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1

PARTICULATE COLLECTION PROBLEMS IN CONVERTING TO LOW SULFUR COALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Problems encountered in burning low-sulfur coal in electrical utility power plant boilers are discussed. Operating experience with electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), fabric filter baghouses, and wet scrubbers for control of fly ash stack emissions and techniques for improving pe...

2

Abundance and modes of occurrence of mercury in some low-sulfur coals from China  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mercury (Hg) is one of the hazardous trace elements in coal. Mercury in coal is almost totally emitted into the atmosphere during coal combustion. Especially for utilities burning low-sulfur coals that do not require scrubbers, Hg reduction will be neglected. Hg abundances of 52 low-sulfur coal samples from different coalfields in six provinces of China were determined by a flow injection mercury system (FIMS). The results show that Hg abundances in selected low-sulfur coals range from 0.03??ppm to 0.79??ppm, with an arithmetic mean of 0.24??ppm, which is higher than that of average Chinese coals (0.19??ppm). Correlation analysis and sequential extraction procedures are performed to study possible modes of occurrence of Hg in low-sulfur coals. Modes of occurrence of Hg are variable in low-sulfur coals, and the sulfide-bound and organic-bound Hg may be the dominant forms. In addition, the silicate-bound Hg may be the main form in some of these coals because of magmatic intrusion. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Zheng, L.; Liu, Guilin; Chou, C.-L.

2008-01-01

3

A novel coal feeder for production of low sulfur fuel  

SciTech Connect

A novel coal feeding system is currently undergoing testing and evaluation at the University of Cincinnati. The system consists primarily of an auger feed tube which is used to both convey and provide desulfurization of a high sulfur coal feedstock. The coal is conveyed at temperatures ranging from 350 to 550 {degrees}C and under normal atmospheric pressure. Under these mild processing conditions, the coal partially pyrolizes and emits sulfur in the form of hydrogen sulfide while maintaining a relatively high heating value in the char product. The evolved gases are evacuated from the reactor (the feed tube) to another absorbing bed where H{sub 2}S reacts with the sorbent, usually lime or limestone. The resultant sorbent utilization is substantially higher than the values found in current dry scrubbing system and the produced low-sulfur char may then be used in a conventional steam boiler.

Keener, T.C.; Khang, S.J.; Yu, X.L.

1990-01-01

4

TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT REPORT FOR INDUSTRIAL BOILER APPLICATIONS: COAL CLEANING AND LOW SULFUR COAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The report assesses the use of three pollution control technologies--low sulfur coals, physical coal cleaning (PCC), and chemical coal cleaning (CCC)--to comply with SO2 emission regulations. It is one of a series to be used in determining the technological basis for a new source...

5

Microbially Mediated Leaching of Low-Sulfur Coal in Experimental Coal Columns  

PubMed Central

The leaching of a low-sulfur bituminous coal was investigated with experimental coal columns subjected to simulated rainfall events. Leachates from the columns became dominated by iron-oxidizing bacteria as evidenced by specific enrichment cultures and measurements of CO2 assimilation. Heterotrophic microorganisms were also present in the coal leachates, but their numbers and activity decreased with decreasing pH. This pattern could be reversed by increasing the pH of the coal with lime. Organosulfur-utilizing bacteria made up a substantial portion of the heterotrophic community. Measurements of microbial activity in coal cores indicated that although much of the microbial community remained associated with coal particles, the relative abundance of heterotrophs and autotrophs in leachate seemed to reflect that in coal cores. When bacterial growth was delayed by autoclaving coal samples, acid production and leaching of iron and sulfur were also delayed. Rapid leaching of materials from coal thus appears to be strongly dependent on the presence of the natural bacterial microflora. PMID:16347336

Radway, JoAnn C.; Tuttle, Jon H.; Fendinger, Nicholas J.; Means, Jay C.

1987-01-01

6

A novel coal feeder for production of low sulfur fuel  

SciTech Connect

In this project, a dual-screw feeder was designed for desulfurization of coal. The key parts of this reactor are two screw tubes which are used to feed coal and calcined lime particles separately, the inner tube acting as a coal pyrolyzer and the outer tube acting as a desulfurizer with hot calcined lime pellets or other renewable sorbent pellets. The objective of this project is to study the feasibility of an advanced concept of desulfurization in the coal feeder. (VC)

Lin, L.; Khang, S.J.; Keener, T.C.

1991-01-01

7

A novel coal feeder for production of low sulfur fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dual-screw feeder was designed for desulfurization of coal. This reactor contains two screw tubes, the inner tube acting as a coal pyrolizer and the outer tube acting as a desulfurizer with hot calcined lime pellets or other renewable sorbent pellets. The objectives of this project is to study the feasibility of an advanced concept of desulfurization and possibly some

S. J. Khang; L. Lin; T. C. Keener; P. Yeh

1991-01-01

8

A novel coal feeder for production of low sulfur fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dual-screw feeder was designed and constructed for desulfurization of coal. The feeder consists mainly of two concentric screw tubes, the inner tube acting as a coal pyrolyzer and the outer tube acting as a desulfurizer with hot calcined lime pellets or other renewable sorbent pellets. Two basic processes are involved in the development of this reactor: the mild pyrolysis

S. J. Khang; T. C. Keener; L. Lin

1993-01-01

9

A novel coal feeder for production of low sulfur fuel  

SciTech Connect

The first task of the project is to evaluate and model the pyrolysis section of the proposed coal feeder. Literature review on coal pyrolysis have been conducted and a mathematical/computer modeling of this work has begun. Both isothermal and non-isothermal conditions are considered for this model. A pseudo-component approach was adopted for coal pyrolysis kinetics. Initially, the literature values of pyrolysis kinetic are planned to be utilized. Later, actual kinetics will be measured from a feeder-pyrolyzer. A separate feeder-pyrolyzer is under construction for this purpose.

Khang, Soon-Jai; Keener, T.C.

1989-01-01

10

A novel coal feeder for production of low sulfur fuel  

SciTech Connect

A dual-screw feeder was designed and tested for desulfurization of coal. The key parts of this reactor are two screw tubes which independently feed coal and calcined lime, the inner tube acting as a coal pyrolizer and the outer tube acting as a desulfurizer with hot calcined lime pellets or other renewable sorbent pellets. The objective of this project is to study the feasibility of this advanced concept of desulfurization using the coal feeder. In this quarter, the following tasks have been performed: (1) Analytical measurements of the organic sulfur content in the feed coal and the product char, (2) setting up the combustor which is physically attached to the feeder system and will be used to study the combustion characteristics of char and volatiles produced from the pyrolysis process. The following preliminary conclusions have been obtained: (1) A 73.1% of the organic sulfur in Ohio {number sign}8 coal was removed in the dual-screw feeder reactor at a temperature of 475{degrees}C with the residence time of 6 min. (2) The combustor works stably and the operating temperature of the combustor can be adjusted by controlling the char feed rate and the air flowrate. 2 tabs.

Khang, S.J.; Keener, T.; Lin, L.

1992-01-01

11

A novel coal feeder for production of low sulfur fuel  

SciTech Connect

A dual-screw feeder was designed for desulfurization of coal. This reactor contains two screw tubes, the inner tube acting as a coal pyrolizer and the outer tube acting as a desulfurizer with hot calcined lime pellets or other renewable sorbent pellets. The objectives of this project is to study the feasibility of an advanced concept of desulfurization and possibly some denitrification in this coal feeder. In this year, two basic studies have been performed: (1) the desulfurization and (2) the denitrification due to mild pyrolysis. Specifically, the following tasks have been performed: (1) Setting up the Dual-Screw reactor, (2) Determination of the pyrolysis product and the sulfur distribution in char, tar and gas based on experimental data, (3) Study of the devolatilization, the desulfurization kinetics and the denitrification kinetics and obtaining the basic kinetic parameters, (4) Study of the sulfur removal efficiency of lime pellets fed into the outer tube of the dual-feeder reactor, (5) Study of the effect of the coal particle size on pyrolysis and desulfurization, (6) Study of the coal pyrolysis and desulfurization using a TGA(Thermal Gravimetric Analyzer).

Khang, S.J.; Lin, L.; Keener, T.C.; Yeh, P.

1991-01-01

12

Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect

This project Final Report is submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as part of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-03NT41987, 'Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas.' Sorbent injection technology is targeted as the primary mercury control process on plants burning low/medium sulfur bituminous coals equipped with ESP and ESP/FGD systems. About 70% of the ESPs used in the utility industry have SCAs less than 300 ft2/1000 acfm. Prior to this test program, previous sorbent injection tests had focused on large-SCA ESPs. This DOE-NETL program was designed to generate data to evaluate the performance and economic feasibility of sorbent injection for mercury control at power plants that fire bituminous coal and are configured with small-sized electrostatic precipitators and/or an ESP-flue gas desulfurization (FGD) configuration. EPRI and Southern Company were co-funders for the test program. Southern Company and Reliant Energy provided host sites for testing and technical input to the project. URS Group was the prime contractor to NETL. ADA-ES and Apogee Scientific Inc. were sub-contractors to URS and was responsible for all aspects of the sorbent injection systems design, installation and operation at the different host sites. Full-scale sorbent injection for mercury control was evaluated at three sites: Georgia Power's Plant Yates Units 1 and 2 [Georgia Power is a subsidiary of the Southern Company] and Reliant Energy's Shawville Unit 3. Georgia Power's Plant Yates Unit 1 has an existing small-SCA cold-side ESP followed by a Chiyoda CT-121 wet scrubber. Yates Unit 2 is also equipped with a small-SCA ESP and a dual flue gas conditioning system. Unit 2 has no SO2 control system. Shawville Unit 3 is equipped with two small-SCA cold-side ESPs operated in series. All ESP systems tested in this program had SCAs less than 250 ft2/1000 acfm. Short-term parametric tests were conducted on Yates Units 1 and 2 to evaluate the performance of low-cost activated carbon sorbents for removing mercury. In addition, the effects of the dual flue gas conditioning system on mercury removal performance were evaluated as part of short-term parametric tests on Unit 2. Based on the parametric test results, a single sorbent (e.g., RWE Super HOK) was selected for a 30-day continuous injection test on Unit 1 to observe long-term performance of the sorbent as well as its effects on ESP and FGD system operations as well as combustion byproduct properties. A series of parametric tests were also performed on Shawville Unit 3 over a three-week period in which several activated carbon sorbents were injected into the flue gas duct just upstream of either of the two Unit 3 ESP units. Three different sorbents were evaluated in the parametric test program for the combined ESP 1/ESP 2 system in which sorbents were injected upstream of ESP 1: RWE Super HOK, Norit's DARCO Hg, and a 62:38 wt% hydrated lime/DARCO Hg premixed reagent. Five different sorbents were evaluated for the ESP 2 system in which activated carbons were injected upstream of ESP 2: RWE Super HOK and coarse-ground HOK, Norit's DARCO Hg and DARCO Hg-LH, and DARCO Hg with lime injection upstream of ESP 1. The hydrated lime tests were conducted to reduce SO3 levels in an attempt to enhance the mercury removal performance of the activated carbon sorbents. The Plant Yates and Shawville studies provided data required for assessing carbon performance and long-term operational impacts for flue gas mercury control across small-sized ESPs, as well as for estimating the costs of full-scale sorbent injection processes.

Carl Richardson; Katherine Dombrowski; Douglas Orr

2006-12-31

13

Use potential of ash from circulating pressurized fluidized bed combustors using low-sulfur subbituminous coal  

SciTech Connect

The commercial introduction of pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) has spurred evaluation of ash management options for this technology. The unique operating characteristics of PFBC compared to atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) units indicates that PFBC ash will exhibit unique chemical and physical characteristics, and hence, unique ash use opportunities. Western Research Institute (WRI) has initiated a study of the use properties of PFBC ashes involving both an assessment of the potential markets, as well as a technical feasibility study of specific use options. The market assessment is designed to address six applications including: (1) structural fill, (2) road base construction, (3) supplementary cementing materials in portland cement, (4) bricks and blocks, (5) synthetic aggregate, and (6) agricultural/soil amendment applications. Ashes from the Ahlstrom circulating PFBC pilot facility in Karhula, Finland, combusting western US low-sulfur subbituminous coal with limestone sorbent, were made available for the technical feasibility study. The technical feasibility study examined the use of PFBC ash in construction related applications, including its use as a supplemental cementing material in concrete, fills and embankments, soil stabilization, and synthetic aggregate production. In addition, testing was conducted to determine the technical feasibility of PFBC ash as a soil amendment for agriculture and reclamation applications.

Bland, A.E.; Brown, T.H. [Western Research Inst., Laramie, WY (United States); Georgiou, D.N. [Trow Consulting Engineers, Thunder Bay, Ontario (Canada); Young, L.J. [Ahlstrom Pyropower Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Ashbaugh, M.B. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States). Morgantown Energy Technology Center; Wheeldon, J. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

1995-12-31

14

A novel coal feeder for production of low sulfur fuel. Quarterly technical progress report, December 1, 1989--April 1, 1990  

SciTech Connect

A novel coal feeding system is currently undergoing testing and evaluation at the University of Cincinnati. The system consists primarily of an auger feed tube which is used to both convey and provide desulfurization of a high sulfur coal feedstock. The coal is conveyed at temperatures ranging from 350 to 550 {degrees}C and under normal atmospheric pressure. Under these mild processing conditions, the coal partially pyrolizes and emits sulfur in the form of hydrogen sulfide while maintaining a relatively high heating value in the char product. The evolved gases are evacuated from the reactor (the feed tube) to another absorbing bed where H{sub 2}S reacts with the sorbent, usually lime or limestone. The resultant sorbent utilization is substantially higher than the values found in current dry scrubbing system and the produced low-sulfur char may then be used in a conventional steam boiler.

Keener, T.C.; Khang, S.J.; Yu, X.L.

1990-12-31

15

Characterization of fly ash from low-sulfur and high-sulfur coal sources: Partitioning of carbon and trace elements with particle size  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fly ash samples were collected in November and December of 1994, from generating units at a Kentucky power station using high- and low-sulfur feed coals. The samples are part of a two-year study of the coal and coal combustion byproducts from the power station. The ashes were wet screened at 100, 200, 325, and 500 mesh (150, 75, 42, and

J. C. Hower; A. S. Trimble; C. F. Eble; C. A. Palmer; A. Kolker

1999-01-01

16

30 CFR 816.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. 816.87 Section...816.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal...extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or burned coal mine waste shall be removed...

2010-07-01

17

LOW-SULFUR WESTERN COAL USE IN EXISTING SMALL AND INTERMEDIATE SIZE BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of testing of 10 representative coal-fired boilers in the Upper-Midwest, including an assessment of SOx, NOx, CO, unburned HC, and particulate emissions from these units, as well as an assessment of the operational impact of coal switching. The study show...

18

Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification Task 3: SOx/NOx/Hg Removal for Low Sulfur Coal  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project was to develop a near-zero emissions flue gas purification technology for existing PC (pulverized coal) power plants that are retrofitted with oxycombustion technology. The objective of Task 3 of this project was to evaluate an alternative method of SOx, NOx and Hg removal from flue gas produced by burning low sulfur coal in oxy-combustion power plants. The goal of the program was to conduct an experimental investigation and to develop a novel process for simultaneously removal of SOx and NOx from power plants that would operate on low sulfur coal without the need for wet-FGD & SCRs. A novel purification process operating at high pressures and ambient temperatures was developed. Activated carbon??s catalytic and adsorbent capabilities are used to oxidize the sulfur and nitrous oxides to SO{sub 3} and NO{sub 2} species, which are adsorbed on the activated carbon and removed from the gas phase. Activated carbon is regenerated by water wash followed by drying. The development effort commenced with the screening of commercially available activated carbon materials for their capability to remove SO{sub 2}. A bench-unit operating in batch mode was constructed to conduct an experimental investigation of simultaneous SOx and NOx removal from a simulated oxyfuel flue gas mixture. Optimal operating conditions and the capacity of the activated carbon to remove the contaminants were identified. The process was able to achieve simultaneous SOx and NOx removal in a single step. The removal efficiencies were >99.9% for SOx and >98% for NOx. In the longevity tests performed on a batch unit, the retention capacity could be maintained at high level over 20 cycles. This process was able to effectively remove up to 4000 ppm SOx from the simulated feeds corresponding to oxyfuel flue gas from high sulfur coal plants. A dual bed continuous unit with five times the capacity of the batch unit was constructed to test continuous operation and longevity. Full-automation was implemented to enable continuous operation (24/7) with minimum operator supervision. Continuous run was carried out for 40 days. Very high SOx (>99.9%) and NOx (98%) removal efficiencies were also achieved in a continuous unit. However, the retention capacity of carbon beds for SOx and NOx was decreased from ~20 hours to ~10 hours over a 40 day period of operation, which was in contrast to the results obtained in a batch unit. These contradictory results indicate the need for optimization of adsorption-regeneration cycle to maintain long term activity of activated carbon material at a higher level and thus minimize the capital cost of the system. In summary, the activated carbon process exceeded performance targets for SOx and NOx removal efficiencies and it was found to be suitable for power plants burning both low and high sulfur coals. More efforts are needed to optimize the system performance.

Monica Zanfir; Rahul Solunke; Minish Shah

2012-06-01

19

PILOT PLANT STUDY OF CONVERSION OF COAL TO LOW SULFUR FUEL  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a program to develop, on bench and pilot scales, operating conditions for the key step in the IGT process to desulfurize coal by thermal and chemical treatment. This process, to date, uses the 'sulfur-getter' concept. (A sulfur-getter is a material tha...

20

A novel dual-screw coal feeder for production of low sulfur fuel  

SciTech Connect

In this project, the following tasks have been performed: (1) Setting up the Dual-Screw feeder reactor. (2) Determination of the pyrolysis product and the sulfur distribution in char, tar and gas based on experimental data. (3) Study of the devolatilization and the desulfurization kinetics and obtaining the basic kinetic parameters. (4) Study of the sulfur removal efficiency of lime pellets fed into the outer tube of the dual-screw feeder reactor. (5) Study of the effect of the coal particle size on pyrolysis and desulfurization. (6) Study of the coal pyrolysis using a TGA (Thermal Gravimetric Analyzer). (7) Study of the coal desulfurization using a tube oven. (8) Setting up a combustor. (9) Study of the combustion characteristics of the pyrolysis products from the dual-screw feeder reactor. (10) Process simulation of the dual-screw feeder reactor. The experimental results of devolatilization and desulfurization of an Ohio {number_sign}8 coal demonstrate that an increasing the temperature in mild coal pyrolysis leads to the increase of both the devolatilization yield and the desulfurization yield. Under the experimental conditions, mainly the organic sulfur releases in the form of H{sub 2}S. Both the devolatilization and the desulfurization processes can be described by using the first-order-reaction model which gives the activation energy values for pyrolysis and desulfurization of 170,021 kJ/mol and 78,783 kJ/mol, indicating the sulfur is easier to release than volatiles. The outer screw region of CaO pellets also demonstrated almost a complete removal of hydrogen sulfide from volatiles. At a temperature of 475{degree}C and a residence time of 6 minutes, 73.1% of the organic sulfur was removed in the screw feeder reactor. The investigation of the combustion characteristics of the pyrolysis products showed a negligible reduction of the total heating value of the char and volatile products.

Lin, L.; Khang, S.J.; Keener, T.C.

1993-06-15

21

Wood or coal burning heater  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a wood and coal burning heater comprising a housing having a front surface, a rear surface, a bottom surface and a side surface and a top surface having a chimney opening; and a normally closed primary combsution chamber for the combustion of wood and coal within the housing. The combustion chamber has a top wall and a rear wall spaced inwardly from the top and rear surfaces of the housing forming horizontal and vertical smoke passages respectively; and a door opening in the front surface for access to the primary combustion chamber and a door for tightly closing the door opening; and a secondary combustion chamber positioned below the primary combustion chamber for the burning of combustible smoke. Gas and ash pass downwardly from the primary combustion chamber, the secondary combustion chamber is lined along its bottom and sides with insulating refractory material and having a narrow opening in the bottom for the downward discharge of ashes into an air-tight ash drawer; the primary and secondary combustion chambers are separated by a grate of high-temperature ceramic refractory material which is provided with two narrow spaced slots which are aligned in front of rear direction; and an elongate air supply tube positioned immediately below and in parallel alignment with the slots in the grate with the air supply tube having air supply orifices positioned beneath the slots for the discharge of air for secondary combustion.

Duerichen, J.G.

1987-07-07

22

Controls on boron and germanium distribution in the low-sulfur Amos coal bed, Western Kentucky coalfield, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Duckmantian-aged Amos coal bed is a thin (<51 cm) coal bed that occurs in lobate southwest-trending pods separated by thin sandstones in the Western Kentucky coalfield. The coal bed, which is comprised of up to two benches and a rider coal, is low in ash yield (<6%) and sulfur content (<1%). The coal tends to be thin (<40 cm), but it was heavily mined in the 1980s because it could be combusted as mined. Geochemical analysis of the Amos coal bed shows higher concentrations of B and Ge than other Western Kentucky coal beds. High total B concentrations as well as high B/Be, both considered to be indicators of marine environments, increase toward the top of the coal bed. Most of the B values for the Amos samples range from 66 to 103 ppm (whole coal basis) indicating deposition in a brackish environment. High Ge concentrations in coals have been considered to be a function of seam thickness and proximity to the top and bottom of the coal bed. Thin coals, such as the Amos, are dominated by the coal bed margins and, therefore, have a tendency to have relatively high Ge concentrations. In the case of the Amos coal bed, the lower bench has a higher Ge content, suggesting that the substrate was a more important source of Ge than the roof rock. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Hower, J.C.; Ruppert, L.F.; Williams, D.A.

2002-01-01

23

Characterization of fly ash from low-sulfur and high-sulfur coal sources: Partitioning of carbon and trace elements with particle size  

SciTech Connect

Fly ash samples were collected in November and December of 1994, from generating units at a Kentucky power station using high- and low-sulfur feed coals. The samples are part of a two-year study of the coal and coal combustion byproducts from the power station. The ashes were wet screened at 100, 200, 325, and 500 mesh (150, 75, 42, and 25 {micro}m, respectively). The size fractions were then dried, weighed, split for petrographic and chemical analysis, and analyzed for ash yield and carbon content. The low-sulfur heavy side and light side ashes each have a similar size distribution in the November samples. In contrast, the December fly ashes showed the trend observed in later months, the light-side ash being finer (over 20% more ash in the {minus}500 mesh [{minus}25 {micro}m] fraction) than the heavy-side ash. Carbon tended to be concentrated in the coarse fractions in the December samples. The dominance of the {minus}325 mesh ({minus}42 {micro}m) fractions in the overall size analysis implies, though, that carbon in the fine sizes may be an important consideration in the utilization of the fly ash. Element partitioning follows several patterns. Volatile elements, such as Zn and As, are enriched in the finer sizes, particularly in fly ashes collected at cooler, light-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) temperatures. The latter trend is a function of precipitation at the cooler-ESP temperatures and of increasing concentration with the increased surface area of the finest fraction. Mercury concentrations are higher in high-carbon fly ashes, suggesting Hg adsorption on the fly ash carbon. Ni and Cr are associated, in part, with the spinel minerals in the fly ash.

Hower, J.C.; Trimble, A.S. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research]|[Franklin County High School, Frankfort, KY (United States); Eble, C.F. [Kentucky Geological survey, Lexington, KY (United States); Palmer, C.A.; Kolker, A. [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)

1999-07-01

24

Characterization of fly ash from low-sulfur and high-sulfur coal sources: Partitioning of carbon and trace elements with particle size  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fly ash samples were collected in November and December of 1994, from generating units at a Kentucky power station using high- and low-sulfur feed coals. The samples are part of a two-year study of the coal and coal combustion byproducts from the power station. The ashes were wet screened at 100, 200, 325, and 500 mesh (150, 75, 42, and 25 ??m, respectively). The size fractions were then dried, weighed, split for petrographic and chemical analysis, and analyzed for ash yield and carbon content. The low-sulfur "heavy side" and "light side" ashes each have a similar size distribution in the November samples. In contrast, the December fly ashes showed the trend observed in later months, the light-side ash being finer (over 20 % more ash in the -500 mesh [-25 ??m] fraction) than the heavy-side ash. Carbon tended to be concentrated in the coarse fractions in the December samples. The dominance of the -325 mesh (-42 ??m) fractions in the overall size analysis implies, though, that carbon in the fine sizes may be an important consideration in the utilization of the fly ash. Element partitioning follows several patterns. Volatile elements, such as Zn and As, are enriched in the finer sizes, particularly in fly ashes collected at cooler, light-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) temperatures. The latter trend is a function of precipitation at the cooler-ESP temperatures and of increasing concentration with the increased surface area of the finest fraction. Mercury concentrations are higher in high-carbon fly ashes, suggesting Hg adsorption on the fly ash carbon. Ni and Cr are associated, in part, with the spinel minerals in the fly ash. Copyright ?? 1999 Taylor & Francis.

Hower, J.C.; Trimble, A.S.; Eble, C.F.; Palmer, C.A.; Kolker, A.

1999-01-01

25

FEASIBILITY OF BURNING COAL IN CATALYTIC COMBUSTORS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study, showing that pulverized coal can be burned in a catalytic combustor. Pulverized coal combustion in catalytic beds is markedly different from gaseous fuel combustion. Gas combustion gives uniform bed temperatures and reaction rates over the ent...

26

A novel coal feeder for production of low sulfur fuel. Quarterly technical process report, October 1, 1991--January 1, 1992  

SciTech Connect

In this project, a dual-screw feeder was designed for desulfurization of coal. The key parts of this reactor are two screw tubes which are used to feed coal and calcined lime particles separately, the inner tube acting as a coal pyrolyzer and the outer tube acting as a desulfurizer with hot calcined lime pellets or other renewable sorbent pellets. The objective of this project is to study the feasibility of an advanced concept of desulfurization in the coal feeder. (VC)

Lin, L.; Khang, S.J.; Keener, T.C.

1991-12-31

27

A novel coal feeder for production of low sulfur fuel. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1, 1992January 1, 1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dual-screw feeder was designed and constructed for desulfurization of coal. The feeder consists mainly of two concentric screw tubes, the inner tube acting as a coal pyrolyzer and the outer tube acting as a desulfurizer with hot calcined lime pellets or other renewable sorbent pellets. Two basic processes are involved in the development of this reactor: the mild pyrolysis

S. J. Khang; T. C. Keener; L. Lin

1993-01-01

28

A novel coal feeder for production of low sulfur fuel. Annual technical progress report, October 1, 1990October 1, 1991  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dual-screw feeder was designed for desulfurization of coal. This reactor contains two screw tubes, the inner tube acting as a coal pyrolizer and the outer tube acting as a desulfurizer with hot calcined lime pellets or other renewable sorbent pellets. The objectives of this project is to study the feasibility of an advanced concept of desulfurization and possibly some

S. J. Khang; L. Lin; T. C. Keener; P. Yeh

1991-01-01

29

A novel coal feeder for production of low sulfur fuel. Quarterly technical progress report, September 1--December 1, 1989  

SciTech Connect

The first task of the project is to evaluate and model the pyrolysis section of the proposed coal feeder. Literature review on coal pyrolysis have been conducted and a mathematical/computer modeling of this work has begun. Both isothermal and non-isothermal conditions are considered for this model. A pseudo-component approach was adopted for coal pyrolysis kinetics. Initially, the literature values of pyrolysis kinetic are planned to be utilized. Later, actual kinetics will be measured from a feeder-pyrolyzer. A separate feeder-pyrolyzer is under construction for this purpose.

Khang, Soon-Jai; Keener, T.C.

1989-12-31

30

30 CFR 817.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. 817.87 Section 817.87 Mineral...MINING ACTIVITIES 817.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine waste fires...

2010-07-01

31

A novel coal feeder for production of low sulfur fuel. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1992--April 1, 1992  

SciTech Connect

A dual-screw feeder was designed and tested for desulfurization of coal. The key parts of this reactor are two screw tubes which independently feed coal and calcined lime, the inner tube acting as a coal pyrolizer and the outer tube acting as a desulfurizer with hot calcined lime pellets or other renewable sorbent pellets. The objective of this project is to study the feasibility of this advanced concept of desulfurization using the coal feeder. In this quarter, the following tasks have been performed: (1) Analytical measurements of the organic sulfur content in the feed coal and the product char, (2) setting up the combustor which is physically attached to the feeder system and will be used to study the combustion characteristics of char and volatiles produced from the pyrolysis process. The following preliminary conclusions have been obtained: (1) A 73.1% of the organic sulfur in Ohio {number_sign}8 coal was removed in the dual-screw feeder reactor at a temperature of 475{degrees}C with the residence time of 6 min. (2) The combustor works stably and the operating temperature of the combustor can be adjusted by controlling the char feed rate and the air flowrate. 2 tabs.

Khang, S.J.; Keener, T.; Lin, L.

1992-07-01

32

A novel coal feeder for production of low sulfur fuel. Annual technical progress report, October 1, 1990--October 1, 1991  

SciTech Connect

A dual-screw feeder was designed for desulfurization of coal. This reactor contains two screw tubes, the inner tube acting as a coal pyrolizer and the outer tube acting as a desulfurizer with hot calcined lime pellets or other renewable sorbent pellets. The objectives of this project is to study the feasibility of an advanced concept of desulfurization and possibly some denitrification in this coal feeder. In this year, two basic studies have been performed: (1) the desulfurization and (2) the denitrification due to mild pyrolysis. Specifically, the following tasks have been performed: (1) Setting up the Dual-Screw reactor, (2) Determination of the pyrolysis product and the sulfur distribution in char, tar and gas based on experimental data, (3) Study of the devolatilization, the desulfurization kinetics and the denitrification kinetics and obtaining the basic kinetic parameters, (4) Study of the sulfur removal efficiency of lime pellets fed into the outer tube of the dual-feeder reactor, (5) Study of the effect of the coal particle size on pyrolysis and desulfurization, (6) Study of the coal pyrolysis and desulfurization using a TGA(Thermal Gravimetric Analyzer).

Khang, S.J.; Lin, L.; Keener, T.C.; Yeh, P.

1991-12-31

33

Radioactivity connected with coal burning.  

PubMed

The enhanced environmental radioactivity resulting from the operation of a 72 MWe brown coal-fired power plant in central Italy is considered. A source-related control procedure is suggested. The calculated values for the atmospheric dispersion of radioactive effluents and the results of some measurements on brown coals, ash, environmental samples and gamma-exposure levels performed at representative points are reported. PMID:4081758

Borio, R; Campos Venuti, G; Risica, S; Simula, S

1985-10-01

34

Characterization and modes of occurrence of elements in feed coal and coal combustion products from a power plant utilizing low-sulfur coal from the Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research are collaborating with an Indiana utility company to determine the physical and chemical properties of feed coal and coal combustion products from a coal-fired power plant. The Indiana power plant utilizes a low-sulfur (0.23 to 0.47 weight percent S) and lowash (4.9 to 6.3 weight percent ash) subbituminous coal from the Wyodak-Anderson coal zone in the Tongue River Member of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation, Powder River Basin, Wyoming. Based on scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction analyses of feed coal samples, two mineral suites were identified: (1) a primary or detrital suite consisting of quartz (including beta-form grains), biotite, feldspar, and minor zircon; and (2) a secondary authigenic mineral suite containing alumino-phosphates (crandallite and gorceixite), kaolinite, carbonates (calcite and dolomite), quartz, anatase, barite, and pyrite. The primary mineral suite is interpreted, in part, to be of volcanic origin, whereas the authigenic mineral suite is interpreted, in part, to be the result of the alteration of the volcanic minerals. The mineral suites have contributed to the higher amounts of barium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, sodium, strontium, and titanium in the Powder River Basin feed coals in comparison to eastern coals. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that (1) fly ash is mostly aluminate glass, perovskite, lime, gehlenite, quartz, and phosphates with minor amounts of periclase, anhydrite, hematite, and spinel group minerals; and (2) bottom ash is predominantly quartz, plagioclase (albite and anorthite), pyroxene (augite and fassaite), rhodonite, and akermanite, and spinel group minerals. Microprobe and scanning electron microscope analyses of fly ash samples revealed quartz, zircon, and monazite, euhedral laths of corundum with merrillite, hematite, dendritic spinels/ferrites, wollastonite, and periclase. The abundant calcium and magnesium mineral phases in the fly ash are attributed to the presence of carbonate, clay, and phosphate minerals in the feed coal and their alteration to new phases during combustion. The amorphous diffraction-scattering maxima or glass 'hump' appears to reflect differences in chemical composition of fly ash and bottom ash glasses. In Wyodak-Anderson fly and bottom ashes, the center point of scattering maxima is due to calcium and magnesium content, whereas the glass 'hump' of eastern fly ash reflects variation in aluminum content. The calcium- and magnesium-rich and alumino-phosphate mineral phases in the coal combustion products can be attributed to volcanic minerals deposited in peat-forming mires. Dissolution and alteration of these detrital volcanic minerals occurred either in the peat-forming stage or during coalification and diagenesis, resulting in the authigenic mineral suite. The presence of free lime (CaO) in fly ash produced from Wyodak-Anderson coal acts as a self-contained 'scrubber' for SO3, where CaO + SO3 form anhydrite either during combustion or in the upper parts of the boiler. Considering the high lime content in the fly ash and the resulting hydration reactions after its contact with water, there is little evidence that major amounts of leachable metals are mobilized in the disposal or utilization of this fly ash.

Brownfield, Michael E.; Cathcart, James D.; Affolter, Ronald H.; Brownfield, Isabelle K.; Rice, Cynthia A.; O'Connor, Joseph T.; Zielinski, Robert A.; Bullock, John H., Jr.; Hower, James C.; Meeker, Gregory P.

2005-01-01

35

Will future medium diesels burn coal  

SciTech Connect

Work has been carried out at the University of California on a conceptual coal-water slurry-fired diesel engine. It is suggested that such an engine could be practical and efficient for medium-sized diesels used in locomotives, ships and cogeneration power plants. The basic design of a coal-water diesel suitable for railway application is discussed.

Not Available

1984-02-01

36

Cleanest' coal-burning plant on line in California  

SciTech Connect

A new coal utilization technology -- atmospheric circulating fluidized bed (ACFB) combustion -- should meet California's stringent air quality standards. The new coal-fired cogeneration facility will be among the cleanest coal-burning plants in the world. The project is the largest ACFB coal-burning plant in California, burning 44 tons per hour of Utah bituminous coal to produce an average of 89.9 megawatts electrical (MWe) and 60,000 lbs/hr process steam. It uses Pyropower Corporation's Ahlstrom Pyroflow circulating fluidized bed combustor. The California Energy Commission has been very concerned with the state's dependence on oil and gas fuels, which are subject to interruption price shocks and depletion. Therefore, the ACFB technology is regarded as an exciting new source of power generation and one which will utilize coal, an abundant fuel, for power generation during the next century. ACFB offers several advantages: the ability to utilize staged combustion and lower combustion temperatures, thereby reducing nitrogen oxide (NOx) formation and emissions and fireside slagging problems; the ability to remove sulfur oxides (SOx) during combustion using an alkali sorbent in the bed; more effective control of SOx with the potential for SOx removal thought to be in excess of 95 percent; more effective limestone utilization due to the recycling of unreacted sorbent and due to the limestone feed size; reduced solid waste rates, because of lower limestone requirements; the production of a dry solid waste, potentially marketable, which offers disposal advantages over sludge produced in other technologies; and greater ability to utilize various fuels due to the increased fuel residence time. Finally, the Energy Commission regards the ACFB as a means to reduce the economic, environmental and technological risks involved in the use of coal for power generation in California.

Not Available

1990-12-27

37

Economic assessment of coal burning diesel locomotives: Topical report  

SciTech Connect

The coal burning steam locomotive was displaced many years ago by the diesel electric locomotive due to its several well-known advantages. However, the recent escalation of diesel fuel oil prices and the relatively inexpensive and plentiful coal supply provides an incentive to relook at a coal burning diesel electric locomotive. The success of the diesel-electric locomotive is really the result of two major technological changes: (1) the diesel engine, and (2) the electric drive transmission. The smooth, controlled application of power to the rails via electric motors, reduced the locomotive tractive weight by nearly 30%, and also reduced track maintenance by eliminating reciprocating vertical forces. More horsepower is also applied at low speeds to improve train acceleration. The diesel engine has been developed to produce nearly as much horsepower as the largest steam locomotives but with much less maintenance, higher reliability and more availability. The current cost of diesel fuel is now high enough to encourage a return to less-expensive, domestically-available coal fuel. However, it would be a step backward to lose the advantages of the diesel-electric locomotive. General Electric embarked upon a study to determine the best way to design and manufacture a coal-fired locomotive considering various prime movers, but all with electric drive. For a coal-fired diesel locomotive (CFDL) to be commercially viable, it must pass all three of the following criteria: be technically feasible; meet railroads' financial expectations; and offer an attractive return to the Locomotive manufacturer. These three criteria are reviewed based on results to date of General Electric's CFDL studies. The analysis assumes constant 1985 dollars and no significant changes in relative costs of diesel fuel and coal. 23 figs., 16 tabs.

Hapeman, M.J.; Savkar, S.D.

1985-10-01

38

Cardowan coal mine explosion: experience of a mass burns incident.  

PubMed Central

A coal mine explosion 1700 feet (516 m) underground and two miles (3.2 km) from the pit head resulted in 40 casualties. Two hours elapsed between the explosion and the arrival of patients at hospital. Six patients suffered mechanical injuries, only one of which was life threatening. Thirty six suffered burns; in 18 over 15% of the total body surface area was affected. Nineteen patients had a mild respiratory upset requiring oxygen treatment. The average length of inpatient stay in those admitted was 24 days. Early assessment and treatment in the accident and emergency department was relatively simple because of the large proportion of burn injuries. Lack of communication between site and hospital made administration of the disaster difficult. PMID:6409324

Allister, C; Hamilton, G M

1983-01-01

39

Cardowan coal mine explosion: experience of a mass burns incident.  

PubMed

A coal mine explosion 1700 feet (516 m) underground and two miles (3.2 km) from the pit head resulted in 40 casualties. Two hours elapsed between the explosion and the arrival of patients at hospital. Six patients suffered mechanical injuries, only one of which was life threatening. Thirty six suffered burns; in 18 over 15% of the total body surface area was affected. Nineteen patients had a mild respiratory upset requiring oxygen treatment. The average length of inpatient stay in those admitted was 24 days. Early assessment and treatment in the accident and emergency department was relatively simple because of the large proportion of burn injuries. Lack of communication between site and hospital made administration of the disaster difficult. PMID:6409324

Allister, C; Hamilton, G M

1983-08-01

40

Fuel switch could bring big savings for HECO Liquefied natural gas beats low-sulfur oil in cost and equipment  

E-print Network

that will soon be required at plants burning low-sulfur fuel, the report said. Hawaii's reliance on oil Electric save costs at the two power plants because LNG is cheaper than the oil currently used and becauseFuel switch could bring big savings for HECO Liquefied natural gas beats low-sulfur oil in cost

41

Encoal mild coal gasification project: Final design modifications report  

SciTech Connect

The design, construction and operation Phases of the Encoal Mild Coal Gasification Project have been completed. The plant, designed to process 1,000 ton/day of subbituminous Power River Basin (PRB) low-sulfur coal feed and to produce two environmentally friendly products, a solid fuel and a liquid fuel, has been operational for nearly five years. The solid product, Process Derived Fuel (PDF), is a stable, low-sulfur, high-Btu fuel similar in composition and handling properties to bituminous coal. The liquid product, Coal Derived Liquid (CDL), is a heavy, low-sulfur, liquid fuel similar in properties to heavy industrial fuel oil. Opportunities for upgrading the CDL to higher value chemicals and fuels have been identified. Significant quantities of both PDF and CDL have been delivered and successfully burned in utility and industrial boilers. A summary of the Project is given.

NONE

1997-07-01

42

Speciation of chromium in feed coals and ash byproducts from Canadian power plants burning subbituminous and bituminous coals  

SciTech Connect

The chromium species in the feed coals and ash byproducts from seven Canadian coal-fired power plants were examined using Cr X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy. Chromium in the Canadian feed coals is always found as Cr{sup 3+} but generally has a dual occurrence, as Cr{sup 3+} is distributed to varying degrees between the clay mineral illite and a poorly crystallized chromium oxyhydroxide phase associated with the organic fraction. In two subbituminous feed coals from Alberta, chromium is present largely as Cr{sup 3+}/illite, whereas in two other such coals, it is present predominantly as CrOOH. Chromium in a low-sulfur bituminous feed coal from Alberta is found mostly as Cr{sup 3+}/illite, whereas for feed coals from Nova Scotia with high sulfur contents, chromium is distributed between both Cr{sup 3+}/illite and CrOOH. Very little chromium was found in the limestone used in a fluidized-bed combustor. The chromium species in most bottom ash samples from all seven combustion units is predominantly, if not entirely, Cr{sup 3+} associated with aluminosilicate phases. Chromium speciation for subbituminous electrostatic precipitator fly ash is mostly Cr{sup 3+}, but in some cases, it is slightly lessand varies by sampling location at the plant. Chromium in fly ash from the combustion of bituminous feed coals is predominantlyCr{sup 3+}. A unique species of chromium found in one feed coal and an unrelated fly ash is metallic chromium, similar to that in stainless steel. The occurrence of this form of chromium in these materials indicates contamination from machinery, such as the coal milling machine or possibly wearing down of stainless steel parts by the coal or ash. The observation of this unexpected contamination demonstrates the power and usefulness of X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy for speciation determination. 35 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

Fariborz Goodarzi; Frank E. Huggins [Geological Survey of Canada-Calgary Division, Calgary, AB (Canada)

2005-12-01

43

Carbon dioxide from coal combustion: Variation with rank of US coal  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Carbon dioxide from combustion of US coal systematically varies with ASTM rank indices, allowing the amount of CO2 produced per net unit of energy to be predicted for individual coals. No single predictive equation is applicable to all coals. Accordingly, we provide one equation for coals above high volatile bituminous rank and another for lower rank coals. When applied to public data for commercial coals from western US mines these equations show a 15% variation of kg CO2 (net GJ)-1. This range of variation suggests reduction of US CO2 emissions is possible by prudent selection of coal for combustion. Maceral and mineral content are shown to slightly affect CO2 emissions from US coal. We also suggest that CO2 emissions increased between 6 and 8% in instances where Midwestern US power plants stopped burning local, high-sulfur bituminous coal and started burning low-sulfur, subbituminous C rank coal from the western US.

Quick, J.C.; Glick, D.C.

2000-01-01

44

Present research advances in coal-burning gas turbines  

SciTech Connect

With increasing interest in the burning of coal in industrial gas turbines, there is also concern for the determination of the erosive effects on the turbine components. In order to provide the basis for alloy selection in future turbines using coal, an investigation is undertaken to obtain a basic understanding of the mechanisms of erosion at high temperatures. For this purpose, test equipment has been designed to simulate the aerodynamic and thermodynamic conditions in the turbine. Data were obtained for 304 stainless steel, Rene 41 and A286 alloys at temperatures between ambient and 1200/sup 0/F. In addition, the equations that govern the three-dimensional motion of the solid particles suspended by a compressible gas flow through a rotating cascade of a turbomachine, are formulated. These equations are solved for the case of flow through a turbine stage. The solution takes into account the loss in particle momentum due to their collision with the turbine blade casing. The results obtained from this study indicate the locations on the turbine blades subjected to erosion damage.

Tabakoff, W.

1980-12-01

45

Coal burning leaves toxic heavy metal legacy in the Arctic  

SciTech Connect

Toxic heavy metals emitted by industrial activities in the midlatitudes are transported through the atmosphere and deposited in the polar regions; bioconcentration and biomagnification in the food chain mean that even low levels of atmospheric deposition may threaten human health and Arctic ecosystems. Little is known about sources and long-term trends of most heavy metals before approximate to 1980, when modern measurements began, although heavy-metal pollution in the Arctic was widespread during recent decades. Lacking detailed, long-term measurements until now, ecologists, health researchers, and policy makers generally have assumed that contamination was highest during the 1960s and 1970s peak of industrial activity in North America and Europe. We present continuous 1772-2003 monthly and annually averaged deposition records for highly toxic thallium, cadmium, and lead from a Greenland ice core showing that atmospheric deposition was much higher than expected in the early 20th century, with tenfold increases from preindustrial levels by the early 1900s that were two to five times higher than during recent decades. Tracer measurements indicate that coal burning in North America and Europe was the likely source of these metals in the Arctic after 1860. Although these results show that heavy-metal pollution in the North Atlantic sector of the Arctic is substantially lower today than a century ago, contamination of other sectors may be increasing because of the rapid coal-driven growth of Asian economies.

McConnell, J.R.; Edwards, R. [Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV (United States)

2008-08-26

46

Coal burning leaves toxic heavy metal legacy in the Arctic.  

PubMed

Toxic heavy metals emitted by industrial activities in the midlatitudes are transported through the atmosphere and deposited in the polar regions; bioconcentration and biomagnification in the food chain mean that even low levels of atmospheric deposition may threaten human health and Arctic ecosystems. Little is known about sources and long-term trends of most heavy metals before approximately 1980, when modern measurements began, although heavy-metal pollution in the Arctic was widespread during recent decades. Lacking detailed, long-term measurements until now, ecologists, health researchers, and policy makers generally have assumed that contamination was highest during the 1960s and 1970s peak of industrial activity in North America and Europe. We present continuous 1772-2003 monthly and annually averaged deposition records for highly toxic thallium, cadmium, and lead from a Greenland ice core showing that atmospheric deposition was much higher than expected in the early 20th century, with tenfold increases from preindustrial levels by the early 1900s that were two to five times higher than during recent decades. Tracer measurements indicate that coal burning in North America and Europe was the likely source of these metals in the Arctic after 1860. Although these results show that heavy-metal pollution in the North Atlantic sector of the Arctic is substantially lower today than a century ago, contamination of other sectors may be increasing because of the rapid coal-driven growth of Asian economies. PMID:18711138

McConnell, Joseph R; Edwards, Ross

2008-08-26

47

Indoor air pollution by different heating systems: coal burning, open fireplace and central heating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations of indoor air pollution by different heating systems in private homes are described. Sixteen homes, 7 with coal burning, 1 with open fireplace (wood burning) and 8 with central heating have been investigated. We measured the concentrations of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and sedimented dust in indoor air, of total suspended particulates, heavy metals and of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

H.-J. Moriske; M. Drews; G. Ebert; G. Menk; C. Scheller; M. Schndube; L. Konieczny

1996-01-01

48

Process for clean-burning fuel from low-rank coal  

DOEpatents

A process for upgrading and stabilizing low-rank coal involving the sequential processing of the coal through three fluidized beds; first a dryer, then a pyrolyzer, and finally a cooler. The fluidizing gas for the cooler is the exit gas from the pyrolyzer with the addition of water for cooling. Overhead gas from pyrolyzing is likely burned to furnish the energy for the process. The product coal exits with a tar-like pitch sealant to enhance its safety during storage.

Merriam, Norman W. (Laramie, WY); Sethi, Vijay (Laramie, WY); Brecher, Lee E. (Laramie, WY)

1994-01-01

49

Physical characterization of the cigarette coal: part 1smolder burn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphology of the coal from the smoldering cigarette was characterized using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy, and image analysis. The coal of the smoked cigarette was divided into four regions: the char positioned at and behind the char line of the cigarette paper, the coal base located just in

Vicki L Baliga; Donald E Miser; Ramesh K Sharma; Michael E Thurston; W. Geoffrey Chan; Mohammad R Hajaligol

2003-01-01

50

The health effects of coal-burning power plants in minnesota  

SciTech Connect

The carcinogenic properties of coal combustion products are described and documented with emphasis on beryllium, mercury, and other particulates. Increased coal use in Minnesota and implications of such increases for 1976-1995 are discussed. Details of how a coal-fired power plant works and how pollutants are formed are described. Efforts to minimize health impacts of sulfur oxides and particulates are detailed. An analysis is provided of how health impacts are measured, showing how a lack of precision and data makes it difficult for policymakers to decide which pollutants need regulation and how much regulation is required. It was found that the greatest problem resulting from coal burning in Minnesota is fine particulate pollution. Fine particulates have been implicated in the exacerbation of emphysema, bronchitis, and lung cancer. Increased regulation and limitations on the construction of coal burning electricity generators are supported.

Ross, D.

1981-01-01

51

Economic assessment of coal-burning locomotives: Topical report  

SciTech Connect

The General Electric Company embarked upon a study to evaluate various alternatives for the design and manufacture a coal fired locomotive considering various prime movers, but retaining the electric drive transmission. The initial study was supported by the Burlington-Northern and Norfolk-Southern railroads, and included the following alternatives: coal fired diesel locomotive; direct fired gas turbine locomotives; direct fired gas turbine locomotive with steam injection; raw coal gasifier gas turbine locomotive; and raw coal fluid bed steam turbine locomotive. All alternatives use the electric drive transmission and were selected for final evaluation. The first three would use a coal water slurry as a fuel, which must be produced by new processing plants. Therefore, use of a slurry would require a significant plant capital investment. The last two would use classified run-of-the-mine (ROM) coal with much less capital expenditure. Coal fueling stations would be required but are significantly lower in capital cost than a coal slurry plant. For any coal fired locomotive to be commercially viable, it must pass the following criteria: be technically feasible and environmentally acceptable; meet railroads' financial expectations; and offer an attractive return to the locomotive manufacturer. These three criteria are reviewed in the report.

Not Available

1986-02-01

52

Rehabilitation of an anthracite-burning power plant in Ukraine with introduction of coal preparation  

SciTech Connect

A study is being carried out jointly by the United States Department of Energy and the Ukrainian Ministry of Power and Electrification for rehabilitation of an anthracite-burning power station in the Donbass region of eastern Ukraine. The power station, named Luganskaya GRES, is laboring under deteriorating coal quality (the ash level is ranging towards 40% compared to the design value of 18%) and the physical plant is in need of repair. Approaches under consideration for the rehabilitation include upgrading the existing 200-MW{sub e} (gross) wall-fired boilers, repowering with circulating fluidized bed combustors, and the use of coal preparation. Coal washability tests conducted as part of the study indicate the coal is amenable to washing. The paper describes approaches to coal preparation being considered that provide design value coal for wall-fired boilers while minimizing rejection of Btus and generation of solid waste.

Ruether, J.; Killmeyer, R. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center; Schimmoller, B.; Gollakota, S.

1996-12-31

53

Method of burning lightly loaded coal-water slurries  

DOEpatents

In a preferred arrangement of the method of the invention, a lightly loaded coal-water slurry, containing in the range of approximately 40% to 52% + 2% by weight coal, is atomized to strip water from coal particles in the mixture. Primary combustor air is forced around the atomized spray in a combustion chamber of a combustor to swirl the air in a helical path through the combustion chamber. A flame is established within the combustion chamber to ignite the stripped coal particles, and flame temperature regulating means are provided for maintaining the flame temperature within a desired predetermined range of temperatures that is effective to produce dry, essentially slag-free ash from the combustion process.

Krishna, C.R.

1984-07-27

54

Process for clean-burning fuel from low-rank coal  

DOEpatents

A process is described for upgrading and stabilizing low-rank coal involving the sequential processing of the coal through three fluidized beds; first a dryer, then a pyrolyzer, and finally a cooler. The fluidizing gas for the cooler is the exit gas from the pyrolyzer with the addition of water for cooling. Overhead gas from pyrolyzing is likely burned to furnish the energy for the process. The product coal exits with a tar-like pitch sealant to enhance its safety during storage. 1 fig.

Merriam, N.W.; Sethi, V.; Brecher, L.E.

1994-06-21

55

Impact of coal-burning on turbo-machinery for future large scale power generation  

SciTech Connect

The directions the development of turbomachinery and power generation systems may take are reviewed and the changes in technology that will be required are considered. Three potential methods of utilizing coal in future large-scale power generation are considered, i.e., direct combustion of coal in the primary air circuit of an open-cycle gas turbine, with recovery of the exhaust heat from the gas-turbine cycle in a steam-bottoming cycle (production of steam in the combustor is considered as a variant to this cycle); provision of a clean fuel derived from coal, either in an integrated coal-processing plant or in a centrally located coal-processing plant, the fuel then being burned in an open-cycle gas turbine with a steam-bottoming cycle; and a closed-cycle gas turbine, probably with helium as a working fluid.

Brown, D.

1980-01-01

56

OVERFIRE AIR TECHNOLOGY FOR TANGENTIALLY FIRED UTILITY BOILERS BURNING WESTERN U.S. COAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an investigation and evaluation of the effectiveness of overfire air in reducing NOx emissions from tangentially fired boilers burning Western U.S. coal. Results are compared with those obtained during phase II, 'Program for Reduction of NOx from Tange...

57

Reduction of NO sub x and SO sub 2 emissions from coal burning pulse combustors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project is concerned with the reduction of the nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide emissions from Rijke type pulse combustors by using combustion staging and limestone addition. During this quarter, the fabrication and assembly of the Rijke tube coal burning pulse combustor was completed. This included the casting of the ceramic insulation for the combustor section and installation of the

E. A. Powell; B. T. Zinn

1989-01-01

58

METEOROLOGICAL MEASUREMENTS IN THE VICINITY OF A COAL BURNING POWER PLANT  

EPA Science Inventory

High concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) are commonly observed uring the cool season in the vicinity of a 2.5 GW coal burning power plant located in the Mae Moh Valley of northern Thailand. The power plant is the source for nearly all of the observed So, since there are no oth...

59

Thermodynamic investigation of the behavior of ash-forming components in burning coal  

SciTech Connect

A thermodynamic approach to description of the behavior of the fuel-oxidizer system in burning coal is employed to reveal the basic regularities of the process of redistribution of the chemical elements of its mineral part among the ash forming components. It is shown that the composition of the mineral part is of prime importance in this process.

G.Ya. Gerasimov [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation). Institute of Mechanics

2003-01-15

60

Effects of surface voids on burning rate measurements of pulverized coal at diffusion-limited conditions  

SciTech Connect

This research explores the effects of voids (pores on the particle surface that are deeper than their surface radius) on burning area at diffusion-limited combustion conditions. Scanning electron microscopy and digital processing of images of quenched particles were used to quantify surface void area, perimeter, and reacting void wall area for voids with diameters larger than 1 {micro}m. After careful analysis, the most accurate determination of particle burning area at diffusion-limited conditions was achieved by measuring particle surface area using the technique of discrete revolution, subtracting surface void area, and adding reacting void wall area. In situ measurements of reacting coal particle temperatures and images were taken for three coals and spherocarb particles at conditions that limit the formation of CO{sub 2} from reacting carbon under various oxygen concentrations and heating rates. The results of these experiments indicate that correcting the measured surface area for void area and reacting void wall area produces calculated burning rates closely matching diffusion-limited burning rates for all conditions and all coals investigated. These results suggest that void area effects should be included for accurate determination of burning area at diffusion-limited conditions.

Bayless, D.J.; Schroeder, A.R.; Peters, J.E.; Buckius, R.O. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering] [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering

1997-01-01

61

Significant emissions of 210Po by coal burning into the urban atmosphere of Seoul, Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We conducted a year-round survey of precipitation samples to investigate the sources of excess 210Po in the urban atmosphere of Seoul, Korea. The dominant fraction of 210Po in our samples, independent of the in-situ decay of tropospheric 210Pb, was linked with anthropogenic processes. Using vanadium and potassium as tracers, the excess 210Po was mainly attributed to combustion of coal, with minor contributions from biomass burning. The annual integrated amount of 210Po deposited over the Seoul area via precipitation was estimated to be 1.75 1010 Bq yr-1, which might represent a potential public health risk in the vicinity of major point sources, due to its highly adverse biological effects. Since the world coal consumption is growing, the magnitude of coal burning derived 210Po is expected to increase in the following decades, which should be carefully monitored.

Yan, Ge; Cho, Hyung-Mi; Lee, Insung; Kim, Guebuem

2012-07-01

62

30 CFR 817.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

(a) Coal mine waste fires shall be extinguished by the person who conducts the surface mining activities, in accordance with a plan approved by the regulatory authority and the Mine Safety and Health...

2014-07-01

63

Burns  

MedlinePLUS

NIGMS Home > Science Education > Burns Fact Sheet Burns Fact Sheet Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area What is a burn? A burn is tissue damage caused by heat, chemicals, electricity, sunlight ...

64

Coal and cremation at the Tschudi burn, Chan Chan, Northern Peru  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Analyses of a 20-30 cm thick, completely combusted ash at the 25 ?? 70 m Tschudi burn at Chan Chan, northern Peru??, contain 52-55 wt% SiO2, 180-210 ppm zirconium and are consistent with coal ash. Soil geochemistry across the burn showed elevated calcium and phosphorus content, possible evidence for reported human cremation. A calcined, 5 g, 4.5 cm skull fragment recovered from the burn was confirmed as human by protein radioimmunoassay (pRIA). X-ray diffraction showed that the bone had been heated to 520??C. The burn took place c. ad 1312-1438 based on interpretation of a 14C date on carbonized plant tinder. ?? 2008 University of Oxford.

Brooks, W.E.; Galvez, Mora C.; Jackson, J.C.; McGeehin, J.P.; Hood, D.G.

2008-01-01

65

Baked shale and slag formed by the burning of coal beds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The baking and reddening of large masses of strata caused by the burning of coal beds is a striking feature of the landscape in most of the great western coal-bearing areas. The general character and broader effects of the burning have been described by many writers, but the fact that in places enough heat is generated to fuse and thoroughly recrystallize the overlying shale and sandstone has received less attention. Some of the natural slags thus formed simulate somewhat abnormal igneous rocks, but others consist largely of rare and little known minerals. A wide range in the mineral composition of such slags is to be expected, depending on the composition of the original sediment and the conditions of fusion and cooling. These products of purely thermal metamorphism offer a fertile field for petrologic investigation. The writer has observed the effects produced by the burning of coal beds in several localities in Montana, particularly along upper Tongue River in the southern part of the State, in the district lying southeast of the mouth of Bighorn River, and in the Little Sheep Mountain coal field north of Miles City. A number of specimens of the rock formed have been examined under the microscope, though time has not been available for a systematic examination. The writer is greatly indebted to Mr. E. S. Larsen for assistance in the study of some of the minerals.

Rogers, G. Sherburne

1918-01-01

66

Partitioning of selected trace elements in coal combustion products from two coal-burning power plants in the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Samples of feed coal (FC), bottom ash (BA), economizer fly ash (EFA), and fly ash (FA) were collected from power plants in the Central Appalachian basin and Colorado Plateau to determine the partitioning of As, Cr, Hg, Pb, and Se in coal combustion products (CCPs). The Appalachian plant burns a high-sulfur (about 3.9 wt.%) bituminous coal from the Upper Pennsylvanian Pittsburgh coal bed and operates with electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), with flue gas temperatures of about 163 C in the ESPs. At this plant, As, Pb, Hg, and Se have the greatest median concentrations in FA samples, compared to BA and EFA. A mass balance (not including the FGD process) suggests that the following percentages of trace elements are captured in FA: As (48%), Cr (58%), Pb (54%), Se (20%), and Hg (2%). The relatively high temperatures of the flue gas in the ESPs and low amounts of unburned C in FA (0.5% loss-on-ignition for FA) may have led to the low amount of Hg captured in FA. The Colorado Plateau plant burns a blend of three low-S (about 0.74 wt.%) bituminous coals from the Upper Cretaceous Fruitland Formation and operates with fabric filters (FFs). Flue gas temperatures in the baghouses are about 104 C. The elements As, Cr, Pb, Hg, and Se have the greatest median concentrations in the fine-grained fly ash product (FAP) produced by cyclone separators, compared to the other CCPs at this plant. The median concentration of Hg in FA (0.0983 ppm) at the Colorado Plateau plant is significantly higher than that for the Appalachian plant (0.0315 ppm); this higher concentration is related to the efficiency of FFs in Hg capture, the relatively low temperatures of flue gas in the baghouses (particularly in downstream compartments), and the amount of unburned C in FA (0.29% loss-on-ignition for FA).

Swanson, Sharon M.; Engle, Mark A.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Affolter, Ronald H.; Jones, Kevin B.

2013-01-01

67

From in-situ coal to fly ash: A study of coal mines and power plants from Indiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper presents data on the properties of coal and fly ash from two coal mines and two power plants that burn single-source coal from two mines in Indiana. One mine is in the low-sulfur (5%) Springfield Coal Member of the Petersburg Formation (Pennsylvanian). Both seams have comparable ash contents (???11%). Coals sampled at the mines (both raw and washed fractions) were analyzed for proximate/ultimate/sulfur forms/heating value, major oxides, trace elements and petrographic composition. The properties of fly ash from these coals reflect the properties of the feed coal, as well as local combustion and post-combustion conditions. Sulfur and spinel content, and As, Pb and Zn concentrations of the fly ash are the parameters that most closely reflect the properties of the source coal. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Mastalerz, Maria; Hower, J.C.; Drobniak, A.; Mardon, S.M.; Lis, G.

2004-01-01

68

The potential role of lung microbiota in lung cancer attributed to household coal burning exposures.  

PubMed

Bacteria influence site-specific disease etiology and the host's ability to metabolize xenobiotics, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Lung cancer in Xuanwei, China has been attributed to PAH-rich household air pollution from burning coal. This study seeks to explore the role of lung microbiota in lung cancer among never smoking Xuanwei women and how coal burning may influence these associations. DNA from sputum and buccal samples of never smoking lung cancer cases (n?=?8, in duplicate) and controls (n?=?8, in duplicate) in two Xuanwei villages was extracted using a multi-step enzymatic and physical lysis, followed by a standardized clean-up. V1-V2 regions of 16S rRNA genes were PCR-amplified. Purified amplicons were sequenced by 454 FLX Titanium pyrosequencing and high-quality sequences were evaluated for diversity and taxonomic membership. Bacterial diversity among cases and controls was similar in buccal samples (P?=?0.46), but significantly different in sputum samples (P?=?0.038). In sputum, Granulicatella (6.1 vs. 2.0%; P?=?0.0016), Abiotrophia (1.5 vs. 0.085%; P?=?0.0036), and Streptococcus (40.1 vs. 19.8%; P?=?0.0142) were enriched in cases compared with controls. Sputum samples had on average 488.25 species-level OTUs in the flora of cases who used smoky coal (PAH-rich) compared with 352.5 OTUs among cases who used smokeless coal (PAH-poor; P?=?0.047). These differences were explained by the Bacilli species (Streptococcus infantis and Streptococcus anginosus). Our small study suggests that never smoking lung cancer cases have differing sputum microbiota than controls. Further, bacteria found in sputum may be influenced by environmental exposures associated with the type of coal burned in the home. PMID:24895247

Hosgood, H Dean; Sapkota, Amy R; Rothman, Nathaniel; Rohan, Thomas; Hu, Wei; Xu, Jun; Vermeulen, Roel; He, Xingzhou; White, James Robert; Wu, Guoping; Wei, Fusheng; Mongodin, Emmanuel F; Lan, Qing

2014-10-01

69

Comprehensive report to Congress: Clean Coal Technology program: ENCOAL mild coal gasification project: A project proposed by ENCOAL Corporation  

SciTech Connect

This project involves the mild gasification of coal at moderate temperatures and near atmospheric pressure to produce two marketable products. Both products are new low-sulfur fuel forms. The high heating value, low-sulfur solid is called Process Derived Fuel (PDF). The low-sulfur, heavy-hydrocarbon liquid is called Coal Derived Liquid (CDL). The process chemically modifies the feed coal to create the two new fuel forms and also removes most of the moisture and some of the sulfur, depending on the sulfur form in the feed coal. The proposed demonstration plant would be put in service by the first quarter of 1992. The plant would be designed and operated as a small commercial facility and would be expected to produce sufficient quantities of PDF and CDL to conduct full-scale test burns of the products in industrial and utility boilers. There will be no waste water or toxic solid wastes generated by the demonstration plant. Source water requirements will have a very minimal environmental impact at the site. The plant could ultimately have a very favorable impact on sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions in the United States if the project is successful. ENCOAL has estimated that the new fuel forms, PDF and CDL, from one commercial plant using the LFC Technology would reduce SO{sub 2} emissions by about 160,000 tons per year when burned at utility customers plants. 5 figs., 1 tab.

Not Available

1990-06-01

70

Analysis of mass loss of a coal particle during the course of burning in a flow of inert material  

SciTech Connect

This paper is an attempt to explain the role of erosion during the process of coal combustion in a circulating fluidized bed. Different kinds of carbon deposits found in Poland, both bituminous as well as lignite with the particle of 10 mm in diameter were the subject of the research. According to many publications it is well known that erosion plays a significant role in coal combustion, by changing its mechanism as well as generating an additional mass loss of the mother particle. The purpose of this research was to determine the influence of an inert material on an erosive mass loss of a single coal particle burning in a two-phase flow. The determination of the influence of a coal type, the rate of flow of inert material and the temperature inside the furnace on the erosive mass loss of burning coal particle was also taken into consideration. The results obtained indicate that the velocity of the erosive mass loss depends on the chemical composition and petrographic structure of burning coal. The mechanical interaction of inert and burning coal particles leads to the shortening of the period of overall mass loss of the coal particle by even two times. The increase in the rate of flow of the inert material intensifies the generation of mass loss by up to 100%. The drop in temperature which slows down the combustion process, decreases the mass loss of the coal particle as the result of mechanical interaction of the inert material. As was observed, the process of percolation plays a significant role by weakening the surface of the burning coal. (author)

Pelka, Piotr [Czestochowa University of Technology, Department of Boilers and Thermodynamics, Armii Krajowej 19c, Czestochowa, Silesia 42-200 (Poland)

2009-08-15

71

Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility, Wilsonville, Alabama. Run 261 with Illinois No. 6 Burning Star Mine coal  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of Run 261 performed at the Advanced Coal Liquefaction R & D Facility in Wilsonville, Alabama. The run started on January 12, 1991 and continued until May 31, 1991, operating in the Close-Coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction mode processing Illinois No. 6 seam bituminous coal (from Burning star No. 2 mine). In the first part of Run 261, a new bimodal catalyst, EXP-AO-60, was tested for its performance and attrition characteristics in the catalytic/catalytic mode of the CC-ITSL process. The main objective of this part of the run was to obtain good process performance in the low/high temperature mode of operation along with well-defined distillation product end boiling points. In the second part of Run 261, Criterion (Shell) 324 catalyst was tested. The objective of this test was to evaluate the operational stability and catalyst and process performance while processing the high ash Illinois No. 6 coal. Increasing viscosity and preasphaltenes made it difficult to operate at conditions similar to EXP-AO-60 catalyst operation, especially at lower catalyst replacement rates.

Not Available

1992-09-01

72

Formation and use of coal combustion residues from three types of power plants burning Illinois coals  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Coal, ash, and limestone samples from a fluidized bed combustion (FBC) plant, a pulverized coal combustion (PC) plant, and a cyclone (CYC) plant in Illinois were analyzed to determine the combustion behavior of mineral matter, and to propose beneficial uses for the power plant ashes. Pyrite and marcasite in coal were converted during combustion to glass, hematite and magnetite. Calcite was converted to lime and anhydrite. The clay minerals were altered to mullite and glass. Quartz was partially altered to glass. Trace elements in coal were partially mobilized during combustion and, as a result, emitted into the atmosphere or adsorbed on fly ash or on hardware on the cool side of the power plants. Overall, the mobilities of 15 trace elements investigated were lower at the FBC plant than at the other plants. Only F and Mn at the FBC plant, F, Hg, and Se at the PC plant and Be, F, Hg, and Se at the CYC plant had over 50% of their concentrations mobilized. Se and Ge could be commercially recovered from some of the combustion ashes. The FBC ashes could be used as acid neutralizing agents in agriculture and waste treatment, and to produce sulfate fertilizers, gypsum wall boards, concrete, and cement. The PC and CYC fly ashes can potentially be used in the production of cement, concrete, ceramics, and zeolites. The PC and CYC bottom ashes could be used in stabilized road bases, as frits in roof shingles, and perhaps in manufacturing amber glass. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Demir, I.; Hughes, R.E.; DeMaris, P.J.

2001-01-01

73

Burns  

MedlinePLUS

A burn is damage to your body's tissues caused by heat, chemicals, electricity, sunlight or radiation. Scalds from hot ... and gases are the most common causes of burns. Another kind is an inhalation injury, caused by ...

74

Burns  

MedlinePLUS

... clean dressing. Protect the burn from pressure and friction. Over-the-counter ibuprofen or acetaminophen can help ... heart. Protect the burn area from pressure and friction. You will also need to prevent shock . If ...

75

Urinary arsenic speciation and its correlation with 8-OHdG in Chinese residents exposed to arsenic through coal burning  

SciTech Connect

In contrast to arsenicosis caused by consumption of water contaminated by naturally occurring inorganic arsenic, human exposure to this metalloid through coal burning has been rarely reported. In this study, arsenic speciation and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels in urine were determined in the Chinese residents exposed to arsenic through coal burning in Guizhou, China, an epidemic area of chronic arsenic poisoning caused by coal burning. The urinary concentrations of inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and total arsenic (tAs) of high-arsenic exposed subjects were significantly higher than those of low-arsenic exposed residents. A biomarker of oxidative DNA damage, urinary 8-OHdG level was significantly higher in high-arsenic exposed subjects than that of low exposed. Significant positive correlations were found between 8-OHdG levels and concentrations of iAs, MMA, DMA and tAs, respectively. In addition, a significant negative correlation was observed between 8-OHdG levels and the secondary methylation ratio (DMA/(MMA + DMA)). The results suggest that chronic arsenic exposure through burning coal rich in arsenic is associated with oxidative DNA damages, and that secondary methylation capacity is potentially related to the susceptibility of individuals to oxidative DNA damage induced by arsenic exposure through coal burning in domestic living.

Li, X.; Pi, J.B.; Li, B.; Xu, Y.Y.; Jin, Y.P.; Sun, G.F. [China Medical University, Shenyang (China). Dept. for Occupational & Environmental Health

2008-10-15

76

Urinary porphyrins in patients with endemic chronic arsenic poisoning caused by burning coal in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo evaluate the effect of arsenic (As) on the porphyrin biosynthetic pathway, urine samples from patients with endemic chronic\\u000a arsenic poisoning were examined.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Subjects and MethodsThe subjects were 16 patients, who had been exposed to As from burning coal for 8 to 25 years, and 16 controls living in the\\u000a same region in Guizhou Province in southwest China. Concentrations of

Yaxiong Xie; Masao Kondo; Hidenori Koga; Hiroshi Miyamoto; Momoko Chiba

2001-01-01

77

JV Task 126 - Mercury Control Technologies for Electric Utilities Burning Bituminous Coal  

SciTech Connect

The EERC developed an applied research consortium project to test cost-effective mercury (Hg) control technologies for utilities burning bituminous coals. The project goal was to test innovative Hg control technologies that have the potential to reduce Hg emissions from bituminous coal-fired power plants by {ge}90% at costs of one-half to three-quarters of current estimates for activated carbon injection (ACI). Hg control technology evaluations were performed using the EERC's combustion test facility (CTF). The CTF was fired on pulverized bituminous coals at 550,000 Btu/hr (580 MJ/hr). The CTF was configured with the following air pollution control devices (APCDs): selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit, electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization system (WFDS). The Hg control technologies investigated as part of this project included ACI (three Norit Americas, Inc., and eleven Envergex sorbents), elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) oxidation catalysts (i.e., the noble metals in Hitachi Zosen, Cormetech, and Hitachi SCR catalysts), sorbent enhancement additives (SEAs) (a proprietary EERC additive, trona, and limestone), and blending with a Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. These Hg control technologies were evaluated separately, and many were also tested in combination.

Jason Laumb; John Kay; Michael Jones; Brandon Pavlish; Nicholas Lentz; Donald McCollor; Kevin Galbreath

2009-03-29

78

Benefits of reducing prenatal exposure to coal-burning pollutants to children's neurodevelopment in China  

SciTech Connect

Coal burning provides 70% of the energy for China's industry and power, but releases large quantities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other pollutants. PAHs are reproductive and developmental toxicants, mutagens, and carcinogens. We evaluated the benefit to neurobehavioral development from the closure of a coal-fired power plant that was the major local source of ambient PAHs. The research was conducted in Tongliang, Chongqing, China, where a coal-fired power plant operated seasonally before it was shut down in May 2004. Two identical prospective cohort studies enrolled nonsmoking women and their newborns in 2002 (before shutdown) and 2005 (after shutdown). Prenatal PAH exposure was measured by PAH-DNA adducts (benzo(a)pyrene-DNA) in umbilical cord blood. Child development was assessed by the Gesell Developmental Schedules at 2 years of age. Prenatal exposure to other neurotoxicants and potential confounders (including lead, mercury, and environmental tobacco smoke) was measured. We compared the cohorts regarding the association between PAH-DNA adduct levels and neurodevelopmental outcomes. Significant associations previously seen in 2002 between elevated adducts and decreased motor area developmental quotient (DQ) (p = 0.043) and average DQ (p = 0.047) were not observed in the 2005 cohort (p = 0.546 and p = 0.146). However, the direction of the relationship did not change. The findings indicate that neurobehavioral development in Tongliang children benefitedby elimination of PAH exposure from the coal-burning plant, consistent with the significant reduction in PAH-DNA adducts in cord blood of children in the 2005 cohort. The results have implications for children's environmental health in China and elsewhere.

Perera, F.; Li, T.Y.; Zhou, Z.J.; Yuan, T.; Chen, Y.H.; Qu, L.R.; Rauh, V.A.; Zhang, Y.G.; Tang, D.L. [Columbia University, New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Environmental Health Science

2008-10-15

79

Molecular and Neurodevelopmental Benefits to Children of Closure of a Coal Burning Power Plant in China  

PubMed Central

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are major toxic air pollutants released during incomplete combustion of coal. PAH emissions are especially problematic in China because of their reliance on coal-powered energy. The prenatal period is a window of susceptibility to neurotoxicants. To determine the health benefits of reducing air pollution related to coal-burning, we compared molecular biomarkers of exposure and preclinical effects in umbilical cord blood to neurodevelopmental outcomes from two successive birth cohorts enrolled before and after a highly polluting, coal-fired power plant in Tongliang County, China had ceased operation. Women and their newborns in the two successive cohorts were enrolled at the time of delivery. We measured PAH-DNA adducts, a biomarker of PAH-exposure and DNA damage, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a protein involved in neuronal growth, in umbilical cord blood. At age two, children were tested using the Gesell Developmental Schedules (GDS). The two cohorts were compared with respect to levels of both biomarkers in cord blood as well as developmental quotient (DQ) scores across 5 domains. Lower levels of PAH-DNA adducts, higher concentrations of the mature BDNF protein (mBDNF) and higher DQ scores were seen in the 2005 cohort enrolled after closure of the power plant. In the two cohorts combined, PAH-DNA adducts were inversely associated with mBDNF as well as scores for motor (p?=?0.05), adaptive (p?=?0.022), and average (p?=?0.014) DQ. BDNF levels were positively associated with motor (p?=?0.018), social (p?=?0.001), and average (p?=?0.017) DQ scores. The findings indicate that the closure of a coal-burning plant resulted in the reduction of PAH-DNA adducts in newborns and increased mBDNF levels that in turn, were positively associated with neurocognitive development. They provide further evidence of the direct benefits to children's health as a result of the coal plant shut down, supporting clean energy and environmental policies in China and elsewhere. PMID:24647528

Tang, Deliang; Lee, Joan; Muirhead, Loren; Li, Ting Yu; Qu, Lirong; Yu, Jie; Perera, Frederica

2014-01-01

80

[Factors of effects on transformation behaviors of inorganic mineral matters in desulfurizing process of burning coal].  

PubMed

The Heshan coal and the Wansheng coal were selected to investigate the effects of Ca/S molar ratio, combustion temperature and other factors on the desulfurization efficiency when limestone as a desulfurizer. And then the possible effects of various desufurizing systems on the mineral constituents of their residues were discussed by using the X-ray diffraction analyzer. Moreover, the phase diagrams of the ternary system CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 were further used in order to find out the transformation behaviors of inorganic mineral matters in the desulfurizing processes of burning coal on the basis of the XRD results. The results show that the combustion temperature and the Ca/S molar ratio are the key factors affected the desulfurization efficiency and their residues' mineral constituents. When the temperature raised and the Ca/S ratio increased, the solid-phase reactions between CaO and some inorganic matters in coal ash will be obviously accelerated, which thus are good for the formaion of many mineral matters such as C4AF,C2AS and beta-C2S. Yet the anhydrite formed will decompose if the temperature is above 1050 degrees C and then the desulfurization efficiency will decrease. The desulfurization efficiency in different temperature is mainly decided by the existence form of the sulfur-contained mineral matters and their contents in the residue. In the experiment, the best desulfurization efficiency for the HS coal was about 90% when the Ca/S ratio was 2 or 3 and the range of the temperature was from 850 degrees C to 950 degrees C. PMID:15759876

Xie, Jun-lin; Luo, Jin-ping; Zhao, Gai-ju; Yang, Kui-bin

2004-11-01

81

Epoxy-borax-coal tar composition for a radiation protective, burn resistant drum liner and centrifugal casting method  

DOEpatents

A boron containing burn resistant, low level radiation protection material useful, for example, as a liner for radioactive waste disposal and storage, a component for neutron absorber, and a shield for a neutron source. The material is basically composed of Borax in the range of 25-50%, coal tar in the range of 25-37.5%, with the remainder being an epoxy resin mix. A preferred composition is 50% Borax, 25% coal tar and 25% epoxy resin. The material is not susceptible to burning and is about 1/5 the cost of existing radiation protection material utilized in similar applications.

Taylor, Robert S. (Livermore, CA); Boyer, Norman W. (Livermore, CA)

1980-01-01

82

PM2.5 chemical source profiles for vehicle exhaust, vegetative burning, geological material, and coal burning in Northwestern Colorado during 1995.  

PubMed

PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 microm) chemical source profiles applicable to speciated emissions inventories and receptor model source apportionment are reported for geological material, motor vehicle exhaust, residential coal (RCC) and wood combustion (RWC), forest fires, geothermal hot springs; and coal-fired power generation units from northwestern Colorado during 1995. Fuels and combustion conditions are similar to those of other communities of the inland western US. Coal-fired power station profiles differed substantially between different units using similar coals, with the major difference being lack of selenium in emissions from the only unit that was equipped with a dry limestone sulfur dioxide (SO2) scrubber. SO2 abundances relative to fine particle mass emissions in power plant emissions were seven to nine times higher than hydrogen sulfide (H2S) abundances from geothermal springs, and one to two orders of magnitude higher than SO2 abundances in RCC emissions, implying that the SO2 abundance is an important marker for primary particle contributions of non-aged coal-fired power station contributions. The sum of organic and elemental carbon ranged from 1% to 10% of fine particle mass in coal-fired power plant emissions, from 5% to 10% in geological material, >50% in forest fire emissions, >60% in RWC emissions, and >95% in RCC and vehicle exhaust emissions. Water-soluble potassium (K+) was most abundant in vegetative burning profiles. K+/K ratios ranged from 0.1 in geological material profiles to 0.9 in vegetative burning emissions, confirming previous observations that soluble potassium is a good marker for vegetative burning. PMID:11368231

Watson, J G; Chow, J C; Houck, J E

2001-06-01

83

Atmospheric iron deposition in the northwestern Pacific Ocean and its adjacent marginal seas: The importance of coal burning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study applied a regional air quality model, incorporated with an emission module, to quantitatively differentiate the atmospheric iron sources originating from lithogenic dusts or coal-burning fly ashes deposited in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean and its marginal seas. Particular attention was paid to the high iron content of fly ashes emitted from steel and iron plants burning coals. Using the year 2007 as an example, the modeling results exhibit large seasonal variations in iron deposition, with highest deposition fluxes occurred during spring and autumn, which are comparable to the seasonal fluctuation of chlorophyll a concentrations estimated by satellite images in the oceanic regions. Fly ash from coal burning accounted for 7.2% of the total iron deposited over the northwestern Pacific Ocean and 15% of that over the northern South China Sea. After considering the difference of iron solubility in the aerosols, anthropogenic aerosol associated with coal burning would be the major bioavailable iron source in the surface water of the oceanic regions.

Lin, Yi-Chiu; Chen, Jen-Ping; Ho, Tung-Yuan; Tsai, I.-Chun

2015-02-01

84

Effects of fly ash from coal-burning electrical utilities on ecosystem and utilization of fly ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric power plants that burn fossil fuels emit several pollutants linked to the environmental problems of acid rain, urban ozone, and the possibility of global climate change. Not only are gaseous and particulate emissions from coal-fired power plants of environmental concern, but also their byproduct, fly ash may lead to contamination because of the possible release of both major and

Alper Baba; MUMTAZ A. USMEN

85

OXIDATION OF MERCURY ACROSS SCR CATALYSTS IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS BURNING LOW RANK FUELS  

SciTech Connect

This is the fifth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-03NT41728. The objective of this program is to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Argillon GmbH are providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, the available data from laboratory, pilot and full-scale SCR units was reviewed, leading to hypotheses about the mechanism for mercury oxidation by SCR catalysts.

Constance Senior

2004-04-30

86

Coal-Fired Power Plant (Western Coal): Environmental characterization information report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The latest available environmental and technical information on coal-fired power plants was collected from a number of sources. The typical plant chosen for characterization was a 500/MWe pulverized-coal plant burning western low-sulfur coal. The plant uses an electrostatic precipitator, a lime/limestone scrubber, and a wet, mechanical draft cooling tower. The plant fuel is supplied from offsite mines by unit-train deliveries with surface mined, thick seam coal, which undergoes minimum preparation prior to pulverization. The process, plant operating parameters, resources needed, and environmental residuals and products associated with the power plant are presented. Annual resource usage and pollutant discharges are given, assuming an annual plant capacity factor of 80 percent. Quantities are given in terms of ten to the twelth power Btu's of electric energy produced. Several plants are discussed individually. Environmental regulations are discussed. The overall physical requirements of the plant for land and water are discussed.

1981-01-01

87

OXIDATION OF MERCURY ACROSS SCR CATALYSTS IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS BURNING LOW RANK FUELS  

SciTech Connect

This is the first Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-03NT41728. The objective of this program is to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Ceramics GmbH are providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, analysis of the coal, ash and mercury speciation data from the first test series was completed. Good agreement was shown between different methods of measuring mercury in the flue gas: Ontario Hydro, semi-continuous emission monitor (SCEM) and coal composition. There was a loss of total mercury across the commercial catalysts, but not across the blank monolith. The blank monolith showed no oxidation. The data from the first test series show the same trend in mercury oxidation as a function of space velocity that has been seen elsewhere. At space velocities in the range of 6,000-7,000 hr{sup -1} the blank monolith did not show any mercury oxidation, with or without ammonia present. Two of the commercial catalysts clearly showed an effect of ammonia. Two other commercial catalysts showed an effect of ammonia, although the error bars for the no-ammonia case are large. A test plan was written for the second test series and is being reviewed.

Constance Senior; Temi Linjewile

2003-07-25

88

OXIDATION OF MERCURY ACROSS SCR CATALYSTS IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS BURNING LOW RANK FUELS  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this program were to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel and to develop a greater understanding of mercury oxidation across SCR catalysts in the form of a simple model. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Argillon GmbH provided co-funding for this program. REI used a multicatalyst slipstream reactor to determine oxidation of mercury across five commercial SCR catalysts at a power plant that burned a blend of 87% subbituminous coal and 13% bituminous coal. The chlorine content of the blend was 100 to 240 {micro}g/g on a dry basis. Mercury measurements were carried out when the catalysts were relatively new, corresponding to about 300 hours of operation and again after 2,200 hours of operation. NO{sub x}, O{sub 2} and gaseous mercury speciation at the inlet and at the outlet of each catalyst chamber were measured. In general, the catalysts all appeared capable of achieving about 90% NO{sub x} reduction at a space velocity of 3,000 hr{sup -1} when new, which is typical of full-scale installations; after 2,200 hours exposure to flue gas, some of the catalysts appeared to lose NO{sub x} activity. For the fresh commercial catalysts, oxidation of mercury was in the range of 25% to 65% at typical full-scale space velocities. A blank monolith showed no oxidation of mercury under any conditions. All catalysts showed higher mercury oxidation without ammonia, consistent with full-scale measurements. After exposure to flue gas for 2,200 hours, some of the catalysts showed reduced levels of mercury oxidation relative to the initial levels of oxidation. A model of Hg oxidation across SCRs was formulated based on full-scale data. The model took into account the effects of temperature, space velocity, catalyst type and HCl concentration in the flue gas.

Constance Senior

2004-12-31

89

Field application of a finite-element water-quality model to a coal seam with UCG burns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A two-dimensional finite-element model has been developed to study the flow of water and the transport of water-quality constituents associated with underground coal gastification (UCG) burns in a coal aquifer. The flow model calculates the piezometric head and seepage velocity distributions in the aquifer as a function of time. These outputs are fed into a water-quality model that takes into account the dispersion, decay, and adsorption characteristics of a particular water-quality constituent. These models can be used to study the movement of contaminants within an aquifer. The models have been verified for accuracy by checking their output against analytic solutions that are available for simple aquifer geometries. These programs have been applied to the Hanna UCG burns in Wyoming, U.S.A. Steady-state flows are assumed in the coal seam and the movement of a constituent is studied as a function of time as the five burns were completed. This study illustrates how the model can be used by water-resource managers to understand the environmental impact of UCG burns.

Contractor, Dinshaw N.; El-Didy, Sherif M. A.

1989-07-01

90

The deposition and burning characteristics during slagging co-firing coal and wood: modeling and numerical simulation  

SciTech Connect

Numerical analysis was used to study the deposition and burning characteristics of combining co-combustion with slagging combustion technologies in this paper. The pyrolysis and burning kinetic models of different fuels were implanted into the WBSF-PCC2 (wall burning and slag flow in pulverized co-combustion) computation code, and then the slagging and co-combustion characteristics (especially the wall burning mechanism of different solid fuels and their effects on the whole burning behavior in the cylindrical combustor at different mixing ratios under the condition of keeping the heat input same) were simulated numerically. The results showed that adding wood powder at 25% mass fraction can increase the temperature at the initial stage of combustion, which is helpful to utilize the front space of the combustor. Adding wood powder at a 25% mass fraction can increase the reaction rate at the initial combustion stage; also, the coal ignitability is improved, and the burnout efficiency is enhanced by about 5% of suspension and deposition particles, which is helpful for coal particles to burn entirely and for combustion devices to minimize their dimensions or sizes. The results also showed that adding wood powder at a proper ratio is helpful to keep the combustion stability, not only because of the enhancement for the burning characteristics, but also because the running slag layer structure can be changed more continuously, which is very important for avoiding the abnormal slag accumulation in the slagging combustor. The theoretic analysis in this paper proves that unification of co-combustion and slagging combustion technologies is feasible, though more comprehensive and rigorous research is needed.

Wang, X.H.; Zhao, D.Q.; Jiang, L.Q.; Yang, W.B. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ghangzhou (China)

2009-07-01

91

40 CFR 80.255 - Compliance plans and demonstration of commitment to produce low sulfur gasoline.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...plans and demonstration of commitment to produce low sulfur gasoline. 80.255 Section...plans and demonstration of commitment to produce low sulfur gasoline. The requirements...making the necessary modifications to produce gasoline that meets the 30 ppm...

2010-07-01

92

40 CFR 80.255 - Compliance plans and demonstration of commitment to produce low sulfur gasoline.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...demonstration of commitment to produce low sulfur gasoline. 80.255 Section 80.255...OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Hardship Provisions 80.255 ...demonstration of commitment to produce low sulfur gasoline. The requirements of...

2013-07-01

93

40 CFR 80.255 - Compliance plans and demonstration of commitment to produce low sulfur gasoline.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...demonstration of commitment to produce low sulfur gasoline. 80.255 Section 80.255...OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Hardship Provisions 80.255 ...demonstration of commitment to produce low sulfur gasoline. The requirements of...

2011-07-01

94

40 CFR 80.255 - Compliance plans and demonstration of commitment to produce low sulfur gasoline.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...demonstration of commitment to produce low sulfur gasoline. 80.255 Section 80.255...OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Hardship Provisions 80.255 ...demonstration of commitment to produce low sulfur gasoline. The requirements of...

2014-07-01

95

40 CFR 80.255 - Compliance plans and demonstration of commitment to produce low sulfur gasoline.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...demonstration of commitment to produce low sulfur gasoline. 80.255 Section 80.255...OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Hardship Provisions 80.255 ...demonstration of commitment to produce low sulfur gasoline. The requirements of...

2012-07-01

96

[The quality of voice in coal-miners after burn/inhalation injury due to methane explosion].  

PubMed

The job as a coal-miner exposes to the greatest risk. One of the most dangerous health hazard is a burn/inhalation injury during the methane explosion. The victims undergo physical trauma, effect of high temperature and inhalation of toxic gases and products of incomplete combustion, As a result of inhalation injury both, upper and lower airways are affected. The aim of the study was to analyse the relationship between burn/inhalation injury and quality of voice in affected coal-miners. A group of 23 patients (men) in age from 28 to 59 (mean 38.5) 3 years after burn/inhalation injury participated in this study. The voice evaluation based on ENT examination, videlaryngostroboscopy, acoustic analysis, MPT parameter and GRBAS analysis was performed. The special control group of coal-miners served as a control. On the basis of the subjective evaluation and the objective acoustic analysis, aerodynamic parameter and videlaryngostroboscopy the worse quality of voice in the group of injured coalminers was shown in comparison to the control group. No substantial correlation between the acoustic parameters, MPT parameter and ventilating rates was found. PMID:22500499

Orecka, Boguslawa; Sikora, ?ukasz; Misio?ek, Maciej; Fira, Rafa?; Mi?kiewicz-Orczyk, Katarzyna; Paluch, Zbigniew; Krzywiecki, Andrzej; Grzanka, Alicja; Namys?owski, Grzegorz

2012-01-01

97

Process for producing low-sulfur boiler fuel by hydrotreatment of solvent deashed SRC  

SciTech Connect

In this invention, a process is disclosed characterized by heating a slurry of coal in the presence of a process-derived recycle solvent and passing same to a dissolver zone, separating the resultant gases and liquid/solid products therefrom, vacuum distilling the liquid/solids products, separating the portions of the liquid/solids vacuum distillation effluent into a solid ash, unconverted coal particles and SRC material having a boiling point above 850/sup 0/ F. and subjecting same to a critical solvent deashing step to provide an ash-free SRC product. The lighter liquid products from the vacuum distillation possess a boiling point below 850/sup 0/ F. and are passed through a distillation tower, from which recycled solvent is recovered in addition to light distillate boiling below 400/sup 0/ F. (overhead). The ash-free SRC product in accompanyment with at least a portion of the process derived solvent is passed in combination to a hydrotreating zone containing a hydrogenation catalyst and in the presence of hydrogen is hydroprocessed to produce a desulfurized and denitrogenized low-sulfur, low-ash boiler fuel and a process derived recycle solvent which is recycled to slurry the coal in the beginning of the process before heating.

Roberts, G.W.; Tao, J.C.

1985-08-13

98

Process for producing low-sulfur boiler fuel by hydrotreatment of solvent deashed SRC  

DOEpatents

In this invention, a process is disclosed characterized by heating a slurry of coal in the presence of a process-derived recycle solvent and passing same to a dissolver zone, separating the resultant gases and liquid/solid products therefrom, vacuum distilling the liquid/solids products, separating the portions of the liquid/solids vacuum distillation effluent into a solid ash, unconverted coal particles and SRC material having a boiling point above 850.degree. F. and subjecting same to a critical solvent deashing step to provide an ash-free SRC product. The lighter liquid products from the vacuum distillation possess a boiling point below 850.degree. F. and are passed through a distillation tower, from which recycled solvent is recovered in addition to light distillate boiling below 400.degree. F. (overhead). The ash-free SRC product in accompanyment with at least a portion of the process derived solvent is passed in combination to a hydrotreating zone containing a hydrogenation catalyst and in the presence of hydrogen is hydroprocessed to produce a desulfurized and denitrogenized low-sulfur, low-ash boiler fuel and a process derived recycle solvent which is recycled to slurry the coal in the beginning of the process before heating.

Roberts, George W. (Emmaus, PA); Tao, John C. (Perkiomenville, PA)

1985-01-01

99

Geothermal, Geochemical and Geomagnetic Mapping Of the Burning Coal Seam in Fire- Zone 18 of the Coal Mining Area Wuda, Inner Mongolia, PR China.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spontaneous combustion of coal has become a world wide problem caused by and affecting technical operations in coal mining areas. The localization of the burning centre is a prerequisite for any planning of fire fighting operations. In the German - Chinese coal fire project sponsored by the German Ministry of Science and Technologies (Grant No. 0330490K) the so called fire zone 18 of the coal mining area of Wuda (InnerMongolia, PR China) serves as a test area for geophysical measurements. For the geothermal and geochemical mapping 25 up to 1m deep boreholes with a diameter of approx. 30 mm are distributed over the particular fire-zone with an extension of 320 180 m2. To avoid the highly dynamic gas flow processes in fire induced fractures caused by weather conditions, all boreholes were situated in the undisturbed rock compartments. In these boreholes, plastic tubes of 12 mm diameter provide access to the borehole ground filled with highly permeable gravel. The boreholes are otherwise sealed to the atmosphere by clay. The geothermal observations consist of measurements of temperature profiles in the boreholes and thermal conductivity measurement on rock samples in the lab. For depths greater then 0.2 m diurnal variations in the temperature gradient were neglected. The derived heat flow with maximum values of 80 W/m2 is more then three orders of magnitude higher than the natural undisturbed heat flow. The high heat flow suggests that the dominant heat transport is gas convection through the system of porous rock and fractures. Any temperature anomaly caused by the burning coal in a depth of more than 18 m would need years to reach the surface by a heat transport restricted to conduction. The geochemical soil gas probing is performed by gas extraction from the boreholes. Measured are the concentrations of O2, CO, CO2, H2S and CH4. The O2 deficit in the soil air and the concentrations of the other combustion products compared to the concentrations in the free atmosphere are related to the combustion area. The magnetic mapping with point distances of 2 m and profile-distances of 3 to 4 m covered an area of 350 300m with 7913 points. The detected anomalies lie in a range between -130 and 176 nT. The maxima are most likely caused by heating of the top sandstones by burning coal, the origin for the high magnetization being the conversion of pyrite and markasit into maghemite, hematite and magnetite. Susceptibility measurements of clinkers in firezone 18 demonstrate this effect. Therefore the identified patches with high magnetic anomalies should have a direct connection to ranges with burning coal within firezone 18. Al the discussed geophysical measurements together allow an integrated interpretation. Each result can be related to the combustion process with a particular likelihood for the vertical projection to the combustion centre. Probability calculations with chosen weight factors for each observation method are discussed. References: Kessels, W., Wuttke, M. W., Wessling, S., and Li, X. Coalfires between self ignition and fire fighting: Numerical modeling and basic geophysical measurements. In ERSEC Ecological Book Series - 4 on Coal Fire Research (2007).

Kessels, W.; Han, J.; Halisch, M.; Lindner, H.; Rueter, H.; Wuttke, M. W.

2008-12-01

100

Emerging technology for burning coal for district heating and cooling systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are several technologies currently under development that have the potential to enable existing district heating systems to be converted from oil or gas to coal. These technologies are coal water mixtures (CWM) and advanced combustors. For certain applications, these technologies may be used in conjunction with an advanced coal preparation process.

Feibus

1986-01-01

101

Rare earth elements in fly ashes created during the coal burning process in certain coal-fired power plants operating in Poland - Upper Silesian Industrial Region.  

PubMed

The subject of the study covered volatile ashes created during hard coal burning process in ash furnaces, in power plants operating in the Upper Silesian Industrial Region, Southern Poland. Coal-fired power plants are furnished with dust extracting devices, electro precipitators, with 99-99.6% combustion gas extracting efficiency. Activity concentrations ofTh-232, Ra-226, K-40, Ac-228, U-235 and U-238 were measured with gamma-ray spectrometer. Concentrations of selected rare soil elements (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Y, Gd, Th, U) were analysed by means of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Mineral phases of individual ash particles were identified with the use of scanning electron microscope equipped with EDS attachment. Laser granulometric analyses were executed with the use of Analyssette analyser. The activity of the investigated fly-ash samples is several times higher than that of the bituminous coal samples; in the coal, the activities are: 226Ra - 85.4 Bq kg(-1), 40 K-689 Bq kg(-1), 232Th - 100.8 Bq kg(-1), 235U-13.5 Bq kg(-1), 238U-50 Bq kg(-1) and 228Ac - 82.4 Bq kg(-1). PMID:20713303

Smolka-Danielowska, Danuta

2010-11-01

102

7-29 A coal-burning power plant produces 300 MW of power. The amount of coal consumed during a one-day period and the rate of air flowing through the furnace are to be determined.  

E-print Network

7-11 7-29 A coal-burning power plant produces 300 MW of power. The amount of coal consumed during The heating value of the coal is given to be 28,000 kJ/kg. Analysis (a) The rate and the amount of heat inputs'tQQ The amount and rate of coal consumed during this period are kg/s48.33 s360024 kg10893.2 MJ/kg28 MJ101.8 6

Bahrami, Majid

103

Coal-burning endemic fluorosis is associated with reduced activity in antioxidative enzymes and Cu/Zn-SOD gene expression.  

PubMed

To study the effect of fluorine on the oxidative stress in coal-burning fluorosis, we investigated the environmental characteristics of coal-burning endemic fluorosis combined with fluorine content surveillance in air, water, food, briquette, and clay binder samples from Bijie region, Guizhou Province, southwest of China. The activities of antioxidant enzymes including copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and level of lipid peroxidation such as malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in serum samples obtained from subjects residing in the Bijie region. Expression of the Cu/Zn-SOD gene was assessed by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR). Our results showed that people suffering from endemic fluorosis (the high and low exposure groups) had much higher MDA level. Their antioxidant enzyme activities and Cu/Zn-SOD gene expression levels were lower when compared to healthy people (the control group). Fluorosis can decrease the activities of antioxidant enzymes, which was associated with exposure level of fluorine. Down-regulation of Cu/Zn-SOD expression may play an important role in the aggravation of oxidative stress in endemic fluorosis. PMID:23567976

Wang, Qi; Cui, Kang-ping; Xu, Yuan-yuan; Gao, Yan-ling; Zhao, Jing; Li, Da-sheng; Li, Xiao-lei; Huang, Hou-jin

2014-02-01

104

Assessment of potential debris-flow peak discharges from basins burned by the 2002 Coal Seam fire, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

These maps present the results of assessments of peak discharges that can potentially be generated by debris flows issuing from the basins burned by the Coal Seam fire of June and July 2002, near Glenwood Springs, Colorado. The maps are based on a regression model for debris-flow peak discharge normalized by average storm intensity as a function of basin gradient and burned extent, and limited field checking. A range of potential peak discharges that could potentially be produced from each of the burned basins between 1 ft3/s (0.03 m3/s) and greater than 5,000 ft3/s (>141 m3/s) is calculated for the 5-year, 1-hour storm of 0.80 inches (20 mm). The 25-year, 1-hour storm of 1.3 inches (33 mm). The 100- year, 1-hour storm of 1.8 inches (46 mm) produced peak discharges between 1 and greater than 8,000 ft3/s (>227 m3/s). These maps are intended for use by emergency personnel to aid in the preliminary design of mitigation measures, and the planning of evacuation timing and routes.

Cannon, Susan H.; Michael, John A.; Gartner, Joseph E.

2003-01-01

105

Coal desulfurization by aqueous chlorination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of desulfurizing coal is described in which chlorine gas is bubbled through an aqueous slurry of coal at low temperature below 130 degrees C., and at ambient pressure. Chlorinolysis converts both inorganic and organic sulfur components of coal into water soluble compounds which enter the aqueous suspending media. The media is separated after chlorinolysis and the coal dechlorinated at a temperature of from 300 C to 500 C to form a non-caking, low-sulfur coal product.

Kalvinskas, J. J.; Vasilakos, N.; Corcoran, W. H.; Grohmann, K.; Rohatgi, N. K. (inventors)

1982-01-01

106

In Developping a Bench-Scale Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor to Burn High Ash Brazilian Coal-Dolomites Mixtures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work considers some of the questions in burning high ash Brazilian coal-dolomite mixtures in a bench-scale circulating fluidized bed combustor (CFBC). Experimental tests were performed with the CE4500 coal from Santa Catarina State, in southern Brazil, with a Sauter mean diameter d p =43 ?m. The coal particles were mixed with dolomite particles of d p = 111 ?m and this fuel mixture was fed into the circulating fluidized reactor, previously loaded with quartz sand particles of d p =353 ?m. This inert material was previously heated by the combustion of liquefied petroleum gas up to the ignition temperature of the fuel mixture. The CFBC unit has a 100mm internal diameter riser, 4.0m high, as well as a 62.8mm internal diameter downcomer. The loop has a cyclone, a sampling valve to collect particles and a 62.8mm internal diameter L-valve to recirculate the particles in the loop. A screw feeder with a rotation control system was used to feed the fuel mixture to the reactor. The operational conditions were monitored by pressure taps and thermocouples installed along the loop. A data acquisition system showed the main operational conditions to control. Experimental tests performed put in evidence the problems found during bed operation, with special attention to the solids feed device, to the L-valve operation, to particle size, solids inventory, fluidized gas velocity, fuel mixture and recirculated solids feeding positions.

Ramrez Behainne, Jhon Jairo; Hory, Rogrio Ishikawa; Goldstein, Leonardo; Bernrdez Pcora, Ara Augusta

107

Development of the technology of scandium extraction from the ash-slag waste of Kansk-Achinsk brown coal burning  

SciTech Connect

Kansk-Achinsk Brown Coal Basin is one of the largest of the world. The coals of separate fields of this Basin consists of an enhanced amount of rare-earth metals, scandium in particular. The results of the developments of efficient technologies for the extraction of this metal from the ash-slag waste of Kansk-Achinsk brown coal burning were discussed in the paper. A variety of the procedures was tested such as the sintering with the alkali followed by the treatment with water, the sintering with the sodium carbonate followed by the treatment with the HCl water solution, the extraction with HCl or sulphuric acids, etc. The extraction of other than scandium metals, such as Y, La, Nd, Yb, Gd, etc., were monitored as well. The scandium extraction with HCl solution was found to be the most appropriate procedure for the ash-slag studied. The kinetic parameters of the extraction with HCl were measured and the mechanism of the extraction process is discussed.

Pashkov, G.L.; Mikhnev, A.D. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation). Inst. of Chemistry and Chemico-Metallurgical Processes; Kontzevoi, A.A. [Ministry of Fuel and Energetics, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

1996-12-31

108

LOW SULFUR HOME HEATING OIL DEMONSTRATION PROJECT SUMMARY REPORT.  

SciTech Connect

This project was funded by NYSERDA and has clearly demonstrated many advantages of using low sulfur content heating oil to provide thermal comfort in homes. Prior laboratory research in the United States and Canada had indicated a number of potential benefits of using lower sulfur (0.05%) heating oil. However, this prior research has not resulted in the widespread use of low sulfur fuel oil in the marketplace. The research project described in this report was conducted with the assistance of a well-established fuel oil marketer in New York State (NYS) and has provided clear proof of the many real-world advantages of marketing and using low sulfur content No. 2 fuel oil. The very positive experience of the participating marketer over the past three years has already helped to establish low sulfur heating oil as a viable option for many other fuel marketers. In large part, based on the initial findings of this project and the experience of the participating NYS oilheat marketer, the National Oilheat Research Alliance (NORA) has already fully supported a resolution calling for the voluntary use of low sulfur (0.05 percent) home heating oil nationwide. The NORA resolution has the goal of converting eighty percent of all oil-heated homes to the lower sulfur fuel (0.05 percent by weight) by the year 2007. The Oilheat Manufacturers Association (OMA) has also passed a resolution fully supporting the use of lower sulfur home heating oil in the equipment they manufacture. These are important endorsements by prominent national oil heat associations. Using lower sulfur heating oil substantially lowers boiler and furnace fouling rates. Laboratory studies had indicated an almost linear relationship between sulfur content in the oil and fouling rates. The completed NYSERDA project has verified past laboratory studies in over 1,000 occupied residential homes over the course of three heating seasons. In fact, the reduction in fouling rates so clearly demonstrated by this project is almost the same as predicted by past laboratory studies. Fouling deposition rates are reduced by a factor of two to three by using lower sulfur oil. This translates to a potential for substantial service cost savings by extending the interval between labor-intensive cleanings of the internal surfaces of the heating systems in these homes. In addition, the time required for annual service calls can be lowered, reducing service costs and customer inconvenience. The analyses conducted as part of this field demonstration project indicates that service costs can be reduced by up to $200 million a year nationwide by using lower sulfur oil and extending vacuum cleaning intervals depending on the labor costs and existing cleaning intervals. The ratio of cost savings to added fuel costs is economically attractive based on past fuel price differentials for the lower sulfur product. The ratio of cost savings to added costs vary widely as a function of hourly service rates and the additional cost for lower sulfur oil. For typical values, the expected benefit is a factor of two to four higher than the added fuel cost. This means that for every dollar spent on higher fuel cost, two to four dollars can be saved by lowered vacuum cleaning costs when the cleaning intervals are extended. Information contained in this report can be used by individual oil marketers to estimate the benefit to cost ratio for their specific applications. Sulfur oxide and nitrogen oxide air emissions are reduced substantially by using lower sulfur fuel oil in homes. Sulfur oxides emissions are lowered by 75 percent by switching from fuel 0.20 percent to 0.05 percent sulfur oil. This is a reduction of 63,000 tons a year nationwide. In New York State, sulfur oxide emissions are reduced by 13,000 tons a year. This translates to a total value of $12 million a year in Sulfur Oxide Emission Reduction Credits for an emission credit cost of $195 a ton. While this ''environmental cost'' dollar savings is smaller than the potential service costs reduction, it is very significant. It represents an important red

BATEY, J.E.; MCDONALD, R.J.

2005-06-01

109

Uncovering and evaluation of a twenty-five-year-old underground-coal-gasification burn at a site in Gorgas, Alabama  

SciTech Connect

During the late forties and into the fifties, the US Bureau of Mines (USBM) and the Alabama Power Company conducted a series of underground coal gasification burns in the Pratt and America coal beds at Gorgas, Alabama. Following the first burn, by the so called stream method, it was feasible to enter the burned out areas by deep mining and assess what had taken place during the operation of the test site. In the latter tests, however, it was not economically feasible to explore the burned out areas except by means of core drilling. Now, in early 1981, surface mining is being done in the vicinity of the first hydraulic fracture area. I had been there during the active operation of the burns and agreed to go to Gorgas, evaluate the exposed area, collect samples, take photographs, and provide this written report. I spent several days taking photographs and making observations at the exposed burn site, taking samples, and discussing the best ways to coordinate future exposures with the coal mining process. The uncovered burn area at the site of the first hydraulic fracture can be described as a flat, roughly circular shaped area, varying in thickness from about 1 foot to 2 feet high and covered with a mixture of the various materials removed in the mining operation, i.e., broken bits of coal, rock, clay, etc. However it rained the night before the observation and during the entire evaluation period making it extremely difficult to determine whether fine gray colored materials were clay or residual ash.

Capp, J.P.

1981-04-01

110

Coal Car  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Coal was essential to the operation of the larger steam engines. Coal burns at extremely hot temperatures and burns for a long time, making it an ideal fuel for converting water into steam. The coal mined in the Scranton area, where Steamtown National Historic Site is located, is known as anthracite...

111

Health effects of arsenic, fluorine, and selenium from indoor burning of Chinese coal  

SciTech Connect

China's economy has developed rapidly in the last two decades, leading to an increase in energy consumption and consequently emissions from energy generation. Coal is a primary energy source in China because of its abundance and will continue to be used in the future. The dominance of coal in energy production is expected to result in increasing levels of exposure to environmental pollution in China. Toxic trace elements emitted during coal combustion are the main sources of indoor air pollution. They are released into the atmosphere mainly in the forms of fine ash and vapors and have the potential to adversely affect human health. Those trace elements, which volatilize during combustion, are hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and are particularly rich in Chinese coals. Among the HAPs, arsenic (As), fluorine (F), and selenium (Se) have already been identified as pollutants that can induce severe health problems. In this review, the geochemical characteristics of As, F, and Se, including their concentration, distribution, and mode of occurrences in Chinese coal, are documented and discussed. Our investigations have confirmed the current As- and F-induced epidemics in Guizhou (Southwest China) and Se epidemic in Hubei (Northeast China). In this study, diagnostic symptoms of arseniasis, fluorosis, and selenosis are also illustrated.

Guijian, L.; Liugen, Z.; DuzgorenAydin, N.S.; Lianfen, G.; Junhua, L.; Zicheng, P. [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei Anhui (China)

2007-07-01

112

A. Kusiak and A. Burns, Mining Temporal Data: A Coal-Fired Boiler Case Study, Proceedings of International Conference, KES 2005, Melbourne, Australia, September 14-16, 2005, in R.  

E-print Network

A. Kusiak and A. Burns, Mining Temporal Data: A Coal-Fired Boiler Case Study, Proceedings of the 9 3683, Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, 2005, pp. 953-958. Mining Temporal Data: A Coal-Fired Boiler Case. This paper presents an approach to control pluggage of a coal-fired boiler. The proposed approach involves

Kusiak, Andrew

113

Fluoride and sulfur dioxide indoor pollution situation and control in coal-burning endemic area in Zhaotong, Yunnan, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presented study aims to investigate the gaseous fluoride and sulfur dioxide (SO2) pollution level in the kitchen, traditional flue-curing barn and outdoor environment and to find economically feasible method to reduce fluorine and sulfur release. The gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentrations in air of outdoor environment, kitchen and traditional flue-curing barn were determined in 56 households in coal-burning endemic fluorosis areas of Zhaotong. Among these, 21 households in Yujiawan Village, Zhenxiong County, Zhaotong City were chosen for this experiment to reduce gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentration in traditional flue-curing barn air by using calcined dolomitic siliceous limestone (CDSL) instead of clay mixed with coal. The result showed that: (1) gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentration in the outdoor air in Mangbu Township area was 0.51?gdm-2?day and <0.05mgm-3, respectively and in Xiaolongdong Township was 2.7?gdm-2day and <0.05mgm-3, respectively while in Zhaotong City these concentration were lower than the ambient air standard (3?gdm-2?day and 0.5mgm-3, respectively). (2) The indoor gaseous fluoride concentration (3.7?gm-3) in air of kitchen with the improved coal stove was within the reference value (10?gm-3); SO2 concentration (0.94mgm-3) in kitchen air had decline, but its concentration was still higher than indoor air quality standard (0.5mgm-3). (3) Average concentration of gaseous fluoride and SO2 in air of traditional flue-curing barn of Xiaolongdong Township was 7.2?gm-3 and 6.8mgm-3 respectively, and in Yujiawan village were 10.1?gm-3 and 14.4mgm-3, respectively. (4) After using the calcined dolomitic siliceous limestone instead of clay mixed with coal, gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentration in the traditional flue-curing barn air decreased of 45% and 91%, respectively. The gaseous fluoride and SO2 pollution in the traditional flue-curing barn is very serious. The corn and chili baked by open stoves in traditional flue-curing barn (baking room) was also seriously polluted by fluoride and sulfur. After using the calcined dolomitic siliceous limestone instead of clay mixed with coal, gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentration in the traditional flue-curing barn air have declined markedly. The way of adding calcined dolomitic siliceous limestone instead of clay as a binder for briquette-making is an economically feasible way to control the indoor pollution of fluorine and sulfur in coal-burning endemic in Zhaotong, Yunnan.

Liu, Yonglin; Luo, Kunli; Li, Ling; Shahid, Muhammad Zeeshaan

2013-10-01

114

Production of a pellet fuel from Illinois coal fines. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect

The primary goal of this research is to produce a pellet fuel from low-sulfur Illinois coal fines which could burn with emissions of less than 1.8 lbs SO{sub 2}/10{sup 6} Btu in stoker-fired boilers. The significance of 1.8 lbs SO{sub 2}/10{sup 6} Btu is that in the Chicago (9 counties) and St. Louis (2 counties) metropolitan areas, industrial users of coal currently must comply with this level of emissions. Stokers are an attractive market for pellets because pellets are well-suited for this application and because western coal is not a competitor in the stoker market. Compliance stoker fuels come from locations such as Kentucky and West Virginia and the price for fuels from these locations is high relative to the current price of Illinois coal. This market offers the most attractive near-term economic environment for commercialization of pelletization technology. For this effort, the authors will be investigating the use of fines from two Illinois mines which currently mine relatively low-sulfur reserves and that discard their fines fraction (minus 100 mesh). The research will involve investigation of multiple unit operations including column flotation, filtration and pellet production. The end result of the effort will allow for an evaluation of the commercial viability of the approach. This quarter pellet production work commenced and planning for collection and processing of a preparation plant fines fraction is underway.

Rapp, D.; Lytle, J.; Berger, R.

1994-12-31

115

Daily and hourly sourcing of metallic and mineral dust in urban air contaminated by traffic and coal-burning emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multi-analytical approach to chemical analysis of inhalable urban atmospheric particulate matter (PM), integrating particle induced X-ray emission, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry/atomic emission spectroscopy, chromatography and thermal-optical transmission methods, allows comparison between hourly (Streaker) and 24-h (High volume sampler) data and consequently improved PM chemical characterization and source identification. In a traffic hot spot monitoring site in Madrid (Spain) the hourly data reveal metallic emissions (Zn, Cu, Cr, Fe) and resuspended mineral dust (Ca, Al, Si) to be closely associated with traffic flow. These pollutants build up during the day, emphasizing evening rush hour peaks, but decrease (especially their coarser fraction PM2.5-10) after nocturnal road washing. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis of a large Streaker database additionally reveals two other mineral dust components (siliceous and sodic), marine aerosol, and minor, transient events which we attribute to biomass burning (K-rich) and industrial (incinerator?) Zn, Pb plumes. Chemical data on 24-h filters allows the measurement of secondary inorganic compounds and carbon concentrations and offers PMF analysis based on a limited number of samples but using fuller range of trace elements which, in the case of Madrid, identifies the continuing minor presence of a coal combustion source traced by As, Se, Ge and Organic Carbon. This coal component is more evident in the city air after the change to the winter heating season in November. Trace element data also allow use of discrimination diagrams such as V/Rb vs. La/Ce and ternary plots to illustrate variations in atmospheric chemistry (such as the effect of Ce-emissions from catalytic converters), with Madrid being an example of a city with little industrial pollution, recently reduced coal emissions, but serious atmospheric contamination by traffic emissions.

Moreno, T.; Karanasiou, A.; Amato, F.; Lucarelli, F.; Nava, S.; Calzolai, G.; Chiari, M.; Coz, E.; Artano, B.; Lumbreras, J.; Borge, R.; Boldo, E.; Linares, C.; Alastuey, A.; Querol, X.; Gibbons, W.

2013-04-01

116

Immunological aspects of exposure to emissions from burning coal of high beryllium content  

Microsoft Academic Search

An epidemiological study was conducted on groups of people exposed occupationally (45 persons) and nonoccupationally (36 persons) to the combustion products of coal containing a comparatively high concentration of beryllium. The concentration of beryllium in the working atmosphere ranged between 30 and 800 x 10⁻⁵ mg x m⁻³; in the town S, dwelling place of a nonoccupationally exposed cohort between

V. B. Bencko; E. V. Vasilieva; K. Symon

1980-01-01

117

Cost-benefit analysis of ultra-low sulfur jet fuel  

E-print Network

The growth of aviation has spurred increased study of its environmental impacts and the possible mitigation thereof. One emissions reduction option is the introduction of an Ultra Low Sulfur (ULS) jet fuel standard for ...

Kuhn, Stephen (Stephen Richard)

2010-01-01

118

Coal-oil slurry preparation  

DOEpatents

A pumpable slurry of pulverized coal in a coal-derived hydrocarbon oil carrier which slurry is useful as a low-ash, low-sulfur clean fuel, is produced from a high sulfur-containing coal. The initial pulverized coal is separated by gravity differentiation into (1) a high density refuse fraction containing the major portion of non-coal mineral products and sulfur, (2) a lowest density fraction of low sulfur content and (3) a middlings fraction of intermediate sulfur and ash content. The refuse fraction (1) is gasified by partial combustion producing a crude gas product from which a hydrogen stream is separated for use in hydrogenative liquefaction of the middlings fraction (3). The lowest density fraction (2) is mixed with the liquefied coal product to provide the desired fuel slurry. Preferably there is also separately recovered from the coal liquefaction LPG and pipeline gas.

Tao, John C. (Perkiomenville, PA)

1983-01-01

119

Overlapping of the devolatilization and char combustion stages in the burning of coal particles  

SciTech Connect

The oxygen content at the surface of a fuel particle can significantly exceed zero during the devolatilization stage of combustion, despite the flux of volatiles from the surface and also gas phase reactions. This implies that char oxidation can take place simultaneously. This overlapping of the devolatilization and char combustion stages is studied by modeling. The rates of gas phase reactions around the particle influence the availability of oxygen at the surface of a burning particle and they are accounted for by using a two-step global model for combustion of volatiles. The effects of particle size, ambient temperature, and oxygen concentration on the degree of overlap are studied. The study provides theoretical and experimental evidence that the combustion time of a particle does not always increase with its size at constant ambient conditions, but there can be a specific particle size giving a maximum combustion rate.

Veras, C.A.G. [Escola Politecnica da Univ., Sao Paulo (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica; Saastamoinen, J.; Aho, M. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Carvalho, J.A. Jr. [Inst. Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Cachoeira Paulista, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

1999-03-01

120

Production of a pellet fuel from Illinois coal mines. Quarterly report, 1 December 1994--28 February 1995  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this research is to produce a pellet fuel from low-sulfur Illinois coal fines which could burn with emissions of less than 1.8 lbs SO{sub 2}/10{sup 6} Btu in stoker-fired boilers. The significance of 1.8 lbs SO{sub 2}/10{sup 6} Btu is that in the Chicago (9 counties) and St. Louis (2 counties) metropolitan areas, industrial users of coal currently must comply with this level of emissions. Stokers are an attractive market for pellets because pellets are well-suited for this application and because western coal is not a competitor in the stoker market. Compliance stoker fuels come from locations such as Kentucky and West Virginia and the price for fuels from these locations is high relative to the current price of Illinois coal. This market offers the most attractive near-term economic environment for commercialization of pelletization technology. For this effort, we will be investigating the use of fines from two Illinois mines which currently mine relatively low-sulfur reserves and that discard their fines fraction (minus 100 mesh). The research will involve investigation of multiple unit operations including column flotation, filtration and pellet production. The end result of the effort will allow for an evaluation of the commercial viability of the approach.

Rapp, D.; Lytle, J. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Urbana, IL (United States); Berger, R. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States); Ho, Ken [Illinois Clean Coal Inst., Carterville, IL (United States)

1995-12-31

121

Options and costs for CO{sub 2} reductions at coal-burning utilities  

SciTech Connect

The power generation industry may be required to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions if regulations related to global climate change are enacted. Coal-fired generation, which emits 88% of the power sector CO{sub 2}, would be a likely target for CO{sub 2} reduction. Compliance with the Kyoto protocol will require a 33% reduction from the projected year 2012 emission level even with moderate load growth. This paper describes an analysis of power industry CO{sub 2} reduction options and their costs to assess how a generator would make compliance decisions under a mandatory CO{sub 2} emissions reduction program. Carbon sequestration, fuel switching and new plant construction are considered.

Hawk, E.W. Jr.

1999-07-01

122

Effects of prenatal exposure to coal-burning pollutants on children's development in China  

SciTech Connect

Environmental pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), lead, and mercury are released by combustion of coal and other fossil fuels. In the present study we evaluated the association between prenatal exposure to these pollutants and child development measured by the Gesell Developmental Schedules at 2 years of age. The study was conducted in Tongliang, Chongqing, China, where a seasonally operated coal-fired power plant was the major source of ambient PAHs and also contributed lead and mercury to the air. In a cohort of nonsmoking women and their newborns enrolled between March 2002 and June 2002, we measured levels of PAH-DNA adducts, lead, and mercury in umbilical cord blood. PAH-DNA adducts (specifically benzo(a)pyrene adducts) provided a biologically relevant measure of PAH exposure. We also obtained developmental quotients (DQs) in motor, adaptive, language, and social areas. Decrements in one or more DQs were significantly associated with cord blood levels of PAH-DNA adducts and lead, but not mercury. Increased adduct levels were associated with decreased motor area DQ (p = 0.043), language area DQ (p = 0.059), and average DQ (p = 0.047) after adjusting for cord lead level, environmental tobacco smoke, sex, gestational age, and maternal education. In the same model, high cord blood lead level was significantly associated with decreased social area DQ (p = 0.009) and average DQ (p = 0.038). The findings indicate that exposure to pollutants from the power plant adversely affected the development of children living in Tongliang.

Tang, D.L.; Li, T.Y.; Liu, J.J.; Zhou, Z.J.; Yuan, T.; Chen, Y.H.; Rauh, V.A.; Xie, J.; Perera, F. [Columbia University, New York, NY (United States). Mailman School for Public Health

2008-05-15

123

Characterization of feed coal and coal combustion products from power plants in Indiana and Kentucky  

SciTech Connect

The US Geological Survey, Kentucky Geological Survey, and the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research are collaborating with Indiana and Kentucky utilities to determine the physical and chemical properties of feed coal and coal combustion products (CCP) from three coal-fired power plants. These three plants are designated as Units K1, K2, and I1 and burn high-, moderate-, and low-sulfur coals, respectively. Over 200 samples of feed coal and CCP were analyzed by various chemical and mineralogical methods to determine mode of occurrence and distribution of trace elements in the CCP. Generally, feed coals from all 3 Units contain mostly well-crystallized kaolinite and quartz. Comparatively, Unit K1 feed coals have higher amounts of carbonates, pyrite and sphalerite. Unit K2 feed coals contain higher kaolinite and illite/muscovite when compared to Unit K1 coals. Unit I1 feed coals contain beta-form quartz and alumino-phosphates with minor amounts of calcite, micas, anatase, and zircon when compared to K1 and K2 feed coals. Mineralogy of feed coals indicate that the coal sources for Units K1 and K2 are highly variable, with Unit K1 displaying the greatest mineralogic variability; Unit I1 feed coal however, displayed little mineralogic variation supporting a single source. Similarly, element contents of Units K1 and K2 feed coals show more variability than those of Unit I1. Fly ash samples from Units K1 and K2 consist mostly of glass, mullite, quartz, and spines group minerals. Minor amounts of illite/muscovite, sulfates, hematite, and corundum are also present. Spinel group minerals identified include magnetite, franklinite, magnesioferrite, trevorite, jacobisite, and zincochromite. Scanning Electron Microscope analysis reveals that most of the spinel minerals are dendritic intergrowths within aluminum silicate glass. Unit I1 fly ash samples contain glass, quartz, perovskite, lime, gehlenite, and apatite with minor amounts of periclase, anhydrite, carbonates, pyroxenes, and spinels. The abundant Ca mineral phases in the Unit I1 fly ashes are attributed to the presence of carbonate, clay and phosphate minerals in the coal.

Brownfield, M.E.; Affolter, R.H.; Cathcart, J.D.; O'Connor, J.T.; Brownfield, I.K.

1999-07-01

124

Immunological aspects of exposure to emissions from burning coal of high beryllium content  

SciTech Connect

An epidemiological study was conducted on groups of people exposed occupationally (45 persons) and nonoccupationally (36 persons) to the combustion products of coal containing a comparatively high concentration of beryllium. The concentration of beryllium in the working atmosphere ranged between 30 and 800 x 10/sup -5/ mg x m/sup -3/; in the town S, dwelling place of a nonoccupationally exposed cohort between 0.39 and 1.68 x 10/sup -5/ mg x m/sup -3/. A group of 100 subjects who had no occupational contact with beryllium and other industrial toxic agents, and lived outside of the polluted region served as control cohort. In all examined persons the main classes of immunoglobulins and autoantibodies (lung, heart, liver, spleen, thyroid gland, suprarenals, and native DNA) and antibodies against nuclear (ANA) and mitochondrial (AMA) antigens (obtained from the lungs of intact and of experimental berylliosis rats) were determined. In both exposed groups elevated levels of IgG and IgA and increased concentrations of autoantibodies were found in comparison with the control cohort of people. Specific AMA and ANA were also found in both the exposed groups, with higher values in women. The demonstrated immunological changes in humoral immunoreactivity might be considered as signs of beryllium exposure. In the discussion the authors emphasize the increasing importance of immunological aspects in the study of environmental pollution.

Bencko, V.B.; Vasilieva, E.V.; Symon, K.

1980-08-01

125

Energy Policy Act transportation rate study: Interim report on coal transportation  

SciTech Connect

The primary purpose of this report is to examine changes in domestic coal distribution and railroad coal transportation rates since enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90). From 1988 through 1993, the demand for low-sulfur coal increased, as a the 1995 deadline for compliance with Phase 1 of CAAA90 approached. The shift toward low-sulfur coal came sooner than had been generally expected because many electric utilities switched early from high-sulfur coal to ``compliance`` (very low-sulfur) coal. They did so to accumulate emissions allowances that could be used to meet the stricter Phase 2 requirements. Thus, the demand for compliance coal increased the most. The report describes coal distribution and sulfur content, railroad coal transportation and transportation rates, and electric utility contract coal transportation trends from 1979 to 1993 including national trends, regional comparisons, distribution patterns and regional profiles. 14 figs., 76 tabs.

NONE

1995-10-01

126

Clean coal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fossil fuels such as coal can be powerful polluters of the environment. This article, part of site on the future of energy, introduces students to methods being implemented to make burning coal a cleaner process. Students read about the 1986 creation of the Clean Coal Technology Program and the coal-burning improvements it generated. Definitions of key terms are available, and a link is provided to an ABC News article about bacteria that have been bioengineered to clean coal. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Iowa Public Television. Explore More Project

2004-01-01

127

PM 2.5 chemical source profiles for vehicle exhaust, vegetative burning, geological material, and coal burning in Northwestern Colorado during 1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 ?m) chemical source profiles applicable to speciated emissions inventories and receptor model source apportionment are reported for geological material, motor vehicle exhaust, residential coal (RCC) and wood combustion (RWC), forest fires, geothermal hot springs; and coal-fired power generation units from northwestern Colorado during 1995. Fuels and combustion conditions are similar to those

John G Watson; Judith C Chow; James E Houck

2001-01-01

128

Impacts of halogen additions on mercury oxidation, in a slipstream selective catalyst reduction (SCR), reactor when burning sub-bituminous coal.  

PubMed

This paper presents a comparison of impacts of halogen species on the elemental mercury (Hg(0)) oxidation in a real coal-derived flue gas atmosphere. It is reported there is a higher percentage of Hg(0) in the flue gas when burning sub-bituminous coal (herein Powder River Basin (PRB) coal) and lignite, even with the use of selective catalytic reduction (SCR). The higher Hg(0)concentration in the flue gas makes it difficult to use the wet-FGD process for the mercury emission control in coal-fired utility boilers. Investigation of enhanced Hg(0) oxidation by addition of hydrogen halogens (HF, HCl, HBr, and HI) was conducted in a slipstream reactor with and without SCR catalysts when burning PRB coal. Two commercial SCR catalysts were evaluated. SCR catalyst no. 1 showed higher efficiencies of both NO reduction and Hg(0) oxidation than those of SCR catalyst no. 2. NH3 addition seemed to inhibit the Hg(0) oxidation, which indicated competitive processes between NH3 reduction and Hg(0) oxidation on the surface of SCR catalysts. The hydrogen halogens, in the order of impact on Hg(0) oxidation, were HBr, HI, and HCl or HF. Addition of HBr at approximately 3 ppm could achieve 80% Hg(0) oxidation. Addition of HI at approximately 5 ppm could achieve 40% Hg(0) oxidation. In comparison to the empty reactor, 40% Hg(0) oxidation could be achieved when HCl addition was up to 300 ppm. The enhanced Hg(0) oxidation by addition of HBr and HI seemed not to be correlated to the catalytic effects by both evaluated SCR catalysts. The effectiveness of conversion of hydrogen halogens to halogen molecules or interhalogens seemed to be attributed to their impacts on Hg(0) oxidation. PMID:18350905

Cao, Yan; Gao, Zhengyang; Zhu, Jiashun; Wang, Quanhai; Huang, Yaji; Chiu, Chengchung; Parker, Bruce; Chu, Paul; Pant, Wei-Ping

2008-01-01

129

Cokemaking from coals of Kuzbas and Donbas  

SciTech Connect

The paper discusses features of Donetsk and Kuznetsk coals, the export capability of Ukraine coking industry, the selection of coal blends involving coals from different basins, and practical recommendations and techno-economic considerations. It is concluded that by raising the share of low-sulfur Kuznetsk coal in the blend to 50%, coke produced will meet all the requirements of European and American consumers.

Umansky, R.Z. [Resourcecomplect, Donetsk (Ukraine); Kovalev, E.T.; Drozdnik, I.D. [UKHIN, Kharkov (Ukraine)

1997-12-31

130

Will environmentally acceptable mid-continent coal reserves be adequate for electric power generation in the 21st century?  

SciTech Connect

In 1993, 2.9 million tons of medium-to high-sulfur bituminous coal was produced mostly at surface mines, while about 80 million tons of mostly low-sulfur subbituminous coal was consumed at 150 electric-power generators that produced 34,000 megawatts per hour (MW/hr) in 5 Mid-Continent states (Arkansas, Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma). These 5 states contain 98 billion tons of identified bituminous coal resources of which 41 billion tons are recoverable reserves (documented by state geological surveys) and 11 billion tons are included in the Demonstrated Reserve Base of the United States Department of Energy. Bituminous coal reserves are available in these Mid-Continent states to produce at least 34,000 MW/hr of electricity. However, the technology of most of these states` power plants, coupled with increasingly restrictive, federally mandated air-pollution regulations, has resulted in economics-driven decisions by the electric power utilities to use {open_quotes}compliance{close_quotes}, low-sulfur, subbituminous coal from Wyoming. Only one million tons of Oklahoma high-sulfur, ash, and trace elements (at a temperature 500 degrees cooler than conventional plants) would have to be on-line, before the medium-to high-sulfur bituminous coal reserves could be burned and meet federal and state clean air standards in these 5 states. Otherwise these states` large bituminous coal reserves will not be adequate to generate the required electric power now or far into the 21st century.

Friedman, S.A. [Oklahoma Gelogical Survey, Norman, OK (United States)

1995-09-01

131

ALGAL BIOASSAYS WITH LEACHATES AND DISTILLATES FROM WESTERN COAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this research was to assess the effects on freshwater algae of materials derived from coal storage piles. Coal leachates and distillates were prepared in the laboratory from low-sulfur Montana coal. Three types of algal bioassays were conducted: (1) A laboratory ...

132

Process for converting coal into liquid fuel and metallurgical coke  

DOEpatents

A method of recovering coal liquids and producing metallurgical coke utilizes low ash, low sulfur coal as a parent for a coal char formed by pyrolysis with a volatile content of less than 8%. The char is briquetted and heated in an inert gas over a prescribed heat history to yield a high strength briquette with less than 2% volatile content.

Wolfe, Richard A. (Abingdon, VA); Im, Chang J. (Abingdon, VA); Wright, Robert E. (Bristol, TN)

1994-01-01

133

Indirect- and direct-acting mutagenicity of diesel, coal and wood burning-derived particulates and contribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.  

PubMed

Particulates exhausted from two types of diesel engines (DEPs), burning-derived particulates from three types of coal (CBPs) and burning-derived particulates from three types of wood (WBPs) were separated into four fractions by silica-gel column chromatography using n-hexane, n-hexane-dichloromethane (3:1, v/v), dichloromethane and methanol, as the corresponding eluents. The indirect-acting mutagenicity of each fraction was assayed by the Ames test using the Salmonella typhimurium TA100 strain with S9 mix and the direct-acting mutagenicity was assayed using the S. typhimurium TA98 strain without S9 mix. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) of each fraction were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Both direct- and indirect-acting of mutagenicities were the highest in samples of DEPs. The contributions of PAHs in samples of WBPs and NPAHs in DEPs were the largest, respectively. PMID:19896557

Yang, Xiao-Yang; Igarashi, Kazuhiko; Tang, Ning; Lin, Jin-Ming; Wang, Wei; Kameda, Takayuki; Toriba, Akira; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

2010-01-01

134

A novel dual-screw coal feeder for production of low sulfur fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this project, the following tasks have been performed: (1) Setting up the Dual-Screw feeder reactor. (2) Determination of the pyrolysis product and the sulfur distribution in char, tar and gas based on experimental data. (3) Study of the devolatilization and the desulfurization kinetics and obtaining the basic kinetic parameters. (4) Study of the sulfur removal efficiency of lime pellets

L. Lin; S. J. Khang; T. C. Keener

1993-01-01

135

System Study of Rich Catalytic/Lean burn (RCL) Catalytic Combustion for Natural Gas and Coal-Derived Syngas Combustion Turbines  

SciTech Connect

Rich Catalytic/Lean burn (RCL{reg_sign}) technology has been successfully developed to provide improvement in Dry Low Emission gas turbine technology for coal derived syngas and natural gas delivering near zero NOx emissions, improved efficiency, extending component lifetime and the ability to have fuel flexibility. The present report shows substantial net cost saving using RCL{reg_sign} technology as compared to other technologies both for new and retrofit applications, thus eliminating the need for Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) in combined or simple cycle for Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and natural gas fired combustion turbines.

Shahrokh Etemad; Lance Smith; Kevin Burns

2004-12-01

136

Specific gravity and API gravity of biodiesel and ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) blends  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Biodiesel is an alternative fuel made from vegetable oils and animal fats. In 2006, the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency mandated a maximum sulfur content of 15 ppm in on-road diesel fuels. Processing to produce the new ultra-low sulfur petrodiesel (ULSD) alters specific gravity (SG) and othe...

137

Tribological behavior of near-frictionless carbon coatings in high- and low-sulfur diesel fuels.  

SciTech Connect

The sulfur content in diesel fuel has a significant effect on diesel engine emissions, which are currently subject to environmental regulations. It has been observed that engine particulate and gaseous emissions are directly proportional to fuel sulfur content. With the introduction of low-sulfur fuels, significant reductions in emissions are expected. The process of sulfur reduction in petroleum-based diesel fuels also reduces the lubricity of the fuel, resulting in premature failure of fuel injectors. Thus, another means of preventing injector failures is needed for engines operating with low-sulfur diesel fuels. In this study, the authors evaluated a near-frictionless carbon (NFC) coating (developed at Argonne National Laboratory) as a possible solution to the problems associated with fuel injector failures in low-lubricity fuels. Tribological tests were conducted with NFC-coated and uncoated H13 and 52100 steels lubricated with high- and low- sulfur diesel fuels in a high-frequency reciprocating test machine. The test results showed that the NFC coatings reduced wear rates by a factor of 10 over those of uncoated steel surfaces. In low-sulfur diesel fuel, the reduction in wear rate was even greater (i.e., by a factor of 12 compared to that of uncoated test pairs), indicating that the NFC coating holds promise as a potential solution to wear problems associated with the use of low-lubricity diesel fuels.

Alzoubi, M. F.; Ajayi, O. O.; Eryilmaz, O. L.; Ozturk, O.; Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G.

2000-01-19

138

Comparison of heterogeneous photolytic reduction of Hg(II) in the coal fly ashes and synthetic aerosols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we examined the heterogeneous reduction of Hg(II) on the coal fly ash samples and synthetic aerosols under different light conditions in a controlled laboratory reactor. Three types of coal fly ashes were studied: a high carbon fly ash from a stoker boiler, a low carbon/low sulfate fly ash from a pulverized coal combustor burning low sulfur coal, and a high sulfate fly ash from a pulverized coal combustor burning high sulfur coal. The rate of Hg(II) reduction on the three diverse fly ash samples was found to be relatively fast with an average half-life of 1.6 h under clear sky atmospheric conditions (under the irradiance of 1000 W/m2). The reduction rate in the low sulfate/low carbon fly ash was approximately 1.5 times faster than with the other coal fly ash samples. Synthetic aerosols made of carbon black and levoglucosan produced Hg(II) reduction rates similar to coal fly ashes. However, aerosols composed of adipic acid resulted in reduction rates that were 3-5 times faster. The sensitivity of adipic acid reduction to light source wavelength was found to be greater than for the coal fly ash and other synthetic aerosols. Aerosols made from the water extracts of coal fly ash samples produced reduction rates equal to or slightly higher than with the native fly ash suggesting that the soluble components of fly ash play a significant role in the reduction mechanism. The measured reduction rates are likely important in the chemical processing of mercury in power plant plumes and potentially in the atmosphere and should be considered for incorporation in atmospheric transport models that are used to understand the fate of atmospheric mercury.

Tong, Yindong; Eichhorst, Terry; Olson, Michael R.; Rutter, Andrew P.; Shafer, Martin M.; Wang, Xuejun; Schauer, James J.

2014-03-01

139

Investigation on the impacts of low-sulfur fuel used in residential heating and oil-fired power plants on PM2.5-concentrations and its composition in Fairbanks, Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of using low-sulfur fuel for oil-heating and oil-burning facilities on the PM2.5-concentrations at breathing level in an Alaska city surrounded by vast forested areas were examined with the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with chemistry packages that were modified for the subarctic. Simulations were performed in forecast mode for a cold season using the National Emission Inventory 2008 and alternatively emissions that represent the use of low-sulfur fuel for oil-heating and oil-burning facilities while keeping the emissions of other sources the same as in the reference simulation. The simulations suggest that introducing low-sulfur fuel would decrease the monthly mean 24h-averaged PM2.5-concentrations over the city's PM2.5-nonattainment area by 4%, 9%, 8%, 6%, 5% and 7% in October, November, December, January, February and March, respectively. The quarterly mean relative response factors for PM2.5-concentrations of 0.96 indicate that with a design value of 44.7microg/m3. introducing low-sulfur fuel would lead to a new design value of 42.9microg/m 3 that still exceeds the US National Ambient Air Quality Standard of 35microg/m3. The magnitude of the relation between the relative response of sulfate and nitrate changes differs with temperature. The simulations suggest that in the city, PM2.5-concentrations would decrease more on days with low atmospheric boundary layer heights, low hydrometeor mixing ratio, low downward shortwave radiation and low temperatures. Furthermore, a literature review of other emission control measure studies is given, and recommendations for future studies are made based on the findings.

Leelasakultum, Ketsiri

140

AEC Lowman Station - coal switching and magnesium-enhanced lime scrubbing to lower operating costs  

SciTech Connect

AEC`s Lowman Station is located in Leroy, Alabama. There are three coal-fired boilers at this station. Unit 1 is capable of generating 85 MW without a flue gas desulfurization, FGD, system. Units 2 and 3, with a total of 516 MW output capacity, are equipped with FGD systems. The FGD plant was designed for wet limestone FGD with natural oxidation. Lowman Station burned low sulfur, 1.3 to 1.8% sulfur, coal. In January of 1996 AEC switched Units 2 and 3 from limestone to magnesium-enhanced lime FGD operation. It was determined that the plant could take advantage of the higher SO{sub 2} removal efficiency of the magnesium-enhanced lime system. Major benefits resulting from this conversion were AEC`s ability to switch to a lower cost high sulfur coal while meeting the stringent SO{sub 2} emission requirements. Power cost savings resulted from the lower liquid to gas ratio required by the magnesium-enhanced lime process. Three recirculation pumps per module were reduced to a single operating pump per module, lowering the scrubber pressure drop. Significant cost reduction in the operating costs of the ball mill was realized due to modifications made to slake lime instead of grinding limestone. Prior to switching, personnel from AEC and Dravo Lime Company ran a four week test on magnesium-enhanced lime to obtain scrubber performance data including SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies on the modules while burning a 1.8% sulfur coal. This paper discusses the plant modifications that were needed to make the switch, cost justifications due to coal switching, and AEC`s operating experiences to date. AEC and Dravo Lime Company working together as a team conducted detailed cost studies, followed by extensive field tests and implemented the plant modifications. This plant continues to operate burning higher sulfur coal with the magnesium-enhanced lime FGD system.

Inkenhaus, W.; Babu, M.; Smith, K. [Dravo Lime Co., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Loper, L. [Alabama Electric Coopreative, Leroy, AL (United States)

1997-12-31

141

Cool Water Coal Gasification Program: an update  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cool Water, cofunded by EPRI et al., is a nominal 120-MW integrated coal gasification and combined-cycle (IGCC) power plant that uses the Texaco coal gasification process. Construction of the IGCC facility at Daggett, California, was completed and operation began in mid 1984. The plant continues to operate successfully on its usual feedstock, a low-sulfur Utah coal, and on several test

1988-01-01

142

ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Project  

SciTech Connect

ENCOAL Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Shell Mining Company, is constructing a mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company's Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology developed by Shell and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin Coal to produce two new fuels, Process Derived Fuel (PDF) and Coal Derived Liquids (CDL). The products, as alternative fuels sources, are expected to significantly reduce current sulfur emissions at industrial and utility boiler sites throughout the nation, thereby reducing pollutants causing acid rain.

Not Available

1992-02-01

143

Clean Coal?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video and accompanying essay examine carbon capture and storage and clean-coal technology, providing statistics for overall annual U.S. consumption as well as average household usage. Turning solid coal into a clean-burning fuel gas (syngas) and capture and storage pros and cons are discussed.

WGBH - PBS

144

Method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile  

DOEpatents

A method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile comprises soaking the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution and distributing an oxygen-containing gas throughout the coal refuse pile for a time period sufficient to effect oxidation of coal contained in the coal refuse pile. The method further comprises leaching the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution to solubilize and extract the oxidized coal as alkali salts of humic acids and collecting the resulting solution containing the alkali salts of humic acids. Calcium hydroxide may be added to the solution of alkali salts of humic acid to form precipitated humates useable as a low-ash, low-sulfur solid fuel.

Yavorsky, Paul M. (Monongahela, PA)

1991-01-01

145

ENCOAL mild coal gasification project public design and construction report  

SciTech Connect

This Public Design Report describes the 1000 ton per day ENCOAL mild coal gasification demonstration plant now in operation at the Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The objective of the project is to demonstrate that the proprietary Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology can reliably and economically convert low Btu PRB coal into a superior, high-Btu solid fuel (PDF), and an environmentally attractive low-sulfur liquid fuel (CDL). The Project`s plans also call for the production of sufficient quantities of PDF and CDL to permit utility companies to carry out full scale burn tests. While some process as well as mechanical design was done in 1988, the continuous design effort was started in July 1990. Civil construction was started in October 1990; mechanical erection began in May 1991. Virtually all of the planned design work was completed by July 1991. Most major construction was complete by April 1992 followed by plant testing and commissioning. Plant operation began in late May 1992. This report covers both the detailed design and initial construction aspects of the Project.

NONE

1994-12-01

146

Solids precipitation and polymerization of asphaltenes in coal-derived liquids  

DOEpatents

The precipitation and removal of particulate solids from coal-derived liquids by adding a process-derived anti-solvent liquid fraction and continuing the precipitation process at a temperature above the melting point of the mixed liquids for sufficient time to allow the asphaltenes to polymerize and solids to settle at atmospheric pressure conditions. The resulting clarified light hydrocarbon overflow liquid contains less than about 0.02 W % ash and is suitable as turbine fuel or as boiler fuel for burning without particulate emission control equipment. An underflow liquid fraction containing less than about 0.1 W % solids along with low sulfur and nitrogen concentrations is suitable as a boiler fuel with emission control equipment.

Kydd, Paul H. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

1984-01-01

147

The daily fluorine and arsenic intake for residents with different dietaries and fluorosis risk in coal-burning fluorosis area, Yunnan, Southwest China.  

PubMed

The daily fluorine (F)/arsenic (As) intake (DFI/DAsI) for residents at different ages with different dietaries and dietary changes was investigated to analyze the fluorosis risk in coal-burning fluorosis area in Yunnan, Southwest China. The DFI for residents with a dietary of roasted corn and roasted chili was 5.06, 9.60, and 14.38mg for age groups 3-7, 8-15, and over 15years, respectively. Over 90% of DFI was from roasted foodstuffs. The DFI for residents of the same age group living on rice and roasted chili was 1.94, 3.50, and 4.95mg, respectively, which were less than that for the former dietary type, and 65% of DFI was from roasted chili. The main sources for their DFI are roasted foodstuffs. Both were higher than the dietaries with non-roasted foodstuffs and the recommended daily allowances (RDAs) for USA and China at different levels. The DAsI for all residents ranged from 25 to 135?g, and at this level of DAsI, it would not influence human health. However, As pollution of roasted foodstuffs might have an important influence for the fluorosis. Residents are changing their staple food from roasted corn to rice, and especially, younger people are more focused on quality life. However, even if residents change their staple food, the habit of eating chili will not change, which also may cause them getting fluorosis. Developing economy, changing dietary types, and changing the habit of drying and keeping chili will help to reduce the fluorosis risk in coal-burning fluorosis area of Southwest China. PMID:25167821

Li, Ling; Luo, Kun-Li; Tang, Yue-Gang; Liu, Yong-Lin

2015-02-01

148

Fossil Fuels: Coal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson provides an introduction to the use of coal as an energy source. Topics include the history of coal usage, applications of coal as an energy source, and major suppliers of coal (the United States). There is also discussion of how coal is created, located, and produced, and technologies for burning it more cleanly. The lesson includes a hands-on activity in which students measure the ash content of various types of coal.

John Pratte

149

Coal sorbent system for the extraction and disposal of heavy metals and organic compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Coal Sorbent System (CSS) utilizes a newly developed coal-based sorbent, which has the combined characteristics of an activated carbon and ion exchange resin. The low cost and excellent combustion characteristics (including very low sulfur and ash) of the coal sorbent enabled the development of a system to extract metals and organics from aqueous streams, concentrate them on the sorbent

R. F. Maddalone

1996-01-01

150

Remediation and monitoring of a burning coal refuse bank affecting the Southsea Looproad at Brymbo, North Wales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Southsea Looproad at Brymbo suffers large and varied settlements where the highway crosses a smouldering coal refuse bank. A sudden surge in combustion activity during 1991 resulted in considerable subsidence within the carriageway and posed recurring and persistent difficulties for road safety and highway maintenance. Initial investigations involved subsurface temperature measurements to delimit the hot spots and provide a basis

D Nichol; N. P Tovey

1998-01-01

151

Analysis of mass loss of a coal particle during the course of burning in a flow of inert material  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is an attempt to explain the role of erosion during the process of coal combustion in a circulating fluidized bed. Different kinds of carbon deposits found in Poland, both bituminous as well as lignite with the particle of 10 mm in diameter were the subject of the research. According to many publications it is well known that erosion

Pelka; Piotr

2009-01-01

152

Analysis of mass loss of a coal particle during the course of burning in a flow of inert material  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is an attempt to explain the role of erosion during the process of coal combustion in a circulating fluidized bed. Different kinds of carbon deposits found in Poland, both bituminous as well as lignite with the particle of 10mm in diameter were the subject of the research. According to many publications it is well known that erosion plays

Piotr Pe?ka

2009-01-01

153

Overburden characterization and post-burn study of the Hanna IV, underground coal gasification site, Wyoming, and comparison to other Wyoming UCG sites  

SciTech Connect

Analysis of 21 post-burn cores taken from the Hanna IV UCG site allows 96 m (315 ft) of overburden to be subdivided into four local stratigraphic units. The 7.6 m (25 ft) thick Hanna No. 1 coal seam is overlain by a laterally discontinuous, 3.3 m (11 ft) thick shaley mudstone (Unit A') in part of the Hanna IV site. A more widespread, 30 m (90 ft) thick well-indurated sandstone (Unit A) overlies the A' unit. Unit A is the roof rock for both of the Hanna IV cavities. Overlying Unit A is a 33 m (108 ft) thick sequence of mudstone and claystone (Unit B), and the uppermost unit at the Hanna IV site (Unit C) is a coarse-grained sandstone that ranges in thickness from 40 to 67 m (131 to 220 ft). Two elliptical cavities were formed during the two phases of the Hanna IV experiment. The larger cavity, Hanna IVa, is 45 x 15 m in plan and has a maximum height of 18 m (59 ft) from the base of the coal seam to the top of the cavity; the Hanna IVb cavity is 40 x 15 m in plan and has a maximum height of 11 m (36 ft) from the base of the coal seam to the top of the cavity. Geotechnical tests indicated that the Hanna IV overburden rocks were moderately strong to strong, based on the empirical classification of Broch and Franklin (1972), and a positive, linear correlation exists between rock strength and volume percent calcite cement. There is an inverse linear correlation between rock strength and porosity for the Hanna IV overburden rocks. 28 refs., 34 figs., 13 tabs..

Marcouiller, B.A.; Burns, L.K.; Ethridge, F.G.

1984-11-01

154

Update on Transition to Ultra-Low-Sulfur Diesel Fuel (released in AEO2006)  

EIA Publications

On November 8, 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator signed a direct final rule that will shift the retail compliance date for offering ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) for highway use from September 1, 2006, to October 15, 2006. The change will allow more time for retail outlets and terminals to comply with the new 15 parts per million (ppm) sulfur standard, providing time for entities in the diesel fuel distribution system to flush higher sulfur fuel out of the system during the transition. Terminals will have until September 1, 2006, to complete their transitions to ULSD. The previous deadline was July 15, 2006.

2006-01-01

155

Coal combustion products  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Coal-burning powerplants, which supply more than half of U.S. electricity, also generate coal combustion products, which can be both a resource and a disposal problem. The U.S. Geological Survey collaborates with the American Coal Ash Association in preparing its annual report on coal combustion products. This Fact Sheet answers questions about present and potential uses of coal combustion products.

Kalyoncu, R.S.; Olson, D.W.

2001-01-01

156

Particle-induced oxidative damage of indoor PM10 from coal burning homes in the lung cancer area of Xuan Wei, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lung cancer mortality rate in the rural area of the Xuan Wei, Yunnan, is among the highest in China, especially in women. In this paper, the coal-burning indoor and corresponding outdoor PM10 samples were collected at the Hutou village, representing the case of high lung cancer rate, and the Xize village, representing the case of low lung cancer rate. Plasmid scission assay was used to investigate the bioreactivity of the PM10. The inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was employed to investigate the trace element compositions of the PM10. The results showed that the oxidative damage caused by both indoor and outdoor PM10 at the Hutou village was obviously higher than that at the Xize village, with the indoor PM10 having higher oxidative damage than corresponding outdoors. Among all analyzed samples, the indoor night PM10 samples from the Hutou village have the highest oxidative capacity. The levels of total water-soluble elements had a higher level in the PM10 of the Hutou village than that of the Xize village. It is interesting that the levels of water-soluble As, Cd, Cs, Pb, Sb, Tl and Zn in PM10 had better positive correlation with DNA damage rates, implying that these elements in their water-soluble state should be one of the main factors responsible for the high oxidative capacity of PM10, thus possibly the higher lung cancer rates, at the Hutou village.

Shao, Longyi; Hu, Ying; Wang, Jing; Hou, Cong; Yang, Yuanyuan; Wu, Mingyuan

2013-10-01

157

Low NO{sub x} retrofit of a NSPS boiler burning sub-bituminous western fuel  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the goals, equipment selection and operating results of the low NO{sub x} conversion project of an NSPS boiler burning western sub-bituminous fuel. The subject unit is a nominal 500 MW non-B&W boiler commissioned in 1981. The original firing equipment was designed in accordance with the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) instituted in the 1970s. This original equipment included 24 scroll type burners in an opposed wall configuration with 3 rows and 4 columns of burners on the front and rear walls. Eight overfire air ports were included with a port located above each column of burners. Each level of four burners is supplied with pulverized coal from one of six pulverizers. The original and current fuel is a low sulfur sub-bituminous class C Powder River Basin Coal. The stated goal for the low NO{sub x} project was a maximum NO{sub x} emission rate of 0.35 lb/MBtu with a corresponding carbon content in the fly ash not to exceed two times the pre-retrofit operating conditions. The existing pulverizer performance was poor and at any given time no more than five mills were available for service. Therefore, the project No{sub x}, and unburned carbon (UBC) requirements must be achieved with any five out of six existing mills operating.

Costanzo, M.A.; Perry, D.M. [Babcock & Wilcox, Barberton, OH (United States); Sharman, J. [Public Service Company of Colorado, Denver, CO (United States)

1995-12-31

158

Market effects of environmental regulation: coal, railroads, and the 1990 Clean Air Act  

SciTech Connect

Many environmental regulations encourage the use of 'clean' inputs. When the suppliers of such an input have market power, environmental regulation will affect not only the quantity of the input used but also its price. We investigate the effect of the Title IV emissions trading program for sulfur dioxide on the market for low-sulfur coal. We find that the two railroads transporting coal were able to price discriminate on the basis of environmental regulation and geographic location. Delivered prices rose for plants in the trading program relative to other plants, and by more at plants near a low-sulfur coal source.

Busse, M.R.; Keohane, N.O. [University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States)

2007-01-01

159

Assessment of coal geology, resources, and reserves in the Montana Powder River Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The purpose of this report is to summarize geology, coal resources, and coal reserves in the Montana Powder River Basin assessment area in southeastern Montana. This report represents the fourth assessment area within the Powder River Basin to be evaluated in the continuing U.S. Geological Survey regional coal assessment program. There are four active coal mines in the Montana Powder River Basin assessment area: the Spring Creek and Decker Mines, both near Decker; the Rosebud Mine, near Colstrip; and the Absaloka Mine, west of Colstrip. During 2011, coal production from these four mines totaled approximately 36 million short tons. A fifth mine, the Big Sky, had significant production from 1969-2003; however, it is no longer in production and has since been reclaimed. Total coal production from all five mines in the Montana Powder River Basin assessment area from 1968 to 2011 was approximately 1.4 billion short tons. The Rosebud/Knobloch coal bed near Colstrip and the Anderson, Dietz 2, and Dietz 3 coal beds near Decker contain the largest deposits of surface minable, low-sulfur, subbituminous coal currently being mined in the assessment area. A total of 26 coal beds were identified during this assessment, 18 of which were modeled and evaluated to determine in-place coal resources. The total original coal resource in the Montana Powder River Basin assessment area for the 18 coal beds assessed was calculated to be 215 billion short tons. Available coal resources, which are part of the original coal resource remaining after subtracting restrictions and areas of burned coal, are about 162 billion short tons. Restrictions included railroads, Federal interstate highways, urban areas, alluvial valley floors, state parks, national forests, and mined-out areas. It was determined that 10 of the 18 coal beds had sufficient areal extent and thickness to be evaluated for recoverable surface resources ([Roland (Baker), Smith, Anderson, Dietz 2, Dietz 3, Canyon, Werner/Cook, Pawnee, Rosebud/Knobloch, and Flowers-Goodale]). These 10 coal beds total about 151 billion short tons of the 162 billion short tons of available resource; however, after applying a strip ratio of 10:1 or less, only 39 billion short tons remains of the 151 billion short tons. After mining and processing losses are subtracted from the 39 billion short tons, 35 billion short tons of coal were considered as a recoverable resource. Coal reserves (economically recoverable coal) are the portion of the recoverable coal resource that can be mined, processed, and marketed at a profit at the time of the economic evaluation. The surface coal reserve estimate for the 10 coal beds evaluated for the Montana Powder River assessment area is 13 billion short tons. It was also determined that about 42 billion short tons of underground coal resource exists in the Montana Powder River Basin assessment area; about 34 billion short tons (80 percent) are within 500-1,000 feet of the land surface and another 8 billion short tons are 1,000-2,000 feet beneath the land surface.

Haacke, Jon E.; Scott, David C.; Osmonson, Lee M.; Luppens, James A.; Pierce, Paul E.; Gunderson, Jay A.

2013-01-01

160

Exhaust Emissions and Fuel Properties of Partially Hydrogenated Soybean Oil Methyl Esters Blended with Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel Fuel  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Important fuel properties and emissions characteristics of blends (20 vol%) of soybean oil methyl esters (SME) and partially hydrogenated SME (PHSME) in ultra low sulfur diesel fuel (ULSD) were determined and compared with neat ULSD. The following changes in physical properties were noticed for B20...

161

Production of a pellet fuel from Illinois coal fines. Technical report, March 1--May 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

The primary goal of this research is to produce a pellet fuel from low-sulfur Illinois coal fines which could burn with emissions of less than 1.8 lbs SO{sub 2}/10{sup 6} Btu in stoker-fired boilers. The significance of 1.8 lbs SO{sub 2}/10{sup 6} Btu is that in the Chicago (9 counties) and St. Louis (2 counties) metropolitan areas, industrial users of coal currently must comply with this level of emissions. For this effort, we will be investigating the use of fines from two Illinois mines which currently mine relatively low-sulfur reserves and that discard their fines fraction (minus 100 mesh). The research will involve investigation of multiple unit operations including column flotation, filtration and pellet production. The end result of the effort will allow for an evaluation of the commercial viability of the approach. Previously it has been decided that corn starch would be used as binder and a roller-and-die mill would be used for pellet manufacture. A quality starch binder has been identified and tested. To potentially lower binder costs, a starch that costs about 50% of the high quality starch was tested. Results indicate that the lower cost starch will not lower binder cost because more is required to produce a comparable quality pellet. Also, a petroleum in water emulsion was evaluated as a potential binder. The compound seemed to have adhesive properties but was found to be a poor binder. Arrangements have been made to collect a waste slurry from the mine previously described.

Rapp, D.; Lytle, J.

1995-12-31

162

Microbial desulfurization of some European coals: progress report on a joint Italian project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although most coal mined in the EEC is presently extracted from those parts of the respective basins containing low-sulfur coals, (i.e. coals containing less than 1% total sulfur), the economic importance of the possibility of mining high-sulfur coals too has been given full recognition by the EEC. Thus, in 1986, the EEC launched an R and D program with the

M. Agus; C. Conti; C. Dalmastri; N. Orsi; G. Rossi; P. Trois; P. Valenti

1988-01-01

163

Progression in sulfur isotopic compositions from coal to fly ash: Examples from single-source combustion in Indiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sulfur occurs in multiple mineral forms in coals, and its fate in coal combustion is still not well understood. The sulfur isotopic composition of coal from two coal mines in Indiana and fly ash from two power plants that use these coals were studied using geological and geochemical methods. The two coal beds are Middle Pennsylvanian in age; one seam is the low-sulfur ( 5%) Springfield Coal Member of the Petersburg Formation. Both seams have ash contents of approximately 11%. Fly-ash samples were collected at various points in the ash-collection system in the two plants. The results show notable difference in ??34S for sulfur species within and between the low-sulfur and high-sulfur coal. The ??34S values for all sulfur species are exclusively positive in the low-sulfur Danville coal, whereas the ??34S values for sulfate, pyritic, and organic sulfur are both positive and negative in the high-sulfur Springfield coal. Each coal exhibits a distinct pattern of stratigraphic variation in sulfur isotopic composition. Overall, the ??34S for sulfur species values increase up the section in the low-sulfur Danville coal, whereas they show a decrease up the vertical section in the high-sulfur Springfield coal. Based on the evolution of ??34S for sulfur species, it is suggested that there was influence of seawater on peat swamp, with two marine incursions occurring during peat accumulation of the high-sulfur Springfield coal. Therefore, bacterial sulfate reduction played a key role in converting sulfate into hydrogen sulfide, sulfide minerals, and elemental sulfur. The differences in ??34S between sulfate sulfur and pyritic sulfur is very small between individual benches of both coals, implying that some oxidation occurred during deposition or postdeposition. The ??34S values for fly ash from the high-sulfur Springfield coal (averaging 9.7???) are greatly enriched in 34S relative to those in the parent coal (averaging 2.2???). This indicates a fractionation of sulfur isotopes during high-sulfur coal combustion. By contrast, the ??34S values for fly-ash samples from the low-sulfur Danville coal average 10.2???, only slightly enriched in 34S relative to those from the parent coal (average 7.5???). The ??34S values for bulk S determined directly from the fly-ash samples show close correspondence with the ??34S values for SO4- 2 leached from the fly ash in the low-sulfur coal, suggesting that the transition from pyrite to sulfate occurred via high-temperature oxidation during coal combustion. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Yaofa, Jiang; Elswick, E.R.; Mastalerz, M.

2008-01-01

164

Upgrading low-rank coals by TEK-KOL`s Liquids From Coal technology  

SciTech Connect

TEK-KOL is a partnership between SGI International of La Jolla, California, and a unit of Zeigler Coal Holding Company, Fairview Heights, Illinois. TEK-KOL`s Liquids From Coal (LFC) Process uses a mild gasification process to convert low-rank coals into value added products. Two primary products are generated as a result of LFC processing: (1) Process-Derived Fuel (PDF), a high heating value, clean burning solid fuel and carbon source for a variety of utility and industrial applications, and (2) Coal-Derived Liquid (CDL), a low sulfur hydrocarbon liquid suitable for fuel oil and chemical feedstock uses. Both PDF and CDL have been successfully utilized on a commercial scale. The LFC Process has been thoroughly demonstrated at the ENCOAL LFC Demonstration Plant at the Buckskin Mine in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. The 1,000 short ton per day plant, constructed and operated at a cost of US $90 million, was designed and built to commercial standards. Construction and initial operating costs were partially funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under Round Three of the Clean Coal Technology Program. The plant employs commercially available equipment and state of the art control system, and best available control technologies insure compliance with strict environmental standards. It became operational in June 1992. In the last five years, the plant and its supporting facilities have operated in an integrated mode for more than 14,500 hours. The major pieces of equipment, including the large blowers, combustors, dryer, pyrolyzer, and cooler have operated far more hours overall considering hot standby and ramping operations. The equipment has been demonstrated to operate reliably. The plant has processed 246,900 short tons of raw coal and produced 114,900 short tons of PDF and 116,100 barrels of CDL. A multi-phase process to identify and develop technically and financially viable LFC projects has been developed by TEK-KOL. Commercialization of the LFC technology is progressing worldwide. Permit work for a large scale commercial plant in Wyoming is now underway, and international commercialization activities are in progress. Worldwide opportunities for the application of the LFC Technology are addressed in this paper.

Wang, M.; Gibbens, R.J. [TEK-KOL Partnership, La Jolla, CA (United States); Weber, K.L.; Knotternerus, B.A. [TEK-KOL Partnership, Gillette, WY (United States)

1997-12-31

165

Plant betterment for an anthracite-burning utility in Ukraine: Coal preparation as part of a SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and particulate emission control strategy  

SciTech Connect

Workers at the Energy Departments of the US and Ukraine have cooperatively devised a strategy for upgrading performance of a 200 MWe wet bottom pulverized coal boiler in eastern Ukraine at the Lugansk GRES power station. The plant currently burns poor quality anthracite (30% ash versus 18% ash design coal, as-received basis) and is in need of maintenance. Oil or gas support fuel in the amount of 30% (calorific basis) is required to stabilize the flame and supplement the calorific value of the coal feed. No NO{sub x} or SO{sub 2} controls are used at present, and unburned carbon content in the fly ash is high. An experimental program was carried out at the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) to estimate the improvement in plant performance that could be expected if the unit is supplied with design coal and is refurbished. High ash Ukrainian anthracite was cleaned to design specifications. Raw and cleaned coal were fed to a 490 MJ/h coal feed combustion unit at a number of conditions of support fuel use and ingress air leakage designed to simulate current and improved operations at the power plant. The results indicate the improvement in performance and reductions in SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions that can be expected as a result of the planned upgrade and conversion to use of cleaned coal. A detailed engineering and financial analysis indicates that plant rehabilitation combined with the use of cleaned schtib reduces not only pollutant emissions but also cost of electricity (COE). Additional benefits include increased plant life and capacity, and reduced supplementary fuel consumption.

Ruether, J.A.; Freeman, M.C. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Federal Energy Technology Center; Gollakota, S.V. [Burns and Roe Services Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1997-12-31

166

Kinetic Study and Mathematical Model of Hemimorphite Dissolution in Low Sulfuric Acid Solution at High Temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dissolution kinetics of hemimorphite with low sulfuric acid solution was investigated at high temperature. The dissolution rate of zinc was obtained as a function of dissolution time under the experimental conditions where the effects of sulfuric acid concentration, temperature, and particle size were studied. The results showed that zinc extraction increased with an increase in temperature and sulfuric acid concentration and with a decrease in particle size. A mathematical model able to describe the process kinetics was developed from the shrinking core model, considering the change of the sulfuric acid concentration during dissolution. It was found that the dissolution process followed a shrinking core model with "ash" layer diffusion as the main rate-controlling step. This finding was supported with a linear relationship between the apparent rate constant and the reciprocal of squared particle radius. The reaction order with respect to sulfuric acid concentration was determined to be 0.7993. The apparent activation energy for the dissolution process was determined to be 44.9 kJ/mol in the temperature range of 373 K to 413 K (100 C to 140 C). Based on the shrinking core model, the following equation was established:

Xu, Hongsheng; Wei, Chang; Li, Cunxiong; Deng, Zhigan; Li, Minting; Li, Xingbin

2014-10-01

167

JV TASK 45-MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR ELECTRIC UTILITIES BURNING LIGNITE COAL, PHASE I BENCH-AND PILOT-SCALE TESTING  

SciTech Connect

The Energy & Environmental Research Center has completed the first phase of a 3-year, two-phase consortium project to develop and demonstrate mercury control technologies for utilities that burn lignite coal. The overall project goal is to maintain the viability of lignite-based energy production by providing utilities with low-cost options for meeting future mercury regulations. Phase I objectives are to develop a better understanding of mercury interactions with flue gas constituents, test a range of sorbent-based technologies targeted at removing elemental mercury (Hg{sup o}) from flue gases, and demonstrate the effectiveness of the most promising technologies at the pilot scale. The Phase II objectives are to demonstrate and quantify sorbent technology effectiveness, performance, and cost at a sponsor-owned and operated power plant. Phase I results are presented in this report along with a brief overview of the Phase II plans. Bench-scale testing provided information on mercury interactions with flue gas constituents and relative performances of the various sorbents. Activated carbons were prepared from relatively high-sodium lignites by carbonization at 400 C (752 F), followed by steam activation at 750 C (1382 F) and 800 C (1472 F). Luscar char was also steam-activated at these conditions. These lignite-based activated carbons, along with commercially available DARCO FGD and an oxidized calcium silicate, were tested in a thin-film, fixed-bed, bench-scale reactor using a simulated lignitic flue gas consisting of 10 {micro}g/Nm{sup 3} Hg{sup 0}, 6% O{sub 2}, 12% CO{sub 2}, 15% H{sub 2}O, 580 ppm SO{sub 2}, 120 ppm NO, 6 ppm NO{sub 2}, and 1 ppm HCl in N{sub 2}. All of the lignite-based activated (750 C, 1382 F) carbons required a 30-45-minute conditioning period in the simulated lignite flue gas before they exhibited good mercury sorption capacities. The unactivated Luscar char and oxidized calcium silicate were ineffective in capturing mercury. Lignite-based activated (800 C, 1472 F) carbons required a shorter (15-minute) conditioning period in the simulated lignite flue gas and captured gaseous mercury more effectively than those activated at 750 C (1382 F). Subsequent tests with higher acid gas concentrations including 50 ppm HCl showed no early mercury breakthrough for either the activated (750 C, 1382 F) Bienfait carbon or the DARCO FGD. Although these high acid gas tests yielded better mercury capture initially, significant breakthrough of mercury ultimately occurred sooner than during the simulated lignite flue gas tests. The steam-activated char, provided by Luscar Ltd., and DARCO FGD, provided by NORIT Americas, were evaluated for mercury removal potential in a 580 MJ/hr (550,000-Btu/hr) pilot-scale coal combustion system equipped with four particulate control devices: (1) an electrostatic precipitator (ESP), (2) a fabric filter (FF), (3) the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter, and (4) an ESP and FF in series, an EPRI-patented TOXECON{trademark} technology. The Ontario Hydro method and continuous mercury monitors were used to measure mercury species concentrations at the inlet and outlet of the control technology devices with and without sorbent injection. Primarily Hg{sup o} was measured when lignite coals from the Poplar River Plant and Freedom Mine were combusted. The effects of activated Luscar char, DARCO FGD, injection rates, particle size, and gas temperature on mercury removal were evaluated for each of the four particulate control device options. Increasing injection rates and decreasing gas temperatures generally promoted mercury capture in all four control devices. Relative to data reported for bituminous and subbituminous coal combustion flue gases, higher sorbent injection rates were generally required for the lignite coal to effectively remove mercury. Documented results in this report provide the impacts of these and other parameters and provide the inputs needed to direct Phase II of the project.

John H. Pavlish; Michael J. Holmes; Steven A. Benson; Charlene R. Crocker; Edwin S. Olson; Kevin C. Galbreath; Ye Zhuang; Brandon M. Pavlish

2003-10-01

168

Wilsonville Advanced Coal-Liquefaction Research and Development Facility, Wilsonville, Alabama. Topical report No. 5. 6000 TPD SRC-I demonstration plant support  

SciTech Connect

Initially, the Wilsonville facility consisted of a single stage (thermal) process, also known as the SRC-I process. The original plant has been expanded to become an advanced two-stage coal liquefaction facility. A Critical Solvent Deashing (CDS) unit was installed in 1978 and a second stage catalytic hydrogenation (HTR) unit was installed in 1981. The principal product of the first stage is a low sulfur solid fuel. The reaction product is deashed by the CSD unit using a proprietary process developed by the Kerr-McGee Corporation. The hydrotreater, or the second stage, was installed primarily for further enhancement of product properties, process flexibility, and overall hydrogen utilization efficiency. In the decoupled mode of operation, the HTR unit has no direct effect on the SRC unit. This operating mode is called the non-integrated two-stage liquefaction (NTSL) process. From 17 October 1981 to 14 October 1982, the Advanced Coal Liquefaction R and D Facility at Wilsonville, Alabama, was operated partly in support of the 6000 TPD-I demonstration plant design effort undertaken by ICRC. The ICRC support tests and operations performed were: Run 235 with Kentucky 9 (Fies) coal; Run 240 with Illinois 6 (Burning Star) coal; CSD unit second stage variability study; CSD unit continuous ash removal system study; SRC solidification test; wastewater sampling operation; and residual fuel oil blending operation.

Not Available

1983-08-01

169

Isolation of a low-sulfur tolerance gene from Eichhornia crassipes using a functional gene-mining approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genes enhancing nutrient utilization efficiency are needed for crop improvement. Here, we report the isolation of a gene conferring\\u000a low-sulfur tolerance from water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) using a functional gene-mining method. In doing this, an entry cDNA library was constructed from the roots of nutrient-starved\\u000a water hyacinth using recombination cloning and subsequently shuttled into the plant transformation- and expression-ready vector.

Xiao Liu; Xi Chen; David J. Oliver; Cheng-Bin Xiang

2009-01-01

170

Dicarboxylic acids, metals and isotopic compositions of C and N in atmospheric aerosols from inland China: implications for dust and coal burning emission and secondary aerosol formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dicarboxylic acids (C2-C10), metals, elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), and stable isotopic compositions of total carbon (TC) and total nitrogen (TN) were determined for PM10 samples collected at three urban and one suburban sites of Baoji, an inland city of China, during winter and spring 2008. Oxalic acid (C2) was the dominant diacid, followed by succinic (C4) and malonic (C3) acids. Total diacids in the urban and suburban areas are 1546203 and 1728495 ng m-3 during winter and 1236335 and 1028193 ng m-3 during spring. EC in the urban and the suburban atmospheres are 173.8 and 8.02.1 ?g m-3 during winter and 205.9 and 7.12.7 ?g m-3 during spring whereas OC at the urban and suburban sites are 7414 and 517.9 ?g m-3 in winter and 5120 and 236.1 ?g m-3 in spring. Secondary organic carbon (SOC) accounted for 3816% of OC in winter and 2818% of OC in spring, suggesting an enhanced photochemical production of secondary organic aerosols in winter under an inversion layer development. Total metal elements in winter and spring are 3410 and 6127 ?g m-3 in the urban air and 187 and 3223 ?g m-3 in the suburban air. A linear correlation (r2>0.8 in winter and r2>0.6 in spring) was found between primary organic carbon (POC) and Ca2+/Fe, together with a strong dependence of pH value on water-soluble inorganic carbon, suggesting fugitive dust as a major source of the airborne particles. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), sulfate, and Pb in the samples well correlated each other (r2>0.6) in winter samples, suggesting an importance of emissions from coal burning for house heating. Stable carbon isotope compositions of TC (?13C) became higher with an increase in the concentration ratios of C2/OC due to aerosol aging. In contrast, nitrogen isotope compositions of TN (?15N) became lower with an increases in the mass ratios of NH4+/PM10 and NO3-/PM10 due to an enhanced adsorption and/or condensation of NH3 and HNO3 from gas phase onto solid phase.

Wang, G.; Xie, M.; Hu, S.; Tachibana, E.; Kawamura, K.

2010-03-01

171

Dicarboxylic acids, metals and isotopic compositions of C and N in atmospheric aerosols from inland China: implications for dust and coal burning emission and secondary aerosol formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dicarboxylic acids (C2-C10), metals, elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), and stable isotopic compositions of total carbon (TC) and total nitrogen (TN) were determined for PM10 samples collected at three urban and one suburban sites of Baoji, an inland city of China, during winter and spring 2008. Oxalic acid (C2) was the dominant diacid, followed by succinic (C4) and malonic (C3) acids. Total diacids in the urban and suburban areas were 1546203 and 1728495 ng m-3 during winter and 1236335 and 1028193 ng m-3 during spring. EC in the urban and the suburban atmospheres were 173.8 and 8.02.1 ?g m-3 during winter and 205.9 and 7.12.7 ?g m-3 during spring, while OC at the urban and suburban sites were 7414 and 517.9 ?g m-3 in winter and 5120 and 236.1 ?g m-3 in spring. Secondary organic carbon (SOC) accounted for 3816% of OC in winter and 2818% of OC in spring, suggesting an enhanced photochemical production of secondary organic aerosols in winter under an inversion layer development. Total metal elements in winter and spring were 3410 and 6127 ?g m-3 in the urban air and 187 and 3223 ?g m-3 in the suburban air. A linear correlation (r2>0.8 in winter and r2>0.6 in spring) was found between primary organic carbon (POC) and Ca2+/Fe, together with a strong dependence of pH value of sample extracts on water-soluble inorganic carbon, suggesting fugitive dust as an important source of the airborne particles. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), sulfate, and Pb in the samples well correlated each other (r2>0.6) in winter, indicating an importance of emissions from coal burning for house heating. Stable carbon isotope compositions of TC (?13C) became higher with an increase in the concentration ratios of C2/OC due to aerosol aging. In contrast, nitrogen isotope compositions of TN (?15N) became lower with an increases in the mass ratios of NH4+/PM10 and NO3-/PM10, which is possibly caused by an enhanced adsorption and/or condensation of gaseous NH3 and HNO3 onto particles.

Wang, G.; Xie, M.; Hu, S.; Gao, S.; Tachibana, E.; Kawamura, K.

2010-07-01

172

Coal quality controls of the Danville coal in Indiana (Illinois Basin, Central USA)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Danville Coal Member (Dugger Formation, upper Desmoinesian, Pennsylvanian) is a significant economic coal resource in the Illinois Basin, central USA. Deposition of the Danville Coal (peat) was in coastal environments, varying distances from the coastline and, in turn, variable influences from saline waters. The purpose of this study is to examine the coal quality and petrography of the Danville Coal; and to discuss their relationship with depositional environment as it relates to the final coal product. A medium sulfur (1.0-1.5 wt.%) Danville Coal reserve area (northern Indiana coalfield) was compared to a low sulfur (3 m) of finer-grained clastic sediments atop the Danville, the sulfur and trace elements contents are significantly lower. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Mastalerz, M.; Padgett, P.L.

2002-01-01

173

Co-combustion of refuse derived fuel and coal in a cyclone furnace at the Baltimore Gas and Electric Company, C. P. Crane Station  

SciTech Connect

A co-combustion demonstration burn of coal and fluff refuse-derived fuel (RDF) was conducted by Teledyne National and Baltimore Gas and Electric Company. This utility has two B and W cyclone furnaces capable of generating 400 MW. The facility is under a prohibition order to convert from No. 6 oil to coal; as a result, it was desirable to demonstrate that RDF, which has a low sulfur content, can be burned in combination with coals containing up to 2% sulfur, thus reducing overall sulfur emissions without deleterious effects. Each furnace consists of four cyclones capable of generating 1,360,000 pounds per hour steam. The tertiary air inlet of one of the cyclones was modified with an adapter to permit fluff RDF to be pneumatically blown into the cyclone. At the same time, coal was fed into the cyclone furnace through the normal coal feeding duct, where it entered the burning chamber tangentially and mixed with the RDF during the burning process. Secondary shredded fluff RDF was prepared by the Baltimore County Resource Recovery Facility. The RDF was discharged into a receiving station consisting of a belt conveyor discharging into a lump breaker, which in turn, fed the RDF into a pneumatic line through an air-lock feeder. A total of 2316 tons were burned at an average rate of 5.6 tons per hour. The average heat replacement by RDF for the cyclone was 25%, based on Btu input for a period of forty days. The range of RDF burned was from 3 to 10 tons per hour, or 7 to 63% heat replacement. The average analysis of the RDF (39 samples) for moisture, ash, heat (HHV) and sulfur content were 18.9%, 13.4%, 6296 Btu/lb and 0.26% respectively. RDF used in the test was secondary shredded through 1-1/2 inch grates producing the particle size distribution of from 2 inches to .187 inches. Findings to date after inspection of the boiler and superheater indicate satisfactory results with no deleterious effects from the RDF.

Not Available

1982-03-01

174

Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

This project will demonstrate an advanced thermal coal drying process coupled with physical cleaning techniques to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to produce a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel. The coal will be processed through two vibrating fluidized bed reactors that will remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After drying, the coal will be put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to effect separation of the pyrite rich ash. The process will enhance low-rank western coals, usually with a moisture content of 25--55%, sulfur content of 0.5--1.5%, and heating value of 5,500--9,000 Btu/lb by producing a stable, upgraded coal product with a moisture content as low as 1%, sulfur content as low as 0.3%, and heating value up to 12,000 Btu/lb.

Not Available

1992-02-01

175

Sulfur diagenesis in everglades peat and origin of pyrite in coal  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The pattern of sulfur transformation in peat across the Everglades basin indicates that pyrite formation in organic-rich swamps depends on the use of organic oxysulfur compounds in dissimilatory respiration by sulfur-reducing bacteria. This paragenesis explains the primary distribution of sulfur compounds in low-sulfur coals and possibly in most coals and many organic-rich soils and sediments. It also accounts for the occurrence of framboidal pyrite bound in fossil tissue in coal and sediments.

Altschuler, Z.S.; Schnepfe, M.M.; Silber, C.C.; Simon, F.O.

1983-01-01

176

High gradient magnetic beneficiation of dry pulverized coal via upwardly directed recirculating fluidization  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to an improved device and method for the high gradient magnetic beneficiation of dry pulverized coal, for the purpose of removing sulfur and ash from the coal whereby the product is a dry environmentally acceptable, low-sulfur fuel. The process involves upwardly directed recirculating air fluidization of selectively sized powdered coal in a separator having sections of increasing diameters in the direction of air flow, with magnetic field and flow rates chosen for optimum separations depending upon particulate size.

Eissenberg, David M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Liu, Yin-An (Opelika, AL)

1980-01-01

177

Pulverized coal fuel injector  

DOEpatents

A pulverized coal fuel injector contains an acceleration section to improve the uniformity of a coal-air mixture to be burned. An integral splitter is provided which divides the coal-air mixture into a number separate streams or jets, and a center body directs the streams at a controlled angle into the primary zone of a burner. The injector provides for flame shaping and the control of NO/NO.sub.2 formation.

Rini, Michael J. (Hebron, CT); Towle, David P. (Windsor, CT)

1992-01-01

178

Mitigating the health impacts of pollution from oceangoing shipping: an assessment of low-sulfur fuel mandates.  

PubMed

Concerns about health effects due to emissions from ships have magnified international policy debate regarding low-sulfur fuel mandates for marine fuel. Policy discussions center on setting sulfur content levels and the geographic specification of low-sulfur fuel use. We quantify changes in premature mortality due to emissions from ships under several sulfur emissions control scenarios. We compare a 2012 No Control scenario (assuming 2.7% or 27 000 ppm S) with three emissions control scenarios. Two control scenarios represent cases where marine fuel is limited to 0.5% S (5000 ppm) and 0.1% S (1000 ppm) content, respectively, within 200 nautical miles of coastal areas. The third control scenario represents a global limit of 0.5% S. We apply the global climate model ECHAMSSy-MESSy1-MADE to geospatial emissions inventories to determine worldwide concentrations of particular matter (PM2.5) from ocean going vessels. Using those PM2.5 concentrations in cardiopulmonary and lung cancer concentration-risk functions and population models, we estimate annual premature mortality. Without control, our central estimate is approximately 87 000 premature deaths annually in 2012. Coastal area control scenarios reduce premature deaths by approximately 33 500 for the 0.5% case and approximately 43 500 for the 0.1% case. Where fuel sulfur content is reduced globally to 0.5% S, premature deaths are reduced by approximately 41 200. These results provide important support that global health benefits are associated with low-sulfur marine fuels, and allow for relative comparison of the benefits of alternative control strategies. PMID:19673264

Winebrake, J J; Corbett, J J; Green, E H; Lauer, A; Eyring, V

2009-07-01

179

Economic Evaluation of By-Product Power/Co-Generation Systems for Industrial Plants with Fluidized-Bed Coal Burning Facilities  

E-print Network

Economic analysis of the construction and operation of by-product electric power and steam/power cogeneration systems in coal fired fluidized-bed steam cycles, located at individual industrial sites analyzed by the author, is being presented...

Mesko, J. E.

1980-01-01

180

Method to improve lubricity of low-sulfur diesel and gasoline fuels  

DOEpatents

A method for providing lubricity in fuels and lubricants includes adding a boron compound to a fuel or lubricant to provide a boron-containing fuel or lubricant. The fuel or lubricant may contain a boron compound at a concentration between about 30 ppm and about 3,000 ppm and a sulfur concentration of less than about 500 ppm. A method of powering an engine to minimize wear, by burning a fuel containing boron compounds. The boron compounds include compound that provide boric acid and/or BO.sub.3 ions or monomers to the fuel or lubricant.

Erdemir, Ali

2004-08-31

181

PILOT-SCALE STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION CATALYST ON MERCURY SPECIATION IN ILLINOIS AND POWDER RIVER BASIN COAL COMBUSTION FLUE GASES  

EPA Science Inventory

A study was conducted to investigate the effect of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst on mercury (Hg) speciation in bituminous and subbituminous coal combustion flue gases. Three different Illinois Basin bituminous coals (from high to low sulfur and chlorine) and one Po...

182

Pelletization of fine coals. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Coal is one of the most abundant energy resources in the US with nearly 800 million tons of it being mined annually. Process and environmental demands for low-ash, low-sulfur coals and economic constraints for high productivity are leading the coal industry to use such modern mining methods as longwall mining and such newer coal processing techniques as froth flotation, oil agglomeration, chemical cleaning and synthetic fuel production. All these processes are faced with one common problem area--fine coals. Dealing effectively with these fine coals during handling, storage, transportation, and/or processing continues to be a challenge facing the industry. Agglomeration by the unit operation of pelletization consists of tumbling moist fines in drums or discs. Past experimental work and limited commercial practice have shown that pelletization can alleviate the problems associated with fine coals. However, it was recognized that there exists a serious need for delineating the fundamental principles of fine coal pelletization. Accordingly, a research program has been carried involving four specific topics: (i) experimental investigation of coal pelletization kinetics, (ii) understanding the surface principles of coal pelletization, (iii) modeling of coal pelletization processes, and (iv) simulation of fine coal pelletization circuits. This report summarizes the major findings and provides relevant details of the research effort.

Sastry, K.V.S.

1995-12-31

183

The effect of injection timing, enhanced aftercooling, and low-sulfur, low-aromatic diesel fuel on locomotive exhaust emissions  

SciTech Connect

An experimental study was performed to demonstrate the fuel economy and exhaust emissions implications of retarding fuel injection timing, enhancing charge air aftercooling, and using low-sulfur, low-aromatic diesel fuel for locomotive engines. Steady-state gaseous and particulate emission data are presented from two 12-cylinder diesel locomotive engines. The two laboratory engines, an EMD 645E3B and a GE 7FDL, are each rated at 1860 kW (2500 hp) and represent the majority of the locomotive fleet in North America. Each engine was tested for total hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NO[sub x]), and particulate. Emissions were measured at three steady-state operating conditions: rated speed and load, idle, and an intermediate speed and load. Test results on the EMD engine indicate that a 4 deg injection timing retard, along with a low-sulfur, low-aromatic fuel and enhanced aftercooling, was effective in reducing NO[sub x] from 10.5 g/hp-h to 7.2 g/hp-h; however, particulates increased from 0.15 g/hp-h to 0.19 g/hp-h, and fuel efficiency was 4.3 percent worse. Similar observations were made with the GE engine. This paper gives details on the test engines, the measurement procedures, and the emission results.

Markworth, V.O.; Fritz, S.G. (Dept. of Emissions Research, Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)); Cataldi, G.R. (Research and Test Dept., Association of American Railroad, Washington, DC (United States))

1992-07-01

184

Controlled Burn  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

GULF OF MEXICO Dark clouds of smoke and fire emerge as oil burns during a controlled burn in the Gulf of Mexico. The U.S. Coast Guard working in partnership with BP PLC, local residents, and other Federal agencies conducted the controlled burn to aid in preventing the spread of oil following...

185

Scald Burns  

MedlinePLUS

... visit: www.burninstitute.org Safety tipS & info Scald Burns Thousands of scald burns occur annually, and ALL are preventable! The two ... the single most important factor in preventing scald burns. Increased awareness is the key to scald prevention! ...

186

Carbon Sequestration to Mitigate Climate Change Human activities, especially the burning of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and gas, have caused a substantial increase  

E-print Network

Carbon Sequestration to Mitigate Climate Change Human activities, especially the burning of fossil-caused CO2 emissions and to remove CO2 from the atmosphere. 2.0 What is carbon sequestration? The term "carbon sequestration" is used to describe both natural and deliberate CARBON,INGIGATONSPERYEAR 1.5 Fossil

187

TRACE ELEMENT CHARACTERIZATION OF COAL WASTES. FOURTH ANNUAL PROGRESS REPORT, OCTOBER 1, 1978-SEPTEMBER 30, 1979  

EPA Science Inventory

In the past year assessment studies of low-sulfur coal wastes from the Appalachian Region have been continued. These included mineralogical and trace elemental analyses on these materials and studies of their weathering and leaching behavior. Although the concentrations of the ac...

188

Proxy mapping of fly-ash pollution of soils around a coal-burning power plant: a case study in the Czech Republic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The northern part of the Czech Republic ranks among the most industrially polluted areas of Europe due mainly to combustion of brown coal with high contents of pyrite and heavy metals. Fly ash produced through high-temperature combustion of fossil fuel is also rich in ferromagnetic minerals. These are also included in emissions, penetrate the soil, and can be identified using

A Kapi?ka; E Petrovsk; S Ustjak; K Mach?kov

1999-01-01

189

INCIDENCE AND IMPACT OF AXIAL MALFORMATIONS IN LARVAL BULLFROGS (RANA CATESBEIANA) DEVELOPING IN SITES POLLUTED BY A COAL-BURNING POWER PLANT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amphibian malformations have recently received much attention from the scientific community, but few studies have provided evidence linking environmental pollution to larval amphibian malformations in the field. We document an increased incidence of axial malformations in bullfrog larvae (Rana catesbeiana) inhabiting two sites contaminated with coal combustion wastes. In the polluted sites, 18 and 37% of larvae exhibited lateral curvatures

William A. Hopkins; Justin Congdon; John K. Ray

2000-01-01

190

Coal-fired power generaion, new air quality regulations, and future U.S. coal production  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tighter new regulation of stack gas emissions and competition in power generation are driving electrical utilities to demand cleaner, lower sulfur coal. Historical data on sulfur content of produced coals shows little variability in coal quality for individual mines and individual coal-producing counties over relatively long periods of time. If coal-using power generators follow the compliance patterns established in Phase I of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, then the industry's response to the tighter Phase II emissions standards will result in large amounts of coal production shifting from higher sulfur areas to areas with lower cost low sulfur coal. One reason this shift will likely occur is that currently only 30% of U.S. coal-fired electrical generating capacity is equipped with flue-gas scrubbers. In 1995, coal mines in the higher sulfur areas of the Illinois Basin and Northern and Central Appalachia employed 78% of all coal miners (>70,000 miners). A substantial geographical redistribution of the nation's coal supplies will likely lead to economic dislocations that will reach beyond local coal-producing areas.

Attanasi, E.D.; Root, D.H.

1999-01-01

191

Chemical burns  

PubMed Central

Objectives To report a burn units experience with chemical burns and to discuss the fundamental principles in managing chemical burns. Design A chart review. Setting A burn centre at a major university-affiliated hospital. Patients Twenty-four patients with chemical burns, representing 2.6% of all burn admissions over an 8-year period at the Ross Tilley Regional Adult Burn Centre. Seventy-five percent of the burn injuries were work-related accidents. Chemicals involved included hydrofluoric acid, sulfuric acid, black liquor, various lyes, potassium permanganate and phenol. Results Fourteen patients required excision and skin grafting. Complications were frequent and included ocular chemical contacts, wound infections, tendon exposures, toe amputation and systemic reactions from absorption of chemical. One patient died from a chemical scald burn to 98% of the body surface area. Conclusions The key principles in the management of chemical burns include removal of the chemical, copious irrigation, limited use of antidotes, correct estimation of the extent of injury, identification of systemic toxicity, treatment of ocular contacts and management of chemical inhalation injury. Individualized treatment is emphasized. PMID:8640619

Cartotto, Robert C.; Peters, Walter J.; Neligan, Peter C.; Douglas, Leith G.; Beeston, Jeff

1996-01-01

192

Data fusion for investigating land subsidence and coal fire hazards in a coal mining area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal mining areas all over the world are often threatened by serious environmental hazards such as the occurrence of coal fires, land subsidence, etc. Coal fires burn away the natural non-renewable coal resources, locally raise the temperature of the area, emit polluting gases such as oxides of carbon, sulphur and nitrogen, and when present underground are even the cause of

A. Prakash; E. J. Fielding; R. Gens; J. L. Van Genderen; D. L. Evans

2001-01-01

193

Incidence and impact of axial malformations in larval bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) developing in sites polluted by a coal-burning power plant  

SciTech Connect

Amphibian malformations have recently received much attention from the scientific community, but few studies have provided evidence linking environmental pollution to larval amphibian malformations in the field. The authors document an increased incidence of axial malformations in bullfrog larvae (Rana catesbeiana) inhabiting two sites contaminated with coal combustion wastes. In the polluted sites, 18 and 37% of larvae exhibited lateral curvatures of the spine, whereas zero and 4% of larvae from two reference sites had similar malformations. Larvae from the most heavily polluted site had significantly higher tissue concentrations of potentially toxic trace elements, including As, Cd, Se, Cu, Cr, and V, compared with conspecifics from the reference sites. In addition, malformed larvae from the cost contaminated site had decreased swimming speeds compared with those of normal larvae from the same site. The authors hypothesize that the complex mixture of contaminants produced by coal combustion is responsible for the high incidence of malformations and associated effects on swimming performance.

Hopkins, W.A.; Congdon, J.; Ray, J.K.

2000-04-01

194

Sulfur diagenesis in Everglades peat and origin of pyrite in coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pattern of sulfur transformation in peat across the Everglades basin indicates that pyrite formation in organic-rich swamps depends on the use of organic oxysulfur compounds in dissimilatory respiration by sulfur-reducing bacteria. This paragenesis explains the primary distribution of sulfur compounds in low-sulfur coals and possibly in most coals and many organic-rich soils and sediments. It also accounts for the

Z. S. Altschuler; M. M. Schnepfe; C. C. Silber; F. O. Simon

1983-01-01

195

Coal Fields and Federal Lands of the Conterminous United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The map depicts the relationship of coal and public lands in the conterminous U. S. Multiple GIS layers are being created for the purpose of deriving estimates of how much coal is owned and administered by the Federal government. Federal coal areas have a profound effect on land-management decisions. Regulatory agencies attempt to balance energy development with alternative land-use and environmental concerns. A GIS database of Federal lands used in energy resource assessments is being developed by the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to integrate information on status of public land, and minerals owned by the Federal government with geologic information on coal resources, other spatial data, coal quality characteristics, and coal availability for development. Using national-scale data we estimate that approximately 60 percent of the area underlain by coal-bearing rocks in the conterminous United States are under Federal surface. Coal produced from Federal leases has tripled from about 12 percent of the total U.S. production in 1976 to almost 34 percent in 1995 (Energy Information Administration website ftp://ftp.eia.doe.gov/pub/coal/cia_95_tables/t13p01.txt). The reason for this increase is demand for low-sulfur coal for use in power plants and the fact that large reserves of this low-sulfur coal are in the western interior U.S., where the Federal government owns the rights to most of the coal reserves. The map was created using Arc/Info 7.0.3 on a UNIX system. The HPGL2 plot file for this map is available from the USGS Energy Resource Surveys Team from http://energy.cr.usgs.gov:8080/energy/coal.html.

Biewick, Laura R.H.

1997-01-01

196

Coal desulfurization by chlorinolysis production and combustion test evaluation of product coals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laboratory-scale screening tests were carried out on coal from Harrison County, Ohio to establish chlorination and hydrodesulfurization conditions for the batch reactor production of chlorinolysis and chlorinolysis-hydrodesulfurized coals. In addition, three bituminous coals, were treated on the lab scale by the chlorinolysis process to provide 39 to 62% desulfurization. Two bituminous coals and one subbituminous coal were then produced in 11 to 15 pound lots as chlorinolysis and hydrodesulfurized coals. The chlorinolysis coals had a desulfurization of 29-69%, reductions in voltatiles and hydrogen. Hydrodesulfurization provided a much greater desulfurization (56-86%), reductions in volatiles and hydrogen. The three coals were combustion tested in the Penn State ""plane flame furnace'' to determine ignition and burning characteristics. All three coals burned well to completion as: raw coals, chlorinolysis processed coals, and hydrodesulfurized coals. The hydrodesulfurized coals experienced greater ignition delays and reduced burning rates than the other coals because of the reduced volatile content. It is thought that the increased open pore volume in the desulfurized-devolatilized coals compensates in part for the decreased volatiles effect on ignition and burning.

Kalvinskas, J. J.; Daly, D.

1982-01-01

197

Lightning burns.  

PubMed

We present the case of a lightning-strike victim. This case illustrates the importance of in-field care, appropriate referral to a burn center, and the tendency of lightning burns to progress to full-thickness injury. PMID:23799482

Russell, Katie W; Cochran, Amalia L; Mehta, Sagar T; Morris, Stephen E; McDevitt, Marion C

2014-01-01

198

A theoretical analysis on combustion intensification for blended coal in rotary cement kiln  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blended coal that consists of 70% anthracite and 30% bituminous coal is cheaper than pure bituminous coal, but it is very difficult to burn in the rotary cement kiln. To burn the blended coal, a new kind of burner, which is called the burner with velocity difference jets, is used to intensify combustion. However, combustion intensification and the formation of

Ling Yun Hou; Wei Biao Fu; Yong Jun Zhang

2001-01-01

199

ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Project. Annual report, October 1990--September 1991  

SciTech Connect

ENCOAL Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Shell Mining Company, is constructing a mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company`s Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology developed by Shell and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin Coal to produce two new fuels, Process Derived Fuel (PDF) and Coal Derived Liquids (CDL). The products, as alternative fuels sources, are expected to significantly reduce current sulfur emissions at industrial and utility boiler sites throughout the nation, thereby reducing pollutants causing acid rain.

Not Available

1992-02-01

200

Coal combustion ash haulback  

SciTech Connect

Coal mining disturbs large tracts of land which must be reclaimed. Unfortunately, iron sulfides which are common in most coals and the adjacent strata weather, forming acid mine drainage (AMD) which degrades surface and ground water. Burning of coal produces combustion by products, most of which are placed in ponds or landfills. Suitable disposal areas are difficult to find and permit, especially in urban areas. This has led to ash haulback--where the waste generated during coal burning is hauled back to a mine for disposal. The potential advantages of coal combustion ash haulback are: Disposal occurs in a disturbed area (mine) rather than disturb additional land near the power plant; The same vehicles used to haul coal from the mine can be used to return the ash to the mine; Ash, if alkaline, may provide neutralization of acidic water or mine overburden commonly found at coal mines; and Low permeability ash could reduce ground water flow through the mine backfill, thus reducing leaching of acid forming constituents or metals. Placement of ash in surface mines provides an efficient, cost-effective method of disposal while at the same time contributing to reclamation of the mine. Wise natural resource management suggests a reasonable approach to disposal of coal ash is to return it to its original location--the mine.

Gray, R.E.; Gray, T.A. [GAI Consultants, Inc., Monroeville, PA (United States)

1998-12-31

201

IDENTIFICATION AND EMISSION RATES OF MOLECULAR TRACERS IN COAL SMOKE PARTICULATE MATTER. (R823990)  

EPA Science Inventory

The abundances and distributions of organic constituents in coal smoke particulate matter are dependent on thermal combustion temperature, ventilation, burn time, and coal rank (geologic maturity). Important coal rank indicators from smoke include (1) the decreases in CPIs of ...

202

MERCURY OXIDATION PROMOTED BY A SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION CATALYST UNDER SIMULATED POWDER RIVER BASIN COAL COMBUSTION CONDITIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

A bench-scale reactor consisting of a natural gas burner and an electrically heated reactor housing a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst was constructed for studying elemental mercury oxidation under SCR conditions. A low sulfur Power River Basin (PRB) coal combustion ...

203

Coal-Fired Rocket Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Brief report describes concept for coal-burning hybrid rocket engine. Proposed engine carries larger payload, burns more cleanly, and safer to manufacture and handle than conventional solid-propellant rockets. Thrust changeable in flight, and stops and starts on demand.

Anderson, Floyd A.

1987-01-01

204

Combination coal and wood stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combination stove has a fire chamber that is partially cylindrical including a side loading door for loading wood or other combustible material such as coke or coal into the fire chamber. The front of the stove may be opened to enable viewing of the wood or coal burning in the stove by means of an arcuate sliding door that

G. A. Gillis; R. Lucier

1983-01-01

205

ULTRA-LOW SULFUR REDUCTION EMISSION CONTROL DEVICE/DEVELOPMENT OF AN ON-BOARD FUEL SULFUR TRAP  

SciTech Connect

Honeywell is actively working on a 3-year program to develop and demonstrate proof-of-concept for an ''on-vehicle'' desulfurization fuel filter for heavy-duty diesel engines. Integration of the filter into the vehicle fuel system will reduce the adverse effects sulfur has on post combustion emission control devices such as NO{sub x} adsorbers. The NO{sub x} adsorber may be required to meet the proposed new EPA Tier II and ''2007-Rule'' emission standards. The proposed filter concept is based on Honeywell's reactive filtration technology and experience in liquids handling and conditioning. A regeneration and recycling plan for the spent filters will also be examined. We have chosen to develop and demonstrate this technology based on criteria set forth for a heavy duty CIDI engine system because it represents a more challenging set of conditions of service intervals and overall fuel usage over light duty systems. It is anticipated that the technology developed for heavy-duty applications will be applicable to light-duty as well. Further, technology developed under this proposal would also have application for the use of liquid based fuels for fuel cell power generation. The program consists of four phases. Phase I will focus on developing a concept design and analysis and resolution of technical barriers concerning removal of sulfur-containing species in low sulfur fuels. In Phase II we will concentrate on prototype filter design and preparation followed by qualification testing of this component in a fuel line application. Phase III will study life cycle and regeneration options for the spent filter. Phase IV will focus on efficacy and life testing and component integration. The project team will include a number of partners, with Honeywell International as the prime contractor. The partners include an emission control technology developer (Honeywell International), a fuel technology developer (Marathon Ashland Petroleum), a catalyst technology developer (Johnson Matthey), a CIDI engine manufacturer (Mack Trucks Inc.), a filter recycler (American Wastes Industries), and a low-sulfur fuel supplier (Equilon, a joint venture between Shell and Texaco).

Ron Rohrbach; Gary Zulauf; Tim Gavin

2003-04-01

206

High-sulfur coal for generating electricity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of high-sulfur coal from the Midwest and the Eastern U. S. is ; needed to help alleviate the shortages in energy production. U. S. pollution ; regulations on sulfur oxide emissions from power plants prohibit the use of this ; high-sulfur coal, but reliable flue gas desulfurization processes that permit ; burning of these coals without adverse environmental

J. T. Dunham; C. Rampacek; T. A. Henrie

1974-01-01

207

Biomass Burning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biomass burning may be the overwhelming regional or continental-scale source of methane (CH4) as in tropical Africa and a significant global source of CH4. Our best estimate of present methane emissions from biomass burning is about 51.9 Tg/yr, or 10% of the annual methane emissions to the atmosphere. Increased frequency of fires that may result as the Earth warms up may result in increases in this source of atmospheric methane.

Levine, Joel S.; Cofer, Wesley R., III; Pinto, Joseph P.

1993-01-01

208

Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration. Technical progress report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from January 1, 1993, through May 31, 1993. The ACCP Demonstration Project is a US DOE Clean Coal Technology Project. This project demonstrates an advanced thermal coal drying process coupled with physical cleaning techniques that are designed to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel registered as the SynCoal{reg_sign} process. The coal is processed through three stages of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After drying, the coal is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal.

Not Available

1994-03-01

209

Burns (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... outlets, etc.) overexposure to the sun Types of Burns Burns are often categorized as first-, second-, or ... if the burn is severe). Continue First-Degree Burns First-degree burns, the mildest of the three, ...

210

Burn and Scald Prevention  

MedlinePLUS

Burn and Scald Prevention Approximately 450,000 burn injuries require medical treatment each year. American Burn Association National Burn Repository (2011 report) Prevent burns and scalds in the kitchen: Place objects so ...

211

CHARACTERIZATION OF ASH FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes existing data on the chemical and physical characteristics of ashes produced by the burning of coal in steam-electric generating plants. It summarizes several recent coal or ash characterization studies, emphasizing the elemental chemical composition, partic...

212

Preparation for upgrading western subbituminous coal  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to establish the physical and chemical characteristics of western coal and determine the best preparation technologies for upgrading this resource. Western coal was characterized as an abundant, easily mineable, clean, low-sulfur coal with low heating value, high moisture, susceptibility to spontaneous ignition, and considerable transit distances from major markets. Project support was provided by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The research was conducted by the Western Research Institute, (WRI) in Laramie, Wyoming. The project scope of work required the completion of four tasks: (1) project planning, (2) literature searches and verbal contacts with consumers and producers of western coal, (3) selection of the best technologies to upgrade western coal, and (4) identification of research needed to develop the best technologies for upgrading western coals. The results of this research suggest that thermal drying is the best technology for upgrading western coals. There is a significant need for further research in areas involving physical and chemical stabilization of the dried coal product. Excessive particle-size degradation and resulting dustiness, moisture reabsorption, and high susceptibility to spontaneous combustion are key areas requiring further research. Improved testing methods for the determination of equilibrium moisture and susceptibility to spontaneous ignition under various ambient conditions are recommended.

Grimes, R.W.; Cha, C.Y.; Sheesley, D.C.

1990-11-01

213

Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems  

SciTech Connect

Westinghouse's Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine System Program (DE-AC2l-86MC23167) was originally split into two major phases - a Basic Program and an Option. The Basic Program also contained two phases. The development of a 6 atm, 7 lb/s, 12 MMBtu/hr slagging combustor with an extended period of testing of the subscale combustor, was the first part of the Basic Program. In the second phase of the Basic Program, the combustor was to be operated over a 3-month period with a stationary cascade to study the effect of deposition, erosion and corrosion on combustion turbine components. The testing of the concept, in subscale, has demonstrated its ability to handle high- and low-sulfur bituminous coals, and low-sulfur subbituminous coal. Feeding the fuel in the form of PC has proven to be superior to CWM type feed. The program objectives relative to combustion efficiency, combustor exit temperature, NO[sub x] emissions, carbon burnout, and slag rejection have been met. Objectives for alkali, particulate, and SO[sub x] levels leaving the combustor were not met by the conclusion of testing at Textron. It is planned to continue this testing, to achieve all desired emission levels, as part of the W/NSP program to commercialize the slagging combustor technology.

Not Available

1992-09-01

214

Ash characterization in laboratory-scale oxy-coal combustor  

EPA Science Inventory

Oxygen enriched coal (oxy-coal) combustion is a developing technology. During oxy-coal combustion, combustion air is separated and the coal is burned in a mixture of oxygen and recycled flue gas. The resulting effluent must be further processed before the C02 can be compressed, t...

215

Environmental geochemistry and health of fluorine in Chinese coals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorine is one of the potential hazardous trace elements in coal. Fluorine may be released into atmosphere mostly during\\u000a coal combustion process. When the coal is burning indoors without any controlling methods (chimney), the fluorine will pollute\\u000a the room and is absorbed by food fired (dried) over stoves. Now many people have suffered from fluorosis due to coal burning\\u000a indoors

Guijian Liu; Liugen Zheng; Cuicui Qi; Ying Zhang

2007-01-01

216

Abundances of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 14 chinese and american coals and their relation to coal rank and weathering  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The abundances of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the priority list of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) have been determined in 14 Chinese and American coals. The ranks of the samples range from lignite, bituminous coal, anthracite, to natural coke. Soxhlet extraction was conducted on each coal for 48 h. The extract was analyzed on a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The results show that the total PAH content ranged from 0.31 to 57.6 ??g/g of coal (on a dry basis). It varied with coal rank and is highest in the maturity range of bituminous coal rank. High-molecular-weight (HMW) PAHs are predominant in low-rank coals, but low-molecular-weight (LMW) PAHs are predominant in high-rank coals. The low-sulfur coals have a higher PAH content than high-sulfur coals. It may be explained by an increasing connection between disulfide bonds and PAHs in high-sulfur coal. In addition, it leads us to conclude that the PAH content of coals may be related to the depositional environment. ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

Wang, R.; Liu, Guilin; Zhang, J.; Chou, C.-L.; Liu, J.

2010-01-01

217

Comparison of the Eastern and Western Kentucky coal fields (Pennsylvanian), USA-why are coal distribution patterns and sulfur contents so different in these coal fields?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

More than 130 Mt of Pennsylvanian coal is produced annually from two coal fields in Kentucky. The Western Kentucky Coal Field occurs in part of the Illinois Basin, an intercratonic basin, and the Eastern Kentucky Coal Field occurs in the Central Appalachian Basin, a foreland basin. The basins are only separated by 140 km, but mined western Kentucky coal beds exhibit significantly higher sulfur values than eastern Kentucky coals. Higher-sulfur coal beds in western Kentucky have generally been inferred to be caused by more marine influences than for eastern Kentucky coals. Comparison of strata in the two coal fields shows that more strata and more coal beds accumulated in the Eastern than Western Kentucky Coal Field in the Early and Middle Pennsylvanian, inferred to represent greater generation of tectonic accommodation in the foreland basin. Eastern Kentucky coal beds exhibit a greater tendency toward splitting and occurring in zones than time-equivalent western Kentucky coal beds, which is also inferred to represent foreland accommodation influences, overprinted by autogenic sedimentation effects. Western Kentucky coal beds exhibit higher sulfur values than their eastern counterparts, but western Kentucky coals occurring in Langsettian through Bolsovian strata can be low in sulfur content. Eastern Kentucky coal beds may increase in sulfur content beneath marine zones, but generally are still lower in sulfur than mined Western Kentucky coal beds, indicating that controls other than purely marine influences must have influenced coal quality. The bulk of production in the Eastern Kentucky Coal Field is from Duckmantian and Bolsovian coal beds, whereas production in the Western Kentucky Coal Field is from Westphalian D coals. Langsettian through Bolsovian paleoclimates in eastern Kentucky were favorable for peat doming, so numerous low-sulfur coals accumulated. These coals tend to occur in zones and are prone to lateral splitting because of foreland tectonic and sedimentation influences. In contrast, Westphalian D coal beds of western Kentucky accumulated during low differential tectonic accommodation, and therefore tend to be widespread and uniform in characteristics, but exhibit higher sulfur values because they accumulated in seasonally drier paleoclimates that were unfavorable for peat doming. Hence, basin analyses indicate that many differences between the mined coals of Kentucky's two coal fields are related to temporal changes in paleoclimate and tectonic accommodation, rather than solely being a function of marine influences. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Greb, S.F.; Eble, C.F.; Chesnut, D.R., Jr.

2002-01-01

218

Burning rubber  

SciTech Connect

Mario Andretti, look out You are about to be surpassed in the burning rubber category by a joint venture between Oxford Energy Company and General Electric. The two companies are building the first whole tire-to-energy facility in the US in Modesto, California. This $41 million facility does not require tires to be shredded prior to incineration; it has the capacity to burn 700 tires per minute. The electricity generated will be provided to a utility company. Oxford says there are two billion waste tires on the ground and this number is increasing by 220 million a year. Of that amount, only 18 million a year are recycled.

Not Available

1987-09-01

219

Comparison of diesel exhaust emissions using JP-8 and low-sulfur diesel fuel. Interim report, March 1994-March 1995  

SciTech Connect

Comparative emission measurements were made in two dynamometer-based diesel engines using protocol specified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the California Air Resources Board (CARB). A single JP-8 fuel with a sulfur level of 0.06 wt% was adjusted to sulfur levels of 0.11 and 0.26 wt%. The emission characteristics of the three fuels were compared to the 1994 EPA certification low-sulfur diesel fuel (sulfur level equal to 0.035 wt%) in the Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) 1991 prototype Series 60 diesel engine and in the General Motors (GM) 6.2L diesel engine. Comparisons were made using the hot-start transient portion of the heavy-duty diesel engine Federal Test Procedure. Results from the Army study show that the gaseous emissions for the DDC Series 60 engine using kerosene-based JP-8 fuel are essentially equal to values obtained with the 0.035 wt% sulfur EPA certification diesel fuel, and that an approximate sulfur level of 0.21 wt% in kerosene-type JP-8 fuel would be equivalent to the 0.035 wt% sulfur reference fuel. Similarly, the regulated gaseous emissions for the GM 6.2L engine using JP-8 fuel are essentially equal to the values obtained with the 0.035 wt% sulfur EPA reference fuel. All sulfur levels of kerosene-type JP-8 fuel up to the 0.30 wt% MIL-T-83133 specification maximum would be equivalent to a 0.035 wt% sulfur EPA reference fuel.

Yost, D.M.; Montalvo, D.A.

1995-11-01

220

POC-SCALE TESTING OF AN ADVANCED FINE COAL DEWATERING EQUIPMENT/TECHNIQUE  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of the proposed program is to evaluate a novel surface modification technique, which utilizes the synergistic effect of metal ions-surfactant combination, for dewatering of ultra-fine clean coal on a proof-of-concept scale of 1 to 2 tph. The novel surface modification technique developed at the UKCAER will be evaluated using vacuum, centrifuge, and hyperbaric filtration equipment. Dewatering tests will be conducted using the fine clean-coal froth produced by the column flotation units at the Powell Mountain Coal Company, Mayflower Preparation Plant in St. Charles, Virginia. The POC-scale studies will be conducted on two different types of clean coal, namely, high-sulfur and low-sulfur clean coal. The Mayflower Plant processes coals from five different seams, thus the dewatering studies results could be generalized for most of the bituminous coals.

B.K. PAREKH; D. TAO; J.G. GROPPO

1998-02-03

221

(Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project)  

SciTech Connect

This project will demonstrate an advanced thermal coal drying process coupled with physical cleaning techniques to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to produce a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel. The coal will be processed through two vibrating fluidized bed reactors that will remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After drying, the coal will be put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to effect separation of the pyrite rich ash. The process will enhance low-rank western coals, usually with a moisture content of 25--55%, sulfur content of 0.5--1.5%, and heating value of 5500--9000 Btu/lb by producing a stable, upgraded coal product with a moisture content as low as 1%, sulfur content as low as 0.3%, and heating value up to 12,000 Btu/lb. The 45 ton/hr unit will be located adjacent to a unit train loadout facility at Western Energy Company's Rosebud coal mine near the town of Colstrip in southeastern Montana. The demonstration plant is sized at about one-tenth the projected throughput of a multiple processing train commercial facility. The demonstration drying and cooling equipment is currently commercial size.

Not Available

1991-08-01

222

Emissions of toxic pollutants from compressed natural gas and low sulfur diesel-fueled heavy-duty transit buses tested over multiple driving cycles.  

PubMed

The number of heavy-duty vehicles using alternative fuels such as compressed natural gas (CNG) and new low-sulfur diesel fuel formulations and equipped with after-treatment devices are projected to increase. However, few peer-reviewed studies have characterized the emissions of particulate matter (PM) and other toxic compounds from these vehicles. In this study, chemical and biological analyses were used to characterize the identifiable toxic air pollutants emitted from both CNG and low-sulfur-diesel-fueled heavy-duty transit buses tested on a chassis dynamometer over three transient driving cycles and a steady-state cruise condition. The CNG bus had no after-treatment, and the diesel bus was tested first equipped with an oxidation catalyst (OC) and then with a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF). Emissions were analyzed for PM, volatile organic compounds (VOCs; determined on-site), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and mutagenic activity. The 2000 model year CNG-fueled vehicle had the highest emissions of 1,3-butadiene, benzene, and carbonyls (e.g., formaldehyde) of the three vehicle configurations tested in this study. The 1998 model year diesel bus equipped with an OC and fueled with low-sulfur diesel had the highest emission rates of PM and PAHs. The highest specific mutagenic activities (revertants/microg PM, or potency) and the highest mutagen emission rates (revertants/mi) were from the CNG bus in strain TA98 tested over the New York Bus (NYB) driving cycle. The 1998 model year diesel bus with DPF had the lowest VOCs, PAH, and mutagenic activity emission. In general, the NYB driving cycle had the highest emission rates (g/mi), and the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) had the lowest emission rates for all toxics tested over the three transient test cycles investigated. Also, transient emissions were, in general, higher than steady-state emissions. The emissions of toxic compounds from an in-use CNG transit bus (without an oxidation catalyst) and from a vehicle fueled with low-sulfur diesel fuel (equipped with DPF) were lower than from the low-sulfur diesel fueled vehicle equipped with OC. All vehicle configurations had generally lower emissions of toxics than an uncontrolled diesel engine. Tunnel backgrounds (measurements without the vehicle running) were measured throughout this study and were helpful in determining the incremental increase in pollutant emissions. Also, the on-site determination of VOCs, especially 1,3-butadiene, helped minimize measurement losses due to sample degradation after collection. PMID:16245838

Kado, Norman Y; Okamoto, Robert A; Kuzmicky, Paul A; Kobayashi, Reiko; Ayala, Alberto; Gebel, Michael E; Rieger, Paul L; Maddox, Christine; Zafonte, Leo

2005-10-01

223

Health impacts of domestic coal combustion  

SciTech Connect

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has concluded that, with the possible exception of mercury, there is no compelling evidence to indicate that emissions from coal-burning electric utility generators cause human health problems. The absence of detectable health problems is in part due to the fact that the coals burned in the US generally contain low to modest concentrations of potentially toxic trace elements and that many coal-burning utilities employ sophisticated pollution control systems that efficiently reduce the emissions of hazardous elements. This is not so in many developing countries, especially in homes where coal is used for heating and cooking. Domestic use of coal can present serious human health problems because the coals are generally mined locally with little regard to their composition and the coals are commonly burned in poorly vented or unvented stoves directly exposing residents to the emissions. In China alone several hundred million people commonly burn raw coal in unvented stoves that permeate their homes with high levels of toxic metals and organic compounds. At least 3,000 people in Guizhou Province in southwest China are suffering from severe arsenic poisoning. The primary source of the arsenic appears to be consumption of chili peppers dried over fires fueled with high-arsenic coal. Coal's in the region contain up to 35,000 ppm arsenic. Chili peppers dried over these high-arsenic coal fires absorb 500 ppm arsenic on average. More than 10 million people in Guizhou Province and surrounding areas suffer from dental and skeletal fluorosis. The excess fluorine is due to eating corn dried over burning briquettes made from high-fluorine coals and high-fluoring clay binders. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons formed during coal combustion are believed to cause or contribute to the high incidence of esophageal and lung cancers in parts of China. Domestic coal combustion has also caused selenium poisoning and possibly mercury poisoning. Better knowledge of coal quality parameters may help to reduce some of these health problems. For example, information on concentrations and distributions of potentially toxic elements in coal may help delineate areas of a coal deposit to be avoided. Information on the modes of occurrence of these elements and the textural relations of the minerals and macerals in coal may help predict the behavior of the potentially toxic components during coal combustion.

Finkelman, R.B.

1999-07-01

224

Ultra-low Sulfur Reduction Emission Control Device/Development of an On-board Fuel Sulfur Trap  

SciTech Connect

Honeywell has completed working on a multiyear program to develop and demonstrate proof-of-concept for an 'on-vehicle' desulfurization fuel filter for both light duty and heavy-duty diesel engines. Integration of the filter into the vehicle fuel system will reduce the adverse effects sulfur has on post combustion emission control devices such as NOx adsorbers. The NOx adsorber may be required to meet the proposed new EPA Tier II and '2007-Rule' emission standards. The proposed filter concept is based on Honeywell's reactive filtration technology and experience in liquids handling and conditioning. A regeneration and recycling plan for the spent filters was also examined. We have chosen to develop and demonstrate this technology based on criteria set forth for a heavy duty CIDI engine system because it represents a more challenging set of conditions of service intervals and overall fuel usage over light duty systems. In the second phase of the program a light duty diesel engine test was also demonstrated. Further, technology developed under this proposal would also have application for the use of liquid based fuels for fuel cell power generation. The program consisted of four phases. Phase I focused on developing a concept design and analysis and resolution of technical barriers concerning removal of sulfur-containing species in low sulfur fuels. In Phase II concentrated on prototype filter design and preparation followed by qualification testing of this component in a fuel line application. Phase III studied life cycle and regeneration options for the spent filter. Phase IV focused on efficacy and benefits in the desulfation steps of a NOx adsorber on both a heavy and light duty engine. The project team included a number of partners, with Honeywell International as the prime contractor. The partners include an emission control technology developer (Honeywell International), a fuel technology developer (Marathon Ashland Petroleum), a catalyst technology developer (Johnson Matthey), a CIDI engine manufacturer (Navistar Inc. (formerly International Truck & Engine Corporation) and Mack Trucks Inc.), and filter recycler (American Wastes Industries).

Rohrbach, Ron; Barron, Ann

2008-07-31

225

Effects of three biodiesels and a low sulfur diesel in male rats--a pilot 4-week oral study.  

PubMed

Because of the accessible and renewable nature of feedstock and the potential for the reduction of harmful combustion emissions and greenhouse gases, biodiesels have received increasing interest as an alternate fuel. Oral exposure to biodiesels is a concern because of contact during refuelling, accidental ingestion and exposure through ground water contamination. Although biodiesels from various feedstock are in use commercially and experimentally, very little is known about their potential adverse effects and no data is available on their potential for ground water contamination. A study was performed on male rats following oral treatment with experimental biodiesels (dissolved in corn oil) derived from canola oil (Bio-C), soy oil (Bio-S) and fish oil (Bio-F), at 500 mg/kg body weight/day, 5 days per week, for 4 weeks. Separate groups of animals were treated with low sulfur diesel (LSD) for comparison purpose, and with corn oil alone to serve as control. The potential for ground water contamination by biodiesels was investigated by the preparation of water-accommodated fractions (WAF) followed by gas chromatographic analysis. WAF from Bio-F and Bio-S was found to have the highest level of dichloromethane extractable materials. Gas chromatographic analysis indicated that the extractable materials from biodiesels contained much higher proportion of C15-C30 materials than LSD. Increased liver weight was observed in animal treated with Bio-C, Bio-S and LSD and decreased thymus weight was found in those treated with Bio-S. Histopathological changes typical of male-rat specific hyaline-droplet nephropathy were detected in kidney tubules of animals treated with LSD, Bio-S and Bio-C. Mild adaptive changes were observed in thyroids of animals treated with LSD, Bio-S and Bio-F. Clinical chemical and biochemical changes were confined to Bio-S and LSD treated rats and included elevation in some hepatic phase-I and phase-II drug metabolizing enzymes and hepatic palmitoyl Co-A oxidase, and elevated urinary concentrations of ascorbic acid and albumin. At the given dose level of 500 mg/kg bw/day, the overall treatment-related effects of biodiesels and LSD are mild, and the severity of the treatment effects may be ranked as: LSD>Bio-S>Bio-C>Bio-F. Considered together with the presence of a higher level of water extractable materials, Bio-S may be more of a concern for potential human health than Bio-C and Bio-F in an oral exposure scenario. Further studies are needed to identify and characterize the constituents contributing to the treatment-related effects specific to these experimental biodiesels. PMID:17532109

Poon, R; Chu, I; Valli, V E; Graham, L; Yagminas, A; Hollebone, B; Rideout, G; Fingas, M

2007-10-01

226

Burn resuscitation.  

PubMed

Fluid resuscitation following burn injury must support organ perfusion with the least amount of fluid necessary and the least physiological cost. Under resuscitation may lead to organ failure and death. With adoption of weight and injury size-based formulas for resuscitation, multiple organ dysfunction and inadequate resuscitation have become uncommon. Instead, administration of fluid volumes well in excess of historic guidelines has been reported. A number of strategies including greater use of colloids and vasoactive drugs are now under investigation to optimize preservation of end organ function while avoiding complications which can include respiratory failure and compartment syndromes. Adjuncts to resuscitation, such as antioxidants, are also being investigated along with parameters beyond urine output and vital signs to identify endpoints of therapy. Here we briefly review the state-of-the-art and provide a sample of protocols now under investigation in North American burn centers. PMID:22078326

Endorf, Frederick W; Dries, David J

2011-01-01

227

Full Useful Life (120,000 miles) Exhaust Emission Performance of a NOx Adsorber and Diesel Particle Filter Equipped Passenger Car and Medium-duty Engine in Conjunction with Ultra Low Sulfur Fuel (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

Discusses the full useful life exhaust emission performance of a NOx (nitrogen oxides) adsorber and diesel particle filter equipped light-duty and medium-duty engine using ultra low sulfur diesel fuel.

Thornton, M.; Tatur, M.; Tomazic, D.; Weber, P.; Webb, C.

2005-08-25

228

DEVELOPMENT OF A VALIDATED MODEL FOR USE IN MINIMIZING NOx EMISSIONS AND MAXIMIZING CARBON UTILIZATION WHEN CO-FIRING BIOMASS WITH COAL  

SciTech Connect

This is the seventh Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00NT40895. A statement of the project objectives is included in the Introduction of this report. Two additional biomass co-firing test burns were conducted during this quarter. In the first test (Test 12), up to 20% by weight dry hardwood sawdust and switchgrass was comilled with Galatia coal and injected through the single-register burner. Liquid ammonia was intermittently added to the primary air stream to increase fuel-bound nitrogen and simulate cofiring with chicken litter. Galatia coal is a medium-sulfur ({approx} 1.2% S), high chlorine ({approx}0.5%) Illinois Basin coal. In the second test (Test 13), up to 20% by weight dry hardwood sawdust and switchgrass was comilled with Jim Walters No.7 mine coal and injected through the single-register burner. Jim Walters No.7 coal is a low-volatility, low-sulfur ({approx} 0.7% S) Eastern bituminous coal. The results of these tests are presented in this quarterly report. Progress has continued to be made in implementing a modeling approach to combine reaction times and temperature distributions from computational fluid dynamic models of the pilot-scale combustion furnace with char burnout and chemical reaction kinetics to predict NO{sub x} emissions and unburned carbon levels in the furnace exhaust. The Configurable Fireside Simulator has been delivered from REI, Inc. and is being tested with exiting CFD solutions. Preparations are under way for a final pilot-scale combustion experiment using the single-register burner fired with comilled mixtures of Jim Walters No.7 low-volatility bituminous coal and switchgrass. Because of the delayed delivery of the Configurable Fireside Simulator, it is planned to ask for a no-cost time extension for the project until the end of this calendar year. Finally, a paper describing this project that included preliminary results from the first four cofiring tests was presented at the 12th European Conference and Technology Exhibition on Biomass for Energy, Industry and Climate Protection in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, in June, 2002.

Larry G. Felix; P. Vann Bush

2002-07-01

229

Teen Maps Contaminants from a Coal Plant  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video adapted from Earth Island Institute, meet a high school student who educated her community about how a coal-burning power plant was contributing to asthma and other health problems there.

WGBH Educational Foundation

2011-03-21

230

AIR QUALITY IMPACTS USING SRC VERSUS CONVENTIONAL COAL IN POWER PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of air quality modeling to assess the impact of burning solvent-refined coal (SRC) instead of conventional coal in three power plants which exceeded National Ambient Air Quality Standards when burning conventional coal. The EPA CRSTER Gaussian plume model...

231

ENCOAL mild coal gasification project. Annual report  

SciTech Connect

This document is the combination of the fourth quarter report (July--September 1993) and the 1993 annual report for the ENCOAL project. The following pages include the background and process description for the project, brief summaries of the accomplishments for the first three quarters, and a detailed fourth quarter report. Its purpose is to convey the accomplishments and current progress of the project. ENCOAL Corporation, has completed the construction of a mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company`s Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology developed by SMC and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin coal to produce two new fuels, Process Derived Fuel (PDF) and Coal Derived Liquids (CDL). ENCOAL submitted an application to the US Department of Energy (DOE) in August 1989, soliciting joint funding of the project in the third round of the Clean Coal Technology Program. The project was selected by DOE in December, 1989 and the Cooperative Agreement approved in September, 1990. Construction, commissioning, and start-up of the ENCOAL mild coal gasification facility was completed in June of 1992, and the project is currently in the operations phase. Some plant modifications have been required and are discussed in this report.

Not Available

1993-10-01

232

University of Iowa : burn oat hulls for economic, environmental benefit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is an alternative energy source that is available today? This article, part of a series about the future of energy, introduces students to a pilot project of burning oat hulls at the University of Iowa power plant. Students read that the burning of oak hulls instead of coal provides for cleaner air and additional space in landfills. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Iowa Public Television. Explore More Project

2004-01-01

233

Coal and coal mine drainage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review of 1982 literature covers the formation and effects of acid mine drainage from coal mines, coal cleaning wastes and coal transportation and storage. Environmental regulations related to coal mining and processing industries enacted in 1982 are indicated.

Olem

1983-01-01

234

Coal and coal mine drainage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review of 1983 literature covers the formation and effects of acid drainage from coal mines, coal cleaning wastes and coal transportation and storage. US environmental regulations related to coal mining which were proposed or adopted in 1983 are indicated.

Olem

1984-01-01

235

Clean burning solid fuel stove and method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stove for burning solid fuels having an insulated primary combustion chamber, uniform distribution of preheated primary air through upward facing holes in a grate, downward flow of combustion gas through the grate, retention of hot coals in the grate structure, preheated secondary air, individually controlled primary and secondary air flows, insulated vortex combustion chambers for secondary combustion, longitudinally finned

R. D. Smith; S. J. V. Grouw

1985-01-01

236

Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project. Technical progress report, January 1, 1991--December 31, 1991  

SciTech Connect

This project will demonstrate an advanced thermal coal drying process coupled with physical cleaning techniques to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to produce a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel. The coal will be processed through two vibrating fluidized bed reactors that will remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After drying, the coal will be put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to effect separation of the pyrite rich ash. The process will enhance low-rank western coals, usually with a moisture content of 25--55%, sulfur content of 0.5--1.5%, and heating value of 5,500--9,000 Btu/lb by producing a stable, upgraded coal product with a moisture content as low as 1%, sulfur content as low as 0.3%, and heating value up to 12,000 Btu/lb.

Not Available

1992-02-01

237

Coal combustion system  

DOEpatents

In a coal combustion system suitable for a gas turbine engine, pulverized coal is transported to a rich zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio exceeding 1 at a temperature above the slagging temperature of the coal so that combustible hot gas and molten slag issue from the rich zone combustor. A coolant screen of water stretches across a throat of a quench stage and cools the combustible gas and molten slag to below the slagging temperature of the coal so that the slag freezes and shatters into small pellets. The pelletized slag is separated from the combustible gas in a first inertia separator. Residual ash is separated from the combustible gas in a second inertia separator. The combustible gas is mixed with secondary air in a lean zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio of less than 1 to produce hot gas motive at temperature above the coal slagging temperature. The motive fluid is cooled in a dilution stage to an acceptable turbine inlet temperature before being transported to the turbine.

Wilkes, Colin (Lebanon, IN); Mongia, Hukam C. (Carmel, IN); Tramm, Peter C. (Indianapolis, IN)

1988-01-01

238

Environmentally conscious coal combustion  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project was to evaluate the environmental impacts of home-scale coal combustion on the Navajo Reservation and develop strategies to reduce adverse health effects associated with home-scale coal combustion. Principal accomplishments of this project were: (1) determination of the metal and gaseous emissions of a representative stove on the Navajo Reservation; (2) recognition of cyclic gaseous emissions in combustion in home-scale combustors; (3) `back of the envelope` calculation that home-scale coal combustion may impact Navajo health; and (4) identification that improved coal stoves require the ability to burn diverse feedstocks (coal, wood, biomass). Ultimately the results of Navajo home-scale coal combustion studies will be extended to the Developing World, particularly China, where a significant number (> 150 million) of households continue to heat their homes with low-grade coal.

Hickmott, D.D.; Brown, L.F.; Currier, R.P. [and others

1997-08-01

239

Micronized coal burner facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A combustor or burner system in which the ash resulting from burning a coal in oil mixture is of submicron particle size is described. The burner system comprises a burner section, a flame exit nozzle, a fuel nozzle section, and an air tube by which preheated air is directed into the burner section. Regulated air pressure is delivered to a fuel nozzle. Means are provided for directing a mixture of coal particles and oil from a drum to a nozzle at a desired rate and pressure while means returns excess fuel to the fuel drum. Means provide for stable fuel pressure supply from the fuel pump to the fuel nozzle.

Calfo, F. D.; Lupton, M. W. (inventors)

1984-01-01

240

Ken Burns  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ken Burns is a popular documentarian and, as it turns out, he is now a popular app, in a manner of speaking. This particular app gives interested parties the ability to view scenes from his documentaries (such as "Baseball" and "Jazz") in a variety of settings. The latest version allows visitors to access the Innovation playlist absolutely free while other playlists containing clips from his other programs are available for a small fee. This version is compatible with iPads running iOS 7.0 and newer.

2014-02-10

241

Role of RIS/APC for manufacturing RFG/LSD. [Refinery Information Systems/Advanced Process Control, ReFormulated Gasoline/Low Sulfur Diesels  

SciTech Connect

Revolutionary changes in quality specifications (number, complexity, uncertainty, economic sensitivity) for reformulated gasolines (RFG) and low-sulfur diesels (LSD) are being addressed by powerful, new, computer-integrated manufacturing technology for Refinery Information Systems and Advanced Process Control (RIS/APC). This paper shows how the five active RIS/APC functions: performance measurement, optimization, scheduling, control and integration are used to manufacture new, clean fuels competitively. With current industry spending for this field averaging 2 to 3 cents/bbl crude, many refineries can capture 50 to 100 cents/bbl if the technology is properly employed and sustained throughout refining operations, organizations, and businesses.

Latour, P.R. (SETPOINT, Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

1994-01-01

242

Micronized-Coal Burner Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Micronized-coal (coal-in-oil mix) burner facility developed to fulfill need to generate erosion/corrosion data on series of superalloy specimens. In order to successfully operate gas turbine using COM, two primary conditions must be met. First, there must be adequate atomization of COM and second, minimization of coking of burner. Meeting these conditions will be achieved only by clean burning and flame stability.

Calfo, F. D.; Lupton, M. W.

1986-01-01

243

Burning plasmas  

SciTech Connect

The fraction of fusion-reaction energy that is released in energetic charged ions, such as the alpha particles of the D-T reaction, can be thermalized within the reacting plasma and used to maintain its temperature. This mechanism facilitates the achievement of very high energy-multiplication factors Q, but also raises a number of new issues of confinement physics. To ensure satisfactory reaction operation, three areas of energetic-ion interaction need to be addressed: single-ion transport in imperfectly symmetric magnetic fields or turbulent background plasmas; energetic-ion-driven (or stabilized) collective phenomena; and fusion-heat-driven collective phenomena. The first of these topics is already being explored in a number of tokamak experiments, and the second will begin to be addressed in the D-T-burning phase of TFTR and JET. Exploration of the third topic calls for high-Q operation, which is a goal of proposed next-generation plasma-burning projects. Planning for future experiments must take into consideration the full range of plasma-physics and engineering R D areas that need to be addressed on the way to a fusion power demonstration.

Furth, H.P.; Goldston, R.J.; Zweben, S.J. (Princeton Univ., NJ (USA). Plasma Physics Lab.); Sigmar, D.J. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (USA))

1990-10-01

244

Advanced coal conversion process demonstration. Technical progress report for the period July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from July 1, 1995 through September 30, 1995. The ACCP Demonstration Project is a US Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Project. This project demonstrates an advanced, thermal, coal upgrading process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal upgrading, the cola is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal.

NONE

1997-05-01

245

Characterization and evaluation of washability of Alaskan coals. Final technical report for Phase II, July 1, 1977-February 29, 1979  

SciTech Connect

This report is a result of the second part of a continuing study to obtain washability data for Alaskan coals to supplement the efforts of the US Department of Energy in their ongoing studies on washability of US coals. Alaska, with its large coal resources, could supply the nation with environmentally acceptable low-ash, low-sulfur coals. Washability characteristics were determined for eleven coal samples, from the Northern Alaska, Broad Pass, Little Tonzona, Tramway Bar, Beluga, Yentna, Kenai and Nenana coal fields. The raw coals were crushed to 1-1/2 inches, 3/8 inch and 14 mesh top sizes and float-sink separations were made at 1.30, 1.40, and 1.60 specific gravities. Detailed results of the testing are given.

Rao, P. D.; Wolff, E. N.

1980-10-01

246

CHARACTERISTICS OF SINGLE PARTICLE COAL COMBUSTION  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the measurement of the burning history of single coal particles, using a two-color optical pyrometer. rom intensity traces at two wavelengths, information on burning times and temperatures, the duration of a volatile flame, and projected areas was obtained for...

247

Alaska coal geology, resources, and coalbed methane potential  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Estimated Alaska coal resources are largely in Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks distributed in three major provinces. Northern Alaska-Slope, Central Alaska-Nenana, and Southern Alaska-Cook Inlet. Cretaceous resources, predominantly bituminous coal and lignite, are in the Northern Alaska-Slope coal province. Most of the Tertiary resources, mainly lignite to subbituminous coal with minor amounts of bituminous and semianthracite coals, are in the other two provinces. The combined measured, indicated, inferred, and hypothetical coal resources in the three areas are estimated to be 5,526 billion short tons (5,012 billion metric tons), which constitutes about 87 percent of Alaska's coal and surpasses the total coal resources of the conterminous United States by 40 percent. Coal mining has been intermittent in the Central Alaskan-Nenana and Southern Alaska-Cook Inlet coal provinces, with only a small fraction of the identified coal resource having been produced from some dozen underground and strip mines in these two provinces. Alaskan coal resources have a lower sulfur content (averaging 0.3 percent) than most coals in the conterminous United States are within or below the minimum sulfur value mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments. The identified resources are near existing and planned infrastructure to promote development, transportation, and marketing of this low-sulfur coal. The relatively short distances to countries in the west Pacific Rim make them more exportable to these countries than to the lower 48 States of the United States. Another untapped but potential resource of large magnitude is coalbed methane, which has been estimated to total 1,000 trillion cubic feet (28 trillion cubic meters) by T.N. Smith 1995, Coalbed methane potential for Alaska and drilling results for the upper Cook Inlet Basin: Intergas, May 15 - 19, 1995, Tuscaloosa, University of Alabama, p. 1 - 21.

Flores, Romeo M.; Stricker, Gary D.; Kinney, Scott A.

2004-01-01

248

Coal-fired Stirling engine hydrostatic locomotive  

SciTech Connect

In view of the increasing price of diesel oil, there is a need to consider alternative fuels, such as coal, which is available in relative abundance and lower costs. A case is made to establish a 1000 hp 80 ton 2 bogie 4-axle coal-burning free-piston Stirling engine hydrostatic locomotive for shunting duty.

Srinivasan, V.; Walker, C.; Fauvel, R.

1982-01-01

249

Steam Plant Conversion Eliminating Campus Coal Use  

E-print Network

Steam Plant Conversion Eliminating Campus Coal Use at the Steam Plant #12; Flagship campus.S. colleges and universities w/ steam plant that burns coal Constructed in 1964, provides steam for: Building heating Domestic hot water Lab sterilization UT's Steam Plant #12; Powered by 5 boilers: 2

Dai, Pengcheng

250

Field Test Program for Long-Term Operation of a COHPAC System for Removing Mercury from Coal-Fired Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect

With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by the existing particle control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. During 2001, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) conducted a full-scale demonstration of sorbent-based mercury control technology at the Alabama Power E.C. Gaston Station (Wilsonville, Alabama). This unit burns a low-sulfur bituminous coal and uses a hot-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in combination with a Compact Hybrid Particulate Collector (COHPAC{reg_sign}) baghouse to collect fly ash. The majority of the fly ash is collected in the ESP with the residual being collected in the COHPAC{reg_sign} baghouse. Activated carbon was injected between the ESP and COHPAC{reg_sign} units to collect the mercury. Short-term mercury removal levels in excess of 90% were achieved using the COHPAC{reg_sign} unit. The test also showed that activated carbon was effective in removing both forms of mercury-elemental and oxidized. However, a great deal of additional testing is required to further characterize the capabilities and limitations of this technology relative to use with baghouse systems such as COHPAC{reg_sign}. It is important to determine performance over an extended period of time to fully assess all operational parameters. The project described in this report focuses on fully demonstrating sorbent injection technology at a coal-fired power generating plant that is equipped with a COHPAC{reg_sign} system. The overall objective is to evaluate the long-term effects of sorbent injection on mercury capture and COHPAC{reg_sign} performance. The work is being done on one-half of the gas stream at Alabama Power Company's Plant Gaston Unit 3 (nominally 135 MW). Data from the testing will be used to determine: (1) If sorbent injection into a high air-to-cloth ratio baghouse is a viable, long-term approach for mercury control; and (2) Design criteria and costs for new baghouse/sorbent injection systems that will use a similar, polishing baghouse (TOXECON{trademark}) approach.

Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac: Travis Starns; Sharon Sjostrom; Trent Taylor; Cindy Larson

2005-04-28

251

Field Test Program for Long-Term Operation of a COHPAC System for Removing Mercury from Coal-Fired Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect

With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by the existing particle control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. During 2001, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) conducted a full-scale demonstration of sorbent-based mercury control technology at the Alabama Power E.C. Gaston Station (Wilsonville, Alabama). This unit burns a low-sulfur bituminous coal and uses a hot-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in combination with a Compact Hybrid Particulate Collector (COHPAC{reg_sign}) baghouse to collect fly ash. The majority of the fly ash is collected in the ESP with the residual being collected in the COHPAC{reg_sign} baghouse. Activated carbon was injected between the ESP and COHPAC{reg_sign} units to collect the mercury. Short-term mercury removal levels in excess of 90% were achieved using the COHPAC{reg_sign} unit. The test also showed that activated carbon was effective in removing both forms of mercury-elemental and oxidized. However, a great deal of additional testing is required to further characterize the capabilities and limitations of this technology relative to use with baghouse systems such as COHPAC{reg_sign}. It is important to determine performance over an extended period of time to fully assess all operational parameters. The project described in this report focuses on fully demonstrating sorbent injection technology at a coal-fired power generating plant that is equipped with a COHPAC{reg_sign} system. The overall objective is to evaluate the long-term effects of sorbent injection on mercury capture and COHPAC{reg_sign} performance. The work is being done on one-half of the gas stream at Alabama Power Company's Plant Gaston Unit 3 (nominally 135 MW). Data from the testing will be used to determine: (1) If sorbent injection into a high air-to-cloth ratio baghouse is a viable, long-term approach for mercury control; and (2) Design criteria and costs for new baghouse/sorbent injection systems that will use a similar, polishing baghouse (TOXECON{trademark}) approach.

Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac; Travis Starns; Sharon Sjostrom; Cindy Larson

2006-01-27

252

Field Test Program for Long-Term Operation of a COHPAC System for Removing Mercury from Coal-Fired Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect

With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by the existing particle control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. During 2001, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) conducted a full-scale demonstration of sorbent-based mercury control technology at the Alabama Power E.C. Gaston Station (Wilsonville, Alabama). This unit burns a low-sulfur bituminous coal and uses a hot-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in combination with a Compact Hybrid Particulate Collector (COHPAC{reg_sign}) baghouse to collect fly ash. The majority of the fly ash is collected in the ESP with the residual being collected in the COHPAC{reg_sign} baghouse. Activated carbon was injected between the ESP and COHPAC{reg_sign} units to collect the mercury. Short-term mercury removal levels in excess of 90% were achieved using the COHPAC{reg_sign} unit. The test also showed that activated carbon was effective in removing both forms of mercury-elemental and oxidized. However, a great deal of additional testing is required to further characterize the capabilities and limitations of this technology relative to use with baghouse systems such as COHPAC{reg_sign}. It is important to determine performance over an extended period of time to fully assess all operational parameters. The project described in this report focuses on fully demonstrating sorbent injection technology at a coal-fired power generating plant that is equipped with a COHPAC{reg_sign} system. The overall objective is to evaluate the long-term effects of sorbent injection on mercury capture and COHPAC{reg_sign} performance. The work is being done on one-half of the gas stream at Alabama Power Company's Plant Gaston Unit 3 (nominally 135 MW). Data from the testing will be used to determine: (1) If sorbent injection into a high air-to-cloth ratio baghouse is a viable, long-term approach for mercury control; and (2) Design criteria and costs for new baghouse/sorbent injection systems that will use a similar, polishing baghouse (TOXECON{trademark}) approach.

Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac; Travis Starns; Sharon Sjostrom; Cindy Larson

2005-07-14

253

FIELD TEST PROGRAM FOR LONG-TERM OPERATION OF A COHPAC SYSTEM FOR REMOVING MERCURY FROM COAL-FIRED FLUE GAS  

SciTech Connect

With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by the existing particle control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. During 2001 ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) conducted a full-scale demonstration of sorbent-based mercury control technology at the Alabama Power E.C. Gaston Station (Wilsonville, AL). This unit burns a low-sulfur bituminous coal and uses a hot-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in combination with a COHPAC baghouse to collect fly ash. The majority of the fly ash is collected in the ESP with the residual being collected in the COHPAC baghouse. Activated carbon was injected between the ESP and COHPAC units to collect the mercury. Short-term mercury removal levels in excess of 90% were achieved using the COHPAC unit. The test also showed that activated carbon was effective on removing both forms of mercury, elemental and oxidized. However, a great deal of additional testing is required to further characterize the capabilities and limitations of this technology relative to use with baghouse systems such as COHPAC. It is important to determine performance over an extended period of time to fully assess all operational parameters. The project described in this report focuses on fully demonstrating sorbent injection technology at a coal-fired power generating plant that is equipped with a COHPAC system. The overall objective is to evaluate the long term effects of sorbent injection on mercury capture and COHPAC performance. The work is being done on 1/2 of the gas stream at Alabama Power's Plant Gaston Unit 3 (nominally 135 MW). Data from the testing will be used to determine: (1) Is sorbent injection into a high air-to-cloth ratio baghouse a viable, long term approach for mercury control; and (2) Design criteria and costs for new baghouse/sorbent injection systems that will use a similar, polishing baghouse (TOXECON) approach.

Jean Bustard

2003-06-13

254

Field Test Program for Long-Term Operation of a COHPAC System for Removing Mercury from Coal-Fired Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect

With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by the existing particle control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. During 2001, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) conducted a full-scale demonstration of sorbent-based mercury control technology at the Alabama Power E.C. Gaston Station (Wilsonville, Alabama). This unit burns a low-sulfur bituminous coal and uses a hot-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in combination with a Compact Hybrid Particulate Collector (COHPAC{reg_sign}) baghouse to collect fly ash. The majority of the fly ash is collected in the ESP with the residual being collected in the COHPAC{reg_sign} baghouse. Activated carbon was injected between the ESP and COHPAC{reg_sign} units to collect the mercury. Short-term mercury removal levels in excess of 90% were achieved using the COHPAC{reg_sign} unit. The test also showed that activated carbon was effective in removing both forms of mercury-elemental and oxidized. However, a great deal of additional testing is required to further characterize the capabilities and limitations of this technology relative to use with baghouse systems such as COHPAC{reg_sign}. It is important to determine performance over an extended period of time to fully assess all operational parameters. The project described in this report focuses on fully demonstrating sorbent injection technology at a coal-fired power generating plant that is equipped with a COHPAC{reg_sign} system. The overall objective is to evaluate the long-term effects of sorbent injection on mercury capture and COHPAC{reg_sign} performance. The work is being done on one-half of the gas stream at Alabama Power Company's Plant Gaston Unit 3 (nominally 135 MW). Data from the testing will be used to determine: (1) If sorbent injection into a high air-to-cloth ratio baghouse is a viable, long-term approach for mercury control; and (2) Design criteria and costs for new baghouse/sorbent injection systems that will use a similar, polishing baghouse (TOXECON{trademark}) approach.

Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac; Travis Starns; Sharon Sjostrom; Cindy Larson

2005-10-24

255

Field Test Program for Long-Term Operation of a COHPAC System for Removing Mercury from Coal-Fired Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect

With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by the existing particle control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. During 2001, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) conducted a full-scale demonstration of sorbent-based mercury control technology at the Alabama Power E.C. Gaston Station (Wilsonville, Alabama). This unit burns a low-sulfur bituminous coal and uses a hot-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in combination with a Compact Hybrid Particulate Collector (COHPAC{reg_sign}) baghouse to collect fly ash. The majority of the fly ash is collected in the ESP with the residual being collected in the COHPAC{reg_sign} baghouse. Activated carbon was injected between the ESP and COHPAC{reg_sign} units to collect the mercury. Short-term mercury removal levels in excess of 90% were achieved using the COHPAC{reg_sign} unit. The test also showed that activated carbon was effective in removing both forms of mercury-elemental and oxidized. However, a great deal of additional testing is required to further characterize the capabilities and limitations of this technology relative to use with baghouse systems such as COHPAC{reg_sign}. It is important to determine performance over an extended period of time to fully assess all operational parameters. The project described in this report focuses on fully demonstrating sorbent injection technology at a coal-fired power generating plant that is equipped with a COHPAC{reg_sign} system. The overall objective is to evaluate the long-term effects of sorbent injection on mercury capture and COHPAC{reg_sign} performance. The work is being done on one-half of the gas stream at Alabama Power Company's Plant Gaston Unit 3 (nominally 135 MW). Data from the testing will be used to determine: (1) If sorbent injection into a high air-to-cloth ratio baghouse is a viable, long-term approach for mercury control; and (2) Design criteria and costs for new baghouse/sorbent injection systems that will use a similar, polishing baghouse (TOXECON{trademark}) approach.

Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac; Travis Starns; Sharon Sjostrom; Cindy Larson

2006-04-24

256

Field Test Program for Long-Term Operation of a COHPAC System for Removing Mercury from Coal-Fired Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect

With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by the existing particle control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. During 2001, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) conducted a full-scale demonstration of sorbent-based mercury control technology at the Alabama Power E.C. Gaston Station (Wilsonville, Alabama). This unit burns a low-sulfur bituminous coal and uses a hot-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in combination with a Compact Hybrid Particulate Collector (COHPAC{reg_sign}) baghouse to collect fly ash. The majority of the fly ash is collected in the ESP with the residual being collected in the COHPAC{reg_sign} baghouse. Activated carbon was injected between the ESP and COHPAC{reg_sign} units to collect the mercury. Short-term mercury removal levels in excess of 90% were achieved using the COHPAC{reg_sign} unit. The test also showed that activated carbon was effective in removing both forms of mercury-elemental and oxidized. However, a great deal of additional testing is required to further characterize the capabilities and limitations of this technology relative to use with baghouse systems such as COHPAC{reg_sign}. It is important to determine performance over an extended period of time to fully assess all operational parameters. The project described in this report focuses on fully demonstrating sorbent injection technology at a coal-fired power generating plant that is equipped with a COHPAC{reg_sign} system. The overall objective is to evaluate the long-term effects of sorbent injection on mercury capture and COHPAC{reg_sign} performance. The work is being done on one-half of the gas stream at Alabama Power Company's Plant Gaston Unit 3 (nominally 135 MW). Data from the testing will be used to determine: (1) If sorbent injection into a high air-to-cloth ratio baghouse is a viable, long-term approach for mercury control; and (2) Design criteria and costs for new baghouse/sorbent injection systems that will use a similar, polishing baghouse (TOXECON{trademark}) approach.

Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac; Travis Starns; Sharon Sjostrom; Trent Taylor; Cindy Larson

2005-01-24

257

FIELD TEST PROGRAM FOR LONG-TERM OPERATION OF A COHPAC SYSTEM FOR REMOVING MERCURY FROM COAL-FIRED FLUE GAS  

SciTech Connect

With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by the existing particle control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. During 2001, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) conducted a full-scale demonstration of sorbent-based mercury control technology at the Alabama Power E.C. Gaston Station (Wilsonville, AL). This unit burns a low-sulfur bituminous coal and uses a hot-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in combination with a Compact Hybrid Particulate Collector (COHPAC{trademark}) baghouse to collect fly ash. The majority of the fly ash is collected in the ESP with the residual being collected in the COHPAC baghouse. Activated carbon was injected between the ESP and COHPAC units to collect the mercury. Short-term mercury removal levels in excess of 90% were achieved using the COHPAC unit. The test also showed that activated carbon was effective in removing both forms of mercury-elemental and oxidized. However, a great deal of additional testing is required to further characterize the capabilities and limitations of this technology relative to use with baghouse systems such as COHPAC. It is important to determine performance over an extended period of time to fully assess all operational parameters. The project described in this report focuses on fully demonstrating sorbent injection technology at a coal-fired power generating plant that is equipped with a COHPAC system. The overall objective is to evaluate the long-term effects of sorbent injection on mercury capture and COHPAC performance. The work is being done on one-half of the gas stream at Alabama Power Company's Plant Gaston Unit 3 (nominally 135 MW). Data from the testing will be used to determine: (1) If sorbent injection into a high air-to-cloth ratio baghouse is a viable, long-term approach for mercury control; and (2) Design criteria and costs for new baghouse/sorbent injection systems that will use a similar, polishing baghouse (TOXECON{trademark}) approach.

Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac; Travis Starns; Sharon Sjostrom; Trent Taylor; Cindy Larson

2003-10-31

258

Field Test Program for Long-Term Operation of a COHPAC System for Removing Mercury from Coal-Fired Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect

With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by the existing particle control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. During 2001, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) conducted a full-scale demonstration of sorbent-based mercury control technology at the Alabama Power E.C. Gaston Station (Wilsonville, Alabama). This unit burns a low-sulfur bituminous coal and uses a hot-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in combination with a Compact Hybrid Particulate Collector (COHPAC{reg_sign}) baghouse to collect fly ash. The majority of the fly ash is collected in the ESP with the residual being collected in the COHPAC{reg_sign} baghouse. Activated carbon was injected between the ESP and COHPAC{reg_sign} units to collect the mercury. Short-term mercury removal levels in excess of 90% were achieved using the COHPAC{reg_sign} unit. The test also showed that activated carbon was effective in removing both forms of mercury-elemental and oxidized. However, a great deal of additional testing is required to further characterize the capabilities and limitations of this technology relative to use with baghouse systems such as COHPAC{reg_sign}. It is important to determine performance over an extended period of time to fully assess all operational parameters. The project described in this report focuses on fully demonstrating sorbent injection technology at a coal-fired power generating plant that is equipped with a COHPAC{reg_sign} system. The overall objective is to evaluate the long-term effects of sorbent injection on mercury capture and COHPAC{reg_sign} performance. The work is being done on one-half of the gas stream at Alabama Power Company's Plant Gaston Unit 3 (nominally 135 MW). Data from the testing will be used to determine: (1) If sorbent injection into a high air-to-cloth ratio baghouse is a viable, long-term approach for mercury control; and (2) Design criteria and costs for new baghouse/sorbent injection systems that will use a similar, polishing baghouse (TOXECON{trademark}) approach.

Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac; Travis Starns; Sharon Sjostrom; Trent Taylor; Cindy Larson

2004-10-25

259

Potential effects of the projected increase in coal use  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of an expected return to the use of coal for many energy needs that are now met by oil and gas are considered. Air pollution by new coal-fired equipment is discussed, along with relatively clean ways to burn coal for electric power generation, household space heating, and district heating. It is suggested that chicken farmers be targeted for

Arthur M. Squires

1980-01-01

260

EFFECTS OF CHANGING COALS ON THE EMISSIONS OF METAL HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF PULVERIZED COAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses tests conducted at EPA's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division to evaluate the effects of changing coals on emissions of metal hazardous air pollutants from coal-fired boilers. Six coals were burned in a 29 kW (100,000 Btu/hr) down-fired combustor und...

261

Coal-Quality Information - Key to the Efficient and Environmentally Sound Use of Coal  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The rock that we refer to as coal is derived principally from decomposed organic matter (plants) consisting primarily of the element carbon. When coal is burned, it produces energy in the form of heat, which is used to power machines such as steam engines or to drive turbines that produce electricity. Almost 60 percent of the electricity produced in the United States is derived from coal combustion. Coal is an extraordinarily complex material. In addition to organic matter, coal contains water (up to 40 or more percent by weight for some lignitic coals), oils, gases (such as methane), waxes (used to make shoe polish), and perhaps most importantly, inorganic matter (fig. 1). The inorganic matter--minerals and trace elements--cause many of the health, environmental, and technological problems attributed to coal use (fig. 2). 'Coal quality' is the term used to refer to the properties and characteristics of coal that influence its behavior and use. Among the coal-quality characteristics that will be important for future coal use are the concentrations, distribution, and forms of the many elements contained in the coal that we intend to burn. Knowledge of these quality characteristics in U.S. coal deposits may allow us to use this essential energy resource more efficiently and effectively and with less undesirable environmental impact.

Finkleman, Robert B.

1997-01-01

262

American Burn Association  

MedlinePLUS

... burn center and disaster related information View the ABA U.S. Regional Map Click above to access the ... Member Website Fire & Burn Prevention Newsletter - Winter 2014 ABA Membership Newsletter | Spring 2014 National Burn Repository ABA ...

263

Avoiding Household Burns  

MedlinePLUS

... Vehicle Safety En Espaol Injury Prevention Avoiding Household Burns On average, in the U.S., someone dies in ... minutes. There were 40,000 hospitalizations related to burn injury, including 30,000 at hospital burn centers. " ...

264

Ram Burn Observations (RAMBO)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ram Burn Observations (RAMBO) is a Department of Defense experiment that observes shuttle Orbital Maneuvering System engine burns for the purpose of improving plume models. On STS-107 the appropriate sensors will observe selected rendezvous and orbit adjust burns.

2002-01-01

265

Numerical investigation of pulverized coal aero mixture combustion at the presence of flow swirling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical investigation results of burning pulverized coal aero mixture in the presence of swirl flow have been presented. The mathematical model has been chosen allowing describing correctly the pulverized coal combustion processes in the furnace with a swirl burner.

Kuznetsov, V. A.; Morozov, K. L.; Chernetskii, M. Yu.

2015-01-01

266

Control Strategies of Atmospheric Mercury Emissions from Coal-fired Power Plants in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric Hg emission from coal is one of the primary sources of anthropogenic discharge and pollution. China is one of the few countries in the world whose coal consumption constitutes about 70% of total primary energy, and over half of coals are burned directly for electricity generation. Atmospheric emissions of Hg and its speciation from coal-fired power plants are of

Hezhong Tian; Yan Wang; Ke Cheng; Yiping Qu; Jiming Hao; Zhigang Xue; Fahe Chai

2012-01-01

267

Production of liquid and gaseous fuels from steam desulfurization of coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The marketability of Illinois coal is severely limited by its high sulfur content. Burning high sulfur coal produces corrosion and pollution problems. Illinois No. 6 coal, in particular, contains a high percentage of organic sulfur. Organic sulfur cannot be removed by physical means. Steam was shown to be effective in removing much of the sulfur from coal. Steam was an

Darling

1989-01-01

268

Clean burning grate for fireplaces and wood stoves  

SciTech Connect

An improved grate and method for burning solid fuel having a support for the fuel, a fan, a multiplicity of preheated air jets uniformly distributed across the entire area of the grate and directed through the support generally upwardly into the lower burning surface of the solid fuel, and a trough for collecting a layer of glowing coals located immediately below the jets and in close proximity to the burning lower surface of the solid fuel. The grate provides the cleanest burning and lowest fuel consumption occurs when only one layer of solid fuel is placed on the grate.

Van Grouw, S. J.; Smith, R. D.

1985-05-07

269

Synergistic Utilization of Coal Fines and Municipal Solid Waste in Coal-Fired Boilers. Phase I Final Report  

SciTech Connect

A feasibility study was performed on a novel concept: to synergistically utilize a blend of waste coal fines with so-called E-fuel for cofiring and reburning in utility and industrial boilers. The E-fuel is produced from MSW by the patented EnerTech's slurry carbonization process. The slurry carbonization technology economically converts MSW to a uniform, low-ash, low-sulfur, and essentially chlorine-free fuel with energy content of about 14,800 Btu/lb.

V. Zamansky; P. Maly; M. Klosky

1998-06-12

270

Coal and coal mine drainage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review of recent literature covers the formation of coal mine drainage and its environmental effects, treatment and control of mine drainage, coal cleaning wastes, and coal transport and storage.

Olem

1982-01-01

271

Mixer assures consistent feed to synthetic fuel reactor. Powdered coal\\/solvent slurry is readied in seconds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poor liquids\\/solids mixing was hampering the development of a process for the production of low-sulfur solvent-refined lignite, by liquefaction of lignite in a high pressure reactor. The lignite used consists of small particles which are blended with a petroleum-based, highly aromatic solvent. The solid\\/liquid ratio is approximately one part coal to 1.5 to 2 parts of solvent, and the reactor

B. Heher; A. Gaines

1978-01-01

272

Chemical analyses of coal, coal-associated rocks and coal combustion products collected for the National Coal Quality Inventory  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1999, the USGS initiated the National Coal Quality Inventory (NaCQI) project to address a need for quality information on coals that will be mined during the next 20-30 years. At the time this project was initiated, the publicly available USGS coal quality data was based on samples primarily collected and analyzed between 1973 and 1985. The primary objective of NaCQI was to create a database containing comprehensive, accurate and accessible chemical information on the quality of mined and prepared United States coals and their combustion byproducts. This objective was to be accomplished through maintaining the existing publicly available coal quality database, expanding the database through the acquisition of new samples from priority areas, and analysis of the samples using updated coal analytical chemistry procedures. Priorities for sampling include those areas where future sources of compliance coal are federally owned. This project was a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), State geological surveys, universities, coal burning utilities, and the coal mining industry. Funding support came from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

Hatch, Joseph R.; Bullock, John H., Jr.; Finkelman, Robert B.

2006-01-01

273

Assessment of the radiological impact of coal utilization. 2: Radionuclides in Western coal ash  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential radiological impact of coal utilization is investigated. A survey of western US coal mines and an assessment of emissions from a power plant burning Western coal were performed. Environmental deposition of radionuclides from stack emissions over a 20 year accumulation at a power plant burning. Western coal was estimated to be 0.1 to 1.0% of measured background. An interlaboratory comparison of results of radioanalytical procedures, determining partitioning coefficients for radionuclides in bottom ash and fly ash, and an assessment of the potential for migration of radionuclides from ash disposal sites are made. Essentially all the nonvolatile radionuclides (uranium, radium, and thorium) from feed coal are accounted for in fly ash and bottom ash. However, 20 to 50% of the volatile radionuclides (lead and polonium) from subbituminous and lignitic coals are not accounted for in ahs, and it is assumed that this fraction exists via the stack.

Styron, C. E.; Bishop, C. T.; Casella, V. R.; Jenkins, P. H.; Yanko, W. H.

1981-04-01

274

Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection. Volume 3, Gas reburning-sorbent injection at Edwards Unit 1, Central Illinois Light Company  

SciTech Connect

Design work has been completed for a Gas Reburning-Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) system to reduce emissions of NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} from a wall fired unit. A GR-SI system was designed for Central Illinois Light Company`s Edwards Station Unit 1, located in Bartonville, Illinois. The unit is rated at 117 MW(e) (net) and is front wall fired with a pulverized bituminous coal blend. The goal of the project was to reduce emissions of NO{sub x} by 60%, from the ``as found`` baseline of 0.98 lb/MBtu (420 mg/MJ), and to reduce emissions of S0{sub 2} by 50%. Since the unit currently fires a blend of high sulfur Illinois coal and low sulfur Kentucky coal to meet an S0{sub 2} limit Of 1.8 lb/MBtu (770 mg/MJ), the goal at this site was amended to meeting this limit while increasing the fraction of high sulfur coal to 57% from the current 15% level. GR-SI requires injection of natural gas into the furnace at the level of the top burner row, creating a fuel-rich zone in which NO{sub x} formed in the coal zone is reduced to N{sub 2}. The design natural gas input corresponds to 18% of the total heat input. Burnout (overfire) air is injected at a higher elevation to burn out fuel combustible matter at a normal excess air level of 18%. Recycled flue gas is used to increase the reburning fuel jet momentum, resulting in enhanced mixing. Recycled flue gas is also used to cool the top row of burners which would not be in service during GR operation. Dry hydrated lime sorbent is injected into the upper furnace to react with S0{sub 2}, forming solid CaSO{sub 4} and CaSO{sub 3}, which are collected by the ESP. The SI system design was optimized with respect to gas temperature, injection air flow rate, and sorbent dispersion. Sorbent injection air flow is equal to 3% of the combustion air. The design includes modifications of the ESP, sootblowing, and ash handling systems.

NONE

1994-10-01

275

Evaluation of alkyl esters from Camelina sativa oil as biodiesel and as blend components in ultra low-sulfur diesel fuel.  

PubMed

Methyl and ethyl esters were prepared from camelina [Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz] oil by homogenous base-catalyzed transesterification for evaluation as biodiesel fuels. Camelina oil contained high percentages of linolenic (32.6 wt.%), linoleic (19.6 wt.%), and oleic (18.6 wt.%) acids. Consequently, camelina oil methyl and ethyl esters (CSME and CSEE) exhibited poor oxidative stabilities and high iodine values versus methyl esters prepared from canola, palm, and soybean oils (CME, PME, and SME). Other fuel properties of CSME and CSEE were similar to CME, PME, and SME, such as low temperature operability, acid value, cetane number, kinematic viscosity, lubricity, sulfur and phosphorous contents, as well as surface tension. As blend components in ultra low-sulfur diesel fuel, CSME and CSEE were essentially indistinguishable from SME and soybean oil ethyl ester blends with regard to low temperature operability, kinematic viscosity, lubricity, and surface tension. PMID:19740653

Moser, Bryan R; Vaughn, Steven F

2010-01-01

276

Coal Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coal slurries are "clean" pulverized coal mixed with oil or water. Significant fuel savings can be realized when using coal slurries. Advanced Fuels Technology (AFT) utilized a COSMIC program, (Calculation of Complex Chemical Equilibrium Compositions), which provides specific capabilities for determining combustion products. The company has developed a cleaning process that removes much of the mineral sulphur and ash from the coals.

1986-01-01

277

Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1994--March 31, 1994  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from January 1, 1994, through March 31, 1994. This project demonstrates an advanced, thermal, coal drying process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal{reg_sign} process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal processing, the coal is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership`s ACCP Demonstration Facility entered Phase III, Demonstration Operation, in April 1992 and operated in an extended startup mode through August 10, 1993, when the facility became commercial. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership instituted an aggressive program to overcome startup obstacles and now focuses on supplying product coal to customers. Significant accomplishments in the history of the SynCoal{reg_sign} process development are shown in Appendix A.

NONE

1996-02-01

278

ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Demonstration Project. Annual report, October 1993--September 1994  

SciTech Connect

ENCOAL Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of SMC Mining Company (formerly Shell Mining Company, now owned by Zeigler Coal Holding Company), has completed the construction and start-up of a mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company`s Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology developed by SMC and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin coal to produce two new fuels, Process Derived Fuel (PDF) and Coal Derived Liquids (CDL). The LFC technology uses a mild pyrolysis or mild gasification process which involves heating the coal under carefully controlled conditions. The process causes chemical changes in the feed coal in contrast to conventional drying, which leads only to physical changes. Wet subbituminous coal contains considerable water, and conventional drying processes physically remove some of this moisture, causing the heating value to increase. The deeper the coal is physically dried, the higher the heating value and the more the pore structure permanently collapses, preventing resorption of moisture. However, deeply dried Powder River Basin coals exhibit significant stability problems when dried by conventional thermal processes. The LFC process overcomes these stability problems by thermally altering the solid to create PDF and CDL. Several of the major objectives of the ENCOAL Project have now been achieved. The LFC Technology has been essentially demonstrated. Significant quantities of specification CDL have been produced from Buckskin coal. Plant operation in a production mode with respectable availability (approaching 90%) has been demonstrated.

NONE

1995-03-01

279

Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project. Technical progress report, January 1, 1993--December 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from January 1, 1993, through December 31, 1993. This project demonstrates an advanced, thermal, coal drying process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high-moisture, low- rank coals to a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal{reg_sign} process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal processing, the coal is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership`s ACCP Demonstration Facility entered Phase III, Demonstration Operation, in April 1992 and operated in an extended startup mode through August 10, 1993, when the facility became commercial. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership instituted an aggressive program to overcome startup obstacles and now focuses on supplying product coal to customers. Significant accomplishments in the history of the SynCoal{reg_sign} process development are shown in Appendix A.

NONE

1995-02-01

280

Geomorphology of coal seam fires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coal fires occur in underground natural coal seams, in exposed surface seams, and in coal storage or waste piles. The fires ignite through spontaneous combustion or natural or anthropogenic causes. They are reported from China, India, USA, South Africa, Australia, and Russia, as well as many other countries. Coal fires lead to loss of a valuable resource (coal), the emission of greenhouse-relevant and toxic gases, and vegetation deterioration. A dangerous aspect of the fires is the threat to local mines, industries, and settlements through the volume loss underground. Surface collapse in coal fire areas is common. Thus, coal fires are significantly affecting the evolution of the landscape. Based on more than a decade of experience with in situ mapping of coal fire areas worldwide, a general classification system for coal fires is presented. Furthermore, coal seam fire geomorphology is explained in detail. The major landforms associated with, and induced by, these fires are presented. The landforms include manifestations resulting from bedrock surface fracturing, such as fissures, cracks, funnels, vents, and sponges. Further manifestations resulting from surface bedrock subsidence include sinkholes, trenches, depressions, partial surface subsidence, large surface subsidence, and slides. Additional geomorphologic coal fire manifestations include exposed ash layers, pyrometamorphic rocks, and fumarolic minerals. The origin, evolution, and possible future development of these features are explained, and examples from in situ surveys, as well as from high-resolution satellite data analyses, are presented. The geomorphology of coal fires has not been presented in a systematic manner. Knowledge of coal fire geomorphology enables the detection of underground coal fires based on distinct surface manifestations. Furthermore, it allows judgments about the safety of coal fire-affected terrain. Additionally, geomorphologic features are indicators of the burning stage of fires. Finally, coal fire geomorphology helps to explain landscape features whose occurrence would otherwise not be understood. Although coal fire-induced thermal anomalies and gas release are also indications of coal fire activity, as addressed by many investigators, no assessment is complete without sound geomorphologic mapping of the fire-induced geomorphologic features.

Kuenzer, Claudia; Stracher, Glenn B.

2012-02-01

281

Burns and Ulcerative Colitis  

PubMed Central

Summary The co-existence of an extensive burn with a systemic disease negatively affects the outcome of the burn as well as the progress of the disease. A case report is presented regarding a 70-yr-old female patient with 45% total body surface area burns and ulcerative colitis under treatment. The outcome of the burns is described and it is pointed out that the healing process of the burns and the remission of the ulcerative colitis were related. PMID:21991043

Castana, O.; Makrodimou, M.; Mantzaris, G.; Tsandoulas, Z.; Prigouris, S.; Alexakis, D.

2006-01-01

282

Burns and ulcerative colitis.  

PubMed

The co-existence of an extensive burn with a systemic disease negatively affects the outcome of the burn as well as the progress of the disease. A case report is presented regarding a 70-yr-old female patient with 45% total body surface area burns and ulcerative colitis under treatment. The outcome of the burns is described and it is pointed out that the healing process of the burns and the remission of the ulcerative colitis were related. PMID:21991043

Castana, O; Makrodimou, M; Mantzaris, G; Tsandoulas, Z; Prigouris, S; Alexakis, D

2006-09-30

283

Coal Fires  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides an introduction to the environmental hazards presented by coal fires. Topics include natural and human-related causes of coal fires, their potential impacts, the global distribution of coal fires, spontaneous combustion, and gaseous emissions produced by coal fires. There are also discussions of coal fires in China and India, a photo gallery, links to news articles, and a frequently-asked-questions feature.

Prakash, Anupma

284

Application of computer graphics to generate coal resources of the Cache coal bed, Recluse geologic model area, Campbell County, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Low-sulfur subbituminous coal resources have been calculated, using both manual and computer methods, for the Cache coal bed in the Recluse Model Area, which covers the White Tail Butte, Pitch Draw, Recluse, and Homestead Draw SW 7 1/2 minute quadrangles, Campbell County, Wyoming. Approximately 275 coal thickness measurements obtained from drill hole data are evenly distributed throughout the area. The Cache coal and associated beds are in the Paleocene Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation. The depth from the surface to the Cache bed ranges from 269 to 1,257 feet. The thickness of the coal is as much as 31 feet, but in places the Cache coal bed is absent. Comparisons between hand-drawn and computer-generated isopach maps show minimal differences. Total coal resources calculated by computer show the bed to contain 2,316 million short tons or about 6.7 percent more than the hand-calculated figure of 2,160 million short tons.

Schneider, G.B.; Crowley, S.S.; Carey, M.A.

1982-01-01

285

Combustion studies of coal derived solid fuels by thermogravimetric analysis. III. Correlation between burnout temperature and carbon combustion efficiency  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Burning profiles of 35-53 ??m size fractions of an Illinois coal and three partially devolatilized coals prepared from the original coal were obtained using a thermogravimetric analyzer. The burning profile burnout temperatures were higher for lower volatile fuels and correlated well with carbon combustion efficiencies of the fuels when burned in a laboratory-scale laminar flow reactor. Fuels with higher burnout temperatures had lower carbon combustion efficiencies under various time-temperature conditions in the laboratory-scale reactor. ?? 1990.

Rostam-Abadi, M.; DeBarr, J.A.; Chen, W.T.

1990-01-01

286

Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project. Technical progress report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

This detailed report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Project demonstrates an advanced thermal coal upgrading process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to high-quality, low-sulfur fuel. During this reporting period, the primary focus for the project was to expand market awareness and acceptability for the products and the technology. The use of covered hopper cars has been successful and marketing efforts have focused on this technique. Operational improvements are currently aimed at developing fines marketing systems, increasing throughput capacity, decreasing operation costs, and developing standardized continuous operator training. Testburns at industrial user sites were also conducted. A detailed process description; technical progress report including facility operations/plant production, facility testing, product testing, and testburn product; and process stability report are included. 3 figs., 8 tabs.

NONE

1996-06-01

287

Indoor Emissions from the Household Combustion of Coal  

Cancer.gov

Burning coal inside the home for the purposes of heating or cooking produces particulate and gas emissions that may contain a number of harmful chemicals, such as benzene, carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

288

Gas\\/particle flow and combustion characteristics and NO x emissions of a new swirl coal burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the limits of reserves and price for the high rank coal, the low rank coal has been employed as fuel for power generation in China and will be eventually employed in the world. To burn low rank coal, centrally fuel-rich swirl coal combustion burner has been studied in Harbin Institute of Technology. This paper reviews and analyzes the

Zhichao Chen; Zhengqi Li; Qunyi Zhu; Jianping Jing

2011-01-01

289

First Aid: Burns  

MedlinePLUS

... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Measles: What to Know Vaccines: FAQs NBA Exercise ... socket, or chemicals. The burn is on the face, hands, feet, joints, or genitals. The burn looks ...

290

California Burn Scars  

Atmospheric Science Data Center

article title: Burn Scars Across Southern California View Larger ... across Southern California between October 21 and November 18, 2003. Burn scars and vegetation changes wrought by the fires are illustrated ...

2014-05-15

291

First Aid: Burns  

MedlinePLUS

... You can get burned by heat, fire, radiation, sunlight, electricity, chemicals or hot or boiling water. There ... skin. The burned area will be sensitive to sunlight for up to one year, so you should ...

292

Burns and Fire Safety  

MedlinePLUS

1 Burns and Fire Safety Fact Sheet (2014) Fatalities ? 325 children ages 19 and under died from fires or ... from 1999 to 2011. 1 1999?2011 Fire/Burn Fatalities and Death Rate Among Children Ages 19 ...

293

Erosive burning. Modeling problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing models for the erosive burning of homogeneous energetic materials ignore the fact that the burning regime can be\\u000a changed radically by exposure to a hot gas blowing over the burning surface. In other words, transition can occur from the\\u000a gasification regime at very high blowing rates (where the burning rate is determined primarily by the heat transfer from the

L. K. Gusachenko; V. E. Zarko

2007-01-01

294

The burning mouth.  

PubMed

Burning in the mouth in and of itself is not all that uncommon. It may result from a variety of local or generalized oral mucosal disorders, or may be secondary to referred phenomena from other locations. Primary burning mouth syndrome, on the other hand, is relatively uncommon. Burning mouth syndrome is an idiopathic pain disorder, which appears to be neuropathic in origin. Thoughts on management of secondary and particularly primary burning mouth syndrome are discussed. PMID:17849966

McDonald, John S

2007-06-01

295

Fossil fuel and biomass burning effect on climate - Heating or cooling?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The basic theory of the effect of pollution on cloud microphysics and its global implications is applied to compare the relative effect of a small increase in the consumption rate of oil, coal, or biomass burning on cooling and heating of the atmosphere. The characteristics of and evidence for the SO2 induced cooling effect are reviewed. This perturbation analysis approach permits linearization, therefore simplifying the analysis and reducing the number of uncertain parameters. For biomass burning the analysis is restricted to burning associated with deforestation. Predictions of the effect of an increase in oil or coal burning show that within the present conditions the cooling effect from oil and coal burning may range from 0.4 to 8 times the heating effect.

Kaufman, Yoram J.; Fraser, Robert S.; Mahoney, Robert L.

1991-01-01

296

Desulfurization of coal model compounds and coal liquids. [M. S. Thesis; treatment with metallic sodium or sodium salts followed by distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most US coals contain sulfur concentrations that prevent their being burned without some form of sulfur removal. Current coal-cleaning technology can only remove the fairly reactive pyritic (inorganic) and aliphatic (organic) sulfur. A process which removes the more refractory hetero-aromatic sulfur could substantially increase the amount of coal reserves amenable to chemical cleaning. Sodium metal dispersions convert refractor model compounds

J. A. Wrathall; E. E. Peterson

1979-01-01

297

Coal desulfurization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for enhancing solubilizing mass transport of reactive agents into and out of carbonaceous materials, such as coal. Solubility parameters of mass transfer and solvent media are matched to individual peaks in the solubility parameter spectrum of coals to enhance swelling and/or dissolution. Methanol containing reactive agent carriers are found particularly effective for removing organic sulfur from coals by chlorinolysis.

Corcoran, William H. (Inventor); Vasilakos, Nicholas P. (Inventor); Lawson, Daniel D. (Inventor)

1982-01-01

298

Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

Western Energy Company (WECO) was selected by the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) which upgrades low rank coals into high Btu, low sulfur, synthetic bituminous coal. As specified in the Corporate Agreement, RSCP is required to develop an Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) which describes in detail the environmental monitoring activities to be performed during the project execution. The purpose of the EMP is to: (1) identify monitoring activities that will be undertaken to show compliance to applicable regulations, (2) confirm the specific environmental impacts predicted in the National Environmental Policy Act documentation, and (3) establish an information base of the assessment of the environmental performance of the technology demonstrated by the project. The EMP specifies the streams to be monitored (e.g. gaseous, aqueous, and solid waste), the parameters to be measured (e.g. temperature, pressure, flow rate), and the species to be analyzed (e.g. sulfur compounds, nitrogen compounds, trace elements) as well as human health and safety exposure levels. The operation and frequency of the monitoring activities is specified, as well as the timing for the monitoring activities related to project phase (e.g. preconstruction, construction, commissioning, operational, post-operational). The EMP is designed to assess the environmental impacts and the environmental improvements resulting from construction and operation of the project.

Not Available

1992-04-01

299

To burn or not to burn  

SciTech Connect

While taking a match to an oil slick may sound like the making of a chaotic inferno, emergency response specialists say burning may be the most efficient way to remove large oil spills from the ocean's surface. But tests of this technique are being resisted by environmentalists as well as the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), which has final authority over the matter. The debate over test burning arose most recently in Alaska when a proposal to spill and then ignite 1,000 barrels of crude on the Arctic Ocean this past summer was rejected by the EPA. The EPA didn't object to the technique or to the notion of burning spilled oil. However, it contends that it's not necessary to spill thousands of gallons of oil to conduct tests, and unnecessarily pollute the environment, when plenty of oil is already available from accidental spills. Researchers disagree, claiming they won't be able to use the burning technique on an actual spill until it has been tested in a controlled experiment. Despite such concerns, the Canadian government is going ahead with a test burn off the coast of Newfoundland next year. Faced with a choice of test burning or the kind of shoreline contamination left in the wake of the Exxon Valdez disaster, Environment Canada opts for testing. Learning valuable lessons about rapid oil-spill cleanup is worth the relatively minor risks to the environment that test burning would pose.

Busch, L.

1993-01-01

300

Tribological Properties Of Coal Slurries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report describes study of tribological properties of coal/methanol slurries with pin-on-disk tribometer. Coefficients of friction, rates of wear of steel pin, and morphological studies of worn surfaces conducted on pins and disks of AISI 440C HT stainless steel and M-50 tool steel, both used as bearing steels. Coal slurries considered as replacement fuels in terrestrial oil-burning facilities and possible fuels for future aircraft turbine engines. Rates of wear of metallic components through which slurries flow limit such practical applications.

Fusaro, Robert L.; Schrubens, Dale L.

1988-01-01

301

Energy and environmental research emphasizing low-rank coal -- Task 5.1, Stability issues  

SciTech Connect

Low-sulfur subbituminous and lignite coals have high moisture content and, consequently, low heating value, leading to boiler derating in US midwestern and eastern utilities as well as switching and/or blending coals to achieve SO{sub 2} compliance. In the drive to develop cost-effective coal-drying processes, coal developers have focused on heat content of the products and generally neglected the critical stability issues of friability and dusting, moisture reabsorption, and spontaneous heating. The Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC), in an effort to establish new standards for dried products, has used established methods and has developed new ones to evaluate the propensity of lump western coals, raw and dried, to produce dust and absorb water. Three drying methods--air, hydrothermal, and saturated steam--were used to generate low-moisture upgraded products. New indices for dust generation and friability were determined to assess the effects of moisture removal and upgrading methodology on coal stability. Analysis of the dried coals using various strength tests indicated that the reduction in moisture made the lump coal unstable, yielding substantially higher dust and friability indices relative to those of the raw coals.

Anderson, C.M.; Musich, M.A.; Dewall, R.A.; Richter, J.J.

1995-04-01

302

Facial Burns - Our Experience  

PubMed Central

Facial burns are generally considered severe. This is due to the possibility of respiratory complications. First responders check the nostrils for singed hairs. In severe cases there may be soot around the nose and mouth and coughing may produce phlegm that includes ash. Facial and inhalational burns compromise airways. They pose difficulties in pre-hospital resuscitation and are challenge to clinicians managing surviving burn victims in the intensive care setting. Management problems resuscitation, airway maintenance and clinical treatment of facial injuries are compounded if the victim is child. Inhalational burns reduce survivability, certainly in adult victim. In our retrospective study we found that facial burns dominated in male gender, liquids and scalds are the most common causes of facial burns in children whereas the flame and electricity were the most common causes of facial burns in adults. We came to the conclusion in our study that surgical treatment minimizes complications and duration of recovery. PMID:23687458

Zatriqi, Violeta; Arifi, Hysni; Zatriqi, Skender; Duci, Shkelzen; Rrecaj, Sh.; Martinaj, M.

2013-01-01

303

Finite element modeling of flow in a coal seam with underground coal gasification cavities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A two-dimensional, finite element groundwater flow model was developed to study the movement of water in a coal seam in which large cavities were created by underground coal gasification (UCG) burns. The burns extract natural gas from the coal without any environmental disturbance at the ground level. On completion of the burn, groundwater mixes with the products of combustion in the cavity and the pollutants move into the coal seam. Mathematical modeling is used to study the movement and fate of these pollutants with time. Water quality modeling has to be preceded by flow modeling to determine velocities as a function of time. This paper studies the flow aspects of the problem. A new code was developed because of the unique requirements of the model. The model utilizes linear triangles to discretize the coal seam in plan and takes into account unsteady flow, anisotropic media, internal boundary conditions imposed by the cavities and a time-varying domain of flow in plan. The model was applied to a series of UCG burns in Hanna, Wyoming. Estimates of the time of filling of the five cavities were obtained. Comparisons of measured and computed potential head are presented at different points in the coal seam. Flow modeling can thus be used to predict the movement of water into and out of UCG cavities while the output of velocities is necessary for water quality modeling.

Contractor, Dinshaw N.

1988-03-01

304

Boiler efficiency calculation for multiple fuel burning boilers  

SciTech Connect

A rigorous method based on the output/loss approach is developed for calculating the coal flow rate for multiple fuel burning boilers. It is assumed that the ultimate analyses of all the fuels are known. In addition, it is assumed that the flow rates of all the fuels with the exception of coal are known. The calculations are performed iteratively, with the first iteration taking into consideration coal as the only fuel. The results converge to the correct answer after a few number of iterations, typically four or five.

Khodabakhsh, F.; Munukutla, S. [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States). Center for Electric Power; Clary, A.T. [Eastman Chemical Co., Kingsport, TN (United States). Power and Services Div.

1996-12-31

305

Coal combustion aerothermochemistry research. Final report  

SciTech Connect

On the basis of extensive aerothermochemistry analyses, laboratory investigations, and combustor tests, significant headway has been made toward improving the understanding of combustion phenomena and scaling of high swirl pulverized coal combustors. A special attempt has been made to address the gap between scientific data available on combustion and hardware design and scaling needs. Both experimental and theoretical investigations were conducted to improve the predictive capability of combustor scaling laws. The scaling laws derived apply to volume and wall burning of pulverized coal in a slagging high-swirl combustor. They incorporate the findings of this investigation as follows: laser pyrolysis of coal at 10/sup 6/ K/sec and 2500K; effect of coal particle shape on aerodynamic drag and combustion; effect of swirl on heat transfer; coal burnout and slag capture for 20 MW/sub T/ combustor tests for fine and coarse coals; burning particle trajectories and slag capture; particle size and aerodynamic size; volatilization extent and burnout fraction; and preheat level. As a result of this work, the following has been gained: an increased understanding of basic burning mechanisms in high-swirl combustors and an improved model for predicting combustor performance which is intended to impact hardware design and scaling in the near term.

Witte, A.B.; Gat, N.; Denison, M.R.; Cohen, L.M.

1980-12-15

306

Hydrogen manufacture by Lurgi gasification of Oklahoma coal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advantages and disadvantages of using the Lurgi gasification process to produce hydrogen from Oklahoma coal are listed. Special attention was given to the production of heat for the process; heat is generated by burning part of pretreated coal in the steam generator. Overall performance of the Lurgi process is summarized in tabular form.

1975-01-01

307

Comprehensive Report to Congress Clean Coal Technology Program  

SciTech Connect

DOE issued a Program Opportunity Notice (PON) on February 17, 1986, to solicit proposals for conducting cost-shared CCT demonstrations. Fifty-one percent were received. This proposed Coal Quality Expert Development Project contains the following activities: (1) testing and data gathering, which involves optimization of coal quality for combustion in different types of coal-burning utilities and (2) the development of the Coal Quality Expert, which is a computer expert system that can simulate human reasoning in a specified area of knowledge. The Expert System for this project will be designed to enable coal-burning utilities and industries to select the best quality coal in relationship to economics and to federal, state, and local environmental requirements. 5 figs.

Not Available

1990-05-01

308

Analysis of fly ash produced from combustion of refuse-derived fuel and coal mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mixtures of coal and refuse-derived fuel (RDF) were burned and the fly ash was collected and analyzed for concentration trends with respect to RDF\\/coal ratio and particle size. RDF contributes more Ca, Mn, Sb, and Pb to the fly ash while coal contributes greater amounts of As, Br, Hf, Ni, Sc, V, and the rare earths. Smaller particles in the

David R. Taylor; Michael A. Tompkins; Sarah E. Kirton; Thad Mauney; David F. S. Natusch; Philip K. Hopke

1982-01-01

309

The Coal-Waste Artificial Reef Program (C-WARP): A New Resource  

E-print Network

The Coal-Waste Artificial Reef Program (C-WARP): A New Resource Potential for Fishing Reef ABSTRACT-Thefeasibility ofusing solid blocks of waste materialfrom coal:firedpower plantslor underwater (scrubber) sludge from coal-burning power stations. was constructed in the Atlantic Ocean offLong Island. N

310

Nature and costs of fan erosion in coal-fired electric power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the tasks set forth in this contract was to ascertain the quantity and severity of erosion damage occurring to fans in coal burning power plants. A telephone survey was conducted of power plants having units larger than 100 megawatts generating capacity and using pulverized coal fired boilers. This sample represented approximately 50% of the total coal-fired generating capacity

A. D. Glasser; W. J. Petlevich; E. F. Sverdrup

1980-01-01

311

Self-Scrubbing Coal{trademark}: An integrated approach to clean air. Comprehensive report to Congress, Clean Coal Technology Program  

SciTech Connect

In response to the PON, 33 proposals were received by DOE in May 1991. After evaluation, nine projects were selected for award. One of the nine projects selected for funding is a project proposed by Custom Coals International (CCI) entitled ``Self-Scrubbing Coal: An Integrated Approach to Clean Air.`` This project will provide a commercial demonstration of the Custom Coals Coal Cleaning (CCCC) process for producing Carefree Coal{trademark} and Self Scrubbing Coal{trademark}, as well as full-scale burns of the products in coal-fired utility boilers. The Self-Scrubbing Coal{trademark} project involves the construction of a 350 tons/hr advanced coal cleaning plant that will be designed with a unique blend of existing and new process steps. The Carefree Coal{trademark} produced by this cleaning process will allow many utilities to achieve compliance with the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) sulfur emissions requirements. Deep cleaning alone, however, cannot produce a compliance fuel from coals with high organic sulfur contents. In these cases, Self-Scrubbing Coal{trademark} will be produced. Self-Scrubbing Coal{trademark} is the same as Carefree Coal{trademark} except that the finest fraction from the cleaning circuit is mixed with limestone-based additives and pelletized. These additives react during combustion to remove an additional 70--80% of the sulfur remaining with the clean coal, thus achieving a total sulfur removal of 80-90%.

Not Available

1992-10-01

312

Enhanced desulfurizing flotation of coal using sonoelectrochemical method.  

PubMed

Enhanced desulfurizing flotation of low sulfur coal was investigated using sonoelectrochemical method. The supporting electrolyte used in this process was sodium chloride and the additive was anhydrous ethanol. The effects of treatment conditions on desulfurization were studied by a single-factor method. The conditions include anhydrous ethanol concentration, sodium chloride concentration, sonoelectrolytic voltage, sonoelectrolytic temperature, sonoelectrolytic time and coal sample granulometry. The optimal experimental conditions achieved for anhydrous ethanol concentration, sodium chloride concentration, sonoelectrolytic voltage, sonoelectrolytic temperature and sonoelectrolytic time are 1.7 mol L(-1), 5.110(-3) mol L(-1), 10 V, 70 C, 50 min achieved for a -0.18 mm coal sample. Optimal conditions cause a sulfur reduction of up to 69.4%. The raw and treated coals were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy and a chemical method. Pyritic sulfur, organic sulfur, ash as well as moisture are partially removed. The combination of high sulfur reduction, high yield, as well as high ash reduction was obtained in the newly developed method of enhanced flotation by sonoelectrochemistry. Ultrasound irradiation promotes electron transfer efficiency and increases clean coal yield. PMID:23558374

Zhang, Hong-Xi; Hou, Xiao-Yang; Xu, Shi-Xun; Li, Zhi-Long; Yu, Hai-Feng; Shen, Xue-Hua

2013-09-01

313

Pediatric cutaneous bleach burns.  

PubMed

Bleach is a common household product which can cause caustic injuries. Its effects on mucosal tissues and the eye have been well-described in the literature. However, there is little information published regarding the appearance and effect of bleach on a child's skin. We report three children who sustained chemical burns after contact with bleach. All three children sustained accidental bleach burns while at home, and each child had a distinct brown discoloration to the skin from the injury. All three children had treatment and follow-up for their burns. Two of the children sustained more severe burns, which were extensive and required more time to heal. There was also long-term scarring associated with the severe burns. Like most burns, pain control is required until the injury heals. PMID:23545350

Lang, Cathleen; Cox, Matthew

2013-07-01

314

Carburetion type burning apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A carburetion type burning apparatus is described having a carburetion chamber for evaporating liquid fuel which comprises a timer for counting time from the initiation of burning operation. An ion current detecting device is positioned in the flames for measuring an ion current in the flames (if) at the time after a predetermined time counted by the timer in which the ion current in flames is stabilized, a judging device for judging existence or non-existence of an abnormal burning state by comparing the measured ion current (if) and a predetermined open threshold value of ion current which causes an abnormal burning condition. A burning quantity device controls the quantity of fuel to be burned in response to the output from the judging device and an alarming device for generating an alarm when the judging device provides judgment of abnormal condition.

Kasada, T.

1987-07-28

315

Advanced coal conversion process demonstration. Progress report, January 1, 1992--March 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

This report contains a description of technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project (ACCP). This project will demonstrate an advanced thermal coal drying process coupled with physical cleaning techniques to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to produce a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel. The coal will be processed through two vibrating fluidized bed reactors that will remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After drying, the coal will be put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process effect separation of the pyrite rich ash. The process will enhance low-rank western coals, usually with a moisture content of 25--55%, sulfur content of 0.5--1.5%, and heating value of 5500--9000 Btu/lb by producing a stable, upgraded coal product with a moisture content as low as 1%, sulfur content as low as 0.3%, and heating value up to 12,0 00 Btu/lb. The 45 ton/hr unit will be located adjacent to a unit train loadout facility at Western Energy Company`s Rosebud coal mine near the town of Colstrip in southeastern Montana. The demonstration plant is sized at about one-tenth the projected throughput of a multiple processing train commercia; facility. The demonstration drying and cooling equipment is currently commercial size.

NONE

1992-05-01

316

Upgraded Coal Interest Group. Technical progress report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

This report presents information from the coal interest group. Topics of discussion at the meeting included the current political views concerning the Department of Energy and programs contained therein. The group met on January 10 and 11, in Nashville, TN. The status of various coal upgrading technologies was also reviewed. Four new technology opportunities were given reviews, Coal/Waste pellets, Custom Coals advanced technology, CSRC sulfur removing bacteria and a Mag-Mill which is a magnetic separation done within the pulverizer. Coal Waste pellets is a technology for making pellets of coal and fiber waste from recycling plants. The incentives are low cost and low sulfur and nitrogen. Lebowitz made a field trip to the pilot unit in Canton Ohio. The Mag Mill takes advantage of the natural concentration of pyrite in the pulverizer recycle stream (due to its hardness). Special magnets are installed in the mill to remove pyrite from this stream. Custom Coals reported on an advanced two step process for removal of organic sulfur from coal. Consolidated Sulfur Reduction Co. reported on a two step microbial desulfurization process.

Weber, W. [Electric Power Research Institute, Chattanooga, TN (United States); Lebowitz, H.E. [Fossil Fuel Sciences, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

1995-08-01

317

Advanced coal conversion process demonstration. Progress report, January 1, 1992--December 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

This report contains a description of the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from January 1, 1992, through December 31, 1992. This project demonstrates an advanced thermal coal drying process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal{reg_sign} process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After drying, the coal is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal. The SynCoal{reg_sign} process enhances low-rank, western coals, usually with a moisture content of 25 to 55 percent, sulfur content of 0.5 to 1.5 percent, and heating value of 5,500 to 9,000 British thermal units per pound (Btu/lb), by producing a stable, upgraded, coal product with a moisture content as low as 1 percent, sulfur content as low as 0.3 percent, and heating value up to 12,000 Btu/lb. The 45-ton-per-hour unit is located adjacent to a unit train loadout facility at Western Energy Company`s Rosebud coal mine near Colstrip, Montana. The demonstration plant is sized at about one-tenth the projected throughput of a multiple processing train commercial facility. The demonstration drying and cooling equipment is currently near commercial size. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership`s ACCP Demonstration Facility entered Phase III, Demonstration Operation, in April 1992 and has been operating in an extended startup mode since that time. As with any new developing technology, a number of unforeseen obstacles have been encountered; however, Rosebud SynCoal Partnership has instituted an aggressive program to overcome these obstacles.

NONE

1993-12-01

318

[Advanced Coal Conversion Process]. Technical progress report, July 1, 1992--September 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect

This report contains a description of the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from July 1, 1992, through September 30, 1992. The ACCP Demonstration Project is a US Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Project. The Cooperative Agreement defining this project is between DOE and the Rosebud SynCoal Partnership. This project demonstrates an advanced, thermal, coal-drying process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal{reg_sign} process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After drying, the coal is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal. The SynCoal({reg_sign} process enhances low-rank, western coals, usually with a moisture content of 25 to 55 percent, sulfur content of 0.5 to 1.5 percent, and heating value of 5,500 to 9,000 British thermal units per pound (Btu/lb), by producing a stable, upgraded, coal product with a moisture content as low as 1 percent, sulfur content as low as 0.3 percent, and heating value up to 12,000 Btu/lb. The 45-ton-per-hour unit is located adjacent to a unit train loadout facility at Western Energy Company`s Rosebud coal mine near Colstrip, Montana. The demonstration plant is sized at about one-tenth the projected throughput of a multiple processing train commercial facility. The demonstration drying and cooling equipment is currently near commercial size.

Not Available

1993-12-01

319

Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems. Annual report, July 1991--June 1992  

SciTech Connect

Westinghouse`s Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine System Program (DE-AC2l-86MC23167) was originally split into two major phases - a Basic Program and an Option. The Basic Program also contained two phases. The development of a 6 atm, 7 lb/s, 12 MMBtu/hr slagging combustor with an extended period of testing of the subscale combustor, was the first part of the Basic Program. In the second phase of the Basic Program, the combustor was to be operated over a 3-month period with a stationary cascade to study the effect of deposition, erosion and corrosion on combustion turbine components. The testing of the concept, in subscale, has demonstrated its ability to handle high- and low-sulfur bituminous coals, and low-sulfur subbituminous coal. Feeding the fuel in the form of PC has proven to be superior to CWM type feed. The program objectives relative to combustion efficiency, combustor exit temperature, NO{sub x} emissions, carbon burnout, and slag rejection have been met. Objectives for alkali, particulate, and SO{sub x} levels leaving the combustor were not met by the conclusion of testing at Textron. It is planned to continue this testing, to achieve all desired emission levels, as part of the W/NSP program to commercialize the slagging combustor technology.

Not Available

1992-09-01

320

Volcanic ash in feed coal and its influence on coal combustion products  

SciTech Connect

The US Geological Survey and the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research are collaborating with an Indiana Utility to determine the physical and chemical properties of feed coal and coal combustion products (CCPs) from a coal-fired power plant. The plant utilizes a low-sulfur (.23--.47 weight percent S) coal from the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of feed coal samples identified two mineral suites. A primary suite (not authigenic) consisting of quartz (detrital and volcanic beta-form grains), biotite, and minor zircon and a secondary authigenic mineral suite containing calcite, alumino-phosphates (crandallite and gorceixite), kaolinite, quartz, anatase, barite, and pyrite. The authigenic minerals are attributed to air-fall and reworked volcanic ash that was deposited in peat-forming mires. The Powder River Basin feed coals contain higher amounts of Ba, Ca, Mg, Na, Sr, and P compared to other analyzed eastern coals. These elements are associated with alumino-phosphate, biotite, calcite, and clay minerals. The element associations are indicative of coal that incorporated volcanic ash during deposition. XRD analysis of CCPs revealed a predominance of glass, perovskite, lime, gehlenite, quartz, and phosphates with minor amounts of periclase, anhydrite, hematite, and spinel group minerals in the fly ash; and quartz, plagioclase (albite and anorthite), pyroxene (augite and fassaite), rhodonite, and akermanite in the bottom ash. Microprobe and SEM analysis of fly ash samples revealed quartz, zircon, monazite, euhedral laths of corundum with merrillite, hematite, dendritic spinels/ferrites, and rounded grains of wollastonite with periclase. The abundant Ca and Mg mineral phases in the fly ashes are related to the presence of carbonate, clay, and phosphate minerals in the feed coal. The Ca- and Mg-rich mineral phases in the CCPs can be attributed to volcanic minerals deposited in the peat-forming mire. Dissolution and alteration of these minerals occurred either in the peat-forming sate or during coalification/diagenesis contributing to the authigenic mineral suite. Additionally, detrital mineral input and epigenetic ground-water flow may have affected the geochemistry of the feed coal.

Brownfield, M.E.; Affolter, R.H.; Cathcart, J.D.; Brownfield, I.K.; Hower, J.C.; Stricker, G.D.; O'Connor, J.T.

2000-07-01

321

Burns and military clothing.  

PubMed

Burn injury is a ubiquitous threat in the military environment. The risks during combat are well recognised, but the handling of fuel, oil, munitions and other hot or flammable materials during peacetime deployment and training also imposes an inherent risk of accidental burn injury. Over the last hundred years, the burn threat in combat has ranged from nuclear weapons to small shoulder-launched missiles. Materials such as napalm and white phosphorus plainly present a risk of burn, but the threat extends to encompass personnel in vehicles attacked by anti-armour weapons, large missiles, fuel-air explosives and detonations/conflagrations on weapons platforms such as ships. Large numbers of burn casualties were caused at Pearl Harbor, in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Vietnam, during the Arab/Israeli Wars and in the Falkland Islands conflict. The threat from burns is unlikely to diminish, indeed new developments in weapons seek to exploit the vulnerability of the serviceman and servicewoman to burns. Clothing can be a barrier to some types of burn--both inherently in the properties of the material, but also by trapping air between clothing layers. Conversely, ignition of the clothing may exacerbate a burn. There is hearsay that burnt clothing products within a wound may complicate the clinical management, or that materials that melt (thermoplastic materials) should not be worn if there is a burn threat. This paper explores the incidence of burn injury, the mechanisms of heat transfer to bare skin and skin covered by materials, and the published evidence for the complication of wound management by materials. Even light-weight combat clothing can offer significant protection to skin from short duration flash burns; the most vulnerable areas are the parts of the body not covered--face and hands. Multilayered combat clothing can offer significant protection for short periods from engulfment by flames; lightweight tropical wear with few layers offers little protection. Under high heat loads in the laboratory, combat clothing can ignite, but there is little evidence that clothing ignition is a common occurrence in military burn casualties. Thermoplastic materials have many benefits in civil and military clothing. There is little objective evidence that they exacerbate burns, or complicate burn management. Their use in military clothing must be based on objective evidence, not hearsay. PMID:11307683

McLean, A D

2001-02-01

322

CaO interactions in the staged combustion of coal. Sixth quarterly technical progress report, January 1March 31, 1982  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efforts were directed primarily to the coal combustion studies. Pulverized coal treated with lime (Ca\\/S = 3.8) is being burned in a methane-coal (M-C) burner to determine the sulfur capture potential of the coal under various combustion conditions, e.g., temperature, residence time, and equivalence ratio. Data obtained under fuel-rich combustion conditions indicate that the sulfur retention potential of the coal

A. Levy; E. L. Merryman; B. W. Rising

1982-01-01

323

Carburetion type burning apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A carburetion type burning apparatus is described having a carburetion chamber for evaporating liquid fuel which comprises a timer for counting time from the initiation of burning operation. An ion current detecting device is positioned in the flames for measuring an ion current in the flames (if) at the time after a predetermined time counted by the timer in which

Kasada

1987-01-01

324

Chemical Changes: Burning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson demonstrates how students can apply the process of identifying main idea and supporting details to show the different ways burning can chemically change matter. The students can identify these changes and discuss the details that support these changes, which will help them further understand how burning matter is considered a chemical change.

Kris Ryan

2012-07-25

325

Erosive burning of propellants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The movement of the gases in the duct of solid propellant motors has an effect on the burning rate of the propellant in two cases: when there is a high ratio of burning surface to the cross-sectional area of the duct (the Pobedonostsev number) and when gasdynamic vibrations occur in the duct and cause quite high acoustic velocities along the

A. M. Klimov

1975-01-01

326

Mercury emissions from coal combustion in China  

SciTech Connect

This chapter reviews the magnitude and spatial distribution of mercury emissions from coal combustion in China. Due to the large quantities of coal burned and the relatively low level of technology, particularly in industry, emissions are high. Emissions were stable at about 200-210 Mg during the period 1995-2000, but because of rapid economic growth starting in 2001, mercury emissions grew quickly to a value of 334 Mg in 2005. The annual average growth rate for the period 1995-2005 was 5.1%. The uncertainty in emission estimates is about {+-}35% (95% confidence intervals). Emissions are concentrated in those provinces with high concentrations of mercury in coal (like Guizhou Province) and provinces in which a lot of coal is burned (like Shanxi Province). Because significant amounts of coal are burned in homes and small industrial facilities, without any kind of emission control at all, emissions of particulate mercury are higher in China than in the developed world; the speciation profile nationwide is: 64% Hg{sup II}, 19% Hg{sup p}, and 17% Hg{sup 0}. In the future, growth in mercury emissions is expected to be limited by the application of FGD for SO{sub 2} control and other advanced technologies. Estimates of emissions are hampered by the lack of comprehensive and reliable emissions testing programs in China.

David G. Streets; Jiming Hao; Shuxiao Wang; Ye Wu [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

2009-07-01

327

Hand chemical burns.  

PubMed

There is a vast and ever-expanding variety of potentially harmful chemicals in the military, industrial, and domestic landscape. Chemical burns make up a small proportion of all skin burns, yet they can cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Additionally, the hand and upper extremity are the most frequently involved parts of the body in chemical burns, and therefore these injuries may lead to severe temporary or permanent loss of function. Despite this fact, discussion of the care of these injuries is sparse in the hand surgery literature. Although most chemical burns require only first response and wound care, some require the attention of a specialist for surgical debridement and, occasionally, skin coverage and reconstruction. Exposure to certain chemicals carries the risk of substantial systemic toxicity and even mortality. Understanding the difference between thermal and chemical burns, as well as special considerations for specific compounds, will improve patient treatment outcomes. PMID:25653184

Robinson, Elliot P; Chhabra, A Bobby

2015-03-01

328

JAMA Patient Page: Burn Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... of the American Medical Association JAMA PATIENT PAGE Burn Injuries B urns, most commonly caused by fire, ... burn injuries in the United States. TYPES OF BURNS FOR MORE INFORMATION World Health Organization www.who. ...

329

Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project. Final technical progress report, January 1, 1995--December 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995. This project demonstrates an advanced, thermal, coal upgrading process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal Process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal upgrading, the coal is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal. The SynCoal Process enhances low-rank, western coals, usually with a moisture content of 25 to 55 percent, sulfur content of 0.5 to 1.5 percent, and heating value of 5,5000 to 9,000 British thermal units per pound (Btu/lb), by producing a stable, upgraded, coal product with a moisture content as low as 1 percent, sulfur content as low as 0.3 percent, and heating value up to 12,000 Btu/lb. During this reporting period, the primary focus for the ACCP Demonstration Project team was to expand SynCoal market awareness and acceptability for both the products and the technology. The ACCP Project team continued to focus on improving the operation, developing commercial markets, and improving the SynCoal products as well as the product`s acceptance.

NONE

1997-05-01

330

Plane flame furnace combustion tests on JPL desulfurized coal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The combustion characteristics of three raw bituminous (PSOC-282 and 276) and subbituminous (PSOC-230) coals, the raw coals partially desulfurized (ca -60%) by JPL chlorinolysis, and the chlorinated coals more completely desulfurized (ca -75%) by JPL hydrodesulfurization were determined. The extent to which the combustion characteristics of the untreated coals were altered upon JPL sulfur removal was examined. Combustion conditions typical of utility boilers were simulated in the plane flame furnace. Upon decreasing the parent coal voltaile matter generically by 80% and the sulfur by 75% via the JPL desulfurization process, ignition time was delayed 70 fold, burning velocity was retarded 1.5 fold, and burnout time was prolonged 1.4 fold. Total flame residence time increased 2.3 fold. The JPL desulfurization process appears to show significant promise for producing technologically combustible and clean burning (low SO3) fuels.

Reuther, J. J.; Kim, H. T.; Lima, J. G. H.

1982-01-01

331

Burning mouth and saliva.  

PubMed

Stomatodynia is the complaint of burning, tickling or itching of the oral cavity, and can be associated with other oral and non-oral signs and symptoms. However, the oral mucosa often appears normal, with no apparent underlying organic cause to account for the symptomatology. The etiology is unknown, though evidence points to the participation of numerous local, systemic and psychological factors. Among the local factors, saliva may play an important role in the symptoms of burning mouth. Saliva possesses specific rheological properties as a result of its chemical, physical and biological characteristics - these properties being essential for maintaining balanced conditions within the oral cavity. Patients with burning mouth present evidence of changes in salivary composition and flow, as well as a probable alteration in the oral mucosal sensory perception related particularly to dry mouth and taste alterations. On the other hand, alterations in salivary composition appear to reflect on its viscosity and symptomatology of burning mouth. Saliva is a field open to much research related to burning mouth, and knowledge of its properties (e.g., viscosity) merits special attention in view of its apparent relationship to the symptoms of burning mouth. The present study describes our clinical experience with burning mouth, and discusses some of the aspects pointing to salivary alterations as one of the most important factors underlying stomatodynia. PMID:12134125

Chimenos-Kustner, Eduardo; Marques-Soares, Maria Sueli

2002-01-01

332

[Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project]. Technical progress report, April 1, 1991--June 30, 1991  

SciTech Connect

This project will demonstrate an advanced thermal coal drying process coupled with physical cleaning techniques to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to produce a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel. The coal will be processed through two vibrating fluidized bed reactors that will remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After drying, the coal will be put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to effect separation of the pyrite rich ash. The process will enhance low-rank western coals, usually with a moisture content of 25--55%, sulfur content of 0.5--1.5%, and heating value of 5500--9000 Btu/lb by producing a stable, upgraded coal product with a moisture content as low as 1%, sulfur content as low as 0.3%, and heating value up to 12,000 Btu/lb. The 45 ton/hr unit will be located adjacent to a unit train loadout facility at Western Energy Company`s Rosebud coal mine near the town of Colstrip in southeastern Montana. The demonstration plant is sized at about one-tenth the projected throughput of a multiple processing train commercial facility. The demonstration drying and cooling equipment is currently commercial size.

Not Available

1991-08-01

333

Coal Tar and Coal-Tar Pitch  

Cancer.gov

Coal tar is derived from coal. It is a byproduct of the production of coke, a solid fuel that contains mostly carbon, and coal gas. Coal tar is used primarily for the production of refined chemicals and coal-tar products, such as creosote and coal-tar pitch. Certain preparations of coal tar have long been used to treat various skin conditions, such as eczema, psoriasis, and dandruff.

334

Obesity and burns.  

PubMed

The population of overweight patients presenting to burn facilities is expected to increase significantly over the next decades due to the global epidemic of obesity. Excess adiposity mediates alterations to key physiological responses and poses challenges to the optimal management of burns. The purpose of this study is to document the general epidemiological aspects of thermal injuries in the obese population, outline relevant physiological aspects associated with obesity, and draw attention to topics relating to the management, rehabilitation, and prognosis of burns in this emerging subpopulation of patients. PMID:22274633

Goutos, Ioannis; Sadideen, Hazim; Pandya, Atisha A; Ghosh, Sudip J

2012-01-01

335

Burn wound management.  

PubMed

In this chapter the local therapy for burns is discussed. Between 400 and 500 children with burns are treated every year at the Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital in Cape Town, but in only 10% of them do the burns affect over 20% of the body surface. These latter patients are treated in special rooms equipped for intensive therapy. Open and closed methods of treatment for burns used in addition to early excision are compared. The first aim is early skin cover for areas with skin loss preserving as much function as possible and achieving the best possible cosmetic result. Local therapy must be atraumatic to prevent extension of the skin lesion. Bacterial contamination must be prevented as far as possible by keeping the wound clean. Emergency treatment and the course of wound healing up to the third week after the injury using the appropriate dressings are described. Early excision until the fifth day after the accident should be used mainly for burns of the hand, deep second degree burns of up to 10% of the body surface, deep second degree burns over the joints and deep second degree burns of the neck. It must be admitted that the depth of the burn can only be definitely estimated between the seventh and tenth day after the accident. If no autografts are available homografts or grafts from animals are used. The age of the patient, associated injuries, associated diseases and the extent of the burn all play a role in determining the prognosis. Furthermore endogenous bacterial infections, absorption of local therapeutic agents and the state of the surrounding skin do also influence the healing process. Finally the various local therapeutic agents like sulphamylon, silver sulphadiazine and betadine are discussed. A 0.05% solution of silver nitrate is also active against gram-negative infections. Skin transplants are disinfected with a solution containing one third 0.25% acetic acid, one third 3% cent hydrogen peroxide and one third saline. Hydrogen peroxide must not be applied to burns that are healing spontaneously. A classification of burns to help to choose the appropriate local therapy is proposed. PMID:7012931

Davies, M R; Rode, H; Cywes, S; van der Riet, R L

1981-01-01

336

Densified refuse derived fuel (d-RDF) burn at Marcy Psychiatric Center. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A combustion demonstration involving a densified refuse derived fuel (d-RDF) product, fired for approximately 50 hours as a supplemental fuel in a coal-fired spreader stoker boiler is described. Observations were made and photographs taken of plant operation during all phases of the test project. Opacity and particulate emission tests were performed while firing d-RDF in a ratio of 1:2 with coal (by volume) and while firing 100% coal at high and low loads to provide comparisons with State Department of Environmental Conservation emission standards. No significant disadvantages over coal were found in burning d-RDF/coal in ratios up to 2:1 (43% heat input by d-RDF). Fuel handling, boiler operation, boiler efficiency, particulate emissions, and opacity were similar for the coal and d-RDF/coal mixtures tested.

Not Available

1980-11-01

337

Petrographic characterization of Kentucky coals. Final report. Part IV. A petrographic and chemical model for the evolution of the Tradewater Formation coals in Western Kentucky  

SciTech Connect

A depositional model for the coals of the Tradewater Formation and associated rock units was constructed as a predictive device for the occurrence of economically important low sulfur coal. Twenty-one cores were examined and ninety-eight coal samples were analyzed for maceral, ash, and sulfur contents. These data were then analyzed to determine regional variation as well as vertical variation in single coal columns. Core data indicate that the majority of the Tradewater rocks consist of irregularly distributed, coarsening-upward, fine-grained detrital material which was deposited in shallow bodies of water. Minor fossiliferous shales and limestones suggest a marine influence. Less common coarse-grained, fining-upward sequences appear to be deposits of meandering channels. Like the detrital rocks, the coal seams are also irregularly distributed and exhibit variable petrographic and chemical properties reflecting changes in the Eh and pH of the coal swamp waters as well as detrital influx into the swamps. These swamps were relatively limited in extent and probably occupied the upper reaches of the tidal zone. The lack of significant stratigraphic and geographic trends in the regional data suggests that this mode of deposition was widespread and continued for a long period of time. 42 references, 19 figures, 9 tables.

Graese, A.M.; Hower, J.C.; Ferm, J.C.

1984-01-01

338

26. Wood coal quencher, coal conveyor for powerhouse coal pulverizer ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

26. Wood coal quencher, coal conveyor for powerhouse coal pulverizer house, DX coke battery, stack, coke batteries to right. Looking east - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, Wayne County, MI

339

Rheology of coal-water slurries prepared by the high-pressure roll mill grinding of coal. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The preparation of coal water slurries to replace fuel oil for direct combustion has become an important field in modem coal technology. The U.S. Department of Energy has planned or has underway several demonstration projects to burn coal-water slurries to replace fuel oil is attractive not only because there is an assured domestic supply of coal, but also on various technoeconomic grounds. Coal-water slurries combine the handling flexibility of fuel oil in power plants and various other industrial applications. This report discusses the rheology of coal-water slurries and the correlation to the coal preparation by grinding with a choke-fed high pressure roll mill. Performance of the roll mills and energy consumption are described.

Fuerstenau, D.W.; De, A.

1996-08-01

340

40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry...49.11021 Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry...under 49.132 Rule for general open burning permits. (b) Beginning...

2010-07-01

341

40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry...49.10411 Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry...under 49.132 Rule for general open burning permits. (b) Beginning...

2010-07-01

342

Extraction, separation, and analysis of high sulfur coal. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The work described in this report studies the removal of sulfur by oxidative interaction of various cupric salts with coal and also considers the possibility of removing organic sulfur by the selective interaction of supercritical ethanol with the organic coal matrix. Either one of these methods could potentially be used to pretreat coals before burning. The primary purpose of these studies is to ascertain the nature of the chemical reactions occurring, the chemical composition of the resultant products, and information on possible reaction mechanisms. This information should allow prediction of reasonable reaction conditions for the removal of organosulfur compound from coal.

Olesik, S.V.; Pekay, L.A.; Larkins, W. Jr. [comps.

1992-05-31

343

Extraction, separation, and analysis of high sulfur coal  

SciTech Connect

The work described in this report studies the removal of sulfur by oxidative interaction of various cupric salts with coal and also considers the possibility of removing organic sulfur by the selective interaction of supercritical ethanol with the organic coal matrix. Either one of these methods could potentially be used to pretreat coals before burning. The primary purpose of these studies is to ascertain the nature of the chemical reactions occurring, the chemical composition of the resultant products, and information on possible reaction mechanisms. This information should allow prediction of reasonable reaction conditions for the removal of organosulfur compound from coal.

Olesik, S.V.; Pekay, L.A.; Larkins, W. Jr. (comps.)

1992-05-31

344

ANALYSIS OF FLY ASH PRODUCED FROM COMBUSTION OF REFUSE-DERIVED FUEL AND COAL MIXTURES (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

Mixtures of coal and refuse-derived fuel (RDF) were burned and the fly ash was collected and analyzed for concentration trends with respect to RDF/coal ratio and particle size. RDF contributes more Cs, Mn, Sb, and Pb to the fly ash while coal contributes greater amounts of As, Br...

345

Healy Clean Coal Project: Healy coal firing at TRW Cleveland Test Facility  

SciTech Connect

A test burn of two Alaskan coals was conducted at TRW's Cleveland test facility in support of the Healy Clean Coal Project, as part of Clean Coal Technology III Program in which a new power plant will be constructed using a TRW Coal Combustion System. This system features ash slagging technology combined with NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} control. The tests, funded by the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA) and TRW, were conducted to verify that the candidate Healy station coals could be successfully fired in the TRW coal combustor, to provide data required for scale-up to the utility project size requirements, and to produce sufficient flash-calcined material (FCM) for spray dryer tests to be conducted by Joy/NIRO. The tests demonstrated that both coals are viable candidates for the project, provided the data required for scale-up, and produced the FCM material. This report describes the modifications to the test facility which were required for the test burn, the tests run, and the results of the tests.

Koyama, T.; Petrill, E.; Sheppard, D.

1991-08-01

346

Healy Clean Coal Project: Healy coal firing at TRW Cleveland Test Facility. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A test burn of two Alaskan coals was conducted at TRW`s Cleveland test facility in support of the Healy Clean Coal Project, as part of Clean Coal Technology III Program in which a new power plant will be constructed using a TRW Coal Combustion System. This system features ash slagging technology combined with NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} control. The tests, funded by the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA) and TRW, were conducted to verify that the candidate Healy station coals could be successfully fired in the TRW coal combustor, to provide data required for scale-up to the utility project size requirements, and to produce sufficient flash-calcined material (FCM) for spray dryer tests to be conducted by Joy/NIRO. The tests demonstrated that both coals are viable candidates for the project, provided the data required for scale-up, and produced the FCM material. This report describes the modifications to the test facility which were required for the test burn, the tests run, and the results of the tests.

Koyama, T.; Petrill, E.; Sheppard, D.

1991-08-01

347

Postburn roof stability analysis for the TONO CRIP UCG burn  

SciTech Connect

During the Ninth Annual Underground Coal Gasification Symposium, Sutherland, Hommert, Taylor, and Benzley presented a preburn prediction for the burn, roof fall and surface subsidence for the TONO CRIP UCG site in Washington state. That burn has now been completed and postburn measurements of cavity sizes have become available. In this manuscript we show that the preburn predictions are, in general, in good agreement with the postburn examination of the burn site. Discrepancies between the predictions and the measurements are shown to arise for two reasons. The first is that the burn sequence analyzed in the prediction was not followed during the course of the experiment due to experimental difficulties. The second reason is that the stratigraphic section analyzed in the preburn predictions is slightly different from that observed above the burn. To clarify the discrepancies, the roof stability of the measured burn cavity is analyzed using the two analysis schemes that were used in the preburn analysis. The first technique is the Rubble model. It uses a continuum description of the rubblization process that occurs as roof material fails and falls into the cavity below it. This technique is based on a standard finite element numerical analysis scheme. The second technique is the BLOCKS model. This technique divides the geologic strata into a collection of discrete, individual blocks and monitors all the collisions which occur between them. Both techniques yield very good descriptions of the roof stability for the measured burn cavity. 10 refs., 7 figs.

Taylor, L.M.; Sutherland, H.J.; Kuszmaul, J.S.

1985-01-01

348

Coal Sampling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This USGS publication explains the use of fluxes for preparation of coal for elemental analysis. The material would be useful to supplement textbooks concerning sample preparation and may be helpful in designing an XRF laboratory experiment.

Golightly, D. W.

349

Lava Flow Burning Vegetation  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Lava flow activity continues to burn vegetation in the kipuka adjacent to the trail, causing the viewing trail to be closed beyond the trailhead. The new viewing area is still very close to the active flows. ...

350

[Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project]. Technical progress report: April 1, 1992--June 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from April 1, 1992, through June 30, 1992. This project demonstrates an advanced thermal coal drying process coupled with physical cleaning techniques designed to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals into a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal{reg_sign} process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After drying, the coal is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal. The SynCoal{reg_sign} process enhances low-rank, western coals, usually with a moisture content of 25 to 55 percent, sulfur content of 0.5 to 1.5 percent, and heating value of 5,500 to 9,000 British thermal units per pound (Btu/Ib), by producing a stable, upgraded coal product with a moisture content as low as 1 percent, sulfur content as low as 0.3 percent, and heating value up to 12,000 Btu/lb. The 45-ton-per-hour unit is located adjacent to a unit train loadout facility at Western Energy Company`s Rosebud coal mine near Colstrip, Montana. The demonstration plant is sized at about one-tenth the projected throughput of a multiple processing train commercial facility. The demonstration drying and cooling equipment is currently near commercial size.

Not Available

1993-10-01

351

Burning Mouth Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Most clinicians dread seeing the patient presenting with a primary complaint of a burning pain on one or more oral mucosal surfaces. Unlike most other clinical conditions presenting in a dental office, burning mouth syndrome is poorly understood with few evidence based remedies. More recently, advances have been made towards clarifying the possible etiology of the disorder and testing the possible therapeutic modalities available. This article attempts to summarize the state of the art today. PMID:20690412

Mock, David; Chugh, Deepika

2010-01-01

352

Books2burn  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed by Professor Matthew Weinstein of Kent State University, Books2burn translates text files into a series of audio files, which may then subsequently be converted to mp3's or other formats. This program will be a great boon to scholars and the general public alike, as the application allows for the easy transfer and replication of potentially large and problematic files into a number of audio formats. Books2burn is compatible with all systems running Mac OS X.

Weinstein, Matthew

353

Coal Field Fire Fighting - Practiced methods, strategies and tactics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subsurface coal fires destroy millions of tons of coal each year, have an immense impact to the ecological surrounding and threaten further coal reservoirs. Due to enormous dimensions a coal seam fire can develop, high operational expenses are needed. As part of the Sino-German coal fire research initiative "Innovative technologies for exploration, extinction and monitoring of coal fires in Northern China" the research team of University of Wuppertal (BUW) focuses on fire extinction strategies and tactics as well as aspects of environmental and health safety. Besides the choice and the correct application of different extinction techniques further factors are essential for the successful extinction. Appropriate tactics, well trained and protected personnel and the choice of the best fitting extinguishing agents are necessary for the successful extinction of a coal seam fire. The chosen strategy for an extinction campaign is generally determined by urgency and importance. It may depend on national objectives and concepts of coal conservation, on environmental protection (e.g. commitment to green house gases (GHG) reductions), national funding and resources for fire fighting (e.g. personnel, infrastructure, vehicles, water pipelines); and computer-aided models and simulations of coal fire development from self ignition to extinction. In order to devise an optimal fire fighting strategy, "aims of protection" have to be defined in a first step. These may be: - directly affected coal seams; - neighboring seams and coalfields; - GHG emissions into the atmosphere; - Returns on investments (costs of fire fighting compared to value of saved coal). In a further step, it is imperative to decide whether the budget shall define the results, or the results define the budget; i.e. whether there are fixed objectives for the mission that will dictate the overall budget, or whether the limited resources available shall set the scope within which the best possible results shall be achieved. For an effective and efficient fire fighting optimal tactics are requiered and can be divided into four fundamental tactics to control fire hazards: - Defense (digging away the coal, so that the coal can not begin to burn; or forming a barrier, so that the fire can not reach the not burning coal), - Rescue the coal (coal mining of a not burning seam), - Attack (active and direct cooling of burning seam), - Retreat (only monitoring till self-extinction of a burning seam). The last one is used when a fire exceeds the organizational and/or technical scope of a mission. In other words, "to control a coal fire" does not automatically and in all situations mean "to extinguish a coal fire". Best-practice tactics or a combination of them can be selected for control of a particular coal fire. For the extinguishing works different extinguishing agents are available. They can be applied by different application techniques and varying distinctive operating expenses. One application method may be the drilling of boreholes from the surface or covering the surface with low permeability soils. The mainly used extinction agents for coal field fire are as followed: Water (with or without additives), Slurry, Foaming mud/slurry, Inert gases, Dry chemicals and materials and Cryogenic agents. Because of its tremendous dimension and its complexity the worldwide challenge of coal fires is absolutely unique - it can only be solved with functional application methods, best fitting strategies and tactics, organisation and research as well as the dedication of the involved fire fighters, who work under extreme individual risks on the burning coal fields.

Wndrich, T.; Korten, A. A.; Barth, U. H.

2009-04-01

354

POC-scale testing of an advanced fine coal dewatering equipment/technique. Quarterly technical progress report 3, April--June 1995  

SciTech Connect

Economical dewatering of an ultra-fine clean coal product to a 20% or lower level moisture will be an important step in successful implementation of the advanced fine coal cleaning processes. The main objective of the proposed program is to evaluate a novel surface modification technique, which utilizes the synergistic effect of metal ions-surfactant combination, for dewatering of ultra-fine clean coal on a proof-of-concept (POC) scale of 1 to 2 tph. The novel surface modification technique developed at the UKCAER will be evaluated using vacuum, centrifuge, and hyperbaric filtration equipment. Dewatering tests will be conducted using the fine clean coal froth produced by the column flotation units at the Powell Mountain Coal Company, Mayflower Preparation Plant in St. Charles, Virginia. The POC-scale studies will be conducted on two different types of clean coal, namely, high sulfur and low sulfur clean coal. The Mayflower Plant processes coals from five different seams, thus the dewatering studies results could be generalized for most of the bituminous coals. During this quarter, addition of reagents such as ferric ions and a novel concept of in-situ polymerization (ISP) was studied in the laboratory. Using the ISP approach with vacuum filtration provided 25% moisture filter cake compared to 65.5% moisture obtained conventionally without using the ISP. A series of dewatering tests were conducted using the Andritz hyperbaric pilot filter unit with high sulfur clean coal slurry.

Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K.

1995-08-05

355

Clean Coal Draft for public comment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Department of Energy is asking the public to comment on the draft environmental impact statement for 22 clean coal technologies, from precombustion cleaning techniques to coal gasification and fuel cell systems. Incentives to promote use of these new methods for burning coal are included in President George Bush's proposed revisions to the Clean Air Act.The draft is based on a computer model developed at Argonne National Laboratory, Illinois, and run at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee. The model estimates the amounts of reduction by 2010 in national emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and carbon dioxide that use of the new technologies could achieve. It also compares the amounts and kinds of solid waste produced by clean coal technologies to the solid waste of power-production technologies in use today.

356

Diverse projects worldwide include mined, unmined coals  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the approaches and incentives for the world's coalbed gas projects which are as diverse as the countries themselves. Some countries, such as China, Poland, and the U.K., are major coal producers. Other countries, such as New Zealand and Zimbabwe, have relatively minor coal production. Most of the current projects fall into one of the following two categories: Natural gas projects that attempt to produce coalbed gas form unmined coal seams or basins. Mining-related projects with a primary goal to improve mine safety and productivity by draining methane from the coal and mine by vertical, horizontal, and gob (caved area) wells. by converting wasted gas into a clean-burning fuel, the projects reduce methane (a potent greenhouse gas) emissions to the atmosphere.

Boyer, C.M.II; Kelafant, J.R. (Advanced Resources International, Arlington, VA (United States)); Kruger, D. (Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States))

1992-12-14

357

Flue Gas Conditioning to Reduce Particulate Emissions in Industrial Coal-Fired Boilers  

E-print Network

Chemical technology has been used successfully to solve many of the operational and emissions problems that result from burning coal. This paper describes the use of blended chemical flue gas conditioners to significantly reduce particulate...

Miller, B.; Keon, E.

1980-01-01

358

Health impacts of domestic coal use in China  

PubMed Central

Domestic coal combustion has had profound adverse effects on the health of millions of people worldwide. In China alone several hundred million people commonly burn raw coal in unvented stoves that permeate their homes with high levels of toxic metals and organic compounds. At least 3,000 people in Guizhou Province in southwest China are suffering from severe arsenic poisoning. The primary source of the arsenic appears to be consumption of chili peppers dried over fires fueled with high-arsenic coal. Coal samples in the region were found to contain up to 35,000 ppm arsenic. Chili peppers dried over high-arsenic coal fires adsorb 500 ppm arsenic on average. More than 10 million people in Guizhou Province and surrounding areas suffer from dental and skeletal fluorosis. The excess fluorine is caused by eating corn dried over burning briquettes made from high-fluorine coals and high-fluorine clay binders. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons formed during coal combustion are believed to cause or contribute to the high incidence of esophageal and lung cancers in parts of China. Domestic coal combustion also has caused selenium poisoning and possibly mercury poisoning. Better knowledge of coal quality parameters may help to reduce some of these health problems. For example, information on concentrations and distributions of potentially toxic elements in coal may help delineate areas of a coal deposit to be avoided. Information on the modes of occurrence of these elements and the textural relations of the minerals and macerals in coal may help predict the behavior of the potentially toxic components during coal combustion. PMID:10097053

Finkelman, Robert B.; Belkin, Harvey E.; Zheng, Baoshan

1999-01-01

359

Advanced coal conversion process demonstration. Technical progress report, April 1--June 30, 1996  

SciTech Connect

This project demonstrates an advanced, thermal, coal upgrading process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high moisture, low rank coals to a high quality, low sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal{reg_sign} process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal upgrading, the coal is put through a deep bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite rich ash from the coal. The SynCoal process enhances low rank, western coals, usually with a moisture content of 25 to 55 percent, sulfur content of 0.5 to 1.5 percent, and heating value of 5,500 to 9,000 Btu/lb, by producing a stable, upgraded, coal product with a moisture content as low as 1 percent, sulfur content as low as 0.3 percent, and heating value up to 12,000 Btu/lb. The 45 ton per hour unit is located adjacent to a unit train load out facility at Western Energy Company`s Rosebud coal mine near Colstrip, Montana. The demonstration plant is sized at about one-tenth the projected throughput of a multiple processing train commercial facility. During this report period the primary focus has been to continue the operation of the demonstration facility. Production has been going to area power plants. Modifications and maintenance work was also performed this quarter.

NONE

1997-10-01

360

Malignant degeneration in burn scars.  

PubMed

The malignant potential of burn scars has been recognized since Marjolin's classical description of cancer arising in several types of post-traumatic scars. With improved burn therapy since the last war, there has been a higher survival rate of severe burns with proportionate increase in cancer associated with burn scars. This will create increasing problems of permanent disability and compensation. The younger the patient at the time of the burn, the longer the time required for the cancer to develop. Acute cancer development in burn scars has been reported after a four-week interval. Cancer may develop from six weeks to fifty years or more. The etiology of cancer in burn scars is not known. The most important clinical finding is the fact that most of the burn cancers occur in areas which were not grafted. The most common type of cancer encountered in burn scars is squamous cell carcinoma, which forms in Marjolin ulcers. Basal cell carcinoma may develop in the most superficial of burn scars.Treatment should be directed primarily to prompt and adequate skin grafting in all deep burns in order to prevent malignant degeneration of the burn scars. Once it has developed the treatment is the same as for other malignancies which are not associated with burns. Wide surgical excision with block dissection of the regional lymph nodes when they are involved is the treatment of choice. The prognosis of burn scar cancer is poor, once the process has extended because of early and distant metastasis. PMID:13691372

CASTANARES, S

1961-03-01

361

Burning trees and bridges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most burning of biomass is the result of human activity, and on a global scale it is increasing. Tropospheric concentrations of CO2, CO, CH4, non-methane hydrocarbons, and ozone are all increasing with time; global biomass burning may make an important contribution to this increase and thus to potential global climate change. The nitrogen cycle also can have important climatic effects. Nitrous oxide put into the atmosphere by biomass burning is a greenhouse gas 250 times more powerful (molecule for molecule) than carbon dioxide. Nitric oxide, as well as being a photochemical precursor of ozone, a major pollutant in the troposphere, produces nitric acid, the fastest-growing component of acid rain. Hence, the new bridge in the nitrogen cycle is of more than mere technical interest.

Levine, Joel S.

1990-01-01

362

Coal as an abundant source of graphene quantum dots.  

PubMed

Coal is the most abundant and readily combustible energy resource being used worldwide. However, its structural characteristic creates a perception that coal is only useful for producing energy via burning. Here we report a facile approach to synthesize tunable graphene quantum dots from various types of coal, and establish that the unique coal structure has an advantage over pure sp2-carbon allotropes for producing quantum dots. The crystalline carbon within the coal structure is easier to oxidatively displace than when pure sp2-carbon structures are used, resulting in nanometre-sized graphene quantum dots with amorphous carbon addends on the edges. The synthesized graphene quantum dots, produced in up to 20% isolated yield from coal, are soluble and fluorescent in aqueous solution, providing promise for applications in areas such as bioimaging, biomedicine, photovoltaics and optoelectronics, in addition to being inexpensive additives for structural composites. PMID:24309588

Ye, Ruquan; Xiang, Changsheng; Lin, Jian; Peng, Zhiwei; Huang, Kewei; Yan, Zheng; Cook, Nathan P; Samuel, Errol L G; Hwang, Chih-Chau; Ruan, Gedeng; Ceriotti, Gabriel; Raji, Abdul-Rahman O; Mart, Angel A; Tour, James M

2013-01-01

363

Impact of solid discharges from coal usage in the Southwest.  

PubMed

The Southwestern region of the United States is extremely wealthy in low sulfur coal resources which must be eventually utilized in response to national energy balance priorities. Fly ash and scrubber sludge can be safely disposed of using properly managed techniques to ensure that any potential impact from elements such as boron, molybdenum, or selenium is rendered insignificant. Alternative methods of solids utilization are presently being developed. Fly ash is presently being marketed commercially as an additive for concrete manufacture. Successful experiments have been completed to demonstrate the manufacture of commercial-grade wallboard from scrubber sludge. Also, greenhouse studies and field experiments have been conducted to demonstrate increased yields of selected crops grown on typical soils amended with fly ash in amounts ranging from 2% to 8%, by weight. These studies also indicate that barium and strontium may be good monitoring indices for determining atmospheric deposition of fly ash, due to their concentration ratios in soil and vegetation samples. Further studies are being conducted to confirm encouraging irrigation and crop-yield data obtained with fly ash amended soils. Finally, the composition of many fly ashes and soils are similar in the Southwest, and there are no anticipated solid discharges from coal usage which cannot be rendered insignificant with proper management of existing and emerging methods of treatment. Compared with the water availability impact of coal usage in the Southwest, the impact of solid waste discharges are insignificant. PMID:738243

Jones, D G; Straughan, I R

1978-12-01

364

Impact of solid discharges from coal usage in the southwest  

PubMed Central

The Southwestern region of the United States is extremely wealthy in low sulfur coal resources which must be eventually utilized in response to national energy balance priorities. Fly ash and scrubber sludge can be safely disposed of using properly managed techniques to ensure that any potential impact from elements such as boron, molybdenum, or selenium is rendered insignificant. Alternative methods of solids utilization are presently being developed. Fly ash is presently being marketed commercially as an additive for concrete manufacture. Successful experiments have been completed to demonstrate the manufacture of commercial-grade wallboard from scrubber sludge. Also, greenhouse studies and field experiments have been conducted to demonstrate increased yields of selected crops grown on typical soils amended with fly ash in amounts ranging from 2% to 8%, by weight. These studies also indicate that barium and strontium may be good monitoring indices for determining atmospheric deposition of fly ash, due to their concentration ratios in soil and vegetation samples. Further studies are being conducted to confirm encouraging irrigation and crop-yield data obtained with fly ash amended soils. Finally, the composition of many fly ashes and soils are similar in the Southwest, and there are no anticipated solid discharges from coal usage which cannot be rendered insignificant with proper management of existing and emerging methods of treatment. Compared with the water availability impact of coal usage in the Southwest, the impact of solid waste discharges are insignificant. PMID:738243

Jones, D. G.; Straughan, I. R.

1978-01-01

365

Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project. Environmental Monitoring Plan  

SciTech Connect

Western Energy Company (WECO) was selected by the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) which upgrades low rank coals into high Btu, low sulfur, synthetic bituminous coal. As specified in the Corporate Agreement, RSCP is required to develop an Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) which describes in detail the environmental monitoring activities to be performed during the project execution. The purpose of the EMP is to: (1) identify monitoring activities that will be undertaken to show compliance to applicable regulations, (2) confirm the specific environmental impacts predicted in the National Environmental Policy Act documentation, and (3) establish an information base of the assessment of the environmental performance of the technology demonstrated by the project. The EMP specifies the streams to be monitored (e.g. gaseous, aqueous, and solid waste), the parameters to be measured (e.g. temperature, pressure, flow rate), and the species to be analyzed (e.g. sulfur compounds, nitrogen compounds, trace elements) as well as human health and safety exposure levels. The operation and frequency of the monitoring activities is specified, as well as the timing for the monitoring activities related to project phase (e.g. preconstruction, construction, commissioning, operational, post-operational). The EMP is designed to assess the environmental impacts and the environmental improvements resulting from construction and operation of the project.

Not Available

1992-04-01

366

Burning Down the House  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this demonstration, the teacher will use a potato and hydrogen peroxide to generate oxygen in a closed environment. Students can then observe its effects on a burning wooden splint and on burning steel wool. They will understand that a large amount of energy can be released by the process of oxidation. As an extension, the teacher can discuss how the appearance of oxygen (produced by cyanobacteria) in Earth's early atmosphere initially resulted in the formation of large deposits of iron oxide (Banded Iron Formations) and then aided in the evolution of more complex life forms.

Glenn Dolphin

367

Science at Burning Man  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recently, the Exploratorium Museum in San Francisco sent a dedicated crew to check out the activities at the Burning Man festival in Nevada. The results of their journey and explorations can be seen here, and interested parties can learn about pyrotechnics, flight, dust devils, and rainbows. The site contains several dozen short films that feature Exploratorium scientists like Paul Doherty investigating the properties of alkali and a rare double rainbow sighting. One of the most impressive videos is a bird's eye view from an 88-NV plane over the Burning Man site. Finally, visitors are also encouraged to share these resources with others via social media sites, including Twitter and Facebook.

368

Coal: An energy bridge to the future  

SciTech Connect

For years, coal drove the transportation business in this country and it may be poised for a comeback when it comes to moving people and things. A hundred years ago, steam engines burned tons of coal as they pulled trains across the country. Now researchers are looking at converting that coal to liquid fuel that would fill up our gas tanks and move our cars and trucks. The technology already exists to transform coal into a liquid fuel. In fact, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientists and engineers have researched forms of coal and hydrocarbon gasification on and off for more than 30 years. But oil has never sustained a high enough price to kick start a coal-to-liquid fuel industry. That may be changing now. In addition to high crude oil prices, experts agree worldwide petroleum resources wont last forever, and hydrocarbon resources like coal may be the only resource available, at a large enough scale, to off-set oil consumption, in the near term.

Bauer, Susan J.

2006-09-29

369

76 FR 491 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; New Mexico; Federal Implementation Plan for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...sorbent injection to remove sulfur trioxide (SO 3 ) in the...necessary, as the SJGS burns a low sulfur coal, and catalysts are available...analysis of Steps 1-5, as modified to incorporate the areas discussed...EPRI), information on the sulfur content of the coal, and...

2011-01-05

370

Integrated dry NO\\/SO emissions control system calcium-based dry sorbent injection. Test report, April 30November 2, 1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DOE sponsored Integrated Dry NOSO Emissions Control System program, which is a Clean Coal Technology III demonstration, is being conducted by Public Service Company of Colorado. The test site is Arapahoe Generating Station Unit 4, which is a 100 MWe, down-fired utility boiler burning a low sulfur Western coal. The project goal is to demonstrate up to 70 percent

G. H. Shiomoto; R. A. Smith; L. J. Muzio; T. Hunt

1994-01-01

371

Burn Safety Awareness on Playgrounds: Thermal Burns from Playground Equipment  

MedlinePLUS

... Safety Awareness on Playgrounds Thermal Burns from Playground Equipment The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission CPSC wants ... of the risk of thermal burns from playground equipment. You may remember the metal slides of your ...

372

Cool water coal gasification: A mid-term performance assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal is the US's largest indigenous fossil fuel resource and is used to power 57% of this country's electrical generation. Congress, however, is focusing its attention on the acid rain issue and public sentiment is leaning toward further curtailments of SO, NO\\/sub x\\/ and particulates from utility and industrial coal-burning facilities. The Cool Water plant has proven that integrated-gasification-combined-cycle (IGCC)

W. N. Clark; V. R. Shorter

1987-01-01

373

Coal-water slurry operation in an EMD diesel engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center has assumed a leadership role in the development of coal-burning diesel engines. The motivation for this work is obvious when one considers the magnitude of the domestic reserves of coal and the wide-spread use of diesel engines. The work reported in this paper represents the preliminary engine experiments leading to the

C. M. Urban; H. E. Mecredy; T. W. Ryan; M. N. Ingalls; B. T. Jett

1988-01-01

374

Coal combustion products 2007 production and use report  

SciTech Connect

The American Coal Ash Association's 2007 Annual Coal Combustion Products (CCP) are derived from data from more than 170 power plants. The amount of CCPs used was 40.55%, a decrease of 2.88% from 2006, attributed to reduced fuel burn and a decrease in demand in the building industry. Figures are given for the production of fly ash, flue gas desulfurization gypsum, bottom ash, FBC ash and boiler slag. The article summarises results of the survey. 1 ref., 1 tab.

NONE

2009-07-01

375

Coal and coal mine drainage. [Industrial wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A literature review of the effects of coal mining on hydrology and stream water quality is presented. The technology for abatement and control is considered. Regulatory activities are also discussed. Environmental assessments of acid mine drainage, coal cleaning processes, coal slurry pipelines and effluents from coal storage piles are given. Included are 67 references.

Olem

1982-01-01

376

Regional Emissions Data Base and Evaluation System (REDES): Volume 3, Environmental profiles of selected clean coal technologies  

SciTech Connect

The clean coal technologies described in this report make use of advanced combustors, alternative fuels, coal preparation processes, fluidized-bed combustors, flue-gas cleanup technologies, coal liquefaction processes, and surface gasification. Each profile begins with a brief description of the technology, followed by an assessment of its applicability to the utility or industrial sector in terms of fuel sulfur content, boiler size, and boiler market (new, repower, and/or retrofit). The sulfur content of the coal is described as being low, medium, or high. Low-sulfur coal contains less than 1.5% sulfur, medium-sulfur coal has 1.5--3% sulfur, and high-sulfur coal contains greater than 3% sulfur. Boiler size (or unit output of electricity) is discussed in terms of being small, medium, or large. A small boiler has less than 100 MW output, a medium boiler has 100--400 MW output, and a large boiler has greater than 400 MW output. Removal efficiencies or emission levels for sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/), oxides of nitrogen (NO/sub x/), and particulates are described, as are the anticipated changes in heat rate that would result from the use of each technology. The wastes generated by each technology are also discussed. Following each technology's profile is a bibliography that lists the sources used to compile the values for the various parameters. 49 refs.

Poch, L.A.; Gillette, J.L.; Boyd, G.A.

1988-06-01

377

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF A FIRETUBE BOILER FIRING COAL/OIL/WATER MIXTURES. VOLUME 2. DATA SUPPLEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

This volume is a compendium of detailed emission and test data from field tests of a firetube industrial boiler burning a coal/oil/water (COW) mixture. The boiler was tested while burning COW fuel, and COW with soda ash added (COW+SA) to serve as an SO2 sorbent. The test data inc...

378

PRESCRIBED BURN CERTIFICATION AFFIDAVIT  

E-print Network

PRESCRIBED BURN CERTIFICATION AFFIDAVIT State of County I, (name) (title) Being an employee study of materials provided by mail prior to the program, followed by a two-day training session of study materials. How to Register: Online at www.ugatiftonconference.org or Mail your registration form

Scott, Robert A.

379

Gas Hydrates Burning  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

An image of gas hydrates burning. Gas hydrates are naturally-occurring ice-like combinations of natural gas and water that have the potential to provide an immense resource of natural gas from the worlds oceans and polar regions....

380

Burn Scar Neoplasm  

PubMed Central

Summary Marjolin's ulcer is a rare and aggressive cutaneous malignancy that occurs in previously traumatized and chronically inflamed skin, especially after burns. The majority of burn scar carcinomas are seen after a lag period in burns that were not grafted following injury. Between 2000 and 2006, 48 patients with Marjolin's ulcer were treated in our centre (Sulaimani Teaching Hospital and Emergency Hospital). All the lesions were secondary to burns from various causes. The medical records of these 48 patients were reviewed prospectively. The mean age at tumour diagnosis was 40 yr and the ratio of male to female was 2:1 (67% males and 33% female). Upon histological examination, all the cases were diagnosed as well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. The scalp was most frequently affected (16 patients = 33.3%), followed by the lower limb (14 patients = 29.1%). Treatment of the neoplasm consisted of excision and grafting in 36 patients (75.0%), excision and reconstruction with flaps in eight patients (16.6%), and amputation in three patients (6.2%). A chemotherapy combination of the above treatments was used in two patients (4.1%). Local recurrence was noted in 16 patients (33.3%) out of the 48, and all died from these recurrences. PMID:21991095

Kadir, A.R.

2007-01-01

381

Carburetion type burning apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A carburetion type burning apparatus is described which comprises a needle for opening and closing a nozzle orifice, a carburetion chamber, a fuel tank for receiving fuel, a pump for feeding the fuel to the carburetion chamber from the fuel tank, a heater element for vaporizing the fuel. The nozzle orifice receives the vaporized fuel from the carburetion chamber. The

Kasada

1987-01-01

382

Burn a Peanut  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners burn a peanut, which produces a flame that can be used to boil away water and count the calories contained in the peanut. Learners use a formula to calculate the calories in a peanut and then differentiate between food calories and physicist calories as well as calories and joules.

Paul Doherty

2000-01-01

383

The Earth Could Burn.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Environmental educators are worried about the ultimate ecological threat--nuclear war, which could burn thousands of square miles, sterilize the soil, destroy 70 percent of the ozone layer letting in lethal ultraviolet rays, and cause severe radiation sickness. Educators must inform themselves, teach others, contact government representatives, and

Yarrow, Ruth

1982-01-01

384

Resilience and Severe Burns.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Incorporated findings of a general literature review with opinions offered by 39 burn survivors. Results indicate that care factors influencing resiliency include social support (cultural influences and community, school, personal, and familial support), cognitive skills (intelligence, coping style, personal control, and assignment of meaning),

Holaday, Margot; McPhearson, Ruth W.

1997-01-01

385

TRIAL BURNS: METHODS PERSPECTIVE  

EPA Science Inventory

When conducting a trial burn, it is necessary to make a number of measurements in order to adequately define the performance of the incinerator. n addition to flue gas emissions for particulate matter, HCl, and selected organics, it is also necessary to measure selected organics ...

386

Fast burn booster technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advances in solid rocket booster motors in the Solid Propellant Booster Development (SPBD) Program are addressed. The technologies discussed include cheaper nondetonable versatile burn rate propellant, advanced performance tapered composite case, lower-cost lighter-weight nozzles, laser ignition, and improved combustion modelling and performance. The demonstration of these technologies in a series of motor static tests is reviewed.

Burnett, Jimmy; McCain, J. W.

1992-05-01

387

TIRES, OPEN BURNING  

EPA Science Inventory

The chapter describes available information on the health effects from open burning of rubber tires. It concentrates on the three known sources of detailed measurements: (1) a small-scale emissions characterization study performed by the U.S. EPA in a facility designed to simulat...

388

Bridging the experience gap: Burning tires in a utility boiler  

SciTech Connect

For many communities, a solution to waste tire management problems may be no farther than the nearest coal-fired utility or industrial boiler. Sending waste tires to be used as a fuel in existing boilers is one way communities can prevent tires from creating problems in landfills, or from growing into nuisances and potentially dangerous stockpiles while waiting for recycling markets to develop. For utilities, using tire-derived fuel can help control fuel costs and conserve coal. When the State of Wisconsin sought alternatives to disposing of waste tires in its landfills, Wisconsin Power & Light came forward to meet the challenge. Now, the electric utility is shredding and burning more than 1 million tires a year at its coal-fired generating station in southern Wisconsin.

Denhof, D.

1993-03-01

389

Self-Scrubbing Coal trademark : An integrated approach to clean air  

SciTech Connect

In response to the PON, 33 proposals were received by DOE in May 1991. After evaluation, nine projects were selected for award. One of the nine projects selected for funding is a project proposed by Custom Coals International (CCI) entitled Self-Scrubbing Coal: An Integrated Approach to Clean Air.'' This project will provide a commercial demonstration of the Custom Coals Coal Cleaning (CCCC) process for producing Carefree Coal{trademark} and Self Scrubbing Coal{trademark}, as well as full-scale burns of the products in coal-fired utility boilers. The Self-Scrubbing Coal{trademark} project involves the construction of a 350 tons/hr advanced coal cleaning plant that will be designed with a unique blend of existing and new process steps. The Carefree Coal{trademark} produced by this cleaning process will allow many utilities to achieve compliance with the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) sulfur emissions requirements. Deep cleaning alone, however, cannot produce a compliance fuel from coals with high organic sulfur contents. In these cases, Self-Scrubbing Coal{trademark} will be produced. Self-Scrubbing Coal{trademark} is the same as Carefree Coal{trademark} except that the finest fraction from the cleaning circuit is mixed with limestone-based additives and pelletized. These additives react during combustion to remove an additional 70--80% of the sulfur remaining with the clean coal, thus achieving a total sulfur removal of 80-90%.

Not Available

1992-10-01

390

An appraisal of the potential use of fly ash for reclaiming coal mine spoil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growing dependence on coal-fired power plants for electrical generation in many countries presents ongoing environmental challenges. Burning pulverized coal in thermal power plants (TPPs) generates large amounts of fly ash (FA) that must be disposed of or otherwise handled, in an environmentally-sound manner. A possible option for dealing with fly ash is to use it as an amendment for mine

Lal C. Ram; Reginald E. Masto

2010-01-01

391

Abatement of mercury emissions in the coal combustion process equipped with a Fabric Filter Baghouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the dependence of mercury emissions on coal ranks and electric utility boilers equipped with Fabric Filter Baghouses (FF). A comparison of mercury emission rates and fly ash properties was made between a circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor (CFBC) with FF and a Pulverized Coal (PC) combustor with FF during the burning of all

Yan Cao; Chin-Min Cheng; Chien-Wei Chen; Mingchong Liu; Chiawei Wang; Wei-Ping Pan

2008-01-01

392

Dynamics of mercury at coal-fired power plant and adjacent cooling lake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamics of mercury at the Kincaid Power Plant-Lake Sangchris complex in central Illinois were investigated by collecting and analyzing samples of coal, slag, fly ash, airborne particulate matter, soil, lake sediment, fish macrophytes, and ducks. Of 546 kg of mercury calculated to be in the 2.7 million metric tons of coal burned by the power plant from September 1973

William L. Anderson; Kenneth E. Smith

1977-01-01

393

CONTROL OF CRITERIA AND NON-CRITERIA POLLUTANTS FROM COAL/OIL MIXTURE COMBUSTION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes the existing data base on NOx, SO2, and particulate emissions from combustion sources burning coal/oil mixtures (COMs). The need for the U.S. to reduce its dependence on oil and expand its use of coal has prompted a number of industrial and utility energy pr...

394

Improvement in the analysis of ashes from coal by spark source mass spectrography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A material balance study was performed using spark source mass spectrography on Iowa and Colorado coal burned at the Iowa State University Power Plant. Sixty-two elements were analyzed in the influent coal, effluent bottom ash, fly ash from a primary dust collector, and fly ash from an electrostatic precipitator. The material balance was satisfactory for the majority of the elements.

Welcomer

1982-01-01

395

Improvement in the analysis of ashes from coal by spark-source mass spectrography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A material balance study was performed using spark source mass spectrography on Iowa and Colorado coal burned at the Iowa State University Power Plant. Sixty-two elements were analyzed in the influent coal, effluent bottom ash, fly ash from a primary dust collector, and fly ash from an electrostatic precipitator. The material balance was satisfactory for the majority of the elements.

Welcomer

1982-01-01

396

Coal-water slurry systems for oil-design power plants. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is a preliminary exploration of the feasibility of producing a slurry of pulverized cleaned coal in water and burning it in boilers designed for fuel oil combustion. The objective of this proposed system is the substitution of coal for oil at some existing power plants. The goals of this study were to review and assess the status of

R. D. Glenn; A. W. Rhodes

1979-01-01

397

INFLUENCE OF COAL COMPOSITION ON THE FATE OF VOLATILE AND CHAR NITROGEN DURING COMBUSTION  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of burning 50 coals from North America, Europe, Asia, South Africa, and Australia in a 21 kWt refactory-lined tunnel furnace to determine the influence of coal properties on the fate of volatile and char nitrogen. Excess-air fuel NO emissions (determined b...

398

Development of a Software System to Facilitate Implementation of Coal and Wood Co-Fired Bilers  

E-print Network

Coal and wood co-fired boiler technology has improved significantly over the years. The term "co-firing", when used by members of the biomass or utility communities, has come to mean mixing a modest amount of clean, dry sawdust with coal and burning...

Gopalakrishnan, B.; Gump, C. D.; Gupta, D. P.; Chaudhari, S.

2013-01-01

399

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: COAL-FIRED RESIDENTIAL COMBUSTION EQUIPMENT FIELD TESTS, JUNE 1977  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study to quantify criteria pollutants and characterize atmospheric emissions from coal-fired residential heating equipment. Flue gas was sampled from a warm air furnace and a hot water boiler which burned three western coals. Tests were conducted wit...

400

Blast furnace granular coal injection project. Annual report, January--December 1993  

SciTech Connect

This initial annual report describes the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection project being implemented at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s (BSC) Burns Harbor, Indiana, plant. This installation will be the first in the United States to employ British Steel technology that uses granular coal to provide part of the fuel requirement of blast furnaces. The project will demonstrate/assess a broad range of technical/economic issues associated with the use of coal for this purpose. These include: coal grind size, coal injection rate, coal source (type) and blast furnace conversion method. Preliminary Design (Phase 1) began in 1991 with detailed design commencing in 1993. Construction at Burns Harbor (Phase 2) began in August 1993. Construction is expected to complete in the first quarter of 1995 which will be followed by the demonstration test program (Phase 3). Progress is described.

Not Available

1994-06-01

401

Combustion characterization of the blend of plant coal and recovered coal fines. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this proposed research program was to determine the combustion characteristics of the blend derived from mixing a plant coal and recovered and clean coal fines from the pond. During this study, one plant coal and three blend samples were prepared as 100% plant coal, 90% plant coal/10% fines, 85% plant coal/15% fines, and 80% plant coal /20% fines with a particle size distribution of 70% passing through {minus}200 mesh size. The plant coal and recovered coal fines were obtained from the Randolph Preparation Plant of Peabody Coal Co., Marissa, IL. These samples` combustion behavior will be examined in two different furnaces at Penn State University, i.e., a down-fired furnace and a drop-tube furnace. The down-fired furnace was used mainly to measure the emissions and ash deposition study, while the drop tube furnace was used to determine burning profile, combustion efficiency, etc. The burning profile of the plant coal and the three blends was determined in a thermogravimetric analyzer. Results indicated slower burning of the blends due to low volatile matter and oxidized coal particles. Combustion emissions of these samples were determined in the down-fired combustor, while relative ignition temperatures were determined in the drop tube furnace. Chemical composition of ashes were analyzed to establish a correlation with their respective ash fusion temperatures. Overall study of these samples suggested that the blended samples had combustion properties similar to the original plant coal. In other words, flames were stable under identical firing rates of approximately 200,000 Btu`s/hr and 25% excess air. CO, NO{sub x}, and SO{sub x}, were similar to each other and within the experimental error. Combustion efficiency of 99{sup +}% was achievable. Ash chemical analysis of each sample revealed that slagging and fouling should not be different from each other.

Singh, S. [SS Energy Environmental International, Inc., Rockford, IL (United States); Scaroni, A.; Miller, B. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Combustion Lab.; Choudhry, V. [Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (United States)

1992-12-31

402

Coal industry annual 1997  

SciTech Connect

Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

NONE

1998-12-01

403

The overall patterns of burns  

PubMed Central

Summary Burn patterns differ across the whole world and not only in relation to lack of education, overcrowding, and poverty. Cultures, habits, traditions, psychiatric illness, and epilepsy are strongly correlated to burn patterns. However, burns may also occur because of specific religious beliefs and activities, social events and festivals, traditional medical practices, occupational activities, and war. PMID:22639565

Almoghrabi, A.; Abu Shaban, N.

2011-01-01

404

Anatomy of a Prescribed Burn  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This poster shows how prescribed burns operate, using careful planning and preparation to start a fire that will renew habitat without threatening ecosystems or homes. This image describes the steps required to prepare a prescribed burn, how fire crews set up for the burn, and how the wind is used to help control the fire.

Florida Department of Forestry

405

PGN Prescribed Burn Research Summary  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Since 1997, we have been studying the effects of prescribed burns conducted during late winter on shortgrass steppe on the Pawnee National Grassland. During 1997 2002, we studied burns on the western (Crow Valley) portion of the Pawnee by comparing plant growth on burns conducted by the Forest Ser...

406

BURN DATA COORDINATING CENTER (BDCC)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Burn Data Coordinating Center (BDCC) began collecting data in 1994 and is currently the largest burn database in the country. Pediatric burn data was added in 1998. The BMS database contains over 2,800 cases supporting clinical research and research on outcomes including empl...

407

Coal Industry Annual 1995  

SciTech Connect

This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

NONE

1996-10-01

408

Coal industry annual 1996  

SciTech Connect

This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

NONE

1997-11-01

409

Microbial solubilization of coal  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to a cell-free preparation and process for the microbial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products. More specifically, the present invention relates to bacterial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products and a cell-free bacterial byproduct useful for solubilizing coal. 5 tabs.

Strandberg, G.W.; Lewis, S.N.

1988-01-21

410

Quarterly Coal Distribution  

EIA Publications

The Quarterly Coal Distribution Report (QCDR) provides detailed U.S. domestic coal distribution data by coal origin state, coal destination state, mode of transportation, and consuming sector. Quarterly data for all years are preliminary and will be superseded by the release of the corresponding Annual Coal Distribution Report.

2014-01-01

411

Is proportion burned severely related to daily area burned?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ecological effects of forest fires burning with high severity are long-lived and have the greatest impact on vegetation successional trajectories, as compared to low-to-moderate severity fires. The primary drivers of high severity fire are unclear, but it has been hypothesized that wind-driven, large fire-growth days play a significant role, particularly on large fires in forested ecosystems. Here, we examined the relative proportion of classified burn severity for individual daily areas burned that occurred during 42 large forest fires in central Idaho and western Montana from 2005 to 2007 and 2011. Using infrared perimeter data for wildfires with five or more consecutive days of mapped perimeters, we delineated 2697 individual daily areas burned from which we calculated the proportions of each of three burn severity classes (high, moderate, and low) using the differenced normalized burn ratio as mapped for large fires by the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity project. We found that the proportion of high burn severity was weakly correlated (Kendall ? = 0.299) with size of daily area burned (DAB). Burn severity was highly variable, even for the largest (95th percentile) in DAB, suggesting that other variables than fire extent influence the ecological effects of fires. We suggest that these results do not support the prioritization of large runs during fire rehabilitation efforts, since the underlying assumption in this prioritization is a positive relationship between severity and area burned in a day.

Birch, Donovan S.; Morgan, Penelope; Kolden, Crystal A.; Hudak, Andrew T.; Smith, Alistair M. S.

2014-05-01

412

Chemical Debridement of Burns  

PubMed Central

The development of effective, non-toxic (local and systemic) methods for the rapid chemical (enzymatic and non-enzymatic) debridement of third degree burns would dramatically reduce the morbidity and mortality of severely burned patients. Sepsis is still the major cause of death of patients with extensive deep burns. The removal of the devitalized tissue, without damage to unburned skin or skin only partially injured by burning, and in ways which would permit immediate (or very prompt) skin grafting, would lessen substantially the problems of sepsis, speed convalescence and the return of these individuals to society as effective human beings, and would decrease deaths. The usefulness and limitations of surgical excision for patients with extensive third degree burns are discussed. Chemical debridement lends itself to complementary use with surgical excision and has the potential advantage over surgical excision in not requiring anesthesia or a formal surgical operation. The authors' work with the chemical debridement of burns, in particular the use of Bromelain, indicates that this approach will likely achieve clinical usefulness. The experimental studies indicate that rapid controlled debridement, with minimal local and systemic toxicity, is possible, and that effective chemotherapeutic agents may be combined with the Bromelain without either interfering with the actions of the other. The authors believe that rapid (hours) debridement accomplished by the combined use of chemical debriding and chemotherapeutic agents will obviate the possibility of any increase in infection, caused by the use of chemical agents for debridement, as reported for Paraenzyme21 and Travase.39,48 It is possible that the short term use of systemic antibiotics begun just before and continued during, and for a short time after, the rapid chemical debridement may prove useful for the prevention of infection, as appears to be the case for abdominal operations of the clean-contaminated and contaminated types. ImagesFigs. 1a-c.Fig. 1b.Fig. 1c.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8.Fig. 9a.Fig. 9B.Fig. 10.Fig. 11.Figs. 12a-c.Fig. 12b.Fig. 12c.Figs. 14a-c.Fig. 14b.Fig. 14c.Figs. 15a-c.Fig. 15b.Fig. 15c. PMID:4606330

Levenson, Stanley M.; Kan, Dorinne; Gruber, Charles; Crowley, Leo V.; Lent, Richard; Watford, Alvin; Seifter, Eli

1974-01-01

413

Combustion and SO 2?NO x emissions of bituminous coal particles treated with calcium magnesium acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were conducted in an externally heated drop-tube furnace to assess the effectiveness of the chemical calcium magnesium acetate [CMA, CaMg2(CH3COO)6] as a combustion catalyst and a coal pretreatment agent for reducing SO2 emissions. Bituminous coal particles of two distinct sizes, pulverized (7590 ?m) or micronized and beneficiated (mean diameter ?3.5 ?m) were burned. To measure the coal particle temperatures

Ajay Atal; Judi Steciak; Yiannis A. Levendis

1995-01-01

414

Investigation of radiometric combustion monitoring techniques for coal-fired stoker boilers. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuel-ash bed disturbances are costly problems often encountered in operating coal-fired, mechanical-stoker boilers in military heat plants. In traveling grate, mechanical-stoker boilers, all or most of the coal burns on the traveling grate, so proper control of combustion grate fuel-ash bed thickness is critical for cost-effective, high-availability operation. In these plants, operators must adjust combustion equipment as the coal enters

F. V. Karlson; T. H. Parsons; M. J. Savoie; W. B. Scholten

1993-01-01

415

Coal desulfurization in a rotary kiln combustor  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the combustion of coal and coal wastes in a rotary kiln reactor with limestone addition for sulfur control. The rationale for the project was the perception that rotary systems could bring several advantages to combustion of these fuels, and may thus offer an alternative to fluid-bed boilers. Towards this end, an existing wood pyrolysis kiln (the Humphrey Charcoal kiln) was to be suitably refurbished and retrofitted with a specially designed version of a patented air distributor provided by Universal Energy, Inc. (UEI). As the project progressed beyond the initial stages, a number of issues were raised regarding the feasibility and the possible advantages of burning coals in a rotary kiln combustor and, in particular, the suitability of the Humphrey Charcoal kiln as a combustor. Instead, an opportunity arose to conduct combustion tests in the PEDCO Rotary Cascading-Bed Boiler (RCBB) commercial demonstration unit at the North American Rayon CO. (NARCO) in Elizabethton, TN. The tests focused on anthracite culm and had two objectives: (a) determine the feasibility of burning anthracite culms in a rotary kiln boiler and (b) obtain input for any further work involving the Humphrey Charcoal kiln combustor. A number of tests were conducted at the PEDCO unit. The last one was conducted on anthracite culm procured directly from the feed bin of a commercial circulating fluid-bed boiler. The results were disappointing; it was difficult to maintain sustained combustion even when large quantities of supplemental fuel were used. Combustion efficiency was poor, around 60 percent. The results suggest that the rotary kiln boiler, as designed, is ill-suited with respect to low-grade, hard to burn solid fuels, such as anthracite culm. Indeed, data from combustion of bituminous coal in the PEDCO unit suggest that with respect to coal in general, the rotary kiln boiler appears inferior to the circulating fluid bed boiler.

Cobb, J.T. Jr.

1992-09-11

416

Densified refuse-derived fuel (d-RDF) burn at Marcy Psychiatric Center. Final report Mar 80-Nov 80  

SciTech Connect

A densified refuse derived fuel (d-RDF) product was fired for approximately 50 hours as a supplemental fuel in a coal fired spreader stoker boiler at the Marcy Psychiatric Center in Marcy, New York. Observations were made and photographs were taken of plant operation during all phases of the test project. Opacity and particulate emission tests were performed while firing d-RDF in a ratio of 1:2 with coal (by volume) and while firing 100 percent coal at high and low loads to provide comparisons with State Department of Environmental Conservation emission standards. No significant disadvantages over coal were found in burning d-RDF/coal in ratios up to 2:1 (43 percent heat input by d-RDF). Fuel handling, boiler operation, boiler efficiency, particulate emissions and opacity were similar for the coal and d-RDF/coal mixtures.

Galson, E.

1980-11-01

417

Coal catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some considerations in the selection of a catalyst for the liquid phase of coal hydrogenation are discussed. Some of the previous history of such selections is mentioned. At one stage of the development, the principal catalyst had been iron sulfate (FeSO.7HO). Later, for reasons of cost and availability of large supplies, selections had turned to mixtures of iron sulfate and

Kroenig

1944-01-01

418

Clean burning solid fuel stove and method  

SciTech Connect

A stove for burning solid fuels having an insulated primary combustion chamber, uniform distribution of preheated primary air through upward facing holes in a grate, downward flow of combustion gas through the grate, retention of hot coals in the grate structure, preheated secondary air, individually controlled primary and secondary air flows, insulated vortex combustion chambers for secondary combustion, longitudinally finned tubes as a first stage heat exchanger, plate-fin assembly as a second stage heat exchanger, an induced draft fan to draw the air and combustion gases through the combustion chambers as well as the heat exchangers, and a forced air fan to blow cool room air through the two stage heat exchanger.

Smith, R.D.; Grouw, S.J.V.

1985-10-08

419

Inland out: Midwestern river coal transloaders deal with increased pressures  

SciTech Connect

As greater amounts of US western coal is burned by many eastern and south-eastern power plants located along the Ohio River and its tributaries, Midwestern coal transload facilities are playing an ever growing role in the nation's coal transportation system by moving traffic off clogged rail lines onto barges on inland rivers. The article describes operations by three mid-western ports - American Electric Power's (AEP) Cook Terminal in Metropolis, IL; Kinder-Morgan's Cora Terminal in Cora, IL; and Kinder-Morgan's Grand Rivers Terminal near Paducah, KY. Together these terminals transferred more than 30 m tons onto barges in 2006. 5 figs.

Buchsbaum, L.

2007-06-15

420

Burning Magnesium (GCMP)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Burning Magnesium: this is a resource in the collection "General Chemistry Multimedia Problems". In this problem we will look at the reactions of two elements with oxygen in air. We will begin by observing the reaction of magnesium metal with oxygen when the metal is heated in air. General Chemistry Multimedia Problems ask students questions about experiments they see presented using videos and images. The questions asked apply concepts from different parts of an introductory course, encouraging students to decompartmentalize the material.

421

METC research on coal-fired diesels  

SciTech Connect

The METC in-house Coal-Fueled Diesel Research project is part of the overall DOE effort to develop a technology base for diesel engines capable of operating on coal, shale oil or low-cost coal-derived fuels. The in-house effort started in 1985 as a test-bed for coal-derived liquid fuels and will end this fiscal year with the successful completion of METC`s diesel R&D program. Currently METC in-house research and development efforts focus on pilot chamber combustion in METC`s coal-water slurry (CWS) fueled diesel engine. A novel pilot chamber for a direct-injected, coal-fueled diesel engine has been designed and is being tested in METC`s single cylinder research diesel engine. The pilot chamber configuration allows for operation at extended load and speed conditions using 100 percent CWS and no other pilot fuel. The concept involves the use of a small volume chamber exterior to the main cylinder in which approximately 5 percent of the total fuel energy at full load conditions is injected. Lower NO{sub X} levels may be obtained due to leaner burning as well as broader stable performance using only CWS fuel.

McMillian, M.H. [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States); Robey, E.H.; Addis, R.E. [EG and G Washington Analytical Services Center, Inc., Morgantown, WV (United States)

1993-11-01

422

Outpatient burns: prevention and care.  

PubMed

Most burn injuries can be managed on an outpatient basis by primary care physicians. Prevention efforts can significantly lower the incidence of burns, especially in children. Burns should be managed in the same manner as any other trauma, including a primary and secondary survey. Superficial burns can be treated with topical application of lotions, honey, aloe vera, or antibiotic ointment. Partial-thickness burns should be treated with a topical antimicrobial agent or an absorptive occlusive dressing to help reduce pain, promote healing, and prevent wound desiccation. Topical silver sulfadiazine is the standard treatment; however, newer occlusive dressings can provide faster healing and are often more cost-effective. Physicians must reevaluate patients frequently after a burn injury and be aware of the indications for referral to a burn specialist. PMID:22230304

Lloyd, Emillia C O; Rodgers, Blake C; Michener, Michael; Williams, Michael S

2012-01-01

423

Wood burning furnace  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a furnace having four walls for burning cellulosic fuel therein, a grate in the furnace bottom on which the fuel is burned, means for introducing cellulosic fuel onto the grate, means for introducing air into the furnace for supporting combustion of the fuel, a rear gas pass connected to the upper end of the furnace, the walls of the furnace being inclined upwardly and outwardly from the grate in such a manner that at a given height above the grate, the cross-sectional flow area is 1 1/2 to 2 times the flow area closely adjacent to the grate, such that most of the partially burned char particles entrained in the gases near the grate reach a height in the furnace where the gas velocity equals the particle terminal velocity, so that most of the particles remain suspended at this height until combustion has reduced their size enough so that they can be carried into the rear pass by the reduced gas velocity.

Bauver, W.P. II

1986-05-20

424

Coal liquefaction and hydrogenation  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a coal liquefaction process using two stages. The first stage liquefies the coal and maximizes the product while the second stage hydrocracks the remainder of the coal liquid to produce solvent.

Schindler, Harvey D. (Fair Lawn, NJ); Chen, James M. (Edison, NJ)

1985-01-01

425

Coal industry annual 1993  

SciTech Connect

Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

Not Available

1994-12-06

426

Pilot-scale study of the effect of selective catalytic reduction catalyst on mercury speciation in Illinois and Powder River Basin coal combustion flue gases  

SciTech Connect

A study was conducted to investigate the effect of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst on mercury (Hg) speciation in bituminous and subbituminous coal combustion flue gases. Three different Illinois Basin bituminous coals (from high to low sulfur (S) and chlorine (Cl)) and one Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal with very low S and very low Cl were tested in a pilot-scale combustor equipped with an SCR reactor for controlling nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions. The SCR catalyst induced high oxidation of elemental Hg (Hg{sup 0}), decreasing the percentage of Hg{sup 0} at the outlet of the SCR to values <12% for the three Illinois coal tests. The PRB coal test indicated a low oxidation of Hg{sup 0} by the SCR catalyst, with the percentage of Hg{sup 0} decreasing from {approximately} 96% at the inlet of the reactor to {approximately} 80% at the outlet. The low Cl content of the PRB coal and corresponding low level of available flue gas Cl species were believed to be responsible for low SCR Hg oxidation for this coal type. The test results indicated a strong effect of coal type on the extent of Hg oxidation. 16 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Lee, C.W.; Srivastava, R.K.; Ghorishi, S.B.; Karwowski, J.; Hastings, T.H.; Hirschi, J.C. [US Environmental Protection Agency, Triangle Park, NC (United States)

2006-05-15

427

MALIGNANT DEGENERATION IN BURN SCARS  

PubMed Central

The malignant potential of burn scars has been recognized since Marjolin's classical description of cancer arising in several types of post-traumatic scars. With improved burn therapy since the last war, there has been a higher survival rate of severe burns with proportionate increase in cancer associated with burn scars. This will create increasing problems of permanent disability and compensation. The younger the patient at the time of the burn, the longer the time required for the cancer to develop. Acute cancer development in burn scars has been reported after a four-week interval. Cancer may develop from six weeks to fifty years or more. The etiology of cancer in burn scars is not known. The most important clinical finding is the fact that most of the burn cancers occur in areas which were not grafted. The most common type of cancer encountered in burn scars is squamous cell carcinoma, which forms in Marjolin ulcers. Basal cell carcinoma may develop in the most superficial of burn scars. Treatment should be directed primarily to prompt and adequate skin grafting in all deep burns in order to prevent malignant degeneration of the burn scars. Once it has developed the treatment is the same as for other malignancies which are not associated with burns. Wide surgical excision with block dissection of the regional lymph nodes when they are involved is the treatment of choice. The prognosis of burn scar cancer is poor, once the process has extended because of early and distant metastasis. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 3.Figure 4. PMID:13691372

Castaares, Salvador

1961-01-01

428

Tandir burns: a severe cause of burns in rural Turkey.  

PubMed

Tandir is the name given to an oven used for baking bread in the eastern and south-eastern part of Anatolia. Tandir burn is a special kind of burns in which primarily women and small children fall in it and have deep extensive burns (TBSA %). The records of 60 patients with tandir burn who were treated in our Burn Center from September 1999 to January 2006 were reviewed. The patients consisted of 9.2% of all burned patients. The mean age was 17.10 years (1-60 years) and 61.50% of the patients were female. The mean total body surface area (TBSA) burned was 21.09% (6-58) and 88% of the patients had third-degree burns. Eight of the patients underwent amputation of an extremity, 10 had fasciotomies, and 25 partial thickness skin grafts. The mean hospitalization period was 31.64 days (3-73 days). Fifteen patients (25%) died. Tandir burn is a severe kind of burn with a higher morbidity and mortality. PMID:17689872

Akay, Mfide Nuran; Oztrk, Grkan; Aydinli, Blent; Ozo?ul, Bnyamin

2008-03-01

429

Burning Buried Sunshine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article discusses the results of a mathematical study on how efficiently the energy of the sun is converted into fossil fuels. It points out that plants convert the sun's energy in to carbon, which is the basic constituent of natural gas, oil, and coal. However, the process is inefficient in that only about 9 percent of the carbon in the original plants is converted into the form of coal, and even less remains in oil or gas. As a way of pointing out the unsustainability of fossil fuels as an energy source, the study estimates that fossil fuel deposits accumulated over the last 500 million years have provided an ample and relatively cheap energy source for only the past 250 years.

430

Chlorine in coal and its relationship with boiler corrosion. Technical report, 1 March--31 May 1994  

SciTech Connect

Limited literature and use history data have suggested that some high-chlorine Illinois coals do not cause boiler corrosion while extensive data developed by the British correlate corrosion with chlorine content and other parameters related to the coal and boiler. The differences in corrosivity in coals may be due to the coal properties, to blending of coals, or to the boiler parameters in which they were burned. The goals of this study focus on coal properties. In this quarter, both destructive temperature-programmed Thermogravimetry with Fourier transform infrared (TGA-FTIR) and non-destructive X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) techniques were used to examine the forms and the evolution characteristics of chlorine in coals. The TGA-FTIR results indicate that under oxidation condition, both British and Illinois coals release hydrogen chloride gas. Illinois coals release the gas at high temperature with maximum evolution temperature ranged between 210 and 280 C. The XANES results indicate that chlorine in coal exists in ionic forms including a solid salt form. The solid NaCl salt form, however, is observed only in some of the British coals and none of the Illinois coals. These results combined with TGA-FTIR results suggest that the chlorine ions in Illinois coals are different from the chlorine ions in British coals.

Chou, M.I.M.; Lytle, J.M.; Ruch, R.R. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

431

Small boiler uses waste coal  

SciTech Connect

Burning coal waste in small boilers at low emissions poses considerable problem. While larger boiler suppliers have successfully installed designs in the 40 to 80 MW range for some years, the author has been developing small automated fluid bed boiler plants for 25 years that can be applied in the range of 10,000 to 140,000 lbs/hr of steam. Development has centered on the use of an internally circulating fluid bed (CFB) boiler, which will burn waste fuels of most types. The boiler is based on the traditional D-shaped watertable boiler, with a new type of combustion chamber that enables a three-to-one turndown to be achieved. The boilers have all the advantages of low emissions of the large fluid boilers while offering a much lower height incorporated into the package boiler concept. Recent tests with a waste coal that had a high nitrogen content of 1.45% demonstrated a NOx emission below the federal limit of 0.6 lbs/mm Btu. Thus a NOx reduction on the order of 85% can be demonstrate by combustion modification alone. Further reductions can be made by using a selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) system and sulfur absorption of up to 90% retention is possible. The article describes the operation of a 30,000 lbs/hr boiler at the Fayette Thermal LLC plant. Spinheat has installed three ICFB boilers at a nursing home and a prison, which has been tested on poor-grade anthracite and bituminous coal. 2 figs.

Virr, M.J. [Spinheat Ltd. (United States)

2009-07-15

432

Coal combustion science  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency (IEA) Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks include: coal devolatilization, coal char combustion, and fate of mineral matter during coal combustion. 91 refs., 40 figs., 9 tabs.

Hardesty, D.R. (ed.); Baxter, L.L.; Fletcher, T.H.; Mitchell, R.E.

1990-11-01

433

Ultrafine ash aerosols from coal combustion: Characterization and health effects  

SciTech Connect

Ultrafine coal fly-ash particles withdiameters less than 0.5 {mu}m typically comprise less than 1% of the total fly-ash mass. This paper reports research focused on both characterization and health effects of primary ultrafine coal ash aerosols alone. Ultrafine, fine, and coarse ash particles were segregated and collected from a coal burned in a 20 kW laboratory combustor and two additional coals burned in an externally heated drop tube furnace. Extracted samples from both combustors were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence(WD-XRF) spectroscopy, Moessbauer spectroscopy, and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. Pulmonary inflammation was characterized by albumin concentrations in mouse lung lavage fluid after instillation of collected particles in saline solutions and a single direct inhalation exposure. Results indicate that coal ultrafine ash sometimes contains significant amounts of carbon, probably soot originating from coal tar volatiles, depending on coal type and combustion device. Surprisingly, XAFS results revealed the presence of chromium and thiophenic sulfur in the ultrafine ash particles. The instillation results suggested potential lung injury, the severity of which could be correlated with the carbon (soot) content of the ultrafines. This increased toxicity is consistent with theories in which the presence of carbon mediates transition metal (i.e., Fe) complexes, as revealed in this work by TEM and XAFS spectroscopy, promoting reactive oxygenspecies, oxidation-reduction cycling, and oxidative stress. 24 refs., 7 figs.

William P. Linak; Jong-Ik Yoo; Shirley J. Wasson; Weiyan Zhu; Jost O.L. Wendt; Frank E. Huggins; Yuanzhi Chen; Naresh Shah; Gerald P. Huffman; M. Ian Gilmour [US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). National Risk Management Research Laboratory

2007-07-01

434

Coal-water slurry operation in an EMD diesel engine  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center has assumed a leadership role in the development of coal-burning diesel engines. The motivation for this work is obvious when one considers the magnitude of the domestic reserves of coal and the wide-spread use of diesel engines. The work reported in this paper represents the preliminary engine experiments leading to the development of a coal-burning, medium-speed diesel engine. The basis of this development effort is a two-stroke, 900 rpm, 216-mm (8.5-inch) bore engine manufactured by Electro-Motive Division of General Motors Corporation. The engine, in a minimally modified form, has been operated for several hours on a slurry of 50 percent (by mass) coal in water. Engine operation was achieved in this configuration using a pilot injection of diesel fuel to ignite the main charge of slurry. A standard unit injector, slightly modified by increasing diametrical clearances in the injector pump and nozzle tip, was used to inject the slurry. Under the engine operating conditions evaluated, the combustion efficiency of the coal and the NO/sub x/ emissions were lower than, and the particulate emissions were higher than, corresponding diesel fuel results. These initial results, achieved without optimizing the system on the coal slurry, demonstrate the potential for utilizing coal slurry fuels.

Urban, C.M.; Mecredy, H.E.; Ryan, T.W. III; Ingalls, M.N.

1988-01-01

435

Full cost accounting for the life cycle of coal.  

PubMed

Each stage in the life cycle of coal-extraction, transport, processing, and combustion-generates a waste stream and carries multiple hazards for health and the environment. These costs are external to the coal industry and are thus often considered "externalities." We estimate that the life cycle effects of coal and the waste stream generated are costing the U.S. public a third to over one-half of a trillion dollars annually. Many of these so-called externalities are, moreover, cumulative. Accounting for the damages conservatively doubles to triples the price of electricity from coal per kWh generated, making wind, solar, and other forms of nonfossil fuel power generation, along with investments in efficiency and electricity conservation methods, economically competitive. We focus on Appalachia, though coal is mined in other regions of the United States and is burned throughout the world. PMID:21332493

Epstein, Paul R; Buonocore, Jonathan J; Eckerle, Kevin; Hendryx, Michael; Stout Iii, Benjamin M; Heinberg, Richard; Clapp, Richard W; May, Beverly; Reinhart, Nancy L; Ahern, Melissa M; Doshi, Samir K; Glustrom, Leslie

2011-02-01

436

Coal burning leaves toxic heavy metal legacy in the Arctic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxic heavy metals emitted by industrial activities in the midlatitudes are transported through the atmosphere and deposited in the polar regions; bioconcentration and biomagnification in the food chain mean that even low levels of atmospheric deposition may threaten human health and Arctic ecosystems. Little is known about sources and long-term trends of most heavy metals before ≈1980, when modern measurements

Joseph R. McConnell; Ross Edwards

2008-01-01

437

Chemistry of Mercury Species and Their Control in Coal Combustion  

SciTech Connect

The objectives for this reporting period are: 1) The study of mercury capture mechanism by using titania sorbent and ultraviolet (UV) light, and the study of structural difference between titania particle generated by both thermal Oxidation at 1000EC and by reacting with water vapor at room temperature. 2) Measurement of ultra-fine particle size distribution in flue gas after burning coal.

None

1997-08-30

438

Western Countries' Neglect of Clean Coal Research Criticized  

Microsoft Academic Search

Western governments have been criticized by the Paris-based International Energy Agency for not spending enough money on research into ways of reducing the environmental damage caused by burning coal to produce electricity. In the report on the energy research policies of its 20 member-countries - which include all the major Western industrialized nations apart from France - the agency says

David Dickson

1986-01-01

439

Mobilizable RDF/d-RDF burning program  

SciTech Connect

The Mobilizable RDF/d-RDF Burning Program was conceived to promote the utilization of refuse-derived fuels (RDF) as a supplement to existing fossil fuel sources in industrial-sized boilers. The program explores the design, development, and eventual construction of densified-RDF (d-RDF) for use in boiler combustion testing as a supplement to stoker coal or wood wastes. The equipment would be mounted on trailers and assembled and operated at preselected sites throughout the country where approximately 750 tons of RDF would be produced and test burned in a local boiler. The equipment, to include a transportable RDF boiler metering and feed system, would then be moved and operated at two to three test sites annually. The program is intended to encourage the construction of permanent resource recovery facilities by involving local waste handling groups in operating the equipment and producing fuel, and potential local fuel users in testing the fuel in their boilers. The Mobilizable Program was developed from two separate tasks. The first task developed the concept behind the program and defined its operational and organizational structure. The second task, a follow-up to the first, was intended principally to finalize test locations, develop equipment designs and specifications, and formalize a management program. This report summarizes the principal findings of both tasks. It identifies the criteria used to identify test locations, outlines the program's management structure, presents design and performance specifications for both the fuel production equipment and boiler fuel feed systems, and provides a detailed evaluation of the parameters involved in burning RDF in industrial-sized boilers. Final conclusions and recommendations identify problem areas encountered in the program, and discuss possible future directions for such a program.

Niemann, K.; Campbell, J.

1982-03-01

440

INFLUENCE OF FUEL COMPOSITION ON NITRIC OXIDE FORMATION IN MASS-BURNING STOKERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The article gives results of testing seven coals of varying rank in an experimental mass-burning simulation to assess general nitric oxide (NO) emission characteristics. The fuels were compared to ascertain a relationship between NO emissions, fuel nitrogen content, nitrogen vola...

441

Western coal marketing days  

SciTech Connect

Fifteen papers were presented covering the following: the outlook for Powder River Basin Coals; markets for medium-range Western coals; outlook for domestic coal sales; Canada - the reliable coal supplier; coal requirements and procurement policies; coal procurement at Nevada Power Co; Nebraska Public Power District coal fired power plants - specifications and projections; NSP and its fuel needs; coal procurement at Grand River Dam Authority; Son of OPEC: Western Fuels and its coal contracting procedures; an update of the coal supply and demand situation of China Light and Power Co. Ltd; maximum rate guidelines - deja vu or the real thing.; Western coal shippers concerns; domestic and export movements; 1984-eleven years later. Most of the papers are in the form of transcripts.

Dahle, H.

1983-01-01

442

Coal-water slurry and method for its preparation  

SciTech Connect

A pipeline pumpable coal-water slurry having a novel combination of coal particles and carrier water is prepared by a method wherein the particle sizes and their distribution are controlled in accordance with a particle size distribution formula which is especially beneficial for providing a novel coal compact with a minimum amount of void space between particles and a maximum amount of particle surface area with an advantageous amount of colloidal sized particles present. These features combine to enhance the dispersing effects generated by electrolytes and/or dispersing agents selected and added to the coal compact and/or slurry to provide a near maximum zeta potential to the particles in the slurry and to provide low viscosity to the resulting yield pseudoplastic coal-water slurry. Brookfield viscosities obtained, e.g., 1000 cps, or less, at 60 rpm with 75 wt. % coal, dry basis, make the coal-water slurry especially advantageous for transport by pipeline over long distances. The coal-water slurry can be provided at a high coal content so that the slurry can be burned directly without need for dewatering at its destination.

Funk, J.E.

1981-08-04

443

Marginally Stable Nuclear Burning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermonuclear X-ray bursts result from unstable nuclear burning of the material accreted on neutron stars in some low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). Theory predicts that close to the boundary of stability oscillatory burning can occur. This marginally stable regime has so far been identified in only a small number of sources. We present Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations of the bursting, high- inclination LMXB 4U 1323-619 that reveal for the first time in this source the signature of marginally stable burning. The source was observed during two successive RXTE orbits for approximately 5 ksec beginning at 10:14:01 UTC on March 28, 2011. Significant mHz quasi- periodic oscillations (QPO) at a frequency of 8.1 mHz are detected for approximately 1600 s from the beginning of the observation until the occurrence of a thermonuclear X-ray burst at 10:42:22 UTC. The mHz oscillations are not detected following the X-ray burst. The average fractional rms amplitude of the mHz QPOs is 6.4% (3 - 20 keV), and the amplitude increases to about 8% below 10 keV.This phenomenology is strikingly similar to that seen in the LMXB 4U 1636-53. Indeed, the frequency of the mHz QPOs in 4U 1323-619 prior to the X-ray burst is very similar to the transition frequency between mHz QPO and bursts found in 4U 1636-53 by Altamirano et al. (2008). These results strongly suggest that the observed QPOs in 4U 1323-619 are, like those in 4U 1636-53, due to marginally stable nuclear burning. We also explore the dependence of the energy spectrum on the oscillation phase, and we place the present observations within the context of the spectral evolution of the accretion-powered flux from the source.

Strohmayer, Tod E.; Altamirano, D.