Sample records for burn scar contracture

  1. Correction of axillary burn scar contracture with the thoracodorsal perforator-based cutaneous island flap.

    PubMed

    Kim, D Y; Cho, S Y; Kim, K S; Lee, S Y; Cho, B H

    2000-02-01

    Axillary scar contracture is observed frequently after severe burn insult and is usually accompanied by injuries to the adjacent area. Although many therapeutic methods, including skin grafting, Z-plasties, local flaps, island flaps, and free flaps, have been established, each technique has its own advantages and disadvantages in specific situations. The decision regarding which technique to use can only be made after consideration is given to the merits of the individual case. We applied thoracodorsal perforator-based cutaneous flaps to 5 patients with axillary burn scar contractures and damaged adjacent tissues. In 1 patient both axillae were involved. Elevated flaps as large as 11 x 27 cm in size were used. All flaps survived completely even when raised in scar tissue. The donor sites were closed primarily except one, which needed a skin graft. Three patients obtained satisfactory release with more than 160 deg shoulder abduction. In 2 patients, release was incomplete with only 110 deg shoulder abduction, but neither one required a second release. The range of motion in terms of shoulder abduction was improved preoperatively (30-90 deg) to postoperatively (110-170 deg). The thoracodorsal perforator-based cutaneous flap presents a very useful reconstructive method for the treatment of axillary defects. PMID:10696046

  2. Post Burn Contracture Neck: Clinical Profile and Management

    PubMed Central

    Bankar, Sanket S.; Patil, Avinash

    2014-01-01

    Background: Morbidity related to hypertrophic scars and contractures which are well known sequel after burns remains high and in fact has increased as more severely burned patients are surviving. This study was undertaken in order to assess the varied clinical presentation, precipitating factors, preventive measures, treatment modalities of neck contractures and evaluate the results after surgical procedures. Materials and Methods: This hospital based study was conducted on patients admitted in our institution with proven cases of Post burn neck contracture from 1st August 2009 to 31st July 2011. Twenty two patients of post burn neck contracture who underwent operative treatment were included. Observation: 10 of 22 cases were in the middle age group i.e. between 21-30 years. There were 5 males and 17 females. Accidental flame burn was the commonest aetiology. Fourteen patients were treated within 1 year of burns for functional disability. Excisional release was performed in 13 and incisional release in 9 of our patients. Resurfacing with STSG (split thickness skin graft) was carried out in 19 cases and a local or regional flap with or without a graft in 3 patients. Hypertrophy and recontracture were the commonest late complications and occurred in 3 cases. Good to fair results were obtained in 19 patients Conclusion: Local flaps have many advantages and are to be used whenever possible. It is preferable to place the grafts if used in the area surrounding the neck (donor site of flap) or at least in the non-visible area of the neck (submental area). When a combination of flap & graft is used, it’s preferable to place the flap in a horizontal intersecting fashion in between the two patches of the graft. A follow up program for reasonable period is highly desired. PMID:25478392

  3. Scar contracture of anterior tonsillar pillar leading to difficult intubation

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Hemlata; Mokashi, Suhas

    2014-01-01

    Unanticipated difficult intubations on the operation table have often tested all the anesthetists’ intubation skill. The understanding of the causative factor and accordingly using the correct instrument from the difficult intubation kit requires experience and thorough knowledge on the part of the anesthetist. We describe a case of difficult intubation due to scar contracture of anterior tonsillar pillar formed after a previous surgery. PMID:25886119

  4. Scar contracture of anterior tonsillar pillar leading to difficult intubation.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Hemlata; Mokashi, Suhas

    2014-01-01

    Unanticipated difficult intubations on the operation table have often tested all the anesthetists' intubation skill. The understanding of the causative factor and accordingly using the correct instrument from the difficult intubation kit requires experience and thorough knowledge on the part of the anesthetist. We describe a case of difficult intubation due to scar contracture of anterior tonsillar pillar formed after a previous surgery. PMID:25886119

  5. Ablative fractional resurfacing for the treatment of traumatic scars and contractures.

    PubMed

    Uebelhoer, Nathan S; Ross, E Victor; Shumaker, Peter R

    2012-06-01

    After a decade of military conflict, thousands of wounded warriors have suffered debilitating and cosmetically disfiguring scars and scar contractures. Clearly, there is a need for effective scar treatment regimens to assist in the functional and cosmetic rehabilitation of these patients. Traditional treatments, including aggressive physical and occupational therapy and dedicated wound care, are essential. Adjunctive treatments with established laser technologies, such as vascular lasers and full-field ablative lasers, have had a somewhat limited role in scar contractures due to modest efficacy and/or an unacceptable side effect profile in compromised skin. Refractory scar contractures often require surgical revision, which can be effective, but is associated with additional surgical morbidity and a significant risk of recurrence. Furthermore, current scar treatment paradigms often dictate scar maturation for approximately a year to allow for spontaneous improvement before surgical intervention. Since 2009, the Dermatology Clinic at the Naval Medical Center San Diego has been treating scars and scar contractures in wounded warriors and others using ablative fractionated laser technology. Although traditionally associated with the rejuvenation of aged and photo-damaged skin, our clinical experience and a handful of early reports indicate that laser ablative fractional resurfacing demonstrates promising efficacy and an excellent side effect profile when applied to the functional and cosmetic enhancement of traumatic scars and contractures. This article discusses our clinical experience with ablative fractional resurfacing and its potential prominent role in rehabilitation from traumatic injuries, including a possible shift in scar treatment paradigms toward earlier procedural intervention. Potential benefits include the optimization of scar trajectory and higher levels of full or adapted function in a more favorable time course. PMID:22640431

  6. Pulsed dye laser treatment of burn scars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. P Allison; M. N Kiernan; R. A Waters; R. M Clement

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: Burn scars are very common in both children and adults, causing great morbidity and often pose a difficult management problem. This study investigated the efficacy of the dye laser in patients with symptomatic burn scars and analysed the impact of the laser treatment on scar redness, surface texture and pruritis.Methods: Patients were placed into four groups—adult new scar (n=8),

  7. Management of neck contractures by single-stage dermal substitutes and skin grafting in extensive burn patients

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Dong-Kook; Kym, Dohern

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Severe neck contracture is a problem that must be resolved by priority. We consider the best contracture treatment to be the full-thickness skin graft. However, clinicians often encounter patients, especially extensive burn patients, who have insufficient donor sites for the full-thickness skin graft. We treated extensive burn patients with neck scar contractures with a split-thickness skin graft (STSG) combined with dermal substitutes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinical outcomes of neck contracture treatment in extensive burn patients performing STSG with dermal substitutes as adjuvant treatment. Methods We analyzed the retrospective clinical and photographic records of 28 patients with severe neck contracture who were admitted to Hallym University Hangang Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul, Korea, from January 2012 to December 2012. We performed STSG in combination with dermal substitutes to minimize the degree of contracture. Results The overall take rate of skin to dermal substitutes was 95.9%, and no grafts failed to affect recontracture except in one patient with a partial loss of artificial dermis who underwent a follow-up skin graft without any problems. Excellent/good outcomes were shown in 27 out of 28 patients. Conclusion In extensive burn patients, skin grafting in combination with dermal substitutes can be an alternative to STSG alone for contracture release. PMID:25368851

  8. Evaluation of different surgical techniques used for correction of post-burn contracture of foot and ankle.

    PubMed

    Shakirov, B M

    2010-09-30

    Post-burn contracture and deformities of the foot and ankle joint with respect to other localizations account for 3.5-5% of cases. Functional disturbances of the foot and ankle joint affect the functioning of the entire lower joint, its statics, and the patient's gait and bearing, and can even lead to distorted pelvis, curvature of the spine, and other disturbances. Between 1990 and 2002 we treated 69 cases for a total number of 76 foot and ankle joint deformities enrolled in the study. The choice of plastic operation was made on the basis of the severity and localization of the injury - we used local uninjured tissues and soft scars to make trapezoid, Z-plasty or other shaped flaps and free grafts placed on the area of the excised scars. We observed the follow-up during a period of one to eight years in 57 patients with burn deformities of the ankle (82.6% of the overall number of patients observed in the clinic). In 41 cases (71.9%) the deformities were completely eliminated and in 13 cases (22.8%) the results were satisfactory; three patients (5.3%) had poor results. The victims of burns in the ankle joint must be kept under constant examination if scarring is present, with the danger of retarded growth of the burned foot joint and the development of secondary bone-joint changes. Early surgery is advised depending on severity of the contracture. PMID:21991213

  9. Evaluation of Different Surgical Techniques Used for Correction of Post-Burn Contracture of Foot And Ankle

    PubMed Central

    Shakirov, B.M.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Post-burn contracture and deformities of the foot and ankle joint with respect to other localizations account for 3.5-5% of cases. Functional disturbances of the foot and ankle joint affect the functioning of the entire lower joint, its statics, and the patient’s gait and bearing, and can even lead to distorted pelvis, curvature of the spine, and other disturbances. Between 1990 and 2002 we treated 69 cases for a total number of 76 foot and ankle joint deformities enrolled in the study. The choice of plastic operation was made on the basis of the severity and localization of the injury - we used local uninjured tissues and soft scars to make trapezoid, Z-plasty or other shaped flaps and free grafts placed on the area of the excised scars. We observed the follow-up during a period of one to eight years in 57 patients with burn deformities of the ankle (82.6% of the overall number of patients observed in the clinic). In 41 cases (71.9%) the deformities were completely eliminated and in 13 cases (22.8%) the results were satisfactory; three patients (5.3%) had poor results. The victims of burns in the ankle joint must be kept under constant examination if scarring is present, with the danger of retarded growth of the burned foot joint and the development of secondary bone-joint changes. Early surgery is advised depending on severity of the contracture. PMID:21991213

  10. A novel immune competent murine hypertrophic scar contracture model: A tool to elucidate disease mechanism and develop new therapies

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Mohamed Magdy; Bond, Jennifer; Bergeron, Andrew; Miller, Kyle J; Ehanire, Tosan; Quiles, Carlos; Lorden, Elizabeth R; Medina, Manuel A; Fisher, Mark; Klitzman, Bruce; Selim, M Angelica; Leong, Kam W; Levinson, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Hypertrophic scar (HSc) contraction following burn injury causes contractures. Contractures are painful and disfiguring. Current therapies are marginally effective. To study pathogenesis and develop new therapies, a murine model is needed. We have created a validated immune-competent murine HSc model. A third-degree burn was created on dorsum of C57BL/6 mice. Three days postburn, tissue was excised and grafted with ear skin. Graft contraction was analyzed and tissue harvested on different time points. Outcomes were compared with human condition to validate the model. To confirm graft survival, green fluorescent protein (GFP) mice were used, and histologic analysis was performed to differentiate between ear and back skin. Role of panniculus carnosus in contraction was analyzed. Cellularity was assessed with 4?,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole. Collagen maturation was assessed with Picro-sirius red. Mast cells were stained with Toluidine blue. Macrophages were detected with F4/80 immune. Vascularity was assessed with CD31 immune. RNA for contractile proteins was detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Elastic moduli of skin and scar tissue were analyzed using a microstrain analyzer. Grafts contracted to ?45% of their original size by day 14 and maintained their size. Grafting of GFP mouse skin onto wild-type mice, and analysis of dermal thickness and hair follicle density, confirmed graft survival. Interestingly, hair follicles disappeared after grafting and regenerated in ear skin configuration by day 30. Radiological analysis revealed that panniculus carnosus doesn't contribute to contraction. Microscopic analyses showed that grafts show increase in cellularity. Granulation tissue formed after day 3. Collagen analysis revealed increases in collagen maturation over time. CD31 stain revealed increased vascularity. Macrophages and mast cells were increased. qRT-PCR showed up-regulation of transforming growth factor beta, alpha smooth muscle actin, and rho-associated protein kinase 2 in HSc. Tensile testing revealed that human skin and scar tissues are tougher than mouse skin and scar tissues. PMID:25327261

  11. Prevention and surgical management of postburn contractures of the hand.

    PubMed

    Fufa, Duretti T; Chuang, Shiow-Shuh; Yang, Jui-Yung

    2014-03-01

    In addition to burn surgeons, skilled nurses, and therapists, hand surgeons are a key part of the multidisciplinary team caring for patients following thermal injury to the hand. Despite appropriate initial treatment and compressive therapy, contractures are common after deep burn. The most common and functionally limiting are web space and hand contractures. Web space contractures can be managed with excision followed by local soft tissue rearrangement or skin grafting. The classic burn claw hand deformity includes extension contracture of the metacarpophalangeal joints and flexion contractures of the proximal interphalangeal joints. The mainstay of management of these postburn contractures includes complete surgical release of scar tissue and replacement by full-thickness skin graft. In cases in which scar contracture release results in major exposure of the tendons or joints, distant tissue transfer is required. This review focuses on prevention and management of late sequelae of thermal injury to the hand focusing on contractures of the webspaces and hand. PMID:24288147

  12. Prosthodontist contribution in treating post-burn hypertrophic facial scars.

    PubMed

    Padmanabhan, T V; Mohmad, Kasim; Gupta, Rajiv Kumar

    2010-01-01

    The formation of hypertrophic scars is common following healing of the burn wound, particularly in children. The face is one of the areas of the body most frequently affected by burns. Scar formation as a result of burn wounds leads to contraction of the formed granulation tissue, which causes both aesthetic and functional impairment for the patient. Scarring has major psychological and physical repercussions. Scarring on the face and visible regions of the body can be very distressing for the patient. Prevention of scars involves early and continuous use of a compressive orthesis. However, their efficacy is often limited to the facial region because of the contours of this area of body. This paper describes a clinical case of post-burn hypertrophic scars treated with silicone gel sheeting applied with pressure under custom made auto-polymerizing resin stent. PMID:20657105

  13. Extensive Burn Scars in Russia's Amur Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Vast areas of southeastern Russia have been scorched by fires over the last few weeks. All across Siberia fires have been raging, and this Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from May 15, 2002, shows extensive, dark burn scars along with actively burning fires (red dots) on the north side of the Amur River, which separates Russia (north) and China (south). The southern Amur region is largely devoted to farming and other agriculture, and these fires may have been set intentionally to prepare the land for the growing season. Fire is often used to clear land of unwanted vegetation, and to return the nutrients stored in vegetation back to the soil. However, fires that are too frequent or severe can devastate the soil, eventually making it unsuitable for farming or grazing. Fires can also escape control and spread into protected areas. In this image, fires are mostly concentrated in a lowland area within the drainage basin of the Zeya River, which drains from the frozen lake at the top of the image. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  14. A simple and effective procedure for treating burn contractures: releasing incision and quadra Z technique.

    PubMed

    Sen, Cenk; Karacalar, Ahmet; Agir, Hakan; Dinar, Serkan; Isil, Eda; Iscen, Deniz

    2007-03-01

    Burn contractures particularly involving the joints are challenging problems which might cause severe functional impairments. Many surgical techniques have been described for use, however, an ideal method yet to be found. Releasing incision is the most common and effective way to release the wide and severe contractures but it has some drawbacks. We propose a releasing incision technique combined with four Z plasty incisions to overcome the disadvantages of traditional releasing incision technique. We successfully used our releasing incision and quadra Z technique on seven consecutive patients with burn contractures between 2003 and 2005. We modified the classical releasing incision technique by adding four Z plasties; two of them with a common base on each corner of the incision line. In this technique, limitation of the webbing following the incision is made possible by the transposed flaps and unnecessary lateral extension of the incision and the defect was avoided, i.e. maximum release gain with minimal defect was provided. Satisfactory results were achieved in seven patients treated with this technique due to significant burn contractures between 2003 and 2005 with no significant complication. We propose this technique is suitable in all patients with severe burn contractures who require releasing incision and grafting. PMID:17118561

  15. Hypertrophic scar contracture is mediated by the TRPC3 mechanical force transducer via NFkB activation

    PubMed Central

    Ishise, Hisako; Larson, Barrett; Hirata, Yutaka; Fujiwara, Toshihiro; Nishimoto, Soh; Kubo, Tateki; Matsuda, Ken; Kanazawa, Shigeyuki; Sotsuka, Yohei; Fujita, Kazutoshi; Kakibuchi, Masao; Kawai, Kenichiro

    2015-01-01

    Wound healing process is a complex and highly orchestrated process that ultimately results in the formation of scar tissue. Hypertrophic scar contracture is considered to be a pathologic and exaggerated wound healing response that is known to be triggered by repetitive mechanical forces. We now show that Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) C3 regulates the expression of fibronectin, a key regulatory molecule involved in the wound healing process, in response to mechanical strain via the NFkB pathway. TRPC3 is highly expressed in human hypertrophic scar tissue and mechanical stimuli are known to upregulate TRPC3 expression in human skin fibroblasts in vitro. TRPC3 overexpressing fibroblasts subjected to repetitive stretching forces showed robust expression levels of fibronectin. Furthermore, mechanical stretching of TRPC3 overexpressing fibroblasts induced the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF?B), a regulator fibronectin expression, which was able to be attenuated by pharmacologic blockade of either TRPC3 or NF?B. Finally, transplantation of TRPC3 overexpressing fibroblasts into mice promoted wound contraction and increased fibronectin levels in vivo. These observations demonstrate that mechanical stretching drives fibronectin expression via the TRPC3-NFkB axis, leading to intractable wound contracture. This model explains how mechanical strain on cutaneous wounds might contribute to pathologic scarring. PMID:26108359

  16. Alternate splint for flexion contracture in children with burns.

    PubMed

    Sudhakar, G; Le Blanc, Monique

    2011-01-01

    Splinting children and ensuring that children wear the splint can be challenging tasks for both the therapist and the caregiver. Sometimes creativity is needed to create a pediatric splint that is easy to don and stays in place. These authors describe their challenge with pediatric burn patients either not wearing or losing their splint and how they now combine the splint directly into the pressure garment to ensure better patient compliance PMID:21185690

  17. Circumscribed palmar hypokeratosis associated to a burn scar.

    PubMed

    Riveiro-Falkenbach, Erica; Rodríguez-Peralto, José Luis

    2013-04-01

    Circumscribed palmar or plantar hypokeratosis is a volar depression characterized by a circular area of well-circumscribed and erythematous skin on the palm or sole. It is a benign condition that occurs mainly as an asymptomatic lesion on the thenar or hypothenar areas of the palm of middle-aged or elderly patients. Since its first description 1 decade ago, the pathogenesis of this entity still remains unclear. Herein we report the first case of a circumscribed palmar hypokeratosis lesion associated to a burn scar, which corroborates the hypothesis of an acquired disorder caused by trauma. PMID:22878369

  18. Exuberant verrucous carcinoma arising from a burn scar.

    PubMed

    Diehl, Eduardo Schenini; Fleury, Raul Negrão; Ura, Somei; Opromolla, Diltor Vladimir Araújo

    2007-02-01

    Verrucous carcinoma (VC) is an unusual, well-differentiated, and low-grade type of squamous cell carcinoma, characterized by slow growth, low metastatic spread, local invasion, and little dysplasia. It occurs predominantly on the genitals, in the oropharynx, or in the palmoplantar region, being less frequent at other sites; however, it can occur on any part of the body. Many factors have been associated with its pathogenesis, including the presence of previous skin lesions, such as varicose, decubitus, traumatic, or neuropathic plantar ulcers. VC arising from a burn scar is rare. We report the case of a patient who developed exuberant VC on his knee many years after having burn injuries at that site. PMID:17388214

  19. The influence of different occlusive plates on the erythema of hypertrophic burn scars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Van den Kerckhove; K. H. M. Stappaerts; W. D. Boeckx; F. Staes; B. Van den Hof; S. Monstrey; P. Massagé; J. DeCubber

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of compressing a burn-related hypertrophic scar using different types of occlusive plates (silicone gel, silicone elastomer and plastic). The study was a prospective trial in which 16 burn scars were divided into four areas; each area was then randomly assigned to a different occlusive medium. The dependent variable was erythema

  20. Paediatric post-burn scar management in the UK: a national survey.

    PubMed

    Liuzzi, Francesca; Chadwick, Sarah; Shah, Mamta

    2015-03-01

    Thermal injuries affect 250,000 people annually in the United Kingdom. As burn survival improves, good scar management is paramount to help individuals living with the resultant scars lead a life without restrictions. Post-burn hypertrophic scars can limit growth in children, interfere with function and cause psychological problems. In the current literature there is great variation in post-burn scar management across the world and in the evidence available for the efficacy of these management modalities. The aim of this study was to investigate the variances if any, in the management of post-burn scarring in children across the UK. A telephone survey of UK paediatric burn services was conducted to obtain information on post-burn scar management and advice given to patients/carers. Of the 19 burn services that participated, all advised moisturising of scars but with variable emphasis on massaging. Silicones and pressure therapy were used by 18 services but commencement of use varied from soon after healing to onset of hypertrophic scarring. Laser therapy, ultrasound therapy and steroid therapy were used sporadically. This study highlights the common modalities of post-burn scar management in children across the UK. However, there is marked variation in timing and selection of the commonly used modalities. Although this study did not investigate the outcomes of scar management, it clearly identifies the need for a well-designed multi-centred study to establish evidence-based best practice in the management of post-burn scarring in children as these modalities are time consuming and not without potential complications. Evidence based practice could potentially lead to significant financial savings to the health service. PMID:25468478

  1. The assessment of erythema and thickness on burn related scars during pressure garment therapy as a preventive measure for hypertrophic scarring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Van den Kerckhove; Karel Stappaerts; Steffen Fieuws; Jan Laperre; Patrick Massage; Mieke Flour; Willy Boeckx

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was threefold: (1) Assess the pressure loss of two types of pressure garments that are used in the treatment of hypertrophic scars after burn injury, (2) investigate the influence of two different levels of compression on erythema and thickness of burn scars and (3) examine the association between erythema and thickness. The study was a

  2. Shine on: Review of Laser- and Light-Based Therapies for the Treatment of Burn Scars

    PubMed Central

    Hultman, C. Scott; Edkins, Renee E.; Lee, Clara N.; Calvert, Catherine T.; Cairns, Bruce A.

    2012-01-01

    Restoration of form and function after burn injury remains challenging, but emerging laser and pulsed light technologies now offer hope for patients with hypertrophic scars, which may be associated with persistent hyperemia, chronic folliculitis, intense pruritis, and neuropathic pain. In addition to impairing body image, these scars may limit functional recovery, compromise activities of daily living, and prevent return to work. Three different platforms are now poised to alter our reconstructive algorithm: (1) vascular-specific pulsed dye laser (PDL) to reduce hyperemia, (2) ablative fractional CO2 laser to improve texture and pliability of the burn scar, and (3) intense pulsed light (IPL) to correct burn scar dyschromia and alleviate chronic folliculitis. In this paper, we will provide an overview of our work in this area, which includes a systematic review, a retrospective analysis of our preliminary experience, and interim data from our on-going, prospective, before-after cohort trial. We will demonstrate that laser- and light-based therapies can be combined with each other safely to yield superior results, often at lower cost, by reducing the need for reconstructive surgery. Modulating the burn scar, through minimally invasive modalities, may replace conventional methods of burn scar excision and yield outcomes not previously possible or conceivable. PMID:22778719

  3. Melanoma arising on a scar 10 years after a burn: management and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ribero, Simone; Grassi, Marcella; Caliendo, Virginia; Lauro, Danilo; Macripò, Giuseppe

    2012-07-01

    We report a case of a melanoma arising after about 10 years after a burn injury. This is an uncommon example of a carcinogenetic event that could be prevented or diagnosed early. Usually, the mutagenic event clinically appears many years after the burn especially if it was not treated correctly with a careful surgical approach. The average time of latency could be found in literature as 46.5 years from the burn, whereas our case was only 10. A frequent and very long follow-up of the burn scars could represent a valid prophylactic option to avoid neoplastic proliferation if the tumor appears. PMID:22627497

  4. Laser Doppler imaging of burn scars: a comparison of wavelength and scanning methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Bray; Kevin Forrester; Catherine Leonard; Ross McArthur; John Tulip; Robert Lindsay

    2003-01-01

    Laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDI) is a useful tool for the early clinical assessment of burn depth and prognostic evaluation of injuries that may require skin grafting. We have evaluated two commercially available laser Doppler imagers for the perfusion measurement of normal and burn scar tissue.Methods: A single wavelength (635nm), step-wise scanning LDI and a dual wavelength (633 and 780nm),

  5. Splinting: Positioning, Edema, and Scar Management Due to Burn Injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Megan Simons

    \\u000a To achieve optimal function and independence, an individual relies on the combined use of a number of treatment modalities\\u000a available to therapists (Simons et al., 2003). This chapter provides an overview of (1) classification and epidemiology of burn injury; and (2) intervention modalities\\u000a that aim to minimize impairment to body structures and body functions after burn injury, by using positioning

  6. Reconstructive Surgery of Extensive Face and Neck Burn Scars Using Tissue Expanders

    PubMed Central

    Ashab Yamin, Mohammad Reza; Mozafari, Naser; Mozafari, Mohadase; Razi, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Neck reconstruction is considered as one of the most important surgeries in cosmetic and reconstructive surgery. The present study aimed to assess the results of reconstructive surgery of extensive face and neck burning scars using tissue expanders. METHODS This descriptive prospective study was conducted on 36 patients with extensive burning scars on the neck and face. Operation for tissue expander insertion was performed and tissue distension started two or three weeks later, depending on the patients’ incisions. After sufficient time for tissue expansion, while removing the expander and excision of the lesion, the expanded flap was used to cover the lesion. Overall, 43 cosmetic surgeries were done. RESULTS Rectangular expanders were employed in most patients (73.81%) and were located in the neck in most of them (60.78%). Complications were detected in five patients (13.89%), with exposure of the prosthesis being the most common one. Scar tissues at the reconstruction site and the flap donor site were acceptable in 94.44% and 98.18% of the cases, respectively. Overall, most of the patients (77.78%) were satisfied with the operation results.  CONCLUSION Using tissue expanders in tissue reconstruction of extensive neck and facial burning scars results in highly desirable outcomes. PMID:25606476

  7. ICG angiography predicts burn scarring within 48h of injury in a porcine vertical progression burn model.

    PubMed

    Fourman, Mitchell S; McKenna, Peter; Phillips, Brett T; Crawford, Laurie; Romanelli, Filippo; Lin, Fubao; McClain, Steve A; Khan, Sami U; Dagum, Alexander B; Singer, Adam J; Clark, Richard A F

    2015-08-01

    The current standard of care in determining the need to excise and graft a burn remains with the burn surgeon, whose clinical judgment is often variable. Prior work suggests that minimally invasive perfusion technologies are useful in burn prognostication. Here we test the predictive capabilities of Laser Doppler Imaging (LDI) and indocyanine green dye (ICG) angiography in the prediction of burn scarring 28 days after injury using a previously validated porcine burn model that shows vertical progression injury. Twelve female Yorkshire swine were burned using a 2.5×2.5cm metal bar at variable temperature and application times to create distinct burn depths. Six animals (48 injuries total) each were analyzed with LDI or ICG angiography at 1, 24, 48, and 72h following injury. A linear regression was then performed correlating perfusion measurements against wound contraction at 28 days after injury. ICG angiography showed a peak linear correlate (r(2)) of .63 (95% CI .34 to .92) at 48h after burn. This was significantly different from the LDI linear regression (p<.05), which was measured at r(2) of .20 (95% CI .02 to .39). ICG angiography linear regression was superior to LDI at all timepoints. Findings suggest that ICG angiography may have significant potential in the prediction of long-term burn outcomes. PMID:25499407

  8. Integra Artificial Skin for burn scar revision in adolescents and children.

    PubMed

    Stiefel, Dorothea; Schiestl, Clemens; Meuli, Martin

    2010-02-01

    Integra Artificial Skin, a biosynthetic dermal template, is well established in acute burn surgery. The aim of the study was to determine the role of Integra in the surgical treatment of postburn scars in a younger population. Between March 1998 and November 2004, 17 patients (n=17; mean age=13.15 years) underwent complete excision of hypertrophic scars or keloids (1-4% TBSA; extremities=47%, head/neck=35%, trunk=18%) with subsequent implantation of Integra for defect closure. Split thickness skin grafting (STSG) of the Integra-derived neodermis was performed 3 weeks after the first operation. Scar excision and primary Integra implantation was successful in all but one patient (94%) who (6%) needed reimplantation once. Integra's mean take rate was 99.7% for all primarily successful patients. Complications occurred in three patients (18%), including minor problems without long-term consequences in 12% (seroma formation), and major problems in 6% (hematoma formation). Take rate of STSG ranged from 50% to 100% (mean 94%). Functional and cosmetic long-term outcome showed results scored "excellent" in 53%, "good" in 36%, and "fair" in 11%. Comparison of pre- and postoperative findings revealed a significant functional improvement in all and a considerable cosmetic improvement in all but two patients. These results suggest that Integra is a valid new treatment modality for extensive burn scar revision in younger patients. PMID:19477602

  9. Marjolin’s ulcers in the post-burned lesions and scars

    PubMed Central

    Saaiq, Muhammad; Ashraf, Bushra

    2014-01-01

    Marjolin’s ulcer (MU) represents malignant degeneration that typically ensues over a period of time in the post-burned lesions and scars or any other chronic wound. This review highlights various facets of the presentation and management of MUs that originate from post-burned lesions. The incidence of MUs in such lesions is reported to be 0.77%-2%. This malignancy characteristically develops in the areas of full thickness skin burns that had been allowed for weeks to months to heal spontaneously by secondary intention, or burn wounds which never healed completely over years and the unstable post-burned scars. In the majority of cases, the MU is a squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The MUs contribute to an overall 2% of all SCCs and 0.03% of all basal cell carcinomas of the skin. Clinically MUs present in two major morphologic forms. The commoner form is the flat, indurated, ulcerative variety while the less common form is the exophytic papillary variety. Lower limbs represent the most frequently affected body parts. Surgical resection of the primary tumor with 2-4 cm horizontal clearance margin, nodal clearance and radiotherapy constitute the cornerstones of effective oncologic management. Despite best efforts, the overall mortality is reported to be 21%. PMID:25325060

  10. Burn Scar Mapping in Attica, Greece using the dNBR (differenced Normalised Burn Ratio) Index on Landsat TM/ETM+ Satellite Imagery 

    E-print Network

    Stratoulias, Dimitris

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an attempt to map burn scars from 1984 to present around the city of Athens, Greece from a remote sensing perspective. Fine spatial resolution Landsat TM/ETM+ imagery was used favoured by an extensive ...

  11. Increased expression of three types of transient receptor potential channels (TRPA1, TRPV4 and TRPV3) in burn scars with post-burn pruritus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yoon Seok; Cho, Soo Ick; Choi, Min Gyu; Choi, Young Hee; Kwak, In Suk; Park, Chun Wook; Kim, Hye One

    2015-01-01

    Post-burn pruritus is a common distressing consequence of burn wounds. Empirical treatment often fails to have a satisfactory outcome on post-burn pruritus, as the mechanism of post-burn pruritus has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the manifestation of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in post-burn pruritus. Fifty-one burn patients with (n=33) or without (n=18) pruritus were investigated, including skin biopsies. Not unexpectedly, the scarred body area was larger in the former group. In immunohistochemistry, TPRV3 was significantly elevated in the epidermis of burn scars with pruritus. Furthermore, real time- PCR showed that mRNA of TRPA1 and TRPV4 was increased in itching burn scars. Staining for substance P and CGRP did not differ between the 2 grouped, but the former neuropeptide was increased in burn scars. These results may help determine a specific therapeutic approach for post-burn pruritus. PMID:24695993

  12. Heparin in the treatment of burns: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J Saliba

    2001-01-01

    Burns are difficult to treat, wounds with complex local and systemic pathology and high mortality, that often heal slowly with scars and contractures. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) have been used in parenteral and topical application studies. These studies have uncovered anticoagulative, antiinflammatory and neoangiogenic properties, which may stimulate tissue repair and reepithelializing effects. The endogenous GAGs utilized in treating burns are heparin,

  13. A comparison of two laser-based methods for determination of burn scar perfusion: Laser Doppler versus laser speckle imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. Stewart; R. Frank; K. R. Forrester; J. Tulip; R. Lindsay; R. C. Bray

    2005-01-01

    Laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDI) is an established technique for early assessment of burn depth to help determine a course of treatment. Laser speckle perfusion imaging (LSPI) is an alternative laser based, non-invasive perfusion monitoring technique that offers rapid and high resolution images of tissue. We have evaluated the ability of the LSPI instrument in determining and monitoring burn scar

  14. Challenging the dogma: relationship between time to healing and formation of hypertrophic scars after burn injuries.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Sameena; Reynolds, Gillian; Clarkson, Julie; Brooks, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Hypertrophic scarring (HTS) is defined as a scar, which is raised above the skin level and remains within the confines of the original lesion. The authors hypothesize that small surface area burns can be left to heal beyond 21 days without an increase in the incidence of HTS formation, within the confines of a carefully selected patient population. The authors have documented the number of days to healing in all patients conservatively managed in their outpatient burns clinic. All patients who took longer than 21 days to heal receive a follow-up telephone call. A multivariate regression analysis is used to confirm significant factors that impede healing time. This study included 181 conservatively managed burns with a male:female ratio of 1.63:1 and average age of 24.7 ± 21.69 years (range, 1 month to 85 years). In total, 32 patients (18%) took more than 21 days to heal (range, 22-88 days), of which five patients presented with HTS (days to healing range, 23-47; one mixed depth and four deep dermal). One patient did not attend for follow-up, two patients settled with silicone gel alone whereas one settled with pressure garments. One patient is still being seen. The only significant factor in predicting time to healing in the ANOVA model in this study was depth of burn (P = .01; confidence interval, 1.18-6.07). Advances in wound care and better understanding of the physiological processes involved in healing may now enable the management of smaller burns with dressings, delaying the need for early surgical debridement and skin grafting in certain individuals. PMID:23877141

  15. [Rail plastic surgery technique in the treatment of popliteal contractures].

    PubMed

    Achbouk, A; Khales, A; Bourra, K; Tourabi, K; Ababou, K; Ihrai, H

    2011-03-31

    The case is presented of a patient aged 45 years suffering from thermal burns due to flame following the deflagration of a gas cylinder. The initial lesions involved the four limbs, in particular the knee, and the trunk. The initial taking in charge consisted in an early excision-graft of the limbs. The evolution of the burn was marked by the development of hypertrophic scars at the level of the non-transplanted zones and at the edge of the graft as also by the onset of contractures. Because of the functional problem caused by the contracture as a result of the considerably reduced extension, the patient was admitted for surgical treatment. Thanks to the rail technique described, the patient recovered normal knee function. Post-surgical treatment was straightforward with a hospitalization period of one month. The aesthetic results were satisfactory. The rail technique is part of the therapeutic arsenal for treating knee contractures. Its simplicity, easy technique, and satisfactory results, plus its easy follow-up, make it a highly appreciated technique in the treatment of this type of contracture. PMID:21991240

  16. Reduction of burn scar formation by halofuginone-eluting silicone gel sheets: a controlled study on nude mice.

    PubMed

    Zeplin, Philip H

    2012-03-01

    Burn scar formations can cause disfiguration and loss of dermal function. The purpose of this study was to examine whether application of modified silicone gel sheets with an antifibrotic drug halofuginone-eluting hybrid surface produce an effect on scar development. There were a total of 2 animal groups. The athymic nude mice (nu/nu) of both groups underwent transplantation of full-thickness human skin grafts onto their backs and setting of partial thickness burn injury. The status of local scar development was observed over a period of 3 months after the application of silicone gel sheets and also after application of surface-modified halofuginone-eluting silicone gel sheets. Subsequently, via real-time polymerase chain reaction, the cDNA levels from key mediators of scar formation (transforming growth factor beta, COL1A1, connective tissue growth factor, fibroblast growth factor 2, matrix metalloproteinase 2, matrix metalloproteinase 9) were established and statistically evaluated. In comparison with uncoated silicone gel sheets, the application of halofuginone-eluting silicone gel sheets lead to a significant difference in gene expression activity in scar tissue. Halofuginone-eluting hybrid surface silicone gel sheets significantly increase the antiscarring effect of adhesive silicone gel sheets by deceleration and downregulation of scar development by normalization of the expression activity. PMID:22356780

  17. Neglected post burns contracture of hand in children: Analysis of contributory socio-cultural factors and the impact of neglect on outcome?

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ravi Kumar; Jindal, Nipun; Kamboj, Kulbhushan

    2014-01-01

    Background No study has ever evaluated the causes and effect of neglect on the outcome of post burns contractures of hand in children. Methods 66 hands in 61 children (mean age 12.22 years) with a mean neglect of 11.6 years (range 5–17 years) were assessed for the causes of neglect and the outcome of surgery. Average follow up was 6.6 years. The results were assessed in two groups of 5–10 years neglect as group I and >10 years neglect as group II. Results In a total number of 134 contracted rays in 66 hands, the surgical procedures included local Z/V-Y flap (51 rays), cross finger flap (48 rays), full thickness graft (35 rays). Additional external fixator with a distracter was used in 3 patients treated at a delay of 14, 16 and 17 years. 50 (81.96%) patients belonged to rural and slum areas. The reasons for delayed treatment included poverty – 33 patients, lack of awareness of surgical treatment – 16 patients; and indifference of parents – 12 patients. 44 (72.13%) children were illiterates. With treatment the average DASH score improved from 65.10 to 36.90 (p < .000) and from 68.14 to 45.93 (p < .000) in group I and II respectively. The results were significantly superior in group I (p < .000). Conclusion The main factors for neglect in treatment of post burns contracture include poverty, lack of awareness and illiteracy. All the patients showed significant improvement in function after the surgery. Contractures with higher neglect had significantly inferior outcome. PMID:25983501

  18. Derivation of Burn Scar Depths with Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) in Indonesian Peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballhorn, U.; Siegert, F.

    2009-04-01

    Tropical deforestation and forest degradation contribute to about 20% of the global greenhouse gas emissions and Indonesia is a leading emitter. Forests are certainly critical; but the peat soils beneath can store 30 times more carbon than the trees above. Indonesia has the fourth-largest area of peatland in the world, ranging from 30 to 45 million ha, which is approximately 10 - 12% of the global peatland resource. Fire has a long tradition in Indonesian land clearing, where almost all fires are related to human activities. The 1997 - 1998 fires throughout Indonesia caused significant haze and smoke-related health problems across Southeast Asia. Strong and weak El Niño events in 1998 and 2002 accelerated burning as soil was parched. Green house gas emissions from the fires were the source of 60% of all anomalies globally for 1997 - 2000, particularly from drained peatlands. In 2007/08 we participated in a study conducted by the World Wildlife Fund which focused on Sumatra's 8.3 million ha province of Riau, along the island's northeastern coastline. In this study CO2 emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, peat decomposition and burning over 17 years from 1990 - 2007 were estimated. Fire hotspot data for the years 1997 - 2000 from the NOAA AVHRR and MODIS sensors was used to identify burned peatland. Based on soil water availability the depths of peat burns were estimated. El Nino years with a water table of lower than 1.5 m propel intense burning so that a peat burn depth of 0.50 m was assumed, while normally only a peat burn depth of 0.15 m. Total emissions for the 1990 - 2007 period were estimated at 3.66 Gt CO2, composed of 1.17 Gt CO2 from deforestation, 0.32 Gt CO2 from forest degradation, 0.78 Gt CO2 from peat decomposition, and 1.39 Gt CO2 from peat burning. Average annual CO2 emissions were 0.22 Gt, equal to 58% of Australia's total CO2 annual emissions (including emissions/removals from LULUCF, in 2005); between 1990 and 2007, Riau produced more CO2 per year than the fourth-largest industrial nation, Germany, saved to achieve its Kyoto target. Since 1990, emissions from peat burning and peat decomposition have exceeded that of above ground biomass deforestation. These numbers show how important it is to have more accurate estimations for peat burn depth in the future. Until now few field measurements were made, which would require to know the fire affected area in advance or ignite peatland on purpose. Furthermore fire scars are quickly covered by regenerating vegetation. Another problem is the lack of a method without actually having to go into the field (e.g. through remote sensing techniques), due to the fact that many of the fire locations are remote and very difficult to access. We investigated if airborne light detection and ranging (LIDAR), an active laser pulse technology by which the height of objects can be precisely measured, can be used to determine the amount of peat burned during a fire event. From a LIDAR data set acquired in Central Kalimantan, Borneo, in 2007, one year after severe fires resulting from the 2006 El Niño drought, we calculated that the average depth of a burn scar was 0.30 ± 0.15 m .This was achieved through the construction of digital terrain models (DTMs) by interpolating the LIDAR ground return signals in burnt and adjacent unburned peatland. These calculated depths were compared to in situ measurements, which came to similar results. We believe that the method presented here to estimate burnt peat depth has the potential to considerably improve the accuracy of regional and global carbon emission models but would also be helpful for monitoring projects under the Kyoto Protocol like the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) or the proposed Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) mechanism.

  19. Effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on fibrovascular ingrowth in porous polyethylene blocks implanted under burn scar tissue: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Dinar, Serkan; Agir, Hakan; Sen, Cenk; Yazir, Yusufhan; Dalcik, Hakki; Unal, Cigdem

    2008-06-01

    Effects of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy on biointegration of porous polyethylene (PP) implanted beneath dorsal burn scar and normal skin were experimentally examined in Sprague-Dawley rats. In Group One (n=20), daily HBO treatments were given after the implantation of PP material under dorsal burn scar, whereas, in Group Two (n=20) no treatment was given following the same surgical procedure. In Group Three (n=20), PP was placed under dorsal normal skin and subsequently HBO therapy protocol was applied while Group Four (n=20) stayed without HBO treatment after the implantation. One, 2, 3 and 4 weeks after the implantations, sections were respectively taken from five rats from each group. Biointegration process and effects of HBO therapy were evaluated microscopically and the ratio of fibrovascular ingrowth (FVI) was determined for each rat. The results showed significantly superior FVI in Group One compared to Group Two and again FVI into PP under normal skin treated with HBO revealed better results against Group Four (p<0.05). Well-vascularized capsule formation and tissue integration was delayed both in Group Two and in Group Three in the first 3 weeks. In conclusion, HBO therapy enhances biointegration of PP in hypoxic burn scar areas via improving collagen synthesis and neovascularization; otherwise, it apparently delays tissue ingrowth into porous structure implanted in normal healthy tissues. PMID:17897787

  20. Hyperpigmented burn scar improved with a fractionated 1550 nm non-ablative laser.

    PubMed

    Bach, Daniel Q; Garcia, Miki S; Eisen, Daniel B

    2012-07-01

    Scars sustained following injury in patients with darker skin types can present a treatment challenge. These scars often hyperpigment and may remain refractory to first line treatments such as topical retinoids and hydroquinone. Additionally, more aggressive treatment interventions such as ablative resurfacing, chemical peels, and Q-switched laser therapy may actually worsen the pigmentation. We describe a 22-year female with a hyperpigmented scar and Fitzpatrick type IV skin that improved markedly following treatment with a fractionated erbium doped fiber laser. The improvement was maintained at least 1 year following the last procedure. PMID:22863634

  1. A comparative analysis of a fixed thresholding vs. a classification tree approach for operational burn scar detection and mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontoes, C. C.; Poilvé, H.; Florsch, G.; Keramitsoglou, I.; Paralikidis, S.

    2009-10-01

    The scope of this paper is to demonstrate, evaluate and compare two burn scar mapping (BSM) approaches developed and applied operationally in the framework of the RISK-EOS service element project within the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) program funded by ESA ( http://www.risk-eos.com). The first method is the BSM_NOA, a fixed thresholding method using a set of specifically designed and combined image enhancements, whilst the second one is the BSM_ITF, a decision tree classification approach based on a wide range of biophysical parameters. The two methods were deployed and compared in the framework of operational mapping conditions set by RISK-EOS standards, based either on sets of uni- or multi-temporal satellite images acquired by Landsat 5 TM and SPOT 4 HRV. The evaluation of the performance of the two methods showed that either in uni- or multi-temporal acquisition mode, the two methods reach high detection capability rates ranging from 80% to 91%. At the same time, the minimum burnt area detected was of 0.9-1.0 ha, despite the coarser spatial resolution of Landsat 5 TM sensor. Among the advantages of the satellite-based approaches compared to conventional burn scar mapping, are cost-efficiency, repeatability, flexibility, and high spatial and thematic accuracy from local to country level. Following the catastrophic fire season of 2007, burn scar maps were generated using BSM_NOA for the entirety of Greece and BSM_ITF for south France in the framework of the RISK-EOS/GMES Services Element project.

  2. Post-traumatic stress disorder due to devastitang burns overcome by a single session of eye movement desensitization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAVID L. MCCANN

    1992-01-01

    Summary - This article reports on the effective use of a single session of eye movement desensitization (EMD) in the treatment of an exceptionally severe case of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The patient was the survivor of burns that left him with massive scarring, total deafness, bilateral amputations of the upper extremities above the elbow, severe contractures, and severely damaged

  3. Physical rehabilitation of pediatric burns

    PubMed Central

    Atiyeh, B.; Janom, H.H.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Significant improvements have been made in the acute treatment of pediatric burn injuries over the past 3 decades which have significantly decreased mortality. Each year, more burned children are necessitating serious medical attention during their convalescence. For children with serious consequences resulting from burns that can persist from childhood through adolescence into adulthood, the value of long-term rehabilitation cannot be over stated. Burn injury management should not focus only on the immediate treatment. Long-term functional outcome and the required rehabilitation that burn victims must go through should be given equal if not more attention. The present is a review of the available modalities utilized for the physical rehabilitation of convalescent pediatric burns in order to overcome the catabolic state, improve muscle power and fitness, reduce disfiguring scars and prevent contractures. PMID:25249846

  4. Clodronate liposomes reduce excessive scar formation in a mouse model of burn injury by reducing collagen deposition and TGF-?1 expression.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shao-Wei; Zhang, Xing-Mei; Luo, Hong-Min; Fu, Yu-Cai; Xu, Ming-Yan; Tang, Shi-Jie

    2014-01-01

    Clodronate liposome injection is an effective approach to selectively and specifically depleting macrophages. Macrophages play a crucial role in cutaneous wound healing and are associated with excessive scar formation. Use of clodronate liposomes to enhance cutaneous wound healing and reduce scar formation could represent a major advance in wound therapy and hypertrophic scar treatment. This study aimed to investigate the effects of subcutaneous or intraperitoneal injection of clodronate liposomes on cutaneous wound healing and scar formation. A burn injury mouse model was used. Mice were treated with subcutaneous or intraperitoneal injection of clodronate liposomes. Wound healing time was analyzed and scar tissues were harvested for hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analyses. Wound healing time in treated mice was extended. HE showed that the basal layer of the epidermis in treated scars was flattened, the dermis layer was not significantly thickened, and collagen fibers were well arranged, with few cells and micro vessels. RT-PCR and Western blot analyses showed that the levels of TGF-?1 and collagen I-?2 were decreased in treated mice. Clodronate liposomes reduce excessive scar formation and delay cutaneous wound healing possibly by reducing collagen deposition and macrophage-derived TGF-?1 expression. PMID:24442318

  5. A histological study on the effect of pressure therapy on the activities of myofibroblasts and keratinocytes in hypertrophic scar tissues after burn.

    PubMed

    Li-Tsang, Cecilia W P; Feng, Beibei; Huang, Lin; Liu, Xusheng; Shu, Bin; Chan, Yvonne T Y; Cheung, Kwok-Kuen

    2015-08-01

    Although pressure therapy (PT) has been widely used as the first-line treatment for hypertrophic scars (HS), the histopathological changes involved have seldom been studied. This study aimed to examine the longitudinal effect of PT on the histopathological changes in HS. Ten scar samples were selected from six patients with HS after burn and they were given a standardized PT intervention for 3 months while 16 scar samples were obtained on those without PT. The scar biopsies were collected pre-treatment, 1 and 3 months post-intervention for both clinical and histopathological examinations. Clinical assessments demonstrated significant improvement in the thickness and redness of the scars after PT. Histological examination revealed that cell density in the dermal layer was markedly reduced in the 3-months post-pressurized scar tissues, while the arrangement of the collagen fiber was changed from nodular to wave-like pattern. The ?-smooth muscle actin immunoreactivity was significantly decreased after 1-month pressure treatment. There was a significant reduction of myofibroblasts population and a concomitant increase in the apoptotic index in the dermal layer in the 3-months' post-pressurized scars. A significant negative correlation was found between the myofibroblasts population and the apoptotic index. The keratinocyte proliferation was found inhibited after PT. Results demonstrated that PT appeared to promote HS maturation by inhibiting the keratinocyte proliferation and suppressing myofibroblasts population, the latter possibly via apoptosis. PMID:25681960

  6. Collagenase Production Is Lower in Post-Burn Hypertrophic Scar Fibroblasts Than in Normal Fibroblasts and Is Reduced by Insulin-Like Growth Factor1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aziz Ghahary; You J. Shen; Bernadette Nedelec; Rijian Wang; Paul G. Scott; Edward E. Tredget

    1996-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that the accumulation of extracellular matrix in post-burn hypertrophic scarring (HSc) tissues is, in part, caused by an overexpression of mRNA for fibronectin, type I, and type III procollagen. Here, we report that five different fibroblast cell strains derived from HSc tissues are deficient in collagenase activity relative to paired fibroblasts from normal skin of the same

  7. A fully automatic processing chain to produce Burn Scar Mapping products, using the full Landsat archive over Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontoes, Charalampos; Papoutsis, Ioannis; Herekakis, Themistoklis; Michail, Dimitrios; Ieronymidi, Emmanuela

    2013-04-01

    Remote sensing tools for the accurate, robust and timely assessment of the damages inflicted by forest wildfires provide information that is of paramount importance to public environmental agencies and related stakeholders before, during and after the crisis. The Institute for Astronomy, Astrophysics, Space Applications and Remote Sensing of the National Observatory of Athens (IAASARS/NOA) has developed a fully automatic single and/or multi date processing chain that takes as input archived Landsat 4, 5 or 7 raw images and produces precise diachronic burnt area polygons and damage assessments over the Greek territory. The methodology consists of three fully automatic stages: 1) the pre-processing stage where the metadata of the raw images are extracted, followed by the application of the LEDAPS software platform for calibration and mask production and the Automated Precise Orthorectification Package, developed by NASA, for image geo-registration and orthorectification, 2) the core-BSM (Burn Scar Mapping) processing stage which incorporates a published classification algorithm based on a series of physical indexes, the application of two filters for noise removal using graph-based techniques and the grouping of pixels classified as burnt to form the appropriate pixels clusters before proceeding to conversion from raster to vector, and 3) the post-processing stage where the products are thematically refined and enriched using auxiliary GIS layers (underlying land cover/use, administrative boundaries, etc.) and human logic/evidence to suppress false alarms and omission errors. The established processing chain has been successfully applied to the entire archive of Landsat imagery over Greece spanning from 1984 to 2012, which has been collected and managed in IAASARS/NOA. The number of full Landsat frames that were subject of process in the framework of the study was 415. These burn scar mapping products are generated for the first time to such a temporal and spatial extent and are ideal to use in further environmental time series analyzes, production of statistical indexes (frequency, geographical distribution and number of fires per prefecture) and applications, including change detection and climate change models, urban planning, correlation with manmade activities, etc.

  8. Estimation of aerosol transport from biomass burning areas during the SCAR-B experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trosnikov, Igor V.; Nobre, Carlos A.

    1998-12-01

    A transport model for the estimation of tracers spreading from biomass burning areas has been developed on the basis of the semi-Lagrangian technique. The model consists of a three-dimensional Lagrangian form transport equation for tracers and uses the quasi-monotone local cubic-spline interpolation for calculation of unknown values at irregular points. A mass-conserving property of the model is based on the flux-corrected transport method using the algorithm of Priestley. The transport of the smoke particles from Amazonia was simulated for the period from August 20 to 29, 1995. During this period the air mass located below 2 km moved to the south and carried the smoke particles until 30°S.

  9. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MEDICAL IMAGING, VOL. XX, NO. XX, JULY 2004 1 A Modeling Approach for Burn Scar Assessment

    E-print Network

    Goldgof, Dmitry

    need for a quantitative and objective scar rating method based on the biophysical properties of skin of scars using the finite element model and regularization method. A set of natural point features]. These rating methods suffer from their subjective nature and low consistency among rates. There is a strong

  10. Clinical outcomes from a foam wedge splinting program for axillary contracture prevention in the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Godleski, Matthew; Holden, Mary Sullivan; Luby, Darcie; Weitzenkamp, David; Boimbo, Sandra; Lindberg, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Preventing scar contracture after burn injury is a critical goal during recovery. Although the need for intervention is well-understood, data on specific techniques are limited. The study's objective is to provide data for the use of a foam abduction wedge in terms of safety, effectiveness, and patient and caregiver satisfaction through a prospective, single-arm trial. All patients presenting with a burn injury that required grafting in the axillary region and placed them at risk for shoulder joint contracture were offered inclusion. Patient outcomes were recorded for the duration of their burn intensive care unit admission. Ten subjects completed the protocol with a mean duration of wedge use of 41.5 ± 32.5 days. At discharge, the mean shoulder abduction was 132° ± 38° on the left and 118° ± 22° on the right. The mean shoulder flexion was 132° ± 31° on the left and 123° ± 29° on the right. As much as 90% of the subjects had greater than 90° of shoulder abduction and flexion at discharge. There were no observations of worsening burn injury wounds, graft failure, or new pressure-related wounds. One patient was found to have an upper-extremity peripheral nerve injury that was not clearly associated with the splint. Patient and nursing surveys indicated areas of satisfaction as well as areas for potential improvement. This study illustrates the anticipated clinical outcomes and care issues associated with the use of a specific contracture prevention method used in the burn intensive care unit setting as well as identifying areas for future research. PMID:24918948

  11. Volkmann ischemic contracture

    MedlinePLUS

    ... But because it is stiff, the joint remains bent and stuck. This condition is called a contracture. ... limited loss of feeling Moderate -- all fingers are bent (flexed) and the thumb is stuck in the ...

  12. [Elbow contracture: causes, management].

    PubMed

    Pomianowski, S; Sawicki, G; Grys, G

    1999-01-01

    Early results after conservative or operative treatment of 15 patients (6 females, 9 males) for contracture of the elbow are presented. The correction achieved has been evaluated by Mayo Elbow Performance Index and by range of flexion and extension movement. Immobilization of the injured elbow should be as short as possible, fixed deformity is an indication for surgery. Resulting contracture of the elbow depends not only on injury severity but on the type of treatment also. One case has been discussed. PMID:10367522

  13. Congenital contractural arachnodactyly (Beals syndrome)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ergül Tunçbilek; Yasemin Alanay

    2006-01-01

    Congenital contractural arachnodactyly (Beals syndrome) is an autosomal dominantly inherited connective tissue disorder characterized by multiple flexion contractures, arachnodactyly, severe kyphoscoliosis, abnormal pinnae and muscular hypoplasia. It is caused by a mutation in FBN2 gene on chromosome 5q23. Although the clinical features can be similar to Marfan syndrome (MFS), multiple joint contractures (especially elbow, knee and finger joints), and crumpled

  14. Prevention of Scar Using bFGF

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sadanori Akita

    \\u000a Hypertrophic scars or keloid scars caused by burns are sometimes problematic when functional regions such as articular joints\\u000a or conspicuous areas on the face or extremities are involved [1]. Massive burn wound scars have a tendency to develop progressive\\u000a hypertrophic scars, and earlier skin grafting may improve the overall skin quality as well as shorten the hospital stay [2].\\u000a Humoral

  15. Scarring, stem cells, scaffolds and skin repair.

    PubMed

    Markeson, Daniel; Pleat, Jonathon M; Sharpe, Justin R; Harris, Adrian L; Seifalian, Alexander M; Watt, Suzanne M

    2015-06-01

    The treatment of full thickness skin loss, which can be extensive in the case of large burns, continues to represent a challenging clinical entity. This is due to an on-going inability to produce a suitable tissue engineered substrate that can satisfactorily replicate the epidermal and dermal in vivo niches to fulfil both aesthetic and functional demands. The current gold standard treatment of autologous skin grafting is inadequate because of poor textural durability, scarring and associated contracture, and because of a paucity of donor sites in larger burns. Tissue engineering has seen exponential growth in recent years with a number of 'off-the-shelf' dermal and epidermal substitutes now available. Each has its own limitations. In this review, we examine normal wound repair in relation to stem/progenitor cells that are intimately involved in this process within the dermal niche. Endothelial precursors, in particular, are examined closely and their phenotype, morphology and enrichment from multiple sources are described in an attempt to provide some clarity regarding the controversy surrounding their classification and role in vasculogenesis. We also review the role of the next generation of cellularized scaffolds and smart biomaterials that attempt to improve the revascularisation of artificial grafts, the rate of wound healing and the final cosmetic and functional outcome. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24668923

  16. Barnacle scars

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2001-03-01

    The nearly circular scars of barnacle encrustation are noticeable even when the barnacle shells are broken off. A scallop with barnacle scars from the Yorktown Formation was the first described and illustrated fossil in North America.

  17. Acne Scars

    MedlinePLUS

    ... acne scars. Many treatments are available. Treatments include laser treatments, minor skin surgeries, chemical peels, and fillers. A ... to the skin. This may be followed by laser treatments. Before getting treatment for acne scars, it is ...

  18. Management of severe burn injuries with topical heparin: the first evidence-based study in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Agbenorku, Pius; Fugar, Setri; Akpaloo, Joseph; Hoyte-Williams, Paa E; Alhassan, Zainab; Agyei, Fareeda

    2013-01-01

    Conventional therapy for burns has always produced a nightmarish illness for patients. The lack of the ability to prevent contractures often produces dysfunctional limbs and the ugly scars resulting from severe burns are an ongoing reminder of this lengthy painful illness. This study is to determine the effectiveness of topical heparin in burns management among some patients at the Burns Intensive Care Unit (BICU) of the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH), Kumasi, Ghana. Patients for this prospective study were burns victims who were transported to the Accident and Emergency Center of KATH. Complete clerking of the patients and related information were taken. Six patients with ages ranging from 5-35 years, TBSA 5-42% and a combination of 2° and 3° burns were enrolled in the case study. Anatomical locations of the burns included: face, neck, trunk and limbs. Using topical heparin produced smooth skin in two patients: Patients 3 and 5 who reported on Post-burn Day 85 and 116 at the BICU. Five out of the six patients assessed the degree of pain; before treatment with heparin, all five patients stated they were experiencing severe pains, however, three (60.0%) of the patients stated they experienced no pain at all while two (40.0%) were experiencing mild pain after topical heparin application. Heparin was observed to be very effective in the management of burn injuries in the patients studied. It was effective in reduction of pain and prevention of scars and contractures. However, due to the small number of patients and lack of control for the wound healing, a firm recommendation for the use of heparin therapy in burns cannot be made and further studies would be required to establish its use especially in the African population. PMID:23386983

  19. Posterior glenohumeral joint capsule contracture.

    PubMed

    Dashottar, Amitabh; Borstad, John

    2012-10-01

    Glenohumeral joint posterior capsule contracture may cause shoulder pain by altering normal joint mechanics. Contracture is commonly noted in throwing athletes but can also be present in nonthrowers. The cause of contracture in throwing athletes is assumed to be a response to the high amount of repetitive tensile force placed on the tissue, whereas the mechanism of contracture in nonthrowers is unknown. It is likely that mechanical and cellular processes interact to increase the stiffness and decrease the compliance of the capsule, although the exact processes that cause a contracture have not been confirmed. Cadaver models have been used to study the effect of posterior capsule contracture on joint mechanics and demonstrate alterations in range of motion and in humeral head kinematics. Imaging has been used to assess posterior capsule contracture, although standard techniques and quantification methods are lacking. Clinically, contracture manifests as a reduction in glenohumeral internal rotation and/or cross body adduction range of motion. Stretching and manual techniques are used to improve range of motion and often decrease symptoms in painful shoulders. PMID:24265649

  20. Burns.

    PubMed

    Ellison, Deborah L

    2013-06-01

    Burns are a leading cause of accidental injury and death. The American Burn Association statistics from 2001 to 2010 show that 68% of burns happen at home, 44% are from fires/flames, and 60% to 70% happen to white men. Smoke inhalation is the leading cause of adult death caused by fires. A patient with a 78% total body surface area burn has a 50% chance of survival. Burn injuries are described in terms of causative agents, depth, and severity. Crucial treatments for people with burns include assessment, stabilization, transfer to a burn unit, and fluid resuscitation. PMID:23692944

  1. Flooding after fire: Impacts of the 2013 Colorado Front Range floods on the High Park Fire burn scar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampf, S. K.; Schmeer, S.; MacDonald, L. H.; Brogan, D. J.; Nelson, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    In June 2012, the High Park Fire west of Fort Collins, CO burned 350 km2 of steep forested terrain, leading to elevated runoff and erosion in watersheds draining the burned area. Under the auspices of a NSF RAPID grant we began monitoring precipitation, hillslope-scale sediment production, stream stage, and channel geomorphic change in Skin Gulch and Hill Gulch, two 15 km2 watersheds within the High Park Fire. Short-duration summer thunderstorms are typically the dominant cause of post-fire runoff and erosion in the central and southern Rocky Mountains, but in September 2013 an extreme, long duration storm dropped more than 200 mm of rain in 48 hours. This storm provided a unique opportunity to compare the hydrologic and geomorphic effects of smaller summer thunderstorms to those of the long duration, high magnitude September event. Mean June-August 2013 precipitation in these watersheds was 125 mm, less than half the total for the September 2013 event, but this summer precipitation led to a mean sediment yield of 8 Mg ha-1, about double the mean sediment yield of the much larger September storm. Hillslope sediment production was highest during summer storms that were shorter duration but had higher 5-15 minute precipitation intensities than the September storm. These localized summer 2013 storms led to flashy pulses of flow in the channel network that caused relatively small amounts of channel aggradation or incision. In contrast, the September 2013 event produced sustained high flows that led to substantial geomorphic change throughout the channel network, with more than 2 m of aggradation at the outlet of Skin Gulch. These results indicate that the high intensity summer thunderstorms were most effective at mobilizing sediment from hillslopes, but the more spatially uniform rainfall during the September event produced much more dramatic downstream channel geomorphic change.

  2. Management of the Acutely Burned Hand.

    PubMed

    Pan, Brian S; Vu, Anthony T; Yakuboff, Kevin P

    2015-07-01

    Despite contributing a small percentage to the total body surface area, hands are the most commonly burned body part and are involved in over 90% of severe burns. Although the mortality of isolated hand burns is negligible, morbidity can be substantial given our need for functioning hands when performing activities of daily living. The greatest challenges of treating hand burns are 2-fold. First, determining the depth of injury can be difficult even for the most experienced surgeon, but despite many diagnostic options, clinical examination remains the gold standard. Second, appropriate postoperative hand therapy is crucial and requires a multidisciplinary approach with an experienced burn surgeon, hand surgeon, and hand therapist. Ultimately, the goals of treatment should include preservation of function and aesthetics. In this review, we present an approach to the management of the acutely burned hand with discussion of both conservative and surgical options. Regardless of the initial treatment decision, subsequent care for this subset of patients should be aimed at preventing debilitating postburn scar contractures that can severely limit hand function and ultimately require reconstructive surgery. PMID:26043803

  3. Congenital contractural arachnodactyly (Beals syndrome).

    PubMed

    Viljoen, D

    1994-08-01

    Congenital contractural arachnodactyly (CCA) is an autosomal dominant disorder akin to, but usually less severe than, Marfan syndrome. The clinical features are marfanoid habitus, arachnodactyly, crumpled ears, camptodactyly of the fingers and adducted thumbs, mild contractures of the elbows, knees, and hips, and mild muscle hypoplasia especially of the calf muscles. Many patients have kyphoscoliosis and mitral valve prolapse and, very occasionally, aortic root dilatation and ectopia lentis have been described. Linkage to a gene coding for fibrillin on chromosome 5q23-31 has been shown in several kindreds. The prognosis for a normal lifespan is good and improvement in joint contractures is usual. PMID:7815423

  4. Congenital contractural arachnodactyly (Beals syndrome).

    PubMed Central

    Viljoen, D

    1994-01-01

    Congenital contractural arachnodactyly (CCA) is an autosomal dominant disorder akin to, but usually less severe than, Marfan syndrome. The clinical features are marfanoid habitus, arachnodactyly, crumpled ears, camptodactyly of the fingers and adducted thumbs, mild contractures of the elbows, knees, and hips, and mild muscle hypoplasia especially of the calf muscles. Many patients have kyphoscoliosis and mitral valve prolapse and, very occasionally, aortic root dilatation and ectopia lentis have been described. Linkage to a gene coding for fibrillin on chromosome 5q23-31 has been shown in several kindreds. The prognosis for a normal lifespan is good and improvement in joint contractures is usual. Images PMID:7815423

  5. Acne Scars

    MedlinePLUS

    ... oil, dead skin cells and bacteria. The pore swells, causing a break in the follicle wall. Shallow ... body that can clog pores, causing them to swell, burst, and form scars. Exercise. Exercise increases blood ...

  6. Congenital contractural arachnodactyly (Beals syndrome).

    PubMed

    Tunçbilek, Ergül; Alanay, Yasemin

    2006-01-01

    Congenital contractural arachnodactyly (Beals syndrome) is an autosomal dominantly inherited connective tissue disorder characterized by multiple flexion contractures, arachnodactyly, severe kyphoscoliosis, abnormal pinnae and muscular hypoplasia. It is caused by a mutation in FBN2 gene on chromosome 5q23. Although the clinical features can be similar to Marfan syndrome (MFS), multiple joint contractures (especially elbow, knee and finger joints), and crumpled ears in the absence of significant aortic root dilatation are characteristic of Beals syndrome and rarely found in Marfan syndrome. The incidence of CCA is unknown and its prevalence is difficult to estimate considering the overlap in phenotype with MFS; the number of patients reported has increased following the identification of FBN2 mutation. Molecular prenatal diagnosis is possible. Ultrasound imaging may be used to demonstrate joint contractures and hypokinesia in suspected cases. Management of children with CCA is symptomatic. Spontaneous improvement in camptodactyly and contractures is observed but residual camptodactyly always remains. Early intervention for scoliosis can prevent morbidity later in life. Cardiac evaluation and ophthalmologic evaluations are recommended. PMID:16740166

  7. Pentazocine-induced fibromyositis and contracture

    PubMed Central

    Das, C; Thussu, A; Prabhakar, S; Banerjee, A

    1999-01-01

    We report a case of myopathy, accompanied by widespread contractures predominantly involving the elbow and knee joints, following long-standing pentazocine abuse.???Keywords: pentazocine; myopathy; contractures PMID:10435175

  8. Burns

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the following symptoms related to a burn: Fever Puss-like or foul-smelling drainage Excessive swelling Redness ... avoid hot substances and chemicals. If you have young children, use safety latches in your home When ...

  9. Burns

    MedlinePLUS

    ... that could improve your hand function. Therapy and Rehabilitation Superficial burns generally will not need any formal ... with other injuries may require extensive therapy and rehabilitation. Your hand surgeon will coordinate with a therapist ...

  10. Dupuytren's contracture in manual workers.

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, B

    1982-01-01

    The incidence of Dupuytren's contracture in a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) manufacturing plant, where a great deal of bagging and packing took place by hand, was higher than in another plant in which there was no bagging or packing. The incidence in the packing plant was double that found in an earlier survey by Early at Crewe Locomotive Works of 4801 individuals, most of whom were manual workers. The implication is that the nature of the work of bagging and packing in our PVC compounding plant may have triggered Dupuytren's contracture. PMID:7066227

  11. Scar tissue classification using nonlinear optical microscopy and discriminant analysis.

    PubMed

    Kelf, Timothy Andrew; Gosnell, Martin; Sandnes, Bjornar; Guller, Anna E; Shekhter, Anatoly B; Zvyagin, Andrei V

    2012-02-01

    This paper addresses the scar tissue maturation process that occurs stepwise, and calls for reliable classification. The structure of collagen imaged by nonlinear optical microscopy (NLOM) in post-burn hypertrophic and mature scar, as well as in normal skin, appeared to distinguish these maturation steps. However, it was a discrimination analysis, demonstrated here, that automated and quantified the scar tissue maturation process. The achieved scar classification accuracy was as high as 96%. The combination of NLOM and discrimination analysis is believed to be instrumental in gaining insight into the scar formation, for express diagnosis of scar and surgery planning. PMID:22105878

  12. Subpectoral and Precapsular Implant Repositioning Technique: Correction of Capsular Contracture and Implant Malposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong Ki Lee; Ung Sik Jin; Yoon Ho Lee

    Background  Although capsule formation is a natural-healing process following breast augmentation using implants, a contracted capsule\\u000a around a poorly positioned implant can act as an obstacle during the corrective procedure to reposition the implant. The ideal\\u000a treatment of capsular contracture is removal of the capsule and covering the implant with a healthy envelope without scar\\u000a tissue. However, total capsulectomy in the

  13. A modified surgical technique in the management of eyelid burns: a case series

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Contractures, ectropion and scarring, the most common sequelae of skin grafts after eyelid burn injuries, can result in corneal exposure, corneal ulceration and even blindness. Split-thickness or full-thickness skin grafts are commonly used for the treatment of acute eyelid burns. Plasma exudation and infection are common early complications of eyelid burns, which decrease the success rate of grafts. Case presentation We present the cases of eight patients, two Chinese women and six Chinese men. The first Chinese woman was 36 years old, with 70% body surface area second or third degree flame burn injuries involving her eyelids on both sides. The other Chinese woman was 28 years old, with sulfuric acid burns on her face and third degree burn on her eyelids. The six Chinese men were aged 21, 31, 38, 42, 44, and 55 years, respectively. The 38-year-old patient was transferred from the ER with 80% body surface area second or third degree flame burn injuries and third degree burn injuries to his eyelids. The other five men were all patients with flame burn injuries, with 7% to 10% body surface area third degree burns and eyelids involved. All patients were treated with a modified surgical procedure consisting of separation and loosening of the musculus orbicularis oculi between tarsal plate and septum orbital, followed by grafting a large full-thickness skin graft in three days after burn injury. The use of our modified surgical procedure resulted in 100% successful eyelid grafting on first attempt, and all our patients were in good condition at six-month follow-up. Conclusions This new surgical technique is highly successful in treating eyelid burn injuries, especially flame burn injuries of the eyelid. PMID:21843322

  14. Epidemiology and Outcome of Chemical Burn Patients Admitted in Burn Unit of JNMC Hospital, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India: A 5-year Experience

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Md Sohaib; Ahmad, Imran; Khurram, M. Fahud; Kanungo, Srikanta

    2015-01-01

    Aims and Objective: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the epidemiology, clinical variable of chemical burns, and their outcomes to prevent or reduce the frequency and morbidity of such injuries. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on all the patients with chemical burns admitted at author's center between November 2008 and December 2013. All the patients were evaluated in terms of age, sex, total body surface area, etiology, treatment given, morbidity, mortality, final outcome, and then educated regarding specific preventive measures. Results: A total of 96 patients (2.4% of total burn admissions) (42 males and 54 females) were admitted to our hospital with chemical burn injuries. Most of the patients were in the age group of 16–30 years. Incidence in females was slightly higher than in males. Acid was found to be the most common cause of injury. We found 55% patients admitted had <10% total body surface area (TBSA) involvement, 35% had burns involving between 11 and 20% TBSA, and 4% had burns involving 21–30% TBSA, and 6% had burns in >30% TBSA. Morbidity was noticed in the form of skin defect in 80% of cases, soft tissue defect with exposed tendon, bone, or vessels in 16% of cases, and 4% of patients developed contracture and hypertrophic scar. Eighty-six percent of patients required operative intervention. A total of three deaths (3%) were recorded. Conclusion: It was found that chemical burns, though not very common, are deeper burns and can be accidental or non-accidental, and the high-risk age group is 16–25 years. Chemical burns are largely preventable and if properly managed have a good outcome. PMID:25810999

  15. Genetics Home Reference: Congenital contractural arachnodactyly

    MedlinePLUS

    ... valves that control blood flow through the heart (mitral valve prolapse). The life expectancy of individuals with congenital contractural ... gene ; growth factor ; inherited ; kyphoscoliosis ; microfibrils ; mitral valve ; mitral valve prolapse ; mutation ; prevalence ; protein ; syndrome ; tissue You may find ...

  16. SCAR-B

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2012-12-19

    ... Clouds and Radiation - Brazil (SCAR-B) data include physical and chemical components of the Earth's surface, the atmosphere and the ... SCAR-B Discipline:  Tropospheric Chemistry Field Campaigns Radiation Budget Aerosols ...

  17. Management of scars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katherine Thomas; Paul Critchley

    2006-01-01

    A normal scar is the final result of wound healing, initiated when tissue is injured by trauma, surgery or inflammation. Abnormal scars such as widened, atrophic, hypertrophic or keloid scars can occur in certain individuals, and management is primarily preventative, through careful surgical technique. Further management can be with conservative therapies alone or in combination with surgery. Conservative options include

  18. Multidisciplinary, multimodal approach for a child with a traumatic facial scar.

    PubMed

    Admani, Shehla; Gertner, Jeffrey W; Grosman, Amanda; Shumaker, Peter R; Uebelhoer, Nathan S; Krakowski, Andrew C

    2015-03-01

    The treatment of disfiguring and disabling scars remains a field of active study, reinvigorated with recent advances in techniques and technologies. A variety of approaches can be utilized depending on scar characteristics, location, degree of tissue loss, and associated contractures. Just as traumatic scars can be complex and heterogeneous, the corresponding paradigm for treatment must also be flexible and multimodal for optimal improvement. This report describes a 3-year-old girl with a "mixed" (atrophic/hypertrophic), violaceous, contracted facial scar from a dog bite. It was treated with a novel approach utilizing a multidisciplinary pediatric scar team to combine autologous fat grafting, ablative fractional laser resurfacing, pulsed-dye laser, and laser-assisted delivery of a corticosteroid as concurrent, multimodal therapy to optimize the outcome. PMID:25922954

  19. Clinical review: Volkmann’s ischaemic contracture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Pettitt; P. McArthur

    Introduction  Volkmann’s ischaemic contracture is a devastating condition with serious motor and sensory functional implications for the\\u000a affected limb. This clinical review outlines acute compartment syndrome and Volkmann’s ischaemic contracture, their presentation,\\u000a evolution and current management.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Aims  This up-to-date clinical review is aimed at both specialist and non-specialist healthcare professionals who can play a key\\u000a role in the early recognition of signs

  20. Management of scars: updated practical guidelines and use of silicones.

    PubMed

    Meaume, Sylvie; Le Pillouer-Prost, Anne; Richert, Bertrand; Roseeuw, Diane; Vadoud, Javid

    2014-01-01

    Hypertrophic scars and keloids resulting from surgery, burns, trauma and infection can be associated with substantial physical and psychological distress. Various non-invasive and invasive options are currently available for the prevention and treatment of these scars. Recently, an international multidisciplinary group of 24 experts on scar management (dermatologists; plastic and reconstructive surgeons; general surgeons; physical medicine, rehabilitation and burns specialists; psychosocial and behavioural researchers; epidemiologists; beauticians) convened to update a set of practical guidelines for the prevention and treatment of hypertrophic and keloid scars on the basis of the latest published clinical evidence on existing scar management options. Silicone-based products such as sheets and gels are recommended as the gold standard, first-line, non-invasive option for both the prevention and treatment of scars. Other general scar preventative measures include avoiding sun exposure, compression therapy, taping and the use of moisturisers. Invasive treatment options include intralesional injections of corticosteroids and/or 5-fluorouracil, cryotherapy, radiotherapy, laser therapy and surgical excision. All of these options may be used alone or as part of combination therapy. Of utmost importance is the regular re-evaluation of patients every four to eight weeks to evaluate whether additional treatment is warranted. The amount of scar management measures that are applied to each wound depends on the patient's risk of developing a scar and their level of concern about the scar's appearance. The practical advice presented in the current guidelines should be combined with clinical judgement when deciding on the most appropriate scar management measures for an individual patient. PMID:25141160

  1. A polarized multispectral imaging system for quantitative assessment of hypertrophic scars

    PubMed Central

    Ghassemi, Pejhman; Travis, Taryn E.; Moffatt, Lauren T.; Shupp, Jeffrey W.; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C.

    2014-01-01

    Hypertrophic scars (HTS) are a pathologic reaction of the skin and soft tissue to burn or other traumatic injury. Scar tissue can cause patients serious functional and cosmetic issues. Scar management strategies, specifically scar assessment techniques, are vital to improve clinical outcome. To date, no entirely objective method for scar assessment has been embraced by the medical community. In this study, we introduce for the first time, a novel polarized multispectral imaging system combining out-of-plane Stokes polarimetry and Spatial Frequency Domain Imaging (SFDI). This imaging system enables us to assess the pathophysiology (hemoglobin, blood oxygenation, water, and melanin) and structural features (cellularity and roughness) of HTS. To apply the proposed technique in an in vivo experiment, dermal wounds were created in a porcine model and allowed to form into scars. The developed scars were then measured at various time points using the imaging system. Results showed a good agreement with clinical Vancouver Scar Scale assessment and histological examinations. PMID:25360354

  2. Volkmann ischemic contracture in a newborn

    PubMed Central

    Rios, Marta; Ribeiro, Cristiana; Soares, Paula; Amorim, Rosa; Osório, Angélica; Leitão, Banquart; Almeida, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    Congenital Volkmann ischemic contracture is a very rare condition in which a neonate presents skin, muscular and nerve lesions due to increased intracompartment pressure and subsequent ischemia, probably due to extrinsic intrauterine compression. In this age group, there are only about 50 reported cases and a specific cause is unknown. The authors describe the case of a newborn who presented with bullous and ulcerated skin lesions and nerve palsy of his forearm at birth, evolving to subcutaneous and muscular necrosis and contracture. Two surgeries were performed and the baby began a daily physiotherapy program that resulted in aesthetical improvement and recovery of his hand and forearm mobility. Early recognition of this rare entity and subsequent emergency fasciotomy are the best ways to improve prognosis. PMID:22679268

  3. [A long way to go in scar research-further enhancement of basic and clinical research of the scar].

    PubMed

    Hu, Da-hai; Liu, Jia-qi

    2011-12-01

    Scar, either hypertrophic scar or keloid, is one of the most common complications due to proliferative disorder of fibrosis in the process of wound healing after burn injuries, trauma, and surgical operations. To repair the cosmetic and functional impairments caused by scars poses a great challenge to all the burn surgery workers. With the advances in both basic research and clinical treatment, the understanding of scar formation and the therapeutic strategies of scar have been improved significantly. However, the remaining problems are still outstanding. In this discussion, the advances and problems in the scientific research in this field, including genetic predisposition, candidate gene, dysfunction of fibroblasts, interaction between fibroblasts and keratinocytes, as well as animal models for hypertrophic scar and keloid were summarized. In addition, the progresses in the clinical therapies are also discussed, including pressure treatment, silicone gel sheeting, corticosteroids, laser, and other emerging treatment strategies. The understanding and treatment of scar will improve in the future with further deepening basic research and clinical trials with stricter standard of assessment. PMID:22340784

  4. Prevention and management of limb contractures in neuromuscular diseases.

    PubMed

    Skalsky, Andrew J; McDonald, Craig M

    2012-08-01

    Limb contractures are a common impairment in neuromuscular diseases. They contribute to increased disability from decreased motor performance, mobility limitations, reduced functional range of motion, loss of function for activities of daily living, and increased pain. The pathogenesis of contractures is multifactorial. Myopathic conditions are associated with more severe limb contractures compared with neuropathic disorders. Although the evidence supporting the efficacy of multiple interventions to improve range of motion in neuromuscular diseases in a sustained manner is lacking, there are generally accepted principles with regard to splinting, bracing, stretching, and surgery that help minimize the impact or disability from contractures. PMID:22938881

  5. Surgical scar endometrioma.

    PubMed

    Koger, K E; Shatney, C H; Hodge, K; McClenathan, J H

    1993-09-01

    Relatively few instances of surgical scar endometrioma have been reported. Herein we review 24 patients treated for this condition at the institutions at which we work between 1972 and 1992. The age of the patients ranged from 17 to 47 years, with an average age of 31.7 years. Surgical scar endometriomas occurred after operations including cesarean section (19 patients), appendectomy (two patients), episiotomy (two patients) and hysterectomy (one patient). The interval between prior surgical treatment and the onset of symptoms ranged from one to 20 years, with an average of 4.8 years. All patients were treated by wide excision. Seventeen of 24 patients were available for follow-up evaluation. The interval between excision and follow-up evaluation ranged from 1.2 to 14.0 years, with an average of 6.4 years. None of the patients had recurrence of surgical scar endometrioma. Patients with the classic presentation of a painful surgical scar mass that increases in size or tenderness during menstruation need no further evaluation of the lesion before excision. Ultrasonographic examination and fine needle aspiration biopsy should be used preoperatively in women who have a constantly painful or asymptomatic mass in a surgical scar. Because medical management yields poor results, wide excision of surgical scar endometriomas is the treatment of choice. PMID:8356497

  6. Pirfenidone Prevents Capsular Contracture After Mammary Implantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matias Gancedo; Luis Ruiz-Corro; Adriana Salazar-Montes; Ana Rosa Rincón; Juan Armendáriz-Borunda

    2008-01-01

    Background  Pirfenidone (PFD), a new antifibrotic and antiinflammatory agent, prevents and resolves fibrous tissue. This study evaluated\\u000a the effect of PFD on adverse events in mammary implants using an animal model. Mammary implantation, the most frequent aesthetic\\u000a surgery, may present several complications after surgery such as swelling, capsule contracture, hardness, and pain.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Wistar rats underwent submammary implantation with either smooth or

  7. The intimate nature of oculomotor muscles contracture.

    PubMed

    Souza-Dias, Carlos Ramos de

    2010-01-01

    The author makes comments about the shortening and loss of elasticity of the oculomotor muscle that remains slack for some time (contracture), by means of a reasoning based on the Hooke s law and on the papers carried out to demonstrate that a muscle that remains relaxed for some time suffers a shortening due to loss of sarcomeres on the longitudinal direction and the increase of the cross-sectional area due to the increase of collagen tissue in the perimysium and the endomysium. PMID:20549056

  8. [Razemon's lateral digital rotation flap in severe Dupuytren contracture of the fifth finger].

    PubMed

    Ould-Slimane, M; Guinet, V; Foulongne, E; Melconian, A; Beccari, R; Milliez, P-Y; Auquit-Auckbur, I

    2013-10-01

    In Dupuytren's disease, correction of severe contracture deformities and excision of dermal lesions are often responsible for palmar skin defects. This study aimed to assess the results of the lateral digital flap described by Razemon. Thirty-seven patients were analysed retrospectively for functional and trophic results. Twelve months of follow-up were at least required. The lack of extension was appreciated through Thomine's coefficient. Subjective patient's opinion was noted about function of fifth finger and hand. The flap trophicity was evaluated through softness, coverage quality and esthetic aspect. In the preoperative period, the average lack of extension was 105°; 89% of the patients were ranked as stages 3 or 4 of Tubiana's classification. At the 12th month, the average Thomine's coefficient was 0.74; 70% of the patients were very satisfied. Two patients exhibited some lack of suppleness and seven a dyschromic scars. The lateral digital rotation flap is a quite simple surgical procedure. It allows satisfactory results corresponding to functional and trophic coverage in severe Dupuytren's contracture involving the fifth finger. PMID:24094664

  9. Prenatal diagnosis in congenital contractural arachnodactyly.

    PubMed

    Belleh, S; Spooner, L; Allanson, J; Godfrey, M

    Congenital contractural arachnodactyly (CCA) is a heritable connective tissue disorder caused by defects in the gene encoding fibrillin-2 (FBN2). People with CCA typically have a marfanoid habitus, flexion contractures, severe kyphoscoliosis, abnormal pinnae, and muscular hypoplasia. Because of the relative infrequency of the syndrome and its generally mild to moderate severity, prenatal diagnosis had not previously been sought. Here we report prenatal diagnosis in a family with CCA. Because the course of the disease in the proband was rather severe, she had requested genetic counseling as early as age 17. She delayed childbearing until prenatal diagnosis for CCA became possible. This decision was supported by her mother and later her husband. Because she shared the same genotype with her husband, genetic linkage analysis of this family did not alter the a priori 50% risk of having an affected child. The possibility of unambiguously ascertaining the affected status of a fetus homozygous for the tested FBN2 marker was sufficient for the family to pursue prenatal diagnosis. This case strongly points to the importance of informed decisions now that genetic testing is becoming commonplace. PMID:10464661

  10. Acne Scars: Treatment and Outcome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... one treatment. For example, if you have a deep boxcar scar (often looks like a large pore), ... acne scars that are nearly flat (not too deep). Even dermabrasion, which removes the top layers of ...

  11. Engagement, Adolescents, and Scar Stories

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jennifer Nichols

    One way to motivate young learners is to ask them to write about something that’s theirs and theirs alone: their scars. Those scar stories can be a jumping off place for learning across the curriculum.

  12. The gastrocnemius muscle flap in the correction of severe flexion contracture of the knee

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. R. Moscona; D. Keret; N. D. Reis

    1982-01-01

    Extreme flexion contracture of the knees due to extra-articular contracture of the knee joints is a frequent deformity in catastrophic neurological lesions such as multiple sclerosis, meningomyelocoele, paraplegia, quadriplegia, and cerebral spastic paralysis. Such gross knee contractures together with the coexisting hip flexion contractures create a severe nursing problem. Adequate perineal hygiene and positioning are very difficult to achieve and

  13. [Burn injuries of children in first aid care].

    PubMed

    Corvo, Maurizio; Isoardi, Patrizia; Startari, Rosario; Guerci, Sara; Bernardo, Luca

    2005-01-01

    Burn injury are second leading cause of accidental death in children. Treatment of burns depends on severity of injury, location, characteristics of child and mechanism of injury. Objective is to value the multiple problems in infant burns and immediate management in emergency room. The better and immediate treatment burns recover and prevent dirty scars. PMID:16910446

  14. Activated keratinocytes in the epidermis of hypertrophic scars.

    PubMed Central

    Machesney, M.; Tidman, N.; Waseem, A.; Kirby, L.; Leigh, I.

    1998-01-01

    The etiology of hypertrophic scarring, a pathological end point of wound healing, is unknown. The scars most commonly occur when epithelialization has been delayed during, for example, the healing of deep dermal burn wounds. Hypertrophic scars are conventionally described as a dermal pathology in which the epidermis has only a passive role. In this study, the expression of keratin intermediate filament proteins and filaggrin has been investigated in the epidermis of hypertrophic scars and site-matched controls from the same patients. Hypertrophic scar epidermis was found to express the hyperproliferative keratins K6 and K16 in interfollicular epidermis in association with K17 and precocious expression of filaggrin. K16 mRNA was localized by in situ hybridization using a highly specific cRNA probe. In contrast to the immunohistochemical location of K16 protein, the K16 mRNA was found to be expressed in the basal cell layer of normal skin. In hypertrophic scars the mRNA distribution corroborated the abnormal K16 protein distribution. These results suggest the keratinocytes in hypertrophic scar epidermis have entered an alternative differentiation pathway and are expressing an activated phenotype. Activated keratinocytes are a feature of the early stages of wound healing producing growth factors that influence fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and the inflammatory response. We propose that cellular mechanisms in the pathogenesis of hypertrophic scarring are more complex than isolated dermal phenomena. The persistence of activated keratinocytes in hypertrophic scar epidermis implicates abnormal epidermal-mesenchymal interactions. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:9588880

  15. Medical management of paediatric burn injuries: best practice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Leo K P; Martin, Hugh C O; Holland, Andrew J A

    2012-04-01

    Burns commonly occur in children and their first aid remains inadequate despite burn prevention programmes. While scald injuries predominate, contact and flame burns remain common. Although typically less severe injuries overall than those in adults, hypertrophic scarring complicating both the burn wound and even donor sites occur more frequently in children. The heterogeneous nature of burn wounds, coupled with the difficulties associated with the early clinical assessment of burn depth, has stimulated the application of novel technologies to predict burn wound outcome. This review explores current best practice in the management of paediatric burns, with a focus on prevention, optimal first aid, resuscitation, burn wound prediction and wound management strategies. PMID:21679339

  16. Assessment of burn depth and burn wound healing potential.

    PubMed

    Monstrey, Stan; Hoeksema, Henk; Verbelen, Jos; Pirayesh, Ali; Blondeel, Phillip

    2008-09-01

    The depth of a burn wound and/or its healing potential are the most important determinants of the therapeutic management and of the residual morbidity or scarring. Traditionally, burn surgeons divide burns into superficial which heal by rapid re-epithelialization with minimal scarring and deep burns requiring surgical therapy. Clinical assessment remains the most frequent technique to measure the depth of a burn wound although this has been shown to be accurate in only 60-75% of the cases, even when carried out by an experienced burn surgeon. In this article we review all current modalities useful to provide an objective assessment of the burn wound depth, from simple clinical evaluation to biopsy and histology and to various perfusion measurement techniques such as thermography, vital dyes, video angiography, video microscopy, and laser Doppler techniques. The different needs according to the different diagnostic situations are considered. It is concluded that for the initial emergency assessment, the use of telemetry and simple burn photographs are the best option, that for research purposes a wide range of different techniques can be used but that, most importantly, for the actual treatment decisions, laser Doppler imaging is the only technique that has been shown to accurately predict wound outcome with a large weight of evidence. Moreover this technique has been approved for burn depth assessment by regulatory bodies including the FDA. PMID:18511202

  17. MiR-138/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? signaling regulates human hypertrophic scar fibroblast proliferation and movement in vitro.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ying-Ying; Fan, Peng-Ju; Lei, Shao-Rong; Qi, Min; Yang, Xing-Hua

    2015-05-01

    Excessive scars affect a patient's quality of life, both physically and psychologically, by causing pruritus, pain and contractures. Because there is a poor understanding of the complex mechanisms underlying the processes of hypertrophic scar formation, most therapeutic approaches remain clinically unsatisfactory. In this study, we found that miR-138 was downregulated and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR?) was inversely upregulated in hypertrophic scar tissues compared to in paired normal skin tissues. Using a dual-luciferase assay, we validated that miR138 directly targets PPAR? and regulates its expression at the transcriptional and translational levels. In gain-and-loss experiments, we found that miR-138/PPAR? signaling regulated human hypertrophic scar fibroblast proliferation and movement, and affected scarring-related protein expression, which suggests that miR-138/PPAR? signaling is important for hypertrophic scarring. Thus, our study provides evidence to help determine whether miR-138/PPAR? signaling may be a potential target for hypertrophic scarring management. PMID:25752881

  18. Dune Avalanche Scars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    05 August 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows large, low albedo (dark) sand dunes in Kaiser Crater near 47.2oS, 340.4oW. The dunes are--ever so slowly--moving east to west (right to left) as sand avalanches down the steeper, slip face slopes of each. Avalanching sand in the Kaiser dune field has left deep scars on these slopes, suggesting that the sand is not loose but is instead weakly cemented. The image covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

  19. [Scalp burns due to hair bleach].

    PubMed

    Wagenblast, Lene

    2011-02-28

    We present two cases of scalp burn or possible chemical reaction due to use of hair highlight products. One case was treated with serial excision of the scarred bald area after the burn, and the other case was treated with implantation of expanders and subsequent excision of the bald area. PMID:21362396

  20. Problems associated with the use of silicone gel sheeting for hypertrophic scars in the hot climate of Saudi Arabia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M Nikkonen; J. M Pitkanen; M. M Al-Qattan

    2001-01-01

    Twenty five consecutive Saudi patients who underwent treatment of hypertrophic scars using Cica-care silicone gel sheets were included. The scars were secondary to burns or traumatic friction injuries. There were 15 females and 10 males with a mean age of nine years. Patients were given detailed instructions in applying and washing the gel and attended a review clinic regularly. At

  1. New innovations in scar management.

    PubMed

    Widgerow, A D; Chait, L A; Stals, R; Stals, P J

    2000-01-01

    As current aesthetic surgical techniques become more standardized and results more predictable, a fine scar may be the demarcating line between acceptable and unacceptable aesthetic results. With this in mind, a scar management program has been adopted based on the modalities of wound support, hydration, and hastened maturity, all factors gleaned from scientific evidence published over the past 25 years. Tension on a scar in one axis will result in a stretched scar, probably initiated by neutrophils and their neutral proteases [18,26]. Tension on a scar from many directions or intermittently will result in a hypertrophic scar, possibly initiated by lymphocytes but definitely related to a prolongation of the inflammatory process, with increased fibroblast activity and overabundant extracellular matrix secretion [24,26]. The common initiating factor is the tension on the scar, and the critical element needed to counteract this tension is scar support. Clinical experience has shown us that the most reliable way to support a scar is by using microporous tape. Hydration is a second beneficial influence on scar control and is the basis of the use of silicone sheeting and gel [7,29,36]. Alpha Centella cream has two main components. The first is an extract from the plant Bulbine frutescens. This increases hydration under the tape by leaving a layer of fatty vesicles of glycoprotein on the skin surface. This also has antibacterial properties. The second component is the principal terpenoids extracted from the Centella asiatica plant. These include asiatic acid, madecassic acid, and asiaticoside. Centella asiatica has been documented to aid wound healing in a large number of scientific reports [5,12,21,22,33,34,40]. The most beneficial effect appears to be the stimulation of maturation of the scar by the production of type I collagen [4,19] and the resulting decrease in the inflammatory reaction and myofibroblast production. Thus these components have been incorporated into the formulation of a scar management program. This publication reviews much of the available literature relating to scar management and describes the formulation and use of a scar management program based on this information. PMID:10890953

  2. Cutaneous Scarring: A Clinical Review

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Richard; Urso-Baiarda, Fulvio; Linge, Claire; Grobbelaar, Adriaan

    2009-01-01

    Cutaneous scarring can cause patients symptoms ranging from the psychological to physical pain. Although the process of normal scarring is well described the ultimate cause of pathological scarring remains unknown. Similarly, exactly how early gestation fetuses can heal scarlessly remains unsolved. These questions are crucial in the search for a preventative or curative antiscarring agent. Such a discovery would be of enormous medical and commercial importance, not least because it may have application in other tissues. In the clinical context the assessment of scars is becoming more sophisticated and new physical, medical and surgical therapies are being introduced. This review aims to summarise some of the recent developments in scarring research for non-specialists and specialists alike. PMID:20585482

  3. Bilateral Dupuytren's contractures of the thumb interphalangeal joints.

    PubMed

    Miranda, B H; Elliott, C; Fahmy, F S

    2012-12-01

    Dupuytren's disease was first described by Baron Guillaume Dupuytren in 1831. He outlined the pathology of palmar fascia thickening and contracture resulting in flexion of one or more digits. Dupuytren's disease usually affects the little or ring fingers, with the thumb rarely affected. Furthermore, the thumb in isolation is only affected in 0.5% of cases, with contracture at the metacarpophalangeal joint. We present a unique and interesting case of Dupuytren's disease predominantly of the thumbs, with isolated contractures bilaterally at the interphalangeal joints, in a 59 year old lady with epilepsy who was otherwise fit and well. To our knowledge this disease pattern has never been reported in the literature. Furthermore a relevant literature review of Dupuytren's disease affecting the thumb, in particular the interphalangeal joint, is presented. Our interesting and unique case reinforces the notion that the disease pathogenesis is diverse and multifactorial, and provides a further interesting example for the literature. PMID:22652288

  4. [Current methods of treatment and prevention of pathologic scars].

    PubMed

    Kelemen, Ottó; Kollár, Lajos

    2007-04-01

    The aetiology of pathologic scarring is unknown today regarding the keloids. The authors have analyzed the literature and own experience retrospectively according to the evidence based treatments and prevention of the hypertrophic and keloid scars. The corticosteroids have been used intralesionally since the beginning of the 1960-ies. It was followed by the pressure garment therapy in order to treat the widespread burns scars in the early 1970-ies. The silicone gel sheeting is being used since the 1980-ies. The basic treatment of keloids changed, radiotherapy was combined with the above mentioned methods because of its high recurrence rate. Newer methods, cryosurgery as well as lasers were used to treat keloids. The number of effective topical agents was increased. The researchers have been looking for other, intralesionally usable medicine and genetic causes for more than ten years. The clinicians have had the standard protocols of the adjunct and alternative methods too. After having the standard and internationally accepted scar assessment system (Vancouver-scar scale and score), the controlled, randomized trials were practicable. The prospective evaluation of the efficacy of different protocols with adequate follow-up became performable. The comparison of different methods is difficult because of the lack of its standard outcome. PMID:17649846

  5. Collagenase treatment of Dupuytren's contracture using a modified injection method.

    PubMed

    Atroshi, Isam; Nordenskjöld, Jesper; Lauritzson, Anna; Ahlgren, Eva; Waldau, Johanna; Waldén, Markus

    2015-06-01

    Background and purpose - Treatment of Dupuytren's contracture (DC) with collagenase Clostridium histolyticum (CCH) consists of injection followed by finger manipulation. We used a modified method, injecting a higher dose than recommended on the label into several parts of the cord, which allows treatment of multiple joint contractures in 1 session and may increase efficacy. We studied the occurrence of skin tears and short-term outcome with this procedure. Patients and methods - We studied 164 consecutive hands with DC, palpable cord, and extension deficit of ? 20º in the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) and/or proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint (mean patient age 70 years, 82% men). A hand surgeon injected all the content of 1 CCH vial (approximately 0.80 mg) into multiple spots in the cord and performed finger extension under local anesthesia after 1 or 2 days. A nurse recorded skin tears on a diagram and conducted a standard telephone follow-up within 4 weeks. A hand therapist measured joint contracture before injection and at a median of 23 (IQR: 7-34) days after finger extension. Results - A skin tear occurred in 66 hands (40%). The largest diameter of the tear was ? 5 mm in 30 hands and > 10 mm in 14 hands. Hands with skin tear had greater mean pretreatment MCP extension deficit than those without tear: 59º (SD 26) as opposed to 32º (SD 23). Skin tear occurred in 21 of 24 hands with MCP contracture of ? 75º. All tears healed with open-wound treatment. No infections occurred. Mean improvement in total (MCP + PIP) extension deficit was 55º (SD 28). Interpretation - Skin tears occurred in 40% of hands treated with collagenase injections, but only a fifth of them were larger than 1 cm. Tears were more likely in hands with severe MCP joint contracture. All tears healed without complications. Short-term contracture reduction was good. PMID:25695745

  6. Pulmonary non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection in congenital contractural arachnodactyly.

    PubMed

    Paulson, M L; Olivier, K N; Holland, S M

    2012-04-01

    Congenital contractural arachnodactyly (CCA) is caused by mutations within the fibrillin-2 gene (FBN2), which is crucial for microfibril structure. Affected individuals may have contractures, chest wall deformities, scoliosis, abnormal ear folding and elongated limbs. We describe a novel FBN2 mutation in a woman with CCA who also had pulmonary non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infection. The population with pulmonary NTM infections shares phenotypic features with CCA, such as elongated body habitus, scoliosis and pectus deformities. While it is unlikely that FBN2 defects account for susceptibility to NTM infection in the majority of cases, the overlap between these two diseases suggests some shared pathophysiology. PMID:22325249

  7. Prenatal ultrasound findings in a fetus with congenital contractural arachnodactyly.

    PubMed

    Kölble, N; Wisser, J; Babcock, D; Maslen, C; Huch, R; Steinmann, B

    2002-10-01

    Congenital contractural arachnodactyly (CCA) or Beals-Hecht syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in the fibrillin-2 (FBN2) gene. The principal features of CCA are a marfanoid habitus, multiple congenital contractures, camptodactyly, arachnodactyly, kyphoscoliosis, muscular hypoplasia, and external ear malformations. Our case is the first that shows typical sonographic signs in a fetus at 25 weeks' gestation with molecular genetically verified CCA in a large family with many members affected over four generations. This demonstrates that CCA can be detected prenatally by non-invasive ultrasonography. The importance of confirmation of CCA by means of DNA sequence analysis of the FBN2 gene is stressed. PMID:12383326

  8. Updated scar management practical guidelines: non-invasive and invasive measures.

    PubMed

    Monstrey, Stan; Middelkoop, Esther; Vranckx, Jan Jeroen; Bassetto, Franco; Ziegler, Ulrich E; Meaume, Sylvie; Téot, Luc

    2014-08-01

    Hypertrophic scars and keloids can be aesthetically displeasing and lead to severe psychosocial impairment. Many invasive and non-invasive options are available for the plastic (and any other) surgeon both to prevent and to treat abnormal scar formation. Recently, an updated set of practical evidence-based guidelines for the management of hypertrophic scars and keloids was developed by an international group of 24 experts from a wide range of specialities. An initial set of strategies to minimize the risk of scar formation is applicable to all types of scars and is indicated before, during and immediately after surgery. In addition to optimal surgical management, this includes measures to reduce skin tension, and to provide taping, hydration and ultraviolet (UV) protection of the early scar tissue. Silicone sheeting or gel is universally considered as the first-line prophylactic and treatment option for hypertrophic scars and keloids. The efficacy and safety of this gold-standard, non-invasive therapy has been demonstrated in many clinical studies. Other (more specialized) scar treatment options are available for high-risk patients and/or scars. Pressure garments may be indicated for more widespread scarring, especially after burns. At a later stage, more invasive or surgical procedures may be necessary for the correction of permanent unaesthetic scars and can be combined with adjuvant measures to achieve optimal outcomes. The choice of scar management measures for a particular patient should be based on the newly updated evidence-based recommendations taking individual patient and wound characteristics into consideration. PMID:24888226

  9. Internet-based survey on current practice for evaluation, prevention, and treatment of scars, hypertrophic scars, and keloids.

    PubMed

    Lumenta, David B; Siepmann, Eva; Kamolz, Lars-Peter

    2014-01-01

    No universally accepted standard for evaluation, prevention, and treatment of scars, hypertrophic scars, and keloids exists. Following development of a questionnaire, we performed a closed Web-based survey among burn centers. Server-based data collection was performed over 4 weeks and closed thereafter. The poll revealed emerging new treatment schemes, but the majority of participants adhered to evaluation (Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale, Matching Assessment of Scars and Photographs, Vancouver Scar Scale, two-dimensional photography) and prevention (silicone gel sheets and compression garments) strategies that were in line with the currently available recommendations from the literature. We noted a low penetration for the use of objective evaluation tools in our poll and detected differences in surgical approaches to keloids. Based on the results of our survey and the power of currently available clinical recommendations, we expect future guidelines to gain more evidence-based power, especially when more high-quality clinical trials with objective evaluation support, clearly defined disease entities, and therapeutic outcome factors have become available. PMID:25041618

  10. Hair bleaching and skin burning.

    PubMed

    Forster, K; Lingitz, R; Prattes, G; Schneider, G; Sutter, S; Schintler, M; Trop, M

    2012-12-31

    Hairdressing-related burns are preventable and therefore each case is one too many. We report a unique case of a 16-yr-old girl who suffered full-thickness chemical and thermal burns to the nape of her neck and superficial burns to the occiput after her hair had been dyed blond and placed under a dryer to accelerate the highlighting procedure. The wound on the nape of the neck required surgical debridement and skin grafting. The grafted area resulted in subsequent scar formation. PMID:23766754

  11. [Reconstructions after periorbital burn injuries].

    PubMed

    Klett, A; Rebane, R

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays burn patients who also have periocular symptoms are usually treated by reconstructive surgeons and the role of the ophthalmic surgeon has decreased.Although periocular complications occur in a minority of burned patients, they pose a greater challenge in surgical and non-surgical treatment. Chemical, electrical and thermal burns can lead to disfiguring scar formations and delayed treatment can lead to devastating ocular complications. Achieving a successful reconstruction requires a comprehensive approach, entailing many advanced techniques with an emphasis on preserving function and balancing intricate aesthetic requirements. The theory is illustrated in this article with clinical examples. PMID:23345146

  12. Sandal burns and their treatment in children.

    PubMed

    Shakirov, Babur M

    2004-01-01

    Sandal is an ancient, primitive heating device that is still in use by both poor and rich people in mountain areas of Middle Asia. Sandal burn injuries are a serious health problem. Characteristics of sandal burns include not only skin injuries of various depths but also injuries to underlying tissues: subcutaneous fat, fasciae, muscles, and even bones. Sandal burns are characterized by such severe deep injuries because of a close contact of the body with live coals or woods. The main goal of this work was to present the most complete information about sandal burns and discuss the most effective methods of treatment for sandal burns. This treatment is used to accelerate the rejection of necrotic tissue, to prepare the wound for early autodermoplastic surgery, to decrease the postburn contractures/deformities, and also to shorten hospital stay for the patients. PMID:15534459

  13. Use of silicone gel sheets for prevention of keloid scars after median sternotomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Motoki Sakuraba; Nobumasa Takahashi; Taku Akahoshi; Yoshikazu Miyasaka; Kenji Suzuki

    2011-01-01

    Purpose  A keloid scar often appears at the incision site of patients after median sternotomy. Use of silicone gel to treat hypertrophic\\u000a burn scars and fresh incisions has yielded encouraging results. In this study, we report our experience with the preventive\\u000a use of silicone gel sheets for keloid scars after median sternotomy.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Nine patients who underwent a median sternotomy were studied.

  14. [Functional reconstruction of multiple severe deformities after extensive deep burn].

    PubMed

    Chen, Bi; Jia, Chi-yu; Hu, Da-hai; Zhu, Xiong-xiang; Han, Jun-tao; Yao, Qing-jun; Xu, Ming-da

    2008-10-01

    To explore new measures for functional reconstruction of multiple severe deformities as a result of extensive deep burn (total burn surface area > or = 90% TBSA, including deep burn > or = 70%TBSA) in late stage. Twelve severe burn patients with above-mentioned deformities were hospitalized in our ward during 1960--2005, the scars resulted from burns were distributed from head to foot with 173 deformities, including 27 scar ulcers. All patients lacked of self-care ability, among them some could not stand. Due to inadequate skin source, deformities were corrected by skin from matured scars expanded with subcutaneous balloon at late postburn stage. Following our former clinical experience, anatomic investigation and experimental research, we chose the following methods to correct deformities and restore functions: application of split-thickness scar skin after expansion (88 wounds); use of scar skin flap/scar-Achilles tendon flaps (59 wounds); combination of thin split-thickness skin grafts from scar and allogeneic acellular dermal matrix (composite skin, 40 wounds). All grafts survived, the appearance and function were improved obviously without complications. Follow-up 1-40 years, all patients could take care themselves with satisfactory function and appearance, and among them 8 patients returned to work (one had worked for 40 years), 2 patients married and had children. The above-mentioned measures are safe, reliable and effective for functional reconstruction of deformities. PMID:19103016

  15. Topical scar modification: Hype or help?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary H. McGrath; David S. Chang

    2005-01-01

    Of the many topical scar modification treatments available, silicone gel sheeting is the only product shown to be effective for the treatment of hypertrophic scars. Other topical scar treatments are frequently used without evidence of their efficacy. The authors discuss available topical scar treatments and their current role in clinical plastic surgery practice.

  16. Studies on contractures induced in mouse diaphragm by caffeine and cupric and selenite ions.

    PubMed

    Lin-Shiau, S Y; Fu, W M; Liu, S H; Ni, C T

    1989-01-01

    Mouse diaphragm contractures induced by Cu2+, caffeine and selenite were studied comparatively. Both Cu2+- and caffeine-contractures were produced rapidly and relaxed spontaneously; the selenite-contracture occurred after a latent period of about 45 min and lasted for more than 3 hr. All contractures were myogenic, since neither d-tubocurarine nor tetrodotoxin prevented them. The susceptibility of these contractures to the depletion and replenishment of Ca2+ differed: the Cu2+-contracture increased proportionally with rising extracellular Ca2+ concentrations ranging from 2.5 to 12.5 mM and were abolished by 5 mM EGTA. Caffeine- and selenite-contractures were not affected by changes in extracellular Ca2+ concentration. The caffeine-contracture was abolished by EGTA in high concentration (30 mM) and the selenite-contracture was inhibited by 50 mM EGTA. After removal of Ca2+ with 5 mM EGTA, followed by replacement with 2.5 mM Ca2+ for 1 min, the Cu2(+)-contracture was fully restored. Caffeine- and selenite-contractures were restored only after a longer period (10-20 min) of re-exposure to Ca2+. These findings suggest that the Cu2(+)-contracture is dependent on external Ca2+ and probably caused by an increasing Ca2+ entry through sarcolemma. Caffeine- and selenite-contractures apparently result from internal Ca2+ release by sarcoplasmic reticulum. Substitution of either Sr2+ or Co2+ for Ca2+ fully supports the Cu2(+)-contracture. 45Ca2+ uptake and calcium content of the diaphragm were markedly increased by Cu2+ but not by selenite. Furthermore, the Cu2(+)-contracture was inhibited by exposing the outer membrane to trypsin, phospholipase C or saponin. The selenite-contracture was inhibited only by trypsin. The caffeine-contracture was unaffected by these treatments. These results support the notion that the Cu2(+)-contracture is induced by an increased entry of Ca2+ through the outer membrane. Cu2(+)-, caffeine- and selenite-contractures were respectively abolished, potentiated and unaffected by chronic denervation of the diaphragm. This and the other findings provide evidence that Cu2(+)-, caffeine- and selenite-contractures are induced in mouse diaphragm muscle via different sites of action. PMID:2515819

  17. Acne Scars: Tips for Preventing

    MedlinePLUS

    ... major problem — a permanent acne scar. Practice gentle skin care When acne flares, many people scrub their skin ... when the acne clears. To find out what skin care practices dermatologists recommend to their acne patients, visit ...

  18. Flexion contractures in a diabetic child (Rosenbloom syndrome)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Barta

    1980-01-01

    Limited movement in the fingers and in other joints of a diabetic boy is described. Although a slight contracture of the little finger was observed when diabetes was diagnosed, the progressive nature of the process was only clarified after 8 years. According to the results of the clinical findings the changes are the consequence of rigidity of the connective tissue.

  19. Dupuytren's contracture and gouty tophi in a black patient.

    PubMed Central

    LeFlore, I.; Antoine, G. A.

    1991-01-01

    Dupuytren's disease is a relatively rare occurrence in a patient of the black race. The coexistence of a Dupuytren's contracture in a black patient who also presents with severe gouty tophi is described. This is the first reported case in the English literature. PMID:1994071

  20. New Innovations in Scar Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan D. Widgerow; Laurence A. Chait; Rene Stals; Pieter J. Stals

    2000-01-01

    .   As current aesthetic surgical techniques become more standardized and results more predictable, a fine scar may be the demarcating\\u000a line between acceptable and unacceptable aesthetic results. With this in mind, a scar management program has been adopted\\u000a based on the modalities of wound support, hydration, and hastened maturity, all factors gleaned from scientific evidence published\\u000a over the past 25

  1. Skin to Serosa: Scar Endometrioma

    PubMed Central

    T.A., Sridevi; P.N., Chandrika; Selvakumar A., Sathish

    2014-01-01

    Extra pelvic endometriosis, an underappreciated and misdiagnosed gynaecological problem has been reported here for its rare location. Patient presented with swelling and cyclical pain over vertical scar (caesarean). Diagnosis was made on high index of clinical suspicion which was complimented by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Scar endometrioma extended from the skin upto the uterine serosa which is extremely rare. Wide excision of endometrioma followed by mesh repair was done. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis. PMID:25478414

  2. Body image, self-esteem, and depression in burn-injured adolescents and young adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deborah Ann Orr

    1988-01-01

    Burns are the third leading cause of death in childhood and adolescence. For those surviving burn injury, scarring and loss of function can be devastating, in terms of body image and self-esteem, with accompanying depression. Using a wide range of measures and age samples, earlier research explored the impact of demographic, burn-related (age at time of burn, years elapsed since

  3. Biologicals and Fetal Cell Therapy for Wound and Scar Management

    PubMed Central

    Hirt-Burri, Nathalie; Ramelet, Albert-Adrien; Raffoul, Wassim; de Buys Roessingh, Anthony; Scaletta, Corinne; Pioletti, Dominique; Applegate, Lee Ann

    2011-01-01

    Few biopharmaceutical preparations developed from biologicals are available for tissue regeneration and scar management. When developing biological treatments with cellular therapy, selection of cell types and establishment of consistent cell banks are crucial steps in whole-cell bioprocessing. Various cell types have been used in treatment of wounds to reduce scar to date including autolog and allogenic skin cells, platelets, placenta, and amniotic extracts. Experience with fetal cells show that they may provide an interesting cell choice due to facility of outscaling and known properties for wound healing without scar. Differential gene profiling has helped to point to potential indicators of repair which include cell adhesion, extracellular matrix, cytokines, growth factors, and development. Safety has been evidenced in Phase I and II clinical fetal cell use for burn and wound treatments with different cell delivery systems. We present herein that fetal cells present technical and therapeutic advantages compared to other cell types for effective cell-based therapy for wound and scar management. PMID:22363853

  4. Scar remodeling after strabismus surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, I H

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: Patients with overcorrected strabismus (and several patients with undercorrection after extraocular muscle resection) underwent exploration of previously operated muscles, with the intention of advancing their tendons to prevent the need for surgery on additional muscles. Unexpectedly, it was found that, in many cases, an elongated scar segment of variable length was interposed between the muscle and its insertion site on the sclera. Laboratory investigations were carried out to elucidate the underlying mechanism(s) and to create an animal model of the disorder. METHODS: Lengthened scars were repaired on 198 muscles during 134 procedures performed on 123 patients. The scars consisted of amorphous connective tissue interposed between the globe and normal tendon. Repair was accomplished by excision of the scar and reattachment of the muscle to sclera, using absorbable sutures in 64 cases and nonabsorbable sutures in 70 cases. Histopathologic examination was performed on 82 clinical specimens, and tissue culture studies were performed on 7 specimens. To develop an animal model, 10 New Zealand white rabbits underwent bilateral superior rectus resection. Half of the eyes received sub-Tenon's injections of collagenase over the operative site during weeks 2, 3, 5, and 6 postoperatively; the other half received saline solution injections on the same schedule. At 10 weeks, half the sites were studied histologically, and the other half underwent collagen creep analysis. In a second study, the use of absorbable versus nonabsorbable sutures was compared in the rabbit model. RESULTS: In the clinical cases, the mean length of the elongated scar segments was 4.2 mm. A total of 105 of the 134 repair procedures were judged successful. Thirty-one procedures resulted in recurrence of the original overcorrection; 7 of these had documented restretches. Factors that distinguished patients with stretched scars from patients with classic slipped muscles included minimal or no limitation of versions, less separation of the tendons from sclera, and thicker appearance of the scar segments. The use of nonabsorbable sutures in the repair procedure reduced the recurrence rate. Histologic examination of the clinical stretched scar specimens showed dense connective tissue that was less well organized compared with normal tendon. In the tissue culture studies, cells cultured from the stretched scar specimens grew rapidly and were irregularly shaped. A high-molecular-weight protein was identified in the culture medium. By contrast, cells cultured from normal tendon (controls) grew more slowly and regularly, stopped growing at 4 days, and produced less total protein than cultured stretched scar specimens. In the animal model studies, the collagenase-treated sites showed elongated scars with increased collagen between the muscle and the sclera, as well as increased collagen creep rates, compared with the saline-treated controls. The use of nonabsorbable sutures in collagenase-treated animal model surgery sites was associated with shorter, thicker scars compared with similar sites sutured with absorbable sutures. CONCLUSIONS: A lengthened or stretched, remodeled scar between an operated muscle tendon and sclera is a common occurrence and is a factor contributing to the variability of outcome after strabismus repair, even years later. This abnormality may be revealed by careful exploration of previously operated muscles. Definitive repair requires firm reattachment of tendon to sclera with nonabsorbable suture support. Images FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 FIGURE 24 FIGURE 25 FIGURE 26 FIGURE 27 FIGURE 28 FIGURE 29 FIGURE 30 FIGURE 31 FIGURE 32 FIGURE 33 FIGURE 34 FIGURE 35 FIGURE 36 FIGURE 37 FIGURE 38 FIGURE 39 FIGURE 40 FIGURE 41 FIGURE 42 FIGURE 43 FIGURE 44 FIGURE 45 FIGURE 46 FIGURE 52 FIGURE 53 FIGURE 54 FIGURE 55 FIGURE 58 FIGURE 59 FIGURE 60 FIGURE 61 FIGURE 62 FIGURE 63

  5. Treatment of severe foot burns in children.

    PubMed

    Shakirov, Babur M; Tursunov, Bakhrom S

    2005-11-01

    Only a few papers on the problem of foot burns can be found in the easily accessible scientific literature. In Central Asia foot burns are widespread, because many people, especially children, walk barefoot in summer, and because the heated sandal is still used for keeping warm in winter. In the Samarkand Inter-Regional Burn Center in Uzbekistan, the following method of treatment was developed: initial surgical debridement of the wound, necrectomy with application of chemotherapeutic medications and early necrectomy, the removal of necrotic tissues and preparation the wound for early autodermoplasty. This effective treatment method contributed to the restoration of foot function in patients, lessened their joint deformities and post-burn contractures/deformities, and also shortened their hospital stay. PMID:15994015

  6. [Dermal subsitute with the collagen-elastin matrix Matriderm in burn injuries: a comprehensive review].

    PubMed

    Kolokythas, P; Aust, M C; Vogt, P M; Paulsen, F

    2008-12-01

    Matriderm is a dermal substitute consisting of a native (non-cross-linked) collagen matrix supplemented by a elastin hydrolysate. It is available in sheets of 1 mm and 2 mm thickness, and may be covered in a single step procedure with immediate split thickness skin grafting. Duration of the surgical procedures are only marginally increased. There is no diminished take of split thickness graft and only marginally prolonged healing time compared with the split thickness graft only. In experimental models the matrix reduces wound contracture, histologically collagen bundles in the scar are more randomly orientated. Clinical trials with a long-term clinical evaluation showed no difference in scar elasticity between the described dermal substitute and split thickness grafts alone. There is a lack of clinical data on the development of wound contracture. PMID:18629763

  7. Studies on the contracture of the mouse diaphragm induced by sodium selenite.

    PubMed

    Lin-Shiau, S Y; Liu, S H; Fu, W M

    1989-08-11

    In this study, we found that sodium selenite was potent in inducing contracture of the mouse diaphragm. The possible mechanism of action of selenite was investigated. Contracture was induced by a direct action of selenite on the muscle membrane rather than that selenite enhanced transmitter release from the motor nerve terminals, since denervation, d-tubocurarine and tetrodotoxin did not inhibit the selenite-induced contracture. Although selenite decreased both the membrane potential and the amplitude of the muscle action potential, neither high K+ nor glycerol treatment, which closed the transverse tubule, reduced the selenite-induced contracture, suggesting that depolarization of the muscle membrane was not essential for the induction of the contracture. EGTA (1-50 mM) inhibited the selenite-induced contracture in a concentration-dependent manner. In contrast, varying the external Ca2+ concentrations from 10(-3) to 10 mM or raising Mg2+ concentration to 10 mM did not affect the contracture. Similarly, the contracture induced by caffeine was not affected by lowering the external Ca2+ concentration to 10(-3) mM but was completely inhibited by 30 mM EGTA. Selenite pretreatment markedly potentiated the caffeine contracture and prolonged treatment with caffeine inhibited the selenite contracture. All of these findings suggest that the selenite contracture was not dependent on external Ca2+ but was induced by the release of Ca2+ from internal membranes such as the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Pretreatment with trypsin, glutathione or cyanide blocked the selenite-evoked contracture. Therefore, we postulate that the selenite-induced contracture was induced by the initial binding of selenite to the sulfhydryl groups of the muscle membrane, which then triggered the release of Ca2+ from internal membranes such as the sarcoplasmic reticulum. PMID:2506065

  8. Neck Contracture Release With Matriderm Collagen/Elastin Dermal Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, John E.; Mackie, Ian P.

    2011-01-01

    Aims: To demonstrate success with immediate split-skin graft application over Matriderm dermal matrix in a difficult neck contracture release. Methods: An aggressive neck contracture release, accompanied by complete platysmectomy, was followed by application of Matriderm, split-skin graft, Mepitel, and vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) dressing. Results: At VAC removal (day 7), graft take was almost complete over the dermal matrix and with minor “touch-up” were complete by day 9 postrepair. Results at 4 months show graft contraction and a marked diminution of the release obtained. The results, however, are still good and the patient is very happy. Conclusion: Immediate grafting over a dermal matrix appears to provide a good solution, with a gentle surgical learning curve, in this difficult postburn scenario. Postrelease contraction is, however, as inevitable as with other techniques. PMID:21451729

  9. Two novel fibrillin-2 mutations in congenital contractural arachnodactyly.

    PubMed

    Belleh, S; Zhou, G; Wang, M; Der Kaloustian, V M; Pagon, R A; Godfrey, M

    2000-05-01

    Congenital contractural arachnodactyly (CCA) is an autosomal dominant connective tissue disorder, comprising marfanoid habitus, flexion contractures, severe kyphoscoliosis, abnormal pinnae, and muscular hypoplasia. It is now known that mutations in the gene encoding fibrillin-2 cause CCA. Interestingly, mutations described to date cluster in the fibrillin-2 region homologous to the so-called neonatal Marfan syndrome region of fibrillin-1. Thus, it has been hypothesized that the relative infrequency of CCA compared with the Marfan syndrome is due to the limited region of the gene targeted for mutations. In support of the above hypothesis, we report here the finding of two additional FBN2 mutations in CCA, C1141F (exon 26) and C1252W (exon 29). In addition, a new 3' UTR polymorphism is also described. PMID:10797416

  10. Post-burn philtrum restoration.

    PubMed

    Grishkevich, Viktor M

    2010-08-01

    One of the consequences of face burn is upper lip deformation with philtrum injury. The philtrum's absence poses severe cosmetic defects. A literature review shows no effective developed technique which allows the surgeon to restore the upper lip and the philtrum in a single-stage procedure. The article presents a new method for burn-damaged philtrum restoration. Two scar stripes are deliberately left in place above the upper lip where the normal philtral ridges should be. The width of these two stripes (ridges) should be around 4mm. The upper lip scars, lateral both ridges and between them, are excised forming the philtral dimple. The wound is covered with a split thickness skin graft. Two U-shaped sutures are led through the skin graft, both scar stripes and deeper through the underlying tissues between stripes. A bolster is plunged between the ridges in order to fill the dimple and is fixed by the tie-over dressing with tension. The skin transplant lying laterally to the ridges is covered with a separate tie-over dressing. The bolster is being kept in place for the duration of 7 days. As a result, the scar ridges preserve their height and the dimple keeps its depth. Good long-time follow-up results (up to 7 years) were observed in all 18 patients. In most cases the dimple can be slightly smoothed with time. The suggested method of philtrum restoration is an important component of the burned upper lip reconstruction as part of the post-burn facial resurfacing. PMID:19969425

  11. SCAR-B UWC131A

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-04-23

    ... Clouds and Radiation - Brazil (SCAR-B) data include physical and chemical components of the Earth's surface, the atmosphere and the ... SCAR-B Discipline:  Tropospheric Chemistry Field Campaigns Radiation Budget Aerosols ...

  12. Investigation for Genetic Determinants of Flexion Contractures and Contracted Foal Syndrome in Neonatal Thoroughbred Foals 

    E-print Network

    Caldwell, Jana Denise

    2014-09-04

    ................................................................................................. xi CHAPTER I GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO CONGENITAL JOINT CONTRACTURES AND CONTRACTED FOAL SYNDROME IN NEONATAL THOROUGHBRED FOALS .................................................................................... 1 Disease Description... ...................................................................................................... 1 Nomenclature ................................................................................................................ 6 Disease Frequency...

  13. SCAR-B ER2 MAS

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-04-23

    SCAR-B ER2 MAS Project Title:  SCAR-B Discipline:  ... Platform:  NASA ER-2 Instrument:  MAS Spatial Coverage:  (-19.20, 34.96)(-116.36, -45.94) ... Readme Files:  Readme SCAR-B ER2 MAS Summaries Read Software Files :  C Code ...

  14. Burn wound: How it differs from other wounds?

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, V. K.

    2012-01-01

    Management of burn injury has always been the domain of burn specialists. Since ancient time, local and systemic remedies have been advised for burn wound dressing and burn scar prevention. Management of burn wound inflicted by the different physical and chemical agents require different regimes which are poles apart from the regimes used for any of the other traumatic wounds. In extensive burn, because of increased capillary permeability, there is extensive loss of plasma leading to shock while whole blood loss is the cause of shock in other acute wounds. Even though the burn wounds are sterile in the beginning in comparison to most of other wounds, yet, the death in extensive burns is mainly because of wound infection and septicemia, because of the immunocompromised status of the burn patients. Eschar and blister are specific for burn wounds requiring a specific treatment protocol. Antimicrobial creams and other dressing agents used for traumatic wounds are ineffective in deep burns with eschar. The subeschar plane harbours the micro-organisms and many of these agents are not able to penetrate the eschar. Even after complete epithelisation of burn wound, remodelling phase is prolonged. It may take years for scar maturation in burns. This article emphasizes on how the pathophysiology, healing and management of a burn wound is different from that of other wounds. PMID:23162236

  15. Burns and Their Psychological Effects on Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luther, Stephen L.; Price, James H.

    1981-01-01

    The psychological aspects of a child's reaction to major burn injuries include acute emotional reactions resulting from upsetting reactions of family members and unfamiliar hospital surroundings. Emotional and social adjustment problems of severely scarred children are viewed, and suggestions are made as to what health professionals might do to…

  16. A technique for detecting burn scars using MODIS data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rong-Rong Li; Yoram J. Kaufman; Wei Min Hao; J. M. Salmon; Bo-Cai Gao

    2004-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments onboard the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Terra and Aqua spacecrafts have several visible and near-infrared (NIR) channels with resolutions of 250, 500, and 1 km for remote sensing of land surfaces and atmosphere. The MODIS data directly broadcasted to ground receiving stations can have many practical applications, including the rapid assessment of

  17. Spatial and temporal scale issues in determining biomass burning regimes in Bolivia and Peru

    E-print Network

    Spatial and temporal scale issues in determining biomass burning regimes in Bolivia and Peru A. V and burn scars derived from SPOT VEGETATION (the Global Burnt Area 2000 product) were mapped for Peru Santa Cruz, Bolivia and in north-west Peru). Particular attention was paid to biomass burning in high

  18. Laser punch-out for acne scars.

    PubMed

    Koo, S H; Yoon, E S; Ahn, D S; Park, S H

    2001-01-01

    Patients with acne scars want smooth facial skin. However, achieving this is difficult with dermabrasion or chemical peeling. Nor can acne scars be covered with cosmetics, due to their ice-picked or cobblestone appearance. Laser resurfacing is more effective and safer than other conventional methods due to its precision with depth control and variable methods of surface cutting. Even depth resurfacing with a laser shows unsatisfactory results, therefore, for the deep-sited acne scar the cutting methods have to be changed according to the depth and pattern of the scar. For 2 years, starting in January 1996, we treated 71 patients with a high-powered CO2 laser (Ultrapulse). Different resurfacing methods were applied according to the depth and pattern of the scars. For mild depressed scars, even depth resurfacing was done. For moderate-depth acne scars, the shoulder technique was also used. For the deepest and ice-picked scars, the laser punch-out was combined. Laser resurfacing was carried out at 300-500 mJ, with two to five passes. Laser punch-out was done at 500 mJ, with three to seven continuous passes on the ice-picked scar. From the pathologic findings of acne scars showing that there was thick intradermal scar, we knew that laser punch-out was necessary for improvement of acne scars. Depth-wide, the ice-picked scars improved by over 80% and the sharp demarcated margin of the acne scar faded out. Most of the patients with acne scars were satisfied with laser resurfacing. Only six patients had a second laser treatment, with an interval of 12 months. There were no hypertrophic scars after laser resurfacing, but erythema lasted for 3-12 months. Patients taking oral retinoic acid were not contraindicated for laser resurfacing but required special caution because they had atrophic skin and delayed wound healing. Laser resurfacing is the most versatile method for acne scars, with a high-powered CO2 laser. The laser punch-out method is better than even depth resurfacing for improving deep acne scars and can be combined with the shoulder technique or even depth resurfacing according to the type of acne scar. PMID:11322398

  19. Preventing muscular contractures through routine stroke patient care.

    PubMed

    De, Diana; Wynn, Emma

    The aim of this article is to elevate the standard of ward-based routine care by informing readers about the prevention and management of muscular contractures post-cerebrovascular accident (CVA). Musculoskeletal complications can develop at any time during the acute or latter stages of stroke care and rehabilitation; therefore, it is imperative that all nurses understand the importance of correct limb placement and some of the detrimental complications that can occur. By placing more onus on therapeutic positioning and earlier mobilisation, nurses, working alongside allied health professionals, can significantly improve morbidity-related outcomes. PMID:25062313

  20. [Dupuytren contracture in North Germany. Epidemiological study of 500 cases].

    PubMed

    Brenner, P; Krause-Bergmann, A; Van, V H

    2001-04-01

    Dupuytren's disease is the "classical" hand illness of the north: it affects people of Celtic or Viking descent throughout the whole of northern Europe, whereas it is an unknown disease in the Mediterranean region. Dupuytren's contracture appears to be an extremity-related disease. Owing to the unclear etiology and a lack of up-to-date demographic data for northern Germany this study aims--together with the literature--to elucidate the role of associated illnesses in an attempt to discover pathogenic explanations. 566 patients suffering from Dupuytren's disease in the area around Hanover were analysed with respect to epidemiological features and their Tubiana contracture stage. 91.2% were of pure northern German stock, 12.5% had a family predisposition. The male-to-female ratio was 7:1. Men were afflicted on average at the age of 56 years. Intellectuals were scored 3.17, while manual workers scored 4.21. There were pre-existing ipsilateral lesions in 15% of cases. 55.1% had bilateral contracture. Ectopic penile and plantar fibrosis or knuckle pads were found in 6.7% of cases. The distribution of stages I-IV decreased by 2.4% from 59.1% among the 1,808 afflicted finger rays. With a score of 3.7-3.72, drinkers and smokers presented significantly more severe contractures, while the 8.2% of diabetics displayed a milder form. Among the epileptics--all of whom were affected bilaterally--the Tubiana stage of 3.71 exceeded the median manual score of 3.63 for the group as a whole. Thus Dupuytren's disease is a general but not an exclusively extremity-related sickness. The androtropy is pathognomic. Women develop the disease one decade later than men. In old age the male-to-female ratio equalizes. Drinkers, smokers and heavy manual workers present a more severe affliction, while diabetics suffer from a significantly less severe form. Although the ulnar type dominates, the radial type accounts for 14.4% of cases. 1.9 million Germans are chronically ill because of Dupuytren's disease. Despite a trauma history, Dupuytren's disease is not recognized as an occupational disease. PMID:11357696

  1. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) siRNA inhibits human hypertrophic scar by suppressing integrin ?, TGF-? and ?-SMA.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rui; Zhang, Zhiliang; Xue, Zhujia; Wang, Lin; Fu, Mingang; Lu, Yi; Bai, Ling; Zhang, Dongqing; Fan, Zhihong

    2014-07-01

    The effect of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) on suppressing scarring and the potential molecular mechanism underlying it has been investigated. Ten samples of human hypertrophic scars (HS) tissue cultured in vitro were transfected with FAK siRNA mediated by liposome. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to detect the expression of integrin ?, transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?), FAK and ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) after transfection. MTT assay was used as a measure of fibroblast proliferation. Flow cytometry and (3)H-proincorporation technique gave measurements of the cell cycle and the quantity of collagen synthesis, respectively. Expression of FAK was effectively blocked, accompanied by decreasing expression of integrin ?, TGF-? and ?-SMA in hypertrophic scars fibroblast (HSFB) cells. One to 4?h after transfection with FAK siRNA, proliferation of HSFB cells was strongly inhibited (P?contracture of the scar, making FAK iRNA therapy a potentially effective approach in HS treatment. PMID:24523242

  2. Orbital socket contracture: a complication of inflammatory orbital disease in patients with Wegener’s granulomatosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Talar-Williams; M C Sneller; C A Langford; J A Smith; T A Cox; M R Robinson

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To describe the clinical characteristics of orbital socket contracture in patients with Wegener’s granulomatosis (WG).Methods: A retrospective cohort study The medical records of 256 patients with WG examined at the National Institutes of Health from 1967 to 2004 were reviewed to identify patients with orbital socket contracture. Details of the orbital disease including Hertel exophthalmometry readings, radiological findings, and

  3. Spontaneous contractures of both abductor digiti minimi muscles in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Kawanabe; K. Hata; I. Nakyama

    1998-01-01

    A case is reported of spontaneous contracture of both little fingers in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus. Operative release of abductor digiti minimi produced a good result. It seems likely that the cause of the contracture of ADM may have been myositis related to SLE.

  4. [Arthroscopy techniques in the treatment of extension contractures of the knee joint after total knee arthroplasty].

    PubMed

    Ternovy?, M K; Zazirny?, I M

    2001-01-01

    Results are analyzed of treatment of four patients presenting with extension contractures of the knee joint after total knee replacement with the aid of the arthroscopic arthrolysis technique. All patients demonstrated increase in the joint movement size. The conclusion reached was that in the incipient manifestations of the knee joint extension contractures, the arthroscopic arthrolysis technique is superior to the conventional one. PMID:11560043

  5. Pulmonary scar carcinoma. A clinicopathologic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bakris, G.L.; Mulopulos, G.P.; Korchik, R.; Ezdinli, E.Z.; Ro, J.; Yoon, B.H.

    1983-08-01

    To delineate differences between scar and non-scar pulmonary carcinoma, the charts, autopsy protocols and chest roentgenograms of 80 male patients (autopsied) between 1975 and 1980, were reviewed. Nineteen patients (24%) had documented scar carcinomas. The comparison revealed scar carcinomas to possess certain distinctive features: A higher histologic distribution of adenocarcinoma (58% versus 15% in non-scars) and the frequent presentation (53%) with only nonpulmonary symptoms and signs related to metastasis. In scar carcinomas both bronchoscopy and sputum cytology were ineffective as initial diagnostic tools since chest findings were absent or minimal. Chest x-ray was negative in 9 of the 19 patients with scar cancer and remained negative until death in seven. In 10 of 19 instances, pulmonary scar carcinomas presented with only nonpulmonary symptoms and showed a tendency to metastasize while clinically undetectable. The differences noted between scar and non-scar carcinomas of the lung appear to depend on the peripheral location of these tumors and not on the adenocarcinoma histology.

  6. Experience of silicone gel sheets for patients with keloid scars after median sternotomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Motoki Sakuraba; Nobumasa Takahashi; Taku Akahoshi; Yoshikazu Miyasaka; Kenji Suzuki

    2010-01-01

    Purpose  It is often difficult to control hypertrophic scars and keloids with drug therapy, steroid injection, surgery, radiation therapy,\\u000a laser, or wound pressing. Use of silicone gel to treat hypertrophic burn scars and fresh incisions has yielded encouraging\\u000a results. We report our experience of silicone gel sheets for patients with keloids following median sternotomy.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Nine patients underwent a median sternotomy and

  7. [Present and future of cell therapy in burns].

    PubMed

    Bargues, L; Prat, M; Leclerc, T; Bey, E; Lataillade, J-J

    2011-06-01

    Severe burned patients need definitive and efficient wound coverage. Outcome of massive burns has been improved by using cultured epithelial autografts (CEA). Despite fragility, percentages of success take, cost of treatment and long-term tendency to contracture, this surgical technique has been developed in few burn centres. First improvements were to combine CEA and dermis-like substitute. Cultured skin substitutes provide earlier skin closure and satisfying functional result. These methods have been used successfully in massive burns. Second improvement was to allow skin regeneration by using epidermal stem cells. Stem cells have capacity to differentiate into keratinocytes, to promote wound repair and to regenerate skin appendages. Human mesenchymal stem cells contribute to wound healing and were evaluated in cutaneous radiation syndrome. Skin regeneration and tissue engineering methods remain a complex challenge and offer the possibility of new treatment for injured and burned patients. PMID:20167439

  8. Pattern and outcome of children admitted for burns in Benin City, mid-western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oludiran, O O; Umebese, P F A

    2009-07-01

    Children are a vulnerable to burns, an injury, which is often preventable. A study of the profile of cases of children admitted for burns will provide background information to suggest locally doable preventive strategies as well as supply basic information for future reference. We studied the records of 62 children aged 0-16 years, admitted for burns, at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, between January 2002 and December 2006. There were 34 male and 28 female children. Children under three years constituted 56.5%. Whereas the leading cause of burns in all the children was flame burns from kerosene explosions (52%), scalds were responsible for 68.6% of cases in those under three. The extent of burn injury ranged from 6 to 50% and most of them presented late. 64.6% were discharged within three weeks. Wound sepsis and post burn contractures were the most frequently encountered complications (19.4% and 9.7% respectively). There were two deaths (3.2%) related to sepsis. Particular attention to burn safety precautions in children (especially, in the >3 years age group), safer storage and dispensing of combustible chemicals particularly petroleum products is advocated. Fire safety awareness, correct first aid measures and early presentation in the hospital will reduce morbidity and mortality. Early physiotherapy and splinting strategies will reduce contractures. There is the need locally for the establishment of specialized burn centres both to treat these children and to stimulate interest in burn management. PMID:20368855

  9. Chiral scars in chaotic Dirac fermion systems.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hongya; Huang, Liang; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Grebogi, Celso

    2013-02-01

    Do relativistic quantum scars in classically chaotic systems possess unique features that are not shared by nonrelativistic quantum scars? We report a class of relativistic quantum scars in massless Dirac fermion systems whose phases return to the original values or acquire a 2? change only after circulating twice about some classical unstable periodic orbits. We name such scars chiral scars, the successful identification of which has been facilitated tremendously by our development of an analytic, conformal-mapping-based method to calculate an unprecedentedly large number of eigenstates with high accuracy. Our semiclassical theory indicates that the physical origin of chiral scars can be attributed to a combined effect of chirality intrinsic to massless Dirac fermions and the geometry of the underlying classical orbit. PMID:23432246

  10. Dupuytren's contracture: a retrospective database analysis to determine hospitalizations in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Dupuytren's contracture is a condition of the palmar fascia involving contractures of the fascia and skin in the hand. Current treatment for Dupuytren's contracture is mainly limited to surgery. In the Netherlands, little is known about the prevalence of Dupuytren's contracture. In this study we determined the prevalence of patients with a hospitalization for Dupuytren's contracture in the Netherlands and characterized their (re)hospitalizations. Methods From the PHARMO database, which consists of multiple observational databases linked on a patient level, all patients hospitalized for Dupuytren's contracture between 2004 and 2007 were included in the source population (ICD-9-CM code 728.6). Numbers from this source population were used to provide estimates of hospitalizations for Dupuytren's contracture in the Netherlands. Patients with a medical history in the PHARMO database of at least 12 months before their hospitalization were included in the study cohort and followed until end of data collection, death, or end of study period, whichever occurred first. Type of admission, length of stay, recorded procedures, treating specialty, number of rehospitalizations for Dupuytren's contracture, and time to first rehospitalization were assessed. Results Of 3, 126 patients included in the source population, 3, 040 were included in the study population. The overall prevalence of patients with a hospitalization for Dupuytren's contracture was 0.04%, with the highest prevalence (0.25%) among 60-79 year old males. The majority (85%) of all hospitalizations were day-case admissions. Of the admitted inpatients (15%) the majority (81%) had one overnight stay in the hospital. The most common recorded procedure was fasciectomy (87%) and 78% of patients was treated by a plastic surgeon. During a median (IQR) follow-up of 2.9 (1.8-4.0) years, 523 patients were rehospitalized for Dupuytren's contracture. The median (IQR) time to first rehospitalization was 0.8 (0.4-1.9) years. Conclusions This study is a first exploration of Dupuytren's contracture in the Netherlands based on hospitalizations, showing a prevalence of 0.25% among 60-79 year old males. Future studies should also address outpatient procedures to get a complete picture of the treatment of Dupuytren's contracture. In addition, patients not yet treated should be included to be able to estimate the prevalence of Dupuytren's contracture. PMID:21992150

  11. Adult Hip Flexion Contracture due to Neurological Disease: A New Treatment Protocol—Surgical Treatment of Neurological Hip Flexion Contracture

    PubMed Central

    Nicodemo, Alberto; Arrigoni, Chiara; Bersano, Andrea; Massè, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Congenital, traumatic, or extrinsic causes can lead people to paraplegia; some of these are potentially; reversible and others are not. Paraplegia can couse hip flexion contracture and, consequently, pressure sores, scoliosis, and hyperlordosis; lumbar and groin pain are strictly correlated. Scientific literature contains many studies about children hip flexion related to neurological diseases, mainly caused by cerebral palsy; only few papers focus on this complication in adults. In this study we report our experience on surgical treatment of adult hip flexion contracture due to neurological diseases; we have tried to outline an algorithm to choose the best treatment avoiding useless or too aggressive therapies. We present 5 cases of adult hips flexion due to neurological conditions treated following our algorithm. At 1-year-follow-up all patients had a good clinical outcome in terms of hip range of motion, pain and recovery of walking if possible. In conclusion we think that this algorithm could be a good guideline to treat these complex cases even if we need to treat more patients to confirm this theory. We believe also that postoperation physiotherapy it is useful in hip motility preservation, improvement of muscular function, and walking ability recovery when possible. PMID:24707293

  12. Prevalence of scars and "mini-scars", and their impact on quality of life in Japanese patients with acne.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Nobukazu; Miyachi, Yoshiki; Kawashima, Makoto

    2015-07-01

    There have been very few studies on the prevalence and severity of acne scars in Japanese patients. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of acne scars and their impact on the quality of life (QOL) in Japanese acne patients. Acne scars were classified as mini-scars (atrophic scars of ?0.5 and <2 mm in diameter) atrophic scars (?2 mm in diameter), and hypertrophic scars. The severity of acne and acne scars were evaluated. The background of patients and their QOL in relation to acne were assessed. Of 240 subjects, 218 (90.8%) had scars. All patients with scars had mini-scars; 61.2% and 14.2% of 240 had atrophic scars and hypertrophic scars, respectively. Severe scarring was found in patients who had experienced severe acne symptoms, although 15.0% of patients with scars had experienced only mild acne symptoms. The total Dermatology Life Quality Index score was significantly higher in patients with scars than in patients without scars (5.9 ± 4.4 vs 4.2 ± 4.1). Almost all the patients had small atrophic scars with a diameter of 0.5 or more and less than 2 mm, which we have termed "mini-scars". Acne scars had a negative impact on patient QOL. Early initiation of treatment is recommended to avoid acne scars. PMID:25916427

  13. Liver masses with central or eccentric scar.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tonsok; Hori, Masatoshi; Onishi, Hiromitsu

    2009-10-01

    Central or eccentric scar has been described in (most frequently) focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH), large hemangioma, and fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma, and moreover, a central scar may be rarely seen in conventional nonfibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma, (peripheral type) cholangiocarcinoma, and some hepatic metastases. Among the liver tumors with central or eccentric scar, differentiating FNH from other solid hepatic tumors is important because FNH usually requires no treatment. Multiphasic computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are useful for the differential diagnosis of liver tumors with central or eccentric scar. Liver-specific magnetic resonance contrast media will improve the differentiation between FNH and other solid hepatic tumors. PMID:19842566

  14. Controlled Burn

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    GULF OF MEXICO — Dark clouds of smoke and fire emerge as oil burns during a controlled burn in the Gulf of Mexico. The U.S. Coast Guard working in partnership with BP PLC, local residents, and other Federal agencies conducted the controlled burn to aid in preventing the spread of oil following...

  15. Global Burned Area and Biomass Burning Emissions from Small Fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randerson, J. T.; Chen, Y.; vanderWerf, G. R.; Rogers, B. M.; Morton, D. C.

    2012-01-01

    In several biomes, including croplands, wooded savannas, and tropical forests, many small fires occur each year that are well below the detection limit of the current generation of global burned area products derived from moderate resolution surface reflectance imagery. Although these fires often generate thermal anomalies that can be detected by satellites, their contributions to burned area and carbon fluxes have not been systematically quantified across different regions and continents. Here we developed a preliminary method for combining 1-km thermal anomalies (active fires) and 500 m burned area observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to estimate the influence of these fires. In our approach, we calculated the number of active fires inside and outside of 500 m burn scars derived from reflectance data. We estimated small fire burned area by computing the difference normalized burn ratio (dNBR) for these two sets of active fires and then combining these observations with other information. In a final step, we used the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3) biogeochemical model to estimate the impact of these fires on biomass burning emissions. We found that the spatial distribution of active fires and 500 m burned areas were in close agreement in ecosystems that experience large fires, including savannas across southern Africa and Australia and boreal forests in North America and Eurasia. In other areas, however, we observed many active fires outside of burned area perimeters. Fire radiative power was lower for this class of active fires. Small fires substantially increased burned area in several continental-scale regions, including Equatorial Asia (157%), Central America (143%), and Southeast Asia (90%) during 2001-2010. Globally, accounting for small fires increased total burned area by approximately by 35%, from 345 Mha/yr to 464 Mha/yr. A formal quantification of uncertainties was not possible, but sensitivity analyses of key model parameters caused estimates of global burned area increases from small fires to vary between 24% and 54%. Biomass burning carbon emissions increased by 35% at a global scale when small fires were included in GFED3, from 1.9 Pg C/yr to 2.5 Pg C/yr. The contribution of tropical forest fires to year-to-year variability in carbon fluxes increased because small fires amplified emissions from Central America, South America and Southeast Asia-regions where drought stress and burned area varied considerably from year to year in response to El Nino-Southern Oscillation and other climate modes.

  16. Rehabilitation of burn injured patients following lightning and electrical trauma.

    PubMed

    Selvaggi, Gennaro; Monstrey, Stan; Van Landuyt, Koen; Hamdi, Moustapha; Blondeel, Phillip

    2005-01-01

    Electrical burn injuries are complicated because of damage to many structures including: blood vessels, muscles, nerves, tendons, bone and skin. Surgeons must confront many problems such as wound healing coverage, scarring, loss of nerve and tendons, progressive joint stiffness and amputation. The goals of burn therapists are to achieve wound healing, functional recovery, and good cosmetic results. Rehabilitation is both preventive and therapeutic and is a fundamental part of managing these patients. In this article, rehabilitation is discussed with emphasis on the following: pain management, wound coverage, positioning, splinting, and exercises (range-of-motion and ambulation). The treatment and prevention of hypertrophic scarring is evaluated. Finally, the use of engineering and assistive technologies for rehabilitation of the electrical burn injured patient is discussed. Successful management of electrical burn injured patients involves communication among the different burn specialists, such as surgeons, anesthesiologists, neurologists, nurses, and kinesitherapists; engineers from the garments/prostheses companies; psychologists; and the patient him/herself. PMID:15798354

  17. Prevention and treatment of excessive dermal scarring.

    PubMed Central

    Roseborough, Ingrid E.; Grevious, Mark A.; Lee, Raphael C.

    2004-01-01

    Today, wound management to avoid excessive scar formation is increasingly important, especially in populations with Fitzpatrick 3 or higher skin pigmentation. Medical science and industrial development are devoting more effort toward understanding and offering better therapy to control scars. However, advances in scar management have been hampered by the confusing or ambiguous terminology. There is no consensus on what amount of post-traumatic skin scar formation is "normal" and what should be considered "hypertrophic". In the World Health Organization's ICD-9, there is no diagnostic code for hypertrophic scar--only keloid is listed. Yet, the medical and scientific literature distinguishes them as different conditions. Our experience suggests that the diagnosis of keloid disease is greatly over-rendered. For black patients, an elevated scar seems, by default, diagnosed as keloid by most. This confusion results in inappropriate management of scar formation, and occasionally contributes to decision making related to elective or cosmetic surgery. Given that patients are expecting better outcomes from wound care today than in the past, this review article attempts to capture the essential biological factors related to wound scar production and discusses treatment options and indications used by the authors. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:14746360

  18. Acne scarring: a review of cosmetic therapies.

    PubMed

    Lanoue, Julien; Goldenberg, Gary

    2015-05-01

    Acne vulgaris is one of the most commonly encountered skin conditions and frequently is seen in both adolescent and adult populations. Scarring is a common result of acne and may take the form of atrophic or hypertrophic scars. Acne scarring often occurs in highly visible areas such as the face, thus resulting not only in an un-desirable cosmetic appearance but also potential impairment of mental health, social functioning, and overall well-being. There is a wide variety of medical and surgical therapies available for treatment of acne scarring. In this article, we review some of the most commonly used cosmetic therapies for acne scarring, including dermabrasion, laser resurfacing, radiofrequency (RF), subcision, skin needling, punch techniques, chemical peels, soft-tissue augmentation, intralesional therapy, cryotherapy, and silicone dressings, with a focus on cosmetic outcomes. PMID:26057505

  19. Treatment of Hypertrophic Scar in Human with Autologous Transplantation of Cultured Keratinocytes and Fibroblasts along with Fibrin Glue

    PubMed Central

    Taghiabadi, Ehsan; Mohammadi, Parvaneh; Aghdami, Nasser; Falah, Nasrin; Orouji, Zahra; Nazari, Abdoreza; Shafieyan, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Objective Hypertrophic scar involves excessive amounts of collagen in dermal layer and may be painful. Nowadays, we can’t be sure about effectiveness of procedure for hypertrophic scar management. The application of stem cells with natural scaffold has been the best option for treatment of burn wounds and skin defect, in recent decades. Fibrin glue (FG) was among the first of the natural biomaterials applied to enhance skin deformity in burn patients. This study aimed to identify an efficient, minimally invasive and economical transplantation procedure using novel FG from human cord blood for treatment of hypertrophic scar and regulation collagen synthesis. Materials and Methods In this case series study, eight patients were selected with hypertrophic scar due to full-thickness burns. Human keratinocytes and fibroblasts derived from adult skin donors were isolated and cultured. They were tested for the expression of cytokeratin 14 and vimentin using immunocytochemistry. FG was prepared from pooled cord blood. Hypertrophic scars were extensively excised then grafted by simply placing the sheet of FG containing autologous fibroblast and keratinocytes. Histological analyses were performed using Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Masson’s Trichrome (MT) staining of the biopsies after 8 weeks. Results Cultured keratinocytes showed a high level of cytokeratin 14 expression and also fibroblasts showed a high level of vimentin. Histological analyses of skin biopsies after 8 weeks of transplantation revealed re-epithelialization with reduction of hypertrophic scars in 2 patients. Conclusion These results suggest may be the use of FG from cord blood, which is not more efficient than previous biological transporters and increasing hypertrophic scar relapse, but could lead to decrease pain rate. PMID:25870834

  20. Chemical burns

    PubMed Central

    Cartotto, Robert C.; Peters, Walter J.; Neligan, Peter C.; Douglas, Leith G.; Beeston, Jeff

    1996-01-01

    Objectives To report a burn unit’s experience with chemical burns and to discuss the fundamental principles in managing chemical burns. Design A chart review. Setting A burn centre at a major university-affiliated hospital. Patients Twenty-four patients with chemical burns, representing 2.6% of all burn admissions over an 8-year period at the Ross Tilley Regional Adult Burn Centre. Seventy-five percent of the burn injuries were work-related accidents. Chemicals involved included hydrofluoric acid, sulfuric acid, black liquor, various lyes, potassium permanganate and phenol. Results Fourteen patients required excision and skin grafting. Complications were frequent and included ocular chemical contacts, wound infections, tendon exposures, toe amputation and systemic reactions from absorption of chemical. One patient died from a chemical scald burn to 98% of the body surface area. Conclusions The key principles in the management of chemical burns include removal of the chemical, copious irrigation, limited use of antidotes, correct estimation of the extent of injury, identification of systemic toxicity, treatment of ocular contacts and management of chemical inhalation injury. Individualized treatment is emphasized. PMID:8640619

  1. [Effect of chlorocresol vs caffeine on muscle contracture in malignant hyperthermia susceptible patients].

    PubMed

    Ben-Abraham, R; Krivosic-Horber, R M; Haudcoeur, G; Perel, A; Adnet, P J

    1997-06-15

    The phenotype of susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia (MHS); can only be detected reliably by the in vitro caffeine-halothane contracture test (CHCT). Enhanced sensitivity of the calcium-induced calcium release mechanism is responsible for the exaggerated contracture response of skeletal muscle fibers from MHS patients to halothane and caffeine. Chlorocresol was demonstrated to be a potent activator of Ca++ release from skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum. This effect is probably mediated through action on a ryanodine sensitive Ca++ release channel known to be more sensitive in MH. We studied the effect of chlorocresol on the mechanical contracture response of skeletal muscle from patients presenting for the in vitro CHCT. Chlorocresol induces contracture response in a concentration 1/200 of that of caffeine in muscle strips from MH patients. By adding chlorocresol to the protocol of the CHCT, there is clearer discrimination between the responses of MH patients and normal subjects can be achieved. PMID:9264187

  2. Free myocutaneous flap transfer to treat congenital Volkmann's contracture of the forearm.

    PubMed

    Rubin, G; Palti, R; Gurevitz, S; Yaffe, B

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to report our experience with free functional muscle transfer procedures for the late sequelae of the rare condition of congenital Volkmann's ischaemic contracture of the forearm. Four children, with an average age of 9.5 years (range 1.5-17), were treated and were followed for a mean of 6 years (range 1-14). Two patients had dorsal forearm contractures, and two had both flexor and extensor forearm contractures. We carried out free functional muscle transfers to replace the flexor or extensor muscles. The functional result was assessed according to the classification system of Hovius and Ultee. All patients had wrist contractures and skeletal involvement with limb length discrepancy that influenced the outcome. All five transferred muscles survived and improved the function of the hand in three of the four patients. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE 4. PMID:24664161

  3. Dupuytren's disease in the feet causing flexion contractures in the toes.

    PubMed

    Donato, R R; Morrison, W A

    1996-06-01

    Plantar fibromatosis is a recognised form of Dupuytren's disease. Two cases are presented in which there were flexion contractures of the toes in the involved feet. This is an extremely rare form of this plantar affliction. PMID:8771478

  4. Monolateral external fixation for the progressive correction of neurological spastic knee flexion contracture in children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pedro Gutiérrez Carbonell; Jose Valiente Valero; Pedro Doménech Fernández; Javier Roca Vicente-Franqueira

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report the results of the surgical treatment of spastic knee flexion contracture using tenotomy\\u000a and progressive correction by external fixator–distractor devices. The study design involved a prospective observational study\\u000a of 16 knees in nine patients with spastic flexion contracture greater than 30°. Treatment was indicated for both ambulatory\\u000a and nonambulatory patients; and, in

  5. The effect of corrective splinting on flexion contracture of rheumatoid fingers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cecilia W. P. Li-Tsang; Leung Kim Hung; Arthur F. T. Mak

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports a matched-pair experimental study to investigate the effect of corrective splinting on flexion contracture of rheumatoid fingers. Twenty-four patients with rheumatoid arthritis and finger flexion contracture participated in the study. After a 6-week baseline measurement of hand function—including measurement of grip strength and range of motion and administration of the Jebsen Hand Function Test—the patients were randomly

  6. Total knee arthroplasty treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with severe versus moderate flexion contracture

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study aims to explore the technique of soft tissue balance and joint tension maintenance in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) for the rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients with flexion contracture of the knee. Methods This retrospective study reviewed flexion contracture deformity of RA patients who underwent primary TKA and ligament and soft tissue balancing. Based on the flexion contracture deformity, the remaining 76 patients available for analysis were divided into two groups, i.e., severe flexion group (SF) and moderate flexion group (MF). Results There were no intraoperative complications in this study. All patients had improved Knee Society Rating System scores and range of motion. The flexion contracture was completely corrected in MF and SF patients. There were no cases of patellar dislocation, but three cases had mild mediolateral instability in severe flexion group. Four knees (two knees in SF versus two knees in MF) had transient peroneal nerve palsy but recovered after conservative therapy. Conclusions TKA can be performed successfully in the RA knees with severe flexion contracture. It is very important in TKA to maintain the joint stability in the condition of severe flexion contracture deformity of the RA knee. PMID:24229435

  7. Microneedling Therapy for Atrophic Acne Scars

    PubMed Central

    Barakat, Manal; Awad, Sherif; Medhat, Walid; El-Fakahany, Hasan; Farag, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Treatment of acne scarring is always a challenge. Microneedling therapy or percutaneous collagen induction is a new addition to the treatment modalities for such scars and has been reported to be simple and effective in atrophic acne scar treatment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical effect and objectively quantify the histological changes of acne scarring in response to skin microneedling. Design: A prospective clinical study. Participants: Ten patients with different types of atrophic acne scars were subjected to three months of skin microneedling treatment (six sessions at two-week intervals). Measurements: Patients were photographed, and skin biopsies were obtained at baseline as well as one and three months from the start of treatment. Histometry for epidermal thickness and quantitative evaluation of total elastin; newly synthesized tropoelastin; collagen types I, III, and VII; and newly synthesized collagen were performed for all biopsies. Results: Compared to the baseline, patients’ evaluations revealed noticeable clinical improvement in atrophic post-acne scars in response to skin microneedling. There was a statistically significant increase (p<0.05) in the mean of collagen types I, III, and VII and newly synthesized collagen, while total elastin was significantly decreased (p<0.05) after the end of treatment. Conclusions: Multiple minimally invasive sessions of skin microneedling are an effective treatment for post-acne atrophic scars as it stimulates the repair processes with the advantage of being a relatively risk-free, in-office procedure with minimal patient recovery time.

  8. The incidence of burns among sex-trafficking victims in India.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Nadia; Sinha, Indranil; Husain, Fatima; Shah, Ajul; Patel, Anup

    2014-09-01

    Sex trafficking remains a flagrant violation of human rights, creating many public health concerns. During the initiation period, these victims experience acts of violence including gang rapes, subjecting them to traumatic injuries that include burns. Furthermore, lack of access to health care, particularly surgical, keeps them from receiving treatment for these functionally debilitating contractures caused by burns. This piece provides an overview of burns among sex-trafficked victims in India and the efforts by Cents of Relief to address the associated surgical burden of disease. PMID:25191142

  9. Keystone Design Sliding Skin Flap for the Management of Small Full Thickness Burns

    PubMed Central

    Al-Busaidi, Azher A.; Semalesan, Nirannanilathu; Al-Busaidi, Said S.

    2011-01-01

    Deep dermal burns and full thickness burns are generally managed by excision and split thickness skin grafting. The skin graft may lead to unacceptable colour changes and be aesthetically unacceptable. Also, there may be a contour defect and, furthermore, it is followed by varying degrees of contracture. The keystone design sliding flap, first described in 2003, avoids the need for grafting and is not associated with any skin graft problems. We report two cases of the use of this flap as the primary surgery in reconstruction of small full thickness burn defects. PMID:22087386

  10. The Incidence of Burns Among Sex-Trafficking Victims in India

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Nadia; Sinha, Indranil; Husain, Fatima; Shah, Ajul; Patel, Anup

    2014-01-01

    Sex trafficking remains a flagrant violation of human rights, creating many public health concerns. During the initiation period, these victims experience acts of violence including gang rapes, subjecting them to traumatic injuries that include burns. Furthermore, lack of access to health care, particularly surgical, keeps them from receiving treatment for these functionally debilitating contractures caused by burns. This piece provides an overview of burns among sex-trafficked victims in India and the efforts by Cents of Relief to address the associated surgical burden of disease. PMID:25191142

  11. A randomized clinical trial to study the effect of silicone gel dressing and pressure therapy on posttraumatic hypertrophic scars.

    PubMed

    Li-Tsang, Cecilia Wai Ping; Zheng, Yong Ping; Lau, Joy C M

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the effect of pressure therapy (PG), silicone gel sheeting (SGS), and combined therapy on the management of posttraumatic hypertrophic scar (HS) using a randomized controlled clinical trial. A total of 104 subjects with HS mostly resulting from burns and scald injuries (63 men and 41 women; average age: 21.8 +/- 18.7 years) were recruited from Jiangsu People's First Affiliated Hospital in Nanjing, China. The mean scar formation period was 14.9 +/- 30.8 months. All subjects were randomly allocated into four groups, namely the PG, SGS, combined PG and SGS groups, and single-blinded control group for the treatment of 6 months. Standardized scar assessments (pigmentation, vascularity, thickness, pain, and itchiness) were conducted before the intervention, 2, 4, and 6 months of the intervention, and 1 month after completion of the program, respectively, to observe the progress of the treatments. The results showed that the combined therapy seemed to be more effective in improving the thickness of scar after 2 months of intervention (P < .001). After 6 months of intervention, both the combined therapy group and the PG group showed significant improvement in scar thickness. The improvement in scar thickness was most significant in the combined therapy group. SGS was found to be more effective in alleviating the pain and pruritus rather than the scar thickness. This randomized clinical trial has demonstrated the evidence of the effect of combined PG and gel intervention on posttraumatic HS. The PG group showed an improvement in scar thickness too. Further studies are needed to investigate the biomechanical and physiological effect that PG and gel sheeting would exert on the scar tissues. PMID:20375696

  12. A case of abdominal wall scar endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Saha, K; Shahida, S M; Mostafa, G; Ahmed, M

    2014-04-01

    Endometriosis is presence of functioning endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity. Endometriosis can sometimes occur in a previous surgical scar. Scar endometriosis is rare and difficult to diagnose. It mostly follows obstetrical and gynecological surgeries. This condition is often confused with other surgical conditions. We are reporting a case of scar endometriosis following caesarean section, which was being treated as stitch granuloma for long time. Medical treatment was not helpful. The patient required wide surgical excision of the lesion. Now the patient is under regular follow up, because there is chance of recurrence. PMID:24858173

  13. Silicone occlusive treatment of hypertrophic scar in the rabbit model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexandrina S. Saulis; Jerome D. Chao; Alvin Telser; Jon E. Mogford; Thomas A. Mustoe

    2002-01-01

    Background: Hypertrophic scar formation at sites of healed cutaneous injury often produces functional and esthetic deficits. Treatments have been limited in part by a lack of understanding of scar etiology and the lack of animal models of hypertrophic scarring. Silicone dressing is reported to provide positive outcomes with respect to a reduction in scar hypertrophy and an improvement in color

  14. Sense and nonsense of scar creams and gels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cees J. M. van den Helder; J. Joris Hage

    1994-01-01

    The wish to prevent or improve scars, whether they are of surgical or traumatic origin, has led to the development of scar creams and gels that are said to influence the aesthetic appearance of a scar. In this article the literature on results of the topical application of various scar creams and gels is reviewed. It is concluded that no

  15. SCAR-A Data and Information

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-08-06

    ... (SCAR-A) data include physical and chemical components of the Earth's surface, the atmosphere and the radiation field collected in the eastern part of the United States with an emphasis in air pollution. Discipline:  ...

  16. The "Sea" should not be operated on in scar revision for "Island-Like" scars.

    PubMed

    Nagasao, Tomohisa; Hamamoto, Yusuke; Tamai, Motoki; Kudo, Hiroo; Ensako, Toshiya; Kogure, Tetsukuni; Takano, Naoki; Tanaka, Yoshio

    2015-08-01

    Scars developing on body surfaces not only restrict body movement, but are also problematic from a cosmetic standpoint. Hence, revision is conducted by removing the scar and re-suturing the resultant defects. In performing scar revision, care should be taken to prevent the re-sutured wounds from developing hypertrophy again. Scars often present a pattern where hard, red parts are separated by soft parts in between. As the hard and soft parts may be analogized as islands and seas respectively, we call this the "Island-Like" scar. Two strategies can be taken to treat scars of this type. The first is to remove the entire scar-including both hard and soft parts; the second is to remove only the hard parts and leave the soft parts untouched. The authors conducted a biomechanical study using finite element analyses and found that as a body moves, greater stresses occur in the peri-wound regions with the first strategy than with the second strategy. A wound's likelihood to develop hypertrophy increases as the stresses working on it increase. Hence, it is hypothesized that the second strategy carries less risk of the operated wounds developing re-hypertrophy than the first strategy. Based on this logic, in performing scar revision for scars consisting of hard and soft parts, it is recommended only to remove only hard parts and not to operate on soft parts in between. PMID:25978927

  17. Frequency of placenta previa in previously scarred and non scarred uterus

    PubMed Central

    Majeed, Tayyaba; Waheed, Fatima; Mahmood, Zahid; Saba, Kanwal; Mahmood, Hamis; Bukhari, Mulazim Hussain

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of placenta Previa in patients coming to a tertiary care unit with previously scarred and non-scarred uterus. Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was carried on 114 cases who underwent caesarean sections (37 cases out of 645 cases with non scarred uterus and 77 cases from 721 cases with scarred uterus) in the department of obstetrics and gynecology Lady Willingdon Hospital from January 2008– December 2011. Results: Most patients (47.36%) were between 26-30 years age group, presented with gestational age between 36-40 weeks (70.17%), were mostly G2-4, while frequency of placenta Previa in non-scarred uterus was 32.45% (37 cases), and frequency in previously scarred uterus was 67.54% (77 cases). Major degree Previa was found in 88 cases (77.19%). There were 5.70% cases of placenta Previa from non-scarred uteruses and 10.67% cases of placenta Previa (10.67%) from already scarred uteruses. Stratification revealed a higher trend of the morbidity with the increase in number of previous caesarean sections. Conclusion: A significantly higher frequency of placenta Previa was found among patients coming to a tertiary care hospital with previously scarred uterus.

  18. Modulation of caffeine contractures in mammalian skeletal muscles by variation of extracellular potassium.

    PubMed

    Gallant, E M; Lentz, L R; Taylor, S R

    1995-11-01

    Caffeine contractures were induced after K(+)-conditioning of skeletal muscles from pigs and mice. K(+)-conditioning is defined as the partial depolarization caused by increasing external potassium (K+0) with [K+]x[Cl-] constant. Conditioning depolarizations that rendered muscles refractory to brief electrical stimulation still enhanced the contracture tension elicited by subsequent direct caffeine stimulation of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) calcium release. The effects of K(+)-conditioning on caffeine-induced contractures of intact cell bundles reached a maximum at 15-30 mM K+0 and then progressively declined at higher [K+]0. Conditioning with 30 mM K+ for 5 min, which inactivates excitation-contraction (EC) coupling in response to action potentials, both increased the magnitude of caffeine contractures 2-10-fold and shifted the contracture threshold toward lower caffeine concentrations. Enhanced sensitivity to caffeine was inhibited by dantrolene (20 microM) and its watersoluble analogue azumolene (150 microM). These drugs decreased caffeine-induced contractures following depolarization with 4-15 mM K+ to 25-50% of control tension. The inorganic anion perchlorate (CIO-4), which like caffeine potentiates twitches, increased caffeine-induced contractures approximately twofold after K(+)-conditioning (> 4 mM). The results suggest that CIO-4 and dantrolene, in addition to caffeine, also influence SR calcium release either directly or by mechanism(s) subsequent to depolarization of the sarcolemma. Moreover, since CIO-4 is known to shift the voltage-dependence of intramembrane charge movement, CIO-4 may exert effects on the transverse-tubule voltage sensors as well as the SR. PMID:7593203

  19. Deep foot burns: effects of early excision and grafting.

    PubMed

    Shakirov, Babur M

    2011-12-01

    Few on the problem of foot burns can be found in the available scientific literature. It is necessary to mention that often deep foot burns occur in Central Asia since many natives still use the ancient means of heating called 'Sandal' during the winter months. Eighty-four patients with severe foot burns were treated in the Burn department of RCSUMA and the Inter-regional Burn Center, Uzbekistan. The patients were subdivided into two groups, depending upon the terms of performing operative intervention. There was no special allocation of patients to groups. Criteria for selection were isolated deep burns of the foot. As for the character of the injury, area of deep burn and the severity of injury, patients of the control and basic groups were not different. The first group included 34 patients on whom early excision was done using skin graft 4-5 days after resuscitation, and the second group consisted of 50 patients who were treated in the traditional way. Methods used on the first group, described in this article, helped to improve the general condition of patients, contributed to the restoration of their foot function, lessened joint deformities and post-burn contracture deformities, shortened their stay in hospital and also reduced expenses. PMID:21855217

  20. Conjunctival Transcriptome in Scarring Trachoma? †

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Matthew J.; Rajak, Saul N.; Bauer, Julien; Weiss, Helen A.; Tolbert, Sonda B.; Shoo, Alice; Habtamu, Esmail; Manjurano, Alphaxard; Emerson, Paul M.; Mabey, David C. W.; Holland, Martin J.; Bailey, Robin L.

    2011-01-01

    Trachoma is a poorly understood immunofibrogenic disease process, initiated by Chlamydia trachomatis. Differences in conjunctival gene expression profiles between Ethiopians with trachomatous trichiasis (with [TTI] or without [TT] inflammation) and controls (C) were investigated to identify relevant host responses. Tarsal conjunctival swab samples were collected for RNA isolation and C. trachomatis PCR. Transcriptome-wide microarray experiments were conducted on 42 samples (TTI, n = 13; TT, n = 15; C, n =14). Specific results were confirmed by using multiplex quantitative reverse transcription-PCR for 16 mRNA targets in an independent collection of case-control samples: 386 case-control pairs (TTI, n = 244; TT, n = 142; C, n = 386). The gene expression profiles of cases were consistent with squamous metaplasia (keratins, SPRR), proinflammatory cytokine production (IL1?, CXCL5, and S100A7), and tissue remodeling (MMP7, MMP9, MMP12, and HAS3). There was no difference in the level of IFN? between cases and controls. However, cases had increased INDO, NOS2A, and IL13RA2 and reduced IL13. C. trachomatis was detected in 1/772. Cases show evidence of ongoing inflammation and tissue remodeling, which were more marked where clinical inflammation was also present. Significantly, these processes appear to be active in the absence of current C. trachomatis infection. There was limited evidence of a TH1 response (INDO and NOS2A) and no association between a TH2 response and cases. The epithelium appears to be actively involved in late cicatricial stages of trachoma through the production of proinflammatory factors (IL1?, CXCL5, and S100A7). Longitudinal studies are needed to investigate which etiological factors and pathways are associated with progressive scarring and whether simply controlling chlamydial infection will halt progression in people with established cicatricial disease. PMID:20937763

  1. Burning issues

    SciTech Connect

    Raloff, J.

    1993-10-02

    The idea of burning oil slicks at sea has intrigued oil-cleanup managers for more than a decade, but it wasn't until the advent of fireproof booms in the mid-1980's and a major spill opportunity (the March 1989 Exxon Valdez) that in-situ burning got a real sea trial. The results of this and other burning experiments indicate that, when conditions allow it, nothing can compete with fire's ability to remove oil from water. Burns have the potential to remove as much oil in one day as mechanical devices can in one month, along with minimal equipment, labor and cost. Reluctance to burn in appropriate situations comes primarily from the formation of oily, black smoke. Analysis of the potentially toxic gases have been done, indicating that burning will not increase the levels of polluting aldehydes, ketones, dioxins, furans, and PAHs above those that normally evaporate from spilled oil. This article contains descriptions of planned oil fires and the discussion on the advantages and concerns of such a policy.

  2. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography evaluation after autologous fat grafting in scar revision

    PubMed Central

    BOLLERO, D.; POZZA, S.; GANGEMI, E.N.; DE MARCHI, A.; GANEM, J.; EL KHATIB, A.M.; FALETTI, C.; STELLA, M.

    2014-01-01

    Aim Fat transfer is commonly used to fill loss of volume in depressed scars caused by trauma, deep burns or surgery. The aim of the study is to investigate the degree of fat graft take through evaluation of the microcirculation of grafted autologous adipose tissue using contrast-enhanced ultrasonography. Patients and method From 2010 to 2012 at the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery of the Traumatological Center in Turin, a study population was selected from patients with surgical indications for autologous fat transfer for scar correction. For each surgical procedure patients underwent a clinical and sonographic evaluation before and after intervention (at 1 month and 3 months). Results Out of a total of 28 interventions, 24 showed a good result; defined as improvement of the scar, and confirmed by the presence of vascularization in the transplanted tissue. In 4 cases, there was a lack of blood supply at the first evaluation but an initial good clinical scar correction. The absence of blood vessels was confirmed at 3 months accompanied by complete resorption of the transferred fat with a failure of good clinical outcome. Conclusion Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography was able to evaluate the microvasculature of adipose tissue after fat transfer. Due to this characteristic, it allows to monitor and predict the take of adipose tissue and provide realistic and early information on the clinical outcome of fat transfer. PMID:25644727

  3. Evaluating evidence for atrophic scarring treatment modalities

    PubMed Central

    McGrouther, Duncan; Chakrabarty, Kaushik

    2014-01-01

    Summary Introduction Atrophic scars cause significant patient morbidity. Whilst there is evidence to guide treatment, there does not appear to be a systematic review to analyse the efficacy of treatment options. Objectives To retrieve all evidence relating to atrophic scar treatment and evaluate using the Clinical Evidence GRADE score in order to allow clinicians to make evidence-based treatment choices. Method Searches were performed in Medline, EMBASE, CINHL and Cochrane to identify all English studies published evaluating treatment of atrophic scars on adults excluding journal letters. Each study was allocated a GRADE score based on type of study, quality, dose response, consistency of results and significance of results. The end score allowed categorisation of evidence into high, moderate, low or very low quality. Results A total of 41 studies were retrieved from searches including randomised controlled trials, observational studies, retrospective analyses and case reports of which 7% were allocated a high-quality score, 10% a moderate score, 7% a low score and 75% a very low score. Treatment modalities included ablative laser therapy, non-ablative laser therapy, autologous fat transfer, dermabrasion, chemical peels, injectables, subcision, tretinoin iontophoresis and combination therapy. Conclusion There is a paucity of good-quality clinical evidence evaluating treatment modalities for atrophic scarring. Evidence supports efficacy of laser, surgery and peel therapy. Further biomolecular research is required to identify targeted treatment options and more randomised controlled trials would make the evidence base for atrophic scar treatment more robust. PMID:25352991

  4. Collagenase treatment of Dupuytren’s contracture using a modified injection method

    PubMed Central

    Nordenskjöld, Jesper; Lauritzson, Anna; Ahlgren, Eva; Waldau, Johanna; Waldén, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Treatment of Dupuytren’s contracture (DC) with collagenase Clostridium histolyticum (CCH) consists of injection followed by finger manipulation. We used a modified method, injecting a higher dose than recommended on the label into several parts of the cord, which allows treatment of multiple joint contractures in 1 session and may increase efficacy. We studied the occurrence of skin tears and short-term outcome with this procedure. Patients and methods We studied 164 consecutive hands with DC, palpable cord, and extension deficit of ? 20º in the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) and/or proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint (mean patient age 70 years, 82% men). A hand surgeon injected all the content of 1 CCH vial (approximately 0.80 mg) into multiple spots in the cord and performed finger extension under local anesthesia after 1 or 2 days. A nurse recorded skin tears on a diagram and conducted a standard telephone follow-up within 4 weeks. A hand therapist measured joint contracture before injection and at a median of 23 (IQR: 7–34) days after finger extension. Results A skin tear occurred in 66 hands (40%). The largest diameter of the tear was ? 5 mm in 30 hands and > 10 mm in 14 hands. Hands with skin tear had greater mean pretreatment MCP extension deficit than those without tear: 59º (SD 26) as opposed to 32º (SD 23). Skin tear occurred in 21 of 24 hands with MCP contracture of ? 75º. All tears healed with open-wound treatment. No infections occurred. Mean improvement in total (MCP + PIP) extension deficit was 55º (SD 28). Interpretation Skin tears occurred in 40% of hands treated with collagenase injections, but only a fifth of them were larger than 1 cm. Tears were more likely in hands with severe MCP joint contracture. All tears healed without complications. Short-term contracture reduction was good. PMID:25695745

  5. Hand burn management: minimising pain and trauma at dressing change.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Jacky; Mason, Sally

    The aim of wound management in hand burn injuries is to restore function and prevent problem scars, so a key consideration in wound healing is the removal of dressings without causing pain and further trauma as well as preserving function. Conventionally, wound dressings such as paraffin gauze were used for burn injuries, but this led to pain and trauma on removal, as well as drying out. This study looks at the use of Mepitel® One on hand burns; this dressing incorporates all the benefits of Mepitel, however, it only has Safetac technology on the wound contact side, allowing easy handling and application. PMID:24225512

  6. Percutaneous Aponeurotomy and Lipofilling (PALF): A Regenerative Approach to Dupuytren Contracture.

    PubMed

    Hovius, Steven E R; Kan, Hester J; Verhoekx, Jennifer S N; Khouri, Roger K

    2015-07-01

    Dupuytren disease is a progressive fibroproliferative disorder, which leads to flexion contractures of the digits. A minimally invasive technique consisting of an extensive percutaneous aponeurotomy of the cord with a needle combined with lipofilling is presented. The selective cutting of the cords under continuous tension disintegrates the cords while sparing the looser neurovascular bundles. Subsequently, lipoaspirate is injected subcutaneously. The authors' prospective results show a significantly shorter recovery time and less overall complications in this technique when compared with open surgery, while no significant difference was observed in the extent of immediate contracture correction and in the recurrence rate at 1 year follow-up. PMID:26116943

  7. Contracture of the third toe as a delayed presentation of a foreign body in the foot.

    PubMed

    Dar, Tahir Ahmed; Sultan, Asif; Hussain, Shahid; Dhar, Shabir Ahmed; Ali, Murtaza Fazal

    2011-10-01

    Foreign body retention in the foot after a penetrating injury is an unusual occurrence with varied presentation. A degree of suspicion needs to be present in situations where there is an inexplicable swelling, sinus, abscess, or tenderness. The authors present a case with a contracture of the third toe that had been caused by plantar fascial fibrosis secondary to retention of a rubber foreign body in the foot. This case report highlights the fact that an ultrasound to rule out retention of the foreign body might be a judicious investigation if common causes of toe contracture are excluded. It may also have therapeutic implications. PMID:21926370

  8. Wetland fire scar monitoring and analysis using archival Landsat data for the Everglades

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, John W.; Hall, Annette E.; Foster, Ann M.; Smith, Thomas J., III

    2013-01-01

    The ability to document the frequency, extent, and severity of fires in wetlands, as well as the dynamics of post-fire wetland land cover, informs fire and wetland science, resource management, and ecosystem protection. Available information on Everglades burn history has been based on field data collection methods that evolved through time and differ by land management unit. Our objectives were to (1) design and test broadly applicable and repeatable metrics of not only fire scar delineation but also post-fire land cover dynamics through exhaustive use of the Landsat satellite data archives, and then (2) explore how those metrics relate to various hydrologic and anthropogenic factors that may influence post-fire land cover dynamics. Visual interpretation of every Landsat scene collected over the study region during the study time frame produced a new, detailed database of burn scars greater than 1.6 ha in size in the Water Conservation Areas and post-fire land cover dynamics for Everglades National Park fires greater than 1.6 ha in area. Median burn areas were compared across several landscape units of the Greater Everglades and found to differ as a function of administrative unit and fire history. Some burned areas transitioned to open water, exhibiting water depths and dynamics that support transition mechanisms proposed in the literature. Classification tree techniques showed that time to green-up and return to pre-burn character were largely explained by fire management practices and hydrology. Broadly applicable as they use data from the global, nearly 30-year-old Landsat archive, these methods for documenting wetland burn extent and post-fire land cover change enable cost-effective collection of new data on wetland fire ecology and independent assessment of fire management practice effectiveness.

  9. Long-term survival in a child with severe congenital contractural arachnodactyly, autism and severe intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Snape, Katie M G; Fahey, Michael C; McGillivray, George; Gupta, Prateek; Milewicz, Dianna M; Delatycki, Martin B

    2006-04-01

    The severe form of congenital contractural arachnodactyly is usually associated with early mortality due to multisystem complications. Here, we report a 9-year-old male child with severe skeletal manifestations of congenital contractural arachnodactyly. He had none of the cardiovascular or gastrointestinal features that have been described in severe congenital contractural arachnodactyly. He had profound intellectual disability with autism. All exons of FBN2, the gene associated with congenital contractural arachnodactyly, were sequenced and no disease-causing mutation was found. When severe congenital contractural arachnodactyly is diagnosed in the newborn period, parents need to be aware that long-term survival is possible, particularly if no significant extraskeletal complications are present, and that significant neurodevelopmental delay may occur. PMID:16531736

  10. Fraxelated radiofrequency device for acne scars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Babar K.; Khokher, Sairah

    2012-09-01

    Acne scars can be improved with various treatments such as topical creams, chemical peels, dermal fillers, microdermabrasion, laser, and radiofrequency devices. Some of these treatments especially lasers and deep chemical peels can have significant side effects such as post inflammatory hyperpigmentation in darker skin types. Fraxelated RF Laser devices have been reported to have lower incidence of side effects in all skin phototypes. Nine patients between ages 18 and 35 of various skin phototypes were selected from a private practice and treated with a RF fraxelated device (E-matrix) for acne scars. Outcomes were measured by physician observation, subjective feedback received by patients, and comparison of before and after photographs. In this small group of patients with various skin phototypes, fraxelated radiofrequency device improved acne scars with minimal side effects and downtime.

  11. Functional Regeneration Beyond the Glial Scar

    PubMed Central

    Cregg, Jared M.; DePaul, Marc A.; Filous, Angela R.; Lang, Brad T.; Tran, Amanda; Silver, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    Astrocytes react to CNS injury by building a dense wall of filamentous processes around the lesion. Stromal cells quickly take up residence in the lesion core and synthesize connective tissue elements that contribute to fibrosis. Oligodendrocyte precursor cells proliferate within the lesion and help to entrap dystrophic axon tips. Here we review evidence that this aggregate scar acts as the major barrier to regeneration of axons after injury. We also consider several exciting new interventions that allow axons to regenerate beyond the glial scar, and discuss the implications of this work for the future of regeneration biology. PMID:24424280

  12. Kuskokwim syndrome, a recessive congenital contracture disorder, extends the phenotype of FKBP10 mutations

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Aileen M.; Duncan, Geraldine; Weis, MaryAnn; Paton, William; Cabral, Wayne A.; Mertz, Edward L.; Makareeva, Elena; Gambello, Michael J.; Lacbawan, Felicitas L.; Leikin, Sergey; Fertala, Andrzej; Eyre, David R.; Bale, Sherri J.; Marini, Joan C.

    2013-01-01

    Recessive mutations in FKBP10 at 17q21.2, encoding FKBP65, cause both osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) and Bruck syndrome (OI plus congenital contractures). Contractures are a variable manifestation of null/missense FKBP10 mutations. Kuskokwim syndrome (KS) is an autosomal recessive congenital contracture disorder found among Yup’ik Eskimos. Linkage mapping of KS to chromosome 17q21, together with contractures as a feature of FKBP10 mutations, made FKBP10 a candidate gene. We identified a homozygous 3-nucleotide deletion in FKBP10 (c.877_879delTAC) in multiple Kuskokwim pedigrees; 3% of regional controls are carriers. The mutation deletes the highly conserved p.Tyr293 residue in FKBP65’s 3rd PPIase domain. FKBP10 transcripts are normal, but mutant FKBP65 is destabilized to a residual 5%. Collagen synthesized by KS fibroblasts has substantially decreased hydroxylation of the telopeptide lysine crucial for collagen cross-linking, with 2–10% hydroxylation in probands vs 60% in controls. Matrix deposited by KS fibroblasts has marked reduction in maturely cross-linked collagen. KS collagen is disorganized in matrix, and fibrils formed in vitro had subtle loosening of monomer packing. Our results imply that FKBP10 mutations affect collagen indirectly, by ablating FKBP65 support for collagen telopeptide hydroxylation by LH2, thus decreasing collagen crosslinks in tendon and bone matrix. FKBP10 mutations may also underlie other arthrogryposis syndromes. PMID:23712425

  13. Classification of equinus in ambulatory children with cerebral palsy - discrimination between dynamic tightness and fixed contracture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ernst B. Zwick; Lutz Leistritz; Berko Milleit; Vinay Saraph; Gertrude Zwick; Miroslaw Galicki; Herbert Witte; Gerhardt Steinwender

    2004-01-01

    In this study a generalised dynamic neural network (GDNN) was designed to process gait analysis parameters to evaluate equinus deformity in ambulatory children with cerebral palsy. The aim was to differentiate dynamic calf muscle tightness from fixed muscle contracture. Patients underwent clinical examination and had instrumented gait analysis before evaluating their equinus under anaesthesia and muscle relaxation at the time

  14. Neonatal spinal muscular atrophy with multiple contractures, bone fractures, respiratory insufficiency and 5q13 deletion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. García-Cabezas; A. García-Alix; Y. Martín; M. Gutiérrez; C. Hernández; J. I. Rodríguez; C. Morales

    2004-01-01

    We present the case of a floppy neonate with marked and generalized weakness, respiratory insufficiency and fetal akinesia deformation sequence. The infant showed multiple joint contractures, two bone fractures and needed mechanical ventilation from birth to death at 16 days of age. Electrophysiological assessment showed electrically unexcitable motor and sensory nerves. Muscle biopsy showed diffuse atrophy of type I and type

  15. Ankle Plantar-Flexion Contracture Complication After Aesthetic Calf Volume Reduction Procedure.

    PubMed

    Han, Seung Hwan; Chung, Nam Su; Park, Do Young

    2015-07-01

    Minimally invasive, aesthetic calf volume reduction procedures are considered to be relatively safe. Published complications are mostly transient, with minimal functional loss. We hereby report debilitating ankle plantar-flexion contracture after aesthetic calf volume reduction procedure by selective neurectomy, with magnetic resonance imaging analysis and surgical treatment outcomes of this complication. From 2009 to 2010, 11 patients (17 lower legs) were surgically treated for this complication. The average preoperative ankle contracture angle of all involved lower legs was -22 degrees (range, -5 to -30 degrees). Magnetic resonance imaging performed in 14 lower legs showed lesions indicative of denervation atrophy, with fibrotic lesions causing longitudinal shortening of the gastrocnemius muscle. Of the 17 ankle contractures, 15 Silfverskiöld test-positive cases received miniopen gastrocnemius release, whereas 2 Silfverskiöld test-negative cases received Achilles tendon lengthening by percutaneous triple hemiresection. At last follow-up, the dorsiflexion angle of all ankles improved to an average of 25 degrees (range, 20-30 degrees) with full plantar flexion in all patients, whereas the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society Ankle-Hindfoot Scale scores improved from an average of 59.2 to 94.2. Surgeons and patients alike should be aware of debilitating ankle planter flexion contractures after aesthetic calf volume reduction procedures. Using minimally invasive gastrocnemius and Achilles tendon release, we were able to provide symptomatic and functional relief from this complication with minimal cosmetic sacrifice. PMID:24727446

  16. Subclinical infection of the silicone breast implant surface as a possible cause of capsular contracture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles P. Virden; Marek K. Dobke; Paul Stein; C. Lowell Parsons; David H. Frank

    1992-01-01

    In order to reexamine the possible association between bacterial presence and capsular contracture, 55 silicone devices (mammary implants or tissue expanders) were cultured at the time of their removal from 40 patients. Special culture techniques were used in an attempt to recover bacteria adhering to the smooth-surfaced implant and encased in glycocalyx biofilm. Bacteria were detected on 56% (15 of

  17. A recessive form of congenital contractures and torticollis associated with malignant hyperthermia.

    PubMed Central

    Froster-Iskenius, U G; Waterson, J R; Hall, J G

    1988-01-01

    Two families are presented, each with two affected sibs, all four of whom seem to have a newly described and specific form of congenital contractures (arthrogryposis). The affected subjects have congenital torticollis, dysmorphic, asymmetrical, myopathic facial features, and progressive scoliosis. Two sibs had cleft palate. Malignant hyperthermia has occurred in two of the patients. Images PMID:3346884

  18. Contracture of the Third Toe as a Delayed Presentation of a Foreign Body in the Foot

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tahir Ahmed Dar; Asif Sultan; Shahid Hussain; Shabir Ahmed Dhar; Murtaza Fazal Ali

    2011-01-01

    Foreign body retention in the foot after a penetrating injury is an unusual occurrence with varied presentation. A degree of suspicion needs to be present in situations where there is an inexplicable swelling, sinus, abscess, or tenderness. The authors present a case with a contracture of the third toe that had been caused by plantar fascial fibrosis secondary to retention

  19. The Use of Silicone Adhesives for Scar Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Bleasdale, Benjamin; Finnegan, Simon; Murray, Kathyryn; Kelly, Sean; Percival, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    Significance: This article discusses the history and developments of silicone gel sheeting (SGS) scar therapy. Furthermore, we review a breadth of literature to gain an insight into how and why topical silicone gels remain the favored treatment of medical experts in scar management. We also analyze an ever increasing number of alternative therapies claiming to provide enhanced scar reduction performance. Recent Advances: Topical silicone gel treatments seem to remain the first point of clinical recommendation in scar management. SGS has been used in scar therapy for over 30 years, during which its efficacy has been the subject of numerous clinical evaluations. Critical Issues: While the exact mechanisms by which SGS improves hypertrophic scars, keloid development and recovery are yet to be fully agreed upon, its ability to do so remains largely undisputed at present. However, there still is ongoing deliberation over the exact mechanism of action of silicone in improving a scar. At present it is likely that through occlusion of the scar site and hydration of the wound bed, the overactivity of scar-related cells is suppressed, and their activity normalized. Future Direction: The clinical support of topical silicone gel products, relative to all alternative scar therapies, is considered the internationally recommended first-line form of scar management, and favored by consensus among healthcare professionals. However, there still remains the need for further clinical evidence and a better understanding of the mechanism behind the benefit of silicone gel for use in the prevention of abnormal scarring. PMID:26155385

  20. Scar formation and revision after the removal of orthodontic miniscrews

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoon Jeong; Lee, Dong-Won; Kim, Kyung-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Many clinicians expect complete healing after the removal of temporary anchorage devices, but clinical examination may reveal scar-like tissue. This report presents the typical features of scarring detected after the removal of miniscrews, and the clinical outcome of scar revision along with its pathologic features.

  1. Combination Therapy in the Management of Atrophic Acne Scars

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Shilpa; Baveja, Sukriti

    2014-01-01

    Background: Atrophic acne scars are difficult to treat. The demand for less invasive but highly effective treatment for scars is growing. Objective: To assess the efficacy of combination therapy using subcision, microneedling and 15% trichloroacetic acid (TCA) peel in the management of atrophic scars. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients with atrophic acne scars were graded using Goodman and Baron Qualitative grading. After subcision, dermaroller and 15% TCA peel were performed alternatively at 2-weeks interval for a total of 6 sessions of each. Grading of acne scar photographs was done pretreatment and 1 month after last procedure. Patients own evaluation of improvement was assessed. Results: Out of 16 patients with Grade 4 scars, 10 (62.5%) patients improved to Grade 2 and 6 (37.5%) patients improved to Grade 3 scars. Out of 22 patients with Grade 3 scars, 5 (22.7%) patients were left with no scars, 2 (9.1%) patients improved to Grade 1and 15 (68.2%) patients improved to Grade 2. All 11 (100%) patients with Grade 2 scars were left with no scars. There was high level of patient satisfaction. Conclusion: This combination has shown good results in treating not only Grade 2 but also severe Grade 4 and 3 scars. PMID:24761094

  2. A Rat Excised Larynx Model of Vocal Fold Scar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welham, Nathan V.; Montequin, Douglas W.; Tateya, Ichiro; Tateya, Tomoko; Choi, Seong Hee; Bless, Diane M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and evaluate a rat excised larynx model for the measurement of acoustic, aerodynamic, and vocal fold vibratory changes resulting from vocal fold scar. Method: Twenty-four 4-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to 1 of 4 experimental groups: chronic vocal fold scar, chronic vocal fold scar treated with 100-ng basic…

  3. The efficacy of Aloe vera, tea tree oil and saliva as first aid treatment for partial thickness burn injuries.

    PubMed

    Cuttle, Leila; Kempf, Margit; Kravchuk, Olena; George, Narelle; Liu, Pei-Yun; Chang, Hong-En; Mill, Julie; Wang, Xue-Qing; Kimble, Roy M

    2008-12-01

    Many alternative therapies are used as first aid treatment for burns, despite limited evidence supporting their use. In this study, Aloe vera, saliva and a tea tree oil impregnated dressing (Burnaid) were applied as first aid to a porcine deep dermal contact burn, compared to a control of nothing. After burn creation, the treatments were applied for 20 min and the wounds observed at weekly dressing changes for 6 weeks. Results showed that the alternative treatments did significantly decrease subdermal temperature within the skin during the treatment period. However, they did not decrease the microflora or improve re-epithelialisation, scar strength, scar depth or cosmetic appearance of the scar and cannot be recommended for the first aid treatment of partial thickness burns. PMID:18603378

  4. Burn Resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Fluid resuscitation following burn injury must support organ perfusion with the least amount of fluid necessary and the least physiological cost. Under resuscitation may lead to organ failure and death. With adoption of weight and injury size-based formulas for resuscitation, multiple organ dysfunction and inadequate resuscitation have become uncommon. Instead, administration of fluid volumes well in excess of historic guidelines has been reported. A number of strategies including greater use of colloids and vasoactive drugs are now under investigation to optimize preservation of end organ function while avoiding complications which can include respiratory failure and compartment syndromes. Adjuncts to resuscitation, such as antioxidants, are also being investigated along with parameters beyond urine output and vital signs to identify endpoints of therapy. Here we briefly review the state-of-the-art and provide a sample of protocols now under investigation in North American burn centers. PMID:22078326

  5. Burn Trauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Brian Boyd

    \\u000a Burn trauma is still a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. It causes a spectrum of disability\\u000a and deformity primarily by damaging the integumentary system of its victims. However, it is the systemic effects caused by\\u000a sepsis, fluid and electrolyte imbalance, shock, inhalation injury and myone-crosis that are the usual agents of death. Patients\\u000a must be

  6. The use of a polylactide-based copolymer as a temporary skin substitute in deep dermal burns: 1-year follow-up results of a prospective clinical noninferiority trial.

    PubMed

    Selig, Harald F; Keck, Maike; Lumenta, David B; Mittlböck, Martina; Kamolz, Lars P

    2013-01-01

    Deep dermal burns can be covered with different kind of materials and techniques; one of them is a polylactide-based temporary skin substitute. The aim of this study was to intraindividually compare its 1-year outcome with the results obtained by use of autologous skin grafts in patients suffering from deep dermal burns. A prospective noninferiority trial was designed in order to assess skin quality and scar formation by use of subjective (Vancouver Scar Scale; Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale) and objective (noninvasive cutometry) burn scar assessment tools. All items of the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale, except vascularity, were found to be noninferior in the areas covered with the temporary skin substitute vs. autologous skin. Results of objective scar evaluation showed comparable viscoelastic parameters without reaching noninferiority. Overall, the outcome of deep dermal burns covered with a polylactide-based temporary skin substitute revealed satisfactory results in terms of scar formation and skin quality as compared with autologous skin. This paper supports its use in deep dermal burns, where autologous skin donor sites require either to be reserved for coverage of full-thickness skin defects in severe burns or to be saved for reduction of additional morbidity in selected patient collectives. PMID:23627672

  7. Repigmentation of cutaneous scars depends on original wound type

    PubMed Central

    Chadwick, Sarah L; Yip, Christina; Ferguson, Mark W J; Shah, Mamta

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous scarring is currently an inevitable outcome following skin injury. Abnormal pigmentation within scars makes them more noticeable, causing distress for patients, particularly as there is no reliable and effective treatment available to date. The Duroc pig, known to scar badly, was used to investigate repigmentation of scars resulting from three different wound types: incisional, partial thickness excisional and full thickness excisional. Wounds were created on the backs of Duroc pigs and the resulting scars harvested at days 35, 56, 70 and 90 days post-injury. Scars were processed for histology and immunohistochemistry, quantitatively analysed using image analysis software and subjected to statistical analysis. Photographs of the macroscopic appearance of scars were scored for pigmentation using a visual analogue scale. Results demonstrated temporal and spatial differences in melanocyte repopulation and function within scars from different wound types. The microscopic pigment deposition did not correlate with macroscopic appearances in mature scars. Pigmentation of scars is dependent on the width and depth of wounds. This study has provided important information on which we can base future studies to investigate factors controlling the repigmentation of scars. PMID:23668313

  8. Different surgical treatment of post-burn trophic ulcers of the plantar surface in foot burns.

    PubMed

    Shakirov, Babur M

    2011-12-01

    Burns of the plantar surface of the foot with the subsequent formation of scar is often complicated by unhealing trophic ulcers. Trophic ulcers increase due to constant local irritation, reaching various depth and area, penetrating to the bone and the tendons and covering the area of several centimetres in diameter up to the whole heel area. A total of 21 patients (12 men and nine women) have been under our observation at Samarkand Inter-Regional Burn Center, Uzbekistan, for prolonged trophic ulcers of soft tissues of the plantar surface of the foot. Ulcers sizes were from 1.0-2.5 to 3-5 cm in diameter. All patients had undergone earlier unsuccessful operation (3-5 times). The method of closure should be chosen according to both severity and localisation of the injury, using local uninjured tissues and soft scars to make bilobed skin-flap plasty, one-lobed skin-flat flap, tube graft and other shaped flaps and free grafts placed on the area of the excised scars. In 18 observations, a good result was achieved and no complications were noted. The grafts were viable, sensibility was preserved and no marginal necrosis was noticed. Patients can take up their work by 1.5-2.0 months after surgery. PMID:21924835

  9. Transmission and scarring in graphene quantum dots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liang Huang; Ying-Cheng Lai; David K. Ferry; Richard Akis; Stephen M. Goodnick

    2009-01-01

    We study electronic transport in quantum-dot structures made of graphene. Focusing on the rectangular dot geometry and utilizing the non-equilibrium Green's function to calculate the transmission in the tight-binding framework, we find significant fluctuations in the transmission as a function of the electron energy. The fluctuations are correlated with the formation of quantum scarring states, or pointer states in the

  10. Beyond the First Recurrence in Scar Phenomena

    E-print Network

    D. A. Wisniacki; F. Borondo; E. Vergini; R. M. Benito

    2000-07-18

    The scarring effect of short unstable periodic orbits up to times of the order of the first recurrence is well understood. Much less is known, however, about what happens past this short-time limit. By considering the evolution of a dynamically averaged wave packet, we show that the dynamics for longer times is controlled by only a few related short periodic orbits and their interplay.

  11. Wrinkles and Acne Scars: Fractional Nonablative Lasers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Uwe Paasch

    \\u000a Minimally invasive laser therapies using fractionated laser beams have become increasingly more prevalent, especially for\\u000a treating wrinkled sun-damaged skin and acne scars. Moreover, indications for their use have also significantly increased.\\u000a Fractional lasers apply energy using microscopic dimensions and leave the surrounding tissue unaffected, intact, and therefore\\u000a vital. This permits a much shorter period of recovery than if a larger

  12. Umbilical scarring in hatchling American alligators

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiebe, J.J.; Sepulveda, M.S.; Buckland, J.E.; Anderson, S.R.; Gross, T.S.

    2004-01-01

    Umbilical scarring is the presence of excess scar tissue deposited between abdominal dermal layers at the site of yolk sac absorption in hatchling American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis). The presence of this dermal condition plays a key evaluatory role in the overall quality and subsequent value for various commercial leather products. Despite the prevalent nature of this condition, currently the industry has no standardized protocols for its quantification. The objectives of this study were to examine the relationship between hatchling weight and age and incidence of umbilical scarring and to develop a quantifiable and reproducible technique to measure this dermal condition in hatchling American alligators. Thirty eggs from each of nine clutches were incubated in two separate incubators at different facilities and hatchling umbilical scarring was measured at 2 and 10 days of age using digital calipers. Umbilical area was calculated by multiplying umbilical length times umbilical width. There was a significant effect of both age and clutch on umbilical area (overall decline of 64%) by 10 days post-hatch. However, only five of the nine clutches utilized expressed a noticeable decline in the size of this dermal condition (range 67-74%). We had hypothesized that larger hatchlings would have larger umbilical areas and a slower rate of improvement in this condition during the first few days post-hatch. The differences in umbilical area and percent decline with age across clutches, however, were not associated with differences in initial hatchling weights. Within clutches and time periods, hatchling weight had no significant effect on the size and/or rate of decline of this condition. ?? 2004 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Ken Burns

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-02-10

    Ken Burns is a popular documentarian and, as it turns out, he is now a popular app, in a manner of speaking. This particular app gives interested parties the ability to view scenes from his documentaries (such as "Baseball" and "Jazz") in a variety of settings. The latest version allows visitors to access the Innovation playlist absolutely free while other playlists containing clips from his other programs are available for a small fee. This version is compatible with iPads running iOS 7.0 and newer.

  14. Laser-assisted skin healing (LASH) in hypertrophic scar revision.

    PubMed

    Capon, Alexandre; Iarmarcovai, Gwen; Mordon, Serge

    2009-12-01

    Laser-Assisted Skin Healing (LASH) is based on the therapeutic effects of controlled thermal post-conditioning. The authors have previously demonstrated on humans that an 810-nm diode-laser system could assist wound closure leading to an improvement of wound healing with a resulting indiscernible scar. A 47-year-old woman (skin type II), who developed systematically hypertrophic scars after surgery, was enrolled for a hypertrophic scar revision. Excess scar tissue was removed. Immediately after the conventional closure of the incision, laser irradiation (120 J/cm(2)) using a 0.8 cm(2) spot size (rectangular spot, length = 20 mm, width = 4 mm) was applied. Topical silicone gel sheeting (Cerederm((R))) was applied for 2 months afterwards to prevent a thick scar from reforming. No complications occurred during the course of this study. No recurrence of hypertrophic scarring was noticed 6 months after scar revision. This study reports, for the first time, the possibility of improving the appearance of hypertrophic scarring in scar revision by altering through thermal stress the wound-healing process. Since the appropriate initial management of wounds is of importance, the LASH technique could be offered as a new approach to prevent hypertrophic scarring. PMID:19951192

  15. Iontophoretic drug delivery for the treatment of scars.

    PubMed

    Manda, Prashanth; Angamuthu, Muralikrishnan; Hiremath, Shobharani R; Raman, Vijayasankar; Murthy, S Narasimha

    2014-06-01

    Topical treatment of hypertrophic scars is challenging because of poor penetrability of drugs into the scar tissue. The objective of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of iontophoresis to deliver medicaments across the scar epidermis. Initially, biophysical studies were performed to investigate the differences between scar and normal skin epidermis obtained from cadaver. In case of scar skin epidermis, the transepidermal water loss was not significantly different from the normal skin epidermis, whereas the electrical resistivity was significantly higher. The passive permeation flux of sodium fluorescein was approximately one-third of that across the normal skin epidermis. Scanning electron microscopy studies revealed that the two membranes were alike except that the scar skin epidermis lacked follicles. Cathodal iontophoresis enhanced the delivery of sodium fluorescein across the scar skin epidermis by approximately 46 folds [51.90 ± 8.82 ng/(cm(2) h)]. However, the transport of sodium fluorescein across the scar skin epidermis was about an order of magnitude less than the normal skin epidermis. Overall, the studies suggest that iontophoresis could be utilized to overcome the barrier resistance of scar skin epidermis and treat the scar regionally. PMID:24648369

  16. Periostin induces fibroblast proliferation and myofibroblast persistence in hypertrophic scarring.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Justin; Nygard, Karen; Gan, Bing Siang; O'Gorman, David Brian

    2015-02-01

    Hypertrophic scarring is characterized by the excessive development and persistence of myofibroblasts. These cells contract the surrounding extracellular matrix resulting in the increased tissue density characteristic of scar tissue. Periostin is a matricellular protein that is abnormally abundant in fibrotic dermis, however, its roles in hypertrophic scarring are largely unknown. In this report, we assessed the ability of matrix-associated periostin to promote the proliferation and myofibroblast differentiation of dermal fibroblasts isolated from the dermis of hypertrophic scars or healthy skin. Supplementation of a thin type-I collagen cell culture substrate with recombinant periostin induced a significant increase in the proliferation of hypertrophic scar fibroblasts but not normal dermal fibroblasts. Periostin induced significant increases in supermature focal adhesion formation, ? smooth muscle actin levels and collagen contraction in fibroblasts cultured from hypertrophic scars under conditions of increased matrix tension in three-dimensional type-I collagen lattices. Inhibition of Rho-associated protein kinase activity significantly attenuated the effects of matrix-associated periostin on hypertrophic scar fibroblasts and myofibroblasts. Depletion of endogenous periostin expression in hypertrophic scar myofibroblasts resulted in a sustained decrease in ? smooth muscle actin levels under conditions of reducing matrix tension, while matrix-associated periostin levels caused the cells to retain high levels of a smooth muscle actin under these conditions. These findings indicate that periostin promotes Rho-associated protein kinase-dependent proliferation and myofibroblast persistence of hypertrophic scar fibroblasts and implicate periostin as a potential therapeutic target to enhance the resolution of scars. PMID:25421393

  17. Postapproval clinical experience in the treatment of Dupuytren's contracture with collagenase clostridium histolyticum (CCH): the first 1,000 days.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Scott M; Tursi, James P

    2014-12-01

    Dupuytren's contracture is a benign fibromatosis of the palmar and digital fascia of the hand of uncertain etiology, resulting in nodules and cords beneath the skin of the palm of the hands that may lead to the development of contractures. Surgical intervention is often considered when metacarpophalangeal (MP) joint contracture is 30° or more, or when there is any degree of proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint contracture. Collagenase clostridium histolyticum (CCH) is a nonsurgical, minimally invasive enzymatic drug indicated for the treatment of adult patients with Dupuytren's contracture (DC) and palpable cord. CCH has been available for approximately 3.5 years, and postapproval experience indicates that the effectiveness of CCH is equivalent to or better than efficacy observed in clinical trials, as seen by lower injection rates to achieve clinical success. Postapproval experience has shown a risk-benefit profile that favors CCH for patients not indicated for surgery based on current recommendations and shows also that treating earlier-stage vs later-stage joint contracture results in significantly better outcomes on average. Postapproval surveillance reveals a safety profile similar to that observed in clinical trials. Nonserious adverse events are mainly local reactions; tendon rupture, a serious adverse event, is reported rarely in the clinical practice setting and at a lower rate than in clinical trials. Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) training is designed to mitigate benefit vs risk to achieve safe and effective use of CCH. PMID:25414604

  18. A novel FBN2 mutation in a Chinese family with congenital contractural arachnodactyly.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Zhao, Ning; Li, Xue-Fu; Wang, Hong; Sui, Yu; Lu, Yong-Ping; Feng, Wen-Hua; Ma, Chao; Han, Wei-Tian; Jiang, Miao

    2015-01-01

    Congenital contractural arachnodactyly (CCA, OMIM: 121050) is an autosomal dominant condition that shares skeletal features with Marfan syndrome (MFS, OMIM: 154700), including contractures, arachnodactyly, dolichostenomelia, scoliosis, crumpled ears and pectus deformities but excluding the ocular and cardiovascular complications that characterize MFS. These two similar syndromes result from mutations in two genes belonging to the fibrillin family, FBN1 and FBN2, respectively. We successfully identified a novel FBN2 mutation (C1406R) in a Chinese family with CCA for over five generations. This mutation was detected in the patients of this family but not in the seven unaffected family members or 100 normal individuals. SIFT and PolyPhen analyses suggested that the mutation was pathogenic. We identified a missense mutation in the calcium binding-epidermal growth factor (cbEGF)-like domain. Our study extends the mutation spectrum of CCA and confirms a relationship between mutations in the FBN2 gene and the clinical findings of CCA. PMID:25834781

  19. Does the Surface Structure of Implants Have an Impact on the Formation of a Capsular Contracture?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Poeppl; S. Schreml; F. Lichtenegger; A. Lenich; M. Eisenmann-Klein; L. Prantl

    2007-01-01

    Background  The formation of a fibrous capsule around a silicone breast implant is part of a physiologic foreign body reaction after breast\\u000a augmentation. In contrast, the formation of a capsular contracture is a local complication of unknown cause. This study aimed\\u000a to discover whether the surface structure of the implant (textured vs smooth) has any impact on the formation of a

  20. Roles of TGF-?/Smad signaling pathway in pathogenesis and development of gluteal muscle contracture

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xintao; Ma, Yukun; You, Tian; Tian, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Honglei; Zhu, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the study Gluteal muscle contracture (GMC) is a chronic fibrotic disease of gluteal muscles which is characterized by excessive deposition of collagen in the extracellular matrix. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-?s have been shown to play an important role in the progression of GMC. However, the underlying mechanisms are not entirely clear. We sought to explore the expression of TGF-?/Smad pathway proteins and their downstream targets in gluteal muscle contracture disease. Materials and methods The expression levels of collagens type I/III, TGF-?1, Smad2/3/4/7 and PAI-1 (plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1) in gluteal muscle contraction (GMC) patients were measured using immunohistochemistry, reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot assays. Results The expressions of collagens type I/III and TGF-?1 were significantly increased in the contraction band compared with unaffected muscle. In addition, R-Smad phosphorylation and Smad4 protein expression in the contraction band were also elevated, while the expression of Smad7 was significantly decreased in the fibrotic muscle of the GMC patients compared to the unaffected adjacent muscle. The protein and mRNA levels of PAI-1 were also remarkably increased in the contraction band compared with adjacent muscle. Immunohistochemical analysis also demonstrated that the expression levels of TGF-?1 and PAI-1 were higher in contraction band than those in the adjacent muscle. Conclusion Our data confirm the stimulating effects of the TGF-?/Smad pathway in gluteal muscle contracture disease and reveal the internal changes of TGF-?/Smad pathway proteins and their corresponding targets in gluteal muscle contracture patients. PMID:25207745

  1. The Relationship between Caffeine Contracture of Intact Muscle and the Effect of Caffeine on Reticulum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Weber; R. HERZ

    1968-01-01

    At concentrations between 1 to 10 raM, caffeine reduced the Ca-accumulating capacity of fragmented reticulum obtained from frog and rabbit muscle. With 8 mM caffeine enough Ca was released from frog reticulum to account for the force of the contracture. Caffeine did not affect all reticulum membranes equally. The fraction which was spun down at 2000 g was more sensitive

  2. Perspectives on glenohumeral joint contractures and shoulder dysfunction in children with perinatal brachial plexus palsy.

    PubMed

    Gharbaoui, Idris S; Gogola, Gloria R; Aaron, Dorit H; Kozin, Scott H

    2015-01-01

    Shoulder joint deformities continue to be a challenging aspect of treating upper plexus lesions in children with perinatal brachial plexus palsy (PBPP). It is increasingly recognized that PBPP affects the glenohumeral joint specifically, and that abnormal scapulothoracic movements are a compensatory development. The pathophysiology and assessment of glenohumeral joint contractures, the progression of scapular dyskinesia and skeletal dysplasia, and current shoulder imaging techniques are reviewed. PMID:25835253

  3. Beals-Hecht syndrome (congenital contractural arachnodactyly) with additional craniospinal abnormality: a case report.

    PubMed

    Meena, Jagdish P; Gupta, Ajay; Mishra, Devendra; Juneja, Monica

    2015-05-01

    Beals syndrome is an autosomal-dominant connective tissue disorder, characterized by multiple flexion contractures, arachnodactyly, severe kyphoscoliosis, crumpled ear, and muscular hypoplasia. It has similarities to Marfan syndrome (MFS) in many respects. It has much fewer incidences of eye and heart anomalies compared with MFS. Beals syndrome is caused by a mutation in the fibrillin-2 gene (FBN2) in 5q23; MFS is caused by mutations in fibrillin-1. With time, there is spontaneous improvement in joint contractures, but kyphosis tends to be progressive. The neonatal form results from new mutations and tends to be severe. Prenatal molecular diagnosis is possible. Ultrasound could be used to demonstrate hypokinesia and joint contractures in presumptive cases. We present a case of a patient with Beals syndrome who presented to the emergency department with pneumonia and was found to have narrowing of the foramen magnum, with partial fusion of C2-C3 vertebral bodies. To our knowledge, this has not been documented in the literature and could be characteristic in relation to Beals syndrome. PMID:25493702

  4. Management outcome and associated factors in burn injuries with and without facial involvement in a Nigerian population.

    PubMed

    Fatusi, Olawunmi A; Fatusi, Adesegun O; Olabanji, J Kayode; Alatise, Olusegun I

    2006-01-01

    There is a high potential for the occurrence of burns in Nigeria, yet very little is known about factors that are associated with management outcomes (death/survivorship) in burns affecting facial or other body areas among Nigerian populations. This study aimed at determining patterns of occurrences of burn injuries with and without facial involvement and the factors that are associated with mortality. A standardized data-collection instrument was designed and used to extract relevant information about burn patients that were seen at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria, between 1998 and 2003. During the study period, fuel-related flames constituted the leading type of agent in both facial (71.1%) and nonfacial involved burns (65.3%). There was no significant difference in the incidence of contracture and inhalation injury between burns with facial involvement and burns without facial involvement, but cases of facial involvement have significantly lower incidences of wound infections. No significant difference was seen in the incidence of mortality between burns with facial involvement (31.6 %) and burns without facial involvement (30.7%). Significant bivariate correlates for mortality were age, flame as the agent of burns, depth of the burns and wound infections. Two correlates remained significant in the multivariate analysis (binary logistic regression): BSA involved and wound infection. PMID:17091085

  5. Endoscopic-Assisted Total Thyroidectomy via Lateral Keloid Scar Incision

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Thyroidectomy is traditionally performed by the transcervical approach. To avoid or reduce visible scarring, diverse innovative surgical trials have been reported. Here we report a patient who underwent endoscopic thyroidectomy via a lateral keloid scar due to a previous traffic accident. A 30-year-old woman presented with a papillary thyroid carcinoma. Total thyroidectomy was performed via a keloid scar incision. The keloid scar was then revised. The total thyroidectomy was successful, resulting in no acute complications, such as neural injury, hematoma, or seroma formation. The keloid scar healed with excellent cosmetic results and the patient remains free of disease 12 months after excision. Endoscopic total thyroidectomy via a lateral keloid scar incision healed not only the physical disease but also the mental disease. PMID:25436057

  6. First Aid: Burns

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Medical Care Think Prevention! Scald burns from hot water and other liquids are the most common burns in early childhood. Because burns range from mild to life threatening, some can be treated at home, while ...

  7. The Use of Dermal Substitutes in Burn Surgery: Acute Phase

    PubMed Central

    Shahrokhi, Shahriar; Anna, Arno; Jeschke, Marc G.

    2013-01-01

    Dermal substitutes are increasingly becoming an essential part of the burn care strategy. During the acute phase of burn treatment, dermal substitutes improve functional and cosmetic results long-term and thus increase quality of life. In the chronic wound setting, dermal substitutes are used to reconstruct and improve burn scars and other defects. Despite some successes in the use of dermal substitutes there are more needs and requirements to further improve outcomes and hence further research is required not only to strengthen scientific evidence regarding their effects but also to develop new technology and products. Dermal substitutes also emerge as pivotal research strategies to develop adequate scaffolds for stem cells, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications to obtain long-lasting and scarless artificial skin. This review discusses status-quo of dermal substitutes and novel strategies in the use of dermal substitutes with a focus on burn care. PMID:24393152

  8. Scarred Resonances and Steady Probability Distribution in a Chaotic Microcavity

    E-print Network

    Soo-Young Lee; Jung-Wan Ryu; Tae-Yoon Kwon; Sunghwan Rim; Chil-Min Kim

    2005-05-16

    We investigate scarred resonances of a stadium-shaped chaotic microcavity. It is shown that two components with different chirality of the scarring pattern are slightly rotated in opposite ways from the underlying unstable periodic orbit, when the incident angles of the scarring pattern are close to the critical angle for total internal reflection. In addition, the correspondence of emission pattern with the scarring pattern disappears when the incident angles are much larger than the critical angle. The steady probability distribution gives a consistent explanation about these interesting phenomena and makes it possible to expect the emission pattern in the latter case.

  9. Intralesional Cryotherapy for the Treatment of Keloid Scars: Evaluating Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Bulstra, Anne Eva J.; Ket, Johannes C. F.; Ritt, Marco J. P. F.; van Leeuwen, Paul A. M.; Niessen, Frank B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intralesional (IL) cryotherapy is a novel treatment technique for keloid scars, in which the scar is frozen from inside. Over the past decade, several studies have been published with varying outcomes. A critical analysis of the current literature is, therefore, warranted to determine whether IL cryotherapy is an alternative to established keloid scar treatments. Methods: A comprehensive review was performed, based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis. PubMed and EMBASE were searched from inception. Studies and level of recommendation were graded according to the American Society of Plastic Surgeons criteria. Results: Eight studies meeting the inclusion criteria were selected. The average scar volume decrease ranged from 51% to 63%, but no complete scar eradication was achieved on average. Scar recurrence ranged from 0% to 24%. Hypopigmentation posttreatment was seen mostly in Fitzpatrick 4–6 skin type patients. Finally, complaints of pain and pruritus decreased significantly in most studies. Conclusions: IL cryotherapy for the treatment of keloid scars shows favorable results in terms of volume reduction and alleviated complaints of pain and pruritus. However, no complete scar eradication is established, and recurrences are seen. Also, persistent hypopigmentation proved a problem in Fitzpatrick 4–6 skin type patients. Summarized, the evidence proved limited and inconsistent resulting in an American Society of Plastic Surgeons grade C recommendation for this type of treatment of keloid scars.

  10. NEW MOLECULAR MEDICINE-BASED SCAR MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES

    PubMed Central

    Arno, Anna I; Gauglitz, Gerd G; Barret, Juan P; Jeschke, Marc G

    2014-01-01

    Keloids and hypertrophic scars are prevalent disabling conditions with still suboptimal treatments. Basic science and molecular-based medicine research has contributed to unravel new bench-to-bedside scar therapies, and to dissect the complex signaling pathways involved. Peptides such as transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?) superfamily, with SMADs, Ski, SnoN, Fussels, endoglin, DS-Sily, Cav-1p, AZX100, thymosin-?4 and other related molecules may emerge as targets to prevent and treat keloids and hypertrophic scars. The aim of this review is to describe the basic complexity of these new molecular scar management strategies, and point out new fibrosis research lines. PMID:24438742

  11. Abnormal pigmentation within cutaneous scars: A complication of wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Chadwick, Sarah; Heath, Rebecca; Shah, Mamta

    2012-01-01

    Abnormally pigmented scars are an undesirable consequence of cutaneous wound healing and are a complication every single individual worldwide is at risk of. They present a challenge for clinicians, as there are currently no definitive treatment options available, and render scars much more noticeable making them highly distressing for patients. Despite extensive research into both wound healing and the pigment cell, there remains a scarcity of knowledge surrounding the repigmentation of cutaneous scars. Pigment production is complex and under the control of many extrinsic and intrinsic factors and patterns of scar repigmentation are unpredictable. This article gives an overview of human skin pigmentation, repigmentation following wounding and current treatment options. PMID:23162241

  12. Burns in diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Maghsoudi, Hemmat; Aghamohammadzadeh, Naser; Khalili, Nasim

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT AND AIMS: Diabetic burn patients comprise a significant population in burn centers. The purpose of this study was to determine the demographic characteristics of diabetic burn patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective data were collected on 94 diabetic burn patients between March 20, 2000 and March 20, 2006. Of 3062 burns patients, 94 (3.1%) had diabetes; these patients were compared with 2968 nondiabetic patients with burns. Statistical analysis was performed using the statistical analysis software SPSS 10.05. Differences between the two groups were evaluated using Student's t-test and the chi square test. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. RESULTS: The major mechanism of injury for the diabetic patients was scalding and flame burns, as was also the case in the nondiabetic burn patients. The diabetic burn patients were significantly older, with a lower percentage of total burn surface area (TBSA) than the nondiabetic burn population. There was significant difference between the diabetic and nondiabetic patients in terms of frequency of infection. No difference in mortality rate between diabetic and nondiabetic burn patients was observed. The most common organism in diabetic and nondiabetic burn patients was methicillin-resistant staphylococcus. Increasing %TBSA burn and the presence of inhalation injury are significantly associated with increased mortality following burn injury. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetics have a higher propensity for infection. Education for diabetic patients must include caution about potential burn mishaps and the complications that may ensue from burns. PMID:19902035

  13. Nd:YAG Laser Treatment of Keloids and Hypertrophic Scars

    PubMed Central

    Akaishi, Satoshi; Koike, Sachiko; Dohi, Teruyuki; Kobe, Kyoko; Hyakusoku, Hiko; Ogawa, Rei

    2012-01-01

    Pathological cutaneous scars such as keloids and hypertrophic scars (HSs) are characterized by a diffuse redness that is caused by the overgrowth of capillary vessels due to chronic inflammation. Our group has been using long-pulsed, 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser in noncontact mode with low fluence and a submillisecond pulse duration to treat keloids and hypertrophic scars since 2006 with satisfactory results. The present study examined the efficacy of this approach in 22 Japanese patients with keloids (n = 16) or hypertrophic scars (n = 6) who were treated every 3 to 4 weeks. Treatment settings were as follows: 5 mm spot size diameter; 14 J/cm2 energy density; 300 ?s exposure time per pulse; and 10 Hz repetition rate. The responses of the pathological scars to the treatment were assessed by measuring their erythema, hypertrophy, hardness, itching, and pain or tenderness. Moreover, skin samples from 3 volunteer patients were subjected to histological evaluation and 5 patients underwent thermography during therapy. The average total scar assessment score dropped from 9.86 to 6.34. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and Elastica Masson-Goldner staining showed that laser treatment structurally changed the tissue collagen. This influence reached a depth of 0.5 to 1 mm. Electron microscopy revealed plasma protein leakage, proteoglycan particles, and a change in the collagen fiber fascicles. Further analyses revealed that noncontact mode Nd:YAG laser treatment is highly effective for keloids and hypertrophic scars regardless of patient age, the origin and multiplicity of scarring, the location of the scar(s), or the tension on the scar. PMID:22259645

  14. Topical modalities for treatment and prevention of postsurgical hypertrophic scars.

    PubMed

    Foo, Chong Wee; Tristani-Firouzi, Payam

    2011-08-01

    There is no universally accepted treatment regimen and no evidence-based literature to guide management of hypertrophic scars. This article summarizes the existing literature regarding topical treatments such as silicone gel sheeting and ointment, onion extract, vitamin E, pressure garment therapy, massage therapy, and topical imiquimod 5% cream in the management of hypertrophic scars. PMID:21856542

  15. The Occurrence and Frequency of Scars in Centipedes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heinz-Christian FRÜND

    Centipedes collected in the field quite often exhibit cicatriced lesions. An overview is given on the frequency of the different kinds of scars in Lilhobiidae. Samples of populations of some species from various lo- cations are compared as to the proportion of scarred individuals. In some cases statistically significant differences can be found. Their informational value for understanding the life

  16. Minimal incision rhytidectomy (short scar face lift) with lateral SMASectomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel C. Baker

    2001-01-01

    Minimal incision rhytidectomy has the primary advantages of preserving the posterior hairline and avoiding retroauricular scars. This short-scar face lift with lateral SMASectomy and platysma resection, performed by the author on more than 500 patients in the past 3 years, provides the versatility of traditional SMAS flap undermining and the safety and rapidity of SMAS plication.

  17. Original article Development of SCARs useful for species

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . multiflorum Lam. / Lolium perenne L. / RAPD marker / SCAR Résumé - Développement de SCAR pour l hasard) sur deux variétés de Lolium multiflorum Lam. et quatre de Lolium perenne L., dans le but de of agronomical- ly important temperate forage grass species. Lolium perenne L. and L. multiflorum Lam. are two

  18. A case of spontaneous tubal pregnancy with caesarean scar pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jie; Shen, Yue-Ying; Zhao, Yu-Qing; Lin, Ru; Fang, Fang

    2014-01-01

    Tubal pregnancy with caesarean scar pregnancy is rare. Early, accurate diagnosis and treatment for this kind of ectopic pregnancy can lead to a decrease of maternal morbidity and mortality. Here, we report a rare case of spontaneous tubal pregnancy co-existing with caesarean scar pregnancy. After timely emergency laparoscopy and curettage, the patient was cured. PMID:25356166

  19. Observation of scarred modes in asymmetrically deformed microcylinder lasers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Bum; Lee, Jai-Hyung; Chang, Joon-Sung; Moon, Hee-Jong; Kim, Sang Wook; An, Kyungwon

    2002-01-21

    We report observation of lasing in the scarred modes in an asymmetrically deformed microcavity made of liquid jet. The observed scarred modes correspond to morphology-dependent resonance of radial mode order 3 with their Q values in the range of 10(6). Emission directionality is also observed, corresponding to a hexagonal unstable periodic orbit. PMID:11801060

  20. Is Tumor of Follicular Infundibulum a Reaction to Dermal Scarring?

    PubMed

    Baquerizo Nole, Katherine L; Lopez-Garcia, Dan R; Teague, Daniel J; Al Sayyah, Ahmed; Mansoori, Parisa; Salim Al Alshehri, Hamza; Sangüeza, Omar P

    2015-07-01

    Tumor of follicular infundibulum (TFI) is currently believed to be a benign epithelial neoplasm with follicular differentiation. It has been suggested that TFI is associated with dermal scarring, but further investigation is needed to confirm this correlation. To approach this question, a retrospective study was presented, a total of 67 cases (64 lesions) were found in a search covering cases over a 10-year period. Overall, the presence of histological dermal scarring was noted in 34 of 64 (53.13%) cases. Of the cases where TFI was an incidental finding, the presence of dermal scarring was noted in 13 of 18 (72.22%) cases. Meanwhile, of the cases where TFI was the main diagnosis, the presence of dermal scarring was noted in 12 of 34 (35.29%) cases. This suggests that TFI may, in some cases, represent an epidermal reaction pattern to dermal scarring. PMID:25051108

  1. Fluo-3 signals associated with potassium contractures in single amphibian muscle fibres.

    PubMed Central

    Caputo, C; Bolaños, P

    1994-01-01

    1. The calcium-sensitive dye fluo-3 AM was used to obtain fluorescence signals and calcium transients associated with K+ contractures, twitches and tetani, in intact single muscle fibres of the tropical toad Leptodactylus insularis. 2. The changes in free calcium concentration in the myoplasm ([Ca2+]i) were calculated using the values of the 'off' (k- = 33.5 s-1) and 'on' (k+ = 13.1 microM-1 s-1) rate constants for the binding of calcium to the dye (dissociation constant, Kd = k-/k+). The mean (+/- S.E.M., n = 7) peak [Ca2+]i value during twitches or tetani was 3.9 +/- 0.3 or 4.1 +/- 0.3 microM, respectively, while during maximal K+ contractures, it was 10.3 +/- 0.8 microM. The threshold [Ca2+]i for tension development was about 1 microM. 3. For responses elicited with high [K+]o (80-190 mM), the calcium transients decayed faster than tension. At lower [K+]o (30-70 mM), the decay was slower, and relaxation was complete when [Ca2+]i was still above contractile threshold values. 4. Following a K+ contracture, recovery of the calcium transients associated with twitches occurred before recovery of tension, indicating an apparent dissociation between [Ca2+]i and tension output. This apparent dissociation between calcium and tension output could be attributed to the desensitization of the contractile proteins to calcium, or, more probably, to the non-uniform behaviour of calcium release and/or uptake sites, leading to an unhomogeneous distribution of active sarcomeres along the fibre length and localized sarcomere relaxation. PMID:7853234

  2. Breast conservation therapy without capsular contracture in young augmented women using interstitial brachytherapy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To describe a breast-conserving technique using interstitial brachytherapy after lumpectomy and axillary nodal sampling in selected women who are diagnosed with breast cancer in the presence of augmentation mammoplasty. Material and methods Over the past 20 years, we have developed and improved a technique of “pinch view” image-guided catheter insertion that avoids implant puncture. Selection criteria include: 1) women of any age with either subpectoral or retroglandular, augmentation implants (silicone or saline) who were diagnosed with stages Tis, T1, T2, N0, or N1 breast cancer; 2) any pathologic subtype of malignant breast cancer was accepted; 3) microscopic tumor extent ? 3 cm; 4) axillary node negative or metastasis to 1 to 3 nodes without extracapsular extension; and 5) surgical margins clear by the NSABP “no ink on tumor” definition. More than 250 women have been successfully treated. Patients were treated with high dose rate Iridium-192 brachytherapy to 34 Gy in 10 or 32 Gy in 8 twice daily fractions. The target volume was the surgical cavity edge with 1.5 to 2 cm margin using 3-D treatment planning systems. Results The implant technique as currently employed is described. There have been no implant ruptures, and the Planning Treatment Volume (PTV-eval) exhibited at least 90% coverage by the 90% isodose line in the vast majority of cases. Dose Homogeneity Index exceeded 70% in most cases. The maximum skin dose was below the prescription dose in every case. Other than some patients with pre-existing capsular contracture, less than 5% experience new capsular contracture after interstitial brachytherapy. Conclusions A technique of reliable and reproducible accelerated partial breast irradiation is described that minimizes the risk of capsular contracture by avoiding circumferential dose to the foreign body in the breast. PMID:25097566

  3. Use of Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale for evaluation of facial scars treated with self-drying silicone gel.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Francesca A; Roccia, Fabio; Fiorini, Paola; Berrone, Sid

    2010-05-01

    In this prospective study, we used the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale (POSAS) to evaluate the outcome of the healing process of posttraumatic and surgical facial scars that were treated with self-drying silicone gel, by both the patient and the observer. In our division, the application of base cream and massage represents the standard management of facial scars after suture removal. In the current study, 15 patients (7 men and 8 women) with facial scars were treated with self-drying silicone gel that was applied without massage, and 15 patients (8 men and 7 women) were treated with base cream and massage. Both groups underwent a clinical evaluation of facial scars by POSAS at the time of suture removal (T0) and after 2 months of treatment (T1). The patient rated scar pain, itch, color, stiffness, thickness, and surface (Patient Scale), and the observer rated scar vascularity, pigmentation, thickness, relief, pliability, and surface area (Observer Scale [OS]). The Patient Scale reported the greatest improvement in the items color, stiffness, and thickness. Itch was the only item that worsened in the group self-drying silicone gel. The OS primarily reported an improvement in the items vascularization, pigmentation, and pliability. The only item in the OS that underwent no change from T0 to T1 was surface area. The POSAS revealed satisfactory healing of posttraumatic and surgical facial scars that were treated with self-drying silicone gel. PMID:20485035

  4. Expanding the phenotypic spectrum of ECEL1-related congenital contracture syndromes.

    PubMed

    Shaaban, S; Duzcan, F; Yildirim, C; Chan, W-M; Andrews, C; Akarsu, N A; Engle, E C

    2014-06-01

    Using a combination of homozygosity mapping and whole-exome sequencing (WES), we identified a novel missense c.1819G>A mutation (G607S) in the endothelin-converting enzyme-like 1 (ECEL1) gene in a consanguineous pedigree of Turkish origin presenting with a syndrome of camptodactyly, scoliosis, limited knee flexion, significant refractive errors and ophthalmoplegia. ECEL1 mutations were recently reported to cause recessive forms of distal arthrogryposis. This report expands on the molecular basis and the phenotypic spectrum of ECEL1-associated congenital contracture syndromes. PMID:23808592

  5. Congenital Contractural Arachnodactyly without FBN1 or FBN2 Gene Mutations Complicated by Dilated Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Yagi, Hiroki; Hatano, Masaru; Takeda, Norifumi; Harada, Saori; Suzuki, Yukari; Taniguchi, Yuki; Shintani, Yukako; Morita, Hiroyuki; Kanamori, Norio; Aoyama, Takeshi; Watanabe, Masafumi; Manabe, Ichiro; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Kinugawa, Koichiro; Komuro, Issei

    2015-01-01

    Congenital contractural arachnodactyly (CCA) is a rare connective tissue disorder characterized by marfanoid habitus with camptodactyly. However, cardiac features have rarely been documented in adults. We herein report a sporadic case of CCA in a 20-year-old woman who developed decompensated dilated cardiomyopathy. The patient did not have any mutations in the FBN1 or FBN2 genes, which are most commonly associated with Marfan syndrome and CCA, respectively. Although whether these two diseases are caused by a mutation(s) in the same gene or two different genes remains unknown, this case provides new clinical insight into the cardiovascular management of CCA. PMID:25986263

  6. Rapid improvement in digital ischemia and acral contracture in a collodion baby treated with topical tazarotene.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rosemarie H; Becker, Beth; Gunkel, Juliet; Teng, Joyce

    2010-06-01

    Collodion baby is a rare congenital disorder whereby affected infants are born encased in a thick, taut, shiny, translucent membrane. The majority of babies with collodion membrane have associated disorders, most commonly nonbullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma and lamellar ichthyosis. The authors report a case of collodion baby with rare complication of acral contracture, ischemia and nail dystrophy. Topical treatment with tazarotene 0.1% gel resulted in rapid improvement. The patient developed normal nail plates and full motor function in both hands and feet following treatment. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the benefit of topical tazarotene for management of this rare condition in a neonate. PMID:20645539

  7. Hypertrophic scar model in the rabbit ear: a reproducible model for studying scar tissue behavior with new observations on silicone gel sheeting for scar reduction.

    PubMed

    Kloeters, Oliver; Tandara, Andrea; Mustoe, Thomas A

    2007-01-01

    Hypertrophic scarring poses a clinically relevant problem as it can be cosmetically disfiguring and functionally debilitating. A lack of animal models has hindered an understanding of the pathogenesis and development of new treatment strategies therefore has largely been empiric. Our group has developed a unique hypertrophic scar (HS) model in the rabbit ear. The model has been reproducible, quantifiable, and measurable over a time period of 1 month. We describe the development as well as the reliability and responsiveness of this model to different therapeutic agents, such as TGF-beta blockade, silicone occlusion, and application of collagen-synthesis inhibitors. Moreover, it has given insights into the mechanism of action of silicone sheeting occlusive treatment and ultimately suggests that the epidermis plays a critical role in the development of HS. Additionally, we will present new data supporting the importance of the epidermis and further clarify the mechanism of action of silicone sheeting. When a semi-occlusive polyurethane film was left in place for an additional time period, scar formation was reduced. HSs of this model covered with silicone sheets and five layers of Tegaderm showed a significant scar reduction by 80% compared with wounds with only one layer of Tegaderm. The HS model in the rabbit ear is a highly reliable, responsive, and practical model for studying scar tissue behavior. Furthermore, our data suggest that the degree and the duration of occlusion are most important for reducing scar tissue formation. PMID:17727466

  8. Propolis and amnion reepithelialise second-degree burns in rats.

    PubMed

    Pessolato, Alicia Greyce Turatti; Martins, Daniele dos Santos; Ambrósio, Carlos Eduardo; Mançanares, Celina Almeida Furlanetto; de Carvalho, Ana Flávia

    2011-11-01

    Burns are serious consequences of trauma in terms of both imminent mortality and prolonged periods of morbidity. They are often accompanied by unsatisfactory cosmetic as well as functional and psychological outcomes. These complications emphasise the need for stronger efforts in achieving greater diversity and effectiveness in the treatment of skin burns. This study aimed to verify the effectiveness of gross and microscopic epidermal and dermal responses in the process of regenerative repair or healing of burns in rats that were treated either daily with 5% propolis ointment or by autologous amnion graft. Second-degree burns were inflicted in the neck region of female rats by contact with a hot metal (at 130 °C) for 5 s. Propolis treatment accelerated the process of tissue repair and led to decreased local inflammation, which indicates that treatment with propolis was successful in the initial period (7 days) and stimulated the production of collagen fibre (assessed by morphometry) in all the periods evaluated (14 and 21 days). Amnion treatment inhibited local inflammation (assessed macroscopically), stimulated local epithelial regeneration (assessed microscopically) and stimulated the production of collagen fibre (assessed by morphometry) in the days following burn. These treatments offer new therapeutic strategies for treating severe skin burns; these strategies may allow the minimisation of scar formation, a more rapid return of function and, ultimately, a better quality of life for burn patients. PMID:21741176

  9. Comprehensive clinical and molecular assessment of 32 probands with congenital contractural arachnodactyly: report of 14 novel mutations and review of the literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bert L. Callewaert; Bart L. Loeys; Anna Ficcadenti; Sascha Vermeer; Magnus Landgren; Hester Y. Kroes; Yuval Yaron; Michael Pope; Nicola Foulds; Odile Boute; F. Galan; Helen Kingston; Nathalie Van der Aa; Iratxe Salcedo; Marielle E. Swinkels; Carina Wallgren-Pettersson; Orazio Gabrielli; Julie De Backer; Paul J. Coucke; Anne M. De Paepe

    2009-01-01

    Beals-Hecht syndrome or congenital contractural arachnodactyly (CCA) is a rare, autosomal dominant connective tissue disorder characterized by crumpled ears, arachnodactyly, contractures, and scoliosis. Recent reports also mention aortic root dilatation, a finding previously thought to differentiate the condition from Marfan syndrome (MFS). In many cases, the condition is caused by mutations in the fibrillin 2 gene (FBN2) with 26 mutations

  10. Practice guidelines for the application of nonsilicone or silicone gels and gel sheets after burn injury.

    PubMed

    Nedelec, Bernadette; Carter, Alissa; Forbes, Lisa; Hsu, Shu-Chuan Chen; McMahon, Margaret; Parry, Ingrid; Ryan, Colleen M; Serghiou, Michael A; Schneider, Jeffrey C; Sharp, Patricia A; de Oliveira, Ana; Boruff, Jill

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this review was to systematically evaluate available clinical evidence for the application of nonsilicone or silicone gels and gel sheets on hypertrophic scars and keloids after a burn injury so that practice guidelines could be proposed. This review provides evidence based recommendations, specifically for the rehabilitation interventions required for the treatment of aberrant wound healing after burn injury with gels or gel sheets. These guidelines are designed to assist all healthcare providers who are responsible for initiating and supporting scar management interventions prescribed for burn survivors. Summary recommendations were made after the literature, retrieved by systematic review, was critically appraised and the level of evidence determined according to Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine criteria. PMID:25094007

  11. [Estimating Biomass Burned Areas from Multispectral Dataset Detected by Multiple-Satellite].

    PubMed

    Yu, Chao; Chen, Liang-fu; Li, Shen-shen; Tao, Jin-hua; Su, Lin

    2015-03-01

    Biomass burning makes up an important part of both trace gases and particulate matter emissions, which can efficiently degrade air quality and reduce visibility, destabilize the global climate system at regional to global scales. Burned area is one of the primary parameters necessary to estimate emissions, and considered to be the largest source of error in the emission inventory. Satellite-based fire observations can offer a reliable source of fire occurrence data on regional and global scales, a variety of sensors have been used to detect and map fires in two general approaches: burn scar mapping and active fire detection. However, both of the two approaches have limitations. In this article, we explore the relationship between hotspot data and burned area for the Southeastern United States, where a significant amount of biomass burnings from both prescribed and wild fire took place. MODIS (Moderate resolution imaging spectrometer) data, which has high temporal-resolution, can be used to monitor ground biomass. burning in time and provided hot spot data in this study. However, pixel size of MODIS hot spot can't stand for the real ground burned area. Through analysis of the variation of vegetation band reflectance between pre- and post-burn, we extracted the burned area from Landsat-5 TM (Thematic Mapper) images by using the differential normalized burn ratio (dNBR) which is based on TM band4 (0.84 ?m) and TM band 7(2.22 ?m) data. We combined MODIS fire hot spot data and Landsat-5 TM burned scars data to build the burned area estimation model, results showed that the linear correlation coefficient is 0.63 and the relationships vary as a function of vegetation cover. Based on the National Land Cover Database (NLCD), we built burned area estimation model over different vegetation cover, and got effective burned area per fire pixel, values for forest, grassland, shrub, cropland and wetland are 0.69, 1.27, 0.86, 0.72 and 0.94 km2 respectively. We validated the burned area estimates by using the ground survey data from National interagency Fire Center (NIFC), our results are more close to the ground survey data than burned area from Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED) and MODIS burned area product (MCD45), which omitted many small prescribed fires. We concluded that our model can provide more accurate burned area parameters for developing fire emission inventory, and be better for estimating emissions from biomass burning. PMID:26117890

  12. Medicinal Plants for the Treatment of Hypertrophic Scars

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Qi; Wang, Su-Juan; Chen, Jian-Yu; Xin, Hai-Liang; Zhang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Hypertrophic scar is a complication of wound healing and has a high recurrence rate which can lead to significant abnormity in aesthetics and functions. To date, no ideal treatment method has been established. Meanwhile, the underlying mechanism of hypertrophic scarring has not been clearly defined. Although a large amount of scientific research has been reported on the use of medicinal plants as a natural source of treatment for hypertrophic scarring, it is currently scattered across a wide range of publications. Therefore, a systematic summary and knowledge for future prospects are necessary to facilitate further medicinal plant research for their potential use as antihypertrophic scar agents. A bibliographic investigation was accomplished by focusing on medicinal plants which have been scientifically tested in vitro and/or in vivo and proved as potential agents for the treatment of hypertrophic scars. Although the chemical components and mechanisms of action of medicinal plants with antihypertrophic scarring potential have been investigated, many others remain unknown. More investigations and clinical trials are necessary to make use of these medical plants reasonably and phytotherapy is a promising therapeutic approach against hypertrophic scars. PMID:25861351

  13. Nonlinear optics for the study of human scar tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferro, D. P.; Vieira-Damiani, G.; Adam, R. L.; Cesar, C. L.; Metze, Konradin

    2012-03-01

    Collagen fibers are an essential component of the dynamic process of scarring, which accompanies various diseases. Scar tissue may reveal different morphologic expressions, such as hypertrophic scars or keloids. Collagen fibers can be visualized by fluorescent light when stained with eosin. Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) creates a non linear signal that occurs only in molecules without inversion symmetry and is particularly strong in the collagen fibers arranged in triple helices. The aim of this study was to describe the methodology for the analysis of the density and texture of collagen in keloids, hypertrophic scars and conventional scars. Samples were examined in the National Institute of Science and Technology on Photonics Applied to Cell Biology (INFABIC) at the State University of Campinas. The images were acquired in a multiphoton microscopy LSM 780-NLO Zeiss 40X. Both signals, two-photon fluorescence (TPEF) and SHG, were excited by a Mai-Tai Ti:Sapphire laser at 940 nm. We used a LP490/SP485 NDD filter for SHG, and a BP565-610 NDD filter for fluorescence In each case, ten images were acquired serially (512×512 ?m) in Z-stack and joined together to one patchwork-image . Image analysis was performed by a gliding-box-system with in-house made software. Keloids, hypertrophic scars and normal scar tissue show different collagen architecture. Inside an individual case differences of the scar process may be found between central and peripheral parts. In summary, the use of nonlinear optics is a helpful tool for the study of scars tissue.

  14. Neonatal spinal muscular atrophy with multiple contractures, bone fractures, respiratory insufficiency and 5q13 deletion.

    PubMed

    García-Cabezas, M A; García-Alix, A; Martín, Y; Gutiérrez, M; Hernández, C; Rodríguez, J I; Morales, C

    2004-05-01

    We present the case of a floppy neonate with marked and generalized weakness, respiratory insufficiency and fetal akinesia deformation sequence. The infant showed multiple joint contractures, two bone fractures and needed mechanical ventilation from birth to death at 16 days of age. Electrophysiological assessment showed electrically unexcitable motor and sensory nerves. Muscle biopsy showed diffuse atrophy of type I and type II fibers. Necropsy confirmed the diagnosis of infantile spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) with severe loss of motor neurons in anterior horns and motor nuclei of brainstem. There were also neuronal loss, gliosis, chromatolysis, ballooned cells, empty cell beds and neuronophagia figures in other brainstem and brain nuclei. Genetic analysis of the patient revealed homozygous deletions of survival motor neuron gene 1 (SMN1) and a single copy of SMN2 in region 5q13. This case confirms that the loss of spinal motor neurons underlies the muscular atrophy in severe cases of 5q SMA. This case also shows that the presence of multiple joint contractures, bone fractures and respiratory insufficiency in SMA in the neonatal period does not necessarily exclude the occurrence of classical deletions in the SMA 5q13 region. Rather, these atypical clinical findings show the extreme severity and prenatal onset of the disease in these SMA cases, which may be related with the occurrence of a single copy of SMN2 gene. More reports of clinically, pathologically and genetically well-documented cases are essential to define the different types of this disease. PMID:14968368

  15. Fibrillin-2 (FBN2) mutations result in the Marfan-like disorder, congenital contractural arachnodactyly.

    PubMed

    Putnam, E A; Zhang, H; Ramirez, F; Milewicz, D M

    1995-12-01

    Congenital contractural arachnodactyly (CCA) is an autosomal dominant disorder that is phenotypically similar to Marfan syndrome (MFS) and characterized by arachnodactyly, dolichostenomelia, scoliosis, multiple congenital contractures and abnormalities of the external ears. In contrast to MFS, CCA does not affect the aorta or the eyes. Two closely related genes, FBN1 located on chromosome 15q15-21.3 and FBN2 located at 5q23-31, encode large fibrillin proteins found in extracellular matrix structures called microfibrils. The MFS is caused by mutations in FBN1, while CCA has been genetically linked to FBN2 (refs 2, 5, 6). We now describe a pair of FBN2 missense mutations in two CCA patients that cause substitution of distinct cysteine residues in separate epidermal growth-factor-like (EGF) repeats. Our study provides final proof of the association between FBN2 mutations and CCA pathology, thus establishing the role of the fibrillin-2 in extracellular matrix physiology and pathology. PMID:7493032

  16. Defect Scars on Flexible Surfaces with Crystalline Order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohyama, Tamotsu; Gompper, Gerhard

    2007-05-01

    The crystallography of two-dimensional particle packings on flexible surfaces of spherical topology is investigated. Examples are viral capsids and crystalline vesicles. Computer simulations of dynamically triangulated surfaces are employed to study the shape and structure of lattice defects as a function of the Föppl von Kármán number ?. We find that grain-boundary scars become much more fuzzy with increasing temperature, that the size of grain-boundary scars saturates with increasing vesicle radius, and that the buckling transition shifts to higher values of ? due to the presence of scars.

  17. 40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a...of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning...

  18. 40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a...of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning...

  19. 40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a...of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning...

  20. 40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a...of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning...

  1. 40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a...of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning...

  2. 40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a...of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning...

  3. 40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a...of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning...

  4. 40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a...of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning...

  5. 40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a...of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning...

  6. 40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a...of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning...

  7. Burns and Fire Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    1 Burns and Fire Safety Fact Sheet (2015) Fatalities • 334 children ages 19 and under died from fires or ... from 2012 to 2013. 1 1999-2013 Fire/Burn Fatalities and Death Rate Among Children Ages 19 ...

  8. Custom-made approach to a patient with post-burn breast deformity

    PubMed Central

    Bayram, Yalcin; Sahin, Cihan; Sever, Celalettin; Karagoz, Huseyin; Kulahci, Yalcin

    2014-01-01

    Second and third degree burns on breasts at preadolescent period may cause severe breast deformations. This deformation can be variable depending on severity and location of the burns, personal adolescent patterns, and treatment modality in acute burn period. A 21 year old female patient admitted to our department for her breast deformation due to burn contracture at the inferior pole of the right breast. On physical examination we defined that development of the volume of the right breast was equal to the left, and inferior pole of the right breast was flattened due to contracture, and nipple was projected to inferior. We found that inframammary crease of the right breast was 2 cm lower than that of left; andthe distance of nipple-inframamary crease was 4.7 cm while areola-inframmary crease was 2 cm. New nipple-areola complex level was identified according to left breast's level. Medial and lateral lines were planned to merge inferiorly at 2 cm above inframmary crease in a plan similar to vertical mammaplasty. Superior pedicle carrying nipple areola was desepitelised. Lower parenchymal V flap was transposed superiorly and attached to the pectoral muscle. Inferior parts of the lateral and medial glandular flaps were excised to form new inframammary crease. The desired laxity of skin at the lower pole was obtained by performing a new Z- plasty between lateral and medial skin flaps. Breast symmetry was confirmed by postoperative objective measurements between left and right breasts. Patient's satisfaction and aesthetic appearance levels were high. Breasts deformation patterns caused by burns, trauma and mass exsicion due to cancer could not be addressed with traditional defined techniques. Special deformations can be corrected by custom made plannings as we presented here. PMID:24987218

  9. Economics of pediatric burns.

    PubMed

    Bass, Michael J; Phillips, Linda G

    2008-07-01

    Sustaining a burn injury sets in motion a cycle of pain, disfigurement, and a search for survival. In pediatric burns, the injury extends to the parents where fear, ignorance, and helplessness forever change their lives. Pediatric burn injuries are caused by fire, hot liquids, clothing irons, hair curlers, caustic substances like drain cleaner, the grounding of an electrical source, and exposure to radiation. Efficiency in the delivery of pediatric burn care is critical. Maximizing resource utilization means continual self-evaluation and economic analysis of therapeutic modalities. Griffiths et al found that most childhood burns are due to scalds, which can be treated for $1061 per percent burn. Paddock et al reduced the cost of treating superficial pediatric burns and reduced the length of stay in hospital using silver-impregnated gauze over traditional methods. Barrett et al found improved cosmesis of skin grafts using cultured epithelial autografts but at a substantially increased cost. Corpron et al showed that pediatric burn units that treat burns >10% total body surface area and operative treatment of pediatric burns regardless of size generate positive revenue. There is a paucity of evidentiary pediatric burn economic data. More research is needed to address areas of pediatric burn care inefficiency. Improving knowledge of cost in all health care endeavors will create competition and drive down expenditures. PMID:18650705

  10. Learn Not To Burn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Nancy; Hendricks, Charlotte M.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the "Learn Not to Burn Preschool Program," a low-cost fire safety awareness and burn prevention curriculum for young children. The program promotes eight burn prevention methods--including practicing an escape plan--using developmentally appropriate learning objectives to increase children's fire safety knowledge, skill, and…

  11. Reduction of Postoperative Scar Formation With Silicone Sheeting: 2 Case Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kirsten A. Moore; BoniJo Silbernagel

    2010-01-01

    Elective surgeries account for millions of acquired scars annually. Many of these scars can be problematic, being aesthetically unpleasant and causing discomfort. Silicone gel sheeting has been shown to be efficacious for the prevention and treatment of problematic scars. By wound hydration, along with other factors, silicone dressings are thought to decrease scarring. However, we found the usual treatment was

  12. Scar pregnancy: a rare complication of caesarean section

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Maria Emilia Abadilla; David Jaspan; Vani Dandolu

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we report a rare type of ectopic pregnancy implanted in a previous caesarean scar. Scar pregnancy was diagnosed\\u000a at six weeks gestation in a woman with three prior caesarean deliveries. Management with the usual dose of Methotrexate was\\u000a unsuccessful. The patient continued to have pelvic pain, the beta human chorionic gonadotropin (ßhCG) increased and there\\u000a was persistent

  13. The effects of topically applied silicone gel and its silver derivative on the prevention of hypertrophic scarring in two rabbit ear-scarring models.

    PubMed

    Jia, Shengxian; Zhao, Yanan; Mustoe, Thomas A

    2011-12-01

    Topically applied silicone gel is an effective treatment in the management of hypertrophic scars. This early study of silicone gel predates other well-controlled scientific studies that demonstrate these findings. Our well-established rabbit ear scarring model creates 7 mm punch wounds down to the bare cartilage, including the removal of the perichondrium. In this study, we employ a new model that creates 10 mm punch wounds that leaves the perichondrium intact. Both the 7 mm and new 10 mm scar models were used to study the effectiveness of silicone gel and silicone gel silver respectively on hypertrophy and the inhibition of scar formation. All samples were harvested at post-wounding day 35 for histological analysis. Silicone gel significantly reduced scar area (p=0.005), scar elevation index (p=0.03), and epidermal area (p=0.016). Silicone gel silver significantly reduced scar elevation index (p=0.004). The new 10 mm scar model resulted in more hypertrophic scarring than the typical, 7 mm wound scar model (p=0.0001). In conclusion, silicone gel and its silver derivative are effective in preventing hypertrophic scarring and scar models that leave the perichondrium intact causes scars with more hypertrophy. PMID:21665562

  14. Treatment of sandal burns of the feet in children in a moist environment.

    PubMed

    Shakirov, Babur M

    2014-05-01

    Burns to children's feet are often due to scalds, from hot tap water, as an infant's skin is thinner and hence more susceptible to a full-thickness injury. In Central Asia, and particularly in Uzbekistan, many episodes of burns take place at homes because of using sandal heaters. In the case of sandal burns of the foot, it usually is not only skin that is injured but also underlying tissues: subcutaneous fat, fasciae, muscles and even bones. Many controlled studies have confirmed that wounds heal more readily in a moist, physiological environment. After performing the toilet of burn wounds of the foot, we applied Dermazin cream on the affected areas and then the foot was placed onto a polyethylene packet of large size and fixed by a bandage. Measurement of wound water evaporation was performed every day post-burn. Surgery was usually performed 15-17 days after burn by applying a perforated skin graft or a 0.2-0.3-mm-thick non-perforated skin graft. The procedures helped to improve the general condition of patients, shortened their stay in hospital and also reduced expenses and lessened joint deformities and contracture deformities. PMID:24094987

  15. The contracture produced by sodium removal in the non-pregnant rat myometrium.

    PubMed

    Masahashi, T; Tomita, T

    1983-01-01

    1. Mechanical responses to Na removal were investigated in the circular and longitudinal muscles of the non-pregnant rat myometrium at 35 degrees C. In both muscles, reduction of the external Na concentration to less than 20 mM produced an initial acceleration of phasic contractions and a sustained tonic contracture. No difference was found with different Na substitutes (Tris-hydroxymethyl aminomethane, choline, dimethyl diethanol ammonium). However, when Mg was substituted for Na, only the tonic contracture was produced without the phasic contractions. 2. Readmission of 5-10 mM-Na, after exposure to Na-free solution, relaxed the contracture produced by Na removal. The degree of relaxation was dependent on the Na concentration readmitted and on the period of pre-treatment with Na-free solution, being stronger with longer pre-treatment. 3. In the presence of Na, excess Ca failed to increase the muscle tone. In the absence of Na, the tension development was closely related to the external Ca concentration up to 20 mM. In the absence of both Ca and Na, some tension remained. Even after pre-treatment with Ca-free solution containing 0.1-0.5 mM EGTA, removal of Na caused some mechanical response. A similar small tension development was observed when Na removal was repeated during prolonged absence of external Ca for more than 3 h. 4. Verapamil (2 X 10(-4) M) markedly suppressed the response to Na removal, but it did not block it, either in the presence or in the absence of Ca. Ouabain (10(-3) M) in the presence of verapamil potentiated the early phasic component of the response to Na removal, but the tonic component was little affected or even slightly reduced. 5. The results indicate that there are three components in the mechanical response to Na removal: the phasic and tonic components, which are highly Ca-dependent, and the third small tonic component, which is independent of external Ca. Most of the phasic and tonic responses seem to be due to an increase in Ca permeability, but this may be secondary to membrane depolarization. A Na-Ca exchange mechanism is also considered to contribute to the transient phase of the response to Na removal and to Na readmission. PMID:6683314

  16. The Importance of Mast Cells in Dermal Scarring

    PubMed Central

    Wilgus, Traci A.; Wulff, Brian C.

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Mast cells are resident inflammatory cells present in high numbers in the skin. They are one of the first cell types to respond to damage and they do so by quickly releasing a variety of preformed mediators that are stored within mast cell granules. Mast cells are not only active early on, where they help induce inflammation, but they also stimulate the proliferation of several important cell types and influence the production and remodeling of collagen. Recent Advances: Recent studies have highlighted the importance of mast cells in determining the amount of scar tissue that forms as a result of the repair process. Mast cells are found in low numbers and in a less activated state in scarless wounds, whereas high numbers of activated mast cells are associated with scarring and fibrosis. Furthermore, animals that lack mast cells or have been treated with degranulation inhibitors or drugs that block the activity of mast cell proteases have been shown to heal with reduced scar tissue. Critical Issues: Despite evidence suggesting that mast cells regulate scar tissue development, the entire range of mast cell activities during wound repair and scar formation has not been completely characterized. In addition, the potential therapeutic benefits of targeting mast cells clinically have yet to be fully explored. Future Directions: More studies are needed to determine whether inhibiting mast cell activation and blocking the function of mast cell mediators are viable options to prevent or reduce the appearance of scars. PMID:24757590

  17. Scar asymmetry after abdominoplasty: the unexpected role of seroma.

    PubMed

    di Summa, Pietro Giovanni; Wettstein, Reto; Erba, Paolo; Raffoul, Wassim; Kalbermatten, Daniel Felix

    2013-11-01

    Achievement of symmetry remains one of the goals of cosmetic procedures. Interestingly, scar asymmetry after abdominoplasty has been rarely considered a complication. However, this can have a significant impact on patient and surgeon satisfaction. This study identifies silent seromas as a potential cause of scar asymmetry.Among abdominoplasty procedures in a university hospital institution over a 30 months' period (October 1, 2007 to April 1, 2010), we retrospectively identified 6 patients who developed abdominal scar asymmetry only 3 months postoperatively and without any early warning complications (hematoma, seroma, or infection). Clinical examination was completed by abdominal diagnostic ultrasonography. Seroma capsulectomy under local anesthesia was performed in all cases.In all patients clinically presenting late abdominal scar asymmetry, ultrasonography confirmed the presence of an encapsulated chronic seroma. Surgical capsulectomy under local anesthesia resulted in reestablishment of former symmetry and high patient satisfaction. No complications such as wound infection, dehiscence, hematoma, or recurrence of seroma were detected after revision surgery.In our experience, fibrous capsule due to chronic seromas resulted in abdominal scar deviation and asymmetry. Surgical capsulectomy followed by wearing of compressive garments resulted to be an effective treatment with pleasant aesthetic outcome and no seroma recurrence. Silent seromas should be considered as a possible etiologic factor of scar asymmetries appearing during late follow-up after abdominoplasty. PMID:23143814

  18. Fire history in western Patagonia from paired tree-ring fire-scar and charcoal records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holz, A.; Haberle, S.; Veblen, T. T.; de Pol-Holz, R.; Southon, J.

    2012-03-01

    Fire history reconstructions are typically based on tree ages and tree-ring fire scars or on charcoal in sedimentary records from lakes or bogs, but rarely on both. In this study of fire history in western Patagonia (47-48° S) in southern South America (SSA) we compared three sedimentary charcoal records collected in bogs with tree-ring fire-scar data collected at 13 nearby sample sites. We examined the temporal and spatial correspondence between the two fire proxies and also compared them to published charcoal records from distant sites in SSA, and with published proxy reconstructions of regional climate variability and large-scale climate modes. Two of our three charcoal records record fire activity for the last 4 ka yr and one for the last 11 ka yr. For the last ca. 400 yr, charcoal accumulation peaks tend to coincide with high fire activity in the tree-ring fire scar records, but the charcoal records failed to detect some of the fire activity recorded by tree rings. Potentially, this discrepancy reflects low-severity fires that burn in herbaceous and other fine fuels without depositing charcoal in the sedimentary record. Periods of high fire activity tended to be synchronous across sample areas, across proxy types, and with proxy records of regional climatic variability as well as major climate drivers. Fire activity throughout the Holocene in western Patagonia has responded to regional climate variation affecting a broad region of southern South America that is teleconnected to both tropical- and high-latitude climate drivers-El Niño-Southern Oscillation and the Southern Annular Mode. An early Holocene peak in fire activity pre-dates any known human presence in our study area, and consequently implicates lightning as the ignition source. In contrast, the increased fire activity during the 20th century, which was concomitantly recorded by charcoal from all the sampled bogs and at all fire-scar sample sites, is attributed to human-set fires and is outside the range of variability characteristic of these ecosystems over many centuries and probably millennia.

  19. [Psychiatric co-morbidity, body image problems and psychotherapeutic interventions for burn survivors: a review].

    PubMed

    Jasper, Stefanie; Rennekampff, Hans-Oliver; de Zwaan, Martina

    2013-11-01

    Due to progress in burn treatment, more patients even with severe burn injuries survive. Despite this positive development, however, there are still negative somatic and mental consequences. These include the life-long care of scars and pain. In addition, posttraumatic-stress disorder and depression are common consequences. Also distress due to disfigurement and body image problems have to be considered, since this is likely to result in social withdrawal, low self-esteem, and reduction of quality of life. Overall, the impact of mental strain on burn victims is quite high. Therefore, psychotherapeutic treatment approaches should be integrated into the care of patients with burns. This might be helpful for both coping and compliance with long-term treatment. This paper provides a review of the mental co-morbidity of burn victims and of psychotherapeutic treatment approaches focusing on changes in body image and the respective social consequences. PMID:23709185

  20. [A second-degree burn related to air bag deployment: a case report].

    PubMed

    Oktay, Cem; Cete, Yildiray

    2004-10-01

    Although air bags have been shown to reduce mortality and morbidity in motor vehicle crashes, they are associated with specific injuries. Burns due to air bag deployment account for more than 5% of all air bag injuries and typically involve upper extremities or head and neck. Aside from friction burns, thermal and chemical burns are also seen resulting from the use of certain chemicals for the deployment mechanism. We reported a female patient who presented to the emergency department with a second-degree burn in her left breast, six days after a motor vehicle crash. She was treated with irrigation with saline solution and 2% sodium fusidate ointment. The burn area healed within a week, without any further treatment. Only a slight scar tissue remained after a six-month follow-up. PMID:15497069

  1. Use of split thickness plantar skin grafts in the treatment of hyperpigmented skin-grafted fingers and palms in previously burned patients.

    PubMed

    Moon, Suk-Ho; Lee, So-Young; Jung, Sung-No; Kim, Sang-Wha; Seo, Bommie F; Kwon, Ho; Sohn, Won-Il

    2011-06-01

    Palmar and finger burns are often seen in children, and are usually as a result of contact burns. Some patients with deep hand burns are treated with full-thickness or split-thickness skin grafts. Skin graft is commonly used for hand reconstruction. However, the grafted skin would be more pigmented than the adjacent skin and different from skin texture. 19 patients who showed hyperpigmentation after skin graft of finger and palm were treated. They all were injured by hand burns. We performed mechanical dermabrasion of the hyperpigmentation scar and application of a split thickness skin harvested from medial aspect of plantar of foot. Patients were asked about their level of satisfaction with the procedure and scar appearance was assessed using a five-point Likert scale. Also scar appearances were assessed using a Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS). The grafts were completely taken in all 19 patients. The color of the graft became similar to adjacent tissue. 15 patients were very satisfied, and four patients were relatively satisfied. The average score of the patients postoperative appearance improvement was 4.5 (improved to significantly improved postoperative appearance). Average VSS score was improved from 9.53 to 2.53. There was no hypertrophic scar on plantar donor site. The technique of the split-thickness plantar skin graft after mechanical dermabrasion is simple and provided good results in both color and texture for the patients who showed hyperpigmentation after grafting. PMID:21316154

  2. Facial burns - our experience.

    PubMed

    Zatriqi, Violeta; Arifi, Hysni; Zatriqi, Skender; Duci, Shkelzen; Rrecaj, Sh; Martinaj, M

    2013-01-01

    Facial burns are generally considered severe. This is due to the possibility of respiratory complications. First responders check the nostrils for singed hairs. In severe cases there may be soot around the nose and mouth and coughing may produce phlegm that includes ash. Facial and inhalational burns compromise airways. They pose difficulties in pre-hospital resuscitation and are challenge to clinicians managing surviving burn victims in the intensive care setting. Management problems - resuscitation, airway maintenance and clinical treatment of facial injuries are compounded if the victim is child. Inhalational burns reduce survivability, certainly in adult victim. In our retrospective study we found that facial burns dominated in male gender, liquids and scalds are the most common causes of facial burns in children whereas the flame and electricity were the most common causes of facial burns in adults. We came to the conclusion in our study that surgical treatment minimizes complications and duration of recovery. PMID:23687458

  3. The identification of mobile species from silicone gels used in burns scar remediation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Washington Sanchez; Nikole Hynard; John Evans; Graeme George

    2003-01-01

    The mobile species that may migrate from polydimethyl siloxane medical gel sheeting into skin have been identified by MALDI-MS. The chloroform-extractable species from the bulk gel comprised predominantly cyclic oligomers with a mass distribution peaking at n = 17, but in an aqueous environment the species at the surface were predominantly linear siloxanes with one hydrophilic end group (methyl\\/hydroxyl, methyl\\/methylol-

  4. Scar prevention by laser-assisted scar healing (LASH) using thermal post-conditioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gossé, Alban; Iarmarcovai, Gwen; Capon, Alexandre; Cornil, Alain; Mordon, Serge

    2009-02-01

    An 810-nm diode laser system was developed to accelerate and improve the healing process in surgical scars. Using thermal post-conditioning, the laser system provides a localised moderate heating whose maximum temperature is controlled to prevent tissue damage and stimulate the heat shock proteins (HSP) synthesis. The 810-nm wavelength allows a deep penetration of the light into the dermis, without damaging the epidermis. The time along which surgical incision is treated (continuous wave) must therefore be selected carefully with respect to the temperature precision achieved within the heated volume. A top-hat profile is preferred to a Gaussian profile in order to ensure the skin surface temperature is homogenised, as is the temperature of the heated volume. The spot shape will depend on the medical indication. The treatment should be made safe and controlled by means of a safety strip containing an RFID chip which will transmit the various operating settings to the laser device. A clinical trial aims at evaluating the 810 nm-diode laser in surgical incisions, with only one laser treatment immediately after skin closure, of patients with Fitzpatrick skin types I to IV. Surgical incisions were divided into two fields, with only portions randomly selected receiving laser treatment. At the final scar analysis (12 months) of the pilot study, the treated portion scored significantly better for both surgeon (P = 0.046) and patients (P = 0.025). Further studies may be warranted to better understand the cellular mechanisms leading to Laser-Assisted Skin Healing (LASH).

  5. FBN2, FBN1, TGFBR1, and TGFBR2 analyses in congenital contractural arachnodactyly.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Akira; Sakai, Haruya; Ikegawa, Shiro; Kitoh, Hiroshi; Haga, Nobuyuki; Ishikiriyama, Satoshi; Nagai, Toshiro; Takada, Fumio; Ohata, Takako; Tanaka, Fumihiko; Kamasaki, Hotaka; Saitsu, Hirotomo; Mizuguchi, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Naomichi

    2007-04-01

    FBN2, FBN1, TGFBR1, and TGFBR2 were analyzed by direct sequencing in 15 probands with suspected congenital contractural arachnodactyly (CCA). A total of four novel FBN2 mutations were found in four probands (27%, 4/15), but remaining the 11 did not show any abnormality in either of the genes. This study indicated that FBN2 mutations were major abnormality in CCA, and TGFBR and FBN1 defects may not be responsible for the disorder. FBN2 mutations were only found at introns 30, 31, and 35 in this study. Thus analysis of a mutational hotspot from exons 22 to 36 (a middle part) of FBN2 should be prioritized in CCA as previously suggested. PMID:17345643

  6. siRNA-targeting transforming growth factor-? type I receptor reduces wound scarring and extracellular matrix deposition of scar tissue.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Wen; Liou, Nien-Hsien; Cherng, Juin-Hong; Chang, Shu-Jen; Ma, Kuo-Hsing; Fu, Earl; Liu, Jiang-Chuan; Dai, Niann-Tzyy

    2014-07-01

    Hypertrophic scarring is related to persistent activation of transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?)/Smad signaling. In the TGF-?/Smad signaling cascade, the TGF-? type I receptor (TGFBRI) phosphorylates Smad proteins to induce fibroblast proliferation and extracellular matrix deposition. In this study, we inhibited TGFBRI gene expression via TGFBRI small interfering RNA (siRNA) to reduce fibroblast proliferation and extracellular matrix deposition. Our results demonstrate that downregulating TGFBRI expression in cultured human hypertrophic scar fibroblasts significantly suppressed cell proliferation and reduced type I collagen, type III collagen, fibronectin, and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) mRNA, and type I collagen and fibronectin protein expression. In addition, we applied TGFBRI siRNA to wound granulation tissue in a rabbit model of hypertrophic scarring. Downregulating TGFBRI expression reduced wound scarring, the extracellular matrix deposition of scar tissue, and decreased CTGF and ?-smooth muscle actin mRNA expression in vivo. These results suggest that TGFBRI siRNA could be applied clinically to prevent hypertrophic scarring. PMID:24670383

  7. Transcriptional Abnormalities of Hamstring Muscle Contractures in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lucas R.; Chambers, Henry G.; Subramaniam, Shankar; Lieber, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is an upper motor neuron disease that results in a spectrum of movement disorders. Secondary to the neurological lesion, muscles from patients with CP are often spastic and form debilitating contractures that limit range of motion and joint function. With no genetic component, the pathology of skeletal muscle in CP is a response to aberrant complex neurological input in ways that are not fully understood. This study was designed to gain further understanding of the skeletal muscle response in CP using transcriptional profiling correlated with functional measures to broadly investigate muscle adaptations leading to mechanical deficits. Biospsies were obtained from both the gracilis and semitendinosus muscles from a cohort of patients with CP (n?=?10) and typically developing patients (n?=?10) undergoing surgery. Biopsies were obtained to define the unique expression profile of the contractures and passive mechanical testing was conducted to determine stiffness values in previously published work. Affymetrix HG-U133A 2.0 chips (n?=?40) generated expression data, which was validated for selected transcripts using quantitative real-time PCR. Chips were clustered based on their expression and those from patients with CP clustered separately. Significant genes were determined conservatively based on the overlap of three summarization algorithms (n?=?1,398). Significantly altered genes were analyzed for over-representation among gene ontologies and muscle specific networks. The majority of altered transcripts were related to increased extracellular matrix expression in CP and a decrease in metabolism and ubiquitin ligase activity. The increase in extracellular matrix products was correlated with mechanical measures demonstrating the importance in disability. These data lay a framework for further studies and development of novel therapies. PMID:22956992

  8. Identification of differentially expressed genes in fibroblasts derived from patients with Dupuytren's Contracture

    PubMed Central

    Satish, Latha; LaFramboise, William A; O'Gorman, David B; Johnson, Sandra; Janto, Benjamin; Gan, Bing Siang; Baratz, Mark E; Hu, Fen Z; Post, J Christopher; Ehrlich, Garth D; Kathju, Sandeep

    2008-01-01

    Dupuytren's contracture (DC) is the most common inherited connective tissue disease of humans and is hypothesized to be associated with aberrant wound healing of the palmar fascia. Fibroblasts and myofibroblasts are believed to play an important role in the genesis of DC and the fibroproliferation and contraction that are hallmarks of this disease. This study compares the gene expression profiles of fibroblasts isolated from DC patients and controls in an attempt to identify key genes whose regulation might be significantly altered in fibroblasts found within the palmar fascia of Dupuytren's patients. Total RNA isolated from diseased palmar fascia (DC) and normal palmar fascia (obtained during carpal tunnel release; 6 samples per group) was subjected to quantitative analyses using two different microarray platforms (GE Code Link™ and Illumina™) to identify and validate differentially expressed genes. The data obtained was analyzed using The Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM) software through which we identified 69 and 40 differentially regulated gene transcripts using the CodeLink™ and Illumina™ platforms, respectively. The CodeLink™ platform identified 18 upregulated and 51 downregulated genes. Using the Illumina™ platform, 40 genes were identified as downregulated, eleven of which were identified by both platforms. Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed the downregulation of three high-interest candidate genes which are all components of the extracellular matrix: proteoglycan 4 (PRG4), fibulin-1 (FBLN-1) transcript variant D, and type XV collagen alpha 1 chain. Overall, our study has identified a variety of candidate genes that may be involved in the pathophysiology of Dupuytren's contracture and may ultimately serve as attractive molecular targets for alternative therapies. PMID:18433489

  9. Postmastectomy radiotherapy with integrated scar boost using helical tomotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Rong Yi, E-mail: rong@humonc.wisc.edu [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin Riverview Cancer Center, Wisconsin Rapids, WI (United States); Yadav, Poonam [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Vellore Institute of Technology University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu (India); Welsh, James S. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin Riverview Cancer Center, Wisconsin Rapids, WI (United States); Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Fahner, Tasha [University of Wisconsin Riverview Cancer Center, Wisconsin Rapids, WI (United States); Paliwal, Bhudatt [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Madison, WI (United States)

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate helical tomotherapy dosimetry in postmastectomy patients undergoing treatment for chest wall and positive nodal regions with simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) in the scar region using strip bolus. Six postmastectomy patients were scanned with a 5-mm-thick strip bolus covering the scar planning target volume (PTV) plus 2-cm margin. For all 6 cases, the chest wall received a total cumulative dose of 49.3-50.4 Gy with daily fraction size of 1.7-2.0 Gy. Total dose to the scar PTV was prescribed to 58.0-60.2 Gy at 2.0-2.5 Gy per fraction. The supraclavicular PTV and mammary nodal PTV received 1.7-1.9 dose per fraction. Two plans (with and without bolus) were generated for all 6 cases. To generate no-bolus plans, strip bolus was contoured and overrode to air density before planning. The setup reproducibility and delivered dose accuracy were evaluated for all 6 cases. Dose-volume histograms were used to evaluate dose-volume coverage of targets and critical structures. We observed reduced air cavities with the strip bolus setup compared with what we normally see with the full bolus. The thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD) in vivo dosimetry confirmed accurate dose delivery beneath the bolus. The verification plans performed on the first day megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) image verified that the daily setup and overall dose delivery was within 2% accuracy compared with the planned dose. The hotspot of the scar PTV in no-bolus plans was 111.4% of the prescribed dose averaged over 6 cases compared with 106.6% with strip bolus. With a strip bolus only covering the postmastectomy scar region, we observed increased dose uniformity to the scar PTV, higher setup reproducibility, and accurate dose delivered beneath the bolus. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using a strip bolus over the scar using tomotherapy for SIB dosimetry in postmastectomy treatments.

  10. Burn Wound Infections

    PubMed Central

    Church, Deirdre; Elsayed, Sameer; Reid, Owen; Winston, Brent; Lindsay, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Burns are one of the most common and devastating forms of trauma. Patients with serious thermal injury require immediate specialized care in order to minimize morbidity and mortality. Significant thermal injuries induce a state of immunosuppression that predisposes burn patients to infectious complications. A current summary of the classifications of burn wound infections, including their diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, is given. Early excision of the eschar has substantially decreased the incidence of invasive burn wound infection and secondary sepsis, but most deaths in severely burn-injured patients are still due to burn wound sepsis or complications due to inhalation injury. Burn patients are also at risk for developing sepsis secondary to pneumonia, catheter-related infections, and suppurative thrombophlebitis. The introduction of silver-impregnated devices (e.g., central lines and Foley urinary catheters) may reduce the incidence of nosocomial infections due to prolonged placement of these devices. Improved outcomes for severely burned patients have been attributed to medical advances in fluid resuscitation, nutritional support, pulmonary and burn wound care, and infection control practices. PMID:16614255

  11. The Healing Effect of Curcumin on Burn Wounds in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Mehrabani, Davood; Farjam, Mojtaba; Geramizadeh, Bita; Tanideh, Nader; Amini, Masood; Panjehshahin, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Burns are still considered one of the most devastating conditions in emergency medicine affecting both genders and all age groups in developed and developing countries, resulting into physical and psychological scars and cause chronic disabilities. This study was performed to determine the healing effect of curcumin on burn wounds in rat. METHODS Seventy female Sprague-Dawley 180-220 g rats were randomly divided into 5 equal groups. Groups of A-C received 0.1, 0.5 and 2% curcumin respectively and Group D, silver sulfadiazine ointment. Group E was considered as control group and received eucerin. After 7, 14 and 21 days of therapy, the animals were sacrificed and burn areas were macroscopically examined and histologically were scored. RESULTS Administration of curcumin resulted into a decrease in size of the burn wounds and a reduction in inflammation after 14th days. Reepithelialization was prominent in groups A-C while more distinguishable in group C. In group C, epidermis exhibited well structured layers without any crusting. There were spindle shaped fibroblasts in fascicular pattern, oriented parallel to the epithelial surface with eosinophilic collagen matrix. CONCLUSION Curcumin as an available and inexpensive herbal was shown be a suitable substitute in healing of burn wounds especially when 2% concentration was applied. PMID:25606474

  12. A single mutation that results in an Asp to His substitution and partial exon skipping in a family with congenital contractural arachnodactyly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Darcie Babcock; Cheryll Gasner; Uta Francke; Cheryl Maslen

    1998-01-01

    Congenital contractural arachnodactyly (CCA) is an autosomal dominant disorder of connective tissue and is characterized\\u000a by multiple congenital contractures, arachnodactyly, and external ear malformations. Recent investigations indicate that mutations\\u000a in the fibrillin-2 gene (FBN2) cause CCA. Here, we report a G?C transversion at nucleotide 3340 (G3340C) of FBN2 in a family\\u000a with phenotypic characteristics of CCA. The G3340C mutation predicts

  13. Use of a non-contact 3D digitiser to measure the volume of keloid scars: a useful tool for scar assessment.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Ben; McGrouther, D Angus; Bayat, Ardeshir

    2007-01-01

    Keloid scars often fail to respond to treatment, so research into new therapeutic regimes is important. However, research is limited by a scarcity of reliable, objective scar assessment tools. The volume of a keloid scar should decrease with successful treatment. This study demonstrates the use of a non-contact 3D digitiser to measure digitally the volume of a keloid scar. The scanner was used to scan 62 keloid scars and one fine-line normal scar. The scan took approximately 9s to complete. The volume was measured using 3D reverse modelling software. A previously validated scar assessment scale was used to score the scars according to their physical parameters. A significant correlation was found between volume and the scar score (Pearson's r=0.627, p<0.001). Linear regression was also statistically significant (p<0.001, R(2)=0.44). Therefore it was possible to predict the scar score from the measured volume. This technique could allow monitoring of a patient on treatment, or comparison of treatments in a research setting. It overcomes previous problems with the measurement of scar volume as it is quantitatively objective and well-tolerated. PMID:17126272

  14. Burns and military clothing.

    PubMed

    McLean, A D

    2001-02-01

    Burn injury is a ubiquitous threat in the military environment. The risks during combat are well recognised, but the handling of fuel, oil, munitions and other hot or flammable materials during peacetime deployment and training also imposes an inherent risk of accidental burn injury. Over the last hundred years, the burn threat in combat has ranged from nuclear weapons to small shoulder-launched missiles. Materials such as napalm and white phosphorus plainly present a risk of burn, but the threat extends to encompass personnel in vehicles attacked by anti-armour weapons, large missiles, fuel-air explosives and detonations/conflagrations on weapons platforms such as ships. Large numbers of burn casualties were caused at Pearl Harbor, in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Vietnam, during the Arab/Israeli Wars and in the Falkland Islands conflict. The threat from burns is unlikely to diminish, indeed new developments in weapons seek to exploit the vulnerability of the serviceman and servicewoman to burns. Clothing can be a barrier to some types of burn--both inherently in the properties of the material, but also by trapping air between clothing layers. Conversely, ignition of the clothing may exacerbate a burn. There is hearsay that burnt clothing products within a wound may complicate the clinical management, or that materials that melt (thermoplastic materials) should not be worn if there is a burn threat. This paper explores the incidence of burn injury, the mechanisms of heat transfer to bare skin and skin covered by materials, and the published evidence for the complication of wound management by materials. Even light-weight combat clothing can offer significant protection to skin from short duration flash burns; the most vulnerable areas are the parts of the body not covered--face and hands. Multilayered combat clothing can offer significant protection for short periods from engulfment by flames; lightweight tropical wear with few layers offers little protection. Under high heat loads in the laboratory, combat clothing can ignite, but there is little evidence that clothing ignition is a common occurrence in military burn casualties. Thermoplastic materials have many benefits in civil and military clothing. There is little objective evidence that they exacerbate burns, or complicate burn management. Their use in military clothing must be based on objective evidence, not hearsay. PMID:11307683

  15. Familial occurrence of typical and severe lethal congenital contractural arachnodactyly caused by missplicing of exon 34 of fibrillin-2.

    PubMed

    Wang, M; Clericuzio, C L; Godfrey, M

    1996-11-01

    Genetic linkage studies have linked congenital contractural arachnodactyly (CCA), a usually mild heritable connective-tissue disorder, to FBN2, the fibrillin gene on chromosome 5. Recently, FBN2 mutations in two patients with CCA have been described. Here we report an A-->T transversion at the -2 position of the consensus acceptor splice site, resulting in the missplicing of exon 34, a calcium-binding epidermal growth factor-like repeat in fibrillin-2 in a mother and daughter with CCA. Significantly, the mother exhibited a classic CCA phenotype with arachnodactyly, joint contractures, and abnormal pinnae, whereas her daughter exhibited a markedly more severe CCA phenotype, which included cardiovascular and gastrointestinal anomalies that led to death in infancy. Analysis of cloned fibroblasts showed that the mother is a somatic mosaic for the exon 34 missplicing mutation, whereas all the daughter's cells harbored the mutation. PMID:8900230

  16. Zinc burns: a rare burn injury.

    PubMed

    de Juan, A; Ramon, P; Santoyo, F; Alonso, S

    2000-08-01

    A patient was presented with significant burns resulting from a workplace accident in a zinc production unit. This occurred as a result of the spontaneous combustion of zinc bleed under high pressure. The patient sustained burns to the face, body, and hands and suffered significant injury to the left cornea. Computed imaging revealed solid particles in the ethmoid sinus and also in the right nasal fossa, dissecting the right lacrimal duct. Photographic documentation is presented. This injury was potentially preventable and resulted from poor observance of safety procedures. PMID:10812277

  17. Mineral analysis in experimental corneal scars. An EDAX study

    SciTech Connect

    Bonafonte, S.; Fernandez del Cotero, J.N.; Aguirre Vila-Coro, A.

    1988-01-01

    Central penetrating excisional wounds were made in the corneas of 12 rabbits and 10 trout. The scar tissue and the surrounding cornea were compared using a new method for assessing inorganic elements in the cornea: the scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive analysis of x-ray (EDAX). Semiquantitative determination of inorganic elements within the range of atomic numbers 9-93 in the periodic system was performed, comparing the relative concentration of those elements in the scar tissue to the surrounding cornea. Results showed that calcium was the only element higher in the healing wound than in the surrounding cornea.

  18. Dupuytren's Disease—A Study of the Pattern of Distribution and Stage of Contracture in the Hand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. A. MIKKELSEN

    1976-01-01

    The distribution and stages of contracture in the digits are examined in 901 persons with Dupuytren's disease and collected into an epidemiological study of 15,950 persons in a small Norwegian town. The frequency of contracted digits counted from the total number of affected hands, are for men (women in parentheses): Thumb 3.0% (0.6), Index finger 1.2% (1.7), Middle finger 28.3%

  19. “Chemical Changes: Burning

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kris Ryan

    2012-07-25

    This lesson demonstrates how students can apply the process of identifying main idea and supporting details to show the different ways burning can chemically change matter. The students can identify these changes and discuss the details that support these changes, which will help them further understand how burning matter is considered a chemical change.

  20. Hand chemical burns.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Elliot P; Chhabra, A Bobby

    2015-03-01

    There is a vast and ever-expanding variety of potentially harmful chemicals in the military, industrial, and domestic landscape. Chemical burns make up a small proportion of all skin burns, yet they can cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Additionally, the hand and upper extremity are the most frequently involved parts of the body in chemical burns, and therefore these injuries may lead to severe temporary or permanent loss of function. Despite this fact, discussion of the care of these injuries is sparse in the hand surgery literature. Although most chemical burns require only first response and wound care, some require the attention of a specialist for surgical debridement and, occasionally, skin coverage and reconstruction. Exposure to certain chemicals carries the risk of substantial systemic toxicity and even mortality. Understanding the difference between thermal and chemical burns, as well as special considerations for specific compounds, will improve patient treatment outcomes. PMID:25653184

  1. A novel mutation (C1425Y) in the FBN2 gene in a father and son with congenital contractural arachnodactyly.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Lei, Yun-Ping; Zheng, Hong-Xiang; Wang, Wei; Cheng, Hong-Bo; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Hong-Yan; Jin, Li; Li, Hong

    2009-06-01

    Congenital contractural arachnodactyly (Beals syndrome) is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited connective tissue disorder characterized by flexion contractures, arachnodactyly, crumpled ears, and mild muscular hypoplasia. Here, a father and son with congenital contractural arachnodactyly features were identified. After sequencing 15 exons (22 to 36) of the FBN2 gene, a novel mutation (C1425Y) was found in exon 33. This de novo mutation presented first in the father and was transmitted to his son, but not in the other 14 unaffected family members and 365 normal people. The C1425Y mutation occurs at the 19th cbEGF domain. Cysteines in this cbEGF domain are rather conserved in species, from human down to ascidian. The cbEGF12-13 in human FBN1 was employed as the template to perform homology modeling of cbEGF18-19 of human FBN2 protein. The mutation has also been evaluated by further prediction tools, for example, SIFT, Blosum62, biochemical Yu's matrice, and UMD-Predictor tool. In all analysis, the mutation is predicted to be pathogenic. Thus, the structure destabilization by C1425Y might be the cause of the disorder. PMID:19473076

  2. Electrospun Poly(L-Lactide) Fiber with Ginsenoside Rg3 for Inhibiting Scar Hyperplasia of Skin

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Changmin; Li, Haiyan; Zhang, Yuguang; Chang, Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Hypertrophic scarring (HS) has been considered as a great concern for patients and a challenging problem for clinicians as it can be cosmetically disfiguring and functionally debilitating. In this study, Ginsenoside Rg3/Poly(l-lactide) (G-Rg3/PLLA) electrospun fibrous scaffolds covering on the full-thickness skin excisions location was designed to suppress the hypertrophic scar formation in vivo. SEM and XRD results indicated that the crystal G-Rg3 carried in PLLA electrospun fibers was in amorphous state, which facilitates the solubility of G-Rg3 in the PLLA electrospun fibrous scaffolds, and solubility of G-Rg3 in PBS is increased from 3.2 µg/ml for pure G-Rg3 powders to 19.4 µg/ml for incorporated in PLLA-10% fibers. The released G-Rg3 content in the physiological medium could be further altered from 324 to 3445 µg in a 40-day release period by adjusting the G-Rg3 incorporation amount in PLLA electrospun fibers. In vitro results demonstrated that electrospun G-Rg3/PLLA fibrous scaffold could significantly inhibit fibroblast cell growth and proliferation. In vivo results confirmed that the G-Rg3/PLLA electrospun fibrous scaffold showed significant improvements in terms of dermis layer thickness, fibroblast proliferation, collagen fibers and microvessels, revealing that the incorporation of the G-Rg3 in the fibers prevented the HS formation. The above results demonstrate the potential use of G-Rg3/PLLA electrospun fibrous scaffolds to rapidly minimize fibroblast growth and restore the structural and functional properties of wounded skin for patients with deep trauma, severe burn injury, and surgical incision. PMID:23874757

  3. Electrospun poly(L-lactide) fiber with ginsenoside rg3 for inhibiting scar hyperplasia of skin.

    PubMed

    Cui, Wenguo; Cheng, Liying; Hu, Changmin; Li, Haiyan; Zhang, Yuguang; Chang, Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Hypertrophic scarring (HS) has been considered as a great concern for patients and a challenging problem for clinicians as it can be cosmetically disfiguring and functionally debilitating. In this study, Ginsenoside Rg3/Poly(l-lactide) (G-Rg3/PLLA) electrospun fibrous scaffolds covering on the full-thickness skin excisions location was designed to suppress the hypertrophic scar formation in vivo. SEM and XRD results indicated that the crystal G-Rg3 carried in PLLA electrospun fibers was in amorphous state, which facilitates the solubility of G-Rg3 in the PLLA electrospun fibrous scaffolds, and solubility of G-Rg3 in PBS is increased from 3.2 µg/ml for pure G-Rg3 powders to 19.4 µg/ml for incorporated in PLLA-10% fibers. The released G-Rg3 content in the physiological medium could be further altered from 324 to 3445 µg in a 40-day release period by adjusting the G-Rg3 incorporation amount in PLLA electrospun fibers. In vitro results demonstrated that electrospun G-Rg3/PLLA fibrous scaffold could significantly inhibit fibroblast cell growth and proliferation. In vivo results confirmed that the G-Rg3/PLLA electrospun fibrous scaffold showed significant improvements in terms of dermis layer thickness, fibroblast proliferation, collagen fibers and microvessels, revealing that the incorporation of the G-Rg3 in the fibers prevented the HS formation. The above results demonstrate the potential use of G-Rg3/PLLA electrospun fibrous scaffolds to rapidly minimize fibroblast growth and restore the structural and functional properties of wounded skin for patients with deep trauma, severe burn injury, and surgical incision. PMID:23874757

  4. Skin Burns (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... than 3 inches or 7.5 cm) or deep (deep partial-thickness or full thickness) (see 'Burn type' ... are good examples of superficial partial-thickness burns. Deep partial-thickness skin burns — Deep partial-thickness skin ...

  5. ["Raw and charred flesh": the experience of burned women in Northeast Brazil].

    PubMed

    Arruda, Cristiani Nobre de; Braide, Andrea Stopglia Guedes; Nations, Marilyn

    2014-10-01

    In Northeast Brazil, death from burns is a widespread, pervasive threat to poor women. This anthropological study describes the experience of personal suffering among female burn patients. In 2009, six "information-rich" cases were investigated at the Burn Center in Fortaleza, Ceará State, Brazil. Open ethnographic interviews with key informants, narratives of lived experiences, and participant observation at the clinic and patients' home were conducted. The methods included content analysis, systems of signs, meanings, and actions, and contextualized semantic interpretation. The emerging metaphors are embued with the cultural meaning of "monstrosity" and gender violence by fire - inscribed mercilessly in the woman's body. "Accidents" caused by flammable liquids (alcohol) hide the cruel reality of "raw and charred flesh". The scars can disfigure the victims as "non-persons", destroying their moral reputation and leading to social rejection. In the Brazilian Northeast, the social vulnerability caused by sequelae from burns demands a policy for humanized care. PMID:25388309

  6. Sequential treatment with intradermal incision (intracision) and 2,940-nm Er:YAG laser for chicken pox scars.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Ju; Kim, Young Koo; Choi, Sun Young; Park, Kui Young; Seo, Seong Jun

    2014-01-01

    Boxcar scars, such as chicken pox scars, are round to oval depressions with sharply defined vertical edges. Subcision is a simple and safe procedure for treatment of atrophic and depressed scars, but boxcar scars are generally not eliminated by subcision. Intradermal incision technique (intracision) can treat chicken pox scars by untethering fibrotic strands, raising collagen synthesis, and having additional intradermal blood pocket formation. We have found that chicken pox scars further improve when intracision is followed by laser skin resurfacing. PMID:24502307

  7. Hysteroscopy and suction evacuation of cesarean scar pregnancies: a case report and review.

    PubMed

    Fylstra, Donald L

    2014-03-01

    Implantation of a pregnancy into the scar of a prior cesarean is an uncommon type of ectopic pregnancy. The incidence of cesarean scar pregnancy is thought to be one in 1800-2216 pregnancies. The increase in the incidence of cesarean scar pregnancy is thought to be a consequence of the increasing rates of cesarean delivery. The natural history of cesarean scar pregnancy is unknown. However, if such a pregnancy is allowed to continue, uterine scar rupture with hemorrhage and possible hysterectomy seem likely. Two early diagnosed cesarean scar pregnancies were treated with hysteroscopy and suction curettage removal. One required intramuscular methotrexate to resolve a persistent cesarean scar ectopic pregnancy. It would seem reasonable that simple suction evacuation would frequently leave chorionic villi imbedded within the cesarean scar, as the pregnancy is not within the endometrial cavity. PMID:24320609

  8. Mutations in FAM111B Cause Hereditary Fibrosing Poikiloderma with Tendon Contracture, Myopathy, and Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Mercier, Sandra; Küry, Sébastien; Shaboodien, Gasnat; Houniet, Darren T.; Khumalo, Nonhlanhla P.; Bou-Hanna, Chantal; Bodak, Nathalie; Cormier-Daire, Valérie; David, Albert; Faivre, Laurence; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Gherardi, Romain K.; Glen, Elise; Hamel, Antoine; Laboisse, Christian; Le Caignec, Cédric; Lindenbaum, Pierre; Magot, Armelle; Munnich, Arnold; Mussini, Jean-Marie; Pillay, Komala; Rahman, Thahira; Redon, Richard; Salort-Campana, Emmanuelle; Santibanez-Koref, Mauro; Thauvin, Christel; Barbarot, Sébastien; Keavney, Bernard; Bézieau, Stéphane; Mayosi, Bongani M.

    2013-01-01

    Congenital poikiloderma is characterized by a combination of mottled pigmentation, telangiectasia, and epidermal atrophy in the first few months of life. We have previously described a South African European-descent family affected by a rare autosomal-dominant form of hereditary fibrosing poikiloderma accompanied by tendon contracture, myopathy, and pulmonary fibrosis. Here, we report the identification of causative mutations in FAM111B by whole-exome sequencing. In total, three FAM111B missense mutations were identified in five kindreds of different ethnic backgrounds. The mutation segregated with the disease in one large pedigree, and mutations were de novo in two other pedigrees. All three mutations were absent from public databases and were not observed on Sanger sequencing of 388 ethnically matched control subjects. The three single-nucleotide mutations code for amino acid changes that are clustered within a putative trypsin-like cysteine/serine peptidase domain of FAM111B. These findings provide evidence of the involvement of FAM111B in congenital poikiloderma and multisystem fibrosis. PMID:24268661

  9. High Resolution Muscle Measurements Provide Insights into Equinus Contractures in Patients with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Mathewson, Margie A.; Ward, Samuel R.; Chambers, Henry G.; Lieber, Richard L.

    2015-01-01

    Muscle contractures that occur after upper motor neuron lesion are often surgically released or lengthened. However, surgical manipulation of muscle length changes a muscle’s sarcomere length (Ls), which can affect force production. To predict effects of surgery, both macro- (fascicle length (Lf)) and micro- (Ls) level structural measurements are needed. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to quantify both Ls and Lf in patients with cerebral palsy (CP) as well as typically developing (TD) children. Soleus ultrasound images were obtained from children with CP and TD children. Lf was determined and, with the joint in the same position, CP biopsies were obtained, formalin fixed and Ls measured by laser diffraction. Since soleus Ls values were not measurable in TD children, TD Ls values were obtained using three independent methods. While average Lf did not differ between groups (CP=3.6±1.2 cm, TD=3.5±0.9 cm; p>0.6), Ls was dramatically longer in children with CP (4.07±0.45 ?m vs. TD=2.17±0.24 ?m; p<0.0001). While Lf values were similar between children with CP and TD children, this was due to highly stretched sarcomeres within the soleus muscle. Surgical manipulation of muscle-tendon unit length will thus alter muscle sarcomere length and change force generating capacity of the muscle. PMID:25242618

  10. High resolution muscle measurements provide insights into equinus contractures in patients with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Mathewson, Margie A; Ward, Samuel R; Chambers, Henry G; Lieber, Richard L

    2015-01-01

    Muscle contractures that occur after upper motor neuron lesion are often surgically released or lengthened. However, surgical manipulation of muscle length changes a muscle's sarcomere length (Ls ), which can affect force production. To predict effects of surgery, both macro- (fascicle length (Lf )) and micro- (Ls ) level structural measurements are needed. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to quantify both Ls and Lf in patients with cerebral palsy (CP) as well as typically developing (TD) children. Soleus ultrasound images were obtained from children with CP and TD children. Lf was determined and, with the joint in the same position, CP biopsies were obtained and formalin fixed, and Ls was measured by laser diffraction. Since soleus Ls values were not measurable in TD children, TD Ls values were obtained using three independent methods. While average Lf did not differ between groups (CP=3.6±1.2?cm, TD=3.5±0.9?cm; p>0.6), Ls was dramatically longer in children with CP (4.07±0.45?µm vs. TD=2.17±0.24?µm; p<0.0001). While Lf values were similar between children with CP and TD children, this was due to highly stretched sarcomeres within the soleus muscle. Surgical manipulation of muscle-tendon unit length will thus alter muscle sarcomere length and change force generating capacity of the muscle. PMID:25242618

  11. Reduced satellite cell number in situ in muscular contractures from children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Dayanidhi, Sudarshan; Dykstra, Peter B; Lyubasyuk, Vera; McKay, Bryon R; Chambers, Henry G; Lieber, Richard L

    2015-07-01

    Satellite cells (SC) are quiescent adult muscle stem cells critical for postnatal development. Children with cerebral palsy have impaired muscular growth and develop contractures. While flow cytometry previously demonstrated a reduced SC population, extracellular matrix abnormalities may influence the cell isolation methods used, systematically isolating fewer cells from CP muscle and creating a biased result. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to use immunohistochemistry on serial muscle sections to quantify SC in situ. Serial cross-sections from human gracilis muscle biopsies (n?=?11) were labeled with fluorescent antibodies for Pax7 (SC transcriptional marker), laminin (basal lamina), and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (nuclei). Fluorescence microscopy under high magnification was used to identify SC based on labeling and location. Mean SC/100 myofibers was reduced by ?70% (p?

  12. Classification of gluteal muscle contracture in children and outcome of different treatments

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chen-Guang; He, Xi-Jing; Lu, Bin; Li, Hao-Peng; Wang, Dong; Zhu, Zhen-Zhong

    2009-01-01

    Background Gluteal muscle contracture (GMC) is a clinical syndrome due to multiple etiologies in which hip movements may be severely limited. The aim of this study was to propose a detailed classification of GMC and evaluate the statistical association between outcomes of different management and patient conditions. Methods One hundred fifty-eight patients, who were treated between January 1995 and December 2004, were reviewed at a mean duration of follow-up of 4.8 years. Statistical analyses were performed using X2 and Fisher's exact tests. Results Non-operative management (NOM), as a primary treatment, was effective in 19 of 49 patients (38.8%), while operative management was effective in all 129 patients, with an excellence rating of 83.7% (108/129). The outcome of NOM in level I patients was significantly higher than in level II and III patients (P < 0.05). The results of NOM and operative management in the child group were better than the adolescent group (P < 0.05). Complications in level III were more than in level II. Conclusion NOM was more effective in level I patients than in level II and III patients. Operative management was effective in patients at all levels, with no statistical differences between levels or types. We recommend NOM as primary treatment for level I patients and operative management for level II and III patients. Either NOM or operative management should be carried out as early as possible. PMID:19351391

  13. Capsular contracture by silicone breast implants: possible causes, biocompatibility, and prophylactic strategies

    PubMed Central

    Steiert, Andreas E; Boyce, Maria; Sorg, Heiko

    2013-01-01

    The most common implanted material in the human body consists of silicone. Breast augmentation and breast reconstruction using silicone-based implants are procedures frequently performed by reconstructive and aesthetic surgeons. A main complication of this procedure continues to be the development of capsular contracture (CC), displaying the result of a fibrotic foreign body reaction after the implantation of silicone. For many years, experimental and clinical trials have attempted to analyze the problem of its etiology, treatment, and prophylaxis. Different theories of CC formation are known; however, the reason why different individuals develop CC in days or a month, or only after years, is unknown. Therefore, we hypothesize that CC formation, might primarily be induced by immunological mechanisms along with other reasons. This article attempts to review CC formation, with special attention paid to immunological and inflammatory reasons, as well as actual prophylactic strategies. In this context, the word “biocompatibility” has been frequently used to describe the overall biological innocuousness of silicone in the respective studies, although without clear-cut definitions of this important feature. We have therefore developed a new five-point scale with distinct key points of biocompatibility. Hence, this article might provide the basis for ongoing discussion in this field to reduce single-publication definitions as well as increase the understanding of biocompatibility. PMID:24324348

  14. Evolution of Silicone Therapy and Mechanism of Action in Scar Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas A. Mustoe

    2008-01-01

    Silicone-based products are widely used in the management of hypertrophic scarring and keloids. This review discusses the\\u000a range of products available and the clinical evidence of their efficacy in preventing excessive scarring and improving established\\u000a scars. Silicone gel sheeting has been used successfully for more than 20 years in scar management. A new formulation of silicone\\u000a gel applied from a

  15. Evolution of the vertical scar in Lejour's mastoplasty technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Tapia; Agustín Blanch; Josep Salvador; Josep Prat; Immaculada Albert

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a series of 54 consecutive cases of vertical mastoplasty carried out over the period February 1994 to April 1995. In 30 cases breast reduction was performed, in 19 pure mastopexy, and in the remaining 5, a mastopexy-breast augmentation with a silicon gel prosthesis was carried out. The parameters used for analyzing the persistence of vertical scarring were:

  16. Occlusion regulates epidermal cytokine production and inhibits scar formation.

    PubMed

    Gallant-Behm, Corrie L; Mustoe, Thomas A

    2010-01-01

    Hypertrophic scars are a major clinical problem, yet there are few therapeutics available to prevent or treat scar formation. One of the oldest known and most effective treatments is occlusion with silicone gel. However, little is known about its mode of action. It is hypothesized that occlusion increases the hydration state of the epidermis, and that this affects the epidermal and dermal cell behavior. This study investigated this possibility. Using the rabbit hypertrophic scar model, we determined that occlusion increased the hydration state of the epidermis in a dose-dependent manner, and significantly reduced the scar hypertrophy. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry showed that occlusion altered keratinocyte behavior, including keratin expression. Furthermore, occlusion significantly decreased the epidermal expression of the profibrotic cytokine interleukin-1beta and increased the epidermal expression of the antifibrotic cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha. These alterations in the epidermal gene expression resulted in concomitant changes in the expression of the transforming growth factor-beta family members by cells in the dermis, resulting in a decrease in profibrotic signaling within the dermis. In summary, the results of this study indicate that occlusive therapy was able to decrease dermal fibrosis by hydrating the epidermis and altering the pro- and antifibrotic signals produced following injury. PMID:20419876

  17. The glial scar and central nervous system repair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James W Fawcett; Richard. A Asher

    1999-01-01

    Damage to the central nervous system (CNS) results in a glial reaction, leading eventually to the formation of a glial scar. In this environment, axon regeneration fails, and remyelination may also be unsuccessful. The glial reaction to injury recruits microglia, oligodendrocyte precursors, meningeal cells, astrocytes and stem cells. Damaged CNS also contains oligodendrocytes and myelin debris. Most of these cell

  18. 8. VIEW OF BASIN BEHIND DAM, SHOWING SCARS FROM EARTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF BASIN BEHIND DAM, SHOWING SCARS FROM EARTH MOVING TO CONSTRUCT DAM, LOOKING NORTH - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, East Timothy Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 8.4 miles North of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  19. 9. VIEW OF BASIN BEHIND DAM, SHOWING SCARS FROM EARTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF BASIN BEHIND DAM, SHOWING SCARS FROM EARTH MOVING TO CONSTRUCT DAM, LOOKING EAST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, East Timothy Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 8.4 miles North of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  20. 4. VIEW OF DOWNSTREAM FACE OF DAM, WITH SCARS FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF DOWNSTREAM FACE OF DAM, WITH SCARS FROM EARTH MOVING TO CONSTRUCT DAM IN FOREGROUND, LOOKING NORTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Five Point Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 12 miles Northwest of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  1. Scar-localized argyria secondary to silver sulfadiazine cream

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nina Myerson Fisher; Elizabeth Marsh; Rossitza Lazova

    2003-01-01

    Silver sulfadiazine cream is a topical antibacterial agent that combines the antibacterial effects of both silver and sulfadiazine. Its reported cutaneous side effects include hypersensitivity reactions, allergic contact dermatitis, erythema multiforme, and systemic argyria. We report the case of a patient who had localized argyria develop in a scar after the use of silver sulfadiazine cream. In this case, the

  2. Mineral analysis in experimental corneal scars. An EDAX study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergio Bonafonte; Jose N. Fernandez del Cotero; A. Aguirre Vila-Coro

    1988-01-01

    Central penetrating excisional wounds were made in the corneas of 12 rabbits and 10 trout. The scar tissue and the surrounding cornea were compared using a new method for assessing inorganic elements in the cornea: the scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive analysis of x-ray (EDAX). Semiquantitative determination of inorganic elements within the range of atomic numbers 9-93 in the

  3. Chryseobacterium in burn wounds.

    PubMed

    Kienzle, N; Muller, M; Pegg, S

    2001-03-01

    Chryseobacteria are gram negative organisms, formerly known as Flavobacteria, which rarely cause infections of burn wounds. This article documents three cases of Chryseobacterium infection in burn wounds and adds to the other two cases that have been reported in English literature. Two patients died, with one of the deaths linked to a Chryseobacteria bacteraemia. In two patients, there was an associated history of first aid treatment with untreated water. Patients whose burn wounds are suspected to be infected with Chryseobacterium require wound excision and coverage in combination with antibiotic therapy such as ciprofloxacin, vancomycin and rifampicin. PMID:11226658

  4. Blockade of Mast Cell Activation Reduces Cutaneous Scar Formation

    PubMed Central

    Ranzer, Matthew J.; Wilgus, Traci A.; DiPietro, Luisa A.

    2014-01-01

    Damage to the skin initiates a cascade of well-orchestrated events that ultimately leads to repair of the wound. The inflammatory response is key to wound healing both through preventing infection and stimulating proliferation and remodeling of the skin. Mast cells within the tissue are one of the first immune cells to respond to trauma, and upon activation they release pro-inflammatory molecules to initiate recruitment of leukocytes and promote a vascular response in the tissue. Additionally, mast cells stimulate collagen synthesis by dermal fibroblasts, suggesting they may also influence scar formation. To examine the contribution of mast cells in tissue repair, we determined the effects the mast cell inhibitor, disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), on several parameters of dermal repair including, inflammation, re-epithelialization, collagen fiber organization, collagen ultrastructure, scar width and wound breaking strength. Mice treated with DSCG had significantly reduced levels of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1?, IL-1?, and CXCL1. Although DSCG treatment reduced the production of inflammatory mediators, the rate of re-epithelialization was not affected. Compared to control, inhibition of mast cell activity caused a significant decrease in scar width along with accelerated collagen re-organization. Despite the reduced scar width, DSCG treatment did not affect the breaking strength of the healed tissue. Tryptase ?1 exclusively produced by mast cells was found to increase significantly in the course of wound healing. However, DSCG treatment did not change its level in the wounds. These results indicate that blockade of mast cell activation reduces scar formation and inflammation without further weakening the healed wound. PMID:24465509

  5. Developing and piloting a multifactorial intervention to address participation and quality of life in nursing home residents with joint contractures (JointConImprove): study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Martin; Bartoszek, Gabriele; Beutner, Katrin; Klingshirn, Hanna; Saal, Susanne; Stephan, Anna-Janina; Strobl, Ralf; Grill, Eva; Meyer, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Background: Joint contractures are common problems in frail older people in nursing homes. Irrespective of the exact extent of older individuals in geriatric care settings living with joint contractures, they appear to be a relevant problem. Also, the new emphasis on the syndrome of joint contractures, e. g. by the German statutory long term care insurance, led to an increase in assessment and documentation efforts and preventive interventions in clinical care. However, more attention should be paid to the actual situation of older individuals in nursing homes with prevalent joint contractures, particularly their experience of related activity limitations and participation restrictions. Thus, the aim of this study is 1) to develop a tailored intervention to improve functioning, and especially participation and quality of life in older residents with joint contractures in nursing homes and 2) to test the feasibility of the intervention accompanied by a rigorous process evaluation. Methods: The complex intervention, which will be developed in this project follows the UK Medical Research Council (MRC) framework and integrates the perspectives of all potentially relevant user groups, from the affected individuals to clinicians and researchers. The development process will comprise a systematic literature review, reanalysis of existing data and the integration of the knowledge of the affected individuals and experts. The developed intervention including a comprehensive process evaluation will be pilot tested with residents with joint contractures in three nursing homes. Discussion: The projected study will provide a tailored intervention to improve functioning, participation and quality of life in older residents with joint contractures in nursing homes. With this focus, the intervention will support patient relevant outcomes. The pilot study including process evaluation will offer a first opportunity to indicate the size of the intervention’s effect and prepare further studies. PMID:26195926

  6. IL-6 Trans-signaling-STAT3 Pathway Mediates ECM and Cellular Proliferation in Fibroblasts from Hypertrophic Scar

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Sutapa; Ju, Xiaoxi; Sun, Hong; Finnerty, Celeste C; Herndon, David N; Brasier, Allan R

    2012-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms behind the pathogenesis of post-burn hypertrophic scar (HS) remain unclear. Here, we investigate the role of interleukin-6 (IL-6) trans-signaling-STAT3 pathway in HS fibroblasts (HSF) derived from burned-induced HS skin. HSF showed increased Tyr 705 STAT3 phosphorylation over normal fibroblast (NF) after IL-6•IL-6R? stimulation by immunoassays. The endogenous STAT3 target gene, SOCS3, was upregulated in HSF and showed increased STAT3 binding on its promoter relative to NF in Chromatin Immunoprecipitation assay. We observed that the cell surface signaling transducer glycoprotein 130 is upregulated in HSF using Q-RT-PCR and flow cytometry. The production of excessive extracellular matrix (ECM), including the expression of alpha2 (1) procollagen (Col1A2) and fibronectin 1 (FN) were seen in HSFs. A STAT3 peptide inhibitor abrogated FN and Col1A2 gene expression in HSF indicating involvement of STAT3 in ECM production. The cellular proliferation markers Cyclin D1, Bcl-Xl and c-Myc were also upregulated in HSF and knockdown of STAT3 by siRNA attenuated c-Myc expression indicating the essential role of STAT3 in fibroblast proliferation. Taken together, our results suggest that the IL-6-trans-signaling-STAT3 pathway may play an integral role in HS pathogenesis and disruption of this pathway could be a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of burn-induced HS. PMID:23303450

  7. Chemical processes in a young biomass-burning plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trentmann, JöRg; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Graf, Hans-F.

    2003-11-01

    The photochemistry in young biomass-burning plumes depends on the emissions from the fire and their mixing with the background atmosphere as well as on the actinic flux. In the present study a three-dimensional plume model is used to investigate the photochemical evolution of a biomass-burning plume during the first tens of minutes after the fire emissions have been released into the atmosphere. The model results represent the evolution of the plume from the Quinault prescribed fire conducted during the Smoke, Cloud, and Radiation-C (SCAR-C) experiment. The modeled ozone concentrations of about 70 ppb are close to observations. The main nitrogen reservoir species downwind of the fire are HNO3 and peroxyacetyl nitrate, accounting for about ˜60% and ˜30% of the total nitrogen reservoir species, respectively. Photolysis of formaldehyde, which is emitted from the fire, is the primary source of radicals in the plume. Omitting the emissions of oxygenated volatile organic compounds in the modeled fire plume leads to unrealistically low ozone concentrations in the simulations. A nonabsorbing aerosol as well as the lower emission of NOx in the simulations enhance the radical concentration, the photochemical ozone formation, and the oxidation efficiency, at least at the timescales considered here. Further investigations of the atmospheric processes in young biomass-burning plumes will increase our understanding of the interaction of transport and chemical processes not only in biomass-burning plumes but also in other convective systems.

  8. Chemical burn or reaction

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the skin has come in contact with the toxic substance Rash , blisters , burns on the skin Unconsciousness ... locked cabinet. Avoid mixing different products that contain toxic chemicals such as ammonia and bleach. The mixture ...

  9. Burning Mouth Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mock, David; Chugh, Deepika

    2010-01-01

    Most clinicians dread seeing the patient presenting with a primary complaint of a burning pain on one or more oral mucosal surfaces. Unlike most other clinical conditions presenting in a dental office, burning mouth syndrome is poorly understood with few evidence based remedies. More recently, advances have been made towards clarifying the possible etiology of the disorder and testing the possible therapeutic modalities available. This article attempts to summarize the “state of the art” today. PMID:20690412

  10. Burns in the disabled.

    PubMed

    Backstein, R; Peters, W; Neligan, P

    1993-06-01

    A retrospective analysis of 812 patients admitted to the Ross Tilley Burn Centre between 1984 and 1992 resulted in 37 cases of burn injuries which were directly related to premorbid disabilities. The majority of these burns (83.8 per cent) occurred in the patient's home, most commonly as scald injuries in the bath tub, the shower, or following hot water spills. Nineteen patients were male, 17 were female. The median age was 58 years. Six patients had spinal cord disorders: four had traumatic cord damage, two had spina bifida. Six patients had seizure disorders. Five of these patients had been taking anti-seizure medications, but all had subtherapeutic blood levels on admission to hospital. Two patients had diabetes mellitus with peripheral neuropathies. Thirteen patients had four miscellaneous neurological disorders, including: tardive dyskinesia (two), CVA (four), Parkinson's disease (two), Alzheimer's disease (two), cerebral palsy (one), multiple sclerosis (one) and blindness (one). Three patients had a diagnosis of syncope. Two patients had emphysema, and four were morbidly obese. The average length of stay (LOS) for the disabled patients was 27.6 days for a median burn size of 10 per cent body surface area (BSA), compared to an average LOS for the general population of 25.7 days for a larger median burn size of 21 per cent BSA. The mortality rate was also much higher in the disabled population (22.2 per cent vs. 6.0 per cent). Most of these burn injuries were preventable. A series of burn prevention guidelines is presented, in an attempt to reduce the incidence of these burn injuries in disabled patients. PMID:8507362

  11. Preventing tap water burns.

    PubMed Central

    Baptiste, M S; Feck, G

    1980-01-01

    Based on a 1974-1975 survey of hospital records in upstate New York, we estimate that 347 tap water burns will require inpatient treatment annually, with children and the elderly at increased risk. The number and severity of burns from tap water makes them an important prevention priority. Reducing the temperature of household hot water supplies could be a practical and effective prevention measure. PMID:7386711

  12. Books2burn

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Weinstein, Matthew

    Developed by Professor Matthew Weinstein of Kent State University, Books2burn translates text files into a series of audio files, which may then subsequently be converted to mp3's or other formats. This program will be a great boon to scholars and the general public alike, as the application allows for the easy transfer and replication of potentially large and problematic files into a number of audio formats. Books2burn is compatible with all systems running Mac OS X.

  13. PBXN-110 Burn Rate Estimate

    SciTech Connect

    Glascoe, E

    2008-08-11

    It is estimated that PBXN-110 will burn laminarly with a burn function of B = (0.6-1.3)*P{sup 1.0} (B is the burn rate in mm/s and P is pressure in MPa). This paper provides a brief discussion of how this burn behavior was estimated.

  14. Chemical Reconstruction of Skin Scars Therapy Using 100% Trichloroacetic Acid in the Treatment of Atrophic Facial Post Varicella Scars: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Nidheesh; Mittal, Asit; Kuldeep, CM; Gupta, Lalit Kumar; Khare, Ashok Kumar; Mehta, Sharad

    2013-01-01

    Context: Chickenpox (varicella) is a common viral disease caused by Varicella zoster virus. Facial atrophic scars after varicella infection are not uncommon and pose a cosmetic problem. Like atrophic scars of other aetiologies, they are a difficult condition to treat. There are not enough references in the literature regarding efficient treatment of post varicella scars. High strength Trichloroacetic acid (TCA), which is known to cause dermal collagen remodelling, was used to treat varicella scars in the present study. Aims: The study was undertaken to assess the efficiency of Chemical Reconstruction of Skin Scars (CROSS) technique using 100% TCA in the treatment of atrophic facial post varicella scars. Settings and Design: Open label, pilot study. Materials and Methods: A total of 16 patients with atrophic facial post varicella scars were treated by focal application of 100% TCA solution by pressing down upon the scar surface by a toothpick (CROSS technique). Total 4 sittings were given at 2 weekly intervals and the results evaluated after 3 months of follow-up. Statistical analysis was carried out using Fischer's exact t-test. Results: All of the 13 patients who completed the study showed good clinical improvement, with 69% patients grading the response as excellent (>75%) improvement, whereas the rest 31% patients reporting good (51-75%) improvement. No significant complications were seen in any patient. Conclusions: CROSS technique using 100% TCA is a safe, cheap and effective therapy for the treatment of post varicella scars. PMID:24163530

  15. The media glorifying burns: a hindrance to burn prevention.

    PubMed

    Greenhalgh, David G; Palmieri, Tina L

    2003-01-01

    The media have a profound influence on the actions of children and adults. Burns and burn prevention tend to be ignored or even mocked. The purpose of this presentation is to reveal the callousness of the media in its dealings with burns and burn prevention. Printed materials with a relationship to burns, risk of burning, or disrespect for the consequences of burns were collected. The materials were tabulated into four categories: comics, advertisements (ads), articles that made light of burns, and television shows that portrayed behavior that would risk burn injury. Most burn-related materials were found in comics or advertisements. Several comics made light of high-risk behavior with flames, scald injury, contact injury, or burns. In addition, several advertisements showed people on fire or actions that could easily lead to burns. Several articles and televisions shows portrayed high-risk behavior that, in some instances, led to copycat injuries. Flames are frequently used to sell items that target adolescent boys or young men. The high incidence injuries that frequent this population parallel the high-risk behaviors portrayed by the media. The media portrays flames and high-risk behavior for burn injury as being cool, funny, and without consequence. The use of flames on clothing and recreational equipment (skateboards, hot rods) particularly targets the high-risk adolescent male. The burn community should make the media aware of the harm it causes with its callous depiction and glorification of burns. PMID:12792237

  16. Early outcomes of a sequential series of 144 patients with Dupuytren's contracture treated by collagenase injection using an increased dose, multi-cord technique.

    PubMed

    Verheyden, J R

    2015-02-01

    Collagenase clostridium histolyticum is the first and only United States Food and Drug Association approved nonsurgical treatment for patients with a palpable Dupuytren's contracture cord. However, the Food and Drug Association has only approved injection of 0.58 mg of this enzyme into one palpable Dupuytren's contracture cord at a time. This review reports on the early outcome of 144 patients treated with the entire bottle of enzyme, approximately 0.78 mg, along with use of a novel slow intracord multi-cord technique. Use of 0.78 mg of enzyme, with the slow intracord multi-cord technique is safe and allows one to inject multiple Dupuytren's contracture cords at one setting. Correction at metacarpophalangeal and proximal interphalangeal joints, taken individually, are comparable with the Collagenase Option for the Reduction of Dupuytren's studies at 43° and 33°, respectively, however due to the multi-cord injection, we achieved 94° average immediate and 76° average final combined metacarpophalangeal and proximal interphalangeal contracture releases per bottle of enzyme. Implementation of the slow intracord multi-cord technique has the potential to improve current treatment for Dupuytren's contracture with resultant significant healthcare savings. PMID:24698852

  17. Retinoic acid and glycolic acid combination in the treatment of acne scars

    PubMed Central

    Chandrashekar, BS; Ashwini, KR; Vasanth, Vani; Navale, Shreya

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Acne is a prevalent condition in society affecting nearly 80-90% of adolescents often resulting in secondary damage in the form of scarring. Retinoic acid (RA) is said to improve acne scars and reduce postinflammatory hyperpigmentation while glycolic acid (GA) is known for its keratolytic properties and its ability to reduce atrophic acne scars. There are studies exploring the combined effect of retinaldehyde and GA combination with positive results while the efficacy of retinoic acid and GA (RAGA) combination remains unexplored. Aim: The aim of this study remains to retrospectively assess the efficacy of RAGA combination on acne scars in patients previously treated for active acne. Materials and Methods: A retrospective assessment of 35 patients using topical RAGA combination on acne scars was done. The subjects were 17-34 years old and previously treated for active acne. Case records and photographs of each patient were assessed and the acne scars were graded as per Goodman and Baron's global scarring grading system (GSGS), before the start and after 12 weeks of RAGA treatment. The differences in the scar grades were noted to assess the improvement. Results: At the end of 12 weeks, significant improvement in acne scars was noticed in 91.4% of the patients. Conclusion: The RAGA combination shows efficacy in treating acne scars in the majority of patients, minimizing the need of procedural treatment for acne scars. PMID:25821727

  18. Radial Scars and Subsequent Breast Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Shanliang; Chen, Weixian; Hu, Qing; Ma, Tengfei; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Xiaohui; Tang, Jinhai; Zhao, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    Background The relationship between radial scars and breast cancer is unclear, as the results of different studies are inconsistent. We aim to solve the controversy and assess the breast cancer risk of radial scars. Methods Case-control or cohort studies about radial scars and breast cancer risk published in PubMed, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library from 2000 to 2013 were searched. Heterogeneity for the eligible data was assessed and a pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated. Results Five observational studies involving 2521 cases and 20290 controls were included in our study. From pooled analysis, radial scars were found to have a 1.33 fold increased risk of breast cancer, but which was not significant (P?=?0.138). Sample size contributed to heterogeneity. In subgroup analysis, the results pooled from studies with sample size >2000 show that presence of radial scars was associated with 1.6 times breast cancer risk compared to absence of radial scars. Radial scars increased the risk of breast cancer among women with proliferative disease without atypia, but no significant association between radial scars and carcinoma was noted among women with atypical hyperplasia. Conclusions Radial scars tend to be associated with an increased breast cancer risk. Radial scars should be considered among women with proliferative disease without atypia, while atypical hyperplasia is still the primary concern among women with both radial scars and atypical hyperplasia. PMID:25019286

  19. Screening of candidate genes in fibroblasts derived from patients with Dupuytren's contracture using bioinformatics analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haoyu; Yin, Weitian; Liu, Biao; Liu, Yan; Guo, Baofeng; Wei, Zhuang

    2015-08-01

    Our study aimed to identify candidate genes associated with Dupuytren's contracture (DC) and elucidate their roles in DC development. The microarray data of GSE21221 were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus database, including six samples from carpal tunnel-derived fibroblasts and six samples from DC-derived fibroblasts. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in DC samples were screened using limma package. GO annotation and KEGG pathway analyses were performed by DAVID online tool. Protein-protein interaction network and expression correlation network were constructed to identify crucial relationships between DEGs. Finally, candidate DC-associated genes were predicted based on comparative toxicogenomics database. A total of 529 DEGs (138 up- and 391 down-regulated) in DC-derived fibroblasts were screened and compared with carpal tunnel-derived fibroblasts. Only ten DC-associated genes, such as neurotrophin 3 (NTF3) and protein kinase C, epsilon (PRKCE), were further screened. In addition, NTF3 was significantly enriched in MAPK signaling pathway, in which other DEGs, such as nuclear receptor subfamily 4, group A, member 1 (NR4A1), fibroblast growth factor 22 (FGF22) and BDNF, were enriched. Besides, NTF3 could co-express with fibrillin 2 (FBN2), and PRKCE could co-express with zinc finger protein 516 (ZNF516), solute carrier organic anion transporter family, member 2A1 (SLCO2A1), chromosome 10 open reading frame 10 (C10orf10) and Kelch domain containing 7A (KLHDC7A). Our study indicates that these DEGs, including NTF3, FBN2, NR4A1, FGF22, BDNF, PRKCE, ZNF516, SLCO2A1, C10orf10 and KLHDC7A, may play important roles in DC development and serve as candidate molecular targets for treating DC. PMID:25963801

  20. Global burned-land estimation in Latin America using MODIS composite data.

    PubMed

    Chuvieco, Emilio; Opazo, Sergio; Sione, Walter; Del Valle, Hector; Anaya, Jesús; Di Bella, Carlos; Cruz, Isabel; Manzo, Lilia; López, Gerardo; Mari, Nicolas; González-Alonso, Federico; Morelli, Fabiano; Setzer, Alberto; Csiszar, Ivan; Kanpandegi, Jon Ander; Bastarrika, Aitor; Libonati, Renata

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents results of the AQL2004 project, which has been develope within the GOFC-GOLD Latin American network of remote sensing and forest fires (RedLatif). The project intended to obtain monthly burned-land maps of the entire region, from Mexico to Patagonia, using MODIS (moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer) reflectance data. The project has been organized in three different phases: acquisition and preprocessing of satellite data; discrimination of burned pixels; and validation of results. In the first phase, input data consisting of 32-day composites of MODIS 500-m reflectance data generated by the Global Land Cover Facility (GLCF) of the University of Maryland (College Park, Maryland, U.S.A.) were collected and processed. The discrimination of burned areas was addressed in two steps: searching for "burned core" pixels using postfire spectral indices and multitemporal change detection and mapping of burned scars using contextual techniques. The validation phase was based on visual analysis of Landsat and CBERS (China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite) images. Validation of the burned-land category showed an agreement ranging from 30% to 60%, depending on the ecosystem and vegetation species present. The total burned area for the entire year was estimated to be 153 215 km2. The most affected countries in relation to their territory were Cuba, Colombia, Bolivia, and Venezuela. Burned areas were found in most land covers; herbaceous vegetation (savannas and grasslands) presented the highest proportions of burned area, while perennial forest had the lowest proportions. The importance of croplands in the total burned area should be taken with reserve, since this cover presented the highest commission errors. The importance of generating systematic products of burned land areas for different ecological processes is emphasized. PMID:18372556

  1. Comparison of different laser systems in the treatment of hypertrophic and atrophic scars and keloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharschmidt, D.; Algermissen, Bernd; Willms-Jones, J.-C.; Philipp, Carsten M.; Berlien, Hans-Peter

    1997-12-01

    Different laser systems and techniques are used for the treatment of hypertrophic scars, keloids and acne scars. Significant criteria in selecting a suitable laser system are the scar's vascularization, age and diameter. Flashlamp- pumped dye-lasers, CO2-lasers with scanner, Argon and Nd:YAG-lasers are used. Telangiectatic scars respond well to argon lasers, erythematous scars and keloids to dye-laser treatment. Using interstitial Nd:YAG-laser vaporization, scars with a cross-section over 1 cm can generally be reduced. For the treatment of atrophic and acne scars good cosmetic results are achieved with a CO2-laser/scanner system, which allows a precise ablation of the upper dermis with low risk of side-effects.

  2. Scar endometriosis in a patient with bladder exstrophy.

    PubMed

    Kitajima, Takahito; Inoue, Mikihiro; Uchida, Keiichi; Otake, Kohei; Kusunoki, Masato

    2013-01-01

    Endometriosis is an ectopic occurrence of tissue morphologically and functionally resembling endometrial tissue in regions outside the uterine cavity. Although scar endometriosis after surgery has been shown to be most common among all the extrapelvic forms of endometriosis, endometriosis after bladder exstrophy surgery has not been reported, and here we present the first known case. A 26-year-old woman with a history of bladder exstrophy was aware of a painful induration at the operative scar located in the left lower abdominal wall, and presented at our hospital. Although the symptoms resolved, recurring exacerbation was observed after 9 months. Abdominal magnetic resonance imaging showed a heterogeneous mass 16 mm in diameter in the left abdominal wall with high signal intensity on T1W1 and T2W1 images. She underwent excisional biopsy of the lesion under general anesthesia. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of endometriosis. Eighteen months after surgery, she was well and free from recurrence. PMID:23701150

  3. Skin, fascias, and scars: symptoms and systemic connections

    PubMed Central

    Bordoni, Bruno; Zanier, Emiliano

    2014-01-01

    Every element or cell in the human body produces substances that communicate and respond in an autocrine or paracrine mode, consequently affecting organs and structures that are seemingly far from each other. The same also applies to the skin. In fact, when the integrity of the skin has been altered, or when its healing process is disturbed, it becomes a source of symptoms that are not merely cutaneous. The skin is an organ, and similar to any other structure, it has different functions in addition to connections with the central and peripheral nervous system. This article examines pathological responses produced by scars, analyzing definitions and differences. At the same time, it considers the subcutaneous fascias, as this connective structure is altered when there is a discontinuous cutaneous surface. The consequence is an ample symptomatology, which is not limited to the body area where the scar is located, such as a postural or trigeminal disorder. PMID:24403836

  4. Post-oak fire scars as a function of diameter, growth, and tree age Richard P. Guyette*

    E-print Network

    Stambaugh, Michael C

    measured, tree-ring dated, and characterized 126 fire scars on post-oaks (Quercus stellata) from fire; Oak; Fire scars; Probability; Tree-rings 1. Introduction 1.1. Fire scarring The implementation). Tree-ring dating of fire scars provides temporal infor- mation about the effect of an injury

  5. Utilizing topical therapies and mitomycin to reduce scars.

    PubMed

    Cupp, Craig; Gaball, Curtis Wesley

    2012-10-01

    Minimizing scar size, width, and contour of elevation is a common goal for the facial plastic surgeon. Various standard techniques are employed to reduce tension and enhance the rapid and uneventful healing of incisions. In some cases, these routine measures are not judged to be adequate, and additional intraoperative and postsurgical measures are employed to control the body's innate healing processes. Mitomycin C and self-drying silicone gel have been particularity useful in our practice. PMID:23027218

  6. Evolution of the vertical scar in Lejour's mastoplasty technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Tapia; Agustín Blanch; Josep Salvador; Josep Prat; Immaculada Albert

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a series of 54 consecutive cases of vertical mastoplasty carried out over the period February 1994 to\\u000a April 1995. In 30 cases breast reduction was performed, in 19 pure mastopexy, and in the remaining 5, a mastopexy-breast augmentation\\u000a with a silicon gel prosthesis was carried out. The parameters used for analyzing the persistence of vertical scarring were:

  7. Silicone-Based Scar Therapy: A Review of the Literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Demetris StavrouOren; Oren Weissman; Eyal Winkler; Lior Yankelson; Eran Millet; Oren Paul Mushin; Alon Liran; Joseph Haik

    2010-01-01

    Hypertrophic and keloid scars still are among the banes of plastic surgery. In the treatment arsenal at the disposal of the\\u000a plastic surgeon, topical silicone therapy usually is considered the first line of treatment or as an adjuvant to other treatment\\u000a methods. Yet, knowledge concerning its mechanisms of action, clinical efficacy, and possible adverse effects is rather obscure\\u000a and sometimes

  8. The Complications of Scar Formation Associated With Intrathecal Pump Placement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marina G. Protopapas; Elizabeth Bundock; Susan Westmoreland; Christopher Nero; W. Andrew Graham; Shanker Nesathurai

    2007-01-01

    Protopapas MG, Bundock E, Westmoreland S, Nero C, Graham WA, Nesathurai S. The complications of scar formation associated with intrathecal pump placement.A 40-year-old man had an intrathecal morphine-baclofen pump inserted for the treatment of severe dystonia affecting all limbs and severe low back pain. The etiology of his dystonic symptoms, despite thorough investigations, was uncertain. At age 45, the patient

  9. Changes of Achilles tendon properties via 12-week PNF based robotic rehabilitation of ankle joints with spasticity and/or contracture.

    PubMed

    Zhihao Zhou; Yuan Zhou; Ninghua Wang; Fan Gao; Long Wang; Kunlin Wei; Qining Wang

    2014-08-01

    Ankle joint with spasticity and/or contracture can severely affect mobility and independence of stroke survivors. Due to that, the Achilles tendon(AT) is affected. In this paper, we aim to study changes of AT properties via proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) treatment. A robotic ankle-foot rehabilitation system has been proposed, which consists of a robotic ankle-foot platform and a graphic user interface. In this pilot study, two post-stroke patients participated and carried out a 12-week PNF treatment with the robotic system. The treatment is evaluated quantitatively in AT properties. The evaluation shows that after the PNF treatment, the average decrease of AT length is 4.1 mm (6.5%) and the recovery ratio is 30.4%, while the thickness has no change. The results indicate that the PNF based robotic rehabilitation for ankle joints with spasticity and/or contracture is effective to improve the ankle spasticity/contracture. PMID:25570183

  10. Are there any good treatments for keloid scarring after sternotomy?

    PubMed

    Pai, Vasudev B; Cummings, Ian

    2011-10-01

    A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was: in patients with hypertrophic and keloid scarring of the sternotomy wound, is surgical excision with or without adjuvant treatment of any benefit in reducing the size of the scar? Altogether, more than 15 papers were found using the reported search, of which nine represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. One of the studies showed no difference between surgery and adjunctive triamcinolone or colchicine. One study showed that incomplete excision resulted in higher recurrence rates. Postoperative radiation was found to be useful in two of the studies, although one study showed that it was not useful. One randomized control trial showed improvement after laser compared to no treatment. Two other trials showed no difference between laser, silicone gel, intralesional steroid or 5-fluorouracil. One trial showed that perioperative systemic steroid application gave rise to no improvement but in fact worsened scar formation. We conclude that small keloids can be treated radically by surgery with adjuvant therapy (radiation or corticosteroid injections) or by non-surgical therapy (corticosteroid injections, laser and anti-tumour/immunosuppressive agents, such as 5-fluorouracil). Large and multiple keloids are difficult to treat radically and are currently only treatable by multimodal therapies that aim to relieve symptoms. PMID:21737540

  11. The effects of topically applied silicone gel and its silver derivative on the prevention of hypertrophic scarring in two rabbit ear scarring models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shengxian Jia; Yanan Zhao; Thomas A. Mustoe

    Topically applied silicone gel is an effective treatment in the management of hypertrophic scars. This early study of silicone gel predates other well-controlled scientific studies that demonstrate these findings. Our well-established rabbit ear scarring model creates 7 mm punch wounds down to the bare cartilage, including the removal of the perichondrium. In this study, we employ a new model that

  12. Texture analysis of collagen second-harmonic generation images based on local difference local binary pattern and wavelets differentiates human skin abnormal scars from normal scars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yao; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Huang, Zufang; Cai, Jianyong; Chen, Rong; Xiong, Shuyuan; Chen, Guannan; Zeng, Haishan

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative methods for noninvasive diagnosis of scars are a challenging issue in medicine. This work aims to implement a texture analysis method for quantitatively discriminating abnormal scars from normal scars based on second-harmonic generation (SHG) images. A local difference local binary pattern (LD-LBP) operator combined with a wavelet transform was explored to extract diagnosis features from scar SHG images that were related to the alteration in collagen morphology. Based on the quantitative parameters including the homogeneity, directional and coarse features in SHG images, the scar collagen SHG images were classified into normal or abnormal scars by a support vector machine classifier in a leave-one-out cross-validation procedure. Our experiments and data analyses demonstrated apparent differences between normal and abnormal scars in terms of their morphological structure of collagen. By comparing with gray level co-occurrence matrix, wavelet transform, and combined basic local binary pattern and wavelet transform with respect to the accuracy and receiver operating characteristic analysis, the method proposed herein was demonstrated to achieve higher accuracy and more reliable classification of SHG images. This result indicated that the extracted texture features with the proposed method were effective in the classification of scars. It could provide assistance for physicians in the diagnostic process.

  13. Burning and detonation

    SciTech Connect

    Forest, C.A.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of confined burning explosive abutting nonburning explosive in a variety of one-dimensional geometries has been studied by numerical simulation, demonstrating the effects of confinement, burning rate, and shock sensitivity. The model includes porous bed burning, compressible solids and gases, shock-induced decomposition with possible transition to detonation, and constant velocity ignition waves. Two-phase flow, gas relative to solid, is not allowed. Because the shock sensitivity of an explosive changes with explosive density and because such experimental data is rarely available over a range of densities, a method for the calculation of the density effect on the initial-shock-pressure, distance-to-detonation (wedge test) measure of shock sensitivity is given. The calculation uses the invariance with density of the shock particle velocity as a function of time to detonation, and the experimental data at some high density.

  14. 'Special effects' burn injuries.

    PubMed

    Peters, W

    1991-02-01

    Three patients are presented with significant flame burns, resulting from accidents occurring during 'special effects' situations in the entertainment industry. These occurred as a result of the spontaneous combustion of various materials, during events in live theatre (gun powder), a television commercial (artificial 'rocket fuel'), and a video presentation (magnesium oxide). All three patients sustained flash burns to the face and hands. One patient sustained a significant bilateral corneal injury, a gamekeeper's thumb, and a permanent continuous right-sided high frequency tinnitus, in addition to his burn injury. Photographic documentation of all three patients is presented. The total loss of time from work for all patients was 6 months. All these injuries were potentially preventable. PMID:2031675

  15. Burning trees and bridges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Joel S.

    1990-01-01

    Most burning of biomass is the result of human activity, and on a global scale it is increasing. Tropospheric concentrations of CO2, CO, CH4, non-methane hydrocarbons, and ozone are all increasing with time; global biomass burning may make an important contribution to this increase and thus to potential global climate change. The nitrogen cycle also can have important climatic effects. Nitrous oxide put into the atmosphere by biomass burning is a greenhouse gas 250 times more powerful (molecule for molecule) than carbon dioxide. Nitric oxide, as well as being a photochemical precursor of ozone, a major pollutant in the troposphere, produces nitric acid, the fastest-growing component of acid rain. Hence, the new bridge in the nitrogen cycle is of more than mere technical interest.

  16. Science at Burning Man

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Recently, the Exploratorium Museum in San Francisco sent a dedicated crew to check out the activities at the Burning Man festival in Nevada. The results of their journey and explorations can be seen here, and interested parties can learn about pyrotechnics, flight, dust devils, and rainbows. The site contains several dozen short films that feature Exploratorium scientists like Paul Doherty investigating the properties of alkali and a rare double rainbow sighting. One of the most impressive videos is a bird's eye view from an 88-NV plane over the Burning Man site. Finally, visitors are also encouraged to share these resources with others via social media sites, including Twitter and Facebook.

  17. Burning Down the House

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Glenn Dolphin

    In this demonstration, the teacher will use a potato and hydrogen peroxide to generate oxygen in a closed environment. Students can then observe its effects on a burning wooden splint and on burning steel wool. They will understand that a large amount of energy can be released by the process of oxidation. As an extension, the teacher can discuss how the appearance of oxygen (produced by cyanobacteria) in Earth's early atmosphere initially resulted in the formation of large deposits of iron oxide (Banded Iron Formations) and then aided in the evolution of more complex life forms.

  18. Molten metal ocular burn: long-term outcome using simple limbal epithelial transplantation.

    PubMed

    Das, Shilpa; Basu, Sayan; Sangwan, Virender

    2015-01-01

    One day after molten aluminium had fallen into his right eye, a young man presented to our clinic with a vision of counting fingers at 1?m, conjunctival and corneal epithelial defects, and limbal involvement. He was diagnosed with grade 4 thermal burn and managed medically. Subsequently, the inflammation resolved, however, he developed pannus with conjunctivalisation and scarring of cornea suggestive of partial unilateral limbal stem cell deficiency. He was treated surgically with autologous simple limbal epithelial transplantation (SLET). Postoperatively, his vision improved along with corneal clarity. He achieved a best corrected vision of 20/50 at the last follow-up 27?months postsurgery, with maintenance of a healthy corneal epithelium. This case describes the different management strategies employed in two different stages of an ocular burn. It highlights the long-term success of SLET in a case of ocular surface thermal burn. PMID:26150624

  19. Delineation of the 3p14.1p13 microdeletion associated with syndromic distal limb contractures.

    PubMed

    Thevenon, Julien; Monnier, Nicole; Callier, Patrick; Dieterich, Klaus; Francoise, Michel; Montgomery, Tara; Kjaergaard, Susanne; Neas, Katherine; Dixon, Joanne; Dahm, Thomas Lee; Huet, Frédéric; Ragon, Clémence; Mosca-Boidron, Anne-Laure; Marle, Nathalie; Duplomb, Laurence; Aubriot-Lorton, Marie-Hélène; Mugneret, Francine; Vokes, Steve A; Tucker, Haley W; Lunardi, Joël; Faivre, Laurence; Jouk, Pierre Simon; Thauvin-Robinet, Christel

    2014-12-01

    Distal limb contractures (DLC) represent a heterogeneous clinical and genetic condition. Overall, 20-25% of the DLC are caused by mutations in genes encoding the muscle contractile apparatus. Large interstitial deletions of the 3p have already been diagnosed by standard chromosomal analysis, but not associated with a specific phenotype. We report on four patients with syndromic DLC presenting with a de novo 3p14.1p13 microdeletion. The clinical features associated multiple contractures, feeding problems, developmental delay, and intellectual disability. Facial dysmorphism was constant with low-set posteriorly rotated ears and blepharophimosis. Review of previously reported cases with a precise mapping of the deletions, documented a 250?kb smallest region of overlap (SRO) necessary for DLC. This region contained one gene, EIF4E3, the first three exons of the FOXP1 gene, and an intronic enhancer of FOXP1 named hs1149. Sanger sequencing and locus quantification of hs1149, EIF4E3, and FOXP1 in a cohort of 11 French patients affected by DLC appeared normal. In conclusion, we delineate a new microdeletion syndrome involving the 3p14.1p13 locus and associated with DLC and severe developmental delay. PMID:25258245

  20. TIRES, OPEN BURNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chapter describes available information on the health effects from open burning of rubber tires. It concentrates on the three known sources of detailed measurements: (1) a small-scale emissions characterization study performed by the U.S. EPA in a facility designed to simulat...

  1. Burning Your Own CDs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekhaml, Leticia

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the use of CDs (Compact Disks) for backing up data as an alternative to using floppy disks and explains how to burn, or record, a CD. Topics include differences between CD-R (CD-Recordable) and CD-RW (CD-Rewritable); advantages of CD-R and CD-RW; selecting a CD burner; technology trends; and care of CDs. (LRW)

  2. Correlating Aluminum Burning Times

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. W. Beckstead

    2005-01-01

    Characteristics of aluminum combustion are summarized in an overview of the subject, focusing on the burning time of individual particles. Combustion data from over ten different sources with almost 400 datum points have been cataloged and correlated. Available models have also been used to evaluate combustion trends with key environmental parameters. The fundamental concepts that control aluminum combustion are discussed,

  3. Gas Hydrates Burning

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    An image of gas hydrates burning. Gas hydrates are naturally-occurring “ice-like” combinations of natural gas and water that have the potential to provide an immense resource of natural gas from the world’s oceans and polar regions....

  4. Burn a Peanut

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-26

    In this activity, learners burn a peanut, which produces a flame that can be used to boil away water and count the calories contained in the peanut. Learners use a formula to calculate the calories in a peanut and then differentiate between food calories and physicist calories as well as calories and joules.

  5. Reconstruction of Acquired Breast Hypoplasia by Subcutaneous Scar Releasing and Repeated Fat Grafting Combination

    PubMed Central

    Temiz, Gökhan; Dulgar, Ahmet Gökhan; Gencel, Eyüphan; Yavuz, Metin

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Breast hypoplasia may have a congenital or acquired etiology. One of the acquired reasons is postinfectious scars, which results in skin restriction and breast hypoplasia in the long term. Reconstruction of breast hypoplasia is performed by autologous tissues, implants, or both. In this report we present a hypoplastic breast reconstruction by subcutaneous scar releasing and multiple autologous fat grafting in a 21-year-old female with a right breast hypoplasia due to postinfectious scar. No complications were observed at 24 months follow-up after treatment by subcutaneous scar releasing and repeated (three times) fat grafting. Safe and natural reconstruction of mild breast hypoplasia due to fibrotic scars can be accomplished by performing a combination of subcutaneous scar releasing and multiple fat grafting. PMID:26180709

  6. [Changes in the structure of postburn keloid scars before and after cryotherapy].

    PubMed

    Sizov, V M; Pechenova, T N; Volodina, T G; Nosal', N A; Shimanovskaia, A K; Povstiano?, N E

    1990-09-01

    Biochemical and electron microscopy study of the collagen molecule from 14 biopsy specimens of the postburn scar (in 9 patients before and in 5 after cryoeffects) revealed that the postburn scar contains I, II, III and VIII collagen types changed according to the amino acid composition. It was found that after cryogenic effects on the scar there was a tendency to normalization of the collagen structure. PMID:2284788

  7. A Translational Animal Model for Scar Compression Therapy Using an Automated Pressure Delivery System

    PubMed Central

    Alkhalil, A.; Tejiram, S.; Travis, T. E.; Prindeze, N. J.; Carney, B. C.; Moffatt, L. T.; Johnson, L. S.; Ramella-Roman, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pressure therapy has been used to prevent and treat hypertrophic scars following cutaneous injury despite the limited understanding of its mechanism of action and lack of established animal model to optimize its usage. Objectives: The aim of this work was to test and characterize a novel automated pressure delivery system designed to deliver steady and controllable pressure in a red Duroc swine hypertrophic scar model. Methods: Excisional wounds were created by dermatome on 6 red Duroc pigs and allowed to scar while assessed weekly via gross visual inspection, laser Doppler imaging, and biopsy. A portable novel automated pressure delivery system was mounted on developing scars (n = 6) for 2 weeks. Results: The device maintained a pressure range of 30 ± 4 mm Hg for more than 90% of the 2-week treatment period. Pressure readings outside this designated range were attributed to normal animal behavior and responses to healing progression. Gross scar examination by the Vancouver Scar Scale showed significant and sustained (>4 weeks) improvement in pressure-treated scars (P < .05). Histological examination of pressure-treated scars showed a significant decrease in dermal thickness compared with other groups (P < .05). Pressure-treated scars also showed increased perfusion by laser Doppler imaging during the treatment period compared with sham-treated and untreated scars (P < .05). Cellular quantification showed differential changes among treatment groups. Conclusion: These results illustrate the applications of this technology in hypertrophic scar Duroc swine model and the evaluation and optimization of pressure therapy in wound-healing and hypertrophic scar management.

  8. Nd:YAG Laser Treatment for Keloids and Hypertrophic Scars: An Analysis of 102 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Koike, Sachiko; Akaishi, Satoshi; Nagashima, Yuki; Dohi, Teruyuki; Hyakusoku, Hiko

    2014-01-01

    Background: The present retrospective cohort study was performed to determine the efficacy of contact-mode 1064 nm neodymium-yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser laser for keloids and hypertrophic scars. The indication and limitations of this modality are discussed. Methods: The cohort consisted of 102 consecutive Japanese patients (23 males and 79 females) with keloids and hypertrophic scars for more than 1 year. They were treated every 3–4 weeks for 1 year with a long-pulsed 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser (Cutera, Brisbane, Calif.) in contact mode. Thirty-eight patients had hypertrophic scars and 64 had keloids. The scars were evaluated before the treatment commenced and 1 month after the last session by using the Japan Scar Workshop Scar Scale 2011. Recurrence was assessed at 6 months after the termination of treatment. Results: The average total Japan Scar Workshop score of the keloid and hypertrophic scar region groups dropped significantly after 1 year of treatment compared with before treatment (all P < 0.05). None of the hypertrophic scars or keloids deteriorated. However, 3 of the 34 anterior chest keloids (8.8%) did not respond. The following recurrence rates were observed 6 months after stopping laser treatment: 1 of the abdomen hypertrophic scars (4%), 18 of the anterior chest keloids (52.9%), 5 of the upper arm keloids (35.7%), and 4 of the scapula keloids (25%). Conclusions: Hypertrophic scars responded significantly better to 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser treatment than keloids. However, keloid recurrence occurred when there was remaining redness and induration, even if only a small part of the scar was affected. PMID:25587506

  9. The overall patterns of burns

    PubMed Central

    Almoghrabi, A.; Abu Shaban, N.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Burn patterns differ across the whole world and not only in relation to lack of education, overcrowding, and poverty. Cultures, habits, traditions, psychiatric illness, and epilepsy are strongly correlated to burn patterns. However, burns may also occur because of specific religious beliefs and activities, social events and festivals, traditional medical practices, occupational activities, and war. PMID:22639565

  10. 7, 1733917366, 2007 Biomass burning

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 7, 17339­17366, 2007 Biomass burning plumes during the AMMA wet season experiment C. H. Mari a Creative Commons License. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Tracing biomass burning plumes from. Mari (marc@aero.obs-mip.fr) 17339 #12;ACPD 7, 17339­17366, 2007 Biomass burning plumes during the AMMA

  11. 5, 27912831, 2005 Biomass burning

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    measurements of trace gas and aerosol particle emissions from biomass burning in Amazonia P. Guyon1 , G. Frank1ACPD 5, 2791­2831, 2005 Biomass burning emissions P. Guyon et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction. 2791 #12;ACPD 5, 2791­2831, 2005 Biomass burning emissions P. Guyon et al. Title Page Abstract

  12. BURN DATA COORDINATING CENTER (BDCC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Burn Data Coordinating Center (BDCC) began collecting data in 1994 and is currently the largest burn database in the country. Pediatric burn data was added in 1998. The BMS database contains over 2,800 cases supporting clinical research and research on outcomes including empl...

  13. Scar-mediated inhibition and CSPG receptors in the CNS.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Kartavya; Selzer, Michael E; Li, Shuxin

    2012-10-01

    Severed axons in adult mammals do not regenerate appreciably after central nervous system (CNS) injury due to developmentally determined reductions in neuron-intrinsic growth capacity and extracellular environment for axon elongation. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), which are generated by reactive scar tissues, are particularly potent contributors to the growth-limiting environment in mature CNS. Thus, surmounting the strong inhibition by CSPG-rich scar is an important therapeutic goal for achieving functional recovery after CNS injuries. As of now, the main in vivo approach to overcoming inhibition by CSPGs is enzymatic digestion with locally applied chondroitinase ABC (ChABC), but several disadvantages may prevent using this bacterial enzyme as a therapeutic option for patients. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying CSPG action is needed in order to develop more effective therapies to overcome CSPG-mediated inhibition of axon regeneration and/or sprouting. Because of their large size and dense negative charges, CSPGs were thought to act by non-specifically hindering the binding of matrix molecules to their cell surface receptors through steric interactions. Although this may be true, recent studies indicate that two members of the leukocyte common antigen related (LAR) phosphatase subfamily, protein tyrosine phosphatase ? (PTP?) and LAR, are functional receptors that bind CSPGs with high affinity and mediate CSPG inhibitory effects. CSPGs also may act by binding to two receptors for myelin-associated growth inhibitors, Nogo receptors 1 and 3 (NgR1 and NgR3). If confirmed, it would suggest that CSPGs have multiple mechanisms by which they inhibit axon growth, making them especially potent and difficult therapeutic targets. Identification of CSPG receptors is not only important for understanding the scar-mediated growth suppression, but also for developing novel and selective therapies to promote axon sprouting and/or regeneration after CNS injuries, including spinal cord injury (SCI). PMID:22836147

  14. Is proportion burned severely related to daily area burned?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birch, Donovan S.; Morgan, Penelope; Kolden, Crystal A.; Hudak, Andrew T.; Smith, Alistair M. S.

    2014-05-01

    The ecological effects of forest fires burning with high severity are long-lived and have the greatest impact on vegetation successional trajectories, as compared to low-to-moderate severity fires. The primary drivers of high severity fire are unclear, but it has been hypothesized that wind-driven, large fire-growth days play a significant role, particularly on large fires in forested ecosystems. Here, we examined the relative proportion of classified burn severity for individual daily areas burned that occurred during 42 large forest fires in central Idaho and western Montana from 2005 to 2007 and 2011. Using infrared perimeter data for wildfires with five or more consecutive days of mapped perimeters, we delineated 2697 individual daily areas burned from which we calculated the proportions of each of three burn severity classes (high, moderate, and low) using the differenced normalized burn ratio as mapped for large fires by the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity project. We found that the proportion of high burn severity was weakly correlated (Kendall ? = 0.299) with size of daily area burned (DAB). Burn severity was highly variable, even for the largest (95th percentile) in DAB, suggesting that other variables than fire extent influence the ecological effects of fires. We suggest that these results do not support the prioritization of large runs during fire rehabilitation efforts, since the underlying assumption in this prioritization is a positive relationship between severity and area burned in a day.

  15. Homeostasis of the epidermal barrier layer: a theory of how occlusion reduces hypertrophic scarring.

    PubMed

    O'Shaughnessy, Kristina D; De La Garza, Mauricio; Roy, Nakshatra K; Mustoe, Thomas A

    2009-01-01

    The mechanism of hypertrophic scar reduction using silicone gel sheeting remains elusive. We hypothesize that the decrease in scar formation is due to occlusion and homeostasis of the barrier layer. Using an established model of hypertrophic scarring, rabbits were divided into four groups and scars were tape-stripped or occluded with Kelocote, Cavilon, or Indermil, with each rabbit serving as its own internal control. All wounds were harvested on day 28 and examined histologically to measure the scar elevation index (SEI), epithelial thickness, and cellularity. Immunohistochemistry fluorescence was used to quantify inflammation in the dermis. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was measured for each occlusive agent and tape stripping. Ultrastructural analysis was performed by electron microscopy. Kelocote, Cavilon, and Indermil all significantly decreased SEI when compared with controls. Each of the occlusive treatments was shown to decrease TEWL while tape stripping increased TEWL. Tape stripping significantly increased the SEI, epithelial thickness, and cellularity. Immunostaining for macrophages showed increased density of inflammatory cells in the tape-stripped scars. Under electron microscopy, the tape-stripped wounds displayed extensive inflammation and keratinocyte damage. Both unwounded skin and occlusion-treated scars did not display these characteristics. In conclusion, hypertrophic scarring was reduced regardless of occlusive method used. Furthermore, repeated disruption of the permeability barrier by tape stripping led to an increase in scarring. Ultrastructural analysis suggests that occluded wounds may be in an advanced state of wound repair. Occlusion may mediate its effects through establishing homeostasis of the epidermal barrier layer. PMID:19769722

  16. Comparative efficacy of intralesional verapamil hydrochloride and triamcinolone acetonide in hypertrophic scars and keloids.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Rajeev B; Chatterjee, Pallab

    2014-06-01

    There is not much level 1 evidence based literature to guide management of hypertrophic scars and keloids despite an array of therapeutic modalities at disposal. Intralesional (i/l) triamcinolone injections have remained a gold standard in non surgical management. Sporadic reports on use of i/l verapamil suggest its efficacy. Since verapamil has not found sufficient mention as an effective alternative modality, it was decided to undertake a randomized study which could also address some additional clinical parameters. A randomized, parallel group and observer blinded comparison with 40 patients (48 scars) was carried out to compare the effects of i/l triamcinolone (T) (22 scars) and verapamil injections (V) (26 scars). 1.5 ml was the maximum indicative volume decided in the study protocol for both the drugs (triamcinolone @40 mg/ml and verapamil @ 2.5 mg/ml). Patients included were aged between 15-60 years with scars ranging between 0.5-5 cm (but total area roughly <6 cm(2)), and scars under 2 years duration. Patients with keloidal diathesis were excluded. Injections were scheduled every three weeks until complete flattening of the scar or eight sessions, which ever came earlier. No concomitant therapies like massage, silicone gel or pressure garments were used. Scar evaluation at each stage was done by serial photographic records as well as by Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS). Comparative survival analysis between the two drugs was done using Kaplan Meier curves, and VSS scores were analyzed using Wilcoxon test and log rank test. Mean zero VSS scores were achieved with treatments in respect of scar height (T-12 weeks, V-21 weeks), vascularity (T-15 weeks, V-18 weeks) and pliability (T-15 weeks, V-21 weeks). The improvement in scar vascularity and pliability kept pace with decrease in scar height, in both the groups. There was not much difference in the rate of change of scar pigmentation with either drug but almost 60% patients in both the groups regained normal pigmentation. Our study adds to evidence of verapamil's capability in flattening the raised scars. With an extremely low cost and fewer adverse effects it deserves better positioning in the wide armamentarium against hypertrophic scars. It also offers several therapeutic possibilities to alternate with triamcinolone or be used simultaneously in larger (or multiple) scars. PMID:24182692

  17. Autologus bone marrow stem cells in atrophic acne scars: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Zeinab A; Eltatawy, Rania A; Ghaly, Nahla R; Abd El-Naby, Naeim M; Abou El Fetouh, Heba M; Abd Elateef, Amal E; Abdou, Said; Tahaa, Ateef; El Afandy, Mohamed

    2014-08-26

    Abstract Background: Acne scar is a very distressing and difficult problem for physicians and patients. Management of cutaneous scarring from acne can be challenging and confusing. The available modalities may be effective, having considerable morbidity and long downtime. Besides, they may not have the same efficacy in different skin types or acne scar types. Objective: To evaluate the short-term safety and efficacy of autologous bone marrow (BM) stem cells (SCs) in treating atrophic acne scars. Methods: Fourteen patients with moderate to severe atrophic acne scars were included. All patients were subjected to single session of autologous BMSCs therapy. Each patient received 5??g/kg/day granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) as a single subcutaneous dose for 2 successive days before BM aspiration. The SC-containing solution was injected under each scar intradermally. The scars of the patients were clinically assessed both qualitatively and quantitatively before and after 6 months. The patients were given a preformed questionnaire Cardiff acne disability index (CADI) before and after treatment. Results: After 6 months of the injection, there was significant improvement in the qualitative grading, quantitative grading and CADI scores. All types of scars showed significant improvement. No significant adverse effects were reported in any patient. Conclusion: Autologous BMSCs seem to be a safe and effective treatment option for the management of all types of atrophic facial acne scars. PMID:25041112

  18. Influence of inadequate prehospital and primary hospital treatment on the maturation of scars after thermal injuries.

    PubMed

    Hamanová, H; Broz, L

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the work was to verify or rule out the hypothesis on the negative effect of incorrect prehospital and primary hospital care on the maturation of scars after thermal injuries with a depth of II.b or more. In a medium-term study the authors investigated the maturation of scars in children aged 3 months to 12 years with different quality of treatment during lay first aid, during prehospital and primary hospital care. They focused attention in particular on the formation of hypertrophic scars and possibly other complications during the functional and aesthetic stabilisation of the scar. PMID:12797687

  19. Cesarean scar pregnancy: a rare cause of uterine arteriovenous malformation.

    PubMed

    Akbayir, Ozgur; Gedikbasi, Ali; Akyol, Alpaslan; Ucar, Adem; Saygi-Ozyurt, Sezin; Gulkilik, Ahmet

    2011-01-01

    A 38-year-old gravida 4, para 2 woman with a history of two Cesarean sections and one curettage was referred to our hospital, because of painless vaginal bleeding and 6 weeks + 2 days of amenorrhea. The first diagnosis was Cesarean scar pregnancy, managed with methotrexate. Subsequently, an arteriovenous malformation developed, which was diagnosed with color Doppler imaging. The diagnosis was confirmed with angiography. Successful bilateral uterine artery embolization was performed with ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (Onyx), n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (Histoacryl), and gelfoam. PMID:21647920

  20. Multiple congenital contractures (MCC) and cleft palate induced in goats by ingestion of piperidine alkaloid-containing plants: reduction in fetal movement as the probable cause.

    PubMed

    Panter, K E; Bunch, T D; Keeler, R F; Sisson, D V; Callan, R J

    1990-01-01

    Fetal movement, observed by ultrasound imaging, was significantly reduced (P less than or equal to 0.001) in pregnant goats gavaged with Conium seed and Nicotiana glauca and temporarily reduced with fresh Conium plant. Conium seed and Nicotiana glauca induced cleft palate and multiple congenital contractures in 100% of the kids born to pregnant goats gavaged with these plants. Multiple congenital contractures included torticollis, scoliosis, lordosis, arthrogryposis, rib cage anomalies, over extension, and flexure and rigidity of the joints. However, in goats gavaged with fresh Conium plant, fetal movement was inhibited for only about 5 hours after each individual dosage and gradually returned to control levels 12 hours after dosing. Fetal malformations in this group were limited from modest to moderate contractures of the front limbs, which resolved by 8-10 weeks post partum. No cleft palates were induced. Fetal movement was not inhibited in goats fed Lupinus caudatus and no cleft palates or multiple congenital contractures were induced in their offspring. The duration of the reduction in fetal movement appears to be an important factor in the severity and permanence of the deformities, particularly with cleft palate, spinal column defects, and severe joint deviation and fixation. PMID:2381024

  1. Five-year experience with burns from glass fireplace doors in the pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Baryza, Mary Jo; Hinson, Michelle; Conway, Jennifer; Ryan, Colleen M

    2013-01-01

    Burns from contact with glass doors of gas fireplaces have been previously reported. The purpose of this study is to examine the incidence and severity of this injury in our population. Patients were identified for inclusion in the retrospective chart review study using the National Trauma Registry of the American College of Surgeons (NTRACS) and our local outpatient database. Criteria for inclusion were burn injuries sustained from contact with fireplace glass doors treated at our pediatric burn center from 2007 through 2011. Fifty children met these criteria, including two children whose burns were caused by electric fireplace glass doors. BSA burned was 1.5 ± 1.5% (mean ± SD), range 0.5 to 10%. Age was 27.2 ± 27.3 months, range 8 months to 13 years. Forty-five children (90%) had hand burns; of these, 18 children had bilateral hand involvement. Facial burns were found in three children (6%), and eight children (16%) had other areas burned. One patient developed cellulitis. Two patients required surgery. Six children (12%) required hospitalization; mean length of stay was 5.8 ± 5 days, range 1 to 5 days. Although the number of inpatient admissions was relatively few, 329 outpatient visits and 309 rehabilitation visits were required for treatment of these children. Nineteen patients (38%) required splints and six patients (12%) required scar treatment with pressure garments. Burns from contact with fireplace glass doors are a recurring problem. Toddlers are most at risk. Directed preventive strategies including parent education, safety warnings, and design modifications such as temperature sensors and barrier screens could be potentially helpful in reducing the incidence of this injury. PMID:24043229

  2. Near-infrared hyperspectral imaging: the road traveled to a clinical burn application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levasseur, Michelle; Leonardi, Lorenzo; Payette, Jeri; Kohlenberg, Elicia; Sowa, Michael; Fish, Joel S.; Cross, Karen; Gomez, Manuel

    2005-09-01

    The process of taking a concept to a clinical device begins with the idea for a technological solution to an unmet clinical challenge. Burns are one of the most destructive insults to the skin causing damage, scarring, and in some cases death. The approach most commonly used to evaluate burns is based on the appearance of the wound. This technique is somewhat subjective and unreliable, relying on clinical experience to assess the burn. Instrument based diagnostic techniques as an adjunct to current practices has the potential to enhance the quality and timeliness of decisions concerning wound assessment and treatment. Near Infrared Spectroscopy is a promising technique that can track changes within the tissue, and can therefore provide insight as to how deep the burn actually penetrates before visual signs become apparent. Preliminary bench and animal studies were used to prove the concept of a near infrared based method of burn assessment. This study demonstrated the ability of near infrared imaging to detect and monitor the hemodynamics of burn injuries in the early post-burn period. Based on this study, a pre-prototype near infrared spectroscopic system was built with the goal of developing a reliable yet simple system that could be used in a clinical setting. A pilot clinical study was designed and implemented at the Ross Tilley Burn Center (Toronto, Canada) in order to assess the feasibility of our strategy in the clinical realm. The goal of this preliminary clinical study was to determine if the pre-prototype could be integrated into the strict regiment of an active burn centre. Both the instrument performance in a clinical setting and the injury assessment based on the analysis of near infrared reflectance measurements were a success.

  3. The Efficacy of Topical Silicone Gel Elastomers in the Treatment of Hypertrophic Scars, Keloid Scars, and Post–Laser Exfoliation Erythema

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Gregory Chernoff; Harvey Cramer; Stephanie Su-Huang

    2007-01-01

    Background  Dermatix is a Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-registered substantial equivalent to silicone gel sheeting for the prevention\\u000a and management of hypertrophic scars and keloids.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A 90-day prospective study evaluated the efficacy of Dermatix, silicone gel sheeting, and a combination of these treatments\\u000a in improving scars for 30 patients. Each patient had a bilateral scar that served as an untreated control.

  4. Burning Magnesium (GCMP)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Burning Magnesium: this is a resource in the collection "General Chemistry Multimedia Problems". In this problem we will look at the reactions of two elements with oxygen in air. We will begin by observing the reaction of magnesium metal with oxygen when the metal is heated in air. General Chemistry Multimedia Problems ask students questions about experiments they see presented using videos and images. The questions asked apply concepts from different parts of an introductory course, encouraging students to decompartmentalize the material.

  5. Reconstruction of facial burn sequelae utilizing tissue expanders with embodiment injection site: case report.

    PubMed

    Foustanos, A; Zavrides, H

    2006-01-01

    Although highly specialized burn centers have significantly reduced mortality rates following extensive total body surface area burns, survivors are often left with grotesque facial disfigurement. Hypertrophic scars and tissue defects are the most common cause of functional and aesthetic problems in the head and neck region. Plastic surgeons use full-thickness or split-thickness skin grafts, pedicled flaps, free flaps, transplantation of bone or cartilage and tissue expansion. The authors present a case of a patient who suffered from third-degree flame burns to the face. Prior skin grafting procedures left him with severe scar deformity of the face. The patient was treated utilizing multiple tissue expansion. Facial animation has retained and facial integrity has been aesthetically restored and, with the use of make-up, it is near normal in social settings at conversational distances. The tissue expansion technique is advantageous in facial reconstruction because it makes it possible to resurface even wider defects with neighboring skin, similar in colour and texture, and superior to skin obtained elsewhere. PMID:17165599

  6. Hem-O-Lok clip: a neglected cause of severe bladder neck contracture and consequent urinary incontinence after robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hem-o-lok clips are widely used during robot-assisted and laparoscopic radical prostatectomy to control the lateral pedicles. There are a few reports of hem-o-lok clip migration into the bladder or vesico-urethral anastomosis and only four cases of hem-o-lok clip migration resulting into bladder neck contracture. Herein, we describe the first case, to our knowledge, of hem-o-lok clip migration leading to severe bladder neck contracture and subsequent stress urinary incontinence. Case presentation A 62-year-old Caucasian man underwent robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy for a T1c Gleason 8 prostate cancer. One month after surgery the patient was fully continent; however, three months later, he presented with acute urinary retention requiring suprapubic drainage. Urethroscopy showed a hem-o-lok clip strongly attached to the area between the vesico-urethral anastomosis and the urethral sphincter and a severe bladder neck contracture behind it. Following cold-knife urethral incision and clip removal, the bladder neck contracture was widely resected. At 3-month follow-up, the patient voided spontaneously with a peak flow rate of 9.5 ml/sec and absence of post-void residual urine, but leaked 240 ml urine at the 24-hour pad test. To date, at 1-year follow-up, his voiding situation remains unchanged. Conclusions The present report provides further evidence for the risk of hem-o-lok clip migration causing bladder neck contracture, and is the first to demonstrate the potential of such complication to result into stress urinary incontinence. PMID:24555468

  7. Familial occurrence of typical and severe lethal congenital contractural arachnodactyly caused by missplicing of exon 34 of fibrillin-2

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Mei; Godfrey, M. [Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States); Clericuzio, C.L. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Genetic linkage studies have linked congenital contractual arachnodactyly (CCA), a usually mild heritable connective-tissue disorder, to FBN2, the fibrillin gene on chromosome 5. Recently, FBN2 mutations in two patients with CCA have been described. Here we report an A{r_arrow}T transversion at the -2 position of the consensus acceptor splice site, resulting in the missplicing of exon 34, a calcium-binding epidermal growth factor-like repeat in fibrillin-2 in a mother and daughter with CCA. Significantly, the mother exhibited a classic CCA phenotype with arachnodactyly, joint contractures, and abnormal pinnae, whereas her daughter exhibited a markedly more severe CCA phenotype, which included cardiovascular and gastrointestinal anomalies that led to death in infancy. Analysis of cloned fibroblasts showed that the mother is a somatic mosaic for the exon 34 missplicing mutation, whereas all the daughter`s cells harbored the mutation. 48 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Silicone deposition in reconstruction scars of women with silicone breast implants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dominic S. Raso; William B. Greene; Russell A. Harley; John C. Maize

    1996-01-01

    Background: The possible association of silicone breast implants and disease is a subject of continuous debate and concern.Objective: Our purpose was to examine microscopically and ultrastructurally the periprosthetic fibrous capsules and reconstruction scars of women with silicone breast implants.Methods: Representative samples from the periprosthetic capsules and reconstruction scars from six women with silicone breast implants were examined by a variety

  9. [Status of the proteinase-protease inhibitor system in patients with pathological scars].

    PubMed

    Lositskaia, V M; Sizov, V M

    1991-01-01

    In patients with pathological scars, especially in children, the activity of proteolytic enzymes (prekallikrein, acid and neutral proteinases) is increased. Summary inhibitory activity and content of the alpha 2-macroglobulin in the serum and scar tissue is also increased. This is indicative of continued inflammation. PMID:1712412

  10. An investigation of fire scars in Pseudotsuga macrocarpa by Scanning X-Ray Fluorescence Microscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charlotte L. Pearson; Darren Dale; Keith Lombardo

    2011-01-01

    Fire scars in dated sequences of tree-rings are regularly used for the reconstruction of histories of forest fire frequency and investigations of various exogenous factors (climate in particular) which may control such events. The potential of the tree-ring archive in this regard is such that in circumstances where no scarring occurs following a particular fire, or where sampling is limited

  11. Quantified characterization of dermal collagen structure in human cutaneous scars from second harmonic generation imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoqin Zhu; Youting Chen; Shuangmu Zhuo; Biying Yu; Liqin Zheng; Kecheng Lu; Jianxin Chen

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, high resolution images of collagens based on second harmonic generation (SHG) were obtained in the dermis of different scar tissues and surrounding considered uninjured skins, demonstrating differences in their microstructures. In order to quantitatively analyze their structural features, Fourier analysis was applied for the SHG images to compare the alteration in collagen orientation of different scars. Moreover,

  12. Scarred Pacific Salmon, Oncorhynchus spp., at Freshwater Recovery Sites in Southeastern Alaska

    E-print Network

    had the most (1.7 and 4.9%, respectively). 47(1), 1985 gillnets used in a newly developed off- shore (ADF&G) began studies in 1973 to determine the incidence of scars on these fish. In 1973, 1974 in 1974 suggested that not all of the scars were caused by gillnets (ADF&G4). In 1981, an estimated 1

  13. Ectopic pregnancies in Caesarean section scars: the 8 year experience of one medical centre

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Maymon; R. Halperin; S. Mendlovic; D. Schneider; Z. Vaknin; A. Herman; M. Pansky

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Our aim was to supplement the mostly individual case reports on the rarely occurring and life- threatening condition of ectopic pregnancy developing in a Caesarean section scar. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eight of all the patients treated in our department between 1995 and 2002 had been diagnosed for ectopic pregnancy that developed in a Caesarean section scar. They comprised this

  14. Endometriosis of abdominal and pelvic wall scars: multimodality imaging findings, pathologic correlation, and radiologic mimics.

    PubMed

    Gidwaney, Rita; Badler, Ruth L; Yam, Benjamin L; Hines, John J; Alexeeva, Vlada; Donovan, Virginia; Katz, Douglas S

    2012-01-01

    Implantation of an endometriotic lesion within a pelvic or abdominal wall scar is an uncommon but well-described condition that may be the underlying cause of acute or chronic recurrent abdominal or pelvic pain, especially after cesarean section. Radiologists may not consider scar endometriosis when it is encountered at cross-sectional imaging. Cesarean section scars are the most common site of extraovarian or extrauterine endometriosis. The condition also has been identified in other uterine surgery-related scars and in the skin, subcutaneous tissues, and abdominal and pelvic wall musculature adjacent to these scars. The most plausible cause of scar endometriosis is implantation of endometrial stem cells at the surgical site at the time of uterine surgery. Patients with scar endometriosis may be asymptomatic or present with cyclical pain corresponding to the menstrual cycle. Cross-sectional imaging findings vary from the nonspecific to those suggestive of the diagnosis when combined with clinical history. In particular, the presence of blood products in an anterior abdominal wall mass at magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with no other explanation is strongly suggestive of scar endometriosis. Ultrasonography, computed tomography, and MR imaging may be used to depict an endometriotic lesion, exclude endometriosis, or provide evidence for an alternative diagnosis. PMID:23150856

  15. Inactivation of Salmonella on tomato stem scars by acidic sanitizing solutions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato stem scars are a likely contamination point for Salmonella, although they are recalcitrant to decontamination. Investigating stem scar sanitation may represent a worst-case-scenario model for inactivating Salmonella from externally-contaminated tomatoes. A composite of Salmonella Saintpau...

  16. Hypertrophic scar formation following carbon dioxide laser ablation of plantar warts in cyclosporin-treated patients.

    PubMed

    Ozluer, S M; Chuen, B Y; Barlow, R J; Markey, A C

    2001-12-01

    We present four renal transplant patients who developed hypertrophic scars following carbon dioxide laser ablation of recalcitrant plantar warts. All of the patients were on long-term treatment with cyclosporin, which we believe to be responsible. We discuss several possible mechanisms by which cyclosporin may influence wound healing and scarring. PMID:11899123

  17. Comparison of three different dressings for partial thickness burns in children: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the paediatric population, pain and distress associated with burn injuries during wound care procedures remain a constant challenge. Although silver dressings are the gold standard for burn care in Australasia, very few high-level trials have been conducted that compare silver dressings to determine which will provide the best level of care clinically. Therefore, for paediatric patients in particular, identifying silver dressings that are associated with lower levels of pain and rapid wound re-epithelialisation is imperative. This study will determine whether there is a difference in time to re-epithelialisation and pain and distress experienced during wound care procedures among Acticoat™, Acticoat™ combined with Mepitel™ and Mepilex Ag™ dressings for acute, paediatric partial thickness burns. Methods/Design Children aged 0 to 15 years with an acute partial thickness (superficial partial to deep partial thickness inclusive) burn injury and a burn total body surface area of ?10% will be eligible for the trial. Patients will be randomised to one of the three dressing groups: (1) Acticoat™ or (2) Acticoat™ combined with Mepitel™ or (3) Mepilex Ag™. A minimum of 28 participants will be recruited for each treatment group. Primary measures of pain, distress and healing will be repeated at each dressing change until complete wound re-epithelialisation occurs or skin grafting is required. Additional data collected will include infection status at each dressing change, physical function, scar outcome and scar management requirements, cost effectiveness of each dressing and staff perspectives of the dressings. Discussion The results of this study will determine the effects of three commonly used silver and silicone burn dressing combinations on the rate of wound re-epithelialisation and pain experienced during dressing procedures in acute, paediatric partial thickness burn injuries. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12613000105741 PMID:24274190

  18. Evolution of silicone therapy and mechanism of action in scar management.

    PubMed

    Mustoe, Thomas A

    2008-01-01

    Silicone-based products are widely used in the management of hypertrophic scarring and keloids. This review discusses the range of products available and the clinical evidence of their efficacy in preventing excessive scarring and improving established scars. Silicone gel sheeting has been used successfully for more than 20 years in scar management. A new formulation of silicone gel applied from a tube forms a thin flexible sheet over the newly epithelialized wound or more mature scar. Results from clinical trials and clinical experience suggest that silicone gel is equivalent in efficacy to traditional silicone gel sheeting but easier to use. The mechanism of action of silicone therapy has not been completely determined but is likely to involve occlusion and hydration of the stratum corneum with subsequent cytokine-mediated signaling from keratinocytes to dermal fibroblasts. PMID:17968615

  19. Reduction of postoperative scar formation with silicone sheeting: 2 case studies.

    PubMed

    Moore, Kirsten A; Silbernagel, Bonijo

    2010-09-01

    Elective surgeries account for millions of acquired scars annually. Many of these scars can be problematic, being aesthetically unpleasant and causing discomfort. Silicone gel sheeting has been shown to be efficacious for the prevention and treatment of problematic scars. By wound hydration, along with other factors, silicone dressings are thought to decrease scarring. However, we found the usual treatment was commonly started after epithelialization of the incision site. The current standard of care in wound healing is to promote a moist wound environment to ensure quick epithelialization and decrease excessive scar formation. With that standard in mind, after foot surgery was performed on 2 patients, silicone sheeting was applied immediately in order to compare its effects with those of standard moist wound healing (XEROFORM Petrolatum Gauze). PMID:24527150

  20. Reduction of Postoperative Scar Formation With Silicone Sheeting: 2 Case Studies

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Kirsten A.; Silbernagel, BoniJo

    2011-01-01

    Elective surgeries account for millions of acquired scars annually. Many of these scars can be problematic, being aesthetically unpleasant and causing discomfort. Silicone gel sheeting has been shown to be efficacious for the prevention and treatment of problematic scars. By wound hydration, along with other factors, silicone dressings are thought to decrease scarring. However, we found the usual treatment was commonly started after epithelialization of the incision site. The current standard of care in wound healing is to promote a moist wound environment to ensure quick epithelialization and decrease excessive scar formation. With that standard in mind, after foot surgery was performed on 2 patients, silicone sheeting was applied immediately in order to compare its effects with those of standard moist wound healing (XEROFORM Petrolatum Gauze). PMID:24527150

  1. Clothing burns in Canadian children

    PubMed Central

    Stanwick, Richard S.

    1985-01-01

    A Canadian survey of 11 tertiary care pediatric centres with specialized burn facilities revealed that an estimated 37 children up to 9 years of age are admitted annually to such hospitals because of clothing burns. Sleepwear accounts for an estimated 21 such burns per year. Girls were found to suffer the most severe burns and represented eight of the nine children in the series who died. Loose and flowing garments dominated the girls' styles. The results of multiple-regression analysis confirmed that style of clothing (loose and flowing as opposed to snug) was the most significant predictor of burn severity, length of hospital stay, the need for skin grafting and survival. The ignition situation (avoidance of parental supervision at the time of injury) was the only other important predictor. The success of regulatory actions in other countries in reducing the incidence of severe clothing burns is reviewed, and preventive strategies for Canada are explored. ImagesFig. 2 PMID:3995433

  2. Marginally Stable Nuclear Burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strohmayer, Tod E.; Altamirano, D.

    2012-01-01

    Thermonuclear X-ray bursts result from unstable nuclear burning of the material accreted on neutron stars in some low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). Theory predicts that close to the boundary of stability oscillatory burning can occur. This marginally stable regime has so far been identified in only a small number of sources. We present Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations of the bursting, high- inclination LMXB 4U 1323-619 that reveal for the first time in this source the signature of marginally stable burning. The source was observed during two successive RXTE orbits for approximately 5 ksec beginning at 10:14:01 UTC on March 28, 2011. Significant mHz quasi- periodic oscillations (QPO) at a frequency of 8.1 mHz are detected for approximately 1600 s from the beginning of the observation until the occurrence of a thermonuclear X-ray burst at 10:42:22 UTC. The mHz oscillations are not detected following the X-ray burst. The average fractional rms amplitude of the mHz QPOs is 6.4% (3 - 20 keV), and the amplitude increases to about 8% below 10 keV.This phenomenology is strikingly similar to that seen in the LMXB 4U 1636-53. Indeed, the frequency of the mHz QPOs in 4U 1323-619 prior to the X-ray burst is very similar to the transition frequency between mHz QPO and bursts found in 4U 1636-53 by Altamirano et al. (2008). These results strongly suggest that the observed QPOs in 4U 1323-619 are, like those in 4U 1636-53, due to marginally stable nuclear burning. We also explore the dependence of the energy spectrum on the oscillation phase, and we place the present observations within the context of the spectral evolution of the accretion-powered flux from the source.

  3. Pathological Mechanism for Delayed Hyperenhancement of Chronic Scarred Myocardium in Contrast Agent Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian; Xiang, Bo; Lin, Hung-Yu; Liu, Hongyu; Freed, Darren; Arora, Rakesh C.; Tian, Ganghong

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate possible mechanism for delayed hyperenhancement of scarred myocardium by investigating the relationship of contrast agent (CA) first pass and delayed enhancement patterns with histopathological changes. Materials and Methods Eighteen pigs underwent 4 weeks ligation of 1 or 2 diagonal coronary arteries to induce chronic infarction. The hearts were then removed and perfused in a Langendorff apparatus. The hearts firstly experienced phosphorus 31 MR spectroscopy. The hearts in group I (n?=?9) and II (n?=?9) then received the bolus injection of Gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (0.05 mmol/kg) and gadolinium-based macromolecular agent (P792, 15 µmol/kg), respectively. First pass T2* MRI was acquired using a gradient echo sequence. Delayed enhanced T1 MRI was acquired with an inversion recovery sequence. Masson's trichrome and anti- von Willebrand Factor (vWF) staining were performed for infarct characterization. Results Wash-in of both kinds of CA caused the sharp and dramatic T2* signal decrease of scarred myocardium similar to that of normal myocardium. Myocardial blood flow and microvessel density were significantly recovered in 4-week-old scar tissue. Steady state distribution volume (?R1 relaxation rate) of Gd-DTPA was markedly higher in scarred myocardium than in normal myocardium, whereas ?R1 relaxation rate of P792 did not differ significantly between scarred and normal myocardium. The ratio of extracellular volume to the total water volume was significantly greater in scarred myocardium than in normal myocardium. Scarred myocardium contained massive residual capillaries and dilated vessels. Histological stains indicated the extensively discrete matrix deposition and lack of cellular structure in scarred myocardium. Conclusions Collateral circulation formation and residual vessel effectively delivered CA into scarred myocardium. However, residual vessel without abnormal hyperpermeability allowed Gd-DTPA rather than P792 to penetrate into extravascular compartment. Discrete collagen fiber meshwork and loss of cellularity enlarged extracellular space accessible to Gd-DTPA, resulting in the delayed hyper-enhanced scar. PMID:24802515

  4. Curbing Inflammation in Burn Patients

    PubMed Central

    Farina, Jayme A.; Rosique, Marina Junqueira; Rosique, Rodrigo G.

    2013-01-01

    Patients who suffer from severe burns develop metabolic imbalances and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) which can result in multiple organ failure and death. Research aimed at reducing the inflammatory process has yielded new insight into burn injury therapies. In this review, we discuss strategies used to curb inflammation in burn injuries and note that further studies with high quality evidence are necessary. PMID:23762773

  5. Plasma Membrane-Associated SCAR Complex SubunitsPromoteCorticalF-ActinAccumulationand Normal Growth Characteristics in Arabidopsis Roots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julia Dyachok; Mon-Ray Shao; Kevin Vaughn; Andrew Bowling; Michelle Facette; Stevan Djakovic; Lauren Clark; Laurie Smith

    The ARP2\\/3 complex, a highly conserved nucleator of F-actin polymerization, and its activator, the SCAR com- plex, have been shown to play important roles in leaf epidermal cell morphogenesis in Arabidopsis. However, the intra- cellular site(s) and function(s) of SCAR and ARP2\\/3 complex-dependent actin polymerization in plant cells remain unclear. We demonstrate that putative SCAR complex subunits BRK1 and SCAR1

  6. Scientific Community on Antarctic Research (SCAR) Place Names and Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reim, C.

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this poster is to convey the process by which Antarctic place names are checked for accuracy, and the importance the work has on the scientific community. The database that SCAR (Scientific Community on Antarctic Research) has includes features that are both falsely named or not in an accurate location. This results from the original data coming from multiple sources. The polygons representing the coast line are also updated, as the original lines were both inaccurate or have changed over the years. Using both feature research and a high resolution imagery viewer application, the correct names and locations of Antarctic features and coastlines are collected into a single database, where any number of Polar researchers can have access to it. Accurate results are important to both aid scientists in their research and to provide safe maps for use in the field.

  7. A primer on burn resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Bacomo, Ferdinand K; Chung, Kevin K

    2011-01-01

    Since the early 1900s, the scope of burn resuscitation has evolved dramatically. Due to various advances in pre-hospital care and training, under-resuscitation of patients with severe burns is now relatively uncommon. Over-resuscitation, otherwise known as “fluid creep”, has emerged as one of the most important problems during the initial phases of burn care over the past decade. To avoid the complications of over-resuscitation, careful hourly titration of fluid rates based on compilation of various clinical end points by a bedside provider is vital. The aim of this review is to provide a practical approach to the resuscitation of severely burned patients. PMID:21633578

  8. Mathematical modeling of chemotaxis and glial scarring around implanted electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silchenko, Alexander N.; Tass, Peter A.

    2015-02-01

    It is well known that the implantation of electrodes for deep brain stimulation or microelectrode probes for the recording of neuronal activity is always accompanied by the response of the brain’s immune system leading to the formation of a glial scar around the implantation sites. The implantation of electrodes causes massive release of adenosine-5?-triphosphate (ATP) and different cytokines into the extracellular space and activates the microglia. The released ATP and the products of its hydrolysis, such as ADP and adenosine, become the main elements mediating chemotactic sensitivity and motility of microglial cells via subsequent activation of P2Y2,12 as well as A3A/A2A adenosine receptors. The size and density of an insulating sheath around the electrode, formed by microglial cells, are important criteria for the optimization of the signal-to-noise ratio during microelectrode recordings or parameters of electrical current delivered to the brain tissue. Here, we study a purinergic signaling pathway underlying the chemotactic motion of microglia towards implanted electrodes as well as the possible impact of an anti-inflammatory coating consisting of the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist. We present a model describing the formation of a stable aggregate around the electrode due to the joint chemo-attractive action of ATP and ADP and the mixed influence of extracellular adenosine. The bioactive coating is modeled as a source of chemo-repellent located near the electrode surface. The obtained analytical and numerical results allowed us to reveal the dependences of size and spatial location of the insulating sheath on the amount of released ATP and estimate the impact of immune suppressive coating on the scarring process.

  9. Optimal treatment of partial thickness burns in children: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Vloemans, A F P M; Hermans, M H E; van der Wal, M B A; Liebregts, J; Middelkoop, E

    2014-03-01

    A large part of the patient population of a burn centre consists of children, most of whom are younger than four years. The majority of these young children suffer from superficial and deep partial thickness scald burns that may easily deepen to full thickness burns. A proper wound therapy, that prevents infection and ensures a moist wound condition, might prevent the deterioration of the wound. Therefore, we performed a systematic review of wound management and dressing materials to select the best treatment option for children with burns. A search in Medline and Embase revealed 51 articles for a critical appraisal. The articles were divided into randomized controlled trials, cohort studies and a group of case-reports. Total appraisal did not differ much amongst the groups; the level of evidence was highest in the randomized controlled trials and lowest in the case-reports. In 16 out of 34 comparative studies, silver sulfadiazine or a silver sulfadiazine/chlorhexidine-gluconate combination was the standard of wound care treatment. The competitor dressing was Biobrane(®) in six studies and amnion membrane in three. Tulle gauze, or tulle gauze impregnated with an antibacterial addition were the standard of care treatment in seven studies. In general, membranous dressings like Biobrane(®) and amnion membrane performed better than the standard of care on epithelialization rate, length of hospital stay and pain for treatment of partial thickness burns in children. However, hardly any of the studies investigated long-term results like scar formation. PMID:24290852

  10. The Healing Effect of Nettle Extract on Second Degree Burn Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Akbari, Hosein; Fatemi, Mohammad Javad; Iranpour, Maryam; Khodarahmi, Ali; Baghaee, Mehrdad; Pedram, Mir Sepehr; Saleh, Sahar; Araghi, Shirin

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Numerous studies were carried out to develop more sophisticated dressings to expedite healing processes and diminish the bacterial burden in burn wounds. This study assessed the healing effect of nettle extract on second degree burns wound in rats in comparison with silver sulfadiazine and vaseline. METHODS Forty rats were randomly assigned to four equal groups. A deep second-degree burn was created on the back of each rat using a standard burning procedure. The burns were dressed daily with nettle extract in group 1, silver sulfadiazine in group 2, vaseline in group 3 and without any medication in group 4 as control group. The response to treatment was assessed by digital photography during the treatment until day 42. Histological scoring was undertaken for scar tissue samples on days 10 and 42. RESULTS A statistically significant difference was observed in group 1 compared with other groups regarding 4 scoring parameters after 10 days. A statistically significant difference was seen for fibrosis parameter after 42 days. In terms of difference of wound surface area, maximal healing was noticed at the same time in nettle group and minimal repair in the control group. CONCLUSION Our findings showed maximal rate of healing in the nettle group. So it may be a suitable substitute for silver sulfadiazine and vaseline when available. PMID:25606473

  11. Burning mouth syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gurvits, Grigoriy E; Tan, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is a debilitating medical condition affecting nearly 1.3 million of Americans. Its common features include a burning painful sensation in the mouth, often associated with dysgeusia and xerostomia, despite normal salivation. Classically, symptoms are better in the morning, worsen during the day and typically subside at night. Its etiology is largely multifactorial, and associated medical conditions may include gastrointestinal, urogenital, psychiatric, neurologic and metabolic disorders, as well as drug reactions. BMS has clear predisposition to peri-/post menopausal females. Its pathophysiology has not been fully elucidated and involves peripheral and central neuropathic pathways. Clinical diagnosis relies on careful history taking, physical examination and laboratory analysis. Treatment is often tedious and is aimed at correction of underlying medical conditions, supportive therapy, and behavioral feedback. Drug therapy with alpha lipoic acid, clonazepam, capsaicin, and antidepressants may provide symptom relief. Psychotherapy may be helpful. Short term follow up data is promising, however, long term prognosis with treatment is lacking. BMS remains an important medical condition which often places a recognizable burden on the patient and health care system and requires appropriate recognition and treatment. PMID:23429751

  12. Burning mouth syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Burning mouth syndrome mainly affects women, particularly after the menopause, when its prevalence may be 18-33%. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for burning mouth syndrome? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to February 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 12 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: anaesthetics (local), antidepressants, benzodiazepines (topical clonazepam), benzydamine hydrochloride, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), dietary supplements, and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in postmenopausal women. PMID:19450321

  13. Burning mouth syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Burning mouth syndrome mainly affects women, particularly after the menopause, when its prevalence may be 18% to 33%. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for burning mouth syndrome? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to November 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 15 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: anaesthetics (local), antidepressants, benzodiazepines (topical clonazepam), benzydamine hydrochloride, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), dietary supplements, and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in postmenopausal women. PMID:21418666

  14. Acid burns from personal assault in Uganda

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Asaria; O. C. Kobusingye; B. A. Khingi; R. Balikuddembe; M. Gomezc; M. Beveridge

    2004-01-01

    Acid burns from assault represent a substantial and neglected proportion of burn injuries in the developing world. A retrospective chart review was conducted to assess the frequency of acid burns in relation to total burns requiring admission in Kampala, Uganda. Seventeen percent of the adult burns admitted at New Mulago hospital over an 18-month period resulted from acid assault. Patients

  15. Engineered alternative skin for partial and full-thickness burns

    PubMed Central

    Wessels, Quenton

    2014-01-01

    Engineered alternative skin in all its forms and shapes serve to provide temporary or permanent wound closure such as in the case of partial and full-thickness burns. The need for collagen-based regeneration templates is motivated by the fact that dermal regeneration of full-thickness injuries does not occur spontaneously and is inundated by contraction and scarring. Partial-thickness burns in turn can regress as a result of infection and improper treatment and require appropriate treatment. Nylon-silicone laminates such as Biobrane®, and more recently AWBAT®, address this by serving as a temporary barrier. Enhanced collagen-based scaffolds today, although not perfect, remain invaluable. Our initial approach was to characterize the design considerations and explore the use of collagen in the fabrication of a dermal regeneration matrix and a silicone-nylon bilaminate. Here we expand our initial research on scaffold fabrication and explore possible strategies to improve the outcome of collagen-scaffold medicated wound healing. PMID:24651001

  16. A SCAR-based method for rapid identification of four major lepidopterous stored-product pests.

    PubMed

    Yao, Me-Chi; Chang, Shu-Chen; Lee, Chi-Yang; Lu, Kuang-Hui

    2012-06-01

    Since Taiwan became a World Trade Organization member in 2002, large quantities of grain have been imported from different countries, and insect pests are frequently intercepted from these imported commodities in quarantine inspection. Because most insects are intercepted as immature forms, morphological identification is problematic; therefore, we developed a DNA identification method based on a sequence-characterized amplified region- polymerase chain reaction (SCAR-PCR). Three sets of multiplex SCAR-PCR mixtures, namely SCAR-I, -II, and -III, were developed with each set composed of four species-specific primer pairs derived from the genomic DNA of four major lepidopterous stored-product pests: Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton), Cadra cautella (Walker), Sitotroga cerealella Oliver, and Plodia interpunctella (Hübner). The SCAR-I amplicons of C. cephalonica, C. cautella, S. cerealella, and P. interpunctella were 205, 550, 324, 382 bp, respectively, while those of SCAR-II were 341, 565, 261, and 170 bp, and those of SCAR-III were 514, 555, 445, and 299 bp. These multiplex PCR mixtures could sensitively and unambiguously detect and identify in approximately 5 h individuals among the four lepidopterous pests intercepted in imported stored-products. In summary, the SCAR-PCR method we developed represents a rapid, sensitive and accurate technique for identifying insect species of stored products in plant quarantine operation. PMID:22812153

  17. Use of radiofrequency in cosmetic dermatology: focus on nonablative treatment of acne scars

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Brian J; Griffith, Robert D; Falto-Aizpurua, Leyre A; Nouri, Keyvan

    2014-01-01

    Acne is a common affliction among many teens and some adults that usually resolves over time. However, the severe sequela of acne scarring can lead to long-term psychological and psychiatric problems. There exists a multitude of modalities to treat acne scars such as more invasive surgical techniques, subcision, chemical peels, ablative lasers, fractional lasers, etc. A more recent technique for the treatment of acne scars is nonablative radiofrequency (RF) that works by passing a current through the dermis at a preset depth to produce small thermal wounds in the dermis which, in turn, stimulates dermal remodeling to produce new collagen and soften scar defects. This review article demonstrates that out of all RF modalities, microneedle bipolar RF and fractional bipolar RF treatments offers the best results for acne scarring. An improvement of 25%–75% can be expected after three to four treatment sessions using one to two passes per session. Treatment results are optimal approximately 3 months after final treatment. Common side effects can include transient pain, erythema, and scabbing. Further studies are needed to determine what RF treatment modalities work best for specific scar subtypes, so that further optimization of RF treatments for acne scars can be determined. PMID:25540589

  18. Lamellipodin and the Scar/WAVE complex cooperate to promote cell migration in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Law, Ah-Lai; Vehlow, Anne; Kotini, Maria; Dodgson, Lauren; Soong, Daniel; Theveneau, Eric; Bodo, Cristian; Taylor, Eleanor; Navarro, Christel; Perera, Upamali; Michael, Magdalene; Dunn, Graham A.; Bennett, Daimark; Mayor, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Cell migration is essential for development, but its deregulation causes metastasis. The Scar/WAVE complex is absolutely required for lamellipodia and is a key effector in cell migration, but its regulation in vivo is enigmatic. Lamellipodin (Lpd) controls lamellipodium formation through an unknown mechanism. Here, we report that Lpd directly binds active Rac, which regulates a direct interaction between Lpd and the Scar/WAVE complex via Abi. Consequently, Lpd controls lamellipodium size, cell migration speed, and persistence via Scar/WAVE in vitro. Moreover, Lpd knockout mice display defective pigmentation because fewer migrating neural crest-derived melanoblasts reach their target during development. Consistently, Lpd regulates mesenchymal neural crest cell migration cell autonomously in Xenopus laevis via the Scar/WAVE complex. Further, Lpd’s Drosophila melanogaster orthologue Pico binds Scar, and both regulate collective epithelial border cell migration. Pico also controls directed cell protrusions of border cell clusters in a Scar-dependent manner. Taken together, Lpd is an essential, evolutionary conserved regulator of the Scar/WAVE complex during cell migration in vivo. PMID:24247431

  19. The role of Arabidopsis SCAR genes in ARP2-ARP3-dependent cell morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Uhrig, Joachim F; Mutondo, Moola; Zimmermann, Ilona; Deeks, Michael J; Machesky, Laura M; Thomas, Philipp; Uhrig, Silke; Rambke, Claudia; Hussey, Patrick J; Hülskamp, Martin

    2007-03-01

    The actin-nucleating ARP2-ARP3 complex controls cell shape in plants in many different cell types. Its activity is controlled by a multimeric complex containing BRK1 (also known as HSPC300), NAP1, SRA1, ABI and SCAR/WAVE. In this study, we focus on the function of the five putative SCAR homologues in Arabidopsis and we provide biochemical evidence that AtSCAR2 can activate the ARP2-ARP3 complex in vitro. Among the single mutants, mutations in only AtSCAR2 result in a subtle or weak phenotype similar to ARP2, ARP3 and other ;distorted' mutants. Double-mutant analysis revealed a redundancy with AtSCAR4. Systematic application of the yeast two-hybrid system and Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation (BiFC) revealed a complex protein-interaction network between the ARP2-ARP3 complex and its genetically defined regulators. In addition to protein interactions known in other systems, we identified several new interactions, suggesting that SPIKE1 may be an integral component of the SCAR/WAVE complex and that SCAR proteins in plants might act as direct effectors of ROP GTPases. PMID:17267444

  20. Burning crude oil without pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houseman, J.

    1979-01-01

    Crude oil can be burned at drilling sites by two-stage combustion process without producing pollution. Process allows easier conformance to strict federal or state clean air standards without installation of costly pollution removal equipment. Secondary oil recovery can be accomplished with injection of steam heating by burning oil.

  1. Burned Wetland Near Tebicuary River

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    In the rangelands of southern Paraguay, wetlands are burned to encourage new growth for cattle grazing. The burned wetland grasses are in the Family Poaceae (Gramineae), and may be in one of these genera: Panicum, Paspalum, Pennisetum, Tripogon. The Ñeembucú Region is typified by exten...

  2. [Intraoperative burns. An unforeseen danger?].

    PubMed

    Bonde, Christian T; Alsbjørn, Bjarne F

    2002-01-28

    Two patients were admitted to the department of burns in Copenhagen. Both had suffered burns following uncontrolled ignition of chlorhexidine-alcohol during surgery. The aim of this article is to highlight this potentially detrimental risk, which exists in almost all operating rooms, unless simple precautions are taken. PMID:11871219

  3. Wood burning stove

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, V.J.

    1982-08-10

    An air tight wood burning stove (10) for heating a designated space comprises a housing (12) having an access opening (50) in the front wall (14) thereof and at least one glass panel (64) containing door (54, 56) hingedly mounted on the front wall for closing the opening (50). A latching mechanism (60) on the door (54, 56) engages with undercut flange means (52, 53) surrounding opening (50) for positively maintaining the door (54, 56) in the closed position. A firebrick lined combustion chamber (34) within the housing receives logs through opening (50) for burning and the production of hot combustion gases. An air chamber (48) is formed within the housing (12) in air flow communication with the combustion chamber (34) for feeding air thereto through openings (94, 96) in the air chamber walls (46, 90). A damper 92, which may be manually or thermostatically controlled, controls cool air flow from room floor level into the air chamber (48) and then through openings (94, 96) into combustion chamber (34) wherein the air is heated. The hot combustion gases and heated air rise within housing (12) and are discharged through flue means (28, 30) to the outside. In passing upwardly the gases and air fl over the outside surface of and heat the air within a plurality of air carrying tubular heat exchange conduits (98) which are disposed adjacent the top of assembly (12) and extend therethrough upwardly and forwardly from conduit air inlets at the rear wall (24) to conduit air discharge outlets at the front wall (14).

  4. Forest Understory Fire in the Brazilian Amazon in ENSO and Non-ENSO Years: Area Burned and Committed Carbon Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alencar, A.; Nepstad, D.; Ver-Diaz, M. Del. C.

    2004-01-01

    "Understory fires" that burn the floor of standing forests are one of the most important types of forest impoverishment in the Amazon, especially during the severe droughts of El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) episodes. However, we are aware of no estimates of the areal extent of these fires for the Brazilian Amazon and, hence, of their contribution to Amazon carbon fluxes to the atmosphere. We calculated the area of forest understory fires for the Brazilian Amazon region during an El Nino (1998) and a non El Nino (1995) year based on forest fire scars mapped with satellite images for three locations in eastern and southern Amazon, where deforestation is concentrated. The three study sites represented a gradient of both forest types and dry season severity. The burning scar maps were used to determine how the percentage of forest that burned varied with distance from agricultural clearings. These spatial functions were then applied to similar forest/climate combinations outside of the study sites to derive an initial estimate for the Brazilian Amazon. Ninety-one percent of the forest area that burned in the study sites was within the first kilometer of a clearing for the non ENSO year and within the first four kilometers for the ENSO year. The area of forest burned by understory forest fire during the severe drought (ENSO) year (3.9 millions of hectares) was 13 times greater than the area burned during the average rainfall year (0.2 million hectares), and twice the area of annual deforestation rate. Dense forest was, proportionally, the forest area most affected by understory fires during the El Nino year, while understory fires were concentrated in transitional forests during the year of average rainfall. Our estimate of aboveground tree biomass killed by fire ranged from 0.06 Pg to 0.38 Pg during the ENSO and from 0,004 Pg to 0,024 Pg during the non ENSO.

  5. Using simulation to design control strategies for robotic no-scar surgery.

    PubMed

    De Donno, Antonio; Nageotte, Florent; Zanne, Philippe; Goffin, Laurent; de Mathelin, Michel

    2013-01-01

    No-scar surgery, which aims at performing surgical operations without visible scars, is the vanguard in the field of Minimally Invasive Surgery. No-scar surgery can be performed with flexible instruments, carried by a guide under the vision of an endoscopic camera. This technique brings many benefits for the patient, but also introduces several difficulties for the surgeon. We aim at developing a teleoperated robotic system for assisting surgeons in this kind of operations. In this paper, we present a virtual simulator of the system that allows to assess different control strategies for our robot and to study possible mechanical issues. PMID:23400142

  6. Interactive simulation of fire, burn and decomposition 

    E-print Network

    Melek, Zeki

    2009-05-15

    level set method, driven by the pyrolysis process, where the burning object releases combustible gases. Secondary deformation effects, such as bending burning matches and crumpling burning paper, are modeled as a proxy based deformation. Physically based...

  7. Interactive simulation of fire, burn and decomposition 

    E-print Network

    Melek, Zeki

    2008-10-10

    level set method, driven by the pyrolysis process, where the burning object releases combustible gases. Secondary deformation effects, such as bending burning matches and crumpling burning paper, are modeled as a proxy based deformation. Physically based...

  8. Smartphones and burn size estimation: “Rapid Burn Assessor”

    PubMed Central

    Kamolz, L.P.; Lumenta, D.B.; Parvizi, D.; Dirnberger, J.; Owen, R.; Höller, J.; Giretzlehner, M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Estimation of the total body surface area burned (%TBSA) following a burn injury is used in determining whether to transfer the patient to a burn center and the required fluid resuscitation volumes. Unfortunately, the commonly applied methods of estimation have revealed inaccuracies, which are mostly related to human error. To calculate the %TBSA (quotient), it is necessary to divide the burned surface area (Burned BSA) (numerator in cm2) by the total body surface area (Total BSA) (denominator in cm2). By using everyday objects (eg. credit cards, smartphones) with well-defined surface areas as reference for estimations of Burned BSA on the one hand and established formulas for Total BSA calculation on the other (eg. Mosteller), we propose an approximation method to assess %TBSA more accurately than the established methods. To facilitate distribution, and respective user feedback, we have developed a smartphone app integrating all of the above parameters, available on popular mobile device platforms. This method represents a simple and ready-to-use clinical decision support system which addresses common errors associated with estimations of Burned BSA (=numerator). Following validation and respective user feedback, it could be deployed for testing in future clinical trials. This study has a level of evidence of IV and is a brief report based on clinical observation, which points to further study.

  9. Safety and efficacy of TransCyte for the treatment of partial-thickness burns.

    PubMed

    Noordenbos, J; Doré, C; Hansbrough, J F

    1999-01-01

    Standard treatment for extensive partial-thickness burns in the United States and in much of the world involves the application of topical antimicrobial agents and repetitive wound débridements and dressing changes. We evaluated a new biologic wound covering, TransCyte (Advanced Tissue Sciences, La Jolla, Calif, formerly marketed as Dermagraft-Transitional Covering), for the treatment of partial-thickness burns. This material is composed of human newborn fibroblasts which are then cultured on the nylon mesh of Biobrane (Dow B. Hickam, Inc, Sugarland, Tex); the thin silicone membrane bonded to the mesh provides a moisture vapor barrier for the wound. A prospective, randomized, comparison study of silver sulfadiazine and TransCyte was performed with the use of paired wound sites on 14 patients. Wounds treated with TransCyte healed more quickly (mean 11.14 days to 90% epithelialization vs 18.14 days, P = .002). A noncomparison evaluation was then done for an additional 18 patients, and it confirmed excellent wound healing and an absence of infections. There were no infections in the 32 wound sites treated with TransCyte. In the first study group, late wound evaluations (3, 6, and 12 months postburn) were performed with use of the Vancouver Scar Scale. The results indicated that wound sites treated with TransCyte healed with less hypertrophic scarring than sites treated with silver sulfadiazine (P < .001 at 3 and 6 months, P = .006 at 12 months). PMID:10425589

  10. The role of the epidermis in the control of scarring: evidence for mechanism of action for silicone gel.

    PubMed

    Tandara, Andrea A; Mustoe, Thomas A

    2008-10-01

    Hypertrophic scars can be reduced by the application of silicone dressing; however, the detailed mechanism of silicone action is still unknown. It is known that silicone gel sheets cause a hydration of the epidermal layer of the skin. An in vitro co-culture experiment has shown that hydration of keratinocytes has a suppressive effect on the metabolism of the underlying fibroblasts resulting in reduced collagen deposition. We tested the hypothesis that silicone sheeting in vivo has a beneficial effect on scarring by reducing keratinocyte stimulation, with a resulting decrease in dermal thickness, hence scar hypertrophy. Silicone adhesive gel sheets were applied to scars in our rabbit ear model of hypertrophic scarring 14 days postwounding for a total of 16 days. Scarring was measured in this model by the scar elevation index (SEI), a ratio of the area of newly formed dermis to the area of the dermis of unwounded skin, and the epidermal thickness index (ETI), a ratio of the averaged epidermal height of the scar to the epidermal thickness of normal epidermis. Specific staining [anti-PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) and Masson trichrome] was performed to reveal differences in scar morphology. SEIs were significantly reduced after silicone gel sheet application versus untreated scars corresponding to a 70% reduction in scar hypertrophy. Total occlusion reduced scar hypertrophy by 80% compared to semi-occlusion. ETIs of untreated scars were increased by more than 100% compared to uninjured skin. Silicone gel treatment significantly reduced epidermal thickness by more than 30%. Our findings demonstrate that 2 weeks of silicone gel application at a very early onset of scarring reduces dermal and epidermal thickness which appears to be due to a reduction in keratinocyte stimulation. Oxygen can be ruled out as a mechanism of action of silicone occlusive treatment. Hydration of the keratinocytes seems to be the key stimulus. PMID:18653391

  11. Assault by burning in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Haddadin, W.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Criminal attacks by burns on women in Jordan are highlighted in this retrospective study carried out of all proved cases of criminal burns in female patients treated at the burn unit of the Royal Rehabilitation Center in Jordan between January 2005 and June 2012. Thirteen patients were included in our study, out of a total of 550 patients admitted, all in the age range of 16-45 yr. Of these 13 women, six were burned by acid throwing, five by hot water, and two by direct flames from fuel thrown over them. Burn percentage ranged from 15 to 75% of the total body surface area, with involvement in most cases of the face and upper trunk. The mean hospital stay was 33 days and the mortality rate was 3/13, i.e. 23%. Violence against women exists in Jordanian society, yet burning assaults are rare. Of these, burning by throwing acid is the most common and most disfiguring act, with a higher mortality rate in domestic environments. PMID:23766757

  12. Burns treatment in ancient times.

    PubMed

    Pe?anac, Marija; Janji?, Zlata; Komarcevi?, Aleksandar; Paji?, Milos; Dobanovacki, Dusanka; Miskovi?, Sanja Skeledzija

    2013-01-01

    Discovery of fire at the dawn of prehistoric time brought not only the benefits to human beings offering the light and heat, but also misfortune due to burns; and that was the beginning of burns treatment. Egyptian doctors made medicines from plants, animal products and minerals, which they combined with magic and religious procedures. The earliest records described burns dressings with milk from mothers of male babies. Goddess Isis was called upon to help. Some remedies and procedures proved so successful that their application continued for centuries. The Edwin Smith papyrus (1500 BC) mentioned the treatment of burns with honey and grease. Ebers Papyrus (1500 BC) contains descriptions of application of mud, excrement, oil and plant extracts. They also used honey, Aloe and tannic acid to heal burns. Ancient Egyptians did not know about microorganisms but they knew that honey, moldy bread and copper salts could prevent infections from dirt in burns healing. Thyme, opium and belladona were used for pain relief. In the 4th century BC, Hippocrates recorded that Greek and Roman doctors used rendered pig fat, resin and bitumen to treat burns. Mixture of honey and bran, or lotion of wine and myrrh were used by Celsus. Honey was also known in Ayurveda (Indian medicine) time. Ayurvedic records Characa and Sushruta included honey in their dressing aids to purify sores and promote the healing. Burn treatment in Chinese medicine was traditional. It was a compilation of philosophy, knowledge and herbal medicine. The successful treatment of burns started in recent time and it has been made possible by better knowledge of the pathophysiology of thermal injuries and their consequences, medical technology advances and improved surgical techniques. PMID:23888738

  13. Ten novel FBN2 mutations in congenital contractural arachnodactyly: delineation of the molecular pathogenesis and clinical phenotype.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Prateek A; Putnam, Elizabeth A; Carmical, Sonya G; Kaitila, Ilkka; Steinmann, Beat; Child, Anne; Danesino, Cesare; Metcalfe, Kay; Berry, Susan A; Chen, Emily; Delorme, Catherine Vincent; Thong, Meow-Keong; Adès, Lesley C; Milewicz, Dianna M

    2002-01-01

    Congenital contractural arachnodactyly (CCA) is an autosomal dominant condition that shares skeletal features with Marfan syndrome (MFS), but does not have the ocular and cardiovascular complications that characterize MFS. CCA and MFS result from mutations in highly similar genes, FBN2 and FBN1, respectively. All the identified CCA mutations in FBN2 cluster in a limited region similar to where severe MFS mutations cluster in FBN1, specifically between exons 23 and 34. We screened exons 22 through 36 of FBN2 for mutations in 13 patients with classic CCA by single stranded conformational polymorphism analysis (SSCP) and then by direct sequencing. We successfully identified 10 novel mutations in this critical region of FBN2 in these patients, indicating a mutation detection rate of 75% in this limited region. Interestingly, none of these identified FBN2 mutations alter amino acids in the calcium binding consensus sequence in the EGF-like domains, whereas many of the FBN1 mutations alter the consensus sequence. Furthermore, analysis of the clinical data of the CCA patients with characterized FBN2 mutation indicate that CCA patients have aortic root dilatation and the vast majority lack evidence of congenital heart disease. These studies have implications for our understanding of the molecular basis of CCA, along with the diagnosis and genetic counseling of CCA patients. PMID:11754102

  14. The role of the epidermis and the mechanism of action of occlusive dressings in scarring.

    PubMed

    Mustoe, Thomas A; Gurjala, Anandev

    2011-09-01

    The problem of cutaneous scarring has conventionally been approached as a pathology of the dermis. Multiple lines of evidence from the clinic, in vitro experiments, and in vivo animal and human studies, however, increasingly suggest that the epidermis plays a major role in the control of underlying dermal scar. Building on the demonstrated efficacy of silicone gel occlusion, in this paper we review the evidence for epidermal regulation of scar, and propose the novel hypothesis that dermal fibrosis is exquisitely linked to the inflammatory state of the epidermis, which in turn is linked to hydration state as a function of epidermal barrier function. In the spectrum of factors contributing to dermal scar, the epidermis and its downstream effectors offer promising new targets for the development of antiscar therapies. PMID:21793961

  15. Crmp4 deletion promotes recovery from spinal cord injury by neuroprotection and limited scar formation

    PubMed Central

    Nagai, Jun; Kitamura, Yoshiteru; Owada, Kazuki; Yamashita, Naoya; Takei, Kohtaro; Goshima, Yoshio; Ohshima, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    Axonal outgrowth inhibitors and scar formation are two major obstacles to central nervous system (CNS) repair. No target molecule that regulates both axonal growth and scarring has been identified. Here we identified collapsin response mediator protein 4 (CRMP4), a common mediator of inhibitory signals after neural injury, as a crucial factor that contributes to both axonal growth inhibition and scarring after spinal cord injury (SCI). We found increases in the inhibitory and toxic forms of CRMP4 in injured spinal cord. Notably, CRMP4 expression was evident in inflammatory cells as well as in neurons after spinal cord transection. Crmp4?/? mice displayed neuroprotection against SCI and reductions in inflammatory response and scar formation. This permissive environment for axonal growth due to CRMP4 deletion restored locomotor activity at an unusually early phase of healing. These results suggest that deletion of CRMP4 is a unique therapeutic strategy that overcomes two obstacles to CNS repair after SCI. PMID:25652774

  16. Effects of scars on icosahedral crystalline shell stability under external pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Duanduan; Bowick, Mark J.; Sknepnek, Rastko

    2015-03-01

    We study how the stability of spherical crystalline shells under external pressure is influenced by the defect structure. In particular, we compare stability for shells with a minimal set of topologically required defects to shells with extended defect arrays (grain boundary "scars" with nonvanishing net disclination charge). We perform both Monte Carlo and conjugate gradient simulations to compare how shells with and without scars deform quasistatically under external hydrostatic pressure. We find that the critical pressure at which shells collapse is lowered for scarred configurations that break icosahedral symmetry and raised for scars that preserve icosahedral symmetry. The particular shapes which arise from breaking of an initial icosahedrally symmetric shell depend on the Föppl-von Kármán number.

  17. Do the limbal lesions of ocular varicella heal with a scar?: a case report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barry A. Weissman; Sharon N. Spooner-Dailey

    2000-01-01

    A patient was fitted with rigid gas permeable contact lenses following systemic varicella. Scarring of the inferior limbus was noted in both eyes and was historically associated with this systemic disease episode.

  18. Standard guidelines of care: Keloids and hypertrophic scars.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Somesh; Sharma, V K

    2011-01-01

    Keloids and hypertrophic scars (HTS) are the result of overgrowth of fibrous tissue, following healing of a cutaneous injury, and cause morbidity. There are several treatment modalities which are useful for the management of keloids, though no single modality is completely effective. The most commonly used modalities are pressure, silicone gel sheet, intralesional steroids, 5-fluorouracil (5 FU), cryotherapy, surgical excision, and lasers. They may be used either singly or, as is done more commonly, in combinations. Any qualified dermatologist who has attained postgraduate qualification in dermatology can treat keloids and HTS. Some procedures, such as cryosurgery and surgical excision, may require additional training in dermatologic surgery. Most modalities for keloids, including intralesional injections and mechanical therapies such as pressure and silicone gel based products, can be given/prescribed on OPD basis. Surgical excision requires a minor operation theater with the facility to handle emergencies. It is important to counsel the patient about the nature of the problem. One should realize that keloid will only improve and not disappear completely. Patients should be informed about the high recurrence rates. Different modalities carry risk of adverse effects and complications and the treating physician needs to be aware of these and patients should be informed about them. PMID:21220896

  19. Transforming the radiological interpretation process: the SCAR TRIP initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriole, Katherine P.; Morin, Richard L.; Arenson, Ronald L.; Carrino, John A.; Erickson, Bradley J.; Horii, Steven C.; Piraino, David W.; Reiner, Bruce I.; Seibert, James A.; Siegel, Eliot L.

    2004-04-01

    The Society for Computer Applications in Radiology (SCAR) Transforming the Radiological Interpretation Process (TRIP) Initiative aims to spearhead research, education, and discovery of innovative solutions to address the problem of information and image data overload. The initiative will foster inter-disciplinary research on technological, environmental and human factors to better manage and exploit the massive amounts of data. TRIP will focus on the following basic objectives: improving the efficiency of interpretation of large data sets, improving the timeliness and effectiveness of communication, and decreasing medical errors. The ultimate goal of the initiative is to improve the quality and safety of patient care. Interdisciplinary research into several broad areas will be necessary to make progress in managing the ever-increasing volume of data. The six concepts involved include: human perception, image processing and computer-aided detection (CAD), visualization, navigation and usability, databases and integration, and evaluation and validation of methods and performance. The result of this transformation will affect several key processes in radiology, including image interpretation; communication of imaging results; workflow and efficiency within the health care enterprise; diagnostic accuracy and a reduction in medical errors; and, ultimately, the overall quality of care.

  20. Spherical Crystallography: Virus Buckling and Grain Boundary Scars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, David

    2004-03-01

    Ordered states on spheres require a minimum number of topological defects. For the case of crystalline order, triangular lattices must be interrupted by an array of at least 12 five-fold disclination defects, typically sitting at the vertices of an icosahedron. For R>>a, where R is the sphere radius and a the particle spacing, the energy associated with these defects is very large. This energy can be lowered, however, either by buckling, as appears to be the case for large viruses, or by introducing unusual finite length grain boundary scars. The latter have been observed recently for colloidal particles adsorbed onto water droplets in oil.[1] Predictions of topography-induced defect unbinding transitions for hexatics wrapped around a torus or draped over a Gaussian bump will be reviewed as well. [1] A. R. Bausch, M. J. Bowick, A. Cacciuto, A. D. Dinsmore, M. F. Hsu, D. R. Nelson, M. G. Nikolaides, A. Travesset and D. A. Weitz, Science 299, 1716 (2003)

  1. Elemental composition changes between breast tissue with and without silicone gel sheeting and hypertrophic scar tissue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecca Hollands; Nicholas M. Spyrou

    1999-01-01

    Hypertrophic scars occur after dermal trauma and are characterized by being elevated above normal skin level as a result of\\u000a an abundance of collagen. The application of silicone gel sheeting (SGS) has been found to be an effective method of treatment,\\u000a causing them to regress much quicker than they would do naturally. Normal skin and hypertrophic scar tissue were characterized

  2. The role of integrated PET-CT scar maps for guiding ventricular tachycardia ablations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timm Dickfeld; Christopher Kocher

    2008-01-01

    Reentrant ventricular tachycardia is the next emerging frontier in electrophysiology. Current ablation strategies rely on\\u000a endocardial voltage measurements to identify myocardial scar and guide catheter ablation procedures. However, this voltage\\u000a mapping approach has several inherent limitations. In patients with structural heart disease, positron emission tomography\\u000a (PET)\\/CT has the potential to provide supplementary scar characterization by displaying additional metabolic (by PET)

  3. On the central muscle attachment scar pattern of Suchonella Spizharsky 1939

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sohn, I.G.

    1996-01-01

    The fortuitous spalling of a carapace of the nonmarine Permian Suchonella typica Spizharsky 1939 disclosed the adductor muscle attachment scar as well as two accessory scars on both the right side of the steinkern and the inside of the spalled right valve. This central muscle field is illustrated and discussed. An objective list of species described in or referred to Suchonella Spizharsky 1939 is appended.

  4. Fire history in western Patagonia from paired tree-ring fire-scar and charcoal records

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Holz; S. Haberle; T. T. Veblen; R. de Pol-Holz; J. Southon

    2011-01-01

    Fire history reconstructions are typically based on tree ages and tree-ring fire scars or on charcoal in sedimentary records from lakes or bogs, but rarely on both. In this study of fire history in western Patagonia (47-48° S) in southern South America (SSA) we compared three sedimentary charcoal records collected in bogs with tree-ring fire-scar data collected at 13 nearby

  5. Arp2\\/3 and SCAR: plants move to the fore

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Deeks; Patrick J. Hussey

    2005-01-01

    The actin-nucleating Arp2\\/3 complex is essential for life in yeast and animals, but not in plants, in which mutants of Arp2\\/3 complex components show relatively minor developmental abnormalities. Animal cells control the activity of the Arp2\\/3 complex through the suppressor of cyclic AMP receptor (SCAR) complex to achieve cell motility. Amazingly, plants have also retained the SCAR cell-motility pathway, and

  6. Fetal wound healing. The ontogeny of scar formation in the non-human primate.

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, H P; Whitby, D J; Longaker, M T; Adzick, N S

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study determined how scar formation develops in a non-human primate model of fetal skin repair. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: A transition from healing scarlessly to healing with scar formation characterizes skin repair in rat and sheep fetuses. New knowledge of the regulatory processes occurring in the fetal wound at the initial stages of scar formation may provide insights into the early mechanisms of scar formation. METHODS: Full-thickness wounds were made in fetal rhesus monkey lips from 75 through 114 days gestation (n = 6, term = 165 days). Wounds were harvested at 14 days postwounding and processed for histology (hematoxylin & eosin, Masson's trichrome) as well as immunohistochemistry (human type I or type III collagen). RESULTS: Wounds healed with complete restoration of normal tissue architecture in the 75-day gestation fetus. However in the 85-100 day gestation fetuses, wounds healed with an absence of hair follicles and sebaceous glands, but the dermal collagen pattern remained reticular and similar to that in unwounded dermis. At 107 days, a thin scar was present in the wound, thereby demonstrating a transition to scar formation between 100 and 107 days gestation (early 3rd trimester) in the non-human primate. CONCLUSIONS: In the non-human primate fetus, a transition from scarless repair to adult-type repair with scar formation occurs in the early third trimester. These data provide insight into the transition process; the ontogeny of scar formation is characterized initially by wounds healing without the presence of epidermal appendages but with a normal reticular dermal collagen pattern, which we term the "transition wound." Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:8466310

  7. Mapping fire scars in a southern African savannah using Landsat imagery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. H. Brockett

    2004-01-01

    The spectral, spatial and temporal characteristics of the Landsat data record make it appropriate for mapping fire scars. Twenty-two annual fire scar maps from 1972–2002 were produced from historical Landsat imagery for a semi-arid savannah landscape on the South Africa–Botswana border, centred over Madikwe Game Reserve (MGR) in South Africa. A principal components transformation (PCT) helped differentiate the spectral signal

  8. Bibliography of Supersonic Cruise Aircraft Research (SCAR) Program from 1972 to Mid-1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, S.

    1977-01-01

    This bibliography documents publications of the supersonic cruise aircraft research (SCAR) program that were generated during the first 5 years of effort. The reports are arranged according to systems studies and five SCAR disciplines: propulsion, stratospheric emissions impact, structures and materials, aerodynamic performance, and stability and control. The specific objectives of each discipline are summarized. Annotation is included for all NASA inhouse and low-number contractor reports. There are 444 papers and articles included.

  9. A male-specific SCAR marker in Calamus simplicifolius , a dioecious rattan species endemic to China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mei LiHua; Hua Yang; Fagen Li; Fan Yang; Guangtian Yin; Siming Gan

    2010-01-01

    A male-specific SCAR marker (CsMale1) was developed in the dioecious rattan species Calamus simplicifolius. The marker was 509 bp in size and had a GC content of 50.1%. The sequence contained two open reading frames, indicating\\u000a that CsMale1 represented probably a coding genome region. No highly similar sequence was found within the GenBank database.\\u000a The SCAR marker could be used for

  10. Scar endometriosis: a rare skin lesion presenting to the plastic surgeon.

    PubMed

    Marsden, N J; Wilson-Jones, N

    2013-04-01

    Endometriosis is the presence or growth of endometrial tissue outside the uterus, most commonly affecting the ovaries, uterine ligaments and the peritoneum. Cutaneous endometriosis is much rarer, and is mostly found at the sites of surgical scars, such as laparoscopies, hysterectomies and caesarean sections. We present a rare case of scar endometriosis in a 33 year-old women presenting to the plastic surgeon as a possible skin malignancy and review the literature. PMID:23369738

  11. Regenerative Approach to Scars, Ulcers and Related Problems with Fat Grafting.

    PubMed

    Klinger, Marco; Lisa, Andrea; Klinger, Francesco; Giannasi, Silvia; Veronesi, Alessandra; Banzatti, Barbara; Bandi, Valeria; Catania, Barbara; Forcellini, Davide; Maione, Luca; Vinci, Valeriano; Caviggioli, Fabio

    2015-07-01

    The article focuses on the authors' autologous fat grafting technique and its application in regenerative treatment of different scars and ulcers. Although easy to perform, this surgical approach requires some technical procedures and specific management to maximize its effectiveness which are highlighted in the article. In the authors' experience, autologous fat graft has proved to be an efficient and safe procedure to treat scars of different origin demonstrating the capability of lipostructure to achieve an architectural remodeling and loose connective regeneration. PMID:26116940

  12. Carbon dioxide laser and Apligraf for a painful plantar hypertrophic scar.

    PubMed

    Lee, Daniel K; Serkin, Arnold L

    2004-01-01

    We report on a patient with a large, painful hypertrophic scar on the plantar aspect of the left foot who was treated with carbon dioxide laser and a skin substitute (Apligraf) and followed up for longer than 1 year. To our knowledge, no other case reports have been published on the use of a skin substitute to gain coverage and resolution after excision of a hypertrophic scar by carbon dioxide laser. PMID:14729994

  13. Is manual palpation of the uterine scar following vaginal birth after cesarean section (VBAC) helpful?

    PubMed

    Dinglas, C; Rafael, T J; Vintzileos, A

    2015-05-01

    Risk of uterine rupture with trial of labor after cesarean (TOLAC) is less than one percent. Discovery of uterine rupture often occurs during labor. In our case, the uterine scar is discovered to be ruptured during the postpartum period. The exact cause and time of uterine rupture is difficult to ascertain in this case, yet manual palpation of the uterine scar did not aid in the eventual diagnosis. PMID:24939626

  14. Remote sensing of smoke from MODIS airborne simulator during the SCAR-B experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Chu; Y. J. Kaufman; L. A. Remer; B. N. Holben

    1998-01-01

    MODIS (moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer) airborne simulator (MAS) data acquired during the SCAR-B (Smoke, Clouds, and Radiation-Brazil) experiment provide a test bed to evaluate aerosol retrievals for MODIS measurements over land. The SCAR-B MAS data covered forest and cerrado regions with varying smoke concentration as a result of fires in August-September, 1995. Excellent agreement is obtained by comparing the retrieved

  15. Getting beyond burning dirt

    SciTech Connect

    Mahoney, R.J. (Monsanto Co., St. Louis, MO (United States))

    1994-05-01

    To fix and make the nation's Superfund law work, two related questions must be answered. First, where will the innovative technology come from the clean up Superfund and other waste sites Burning dirt--the best technology currently available--is an expensive nonsolution. Second, can man muster the political will to make Superfund a waste cleanup law instead of an expanding welfare program for lawyers Under the sponsorship of EPA, a number of companies and other groups are participating in the Remediation Technology Development Forum, focusing on the areas where the real breakthroughs might occur and the most promising collaborations. Currently, this effort is focused on bioremediation, the lasagna process, soil flushing, and characterization. Another area of investigation is stabilization technology--stabilizing a site to keep contaminants from flowing away. Some scientists, for example, are looking at vitrification technology, which fuses contaminated soil into a glass-like brick. And still other technology efforts include air flushing of contaminated sites and vapor extraction and heating processes. A number of groups and consortia have been working on waste remediation technologies. For the first time since 1980, when Superfund became law, one can give positive answers to the two critical questions. Groups are finding innovative technologies to clean up Superfund and other waste sites. And, as a nation, Americans are exercising the political will to create a Superfund law that will work effectively and fairly.

  16. Burning coal's waste

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, J.M.; Duffy, T.J.

    1988-07-01

    In an old Pennsylvania coal valley, growing fresh produce and eliminating ancient waste piles both depend on a fluidized bed boiler cogeneration plant. The builders of a complex now nearing completion at Archbald, however, will soon begin to turn two of the waste piles, called culm banks, into economic assets. Culm will burn although it has a low, variable heat content. The project combines several recently developed technologies to use culm as fuel for a fluidized bed boiler cogeneration plant that will heat a hydroponic greenhouse. What makes the venture economically viable are the products that will be sold: 23 mw of electricity to the local utility and fresh produce to meet burgeoning demands in East Coast supermarkets. For instance, if the ''salad plant'' were completely devoted to growing lettuce, 3 million heads could be harvested in 11 hydroponic seasons a year. The owners, Archbald Power Corp., chose a 271 acre stie that had been mined for anthracite by both open pit and deep shaft methods.

  17. Refuse burning process

    SciTech Connect

    Lientz, laC.

    1983-08-23

    A process is provided for burning refuse containing polyvinyl chloride without the consequent production of phosgene. The refuse is carbonized in a rotary furnace at temperatures below 1200 degrees F., especially 700 degrees F., in an oxygen deficient atmosphere. A burnable gas containing the carbonized refuse is drawn from the furnace by an air jet wherein same is mixed with oxygen and selectively combusted. Uncarbonized refuse is collected and withdrawn after exiting the furnace. An apparatus is provided for combustion of the refuse in the nonphosgene generating process and includes the rotary furnace. Special seals are provided for the furnace to prevent excess oxygen from entering thereinto. In particular, the seals are utilized between the rotary ends of the furnace and stationary head associated with each end respectively. Each seal includes an upper and lower flap of fire resistant material secured to an end of the furnace and a companion flap of like material is secured to an associated end of the stationary head such that the intermediate flap sealably slides between the upper and lower flaps during rotation of the furnace thereby substantially sealing between the furnace and the stationary head.

  18. Enhanced in Vivo Delivery of 5-Fluorouracil by Ethosomal Gels in Rabbit Ear Hypertrophic Scar Model

    PubMed Central

    Wo, Yan; Zhang, Zheng; Zhang, Yixin; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Kan; Mao, Xiaohui; Su, Weijie; Li, Ke; Cui, Daxiang; Chen, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Applying Ethosomal Gels (EGs) in transdermal drug delivery systems has evoked considerable interest because of their good water-solubility and biocompatibility. However, there has not been an explicit description of applying EGs as a vehicle for hypertrophic scars treatment. Here, a novel transdermal EGs loaded with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU EGs) was successfully prepared and characterized. The stability assay in vitro revealed that 5-FU EGs stored for a period of 30 days at 4 ± 1 °C had a better size stability than that at 25 ± 1 °C. Furthermore, using confocal laser scanning microscopy, EGs labeled with Rhodamine 6 G penetrated into the deep dermis of the hypertrophic scar within 24 h in the rabbit ear hypertrophic model suggested that the EGs were an optional delivery carrier through scar tissues. In addition, the value of the Scar Elevation Index (SEI) of 5-FU EGs group in the rabbit ear scar model was lower than that of 5-FU Phosphate Buffered Saline gel and Control groups. To conclude, these results suggest that EGs delivery system loaded 5-fluorouracil is a perfect candidate drug for hypertrophic scars therapy in future. PMID:25501333

  19. The treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars with intralesional bleomycin in skin of color.

    PubMed

    Payapvipapong, Kittisak; Niumpradit, Nucha; Piriyanand, Chotinand; Buranaphalin, Sawanya; Nakakes, Artit

    2015-03-01

    Intralesional injection with corticosteroid remains the mainstay of therapy for hypertrophic scars and keloids, however some lesions are unresponsive or may result in skin atrophy. Intralesional bleomycin injection is an alternative therapy that has been widely reported. In order to compare the effectiveness and safety of bleomycin for the treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars in skin of color population, Fitzpatrick skin type III to V patients with keloids or hypertrophic scars were randomized into two groups. Group A was treated monthly with intralesional triamcinolone acetonide (10 mg/mL), while group B with intralesional bleomycin (1 mg/mL) for three consecutive months. Evaluation of the treatment was performed using "Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale" (POSAS), self-rated patient satisfaction score, photography, and ultrasonography. Two patients had their bleomycin blood levels monitored. Twenty-six patients with keloids or hypertrophic scars were recruited. The clinical improvement as assessed by the POSAS was not statistically significant. In terms of patients satisfaction score, one half of both groups reported a very good improvement. Photographic as well as ultrasonographic evaluation showed no difference between the two groups. Bleomycin was found to enter the blood circulation in a very small amount. The major side effect was hyperpigmentation. There was no skin atrophy detected in this study. Intralesional bleomycin is a safe and effective treatment for keloids and hypertrophic scars. The treatment is comparable to intralesional triamcinolone. Unfortunately, hyperpigmentation was the major side effect in darker skin type. PMID:25626920

  20. Olfactory ensheathing cell-neurite alignment enhances neurite outgrowth in scar-like cultures.

    PubMed

    Khankan, Rana R; Wanner, Ina B; Phelps, Patricia E

    2015-07-01

    The regenerative capacity of adult CNS neurons after injury is strongly inhibited by the spinal cord lesion site environment that is composed primarily of the reactive astroglial scar and invading meningeal fibroblasts. Olfactory ensheathing cell (OEC) transplantation facilitates neuronal survival and functional recovery after a complete spinal cord transection, yet the mechanisms by which this recovery occurs remain unclear. We used a unique multicellular scar-like culture model to test if OECs promote neurite outgrowth in growth-inhibitory areas. Astrocytes were mechanically injured and challenged by meningeal fibroblasts to produce key inhibitory elements of a spinal cord lesion. Neurite outgrowth of postnatal cerebral cortical neurons was assessed on three substrates: quiescent astrocyte control cultures, reactive astrocyte scar-like cultures, and scar-like cultures with OECs. Initial results showed that OECs enhanced total neurite outgrowth of cortical neurons in a scar-like environment by 60%. We then asked if the neurite growth-promoting properties of OECs depended on direct alignment between neuronal and OEC processes. Neurites that aligned with OECs were nearly three times longer when they grew on inhibitory meningeal fibroblast areas and twice as long on reactive astrocyte zones compared to neurites not associated with OECs. Our results show that OECs can independently enhance neurite elongation and that direct OEC-neurite cell contact can provide a permissive substrate that overcomes the inhibitory nature of the reactive astrocyte scar border and the fibroblast-rich spinal cord lesion core. PMID:25863021

  1. Hematogenous macrophage depletion reduces the fibrotic scar and increases axonal growth after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y; Soderblom, C; Krishnan, V; Ashbaugh, J; Bethea, J R; Lee, J K

    2015-02-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to formation of a fibrotic scar that is inhibitory to axon regeneration. Recent evidence indicates that the fibrotic scar is formed by perivascular fibroblasts, but the mechanism by which they are recruited to the injury site is unknown. Using bone marrow transplantation in mouse model of spinal cord injury, we show that fibroblasts in the fibrotic scar are associated with hematogenous macrophages rather than microglia, which are limited to the surrounding astroglial scar. Depletion of hematogenous macrophages results in reduced fibroblast density and basal lamina formation that is associated with increased axonal growth in the fibrotic scar. Cytokine gene expression analysis after macrophage depletion indicates that decreased Tnfsf8, Tnfsf13 (tumor necrosis factor superfamily members) and increased BMP1-7 (bone morphogenetic proteins) expression may serve as anti-fibrotic mechanisms. Our study demonstrates that hematogenous macrophages are necessary for fibrotic scar formation and macrophage depletion results in changes in multiple cytokines that make the injury site less fibrotic and more conducive to axonal growth. PMID:25461258

  2. AKAP12 Mediates Barrier Functions of Fibrotic Scars during CNS Repair

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Jong-Ho; Wee, Hee-Jun; Seo, Ji Hae; Ahn, Bum Ju; Park, Ji-Hyeon; Yang, Jun-Mo; Lee, Sae-Won; Kim, Eun Hee; Lee, Ok-Hee; Heo, Ji Hoe; Lee, Hyo-Jong; Gelman, Irwin H.; Arai, Ken; Lo, Eng H.; Kim, Kyu-Won

    2014-01-01

    The repair process after CNS injury shows a well-organized cascade of three distinct stages: inflammation, new tissue formation, and remodeling. In the new tissue formation stage, various cells migrate and form the fibrotic scar surrounding the lesion site. The fibrotic scar is known as an obstacle for axonal regeneration in the remodeling stage. However, the role of the fibrotic scar in the new tissue formation stage remains largely unknown. We found that the number of A-kinase anchoring protein 12 (AKAP12)-positive cells in the fibrotic scar was increased over time, and the cells formed a structure which traps various immune cells. Furthermore, the AKAP12-positive cells strongly express junction proteins which enable the structure to function as a physical barrier. In in vivo validation, AKAP12 knock-out (KO) mice showed leakage from a lesion, resulting from an impaired structure with the loss of the junction complex. Consistently, focal brain injury in the AKAP12 KO mice led to extended inflammation and more severe tissue damage compared to the wild type (WT) mice. Accordingly, our results suggest that AKAP12-positive cells in the fibrotic scar may restrict excessive inflammation, demonstrating certain mechanisms that could underlie the beneficial actions of the fibrotic scar in the new tissue formation stage during the CNS repair process. PMID:24760034

  3. Evaluation of the Effects of Honey on Acute-Phase Deep Burn Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Yukari; Mukai, Kanae; Nasruddin; Komatsu, Emi; Iuchi, Terumi; Kitayama, Yukie; Sugama, Junko; Nakatani, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to clarify the effects of honey on acute-phase deep burn wounds. Two deep burn wounds were created on mice which were divided into four groups: no treatment, silver sulfadiazine, manuka honey, and Japanese acacia honey. Wound sizes were calculated as expanded wound areas and sampled 30 minutes and 1–4 days after wounding for histological observation. The wound sections were subjected to hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistological staining to detect necrotic cells, apoptotic cells, neutrophils, and macrophages. The no treatment group formed a scar. The redness around the wound edges in the silver sulfadiazine group was the most intense. All groups exhibited increased wound areas after wounding. The proportions of necrotic cells and the numbers of neutrophils in the manuka and acacia honey groups were lower than those in the no treatment and silver sulfadiazine groups until day 3; however, there were no significant differences between all groups on day 4. These results show that honey treatment on deep burn wounds cannot prevent wound progression. Moreover, comparing our observations with those of Jackson, there are some differences between humans and animals in this regard, and the zone of hyperemia and its surrounding area fall into necrosis, which contributes to burn wound progression. PMID:24348720

  4. Expression of DNA repair genes in burned skin exposed to low-level red laser.

    PubMed

    Trajano, Eduardo Tavares Lima; Mencalha, Andre Luiz; Monte-Alto-Costa, Andréa; Pôrto, Luís Cristóvão; de Souza da Fonseca, Adenilson

    2014-11-01

    Although red laser lights lie in the region of non-ionizing radiations in the electromagnetic spectrum, there are doubts whether absorption of these radiations causes lesions in the DNA molecule. Our aim was to investigate the expression of the genes involved with base excision and nucleotide excision repair pathways in skin tissue submitted to burn injury and exposed to low-level red laser. Wistar rats were divided as follows: control group-rats burned and not irradiated, laser group-rats burned and irradiated 1 day after injury for five consecutive days, and later laser group-rats injured and treated 4 days after injury for five consecutive days. Irradiation was performed according to a clinical protocol (20 J/cm(2), 100 mW, continuous wave emission mode). The animals were sacrificed on day 10, and scarred tissue samples were withdrawn for total RNA extraction, complementary DNA (cDNA) synthesis, and evaluation of gene expression by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Low-level red laser exposure (1) reduces the expression of APE1 messenger (mRNA), (2) increases the expression of OGG1 mRNA, (3) reduces the expression of XPC mRNA, and (4) increases the expression of XPA mRNA both in laser and later laser groups. Red laser exposure at therapeutic fluences alters the expression of genes related to base excision and nucleotide excision pathways of DNA repair during wound healing of burned skin. PMID:24930134

  5. Combined reflectance confocal microscopy/optical coherence tomography imaging for skin burn assessment

    PubMed Central

    Iftimia, Nicusor; Ferguson, R. Daniel; Mujat, Mircea; Patel, Ankit H.; Zhang, Ellen Ziyi; Fox, William; Rajadhyaksha, Milind

    2013-01-01

    A combined high-resolution reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM)/optical coherence tomography (OCT) instrument for assessing skin burn gravity has been built and tested. This instruments allows for visualizing skin intracellular details with submicron resolution in the RCM mode and morphological and birefringence modifications to depths on the order of 1.2 mm in the OCT mode. Preliminary testing of the dual modality imaging approach has been performed on the skin of volunteers with some burn scars and on normal and thermally-injured Epiderm FTTM skin constructs. The initial results show that these two optical technologies have complementary capabilities that can offer the clinician a set of clinically comprehensive parameters: OCT helps to visualize deeper burn injuries and possibly quantify collagen destruction by measuring skin birefringence, while RCM provides submicron details of the integrity of the epidermal layer and identifies the presence of the superficial blood flow in the upper dermis. Therefore, the combination of these two technologies within the same instrument may provide a more comprehensive set of parameters that may help clinicians to more objectively and nonivasively assess burn injury gravity by determining tissue structural integrity and viability. PMID:23667785

  6. Prescribed Range Burning in Texas 

    E-print Network

    White, Larry D.; Hanselka, C. Wayne

    2000-04-25

    Prescribed burning is an effective brush management technique for improving pasture accessibility and increasing the production of forage and browse. Fire also suppresses most brush and cactus species. This bulletin discusses how to plan...

  7. Phoenix Society for Burn Survivors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Create a Legacy Join Team Phoenix Phoenix Store Who We Are Our History Our Leadership Team Financial Accountability Phoenix ... World Burn Congress Get Involved Ways to Give Who We Are Quick Links Media Blog Contact Legal Privacy Policy ...

  8. Mcm Burn-In Experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Bardsley; Joseph Lisowski; Steven Wilson; Steve Vanaernam

    1994-01-01

    Multi-chip module burn-in has been utilized at IBM for several years. The current module bum-in tool stresses 121 chip multi-chip modules used in the IBM ES\\/9000 mainframes. MCM level burn-in has been performed on alumina and glass-ceramic substrates with bipolar and CMOS chip technologies resulting in various challenges to tool design and process development. This paper will focus on the

  9. Chemical burns: pathophysiology and treatment.

    PubMed

    Palao, R; Monge, I; Ruiz, M; Barret, J P

    2010-05-01

    Chemical burns continue to pose a variety of dilemmas to the clinician managing such cases. Assessment of burn depth is often difficult and the decision whether to excise the wound early is not always clear-cut. In this updated review, common agents are classified and the basic principles of management and specific recommendations are examined. The complications arising from exposure to these chemicals and the supportive measures needed during treatment are also described. PMID:19864073

  10. Burning Questions About a Candle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-07-17

    In this activity, learners will observe a deceptively simple process: a burning candle. In fact, what takes place during the initiation and dynamically stable combustion process is enormously complex. This activity gives learners important insights into basic physics and chemistry, and shows learners the importance of critical observations. The link to this activity is on the left hand side, under "Activities," and is called "How a Candle Burns." Adult supervision required.

  11. Smokeless burning system and method

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, R.E.

    1988-10-04

    This patent describes a system for burning wood and other fuel materials: an elongated, pivotally mounted burning chamber having inlet and outlet ends and being capable of being tilted to different angles of inclination to facilitate movement of material through the chamber, an accumulation chamber at the inlet end of the burning chamber, a hopper for receiving fuel material to be burned, an air lock chamber positioned between the hopper and the accumulation chamber, a first gate between the hopper and the air lock chamber for passing the fuel material from the hopper to the air lock chamber when opened and preventing the passage of smoke from the air lock chamber to the hopper when closed, a second gate between the air lock chamber and the accumulation chamber for passing the fuel material from the air lock chamber to the accumulation chamber when opened and preventing the passage of smoke from the burning chamber to the air lock chamber when closed, and means for pushing the fuel material from the accumulation chamber into the inlet end of the burning chamber and thereby causing material already in the chamber to move down the inclined chamber toward the outlet end.

  12. Nitramine propellants. [gun propellant burning rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, N. S.; Strand, L. D. (inventors)

    1978-01-01

    Nitramine propellants without a pressure exponent shift in the burning rate curves are prepared by matching the burning rate of a selected nitramine or combination of nitramines within 10% of burning rate of a plasticized active binder so as to smooth out the break point appearance in the burning rate curve.

  13. [Methotrexate to treat SAPHO syndrome with keloidal scars].

    PubMed

    Azevedo, V F; Dal Pizzol, V I; Lopes, H; Coelho, S P; Czeczko, L E A

    2011-01-01

    SAPHO syndrome is an uncommon clinical entity, recently described in literature, which usually affects children, young adults and middle-aged people. It is defined by the association of skin lesions (severe acne, palmo-plantar pustulosis, supurative hidradenitis), synovitis, hiperosthosis and osteitis; however, not all manifestations are required for correct diagnosis. We report a currently forty-two year-old man who initiated follow-up in 1992 for severe acne. His diagnosis changed along the years and has been treated with antibiotics many times to control pustule formation and hidrosadenitis, which evolved to keloidal scars, requiring neck zethaplasty due to limitation of mobility. In 1996 isotretinoin was started, with good response to treatment but recurrence after its completion. Ten years later, isotretinoin was being used again due to worsening clinical picture when the patient developed polyarthritis, lost 11kg in 3 months and was found to have an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate. SAPHO syndrome was then diagnosed by the Rheumatology clinic, which started methotrexate at 10mg per week to a good clinical response. Several cutaneous and articular flares have occurred since, however he is now clinically stable with methotrexate 20mg per week and finasteride 5mg per day. SAPHO syndrome is a rare disease and its diagnosis is often late and difficult. In this case, skin lesions preceded arthritis in several years and have been resistant to other common treatments. The patient had a better improve after initiation of methotrexate. Although the skin disease has evolved to keloids, the patient has had excellent treatment response. PMID:21841736

  14. Late outcomes after grafting of the severely burned face: a quality improvement initiative.

    PubMed

    Philp, Lauren; Umraw, Nisha; Cartotto, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Many approaches to surgical management of the severely burned face are described, but there are few objective outcome studies. The purpose of this study was to perform a detailed evaluation of the late outcomes in adult patients who have undergone grafting using a standardized surgical and rehabilitation approach for full-thickness (FT) facial burns to identify areas for improvement in the treatment strategy of authors. This was a prospective observational study in which patients who had undergone grafting for FT facial burns by the senior investigator at a regional burn centre between 1999 and 2010 were examined by a single evaluator. The surgical approach included tangential excision based on the facial aesthetic units, temporary cover with allograft then autografting with scalp skin preferentially, split grafts for the upper eyelid, and FT grafts for the lower eyelid. Rehabilitation included compression (uvex and or soft cloth), scar massage, and silicone gel sheeting. Of 35 patients with facial grafts, 14 subjects (age 43 ± 16 years with 22 ± 21% TBSA burns) returned for late follow-up at 40 ± 33 months (range, 5-91 months). A mean of four facial aesthetic units per patient were grafted (range, 1-9 units), with six full facial grafts performed. Scalp was used as donor in 10 of 14 cases. Scalp donor sites were well tolerated with minor alopecia visible in only one case although the donor site visibly extended slightly past the hairline in two cases. Color match with native skin was rated at 8.8 ± 0.8 of 10 when scalp skin was used compared with 7.5 ± 1.6 with other donor sites (P = .06). On the lip and chin, hypertrophic scars were significantly worse compared with the rest of the facial grafts (Vancouver scar scale 8 ± 2 vs 3 ± 1, P < .01). Sensory recovery was poor with overall moving two-point discrimination at 11 ± 3 mm (range, 4-15 mm), and monofilament light touch was 3.8 ± 0.6. Graft borders were significantly more elevated than graft seams. On the forehead, the most notable problem was a gap between the graft and hairlines of the frontal scalp and eyebrows (range, 0-40 mm). Grafted eyelids required one or more subsequent ectropion releases in the majority of cases. The most common problem for the nose was asymmetry of the nostril apertures. The most problematic late outcomes that the authors identified after facial grafting for FT facial burns included relatively poor sensory return, elevation of graft edges, eyelid ectropion, gaps between grafts and hairline, and marked hypertrophic scarring around the mouth and chin. The results indicate that possible areas for quality improvement include greater attention to the limits of scalp harvest, more attention to pressure application to graft borders and the lip and chin during rehabilitation, greater accuracy in excision and graft placement on the forehead to avoid gaps with the hairlines, and counseling of the patient regarding the high probability of diminished facial sensation. PMID:22002207

  15. Strategies for prevention of scars: what can we learn from fetal skin?

    PubMed

    Namazi, Mohammad Reza; Fallahzadeh, Mohammad Kazem; Schwartz, Robert A

    2011-01-01

    Fetal wound healing occurs rapidly and without scar formation early in gestation. Studying the mechanisms of scarless repair can lead to novel scar-preventive approaches. In fetal wounds, collagen is deposited early and is fine and reticular with less cross-linking. Several important differences of fetal vs. postgestational wound-healing response have been determined, such as the presence of less inflammation, higher hyaluronic acid concentration and a greater ratio of collagen type III to type I. Compared with typical wounds, there are also altered ratios of signaling molecules, such as higher ratios of transforming growth factor (TGF)-?3 to TGF-?1 and -?2, and matrix metalloproteinases to tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases. Furthermore, fetal fibroblasts do not exhibit TGF-?1-induced collagen production compared with their mature counterparts. Patterning genes (homeobox genes) involved in organogenesis are more active in the fetal period and are believed to be the "first domino" in the fetal cutaneous wound repair regulatory cascade. The recommended scar-preventive agents, such as Scarguard MD®, silicone gel and sheet, Seprafilm® Bioresorbable Membrane, topical hyaluronan, onion extract, oral tamoxifen and 585-nm pulsed dye laser are reviewed in this study. Despite the lack of supporting evidence, there is a widespread false presumption that the acceleration of healing with the widely assumed scar-preventive commercial agents is associated with decreased scar formation. Humans are erroneously inclined to make a negative correlation between the healing rate and the degree of scar formation, while such a correlation does not exist in reality. Despite the importance of scar prevention, no FDA-approved therapy for this purpose is available in the 21st century, which reflects the important challenges, such as the presence of redundant pathways, that these approaches are facing. PMID:21039435

  16. Evaluating the Efficacy of Photodynamic Therapy with 20% Aminolevulinic Acid and Microdermabrasion as a Combination Treatment Regimen for Acne Scarring

    PubMed Central

    Jim On, Shelbi; Haddican, Madelaine; Singer, Giselle; Shim-Chang, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Acne scarring is a consequence of abnormal resolution of wound healing after damage that occurs in the sebaceous follicle during acne inflammation. No trial to date has evaluated the efficacy of the combination of microdermabrasion and photodynamic therapy for acne scarring. This single-center, double-blinded pilot study enrolled subjects with moderate-to-severe acne scarring who were randomly assigned in a blinded fashion to use aminolevulinic acid and vehicle in a split-face fashion after full-face treatment with microdermabrasion. On average, 80 percent of the patients displayed more improvement in scarring on the aminolevulinic acid split face versus the vehicle split face after five treatments. Using two different noninvasive mechanisms of targeting acne scarring provided for a safe treatment regimen characterized by more efficacious results with respect to higher rates of scarring improvement. PMID:24847407

  17. Management of acne scarring, part II: a comparative review of non-laser-based, minimally invasive approaches.

    PubMed

    Levy, Lauren L; Zeichner, Joshua A

    2012-10-01

    Acne scarring is a commonly encountered yet extremely challenging problem to treat for the dermatologist. As acne scarring can lead to significant psychological distress and low self-esteem, it is of utmost importance to have effective and satisfying treatments in the physician's armamentarium. However, many treatments are unsatisfying, leading to patient disappointment and frustration. Although early treatment of acne lesions and inflammation with isotretinoin is beneficial in preventing acne scarring, many patients still present with troubling noticeable scars. Despite the advances in pharmacology and technology, scar treatment still remains suboptimal and is tainted with several adverse effects. However, some treatments can provide benefits. This review article exhaustively discusses and analyzes the various minimally invasive approaches to the treatment of acne scarring with an emphasis on pharmacologic agents, such as isotretinoin for atrophic acne scars and corticosteroids and chemotherapeutic drugs for hypertrophic scars. Intralesional injections of corticosteroids are efficacious in reducing keloid scar formation in addition to preventing recurrence following surgical excision. In-office and minimally invasive procedural management, including chemical peels, dermabrasion, tissue augmentation, and punch excision is also discussed. Superficial chemical peels are efficacious in treating atrophic scars with relatively few adverse effects and complications. Although dermabrasion is used less often with the advent of laser resurfacing, this technique remains as a viable option for those with atrophic scars. Post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation can be managed successfully with topical agents such as azelaic acid and hydroquinone. The efficacy of various treatment modalities is highlighted with a focus on choosing the correct modalities for specific scar types. PMID:22849351

  18. Peridural scar and its relation to clinical outcome: a randomised study on surgically treated lumbar disc herniation patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katarina Rönnberg; B. Lind; B. Zoega; G. Gadeholt-Göthlin; K. Halldin; M. Gellerstedt; H. Brisby

    2008-01-01

    A prospective randomised 2-year follow-up study on patients undergoing lumbar disc herniation surgery. The objective was to\\u000a investigate the relationship between peridural scarring and clinical outcome, the scar development 6 and 24 months postoperatively\\u000a by using MRI, and if ADCON-L (a bioresorbable carbohydrate polymer gel) has an effect on scar size and\\/or improve patients’\\u000a outcome after lumbar disc herniation surgery. The

  19. Developing a trial burn plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Walter S.; Wong, Tony; Williams, Gary L.; Brintle, David G.

    1991-04-01

    The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) was designed to ensure that incineration facilities which treat hazardous wastes operate in an environmentally responsible manner. Under the requirements of RCRA, a trial burn must be conducted in order to obtain a fmalized operating permit. A trial burn is a test which determines whether an incinerator is capable of meeting or exceeding RCRA performance standards. If the standards are met, then the trial burn should identify the operating conditions necessary to ensure the incinerator's ability to meet or exceed the performance standards throughout the life of the permit. Development of the trial burn must incorporate interests of both the permit writer and the applicant. The permit writer wishes to obtain sufficient data necessary to establish the final permit conditions. The applicant wishes to obtain a final permit which allows the greatest flexibility of incinerator operating parameters. The areas of interest to be discussed, which allow the applicant and permit writer to achieve their goals, include understanding the problem, selecting a waste feed, choosing the principal organic hazardous constituents (POHCs), determining operating conditions, choosing appropriate sampling methods, and obtaining representative samples (QAIQC). The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of what is required to develop a trial burn plan.

  20. [Primary treatment of burn patients].

    PubMed

    Giessler, G A; Deb, R; Germann, G; Sauerbier, M

    2004-06-01

    Burn injuries can be caused by thermal, electrical, chemical, or mechanical trauma or radiation and are relatively rare, as they represent only about 1% of all emergencies. They are caused by accidents at home, during recreational activities, or in the occupational environment. Minor burn traumas are much more common than severe burn injuries with their systemic and potentially life-threatening effects. Altogether, these circumstances may result in a lack of routine for treating such injuries properly by physicians and their colleagues in the emergency room or intensive care unit. A clearly outlined concept for preclinical and clinical treatment can be the keystone of successful further clinical progress. The following article summarizes the current guidelines for first medical aid at the injury scene, burn stabilization and assessment in the emergency room, and the interdisciplinary approach for further clinical care. The treatment of dermatologic emergencies (acute epidermolytic syndromes) or caustic injuries by chemical agents is similar to the treatment of burn victims in many aspects but must be adapted in selected cases. PMID:15103423

  1. Comparison of the Effectiveness of Nonablative Fractional Laser versus Pulsed-Dye Laser in Thyroidectomy Scar Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Ji Min; Kim, Han Su; Cho, Eun Byul; Park, Gyeong Hun; Kim, Kwang Ho; Kim, Lee Su; Kim, Kwang Joong

    2014-01-01

    Background The anterior neck is the site of open thyroidectomy and where postoperative scarring can cause distress to patients. Both fractional and pulsed-dye lasers are effective and safe methods for preventing and improving surgical scars. Objective This study evaluated the improvement in scar appearance with laser intervention during the wound healing process. We evaluated the effect of nonablative fractional and pulsed-dye lasers on fresh thyroidectomy scars. Methods Patients were treated 3 times at 4-week interval with a follow-up visit at the 6th month. Scars were divided into 2 halves for each optional treatment. At every visit, a questionnaire evaluating the scar and patient satisfaction was completed. Results Thirty patients completed the 6-month process. The mean Vancouver Scar Scale scores improved significantly from 8.0 to 4.6 and 8.2 to 4.7 with nonablative fractional and pulsed-dye lasers, respectively (p<0.001). However, there was no significant difference between the 2 methods (p=0.840). Conclusion There remains no consensus on the optimal treatment of scars. The present study indicates nonablative fractional and pulsed-dye lasers significantly improve scars. Nonablative fractional lasers are non-inferior to pulsed-dye lasers. Further studies are required to corroborate this finding. PMID:25324655

  2. Comparison of contracture, adhesion, tissue ingrowth, and histologic response characteristics of permanent and absorbable barrier meshes in a porcine model of laparoscopic ventral hernia repair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. R. Deeken; B. D. Matthews

    Purpose  The objective of this study was to determine the mesh contracture, adhesion, tissue ingrowth, and histologic characteristics\\u000a of a novel absorbable barrier mesh (Ventrio™ ST Hernia Patch) compared to existing permanent (Ventrio™ Hernia Patch) and absorbable barrier meshes (Sepramesh™ IP Composite and PROCEED™ Surgical Mesh).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Standard laparoscopic technique was utilized to bilaterally implant meshes in 20 female Yorkshire pigs (n = 5

  3. Inactivation of salmonella on tomato stem scars by edible chitosan and organic Acid coatings.

    PubMed

    Jin, T; Gurtler, J B

    2012-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of antimicrobial coatings for inactivation of Salmonella on the surface of tomato stem scars. Scars were inoculated with a four-strain cocktail of Salmonella (serovars Montevideo, Newport, Saintpaul, and Typhimurium) and coated with acid-chitosan solutions. The chitosan coating with three acids (3A plus chitosan), the chitosan coating with one acid, and the three-acid solution without chitosan reduced the populations of Salmonella by 6.0, 3.6, and 5.3 log CFU per stem scar, respectively. Addition of allyl isothiocyanate (10 ?l/ml) to the 3A plus chitosan coating did not significantly increase (P > 0.05) the antimicrobial efficacy. Although the populations of Salmonella in the controls (ca. 7.5 log CFU per stem scar) did not change significantly throughout the 14-day storage period at 10° C, Salmonella cells were reduced to undetectable levels (< 0.7 log CFU per stem scar) in the samples treated with 3A plus chitosan coating after two days of storage, and no growth was observed for the remaining storage period. Results from this study demonstrate that coatings of acid plus chitosan provide an alternative antimicrobial intervention for decontamination of tomatoes. PMID:22856559

  4. Droplet burning at zero G

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, F. A.

    1978-01-01

    Questions of the importance and feasibility of performing experiments on droplet burning at zero gravity in Spacelab were studied. Information on the physics and chemistry of droplet combustion, with attention directed specifically to the chemical kinetics, heat and mass transfer, and fluid mechanics of the phenomena involved, are presented. The work was divided into three phases, the justification, the feasibility, and the conceptual development of a preliminary design. Results from the experiments performed revealed a few new facts concerning droplet burning, notably burning rates in excess of theoretical prediction and a phenomenon of flash extinction, both likely traceable to accumulation of carbon produced by gas-phase pyrolysis in the fuel-rich zone enclosed by the reaction surface. These experiments also showed that they were primarily due to timing difficulties.

  5. Burn Control Mechanisms in Tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Maxwell; Stacey, Weston

    2013-10-01

    Burn control and passive safety in accident scenarios will be an important design consideration in future tokamaks, especially those used as a neutron source for fusion-fission hybrid reactors, such as the Subcritical Advanced Burner Reactor (SABR) concept. At Georgia Tech, we are developing a new burning plasma dynamics code to investigate passive safety mechanisms that could prevent power excursions in tokamak reactors. This code solves the coupled set of balance equations governing burning plasmas in conjunction with a two-point SOL-divertor model. Predictions have been benchmarked against data from DIII-D. We are examining several potential negative feedback mechanisms to limit power excursions: i) ion-orbit loss, ii) thermal instabilities, iii) the degradation of alpha-particle confinement resulting from ripples in the toroidal field, iv) modifications to the radial current profile, v) ``divertor choking'' and vi) Type 1 ELMs.

  6. Conducting a Prescribed Burn and Prescribed Burning Checklist

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grasslands of the central Great Plains developed with periodic fire. Prescribed burning is an important tool for managing grasslands to maintain desirable species composition, increase grazing livestock performance, maintain productivity, and control invasive weeds. The safe and effective use of pre...

  7. Management of acne scars: fulfilling our duty of care for patients.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Viera, M

    2015-07-01

    Inflammatory lesions commonly associated with acne have a propensity to form scars which can substantially impact an individual's quality of life. As a result of variations in collagen levels during the wound-healing process, different types of scars can form requiring a tailored approach to treatment; treatment success depends on the modality of the treatment chosen. Here, I briefly discuss the different acne scar types, and their relationship with skin anatomy and histology, in relation to the different treatment options available. This paper was developed to accompany my state of the art presentation at 'The Changing Faces of Acne' meeting in June 2014 and I aim to share my personal experiences in order to offer guidance for appropriate treatment decisions. PMID:25597636

  8. Could Pyelonephritic Scarring Be Prevented by Anti-Inflammatory Treatment? An Experimental Model of Acute Pyelonephritis

    PubMed Central

    Bahat Özdo?an, Elif; Özdemir, Tu?ba; Arslansoyu Çamlar, Seçil; ?mamo?lu, Mustafa; Çobano?lu, Ümit; Sönmez, Bircan; Tosun, ?lknur; Do?an, ?smail

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. This study aimed to demonstrate if the addition of anti-inflammatory treatment to antibiotic therapy shows any superiority to the treatment with antibiotic only. Methods. Forty-nine Wistar rats were divided into 7 groups. Pyelonephritis was performed by E. coli injection to upper pole of kidneys except control group. Group 2 was not treated. Ceftriaxone, ketoprofen, “ceftriaxone + ketoprofen,” methylprednisolone, and “ceftriaxone + methylprednisolone” were given in the groups. The technetium-99m-dimercaptosuccinic acid scintigraphies were performed in 3rd day to detect pyelonephritis and 10th week to detect renal scarring. All kidneys were also histopathologically evaluated. Results. When 3rd day and 10th week scintigraphies were compared, initial 2.00 ± 0.30 point pyelonephritis score resulted in 0.71 ± 0.36 renal scar score in “ceftriaxone + ketoprofen” group (P = 0.039). Initial 2.00 ± 0.43 point pyelonephritis score resulted in 0.86 ± 0.26 renal scar score in “ceftriaxone + methylprednisolone” group (P = 0.041). Renal scar score was declined in “ceftriaxone + ketoprofen” group and “ceftriaxone + methylprednisolone” group compared with no-treatment group on 10th week of the study (P = 0.026, P = 0.044). On histopathological evaluation, it was seen that renal scar prevalence and expansion declined significantly in “ceftriaxone + ketoprofen and ceftriaxone + methylprednisolone” (P = 0.011, P = 0.023). Conclusion. It was evidenced that ceftriaxone treatment in combination with ketoprofen or methylprednisolone declined scar formation in scintigraphic and histopathologic examinations of the kidneys. PMID:25105116

  9. Mating scars reveal mate size in immature female blue shark Prionace glauca.

    PubMed

    Calich, H J; Campana, S E

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the size and maturity status of the male blue sharks Prionace glauca attempting to mate with small, immature females in the north-west Atlantic Ocean. The relationship between male curved fork length (LFC ) and jaw gape was used in conjunction with the diameter of the mating scar to estimate the LFC and infer the maturity status of the male shark that produced the mating scar. The results indicate that mature males with a mean ± s.d. LFC of 218 cm ± 23 cm were attempting to mate with sexually immature females. PMID:25903032

  10. Cutaneous cytomegalovirus infection on multi dermatomal herpes zoster scars: an isotopic immune response.

    PubMed

    Katibi, O S; Dlova, N C; Mosam, A

    2015-01-01

    As more patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are surviving, despite severe immune suppression, clinicians are faced with atypical manifestations of both common and uncommon dermatoses. A 30-year-old black South African woman presented with a 10-month history of multiple chronic ulcers appearing on a multidermatomal herpes zoster (HZ) scar. The woman was infected with HIV, and her CD4 count was 45 cells/?L. Histology and PCR revealed cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. This case highlights an unusual presentation of cutaneous CMV occurring as an isotopic immune response on a pre-existing multidermatomal HZ scar. PMID:25266481

  11. Sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) analysis on DNA from the three medicinal Echinacea species.

    PubMed

    Adinolfi, Barbara; Chicca, Andrea; Martinotti, Enrica; Breschi, Maria C; Nieri, Paola

    2007-01-01

    In our previous study, RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) analysis revealed species-specific markers for three medicinal Echinacea species (Asteraceae): E. angustifolia DC., E. pallida (Nutt.) Nutt. and E. purpurea (L.) Moench. In the present work, we have converted a RAPD marker (750 bp) for E. purpurea into a SCAR (Sequence Characterized Amplified Region) marker. SCAR-PCR, in fact, revealed the expected amplicon (330 bp) only in E. purpurea and not in the other two species, giving further evidence for differences in medicinal Echinacea spp. genome and confirming a greater similarity between E. pallida and angustifolia. PMID:17067760

  12. Management of Unilateral Masseter Hypertrophy and Hypertrophic Scar—A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Naresh; Malaviya, Rajanikanth K.; Gupta, M. K.

    2012-01-01

    Masseter muscle hypertrophy is a rare condition of idiopathic cause. It clinically presents as an enlargement of one or both masseter muscles. Most patients complain of facial asymmetry; however, symptoms such as trismus, protrusion, and bruxism may also occur. Several treatment options reported for masseter hypertrophy are present, which range from simple pharmacotherapy to more invasive surgical reduction. Keloid scar with unilateral masseter hypertrophy is a rarely seen in clinical practice. This paper reports a case of unilateral masseter hypertrophy with keloid scar in the angle of the mandible for which surgical treatment was rendered to the patient by using a single approach. PMID:22844620

  13. A single mutation that results in an Asp to His substitution and partial exon skipping in a family with congenital contractural arachnodactyly.

    PubMed

    Babcock, D; Gasner, C; Francke, U; Maslen, C

    1998-07-01

    Congenital contractural arachnodactyly (CCA) is an autosomal dominant disorder of connective tissue and is characterized by multiple congenital contractures, arachnodactyly, and external ear malformations. Recent investigations indicate that mutations in the fibrillin-2 gene (FBN2) cause CCA. Here, we report a G-->C transversion at nucleotide 3340 (G3340C) of FBN2 in a family with phenotypic characteristics of CCA. The G3340C mutation predicts the substitution of histidine for aspartic acid at amino acid residue 1114 (Asp1114His) and also alters the 5' donor splice site consensus sequence of exon 25. Reverse transcription/polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequence analyses demonstrate that this missense mutation also causes low level in-frame mis-splicing of exon 25 (del exon 25). Consequently, this single point mutation produces a heterogeneous population of mutant fibrillin-2 molecules in a single individual. Despite the complex manifestation of the mutation, it is associated with a relatively mild phenotype. Analysis of FBN2 allele expression in cultured dermal fibroblasts derived from the proband has shown that the mutant allele is preferentially expressed, contributing about 84% of the total transcript. This indicates that an overabundance of mutant transcript does not necessarily correlate with a more severe CCA phenotype. PMID:9737771

  14. Collagen cross-linking by adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells and scar-derived mesenchymal cells: Are mesenchymal stromal cells involved in scar formation?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bogaerdt van den A. J; Veen van der A. G; Paul P. M. van Zuijlen; Linda Reijnen; Michelle Verkerk; Ruud A. Bank; Esther Middelkoop; Magda M. W. Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    In this work, different fibroblast-like (mesenchymal) cell populations that might be involved in wound healing were characterized and their involvement in scar formation was studied by determining collagen synthesis and processing. Depending on the physical and mechanical properties of the tissues, specific collagen cross-linking routes are followed. In skin the cross-linking of the pyridinium type is normally very low; however,

  15. Methoxyflurane analgesia for burns dressings

    PubMed Central

    Packer, Kathleen J.

    1972-01-01

    The requirements for analgesia for burns dressings are discussed. Methoxyflurane has proved satisfactory in a clinical trial, and can be administered by one of two types of vaporizer. The possibility of nephrotoxicity due to methoxyflurane has not been eliminated. PMID:5024149

  16. Deepwater Horizon Controlled Oil Burn

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    OFF THE LOUISIANA COAST — A controlled burn of oil from the Deepwater Horizon/BP oil spill sends towers of fire hundreds of feet into the air over the Gulf of Mexico. U.S. Coast Guard Photo by Petty Officer First Class John Masson....

  17. Suicidal burn in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Chan, R C; Burd, A

    2012-09-01

    The aim of our study is to review our experience in the management of patients who sustained burns associated with suicidal attempts over a 10-year period. In particular, we look into the outcome and incidence of self-harm/suicide after discharge among the survivors. Thirty-one patients with median age 36 years, ranging from 10 to 74, were included. Twenty-three (74%) were males and eight (26%) were females. Nearly three quarters (74%) of our patients had a known history of psychiatric illness: 11 had known history of substance abuse; 3 of them had drug-induced psychosis; 6 had schizophrenia; 5 had depression; 4 had personality disorders; 1 had pathological gambling and another one had adjustment disorder. Relationship problems and work/financial difficulties were the commonest reason for the suicidal attempts. Self-inflicted flame burn was the most frequent (39%; 12 patients) method of burning. Six patients (19%) died. The remaining 25 patients healed and were discharged. Seventeen patients required ICU care. The median length of stay in ICU was 7 days. The overall median length of stay was 35 days. The median follow up time for those survived is 63 months. Only 4 of these patients had further suicidal/parasuicidal attempts. Despite the high mortality, once these patients survived the initial injury, they are unlikely to commit suicide again. Thus, we believe that aggressive resuscitation should therefore be advocated for all suicidal burn patients. PMID:22360959

  18. Furnance for burning flammable particles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Comtois

    1985-01-01

    There is disclosed a furnace for burning wooden wastes and, more specifically, sawdust and\\/or barks. The furnace is provided with an oil burner required for starting the fire. The draught from the oil burner fan is directed within a perforated box, located in the combustion chamber of the furnace, and the sawdust or the barks or other wooden particles fall,

  19. Spectral hole burning in polysilanes

    SciTech Connect

    Trommsdorff, H.P.; Zeigler, J.M.; Hochstrasser, R.M.

    1988-10-01

    The first observation of hole burning in the optical spectra of delocalized polymer backbone states is reported. The polymer chosen for this study is poly-(di-n-hexyl)-silane, consisting of chains of roughly 5100 silicon atoms. Absorption spectra of polysilane in solution at 1.6K and 77K are reported.(AIP)

  20. Burning Mouth Syndrome and Menopause

    PubMed Central

    Dahiya, Parveen; Kamal, Reet; Kumar, Mukesh; Niti; Gupta, Rajan; Chaudhary, Karun

    2013-01-01

    Menopause is a physiological process typically occurring in the fifth decade of life. One of the most annoying oral symptoms in this age group is the burning mouth syndrome (BMS), which may be defined as an intraoral burning sensation occurring in the absence of identifiable oral lesion or laboratory findings. Pain in burning mouth syndrome may be described as burning, tender, tingling, hot, scalding, and numb sensation in the oral mucosa. Multiple oral sites may be involved, but the anterior two-third part and the tip of tongue are most commonly affected site. There is no definite etiology for BMS other than the precipitating causative factors, and it is still considered idiopathic. Various treatment options like use of benzodiazepine, anti-depressants, analgesics, capsaicin, alpha lipoic acids, and cognitive behavioral therapy are found to be effective, but definite treatment is still unknown. The present article discusses some of the recent concepts of etiopathogenesis of BMS as well as the role of pharmacotherapeutic management in this disorder. PMID:23411996