After 8 weeks of immobilization, flexion contractures were measured biomechanically and the posterior joint capsule was harvested for quantification of myofibroblast and mast cell numbers. Results Flexion contractures developed in the ORC group (58 ± 14°) and the severity of contracture was significantly reduced in both groups treated with Ketotifen (KF0.5: 42 ± 17° and KF1.0: 45 ± 10°, p<0.02). Joint capsule myofibroblast and mast cell numbers were significantly increased within the operative contracture group (p<0.001). In both surgical groups treated with Ketotifen, myofibroblast and mast cell numbers were significantly reduced (p<0.001). Conclusions The use of a mast cell stabilizer, Ketotifen was effective in reducing the biomechanical and cellular manifestations of joint capsule fibrosis in a rabbit model of posttraumatic joint contracture. This is suggestive that an inflammatory pathway, mediated by mast cell activation is involved in the induction of joint capsule fibrosis after traumatic injury. Clinical Relevance These results suggest mast cell activation is an important event in the genesis of posttraumatic joint contractures. Further work is needed to determine if mast cell inhibition has a role in the prevention of posttraumatic joint contractures in humans. PMID:20516323

Monument, Michael J.; Hart, David A.; Befus, A. Dean; Salo, Paul T.; Zhang, Mei; Hildebrand, Kevin A.

2010-01-01

115

Pulmonary scar carcinoma. A clinicopathologic analysis  

SciTech Connect

To delineate differences between scar and non-scar pulmonary carcinoma, the charts, autopsy protocols and chest roentgenograms of 80 male patients (autopsied) between 1975 and 1980, were reviewed. Nineteen patients (24%) had documented scar carcinomas. The comparison revealed scar carcinomas to possess certain distinctive features: A higher histologic distribution of adenocarcinoma (58% versus 15% in non-scars) and the frequent presentation (53%) with only nonpulmonary symptoms and signs related to metastasis. In scar carcinomas both bronchoscopy and sputum cytology were ineffective as initial diagnostic tools since chest findings were absent or minimal. Chest x-ray was negative in 9 of the 19 patients with scar cancer and remained negative until death in seven. In 10 of 19 instances, pulmonary scar carcinomas presented with only nonpulmonary symptoms and showed a tendency to metastasize while clinically undetectable. The differences noted between scar and non-scar carcinomas of the lung appear to depend on the peripheral location of these tumors and not on the adenocarcinoma histology.

Bakris, G.L.; Mulopulos, G.P.; Korchik, R.; Ezdinli, E.Z.; Ro, J.; Yoon, B.H.

1983-08-01

116

Leg contracture in mice after single and multifractionated 137Cs exposure.  

PubMed

This is a report of studies of time-dose relationships for post-irradiation leg contractures in mice. The isoeffect doses for various degrees of contracture, measured 250 days after irradiation, increased with the number of fractions, but not with the overall treatment times, throughout 30 days. The isoeffect curves relating the total doses for given levels of responses to the doses per fraction were steeper for leg contractures than for acute skin reactions. The alpha/beta ratios ranged from 1.4 to 5.0 Gy, depending on the degrees of contracture. They were less than the 7.5 to 50 Gy for acute skin reactions as determined in previous experiments using the same animals and irradiation systems. Thus, the data resembled those from other slowly-responding normal tissues such as the spinal cord, kidney and lung. The leg contracture consisted of dermatogenic, myogenic, and arthrogenic components; after the mice were sacrificed there was residual contracture following removal of the skin and muscle. Inhibition of bone growth accounted for only a small proportion of the contracture. The overall response reflected responses of several tissue types. PMID:3610709

Masuda, K; Hunter, N; Stone, H B; Withers, H R

1987-08-01

117

Controlled Burn  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

GULF OF MEXICO — Dark clouds of smoke and fire emerge as oil burns during a controlled burn in the Gulf of Mexico. The U.S. Coast Guard working in partnership with BP PLC, local residents, and other Federal agencies conducted the controlled burn to aid in preventing the spread of oil following...

118

Chiral scars in chaotic Dirac fermion systems.  

PubMed

Do relativistic quantum scars in classically chaotic systems possess unique features that are not shared by nonrelativistic quantum scars? We report a class of relativistic quantum scars in massless Dirac fermion systems whose phases return to the original values or acquire a 2? change only after circulating twice about some classical unstable periodic orbits. We name such scars chiral scars, the successful identification of which has been facilitated tremendously by our development of an analytic, conformal-mapping-based method to calculate an unprecedentedly large number of eigenstates with high accuracy. Our semiclassical theory indicates that the physical origin of chiral scars can be attributed to a combined effect of chirality intrinsic to massless Dirac fermions and the geometry of the underlying classical orbit. PMID:23432246

Xu, Hongya; Huang, Liang; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Grebogi, Celso

2013-02-01

119

Epidemiology. The incidence and management of joint contracture in India.  

PubMed

An epidemiologic study in India showed that 50% of the severely disabled (1.8% of the total population) had locomotor disorders. There is a considerable difference in the incidence of disability and disease in rural and urban populations. The deformities from poliomyelitis are encountered predominantly in the rural areas (53.5%). The incidence in urban areas is only 1%. After poliomyelitis, the pathomechanics of deformity are prominent in the lower limbs. In a developing country, the management of contractures differs considerably from treatment in economically advanced nations. The use of postural exercises with body weight is well illustrated by certain Yoga postures such as paschimottansana or ushtrasana and is a prescribed treatment. PMID:3581587

Mukherjee, A K; Mokashi, M G

1987-06-01

120

Flector tissugel used to treat capsular contracture after breast augmentation surgery.  

PubMed

Capsular contracture constitutes the main postoperative complication after breast augmentation by implant placement. To date, no systemic treatment known allows for improvement that does not simultaneously put the patient at risk for secondary complications of a more general nature. Flector Tissugel is the sole locally active antiinflammatory patch. Its durable local antiinflammatory effect is associated only with a risk for rare and highly limited side effects. After approximately 3 weeks of treatment, a high frequency of change from capsular contracture Baker 2 or 3 to Baker 1 occurs, provided the application was started no later than 3 months after the onset of capsular contracture. PMID:18389304

Le Louarn, Claude; Buis, J; Auclair, E

2008-05-01

121

Orbital socket contracture: a complication of inflammatory orbital disease in patients with Wegener’s granulomatosis  

PubMed Central

Aim: To describe the clinical characteristics of orbital socket contracture in patients with Wegener’s granulomatosis (WG). Methods: A retrospective cohort study The medical records of 256 patients with WG examined at the National Institutes of Health from 1967 to 2004 were reviewed to identify patients with orbital socket contracture. Details of the orbital disease including Hertel exophthalmometry readings, radiological findings, and results of eye examinations were recorded. Orbital socket contracture was defined as orbital inflammation with proptosis followed by the development of enophthalmos and radiographic evidence of residual fibrotic changes in the orbit. To examine for risk factors in the development of a contracted orbit, patients with orbital socket contracture were compared to patients without contracture with respect to multiple variables including history of orbital surgery, orbital disease severity, and major organ system involvement. The main outcome measures were the clinical characteristics of orbital socket contracture associated with inflammatory orbital disease in patients with WG. Results: Inflammatory orbital disease occurred in 34 of 256 (13%) patients and detailed clinical data on 18 patients were available and examined. Orbital socket contracture occurred during the clinical course in six patients; the features included restrictive ophthalmopathy (five), chronic orbital pain (three), and ischaemic optic nerve disease (two) resulting in blindness (no light perception) in one patient. The orbital socket contracture occurred within 3 months of treatment with immunosuppressive medications for inflammatory orbital disease in five patients and was not responsive to immunosuppressive medications. The median degree of enophthalmos in the contracted orbit compared with the fellow eye was 2.8 mm (range 1.5–3.5 mm) by Hertel exophthalmometry. There were no risk factors that predicted development of orbital socket contracture. Conclusions: In six patients with WG and active inflammatory orbital disease, orbital socket contracture occurred during the treatment course with systemic immunosuppressive medications. The orbital socket contracture, presumably caused by orbital fibrosis, led to enophthalmos, restrictive ophthalmopathy, chronic orbital pain, and optic nerve disease and was not responsive to immunosuppressive therapy. Orbital socket contracture has not been previously reported as a complication of inflammatory orbital disease associated with WG and was an important cause of visual morbidity in our cohort of patients. PMID:15774931

Talar-Williams, C; Sneller, M C; Langford, C A; Smith, J A; Cox, T A; Robinson, M R

2005-01-01

122

Knee flexion contracture in haemophilia: treatment with circular external fixator.  

PubMed

Haemophilia, a bleeding disorder, causes recurrent intra-articular bleeding of the joints result-ing in chronic haemophilic arthropathy with fixed knee flexion deformity. Mid-long-term results (between 2002 and 2006) of deformity correction in haemophilic patients with Ilizarov type circular external fixators were retrospectively evaluated. There were six patients (five haemophilia A and one haemophilia B). The mean age was 14.7 years (range, 8-22 years) at the time of initial surgery. The mean knee flexion contracture was 45 degrees (range, 30-75 degrees). The mean arc of motion was 58.3 degrees (range, 40-100) before the surgery. The mean duration of follow-up was 8 years (range, 5.5-10 years). The mean duration of external fixation was 4.4 months (range, 2.5-10.5 months). Full extension of the knee joint was obtained in all patients in the early postoperative period. No bleeding, neurological or vascular complications were encountered. The mean amount of recurrence in knee flexion contracture was 10 degrees (range, 0-15 degrees). The amount of the correction was significant (P = 0.0012) and the mean arc of motion was 51.6 degrees (range, 25-90 degrees) that show a decrease of 6.7 degrees (P = 0.04) at the end of follow-up. The circular external fixator is an important, safe and less invasive alternative surgical treatment modality with low recurrence rate. Using the external hinges and distraction during the correction has a protective effect on the joint. It requires a team-work consisting of a haematologist, an orthopaedic surgeon and a physical therapist. PMID:25143070

Balci, H I; Kocaoglu, M; Eralp, L; Bilen, F E

2014-11-01

123

Global Burned Area and Biomass Burning Emissions from Small Fires  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In several biomes, including croplands, wooded savannas, and tropical forests, many small fires occur each year that are well below the detection limit of the current generation of global burned area products derived from moderate resolution surface reflectance imagery. Although these fires often generate thermal anomalies that can be detected by satellites, their contributions to burned area and carbon fluxes have not been systematically quantified across different regions and continents. Here we developed a preliminary method for combining 1-km thermal anomalies (active fires) and 500 m burned area observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to estimate the influence of these fires. In our approach, we calculated the number of active fires inside and outside of 500 m burn scars derived from reflectance data. We estimated small fire burned area by computing the difference normalized burn ratio (dNBR) for these two sets of active fires and then combining these observations with other information. In a final step, we used the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3) biogeochemical model to estimate the impact of these fires on biomass burning emissions. We found that the spatial distribution of active fires and 500 m burned areas were in close agreement in ecosystems that experience large fires, including savannas across southern Africa and Australia and boreal forests in North America and Eurasia. In other areas, however, we observed many active fires outside of burned area perimeters. Fire radiative power was lower for this class of active fires. Small fires substantially increased burned area in several continental-scale regions, including Equatorial Asia (157%), Central America (143%), and Southeast Asia (90%) during 2001-2010. Globally, accounting for small fires increased total burned area by approximately by 35%, from 345 Mha/yr to 464 Mha/yr. A formal quantification of uncertainties was not possible, but sensitivity analyses of key model parameters caused estimates of global burned area increases from small fires to vary between 24% and 54%. Biomass burning carbon emissions increased by 35% at a global scale when small fires were included in GFED3, from 1.9 Pg C/yr to 2.5 Pg C/yr. The contribution of tropical forest fires to year-to-year variability in carbon fluxes increased because small fires amplified emissions from Central America, South America and Southeast Asia-regions where drought stress and burned area varied considerably from year to year in response to El Nino-Southern Oscillation and other climate modes.

Randerson, J. T.; Chen, Y.; vanderWerf, G. R.; Rogers, B. M.; Morton, D. C.

2012-01-01

124

Novel Technology in the Treatment of Acne Scars: The Matrix-tunable Radiofrequency Technology  

PubMed Central

Background: Despite the many advances, scarring, particularly acne or pimple scarring, does not have a satisfactory treatment. A new armamentarium in this field is this recently devised matrix-tunable radiofrequency technology, which utilizes radiofrequency emission in the treatment of acne scars. Aims: To evaluate the efficiency of the new matrix-tunable radiofrequency technology in patients with acne scars of varying sizes. Settings and Design: A prospective study of 30 randomly selected patients with acne scars was carried out. Material and Methods: Thirty healthy patients with different types of acne scars – ice pick, box and rolling type – were randomly selected. The scars were either shallow or deep, varied in size from 2 to 20 mm and ranged in number from 10 to 50. These patients were first treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics and local exfoliating agents (topical tretinoin 0.025%) and then subjected to matrix-tunable radiofrequency technology. Each scar was treated at intervals of 1 month. A maximum of four such sittings were carried out. Patients were followed-up every 15 days. Results were noted at the end of 2 months and 6 months. Improvement was assessed by using the visual analog scale (VAS) at 2 months and 6 months, and results were noted in terms of percentage improvement of the whole face by calculating an average of percentage improvement on the basis of interviews of the patient and his/her accompanying relatives. The visual analog scaling was performed by means of high-resolution digital photographs taken at the baseline and at each subsequent visit. Results: The VAS improvement in scars ranged from 10 to 50% at the end of 2 months to 20 to 70% at the end of 6 months. Of the 30 patients of acne scars, the cosmetic result was excellent (>60% improvement) in four, good (35–60% improvement) in 18 and moderate to poor (<35% improvement) in eight. A few patients reported burning sensation and a mild sunburn-like sensation for about 1 h after treatment. The patients reported a pinkish tone for 2–3 days. Importantly, with the help of some slight make up, all the 30 patients could return to work the following day. Conclusion: Matrix-tunable radiofrequency technology is a safe and economically viable option for the dermatologists for the treatment of acne scars, because of the effective results coupled with a low downtime. PMID:21031069

Ramesh, M; Gopal, MG; Kumar, Sharath; Talwar, Ankur

2010-01-01

125

Chemical burns  

PubMed Central

Objectives To report a burn unit’s experience with chemical burns and to discuss the fundamental principles in managing chemical burns. Design A chart review. Setting A burn centre at a major university-affiliated hospital. Patients Twenty-four patients with chemical burns, representing 2.6% of all burn admissions over an 8-year period at the Ross Tilley Regional Adult Burn Centre. Seventy-five percent of the burn injuries were work-related accidents. Chemicals involved included hydrofluoric acid, sulfuric acid, black liquor, various lyes, potassium permanganate and phenol. Results Fourteen patients required excision and skin grafting. Complications were frequent and included ocular chemical contacts, wound infections, tendon exposures, toe amputation and systemic reactions from absorption of chemical. One patient died from a chemical scald burn to 98% of the body surface area. Conclusions The key principles in the management of chemical burns include removal of the chemical, copious irrigation, limited use of antidotes, correct estimation of the extent of injury, identification of systemic toxicity, treatment of ocular contacts and management of chemical inhalation injury. Individualized treatment is emphasized. PMID:8640619

Cartotto, Robert C.; Peters, Walter J.; Neligan, Peter C.; Douglas, Leith G.; Beeston, Jeff

1996-01-01

126

Use of dermal matrix to prevent capsular contracture in aesthetic breast surgery.  

PubMed

Capsular contracture remains a challenging complication of implant-based aesthetic breast surgery despite improvements in implant design. The lowering of capsular contracture rates noted with the past use of polyurethane foam-covered implants has increased awareness of the importance of the biologic response at the interface between the implant surface and breast tissue. Emerging evidence indicates that much like the polyurethane foam, acellular dermal matrices alter the biologic response at the surface interface, resulting in a more vascular and less constrictive pattern of collagen deposition. This study reports on the authors' clinical experience using Strattice Reconstructive Tissue Matrix (LifeCell Corporation, Branchburg, N.J.) for the treatment of capsular contracture in patients with established capsules and for prevention in patients undergoing primary augmentation or augmentation/mastopexy. Of 80 patients (154 breasts) in whom Strattice was used, clinically significant contracture (Baker grade III/IV) occurred in three breasts (3.75 percent), all of which were in the treatment of previous contracture group. In addition, the authors noted two seromas requiring implant removal (both patients developed capsules, as mentioned above) and two hematomas requiring revision, for an overall failure rate of 6.25 percent for Strattice-assisted surgery. The data confirm that the use of Strattice significantly lowers the incidence of capsular contracture in the first 3.5 years after implant placement. PMID:23096962

Hester, T Roderick; Ghazi, Bahair H; Moyer, Hunter R; Nahai, Farzad R; Wilton, Melissa; Stokes, Lou

2012-11-01

127

High Rate of Joint Capsule Matrix Turnover in Chronic Human Elbow Contractures  

PubMed Central

The joint capsule is a key component in posttraumatic joint contractures. The capsule is described as thickened, but little data exist supporting the observation. Our hypotheses were that mRNA levels of (1) collagen; (2) decorin and biglycan; (3) matrix metalloproteinases; and (4) tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases were significantly elevated in anterior joint capsules obtained from 11 patients having surgery for posttraumatic contractures when compared with nine elbows, from organ donors, that were free of contractures. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to evaluate mRNA expression normalized to a housekeeping gene, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. In the joint capsules of the patients with elbow contractures, relative mRNA levels were increased for: collagen Types I, III, and V (1.5–2.5 times); biglycan (1.5 times); and matrix metalloproteinases-1, -2, -9, -13, and -15 (1.6–3.9 times). In contrast, expression of tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases-1, -2, and -4 were decreased (?–¾times) in the capsules of patients with contractures. There was no difference between the groups in relative mRNA expression for decorin, matrix metalloproteinases-8, -14 and -16, and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-3. The results indicate that joint capsule matrix molecule mRNA levels are altered in the chronic stages of posttraumatic elbow contractures in humans, potentially creating an environment with high matrix turnover rates. PMID:16205164

Hildebrand, Kevin A.; Zhang, Mei; Hart, David A.

2010-01-01

128

Sonographic analyses of pulley and flexor tendon in idiopathic trigger finger with interphalangeal joint contracture.  

PubMed

This study investigated the sonographic appearance of the pulley and flexor tendon in idiopathic trigger finger in correlation with the contracture of the interphalangeal (IP) joint in the thumb or proximal IP (PIP) joint in the other digits. Sonographic measurements using axial images were performed in 177 affected digits including 17 thumbs and 34 other digits judged to have IP or PIP joint contracture and 77 contralateral control digits. The A1 pulley of the contracture group was significantly thicker than that of the non-contracture group in all digits, whereas the flexor tendon was thicker only in digits other than the thumb. In the analysis using calculated cut-off values, A1 pulley thickening in the thumb and A1 pulley and flexor tendon thickening in the other digits showed statistically significant correlations with IP or PIP joint contracture. This study sonographically confirmed previous reports showing that enlargement of the flexor tendons contribute to the pathogenesis of PIP joint contracture. PMID:24613641

Sato, Junko; Ishii, Yoshinori; Noguchi, Hideo; Takeda, Mitsuhiro

2014-06-01

129

The Incidence of Burns Among Sex-Trafficking Victims in India  

PubMed Central

Sex trafficking remains a flagrant violation of human rights, creating many public health concerns. During the initiation period, these victims experience acts of violence including gang rapes, subjecting them to traumatic injuries that include burns. Furthermore, lack of access to health care, particularly surgical, keeps them from receiving treatment for these functionally debilitating contractures caused by burns. This piece provides an overview of burns among sex-trafficked victims in India and the efforts by Cents of Relief to address the associated surgical burden of disease. PMID:25191142

Rahman, Nadia; Sinha, Indranil; Husain, Fatima; Shah, Ajul; Patel, Anup

2014-01-01

130

Management of acid burns: Experience from Bangladesh.  

PubMed

Acid burn injuries in Bangladesh primarily occur as a result of intentional attacks although there are incidences of accidental acid burns in industry, on the street, and at home. A total of 126 patients with acid burns, 95 from attacks and 31 from accidents, were studied from July 2004 to December 2012. A diagnosis of acid burn was made from history, physical examination and in some cases from chemical analysis of the patients' clothing. Alkali burns were excluded from the study. In the burn unit of Dhaka Medical College Hospital, we applied a slightly different protocol for management of acid burns, beginning with plain water irrigation of the wound, which effectively reduced burn depth and the requirement of surgical treatment. Application of hydrocolloid dressing for 48-72h helped with the assessment of depth and the course of treatment. Early excision and grafting gives good results but resultant acid trickling creates a marble cake-like appearance of the wound separated by the vital skin. Excision with a scalpel and direct stitching of the wounds are often a good option. Observation of patients on follow-up revealed that wounds showed a tendency for hypertrophy. Application of pressure garments and other scar treatments were given in all cases unless the burn was highly superficial. PMID:25440856

Das, Kishore Kumar; Olga, Loren; Peck, Michael; Morselli, Paolo G; Salek, A J M

2014-11-12

131

Synthetic TGF-b antagonist accelerates wound healing and reduces scarring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wound healing consists of re-epithelialization, contraction and formation of granulation and scar tissue. TGF-? is involved in these events, but its exact roles are not well understood. Here we demonstrate that topical application of a synthetic TGF-? antagonist accelerates re-epithelialization in pig burn wounds (100% re-epithelialization in antagonist-treated wounds vs. ~ 70% re- epithelialization in control wounds on postburn day

Jung San Huang; Yao-Horng Wang; Thai-Yen Ling; Shiow-Shuh Chuang; Frank E. Johnson; Shuan Shian Huang

2002-01-01

132

Lightning burns.  

PubMed

We present the case of a lightning-strike victim. This case illustrates the importance of in-field care, appropriate referral to a burn center, and the tendency of lightning burns to progress to full-thickness injury. PMID:23799482

Russell, Katie W; Cochran, Amalia L; Mehta, Sagar T; Morris, Stephen E; McDevitt, Marion C

2014-01-01

133

Operative Treatment of the Knee Contractures in Cerebral Palsy Patients  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Knee flexion is one of the main problems of the lower extremities in cerebral palsy patients. Many operative procedures are recommended for contractures of the knee in cerebral palsy patients. We performed simple operation and analyzed the results after operative treatment with nine years follow up. Method: 85 patients with spastic cerebral palsy were treated in period 2001 – 2010. 40 were ambulatory and 45 non ambulatory with ability to stand with support. All of them underwent same surgical procedure with distal hamstrings lengthening. Tenotomies were performed on m. semitendinosus, m. semimembranosus, m. gracillis and biceps femoris. Only m. semitendinosus was tenotomized completely, other muscles were tenotomized only on tendinous part. The patients had a plaster immobilization for five days after the surgery with the knee extended. Results: All 85 patients had improvement of the popliteal angle pre and post operative respectively. Improvement in the crouch gait was noticed in the period of rehabilitation. We had no complication with the wound. Three of the patients had overcorrection and achieved recurvatum of the knees. Conclusion: We consider this procedure very simple with satisfying improvement of standing, walking and sitting abilities in children with spastic cerebral palsy.

Bozinovski, Zoran; Popovski, Neron

2014-01-01

134

Dupuytren’s Contracture in Alabama HFE Hemochromatosis Probands  

PubMed Central

Background Dupuytren’s contracture (DC) and HFE hemochromatosis occur in some of the same at-risk populations and present with similar comorbid conditions. Methods We estimated DC prevalence in two cohorts of white Alabama hemochromatosis probands (294 C282Y homozygotes, 67 C282Y/H63D compound heterozygotes) in a retrospective study. We performed logistic regressions on DC using the following independent variables: age, body mass index, heavy ethanol consumption, serum ferritin, elevated serum AST/ALT, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, viral hepatitis, cirrhosis, and diabetes. Results One man and two women with C282Y homozygosity had DC (prevalence 1.02%; 95% CI 0.35%–2.96%). A man with C282Y/H63D had DC (prevalence 1.49%; 95% CI 0.26%–7.98%). DC occurred as an autosomal dominant trait in his kinship. In regression analyses, no single variable predicted DC. We observed no new DC cases after the diagnosis of hemochromatosis (mean follow-up 12.9 ± 7.5 years (1 SD), and 9.0 ± 5.1 years, respectively). Conclusions Our prevalence estimates of DC in white Alabama hemochromatosis probands are similar to those found in the white US population cohorts. DC risk was unrelated to the variables we studied. PMID:22952417

Barton, James C.; Barton, J. Clayborn

2012-01-01

135

A Quantitative Approach to Scar Analysis  

PubMed Central

Analysis of collagen architecture is essential to wound healing research. However, to date no consistent methodologies exist for quantitatively assessing dermal collagen architecture in scars. In this study, we developed a standardized approach for quantitative analysis of scar collagen morphology by confocal microscopy using fractal dimension and lacunarity analysis. Full-thickness wounds were created on adult mice, closed by primary intention, and harvested at 14 days after wounding for morphometrics and standard Fourier transform-based scar analysis as well as fractal dimension and lacunarity analysis. In addition, transmission electron microscopy was used to evaluate collagen ultrastructure. We demonstrated that fractal dimension and lacunarity analysis were superior to Fourier transform analysis in discriminating scar versus unwounded tissue in a wild-type mouse model. To fully test the robustness of this scar analysis approach, a fibromodulin-null mouse model that heals with increased scar was also used. Fractal dimension and lacunarity analysis effectively discriminated unwounded fibromodulin-null versus wild-type skin as well as healing fibromodulin-null versus wild-type wounds, whereas Fourier transform analysis failed to do so. Furthermore, fractal dimension and lacunarity data also correlated well with transmission electron microscopy collagen ultrastructure analysis, adding to their validity. These results demonstrate that fractal dimension and lacunarity are more sensitive than Fourier transform analysis for quantification of scar morphology. PMID:21281794

Khorasani, Hooman; Zheng, Zhong; Nguyen, Calvin; Zara, Janette; Zhang, Xinli; Wang, Joyce; Ting, Kang; Soo, Chia

2011-01-01

136

On medications for burns in classical antiquity.  

PubMed

Egyptian, Greek, Roman, and early Byzantine medical pharmaceutical works show a fairly sophisticated array of simple and compound remedies for burns and scalds. Chief among ancient writings that provide specific botany, minerals, and similar substances used in burn treatment are several Egyptian papyri, the Hippocratic On Wounds, and writings by Celsus, Dioscorides, Pliny the Elder, and Paul of Aegina. Over 70 plants and minerals are identified according to modern nomenclatures. The ancients sought especially those ingredients that would promote rapid healing with a minimum of scarring. PMID:6360476

Scarborough, J

1983-10-01

137

A case of abdominal wall scar endometriosis.  

PubMed

Endometriosis is presence of functioning endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity. Endometriosis can sometimes occur in a previous surgical scar. Scar endometriosis is rare and difficult to diagnose. It mostly follows obstetrical and gynecological surgeries. This condition is often confused with other surgical conditions. We are reporting a case of scar endometriosis following caesarean section, which was being treated as stitch granuloma for long time. Medical treatment was not helpful. The patient required wide surgical excision of the lesion. Now the patient is under regular follow up, because there is chance of recurrence. PMID:24858173

Saha, K; Shahida, S M; Mostafa, G; Ahmed, M

2014-04-01

138

Unexplained Facial Scar: Child Abuse or Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome?  

PubMed Central

Context: Child abuse is a serious problem, and its physical manifestations can be mimicked by certain diseases and conditions. These conditions can include genetic, congenital and other disorders that may result in poor weight gain, bone fractures or skin lesions that look like bruises or burns. Case Report: This paper reports the case of a seven-year-old girl with Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (EDS), which was misdiagnosed as child abuse. This child was referred to us for treatment of an unexplained facial scar that was alleged to be the result of child abuse. Conclusion: When unusual skin presentations are observed, dermatologists should consider the possibility of child abuse to protect the child. Furthermore, they should be aware of the cutaneous abnormalities that mimic injuries associated with abuse to avoid the unnecessary reporting of child abuse. PMID:25535610

Abtahi-Naeini, Bahareh; Shapouri, Javad; Masjedi, Mohsen; Saffaei, Ali; Pourazizi, Mohsen

2014-01-01

139

The role of free flap reconstruction in paediatric caustic burns.  

PubMed

Ingestion of caustic soda can cause severe scarring of the oral cavity and the surrounding soft tissues. Free flap reconstruction for burns in the oral cavity has been described as a viable option in adults, but to the best of our knowledge has not been reported in children. We describe cases of successful microvascular reconstruction for burns caused by caustic soda in the oral cavity in children. PMID:23369780

Sadiq, Zaid; Farook, Shahme A; Ayliffe, Peter

2013-09-01

140

Evaluating the accuracy of a MODIS direct broadcast algorithm for mapping burned areas over Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emission inventories for open area biomass burning rely on burned area estimates as a key component. We have developed an automated algorithm based on MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite instrument data for estimating burned area from biomass fires. The algorithm is based on active fire detections, burn scars from MODIS calibrated radiances (MOD02HKM), and MODIS land cover classification (MOD12Q1). Our burned area product combines active fires and burn scar detections using spatio-temporal criteria, and has a resolution of 500 x 500 meters. The algorithm has been used for smoke emission estimates over the western United States. We will present the assessed accuracy of our algorithm in different regions of Russia with intense wildfire activity by comparing our results with the burned area product from the Sukachev Institute of Forest (SIF) of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Krasnoyarsk, Russia, as well as burn scars extracted from Landsat imagery. Landsat burned area extraction was based on threshold classification using the Jenks Natural Breaks algorithm to the histogram for each singe scene Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) image. The final evaluation consisted of a grid-based approach, where the burned area in each 3 km x 3 km grid cell was calculated and compared with the other two sources. A comparison between our burned area estimates and those from SIF showed strong correlation (R2=0.978), although our estimate is approximately 40% lower than the SIF burned areas. The linear fit between the burned area from Landsat scenes and our MODIS algorithm over 18,754 grid cells resulted with a slope of 0.998 and R2=0.7, indicating that our algorithm is suitable for mapping burned areas for fires in boreal forests and other ecosystems. The results of our burned area algorithm will be used for estimating emissions of trace gasses and aerosol particles (including black carbon) from biomass burning in Northern Eurasia for the period of 2002-2011.

Petkov, A.; Hao, W. M.; Nordgren, B.; Corley, R.; Urbanski, S. P.; Ponomarev, E. I.

2012-12-01

141

Cesarean scar endometrioma: Case series  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate endometrioma located at cesarean scatrix. METHODS: Medical data of 6 patients who presented to our institution with abdominal wall endometrioma were evaluated retrospectively and reviewed literature in this case series. The diagnostic approaches and treatment is discussed. RESULTS: All patients had a painful mass located at abdominal scars with history of cesarean section. The ages ranged from 31 to 34 and Doppler ultrasonography (US) detected hypoechoic mass with a mean diameter of 30 mm. Initial diagnosis was endometrioma in 4 and incisional hernia in 2 of 6 patients. Treatment was achieved with surgical excision in 5 patients, and one is followed by hormone suppression therapy with gonadotropin. CONCLUSION: Malignant or benign tumors of abdominal wall and incisional hernias should be kept in mind for diagnosis of endometrioma. Imaging methods like doppler US, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging should be used for differential diagnosis. Definitive diagnosis can only be made histopathologically. The treatment should be complete surgical excision and take care against intraoperative auto-inoculation of endometrial tissue in order to prevent recurrences. PMID:24868512

Çöl, Cavit; Yilmaz, Edip Erdal

2014-01-01

142

Proceedings of the SCAR Conference, Part 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Supersonic Cruise Aircraft Research (SCAR) team analyzed six major topics: (1) aerodynamics, (2) stability and control, (3) propulsion, (4) environmental factor, (5) airframe structures and materials, and (6) design integration.

1976-01-01

143

Depressed Acne Scars: Effective Treatment Available  

MedlinePLUS

... about 3 days, unless your dermatologist instructs otherwise. Chemical Peels For some people with acne scars, a ... the skin. What you can expect after a chemical peel: You can expect to see some redness. ...

144

Is ankle contracture after stroke due to abnormal intermuscular force transmission?  

PubMed

Contracture after stroke could be due to abnormal mechanical interactions between muscles. This study examined if ankle plantarflexor muscle contracture after stroke is due to abnormal force transmission between the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. Muscle fascicle lengths were measured from ultrasound images of soleus muscles in five subjects with stroke and ankle contracture and six able-bodied subjects. Changes in soleus fascicle length or pennation during passive knee extension at fixed ankle angle were assumed to indicate intermuscular force transmission. Changes in soleus fascicle length or pennation were adjusted for changes in ankle motion. Subjects with stroke had significant ankle contracture. After adjustment for ankle motion, 9 of 11 subjects demonstrated small changes in soleus fascicle length with knee extension, suggestive of intermuscular force transmission. However, the small changes in fascicle length may have been artifacts caused by movement of the ultrasound transducers. There were no systematic differences in change in fascicle length (median between-group difference adjusting for ankle motion = -0.01, 95% CI -0.26-0.08 mm/degree of knee extension) or pennation (-0.05, 95% CI -0.15-0.07 degree/ degree of knee extension). This suggests ankle contractures after stroke were not due to abnormal (systematically increased or decreased) intermuscular force transmission between the gastrocnemius and soleus. PMID:25268148

Diong, Joanna; Herbert, Robert D

2015-02-01

145

Is ankle contracture after stroke due to abnormal intermuscular force transmission?  

PubMed

Contracture after stroke could be due to abnormal mechanical interactions between muscles. This study examined if ankle plantarflexor muscle contracture after stroke is due to abnormal force transmission between the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. Muscle fascicle lengths were measured from ultrasound images of soleus muscles in five subjects with stroke and ankle contracture and six able-bodied subjects. Changes in soleus fascicle length or pennation during passive knee extension at fixed ankle angle were assumed to indicate intermuscular force transmission. Changes in soleus fascicle length or pennation were adjusted for changes in ankle motion. Subjects with stroke had significant ankle contracture. After adjustment for ankle motion, 9 of 11 subjects demonstrated small changes in soleus fascicle length with knee extension, suggestive of intermuscular force transmission. However, the small changes in fascicle length may have been artifacts caused by movement of the ultrasound transducers. There were no systematic differences in change in fascicle length (median between-group difference adjusting for ankle motion = -0.01, 95% CI -0.26-0.08 mm/degree of knee extension) or pennation (-0.05, 95% CI -0.15-0.07 degree/degree of knee extension). This suggests ankle contractures after stroke were not due to abnormal (systematically increased or decreased) intermuscular force transmission between the gastrocnemius and soleus. PMID:25580546

Diong, Joanna; Herbert, Robert D

2015-02-01

146

Novel Opportunities in the Treatment and Prevention of Scarring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous treatments have been described for the treatment and prevention of scars, but the optimal management strategy is yet to be defined. In this article we present and evaluate new opportunities for the treatment and prevention of hypertrophic scars, keloids, and atrophic scars. Clinical, animal, and in vitro studies reporting novel techniques for the treatment and prevention of scarring were

Brian Berman; Adriana M. Villa; Claudia C. Ramirez

2004-01-01

147

Keratoacanthoma Centrifugum Marginatum with Atypical Scar  

PubMed Central

Keratoacanthoma centrifugum marginatum (KCM) is a rare variant of keratoacanthoma (KA). It is characterized by a progressive peripheral expansion and central healing leaving atrophic scar. It is sometimes confused with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) both clinically and histopathologically. We here report a case of KCM over the extensor aspect of the right forearm in a 57-year-old man with an abnormal looking scar. PMID:23259078

Nag, Falguni; Biswas, Projna; Singha, Joydeep; Ghosh, Arghyaprasun; Surana, Trupti V.

2012-01-01

148

Laser Punch-Out for Acne Scars  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Patients with acne scars want smooth facial skin. However, achieving this is difficult with dermabrasion or chemical peeling.\\u000a Nor can acne scars be covered with cosmetics, due to their ice-picked or cobblestone appearance. Laser resurfacing is more\\u000a effective and safer than other conventional methods due to its precision with depth control and variable methods of surface\\u000a cutting. Even depth

Sang Hwan Koo; Eul Sik Yoon; Duck Sun Ahn; Seung Ha Park

2001-01-01

149

First Aid: Burns  

MedlinePLUS

... burn may peel off after 1 or 2 days. Second-degree burns are thicker burns, are very painful and ... degree burns usually heal in 3 to 6 days. Second-degree burns usually heal in 2 to 3 weeks. ...

150

Anterior Dislocation of the Shoulder Due to an Idiopathic Deltoid Contracture-the Report of a Rare Presentation  

PubMed Central

Post injection fibrosis leading to muscle contracture is a known complication. Deltoid fibrosis is known to occur following trauma or an intramuscular injection. Idiopathic Deltoid fibrosis leading to abduction contracture and anterior dislocation of the shoulder is a rare entity. Prompt diagnosis and surgery by distal release of fibrosed Deltoid muscle will lead to good functional recovery. PMID:23543744

Vadapalli, Satyadev

2013-01-01

151

Surgical capsular release reduces flexion contracture in a rabbit model of arthrofibrosis.  

PubMed

Animal models of joint contracture may be used to elucidate the mechanisms of arthrofibrosis. Patients with joint contracture commonly undergo surgical capsular release. Previous animal models of joint contracture do not simulate this aspect of arthrofibrosis. We hypothesize that a surgical capsular release will decrease the severity of arthrofibrosis in this rabbit model. A capsular contracture was surgically created in 20 skeletally mature rabbits. Eight weeks later, ten rabbits underwent capsular release, which consisted of elevation of the posterior capsule through a lateral incision and manipulation under anesthesia. Ten rabbits had a sham incision, without release (control group). Immediately after release or sham surgery, extension loss (calculated by subtracting the knee extension angle (degrees) of the operative limb from the nonoperative, contralateral limb) was measured using fluoroscopy. All animals were sacrificed following 16 weeks of postoperative free cage activity. At sacrifice, joint contracture was measured using a custom, calibrated device. The histology of the posterior joint capsule was assessed at sacrifice. All animals survived both operations without complications. Immediately after surgical release or sham surgery, the average extension loss was 129.2?±?10.7° in the control group versus 29.6?±?8.2° in the capsular release group (p?=?0.0002). Following 16 weeks of remobilization, the average extension loss of the control and capsular release animals were 49.0?±?12.7° and 36.5?±?14.2°, respectively (p?=?0.035). There were no histological differences between the two groups. In this animal model, a surgical capsular release decreased the extension loss (flexion contracture) immediately after surgery, as well as following sixteen weeks of remobilization. There were no histological changes detected in the posterior joint capsule. PMID:23703948

Barlow, Jonathan D; Hartzler, Robert U; Abdel, Matthew P; Morrey, Mark E; An, Kai-Nan; Steinmann, Scott P; Morrey, Bernard F; Sanchez-Sotelo, Joaquin

2013-10-01

152

Correlations between morphological appearance and psychosocial difficulties in patients with extensive burns who received allotransplant.  

PubMed

Extensive burns are devastating traumatic events, with significant potential for development of complex psychosocial problems. The aim of the study was to identify and quantify these difficulties among extensive burns patients. This study was conducted at Clinical Emergency Hospital for Plastic, Reconstructive and Burns Surgery and "Bagdasar-Arseni" Emergency Hospital, in Bucharest, on 43 extensive burn patients. For each patient we developed a statistic sheet with demographic data and medical information. For data collection, subjects completed the following instruments: Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) and Satisfaction With Appearance Scale (SWAP). The impact variables evaluated in this study were demographic characteristic of patients, burn injury characteristics, abnormal scarring and visible scars, body image dissatisfaction and depression symptoms. Although performed on a small sample, the results of this pilot study could be a valuable starting point for future larger studies, to achieve more generalizable results on extensive burns survivor's quality of life. PMID:23188428

Calot?, D R; Ni?escu, C; Marinescu, S; Cristescu, Carmen; Boiangiu, Ileana; Florescu, I P; Lasc?r, I

2012-01-01

153

Mitigation of hypertrophic scar contraction via an elastomeric biodegradable scaffold.  

PubMed

Hypertrophic scar (HSc) occurs in 40-70% of patients treated for third degree burn injuries. Current burn therapies rely upon the use of bioengineered skin equivalents (BSEs), which assist in wound healing but do not prevent HSc contraction. HSc contraction leads to formation of a fixed, inelastic skin deformity. We propose that BSEs should maintain their architecture in the wound bed throughout the remodeling phase of repair to prevent HSc contraction. In this work we study a degradable, elastomeric, randomly oriented, electrospun micro-fibrous scaffold fabricated from the copolymer poly(l-lactide-co-?-caprolactone) (PLCL). PLCL scaffolds displayed appropriate elastomeric and tensile characteristics for implantation beneath a human skin graft. In vitro analysis using human dermal fibroblasts demonstrated that PLCL scaffolds decreased myofibroblast formation as compared to an in vitro HSc contraction model. Using a validated immune-competent murine HSc contraction model, we found that HSc contraction was significantly greater in animals treated with standard of care, Integra, as compared to those treated with collagen coated-PLCL (ccPLCL) scaffolds. Finally, wounds treated with ccPLCL were significantly less stiff than control wounds at d30 in vivo. Together, these data suggest that scaffolds which persist throughout the remodeling phase of repair may represent a clinically translatable method to prevent HSc contraction. PMID:25591962

Lorden, Elizabeth R; Miller, Kyle J; Bashirov, Latif; Ibrahim, Mohamed M; Hammett, Ellen; Jung, Youngmee; Medina, Manuel A; Rastegarpour, Ali; Selim, Maria A; Leong, Kam W; Levinson, Howard

2015-03-01

154

Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography evaluation after autologous fat grafting in scar revision  

PubMed Central

Aim Fat transfer is commonly used to fill loss of volume in depressed scars caused by trauma, deep burns or surgery. The aim of the study is to investigate the degree of fat graft take through evaluation of the microcirculation of grafted autologous adipose tissue using contrast-enhanced ultrasonography. Patients and method From 2010 to 2012 at the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery of the Traumatological Center in Turin, a study population was selected from patients with surgical indications for autologous fat transfer for scar correction. For each surgical procedure patients underwent a clinical and sonographic evaluation before and after intervention (at 1 month and 3 months). Results Out of a total of 28 interventions, 24 showed a good result; defined as improvement of the scar, and confirmed by the presence of vascularization in the transplanted tissue. In 4 cases, there was a lack of blood supply at the first evaluation but an initial good clinical scar correction. The absence of blood vessels was confirmed at 3 months accompanied by complete resorption of the transferred fat with a failure of good clinical outcome. Conclusion Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography was able to evaluate the microvasculature of adipose tissue after fat transfer. Due to this characteristic, it allows to monitor and predict the take of adipose tissue and provide realistic and early information on the clinical outcome of fat transfer. PMID:25644727

BOLLERO, D.; POZZA, S.; GANGEMI, E.N.; DE MARCHI, A.; GANEM, J.; EL KHATIB, A.M.; FALETTI, C.; STELLA, M.

2014-01-01

155

Burning rubber  

SciTech Connect

Mario Andretti, look out You are about to be surpassed in the burning rubber category by a joint venture between Oxford Energy Company and General Electric. The two companies are building the first whole tire-to-energy facility in the US in Modesto, California. This $41 million facility does not require tires to be shredded prior to incineration; it has the capacity to burn 700 tires per minute. The electricity generated will be provided to a utility company. Oxford says there are two billion waste tires on the ground and this number is increasing by 220 million a year. Of that amount, only 18 million a year are recycled.

Not Available

1987-09-01

156

Tissue expansion for burn sequelae: Jeitawe Burn Center, Lebanon  

PubMed Central

Summary Burn sequelae used to be treated with skin grafts and local or distant flaps with a high morbidity on the donor site. The purpose of treatment today by skin expansion is to achieve aesthetic amelioration, as the advantage of this technique is that it becomes possible to obtain local flaps with the same characteristics of colour, texture, hair, and sensitivity as normal skin. This is a review of 14 cases of burn patients treated between 2006 and 2010 at our burn centre at Jeitawe Hospital, Lebanon. The patients’ ages ranged from 6 to 50 yr. The regions expanded were the scalp, forehead, neck, trunk, and the upper and lower limbs. The implants were positioned on the fascial layer; antibiotics and drainage were routinely used. The inflation of the expander began two weeks after surgery and continued for an average time of three months. Complications were rare. Results were good with an improvement of scars and minimal morbidity. Fifty per cent of our patients underwent another expansion. PMID:22262964

Ghanime, G.; Rizkallah, N.; Said, J.M.

2011-01-01

157

Early second trimester uterine scar rupture.  

PubMed

Spontaneous uterine scar rupture can be lethal in pregnant women. A spontaneous uterine scar rupture in the early mid-trimester is rare and difficult to diagnose. This is a case of a 30-year-old woman (G2P1L1) at 19 weeks of gestation and having undergone a previous caesarean section presented with acute abdomen in shock. Laparotomy revealed a uterine scar rupture, which was resutured after evacuation of products of conception. This case merits that the uterine rupture should be considered as a differential diagnosis in pregnant women presenting with acute abdomen. In this case, although there was uterine rupture in the second trimester and a complete placental separation, fetus was alive which is quite unusual in patients presenting with rupture uterus. PMID:24326433

Bharatnur, Sunanda; Hebbar, Shripad; Shyamala, G

2013-01-01

158

Fraxelated radiofrequency device for acne scars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acne scars can be improved with various treatments such as topical creams, chemical peels, dermal fillers, microdermabrasion, laser, and radiofrequency devices. Some of these treatments especially lasers and deep chemical peels can have significant side effects such as post inflammatory hyperpigmentation in darker skin types. Fraxelated RF Laser devices have been reported to have lower incidence of side effects in all skin phototypes. Nine patients between ages 18 and 35 of various skin phototypes were selected from a private practice and treated with a RF fraxelated device (E-matrix) for acne scars. Outcomes were measured by physician observation, subjective feedback received by patients, and comparison of before and after photographs. In this small group of patients with various skin phototypes, fraxelated radiofrequency device improved acne scars with minimal side effects and downtime.

Rao, Babar K.; Khokher, Sairah

2012-09-01

159

Non-surgical Intervention of Knee Flexion Contracture in Children with Spina Bifida: Case Report  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this case report is to describe for the first time, the use of serial casting in the management of knee joint flexion contracture for a young child with spina bifida. [Case Description] The child was 6?years old, and had L3–L4 spina bifida level lesion with quadriceps muscle strength grade 3 +. The child had previously received weekly physiotherapy including stretching for knee flexion contracture on both lower limbs, but without improvement. [Results] The knee flexion contracture, which was not corrected with passive stretching, improved with casting from ?40° knee extension to ?5° knee extension as measured by a standard goniometer over a period of 4 weeks. Careful measures were taken to ensure skin integrity. At follow up after one-year, the child could ambulate independently with the help of walking aids. [Conclusion] The outcome indicates that using serial casting and follow-up with the use of bracing may be useful for enhancing the walking ability of a young child with spina bifida with knee flexion contractures. Further investigations of serial casting as well as investigation of serial casting with other interventions are warranted. PMID:24926155

Al-Oraibi, Saleh

2014-01-01

160

Irreversible muscle contracture after functioning free muscle transplantation using the ipsilateral facial nerve for reinnervation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four patients who underwent functioning free muscle transplantation (FFMT) for facial reconstruction developed a progressive disfiguring muscle contracture. This complication has not been previously reported. Three of the patients had longstanding facial paralysis and were reanimated by FFMT. The fourth patient had left hemifacial atrophy but without facial paralysis. She also underwent FFMT for augmentation. All four FFMTs were innervated

Vikram S. Deveraj; F WEI

1995-01-01

161

Biceps Brachii Long Head Overactivity Associated with Elbow Flexion Contracture in Brachial Plexus Birth Palsy  

PubMed Central

Background: The etiology of elbow flexion contracture in children with brachial plexus birth palsy remains unclear. We hypothesized that the long head of the biceps brachii muscle assists with shoulder stabilization in children with brachial plexus birth palsy and that overactivity of the long head during elbow and shoulder activity is associated with an elbow flexion contracture. Methods: Twenty-one patients with brachial plexus birth palsy-associated elbow flexion contracture underwent testing with surface electromyography. Twelve patients underwent repeat testing with fine-wire electromyography. Surface electrodes were placed on the muscle belly, and fine-wire electrodes were inserted bilaterally into the long and short heads of the biceps brachii. Patients were asked to perform four upper extremity tasks: elbow flexion-extension, hand to head, high reach, and overhead ball throw. The mean duration of muscle activity in the affected limb was compared with that in the contralateral, unaffected limb, which was used as a control. Three-dimensional motion analysis, surface dynamometry, and validated function measures were used to evaluate upper extremity kinematics, elbow flexor-extensor muscle imbalance, and function. Results: The mean activity duration of the long head of the biceps brachii muscle was significantly higher in the affected limb as compared with the contralateral, unaffected limb during hand-to-head tasks (p = 0.02) and high-reach tasks (p = 0.03). No significant differences in mean activity duration were observed for the short head of the biceps brachii muscle between the affected and unaffected limbs. Isometric strength of elbow flexion was not significantly higher than that of elbow extension in the affected limb (p = 0.11). Conclusions: Overactivity of the long head of the biceps brachii muscle is associated with and may contribute to the development of elbow flexion contracture in children with brachial plexus birth palsy. Elbow flexion contracture may not be associated with an elbow flexor-extensor muscle imbalance, as previously hypothesized. The negative impact of elbow flexion contracture on upper extremity function warrants future research in the development of preventive and therapeutic techniques to address elbow flexion contractures in children with brachial plexus birth palsy. Level of Evidence: Prognostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:22336968

Sheffler, Lindsey C.; Lattanza, Lisa; Sison-Williamson, Mitell; James, Michelle A.

2012-01-01

162

Preserving plantar flexion strength after surgical treatment for contracture of the triceps surae: a computer simulation study.  

PubMed

Contractures of the triceps surae commonly are treated by surgical lengthening of the gastrocnemius aponeurosis or the Achilles tendon. Although these procedures generally relieve contractures, patients sometimes are left with dramatically decreased plantar flexion strength (i.e., decreased capacity to generate plantar flexion moment). The purpose of this study was to examine the trade-off between restoring range of motion and maintaining plantar flexion strength after surgical treatment for contracture of the triceps surae. A computer model representing the normal moment-generating characteristics of the triceps surae was altered to represent two conditions: isolated contracture of the gastrocnemius and contracture of both the gastrocnemius and the soleus. The effects of lengthening the gastrocnemius aponeurosis and the Achilles tendon were simulated for each condition. The simulations showed that nearly normal moment-generating characteristics could be restored when isolated gastrocnemius contracture was treated with lengthening of the gastrocnemius aponeurosis. However, when isolated gastrocnemius contracture was treated with lengthening of the Achilles tendon, the moment-generating capacity of the plantar flexors decreased greatly. This suggests that lengthening of the Achilles tendon should be avoided in persons with isolated gastrocnemius contracture. Our simulations also suggest that neither lengthening of the gastrocnemius aponeurosis nor lengthening of the Achilles tendon by itself is an effective treatment for combined contracture of the gastrocnemius and soleus. Lengthening the gastrocnemius aponeurosis did not decrease the excessive passive moment developed by the contracted soleus. Lengthening the Achilles tendon restored the normal passive range of motion but substantially decreased the active force-generating capacity of the muscles.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7853110

Delp, S L; Statler, K; Carroll, N C

1995-01-01

163

Current treatment of severely burned patients.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The authors provide an update on a multidisciplinary approach to the treatment of severely burned patients. A review of studies and clinical trials from the past to the present include fluid resuscitation, sepsis, immune function, hypermetabolism, early excision, wound healing, scar formation, and inhalation injury. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Advances in treating initial burn shock, infection control, early wound closure, and modulation of the hypermetabolic response have decreased morbidity and mortality in the last two decades. Specialized burn care centers, using a multidisciplinary approach, not only successfully treat large burns and their complications, but provide the necessary rehabilitation and psychological support required for readjustment back into society. CONCLUSIONS: Thermal injury results in a number of physiologic alterations that can be minimized by adequate fluid resuscitation to maintain tissue perfusion, early excision of burn wounds, and rapid wound coverage. These measures, in combination with antibiotic coverage and nutritional support in the form of early enteral tube feedings, will decrease the hypermetabolic response and the incidence of sepsis that can lead to hemodynamic instability and organ failure. Ongoing clinical trials using anabolic agents (e.g., recombinant human growth hormone) and pharmacologic agents that modulate inflammatory and endocrine mediators (e.g., ibuprofen and propranolol) show promise in the treatment of severe burn injuries. PMID:8554414

Nguyen, T T; Gilpin, D A; Meyer, N A; Herndon, D N

1996-01-01

164

Patch structure, fire-scar formation, and tree regeneration in a large mixed-severity fire in the South Dakota Black Hills, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared patch structure, fire-scar formation, and seedling regeneration in patches of low, moderate, and high burn severity following the large (~34 000 ha) Jasper fire of 2000 that occurred in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponder- osa Dougl. ex P. & C. Laws.) forests of the Black Hills of South Dakota, USA. This fire created a patchy mosaic of effects, where

Leigh B. Lentile; Frederick W. Smith; Wayne D. Shepperd

2005-01-01

165

Laparoscopic Treatment of Cesarean Scar Ectopic Pregnancy.  

PubMed

Background: An ectopic pregnancy within a Cesarean scar represents a rare type of extrauterine pregnancy in which the fertilized egg nidates in the myometrium of the uterine wall within a scar left from a previous Cesarean delivery. An unrecognized growing Cesarian scar pregnancy may result in uterine rupture, uncontrollable metrorrhagia, and bleeding into the abdominal cavity; therefore, early diagnosis and therapy are necessary to prevent the development of severe complications. Case: A 34-year-old woman after a previous Cesarean delivery presented with amenorrhoa of 7 weeks' duration. Transvaginal ultrasonography revealed an ectopic pregnancy in the Cesarean scar, and a laparoscopic removal of the gestational sac was performed with no complications. Results: Three months later, another laparoscopy with chromopertubation showed no signs of penetration in the suture, both the Fallopian tubes being bilaterally passable. The patient was advised that she could try to achieve pregnancy through spontaneous conception, after which monitoring of the gestational development and a careful assessment of the nidation site would be needed. Conclusions: Laparoscopic surgical management of a viable ectopic pregnancy is technically simple, and is followed by a good recovery. (J GYNECOL SURG 30:309). PMID:25336858

Hude?ek, Robert; Felsingerová, Zuzana; Felsinger, Michal; Jandakova, Eva

2014-10-01

166

Acne scarring treatment using skin needling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Acne is a common condition seen in up to 80% of people between 11 and 30 years of age and in up to 5% of older adults. In some patients, it can result in permanent scars that are surprisingly difficult to treat. A relatively new treatment, termed skin needling (needle dermabrasion), seems to be appropriate for the treatment of

G. Fabbrocini; N. Fardella; A. Monfrecola; I. Proietti; D. Innocenzi

2009-01-01

167

Selective amplification of scars in a chaotic optical fiber  

E-print Network

In this letter we propose an original mechanism to select scar modes through coherent gain amplification in a multimode D-shaped fiber. More precisely, we numerically demonstrate how scar modes can be amplified by positioning a gain region in the vicinity of specific points of a short periodic orbit known to give rise to scar modes.

Claire Michel; Valérie Doya; Olivier Legrand; Fabrice Mortessagne

2007-07-31

168

Combination Therapy in the Management of Atrophic Acne Scars  

PubMed Central

Background: Atrophic acne scars are difficult to treat. The demand for less invasive but highly effective treatment for scars is growing. Objective: To assess the efficacy of combination therapy using subcision, microneedling and 15% trichloroacetic acid (TCA) peel in the management of atrophic scars. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients with atrophic acne scars were graded using Goodman and Baron Qualitative grading. After subcision, dermaroller and 15% TCA peel were performed alternatively at 2-weeks interval for a total of 6 sessions of each. Grading of acne scar photographs was done pretreatment and 1 month after last procedure. Patients own evaluation of improvement was assessed. Results: Out of 16 patients with Grade 4 scars, 10 (62.5%) patients improved to Grade 2 and 6 (37.5%) patients improved to Grade 3 scars. Out of 22 patients with Grade 3 scars, 5 (22.7%) patients were left with no scars, 2 (9.1%) patients improved to Grade 1and 15 (68.2%) patients improved to Grade 2. All 11 (100%) patients with Grade 2 scars were left with no scars. There was high level of patient satisfaction. Conclusion: This combination has shown good results in treating not only Grade 2 but also severe Grade 4 and 3 scars. PMID:24761094

Garg, Shilpa; Baveja, Sukriti

2014-01-01

169

The efficacy of Aloe vera, tea tree oil and saliva as first aid treatment for partial thickness burn injuries.  

PubMed

Many alternative therapies are used as first aid treatment for burns, despite limited evidence supporting their use. In this study, Aloe vera, saliva and a tea tree oil impregnated dressing (Burnaid) were applied as first aid to a porcine deep dermal contact burn, compared to a control of nothing. After burn creation, the treatments were applied for 20 min and the wounds observed at weekly dressing changes for 6 weeks. Results showed that the alternative treatments did significantly decrease subdermal temperature within the skin during the treatment period. However, they did not decrease the microflora or improve re-epithelialisation, scar strength, scar depth or cosmetic appearance of the scar and cannot be recommended for the first aid treatment of partial thickness burns. PMID:18603378

Cuttle, Leila; Kempf, Margit; Kravchuk, Olena; George, Narelle; Liu, Pei-Yun; Chang, Hong-En; Mill, Julie; Wang, Xue-Qing; Kimble, Roy M

2008-12-01

170

Hair transplant for acne scars: an innovative approach.  

PubMed

Postacne scarring is a common entity that affects patients both physically and psychologically. Treatment of facial scarring is rarely a mono-dimensional process. Various modalities of treatments from cheaper subcision, punch techniques and excision to expensive laser resurfacing techniques are available. Treatment of postacne scars in a particular case has to be individualized, taking into consideration many factors like age, gender, types of scarring, Fitzpatrick skin type, and socioeconomic status of the patient. In this article, we describe an innovative method of simply doing hair transplantation in acne scars and hence making them less visible and cosmetically well acceptable to the patient. PMID:22672281

Sarangal, Rishu; Yadav, Savita; Dogra, Sunil

2012-06-01

171

Ken Burns  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ken Burns is a popular documentarian and, as it turns out, he is now a popular app, in a manner of speaking. This particular app gives interested parties the ability to view scenes from his documentaries (such as "Baseball" and "Jazz") in a variety of settings. The latest version allows visitors to access the Innovation playlist absolutely free while other playlists containing clips from his other programs are available for a small fee. This version is compatible with iPads running iOS 7.0 and newer.

2014-02-10

172

Postapproval clinical experience in the treatment of Dupuytren's contracture with collagenase clostridium histolyticum (CCH): the first 1,000 days.  

PubMed

Dupuytren's contracture is a benign fibromatosis of the palmar and digital fascia of the hand of uncertain etiology, resulting in nodules and cords beneath the skin of the palm of the hands that may lead to the development of contractures. Surgical intervention is often considered when metacarpophalangeal (MP) joint contracture is 30° or more, or when there is any degree of proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint contracture. Collagenase clostridium histolyticum (CCH) is a nonsurgical, minimally invasive enzymatic drug indicated for the treatment of adult patients with Dupuytren's contracture (DC) and palpable cord. CCH has been available for approximately 3.5 years, and postapproval experience indicates that the effectiveness of CCH is equivalent to or better than efficacy observed in clinical trials, as seen by lower injection rates to achieve clinical success. Postapproval experience has shown a risk-benefit profile that favors CCH for patients not indicated for surgery based on current recommendations and shows also that treating earlier-stage vs later-stage joint contracture results in significantly better outcomes on average. Postapproval surveillance reveals a safety profile similar to that observed in clinical trials. Nonserious adverse events are mainly local reactions; tendon rupture, a serious adverse event, is reported rarely in the clinical practice setting and at a lower rate than in clinical trials. Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) training is designed to mitigate benefit vs risk to achieve safe and effective use of CCH. PMID:25414604

Schulze, Scott M; Tursi, James P

2014-12-01

173

[Assessment of functional activity of phagocytic system in patients suffered from Dupuytren's contracture with hepatic fibrosis].  

PubMed

Dupuytren's contracture--a pathology that should not be seen as an isolated lesion tendon-aponeurotic structures of the palmar surface of the hand, but as a disease that requires careful research and a comprehensive, differentiated approach to treatment. The aim of the study was to investigate the functional activity of the phagocytic system of Dupuytren's contracture patients with chronic hepatitis and liver fibrosis in liquidators of the CHNPP accident consequences. The resulting study 188 patients aged 45-65 years showed the correlation of the data of the functional activity of phagocytic system with degree of liver fibrosis, thus objectively assess the patient's condition and make the appropriate correction in the diagnostic criteria as well as in medical and rehabilitative programs. PMID:25095677

Iskra, N I; Shatrova, K M; Hur"iev, S O; Kuz'min, V Iu; Roshchin, H H; Pleskach, O Ia

2013-06-01

174

[Pathomechanogenesis of contractures and deformities of the upper extremities in children with cerebral palsy].  

PubMed

The authors carried out dynamic observation of 180 children aged 3-14 with infantile cerebral paralysis (ICP) who were treated for pronation flexion contractures of the forearm and of the hand, studied up to 45 values connected with the age of the patients, terms of appearance of the symptoms of the disease, subsequently processed the results of their investigations employing methods of analysis of variance, non-linear correlation and regression analysis and constructed analytical models of development of the pathologic process, which allowed to draw the following conclusions. Pathomechanogenesis of disturbances of the upper extremity in ICP includes primary muscular disbalance, successive formation of faulty postures, pathologic locomotor stereotype, vegetotrophic disturbances, contractures of the joint and anatomical changes of the skeleton. These changes are closely correlated with the age of the patients and according to the degree of the disturbances may be regarded as stages of the disease. PMID:2717166

Rutski?, V V; Nen'ko, A M

1989-01-01

175

The mechanism of acute elbow flexion contracture in children with congenital proximal radioulnar synostosis.  

PubMed

We have evaluated and treated 3 cases of acute onset elbow flexion contracture in children ranging in age from 6 to 13 years, with type-IV (Cleary and Omer) congenital proximal radioulnar synostosis. All were resolved by manipulative traction under general anesthesia during which an audible elbow "snap" was noted. Two of the cases required surgical treatment of a deformed radial head with good results after a 2 to 4-year follow-up. Our clinical radiographic and intraoperative evidence suggests that the acute onset fixed-flexion contracture results from an anterosuperiorly overgrown dislocated radial head becoming trapped under hypertrophied annular ligament-type tissue after elbow hyperflexion. Excision of the dislocated radial head after release from its entrapment was effective in 2 of the 3 patients in this report, and should be considered. PMID:20357595

Wang, Enbo; Wenger, Dennis R; Zhang, Lijun; Zhao, Qun; Ji, Shijun; Li, Jianjun

2010-01-01

176

Translation into Brazilian Portuguese and validation of the "Quantitative Global Scarring Grading System for Post-acne Scarring".  

PubMed

The "Quantitative Global Scarring Grading System for Postacne Scarring" was developed in English for acne scar grading, based on the number and severity of each type of scar. The aims of this study were to translate this scale into Brazilian Portuguese and verify its reliability and validity. The study followed five steps: Translation, Expert Panel, Back Translation, Approval of authors and Validation. The translated scale showed high internal consistency and high test-retest reliability, confirming its reproducibility. Therefore, it has been validated for our population and can be recommended as a reliable instrument to assess acne scarring. PMID:25184939

Cachafeiro, Thais Hofmann; Escobar, Gabriela Fortes; Maldonado, Gabriela; Cestari, Tania Ferreira

2014-01-01

177

Translation into Brazilian Portuguese and validation of the "Quantitative Global Scarring Grading System for Post-acne Scarring" *  

PubMed Central

The "Quantitative Global Scarring Grading System for Postacne Scarring" was developed in English for acne scar grading, based on the number and severity of each type of scar. The aims of this study were to translate this scale into Brazilian Portuguese and verify its reliability and validity. The study followed five steps: Translation, Expert Panel, Back Translation, Approval of authors and Validation. The translated scale showed high internal consistency and high test-retest reliability, confirming its reproducibility. Therefore, it has been validated for our population and can be recommended as a reliable instrument to assess acne scarring. PMID:25184939

Cachafeiro, Thais Hofmann; Escobar, Gabriela Fortes; Maldonado, Gabriela; Cestari, Tania Ferreira

2014-01-01

178

The Relationship between Caffeine Contracture of Intact Muscle and the Effect of Caffeine on Reticulum  

Microsoft Academic Search

At concentrations between 1 to 10 raM, caffeine reduced the Ca-accumulating capacity of fragmented reticulum obtained from frog and rabbit muscle. With 8 mM caffeine enough Ca was released from frog reticulum to account for the force of the contracture. Caffeine did not affect all reticulum membranes equally. The fraction which was spun down at 2000 g was more sensitive

A. Weber; R. HERZ

1968-01-01

179

Umbilical scarring in hatchling American alligators  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Umbilical scarring is the presence of excess scar tissue deposited between abdominal dermal layers at the site of yolk sac absorption in hatchling American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis). The presence of this dermal condition plays a key evaluatory role in the overall quality and subsequent value for various commercial leather products. Despite the prevalent nature of this condition, currently the industry has no standardized protocols for its quantification. The objectives of this study were to examine the relationship between hatchling weight and age and incidence of umbilical scarring and to develop a quantifiable and reproducible technique to measure this dermal condition in hatchling American alligators. Thirty eggs from each of nine clutches were incubated in two separate incubators at different facilities and hatchling umbilical scarring was measured at 2 and 10 days of age using digital calipers. Umbilical area was calculated by multiplying umbilical length times umbilical width. There was a significant effect of both age and clutch on umbilical area (overall decline of 64%) by 10 days post-hatch. However, only five of the nine clutches utilized expressed a noticeable decline in the size of this dermal condition (range 67-74%). We had hypothesized that larger hatchlings would have larger umbilical areas and a slower rate of improvement in this condition during the first few days post-hatch. The differences in umbilical area and percent decline with age across clutches, however, were not associated with differences in initial hatchling weights. Within clutches and time periods, hatchling weight had no significant effect on the size and/or rate of decline of this condition. ?? 2004 Published by Elsevier B.V.

Wiebe, J.J.; Sepulveda, M.S.; Buckland, J.E.; Anderson, S.R.; Gross, T.S.

2004-01-01

180

Wrinkles and Acne Scars: Fractional Nonablative Lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Minimally invasive laser therapies using fractionated laser beams have become increasingly more prevalent, especially for\\u000a treating wrinkled sun-damaged skin and acne scars. Moreover, indications for their use have also significantly increased.\\u000a Fractional lasers apply energy using microscopic dimensions and leave the surrounding tissue unaffected, intact, and therefore\\u000a vital. This permits a much shorter period of recovery than if a larger

Uwe Paasch

181

Wrinkles and Acne Scars: Fractional Ablative Lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Fractional ablative lasers create columns of ablated tissue separated by zones of intact tissue, resulting in rapid re-epithelialization\\u000a and induction of new collagen production. Fractional ablation provides a greater margin of safety compared to conventional\\u000a laser ablation by avoiding the production of open wounds. Fractional ablative lasers improve photodamage and scars in one\\u000a to two treatment sessions.

Arielle N. B. Kauvar; Melanie A. Warycha

182

Transverse musculocutaneous gracilis flap for treatment of capsular contracture in tertiary breast reconstruction.  

PubMed

Capsular contracture is a common complication associated with implant-based breast reconstruction and augmentation leading to pain, displacement, and rupture. After capsulectomy and implant exchange, the problem often reappears.We performed 52 deepithelialized free transverse musculocutaneous gracilis (TMG) flaps in 33 patients for tertiary breast reconstruction or augmentation of small- and medium-sized breasts. The indications for implant removal were unnatural feel and emotion of their breasts with foreign body feel, asymmetry, pain, and sensation of cold. Anyway, most of the patients did not have a severe capsular contracture deformity. The TMG flap is formed into a cone shape by bringing the tips of the ellipse together. Depending on the contralateral breast, the muscle can also be shaped in an S-form to get more projection if needed. The operating time for unilateral TMG flap breast reconstruction or augmentation was on average 3 hours and for bilateral procedure 5 hours. One patient had a secondary revision of the donor site due to disruption of the normal gluteal fold. Eighty percent of the unilateral TMG flap reconstructions had a lipofilling procedure afterward to correct small irregularities or asymmetry.The advantages of the TMG flap such as short harvesting time, inconspicuous donor site, and the possibility of having a natural breast shape make it our first choice to treat capsular contracture after breast reconstruction and augmentation. PMID:23788151

Pülzl, Petra; Huemer, Georg M; Schoeller, Thomas

2015-02-01

183

Scarring of Dirac fermions in chaotic billiards.  

PubMed

Scarring in quantum systems with classical chaotic dynamics is one of the most remarkable phenomena in modern physics. Previous works were concerned mostly with nonrelativistic quantum systems described by the Schrödinger equation. The question remains outstanding of whether truly relativistic quantum particles that obey the Dirac equation can scar. A significant challenge is the lack of a general method for solving the Dirac equation in closed domains of arbitrary shape. In this paper, we develop a numerical framework for obtaining complete eigensolutions of massless fermions in general two-dimensional confining geometries. The key ingredients of our method are the proper handling of the boundary conditions and an efficient discretization scheme that casts the original equation in a matrix representation. The method is validated by (1) comparing the numerical solutions to analytic results for a geometrically simple confinement and (2) verifying that the calculated energy level-spacing statistics of integrable and chaotic geometries agree with the known results. Solutions of the Dirac equation in a number of representative chaotic geometries establish firmly the existence of scarring of Dirac fermions. PMID:23005558

Ni, Xuan; Huang, Liang; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Grebogi, Celso

2012-07-01

184

Digital imaging analysis to assess scar phenotype.  

PubMed

In order to understand the link between the genetic background of patients and wound clinical outcomes, it is critical to have a reliable method to assess the phenotypic characteristics of healed wounds. In this study, we present a novel imaging method that provides reproducible, sensitive, and unbiased assessments of postsurgical scarring. We used this approach to investigate the possibility that genetic variants in orofacial clefting genes are associated with suboptimal healing. Red-green-blue digital images of postsurgical scars of 68 patients, following unilateral cleft lip repair, were captured using the 3dMD imaging system. Morphometric and colorimetric data of repaired regions of the philtrum and upper lip were acquired using ImageJ software, and the unaffected contralateral regions were used as patient-specific controls. Repeatability of the method was high with intraclass correlation coefficient score > 0.8. This method detected a very significant difference in all three colors, and for all patients, between the scarred and the contralateral unaffected philtrum (p ranging from 1.20(-05) to 1.95(-14) ). Physicians' clinical outcome ratings from the same images showed high interobserver variability (overall Pearson coefficient = 0.49) as well as low correlation with digital image analysis results. Finally, we identified genetic variants in TGFB3 and ARHGAP29 associated with suboptimal healing outcome. PMID:24635173

Smith, Brian J; Nidey, Nichole; Miller, Steven F; Moreno Uribe, Lina M; Baum, Christian L; Hamilton, Grant S; Wehby, George L; Dunnwald, Martine

2014-01-01

185

Eliciting health state utilities for Dupuytren’s contracture using a discrete choice experiment  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose An internet-based discrete choice experiment (DCE) was conducted to elicit preferences for a wide range of Dupuytren’s contracture (DC)-related health states. An algorithm was subsequently developed to convert these preferences into health state utilities that can be used to assess DC’s impact on quality of life and the value of its treatments. Methods Health state preferences for varying levels of DC hand severity were elicited via an internet survey from a sample of the UK adult population. Severity levels were defined using a combination of contractures (0, 45, or 90 degrees) in 8 proximal interphalangeal and metacarpophalangeal joints of the index, middle, ring, and little fingers. Right-handed, left-handed, and ambidextrous respondents indicated which hand was preferable in each of the 10 randomly-selected hand-pairings comparing different DC severity levels. For consistency across comparisons, anatomically precise digital hand drawings were used. To anchor preferences onto the traditional 0–1 utility scale used in health economic evaluations, unaffected hands were assigned a utility of 1.0 whereas the utility for a maximally affected hand (i.e., all 8 joints set at 90 degrees of contracture) was derived by asking respondents to indicate what combination of attributes and levels of the EQ-5D-5L profile most accurately reflects the impact of living with such hand. Conditional logistic models were used to estimate indirect utilities, then rescaled to the anchor points on the EQ-5D-5L. Results Estimated utilities based on the responses of 1,745 qualified respondents were 0.49, 0.57, and 0.63 for completely affected dominant hands, non-dominant hands, or ambidextrous hands, respectively. Utility for a dominant hand with 90-degree contracture in t h e metacarpophalangeal joints of the ring and little fingers was estimated to be 0.89. Separately, reducing the contracture of metacarpophalangeal joint for a little finger from 50 to 12 degrees would improve utility by 0.02. Interpretation DC is associated with substantial utility decre- ments. The algorithms presented herein provide a robust and flexible framework to assess utility for varying degrees of DC severity. PMID:24286567

2013-01-01

186

Periostin induces fibroblast proliferation and myofibroblast persistence in hypertrophic scarring.  

PubMed

Hypertrophic scarring is characterized by the excessive development and persistence of myofibroblasts. These cells contract the surrounding extracellular matrix resulting in the increased tissue density characteristic of scar tissue. Periostin is a matricellular protein that is abnormally abundant in fibrotic dermis, however, its roles in hypertrophic scarring are largely unknown. In this report, we assessed the ability of matrix-associated periostin to promote the proliferation and myofibroblast differentiation of dermal fibroblasts isolated from the dermis of hypertrophic scars or healthy skin. Supplementation of a thin type-I collagen cell culture substrate with recombinant periostin induced a significant increase in the proliferation of hypertrophic scar fibroblasts but not normal dermal fibroblasts. Periostin induced significant increases in supermature focal adhesion formation, ? smooth muscle actin levels and collagen contraction in fibroblasts cultured from hypertrophic scars under conditions of increased matrix tension in three-dimensional type-I collagen lattices. Inhibition of Rho-associated protein kinase activity significantly attenuated the effects of matrix-associated periostin on hypertrophic scar fibroblasts and myofibroblasts. Depletion of endogenous periostin expression in hypertrophic scar myofibroblasts resulted in a sustained decrease in ? smooth muscle actin levels under conditions of reducing matrix tension, while matrix-associated periostin levels caused the cells to retain high levels of a smooth muscle actin under these conditions. These findings indicate that periostin promotes Rho-associated protein kinase-dependent proliferation and myofibroblast persistence of hypertrophic scar fibroblasts and implicate periostin as a potential therapeutic target to enhance the resolution of scars. PMID:25421393

Crawford, Justin; Nygard, Karen; Gan, Bing Siang; O'Gorman, David Brian

2015-02-01

187

Improving global fire carbon emissions estimates by combining moderate resolution burned area and active fire observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In several important biomes, including croplands and tropical forests, many small fires exist that have sizes that are well below the detection limit for the current generation of burned area products derived from moderate resolution spectroradiometers. These fires likely have important effects on greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions and regional air quality. Here we developed an approach for combining 1km thermal anomalies (active fires; MOD14A2) and 500m burned area observations (MCD64A1) to estimate the prevalence of these fires and their likely contribution to burned area and carbon emissions. We first estimated active fires within and outside of 500m burn scars in 0.5 degree grid cells during 2001-2010 for which MCD64A1 burned area observations were available. For these two sets of active fires we then examined mean fire radiative power (FRP) and changes in enhanced vegetation index (EVI) derived from 16-day intervals immediately before and after each active fire observation. To estimate the burned area associated with sub-500m fires, we first applied burned area to active fire ratios derived solely from within burned area perimeters to active fires outside of burn perimeters. In a second step, we further modified our sub-500m burned area estimates using EVI changes from active fires outside and within of burned areas (after subtracting EVI changes derived from control regions). We found that in northern and southern Africa savanna regions and in Central and South America dry forest regions, the number of active fires outside of MCD64A1 burned areas increased considerably towards the end of the fire season. EVI changes for active fires outside of burn perimeters were, on average, considerably smaller than EVI changes associated with active fires inside burn scars, providing evidence for burn scars that were substantially smaller than the 25 ha area of a single 500m pixel. FRP estimates also were lower for active fires outside of burn perimeters. In our analysis we quantified how including sub-500m burned area influenced global burned area, carbon emissions, and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) in different continental regions using the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED) biogeochemical model. We conclude by discussing validation needs using higher resolution visible and thermal imagery.

Randerson, J. T.; Chen, Y.; Giglio, L.; Rogers, B. M.; van der Werf, G.

2011-12-01

188

Endoscopic-Assisted Total Thyroidectomy via Lateral Keloid Scar Incision  

PubMed Central

Thyroidectomy is traditionally performed by the transcervical approach. To avoid or reduce visible scarring, diverse innovative surgical trials have been reported. Here we report a patient who underwent endoscopic thyroidectomy via a lateral keloid scar due to a previous traffic accident. A 30-year-old woman presented with a papillary thyroid carcinoma. Total thyroidectomy was performed via a keloid scar incision. The keloid scar was then revised. The total thyroidectomy was successful, resulting in no acute complications, such as neural injury, hematoma, or seroma formation. The keloid scar healed with excellent cosmetic results and the patient remains free of disease 12 months after excision. Endoscopic total thyroidectomy via a lateral keloid scar incision healed not only the physical disease but also the mental disease. PMID:25436057

2014-01-01

189

Analysis of state of vehicular scars on Arctic Tundra, Alaska  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Identification on ERTS images of severe vehicular scars in the northern Alaska tundra suggests that, if such scars are of an intensity or have spread to a dimension such that they can be resolved by ERTS sensors (20 meters), they can be identified and their state monitored by the use of ERTS images. Field review of the state of vehicular scars in the Umiat area indicates that all are revegetating at varying rates and are approaching a stable state.

Lathram, E. H.

1974-01-01

190

Repair of Acne Scars With Dermicol-P35  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acne vulgaris is a prevalent skin condition that can cause disfiguring residual scarring. While the complete removal of acne scars is unlikely, several treatments exist that can improve the appearance of acne scars. Dermal fillers offer a simple, nonsurgical corrective procedure that can provide improved skin texture. Dermicol-P35 (Evolence [Ortho Dermatologics, Skillman, NJ]) is a new, highly purified, ribose cross-linked,

Kevin C. Smith

2009-01-01

191

Multimodal Management of Atrophic Acne Scarring in the Aging Face  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atrophic facial acne scarring is a widely prevalent condition that can have a negative impact on a patient’s quality of life.\\u000a The appearance of these scars is often worsened by the normal effects of aging. A number of options are available for the\\u000a treatment of acne scarring, including chemical peeling, dermabrasion, ablative or nonablative laser resurfacing, dermal fillers,\\u000a and surgical

T. Gerald O’Daniel

192

Scar Intensity Statistics in the Position Representation  

E-print Network

We obtain general predictions for the distribution of wave function intensities in position space on the periodic orbits of chaotic ballistic systems. The expressions depend on effective system size N, instability exponent lambda of the periodic orbit, and proximity to a focal point of the orbit. Limiting expressions are obtained that include the asymptotic probability distribution of rare high-intensity events and a perturbative formula valid in the limit of weak scarring. For finite system sizes, a single scaling variable lambda N describes deviations from the semiclassical N -> infinity limit.

K. Damborsky; L. Kaplan

2005-10-18

193

Skin Wound Healing and Scarring: Fetal Wounds and Regenerative Restitution  

PubMed Central

The adverse physiological and psychological effects of scars formation after healing of wounds are broad and a major medical problem for patients. In utero, fetal wounds heal in a regenerative manner, though the mechanisms are unknown. Differences in fetal scarless regeneration and adult repair can provide key insight into reduction of scarring therapy. Understanding the cellular and extracellular matrix alterations in excessive adult scarring in comparison to fetal scarless healing may have important implications. Herein, we propose that matrix can be controlled via cellular therapy to resemble a fetal-like matrix that will result in reduced scarring. PMID:24203921

Yates, Cecelia C.; Hebda, Patricia; Wells, Alan

2014-01-01

194

A Mechanomodulatory Device to Minimize Incisional Scar Formation  

PubMed Central

Objective To mechanically control the wound environment and prevent cutaneous scar formation. Approach We subjected various material substrates to biomechanical testing to investigate their ability to modulate skin behavior. Combinations of elastomeric materials, adhesives, and strain applicators were evaluated to develop topical stress-shielding devices. Noninvasive imaging modalities were utilized to characterize anatomic site-specific differences in skin biomechanical properties in humans. The devices were tested in a validated large animal model of hypertrophic scarring. Phase I within-patient controlled clinical trials were conducted to confirm their safety and efficacy in scar reduction in patients undergoing abdominoplasty surgery. Results Among the tested materials and device applicators, a polymer device was developed that effectively off-loaded high tension wounds and blocked pro-fibrotic pathways and excess scar formation in red Duroc swine. In humans, different anatomic sites exhibit unique biomechanical properties that may correlate with the propensity to form scars. In the clinical trial, utilization of this device significantly reduced incisional scar formation and improved scar appearance for up to 12 months compared with control incisions that underwent routine postoperative care. Innovation This is the first device that is able to precisely control the mechanical environment of incisional wounds and has been demonstrated in multiple clinical trials to significantly reduce scar formation after surgery. Conclusion Mechanomodulatory strategies to control the incisional wound environment can significantly reduce pathologic scarring and fibrosis after surgery. PMID:24527342

Wong, Victor W.; Beasley, Bill; Zepeda, John; Dauskardt, Reinhold H.; Yock, Paul G.; Longaker, Michael T.; Gurtner, Geoffrey C.

2013-01-01

195

The Role of Scar Origin in Shaping Men's Body Image.  

PubMed

Men generally have a more positive body image than women. However, the extent to which scars negatively influence men's body image is uncertain. The aim of the current study was to assess body image in men with and without scars while taking scar origin into account (nonsuicidal self-harming injuries [NSSI] vs. accidents or surgery). One hundred and nine men (n = 19 with NSSI) and 185 women (n = 96 with NSSI) filled in multidimensional body image questionnaires. Results indicate that on most clinical subscales women had a significantly more negative body image compared with men. However, within a subsample whose scars resulted from NSSI, gender differences vanished. Among men, scar origin was significantly associated with negative body image after partialling out scar characteristics, age, and borderline symptomatology. The visibility of scars was not associated with more severe body image disturbances. The results of our study indicate that self-inflicted scars adversely affect body image. Although women generally reported having a more negative body image, disturbances in body image should not be neglected among men, especially in those who have self-inflicted scars. PMID:24785425

Dyer, Anne; Mayer-Eckhard, Lennart; White, Andrew J; Alpers, Georg W

2015-03-01

196

?Cat FACE? SCAR ON LONGLEAF PINE TREE, OVERHILLS HISTORIC ENTRANCE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

?Cat FACE? SCAR ON LONGLEAF PINE TREE, OVERHILLS HISTORIC ENTRANCE ROAD, FACING NORTHEAST - Overhills, Fort Bragg Military Reservation, Approximately 15 miles NW of Fayetteville, Overhills, Harnett County, NC

197

The mast cell stabilizer ketotifen reduces joint capsule fibrosis in a rabbit model of post-traumatic joint contractures  

PubMed Central

Objectives Using a rabbit model of post-traumatic joint contractures, we investigated whether treatment with a mast cell stabilizer after joint injury would lessen the molecular manifestations of joint capsule fibrosis. Methods Surgical joint injury was used to create stable post-traumatic contractures of the knee in skeletally mature New Zealand white rabbits. Four groups of animals were studied: a non-operated control group (n = 8), an operated contracture group (n = 13) and two operated groups treated with the mast cell stabilizer, ketotifen, at doses of 0.5 mg/kg (n = 9) and 1.0 mg/kg (n = 9) twice daily. Joint capsule fibrosis was assessed by quantifying the mRNA and protein levels of ?-SMA, tryptase, TGF-?1, collagen I and collagen III. Significance was tested using an ANOVA analysis of variance. Results The protein and mRNA levels of ?-SMA, TGF-?1, tryptase and collagen I and III were significantly elevated in the operated contracture group compared to control (p < 0.01). In both ketotifen-treated groups, protein and mRNA levels of ?-SMA, TGF-?1 and collagen I were significantly reduced compared to the operated contracture group (p < 0.01). Conclusions These data suggest an inflammatory pathway mediated by mast cell activation is involved in joint capsule fibrosis after traumatic injury. PMID:22173279

Hart, David A.; Befus, A. Dean; Salo, Paul T.; Zhang, Mei; Hildebrand, Kevin A.

2013-01-01

198

Burns (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... burn. Deep second- and third-degree burns (called full-thickness burns) will likely need to be treated with skin grafts, in which healthy skin is taken from another part of the body and surgically placed over the burn wound to help the area heal. Back Continue What ...

199

Breast conservation therapy without capsular contracture in young augmented women using interstitial brachytherapy  

PubMed Central

Purpose To describe a breast-conserving technique using interstitial brachytherapy after lumpectomy and axillary nodal sampling in selected women who are diagnosed with breast cancer in the presence of augmentation mammoplasty. Material and methods Over the past 20 years, we have developed and improved a technique of “pinch view” image-guided catheter insertion that avoids implant puncture. Selection criteria include: 1) women of any age with either subpectoral or retroglandular, augmentation implants (silicone or saline) who were diagnosed with stages Tis, T1, T2, N0, or N1 breast cancer; 2) any pathologic subtype of malignant breast cancer was accepted; 3) microscopic tumor extent ? 3 cm; 4) axillary node negative or metastasis to 1 to 3 nodes without extracapsular extension; and 5) surgical margins clear by the NSABP “no ink on tumor” definition. More than 250 women have been successfully treated. Patients were treated with high dose rate Iridium-192 brachytherapy to 34 Gy in 10 or 32 Gy in 8 twice daily fractions. The target volume was the surgical cavity edge with 1.5 to 2 cm margin using 3-D treatment planning systems. Results The implant technique as currently employed is described. There have been no implant ruptures, and the Planning Treatment Volume (PTV-eval) exhibited at least 90% coverage by the 90% isodose line in the vast majority of cases. Dose Homogeneity Index exceeded 70% in most cases. The maximum skin dose was below the prescription dose in every case. Other than some patients with pre-existing capsular contracture, less than 5% experience new capsular contracture after interstitial brachytherapy. Conclusions A technique of reliable and reproducible accelerated partial breast irradiation is described that minimizes the risk of capsular contracture by avoiding circumferential dose to the foreign body in the breast. PMID:25097566

2014-01-01

200

Nd:YAG Laser Treatment of Keloids and Hypertrophic Scars  

PubMed Central

Pathological cutaneous scars such as keloids and hypertrophic scars (HSs) are characterized by a diffuse redness that is caused by the overgrowth of capillary vessels due to chronic inflammation. Our group has been using long-pulsed, 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser in noncontact mode with low fluence and a submillisecond pulse duration to treat keloids and hypertrophic scars since 2006 with satisfactory results. The present study examined the efficacy of this approach in 22 Japanese patients with keloids (n = 16) or hypertrophic scars (n = 6) who were treated every 3 to 4 weeks. Treatment settings were as follows: 5 mm spot size diameter; 14 J/cm2 energy density; 300 ?s exposure time per pulse; and 10 Hz repetition rate. The responses of the pathological scars to the treatment were assessed by measuring their erythema, hypertrophy, hardness, itching, and pain or tenderness. Moreover, skin samples from 3 volunteer patients were subjected to histological evaluation and 5 patients underwent thermography during therapy. The average total scar assessment score dropped from 9.86 to 6.34. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and Elastica Masson-Goldner staining showed that laser treatment structurally changed the tissue collagen. This influence reached a depth of 0.5 to 1 mm. Electron microscopy revealed plasma protein leakage, proteoglycan particles, and a change in the collagen fiber fascicles. Further analyses revealed that noncontact mode Nd:YAG laser treatment is highly effective for keloids and hypertrophic scars regardless of patient age, the origin and multiplicity of scarring, the location of the scar(s), or the tension on the scar. PMID:22259645

Akaishi, Satoshi; Koike, Sachiko; Dohi, Teruyuki; Kobe, Kyoko; Hyakusoku, Hiko; Ogawa, Rei

2012-01-01

201

[Detection of peranesthetic malignant hyperthermia by muscle contracture tests and NMR spectroscopy].  

PubMed

To diagnose malignant hyperthermia susceptibility (MHS), caffeine and halothane contracture tests were performed on six patients. One of them, who presented a peroperative crisis, was recognized as MHS; the five others were negative (MHN). By means of 31P-NMR spectroscopy, the muscular energetic metabolism of these patients was studied during and after moderate exercise in normal and moderate ischaemic conditions. Metabolic abnormalities appeared in the MHS patient. It must be concluded therefore that malignant hyperthermia is a latent myopathy. 31P-NMR spectroscopy appeared to be a useful non-invasive tool for screening for this affliction. PMID:3826791

Kozak-Reiss, G; Gascard, J P; Redouane-Bénichou, K

1986-01-01

202

The Long-term Relationship between Duration of Treatment and Contracture Resolution Using Dynamic Orthotic Devices for the Stiff Proximal Interphalangeal Joint: A Prospective Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the long-term relationship between the duration of treatment using dynamic orthoses, and contracture resolution in the stiff proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint. The purpose of the study was to examine the long-term relationship between weeks of treatment using dynamic orthoses and contracture resolution, in both flexion and extension deficits of the PIP joint. The study design used

Leigh R. Tooth; Richard L. Hockey

203

Burn epidemiology: a basis for burn prevention.  

PubMed

An appreciation of the causes of burn injury is essential in order to direct burn prevention programs. Toward this goal, 1,564 patients treated at the UCI Burn Center were studied. There were 699 patients admitted acutely and 865 outpatients. The most common cause of thermal injury in both adults and children was scalding. In children scald burns accounted for 42% of the total number of children treated. In children under 4 years old scalds caused 75% of all burn injuries, most in the kitchen. Flammable liquids were responsible for the majority of the severe burns in the adult group (19% of acute admissions). Housefires, while accounting for only 5% of the adults treated, were responsible for 44% of the adult deaths. Continued public education in safety practices at home especially in the kitchen and bath, and with automobiles and outdoor stoves and fires is recommended, as well as planned escapes from homes and use of smoke detectors. PMID:592443

Jay, K M; Bartlett, R H; Danet, R; Allyn, P A

1977-12-01

204

Minimizing Scars With Excision and Immediate Laser Resurfacing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ultrapulse® CO2 laser has been used extensively for cosmetic resurfacing of the skin. This modality adds the precision and depth control that peels and dermabrasion lack. With the healing model of epithelial migration, precisely coapted wound margins should heal with minimal scarring. I conducted my study with 10 patients with facial lesions and acne scarring grades I to III.

William A. Stefani

1998-01-01

205

Vicious Cycle of Multiple Invasive Treatments in a Hemophilic Inhibitor Positive Child with Resistant Knee Flexion Contracture, A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Uncontrolled recurrent hemarthrosis can end to contracture, deformity, pain, joint destruction and gait disorders which are disabling. We are going to report a challenge, a unilateral knee flexion contracture in a child with severe hemophilia A and inhibitor who underwent different treatment options with unsatisfactory improvement of knee range of motion. Mismanaging postoperatively, patient and parents irresponsibility in managing self-care, lack of access and affordability to treatment and unavailability of proper treatment can be the reasons of recurrence in addition to the tough nature of a patient with inhibitor. PMID:25207302

Kachooei, Amir Reza; Badiei, Zahra; Zandinezhad, Mohammad E

2013-01-01

206

Measuring burn injury outcomes.  

PubMed

Burn injury affects all facets of life. Burn care has improved over time. Improved survival after burn injury has resulted in a shift in outcome measurement from inpatient morbidity and mortality to long-term functional and health-related quality-of-life measures. Integration of professionals from different disciplines has enabled burn centers to develop collaborative methods of assessing the quality of care delivered to patients with burns based on their ability to reintegrate into their normal physical, social, psychological, and functional activities. Burn outcomes will continue to develop on the foundation that has been built and will generate evidence-based best practices in the future. PMID:25085096

Palmieri, Tina L; Przkora, Rene; Meyer, Walter J; Carrougher, Gretchen J

2014-08-01

207

40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a...of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning...

2013-07-01

208

40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a...of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning...

2014-07-01

209

40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a...of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning...

2011-07-01

210

40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a...of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning...

2010-07-01

211

40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a...of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning...

2010-07-01

212

40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a...of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning...

2012-07-01

213

40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a...of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning...

2014-07-01

214

40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a...of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning...

2013-07-01

215

40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a...of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning...

2011-07-01

216

40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a...of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning...

2012-07-01

217

Pellet burning system  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus is described for burning pelletized fuel, comprising: a furnace housing means having a heat exchanger means, an exhaust gas flue means and an ash collecting bin therein; a burn chamber in the housing above the ash collecting bin, the heat exchanger means being oriented in heat exchanging relation to the burn chamber and intermediate the burn chamber and the flue means; a conduit extending through a wall of the housing means and terminating at an end in the burn chamber, the conduit being inclined to the horizontal; shaft means and means for supporting the shaft means for rotation; and a burn basket in the burn chamber and having a bottom wall, a perforate side wall and an open top, the end of the conduit in the burn chamber terminating adjacent the open top and spaced from the bottom wall.

Resh, D.R.

1987-06-02

218

Custom-made approach to a patient with post-burn breast deformity  

PubMed Central

Second and third degree burns on breasts at preadolescent period may cause severe breast deformations. This deformation can be variable depending on severity and location of the burns, personal adolescent patterns, and treatment modality in acute burn period. A 21 year old female patient admitted to our department for her breast deformation due to burn contracture at the inferior pole of the right breast. On physical examination we defined that development of the volume of the right breast was equal to the left, and inferior pole of the right breast was flattened due to contracture, and nipple was projected to inferior. We found that inframammary crease of the right breast was 2 cm lower than that of left; andthe distance of nipple-inframamary crease was 4.7 cm while areola-inframmary crease was 2 cm. New nipple-areola complex level was identified according to left breast's level. Medial and lateral lines were planned to merge inferiorly at 2 cm above inframmary crease in a plan similar to vertical mammaplasty. Superior pedicle carrying nipple areola was desepitelised. Lower parenchymal V flap was transposed superiorly and attached to the pectoral muscle. Inferior parts of the lateral and medial glandular flaps were excised to form new inframammary crease. The desired laxity of skin at the lower pole was obtained by performing a new Z- plasty between lateral and medial skin flaps. Breast symmetry was confirmed by postoperative objective measurements between left and right breasts. Patient's satisfaction and aesthetic appearance levels were high. Breasts deformation patterns caused by burns, trauma and mass exsicion due to cancer could not be addressed with traditional defined techniques. Special deformations can be corrected by custom made plannings as we presented here. PMID:24987218

Bayram, Yalcin; Sahin, Cihan; Sever, Celalettin; Karagoz, Huseyin; Kulahci, Yalcin

2014-01-01

219

Analysis of efficacy and safety of treatment with collagenase Clostridium histolyticum among subgroups of patients with Dupuytren contracture.  

PubMed

Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum (CCH) injection is a nonoperative treatment of hand contractures from Dupuytren disease. This study assessed the efficacy and safety of CCH in several subgroups of patients with increased surgical risk.Data were pooled from 3 randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trials. This analysis included 271 patients with metacarpophalangeal (n = 167) or proximal interphalangeal (n = 104) joint contractures greater than or equal to 20 degrees treated with CCH (0.58 mg collagenase per injection). Subgroups included age, sex, and diabetes status. End points included rate of clinical success (reduction in contracture to 0-5 degrees of normal) and percentage of adverse events.There was no significant difference in clinical success by age, diabetes status, or sex with 63% reaching the end point. There was no difference in adverse events among the subgroups, with peripheral edema, contusion, and injection-site hemorrhage being most common.High-risk subgroups do not demonstrate differences in efficacy or safety with CCH treatment of Dupuytren-related contractures. PMID:23511746

Raven, Raymond B; Kushner, Harvey; Nguyen, Dat; Naam, Nash; Curtin, Catherine

2014-09-01

220

Muscle MRI findings in patients with limb girdle muscular dystrophy with calpain 3 deficiency (LGMD2A) and early contractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2A is a common variant secondary to mutations in the calpain 3 gene. A proportion of patients has early and severe contractures, which can cause diagnostic difficulties with other conditions. We report clinical and muscle magnetic resonance imaging findings in seven limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2A patients (four sporadic and three familial) who had prominent and

Eugenio Mercuri; Kate Bushby; Enzo Ricci; Daniel Birchall; Marika Pane; Maria Kinali; Joanna Allsop; Vincenzo Nigro; Amets Sáenz; Annachiara Nascimbeni; Luigi Fulizio; Corrado Angelini; Francesco Muntoni

2005-01-01

221

Comparative effects of bepridil, its quaternary derivative CERM 11888 and verapamil on caffeine-induced contracture in ferret hearts.  

PubMed Central

1. The effects of bepridil, its quaternary derivative: CERM 11888 (methyl-pyrrolidinium bromide) (10(-7)-10(-5) M), and verapamil (10(-7)-10(-6) M) were compared on caffeine-induced contracture of isolated ventricular trabeculae of the ferret. 2. Bepridil diminished the amplitude of contracture in a concentration-dependent fashion, and this effect was significantly different from that of CERM 11888 which, like verapamil, only reduced the amplitude at the highest concentration used. 3. Bepridil (10(-6) M) significantly shortened the time to peak tension and accelerated the relaxation phase of contracture. This latter effect was different from that of CERM 11888. Verapamil (10(-6) M) also tended to accelerate the relaxation phase. At 10(-5) M these actions of bepridil on the time to peak and relaxation tended to reverse. 4. At all concentrations bepridil and verapamil reduced the rate of repriming of contracture and this effect of bedpridil was significantly different from that of its quaternary derivative which only showed a significant effect at 10(-5) M. 5. These results demonstrate a clear intracellular effect of bepridil in the ferret heart. Verapamil and CERM 11888 had only weak intracellular effects even at high concentrations. 6. Analysis of the results suggests that the main sites of action of bepridil in this model are the sarcoplasmic reticulum and one or two calcium compartments in the sarcolemma. PMID:2804541

Leboeuf, J.; Leoty, C.; Lamar, J. C.; Massingham, R.

1989-01-01

222

Nonlinear optics for the study of human scar tissue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Collagen fibers are an essential component of the dynamic process of scarring, which accompanies various diseases. Scar tissue may reveal different morphologic expressions, such as hypertrophic scars or keloids. Collagen fibers can be visualized by fluorescent light when stained with eosin. Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) creates a non linear signal that occurs only in molecules without inversion symmetry and is particularly strong in the collagen fibers arranged in triple helices. The aim of this study was to describe the methodology for the analysis of the density and texture of collagen in keloids, hypertrophic scars and conventional scars. Samples were examined in the National Institute of Science and Technology on Photonics Applied to Cell Biology (INFABIC) at the State University of Campinas. The images were acquired in a multiphoton microscopy LSM 780-NLO Zeiss 40X. Both signals, two-photon fluorescence (TPEF) and SHG, were excited by a Mai-Tai Ti:Sapphire laser at 940 nm. We used a LP490/SP485 NDD filter for SHG, and a BP565-610 NDD filter for fluorescence In each case, ten images were acquired serially (512×512 ?m) in Z-stack and joined together to one patchwork-image . Image analysis was performed by a gliding-box-system with in-house made software. Keloids, hypertrophic scars and normal scar tissue show different collagen architecture. Inside an individual case differences of the scar process may be found between central and peripheral parts. In summary, the use of nonlinear optics is a helpful tool for the study of scars tissue.

Ferro, D. P.; Vieira-Damiani, G.; Adam, R. L.; Cesar, C. L.; Metze, Konradin

2012-03-01

223

Burns and Fire Safety  

MedlinePLUS

1 Burns and Fire Safety Fact Sheet (2014) Fatalities ? 325 children ages 19 and under died from fires or burns in 2011. 85% ( ... 55% from 1999 to 2011. 1 1999?2011 Fire/Burn Fatalities and Death Rate Among Children Ages ...

224

Workplace-related burns  

PubMed Central

Summary Introduction. The key element of a safe workplace for employees is the maintenance of fire safety. Thermal, chemical, and electrical burns are common types of burns at the workplace. This study assessed the epidemiology of work-related burn injuries on the basis of the workers treated in a regional burn centre. Methods. Two years’ retrospective data (2005-2006) from the Trauma Registry of the American College of Surgeons of the Joseph M. Still Burn Center at Doctors Hospital in Augusta, Georgia, were collected and analysed. Results. During the time period studied, 2510 adult patients with acute burns were admitted; 384 cases (15%) were work-related. The average age of the patients was 37 yr (range, 15-72 yr). Males constituted the majority (90%) of workrelated burn injury admissions. The racial distribution was in accordance with the Centre’s admission census. Industrial plant explosions accounted for the highest number of work-related burns and, relatively, a significant number of patients had chemical burns. The average length of hospital stay was 5.54 days. Only three patients did not have health insurance and four patients (1%) died. Conclusion. Burn injuries at the workplace predominantly occur among young male workers, and the study has shown that chemical burns are relatively frequent. This study functions as the basis for the evaluation of work-related burns and identification of the causes of these injuries to formulate adequate safety measures, especially for young, male employees working with chemicals. PMID:22262966

Mian, M.A.H.; Mullins, R.F.; Alam, B.; Brandigi, C.; Friedman, B.C.; Shaver, J.R.; Hassan, Z.

2011-01-01

225

Practical Evaluation and Management of Atrophic Acne Scars  

PubMed Central

Atrophic acne scarring is an unfortunate, permanent complication of acne vulgaris, which may be associated with significant psychological distress. General dermatologists are frequently presented with the challenge of evaluating and providing treatment recommendations to patients with acne scars. This article reviews a practical, step-by-step approach to evaluating the patient with atrophic acne scars. An algorithm for providing treatment options is presented, along with pitfalls to avoid. A few select procedures that may be incorporated into a general dermatology practice are reviewed in greater detail, including filler injections, skin needling, and the punch excision. PMID:21909457

2011-01-01

226

Treatment of sandal burns of the feet in children in a moist environment.  

PubMed

Burns to children's feet are often due to scalds, from hot tap water, as an infant's skin is thinner and hence more susceptible to a full-thickness injury. In Central Asia, and particularly in Uzbekistan, many episodes of burns take place at homes because of using sandal heaters. In the case of sandal burns of the foot, it usually is not only skin that is injured but also underlying tissues: subcutaneous fat, fasciae, muscles and even bones. Many controlled studies have confirmed that wounds heal more readily in a moist, physiological environment. After performing the toilet of burn wounds of the foot, we applied Dermazin cream on the affected areas and then the foot was placed onto a polyethylene packet of large size and fixed by a bandage. Measurement of wound water evaporation was performed every day post-burn. Surgery was usually performed 15-17 days after burn by applying a perforated skin graft or a 0.2-0.3-mm-thick non-perforated skin graft. The procedures helped to improve the general condition of patients, shortened their stay in hospital and also reduced expenses and lessened joint deformities and contracture deformities. PMID:24094987

Shakirov, Babur M

2014-05-01

227

[Indications and technique of combined medial and lateral column procedures in severe extrinsic elbow contractures].  

PubMed

Severe extrinsic elbow contracture can be treated effectively using elbow arthrolysis to obtain satisfactory results. Preoperative planing is of prime importance to evaluate joint involvement and to decide how to approach the capsule from the lateral or medial aspect of the elbow. Most of the time because of the extensive involvement of the periarticular tissue, a combined approach is usually preferred. It is a step-by-step procedure that must be adapted to the progressive gain of motion. The ulnar nerve must be identified systematically and often anteriorly transposed. Maximum gain of motion must be obtained at surgery because loss of elbow motion after surgery is common. Postoperative management must be closely followed static splint being preferable to active physiotherapy. Results of surgical arthrolysis for extrinsic stiffness is often satisfactory with an absolute gain in the flexion-extension arc between 30 and 60°. PMID:21472425

Mansat, P; Bonnevialle, N; Werner, B

2011-04-01

228

Impact of Postthyroidectomy Scar on the Quality of Life of Thyroid Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

Background Surgical scars are crucial cosmetic problem, especially when in exposed areas such as the anterior neck following thyroidectomy. Objective To evaluate the impact of post-thyroidectomy scars on quality of life (QoL) of thyroid cancer patients and identify the relationship between scar characteristics and QoL. Methods Patients with post-thyroidectomy scars on the neck were recruited. QoL was measured using the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI). Scar characteristics were graded according to Vancouver scar scale (VSS) score. Results Ninety-seven patients completed a battery of questions at the time of enrollment. Post-thyroidectomy scars were classified according to morphology as linear flat scars, linear bulging scars, hypertrophic scars or adhesive scars. There were 32 patients (33.0%), 9 patients (9.3%), 41 patients (42.3%) and 15 patients (15.5%), respectively, in each group. The mean total DLQI score was 9.02. Domain 2 (daily activities, 2.87 points), which includes questions about clothing, was the most greatly impacted among patients. The total DLQI scores of patients who have experienced scar-related symptoms were significantly higher than those of patients without symptoms (p<0.05). The VSS scores were 3.09 for linear flat scars, 6.89 for linear bulging scars, 6.29 for hypertrophic scars and 5.60 for adhesive scars. However, the DLQI scores did not significantly differ among scar types or VSS scores. Conclusion Post-thyroidectomy scars on the neck affect the QoL of thyroid cancer patients regardless of scar type. Therefore, clinicians should pay attention to the psychological effects of scars on patients and take care to minimize post-thyroidectomy scar. PMID:25473220

Choi, Yuri; Lee, Ji Hye; Kim, Yeon Hee; Lee, Yong Sang; Chang, Hang-Seok; Park, Cheong Soo

2014-01-01

229

Scar endometriosis-a sequel of caesarean section.  

PubMed

Endometriosis is presence of functioning endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity, usually in the pelvis. However, its occurrence is very rare (0.03%-0.4%) in the scars which follow obstetrical and gynaecological surgeries. We are reporting two cases of scar endometriosis which occurred after caesarean sections. Both cases presented with abdominal pain at caesarean scar sites, one of which gave a cyclical history. Clinical examination revealed painful swellings in both cases, which were misdiagnosed as stitch granulomas. Wide surgical excisions were done and histopathology examination revealed a diagnosis of scar endometriosis. We are presenting these cases because of their rarity, their uncommon sites and difficulty in diagnosing the conditions clinically. PMID:24959457

Patil, Nanda J; Kumar, Vijay; Gupta, Anita

2014-04-01

230

Effects of scars on crystalline shell stability under external pressure  

E-print Network

We study how the stability of spherical crystalline shells under external pressure is influenced by the defect structure. In particular, we compare stability for shells with a minimal set of topologically-required defects to shells with extended defect arrays (grain boundary "scars" with non-vanishing net disclination charge). We perform Monte Carlo simulations to compare how shells with and without scars deform quasi-statically under external hydrostatic pressure. We find that the critical pressure at which shells collapse is lowered for scarred configurations that break icosahedral symmetry and raised for scars that preserve icosahedral symmetry. The particular shapes which arise from breaking of an initial icosahedrally-symmetric shell depend on the F\\"oppl-von K\\'arm\\'an number.

Duanduan Wan; Mark J. Bowick; Rastko Sknepnek

2014-10-23

231

Validity of gait parameters for hip flexor contracture in patients with cerebral palsy  

PubMed Central

Background Psoas contracture is known to cause abnormal hip motion in patients with cerebral palsy. The authors investigated the clinical relevance of hip kinematic and kinetic parameters, and 3D modeled psoas length in terms of discriminant validty, convergent validity, and responsiveness. Methods Twenty-four patients with cerebral palsy (mean age 6.9 years) and 28 normal children (mean age 7.6 years) were included. Kinematic and kinetic data were obtained by three dimensional gait analysis, and psoas lengths were determined using a musculoskeletal modeling technique. Validity of the hip parameters were evaluated. Results In discriminant validity, maximum psoas length (effect size r = 0.740), maximum pelvic tilt (0.710), maximum hip flexion in late swing (0.728), maximum hip extension in stance (0.743), and hip flexor index (0.792) showed favorable discriminant ability between the normal controls and the patients. In convergent validity, maximum psoas length was not significantly correlated with maximum hip extension in stance in control group whereas it was correlated with maximum hip extension in stance (r = -0.933, p < 0.001) in the patients group. In responsiveness, maximum pelvic tilt (p = 0.008), maximum hip extension in stance (p = 0.001), maximum psoas length (p < 0.001), and hip flexor index (p < 0.001) showed significant improvement post-operatively. Conclusions Maximum pelvic tilt, maximum psoas length, hip flexor index, and maximum hip extension in stance were found to be clinically relevant parameters in evaluating hip flexor contracture. PMID:21255458

2011-01-01

232

Transcriptional Abnormalities of Hamstring Muscle Contractures in Children with Cerebral Palsy  

PubMed Central

Cerebral palsy (CP) is an upper motor neuron disease that results in a spectrum of movement disorders. Secondary to the neurological lesion, muscles from patients with CP are often spastic and form debilitating contractures that limit range of motion and joint function. With no genetic component, the pathology of skeletal muscle in CP is a response to aberrant complex neurological input in ways that are not fully understood. This study was designed to gain further understanding of the skeletal muscle response in CP using transcriptional profiling correlated with functional measures to broadly investigate muscle adaptations leading to mechanical deficits. Biospsies were obtained from both the gracilis and semitendinosus muscles from a cohort of patients with CP (n?=?10) and typically developing patients (n?=?10) undergoing surgery. Biopsies were obtained to define the unique expression profile of the contractures and passive mechanical testing was conducted to determine stiffness values in previously published work. Affymetrix HG-U133A 2.0 chips (n?=?40) generated expression data, which was validated for selected transcripts using quantitative real-time PCR. Chips were clustered based on their expression and those from patients with CP clustered separately. Significant genes were determined conservatively based on the overlap of three summarization algorithms (n?=?1,398). Significantly altered genes were analyzed for over-representation among gene ontologies and muscle specific networks. The majority of altered transcripts were related to increased extracellular matrix expression in CP and a decrease in metabolism and ubiquitin ligase activity. The increase in extracellular matrix products was correlated with mechanical measures demonstrating the importance in disability. These data lay a framework for further studies and development of novel therapies. PMID:22956992

Smith, Lucas R.; Chambers, Henry G.; Subramaniam, Shankar; Lieber, Richard L.

2012-01-01

233

The reported effects of bullying on burn-surviving children.  

PubMed

There is a trend of increasing childhood aggression in America, which has been tied to bullying. Although there is growing research concerning bullying in the general pediatric population, there are limited data on bullying and its effects on children with disfigurements and physical limitations. This study was conducted to assess burned children's experience with bullying. A pretest was administered regarding experience with bullying and teasing. A curriculum regarding bullying, which incorporated the Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone movie, was presented. After reviewing bullying depicted in the film and participating in a class regarding bullying, children were invited to complete a survey regarding their experience with bullying. A total of 61% of these children reported being bullied at school; 25% reported experiencing headaches or stomachaches due to bullying, and 12% reported staying home from school. Nearly 25% reported bullying as a big problem. Of those with visible scars (55%), a full 68% reported bullying as a problem, versus 54% with hidden scars (P < .05). However, those with visible scars were no more likely to tell an adult (54%) than those without (56%). Children were much more willing to disclose personal bullying experiences after participating in the class (57%) than before (45%) (P < .01). This study revealed that bullying impacts many burn-injured children and has negative effects on their physical and mental well-being. Many children (with visible or hidden scars) did not seek adult intervention for the problem. Participation in a bullying course appears to give children a forum that increases their willingness to disclose personal bullying experiences and can provide them with prevention information and a safe place to seek help. PMID:17438488

Rimmer, Ruth B; Foster, Kevin N; Bay, Curtis R; Floros, Jim; Rutter, Cindy; Bosch, Jim; Wadsworth, Michelle M; Caruso, Daniel M

2007-01-01

234

Acne scar correction using calcium hydroxylapatite in a carrier?based gel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: This study sought to determine the efficacy and safety profile of calcium hydroxylapatite filler in the treatment of acne scars. Methods: Ten subjects with a variety of acne scars were treated with calcium hydroxylapatite filler. Results: Saucerized acne scars responded to treatment; ice-pick scars did not. Results lasted, at least to some degree, for 12 months after treatment. No

David J. Goldberg; Snehal Amin; Mussarrat Hussain

2006-01-01

235

Scar tissue and microvolt T-wave alternans.  

PubMed

Microvolt T-wave alternans (MTWA) is an electrocardiographic marker for predicting sudden cardiac death. In this study, we aimed to study the relation between MTWA and scar assessed with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) or dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Sixty-eight patients with positive or negative MTWA and analysable CMR examination were included. Using CMR and the delayed enhancement technique, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), volumes, wall motion and scar characteristics were assessed. Overall, positive MTWA (n = 40) was related to male gender (p = 0.04), lower LVEF (p = 0.04) and increased left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) (p < 0.01). After multivariate analysis, male gender (p = 0.01) and lower LVEF remained significant (p = 0.02). Scar characteristics (presence, transmurality, and scar score) were not related to MTWA (all p > 0.5). In the patients with ICM (n = 40) scar was detected in 38. Positive MTWA (n = 18) was related to higher LVEDV (p = 0.05). In patients with DCM (n = 28), scar was detected in 11. Trends were found between positive MTWA (n = 15) and male gender (p = 0.10), lower LVEF (p = 0.10), and higher LVEDV (p = 0.09). In both subgroups, the presence, transmurality or extent of scar was not related to MTWA (all p > 0.45). In this small study, neither in patients with ICM or DCM a relation was found between the occurrence of MTWA and the presence, transmurality or extent of myocardial scar. Overall there was a significant relation between heart failure remodeling parameters and positive MTWA. PMID:24563008

Kraaier, Karin; Olimulder, Marlon A G M; Galjee, Michel A; van Dessel, Pascal F H M; van der Palen, Job; Wilde, Arthur A M; Scholten, Marcoen F

2014-04-01

236

[Psychiatric co-morbidity, body image problems and psychotherapeutic interventions for burn survivors: a review].  

PubMed

Due to progress in burn treatment, more patients even with severe burn injuries survive. Despite this positive development, however, there are still negative somatic and mental consequences. These include the life-long care of scars and pain. In addition, posttraumatic-stress disorder and depression are common consequences. Also distress due to disfigurement and body image problems have to be considered, since this is likely to result in social withdrawal, low self-esteem, and reduction of quality of life. Overall, the impact of mental strain on burn victims is quite high. Therefore, psychotherapeutic treatment approaches should be integrated into the care of patients with burns. This might be helpful for both coping and compliance with long-term treatment. This paper provides a review of the mental co-morbidity of burn victims and of psychotherapeutic treatment approaches focusing on changes in body image and the respective social consequences. PMID:23709185

Jasper, Stefanie; Rennekampff, Hans-Oliver; de Zwaan, Martina

2013-11-01

237

Scar asymmetry after abdominoplasty: the unexpected role of seroma.  

PubMed

Achievement of symmetry remains one of the goals of cosmetic procedures. Interestingly, scar asymmetry after abdominoplasty has been rarely considered a complication. However, this can have a significant impact on patient and surgeon satisfaction. This study identifies silent seromas as a potential cause of scar asymmetry.Among abdominoplasty procedures in a university hospital institution over a 30 months' period (October 1, 2007 to April 1, 2010), we retrospectively identified 6 patients who developed abdominal scar asymmetry only 3 months postoperatively and without any early warning complications (hematoma, seroma, or infection). Clinical examination was completed by abdominal diagnostic ultrasonography. Seroma capsulectomy under local anesthesia was performed in all cases.In all patients clinically presenting late abdominal scar asymmetry, ultrasonography confirmed the presence of an encapsulated chronic seroma. Surgical capsulectomy under local anesthesia resulted in reestablishment of former symmetry and high patient satisfaction. No complications such as wound infection, dehiscence, hematoma, or recurrence of seroma were detected after revision surgery.In our experience, fibrous capsule due to chronic seromas resulted in abdominal scar deviation and asymmetry. Surgical capsulectomy followed by wearing of compressive garments resulted to be an effective treatment with pleasant aesthetic outcome and no seroma recurrence. Silent seromas should be considered as a possible etiologic factor of scar asymmetries appearing during late follow-up after abdominoplasty. PMID:23143814

di Summa, Pietro Giovanni; Wettstein, Reto; Erba, Paolo; Raffoul, Wassim; Kalbermatten, Daniel Felix

2013-11-01

238

The Importance of Mast Cells in Dermal Scarring  

PubMed Central

Significance: Mast cells are resident inflammatory cells present in high numbers in the skin. They are one of the first cell types to respond to damage and they do so by quickly releasing a variety of preformed mediators that are stored within mast cell granules. Mast cells are not only active early on, where they help induce inflammation, but they also stimulate the proliferation of several important cell types and influence the production and remodeling of collagen. Recent Advances: Recent studies have highlighted the importance of mast cells in determining the amount of scar tissue that forms as a result of the repair process. Mast cells are found in low numbers and in a less activated state in scarless wounds, whereas high numbers of activated mast cells are associated with scarring and fibrosis. Furthermore, animals that lack mast cells or have been treated with degranulation inhibitors or drugs that block the activity of mast cell proteases have been shown to heal with reduced scar tissue. Critical Issues: Despite evidence suggesting that mast cells regulate scar tissue development, the entire range of mast cell activities during wound repair and scar formation has not been completely characterized. In addition, the potential therapeutic benefits of targeting mast cells clinically have yet to be fully explored. Future Directions: More studies are needed to determine whether inhibiting mast cell activation and blocking the function of mast cell mediators are viable options to prevent or reduce the appearance of scars. PMID:24757590

Wilgus, Traci A.; Wulff, Brian C.

2014-01-01

239

Effects of Noscarna™ on hypertrophic scarring in the rabbit ear model: histopathological aspects.  

PubMed

In this study, we evaluated the effects of silicone-based gel on the healing of hypertrophic scars in the rabbit ear model. After 4-week application of silicone-based gel containing allantoin, dexpanthenol and heparin (Noscarna™) to scars in a rabbit ear model of hypertrophic scarring, significant improvements in hypertrophic scar healing and a great loss of skin pigment were observed compared to the non-treated control, base or silicone control-treated scars. Furthermore, histological analysis of Noscarna™-treated scars revealed a significant reduction in scar elevation index (SEI), anterior skin and epithelial thicknesses, inflammatory cells, vessels, collagen disorganization and fibroblasts compared to all control hypertrophic scars. Furthermore, Noscarna™ showed more favorable effects on hypertrophic scars than a commercial product, Contractubex®. Therefore, these results clearly demonstrated that the newly developed silicone-based gel, Noscarna™, could be a promising formulation as an effective therapeutic agent for hypertrophic scars. PMID:23212642

Lee, Dong Won; Ku, Sae Kwang; Cho, Hyuk Jun; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Hiep, Tran Tuan; Han, Sang Duk; Kim, Bo Gyun; Kang, Min Kyung; Do, Eui Seon; Jun, Joon Ho; Jang, Sun Woo; Son, Mi-Won; Sohn, Young Taek; Choi, Han-Gon; Yong, Chul Soon; Kim, Jong Oh

2012-11-01

240

Scar prevention by laser-assisted scar healing (LASH) using thermal post-conditioning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An 810-nm diode laser system was developed to accelerate and improve the healing process in surgical scars. Using thermal post-conditioning, the laser system provides a localised moderate heating whose maximum temperature is controlled to prevent tissue damage and stimulate the heat shock proteins (HSP) synthesis. The 810-nm wavelength allows a deep penetration of the light into the dermis, without damaging the epidermis. The time along which surgical incision is treated (continuous wave) must therefore be selected carefully with respect to the temperature precision achieved within the heated volume. A top-hat profile is preferred to a Gaussian profile in order to ensure the skin surface temperature is homogenised, as is the temperature of the heated volume. The spot shape will depend on the medical indication. The treatment should be made safe and controlled by means of a safety strip containing an RFID chip which will transmit the various operating settings to the laser device. A clinical trial aims at evaluating the 810 nm-diode laser in surgical incisions, with only one laser treatment immediately after skin closure, of patients with Fitzpatrick skin types I to IV. Surgical incisions were divided into two fields, with only portions randomly selected receiving laser treatment. At the final scar analysis (12 months) of the pilot study, the treated portion scored significantly better for both surgeon (P = 0.046) and patients (P = 0.025). Further studies may be warranted to better understand the cellular mechanisms leading to Laser-Assisted Skin Healing (LASH).

Gossé, Alban; Iarmarcovai, Gwen; Capon, Alexandre; Cornil, Alain; Mordon, Serge

2009-02-01

241

Planning a Prescribed Burn  

E-print Network

up. And the belly-high broomweeds should burn hot enough to kill most of the mesquite, whitebrush, and prickly pear.? Wait a minute?this thinking contains at least eight misconceptions, including those dealing with timing, wind, help, fuel... large area are attracted to a burn, the excessive grazing pressure can considerably slow the recovery of desirable grasses, forbs, and browse. Conversely, if prickly pear is abundant in the burned pasture, you may turn in cattle for 2 weeks...

Hanselka, C. Wayne

2009-04-01

242

Postmastectomy radiotherapy with integrated scar boost using helical tomotherapy  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to evaluate helical tomotherapy dosimetry in postmastectomy patients undergoing treatment for chest wall and positive nodal regions with simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) in the scar region using strip bolus. Six postmastectomy patients were scanned with a 5-mm-thick strip bolus covering the scar planning target volume (PTV) plus 2-cm margin. For all 6 cases, the chest wall received a total cumulative dose of 49.3-50.4 Gy with daily fraction size of 1.7-2.0 Gy. Total dose to the scar PTV was prescribed to 58.0-60.2 Gy at 2.0-2.5 Gy per fraction. The supraclavicular PTV and mammary nodal PTV received 1.7-1.9 dose per fraction. Two plans (with and without bolus) were generated for all 6 cases. To generate no-bolus plans, strip bolus was contoured and overrode to air density before planning. The setup reproducibility and delivered dose accuracy were evaluated for all 6 cases. Dose-volume histograms were used to evaluate dose-volume coverage of targets and critical structures. We observed reduced air cavities with the strip bolus setup compared with what we normally see with the full bolus. The thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD) in vivo dosimetry confirmed accurate dose delivery beneath the bolus. The verification plans performed on the first day megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) image verified that the daily setup and overall dose delivery was within 2% accuracy compared with the planned dose. The hotspot of the scar PTV in no-bolus plans was 111.4% of the prescribed dose averaged over 6 cases compared with 106.6% with strip bolus. With a strip bolus only covering the postmastectomy scar region, we observed increased dose uniformity to the scar PTV, higher setup reproducibility, and accurate dose delivered beneath the bolus. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using a strip bolus over the scar using tomotherapy for SIB dosimetry in postmastectomy treatments.

Rong Yi, E-mail: rong@humonc.wisc.edu [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin Riverview Cancer Center, Wisconsin Rapids, WI (United States); Yadav, Poonam [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Vellore Institute of Technology University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu (India); Welsh, James S. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin Riverview Cancer Center, Wisconsin Rapids, WI (United States); Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Fahner, Tasha [University of Wisconsin Riverview Cancer Center, Wisconsin Rapids, WI (United States); Paliwal, Bhudatt [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Madison, WI (United States)

2012-10-01

243

Resection of Glial Scar Following Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

While many studies have focused on modulating the immune response and enhancing axonal regeneration after spinal cord injury (SCI), there is limited work being performed on evaluating the role of glial scar in SCI. We sought to evaluate the effects of glial scar resection in contusion models and dorsal hemisection models of SCI. At one week postinjury, 2mm of glial scar was excised from specimens in one of the two groups from each injury model. Functional outcome was measured weekly using the Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan (BBB) Locomotor Rating Scale along with histologic evaluation of spinal cord tracts to determine axonal regeneration. Within the dorsal hemisection model, there was no significant difference in recovery for animals that underwent glial scar excision versus animals that did not have scar excision (p=0.61). Animals subjected to the contusion model, however, demonstrated lower BBB scores in the glial resection group during the earlier postoperative periods (<4 weeks; p<0.05). Histological analysis revealed no axons within the glial resection contusion model, and moderate axonal growth within the nonresection contusion group and both hemisection groups (p>0.05 for differences among the three groups). While glial scar may serve to stabilize the preserved axonal tracts and thereby permit modest recovery in a contusion model of SCI, it may be of less importance with a dorsal hemisection model. These experiments highlight that basic biologic processes following SCI may vary tremendously based on the injury mechanism and that the role of glial scar in spinal cord regeneration must be elucidated. PMID:19062171

Rasouli, Alexandre; Bhatia, Nitin; Dinh, Paul; Cahill, Kim; Suryadevara, Sourabh; Gupta, Ranjan

2008-01-01

244

Structural characteristics of the subscapularis muscle in children with medial rotation contracture of the shoulder after obstetric brachial plexus injury.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to obtain a better understanding of the cause of the medial rotation contracture of the shoulder after obstetric brachial plexus lesions by studying the morphology of the shortened subscapularis muscle. Muscle biopsy specimens were harvested from 13 children with obstetric brachial plexus palsy who underwent corrective surgery for the rotation contracture. The majority of the subscapularis muscle biopsy samples had an essentially normal morphology and showed a predominance of type I myosin heavy chain isoform, while one biopsy showed signs of marked fibrosis and a predominance of type II myosin heavy chain isoform. The findings support the assumption that shortening of the subscapularis is caused primarily by the nerve injury, which weakens the antagonistic lateral rotators, but that direct injury to the muscle might be a contributory factor. PMID:19843625

Hultgren, T; Einarsson, F; Runesson, E; Hemlin, C; Fridén, J; Ljung, B-O

2010-01-01

245

Familial occurrence of typical and severe lethal congenital contractural arachnodactyly caused by missplicing of exon 34 of fibrillin-2.  

PubMed Central

Genetic linkage studies have linked congenital contractural arachnodactyly (CCA), a usually mild heritable connective-tissue disorder, to FBN2, the fibrillin gene on chromosome 5. Recently, FBN2 mutations in two patients with CCA have been described. Here we report an A-->T transversion at the -2 position of the consensus acceptor splice site, resulting in the missplicing of exon 34, a calcium-binding epidermal growth factor-like repeat in fibrillin-2 in a mother and daughter with CCA. Significantly, the mother exhibited a classic CCA phenotype with arachnodactyly, joint contractures, and abnormal pinnae, whereas her daughter exhibited a markedly more severe CCA phenotype, which included cardiovascular and gastrointestinal anomalies that led to death in infancy. Analysis of cloned fibroblasts showed that the mother is a somatic mosaic for the exon 34 missplicing mutation, whereas all the daughter's cells harbored the mutation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8900230

Wang, M.; Clericuzio, C. L.; Godfrey, M.

1996-01-01

246

The Healing Effect of Curcumin on Burn Wounds in Rat  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Burns are still considered one of the most devastating conditions in emergency medicine affecting both genders and all age groups in developed and developing countries, resulting into physical and psychological scars and cause chronic disabilities. This study was performed to determine the healing effect of curcumin on burn wounds in rat. METHODS Seventy female Sprague-Dawley 180-220 g rats were randomly divided into 5 equal groups. Groups of A-C received 0.1, 0.5 and 2% curcumin respectively and Group D, silver sulfadiazine ointment. Group E was considered as control group and received eucerin. After 7, 14 and 21 days of therapy, the animals were sacrificed and burn areas were macroscopically examined and histologically were scored. RESULTS Administration of curcumin resulted into a decrease in size of the burn wounds and a reduction in inflammation after 14th days. Reepithelialization was prominent in groups A-C while more distinguishable in group C. In group C, epidermis exhibited well structured layers without any crusting. There were spindle shaped fibroblasts in fascicular pattern, oriented parallel to the epithelial surface with eosinophilic collagen matrix. CONCLUSION Curcumin as an available and inexpensive herbal was shown be a suitable substitute in healing of burn wounds especially when 2% concentration was applied. PMID:25606474

Mehrabani, Davood; Farjam, Mojtaba; Geramizadeh, Bita; Tanideh, Nader; Amini, Masood; Panjehshahin, Mohammad Reza

2015-01-01

247

Burns and military clothing.  

PubMed

Burn injury is a ubiquitous threat in the military environment. The risks during combat are well recognised, but the handling of fuel, oil, munitions and other hot or flammable materials during peacetime deployment and training also imposes an inherent risk of accidental burn injury. Over the last hundred years, the burn threat in combat has ranged from nuclear weapons to small shoulder-launched missiles. Materials such as napalm and white phosphorus plainly present a risk of burn, but the threat extends to encompass personnel in vehicles attacked by anti-armour weapons, large missiles, fuel-air explosives and detonations/conflagrations on weapons platforms such as ships. Large numbers of burn casualties were caused at Pearl Harbor, in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Vietnam, during the Arab/Israeli Wars and in the Falkland Islands conflict. The threat from burns is unlikely to diminish, indeed new developments in weapons seek to exploit the vulnerability of the serviceman and servicewoman to burns. Clothing can be a barrier to some types of burn--both inherently in the properties of the material, but also by trapping air between clothing layers. Conversely, ignition of the clothing may exacerbate a burn. There is hearsay that burnt clothing products within a wound may complicate the clinical management, or that materials that melt (thermoplastic materials) should not be worn if there is a burn threat. This paper explores the incidence of burn injury, the mechanisms of heat transfer to bare skin and skin covered by materials, and the published evidence for the complication of wound management by materials. Even light-weight combat clothing can offer significant protection to skin from short duration flash burns; the most vulnerable areas are the parts of the body not covered--face and hands. Multilayered combat clothing can offer significant protection for short periods from engulfment by flames; lightweight tropical wear with few layers offers little protection. Under high heat loads in the laboratory, combat clothing can ignite, but there is little evidence that clothing ignition is a common occurrence in military burn casualties. Thermoplastic materials have many benefits in civil and military clothing. There is little objective evidence that they exacerbate burns, or complicate burn management. Their use in military clothing must be based on objective evidence, not hearsay. PMID:11307683

McLean, A D

2001-02-01

248

Transmitter-mediated local contracture of the endplate region of the focally innervated mouse diaphragm treated with anticholinesterase.  

PubMed Central

1. Local contraction of the endplate region in response to nerve stimulation was studied in isolated mouse diaphragms. In normal preparations, muscle contractions involved the whole length of the muscle fibre with rise and decay times in the order of tens of ms whether evoked with a single or train of pulses. 2. When acetylcholinesterase was inhibited with neostigmine, tetanic stimulation produced a twitch-like phasic contraction and a delayed tonic contracture. A brief train of pulse (10 ms, 300 Hz) was enough to trigger a full size tonic contracture which reached an amplitude about one tenth that of control tetanus and had a duration of about 4 s. 3. Tetanic stimulation evoked a non-propagating prolonged depolarization at the endplate region lasting for about 1 s following a few muscle action potentials. 4. mu-Conotoxin, a specific inhibitor of muscle Na+ channel, selectively abolished the phasic contraction and the muscle action potentials leaving the tonic contracture and the prolonged depolarization unaffected. 5. Both the tonic contracture and the prolonged depolarization were highly sensitive to blockade by tubocurarine (IC50 0.05-0.1 microM) and vesamicol (1 microM, an inhibitor of packaging acetylcholine into synaptic vesicles), were attenuated by increasing Ca2+ concentration and were prolonged by decreasing Ca2+. 6. The results suggest that prolonged activation of endplate nicotinic receptors by endogenously released transmitter can produce substantial contractions of the endplate region when acetylcholinesterase are inhibited. The source of Ca2+ for the contraction seems to come mainly from intracellular stores. PMID:8104646

Hong, S. J.; Chang, C. C.

1993-01-01

249

Ipsilateral Rotational Autokeratoplasty for the Management of Traumatic Corneal Scar  

PubMed Central

A 40-years-old male patient with a corneal scar secondary to perforating eye injury had undergone ipsilateral rotational autokeratoplasty in our clinics. The corneal scar involved the pupillary area. The patient had a preoperative visual acuity of counting fingers. The patient's cornea was trephined with a 0.5?mm temporal decentration. The 8.0?mm autograft was rotated approximately 180° to relocate the scar to the temporal aspect of the cornea. The final position of the corneal scar was temporal of the visual axis and central area was clear. The visual acuity at 1-, 3-, and 6-months followups was better than the first visual acuity in the patient. Ipsilateral rotational autokeratoplasty has many advantages over conventional keratoplasty. There is no risk of immunological rejection of the graft, postoperative corticosteroids are not needed as frequently, and donor cornea is not required. A rotational autograft can be a powerful alternative to conventional keratoplasty for some patients with traumatic corneal scars. PMID:23097731

Günes, Alime; Kansu Bozkurt, Tahir; Unlu, Cihan; Sezgin Akcay, Betül Ilkay; Bayramlar, Hüseyin

2012-01-01

250

Regulation of scar formation by vascular endothelial growth factor  

PubMed Central

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A) is known for its effects on endothelial cells and as a positive mediator of angiogenesis. VEGF is thought to promote the repair of cutaneous wounds due to its pro-angiogenic properties, but its ability to regulate other aspects of wound repair, such as the generation of scar tissue has not been well studied. We examined the role of VEGF in scar tissue production utilizing models of scarless and fibrotic repair. Scarless fetal wounds had lower levels of VEGF and were less vascular than fibrotic fetal wounds, and the scarless phenotype could be converted to a scar-forming phenotype by adding exogenous VEGF. Similarly, neutralization of VEGF reduced vascularity and decreased scar formation in adult wounds. These results show that VEGF levels have a strong influence on scar tissue formation. Our data suggest that VEGF may not simply function as a mediator of wound angiogenesis, but instead may play a more diverse role in the wound repair process. PMID:18427552

Wilgus, Traci A.; Ferreira, Ahalia M.; Oberyszyn, Tatiana M.; Bergdall, Valerie K.; DiPietro, Luisa A.

2009-01-01

251

Surgical treatment of depressed scar: a simple technique.  

PubMed

Scar formation is a process consequent to the healing of soft tissues after a trauma. However, abnormal or disturbed collagen production can cause anomalies of the cutaneous surface and textural irregularities. In the presence of a depressed scar in deep tissue, we began to use a new simple technique. In the presence of adherent scars, a small incision is performed so that an undermining scissor can enter inside. The entire cicatricial area is undermined on a subcutaneous plane which, by separating the deep scar from the superficial one, completely frees it from the present adhesions so that the existing depression is totally eliminated. In order to avoid the recreation of relapses, stitches formed in a U-shape are made in Nylon or Monocril 2-3/0 are made with a large needle and are placed close together so that a wide aversion is achieved at the margins of the scar and a deep wound closure is obtained by adhering to the undermined tissue. These stitches will then be removed about 2 weeks later. PMID:21698056

Inchingolo, Francesco; Tatullo, Marco; Abenavoli, Fabio M; Marrelli, Massimo; Inchingolo, Alessio D; Corelli, Roberto; Inchingolo, Angelo M; Dipalma, Gianna

2011-01-01

252

Surgical Treatment of Depressed Scar: A Simple Technique  

PubMed Central

Scar formation is a process consequent to the healing of soft tissues after a trauma. However, abnormal or disturbed collagen production can cause anomalies of the cutaneous surface and textural irregularities. In the presence of a depressed scar in deep tissue, we began to use a new simple technique. In the presence of adherent scars, a small incision is performed so that an undermining scissor can enter inside. The entire cicatricial area is undermined on a subcutaneous plane which, by separating the deep scar from the superficial one, completely frees it from the present adhesions so that the existing depression is totally eliminated. In order to avoid the recreation of relapses, stitches formed in a U-shape are made in Nylon or Monocril 2-3/0 are made with a large needle and are placed close together so that a wide aversion is achieved at the margins of the scar and a deep wound closure is obtained by adhering to the undermined tissue. These stitches will then be removed about 2 weeks later. PMID:21698056

Inchingolo, Francesco; Tatullo, Marco; Abenavoli, Fabio M.; Marrelli, Massimo; Inchingolo, Alessio D.; Corelli, Roberto; Inchingolo, Angelo M.; Dipalma, Gianna

2011-01-01

253

Multimodal management of atrophic acne scarring in the aging face.  

PubMed

Atrophic facial acne scarring is a widely prevalent condition that can have a negative impact on a patient's quality of life. The appearance of these scars is often worsened by the normal effects of aging. A number of options are available for the treatment of acne scarring, including chemical peeling, dermabrasion, ablative or nonablative laser resurfacing, dermal fillers, and surgical techniques such as subcision or punch excision. Depending on the type and extent of scarring, a multimodal approach is generally necessary to provide satisfactory results. Resurfacing techniques correct surface irregularities, long-lasting dermal fillers address the volume loss resulting from acne, and sub-superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) face-lift procedures counter the soft tissue laxity and ptosis associated with aging. This article briefly reviews the evolution of individual approaches to treating atrophic acne scarring, followed by case examples illustrating results that can be achieved using a multimodal approach. Representative cases from patients in their 30s, 40s, and 50s are presented. In the author's clinical practice, multimodal approaches incorporating fractionated laser, injectable poly-L: -lactic acid, and sub-SMAS face-lift procedures have achieved optimal aesthetic outcomes, high patient satisfaction, and durability of aesthetic effect over time. PMID:21491169

O'Daniel, T Gerald

2011-12-01

254

The Urban-Rural Disparity in Nursing Home Quality Indicators: The Case of Facility-Acquired Contractures  

PubMed Central

Objective To identify and quantify the sources of the urban-rural disparity in facility-acquired contracture rates in nursing homes. Data Sources Survey inspection data of U.S. nursing homes from 1999 to 2008 and standardized national rural definition file from the Rural-Urban Commuting Area Codes. Study Design We estimated regressions of facility-level contracture rate as a function of urban-rural categories (urban, micropolitan, small rural town, and isolated small rural town) and other related facility characteristics to identify size of the urban-rural disparity. We used Blinder–Oaxaca decomposition techniques to determine the extent to which the disparity is attributable to the differences in facility and aggregate resident characteristics. Principal Findings Rural nursing homes have higher contracture rates than urban nursing homes. About half of the urban-rural disparity is explained by differences in observable characteristics among urban and rural nursing homes. Differences in staffing levels explain less than 5 percent of the disparity, case-mix explains 6–8 percent, and structure and operational characteristics account for 10–22 percent of the disparity. Conclusion While a lower level and quality of staffing are a concern for rural nursing homes, facility structure and funding sources explain a larger proportion of the urban-rural disparity in the quality of care. PMID:22670847

Bowblis, John R; Meng, Hongdao; Hyer, Kathryn

2013-01-01

255

Solid fuel burning stove  

SciTech Connect

A solid fuel burning stove includes a firebox having an insulated bottom chamber in which fuel is burned. The bottom chamber includes an insulated bottom surface and walls which provides for heat retention when fuel is burn therein thereby creating high temperatures. The bottom chamber of the firebox is divided from a top chamber by a horizontally extending baffle which directs flow of exhaust gases from the bottom to the top of the firebox. The exhaust gases are burned in the top portion of the firebox by means of the heat generated within the lower chamber and the introduction of fresh combustion air. This fresh combustion air is drawn in through an orificed pipe extending along the length of the firebox. After the gases are burned in the top portion of the stove, they are communicated to a heat saver including an inverted v-shaped flow diverter which reduces the velocity of the exiting gases and provides for greater recovery of heat therefrom. The stove in accordance with the invention provides for a two-stage burning process wherein solid fuel is burned in the first stage and the volatile gases released by the fuel are burned in the second stage. In this way, the fuel is consumed in a most efficient manner.

Good, L.D.

1982-07-13

256

Wood burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wood burning stove is disclosed which includes a stove housing that defines an upper zone comprising storage and exhaust chambers, and a lower zone for accommodating a wood burning fire. The exhaust and storage chambers are separated by a divider, both chambers having bottom openings that communicate directly with the top of the lower fire zone. Covering one opening

1982-01-01

257

Wood burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wood burning stove is formed with double front and rear side walls of heat conductive metal interconnected by heat conductive spacer fins and providing air passageways by which room air is heated by conduction from the walls which are heated by the burning of wood deposited on a firebox grate made up of spaced bricks supported by metal holders

Willson

1981-01-01

258

Wood burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wood burning stove is formed with double front and rear side walls of heat conductive metal interconnected by heat conductive spacer fins and providing air passageways by which room air is heated by conduction from the walls which are heated by the burning of wood deposited on a firebox grate made up of spaced bricks supported by metal holders

Willson

1979-01-01

259

Wood burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a stove primarily for the burning of wood, but also capable of burning other combustible materials. The stove is characterized by a unique combustion chamber, together with a recirculating combustion chamber and baffle for more perfect combustion and characterized by a heat radiating chamber which may be closed so as to be used as an oven, and by

R. F. Bruce; W. W. Byrd

1980-01-01

260

The SCAR Astronomy & Astrophysics from Antarctica Scientific Research Programme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SCAR, the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research, is, like the IAU, a committee of ICSU, the International Council for Science. For over 30 years, SCAR has provided scientific advice to the Antarctic Treaty System and made numerous recommendations on a variety of matters. In 2010, Astronomy and Astrophysics from Antarctica was recognized as one of SCAR's five Scientific Research Programs. Broadly stated, the objectives of Astronomy & Astrophysics from Antarctica are to coordinate astronomical activities in Antarctica in a way that ensures the best possible outcomes from international investment in Antarctic astronomy, and maximizes the opportunities for productive interaction with other disciplines. There are four Working Groups, dealing with site testing, Arctic astronomy, science goals, and major new facilities. Membership of the Working Groups is open to any professional working in astronomy or a related field.

Storey, John W. V.; Abe, Lyu; Andersen, Michael; Anderson, Philip; Burton, Michael; Cui, Xiangqun; Ichikawa, Takashi; Karle, Albrecht; Lloyd, James; Masi, Silvia; Steinbring, Eric; Travouillon, Tony; Tuthill, Peter; Zhou, HongYang

2013-01-01

261

Capsular contracture by silicone breast implants: possible causes, biocompatibility, and prophylactic strategies  

PubMed Central

The most common implanted material in the human body consists of silicone. Breast augmentation and breast reconstruction using silicone-based implants are procedures frequently performed by reconstructive and aesthetic surgeons. A main complication of this procedure continues to be the development of capsular contracture (CC), displaying the result of a fibrotic foreign body reaction after the implantation of silicone. For many years, experimental and clinical trials have attempted to analyze the problem of its etiology, treatment, and prophylaxis. Different theories of CC formation are known; however, the reason why different individuals develop CC in days or a month, or only after years, is unknown. Therefore, we hypothesize that CC formation, might primarily be induced by immunological mechanisms along with other reasons. This article attempts to review CC formation, with special attention paid to immunological and inflammatory reasons, as well as actual prophylactic strategies. In this context, the word “biocompatibility” has been frequently used to describe the overall biological innocuousness of silicone in the respective studies, although without clear-cut definitions of this important feature. We have therefore developed a new five-point scale with distinct key points of biocompatibility. Hence, this article might provide the basis for ongoing discussion in this field to reduce single-publication definitions as well as increase the understanding of biocompatibility. PMID:24324348

Steiert, Andreas E; Boyce, Maria; Sorg, Heiko

2013-01-01

262

Mutations in FAM111B Cause Hereditary Fibrosing Poikiloderma with Tendon Contracture, Myopathy, and Pulmonary Fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Congenital poikiloderma is characterized by a combination of mottled pigmentation, telangiectasia, and epidermal atrophy in the first few months of life. We have previously described a South African European-descent family affected by a rare autosomal-dominant form of hereditary fibrosing poikiloderma accompanied by tendon contracture, myopathy, and pulmonary fibrosis. Here, we report the identification of causative mutations in FAM111B by whole-exome sequencing. In total, three FAM111B missense mutations were identified in five kindreds of different ethnic backgrounds. The mutation segregated with the disease in one large pedigree, and mutations were de novo in two other pedigrees. All three mutations were absent from public databases and were not observed on Sanger sequencing of 388 ethnically matched control subjects. The three single-nucleotide mutations code for amino acid changes that are clustered within a putative trypsin-like cysteine/serine peptidase domain of FAM111B. These findings provide evidence of the involvement of FAM111B in congenital poikiloderma and multisystem fibrosis. PMID:24268661

Mercier, Sandra; Küry, Sébastien; Shaboodien, Gasnat; Houniet, Darren T.; Khumalo, Nonhlanhla P.; Bou-Hanna, Chantal; Bodak, Nathalie; Cormier-Daire, Valérie; David, Albert; Faivre, Laurence; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Gherardi, Romain K.; Glen, Elise; Hamel, Antoine; Laboisse, Christian; Le Caignec, Cédric; Lindenbaum, Pierre; Magot, Armelle; Munnich, Arnold; Mussini, Jean-Marie; Pillay, Komala; Rahman, Thahira; Redon, Richard; Salort-Campana, Emmanuelle; Santibanez-Koref, Mauro; Thauvin, Christel; Barbarot, Sébastien; Keavney, Bernard; Bézieau, Stéphane; Mayosi, Bongani M.

2013-01-01

263

The vegetative and minimally conscious states in children: spasticity, muscle contracture and issues for physiotherapy treatment.  

PubMed

The neuropathology of the vegetative (VS) and minimally conscious (MCS) states and the pathophysiology of spasticity are reviewed. Current treatment options available in the physical management of children in a low-level state and factors influencing the physiotherapy treatment of children in a low-level state will be discussed. The complex neuropathology of VS and MCS helps to explain the varied clinical presentations of children in VS and MCS. Spasticity and muscle contracture are common motor sequelae of VS and MCS. Loss of inhibition by descending motor pathways is thought to result in increased muscle tone or spasticity. However, secondary changes in muscle fibre structure and periarticular connective tissue may be an additional component to increased muscle tone. A multimodal approach combining physical, pharmacological and surgical interventions is likely to be the most effective. Knowledge of the likelihood of recovery from VS and MCS can be helpful in determining the frequency and intensity of physiotherapy. Ethical issues in the management of children in a low-level state include a consideration of the benefits to the child and the child's family and the costs to the health care team and the medical institution. PMID:11874615

Leong, Bentley

2002-03-01

264

High resolution muscle measurements provide insights into equinus contractures in patients with cerebral palsy.  

PubMed

Muscle contractures that occur after upper motor neuron lesion are often surgically released or lengthened. However, surgical manipulation of muscle length changes a muscle's sarcomere length (Ls ), which can affect force production. To predict effects of surgery, both macro- (fascicle length (Lf )) and micro- (Ls ) level structural measurements are needed. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to quantify both Ls and Lf in patients with cerebral palsy (CP) as well as typically developing (TD) children. Soleus ultrasound images were obtained from children with CP and TD children. Lf was determined and, with the joint in the same position, CP biopsies were obtained and formalin fixed, and Ls was measured by laser diffraction. Since soleus Ls values were not measurable in TD children, TD Ls values were obtained using three independent methods. While average Lf did not differ between groups (CP?=?3.6?±?1.2?cm, TD?=?3.5?±?0.9?cm; p?>?0.6), Ls was dramatically longer in children with CP (4.07?±?0.45?µm vs. TD?=?2.17?±?0.24?µm; p?

Mathewson, Margie A; Ward, Samuel R; Chambers, Henry G; Lieber, Richard L

2015-01-01

265

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Bladder Neck Contracture After Radical Prostatectomy  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the prevalence of bladder neck contracture (BNC) and its risk factors in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy in Korea. Materials and Methods We analyzed data from 488 patients with prostatic cancer who underwent radical prostatectomy performed by seven surgeons in seven hospitals, including 365 open radical prostatectomies (ORPs), 99 laparoscopic radical prostatectomies (LRPs), and 24 robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomies (RARPs). Patients with BNCs were compared with those without BNCs to identify the risk factors for BNC occurrence. Results Overall, BNCs occurred in 21 of 488 patients (4.3%): 17 patients (4.7%) who underwent ORP, 4 patients (4%) who underwent LRP, and no patients who underwent RARP. In the univariate analysis, men with BNCs had a longer length of time before drain removal (12 days vs. 6.8 days, p<0.001), which reflected urinary leakage through the vesicourethral anastomosis. In the multivariate analysis, the length of time before drain removal was the only predictor of BNC (odds ratio, 1.12; p=0.001). Intraoperative blood loss was higher in patients with BNC, but the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions The most significant factor related to BNC occurrence after radical prostatectomy in our study was the length of time before drain removal, which reflects urinary leakage from the vesicourethral anastomosis. The proper formation of a watertight anastomosis to decrease urinary leakage may help to reduce the occurrence of BNC. PMID:23700494

Cho, Hee Ju; Jung, Tae Young; Kim, Duk Yoon; Byun, Seok Soo; Kwon, Dong Deuk; Oh, Tae Hee; Ko, Woo Jin

2013-01-01

266

["Raw and charred flesh": the experience of burned women in Northeast Brazil].  

PubMed

In Northeast Brazil, death from burns is a widespread, pervasive threat to poor women. This anthropological study describes the experience of personal suffering among female burn patients. In 2009, six "information-rich" cases were investigated at the Burn Center in Fortaleza, Ceará State, Brazil. Open ethnographic interviews with key informants, narratives of lived experiences, and participant observation at the clinic and patients' home were conducted. The methods included content analysis, systems of signs, meanings, and actions, and contextualized semantic interpretation. The emerging metaphors are embued with the cultural meaning of "monstrosity" and gender violence by fire - inscribed mercilessly in the woman's body. "Accidents" caused by flammable liquids (alcohol) hide the cruel reality of "raw and charred flesh". The scars can disfigure the victims as "non-persons", destroying their moral reputation and leading to social rejection. In the Brazilian Northeast, the social vulnerability caused by sequelae from burns demands a policy for humanized care. PMID:25388309

Arruda, Cristiani Nobre de; Braide, Andrea Stopglia Guedes; Nations, Marilyn

2014-10-01

267

Reliability and validity of the body image quality of life inventory: version for Brazilian burn victims.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to adapt the Body Image Quality of Life Inventory (BIQLI) into Brazilian Portuguese (BP) and to assess the psychometric properties of the adapted version. Construct validity was assessed by correlating the BIQLI-BP scores with the Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale, with Burns Specific Health Scale-Revised (BSHS-R), and with gender, total body surface area burned, and visibility of the scars. Participants were 77 adult burn patients. Cronbach's alpha for the adapted version was .90 and moderate linear correlations were found between body image and self-esteem and between BIQLI-BP scores and two domains of the BSHS-R: affect and body image and interpersonal relationships. The BIQLI-BP showed acceptable levels of reliability and validity for Brazilian burn patients. PMID:23494960

Assunção, Flávia Fernanda Oliveira; Dantas, Rosana Aparecida Spadoti; Ciol, Márcia Aparecida; Gonçalves, Natália; Farina, Jayme Adriano; Rossi, Lidia Aparecida

2013-06-01

268

Quantitative assessment of graded burn wounds in a porcine model using spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) and laser speckle imaging (LSI).  

PubMed

Accurate and timely assessment of burn wound severity is a critical component of wound management and has implications related to course of treatment. While most superficial burns and full thickness burns are easily diagnosed through visual inspection, burns that fall between these extremes are challenging to classify based on clinical appearance. Because of this, appropriate burn management may be delayed, increasing the risk of scarring and infection. Here we present an investigation that employs spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) and laser speckle imaging (LSI) as non-invasive technologies to characterize in-vivo burn severity. We used SFDI and LSI to investigate controlled burn wounds of graded severity in a Yorkshire pig model. Burn wounds were imaged starting at one hour after the initial injury and daily at approximately 24, 48 and 72 hours post burn. Biopsies were taken on each day in order to correlate the imaging data to the extent of burn damage as indicated via histological analysis. Changes in reduced scattering coefficient and blood flow could be used to categorize burn severity as soon as one hour after the burn injury. The results of this study suggest that SFDI and LSI information have the potential to provide useful metrics for quantifying the extent and severity of burn injuries. PMID:25360365

Ponticorvo, Adrien; Burmeister, David M; Yang, Bruce; Choi, Bernard; Christy, Robert J; Durkin, Anthony J

2014-10-01

269

Scar-localized argyria secondary to silver sulfadiazine cream  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silver sulfadiazine cream is a topical antibacterial agent that combines the antibacterial effects of both silver and sulfadiazine. Its reported cutaneous side effects include hypersensitivity reactions, allergic contact dermatitis, erythema multiforme, and systemic argyria. We report the case of a patient who had localized argyria develop in a scar after the use of silver sulfadiazine cream. In this case, the

Nina Myerson Fisher; Elizabeth Marsh; Rossitza Lazova

2003-01-01

270

9. VIEW OF BASIN BEHIND DAM, SHOWING SCARS FROM EARTH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. VIEW OF BASIN BEHIND DAM, SHOWING SCARS FROM EARTH MOVING TO CONSTRUCT DAM, LOOKING EAST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, East Timothy Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 8.4 miles North of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

271

8. VIEW OF BASIN BEHIND DAM, SHOWING SCARS FROM EARTH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. VIEW OF BASIN BEHIND DAM, SHOWING SCARS FROM EARTH MOVING TO CONSTRUCT DAM, LOOKING NORTH - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, East Timothy Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 8.4 miles North of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

272

4. VIEW OF DOWNSTREAM FACE OF DAM, WITH SCARS FROM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. VIEW OF DOWNSTREAM FACE OF DAM, WITH SCARS FROM EARTH MOVING TO CONSTRUCT DAM IN FOREGROUND, LOOKING NORTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Five Point Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 12 miles Northwest of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

273

Histologic Features of Alopecias: Part II: Scarring Alopecias.  

PubMed

The diagnosis of disorders of the hair and scalp can generally be made on clinical grounds, but clinical signs are not always diagnostic and in some cases more invasive techniques, such as a biopsy, may be necessary. This 2-part article is a detailed review of the histologic features of the main types of alopecia based on the traditional classification of these disorders into 2 major groups: scarring and nonscarring alopecias. Scarring alopecias are disorders in which the hair follicle is replaced by fibrous scar tissue, a process that leads to permanent hair loss. In nonscarring alopecias, the follicles are preserved and hair growth can resume when the cause of the problem is eliminated. In the second part of this review, we describe the histologic features of the main forms of scarring alopecia. Since a close clinical-pathological correlation is essential for making a correct histopathologic diagnosis of alopecia, we also include a brief description of the clinical features of the principal forms of this disorder. PMID:25439143

Bernárdez, C; Molina-Ruiz, A M; Requena, L

2014-10-24

274

Mathematical Modeling of Wound Healing and Subsequent Scarring Literature Report  

E-print Network

Mathematical Modeling of Wound Healing and Subsequent Scarring Literature Report W. M. Boon Nov 11th , 2013 #12;Chapter 1 Introduction Wound healing is a process orchestrated by many closely related mediators. Each of these mediators plays its own specific role as the wound heals in a series of different

Vuik, Kees

275

Acne scarring: A classification system and review of treatment options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acne is a common condition experienced by up to 80% of people between 11 and 30 years of age and by up to 5% of older adults. In some patients, the severe inflammatory response to Propionibacterium acnes results in permanent, disfiguring scars. Over the past several decades, numerous descriptive terms and surgical techniques have been used to diagnose the types,

Carolyn I. Jacob; Jeffrey S. Dover; Michael S. Kaminer

2001-01-01

276

Lava Flow Burning Vegetation  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Lava flow activity continues to burn vegetation in the kipuka adjacent to the trail, causing the viewing trail to be closed beyond the trailhead. The new viewing area is still very close to the active flows. ...

2010-06-18

277

Burning Mouth Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Most clinicians dread seeing the patient presenting with a primary complaint of a burning pain on one or more oral mucosal surfaces. Unlike most other clinical conditions presenting in a dental office, burning mouth syndrome is poorly understood with few evidence based remedies. More recently, advances have been made towards clarifying the possible etiology of the disorder and testing the possible therapeutic modalities available. This article attempts to summarize the “state of the art” today. PMID:20690412

Mock, David; Chugh, Deepika

2010-01-01

278

Burn Depth Monitor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Supra Medical Systems is successfully marketing a device that detects the depth of burn wounds in human skin. To develop the product, the companyused technology developed by NASA Langley physicists looking for better ultrasonic detection of small air bubbles and cracks in metal. The device is being marketed to burn wound analysis and treatment centers. Through a Space Act agreement, NASA and the company are also working to further develop ultrasonic instruments for new medical applications.

1993-01-01

279

Burn Depth Monitor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Supra Medical Systems is successfully marketing a device that detects the depth of burn wounds in human skin. To develop the product, the company used technology developed by NASA Langley physicists looking for better ultrasonic detection of small air bubbles and cracks in metal. The device is being marketed to burn wound analysis and treatment centers. Through a Space Act agreement, NASA and the company are also working to further develop ultrasonic instruments for new medical applications

1993-01-01

280

Burn Depth Monitor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Supra Medical Systems is successfully marketing a device that detects the depth of burn wounds in human skin. To develop the product, the company used technology developed by NASA Langley physicists looking for better ultrasonic detection of small air bubbles and cracks in metal. The device is being marketed to burn wound analysis and treatment centers. Through a Space Act agreement, NASA and the company are also working to further develop ultrasonic instruments for new medical applications.

1993-01-01

281

Wood burning related injuries.  

PubMed

During the past two years, 80 patients were seen in the emergency department of The Mary Imogene Bassett Hospital (Cooperstown, NY) for injuries related to the use of wood burning stoves. The types of injuries included 25 lacerations, 19 crush injuries, 10 fractures, 7 eye injuries and 7 burns. Seven of these patients required hospitalization, and five required operative procedures. There was no mortality. Physician and patient education about the potential dangers of wood stove use may help prevent these injuries. PMID:2733888

Nicholson, J J; Dietz, P A

1989-05-01

282

Books2burn  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed by Professor Matthew Weinstein of Kent State University, Books2burn translates text files into a series of audio files, which may then subsequently be converted to mp3's or other formats. This program will be a great boon to scholars and the general public alike, as the application allows for the easy transfer and replication of potentially large and problematic files into a number of audio formats. Books2burn is compatible with all systems running Mac OS X.

Weinstein, Matthew

283

Ball lightning burn.  

PubMed

Ball lightning is a rare physical phenomenon, which is not yet completely explained. It is similar to lightning but with different, peculiar characteristics. It can be considered a mix of fire and electricity, concentrated in a fireball with a diameter of 20-cm that most commonly appears suddenly, even in indoor conditions, during a thunderstorm. It moves quickly for several meters, can change direction, and ultimately disappears. During a great storm, a 28-year-old man and his 5-year-old daughter sustained burn wounds after ball lightning came from the outdoors through a chimney. These two patients demonstrated signs of fire and electrical injuries. The father, who lost consciousness, sustained superficial second-degree burn wounds bilaterally on the zygomatic area and deep second-degree burn wounds on his right hand (total body surface area, 4%). His daughter demonstrated superficial second-degree burn wounds on the left part of the face and deep second-degree and third-degree burn wounds (total body surface area, 30%) on the left neck, both upper arms, and the back. In this article, the authors report the first two cases of burn injuries resulting from ball lightning contact indoors. The literature on this rare phenomenon is reviewed to elucidate the nature of ball lightning. Emphasis is placed on the nature of injuries after ball lightning contact, the therapy used, and the long-term complications. PMID:12792547

Selvaggi, Gennaro; Monstrey, Stan; von Heimburg, Dennis; Hamdi, Mustapha; Van Landuyt, Koen; Blondeel, Phillip

2003-05-01

284

Early outcomes of a sequential series of 144 patients with Dupuytren's contracture treated by collagenase injection using an increased dose, multi-cord technique.  

PubMed

Collagenase clostridium histolyticum is the first and only United States Food and Drug Association approved nonsurgical treatment for patients with a palpable Dupuytren's contracture cord. However, the Food and Drug Association has only approved injection of 0.58 mg of this enzyme into one palpable Dupuytren's contracture cord at a time. This review reports on the early outcome of 144 patients treated with the entire bottle of enzyme, approximately 0.78 mg, along with use of a novel slow intracord multi-cord technique. Use of 0.78 mg of enzyme, with the slow intracord multi-cord technique is safe and allows one to inject multiple Dupuytren's contracture cords at one setting. Correction at metacarpophalangeal and proximal interphalangeal joints, taken individually, are comparable with the Collagenase Option for the Reduction of Dupuytren's studies at 43° and 33°, respectively, however due to the multi-cord injection, we achieved 94° average immediate and 76° average final combined metacarpophalangeal and proximal interphalangeal contracture releases per bottle of enzyme. Implementation of the slow intracord multi-cord technique has the potential to improve current treatment for Dupuytren's contracture with resultant significant healthcare savings. PMID:24698852

Verheyden, J R

2015-02-01

285

Blockade of mast cell activation reduces cutaneous scar formation.  

PubMed

Damage to the skin initiates a cascade of well-orchestrated events that ultimately leads to repair of the wound. The inflammatory response is key to wound healing both through preventing infection and stimulating proliferation and remodeling of the skin. Mast cells within the tissue are one of the first immune cells to respond to trauma, and upon activation they release pro-inflammatory molecules to initiate recruitment of leukocytes and promote a vascular response in the tissue. Additionally, mast cells stimulate collagen synthesis by dermal fibroblasts, suggesting they may also influence scar formation. To examine the contribution of mast cells in tissue repair, we determined the effects the mast cell inhibitor, disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), on several parameters of dermal repair including, inflammation, re-epithelialization, collagen fiber organization, collagen ultrastructure, scar width and wound breaking strength. Mice treated with DSCG had significantly reduced levels of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1?, IL-1?, and CXCL1. Although DSCG treatment reduced the production of inflammatory mediators, the rate of re-epithelialization was not affected. Compared to control, inhibition of mast cell activity caused a significant decrease in scar width along with accelerated collagen re-organization. Despite the reduced scar width, DSCG treatment did not affect the breaking strength of the healed tissue. Tryptase ?1 exclusively produced by mast cells was found to increase significantly in the course of wound healing. However, DSCG treatment did not change its level in the wounds. These results indicate that blockade of mast cell activation reduces scar formation and inflammation without further weakening the healed wound. PMID:24465509

Chen, Lin; Schrementi, Megan E; Ranzer, Matthew J; Wilgus, Traci A; DiPietro, Luisa A

2014-01-01

286

Molecular mechanisms of scar-sourced axon growth inhibitors.  

PubMed

Astrogliosis is a defense response of the CNS to minimize primary damage and to repair injured tissues, but it ultimately generates harmful effects by upregulating inhibitory molecules to suppress neuronal elongation and forming potent barriers to axon regeneration. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are highly expressed by reactive scars and are potent contributors to the non-permissive environment in mature CNS. Surmounting strong inhibition by CSPG-rich scar is an important therapeutic goal for achieving functional recovery after CNS injuries. Currently, enzymatic digestion of CSPGs with locally applied chondroitinase ABC is the main in vivo approach to overcome scar inhibition, but several disadvantages may prevent using this bacterial enzyme as a therapeutic option for patients. A better understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying CSPG function may facilitate development of new effective therapies to overcome scar-mediated inhibition. Previous studies support that CSPGs act by non-specifically hindering the binding of matrix molecules to their cell surface receptors through steric interactions, but two members of the leukocyte common antigen related (LAR) phosphatase subfamily, protein tyrosine phosphatase ? and LAR, are functional receptors that bind CSPGs with high affinity and mediate CSPG inhibition. CSPGs may also act by binding two receptors for myelin-associated growth inhibitors, Nogo receptors 1 and 3. Thus, CSPGs inhibit axon growth through multiple mechanisms, making them especially potent and difficult therapeutic targets. Identification of CSPG receptors is not only important for understanding the scar-mediated growth suppression, but also for developing novel and selective therapies to promote axon sprouting and/or regeneration after CNS injuries. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Spinal cord injury. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Spinal cord injury. PMID:25192646

Ohtake, Yosuke; Li, Shuxin

2014-09-01

287

77 FR 2910 - Schedule for Rating Disabilities; Evaluation of Scars; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...for Rating Disabilities; Evaluation of Scars; Correction AGENCY: Department of Veterans...VA's policies concerning the evaluation of scars. In the preamble of that document, VA...revising the criteria for the evaluation of scars. In the dates section of the rule...

2012-01-20

288

77 FR 2909 - Schedule for Rating Disabilities; Evaluation of Scars; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...for Rating Disabilities; Evaluation of Scars; Correction AGENCY: Department of Veterans...VA's policies concerning the evaluation of scars. In the preamble of that document, VA...revising the criteria for the evaluation of scars. In the DATES section of the rule...

2012-01-20

289

ECCA Grading Scale: An Original Validated Acne Scar Grading Scale for Clinical Practice in Dermatology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: The ECCA grading scale (échelle d’évaluation clinique des cicatrices d’acné) is a tool designed to help dermatologists to assess the severity of acne scars and to standardize the discussions about the treatments of scars. Methods: We developed an acne scar clinical grading scale called ECCA, which consists of 6 items designed to assess easily and quickly the severity of

B. Dreno; A. Khammari; N. Orain; C. Noray; C. Mérial-Kieny; S. Méry; T. Nocera

2007-01-01

290

The principle of a three-staged operation in the surgery of acne scars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Acne scars cannot be effectively corrected by a single treatment modality because of their widely varied depth and width. Objective: We assessed the effectiveness of staged combinations of several surgical modalities in the treatment of acne scars. Methods: Focal chemical peeling, carbon dioxide (CO2 ) laser, scar excision, punch grafting, and dermabrasion were used. Initially, focal chemical peeling was

Kyu-Kwang Whang; Miae Lee

1999-01-01

291

Dynamic stiffness of barium-contractured cardiac muscles with different speeds of contraction.  

PubMed

The dynamic stiffness of excised cardiac muscles that would be likely to have different intrinsic speeds of contraction, as judged by previous biochemical reports of their myosin ATPase rates, was compared. This study included muscles from thyrotoxic rabbits and newborn rabbits, rabbit atria, and normal papillary muscles at different temperatures. The usual excitation-contraction coupling process was bypassed by replacing bathing Ca2+ with Ba2+. The ensuring actively maintained contracture allowed us to focus more specifically on the contractile properties of the myofilaments. Dynamic stiffness was determined by sinusoidally oscillating muscle length at many different frequencies over the range 0.05-50 Hz while holding average muscle length at 95% of the systolic length, thus giving maximal developed force. The form of the stiffness modulus spectrum was similar for all muscles studied: stiffness was fairly constant at low frequencies, decreased to a minimum at an intermediate frequency, and then increased steeply, followed by a milder rate of increase over high frequencies. Differences in contraction speed were evident by shifts in the frequencies at which corresponding portions of the stiffness spectrum appeared. The clearest landmark was the frequency where stiffness became minimum (fmin). This varied strongly with temperature (Q10 = 2.9). Compared to normal adult papillary muscles (fmin = 1.2 Hz), fmin was 2.2 times faster in thyrotoxic myocardium, 1.9 times faster in 1-week-old rabbits, and 3.7 times faster in atrial trabeculae. These ratios of functional speed are similar to the corresponding ratios of myosin Ca2+-ATPase activities reported in the literature. PMID:2954719

Shibata, T; Hunter, W C; Sagawa, K

1987-05-01

292

Wood and coal burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stove for burning wood, coal and other fuels comprised of flammable solids that among other things produce one or more flammable gases when heating or burning. The preferred form of the stove has three modes of operation-a rapid burning mode, a normal or medium burning mode and a banked mode. The user makes a preliminary decision as to whether

G. H. Barsness; R. A. Kleine

1985-01-01

293

Burns in Nigeria: a Review  

PubMed Central

Summary Burn injuries continue to be a major source of mortality and morbidity in low- and middle-income countries of the world, of which Nigeria is a part. Overview data on burn care in Nigeria are sparse but the available literature on burns and burn care in Nigeria was retrieved through Internet-based search engines, collated, and reviewed. Peculiarities of epidemiology, types of burn, pattern of injuries, complications, and outcome of burn care were reviewed. There were no broad-based overview statistical data on burns in Nigeria in all the articles reviewed. There was no documentation on the regionalization of care and there were no national databases. All reports on epidemiology were hospital-based. Flame is emerging as the predominant cause of burns, and burn injury is occurring increasingly away from the domestic setting. The severity of the injuries is also increasing. Deliberate burn injury remains a practice and a wide range of complications occur as burns sequelae in Nigeria. Several challenges militate against optimal care for burn victims. Burn injuries continue to contribute significantly to the burden of disease in Nigeria. There is a need for broad-based data collection systems. Avoidable complications are common and mortality remains high. Pooling of resources by regionalization of care could increase focus on burn prevention and improve the care of burn victims. Nongovernmental and governmental support to reduce the burden of burns is advocated. PMID:21991210

Oladele, A.O.; Olabanji, J.K.

2010-01-01

294

Emerging Infections in Burns  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Patients who suffer severe burns are at higher risk for local and systemic infections. In recent years, emerging resistant pathogens have forced burn care providers world wide to search for alternative forms of treatment. Multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spp., and various fungal strains have been the major contributors to the increase in morbidity and mortality rates. Multi-drug-resistant S. aureus remains the major cause of gram-positive burn wound infections world wide. Treatment strategies include rigorous isolation protocols and new types of antibiotics where necessary. Methods We reviewed 398 severely burned patients (burns >40% total body surface area [TBSA]) admitted to our hospital between 2000 and 2006. Patients who did not contract multi-drug-resistant gram-negative organisms during their hospital course and received our standard antibiotic regimen—vancomycin and piperacillin/tazobactam—served as controls (piperacillin/tazobactam; n?=?280). The treatment group consisted of patients who, during their acute hospital stay, developed infections with multi-drug-resistant gram-negative pathogens and were treated with vancomycin and colistin for at least three days (colistin; n?=?118). Results Gram-negative organisms continue to cause the most severe infections in burn patients. Colistin has re-emerged as a highly effective antibiotic against multiresistant Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter infections of burns. Patients who required colistin therapy had a significantly larger average total and full-thickness burn than patients treated with piperacillin/tazobactam and vancomycin, and the mortality rate was significantly higher in the colistin group (p?burn patients are Candida spp., Aspergillus spp., and Fusarium spp. A definitive diagnosis is more difficult to obtain than in bacterial infections. Amphotericin B and voriconazole remain the two most important anti-fungal substances in our practice. Conclusions Innovations in fluid management, ventilatory support, surgical care, and antimicrobial therapy have contributed to a significant reduction in morbidity and mortality rates in burn patients. Vancomycin and clindamycin are the two most important reserve antibiotics for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection. Oxazolidinones and streptogramins have showed high effectiveness against gram-positive infections. Colistin has re-emerged as a highly effective antibiotic against multiresistant Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter infections. Current challenges include Candida, Aspergillus, and molds. The development of new agents, prudent and appropriate use of antibiotics, and better infection control protocols are paramount in the ongoing battle against multi-resistant organisms. PMID:19810827

Branski, Ludwik K.; Al-Mousawi, Ahmed; Rivero, Haidy; Jeschke, Marc G.; Sanford, Arthur P.

2009-01-01

295

Carbon dioxide laser ablation with immediate autografting in a full-thickness porcine burn model.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To compare the long-term clinical and histologic outcome of immediate autografting of full-thickness burn wounds ablated with a high-power continuous-wave CO2 laser to sharply débrided wounds in a porcine model. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Continuous-wave CO2 lasers have performed poorly as tools for burn excision because the large amount of thermal damage to viable subeschar tissues precluded successful autografting. However, a new technique, in which a high-power laser is rapidly scanned over the eschar, results in eschar vaporization without significant damage to underlying viable tissues, allowing successful immediate autografting. METHODS: Full-thickness paravertebral burn wounds measuring 36 cm2 were created on 11 farm swine. Wounds were ablated to adipose tissue 48 hours later using either a surgical blade or a 150-Watt continuous-wave CO2 laser deflected by an x-y galvanometric scanner that translated the beam over the tissue surface, removing 200 microm of tissue per scan. Both sites were immediately autografted and serially evaluated clinically and histologically for 180 days. RESULTS: The laser-treated sites were nearly bloodless. The mean residual thermal damage was 0.18+/-0.05 mm. The mean graft take was 96+/-11% in manual sites and 93+/-8% in laser sites. On postoperative day 7, the thickness of granulation tissue at the graft-wound bed interface was greater in laser-debrided sites. By postoperative day 180, the manual and laser sites were histologically identical. Vancouver scar assessment revealed no differences in scarring at postoperative day 180. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term scarring, based on Vancouver scar assessments and histologic evaluation, was equivalent at 6 months in laser-ablated and sharply excised sites. Should this technology become practical, the potential clinical implications include a reduction in surgical blood loss without sacrifice of immediate engraftment rates or long-term outcome. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. PMID:9712572

Glatter, R D; Goldberg, J S; Schomacker, K T; Compton, C C; Flotte, T J; Bua, D P; Greaves, K W; Nishioka, N S; Sheridan, R L

1998-01-01

296

Spinal osteotomy in the presence of massive lumbar epidural scarring.  

PubMed

The combination of Massive epidural scarring and spinal deformity represents the ultimate challenge for the spinal deformity surgeon. This is observed more and more as the population is aging and the number of spine surgery is increasing. In assessing the patient with spinal deformity and epidural scarring, one should carry out a thorough medical work up including Dexa scan, comorbidities, and in most cases a Myelo-CT scan that will identify the extent of the previous fusion, the fixed or semi-rigid nature of the deformity with complete anterior fusion or only bone bridges, the evaluation of the previous instrumentation (if present) with possible screw misplacement, or halo around the screws, the extent of the previous laminectomy, the spinal stenosis and possible arachnoiditis and or meningocele. Once the requirement of deformity correction has been established with specific attention to the pelvic incidence and amount of lordosis required two basic choices can be made. The first one is to perform the spine realignment outside the massive epidural scarring whether this will be performed through simple posterior osteotomies, TLIF combined with Smith-Petersen osteotomies or Pedicle subtraction osteotomies. One should not forget about all the possibilities of an anterior or lateral approach to the spine that can also judiciously realign the spine at the level or at distance of the massive epidural scarring. These anterior realignments have to be supplemented with posterior fixation and or osteotomies. The other alternative is to perform the spine osteotomy at the level of the massive epidural scarring preferably at the junction of normal dura and epidural scar. Working around the dura that will require to be thinned down before the osteotomy is performed represents another challenge where incidental durotomies are not infrequent. During the closing of the osteotomy the dura may not be as giving as a normal dura and too aggressive closure of the osteotomy may not be possible. Instead a closing/opening osteotomy may be preferable, but will require an additional anterior column support. Attention to anterior column reconstruction and solid posterior instrumentation (iliac screws, four rods) should be given to all these revisions to have a long-lasting result. PMID:25427670

Arlet, Vincent

2015-01-01

297

Comparison of different laser systems in the treatment of hypertrophic and atrophic scars and keloids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different laser systems and techniques are used for the treatment of hypertrophic scars, keloids and acne scars. Significant criteria in selecting a suitable laser system are the scar's vascularization, age and diameter. Flashlamp- pumped dye-lasers, CO2-lasers with scanner, Argon and Nd:YAG-lasers are used. Telangiectatic scars respond well to argon lasers, erythematous scars and keloids to dye-laser treatment. Using interstitial Nd:YAG-laser vaporization, scars with a cross-section over 1 cm can generally be reduced. For the treatment of atrophic and acne scars good cosmetic results are achieved with a CO2-laser/scanner system, which allows a precise ablation of the upper dermis with low risk of side-effects.

Scharschmidt, D.; Algermissen, Bernd; Willms-Jones, J.-C.; Philipp, Carsten M.; Berlien, Hans-Peter

1997-12-01

298

Full-thickness burn to the hand from an automobile airbag.  

PubMed

An 18-year-old male was involved in a single car motor vehicle accident in which the driver's side airbag was deployed. He presented to the trauma center with complex injuries to the left hand, lacerations to the scalp, and a full-thickness burn to the ulnar aspect of the right hand that included the hypothenar area and the fifth digit. The patient was admitted to the trauma center and received immediate consultation from the burn service. He underwent debridement and split-thickness skin grafting of 50 cm2 of the right hand on postburn day 3. The graft became necrotic and the patient underwent debridement of the skin and the abductor minimi muscle of the right hand on postburn day 32. Split-thickness skin grafting and release of flexion contracture were successfully completed 18 days later. The police and fire departments reported that the airbag showed signs of thermal destruction. Upon request, Honda motors submitted information from the TRW safety systems and material safety data sheet (Mesa, Ariz, issued 1989) that showed that airbag canisters contain the chemicals sodium azide and cupric oxide. Water may react with sodium azide to form highly toxic and explosive hyfrazoic acid. These chemicals are converted to sodium hydroxide, which can cause significant chemical burns. In addition, these chemicals may ignite when exposed to live electrical wires or temperatures greater than 300 degrees F. We conclude that burns associated with damaged deployed airbags in motor vehicle accidents may be the results of both chemical and thermal injury. The extent of the burn wound may be underestimated, as our case illustrates. Full-thickness burns resulting from airbag deployment may require more aggressive initial debridement and treatment. PMID:10342473

Vitello, W; Kim, M; Johnson, R M; Miller, S

1999-01-01

299

Clinical study of cultured epithelial autografts in liquid suspension in severe burn patients.  

PubMed

We address the clinical application of the suspension type cultured epithelial autografts (CEAs), Keraheal™ (MCTT, Seoul, Korea), along with the effects, application method, merits and demerits thereof. From February 2007 to June 2010, 29 burn patients with extensive burns, participated in the suspension type of CEA clinical test. A widely meshed autograft (1:4-6 ratio) was applied to the wound bed and the suspension type CEA was sprayed with a Tissomat cell sprayer, followed by a Tissucol spray, a fibrin sealant. The patients' (men/women=26/3) median (interquartile ranges) age was 42 (30-49) years old, the burned TBSA was 55 (44-60) %, and the full thickness burn area was 40 (30-46.5) %. The area of Keraheal™ applied was 800 (400-1200) cm(2). The take rate was 96 (90.5-99) % and 100 (98.5-100) % at 2 and 4 weeks after treatment with Keraheal™, respectively. The Vancouver burn scar scale was 5 (4-6.5), 4 (3-6), and 3 (2-4) at 8, 12 and 24 weeks after the Keraheal™ application. Widely meshed autograft must be applied in massive burns but it's take rate is greatly reduced. The CEAs enhance the take rate of a wide meshed autograft in massive burns and allow for grafting wide meshed autograft together with acellular dermal matrix in some cases. PMID:21531079

Yim, Haejun; Yang, Hyeong Tae; Cho, Yong Suk; Seo, Cheong Hoon; Lee, Boung Chul; Ko, Jang Hyu; Kwak, In Suk; Kim, Dohern; Hur, Jun; Kim, Jong Hyun; Chun, Wook

2011-09-01

300

Burning trees and bridges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most burning of biomass is the result of human activity, and on a global scale it is increasing. Tropospheric concentrations of CO2, CO, CH4, non-methane hydrocarbons, and ozone are all increasing with time; global biomass burning may make an important contribution to this increase and thus to potential global climate change. The nitrogen cycle also can have important climatic effects. Nitrous oxide put into the atmosphere by biomass burning is a greenhouse gas 250 times more powerful (molecule for molecule) than carbon dioxide. Nitric oxide, as well as being a photochemical precursor of ozone, a major pollutant in the troposphere, produces nitric acid, the fastest-growing component of acid rain. Hence, the new bridge in the nitrogen cycle is of more than mere technical interest.

Levine, Joel S.

1990-01-01

301

Scar endometriosis in a patient with bladder exstrophy.  

PubMed

Endometriosis is an ectopic occurrence of tissue morphologically and functionally resembling endometrial tissue in regions outside the uterine cavity. Although scar endometriosis after surgery has been shown to be most common among all the extrapelvic forms of endometriosis, endometriosis after bladder exstrophy surgery has not been reported, and here we present the first known case. A 26-year-old woman with a history of bladder exstrophy was aware of a painful induration at the operative scar located in the left lower abdominal wall, and presented at our hospital. Although the symptoms resolved, recurring exacerbation was observed after 9 months. Abdominal magnetic resonance imaging showed a heterogeneous mass 16 mm in diameter in the left abdominal wall with high signal intensity on T1W1 and T2W1 images. She underwent excisional biopsy of the lesion under general anesthesia. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of endometriosis. Eighteen months after surgery, she was well and free from recurrence. PMID:23701150

Kitajima, Takahito; Inoue, Mikihiro; Uchida, Keiichi; Otake, Kohei; Kusunoki, Masato

2013-01-01

302

Fast burning propellants  

SciTech Connect

A solid or semisolid propellant is described comprising grains of propellant or propellant components bonded together to create voids within the propellant volume. The grains are of near-uniform size and have less than about a 20% size variation between the largest and smallest grains, the voids comprising from about 10% to about 50% of the propellant volume. The grains are bonded together with sufficient strength to substantially delay the fluidization of the propellant by the onset of Taylor unstable burning. The propellant has a rapid burn rate of from about 10 cm sec/sup -1/ to about 10/sup 4/cm sec/sup -1/.

Colgate, S.A.; Roos, G.E.

1987-07-21

303

Burning Down the House  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this demonstration, the teacher will use a potato and hydrogen peroxide to generate oxygen in a closed environment. Students can then observe its effects on a burning wooden splint and on burning steel wool. They will understand that a large amount of energy can be released by the process of oxidation. As an extension, the teacher can discuss how the appearance of oxygen (produced by cyanobacteria) in Earth's early atmosphere initially resulted in the formation of large deposits of iron oxide (Banded Iron Formations) and then aided in the evolution of more complex life forms.

Dolphin, Glenn

304

Wood burning stove  

SciTech Connect

This is a stove primarily for the burning of wood, but also capable of burning other combustible materials. The stove is characterized by a unique combustion chamber, together with a recirculating combustion chamber and baffle for more perfect combustion and characterized by a heat radiating chamber which may be closed so as to be used as an oven, and by a unique damper placement in combination with the exhaust flue pipe so adapted as to automatically activate in order to cool the flue pipe in the event it should exceed safe heat limits.

Bruce, R.F.; Byrd, W.W.

1980-01-08

305

Science at Burning Man  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recently, the Exploratorium Museum in San Francisco sent a dedicated crew to check out the activities at the Burning Man festival in Nevada. The results of their journey and explorations can be seen here, and interested parties can learn about pyrotechnics, flight, dust devils, and rainbows. The site contains several dozen short films that feature Exploratorium scientists like Paul Doherty investigating the properties of alkali and a rare double rainbow sighting. One of the most impressive videos is a bird's eye view from an 88-NV plane over the Burning Man site. Finally, visitors are also encouraged to share these resources with others via social media sites, including Twitter and Facebook.

306

Slippery Scar: A New Mushroom Disease in Auricularia polytricha  

PubMed Central

A new disease, the slippery scar, was investigated in cultivated bags of Auricularia polytricha. This fungus was isolated from the infected mycelia of cultivated bags. Based on morphological observation, rDNA-internal transcribed spacer and 18S sequence analysis, this pathogen was identified as the Ascomycete Scytalidium lignicola. According to Koch's Postulation, the pathogenicity of S. lignicola to the mycelia of A. polytricha was confirmed. The parasitism of this fungus on mushroom mycelia in China has not been reported before. PMID:22870056

Sun, Jie

2012-01-01

307

Intestinal mantle cell lymphoma recurring at laparotomy scar region.  

PubMed

Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a moderately aggressive variety of non-Hodgkins lymphoma. Extranodal presentation of MCL is well known, the intestine being a common site. The incidence of colorectal involvement is relatively rare. Moreover, the recurrence of the disease at laparotomy scar site is even more rare. We report an unusual case of incision line recurrence in a case of colonic MCL occuring three years after initial treatment. PMID:20838561

Ray, Amitabh; Basu, Ayan; Goswami, Jyotirup; Bhattacharya, Kalyan

2009-10-01

308

Wrinkles and Acne Scars: Ablative and Nonablative Facial Resurfacing  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Fully ablative carbon dioxide (CO2) laser resurfacing is the traditional gold standard for the treatment of moderate-to-severe\\u000a rhytides and acne scars. It offers the most dramatic results but can have extensive downtime of 2 or more weeks. The Erbium:YAG\\u000a laser, Erbium:YSGG laser, and plasma skin regeneration were developed to improve photoaging and textural abnormalities without\\u000a the prolonged recovery time of

Melissa A. Bogle; Geeta Yadav; Kenneth A. Arndt; Jeffrey S. Dover

309

Superoxide dismutase does not cause scar thinning after myocardial infarction.  

PubMed

Previous studies demonstrated that treatment with superoxide dismutase, a scavenger of superoxide anions, limits the extent of myocardial injury in a canine preparation of regional myocardial ischemia and reperfusion. Little is known, however, about the effects of superoxide dismutase on the healing of a myocardial infarct. Therefore, this study was performed to determine whether treatment with superoxide dismutase during myocardial ischemia impairs formation of scar tissue after infarction. Dogs received 2 hour infusions of superoxide dismutase or albumin (controls) by way of the left atrium beginning 15 minutes before and ending 15 minutes after a 90 minute occlusion of the left circumflex coronary artery. Six weeks later the animals were killed. Two-dimensional echocardiography was performed before surgery and before induced death. Wall thickening in the central ischemic zone was decreased at 6 weeks compared with baseline studies (p less than 0.05), but the decrease was similar for both groups. The hydroxyproline concentrations (microgram/mg dry weight) of the scar tissue in the superoxide dismutase and control groups, respectively, were 35.3 +/- 3.8 and 28.7 +/- 5.0 (p less than 0.05). The ratios of the scar thickness to normal wall thickness were superoxide dismutase 0.91 +/- 0.03 and control 0.89 +/- 0.03 (p greater than 0.05). Thus, superoxide dismutase had no adverse effect on wall thickening or scar formation assessed 6 weeks after myocardial infarction, and may be useful to limit oxygen radical-mediated damage during reperfusion of the ischemic myocardium. PMID:3558989

Werns, S W; Shea, M J; Vaporciyan, A; Phan, S; Abrams, G D; Buda, A J; Pitt, B; Lucchesi, B R

1987-04-01

310

A newly formulated topical triple-antibiotic ointment minimizes scarring.  

PubMed

A randomized study of polymyxin B sulfate-bacitracin zinc-neomycin sulfate versus simple gauze-type dressings in dermabrasion wounds assessed the effects that each treatment had on scarring. Each of three uniform dermabrasion wounds created on the upper backs of 70 subjects was treated concurrently with a triple-antibiotic ointment (polymyxin B-bacitracin-neomycin), a double antibiotic (polymyxin B-bacitracin), or a simple, non-occlusive, gauze-type dressing, twice daily for up to 14 days. Pigmentary changes and textural changes (scarring) appearing after healing at the skin surface test sites were compared to adjacent normal skin at 45 and 90 days post-dermabrasion. These changes were graded visually utilizing fluorescent light, long-wave ultraviolet light, and by clinical color photography. The triple-antibiotic ointment was superior to simple gauze-type dressing alone in minimizing the scarring observed in dermabrasion wounds. The benefit of this new ointment was more pronounced in its effect on pigmentary changes. PMID:10879311

Berger, R S; Pappert, A S; Van Zile, P S; Cetnarowski, W E

2000-06-01

311

Three-Dimensional Electromagnetic High Frequency Axisymmetric Cavity Scars.  

SciTech Connect

This report examines the localization of high frequency electromagnetic fi elds in three-dimensional axisymmetric cavities along periodic paths between opposing sides of the cavity. The cases where these orbits lead to unstable localized modes are known as scars. This report treats both the case where the opposing sides, or mirrors, are convex, where there are no interior foci, and the case where they are concave, leading to interior foci. The scalar problem is treated fi rst but the approximations required to treat the vector fi eld components are also examined. Particular att ention is focused on the normalization through the electromagnetic energy theorem. Both projections of the fi eld along the scarred orbit as well as point statistics are examined. Statistical comparisons are m ade with a numerical calculation of the scars run with an axisymmetric simulation. This axisymmetric cas eformstheoppositeextreme(wherethetwomirror radii at each end of the ray orbit are equal) from the two -dimensional solution examined previously (where one mirror radius is vastly di ff erent from the other). The enhancement of the fi eldontheorbitaxiscanbe larger here than in the two-dimensional case. Intentionally Left Blank

Warne, Larry K.; Jorgenson, Roy E.

2014-10-01

312

Burn a Peanut  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners burn a peanut, which produces a flame that can be used to boil away water and count the calories contained in the peanut. Learners use a formula to calculate the calories in a peanut and then differentiate between food calories and physicist calories as well as calories and joules.

2012-06-26

313

TIRES, OPEN BURNING  

EPA Science Inventory

The chapter describes available information on the health effects from open burning of rubber tires. It concentrates on the three known sources of detailed measurements: (1) a small-scale emissions characterization study performed by the U.S. EPA in a facility designed to simulat...

314

Gas Hydrates Burning  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

An image of gas hydrates burning. Gas hydrates are naturally-occurring “ice-like” combinations of natural gas and water that have the potential to provide an immense resource of natural gas from the world’s oceans and polar regions....

315

Correlating Aluminum Burning Times  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characteristics of aluminum combustion are summarized in an overview of the subject, focusing on the burning time of individual particles. Combustion data from over ten different sources with almost 400 datum points have been cataloged and correlated. Available models have also been used to evaluate combustion trends with key environmental parameters. The fundamental concepts that control aluminum combustion are discussed,

M. W. Beckstead

2005-01-01

316

Wood burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wood burning heating unit has walls defining a combustion chamber, the walls having wall cavities therein for heating a liquid; baffle means within the walls dividing the wall cavities to provide directional liquid flow paths; a heat absorption unit formed of spaced tubes communicating with the wall cavities positioned above the combustion chamber; and inlet outlet water conduit means

1982-01-01

317

Wood burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

An air tight wood burning stove (10) for heating a designated space comprises a housing (12) having an access opening (50) in the front wall (14) thereof and at least one glass panel (64) containing door (54, 56) hingedly mounted on the front wall for closing the opening (50). A latching mechanism (60) on the door (54, 56) engages with

1982-01-01

318

Wood burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disclosed herein is an improved wood burning stove having a combustion chamber and a flue for removing exhaust from the chamber wherein the improvement comprises the addition of a catalytic converter means for oxidizing oxidizable species in the exhaust. In one embodiment, the catalytic converter means is situated in a flue immediately adjacent the combustion chamber. In another embodiment, the

van Dewoestine

1983-01-01

319

Wood burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disclosed herein is an improved wood burning stove employing a combustion chamber and a flue for removing exhaust therefrom and also a catalytic converter means for oxidizing oxidizable species in the exhaust. A passageway is provided for bypassing the exhaust around the catalytic converter means, the passageway being controlled by a bypass damper for controlling access to the passageway for

R. A. Allaire; W. F. Pardue; R. V. Vandewoestine

1982-01-01

320

Wood burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wood or coal burning metal stove is described that is formed with a base, a top wall, a casing between the two and a lining extending completely around the lower part of the casing, the base having no openings for draft, but the draft openings being through a casing door and the lower edge of the liner. Bolts between

Bette

1978-01-01

321

Wood burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

This disclosure relates to a wood burning stove which includes an innermost combustion chamber within and generally spaced from an intermediate air-circulating chamber in turn generally within an outermost chamber, all of the chambers having generally spaced top, rear, bottom and pairs of side walls, all of the side walls having openings and ducts associated therewith through which air is

Burnette

1983-01-01

322

Wood burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved wood burning stove for providing heated air to a room or similar area includes an enclosed fire chamber, a hearth at the bottom of the fire chamber, draft inlet means at the front of the fire chamber and a flue at the rear of the fire chamber. Within the fire chamber is an enclosed air chamber having lower

1983-01-01

323

Log-burning stove  

SciTech Connect

A log-burning stove having a stove door with an angled plate element secured thereto, the top portion of the plate element deflecting combustion gases inwardly to the combustion chamber, and the lower portion deflecting draft air inwardly and downwardly into the combustion chamber, the plate element also forming a log-support and log-sliding surface.

Choate, J.R.

1982-11-23

324

Wood burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wood burning stove comprises a fire chamber of which the upper part is constituted as a heat exchanger. A primary air supply is provided as is a secondary air supply, the secondary air supply permitting air to be mixed with the gaseous products of combustion to support complete combustion of those gaseous products. Both air supplies have dampers, the

Down

1982-01-01

325

Wood burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disclosed herein is an improved wood burning stove employing a combustion chamber and a flue in communication therewith for removal of exhaust from the chamber with a catalytic converter means being movably mounted in the flue whereby the impedance presented to the exhaust by the converter may be selectively varied so as to minimize the impedance presented by the converter

R. A. Allaire; R. V. Vandewoestine

1982-01-01

326

Wood burning stove  

SciTech Connect

A wood burning stove is disclosed which includes a stove housing that defines an upper zone comprising storage and exhaust chambers, and a lower zone for accommodating a wood burning fire. The exhaust and storage chambers are separated by a divider, both chambers having bottom openings that communicate directly with the top of the lower fire zone. Covering one opening in the housing and providing access to the fire zone is a fire door while another opening provides access at the top of the storage chamber and is covered by a wood fill door. The exhaust chamber communicates with and discharges smoke into a stovepipe or flue retaining chimney. A supply of logs is loaded into the storage chamber through its fill door. These feed automatically and sequentially by gravity from the storage chamber bottom into the fire zone for consumption by a fire burning therein. The frequency of wood loading operations is reduced in that a suitable supply of logs for burning and maintaining a continuous fire over a long period of time is provided in one loading operation.

Sullivan, P.D.

1982-07-27

327

Wood burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wood burning stove having improved air flow characteristics for effective combustion and purging of gaseous combustion by-products. A primary air inlet is provided below the loading door of the stove for feeding air to the firebox proper for combustion. A plurality of opposing supplementary air inlets are provided in opposite sides of the stove, at least two of the

Halchek

1984-01-01

328

Wood burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wood burning stove for providing heated air to a room or similar area is disclosed which includes a fire chamber, a hearth in the forward portion of the fire chamber, draft inlet means at the front of the fire chamber and a flue at the rear of the fire chamber. Between the hearth and the flue is an enclosed

1978-01-01

329

Wood-burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wood burning stove is the most practical, least expensive way to alternative heating. It is easy to install, non-polluting, and fun. With wood as fuel, the air can be clean. This thoroughly detailed and illustrated guide offers tips on whether one wishes to convert the home or to supplement the present heating system with wood heat. Information is included

1977-01-01

330

Wood burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wood burning stoves are of a type having a lower chamber and an upper chamber interconnected by a port. Air inlets are located laterally of the base of a fire in the lower chamber with a natural draft therein effecting a multitude of upwardly rising air streams of which one type is hot and oxygen poor and which carry and

Nason

1984-01-01

331

Pelletized fuel burning heater  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a bio-mass fuel burning heater. It comprises: a combustion chamber having top and bottom ends with side walls extending between the top and bottom ends; pot means for holding the bio-mass fuel, the pot means located adjacent to the lower end of the combustion chamber, the pot means having an open upper combustion end and an open

D. Nuesmeyer; G. Brondt

1990-01-01

332

?2-Adrenoceptor Activation Modulates Skin Wound Healing Processes to Reduce Scarring  

PubMed Central

During wound healing, excessive inflammation, angiogenesis, and differentiated human dermal fibroblast (HDF?) function contribute to scarring, whereas hyperpigmentation negatively affects scar quality. Over 100 million patients heal with a scar every year. To investigate the role of the beta 2 adrenergic receptor (?2AR) in wound scarring, the ability of beta 2 adrenergic receptor agonist (?2ARag) to alter HDF differentiation and function, wound inflammation, angiogenesis, and wound scarring was explored in HDFs, zebrafish, chick chorioallantoic membrane assay (CAM), and a porcine skin wound model, respectively. Here we identify a ?2AR-mediated mechanism for scar reduction. ?2ARag significantly reduced HDF differentiation, via multiple cAMP and/or fibroblast growth factor 2 or basic FGF (FGF2)-dependent mechanisms, in the presence of transforming growth factor beta?1, reduced contractile function, and inhibited mRNA expression of a number of profibrotic markers. ?2ARag also reduced inflammation and angiogenesis in zebrafish and CAMs in vivo, respectively. In Red Duroc pig full-thickness wounds, ?2ARag reduced both scar area and hyperpigmentation by almost 50% and significantly improved scar quality. Indeed, mechanisms delineated in vitro and in other in vivo models were evident in the ?2ARag-treated porcine scars in vivo. Both macrophage infiltration and angiogenesis were initially decreased, whereas DF function was impaired in the ?2ARag-treated porcine wound bed. These data collectively reveal the potential of ?2ARag to improve skin scarring. PMID:25050597

Le Provost, Gabrielle S; Pullar, Christine E

2015-01-01

333

Probability mapping of scarred myocardium using texture and intensity features in CMR images  

PubMed Central

Background The myocardium exhibits heterogeneous nature due to scarring after Myocardial Infarction (MI). In Cardiac Magnetic Resonance (CMR) imaging, Late Gadolinium (LG) contrast agent enhances the intensity of scarred area in the myocardium. Methods In this paper, we propose a probability mapping technique using Texture and Intensity features to describe heterogeneous nature of the scarred myocardium in Cardiac Magnetic Resonance (CMR) images after Myocardial Infarction (MI). Scarred tissue and non-scarred tissue are represented with high and low probabilities, respectively. Intermediate values possibly indicate areas where the scarred and healthy tissues are interwoven. The probability map of scarred myocardium is calculated by using a probability function based on Bayes rule. Any set of features can be used in the probability function. Results In the present study, we demonstrate the use of two different types of features. One is based on the mean intensity of pixel and the other on underlying texture information of the scarred and non-scarred myocardium. Examples of probability maps computed using the mean intensity of pixel and the underlying texture information are presented. We hypothesize that the probability mapping of myocardium offers alternate visualization, possibly showing the details with physiological significance difficult to detect visually in the original CMR image. Conclusion The probability mapping obtained from the two features provides a way to define different cardiac segments which offer a way to identify areas in the myocardium of diagnostic importance (like core and border areas in scarred myocardium). PMID:24053280

2013-01-01

334

?2-Adrenoceptor Activation Modulates Skin Wound Healing Processes to Reduce Scarring.  

PubMed

During wound healing, excessive inflammation, angiogenesis, and differentiated human dermal fibroblast (HDF?) function contribute to scarring, whereas hyperpigmentation negatively affects scar quality. Over 100 million patients heal with a scar every year. To investigate the role of the beta 2 adrenergic receptor (?2AR) in wound scarring, the ability of beta 2 adrenergic receptor agonist (?2ARag) to alter HDF differentiation and function, wound inflammation, angiogenesis, and wound scarring was explored in HDFs, zebrafish, chick chorioallantoic membrane assay (CAM), and a porcine skin wound model, respectively. Here we identify a ?2AR-mediated mechanism for scar reduction. ?2ARag significantly reduced HDF differentiation, via multiple cAMP and/or fibroblast growth factor 2 or basic FGF (FGF2)-dependent mechanisms, in the presence of transforming growth factor beta?1, reduced contractile function, and inhibited mRNA expression of a number of profibrotic markers. ?2ARag also reduced inflammation and angiogenesis in zebrafish and CAMs in vivo, respectively. In Red Duroc pig full-thickness wounds, ?2ARag reduced both scar area and hyperpigmentation by almost 50% and significantly improved scar quality. Indeed, mechanisms delineated in vitro and in other in vivo models were evident in the ?2ARag-treated porcine scars in vivo. Both macrophage infiltration and angiogenesis were initially decreased, whereas DF function was impaired in the ?2ARag-treated porcine wound bed. These data collectively reveal the potential of ?2ARag to improve skin scarring. PMID:25050597

Le Provost, Gabrielle S; Pullar, Christine E

2015-01-01

335

Management of acne scarring, part I: a comparative review of laser surgical approaches.  

PubMed

Acne scarring is the result of a deviation in the orderly pattern of healing and can have profound psychosocial implications for patients. While the most effective means of addressing acne scarring is to prevent its formation through good acne control, there are a number of therapeutic interventions that improve the appearance of acne scars. Many of these procedural modalities have flaws and are limited by operator skill and experience. Laser scar revision, on the other hand, is a precise, well tolerated procedure with clinically demonstrable efficacy and minimal adverse effects that may be used alone or in combination with other scar treatments. The last 20 years has seen a dramatic evolution in laser treatment of acne scars, spanning ablative and nonablative technologies, to the current popularity of fractional laser scar revision. Determining which laser system to use depends upon the type and severity of acne scarring, the amount of recovery a patient can tolerate, and the ultimate goals and expectations of each patient. The importance of proper acne scar classification, laser scar revision techniques, and the evidence that addresses each laser system is reviewed in this article. PMID:22612738

Sobanko, Joseph F; Alster, Tina S

2012-10-01

336

BURN DATA COORDINATING CENTER (BDCC)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Burn Data Coordinating Center (BDCC) began collecting data in 1994 and is currently the largest burn database in the country. Pediatric burn data was added in 1998. The BMS database contains over 2,800 cases supporting clinical research and research on outcomes including empl...

337

Multiple congenital contractures (MCC) and cleft palate induced in goats by ingestion of piperidine alkaloid-containing plants: reduction in fetal movement as the probable cause.  

PubMed

Fetal movement, observed by ultrasound imaging, was significantly reduced (P less than or equal to 0.001) in pregnant goats gavaged with Conium seed and Nicotiana glauca and temporarily reduced with fresh Conium plant. Conium seed and Nicotiana glauca induced cleft palate and multiple congenital contractures in 100% of the kids born to pregnant goats gavaged with these plants. Multiple congenital contractures included torticollis, scoliosis, lordosis, arthrogryposis, rib cage anomalies, over extension, and flexure and rigidity of the joints. However, in goats gavaged with fresh Conium plant, fetal movement was inhibited for only about 5 hours after each individual dosage and gradually returned to control levels 12 hours after dosing. Fetal malformations in this group were limited from modest to moderate contractures of the front limbs, which resolved by 8-10 weeks post partum. No cleft palates were induced. Fetal movement was not inhibited in goats fed Lupinus caudatus and no cleft palates or multiple congenital contractures were induced in their offspring. The duration of the reduction in fetal movement appears to be an important factor in the severity and permanence of the deformities, particularly with cleft palate, spinal column defects, and severe joint deviation and fixation. PMID:2381024

Panter, K E; Bunch, T D; Keeler, R F; Sisson, D V; Callan, R J

1990-01-01

338

Combined first dorsal metacarpal artery flap and dorsal transposition flap for correction of extensive first web space contracture: a case report and literature review.  

PubMed

First web space contracture is a common sequela after hand trauma and exerts tremendously negative effects on hand function. To restore hand function, it is mandatory to release contracted first web structures, which usually results in a large skin defect. Dorsal transposition flaps sometimes are not sufficient to cover the whole defect. Microvascular flaps provide abundant soft tissue, but they are lengthy procedures and exhibit risks of complete flap failure. In this study, we present an alternative approach to address this difficult clinical problem. A 25-year-old man developed extensive contracture over the first web space after trauma. After release of the contracted structures, the extensive skin defect was covered by a dorsal transposition flap with an extension to the territory of the first dorsal metacarpal artery flap. The functional and cosmetic results were excellent, without recurrence of contracture postoperatively. The combined first dorsal metacarpal artery flap and dorsal transposition flap appeared to be an effective and relatively simple method for the reconstruction of severe first web space contracture. PMID:21301291

Chen, Chien-Chang; Chang, Hui-Hsiu; Tang, Yueh-Bih; Cheng, Nai-Chen

2011-10-01

339

Is proportion burned severely related to daily area burned?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ecological effects of forest fires burning with high severity are long-lived and have the greatest impact on vegetation successional trajectories, as compared to low-to-moderate severity fires. The primary drivers of high severity fire are unclear, but it has been hypothesized that wind-driven, large fire-growth days play a significant role, particularly on large fires in forested ecosystems. Here, we examined the relative proportion of classified burn severity for individual daily areas burned that occurred during 42 large forest fires in central Idaho and western Montana from 2005 to 2007 and 2011. Using infrared perimeter data for wildfires with five or more consecutive days of mapped perimeters, we delineated 2697 individual daily areas burned from which we calculated the proportions of each of three burn severity classes (high, moderate, and low) using the differenced normalized burn ratio as mapped for large fires by the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity project. We found that the proportion of high burn severity was weakly correlated (Kendall ? = 0.299) with size of daily area burned (DAB). Burn severity was highly variable, even for the largest (95th percentile) in DAB, suggesting that other variables than fire extent influence the ecological effects of fires. We suggest that these results do not support the prioritization of large runs during fire rehabilitation efforts, since the underlying assumption in this prioritization is a positive relationship between severity and area burned in a day.

Birch, Donovan S.; Morgan, Penelope; Kolden, Crystal A.; Hudak, Andrew T.; Smith, Alistair M. S.

2014-05-01

340

Wood and coal burning stove  

SciTech Connect

A stove for burning wood, coal and other fuels comprised of flammable solids that among other things produce one or more flammable gases when heating or burning. The preferred form of the stove has three modes of operation-a rapid burning mode, a normal or medium burning mode and a banked mode. The user makes a preliminary decision as to whether the stove is to be operated in its normal mode or banked mode. Thereafter, controlled by temperature responsive means, the stove moves itself fully automatically back and forth from the rapid burning mode to whichever one of the other two modes of operation has been preselected by the user.

Barsness, G. H.; Kleine, R. A.

1985-12-03

341

Surgical Management of the Cesarean Scar Ectopic Pregnancy: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Cesarean scar pregnancy is one of the rarest forms of ectopic pregnancy. Little is known about its incidence and natural history. The diagnosis and treatment of cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP) is challenging. The authors reported here a case of cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP) with hypovolemic shock that underwent emergency laparotomy with resection of ectopic mass. The patient was discharged from the hospital without any complications. PMID:24455350

Nankali, Anisodowleh; Ataee, Mina; Shahlazadeh, Haleh; Daeichin, Sara

2013-01-01

342

Treatment of Acne Scars with Liquid Silicone Injections: 30Year Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND. This article addresses the use of liquid injectable silicone as both an immediate and long-lasting treatment for broad-based, depressed acne scars. The only filler substance that maintains precision and permanence in improving and\\/or cor- recting these types of acne scar defects is medical-grade liquid sil- icone. OBJECTIVE .W e describe five patients with a history of acne scar- ring

JAY G. BARNETT; CHANNING R. BARNETT

343

Nd:YAG Laser Treatment for Keloids and Hypertrophic Scars: An Analysis of 102 Cases  

PubMed Central

Background: The present retrospective cohort study was performed to determine the efficacy of contact-mode 1064 nm neodymium-yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser laser for keloids and hypertrophic scars. The indication and limitations of this modality are discussed. Methods: The cohort consisted of 102 consecutive Japanese patients (23 males and 79 females) with keloids and hypertrophic scars for more than 1 year. They were treated every 3–4 weeks for 1 year with a long-pulsed 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser (Cutera, Brisbane, Calif.) in contact mode. Thirty-eight patients had hypertrophic scars and 64 had keloids. The scars were evaluated before the treatment commenced and 1 month after the last session by using the Japan Scar Workshop Scar Scale 2011. Recurrence was assessed at 6 months after the termination of treatment. Results: The average total Japan Scar Workshop score of the keloid and hypertrophic scar region groups dropped significantly after 1 year of treatment compared with before treatment (all P < 0.05). None of the hypertrophic scars or keloids deteriorated. However, 3 of the 34 anterior chest keloids (8.8%) did not respond. The following recurrence rates were observed 6 months after stopping laser treatment: 1 of the abdomen hypertrophic scars (4%), 18 of the anterior chest keloids (52.9%), 5 of the upper arm keloids (35.7%), and 4 of the scapula keloids (25%). Conclusions: Hypertrophic scars responded significantly better to 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser treatment than keloids. However, keloid recurrence occurred when there was remaining redness and induration, even if only a small part of the scar was affected. PMID:25587506

Koike, Sachiko; Akaishi, Satoshi; Nagashima, Yuki; Dohi, Teruyuki; Hyakusoku, Hiko

2014-01-01

344

Axonal regeneration through the fibrous scar in lesioned goldfish spinal cord.  

PubMed

Spontaneous nerve regeneration beyond the scar frequently occurs in fish after spinal cord lesions, in contrast to mammals. Here we examined the spatiotemporal relationship between the fibrous scar and axonal regeneration in the goldfish. Within 1week after hemisection of the spinal cord, the open wound was closed by a fibrous scar that was demarcated from the surrounding nervous tissue by the glia limitans, which was immunoreactive for laminin. Within 1week after hemisection, regenerating axons entered the fibrous scar, and were surrounded by laminin-coated tubular structures continuous with the glia limitans. Regenerating axons that initially entered the fibrous scar were usually accompanied by glial processes. Within 2-3weeks after hemisection, the tubular structures became enlarged, and the regenerating axons increased in number, fasciculating in the tubules. Glial processes immunoreactive for glial fibrillary acid protein and 5-hydroxytryptamine neurons then entered the tubular structures to associate with the regenerating axons. The tubular structures developed further, creating tunnels that penetrated the fibrous scar, through which the regenerating axons passed. At 6-12weeks after hemisection, the fibrous scar was smaller and the enlarged tunnels contained many glial processes and several axons. The findings of present study demonstrated that, following spinal lesions in goldfish, regenerating axons enter and pass the scar tissue. The regenerating axons first enter the fibrous scar with glial elements and then grow through laminin-coated tubular structures within the fibrous scar. Invasion by glial processes and neuronal elements into the tubular structures reduces the fibrous scar area and allows for more regenerating axons to pass beyond the fibrous scar. PMID:25290012

Takeda, A; Atobe, Y; Kadota, T; Goris, R C; Funakoshi, K

2015-01-22

345

Wood burning stove  

SciTech Connect

A wood burning heating unit has walls defining a combustion chamber, the walls having wall cavities therein for heating a liquid; baffle means within the walls dividing the wall cavities to provide directional liquid flow paths; a heat absorption unit formed of spaced tubes communicating with the wall cavities positioned above the combustion chamber; and inlet outlet water conduit means communicating with the wall cavities.

Smith, J.H.

1982-07-20

346

Wood burning stove  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed herein is an improved wood burning stove employing a combustion chamber and a flue in communication therewith for removal of exhaust from the chamber with a catalytic converter means being movably mounted in the flue whereby the impedance presented to the exhaust by the converter may be selectively varied so as to minimize the impedance presented by the converter means when additional fuel is added to the stove.

Allaire, R.A.; Vandewoestine, R.V.

1982-08-24

347

Wood-burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wood-burning stove includes side walls joined together in an airtight manner to form a firebox and a heat chamber thereabove. The firebox contains upstanding rails to support wood logs for combustion. Streams of heated air are discharged from a manifold that extends from rail-to-rail outwardly from one terminal end of each rail between opposite side walls of the stove.

Squires

1983-01-01

348

Burning Magnesium (GCMP)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Burning Magnesium: this is a resource in the collection "General Chemistry Multimedia Problems". In this problem we will look at the reactions of two elements with oxygen in air. We will begin by observing the reaction of magnesium metal with oxygen when the metal is heated in air. General Chemistry Multimedia Problems ask students questions about experiments they see presented using videos and images. The questions asked apply concepts from different parts of an introductory course, encouraging students to decompartmentalize the material.

349

Biphasic Presence of Fibrocytes in a Porcine Hypertrophic Scar Model.  

PubMed

The duroc pig has been described as a promising animal model for use in the study of human wound healing and scar formation. However, little is known about the presence and chronology of the fibrocyte cell population in the healing process of these animals. Wounds known to form scar were created on red duroc swine (3" x 3") with a dermatome to a total depth of either 0.06 inches or 0.09 inches. These wounds were allowed to heal completely and biopsies were done at scheduled time points during the healing process. Biopsies were formalin fixed and paraffin embedded for immunohistochemical analysis. Porcine reactive antibodies to CD-45 and procollagen-1 and a human reactive antibody to LSP-1 were used to detect the presence of fibrocytes in immunohistochemistry, an immunocytochemistry. Initial immunohistochemical studies showed evidence of a biphasic presence of fibrocytes. Pigs with 0.06 inches deep wounds showed positive staining for CD-45 and LSP-1 within highly cellular areas at days 2 and 4 after wounding. Additional animals with 0.09 inches deep wounds showed positive staining within similar areas at days 56, 70, and 113 after wounding. There was no immunohistochemical evidence of fibrocytes in skin biopsies taken at days 14, 28, or 42. Procollagen-1 staining was diffused in all samples. Cultured cells were stained for CD-45, LSP-1, and procollagen-1 by immunocytochemistry. These data confirm that fibrocytes are indeed present in this porcine model. We conclude that these cells are present after initial wounding and later during scar formation and remodeling. We believe that this is an evidence of a biphasic presence of fibrocytes, first as an acute response to skin wounding followed by later involvement in the remodeling process, prompted by continued inflammation in a deep partial thickness wound. PMID:25051518

Travis, Taryn E; Mino, Matthew J; Moffatt, Lauren T; Mauskar, Neil A; Prindeze, Nicholas J; Ghassemi, Pejhman; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C; Jordan, Marion H; Shupp, Jeffrey W

2014-10-13

350

Combined laser treatment of actinic sun damage and acne scarring.  

PubMed

Since its approval for use in 2007, many surgeons have been using the laser for subcutaneous use, primarily for lipolysis, facial neck and body contouring, and skin tightening. Techniques have recently evolved to enable use of the subcutaneous laser with concurrent skin resurfacing techniques for improvement of photoaging and acne or facial scarring. The technique shows great promise in patients with facial aging and photodamage who are not deemed candidates for rhytidectomy surgery. With strict patient-selection criteria of mild to moderate facial laxity and mild to moderate photoaging, the procedure can be gratifying for the surgeon and patient alike. PMID:22537786

Gentile, Richard D

2012-05-01

351

Autozygosity mapping, to chromosome 11q25, of a rare autosomal recessive syndrome causing histiocytosis, joint contractures, and sensorineural deafness.  

PubMed Central

We describe a highly consanguineous family, originating from Pakistan, displaying histiocytosis, joint contractures, and sensorineural deafness. The form of histiocytosis exhibited by this family does not fit readily into any of the recognized classes of this disease. It appears to represent a novel form of familial histiocytosis demonstrating autosomal recessive inheritance. Using autozygosity mapping, we have identified a homozygous region of approximately 1 cM at chromosome 11q25, in affected individuals. A maximum two-point LOD score of 3.42 (recombination fraction straight theta = .00) was obtained with marker D11S968. This is the first genetic locus to be described that is involved in the molecular pathogenesis of histiocytosis. PMID:9545394

Moynihan, L M; Bundey, S E; Heath, D; Jones, E L; McHale, D P; Mueller, R F; Markham, A F; Lench, N J

1998-01-01

352

Autosomal recessive lethal congenital contractural syndrome type 4 (LCCS4) caused by a mutation in MYBPC1.  

PubMed

Autosomal recessive lethal congenital contractural syndrome (LCCS) is a severe form of neuromuscular arthrogryposis. We previously showed that this phenotype is caused in two unrelated inbred Bedouin tribes by different defects in the phosphatidylinositol pathway. However, the molecular basis of the same phenotype in other tribes remained elusive. Whole exome sequencing identified a novel LCCS founder mutation within a minimal shared homozygosity locus of approximately 1 Mb in two affected individuals of different tribes: a homozygous premature stop producing mutation in MYBPC1, encoding myosin-binding protein C, slow type. A dominant missense mutation in MYBPC1 was previously shown to cause mild distal arthrogryposis. We now show that a recessive mutation abrogating all functional domains in the same gene leads to LCCS. PMID:22610851

Markus, Barak; Narkis, Ginat; Landau, Daniella; Birk, Ruth Z; Cohen, Idan; Birk, Ohad S

2012-10-01

353

Reactivation of Old Scars in an Elderly Man Revealing Löfgren's Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Here, we report the case of a 55-year-old man with reactivation of old cutaneous scars associated with a febrile illness, episcleritis, polyarthralgias, erythema nodosum and hilar adenopathy. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) revealed right paratracheal, bilateral hilar, and subcarinal lymphadenopathy without any nodular densities in both lung fields. A scar biopsy revealed multiple noncaseating granulomas and confirmed the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. A short course of oral steroids led to regression of systemic symptoms, and the scars returned to baseline size. This patient represented a rare case of simultaneous Löfgren's syndrome and scar sarcoidosis. PMID:23533907

Vardhan Reddy Munagala, Vishnu; Tomar, Vaishali; Aggarwal, Amita

2013-01-01

354

The contribution of melanocytes to pathological scar formation during wound healing  

PubMed Central

Both hypertrophic scars and keloid scars are caused by abnormal wound healing, the key feature of which is excess collagen fiber secretion by fibroblasts. Many different factors could affect the process of hypertrophic scar and keloid formation, but most have not been identified to date. We assume that, during wound healing, melanocytes from the stratum basale contact or interact with fibroblasts from the dermal layers after the basal membrane is damaged, which in turn facilitates fibroblast proliferation and the secretion and deposition of collagen. This plays a significant role in the generation of hypertrophic scars and keloids. PMID:23936604

Gao, Fu-Lei; Jin, Rong; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Yu-Guang

2013-01-01

355

Unusual persistence of Tc-99m MDP uptake in the incisional scar after thoracotomy  

SciTech Connect

Postoperative scar is one of the causes of extraosseous localization of Tc-99m phosphonate bone agents. Usually, an incisional scar will not be visualized in a Tc-99m phosphonate skeletal image two weeks after surgery. A case is reported with an unusually persistent localization of radiotracer in the scar of a thoracotomy seen in three consecutive bone images done beyond two weeks postoperatively. This patient suffered from ''pulmonary insufficiency'' before and after the thoracotomy. The abnormal radiotracer localization in the scar is presumably related to his pulmonary insufficiency, with resulting relatively delayed wound healing.

Shih, W.J.; DeLand, F.H.; Domstad, P.A.; Dillon, M.L.

1984-10-01

356

Autologus bone marrow stem cells in atrophic acne scars: A pilot study.  

PubMed

Abstract Background: Acne scar is a very distressing and difficult problem for physicians and patients. Management of cutaneous scarring from acne can be challenging and confusing. The available modalities may be effective, having considerable morbidity and long downtime. Besides, they may not have the same efficacy in different skin types or acne scar types. Objective: To evaluate the short-term safety and efficacy of autologous bone marrow (BM) stem cells (SCs) in treating atrophic acne scars. Methods: Fourteen patients with moderate to severe atrophic acne scars were included. All patients were subjected to single session of autologous BMSCs therapy. Each patient received 5??g/kg/day granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) as a single subcutaneous dose for 2 successive days before BM aspiration. The SC-containing solution was injected under each scar intradermally. The scars of the patients were clinically assessed both qualitatively and quantitatively before and after 6 months. The patients were given a preformed questionnaire Cardiff acne disability index (CADI) before and after treatment. Results: After 6 months of the injection, there was significant improvement in the qualitative grading, quantitative grading and CADI scores. All types of scars showed significant improvement. No significant adverse effects were reported in any patient. Conclusion: Autologous BMSCs seem to be a safe and effective treatment option for the management of all types of atrophic facial acne scars. PMID:25041112

Ibrahim, Zeinab A; Eltatawy, Rania A; Ghaly, Nahla R; Abd El-Naby, Naeim M; Abou El Fetouh, Heba M; Abd Elateef, Amal E; Abdou, Said; Tahaa, Ateef; El Afandy, Mohamed

2014-08-26

357

Costs for collagenase injections compared with fasciectomy in the treatment of Dupuytren's contracture: a retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To compare collagenase injections and surgery (fasciectomy) for Dupuytren's contracture (DC) regarding actual total direct treatment costs and short-term outcomes. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Orthopaedic department of a regional hospital in Sweden. Participants Patients aged 65?years or older with previously untreated DC of 30° or greater in the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) and/or proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints of the small, ring or middle finger. The collagenase group comprised 16 consecutive patients treated during the first 6?months following the introduction of collagenase as treatment for DC at the study centre. The controls were 16 patients randomly selected among those operated on with fasciectomy at the same centre during the preceding 3?years. Interventions Treatment with collagenase was given during two standard outpatient clinic visits (injection of 0.9?mg, distributed at multiple sites in a palpable cord, and next-day finger extension under local anaesthesia) followed by night-time splinting. Fasciectomy was carried out in the operating room (day surgery) under general or regional anaesthesia using standard technique, followed by therapy and splinting. Primary and secondary outcome measures Actual total direct costs (salaries of all medical personnel involved in care, medications, materials and other relevant costs), and total MCP and PIP extension deficit (degrees) measured by hand therapists at 6–12?weeks after the treatment. Results Collagenase injection required fewer hospital outpatient visits to a therapist and nurse than fasciectomy. Total treatment cost for collagenase injection was US$1418.04 and for fasciectomy US$2102.56. The post-treatment median (IQR) total extension deficit was 10 (0–30) for the collagenase group and 10 (0–34) for the fasciectomy group. Conclusions Treatment of DC with one collagenase injection costs 33% less than fasciectomy with equivalent efficacy at 6?weeks regarding reduction in contracture. PMID:24435894

Atroshi, Isam; Strandberg, Emelie; Lauritzson, Anna; Ahlgren, Eva; Waldén, Markus

2014-01-01

358

Intralesional Injection of Mitomycin C at Transurethral Incision of Bladder Neck Contracture May Offer Limited Benefit: TURNS Study Group  

PubMed Central

Purpose Injection of mitomycin C may increase the success of transurethral incision of the bladder neck for the treatment of bladder neck contracture. We evaluated the efficacy of mitomycin C injection across multiple institutions. Materials and Methods Data on all patients who underwent transurethral incision of the bladder neck with mitomycin C from 2009 to 2014 were retrospectively reviewed from 6 centers in the TURNS. Patients with at least 3 months of cystoscopic followup were included in the analysis. Results A total of 66 patients underwent transurethral incision of the bladder neck with mitomycin C and 55 meeting the study inclusion criteria were analyzed. Mean ± SD patient age was 64 ± 7.6 years. Dilation or prior transurethral incision of the bladder neck failed in 80% (44 of 55) of patients. Overall 58% (32 of 55) of patients achieved resolution of bladder neck contracture after 1 transurethral incision of the bladder neck with mitomycin C at a median followup of 9.2 months (IQR 11.7). There were 23 patients who had recurrence at a median of 3.7 months (IQR 4.2), 15 who underwent repeat transurethral incision of the bladder neck with mitomycin C and 9 of 15 (60%) who were free of another recurrence at a median of 8.6 months (IQR 8.8), for an overall success rate of 75% (41 of 55). Incision with electrocautery (Collins knife) was predictive of success compared with cold knife incision (63% vs 50%, p=0.03). Four patients experienced serious adverse events related to mitomycin C and 3 needed or are planning cystectomy. Conclusions The efficacy of intralesional injection of mitomycin C at transurethral incision of the bladder neck was lower than previously reported and was associated with a 7% rate of serious adverse events. PMID:25200807

Redshaw, Jeffrey D.; Broghammer, Joshua A.; Smith, Thomas G.; Voelzke, Bryan B.; Erickson, Bradley A.; McClung, Christopher D.; Elliott, Sean P.; Alsikafi, Nejd F.; Presson, Angela P.; Aberger, Michael E.; Craig, James R.; Brant, William O.; Myers, Jeremy B.

2015-01-01

359

Paediatric burns in sulaimani, iraq.  

PubMed

Burns are the most frequent injury among paediatric patients. The injury, treatment, and rehabilitation process affect children not only physiologically but also psychologically. In this prospective study of burn victims aged 12 yr and less hospitalized in our burns centre (Emergency Hospital) between July 2001 and August 2005, three age groups were considered (0-12 months, 1-6 yr, and 7-12 yr), distinguished on the basis of children's predominant activity and behaviour. The study reports on the characteristics of burn injuries in children hospitalized in the Emergency Hospital at the burns centre in Sulaimani, Iraq. In the period of study, 3550 children with burn injuries were treated in our burns centre (in-patients and out-patients), made up 44% (3550/8000) of all burn victims treated in our burns centre in that period. The children's mean age was 4.03 ± 1.62 yr. The male/female ratio was 1:1.1 (1725/1825). Scald burns, accounting for 79.4% of the cases, were the commonest injuries in the study, compared with 20.6% non-scald burns. Most of the injuries happened in the home (74.7%). The trunk was affected in 78.6% of all patients studied. Meal times (especially dinner, 6-9 p.m., and lunch 11 a.m.-2 p.m) clearly had the highest number of accidents. There were more paediatric burns in the colder months (38.2% in winter). Surgery was performed in 553 patients (15.6%). In the five years studied, there were 411 in-hospital child deaths due to burns (11.5%). PMID:21991081

Kadir, A R

2007-09-30

360

Implantation of atelocollagen sheet for vocal fold scar  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review This article reviews recent advances in scaffold-based interventions for the treatment of vocal fold scarring, with a particular emphasis on atelocollagen sheet implantation in the vocal fold lamina propria. Recent findings Scaffold-based therapies have demonstrated therapeutic promise in both pre-clinical and early clinical studies. Recent research has begun to shed light on the interactions between scaffold material properties, encapsulated and infiltrating cells, stimulatory molecules such as growth factors, and external regulatory variables such as stress, strain and vibration. The atelocollagen sheet, a cross-linked collagen material with abundant micropores, has an established clinical track record as a scaffold for dermal and epidermal repair and exhibited potential therapeutic benefit in a recent study of patients with vocal fold scarring and sulcus vocalis. Summary Scaffolding is one of the useful tools in tissue engineering and atelocollagen sheet implantation has shown to be effective in vocal fold regeneration. However, many of the scaffold materials under investigation still await clinical translation, and those that have been investigated in human patients (such as the atelocollagen sheet) require additional research in appropriately powered placebo controlled studies. PMID:20856118

Kishimoto, Yo; Welham, Nathan V.; Hirano, Shigeru

2011-01-01

361

Scar prevention and cosmetically enhanced wound healing using relaxin.  

PubMed

Relaxin has previously been tested in rodent wound healing models and been shown to promote angiogenesis and to speed healing. However, pigs have been shown to be a better model for human skin in dermatology studies, so juvenile pigs were selected for a study of scar reduction and cosmetic appearance. Twelve 20- by 6-mm excisional wounds were created on the backs of all animals. Topical formulations of relaxin with 0, 0.5, or 2.5 mg/mL were applied twice daily for weeks 2-3 and then daily for weeks 3-6 in all animals. In addition, some animals received systemic relaxin, which was administered via infusion pumps at a rate of 125 microg/kg of body weight/day. Assessments of healing and cosmetic appearance were made by a dermatologist at weeks 2, 4, and 6. Wound sites were collected at 6 weeks and evaluated histologically for granulation tissue, inflammation, and collagen organization. Wounds in animals receiving systemic relaxin had an improved appearance with less redness, reduced granulation tissue, and lower amounts of inflammation. They showed a more-well-knit collagen structure compared to controls. Wounds treated with topical formulations did not show improvement over controls. The topical formulation used was found to have a short residence time, which likely limited penetration of relaxin. Reformulated relaxin preparations with improved penetration might be useful as a topical treatment for wounds to prevent or reduce scarring. PMID:19416215

Stewart, Dennis R

2009-04-01

362

Marginally Stable Nuclear Burning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermonuclear X-ray bursts result from unstable nuclear burning of the material accreted on neutron stars in some low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). Theory predicts that close to the boundary of stability oscillatory burning can occur. This marginally stable regime has so far been identified in only a small number of sources. We present Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations of the bursting, high- inclination LMXB 4U 1323-619 that reveal for the first time in this source the signature of marginally stable burning. The source was observed during two successive RXTE orbits for approximately 5 ksec beginning at 10:14:01 UTC on March 28, 2011. Significant mHz quasi- periodic oscillations (QPO) at a frequency of 8.1 mHz are detected for approximately 1600 s from the beginning of the observation until the occurrence of a thermonuclear X-ray burst at 10:42:22 UTC. The mHz oscillations are not detected following the X-ray burst. The average fractional rms amplitude of the mHz QPOs is 6.4% (3 - 20 keV), and the amplitude increases to about 8% below 10 keV.This phenomenology is strikingly similar to that seen in the LMXB 4U 1636-53. Indeed, the frequency of the mHz QPOs in 4U 1323-619 prior to the X-ray burst is very similar to the transition frequency between mHz QPO and bursts found in 4U 1636-53 by Altamirano et al. (2008). These results strongly suggest that the observed QPOs in 4U 1323-619 are, like those in 4U 1636-53, due to marginally stable nuclear burning. We also explore the dependence of the energy spectrum on the oscillation phase, and we place the present observations within the context of the spectral evolution of the accretion-powered flux from the source.

Strohmayer, Tod E.; Altamirano, D.

2012-01-01

363

Wood burning stove  

SciTech Connect

A wood burning stove having improved air flow characteristics for effective combustion and purging of gaseous combustion by-products. A primary air inlet is provided below the loading door of the stove for feeding air to the firebox proper for combustion. A plurality of opposing supplementary air inlets are provided in opposite sides of the stove, at least two of the supplementary inlets being on the level of the primary air inlet, for introducing air into the firebox supplemental to the air flow through the primary inlet.

Halchek, J.

1984-09-18

364

Wood burning stove  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed herein is an improved wood burning stove employing a combustion chamber and a flue for removing exhaust therefrom and also a catalytic converter means for oxidizing oxidizable species in the exhaust. A passageway is provided for bypassing the exhaust around the catalytic converter means, the passageway being controlled by a bypass damper for controlling access to the passageway for varying impedance otherwise presented to the exhaust by the converter, for example, during the addition of fuel to the stove. Such an arrangement minimizes back pressure caused by the converter means.

Allaire, R.A.; Pardue, W.F.; Vandewoestine, R.V.

1982-05-18

365

Wood burning stove  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed herein is an improved wood burning stove having a combustion chamber and a flue for removing exhaust from the chamber wherein the improvement comprises the addition of a catalytic converter means for oxidizing oxidizable species in the exhaust. In one embodiment, the catalytic converter means is situated in a flue immediately adjacent the combustion chamber. In another embodiment, the catalytic converter means is situated in the combustion chamber itself. In addition, the nature and structure of a catalytic converter means have been determined for marginal acceptable and optimum performance with adequate pressure drop thereacross.

van Dewoestine, R.V.

1983-02-15

366

Pelletized fuel burning heater  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a bio-mass fuel burning heater. It comprises: a combustion chamber having top and bottom ends with side walls extending between the top and bottom ends; pot means for holding the bio-mass fuel, the pot means located adjacent to the lower end of the combustion chamber, the pot means having an open upper combustion end and an open lower fuel feed end passing through a side wall of the combustion chamber; an enclosure surrounding the combustion chamber and pot means; air manifold means within the combustion chamber for delivering combustion air above the combustion end of the pot means.

Nuesmeyer, D.; Brondt, G.

1990-05-08

367

CAD tool for burn diagnosis.  

PubMed

In this paper a new system for burn diagnosis is proposed. The aim of the system is to separate burn wounds from healthy skin, and the different types of burns (burn depths) from each other, identifying each one. The system is based on the colour and texture information, as these are the characteristics observed by physicians in order to give a diagnosis. We use a perceptually uniform colour space (L*u*v*), since Euclidean distances calculated in this space correspond to perceptually colour differences. After the burn is segmented, some colour and texture descriptors are calculated and they are the inputs to a Fuzzy-ARTMAP neural network. The neural network classifies them into three types of bums: superficial dermal, deep dermal and full thickness. Clinical effectiveness of the method was demonstrated on 62 clinical burn wound images obtained from digital colour photographs, yielding an average classification success rate of 82% compared to expert classified images. PMID:15344466

Acha, Begoña; Serrano, Carmen; Acha, José I; Roa, Laura M

2003-07-01

368

Episodic nitrous oxide soil emissions in Brazilian savanna (cerrado) fire-scars. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

The seasonally burned cerrados of Brazil are the largest savanna-type ecosystem of South America and their contribution to the global atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O) budget is unknown. Four types of fire-scarred cerrado along a vegetation gradient from grassland to forest were investigated during the wet season of 1992/93. The effect of fire and subsequent water additions on epiodic emissions of N2O and the associated profile dynamic of soil/gas phase N2O concentrations were studied for several months. Additionally, the effect on episodic emissions of N2O of nitrate and glucose additions to a cerrado soil after fire and the associated profile dynamic of soil/gas phase N2O mixing ratios were determined. Finally, N2O episodic emissions in cerrado converted to corn, soybean, and pasture fields were investigated during one growing/wet season. Results showed N2O consumption/emission for the four fire-scared savanna ecosystems, for nitrogen and carbon fertilization, and for agriculture/pasture ranging from -0.3 to +0.7, 1.8 to 9.1, and 0.5 to 3.7 g N2O-N ha(exp -1) d(exp -1), respectively. During the wet season the cerrado biome does not appear to be a major source of N2O to the troposphere, even following fire events. However, the results of this study suggest that conversion of the cerrado to high input agriculture, with liming and fertilization, can increase N2O emissions more than ten fold.

Nobre, A.D.; Crill, P.M.; Harriss, R.C.

1994-08-01

369

Inactivation of Salmonella on tomato stem scars by acidic sanitizing solutions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tomato stem scars are a likely contamination point for Salmonella, although they are recalcitrant to decontamination. Investigating stem scar sanitation may represent a worst-case-scenario model for inactivating Salmonella from externally-contaminated tomatoes. A composite of Salmonella Saintpau...

370

Disturbances in the Siberian boreal forest - mapping fire-scars using multitemporal, multisensor approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes a technique to map historical (1 to 10 years old) fire scars using a vegetation index, NDSWIR, based on the SWIR and NIR. A temporal set of NDSWIR SPOT-VGT images of Siberia were segmented and then recombined with the original NDSWIR images to form a per-pixel fire scar probability map. The results show a good agreement between

C. T. George; F. Gerard; H. Baltzer; I. McCallum; A. Shvidenko; S. Nilsson; C. Schmullius

2003-01-01

371

Photothermal radiometry probing of scars in the internal surface of a thin metal tube.  

PubMed

The principle and equipment of photothermal radiometry probing of scars in the internal surface of a thin metal tube are described. By measuring the amplitude frequency characteristics of the photothermal signal, we calculated the depth of the scars in the internal surface of a sample. PMID:20725353

Li, P Z; Zhou, G Y

1992-07-01

372

RCAS1 Decidual Immunoreactivity during Cesarean Section in Scar Deciduosis: Immune Cell Presence and Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction:Scar deciduosis provides a research model that enables us to assess the impact of decidua on the activity and quality of the immune cells infiltrating this scar tissue. This unique model allows us to examine these processes under conditions excluding the impact of placental cells which, along with decidual cells, control the activity of immune cells under physiological conditions. RCAS1

Joanna Skret-Magierlo; Lukasz Wicherek; Pawel Basta; Krystyna Galazka; Jerzy Sikora; Mariusz Wilk; Andrzej Skret

2008-01-01

373

Keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans: a rare cause of scarring alopecia in two young Indian girls.  

PubMed

Keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans (KFSD) is an X-linked xenodermatosis characterized by scarring alopecia and follicular hyperkeratosis. This condition mainly affects males with females being carriers and will have milder symptoms. We present two sisters with severe form of KFSD, progressing to scarring alopecia. PMID:23960394

Maheswari, Uma G; Chaitra, V; Mohan, Subbiah S

2013-01-01

374

Keratosis Follicularis Spinulosa Decalvans: A Rare Cause of Scarring Alopecia in Two Young Indian Girls  

PubMed Central

Keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans (KFSD) is an X-linked xenodermatosis characterized by scarring alopecia and follicular hyperkeratosis. This condition mainly affects males with females being carriers and will have milder symptoms. We present two sisters with severe form of KFSD, progressing to scarring alopecia. PMID:23960394

Maheswari, Uma G; Chaitra, V; Mohan, Subbiah S

2013-01-01

375

Endometriosis of abdominal and pelvic wall scars: multimodality imaging findings, pathologic correlation, and radiologic mimics.  

PubMed

Implantation of an endometriotic lesion within a pelvic or abdominal wall scar is an uncommon but well-described condition that may be the underlying cause of acute or chronic recurrent abdominal or pelvic pain, especially after cesarean section. Radiologists may not consider scar endometriosis when it is encountered at cross-sectional imaging. Cesarean section scars are the most common site of extraovarian or extrauterine endometriosis. The condition also has been identified in other uterine surgery-related scars and in the skin, subcutaneous tissues, and abdominal and pelvic wall musculature adjacent to these scars. The most plausible cause of scar endometriosis is implantation of endometrial stem cells at the surgical site at the time of uterine surgery. Patients with scar endometriosis may be asymptomatic or present with cyclical pain corresponding to the menstrual cycle. Cross-sectional imaging findings vary from the nonspecific to those suggestive of the diagnosis when combined with clinical history. In particular, the presence of blood products in an anterior abdominal wall mass at magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with no other explanation is strongly suggestive of scar endometriosis. Ultrasonography, computed tomography, and MR imaging may be used to depict an endometriotic lesion, exclude endometriosis, or provide evidence for an alternative diagnosis. PMID:23150856

Gidwaney, Rita; Badler, Ruth L; Yam, Benjamin L; Hines, John J; Alexeeva, Vlada; Donovan, Virginia; Katz, Douglas S

2012-01-01

376

Enhancement and Segmentation of Scar Color Images after a Scoliosis Surgery  

E-print Network

Enhancement and Segmentation of Scar Color Images after a Scoliosis Surgery Thomas Hurtut1 of a thousand adolescent diagnosed with scoliosis require surgery, which involves a long scar on the back surface of the patient trunk. To avoid some clinical and esthetic complications due to the length

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

377

Long-term Observation of Soil Creep Activity around a Landslide Scar  

EPA Science Inventory

Rate of sediment infilling into landslide scars by soil creep is needed to estimate the timing of subsequent landslide activity at a particular site. However, knowledge about the spatial distribution of its activity around the landslide scar is scarce. Additionally, there are few...

378

Evaluation of Microneedling Fractional Radiofrequency Device for Treatment of Acne Scars  

PubMed Central

Background: Various treatment modalities including non-invasive methods such as chemical peels, topical retinoids, microdermabrasion, minimally invasive techniques such as microneedling, fractional lasers, microneedling radiofrequency devices and invasive procedures such as acne scar surgeries and ablative lasers are used for acne scars, each with its own unique advantages and disadvantages. This study is a retrospective assessment of efficacy and safety of microneedling fractional radiofrequency in the treatment of acne scars. Methods: Thirty one patients of skin types III-V with moderate and severe facial acne scarring received four sequential fractional radiofrequency treatments over a period of 6 months with an interval of 6 weeks between each session. Goodman & Baron's acne scar grading system was used for assessment by a side by side comparison of preoperative and post- operative photographs taken at their first visit and at the end of 3 months after the last session. Results: Estimation of improvement with Goodman and Baron's Global Acne Scarring System showed that by qualitative assessment of 31 patients with grade 3 and grade 4 acne scars, 80.64% showed improvement by 2 grades and 19.35% showed improvement by 1 grade. Quantitative assessment showed that 58% of the patients had moderate, 29% had minimal, 9% had good and 3% showed very good improvement. Adverse effects were limited to transient pain, erythema, edema and hyperpigmentation. Conclusion: Microneedling fractional radiofrequency is efficacious for the treatment of moderate and severe acne scars. PMID:25136209

Chandrashekar, Byalekere Shivanna; Sriram, Rashmi; Mysore, Rajdeep; Bhaskar, Sapnashree; Shetty, Abhishek

2014-01-01

379

Ultrasonographic measurement of lower uterine segment to assess risk of defects of scarred uterus  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryBackground Ultrasonography has been used to examine the scarred uterus in women who have had previous caesarean sections in an attempt to assess the risk of rupture of the scar during subsequent labour. The predictive value of such measurements has not been adequately assessed, however. We aimed to evaluate the usefulness of sonographic measurement of the lower uterine segment before

P Rozenberg; F Goffinet; H. J Philippe; I Nisand

1996-01-01

380

Getting wood to burn clean  

SciTech Connect

In an effort to decrease their dependence on expensive foreign and domestic oil supplies, an increasing number of U.S. citizens are using wood stoves to heat their residences. Air pollution resulting from this new heating trend in several U.S. locations is discussed. Steps that individual wood stove users can take to make their stoves pollute less include burning seasoned hardwood, allowing each new load of burn to burn briskly for at least 15 minutes before changing the draft control, burning small loads of wood, installing a stack thermometer to determine peak stove efficiencies, and keeping chimneys clean.

Lafavore, M.

1980-11-01

381

Burning mouth syndrome  

PubMed Central

Burning mouth syndrome is a debilitating medical condition affecting nearly 1.3 million of Americans. Its common features include a burning painful sensation in the mouth, often associated with dysgeusia and xerostomia, despite normal salivation. Classically, symptoms are better in the morning, worsen during the day and typically subside at night. Its etiology is largely multifactorial, and associated medical conditions may include gastrointestinal, urogenital, psychiatric, neurologic and metabolic disorders, as well as drug reactions. BMS has clear predisposition to peri-/post menopausal females. Its pathophysiology has not been fully elucidated and involves peripheral and central neuropathic pathways. Clinical diagnosis relies on careful history taking, physical examination and laboratory analysis. Treatment is often tedious and is aimed at correction of underlying medical conditions, supportive therapy, and behavioral feedback. Drug therapy with alpha lipoic acid, clonazepam, capsaicin, and antidepressants may provide symptom relief. Psychotherapy may be helpful. Short term follow up data is promising, however, long term prognosis with treatment is lacking. BMS remains an important medical condition which often places a recognizable burden on the patient and health care system and requires appropriate recognition and treatment. PMID:23429751

Gurvits, Grigoriy E; Tan, Amy

2013-01-01

382

Wood burning stove  

SciTech Connect

A wood burning stove is formed with double front and rear side walls of heat conductive metal interconnected by heat conductive spacer fins and providing air passageways by which room air is heated by conduction from the walls which are heated by the burning of wood deposited on a firebox grate made up of spaced bricks supported by metal holders secured in heat conducting relation to said inner side walls. The rear side air passageway is divided into central and outer vertical sections, the central one of which is closed at the bottom end and communicates with the atmosphere through an opening in the outer wall intermediate to its vertical ends and with the stove interior above the firebox and below the grate through openings in the inner wall intermediate to its vertical ends and adjacent to its bottom end, respectively. A vertical baffle between these inner and outer walls separates said intermediate openings from each other, and a thermostatically controlled damper associated with the opening in the outer wall controls the amount of room air delivered either under the firebox grate or above it. The front side air passageway is divided into upper and lower sections separated by a viewing box closed at its outer end by a glass window and removably closed at its inner end by a pair of hinged doors.

Willson, A.C.

1981-02-03

383

Wood burning stove  

SciTech Connect

An improved wood burning stove for providing heated air to a room or similar area includes an enclosed fire chamber, a hearth at the bottom of the fire chamber, draft inlet means at the front of the fire chamber and a flue at the rear of the fire chamber. Within the fire chamber is an enclosed air chamber having lower and upper portions; the lower portion communicates at the bottom of the stove with the ambient air and extends upwardly adjacent the rear wall of the fire chamber to a point below the flue, where it joins with the upper portion. The upper portion of the air chamber extends upwardly toward the front of the fire chamber at an acute angle with the horizontal, preferably between five and twenty-five degrees; at the forward end of the upper portion the air chamber communicates with one or more air pipes which extend to the front of the stove and there open to the ambient air. Ambient air is heated by passing it through the air chamber and air pipes after they have been heated by hot gases rising from a fire burning on the hearth; the hot gases contact the air pipes and the bottom surface of the air chamber's upper portion and, because their normal path of travel to the flue is altered by the positioning of the upper portion of the air chamber, contact the top surface of the air chamber's upper portion as well.

Baker, A.L.

1983-02-08

384

Perivascular Fibroblasts Form the Fibrotic Scar after Contusive Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

Injury to the CNS leads to formation of scar tissue, which is important in sealing the lesion and inhibiting axon regeneration. The fibrotic scar that comprises a dense extracellular matrix is thought to originate from meningeal cells surrounding the CNS. However, using transgenic mice, we demonstrate that perivascular collagen1?1 cells are the main source of the cellular composition of the fibrotic scar after contusive spinal cord injury in which the dura remains intact. Using genetic lineage tracing, light sheet fluorescent microscopy, and antigenic profiling, we identify collagen1?1 cells as perivascular fibroblasts that are distinct from pericytes. Our results identify collagen1?1 cells as a novel source of the fibrotic scar after spinal cord injury and shift the focus from the meninges to the vasculature during scar formation. PMID:23966707

Soderblom, Cynthia; Luo, Xueting; Blumenthal, Ezra; Bray, Eric; Lyapichev, Kirill; Ramos, Jose; Krishnan, Vidhya; Lai-Hsu, Catherine; Park, Kevin K.; Tsoulfas, Pantelis

2013-01-01

385

A Novel Triple Medicine Combination Injection for the Resolution of Keloids and Hypertrophic Scars  

PubMed Central

Keloids and hypertrophic scars remain one of the more difficult treatment concerns for clinicians. A variety of therapies have been used in the past with moderate success. On occasion, combination therapy has been used to treat these lesion, in an attempt to lessen the symptoms of pain and pruritus that often accompanies keloids and hypertrophic scars, as well as treating the actual lesions themselves. A novel triple combination injection process is introduced here in an attempt to further reduce the signs and symptoms of these lesions. The combination includes 5-fluoruracil, triamcinolone acetonide, and hyaluronidase. All three work in concert to treat keloids and hypertrophic scars, and this is the first work at looking at these medicines given together, at the same time, in a series of recalcitrant keloids and hypertrophic scars. The positive results warrant further investigation and hope for those with keloids and hypertrophic scars. PMID:25489380

Gold, Michael H.

2014-01-01

386

A novel triple medicine combination injection for the resolution of keloids and hypertrophic scars.  

PubMed

Keloids and hypertrophic scars remain one of the more difficult treatment concerns for clinicians. A variety of therapies have been used in the past with moderate success. On occasion, combination therapy has been used to treat these lesion, in an attempt to lessen the symptoms of pain and pruritus that often accompanies keloids and hypertrophic scars, as well as treating the actual lesions themselves. A novel triple combination injection process is introduced here in an attempt to further reduce the signs and symptoms of these lesions. The combination includes 5-fluoruracil, triamcinolone acetonide, and hyaluronidase. All three work in concert to treat keloids and hypertrophic scars, and this is the first work at looking at these medicines given together, at the same time, in a series of recalcitrant keloids and hypertrophic scars. The positive results warrant further investigation and hope for those with keloids and hypertrophic scars. PMID:25489380

Goyal, Nilesh N; Gold, Michael H

2014-11-01

387

Perivascular fibroblasts form the fibrotic scar after contusive spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

Injury to the CNS leads to formation of scar tissue, which is important in sealing the lesion and inhibiting axon regeneration. The fibrotic scar that comprises a dense extracellular matrix is thought to originate from meningeal cells surrounding the CNS. However, using transgenic mice, we demonstrate that perivascular collagen1?1 cells are the main source of the cellular composition of the fibrotic scar after contusive spinal cord injury in which the dura remains intact. Using genetic lineage tracing, light sheet fluorescent microscopy, and antigenic profiling, we identify collagen1?1 cells as perivascular fibroblasts that are distinct from pericytes. Our results identify collagen1?1 cells as a novel source of the fibrotic scar after spinal cord injury and shift the focus from the meninges to the vasculature during scar formation. PMID:23966707

Soderblom, Cynthia; Luo, Xueting; Blumenthal, Ezra; Bray, Eric; Lyapichev, Kirill; Ramos, Jose; Krishnan, Vidhya; Lai-Hsu, Catherine; Park, Kevin K; Tsoulfas, Pantelis; Lee, Jae K

2013-08-21

388

Fractional CO2 lasers for the treatment of atrophic acne scars: a review of the literature.  

PubMed

This review examines the efficacy and safety of fractional CO2 lasers for the treatment of atrophic scarring secondary to acne vulgaris. We reviewed 20 papers published between 2008 and 2013 that conducted clinical studies using fractional CO2 lasers to treat atrophic scarring. We discuss the prevalence and pathogenesis of acne scarring, as well as the laser mechanism. The histologic findings are included to highlight the ability of these lasers to induce the collagen reorganization and formation that improves scar appearance. We considered the number of treatments and different laser settings to determine which methods achieve optimal outcomes. We noted unique treatment regimens that yielded superior results. An overview of adverse effects is included to identify the most common ones. We concluded that more studies need to be done using uniform treatment parameters and reporting in order to establish which fractional CO2 laser treatment approaches allow for the greatest scar improvement. PMID:24131097

Magnani, Lauren Rose; Schweiger, Eric S

2014-04-01

389

Wood-burning stove and method for burning wood  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wood-burning stove utilizes a volatilization chamber inserted within the combustion chamber of the stove. The volatilization chamber contains a charge of wood which is heated to drive off combustible gases and vapors. The combustible gases and vapors are thereafter burned in the combustion chamber of the stove by being passed through a layer of solid fuel W hich includes

Van Der Linden

1983-01-01

390

Determining the current roles of physical and occupational therapists in burn care.  

PubMed

The team approach has enjoyed great success in the care of patients with burns, and it has been shown to decrease morbidity and mortality in these cases. Although the concept of the team approach is well-defined, the delineation of roles within this approach remains unclear. This study was designed to better explain the roles of physical therapists (PTs) and occupational therapists (OTs) in burn care. With the use of a questionnaire, PT and OT responsibilities were reviewed. The results showed that OTs perform the majority of activities of daily living training, PTs perform the majority of functional mobility training, both professions are involved in scar management, and neither profession has significant responsibility for care of the burn wound itself. Role delineation occurs to help avoid role confusion and the duplication of services. The title burn therapist offers an example of unclear role definition when a physical therapy assistant uses that title to identify himself or herself. Communication is critical to define these roles within individual burn centers. PMID:9789181

Biggs, K S; de Linde, L; Banaszewski, M; Heinrich, J J

1998-01-01

391

Optimal treatment of partial thickness burns in children: a systematic review.  

PubMed

A large part of the patient population of a burn centre consists of children, most of whom are younger than four years. The majority of these young children suffer from superficial and deep partial thickness scald burns that may easily deepen to full thickness burns. A proper wound therapy, that prevents infection and ensures a moist wound condition, might prevent the deterioration of the wound. Therefore, we performed a systematic review of wound management and dressing materials to select the best treatment option for children with burns. A search in Medline and Embase revealed 51 articles for a critical appraisal. The articles were divided into randomized controlled trials, cohort studies and a group of case-reports. Total appraisal did not differ much amongst the groups; the level of evidence was highest in the randomized controlled trials and lowest in the case-reports. In 16 out of 34 comparative studies, silver sulfadiazine or a silver sulfadiazine/chlorhexidine-gluconate combination was the standard of wound care treatment. The competitor dressing was Biobrane(®) in six studies and amnion membrane in three. Tulle gauze, or tulle gauze impregnated with an antibacterial addition were the standard of care treatment in seven studies. In general, membranous dressings like Biobrane(®) and amnion membrane performed better than the standard of care on epithelialization rate, length of hospital stay and pain for treatment of partial thickness burns in children. However, hardly any of the studies investigated long-term results like scar formation. PMID:24290852

Vloemans, A F P M; Hermans, M H E; van der Wal, M B A; Liebregts, J; Middelkoop, E

2014-03-01

392

The Healing Effect of Nettle Extract on Second Degree Burn Wounds  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Numerous studies were carried out to develop more sophisticated dressings to expedite healing processes and diminish the bacterial burden in burn wounds. This study assessed the healing effect of nettle extract on second degree burns wound in rats in comparison with silver sulfadiazine and vaseline. METHODS Forty rats were randomly assigned to four equal groups. A deep second-degree burn was created on the back of each rat using a standard burning procedure. The burns were dressed daily with nettle extract in group 1, silver sulfadiazine in group 2, vaseline in group 3 and without any medication in group 4 as control group. The response to treatment was assessed by digital photography during the treatment until day 42. Histological scoring was undertaken for scar tissue samples on days 10 and 42. RESULTS A statistically significant difference was observed in group 1 compared with other groups regarding 4 scoring parameters after 10 days. A statistically significant difference was seen for fibrosis parameter after 42 days. In terms of difference of wound surface area, maximal healing was noticed at the same time in nettle group and minimal repair in the control group. CONCLUSION Our findings showed maximal rate of healing in the nettle group. So it may be a suitable substitute for silver sulfadiazine and vaseline when available. PMID:25606473

Akbari, Hosein; Fatemi, Mohammad Javad; Iranpour, Maryam; Khodarahmi, Ali; Baghaee, Mehrdad; Pedram, Mir Sepehr; Saleh, Sahar; Araghi, Shirin

2015-01-01

393

Development of SCAR Markers for the Identification of Phytophthora katsurae Causing Chestnut Ink Disease in Korea  

PubMed Central

Sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers are one of the most effective and accurate tools for microbial identification. In this study, we applied SCAR markers for the rapid and accurate detection of Phytophthora katsurae, the casual agent of chestnut ink disease in Korea. In this study, we developed seven SCAR markers specific to P. katsurae using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and assessed the potential of the SCAR markers to serve as tools for identifying P. katsurae. Seven primer pairs (SOPC 1F/SOPC 1R, SOPC 1-1F/SOPC 1-1R, SOPC 3F/SOPC 3R, SOPC 4F/SOPC 4R, SOPC 4F/SOPC 4-1R, SOPD 9F/SOPD 9R, and SOPD 10F/SOPD 10R) from a sequence derived from RAPD fragments were designed for the analysis of the SCAR markers. To evaluate the specificity and sensitivity of the SCAR markers, the genomic DNA of P. katsurae was serially diluted 10-fold to final concentrations from 1 mg/mL to 1 pg/mL. The limit of detection using the SCAR markers ranged from 100 µg/mL to 100 ng/mL. To identify the limit for detecting P. katsurae zoospores, each suspension of zoospores was serially diluted 10-fold to final concentrations from 10 × 105 to 10 × 101 zoospores/mL, and then extracted. The limit of detection by SCAR markers was approximately 10 × 101 zoospores/mL. PCR detection with SCAR markers was specific for P. katsurae, and did not produce any P. katsurae-specific PCR amplicons from 16 other Phytophthora species used as controls. This study shows that SCAR markers are a useful tool for the rapid and effective detection of P. katsurae. PMID:23874131

Lee, Dong Hyeon; Lee, Sun Keun; Lee, Sang Yong

2013-01-01

394

Oral Rehydration Therapy in Burn Patients  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Burn Any Degree Involving 20-29 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 30-39 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 40-49 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 50-59 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 60-65 Percent of Body Surface

2014-04-24

395

Astronomy from CONCORDIA in the General Framework of SCAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The importance of CONCORDIA as a perspective site for Antarctic astronomy is being increasingly considered both by the scientists and the managers of Antarctic research. The data available indicate that this may be the best site on Earth, and under some respects even better than space, at least in some observational bands. Further site testing is needed to make this a generally held opinion. Still, operations from CONCORDIA need to be planned immediately. SCAR recognises the enormous potential of CONCORDIA, and of the Antarctic plateau in general; so much so that it encourages the international astronomical community to identify a Scientific Research Program in Antarctic astronomy and astrophysics to be considered by the national delegates at its next general assembly in 2008. The role of ARENA in the preparation of this proposal should be as relevant as the quality of the site suggests.

Candidi, M.

396

30 CFR 817.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization...MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine waste fires shall be...

2010-07-01

397

30 CFR 816.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization...MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine waste fires shall be...

2010-07-01

398

Mathematical modeling of chemotaxis and glial scarring around implanted electrodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known that the implantation of electrodes for deep brain stimulation or microelectrode probes for the recording of neuronal activity is always accompanied by the response of the brain’s immune system leading to the formation of a glial scar around the implantation sites. The implantation of electrodes causes massive release of adenosine-5?-triphosphate (ATP) and different cytokines into the extracellular space and activates the microglia. The released ATP and the products of its hydrolysis, such as ADP and adenosine, become the main elements mediating chemotactic sensitivity and motility of microglial cells via subsequent activation of P2Y2,12 as well as A3A/A2A adenosine receptors. The size and density of an insulating sheath around the electrode, formed by microglial cells, are important criteria for the optimization of the signal-to-noise ratio during microelectrode recordings or parameters of electrical current delivered to the brain tissue. Here, we study a purinergic signaling pathway underlying the chemotactic motion of microglia towards implanted electrodes as well as the possible impact of an anti-inflammatory coating consisting of the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist. We present a model describing the formation of a stable aggregate around the electrode due to the joint chemo-attractive action of ATP and ADP and the mixed influence of extracellular adenosine. The bioactive coating is modeled as a source of chemo-repellent located near the electrode surface. The obtained analytical and numerical results allowed us to reveal the dependences of size and spatial location of the insulating sheath on the amount of released ATP and estimate the impact of immune suppressive coating on the scarring process.

Silchenko, Alexander N.; Tass, Peter A.

2015-02-01

399

Fractional laser resurfacing for acne scars: a review.  

PubMed

This review investigates the effectiveness of ablative and nonablative fractional photothermolysis (FP) lasers for treating facial acne scars. Twenty-six studies (13 ablative FP, 13 nonablative FP) published between 2003 and January 2011 were reviewed. Quantitative and qualitative data from each article were examined and analysed. Four studies were split-face randomized controlled studies. While the data analysed were all clinically relevant and significant, there were some methodological differences between the studies. Outcomes included subjective and objective assessment of scar appearance, pre- and postoperative treatment, side-effects and pain scores. A small number of studies used three-dimensional optical imaging profiling and histology for objective assessment. Even allowing for methodological variability, ablative FP had an improvement range of 26-83% whereas nonablative FP had an improvement range of 26-50%. Patients who underwent treatment with an ablative FP laser experienced erythema for 3-14 days which resolved by 12 weeks, whereas patients who opted for the nonablative FP laser experienced erythema for between 1 and 3 days and this resolved within a week. A higher proportion of patients (up to 92·3%) who underwent ablative FP experienced postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) than those who had nonablative FP (up to 13%). The maximum duration of PIH in ablative FP was up to 6 months whereas in nonablative FP it lasted for up to 1 week. The procedure with ablative FP was relatively uncomfortable compared with nonablative FP. The pain score with ablative FP ranged from 5·90 to 8·10 (scale 1-10) and with nonablative FP from 3·90 to 5·66 (scale 1-10). PMID:22296284

Ong, M W S; Bashir, S J

2012-06-01

400

Changing Children's Conceptions of Burning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines children's understanding of burning focusing on questions such as: "What are children's views of burning prior to and after instruction?," and "Do children's views become more scientific?" A significant difference was found in children's understanding before and after instruction. (Author/MM)

Gabel, Dorothy L.; Stockton, Jamie D.; Monaghan, Diane L.; MaKinster, James G.

2001-01-01

401

Animal models in burn research.  

PubMed

Burn injury is a severe form of trauma affecting more than 2 million people in North America each year. Burn trauma is not a single pathophysiological event but a devastating injury that causes structural and functional deficits in numerous organ systems. Due to its complexity and the involvement of multiple organs, in vitro experiments cannot capture this complexity nor address the pathophysiology. In the past two decades, a number of burn animal models have been developed to replicate the various aspects of burn injury, to elucidate the pathophysiology, and to explore potential treatment interventions. Understanding the advantages and limitations of these animal models is essential for the design and development of treatments that are clinically relevant to humans. This review aims to highlight the common animal models of burn injury in order to provide investigators with a better understanding of the benefits and limitations of these models for translational applications. While many animal models of burn exist, we limit our discussion to the skin healing of mouse, rat, and pig. Additionally, we briefly explain hypermetabolic characteristics of burn injury and the animal model utilized to study this phenomena. Finally, we discuss the economic costs associated with each of these models in order to guide decisions of choosing the appropriate animal model for burn research. PMID:24714880

Abdullahi, A; Amini-Nik, S; Jeschke, M G

2014-09-01

402

Burned Wetland Near Tebicuary River  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

In the rangelands of southern Paraguay, wetlands are burned to encourage new growth for cattle grazing. The burned wetland grasses are in the Family Poaceae (Gramineae), and may be in one of these genera: Panicum, Paspalum, Pennisetum, Tripogon. The Ñeembucú Region is typified by exten...

403

Burning crude oil without pollution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Crude oil can be burned at drilling sites by two-stage combustion process without producing pollution. Process allows easier conformance to strict federal or state clean air standards without installation of costly pollution removal equipment. Secondary oil recovery can be accomplished with injection of steam heating by burning oil.

Houseman, J.

1979-01-01

404

Wood burning stove  

SciTech Connect

Wood burning stoves are of a type having a lower chamber and an upper chamber interconnected by a port. Air inlets are located laterally of the base of a fire in the lower chamber with a natural draft therein effecting a multitude of upwardly rising air streams of which one type is hot and oxygen poor and which carry and heat another type of air stream which is oxygen rich. The port is so dimensioned and spaced in relation to the lower chamber and to the flue outlet of the upper chamber that a secondary combustion zone is provided in which the upwardly rising streams are suddenly contracted, expanded and intermingled with simultaneous heat loss minimized ensuring the maintenance of a temperature adequate to result in the combustion of pyrolitic products.

Nason, M.L.

1984-09-25

405

Wood-burning stove  

SciTech Connect

A wood-burning stove includes side walls joined together in an airtight manner to form a firebox and a heat chamber thereabove. The firebox contains upstanding rails to support wood logs for combustion. Streams of heated air are discharged from a manifold that extends from rail-to-rail outwardly from one terminal end of each rail between opposite side walls of the stove. A plate is adjusted to control the flow of air into the manifold. An access door has openings in a spacer side wall for supplying air as desired to the firebox. The spacer walls of the door support a glass panel at an outwardly spaced location from a deflector to prevent deposits of creosote and other materials on the glass.

Squires, W.

1983-09-06

406

Stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) and its receptor CXCR4 in the formation of postburn hypertrophic scar (HTS).  

PubMed

Recent data support the involvement of stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) in the homing of bone marrow-derived stem cells to wound sites during skeletal, myocardial, vascular, lung, and skin wound repair as well as some fibrotic disorders via its receptor CXCR4. In this study, the role of SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling in the formation of hypertrophic scar (HTS) following burn injury and after treatment with systemic interferon ?2b (IFN?2b) is investigated. Studies show SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling was up-regulated in burn patients, including SDF-1 level in HTS tissue and serum as well as CD14+ CXCR4+ cells in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In vitro, dermal fibroblasts constitutively expressed SDF-1 and deep dermal fibroblasts expressed more SDF-1 than superficial fibroblasts. Lipopolysaccharide increased SDF-1 gene expression in fibroblasts. Also, recombinant SDF-1 and lipopolysaccharide stimulated fibroblast-conditioned medium up-regulated peripheral blood mononuclear cell mobility. In the burn patients with HTS who received subcutaneous IFN?2b treatment, increased SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling was found prior to treatment which was down-regulated after IFN?2b administration, coincident with enhanced remodeling of their HTS. Our results suggest that SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling is involved in the development of HTS by promoting migration of activated CD14+ CXCR4+ cells from the bloodstream to wound sites, where they may differentiate into fibrocyte and myofibroblasts and contribute to the development of HTS. PMID:22092795

Ding, Jie; Hori, Keijiro; Zhang, Rainny; Marcoux, Yvonne; Honardoust, Dariush; Shankowsky, Heather A; Tredget, Edward E

2011-01-01

407

Protect the Ones You Love: Burns Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... injuries from flame burns that are caused by direct contact with fire. Thankfully, there are ways you can help protect the children you love from burns. Prevention Tips To prevent burns from fires: Be alarmed. Install and maintain ...

408

The prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder in patients with burn injuries, and their quality of life.  

PubMed

Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in patients with burn injuries undergoing physical therapy, and to evaluate their quality of life. Methods. A total of 21 patients who underwent physical therapy for burn injuries between October 2012 and December 2012, in the Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation outpatient clinic of a Training and Research Hospital, were included in the study. The sociodemographic form for data collection, the Clinician- Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) for the diagnosis of PTSD, and the Short Form 36 (SF-36) Health Survey for the assessment of the quality of life, were used. Results. Eight patients (38.1%) had PTSD. These patients had poor physical functioning, and indicated a lower rate of role functioning-physical, vitality, and role functioning-social, compared to those without PTSD. However, it did not reach statistical significance. The physical functioning related to the quality of life was statistically significantly lower in the patients with contracture. Conclusions. PTSD seems to be an important health issue in patients with burn injuries. Clinicians who attempt to tailor treatment interventions should keep in mind that these patients require psychosocial rehabilitation, as well as physical therapy. PMID:25363198

Cakir, Ugur; Terzi, Rabia; Abaci, Figen; Aker, Tamer

2014-11-24

409

CARDIAC MRI SCAR PATTERNS DIFFER BY GENDER IN AN IMPLANTABLE CARDIOVERTER DEFIBRILLATOR AND CARDIAC RESYNCHRONIZATION COHORT  

PubMed Central

Background Recent meta-analyses suggest that the effectiveness of cardiac devices may differ between genders. Compared to men, women may not benefit as much from implantable defibrillators (ICDs), yet benefit more from cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Myocardial scar burden is associated with increased incidence of appropriate ICD shocks but decreased response to CRT and may explain gender differences in device benefit. Objective To test the hypothesis that the extent of myocardial scar is less in women than men. Methods In 235 patients referred for primary prevention ICDs who underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, we compared scar size by gender. Analyses were performed for all patients (ICD cohort) and those receiving biventricular pacemakers (CRT subgroup). Results In the ICD cohort, women (vs. men) had a higher prevalence of non-ischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM, 64% vs. 39%, p<0.001) which accounted for a smaller overall scar burden (0.5% vs 13%, p<0.01). Likewise, in the CRT subgroup, the higher prevalence of NICM in women (83% vs. 46%, p=0.01) also contributed to a smaller scar size (0 vs 13%, p<0.01). Women also had significantly less scarring of the inferolateral LV wall. Conclusions In a cohort of patients undergoing clinically indicated ICD and CRT, women had less myocardial scar than men. This difference was primarily driven by a higher prevalence of NICM in women. These findings may have important implications for the future study of gender disparities in ICD and CRT outcomes. PMID:23313802

Loring, Zak; Strauss, David G.; Gerstenblith, Gary; Tomaselli, Gordon F.; Weiss, Robert G.; Wu, Katherine C.

2013-01-01

410

Follicular and scarring disorders in skin of color: presentation and management.  

PubMed

Skin of color, also known as ethnic skin, is described as skin of individuals of African, Asian, Hispanic, Native-American, Middle Eastern, and Pacific Island backgrounds. Differences in hair morphology, hair grooming, cultural practices, and susceptibility to keloid scarring exist within these populations and have been implicated in hair, scalp, and skin disorders. Acne keloidalis (AK), central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (CCCA), dissecting cellulitis of the scalp (DCS), pseudofolliculitis barbae (PFB), traction alopecia (TA), and keloids are the most prevalent follicular and scarring disorders in skin of color. They have been associated with disfigurement, permanent hair loss, emotional distress, and decreased quality of life. Hair grooming practices, such as the use of chemical relaxers, heat straightening, and tight braiding and weaving can cause scalp irritation and follicular damage and are linked to the pathogenesis of some of these conditions. Consequently, patient education and behavior modifications are integral to the prevention and management of these disorders. Scarring disorders are also of concern in ethnic populations. Keloid scarring is more prevalent in individuals of African, Asian, and Hispanic descent. The scarring alopecia CCCA is almost exclusively seen in patients of African descent. Therapeutic regimens such as intralesional corticosteroids, surgical excision, and laser therapy can be effective for these follicular and scarring disorders, but carry a risk of dyspigmentation and keloid scarring. Ethnic skin and hair may present unique challenges to the clinician, and knowledge of these differences is essential to providing quality care. PMID:24820821

Madu, Pamela; Kundu, Roopal V

2014-08-01

411

Skin Regeneration in Adult Axolotls: A Blueprint for Scar-Free Healing in Vertebrates  

PubMed Central

While considerable progress has been made towards understanding the complex processes and pathways that regulate human wound healing, regenerative medicine has been unable to develop therapies that coax the natural wound environment to heal scar-free. The inability to induce perfect skin regeneration stems partly from our limited understanding of how scar-free healing occurs in a natural setting. Here we have investigated the wound repair process in adult axolotls and demonstrate that they are capable of perfectly repairing full thickness excisional wounds made on the flank. In the context of mammalian wound repair, our findings reveal a substantial reduction in hemostasis, reduced neutrophil infiltration and a relatively long delay in production of new extracellular matrix (ECM) during scar-free healing. Additionally, we test the hypothesis that metamorphosis leads to scarring and instead show that terrestrial axolotls also heal scar-free, albeit at a slower rate. Analysis of newly forming dermal ECM suggests that low levels of fibronectin and high levels of tenascin-C promote regeneration in lieu of scarring. Lastly, a genetic analysis during wound healing comparing epidermis between aquatic and terrestrial axolotls suggests that matrix metalloproteinases may regulate the fibrotic response. Our findings outline a blueprint to understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms coordinating scar-free healing that will be useful towards elucidating new regenerative therapies targeting fibrosis and wound repair. PMID:22485136

Seifert, Ashley W.; Monaghan, James R.; Voss, S. Randal; Maden, Malcolm

2012-01-01

412

Lamellipodin and the Scar/WAVE complex cooperate to promote cell migration in vivo.  

PubMed

Cell migration is essential for development, but its deregulation causes metastasis. The Scar/WAVE complex is absolutely required for lamellipodia and is a key effector in cell migration, but its regulation in vivo is enigmatic. Lamellipodin (Lpd) controls lamellipodium formation through an unknown mechanism. Here, we report that Lpd directly binds active Rac, which regulates a direct interaction between Lpd and the Scar/WAVE complex via Abi. Consequently, Lpd controls lamellipodium size, cell migration speed, and persistence via Scar/WAVE in vitro. Moreover, Lpd knockout mice display defective pigmentation because fewer migrating neural crest-derived melanoblasts reach their target during development. Consistently, Lpd regulates mesenchymal neural crest cell migration cell autonomously in Xenopus laevis via the Scar/WAVE complex. Further, Lpd's Drosophila melanogaster orthologue Pico binds Scar, and both regulate collective epithelial border cell migration. Pico also controls directed cell protrusions of border cell clusters in a Scar-dependent manner. Taken together, Lpd is an essential, evolutionary conserved regulator of the Scar/WAVE complex during cell migration in vivo. PMID:24247431

Law, Ah-Lai; Vehlow, Anne; Kotini, Maria; Dodgson, Lauren; Soong, Daniel; Theveneau, Eric; Bodo, Cristian; Taylor, Eleanor; Navarro, Christel; Perera, Upamali; Michael, Magdalene; Dunn, Graham A; Bennett, Daimark; Mayor, Roberto; Krause, Matthias

2013-11-25

413

A SCAR-based method for rapid identification of four major lepidopterous stored-product pests.  

PubMed

Since Taiwan became a World Trade Organization member in 2002, large quantities of grain have been imported from different countries, and insect pests are frequently intercepted from these imported commodities in quarantine inspection. Because most insects are intercepted as immature forms, morphological identification is problematic; therefore, we developed a DNA identification method based on a sequence-characterized amplified region- polymerase chain reaction (SCAR-PCR). Three sets of multiplex SCAR-PCR mixtures, namely SCAR-I, -II, and -III, were developed with each set composed of four species-specific primer pairs derived from the genomic DNA of four major lepidopterous stored-product pests: Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton), Cadra cautella (Walker), Sitotroga cerealella Oliver, and Plodia interpunctella (Hübner). The SCAR-I amplicons of C. cephalonica, C. cautella, S. cerealella, and P. interpunctella were 205, 550, 324, 382 bp, respectively, while those of SCAR-II were 341, 565, 261, and 170 bp, and those of SCAR-III were 514, 555, 445, and 299 bp. These multiplex PCR mixtures could sensitively and unambiguously detect and identify in approximately 5 h individuals among the four lepidopterous pests intercepted in imported stored-products. In summary, the SCAR-PCR method we developed represents a rapid, sensitive and accurate technique for identifying insect species of stored products in plant quarantine operation. PMID:22812153

Yao, Me-Chi; Chang, Shu-Chen; Lee, Chi-Yang; Lu, Kuang-Hui

2012-06-01

414

Keloids and Hypertrophic Scars: Characteristic Vascular Structures Visualized by Using Dermoscopy  

PubMed Central

Background Keloids and hypertrophic scars represent excessive scarring. They require different therapeutic approaches, which can be hampered because of an apparent lack of morphologic difference between the two diseases. Objective This study investigated the clinical and dermoscopic features of keloids and hypertrophic scars in order to help dermatologists distinguish these lesions better. Methods A total of 41 keloids and hypertrophic scars in 41 patients were examined clinically and by performing dermoscopy with a digital imaging system. Lesions were evaluated for vascular structures. Results Dermoscopy revealed vascular structures in most keloid lesions (90%) but in only 27% of hypertrophic scar lesions. The most common dermoscopic vascular structures in keloids were arborizing (52%), followed by linear irregular (33%) and commashaped (15%); these features were present but less evident in hypertrophic scars (9% for all types). The distribution frequency of the vascular structures differed significantly between diseases (p<0.001). Conclusion A strong association of vascular structures with keloids was observed on dermoscopic examination. The results suggest dermoscopic examination of vascular structures is a clinically useful diagnostic tool for differentiating between keloids and hypertrophic scars. PMID:25324653

Yoo, Min Gun

2014-01-01

415

Use of radiofrequency in cosmetic dermatology: focus on nonablative treatment of acne scars  

PubMed Central

Acne is a common affliction among many teens and some adults that usually resolves over time. However, the severe sequela of acne scarring can lead to long-term psychological and psychiatric problems. There exists a multitude of modalities to treat acne scars such as more invasive surgical techniques, subcision, chemical peels, ablative lasers, fractional lasers, etc. A more recent technique for the treatment of acne scars is nonablative radiofrequency (RF) that works by passing a current through the dermis at a preset depth to produce small thermal wounds in the dermis which, in turn, stimulates dermal remodeling to produce new collagen and soften scar defects. This review article demonstrates that out of all RF modalities, microneedle bipolar RF and fractional bipolar RF treatments offers the best results for acne scarring. An improvement of 25%–75% can be expected after three to four treatment sessions using one to two passes per session. Treatment results are optimal approximately 3 months after final treatment. Common side effects can include transient pain, erythema, and scabbing. Further studies are needed to determine what RF treatment modalities work best for specific scar subtypes, so that further optimization of RF treatments for acne scars can be determined.

Simmons, Brian J; Griffith, Robert D; Falto-Aizpurua, Leyre A; Nouri, Keyvan

2014-01-01

416

Use of radiofrequency in cosmetic dermatology: focus on nonablative treatment of acne scars.  

PubMed

Acne is a common affliction among many teens and some adults that usually resolves over time. However, the severe sequela of acne scarring can lead to long-term psychological and psychiatric problems. There exists a multitude of modalities to treat acne scars such as more invasive surgical techniques, subcision, chemical peels, ablative lasers, fractional lasers, etc. A more recent technique for the treatment of acne scars is nonablative radiofrequency (RF) that works by passing a current through the dermis at a preset depth to produce small thermal wounds in the dermis which, in turn, stimulates dermal remodeling to produce new collagen and soften scar defects. This review article demonstrates that out of all RF modalities, microneedle bipolar RF and fractional bipolar RF treatments offers the best results for acne scarring. An improvement of 25%-75% can be expected after three to four treatment sessions using one to two passes per session. Treatment results are optimal approximately 3 months after final treatment. Common side effects can include transient pain, erythema, and scabbing. Further studies are needed to determine what RF treatment modalities work best for specific scar subtypes, so that further optimization of RF treatments for acne scars can be determined. PMID:25540589

Simmons, Brian J; Griffith, Robert D; Falto-Aizpurua, Leyre A; Nouri, Keyvan

2014-01-01

417

Wood-burning stove and method for burning wood  

SciTech Connect

A wood-burning stove utilizes a volatilization chamber inserted within the combustion chamber of the stove. The volatilization chamber contains a charge of wood which is heated to drive off combustible gases and vapors. The combustible gases and vapors are thereafter burned in the combustion chamber of the stove by being passed through a layer of solid fuel W hich includes a substantial amount of charcoal residue from previous volatilized wood. The heat generated by burning the volatile material is used to produce additional volatiles as well as to heat the stove.

Van Der Linden, R.E.

1983-02-08

418

A multimodal assessment of melanin and melanocyte activity in abnormally pigmented hypertrophic scar.  

PubMed

Using a validated swine model of human scar formation, hyperpigmented and hypopigmented scar samples were examined for their histological and optical properties to help elucidate the mechanisms and characteristics of dyspigmentation. Full-thickness wounds were created on the flanks of red Duroc pigs and allowed to heal. Biopsies from areas of hyperpigmentation, hypopigmentation, and uninjured tissue were fixed and embedded for histological examination using Azure B and primary antibodies to S100B, HMB45, and ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH). Spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) was then used to examine the optical properties of scars. Hyperpigmentation was first noticeable in healing wounds around weeks 2 to 3, gradually becoming darker. There was no significant difference in S100B staining for the presence of melanocytes between hyperpigmented and hypopigmented scar samples. Azure B staining of melanin was significantly greater in histological sections from hyperpigmented areas than in sections from both uninjured skin and hypopigmented scar (P < .0001). There was significantly greater staining for ?-MSH in hyperpigmented samples compared with hypopigmented samples (P = .0121), and HMB45 staining was positive for melanocytes in hyperpigmented scar. SFDI at a wavelength of 632 nm resulted in an absorption coefficient map correlating with visibly hyperpigmented areas of scars. In a red Duroc model of hypertrophic scar formation, melanocyte number is similar in hyperpigmented and hypopigmented tissues. Hyperpigmented tissues, however, show a greater amount of melanin and ?-MSH, along with immunohistochemical evidence of stimulated melanocytes. These observations encourage further investigation of melanocyte stimulation and the inflammatory environment within a wound that may influence melanocyte activity. Additionally, SFDI can be used to identify areas of melanin content in mature, pigmented scars, which may lead to its usefulness in wounds at earlier time points before markedly apparent pigmentation abnormalities. PMID:25162947

Travis, Taryn E; Ghassemi, Pejhman; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C; Prindeze, Nicholas J; Paul, Dereck W; Moffatt, Lauren T; Jordan, Marion H; Shupp, Jeffrey W

2015-01-01

419

Pregnancies in women with and without renal scarring after urinary infections in childhood.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To compare the outcome of pregnancy in women with and without renal scarring after childhood urinary infections with that in unmatched controls. DESIGN--Retrospective study of pregnancies in women prospectively followed up from their first recognised urinary infection. SETTING--Tertiary referral centre in Gothenburg. SUBJECTS--111 Women attending an outpatient clinic for women with urinary infection during 1975-83, of whom 41 (65 pregnancies) were studied (19 women with renal scarring (32), 22 without scarring (33)), and 65 controls (65) randomly selected and matched for parity, age, smoking habits, and date of delivery. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Urinary infections and complications in pregnancy. RESULTS--The incidence of bacteriuria during first pregnancies was significantly greater in women with (9, 47%) and without (6, 27%) renal scarring after childhood urinary infection than in controls (1, 2%) (p less than 0.001, 0.01 respectively). Symptomatic infections were seen only among women with a history of urinary infection: four women with renal scarring (three of whom had vesicoureteric reflux) developed pyelonephritis and three cystitis, and one woman without scarring developed pyelonephritis. Mean blood pressure was higher among women with severe renal scarring than controls (4/11 v 3/44; p less than 0.05) before and during pregnancy. There was no significant difference in the incidence of pre-eclampsia, operative delivery, prematurity, or birth weight. CONCLUSIONS--Women with a history of previous urinary infections had a high incidence of bacteriuria during pregnancy, and those with renal scarring and persistent reflux were prone to develop acute pyelonephritis. The risk of serious complications in pregnancy, however, was not increased in women with severe renal scarring, possibly owing to their continuous clinical supervision. PMID:2337697

Martinell, J; Jodal, U; Lidin-Janson, G

1990-01-01

420

The treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder and related psychosocial consequences of burn injury: a pilot study.  

PubMed

Burn injuries are unique in their medical and psychological impact, yet there has been little exploration of psychiatric treatment for this population. This uncontrolled pilot study assessed feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of a treatment protocol designed to address posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, coping with scarring, and community integration among adult burn survivors. A 14-session, manualized treatment protocol was created using cognitive-behavioral interventions including imaginal exposure, behavioral activation, cognitive restructuring, modeling, and in vivo exposure. Responses were measured using the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale, Beck Depression Index, Community Integration Questionnaire, Oswestry Disability Questionnaire, and Burn Specific Health Scale. Nine of 10 enrolled patients (60% women; mean = 42 years old) completed treatment. Burn size was 0.5% to 65%; mechanism of injury included flame (4), scald (5), and contact (1) burns. Mean acute hospitalization was 30.1 days (range = 13-87); mean time from injury to treatment was 3.2 months (range = 1-7). Baseline mean posttraumatic stress score was 68 on the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (severe); scores decreased by 36% to a mean of 45.3 at posttreatment, with a large effect size. Baseline self-reported depression was 21 (moderate) on the Beck Depression Index, decreasing by 47% to a mean of 12 posttreatment (nonclinical). Change in community reintegration score was significant and large, and body image showed significant improvement. The protocol showed promise in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, self-image, and community reintegration following burn injury. These findings suggest that coping may improve with treatment and symptoms should not be dismissed as unavoidable consequences of burn injury. PMID:25407385

Cukor, Judith; Wyka, Katarzyna; Leahy, Nicole; Yurt, Roger; Difede, JoAnn

2015-01-01

421

Burns treatment in ancient times.  

PubMed

Discovery of fire at the dawn of prehistoric time brought not only the benefits to human beings offering the light and heat, but also misfortune due to burns; and that was the beginning of burns treatment. Egyptian doctors made medicines from plants, animal products and minerals, which they combined with magic and religious procedures. The earliest records described burns dressings with milk from mothers of male babies. Goddess Isis was called upon to help. Some remedies and procedures proved so successful that their application continued for centuries. The Edwin Smith papyrus (1500 BC) mentioned the treatment of burns with honey and grease. Ebers Papyrus (1500 BC) contains descriptions of application of mud, excrement, oil and plant extracts. They also used honey, Aloe and tannic acid to heal burns. Ancient Egyptians did not know about microorganisms but they knew that honey, moldy bread and copper salts could prevent infections from dirt in burns healing. Thyme, opium and belladona were used for pain relief. In the 4th century BC, Hippocrates recorded that Greek and Roman doctors used rendered pig fat, resin and bitumen to treat burns. Mixture of honey and bran, or lotion of wine and myrrh were used by Celsus. Honey was also known in Ayurveda (Indian medicine) time. Ayurvedic records Characa and Sushruta included honey in their dressing aids to purify sores and promote the healing. Burn treatment in Chinese medicine was traditional. It was a compilation of philosophy, knowledge and herbal medicine. The successful treatment of burns started in recent time and it has been made possible by better knowledge of the pathophysiology of thermal injuries and their consequences, medical technology advances and improved surgical techniques. PMID:23888738

Pe?anac, Marija; Janji?, Zlata; Komarcevi?, Aleksandar; Paji?, Milos; Dobanovacki, Dusanka; Miskovi?, Sanja Skeledzija

2013-01-01

422

Burn Safety Awareness on Playgrounds: Thermal Burns from Playground Equipment  

MedlinePLUS

... burns from playground equipment. You may remember the metal slides of your youth and how they could ... plastic slide. I only have to worry about metal slides, right? No. Metal is not the only ...

423

Effects of biventricular pacing and scar size in a computational model of the failing heart with left bundle branch block  

PubMed Central

Objectives To study the impact of biventricular pacing (BiV) and scar size on left ventricular (LV) regional and global function using a detailed finite element model of three-dimensional electromechanics in the failing canine heart. Background Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) clinical trials have demonstrated that up to 30% of patients may be classified as non-responders. The presence of a scar appears to contribute to those that do not respond to CRT. A recent study in patients with myocardial scar showed that LV dyssynchrony was the sole independent predictor of reverse remodeling, and not scar location or size. Methods Two activation sequences were simulated: left bundle branch block (LBBB) and acute simultaneous BiV (with leads in the left and right ventricle) in hearts with chronic scars of various sizes. The dependence of regional function (mean fiber ejection strain, variance of fiber isovolumic strain and fraction of tissue stretched during ejection) and global function (left ventricular dP/dtmax, ejection fraction, stroke work) on scar size and pacing protocol was tested. Results Global function and regional function averaged over the whole LV during LBBB and BiV decreased as a function of scar size. In the non-scarred regions, however, regional function was largely independent of scar size for a fixed pacing site. Conclusions The model results suggest that uniformity of mechanical contraction in non-scarred regions in the failing heart during biventricular pacing is independent of scar size for a fixed pacing site. PMID:18675578

Kerckhoffs, Roy C.P.; McCulloch, Andrew D.; Omens, Jeffrey H.; Mulligan, Lawrence J.

2009-01-01

424

Several Flame Balls Burning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Structure of Flameballs at Low Lewis Numbers (SOFBALL) experiments aboard the space shuttle in 1997 a series of sturningly successful burns. This sequence was taken during STS-94, July 12, 1997, MET:10/08:18 (approximate). It was thought these extremely dim flameballs (1/20 the power of a kitchen match) could last up to 200 seconds -- in fact, they can last for at least 500 seconds. This has ramifications in fuel-spray design in combustion engines, as well as fire safety in space. The SOFBALL principal investigator was Paul Ronney, University of Southern California, Los Angeles. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations planned for the International Space Station. (925KB, 9-second MPEG spanning 10 minutes, screen 320 x 240 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) A still JPG composite of this movie is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300186.html.

2003-01-01

425

Burning coal's waste  

SciTech Connect

In an old Pennsylvania coal valley, growing fresh produce and eliminating ancient waste piles both depend on a fluidized bed boiler cogeneration plant. The builders of a complex now nearing completion at Archbald, however, will soon begin to turn two of the waste piles, called culm banks, into economic assets. Culm will burn although it has a low, variable heat content. The project combines several recently developed technologies to use culm as fuel for a fluidized bed boiler cogeneration plant that will heat a hydroponic greenhouse. What makes the venture economically viable are the products that will be sold: 23 mw of electricity to the local utility and fresh produce to meet burgeoning demands in East Coast supermarkets. For instance, if the ''salad plant'' were completely devoted to growing lettuce, 3 million heads could be harvested in 11 hydroponic seasons a year. The owners, Archbald Power Corp., chose a 271 acre stie that had been mined for anthracite by both open pit and deep shaft methods.

Daly, J.M.; Duffy, T.J.

1988-07-01

426

Wood burning stove  

SciTech Connect

This disclosure relates to a wood burning stove which includes an innermost combustion chamber within and generally spaced from an intermediate air-circulating chamber in turn generally within an outermost chamber, all of the chambers having generally spaced top, rear, bottom and pairs of side walls, all of the side walls having openings and ducts associated therewith through which air is introduced into the combustion chamber, all of the top walls having openings housing a duct through which products of combustion are exhausted from the combustion chamber, openings in the bottom walls of the intermediate and outermost chambers through which hot air is directed from the hot-air chamber for subsequent utilization, damper means associated with the top wall of the combustion chamber and the bottom wall of the intermediate chamber for respectively regulating the flow of gases through the openings or ducts associated therewith, and openings in the rear walls of the outermost and intermediate chambers through which air is blown by an associated blower for circulating within the hot-air chamber and being blown outwardly therefrom through the openings of the bottom walls and the ducts associated therewith as well as front openings in a front wall of the stove.

Burnette, C.S.

1983-01-25

427

Getting beyond burning dirt  

SciTech Connect

To fix and make the nation's Superfund law work, two related questions must be answered. First, where will the innovative technology come from the clean up Superfund and other waste sites Burning dirt--the best technology currently available--is an expensive nonsolution. Second, can man muster the political will to make Superfund a waste cleanup law instead of an expanding welfare program for lawyers Under the sponsorship of EPA, a number of companies and other groups are participating in the Remediation Technology Development Forum, focusing on the areas where the real breakthroughs might occur and the most promising collaborations. Currently, this effort is focused on bioremediation, the lasagna process, soil flushing, and characterization. Another area of investigation is stabilization technology--stabilizing a site to keep contaminants from flowing away. Some scientists, for example, are looking at vitrification technology, which fuses contaminated soil into a glass-like brick. And still other technology efforts include air flushing of contaminated sites and vapor extraction and heating processes. A number of groups and consortia have been working on waste remediation technologies. For the first time since 1980, when Superfund became law, one can give positive answers to the two critical questions. Groups are finding innovative technologies to clean up Superfund and other waste sites. And, as a nation, Americans are exercising the political will to create a Superfund law that will work effectively and fairly.

Mahoney, R.J. (Monsanto Co., St. Louis, MO (United States))

1994-05-01

428

JAMA Patient Page: Burn Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... factors for burns include cooking with an open flame, open cooking facilities on the ground floor of ... also occur, especially at job sites with open flames, chemicals, or superheated materials. The October 28, 2009, ...

429

Transforming the radiological interpretation process: the SCAR TRIP initiative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Society for Computer Applications in Radiology (SCAR) Transforming the Radiological Interpretation Process (TRIP) Initiative aims to spearhead research, education, and discovery of innovative solutions to address the problem of information and image data overload. The initiative will foster inter-disciplinary research on technological, environmental and human factors to better manage and exploit the massive amounts of data. TRIP will focus on the following basic objectives: improving the efficiency of interpretation of large data sets, improving the timeliness and effectiveness of communication, and decreasing medical errors. The ultimate goal of the initiative is to improve the quality and safety of patient care. Interdisciplinary research into several broad areas will be necessary to make progress in managing the ever-increasing volume of data. The six concepts involved include: human perception, image processing and computer-aided detection (CAD), visualization, navigation and usability, databases and integration, and evaluation and validation of methods and performance. The result of this transformation will affect several key processes in radiology, including image interpretation; communication of imaging results; workflow and efficiency within the health care enterprise; diagnostic accuracy and a reduction in medical errors; and, ultimately, the overall quality of care.

Andriole, Katherine P.; Morin, Richard L.; Arenson, Ronald L.; Carrino, John A.; Erickson, Bradley J.; Horii, Steven C.; Piraino, David W.; Reiner, Bruce I.; Seibert, James A.; Siegel, Eliot L.

2004-04-01

430

Spherical Crystallography: Virus Buckling and Grain Boundary Scars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ordered states on spheres require a minimum number of topological defects. For the case of crystalline order, triangular lattices must be interrupted by an array of at least 12 five-fold disclination defects, typically sitting at the vertices of an icosahedron. For R>>a, where R is the sphere radius and a the particle spacing, the energy associated with these defects is very large. This energy can be lowered, however, either by buckling, as appears to be the case for large viruses, or by introducing unusual finite length grain boundary scars. The latter have been observed recently for colloidal particles adsorbed onto water droplets in oil.[1] Predictions of topography-induced defect unbinding transitions for hexatics wrapped around a torus or draped over a Gaussian bump will be reviewed as well. [1] A. R. Bausch, M. J. Bowick, A. Cacciuto, A. D. Dinsmore, M. F. Hsu, D. R. Nelson, M. G. Nikolaides, A. Travesset and D. A. Weitz, Science 299, 1716 (2003)

Nelson, David

2004-03-01

431

Crmp4 deletion promotes recovery from spinal cord injury by neuroprotection and limited scar formation.  

PubMed

Axonal outgrowth inhibitors and scar formation are two major obstacles to central nervous system (CNS) repair. No target molecule that regulates both axonal growth and scarring has been identified. Here we identified collapsin response mediator protein 4 (CRMP4), a common mediator of inhibitory signals after neural injury, as a crucial factor that contributes to both axonal growth inhibition and scarring after spinal cord injury (SCI). We found increases in the inhibitory and toxic forms of CRMP4 in injured spinal cord. Notably, CRMP4 expression was evident in inflammatory cells as well as in neurons after spinal cord transection. Crmp4-/- mice displayed neuroprotection against SCI and reductions in inflammatory response and scar formation. This permissive environment for axonal growth due to CRMP4 deletion restored locomotor activity at an unusually early phase of healing. These results suggest that deletion of CRMP4 is a unique therapeutic strategy that overcomes two obstacles to CNS repair after SCI. PMID:25652774

Nagai, Jun; Kitamura, Yoshiteru; Owada, Kazuki; Yamashita, Naoya; Takei, Kohtaro; Goshima, Yoshio; Ohshima, Toshio

2015-01-01

432

Crmp4 deletion promotes recovery from spinal cord injury by neuroprotection and limited scar formation  

PubMed Central

Axonal outgrowth inhibitors and scar formation are two major obstacles to central nervous system (CNS) repair. No target molecule that regulates both axonal growth and scarring has been identified. Here we identified collapsin response mediator protein 4 (CRMP4), a common mediator of inhibitory signals after neural injury, as a crucial factor that contributes to both axonal growth inhibition and scarring after spinal cord injury (SCI). We found increases in the inhibitory and toxic forms of CRMP4 in injured spinal cord. Notably, CRMP4 expression was evident in inflammatory cells as well as in neurons after spinal cord transection. Crmp4?/? mice displayed neuroprotection against SCI and reductions in inflammatory response and scar formation. This permissive environment for axonal growth due to CRMP4 deletion restored locomotor activity at an unusually early phase of healing. These results suggest that deletion of CRMP4 is a unique therapeutic strategy that overcomes two obstacles to CNS repair after SCI. PMID:25652774

Nagai, Jun; Kitamura, Yoshiteru; Owada, Kazuki; Yamashita, Naoya; Takei, Kohtaro; Goshima, Yoshio; Ohshima, Toshio

2015-01-01

433

Sensitivity and specificity of BCG scar reading among HIV-infected children.  

PubMed

BCG scar has been used as an indicator of vaccination with BCG in the past, but the validity of scar among HIV-positive children is still unknown. The validity of BCG scar reading among such children was estimated, using three different gold standards. The sensitivity ranged from 81.3% (95%-CI: 78.0-84.2) to 91.6% (95%-CI: 88.4-94.0), when the gold standards were, respectively, information from the adult responsible for the child and the vaccination card. The specificity ranged from 90.5% (95% CI: 81.6-95.5) to 94.1% (95% CI: 87.7-97.4), when the gold standards were, respectively, the vaccination card and information from the adult responsible for the child. Reading of BCG scar was shown to be a good indicator for vaccination in the past, among HIV-infected children. PMID:20060085

Van-Dunem, Joaquim Carlos Vicente Dias; de Alencar, Luiz Cláudio Arraes; Rodrigues, Laura Cunha; de Albuquerque, Maria de Fátima Pessoa Militão; Ramos, Maria Eugénia; Ximenes, Ricardo Arraes de Alencar

2010-02-25

434

Laparoscopic Treatment of Placenta Percreta Retention in a Cesarean Scar: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Placenta percreta retention within the scar of a previous cesarean section is rare. We report here one of these cases treated successfully by laparoscopy, with uterine repair. Different therapeutic options are described.

Dubuisson, Jean-Bernard; Ben Ali, Nordine; Bouquet de Jolinière, Jean; Haggenjos, Manuela; Feki, Anis

2014-01-01

435

Extracellular matrix considerations for scar-free repair and regeneration: Insights from regenerative diversity among vertebrates.  

PubMed

The extracellular matrix (ECM) is an essential feature of development, tissue homeostasis and recovery from injury. How the ECM responds dynamically to cellular and soluble components to support the faithful repair of damaged tissues in some animals but leads to the formation of acellular fibrotic scar tissue in others has important clinical implications. Studies in highly regenerative organisms such as the zebrafish and the salamander have revealed a specialist formulation of ECM components that support repair and regeneration, while avoiding scar tissue formation. By comparing a range of different contexts that feature scar-less healing and full regeneration vs. scarring through fibrotic repair, regenerative therapies that incorporate ECM components could be significantly enhanced to improve both regenerative potential and functional outcomes. This article is part of a directed issue entitled: Regenerative Medicine: the challenge of translation. PMID:25450455

Godwin, James; Kuraitis, Drew; Rosenthal, Nadia

2014-10-18

436

Bone disease in burn patients.  

PubMed

Burn patients are at risk for bone disease due to aluminum (Al) exposure from use of antacids and albumin, partial immobilization, and increased production of endogenous glucocorticoids. Moreover, severely burned children are growth impaired up to 3 years after the burn. To determine the extent of bone disease, we studied nine men and three women, ages 18-41 years, with greater than 50% body surface area burn. Seven patients underwent iliac crest bone biopsy following double tetracycline labeling, one additional patient expired after a single label, and three others had postmortem specimens obtained for quantitative Al only. Serial serum and urine samples were obtained weekly until biopsy or death. All biopsied patients had reduced bone formation and osteoid area, surface, and width, with mineral apposition rate, osteoblast surface, and osteoclast number with normal eroded surfaces compared to age- and sex-matched normal ambulatory volunteers. Burn patients also had reduced bone formation, mineral apposition rate, osteoid area, and surface compared to age-matched volunteers at short-term bed rest. Serum levels of osteocalcin were low. Most patients had mild hypercalcemia but only a third had hypercalciuria. All patients had elevated Al in blood or urine; urine Al correlated inversely with serum osteocalcin. In 60% significant bone Al was detectable by stain or quantitation. Our data are compatible with burn patients having markedly reduced bone turnover. Al loading, partial immobilization, endogenous corticosteroids, and cytokine production may be among the etiologic factors. PMID:8456588

Klein, G L; Herndon, D N; Rutan, T C; Sherrard, D J; Coburn, J W; Langman, C B; Thomas, M L; Haddad, J G; Cooper, C W; Miller, N L

1993-03-01

437

Expression of DNA repair genes in burned skin exposed to low-level red laser.  

PubMed

Although red laser lights lie in the region of non-ionizing radiations in the electromagnetic spectrum, there are doubts whether absorption of these radiations causes lesions in the DNA molecule. Our aim was to investigate the expression of the genes involved with base excision and nucleotide excision repair pathways in skin tissue submitted to burn injury and exposed to low-level red laser. Wistar rats were divided as follows: control group-rats burned and not irradiated, laser group-rats burned and irradiated 1 day after injury for five consecutive days, and later laser group-rats injured and treated 4 days after injury for five consecutive days. Irradiation was performed according to a clinical protocol (20 J/cm(2), 100 mW, continuous wave emission mode). The animals were sacrificed on day 10, and scarred tissue samples were withdrawn for total RNA extraction, complementary DNA (cDNA) synthesis, and evaluation of gene expression by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Low-level red laser exposure (1) reduces the expression of APE1 messenger (mRNA), (2) increases the expression of OGG1 mRNA, (3) reduces the expression of XPC mRNA, and (4) increases the expression of XPA mRNA both in laser and later laser groups. Red laser exposure at therapeutic fluences alters the expression of genes related to base excision and nucleotide excision pathways of DNA repair during wound healing of burned skin. PMID:24930134

Trajano, Eduardo Tavares Lima; Mencalha, Andre Luiz; Monte-Alto-Costa, Andréa; Pôrto, Luís Cristóvão; de Souza da Fonseca, Adenilson

2014-11-01

438

Evaluation of the Effects of Honey on Acute-Phase Deep Burn Wounds  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to clarify the effects of honey on acute-phase deep burn wounds. Two deep burn wounds were created on mice which were divided into four groups: no treatment, silver sulfadiazine, manuka honey, and Japanese acacia honey. Wound sizes were calculated as expanded wound areas and sampled 30 minutes and 1–4 days after wounding for histological observation. The wound sections were subjected to hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistological staining to detect necrotic cells, apoptotic cells, neutrophils, and macrophages. The no treatment group formed a scar. The redness around the wound edges in the silver sulfadiazine group was the most intense. All groups exhibited increased wound areas after wounding. The proportions of necrotic cells and the numbers of neutrophils in the manuka and acacia honey groups were lower than those in the no treatment and silver sulfadiazine groups until day 3; however, there were no significant differences between all groups on day 4. These results show that honey treatment on deep burn wounds cannot prevent wound progression. Moreover, comparing our observations with those of Jackson, there are some differences between humans and animals in this regard, and the zone of hyperemia and its surrounding area fall into necrosis, which contributes to burn wound progression. PMID:24348720

Nakajima, Yukari; Mukai, Kanae; Nasruddin; Komatsu, Emi; Iuchi, Terumi; Kitayama, Yukie; Sugama, Junko; Nakatani, Toshio

2013-01-01

439

Evaluation of the effects of honey on acute-phase deep burn wounds.  

PubMed

This study aimed to clarify the effects of honey on acute-ph