These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

PARTICULATE COLLECTION PROBLEMS IN CONVERTING TO LOW SULFUR COALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Problems encountered in burning low-sulfur coal in electrical utility power plant boilers are discussed. Operating experience with electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), fabric filter baghouses, and wet scrubbers for control of fly ash stack emissions and techniques for improving pe...

2

Abundance and modes of occurrence of mercury in some low-sulfur coals from China  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mercury (Hg) is one of the hazardous trace elements in coal. Mercury in coal is almost totally emitted into the atmosphere during coal combustion. Especially for utilities burning low-sulfur coals that do not require scrubbers, Hg reduction will be neglected. Hg abundances of 52 low-sulfur coal samples from different coalfields in six provinces of China were determined by a flow injection mercury system (FIMS). The results show that Hg abundances in selected low-sulfur coals range from 0.03??ppm to 0.79??ppm, with an arithmetic mean of 0.24??ppm, which is higher than that of average Chinese coals (0.19??ppm). Correlation analysis and sequential extraction procedures are performed to study possible modes of occurrence of Hg in low-sulfur coals. Modes of occurrence of Hg are variable in low-sulfur coals, and the sulfide-bound and organic-bound Hg may be the dominant forms. In addition, the silicate-bound Hg may be the main form in some of these coals because of magmatic intrusion. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Zheng, L.; Liu, G.; Chou, C.-L.

2008-01-01

3

TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT REPORT FOR INDUSTRIAL BOILER APPLICATIONS: COAL CLEANING AND LOW SULFUR COAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The report assesses the use of three pollution control technologies--low sulfur coals, physical coal cleaning (PCC), and chemical coal cleaning (CCC)--to comply with SO2 emission regulations. It is one of a series to be used in determining the technological basis for a new source...

4

Catalytic hydrosolvation process converts coal to low-sulfur liquid fuel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Development of the catalytic hydrosolvation process for converting coal to low-sulfur fuel oil is described in this paper. Coal impregnated with catalyst was slurried with oil, and the mixture was hydrogenated at a temperature of 475 C, and 30 min residence time under 3600 psi pressure. A ton of coal yielded 3.5 bbl of fuel oil containing 0.2% sulfur, with naphtha and C1-C4 hydrocarbon gases as byproducts. A preliminary economic evaluation of the process indicated potential for further development.

Qader, S. A.

1978-01-01

5

PILOT PLANT STUDY OF CONVERSION OF COAL TO LOW SULFUR FUEL  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a program to develop, on bench and pilot scales, operating conditions for the key step in the IGT process to desulfurize coal by thermal and chemical treatment. This process, to date, uses the 'sulfur-getter' concept. (A sulfur-getter is a material tha...

6

Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification Task 3: SOx/NOx/Hg Removal for Low Sulfur Coal  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project was to develop a near-zero emissions flue gas purification technology for existing PC (pulverized coal) power plants that are retrofitted with oxycombustion technology. The objective of Task 3 of this project was to evaluate an alternative method of SOx, NOx and Hg removal from flue gas produced by burning low sulfur coal in oxy-combustion power plants. The goal of the program was to conduct an experimental investigation and to develop a novel process for simultaneously removal of SOx and NOx from power plants that would operate on low sulfur coal without the need for wet-FGD & SCRs. A novel purification process operating at high pressures and ambient temperatures was developed. Activated carbon??s catalytic and adsorbent capabilities are used to oxidize the sulfur and nitrous oxides to SO{sub 3} and NO{sub 2} species, which are adsorbed on the activated carbon and removed from the gas phase. Activated carbon is regenerated by water wash followed by drying. The development effort commenced with the screening of commercially available activated carbon materials for their capability to remove SO{sub 2}. A bench-unit operating in batch mode was constructed to conduct an experimental investigation of simultaneous SOx and NOx removal from a simulated oxyfuel flue gas mixture. Optimal operating conditions and the capacity of the activated carbon to remove the contaminants were identified. The process was able to achieve simultaneous SOx and NOx removal in a single step. The removal efficiencies were >99.9% for SOx and >98% for NOx. In the longevity tests performed on a batch unit, the retention capacity could be maintained at high level over 20 cycles. This process was able to effectively remove up to 4000 ppm SOx from the simulated feeds corresponding to oxyfuel flue gas from high sulfur coal plants. A dual bed continuous unit with five times the capacity of the batch unit was constructed to test continuous operation and longevity. Full-automation was implemented to enable continuous operation (24/7) with minimum operator supervision. Continuous run was carried out for 40 days. Very high SOx (>99.9%) and NOx (98%) removal efficiencies were also achieved in a continuous unit. However, the retention capacity of carbon beds for SOx and NOx was decreased from ~20 hours to ~10 hours over a 40 day period of operation, which was in contrast to the results obtained in a batch unit. These contradictory results indicate the need for optimization of adsorption-regeneration cycle to maintain long term activity of activated carbon material at a higher level and thus minimize the capital cost of the system. In summary, the activated carbon process exceeded performance targets for SOx and NOx removal efficiencies and it was found to be suitable for power plants burning both low and high sulfur coals. More efforts are needed to optimize the system performance.

Monica Zanfir; Rahul Solunke; Minish Shah

2012-06-01

7

Fluidized coal combustion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fluidized-bed coal combustion process, in which pulverized coal and limestone are burned in presence of forced air, may lead to efficient, reliable boilers with low sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide emissions.

Moynihan, P. I.; Young, D. L.

1979-01-01

8

Controls on boron and germanium distribution in the low-sulfur Amos coal bed, Western Kentucky coalfield, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Duckmantian-aged Amos coal bed is a thin (<51 cm) coal bed that occurs in lobate southwest-trending pods separated by thin sandstones in the Western Kentucky coalfield. The coal bed, which is comprised of up to two benches and a rider coal, is low in ash yield (<6%) and sulfur content (<1%). The coal tends to be thin (<40 cm), but it was heavily mined in the 1980s because it could be combusted as mined. Geochemical analysis of the Amos coal bed shows higher concentrations of B and Ge than other Western Kentucky coal beds. High total B concentrations as well as high B/Be, both considered to be indicators of marine environments, increase toward the top of the coal bed. Most of the B values for the Amos samples range from 66 to 103 ppm (whole coal basis) indicating deposition in a brackish environment. High Ge concentrations in coals have been considered to be a function of seam thickness and proximity to the top and bottom of the coal bed. Thin coals, such as the Amos, are dominated by the coal bed margins and, therefore, have a tendency to have relatively high Ge concentrations. In the case of the Amos coal bed, the lower bench has a higher Ge content, suggesting that the substrate was a more important source of Ge than the roof rock. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Hower, J.C.; Ruppert, L.F.; Williams, D.A.

2002-01-01

9

Characterization of fly ash from low-sulfur and high-sulfur coal sources: Partitioning of carbon and trace elements with particle size  

SciTech Connect

Fly ash samples were collected in November and December of 1994, from generating units at a Kentucky power station using high- and low-sulfur feed coals. The samples are part of a two-year study of the coal and coal combustion byproducts from the power station. The ashes were wet screened at 100, 200, 325, and 500 mesh (150, 75, 42, and 25 {micro}m, respectively). The size fractions were then dried, weighed, split for petrographic and chemical analysis, and analyzed for ash yield and carbon content. The low-sulfur heavy side and light side ashes each have a similar size distribution in the November samples. In contrast, the December fly ashes showed the trend observed in later months, the light-side ash being finer (over 20% more ash in the {minus}500 mesh [{minus}25 {micro}m] fraction) than the heavy-side ash. Carbon tended to be concentrated in the coarse fractions in the December samples. The dominance of the {minus}325 mesh ({minus}42 {micro}m) fractions in the overall size analysis implies, though, that carbon in the fine sizes may be an important consideration in the utilization of the fly ash. Element partitioning follows several patterns. Volatile elements, such as Zn and As, are enriched in the finer sizes, particularly in fly ashes collected at cooler, light-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) temperatures. The latter trend is a function of precipitation at the cooler-ESP temperatures and of increasing concentration with the increased surface area of the finest fraction. Mercury concentrations are higher in high-carbon fly ashes, suggesting Hg adsorption on the fly ash carbon. Ni and Cr are associated, in part, with the spinel minerals in the fly ash.

Hower, J.C.; Trimble, A.S. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research]|[Franklin County High School, Frankfort, KY (United States); Eble, C.F. [Kentucky Geological survey, Lexington, KY (United States); Palmer, C.A.; Kolker, A. [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)

1999-07-01

10

Characterization of fly ash from low-sulfur and high-sulfur coal sources: Partitioning of carbon and trace elements with particle size  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fly ash samples were collected in November and December of 1994, from generating units at a Kentucky power station using high- and low-sulfur feed coals. The samples are part of a two-year study of the coal and coal combustion byproducts from the power station. The ashes were wet screened at 100, 200, 325, and 500 mesh (150, 75, 42, and 25 ??m, respectively). The size fractions were then dried, weighed, split for petrographic and chemical analysis, and analyzed for ash yield and carbon content. The low-sulfur "heavy side" and "light side" ashes each have a similar size distribution in the November samples. In contrast, the December fly ashes showed the trend observed in later months, the light-side ash being finer (over 20 % more ash in the -500 mesh [-25 ??m] fraction) than the heavy-side ash. Carbon tended to be concentrated in the coarse fractions in the December samples. The dominance of the -325 mesh (-42 ??m) fractions in the overall size analysis implies, though, that carbon in the fine sizes may be an important consideration in the utilization of the fly ash. Element partitioning follows several patterns. Volatile elements, such as Zn and As, are enriched in the finer sizes, particularly in fly ashes collected at cooler, light-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) temperatures. The latter trend is a function of precipitation at the cooler-ESP temperatures and of increasing concentration with the increased surface area of the finest fraction. Mercury concentrations are higher in high-carbon fly ashes, suggesting Hg adsorption on the fly ash carbon. Ni and Cr are associated, in part, with the spinel minerals in the fly ash. Copyright ?? 1999 Taylor & Francis.

Hower, J. C.; Trimble, A. S.; Eble, C. F.; Palmer, C. A.; Kolker, A.

1999-01-01

11

New Technologies for Burning Coal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This pamphlet describes some of the advanced technology being developed for coal combustion. It outlines an ongoing cooperative effort between government, industry, and academia to develop a new generation of coal combustion and related technologies - tec...

1982-01-01

12

Did the 1977 Amendment to the Clean Air Act eliminate the low-sulfur coal incentive for electric power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1970 Clean Air Act and its 1977 Amendment affected many industries, including the electric power industry. In particular, regulations limiting sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) emissions forced utilities to alter their decisions regarding coal-fired generating plants. The Clean Air Act and its Amendment effectively created three classes of coal-fired plants with varying degrees of SO[sub 2] reduction mandates depending on

2009-01-01

13

A novel coal feeder for production of low sulfur fuel. Annual technical progress report, October 1, 1990--October 1, 1991  

SciTech Connect

A dual-screw feeder was designed for desulfurization of coal. This reactor contains two screw tubes, the inner tube acting as a coal pyrolizer and the outer tube acting as a desulfurizer with hot calcined lime pellets or other renewable sorbent pellets. The objectives of this project is to study the feasibility of an advanced concept of desulfurization and possibly some denitrification in this coal feeder. In this year, two basic studies have been performed: (1) the desulfurization and (2) the denitrification due to mild pyrolysis. Specifically, the following tasks have been performed: (1) Setting up the Dual-Screw reactor, (2) Determination of the pyrolysis product and the sulfur distribution in char, tar and gas based on experimental data, (3) Study of the devolatilization, the desulfurization kinetics and the denitrification kinetics and obtaining the basic kinetic parameters, (4) Study of the sulfur removal efficiency of lime pellets fed into the outer tube of the dual-feeder reactor, (5) Study of the effect of the coal particle size on pyrolysis and desulfurization, (6) Study of the coal pyrolysis and desulfurization using a TGA(Thermal Gravimetric Analyzer).

Khang, S.J.; Lin, L.; Keener, T.C.; Yeh, P.

1991-12-31

14

Production of low-sulfur binder pitch from high-sulfur Illinois coals. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to produce electrode binder pitch with sulfur content below 0.6 wt% from high-sulfur Illinois coal mild gasification liquids. In this project, two approaches to sulfur reduction are being explored in conjunction with thermocracking: (1) the use of conventionally cleaned coal with low ({approximately}1%) sulfur as a mild gasification feedstock, and (2) direct biodesulfurization of the liquids prior to thermocracking. In Case 1, the crude pitch is being produced by mild gasification of IBC-109 coal in an existing IGT bench-scale reactor, followed by distillation of the scrubbing solvent and light-to-middle oils to isolate the crude pitch. In Case 2, the crude pitch for biodesulfurization is the same material previously studied, which was obtained from Illinois No. 6 coal tests conducted in the IGT mild gasification PRU in 1990. Biodesulfurization is to be performed by contacting the pitch with Rhodococcus Rhodochrous either as live cultures or in the form of concentrated biocatalyst. Following preparation of the crude pitches, pitch upgrading experiments are to be conducted in a continuous flash thermocracker (FTC) constructed in previous ICCI-sponsored studies. The finished pitch is then characterized for physical and chemical properties (density, softening point, QI, TI, coking value, and elemental composition), and compared to typical specifications for binder pitches. This quarter, 45 kg of IBC-109 coal was obtained and sized to 40 x 80 mesh for mild gasification. Laboratory experiments were conducted to identify means of dispersing or emulsifying pitch in water to render is accessible to biocatalysts, and exploratory desulfurization tests on one-gram pitch samples were begun.

Knight, R.A. [Inst. of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

1994-12-31

15

Baghouse installation on pulverized coal-fired boilers burning low-sulfur eastern coals at Michigan State University  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the study made to determine the suitability of installing baghouses for the power plant boilers. It outlines the basic design criteria of the baghouse filter system, lists special design features incorporated in the baghouses, and covers startup and operating experiences.

P. A. Nilsson; T. J. Heil; P. Dimitry

1980-01-01

16

From in-situ coal to fly ash: a study of coal mines and power plants from Indiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents data on the properties of coal and fly ash from two coal mines and two power plants that burn single-source coal from two mines in Indiana. One mine is in the low-sulfur (5%) Springfield Coal Member of the Petersburg Formation (Pennsylvanian). Both seams have comparable ash contents (?11%). Coals sampled at the mines (both raw and washed

Maria Mastalerz; James C Hower; Agnieszka Drobniak; Sarah M Mardon; Grzegorz Lis

2004-01-01

17

Burn-out of pulverised coal and biomass chars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The burn-out of carbon in pulverised fired power stations is commercially important. Interest in the burn-out of biomass chars is growing because biomass is increasingly being co-fired with coal to reduce the carbon dioxide emissions. The significance of carbon burn-out is that it is linked with the efficiency of the plant and the suitability of the coal ash for construction

R. I. Backreedy; J. M. Jones; M. Pourkashanian; A. Williams

2003-01-01

18

Speciation of Chromium in Feed Coals and Ash Byproducts from Canadian Power Plants Burning Subbituminous and Bituminous Coals  

SciTech Connect

The chromium species in the feed coals and ash byproducts from seven Canadian coal-fired power plants that were burning local subbituminous or bituminous coals with sulfur contents in the range of 0.30-3.5 wt % have been examined using Cr X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES). Chromium in the Canadian feed coals is always found as Cr{sup 3+} but generally has a dual occurrence, as Cr{sup 3+} is distributed to varying degrees between the clay mineral illite (Cr3+/illite) and a poorly crystallized chromium oxyhydroxide (CrOOH) phase associated with the organic fraction. In two subbituminous feed coals from Alberta, chromium is present largely as Cr{sup 3+}/illite, whereas in two other such coals, it is present predominantly as CrOOH. Chromium in a low-sulfur (0.50 wt %) bituminous feed coal from Alberta is found mostly as Cr{sup 3+}/illite, whereas for feed coals from Nova Scotia with high sulfur contents (2.60-3.56 wt %), chromium is distributed between both Cr{sup 3+}/illite and CrOOH. Very little chromium was found in the limestone used in a fluidized-bed combustor. The chromium species in most bottom ash samples from all seven combustion units is predominantly, if not entirely (>95%), Cr{sup 3+} associated with aluminosilicate phases. Chromium speciation for subbituminous electrostatic precipitator (ESP) fly ash is mostly Cr{sup 3+} (>95%), but in some cases, it is slightly less (>80%) and varies by sampling location at the plant. Chromium in fly ash from the combustion of bituminous feed coals is predominantly (>95%) Cr3+. A unique species of chromium found in one feed coal and an unrelated fly ash is metallic chromium (Cr0), similar to that in stainless steel. The occurrence of this form of chromium in these materials indicates contamination from machinery, such as the coal milling machine or possibly wearing down of stainless steel parts by the coal or ash. The observation of this unexpected contamination demonstrates the power and usefulness of X-ray absorption fine-structure (XAFS) spectroscopy for speciation determination.

Goodarzi,F.; Huggins, F.

2005-01-01

19

Thermal analysis study of the effect of coal-burning additives on the combustion of coals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal analysis is widely used in combustion research for both fundamental and practical investigations. Efficient combustion\\u000a of coals in cement industry is very important and necessary. In this research, the effects of three coal-burning additives\\u000a on burning behaviour of bituminous coal and anthracite were studied with the help of thermogravimetry (TG) and differential\\u000a scanning calorimetric (DSC) analysis. The kinetic study

L. Fangxian; L. Shizong; C. Youzhi

2009-01-01

20

Production of low sulfur binder pitich from high-sulfur Illinois coals. Quarterly report, 1 March 1995--31 May 1995  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to produce electrode binder pitch with sulfur content below 0.6 wt% from high-sulfur Illinois coal mild gasification liquids. Previously, flash thermocracking (FTC) was used to successfully upgrade the properties of mild gasification pitch, yielding a suitable blending stock for use as a binder in the production of carbon electrodes for the aluminum industry. However, in pitches from high-sulfur (4%) Illinois coal, the pitch sulfur content (2%) was still higher than preferred. In this project two approaches to sulfur reduction are being explored in conjunction with FTC: (1) the use of a moderate-sulfur (1.2%) Illinois coal as mild gasification feedstock, and (2) direct biodesulfurization of the liquids from high-sulfur coal prior to FTC. In Case 1, the liquids are being produced by mild gasification of IBC-109 coal in a bench-scale fluidized-bed reactor, followed by distillation to isolate the crude pitch. In Case 2, biodesulfurization with Rhodococcus Rhodochrous IGTS8 biocatalyst is being performed on crude pitch obtained from Illinois No. 6 coal tests conducted in the IGT MILDGAS PRU in 1990. Following preparation of the crude pitches, pitch upgrading experiments are being conducted in a continuous FTC reactor constructed in previous ICCI-sponsored studies. This quarter, mild gasification of IBC-109 coal was completed, producing 450 g of coal liquids, which were then distilled to recover 329 g of Case 1 crude pitch. Next month, the pitch will be subjected to FTC treatment and evaluated. Biodesulfurization experiments were performed on Case 2 pitch dispersed in l-undecanol, resulting in sulfur reductions of 15.1 to 21.4%. This was marginally lower than the 24.8% desulfurization obtained in l-dodecanol, but separation of pitch from the dispersant was facilitated by the greater volatility of l-undecanol.

Knight, R.A.

1995-12-31

21

Production of low-sulfur binder pitch from high-sulfur Illinois coals. Technical report, December 1, 1994--February 28, 1995  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to produce electrode binder pitch with sulfur content below 0.6 wt% from high-sulfur Illinois coal mild gasification liquids. In previous ICCI projects at IGT, flash thermocracking (FTC) was used to successfully upgrade the properties of mild gasification pitch, yielding a suitable blending stock for use as a binder in the production of carbon electrodes for the aluminum industry. However, in pitches from high-sulfur (4%) Illinois coal, the pitch sulfur content is still unacceptably high at 2%. In this project, two approaches to sulfur reduction are being explored in conjunction with FTC: (1) the use of conventionally cleaned coal with low ({approximately}1%) sulfur as a mild gasification feedstock, and (2) direct biodesulfurization of the liquids prior to FTC. In Case 1, the crude pitch is being produced by mild gasification of IBC-109 coal in an existing IGT bench-scale reactor, followed by distillation to isolate the crude pitch. In Case 2, the crude pitch for biodesulfurization was obtained from Illinois No. 6 coal tests conducted in the IGT mild gasification PRU in 1990. Biodesulfurization is to be performed by contacting the pitch with Rhodococcus Rhodochrous IGTS8 biocatalyst. Following preparation of the crude pitches, pitch upgrading experiments are to be conducted in a continuous FTC reactor constructed in previous ICCI-sponsored studies. The finished pitch is then characterized for physical and chemical properties (density, softening point, QI, TI, coking value, and elemental composition), and compared to typical specifications for binder pitches.

Knight, R.A.

1996-03-01

22

Cardowan coal mine explosion: experience of a mass burns incident.  

PubMed Central

A coal mine explosion 1700 feet (516 m) underground and two miles (3.2 km) from the pit head resulted in 40 casualties. Two hours elapsed between the explosion and the arrival of patients at hospital. Six patients suffered mechanical injuries, only one of which was life threatening. Thirty six suffered burns; in 18 over 15% of the total body surface area was affected. Nineteen patients had a mild respiratory upset requiring oxygen treatment. The average length of inpatient stay in those admitted was 24 days. Early assessment and treatment in the accident and emergency department was relatively simple because of the large proportion of burn injuries. Lack of communication between site and hospital made administration of the disaster difficult. PMID:6409324

Allister, C; Hamilton, G M

1983-01-01

23

Cardowan coal mine explosion: experience of a mass burns incident.  

PubMed

A coal mine explosion 1700 feet (516 m) underground and two miles (3.2 km) from the pit head resulted in 40 casualties. Two hours elapsed between the explosion and the arrival of patients at hospital. Six patients suffered mechanical injuries, only one of which was life threatening. Thirty six suffered burns; in 18 over 15% of the total body surface area was affected. Nineteen patients had a mild respiratory upset requiring oxygen treatment. The average length of inpatient stay in those admitted was 24 days. Early assessment and treatment in the accident and emergency department was relatively simple because of the large proportion of burn injuries. Lack of communication between site and hospital made administration of the disaster difficult. PMID:6409324

Allister, C; Hamilton, G M

1983-08-01

24

Burning of suspended coal-water slurry droplet with oil as combustion additive  

SciTech Connect

Coal-water slurries have been regarded as a potential substitute for heavy fuel oil. Various demonstrations of coal-water slurry combustion have been performed; however, a fundamental understanding of how the combustion process of a slurry fuel is enhanced is still not adequate. The combustion of coal-water mixture droplets suspended on microthermocouples has been investigated. It was found that droplets of lignite coal (which is a noncaking coal) burn effectively; however, droplets of bituminous coal (which is a caking coal) are relatively difficult to burn. During the heat-up of bituminous coal-water slurry droplets may turn to ''popcorn'' and show significant agglomeration. The incomplete combustion of coal-water slurry droplets in furnaces has been reported, and this is a drawback of this process. The objective of the present study is to explore the possibility of enhancing the combustion of coal-water slurry droplets with the use of a combustible emulsified oil.

Yao, S.C.; Manwani, P.

1986-10-01

25

Speciation of chromium in feed coals and ash byproducts from Canadian power plants burning subbituminous and bituminous coals  

SciTech Connect

The chromium species in the feed coals and ash byproducts from seven Canadian coal-fired power plants were examined using Cr X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy. Chromium in the Canadian feed coals is always found as Cr{sup 3+} but generally has a dual occurrence, as Cr{sup 3+} is distributed to varying degrees between the clay mineral illite and a poorly crystallized chromium oxyhydroxide phase associated with the organic fraction. In two subbituminous feed coals from Alberta, chromium is present largely as Cr{sup 3+}/illite, whereas in two other such coals, it is present predominantly as CrOOH. Chromium in a low-sulfur bituminous feed coal from Alberta is found mostly as Cr{sup 3+}/illite, whereas for feed coals from Nova Scotia with high sulfur contents, chromium is distributed between both Cr{sup 3+}/illite and CrOOH. Very little chromium was found in the limestone used in a fluidized-bed combustor. The chromium species in most bottom ash samples from all seven combustion units is predominantly, if not entirely, Cr{sup 3+} associated with aluminosilicate phases. Chromium speciation for subbituminous electrostatic precipitator fly ash is mostly Cr{sup 3+}, but in some cases, it is slightly lessand varies by sampling location at the plant. Chromium in fly ash from the combustion of bituminous feed coals is predominantlyCr{sup 3+}. A unique species of chromium found in one feed coal and an unrelated fly ash is metallic chromium, similar to that in stainless steel. The occurrence of this form of chromium in these materials indicates contamination from machinery, such as the coal milling machine or possibly wearing down of stainless steel parts by the coal or ash. The observation of this unexpected contamination demonstrates the power and usefulness of X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy for speciation determination. 35 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

Fariborz Goodarzi; Frank E. Huggins [Geological Survey of Canada-Calgary Division, Calgary, AB (Canada)

2005-12-01

26

Air Pollution as a Result of Coal Burning Power Plants: A Discussion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal has been used as an energy source for over one hundred years. While the general process used to transform coal into energy has gone relatively unchanged, people are now more than ever concerned about the pollution resulting from coal burning. Effects of this process include increased amounts of acid rain and smog. Legislation such as the Clean Air Act

Andrew Rosenbaum; Emil Crystal Ornelas

2006-01-01

27

The mining and burning of coal: effects on health and the environment.  

PubMed

Australia's coal conundrum is that all political parties say they are concerned about climate change while sanctioning an unprecedented expansion of coalmining and coal seam gas extraction in Australia. Australia's coal contributes to climate change and its global health impacts. Each phase of coal's lifecycle (mining, disposal of contaminated water and tailings, transportation, washing, combustion, and disposing of postcombustion wastes) produces pollutants that affect human health. Communities in which coalmining or burning occurs have been shown to suffer significant health impacts. The health and climate costs of coal are unseen, and when costs to health systems are included, coal is an expensive fuel. PMID:21929497

Castleden, William M; Shearman, David; Crisp, George; Finch, Philip

2011-09-19

28

The startup of coal injection on Bethlehem Steel`s Burns Harbor blast furnaces  

SciTech Connect

Despite the simplicity of operation and the excellent results from natural gas injection at Bethlehem Steel, there were concerns about future supply and price stability. Furthermore, the maximum projected gas rates still required coke consumption in excess of Burns Harbor`s coke production capacity. Thus in 1990 Bethlehem Steel entered into an agreement to participate in the DOE Clean Coal Technology demonstration project by installing a granular coal injection facility at Burns Harbor. This agreement called for a facility to be constructed which was capable of processing and injecting a wide range of coal types in either granular or pulverized form. Tests were to be conducted to assess the effects of a range of coal properties, coal sizing, and injection rates on a number of key blast furnace parameters. During all the transitioning from natural gas injection to coal injection and subsequent tests it was essential that the blast furnaces maintain their historic operating performance in support of the Burns Harbor Division`s product market requirements. Unlike many coal injection facilities, the Burns Harbor installation is owned by Bethlehem Steel and the operation and maintenance from raw coal unloading through the tuyeres is the responsibility of the Blast Furnace Department. As the authors will discuss, the start-up of this major installation involved significant challenges, the most critical of which was maintaining historically high blast furnace operating standards while commissioning a new facility and adapting the furnace process to coal injection.

Hill, D.G.; Strayer, T.J.; Durko, D.P.; Dwelly, M.J.

1996-12-31

29

Trace element distribution and mercury speciation in a pilot-scale coal combustor burning Blacksville coal  

SciTech Connect

A series of tests have been conducted on a nominal 500-pound-per-hour, pilot-scale combustion unit to characterize trace element emissions and mercury speciation. The coal fired during the testing was a Blacksville {number_sign}2, medium-sulfur coal, similar to that used by other researchers investigating mercury speciation. A description of the pilot unit operating conditions during the testing is provided. A summary of the gas/solid distribution of trace elements at various locations within the system, material balances, and baghouse removal efficiencies is also supplied. EPA Method 29 was used to determine trace element and speciated mercury concentrations before and after the baghouse. A comparison of these results with past trace element results from this unit and with the findings of other researchers who have used Blacksville coal is also presented. The pilot-scale combustion unit has been characterized in terms of trace element distribution during two tests while burning a medium-sulfur bituminous Blacksville coal. EPA sampling methodology at the inlet to the baghouse and at the stack was used. Results indicate that most of the elements are removed across the baghouse with the exception of mercury and selenium. Both of these elements were found predominantly in the vapor phase. The average mercury speciation revealed that the vapor-phase mercury was primarily in the oxidized form, which is consistent with the findings of other research with Blacksville coal. Material recoveries for most of the elements were very good. The average recovery for mercury further validates that this pilot unit will be a viable system for mercury sampling and control methods.

Hargis, R.A.; Pennline, H.W. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Federal Energy Technical Center

1997-12-31

30

Health effects of fluoride pollution caused by coal burning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently a huge amount of fluoride in coal has been released into indoor environments by the combustion of coal and fluoride pollution seems to be increasing in some rural areas in China. Combustion of coal and coal bricks is the primary source of gaseous and aerosol fluoride and these forms of fluoride can easily enter exposed food products and the

Mitsuru Ando; Mihoko Tadano; Shoji Yamamoto; Kenji Tamura; Shinji Asanuma; Toshikazu Watanabe; Takeshi Kondo; Shiro Sakurai; Rongdi Ji; Chaoke Liang; Xueqing Chen; Zhang Hong; Shouren Cao

2001-01-01

31

Process for clean-burning fuel from low-rank coal  

DOEpatents

A process for upgrading and stabilizing low-rank coal involving the sequential processing of the coal through three fluidized beds; first a dryer, then a pyrolyzer, and finally a cooler. The fluidizing gas for the cooler is the exit gas from the pyrolyzer with the addition of water for cooling. Overhead gas from pyrolyzing is likely burned to furnish the energy for the process. The product coal exits with a tar-like pitch sealant to enhance its safety during storage.

Merriam, Norman W. (Laramie, WY); Sethi, Vijay (Laramie, WY); Brecher, Lee E. (Laramie, WY)

1994-01-01

32

BLAST FURNACE GRANULAR COAL INJECTION AT BETHLEHEM STEEL'S BURNS HARBOR PLANT  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the demonstration of the British Steel\\/CPC-Macawber Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection (BFGCI) technology that was installed on the blast furnaces at Bethlehem Steel's Burns Harbor Plant in Indiana as a highly successful Clean Coal Technology project, cofunded by the U.S. Department of Energy. In the BFGCI process, granular coal (10%30% through a 200-mesh screen) is injected into

D. GREGORY HILL; LEO E. MAKOVSKY; THOMAS A. SARKUS; HOWARD G. McILVRIED

2004-01-01

33

Physical characterization of the cigarette coal: part 1smolder burn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphology of the coal from the smoldering cigarette was characterized using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy, and image analysis. The coal of the smoked cigarette was divided into four regions: the char positioned at and behind the char line of the cigarette paper, the coal base located just in

Vicki L Baliga; Donald E Miser; Ramesh K Sharma; Michael E Thurston; W. Geoffrey Chan; Mohammad R Hajaligol

2003-01-01

34

Low sulfur and ash fuel composition  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an improved low sulfur and ash pumpable fuel composition comprised of a carbon black-fuel oil admixture dispersed in an aqueous continuous phase, the carbon black-fuel oil admixture comprising from about 50 to about 80 weight percent of the fuel composition, the carbon black being present in the fuel composition in an amount of at least about 20 percent by weight and the weight ratio of the carbon black to the fuel oil ranging from about 1:3 to about 2:1.

Beshore, D.G.

1988-10-25

35

Coal burning rate studies. Final report, September 1, 1978-August 31, 1980  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of the work reported are: to obtain experimental data on the burning rate of individual coal particles in a bench scale fluidized bed; to develop a model of the burning rate of coal particles in a fluidized bed and compare the theory with the experimental data; and to investigate and analyze the unburned carbon carry-over from a bench scale fluidized bed. A six-inch diameter quartz-walled fluidized bed combustor with a 24 kW air preheater was built and operated. The heater uses 12 silicon carbide electrodes and delivers 30 SCFM at 1600 degrees F. Measurements of the burning rate and characteristic combustion times of a bituminous Kentucky coal, a sub-bituminous Montana coal, and a Texas lignite were conducted in a jet of heated gas and in a small externally heated fluidized bed. Reaction rate constants for the coal char were calculated and compared to theoretical diffusion and kinetic rate constants. Data were obtained on the amount and size distribution of unburned carbon carry-over from the combustion of single coal particles aerodynamically suspended in a heated jet of air/nitrogen. This setup simulated the flow conditions in a fluidized bed. Cascade impactor tests were also conducted. (LEW)

Ragland, K.W.

1980-11-01

36

Method of burning lightly loaded coal-water slurries  

DOEpatents

In a preferred arrangement of the method of the invention, a lightly loaded coal-water slurry, containing in the range of approximately 40% to 52% + 2% by weight coal, is atomized to strip water from coal particles in the mixture. Primary combustor air is forced around the atomized spray in a combustion chamber of a combustor to swirl the air in a helical path through the combustion chamber. A flame is established within the combustion chamber to ignite the stripped coal particles, and flame temperature regulating means are provided for maintaining the flame temperature within a desired predetermined range of temperatures that is effective to produce dry, essentially slag-free ash from the combustion process.

Krishna, C.R.

1984-07-27

37

Process for clean-burning fuel from low-rank coal  

DOEpatents

A process is described for upgrading and stabilizing low-rank coal involving the sequential processing of the coal through three fluidized beds; first a dryer, then a pyrolyzer, and finally a cooler. The fluidizing gas for the cooler is the exit gas from the pyrolyzer with the addition of water for cooling. Overhead gas from pyrolyzing is likely burned to furnish the energy for the process. The product coal exits with a tar-like pitch sealant to enhance its safety during storage. 1 fig.

Merriam, N.W.; Sethi, V.; Brecher, L.E.

1994-06-21

38

The Distribution of Tardigrades Upwind and Downwindof a Missouri Coal-Burning Power Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant differences occurred in the density of tardigrades, rotifers, and nematodes and the diversity of tardigrades between collecting sites located upwind and downwind from a coal-burning power plant in Missouri. The oak tree species and lichen genera also varied in the two areas. Tardigrade and rotifer densities were greater in upwind sites, whereas nematode density was higher in downwind samples.

Amber M. Hohl; William R. Miller; Diane R. Nelson

2001-01-01

39

Effects of surface voids on burning rate measurements of pulverized coal at diffusion-limited conditions  

SciTech Connect

This research explores the effects of voids (pores on the particle surface that are deeper than their surface radius) on burning area at diffusion-limited combustion conditions. Scanning electron microscopy and digital processing of images of quenched particles were used to quantify surface void area, perimeter, and reacting void wall area for voids with diameters larger than 1 {micro}m. After careful analysis, the most accurate determination of particle burning area at diffusion-limited conditions was achieved by measuring particle surface area using the technique of discrete revolution, subtracting surface void area, and adding reacting void wall area. In situ measurements of reacting coal particle temperatures and images were taken for three coals and spherocarb particles at conditions that limit the formation of CO{sub 2} from reacting carbon under various oxygen concentrations and heating rates. The results of these experiments indicate that correcting the measured surface area for void area and reacting void wall area produces calculated burning rates closely matching diffusion-limited burning rates for all conditions and all coals investigated. These results suggest that void area effects should be included for accurate determination of burning area at diffusion-limited conditions.

Bayless, D.J.; Schroeder, A.R.; Peters, J.E.; Buckius, R.O. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering] [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering

1997-01-01

40

An experimental study of temperature of burning coal particle in fluidized bed  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to investigate the temperature of coal particle during combustion in fluidized bed (FB). It is necessary to know the coal particle temperature in order to predict kinetics of chemical reactions within and at the surface of coal particle, accurate NOx and SO{sub 2} emission, fragmentation, attrition, the possibility of ash melting, etc. The experimental investigations were conducted in order to obtain the reliable data on the temperature of particle burning in the FB. A method using thermocouple was developed and applied for measurements. Thermocouple was inserted in the center of the particle shaped into spherical form with various diameters: 5, 7, 8, and 10 mm. Two characteristic types of low-rank Serbian coals were investigated. Experiments were done at the FB temperature in the range of 590-710{sup o}C. Two types of experiments were performed: (I) combustion using air as fluidization gas and (ii) devolatilization with N{sub 2} followed by combustion of obtained char in air. The temperature histories of particles during all stages after introducing in the FB were analyzed. Temperature difference between the burning particle and the FB was defined as a criterion, for comparison. It was shown that the temperature profile depends on the type of the coal and the particle size. The higher temperature difference between the burning particle and the FB was obtained for smaller particles and for lignite (130-180{sup o}C) in comparison to the brown coal (70-130{sup o}C). The obtained results indicated that a primary role in the temperature history of coal particle have the mass and heat transfer through combusting particle. 24 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Mirko Komatina; Vasilije Manovic; Dragoljub Dakic [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

2006-02-01

41

Baked shale and slag formed by the burning of coal beds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The baking and reddening of large masses of strata caused by the burning of coal beds is a striking feature of the landscape in most of the great western coal-bearing areas. The general character and broader effects of the burning have been described by many writers, but the fact that in places enough heat is generated to fuse and thoroughly recrystallize the overlying shale and sandstone has received less attention. Some of the natural slags thus formed simulate somewhat abnormal igneous rocks, but others consist largely of rare and little known minerals. A wide range in the mineral composition of such slags is to be expected, depending on the composition of the original sediment and the conditions of fusion and cooling. These products of purely thermal metamorphism offer a fertile field for petrologic investigation. The writer has observed the effects produced by the burning of coal beds in several localities in Montana, particularly along upper Tongue River in the southern part of the State, in the district lying southeast of the mouth of Bighorn River, and in the Little Sheep Mountain coal field north of Miles City. A number of specimens of the rock formed have been examined under the microscope, though time has not been available for a systematic examination. The writer is greatly indebted to Mr. E. S. Larsen for assistance in the study of some of the minerals.

Rogers, G. Sherburne

1918-01-01

42

Particle and gas emissions from a simulated coal-burning household fire pit  

SciTech Connect

An open fire was assembled with firebricks to simulate the household fire pit used in rural China, and 15 different coals from this area were burned to measure the gaseous and particulate emissions. Particle size distribution was studied with a microorifice uniform-deposit impactor (MOUDI). Over 90% of the particulate mass was attributed to sub-micrometer particles. The carbon balance method was used to calculate the emission factors. Emission factors for four pollutants (particulate matter, CO{sub 2}, total hydrocarbons, and NOx) were 2-4 times higher for bituminous coals than for anthracites. In past inventories of carbonaceous emissions used for climate modeling, these two types of coal were not treated separately. The dramatic emission factor difference between the two types of coal warrants attention in the future development of emission inventories. 25 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

Linwei Tian; Donald Lucas; Susan L. Fischer; S. C. Lee; S. Katharine Hammond; Catherine P. Koshland [University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). School of Public Health

2008-04-01

43

Company installing fluid-bed boiler to burn high-sulfur coal  

SciTech Connect

A B.F. Goodrich chemical plant will burn high-sulfur Illinois coal in a new $21.3 million fluidized-bed boiler for an estimated saving of $3 million in the first year and a conservative payback estimate of four years. As one of few user-funded installations, the company anticipates additional installations in other plants if the technology proves itself. The boiler will use an estimated 50,000 tons of Illinois high-sulfur coal a year and 14,000 tons of state limestone. The boiler will more than double labor costs, triple maintenance costs, and quadruple electricity costs, while reducing gas consumption by over 22%.

Galvin, C.

1984-01-23

44

The effects of technological change, experience and environmental regulation on the construction of coal-burning generating units  

E-print Network

This paper provides an empirical analysis of the technological, regulatory and organizational factors that have influenced the costs of building coal-burning steam-electric generating units over the past twenty year. We ...

Joskow, Paul L.

1984-01-01

45

Fire-Tube Boiler Test Burn on Coal-Water Fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER), in cooperation with the University of Alabama (UA) and the Mining Division of Jim Walter Resources, Inc. (JWRI), was awarded a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contract to retrofit an existing fire-tube boiler to burn coal-water fuel (CWF) A fire-tube boiler on the UA campus was retrofitted, and the CWF was made from

BRADLEY MITCHEL HALE; DAVID W. ARNOLD

1998-01-01

46

The potential role of lung microbiota in lung cancer attributed to household coal burning exposures.  

PubMed

Bacteria influence site-specific disease etiology and the host's ability to metabolize xenobiotics, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Lung cancer in Xuanwei, China has been attributed to PAH-rich household air pollution from burning coal. This study seeks to explore the role of lung microbiota in lung cancer among never smoking Xuanwei women and how coal burning may influence these associations. DNA from sputum and buccal samples of never smoking lung cancer cases (n?=?8, in duplicate) and controls (n?=?8, in duplicate) in two Xuanwei villages was extracted using a multi-step enzymatic and physical lysis, followed by a standardized clean-up. V1-V2 regions of 16S rRNA genes were PCR-amplified. Purified amplicons were sequenced by 454 FLX Titanium pyrosequencing and high-quality sequences were evaluated for diversity and taxonomic membership. Bacterial diversity among cases and controls was similar in buccal samples (P?=?0.46), but significantly different in sputum samples (P?=?0.038). In sputum, Granulicatella (6.1 vs. 2.0%; P?=?0.0016), Abiotrophia (1.5 vs. 0.085%; P?=?0.0036), and Streptococcus (40.1 vs. 19.8%; P?=?0.0142) were enriched in cases compared with controls. Sputum samples had on average 488.25 species-level OTUs in the flora of cases who used smoky coal (PAH-rich) compared with 352.5 OTUs among cases who used smokeless coal (PAH-poor; P?=?0.047). These differences were explained by the Bacilli species (Streptococcus infantis and Streptococcus anginosus). Our small study suggests that never smoking lung cancer cases have differing sputum microbiota than controls. Further, bacteria found in sputum may be influenced by environmental exposures associated with the type of coal burned in the home. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 55:643-651, 2014. 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24895247

Hosgood, H Dean; Sapkota, Amy R; Rothman, Nathaniel; Rohan, Thomas; Hu, Wei; Xu, Jun; Vermeulen, Roel; He, Xingzhou; White, James Robert; Wu, Guoping; Wei, Fusheng; Mongodin, Emmanuel F; Lan, Qing

2014-10-01

47

The use of medium volatile coals in the coking blend at the Burns Harbor Plant of Bethlehem Steel Corporation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an effort to maximize coke productivity and minimize the dependency on purchased coke supplies, Burns Harbor personnel began to consider the use of alternate coal blends which would increase both coke quality and coke yield and, consequently, decrease the outside coke requirements. In the past, Bethlehem, relied almost entirely on captive coal reserves and, as a result, coke plant

J. Downey; L. G. Benedict; A. D. Strauss

1993-01-01

48

Analysis of mass loss of a coal particle during the course of burning in a flow of inert material  

SciTech Connect

This paper is an attempt to explain the role of erosion during the process of coal combustion in a circulating fluidized bed. Different kinds of carbon deposits found in Poland, both bituminous as well as lignite with the particle of 10 mm in diameter were the subject of the research. According to many publications it is well known that erosion plays a significant role in coal combustion, by changing its mechanism as well as generating an additional mass loss of the mother particle. The purpose of this research was to determine the influence of an inert material on an erosive mass loss of a single coal particle burning in a two-phase flow. The determination of the influence of a coal type, the rate of flow of inert material and the temperature inside the furnace on the erosive mass loss of burning coal particle was also taken into consideration. The results obtained indicate that the velocity of the erosive mass loss depends on the chemical composition and petrographic structure of burning coal. The mechanical interaction of inert and burning coal particles leads to the shortening of the period of overall mass loss of the coal particle by even two times. The increase in the rate of flow of the inert material intensifies the generation of mass loss by up to 100%. The drop in temperature which slows down the combustion process, decreases the mass loss of the coal particle as the result of mechanical interaction of the inert material. As was observed, the process of percolation plays a significant role by weakening the surface of the burning coal. (author)

Pelka, Piotr [Czestochowa University of Technology, Department of Boilers and Thermodynamics, Armii Krajowej 19c, Czestochowa, Silesia 42-200 (Poland)

2009-08-15

49

The use of medium volatile coals in the coking blend at the Burns Harbor Plant of Bethlehem Steel Corporation  

SciTech Connect

In an effort to maximize coke productivity and minimize the dependency on purchased coke supplies, Burns Harbor personnel began to consider the use of alternate coal blends which would increase both coke quality and coke yield and, consequently, decrease the outside coke requirements. In the past, Bethlehem, relied almost entirely on captive coal reserves and, as a result, coke plant personnel could not make major modifications to the coal blend composition because of the limited number of captive coal types. However, as business conditions changed, Bethlehem, like many other integrated producers, began to divest itself from many of the captive coal reserves. This change in Corporate strategy changed the manner in which the coke plant personnel developed their business plan coal blends. Now, coke plant personnel could consider making major changes to the coal blend composition because of the larger selection of coals that was now available.

Downey, J.; Benedict, L.G.; Strauss, A.D. (Bethlehem Steel Corp., PA (United States))

1993-01-01

50

Burn coal cleanly in a fluidized bed - The key is in the controls  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) process produces few sulfur emissions, and can burn wood, municipal solid waste as well as every kind of coal available in the U.S. The presurized, coal-burning fluidized-bed reactor at NASA's Lewis Research Center is described, together with a discussion of the operating results. The FBC system at Lewis, having a completely instrumented reactor, is used to test turbine blade alloys for future power plant applications. With the same type of coal and limestone used in the first testing phase covering 136 hours, it was found that all NOx values were below the EPA standard of 0.7 lb/MBtu, whereas the maximum observed level of SO2 was above the EPA standard of 1.3 lb/MBtu, but with the average SO2 level, however, only 0.63 lb/MBtu. Unburned hydrocarbon and CO levels were very low, indicating combustion efficiencies of close to 99% in almost all tests. Testing is now underway using high temperature cyclones and gas turbine to eliminate erosion and corrosion effects which were observed after the initial tests on the turbine and blades.

Kobak, J. A.

1979-01-01

51

Burn  

E-print Network

ravenous with color: sage, pine, sun-yellow, and canyon-brown, the rich carnelian of a Mexican sunset. Lean, leggy, pink tongue wet and lolling, she stares me straight in the eye. Silver moonlight on her back, wildfire burning in her eyes... 1 Burn By Vivian Kathleen Johnson...

Johnson, Vivian Kathleen

2008-01-01

52

Urinary arsenic speciation and its correlation with 8-OHdG in Chinese residents exposed to arsenic through coal burning  

SciTech Connect

In contrast to arsenicosis caused by consumption of water contaminated by naturally occurring inorganic arsenic, human exposure to this metalloid through coal burning has been rarely reported. In this study, arsenic speciation and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels in urine were determined in the Chinese residents exposed to arsenic through coal burning in Guizhou, China, an epidemic area of chronic arsenic poisoning caused by coal burning. The urinary concentrations of inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and total arsenic (tAs) of high-arsenic exposed subjects were significantly higher than those of low-arsenic exposed residents. A biomarker of oxidative DNA damage, urinary 8-OHdG level was significantly higher in high-arsenic exposed subjects than that of low exposed. Significant positive correlations were found between 8-OHdG levels and concentrations of iAs, MMA, DMA and tAs, respectively. In addition, a significant negative correlation was observed between 8-OHdG levels and the secondary methylation ratio (DMA/(MMA + DMA)). The results suggest that chronic arsenic exposure through burning coal rich in arsenic is associated with oxidative DNA damages, and that secondary methylation capacity is potentially related to the susceptibility of individuals to oxidative DNA damage induced by arsenic exposure through coal burning in domestic living.

Li, X.; Pi, J.B.; Li, B.; Xu, Y.Y.; Jin, Y.P.; Sun, G.F. [China Medical University, Shenyang (China). Dept. for Occupational & Environmental Health

2008-10-15

53

Technical challenges in the design and operation of a circulating fluidized bed combustor burning waste coal  

SciTech Connect

The Air Products Cambria Cogeneration facility, located in Cambria County, Pennsylvania, was designed to burn 90 ton/hr bituminous coal refuse (gob) - a waste by-product from a coal preparation plant, in two circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustors, producing a net power output of 85 MW to Pennsylvania Electric Company and u to 15,000 lb/hr of low pressure extraction steam to a nearby nursing home for building heating and laundry service. The facility was successfully started up in March 1991 and has consistently achieved high plant availability since April 1991. This paper will discuss a number of technical challenges which we have overcome in the Cambria Cogen facility as well as some notable accomplishments that have been achieved at the facility.

Reed, M.R.; Dicker, J.M.; Gagliardi, C.R.; Sommerhalter, K.L.; Tsao, T.R.; Wang, S.I. (Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Environmental and Energy Div., Allentown, PA (US))

1992-01-01

54

An on-site experience with burning coal-oil mixtures in firetube boilers  

SciTech Connect

Industrial and commercial firetube packaged boilers are uniquely designed to use gas or oil fuel. Due to diminishing gas and oil resources, users and sellers of these fuels in the U.S.A. feel concerned about cost and availability. They are seeking a viable, easily adaptable technology to minimize dependency on current suppliers. Synfuels are produced on a small scale, but found uneconomical for immediate application. Therefore, an old concept, mixing powdered coal and fuel oil has been tried. Coal-oil mixtures (COMS) can be used as an alternate for fuel oil by making modifications in the existing boiler system. In this paper, the main focus is on the burning characteristics of COMS, chemistry of COMS with respect to combustion process, and discussion of deposit mechanism in typical firetube boilers. Various coal-oil mixtures were fired in a firetube boiler (Cleaver-Brooks 150 HP), rated at 2270 kg/hr. (5,000 lbs/hr.) steam output. Full firing rate was maintained at 25% excess of stoichiometric air for 8 to 10 hours. Coal macerals appear to play an important role in maintaining a stable combustion process. Flame behavior was observed to be similar to that with number 6 oil until deposits in the combustion chamber and back door became thick enough to block flue gas passage. Engineering design concepts were considered to reduce deposit build up.

Singh, S.N.; Love, D.P.; Provance, G.A.; Rangi, B.; Wright, R.

1983-01-01

55

Quantitative measurement of atomic sodium in the plume of a single burning coal particle  

SciTech Connect

The release of volatile sodium during coal combustion is a significant factor in the fouling and corrosion of heat transfer surfaces within industrial coal-fired boilers. A method for measuring the temporal release of atomic sodium from a single coal particle is described. Laser absorption was used to calibrate laser-induced fluorescence measurements of atomic sodium utilising the sodium D1 line (589.59 nm) in a purpose-designed flat flame environment. The calibration was then applied to planar laser-induced fluorescence measurements of sodium atoms in the plume from a single Victorian brown coal particle (53 mg) suspended within the flat flame. The peak concentration of atomic sodium was approximately 64.1 ppb after 1080.5 s, which appears to correspond to the end of char combustion. To our knowledge this is the first in situ quantitative measurement of the concentration field of atomic sodium in the plume above a burning particle. A simple kinetic model has been used to estimate the rate of sodium decay in the post-flame gases. Comparison of the estimated and measured decay rates showed reasonable agreement. (author)

van Eyk, P.J.; Ashman, P.J.; Alwahabi, Z.T. [Cooperative Research Centre for Clean Power from Lignite, School of Chemical Engineering, The University of Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia); Nathan, G.J. [School of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia)

2008-11-15

56

JV Task 126 - Mercury Control Technologies for Electric Utilities Burning Bituminous Coal  

SciTech Connect

The EERC developed an applied research consortium project to test cost-effective mercury (Hg) control technologies for utilities burning bituminous coals. The project goal was to test innovative Hg control technologies that have the potential to reduce Hg emissions from bituminous coal-fired power plants by {ge}90% at costs of one-half to three-quarters of current estimates for activated carbon injection (ACI). Hg control technology evaluations were performed using the EERC's combustion test facility (CTF). The CTF was fired on pulverized bituminous coals at 550,000 Btu/hr (580 MJ/hr). The CTF was configured with the following air pollution control devices (APCDs): selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit, electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization system (WFDS). The Hg control technologies investigated as part of this project included ACI (three Norit Americas, Inc., and eleven Envergex sorbents), elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) oxidation catalysts (i.e., the noble metals in Hitachi Zosen, Cormetech, and Hitachi SCR catalysts), sorbent enhancement additives (SEAs) (a proprietary EERC additive, trona, and limestone), and blending with a Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. These Hg control technologies were evaluated separately, and many were also tested in combination.

Jason Laumb; John Kay; Michael Jones; Brandon Pavlish; Nicholas Lentz; Donald McCollor; Kevin Galbreath

2009-03-29

57

OXIDATION OF MERCURY ACROSS SCR CATALYSTS IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS BURNING LOW RANK FUELS  

SciTech Connect

This is the seventh Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-03NT41728. The objective of this program is to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Argillon GmbH are providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, a model of Hg oxidation across SCRs was formulated based on full-scale data. The model took into account the effects of temperature, space velocity, catalyst type and HCl concentration in the flue gas.

Constance Senior

2004-10-29

58

PROCEEDINGS ON SYNCHROTRON RADIATION: Transfer characterization of sulfur from coal-burning emission to plant leaves by PIXE and XANES  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of coal-burning emission on sulfur in camphor leaves was investigated using Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and synchrotron radiation technique X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The PIXE results show that the sulfur concentrations in the leaves collected at the polluted site are significantly higher than those in controls. The Sulfur XANES spectra show the presence of organic (disulfides, thiols, thioethers, sulfonates and sulfoxides) and inorganic sulfur (sulfates) in the leaves. The inorganic sulfur in the leaves of camphor tree polluted by coal combustion is 15% more than that of the control site. The results suggest that the long-term coal-burning pollution resulted in an enhanced content of the total sulfur and sulfate in the leaves, and the uptake of sulfur by leaves had exceeded the metabolic requirement of plants and the excess of sulfur was stored as SO2-4. It can monitor the sulfur pollution in atmosphere.

Bao, Liang-Man; Zhang, Gui-Lin; Zhang, Yuan-Xim; Li, Yan; Lin, Jun; Liu, Wei; Cao, Qing-Chen; Zhao, Yi-Dong; Ma, Chen-Yan; Han, Yong

2009-11-01

59

Chemical and thermal variations in seeps discharged from a burning coal refuse pile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acid mine drainage generated by coal refuse piles is affecting the Moxahala watershed in Southeastern Ohio. The major contributor of acidity to this watershed is the Misco refuse pile. This pile was formed during the exploitation of the Misco Mine in Perry County, Ohio, in the early 1950's. In addition to the generation of acid mine drainage, the Misco Pile is burning. There is an impounded pond on the southwest end of the west gob pile, which was created when the valley was filled with refuse. The water from this pond flows into and throughout the gob pile and discharges on the northeast end into Bennet Run. At an elevation close to the elevation of the pond, two seeps are discharged. Temperature, specific conductivity, and pH was monitored in these seeps and correlated to rainfall. A lack of response of water temperature to small rainfall events was observed. This behavior suggest channeling of water inside the pile from the source pond to the main seep, and probably evaporation effects. In comparison, during high rainfall events, transfer of heat from the burning spots to the infiltrating water occurred and an increase in seep temperature was observed. A decrease in conductivity and an increase in pH was observed during the studied period as a dilution effect produced by an increased water storage within the pond and pile. Diurnal effects were stronger in the smaller seep, probably due to lower water velocities and greater residence time at the air-pile interface. From the location of the burning spots and seeps, a water velocity of 1 to 5 feet/s (0.3 to 1.7 m/s) was estimated. The pile can be viewed as a dual-porosity system of continuous conduits and matrix porosity. Only flow with sufficient head can penetrate and transfer heat from the hot areas in the matrix.

Lopez, D. L.; Doe, C. F.; Stuart, B. J.; Stoertz, M. W.

2002-12-01

60

Radiation impact from lignite burning due to 226Ra in Greek coal-fired power plants.  

PubMed

Lignite contains naturally occurring radionuclides arising from the uranium and thorium series as well as from 40K. Lignite burning is, therefore, one of the sources of technologically enhanced exposure to humans from natural radionuclides. Emissions from thermal power stations in gaseous and particulate form contain radioisotopes, such as 226Ra, that are discharged into the environment causing radiation exposures to the population. About 11,672 MBq y-1 of 226Ra are discharged into the environment from four coal-fired power plants totalling 3.62 GW electrical energy in the Ptolemais Valley, Northern Greece, in which the combustion of 1.1 x 10(10) kg of lignite is required to produce an electrical energy of 1 GW y. The collective committed equivalent dose to lung tissue per unit power generated resulting from atmospheric releases of 226Ra was estimated to be 1.1 x 10(-2) person Sv (GW y)-1; i.e. more than 15 times higher than the average value for a modern type coal-fired power plant according to the UNSCEAR 1988 data. PMID:8567285

Papastefanou, C

1996-02-01

61

Field application of a finite-element water-quality model to a coal seam with UCG burns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A two-dimensional finite-element model has been developed to study the flow of water and the transport of water-quality constituents associated with underground coal gastification (UCG) burns in a coal aquifer. The flow model calculates the piezometric head and seepage velocity distributions in the aquifer as a function of time. These outputs are fed into a water-quality model that takes into account the dispersion, decay, and adsorption characteristics of a particular water-quality constituent. These models can be used to study the movement of contaminants within an aquifer. The models have been verified for accuracy by checking their output against analytic solutions that are available for simple aquifer geometries. These programs have been applied to the Hanna UCG burns in Wyoming, U.S.A. Steady-state flows are assumed in the coal seam and the movement of a constituent is studied as a function of time as the five burns were completed. This study illustrates how the model can be used by water-resource managers to understand the environmental impact of UCG burns.

Contractor, Dinshaw N.; El-Didy, Sherif M. A.

1989-07-01

62

The deposition and burning characteristics during slagging co-firing coal and wood: modeling and numerical simulation  

SciTech Connect

Numerical analysis was used to study the deposition and burning characteristics of combining co-combustion with slagging combustion technologies in this paper. The pyrolysis and burning kinetic models of different fuels were implanted into the WBSF-PCC2 (wall burning and slag flow in pulverized co-combustion) computation code, and then the slagging and co-combustion characteristics (especially the wall burning mechanism of different solid fuels and their effects on the whole burning behavior in the cylindrical combustor at different mixing ratios under the condition of keeping the heat input same) were simulated numerically. The results showed that adding wood powder at 25% mass fraction can increase the temperature at the initial stage of combustion, which is helpful to utilize the front space of the combustor. Adding wood powder at a 25% mass fraction can increase the reaction rate at the initial combustion stage; also, the coal ignitability is improved, and the burnout efficiency is enhanced by about 5% of suspension and deposition particles, which is helpful for coal particles to burn entirely and for combustion devices to minimize their dimensions or sizes. The results also showed that adding wood powder at a proper ratio is helpful to keep the combustion stability, not only because of the enhancement for the burning characteristics, but also because the running slag layer structure can be changed more continuously, which is very important for avoiding the abnormal slag accumulation in the slagging combustor. The theoretic analysis in this paper proves that unification of co-combustion and slagging combustion technologies is feasible, though more comprehensive and rigorous research is needed.

Wang, X.H.; Zhao, D.Q.; Jiang, L.Q.; Yang, W.B. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ghangzhou (China)

2009-07-01

63

Advanced atomization concept for CWF (coal-water fuels) burning in small combustors  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work performed on the design, fabrication, and characterization of a new device for atomizing coal-water fuels (CWF). The device is described as an opposed-jet atomizer. Two diametrically opposed streams of CWF are directed toward each other at high velocity. Normal to the opposing streams of CWF a blast of air (referred to as cross-flow atomizing air) crosses the colliding streams causing atomization and directing the spray into the combustion zone of a combustor. It has been estimated that the opposed-jet atomizer should be able to produce a spray MMD (mass median diameter) approaching 10 microns, given a suitably fine CWF. This fine a spray should then allow CWF to burn in combustors that are smaller than those used today for CWF firing. The ARC research combustor is a 1--2 MMBTU/H tunnel-type'' furnace, and will be used for combustion testing of the new atomization device. This quarter, the ancilliary equipment required to operate the opposed-jet atomizer was to be procured and assembled. The major subsystems are: feed-system for the No. 2 fuel oil, propane burner (with feed systems for propane and combustion air), feed system for CWF, atomizing air feed system, secondary air feed system, and also cooling water for the jacketed atomizer. Each of these systems is currently operational. 5 tabs.

Not Available

1990-01-01

64

[The quality of voice in coal-miners after burn/inhalation injury due to methane explosion].  

PubMed

The job as a coal-miner exposes to the greatest risk. One of the most dangerous health hazard is a burn/inhalation injury during the methane explosion. The victims undergo physical trauma, effect of high temperature and inhalation of toxic gases and products of incomplete combustion, As a result of inhalation injury both, upper and lower airways are affected. The aim of the study was to analyse the relationship between burn/inhalation injury and quality of voice in affected coal-miners. A group of 23 patients (men) in age from 28 to 59 (mean 38.5) 3 years after burn/inhalation injury participated in this study. The voice evaluation based on ENT examination, videlaryngostroboscopy, acoustic analysis, MPT parameter and GRBAS analysis was performed. The special control group of coal-miners served as a control. On the basis of the subjective evaluation and the objective acoustic analysis, aerodynamic parameter and videlaryngostroboscopy the worse quality of voice in the group of injured coalminers was shown in comparison to the control group. No substantial correlation between the acoustic parameters, MPT parameter and ventilating rates was found. PMID:22500499

Orecka, Boguslawa; Sikora, ?ukasz; Misio?ek, Maciej; Fira, Rafa?; Mi?kiewicz-Orczyk, Katarzyna; Paluch, Zbigniew; Krzywiecki, Andrzej; Grzanka, Alicja; Namys?owski, Grzegorz

2012-01-01

65

Process for producing low-sulfur boiler fuel by hydrotreatment of solvent deashed SRC  

DOEpatents

In this invention, a process is disclosed characterized by heating a slurry of coal in the presence of a process-derived recycle solvent and passing same to a dissolver zone, separating the resultant gases and liquid/solid products therefrom, vacuum distilling the liquid/solids products, separating the portions of the liquid/solids vacuum distillation effluent into a solid ash, unconverted coal particles and SRC material having a boiling point above 850.degree. F. and subjecting same to a critical solvent deashing step to provide an ash-free SRC product. The lighter liquid products from the vacuum distillation possess a boiling point below 850.degree. F. and are passed through a distillation tower, from which recycled solvent is recovered in addition to light distillate boiling below 400.degree. F. (overhead). The ash-free SRC product in accompanyment with at least a portion of the process derived solvent is passed in combination to a hydrotreating zone containing a hydrogenation catalyst and in the presence of hydrogen is hydroprocessed to produce a desulfurized and denitrogenized low-sulfur, low-ash boiler fuel and a process derived recycle solvent which is recycled to slurry the coal in the beginning of the process before heating.

Roberts, George W. (Emmaus, PA); Tao, John C. (Perkiomenville, PA)

1985-01-01

66

Overburden characterization and post-burn study of the Hoe Creek, Wyoming underground coal gasification site and comparison with the Hanna, Wyoming site  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1978 the third test (Hoe Creek III) in a series of underground coal gasification (UCG) experiments was completed at a site south of Gillette, Wyoming. The post-burn study of the geology of the overburden and interlayered rock of the two coal seams affected by the experiment is based on the study of fifteen cores. The primary purpose of the

F. C. Ethridge; L. K. Burns; W. G. Alexander; G. N. II Craig; A. D. Youngberg

1983-01-01

67

Development, testing, and evaluation of MHD materials and component designs. Volume 5: Combustion technology, a review for development of coal burning equipment for advanced energy conversion systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need to develop a line of combustors capable of burning coal or coal related fuels for a variety of applications associated with advanced power generating equipment was identified. Also required are coal preparation, handling, and feeding equipment necessary for operating the facility, as well as the completely instrumented test stand needed for evaluation and development. This facility, if constructed with government funds, could be made available to other contractors for evaluation and development. The design of a complete coal handling processing and feeding system for a coal combustor is described. Also, designs for two stage combustors for the ETF-1, ETF-2, and ETF-3 are given.

Young, W. E.; Dilmore, J. A.

1980-11-01

68

PROCEEDINGS ON SYNCHROTRON RADIATION: Investigation of sulfur speciation in particles from small coal-burning boiler by XANES spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy was employed to study the speciation of sulfur in raw coal, ash by-product and fine particulate matter from a small coal-burning boiler. By means of least square analysis of the XANES spectra, the major organic and inorganic sulfur forms were quantitatively determined. The results show that about 70% of the sulfur in raw coal is present as organic and a minor fraction of the sulfur occurs as other forms: 17% of pyrite and 13% of sulfate. While in bottom ash, fly ash, and PM2.5, the dominant form of sulfur is sulfate, with the percentage of 80,79 and 94, respectively. Moreover, a number of other reduced sulfur including thiophenic sulfur, element sulfur and pyrrhotite are also present. During coal combustion, most of organic sulfur and pyrite were oxidized and released into the atmosphere as SO2 gas, part of them was converted to sulfate existing in coal combustion by-products, and a small part of pyrite was probably reduced to elemental sulfur and pyrrhotite. The results may provide information for assessing the pollution caused by small boiler and developing new methods for the control of SO2 pollution.

Bao, Liang-Man; Lin, Jun; Liu, Wei; Lu, Wen-Zhong; Zhang, Gui-Lin; Li, Yan; Ma, Chen-Yan; Zhao, Yi-Dong; He, Wei; Hu, Tian-Dou

2009-11-01

69

Rare earth elements in fly ashes created during the coal burning process in certain coal-fired power plants operating in Poland - Upper Silesian Industrial Region.  

PubMed

The subject of the study covered volatile ashes created during hard coal burning process in ash furnaces, in power plants operating in the Upper Silesian Industrial Region, Southern Poland. Coal-fired power plants are furnished with dust extracting devices, electro precipitators, with 99-99.6% combustion gas extracting efficiency. Activity concentrations ofTh-232, Ra-226, K-40, Ac-228, U-235 and U-238 were measured with gamma-ray spectrometer. Concentrations of selected rare soil elements (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Y, Gd, Th, U) were analysed by means of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Mineral phases of individual ash particles were identified with the use of scanning electron microscope equipped with EDS attachment. Laser granulometric analyses were executed with the use of Analyssette analyser. The activity of the investigated fly-ash samples is several times higher than that of the bituminous coal samples; in the coal, the activities are: 226Ra - 85.4 Bq kg(-1), 40 K-689 Bq kg(-1), 232Th - 100.8 Bq kg(-1), 235U-13.5 Bq kg(-1), 238U-50 Bq kg(-1) and 228Ac - 82.4 Bq kg(-1). PMID:20713303

Smolka-Danielowska, Danuta

2010-11-01

70

Escaping radioactivity from coal-fired power plants (CPPs) due to coal burning and the associated hazards: a review.  

PubMed

Coal, like most materials found in nature, contains trace quantities of the naturally occurring primordial radionuclides, i.e. of (40)K and of (238)U, (232)Th and their decay products. Therefore, the combustion of coal results in the released into the environment of some natural radioactivity (1.48 TBq y(-1)), the major part of which (99%) escapes as very fine particles, while the rest in fly ash. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides measured in coals originated from coal mines in Greece varied from 117 to 435 Bq kg(-1) for (238)U, from 44 to 255 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, from 59 to 205 Bq kg(-1) for (210)Pb, from 9 to 41 Bq kg(-1) for (228)Ra ((232)Th) and from 59 to 227 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K. Fly ash escapes from the stacks of coal-fired power plants in a percentage of 3-1% of the total fly ash, in the better case. The natural radionuclide concentrations measured in fly ash produced and retained or escaped from coal-fired power plants in Greece varied from 263 to 950 Bq kg(-1) for (238)U, from 142 to 605 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, from 133 to 428 Bq kg(-1) for (210)Pb, from 27 to 68 Bq kg(-1) for (228)Ra ((232)Th) and from 204 to 382 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K. About 5% of the total ash produced in the coal-fired power plants is used as substitute of cement in concrete for the construction of dwellings, and may affect indoor radiation doses from external irradiation and the inhalation of radon decay products (internal irradiation) is the most significant. The resulting normalized collective effective doses were 6 and 0.5man-Sv(GWa)(-1) for typical old and modern coal-fired power plants, respectively. PMID:20005612

Papastefanou, Constantin

2010-03-01

71

Coal and tire burning mixtures containing ultrafine and nanoparticulate materials induce oxidative stress and inflammatory activation in macrophages.  

PubMed

Ultra-fine and nano-particulate materials resulting from mixtures of coal and non-coal fuels combustion for power generation release to the air components with toxic potential. We evaluated toxicological and inflammatory effects at cellular level that could be induced by ultrafine/nanoparticles-containing ashes from burning mixtures of coal and tires from an American power plant. Coal fly ashes (CFA) samples from the combustion of high-S coal and tire-derived fuel, the latter about 2-3% of the total fuel feed, in a 100-MW cyclone utility boiler, were suspended in the cell culture medium of RAW 264.7 macrophages. Cell viability, assessed by MTT reduction, SRB incorporation and contrast-phase microscopy analysis demonstrated that CFA did not induce acute toxicity. However, CFA at 1mg/mL induced an increase of approximately 338% in intracellular TNF-?, while release of this proinflammatory cytokine was increased by 1.6-fold. The expression of the inflammatory mediator CD40 receptor was enhanced by 2-fold, the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) had a 5.7-fold increase and the stress response protein HSP70 was increased nearly 12-fold by CFA at 1mg/mL. Although CFA did not induce cell death, parameters of oxidative stress and reactive species production were found to be altered at several degrees, such as nitrite accumulation (22% increase), DCFH oxidation (3.5-fold increase), catalase (5-fold increase) and superoxide dismutase (35% inhibition) activities, lipoperoxidation (4.2 fold-increase) and sulfhydryl oxidation (40% decrease in free SH groups). The present results suggest that CFA containing ultra-fine and nano-particulate materials from coal and tire combustion may induce sub-chronic cell damage, as they alter inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters at the molecular and cellular levels, but do not induce acute cell death. PMID:23856402

Gasparotto, Juciano; Somensi, Nauana; Caregnato, Fernanda F; Rabelo, Thallita K; DaBoit, Ktia; Oliveira, Marcos L S; Moreira, Jos C F; Gelain, Daniel P

2013-10-01

72

Impact of petrographic properties on the burning behavior of pulverized coal using a drop tube furnace  

SciTech Connect

The combustion behavior of three Indian coals of different rank with wide variation in ash content and maceral compositions were studied using a drop tube furnace (DTF). Each coal was pulverized into a specific size (80% below 200 mesh) and fed into the DTF separately. The DTF runs were carried out under identical conditions for all of the coals. The carbon burnout was found out from the chemical analyses of the feed coals and the char samples collected from different ports of the DTF. Char morphology analyses was carried on the burnout residues of the top port. The top port results show better burnout of the lower rank coals which however was not observed in the last port. An attempt has been made to account for this variation in terms of rank and petrographic parameters of the respective coals. 20 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

S. Biswas; N. Choudhury; S. Ghosal; T. Mitra; A. Mukherjee; S.G. Sahu; M. Kumar [Jadavpur University, Dhanbad (India). Central Fuel Research Institute]. sb_cfri@yahoo.co.in

2007-12-15

73

7-29 A coal-burning power plant produces 300 MW of power. The amount of coal consumed during a one-day period and the rate of air flowing through the furnace are to be determined.  

E-print Network

7-11 7-29 A coal-burning power plant produces 300 MW of power. The amount of coal consumed during The heating value of the coal is given to be 28,000 kJ/kg. Analysis (a) The rate and the amount of heat inputs'tQQ The amount and rate of coal consumed during this period are kg/s48.33 s360024 kg10893.2 MJ/kg28 MJ101.8 6

Bahrami, Majid

74

Assessment of potential debris-flow peak discharges from basins burned by the 2002 Coal Seam fire, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

These maps present the results of assessments of peak discharges that can potentially be generated by debris flows issuing from the basins burned by the Coal Seam fire of June and July 2002, near Glenwood Springs, Colorado. The maps are based on a regression model for debris-flow peak discharge normalized by average storm intensity as a function of basin gradient and burned extent, and limited field checking. A range of potential peak discharges that could potentially be produced from each of the burned basins between 1 ft3/s (0.03 m3/s) and greater than 5,000 ft3/s (>141 m3/s) is calculated for the 5-year, 1-hour storm of 0.80 inches (20 mm). The 25-year, 1-hour storm of 1.3 inches (33 mm). The 100- year, 1-hour storm of 1.8 inches (46 mm) produced peak discharges between 1 and greater than 8,000 ft3/s (>227 m3/s). These maps are intended for use by emergency personnel to aid in the preliminary design of mitigation measures, and the planning of evacuation timing and routes.

Cannon, Susan H.; Michael, John A.; Gartner, Joseph E.

2003-01-01

75

Development of the technology of scandium extraction from the ash-slag waste of Kansk-Achinsk brown coal burning  

SciTech Connect

Kansk-Achinsk Brown Coal Basin is one of the largest of the world. The coals of separate fields of this Basin consists of an enhanced amount of rare-earth metals, scandium in particular. The results of the developments of efficient technologies for the extraction of this metal from the ash-slag waste of Kansk-Achinsk brown coal burning were discussed in the paper. A variety of the procedures was tested such as the sintering with the alkali followed by the treatment with water, the sintering with the sodium carbonate followed by the treatment with the HCl water solution, the extraction with HCl or sulphuric acids, etc. The extraction of other than scandium metals, such as Y, La, Nd, Yb, Gd, etc., were monitored as well. The scandium extraction with HCl solution was found to be the most appropriate procedure for the ash-slag studied. The kinetic parameters of the extraction with HCl were measured and the mechanism of the extraction process is discussed.

Pashkov, G.L.; Mikhnev, A.D. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation). Inst. of Chemistry and Chemico-Metallurgical Processes; Kontzevoi, A.A. [Ministry of Fuel and Energetics, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

1996-12-31

76

Burning of suspended coal-water slurry droplet with oil as combustion additive. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The combustion of single coal-water slurry droplet with oil as combustion additive (CWOM) has been studied. In this study, the droplet is suspended on a fine quartz fiber and is exposed to the hot combustion product of propane (C/sub 3/H/sub 8/) and air. The results are documented in a movie series. The combustion of CWOM with various combinations of concentrations are compared with that of coal-water slurry and water-oil mixture droplets. The combustion of coal-water slurry is enhanced significantly due to the presence of emulsified kerosene. The enhancement is also dependent upon the mixing procedure during preparation of CWOM. The presence of emulsified kerosene induces local boil-off and combustion that coal particles are splashed as fire works during the early evaporation stage of droplet heat-up. After particle splashing, blow-holes appear on the droplet surface. The popcorn and swelling phenomena usually occurred in coal-water-slurry combustion is greatly reduced. Significant combustion enhancement occurs with the use of kerosene in an amount of about 15 percent of the overall CWOM. This process of using kerosene as combustion additive may provide obvious advantage for the combustion of bituminous coal-water slurry. 4 references, 6 figures.

Yao, S.C.

1984-10-01

77

Health effects of arsenic, fluorine, and selenium from indoor burning of Chinese coal  

SciTech Connect

China's economy has developed rapidly in the last two decades, leading to an increase in energy consumption and consequently emissions from energy generation. Coal is a primary energy source in China because of its abundance and will continue to be used in the future. The dominance of coal in energy production is expected to result in increasing levels of exposure to environmental pollution in China. Toxic trace elements emitted during coal combustion are the main sources of indoor air pollution. They are released into the atmosphere mainly in the forms of fine ash and vapors and have the potential to adversely affect human health. Those trace elements, which volatilize during combustion, are hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and are particularly rich in Chinese coals. Among the HAPs, arsenic (As), fluorine (F), and selenium (Se) have already been identified as pollutants that can induce severe health problems. In this review, the geochemical characteristics of As, F, and Se, including their concentration, distribution, and mode of occurrences in Chinese coal, are documented and discussed. Our investigations have confirmed the current As- and F-induced epidemics in Guizhou (Southwest China) and Se epidemic in Hubei (Northeast China). In this study, diagnostic symptoms of arseniasis, fluorosis, and selenosis are also illustrated.

Guijian, L.; Liugen, Z.; DuzgorenAydin, N.S.; Lianfen, G.; Junhua, L.; Zicheng, P. [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei Anhui (China)

2007-07-01

78

Optimization of regimes for the feed of highly concentrated culm-anthracite coal dust for burning in a TPP-210A boiler  

SciTech Connect

Results are presented for regime adjustment of feed systems for a TPP-210A boiler for the burning of highly concentrated culm-anthracite coal dust. As compared with nonoptimal regimes, optimal regimes of high-concentration-feed systems improve the economy of the boiler by 1.7% on average.

L.V. Golyshev; G.A. Dovgoteles [JSC 'L'vovORGRES', L'vov (Ukraine)

2007-05-15

79

A. Kusiak and A. Burns, Mining Temporal Data: A Coal-Fired Boiler Case Study, Proceedings of International Conference, KES 2005, Melbourne, Australia, September 14-16, 2005, in R.  

E-print Network

A. Kusiak and A. Burns, Mining Temporal Data: A Coal-Fired Boiler Case Study, Proceedings of the 9 3683, Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, 2005, pp. 953-958. Mining Temporal Data: A Coal-Fired Boiler Case. This paper presents an approach to control pluggage of a coal-fired boiler. The proposed approach involves

Kusiak, Andrew

80

A comparative study of fly ash from coal-burning installations (PCC and FBC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The predicted substantial rise in coal consumption in the Netherlands in the last two decades of this century - from 8.4 million tonnes in 1985 to 35.0 in 2000 against 3.9 in 1975 - necessitates a concerted action to study the consequences of such an increase. In this TNO laboratory, research on the environmental aspects of fly ash emissions is

A. J. Gay; P. J. van Duin; A. P. von Rosentiel

1983-01-01

81

Effects of Prenatal Exposure to Coal-Burning Pollutants on Children's Development in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Environmental pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), lead, and mercury are released by combustion of coal and other fossil fuels. Objectives: In the present study we evaluated the association between prenatal exposure to these pollutants and child development measured by the Gesell Developmental Schedules at 2 years of age. Methods: The study was conducted in Tongliang, Chongqing, Chongqing,

Deliang Tang; Tin-yu Li; Jason J. Liu; Zhi-jun Zhou; Tao Yuan; Yu-hui Chen; Virginia A. Rauh; Jiang Xie; Frederica Perera

2008-01-01

82

REVIEW OF CONCURRENT MASS EMISSION AND OPACITY MEASUREMENTS FOR COAL-BURNING UTILITY AND INDUSTRIAL BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of concurrent particulate emissions and opacity measurements based on visual observations and/or in-stack transmissometry for more than 400 compliance, acceptance, or experimental tests on coal-fired utility and industrial boilers. The sampling, which inc...

83

Coal desulfurization by aqueous chlorination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of desulfurizing coal is described in which chlorine gas is bubbled through an aqueous slurry of coal at low temperature below 130 degrees C., and at ambient pressure. Chlorinolysis converts both inorganic and organic sulfur components of coal into water soluble compounds which enter the aqueous suspending media. The media is separated after chlorinolysis and the coal dechlorinated at a temperature of from 300 C to 500 C to form a non-caking, low-sulfur coal product.

Kalvinskas, J. J.; Vasilakos, N.; Corcoran, W. H.; Grohmann, K.; Rohatgi, N. K. (inventors)

1982-01-01

84

Fluoride and sulfur dioxide indoor pollution situation and control in coal-burning endemic area in Zhaotong, Yunnan, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presented study aims to investigate the gaseous fluoride and sulfur dioxide (SO2) pollution level in the kitchen, traditional flue-curing barn and outdoor environment and to find economically feasible method to reduce fluorine and sulfur release. The gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentrations in air of outdoor environment, kitchen and traditional flue-curing barn were determined in 56 households in coal-burning endemic fluorosis areas of Zhaotong. Among these, 21 households in Yujiawan Village, Zhenxiong County, Zhaotong City were chosen for this experiment to reduce gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentration in traditional flue-curing barn air by using calcined dolomitic siliceous limestone (CDSL) instead of clay mixed with coal. The result showed that: (1) gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentration in the outdoor air in Mangbu Township area was 0.51?gdm-2?day and <0.05mgm-3, respectively and in Xiaolongdong Township was 2.7?gdm-2day and <0.05mgm-3, respectively while in Zhaotong City these concentration were lower than the ambient air standard (3?gdm-2?day and 0.5mgm-3, respectively). (2) The indoor gaseous fluoride concentration (3.7?gm-3) in air of kitchen with the improved coal stove was within the reference value (10?gm-3); SO2 concentration (0.94mgm-3) in kitchen air had decline, but its concentration was still higher than indoor air quality standard (0.5mgm-3). (3) Average concentration of gaseous fluoride and SO2 in air of traditional flue-curing barn of Xiaolongdong Township was 7.2?gm-3 and 6.8mgm-3 respectively, and in Yujiawan village were 10.1?gm-3 and 14.4mgm-3, respectively. (4) After using the calcined dolomitic siliceous limestone instead of clay mixed with coal, gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentration in the traditional flue-curing barn air decreased of 45% and 91%, respectively. The gaseous fluoride and SO2 pollution in the traditional flue-curing barn is very serious. The corn and chili baked by open stoves in traditional flue-curing barn (baking room) was also seriously polluted by fluoride and sulfur. After using the calcined dolomitic siliceous limestone instead of clay mixed with coal, gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentration in the traditional flue-curing barn air have declined markedly. The way of adding calcined dolomitic siliceous limestone instead of clay as a binder for briquette-making is an economically feasible way to control the indoor pollution of fluorine and sulfur in coal-burning endemic in Zhaotong, Yunnan.

Liu, Yonglin; Luo, Kunli; Li, Ling; Shahid, Muhammad Zeeshaan

2013-10-01

85

Daily and hourly sourcing of metallic and mineral dust in urban air contaminated by traffic and coal-burning emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multi-analytical approach to chemical analysis of inhalable urban atmospheric particulate matter (PM), integrating particle induced X-ray emission, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry/atomic emission spectroscopy, chromatography and thermal-optical transmission methods, allows comparison between hourly (Streaker) and 24-h (High volume sampler) data and consequently improved PM chemical characterization and source identification. In a traffic hot spot monitoring site in Madrid (Spain) the hourly data reveal metallic emissions (Zn, Cu, Cr, Fe) and resuspended mineral dust (Ca, Al, Si) to be closely associated with traffic flow. These pollutants build up during the day, emphasizing evening rush hour peaks, but decrease (especially their coarser fraction PM2.5-10) after nocturnal road washing. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis of a large Streaker database additionally reveals two other mineral dust components (siliceous and sodic), marine aerosol, and minor, transient events which we attribute to biomass burning (K-rich) and industrial (incinerator?) Zn, Pb plumes. Chemical data on 24-h filters allows the measurement of secondary inorganic compounds and carbon concentrations and offers PMF analysis based on a limited number of samples but using fuller range of trace elements which, in the case of Madrid, identifies the continuing minor presence of a coal combustion source traced by As, Se, Ge and Organic Carbon. This coal component is more evident in the city air after the change to the winter heating season in November. Trace element data also allow use of discrimination diagrams such as V/Rb vs. La/Ce and ternary plots to illustrate variations in atmospheric chemistry (such as the effect of Ce-emissions from catalytic converters), with Madrid being an example of a city with little industrial pollution, recently reduced coal emissions, but serious atmospheric contamination by traffic emissions.

Moreno, T.; Karanasiou, A.; Amato, F.; Lucarelli, F.; Nava, S.; Calzolai, G.; Chiari, M.; Coz, E.; Artano, B.; Lumbreras, J.; Borge, R.; Boldo, E.; Linares, C.; Alastuey, A.; Querol, X.; Gibbons, W.

2013-04-01

86

Cost-benefit analysis of ultra-low sulfur jet fuel  

E-print Network

The growth of aviation has spurred increased study of its environmental impacts and the possible mitigation thereof. One emissions reduction option is the introduction of an Ultra Low Sulfur (ULS) jet fuel standard for ...

Kuhn, Stephen (Stephen Richard)

2010-01-01

87

Retrofit of a Fire-Tube Boiler to Burn Coal-Water Fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER), in cooperation with the University of Alabama (UA) and the Mining Division of Jim Walter Resources, Inc. (JWRI), was awarded a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contract to retrofit an existing fire-tube boiler to bum coal-water fuel (CWF). A fire-tube boiler on the UA campus was retrofitted, and the CWF was made from

BRADLEY MITCHEL HALE; DAVID W. ARNOLD

1997-01-01

88

Waterwall corrosion in pulverized coal burning boilers: root causes and wastage predictions  

SciTech Connect

Waterwall corrosion has become a serious problem in the USA since the introduction of combustion systems, designed to lower NOx emissions. Previous papers have shown that the main cause of the increased corrosion is the deposition of corrodants, iron sulfides and alkali chlorides, which occurs under reducing conditions. In this paper, the contribution of various variables such as the amount of corrodant in the deposit, the flue gas composition and the metal temperature, is further quantified in laboratory tests, using a test furnace allowing thermal gradients across the deposit and the metal tube samples. Approximate deposit compositions were calculated from the coal composition, its associated ash constituents and corrosive impurities. A commercially available thermochemical equilibrium package was used, after modifications to reflect empirical alkali availability data. Predictions from these calculations agreed reasonably well with the alkali chloride and FeS content found in actual boiler deposits. Thus approximate corrosion rates can be predicted from the chemical composition of the coal using corrosion rates from laboratory tests, adjusted to account for the short duration (100 hours) of the laboratory tests. Reasonable agreement was again obtained between actual and predicted results.

Bakker, W.; Stanko, G.; Blough, J.; Seitz, W.; Niksa, S. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

2007-07-01

89

Advanced atomizer concept for CWF (coal-water fuel) burning in small combustors  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this project is to develop an atomizer to be used for the combustion of coal-water fuel (CWF) in small- to medium-sized boilers. The envisoned atomizer utilizes two opposing streams of CWF which collide and cause a spray to be produced. A blast of air crossing the streams directs the spray into the combustion zone of a boiler. It is hoped that the opposed-jet atomizer will produce MMD sprays of fine droplet sizes, possibly approaching 10 microns. A CWF was prepared at 40% solids that was 100% minus 38 microns (400 mesh). Good-quality sprays were produced at 125 psig using the smaller orifice of 0.024 inch. Some large droplets were observed, but in general the spray was quite fine and mist-like. This encouraging result has prompted us to perform particle size measurements on the droplets produced. These measurements will be presented in subsequent reports. 3 figs.

Not Available

1990-01-01

90

Options and costs for CO{sub 2} reductions at coal-burning utilities  

SciTech Connect

The power generation industry may be required to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions if regulations related to global climate change are enacted. Coal-fired generation, which emits 88% of the power sector CO{sub 2}, would be a likely target for CO{sub 2} reduction. Compliance with the Kyoto protocol will require a 33% reduction from the projected year 2012 emission level even with moderate load growth. This paper describes an analysis of power industry CO{sub 2} reduction options and their costs to assess how a generator would make compliance decisions under a mandatory CO{sub 2} emissions reduction program. Carbon sequestration, fuel switching and new plant construction are considered.

Hawk, E.W. Jr.

1999-07-01

91

Advanced atomizer concept for CWF (coal-water fuel) burning in small combustors  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly report describes work performed on the design, fabrication, and testing of a new device for atomizing coal-water fuel (CWF). The device is referred to as an opposed-jet atomizer, and differs from conventional atomizer designs in that the atomization results largely from the collision of two opposing streams of CWF flowing towards each other. Normal to the plane of the opposing streams of CWF, a blast of air crosses the colliding streams and not only aids in atomization, but also directs the spray into the combustion zone of a combustor. The project is divided into 11 tasks, each of which is intended to allow the goal of developing a workable CWF atomization device to be achieved. The device is to be designed, and a prototype built. Next the atomizer is to be tested with water. Upon achieving the successful atomization of water, CWF will be atomized under cold-flow (i.e., noncombustion) conditions. The results of the cold-flow testing are to be reviewed, and any necessary modifications to the atomizer are to be approved. After modification, if necessary, the opposed-jet atomizer will be tested under actual combustion conditions. An evaluation of the combustion results will determine the effectiveness of the device. 1 ref., 4 tabs.

Not Available

1990-01-01

92

Advanced atomizer concept for CWF (coal-water fuels) burning in small combustors  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly report describes work on the design, fabrication, and testing of a new device for atomizing coal-water fuels. The device is referred to as an opposed-jet atomizer, and differs from conventional atomizer designs in that the atomization results largely from the collision of two opposing streams of CWF flowing towards each other. Normal to the plane of the opposing streams of CWF, a blast of air crosses the colliding streams and not only aids in the atomization, but also directs the spray into the combustion zone of a combustor. The project is divided into 11 tasks. The device is first to be designed, and a rough prototype built. Next the atomizer is to be tested using water, and after successful atomization of water, CWF will be atomized under cold-flow (i.e., noncombustion) conditions. Upon review of the cold-flow testing, and after any modifications are approved and incorporated into the atomizer design, the actual atomizer will be fabricated and tested under actual combustion conditions. An evaluation of the combustion results will determine the effectiveness of the opposed-jet CWF atomizer. Results are described. 3 figs., 8 tabs.

Not Available

1990-01-01

93

The internal microstructure and fibrous mineralogy of fly ash from coal-burning power stations.  

PubMed

Coal fly ash (CFA) is a significant environmental pollutant that presents a respiratory hazard when airborne. Although previous studies have identified the mineral components of CFA, there is a paucity of information on the structural habits of these minerals. Samples from UK, Polish and Chinese power stations were studied to further our understanding of the factors that affect CFA geochemistry and mineralogy. ICP-MS, FE-SEM/EDX, XRD, and laser diffraction were used to study physicochemical characteristics. Analysis revealed important differences in the elemental compositions and particle size distributions of samples between sites. Microscopy of HF acid-etched CFA revealed the mullite present possesses a fibrous habit; fibres ranged in length between 1 and 10 ?m. Respirable particles (<10 ?m) were frequently observed to contain fibrous mullite. We propose that the biopersistence of these refractory fibres in the lung environment could be contributing towards chronic lung diseases seen in communities and individuals continually exposed to high levels of CFA. PMID:21907473

Brown, Patrick; Jones, Tim; BruB, Kelly

2011-12-01

94

Coal-oil slurry preparation  

DOEpatents

A pumpable slurry of pulverized coal in a coal-derived hydrocarbon oil carrier which slurry is useful as a low-ash, low-sulfur clean fuel, is produced from a high sulfur-containing coal. The initial pulverized coal is separated by gravity differentiation into (1) a high density refuse fraction containing the major portion of non-coal mineral products and sulfur, (2) a lowest density fraction of low sulfur content and (3) a middlings fraction of intermediate sulfur and ash content. The refuse fraction (1) is gasified by partial combustion producing a crude gas product from which a hydrogen stream is separated for use in hydrogenative liquefaction of the middlings fraction (3). The lowest density fraction (2) is mixed with the liquefied coal product to provide the desired fuel slurry. Preferably there is also separately recovered from the coal liquefaction LPG and pipeline gas.

Tao, John C. (Perkiomenville, PA)

1983-01-01

95

PM 2.5 chemical source profiles for vehicle exhaust, vegetative burning, geological material, and coal burning in Northwestern Colorado during 1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 ?m) chemical source profiles applicable to speciated emissions inventories and receptor model source apportionment are reported for geological material, motor vehicle exhaust, residential coal (RCC) and wood combustion (RWC), forest fires, geothermal hot springs; and coal-fired power generation units from northwestern Colorado during 1995. Fuels and combustion conditions are similar to those

John G Watson; Judith C Chow; James E Houck

2001-01-01

96

Tribological behavior of near-frictionless carbon coatings in high- and low-sulfur diesel fuels.  

SciTech Connect

The sulfur content in diesel fuel has a significant effect on diesel engine emissions, which are currently subject to environmental regulations. It has been observed that engine particulate and gaseous emissions are directly proportional to fuel sulfur content. With the introduction of low-sulfur fuels, significant reductions in emissions are expected. The process of sulfur reduction in petroleum-based diesel fuels also reduces the lubricity of the fuel, resulting in premature failure of fuel injectors. Thus, another means of preventing injector failures is needed for engines operating with low-sulfur diesel fuels. In this study, the authors evaluated a near-frictionless carbon (NFC) coating (developed at Argonne National Laboratory) as a possible solution to the problems associated with fuel injector failures in low-lubricity fuels. Tribological tests were conducted with NFC-coated and uncoated H13 and 52100 steels lubricated with high- and low- sulfur diesel fuels in a high-frequency reciprocating test machine. The test results showed that the NFC coatings reduced wear rates by a factor of 10 over those of uncoated steel surfaces. In low-sulfur diesel fuel, the reduction in wear rate was even greater (i.e., by a factor of 12 compared to that of uncoated test pairs), indicating that the NFC coating holds promise as a potential solution to wear problems associated with the use of low-lubricity diesel fuels.

Alzoubi, M. F.; Ajayi, O. O.; Eryilmaz, O. L.; Ozturk, O.; Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G.

2000-01-19

97

Energy Policy Act transportation rate study: Interim report on coal transportation  

SciTech Connect

The primary purpose of this report is to examine changes in domestic coal distribution and railroad coal transportation rates since enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90). From 1988 through 1993, the demand for low-sulfur coal increased, as a the 1995 deadline for compliance with Phase 1 of CAAA90 approached. The shift toward low-sulfur coal came sooner than had been generally expected because many electric utilities switched early from high-sulfur coal to ``compliance`` (very low-sulfur) coal. They did so to accumulate emissions allowances that could be used to meet the stricter Phase 2 requirements. Thus, the demand for compliance coal increased the most. The report describes coal distribution and sulfur content, railroad coal transportation and transportation rates, and electric utility contract coal transportation trends from 1979 to 1993 including national trends, regional comparisons, distribution patterns and regional profiles. 14 figs., 76 tabs.

NONE

1995-10-01

98

ASSESSMENT OF LOW COST NOVEL SORBENTS FOR COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT MERCURY CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

This is a Technical Report under a program funded by the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to obtain the necessary information to assess the viability of lower cost alternatives to commercially available activated carbon for mercury control in coal-fired utilities. During this reporting period, several sorbent samples have been tested by URS in their laboratory fixed-bed system. The sorbents were evaluated under conditions simulating flue gas from power plants burning Powder River Basin (PRB) and low sulfur eastern bituminous coals. The equilibrium adsorption capacities of the sorbents for both elemental and oxidized mercury are presented. A team meeting discussing the overall program and meetings with Midwest Generation and Wisconsin Electric Power Company (WEPCO) concerning field testing occurred during this reporting period.

Sharon Sjostrom

2002-02-22

99

Coagulation and filtration of solids from liquefied coal of SYNTHOIL process. [10 refs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the SYNTHOIL process for converting coal to a low-sulfur, low-ash fuel oil, coal is liquefied and hydrodesulfurized catalytically by reaction with hydrogen in a turbulent-flow, packed-bed reactor. The gross liquid product is then centrifuged, or filtered, to remove unreacted coal and mineral matter. The de-ashed liquid is a low-sulfur, low-ash fuel oil. It has now been demonstrated that the

J. O. H. Newman; S. Akhtar; P. M. Yavorsky

1976-01-01

100

57Fe Mssbauer Spectroscopic Investigation of Low-Iron Coals and Their Flyash  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trends in the speciation of iron and sulfur in high iron\\/sulfur coals are well-established. Less is known concerning iron and sulfur speciation in low sulfur coals such as those investigated in this study. Low sulfur coals and their flyash from Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada and Atikokan, West Virginia, U.S.A. have been investigated by means of 57Fe Mssbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction

C. Wynter; T. M. Clark; B. J. Evans; M. A. Edwards; D. Radcliffe; J. A. Hall

1998-01-01

101

57 Fe Mssbauer Spectroscopic Investigation of Low-Iron Coals and Their Flyash  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trends in the speciation of iron and sulfur in high iron\\/sulfur coals are well-established. Less is known concerning iron\\u000a and sulfur speciation in low sulfur coals such as those investigated in this study. Low sulfur coals and their flyash from\\u000a Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada and Atikokan, West Virginia, U.S.A. have been investigated by means of 57Fe Mssbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction

C. Wynter; T. M. Clark; B. J. Evans; M. A. Edwards; D. Radcliffe; J. A. Hall

1998-01-01

102

Coal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Principle work of 23 state geological surveys is summarized. Work includes mapping/estimating coal resources, centralizing data in National Coal Resources Data System through cooperative programs, exploration drilling, and others. Comments on U.S. Geological Survey activities, coal-related conferences/meetings, and industry research activities are

Brant, Russell A.; Glass, Gary B.

1983-01-01

103

Sodium and potassium released from burning particles of brown coal and pine wood in a laminar premixed methane flame using quantitative laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.  

PubMed

A quantitative point measurement of total sodium ([Na](total)) and potassium ([K](total)) in the plume of a burning particle of Australian Loy Yang brown coal (23 3 mg) and of pine wood pellets (63 3 mg) was performed using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) in a laminar premixed methane flame at equivalence ratios ( U ) of 1.149 and 1.336. Calibration was performed using atomic sodium or potassium generated by evaporation of droplets of sodium sulfite (Na(2)SO(3)) or potassium sulfate (K(2)SO(4)) solutions seeded into the flame. The calibration compensated for the absorption by atomic alkalis in the seeded flame, which is significant at high concentrations of solution. This allowed quantitative measurements of sodium (Na) and potassium (K) released into the flame during the three phases of combustion, namely devolatilization, char, and ash cooking. The [Na](total) in the plume released from the combustion of pine wood pellets during the devolatilization was found to reach up to 13 ppm. The maximum concentration of total sodium ([Na](max)M(total)) and potassium ([K](max)(total)) released during the char phase of burning coal particles for ? = 1.149 was found to be 9.27 and 5.90 ppm, respectively. The [Na](max)(total) and [K](max)(total) released during the char phase of burning wood particles for ? = 1.149 was found to be 15.1 and 45.3 ppm, respectively. For the case of ? = 1.336, the [Na](max)(total) and [K](max)(total) were found to be 13.9 and 6.67 ppm during the char phase from burning coal particles, respectively, and 21.1 and 39.7 ppm, respectively, from burning wood particles. The concentration of alkali species was higher during the ash phase. The limit of detection (LOD) of sodium and potassium with LIBS in the present arrangement was estimated to be 29 and 72 ppb, respectively. PMID:21639991

Hsu, Li-Jen; Alwahabi, Zeyad T; Nathan, Graham J; Li, Yu; Li, Z S; Aldn, Marcus

2011-06-01

104

POC-scale testing of an advanced fine coal dewatering equipment/technique: Quarterly technical progress report,January--March 1997.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Laboratory centrifugal dewatering tests were conducted to study the effects of anionic and cationic flocculants on filtration of PMCC compliance (low sulfur) and non-compliance (high sulfur) ultrafine coal slurry. The results obtained with compliance coal...

D. Tao, J. G. Grappo, B. K. Parekh

1997-01-01

105

Clean coal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fossil fuels such as coal can be powerful polluters of the environment. This article, part of site on the future of energy, introduces students to methods being implemented to make burning coal a cleaner process. Students read about the 1986 creation of the Clean Coal Technology Program and the coal-burning improvements it generated. Definitions of key terms are available, and a link is provided to an ABC News article about bacteria that have been bioengineered to clean coal. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Project, Iowa P.

2004-01-01

106

Process for converting coal into liquid fuel and metallurgical coke  

DOEpatents

A method of recovering coal liquids and producing metallurgical coke utilizes low ash, low sulfur coal as a parent for a coal char formed by pyrolysis with a volatile content of less than 8%. The char is briquetted and heated in an inert gas over a prescribed heat history to yield a high strength briquette with less than 2% volatile content.

Wolfe, Richard A. (Abingdon, VA); Im, Chang J. (Abingdon, VA); Wright, Robert E. (Bristol, TN)

1994-01-01

107

PHYSICAL COAL CLEANING FOR UTILITY BOILER SO2 EMISSION CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

The report examines physical coal cleaning as a control technique for sulfur oxides emissions. It includes an analysis of the availability of low-sulfur coal and of coal cleanable to compliance levels for alternate New Source Performance Standards (NSPS). Various alternatives to ...

108

Supercritical desulfurization rates of whole and treated coals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growing concern over the environmental effects of acid rain has resulted in increased interest in development of precombustion removal of sulfur from coal. Most coals are not in compliance with the recent requirements which call for reduction of sulfur emissions from various fuel sources. Under proposed guidelines, even low sulfur, western bituminous coals require some cleaning to meet new source

E. J. Hippo; W. Tao; D. P. Sarvela; C. B. Muchmore; A. C. Kent

1988-01-01

109

ALGAL BIOASSAYS WITH LEACHATES AND DISTILLATES FROM WESTERN COAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this research was to assess the effects on freshwater algae of materials derived from coal storage piles. Coal leachates and distillates were prepared in the laboratory from low-sulfur Montana coal. Three types of algal bioassays were conducted: (1) A laboratory ...

110

Fuel Properties of Biodiesel\\/Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) Blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiesel is an alternative fuel and fuel extender easily derived from vegetable oil or animal fat. In 2006, the US Environmental\\u000a Protection Agency mandated that maximum sulfur content of diesel fuels be reduced to 15ppm to protect catalysts employed\\u000a in exhaust after-treatment devices. Processing to produce this ultra-low sulfur petrodiesel (ULSD) alters fuel lubricity,\\u000a density, cold flow, viscosity, and other

Robert O. Dunn

111

DERAILMENT IN WYOMING (2005) http://www.bigcountry.coop/coal.html  

E-print Network

1 DERAILMENT IN WYOMING (2005) http://www.bigcountry.coop/coal.html [Johnson, 2005] Steven Johnson bottleneck in shipments from the nation's most important vein of low-sulfur coal has cut into coal supplies of railroad that the Union Pacific and BNSF Railways use to transport coal from Wyoming's Powder River Basin

Tesfatsion, Leigh

112

Comparison of heterogeneous photolytic reduction of Hg(II) in the coal fly ashes and synthetic aerosols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we examined the heterogeneous reduction of Hg(II) on the coal fly ash samples and synthetic aerosols under different light conditions in a controlled laboratory reactor. Three types of coal fly ashes were studied: a high carbon fly ash from a stoker boiler, a low carbon/low sulfate fly ash from a pulverized coal combustor burning low sulfur coal, and a high sulfate fly ash from a pulverized coal combustor burning high sulfur coal. The rate of Hg(II) reduction on the three diverse fly ash samples was found to be relatively fast with an average half-life of 1.6 h under clear sky atmospheric conditions (under the irradiance of 1000 W/m2). The reduction rate in the low sulfate/low carbon fly ash was approximately 1.5 times faster than with the other coal fly ash samples. Synthetic aerosols made of carbon black and levoglucosan produced Hg(II) reduction rates similar to coal fly ashes. However, aerosols composed of adipic acid resulted in reduction rates that were 3-5 times faster. The sensitivity of adipic acid reduction to light source wavelength was found to be greater than for the coal fly ash and other synthetic aerosols. Aerosols made from the water extracts of coal fly ash samples produced reduction rates equal to or slightly higher than with the native fly ash suggesting that the soluble components of fly ash play a significant role in the reduction mechanism. The measured reduction rates are likely important in the chemical processing of mercury in power plant plumes and potentially in the atmosphere and should be considered for incorporation in atmospheric transport models that are used to understand the fate of atmospheric mercury.

Tong, Yindong; Eichhorst, Terry; Olson, Michael R.; Rutter, Andrew P.; Shafer, Martin M.; Wang, Xuejun; Schauer, James J.

2014-03-01

113

Speciation of Arsenic in Canadian Subbituminous and Bituminous Feed Coals and their Ash Byproducts  

SciTech Connect

The arsenic species in the feed coals and ash byproducts from seven Canadian power plants (including one with a fluidized-bed combustor) that were burning local sub-bituminous and bituminous coals with sulfur contents in the range of 0.30-3.5 wt % have been examined using As X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. The feed coals can be grouped based on their contents of arsenic associated with pyrite (As/pyr) and as As{sup 3+} and As{sup 5+} (arsenate) species. The arsenic species in sub-bituminous feed coals with low sulfur (0.22-0.38 wt %) and arsenic (1.6-2.2 mg/kg) contents consist of {approx}50% As{sup 3+} and {approx}50% As{sup 5+}, whereas those with moderate sulfur (0.50 wt %) and arsenic (3.63 mg/kg) contents consist of 84% As/pyr, 7% As3+, and 9% As{sup 5+}. In bituminous feed coal with low sulfur (0.40 wt %) and arsenic (4.39 mg/kg) contents, the arsenic speciation consists of 34% As/pyr, 12% As{sup 3+}, and 54% As{sup 5+}, and for those with high sulfur (2.60-3.56 wt %) and arsenic (54-84 mg/kg) contents, it consists of 77%-82% As/pyr and 18%-23% As{sup 5+}. The bottom ash produced from sub-bituminous feed coals with low sulfur and arsenic contents consists of 10%-20% As3+ and 80%-90% As5+, and for moderate sulfur (0.50 wt %) and arsenic (3.63 mg/kg), the arsenic speciation consists of 5% As/pyr, 10% As{sup 3+} and 85% As{sup 5+} as arsenate. For bituminous feed coals with low sulfur and arsenic contents, the bottom ash is entirely As{sup 5+}, whereas for coals with high sulfur and arsenic contents, the bottom ash consists of 10%-15% As{sup 3+} and 85%-90% As{sup 5+}; and for the fluidized-bed combustor, the bottom ash is entirely As{sup 5+} arsenate. The species of arsenic in fly ash from sub-bituminous and bituminous coals are mostly arsenate (As5+), possibly in part incorporated in the glass matrix, and remains the same for coarse- and fine-grained electrostatic precipitator (ESP), baghouse, and stack-emitted ashes. The only difference between the ESP and baghouse fly ash is the higher amount of crystalline arsenates in the hopper fly ash. Neither the sulfur content nor the pyrite content of the feed coal seems to influence the speciation of arsenic, because virtually all of the arsenic in fly ash samples from high-sulfur coal is in the form of arsenate (As{sup 5+}). However, arsenic (mostly as As{sup 5+}) in these fly ashes is found to be very surface-enriched, because the amount measured by XPS decreases from >3 wt % to <0.8 wt % in the first few atomic layers. The presence of stable calcium or transition-metal iron hydroxyl arsenate hydrate [(M{sup 2+}){sub 2}Fe{sub 3}(AsO{sub 4}){sub 3}(OH){sub 4}{center_dot}10H{sub 2}O] complexes, as determined by X-ray diffractometry, in the fly ash produced from high-sulfur/pyrite feed coals indicates that some of the arsenic might be captured by calcium and iron compounds.

Goodarzi,F.; Huggins, F.

2005-01-01

114

Update on Transition to Ultra-Low-Sulfur Diesel Fuel (released in AEO2006)  

EIA Publications

On November 8, 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator signed a direct final rule that will shift the retail compliance date for offering ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) for highway use from September 1, 2006, to October 15, 2006. The change will allow more time for retail outlets and terminals to comply with the new 15 parts per million (ppm) sulfur standard, providing time for entities in the diesel fuel distribution system to flush higher sulfur fuel out of the system during the transition. Terminals will have until September 1, 2006, to complete their transitions to ULSD. The previous deadline was July 15, 2006.

2006-01-01

115

Burn Institute  

MedlinePLUS

... do each year a burn injury. Learn more Fire and Burn Prevention Each year, the Burn Institute ... thousands of children and adults each year through fire and burn prevention education, burn survivor support programs ...

116

Radiation impact from lignite burning due to ²²⁶Ra in Greek coal-fired power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lignite contains naturally occurring radionuclides arising from the uranium and thorium series as well as from ⁴°K. Lignite burning is therefore, one of the sources of technologically enhanced exposure to humans from natural radionuclides. Emissions from thermal power stations in gaseous and particulate form contain radioisotopes, such as ²²⁶Ra, that are discharged into the environment causing radiation exposures to the

C. Papastefanou

1996-01-01

117

Solids precipitation and polymerization of asphaltenes in coal-derived liquids  

DOEpatents

The precipitation and removal of particulate solids from coal-derived liquids by adding a process-derived anti-solvent liquid fraction and continuing the precipitation process at a temperature above the melting point of the mixed liquids for sufficient time to allow the asphaltenes to polymerize and solids to settle at atmospheric pressure conditions. The resulting clarified light hydrocarbon overflow liquid contains less than about 0.02 W % ash and is suitable as turbine fuel or as boiler fuel for burning without particulate emission control equipment. An underflow liquid fraction containing less than about 0.1 W % solids along with low sulfur and nitrogen concentrations is suitable as a boiler fuel with emission control equipment.

Kydd, Paul H. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

1984-01-01

118

The ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Project, A DOE Assessment  

SciTech Connect

This report is a post-project assessment of the ENCOAL{reg_sign} Mild Coal Gasification Project, which was selected under Round III of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program. The CCT Demonstration Program is a government and industry cofunded technology development effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal utilization processes in a series of commercial-scale facilities. The ENCOAL{reg_sign} Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Bluegrass Coal Development Company (formerly SMC Mining Company), which is a subsidiary of Ziegler Coal Holding Company, submitted an application to the DOE in August 1989, soliciting joint funding of the project in the third round of the CCT Program. The project was selected by DOE in December 1989, and the Cooperative Agreement (CA) was approved in September 1990. Construction, commissioning, and start-up of the ENCOAL{reg_sign} mild coal gasification facility was completed in June 1992. In October 1994, ENCOAL{reg_sign} was granted a two-year extension of the CA with the DOE, that carried through to September 17, 1996. ENCOAL{reg_sign} was then granted a six-month, no-cost extension through March 17, 1997. Overall, DOE provided 50 percent of the total project cost of $90,664,000. ENCOAL{reg_sign} operated the 1,000-ton-per-day mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company's Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming, for over four years. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC{trademark}) technology originally developed by SMC Mining Company and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin (PRB) coal to produce two new fuels, Process-Derived Fuel (PDF{trademark}) and Coal-Derived Liquids (CDL{trademark}). The products, as alternative fuel sources, are capable of significantly lowering current sulfur emissions at industrial and utility boiler sites throughout the nation thus reducing pollutants causing acid rain. In support of this overall objective, the following goals were established for the ENCOAL{reg_sign} Project: Provide sufficient quantity of products for full-scale test burns; Develop data for the design of future commercial plants; Demonstrate plant and process performance; Provide capital and O&M cost data; and Support future LFC{trademark} technology licensing efforts. Each of these goals has been met and exceeded. The plant has been in operation for nearly 5 years, during which the LFC{trademark} process has been demonstrated and refined. Fuels were made, successfully burned, and a commercial-scale plant is now under contract for design and construction.

National Energy Technology Laboratory

2002-03-15

119

Alkylate is key for cleaner burning gasoline  

SciTech Connect

Alkylate is a key component in cleaner burning gasoline. The alkylation process reacts light olefins (propylene, butylenes, and amylenes) with isobutane in the presence of a strong acid catalyst. The alkylate that is produced consists of branched paraffins having a low Reid vapor pressure (Rvp), high research and motor octane numbers (RON & MON), low sulfur content, and a good driveability index (DI). Therefore, alkylation removes olefinic, high Rvp components from the gasoline pool and converts them to an ideal, high octane blendstock for cleaner burning gasoline.

Peterson, J.R. [STRATCO, Inc., Leawood, KS (United States)

1996-12-31

120

Clean Coal?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video and accompanying essay examine carbon capture and storage and clean-coal technology, providing statistics for overall annual U.S. consumption as well as average household usage. Turning solid coal into a clean-burning fuel gas (syngas) and capture and storage pros and cons are discussed.

Pbs, Wgbh -.; Domain, Teachers'

121

ENCOAL mild coal gasification project public design and construction report  

SciTech Connect

This Public Design Report describes the 1000 ton per day ENCOAL mild coal gasification demonstration plant now in operation at the Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The objective of the project is to demonstrate that the proprietary Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology can reliably and economically convert low Btu PRB coal into a superior, high-Btu solid fuel (PDF), and an environmentally attractive low-sulfur liquid fuel (CDL). The Project`s plans also call for the production of sufficient quantities of PDF and CDL to permit utility companies to carry out full scale burn tests. While some process as well as mechanical design was done in 1988, the continuous design effort was started in July 1990. Civil construction was started in October 1990; mechanical erection began in May 1991. Virtually all of the planned design work was completed by July 1991. Most major construction was complete by April 1992 followed by plant testing and commissioning. Plant operation began in late May 1992. This report covers both the detailed design and initial construction aspects of the Project.

NONE

1994-12-01

122

Method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile  

DOEpatents

A method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile comprises soaking the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution and distributing an oxygen-containing gas throughout the coal refuse pile for a time period sufficient to effect oxidation of coal contained in the coal refuse pile. The method further comprises leaching the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution to solubilize and extract the oxidized coal as alkali salts of humic acids and collecting the resulting solution containing the alkali salts of humic acids. Calcium hydroxide may be added to the solution of alkali salts of humic acid to form precipitated humates useable as a low-ash, low-sulfur solid fuel.

Yavorsky, Paul M. (Monongahela, PA)

1991-01-01

123

Potential of coal strip-mine spoils as aquifers in the Powder River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tongue River Formation contains most of the strippable coal deposits in the Powder River Basin. Flat lying low sulfur coal beds up to 200 ft. thick are typically overlain by semiconsolidated shale and sandstone. Typical overburden to coal thickness ratios in working mines are 2:1. The overburden is generally dragline or scraper-dumped into the excavated pit. Pump tests were

Rahn

1976-01-01

124

Coal handling\\/The Licking River Terminal: a showcase in coal handling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oglebay Norton Co.'s new Licking River Terminal near Cincinnati is moving low-sulfur Kentucky coal onto barge fleets plying the Ohio River to serve electric power generating stations. The Louisville and Nashville Railroad hauls coal some 250 to 300 mi from the Harlan and the Hazard coalfields to the DeCoursey yard three miles from the Licking River Terminal, delivering the coal

Yewell

1978-01-01

125

Fossil Fuels: Coal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson provides an introduction to the use of coal as an energy source. Topics include the history of coal usage, applications of coal as an energy source, and major suppliers of coal (the United States). There is also discussion of how coal is created, located, and produced, and technologies for burning it more cleanly. The lesson includes a hands-on activity in which students measure the ash content of various types of coal.

Pratte, John

126

Air quality in Beijing and its transition from coal burning caused problems to traffic exhaust related pollution  

SciTech Connect

Air pollution in Beijing is characterized by coal smoke for a long time because of energy structure highly dependence on coal consumption. SO{sub 2}, TSP, and NO{sub x} ambient concentration are kept in high levels, which exceed the guideline of WHO and National Air Quality Standard NAQS. The trend of SO{sub 2} change is relative stable, its annual average concentration fluctuates around 100 g/m{sup 3} since 1981. TSP show a fast decrease before 1986 and keep a slow decrease afterwards approaching the level of about 300 g/m{sup 3}. NO{sub x} concentration increases continuously all the time. Since 1993, NO{sub x} concentration exceeds SO{sub 2} to be the important pollutant next to TSP in Beijing, especially in summertime and traffic busy areas. As the consequence of NO{sub x} fast increase, the ozone pollution level is elevated greatly since 1980s. Several integrated field measurements were conducted to study the characteristics of photochemical smog and its formation mechanism. Hourly averaged ozone concentration usually exceeded the NAQS (80 ppb) in April to October. The O{sub 3} formation is very sensitive to NO{sub x} concentration because of the high NMHC/NO{sub x} ratio. In recent years, high O{sub 3} concentration is observed in early Spring and photochemical smog pollution is getting more and more severe with dramatically increase of vehicles in downtown Beijing. It is predicted that O{sub 3} pollution will be expected to enhance greatly in next 20 years under the development plan of future urban transportation system and increment of vehicles, even in the case that control strategies suggested by municipal government are undertaken. So more strengthen control strategies in Beijing are needed.

Zhang, Y.; Shao, M.; Hu, M. [Peking Univ., Beijing (China); Tang, D. [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Science, Beijing (China). Inst. of Atmospheric Environment

1997-12-31

127

ENCOAL mild coal gasification demonstration project. Annual report, October 1994--September 1995  

SciTech Connect

This document is the combination of the fourth quarter report (July - September 1995) and the 1995 annual report for the ENCOAL project. The following pages include the background and process description for the project, brief summaries of the accomplishments for the first three quarters, and a detailed fourth quarter report. Its purpose is to convey the accomplishments and current progress of the project. ENCOAL Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of SMC Mining Company (formerly Shell Mining company, now owned by Zeigler Coal Holding Company), has completed the construction and start-up of a mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company`s Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology developed by SMC and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basis coal to produce two new fuels, Process Derived Fuel (PDF) and Coal Derived Liquids (CDL). The products, as alternative fuels sources, are expected to significantly lower current sulfur emissions at industrial and utility boiler sites throughout the nation, thereby reducing pollutants causing acid rain. In the LFC technology, coal is first deeply dried to remove water physically. The temperature is further raised in a second stage which results in decomposition reactions that form the new products. This chemical decomposition (mild gasification) creates gases by cracking reactions from the feed coal. The chemically altered solids are cooled and further processed to make PDF. The gases are cooled, condensing liquids as CDL, and the residual gases are burned in the process for heat. The process release for the ENCOAL plant predicted that one ton of feed coal would yield roughly {1/2} ton of PDF and {1/2} barrel of CDL. By varying plant running conditions, however, it has since been learned that the actual CDL recovery rate may be as much as 15% to 20% above the projections.

NONE

1996-01-01

128

SRC burn test in 700-hp oil-designed boiler. Volume 2. Engineering evaluation report. Final technical report. [Oil-fired boiler to solvent-refined coal  

SciTech Connect

Volume 2 of this report gives the results of an engineering evaluation study and economic analysis of converting an existing 560-MW residual (No. 6) oil-fired unit to burn solvent refined coal (SRC) fuel forms. Volume 1 represents an integrated overview of the test program conducted at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. Three SRC forms (pulverized SRC, a solution of SRC dissolved in process-derived distillates, and a slurry of SRC and water) were examined. The scope of modifications necessary to convert the unit to each of the three SRC fuel forms was identified and a capital cost of the necessary modifications estimated. A fuel conversion feasibility study of the boiler was performed wherein boiler modifications and performance effects of each fuel on the boiler were identified. An economic analysis of the capital and operating fuel expenses of conversion of the unit was performed. It was determined that conversion of the unit to any one of the three SRC fuel forms was feasible where appropriate modifications were made. It also was determined that the conversion of the unit can be economically attractive if SRC fuel forms can be manufactured and sold at prices discounted somewhat from the price of No. 16 Fuel Oil. As expected, greater discounts are required for the pulverized SRC and the slurry than for the solution of SRC dissolved in process-derived distillates.

Not Available

1983-12-01

129

Particle-induced oxidative damage of indoor PM10 from coal burning homes in the lung cancer area of Xuan Wei, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lung cancer mortality rate in the rural area of the Xuan Wei, Yunnan, is among the highest in China, especially in women. In this paper, the coal-burning indoor and corresponding outdoor PM10 samples were collected at the Hutou village, representing the case of high lung cancer rate, and the Xize village, representing the case of low lung cancer rate. Plasmid scission assay was used to investigate the bioreactivity of the PM10. The inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was employed to investigate the trace element compositions of the PM10. The results showed that the oxidative damage caused by both indoor and outdoor PM10 at the Hutou village was obviously higher than that at the Xize village, with the indoor PM10 having higher oxidative damage than corresponding outdoors. Among all analyzed samples, the indoor night PM10 samples from the Hutou village have the highest oxidative capacity. The levels of total water-soluble elements had a higher level in the PM10 of the Hutou village than that of the Xize village. It is interesting that the levels of water-soluble As, Cd, Cs, Pb, Sb, Tl and Zn in PM10 had better positive correlation with DNA damage rates, implying that these elements in their water-soluble state should be one of the main factors responsible for the high oxidative capacity of PM10, thus possibly the higher lung cancer rates, at the Hutou village.

Shao, Longyi; Hu, Ying; Wang, Jing; Hou, Cong; Yang, Yuanyuan; Wu, Mingyuan

2013-10-01

130

Navy Mobility Fuels Forecasting System Phase 5 report: Impacts of ultra low sulfur diesel fuel production on Navy fuel availability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Legislation for ultra low sulfur (ULS) diesel fuel, with a greatly reduced allowable sulfur content and a new limit on aromatics content, is expected to be in place by 1995. The ULS diesel fuel has been specified to satisfy national standards for particulate emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines. The economic and engineering models of the Navy Mobility Fuels Forecasting System

G. R. Hadder; S. Das; R. Lee; N. Domingo; R. M. Davis

1989-01-01

131

Kinetic Study and Mathematical Model of Hemimorphite Dissolution in Low Sulfuric Acid Solution at High Temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dissolution kinetics of hemimorphite with low sulfuric acid solution was investigated at high temperature. The dissolution rate of zinc was obtained as a function of dissolution time under the experimental conditions where the effects of sulfuric acid concentration, temperature, and particle size were studied. The results showed that zinc extraction increased with an increase in temperature and sulfuric acid concentration and with a decrease in particle size. A mathematical model able to describe the process kinetics was developed from the shrinking core model, considering the change of the sulfuric acid concentration during dissolution. It was found that the dissolution process followed a shrinking core model with "ash" layer diffusion as the main rate-controlling step. This finding was supported with a linear relationship between the apparent rate constant and the reciprocal of squared particle radius. The reaction order with respect to sulfuric acid concentration was determined to be 0.7993. The apparent activation energy for the dissolution process was determined to be 44.9 kJ/mol in the temperature range of 373 K to 413 K (100 C to 140 C). Based on the shrinking core model, the following equation was established:

Xu, Hongsheng; Wei, Chang; Li, Cunxiong; Deng, Zhigan; Li, Minting; Li, Xingbin

2014-10-01

132

Coal Liquefaction Support Studies. Task I. Heat of Reaction of Hydrogen with Coal Slurries. Task II. Heat Transfer Coefficient. Quarterly Report for October--December 1976.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This work is in support of the development of processes (such as the synthoil process) for converting coal to a liquid fuel that has a low sulfur content and is suitable for use in power production. In the synthoil process for converting coal to a low-sul...

J. Fischer, R. Lo T. Mulcahey, D. Fredrickson, T. Cannon

1976-01-01

133

The role of combustion diagnostics in coal quality impact and NO{sub x} emissions field test programs  

SciTech Connect

Many utilities are examining low sulfur coal or coal blending options to comply with the Clean Air Act Amendment SO{sub 2} emission limits. Test burns have been conducted with the more promising candidate coals to characterize the potential impact of a change in coal quality on boiler operation and performance. Utilities are also under considerable pressure to evaluate NO{sub x} control options and develop a compliance plan to meet strict NO{sub x} regulations, particularly in high population density metropolitan areas on the Eastern seaboard. Field test programs have been conducted to characterize baseline NO{sub x} emissions, evaluate the NO{sub x} reduction potential of combustion modifications, and assess the potential of combustion tuning as an alternative to burner replacement. Coal quality impacts (slagging, fouling, heat absorption, ash removal) and NO{sub x} emissions are both strongly dependent upon the coal combustion process and site-specific boiler firing practices. Non-uniform combustion in the burner region can result in adverse ash deposition characteristics, carbon carryover problems, high furnace exit gas temperatures, and NO{sub x}emission characteristics that are not representative of the coal or the combustion equipment. Advanced combustion diagnostic test procedures have been developed to evaluate and improve burner zone combustion uniformity, even in cases where the coal flow to the individual burners may be non-uniform. The paper outlines a very practical solving approach to identifying combustion related problems that affect ash deposition and NO{sub x} emissions. The benefits of using advanced diagnostic instrumentation to identify problems and tune combustion conditions is illustrated using test data from recent quality field test programs.

Thompson, R.E. [Fossil Energy Research Corp., Laguna Hills, CA (United States); Dyas, B. [New England Power Company, Westborough, MA (United States)

1995-03-01

134

Market effects of environmental regulation: coal, railroads, and the 1990 Clean Air Act  

SciTech Connect

Many environmental regulations encourage the use of 'clean' inputs. When the suppliers of such an input have market power, environmental regulation will affect not only the quantity of the input used but also its price. We investigate the effect of the Title IV emissions trading program for sulfur dioxide on the market for low-sulfur coal. We find that the two railroads transporting coal were able to price discriminate on the basis of environmental regulation and geographic location. Delivered prices rose for plants in the trading program relative to other plants, and by more at plants near a low-sulfur coal source.

Busse, M.R.; Keohane, N.O. [University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States)

2007-01-01

135

Role of the Liquids From Coal process in the world energy picture  

SciTech Connect

ENCOAL Corporation, a wholly owned indirect subsidiary of Zeigler Coal Holding Company, has essentially completed the demonstration phase of a 1,000 Tons per day (TPD) Liquids From Coal (LFC{trademark}) plant near Gillette, Wyoming. The plant has been in operation for 4{1/2} years and has delivered 15 unit trains of Process Derived Fuel (PDF{trademark}), the low-sulfur, high-Btu solid product to five major utilities. Recent test burns have indicated the PDF{trademark} can offer the following benefits to utility customers: lower sulfur emissions, lower NO{sub x} emissions, lower utilized fuel costs to power plants, and long term stable fuel supply. More than three million gallons of Coal Derived Liquid (CDL{trademark}) have also been delivered to seven industrial fuel users and one steel mill blast furnace. Additionally, laboratory characteristics of CDL{trademark} and process development efforts have indicated that CDL{trademark} can be readily upgraded into higher value chemical feedstocks and transportation fuels. Commercialization of the LFC{trademark} is also progressing. Permit work for a large scale commercial ENCOAL{reg_sign} plant in Wyoming is now underway and domestic and international commercialization activity is in progress by TEK-KOL, a general partnership between SGI International and a Zeigler subsidiary. This paper covers the historical background of the project, describes the LFC{trademark} process and describes the worldwide outlook for commercialization.

Frederick, J.P.; Knottnerus, B.A. [ENCOAL Corp., Gillette, WY (United States)

1997-12-31

136

United States coal outlook  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why have the government's coal policy initiatives failed to achieve their desired goals. The answer begins with the nature of coal itself. Relative to its hydrocarbon cousins, oil and natural gas, the production of coal is more dangerous and has significantly greater environmental impact. It is more difficult and expensive to transport and store, and, most importantly, its burning characteristics

J. D. Emerson; V. Calarco

1979-01-01

137

Catalyst assessment for upgrading short contact time SRC (solvent-refined coal) to low-sulfur boiler fuels  

SciTech Connect

Of nine catalysts tested in a fixed-bed pilot unit for upgrading a 50% West Kentucky SRC recycle solvent blend, best desulfurization and deoxygenation activities were obtained with proprietary catalysts, Mobil HCL-2 and HCL-3, American Cyanamid's commercial HDS-1443, and Harshaw's commercial 618X catalyst. The activities depended in part on the presence of macropores. The best Conradson carbon residue reduction was obtained with Mobil HCL-2 and HCL-3, and with Amoco'/s developmental catalyst Amocat 1B. The highest polar asphaltene conversion was obtained with Amocat 1B and HDS-1443. The lowest hydrogen consumption as a function of total liquid product sulfur content occurred with HCL-2, HDS-1443, and Amocat 1A. An aging run with Amocat 1A was operated smoothly for 15 days at 2000 psig and 775/sup 0/F, and then terminated owing to incipient reactor plugging; a simple deactivation equation correctly predicted the degree of desulfurization with time on stream, which was equivalent to a 2/sup 0/ to 3/sup 0/F/day temperature rise for maintaining constant product sulfur levels. The deposits formed on the catalysts were analyzed.

Shih, S.S.; Angevine, P.J.; Heck, R.H.; Sawruk, S.

1980-01-01

138

JV TASK 45-MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR ELECTRIC UTILITIES BURNING LIGNITE COAL, PHASE I BENCH-AND PILOT-SCALE TESTING  

SciTech Connect

The Energy & Environmental Research Center has completed the first phase of a 3-year, two-phase consortium project to develop and demonstrate mercury control technologies for utilities that burn lignite coal. The overall project goal is to maintain the viability of lignite-based energy production by providing utilities with low-cost options for meeting future mercury regulations. Phase I objectives are to develop a better understanding of mercury interactions with flue gas constituents, test a range of sorbent-based technologies targeted at removing elemental mercury (Hg{sup o}) from flue gases, and demonstrate the effectiveness of the most promising technologies at the pilot scale. The Phase II objectives are to demonstrate and quantify sorbent technology effectiveness, performance, and cost at a sponsor-owned and operated power plant. Phase I results are presented in this report along with a brief overview of the Phase II plans. Bench-scale testing provided information on mercury interactions with flue gas constituents and relative performances of the various sorbents. Activated carbons were prepared from relatively high-sodium lignites by carbonization at 400 C (752 F), followed by steam activation at 750 C (1382 F) and 800 C (1472 F). Luscar char was also steam-activated at these conditions. These lignite-based activated carbons, along with commercially available DARCO FGD and an oxidized calcium silicate, were tested in a thin-film, fixed-bed, bench-scale reactor using a simulated lignitic flue gas consisting of 10 {micro}g/Nm{sup 3} Hg{sup 0}, 6% O{sub 2}, 12% CO{sub 2}, 15% H{sub 2}O, 580 ppm SO{sub 2}, 120 ppm NO, 6 ppm NO{sub 2}, and 1 ppm HCl in N{sub 2}. All of the lignite-based activated (750 C, 1382 F) carbons required a 30-45-minute conditioning period in the simulated lignite flue gas before they exhibited good mercury sorption capacities. The unactivated Luscar char and oxidized calcium silicate were ineffective in capturing mercury. Lignite-based activated (800 C, 1472 F) carbons required a shorter (15-minute) conditioning period in the simulated lignite flue gas and captured gaseous mercury more effectively than those activated at 750 C (1382 F). Subsequent tests with higher acid gas concentrations including 50 ppm HCl showed no early mercury breakthrough for either the activated (750 C, 1382 F) Bienfait carbon or the DARCO FGD. Although these high acid gas tests yielded better mercury capture initially, significant breakthrough of mercury ultimately occurred sooner than during the simulated lignite flue gas tests. The steam-activated char, provided by Luscar Ltd., and DARCO FGD, provided by NORIT Americas, were evaluated for mercury removal potential in a 580 MJ/hr (550,000-Btu/hr) pilot-scale coal combustion system equipped with four particulate control devices: (1) an electrostatic precipitator (ESP), (2) a fabric filter (FF), (3) the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter, and (4) an ESP and FF in series, an EPRI-patented TOXECON{trademark} technology. The Ontario Hydro method and continuous mercury monitors were used to measure mercury species concentrations at the inlet and outlet of the control technology devices with and without sorbent injection. Primarily Hg{sup o} was measured when lignite coals from the Poplar River Plant and Freedom Mine were combusted. The effects of activated Luscar char, DARCO FGD, injection rates, particle size, and gas temperature on mercury removal were evaluated for each of the four particulate control device options. Increasing injection rates and decreasing gas temperatures generally promoted mercury capture in all four control devices. Relative to data reported for bituminous and subbituminous coal combustion flue gases, higher sorbent injection rates were generally required for the lignite coal to effectively remove mercury. Documented results in this report provide the impacts of these and other parameters and provide the inputs needed to direct Phase II of the project.

John H. Pavlish; Michael J. Holmes; Steven A. Benson; Charlene R. Crocker; Edwin S. Olson; Kevin C. Galbreath; Ye Zhuang; Brandon M. Pavlish

2003-10-01

139

Mssbauer study of the inorganic sulfur removal from coals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mssbauer Spectroscopy (MS) was applied to study the occurrence and behavior of the iron-sulfur-containing minerals in coal and coal fractions obtained by different separation methods: hydrocyclonic, flotation and chemical removal process. Samples of one high sulfur coal from Guachinte mine (Valle, Colombia) and three low sulfur coals from the El Salitre zone (Paipa-Boyac, Colombia) were analyzed. MS evidenced only the presence of pyrite in Esmeralda and Las Casitas coals, while it identified pyrite and siderite on Cerezo coal. MS and SEM- EDX confirm the inorganic sulfur removal on Guachinte coal submitted to hydrocyclonic removal process. MS of the precipitated coal fraction from Las Casitas mine obtained by flotation in water showed the presence of ferrous sulfate because of coal-weathering process. Treatment with hot diluted HNO3 equal to 27 acid on raw coal sample from Las Casitas mine showed that almost all of the pyrite in raw coal was removed.

Reyes Caballero, F.; Martnez Ovalle, S. A.

2014-01-01

140

Burns (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... skin (epidermis) and cause pain, redness and swelling (erythema). Second degree burns damage the epidermis and the inner layer, the dermis, causing erythema and blistering. Damage from third degree burns extend ...

141

Co-combustion of refuse derived fuel and coal in a cyclone furnace at the Baltimore Gas and Electric Company, C. P. Crane Station  

SciTech Connect

A co-combustion demonstration burn of coal and fluff refuse-derived fuel (RDF) was conducted by Teledyne National and Baltimore Gas and Electric Company. This utility has two B and W cyclone furnaces capable of generating 400 MW. The facility is under a prohibition order to convert from No. 6 oil to coal; as a result, it was desirable to demonstrate that RDF, which has a low sulfur content, can be burned in combination with coals containing up to 2% sulfur, thus reducing overall sulfur emissions without deleterious effects. Each furnace consists of four cyclones capable of generating 1,360,000 pounds per hour steam. The tertiary air inlet of one of the cyclones was modified with an adapter to permit fluff RDF to be pneumatically blown into the cyclone. At the same time, coal was fed into the cyclone furnace through the normal coal feeding duct, where it entered the burning chamber tangentially and mixed with the RDF during the burning process. Secondary shredded fluff RDF was prepared by the Baltimore County Resource Recovery Facility. The RDF was discharged into a receiving station consisting of a belt conveyor discharging into a lump breaker, which in turn, fed the RDF into a pneumatic line through an air-lock feeder. A total of 2316 tons were burned at an average rate of 5.6 tons per hour. The average heat replacement by RDF for the cyclone was 25%, based on Btu input for a period of forty days. The range of RDF burned was from 3 to 10 tons per hour, or 7 to 63% heat replacement. The average analysis of the RDF (39 samples) for moisture, ash, heat (HHV) and sulfur content were 18.9%, 13.4%, 6296 Btu/lb and 0.26% respectively. RDF used in the test was secondary shredded through 1-1/2 inch grates producing the particle size distribution of from 2 inches to .187 inches. Findings to date after inspection of the boiler and superheater indicate satisfactory results with no deleterious effects from the RDF.

Not Available

1982-03-01

142

Effects of Low Sulfur Fuel and a Catalyzed Particle Trap on the Composition and Toxicity of Diesel Emissions  

PubMed Central

In this study we compared a baseline condition of uncontrolled diesel engine exhaust (DEE) emissions generated with current (circa 2003) certification fuel to an emissions-reduction (ER) case with low sulfur fuel and a catalyzed particle trap. Lung toxicity assessments (resistance to respiratory viral infection, lung inflammation, and oxidative stress) were performed on mice (C57Bl/6) exposed by inhalation (6 hr/day for 7 days). The engine was operated identically (same engine load) in both cases, and the inhalation exposures were conducted at the same exhaust dilution rate. For baseline DEE, this dilution resulted in a particle mass (PM) concentration of approximately 200 ?g/m3 PM, whereas the ER reduced the PM and almost every other measured constituent [except nitrogen oxides (NOx)] to near background levels in the exposure atmospheres. These measurements included PM, PM size distribution, PM composition (carbon, ions, elements), NOx, carbon monoxide, speciated/total volatile hydrocarbons, and several classes of semi-volatile organic compounds. After exposure concluded, one group of mice was immediately sacrificed and assessed for inflammation and oxidative stress in lung homogenate. Another group of mice were intratracheally instilled with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and RSV lung clearance and inflammation was assessed 4 days later. Baseline DEE produced statistically significant biological effects for all measured parameters. The use of low sulfur fuel and a catalyzed trap either completely or nearly eliminated the effects. PMID:15345344

McDonald, Jacob D.; Harrod, Kevin S.; Seagrave, JeanClare; Seilkop, Steven K.; Mauderly, Joe L.

2004-01-01

143

Coal quality controls of the Danville coal in Indiana (Illinois Basin, Central USA)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Danville Coal Member (Dugger Formation, upper Desmoinesian, Pennsylvanian) is a significant economic coal resource in the Illinois Basin, central USA. Deposition of the Danville Coal (peat) was in coastal environments, varying distances from the coastline and, in turn, variable influences from saline waters. The purpose of this study is to examine the coal quality and petrography of the Danville Coal; and to discuss their relationship with depositional environment as it relates to the final coal product. A medium sulfur (1.0-1.5 wt.%) Danville Coal reserve area (northern Indiana coalfield) was compared to a low sulfur (3 m) of finer-grained clastic sediments atop the Danville, the sulfur and trace elements contents are significantly lower. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Mastalerz, M.; Padgett, P. L.

2002-01-01

144

High gradient magnetic beneficiation of dry pulverized coal via upwardly directed recirculating fluidization  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to an improved device and method for the high gradient magnetic beneficiation of dry pulverized coal, for the purpose of removing sulfur and ash from the coal whereby the product is a dry environmentally acceptable, low-sulfur fuel. The process involves upwardly directed recirculating air fluidization of selectively sized powdered coal in a separator having sections of increasing diameters in the direction of air flow, with magnetic field and flow rates chosen for optimum separations depending upon particulate size.

Eissenberg, David M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Liu, Yin-An (Opelika, AL)

1980-01-01

145

Burns Encyclopedia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provide by Burns Country, this full-text, online version of "the definitive Robert Burns reference volume" serves as a useful handbook to Scotland's most famous poet and the intellectual circles in which he turned. The encyclopedia, which is in HTML format, is organized alphabetically. Burns Country offers a number of other related resources, chief among them a songs and poems archive containing 100 of the poet's works. Other features at the site include a discussion area, Burns and Scottish association links, and some commercial content.

Lindsay, Maurice.

146

PARAMETRIC STUDY OF SUBMICRON PARTICULATES FROM PULVERIZED COAL COMBUSTION  

E-print Network

of the Mechanism of Fly-Ash Formation in Coal Fired UtilityS. K. , Particle Formation in Pulverized Coal Combustion - Aformation of the submicron particles may also be caused by nonuniform oxygen concentrations near the burning coal

Pennucci, J.

2014-01-01

147

Carbon Sequestration to Mitigate Climate Change Human activities, especially the burning of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and gas, have caused a substantial increase  

E-print Network

Carbon Sequestration to Mitigate Climate Change Human activities, especially the burning of fossil-caused CO2 emissions and to remove CO2 from the atmosphere. 2.0 What is carbon sequestration? The term "carbon sequestration" is used to describe both natural and deliberate CARBON,INGIGATONSPERYEAR 1.5 Fossil

148

Uranium in coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

United States production of coal in 1977 was 695 million short tons of which 477 million tons were burned in power plants. The ash from these power plants was about 67 million tons containing an estimated 900 tons UO, assuming 14 percent ash from the type of coal used by utilities and 12 ppM U contained in ash. Perhaps 1

Facer; J. F. Jr

1979-01-01

149

Economic Evaluation of By-Product Power/Co-Generation Systems for Industrial Plants with Fluidized-Bed Coal Burning Facilities  

E-print Network

the use of a baghouse. The baghouse filters 99+% of the particulate out of the flue gases. Construction Schedule - It is important to note that if a decision to proceed was made, at least 48 months lead time would be required for a coal fired by... the use of a baghouse. The baghouse filters 99+% of the particulate out of the flue gases. Construction Schedule - It is important to note that if a decision to proceed was made, at least 48 months lead time would be required for a coal fired by...

Mesko, J. E.

1980-01-01

150

Pulverized coal fuel injector  

DOEpatents

A pulverized coal fuel injector contains an acceleration section to improve the uniformity of a coal-air mixture to be burned. An integral splitter is provided which divides the coal-air mixture into a number separate streams or jets, and a center body directs the streams at a controlled angle into the primary zone of a burner. The injector provides for flame shaping and the control of NO/NO.sub.2 formation.

Rini, Michael J. (Hebron, CT); Towle, David P. (Windsor, CT)

1992-01-01

151

From metallurgical coal tailings to thermal fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

McIntyre Mines in Canada recover coal from washery tailings slurry. The tailings are dewatered in Bird screen bowl centrifuges and thermally dried in Joy Holo-Flite dryers. The coal recovered is burned in a power station.

van den Broek

1982-01-01

152

Factors affecting the export of high-sulfur coal from the Eastern Interior Basin. Prepared by the Congressional Research Service Library of Congress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Domestic market losses for Eastern Interior Basin coal may not preclude a future for high-sulfur coal because of growing international demand. New markets will develop as coal-cleaning and synthetic-fuel processes improve. Cement industries throughout the world accept large amounts of higher-sulfur coals for their baking processes. Low-sulfur emissions are possible, with little or no loss in energy content, by blending

Thompson

1981-01-01

153

Proxy mapping of fly-ash pollution of soils around a coal-burning power plant: a case study in the Czech Republic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The northern part of the Czech Republic ranks among the most industrially polluted areas of Europe due mainly to combustion of brown coal with high contents of pyrite and heavy metals. Fly ash produced through high-temperature combustion of fossil fuel is also rich in ferromagnetic minerals. These are also included in emissions, penetrate the soil, and can be identified using

A Kapi?ka; E Petrovsk; S Ustjak; K Mach?kov

1999-01-01

154

Pelletization of fine coals. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Coal is one of the most abundant energy resources in the US with nearly 800 million tons of it being mined annually. Process and environmental demands for low-ash, low-sulfur coals and economic constraints for high productivity are leading the coal industry to use such modern mining methods as longwall mining and such newer coal processing techniques as froth flotation, oil agglomeration, chemical cleaning and synthetic fuel production. All these processes are faced with one common problem area--fine coals. Dealing effectively with these fine coals during handling, storage, transportation, and/or processing continues to be a challenge facing the industry. Agglomeration by the unit operation of pelletization consists of tumbling moist fines in drums or discs. Past experimental work and limited commercial practice have shown that pelletization can alleviate the problems associated with fine coals. However, it was recognized that there exists a serious need for delineating the fundamental principles of fine coal pelletization. Accordingly, a research program has been carried involving four specific topics: (i) experimental investigation of coal pelletization kinetics, (ii) understanding the surface principles of coal pelletization, (iii) modeling of coal pelletization processes, and (iv) simulation of fine coal pelletization circuits. This report summarizes the major findings and provides relevant details of the research effort.

Sastry, K.V.S.

1995-12-31

155

Incidence and impact of axial malformations in larval bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) developing in sites polluted by a coal-burning power plant  

SciTech Connect

Amphibian malformations have recently received much attention from the scientific community, but few studies have provided evidence linking environmental pollution to larval amphibian malformations in the field. The authors document an increased incidence of axial malformations in bullfrog larvae (Rana catesbeiana) inhabiting two sites contaminated with coal combustion wastes. In the polluted sites, 18 and 37% of larvae exhibited lateral curvatures of the spine, whereas zero and 4% of larvae from two reference sites had similar malformations. Larvae from the most heavily polluted site had significantly higher tissue concentrations of potentially toxic trace elements, including As, Cd, Se, Cu, Cr, and V, compared with conspecifics from the reference sites. In addition, malformed larvae from the cost contaminated site had decreased swimming speeds compared with those of normal larvae from the same site. The authors hypothesize that the complex mixture of contaminants produced by coal combustion is responsible for the high incidence of malformations and associated effects on swimming performance.

Hopkins, W.A.; Congdon, J.; Ray, J.K.

2000-04-01

156

Scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy analysis of submicrometer coal fly ash particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) were used to analyze two groups of submicrometer coal fly ash particles from eastern and western power plants. The composition of the particles was related to the composition of the regional coal used. No sulfur was detected in the ash from the plant using low-sulfur western coal. The power plant using

David Lichtman; Susan Mroczkowski

1985-01-01

157

Biomass Burning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biomass burning may be the overwhelming regional or continental-scale source of methane (CH4) as in tropical Africa and a significant global source of CH4. Our best estimate of present methane emissions from biomass burning is about 51.9 Tg/yr, or 10% of the annual methane emissions to the atmosphere. Increased frequency of fires that may result as the Earth warms up may result in increases in this source of atmospheric methane.

Levine, Joel S.; Cofer, Wesley R., III; Pinto, Joseph P.

1993-01-01

158

ULTRA-LOW SULFUR REDUCTION EMISSION CONTROL DEVICE/DEVELOPMENT OF AN ON-BOARD FUEL SULFUR TRAP  

SciTech Connect

Honeywell is actively working on a 3-year program to develop and demonstrate proof-of-concept for an ''on-vehicle'' desulfurization fuel filter for heavy-duty diesel engines. Integration of the filter into the vehicle fuel system will reduce the adverse effects sulfur has on post combustion emission control devices such as NO{sub x} adsorbers. The NO{sub x} adsorber may be required to meet the proposed new EPA Tier II and ''2007-Rule'' emission standards. The proposed filter concept is based on Honeywell's reactive filtration technology and experience in liquids handling and conditioning. A regeneration and recycling plan for the spent filters will also be examined. We have chosen to develop and demonstrate this technology based on criteria set forth for a heavy duty CIDI engine system because it represents a more challenging set of conditions of service intervals and overall fuel usage over light duty systems. It is anticipated that the technology developed for heavy-duty applications will be applicable to light-duty as well. Further, technology developed under this proposal would also have application for the use of liquid based fuels for fuel cell power generation. The program consists of four phases. Phase I will focus on developing a concept design and analysis and resolution of technical barriers concerning removal of sulfur-containing species in low sulfur fuels. In Phase II we will concentrate on prototype filter design and preparation followed by qualification testing of this component in a fuel line application. Phase III will study life cycle and regeneration options for the spent filter. Phase IV will focus on efficacy and life testing and component integration. The project team will include a number of partners, with Honeywell International as the prime contractor. The partners include an emission control technology developer (Honeywell International), a fuel technology developer (Marathon Ashland Petroleum), a catalyst technology developer (Johnson Matthey), a CIDI engine manufacturer (Mack Trucks Inc.), a filter recycler (American Wastes Industries), and a low-sulfur fuel supplier (Equilon, a joint venture between Shell and Texaco).

Ron Rohrbach; Gary Zulauf; Tim Gavin

2003-04-01

159

Characterization and supply of coal based fuels  

SciTech Connect

Studies and data applicable for fuel markets and coal resource assessments were reviewed and evaluated to provide both guidelines and specifications for premium quality coal-based fuels. The fuels supplied under this contract were provided for testing of advanced combustors being developed under Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) sponsorship for use in the residential, commercial and light industrial (RCLI) market sectors. The requirements of the combustor development contractors were surveyed and periodically updated to satisfy the evolving needs based on design and test experience. Available coals were screened and candidate coals were selected for further detailed characterization and preparation for delivery. A team of participants was assembled to provide fuels in both coal-water fuel (CWF) and dry ultrafine coal (DUC) forms. Information about major US coal fields was correlated with market needs analysis. Coal fields with major reserves of low sulfur coal that could be potentially amenable to premium coal-based fuels specifications were identified. The fuels requirements were focused in terms of market, equipment and resource constraints. With this basis, the coals selected for developmental testing satisfy the most stringent fuel requirements and utilize available current deep-cleaning capabilities.

Not Available

1992-06-01

160

Emissions of particulate-bound elements from biodiesel and ultra low sulfur diesel: size distribution and risk assessment.  

PubMed

Use of waste cooking oil derived biodiesel (WCOB) as an alternative fuel in diesel engines has increased significantly in recent years. The impact of WCOB on particulate emissions from diesel engines needs to be investigated thoroughly. This study was conducted to make a comparative evaluation and size-differentiated speciation of the particulate bound elements from ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and WCOB and a blend of both of the fuels (B50). Particle mass and their elemental size distributions ranging from 0.01-5.6 ?m were measured. It was observed that more ultrafine particles (UFPs, <100 nm) were emitted when the engine was fueled with WCOB. Fifteen particulate-bound elements such as K, Al, Mg, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Cd, Ni, As, Ba, Pb, Zn and Sr were investigated and reported in this study. Potential health risk associated with these particulate bound elements upon inhalation was also evaluated based on dose-response assessments for both adults and children. The findings indicate that the exposure to PM of the B100 exhaust is relatively more hazardous and may pose adverse health effects compared to that of ULSD. Also, investigations on human health risk due to exposure to UFPs indicate that UFPs contribute a major fraction (>70%) of the total estimated health risk. PMID:22925425

Betha, Raghu; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

2013-01-01

161

Particulate emissions from a stationary engine fueled with ultra-low-sulfur diesel and waste-cooking-oil-derived biodiesel.  

PubMed

Stationary diesel engines, especially diesel generators, are increasingly being used in both developing countries and developed countries because of increased power demand. Emissions from such engines can have adverse effects on the environment and public health. In this study, particulate emissions from a domestic stationary diesel generator running on ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD) and biodiesel derived from waste cooking oil were characterized for different load conditions. Results indicated a reduction in particulate matter (PM) mass and number emissions while switching diesel to biodiesel. With increase in engine load, it was observed that particle mass increased, although total particle counts decreased for all the fuels. The reduction in total number concentration at higher loads was, however, dependent on percentage of biodiesel in the diesel-biodiesel blend. For pure biodiesel (B100), the reduction in PM emissions for full load compared to idle mode was around 9%, whereas for ULSD the reduction was 26%. A large fraction of ultrafine particles (UFPs) was found in the emissions from biodiesel compared to ULSD. Nearly 90% of total particle concentration in biodiesel emissions comprised ultrafine particles. Particle peak diameter shifted from a smaller to a lower diameter with increase in biodiesel percentage in the fuel mixture. PMID:22070039

Betha, Raghu; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

2011-10-01

162

Burning rubber  

SciTech Connect

Mario Andretti, look out You are about to be surpassed in the burning rubber category by a joint venture between Oxford Energy Company and General Electric. The two companies are building the first whole tire-to-energy facility in the US in Modesto, California. This $41 million facility does not require tires to be shredded prior to incineration; it has the capacity to burn 700 tires per minute. The electricity generated will be provided to a utility company. Oxford says there are two billion waste tires on the ground and this number is increasing by 220 million a year. Of that amount, only 18 million a year are recycled.

Not Available

1987-09-01

163

[Burning mouth].  

PubMed

Various conditions of the oral mucosa can give rise to a burning sensation. Candidosis, geographic tongue (erythema migrans), mucocutaneous conditions and stomatitis can all cause mouth burns with visible changes to the oral mucosa. The so-called 'burning-mouth syndrome' (BMS) is a fairly rare but extremely unpleasant condition characterised by a bilateral burning sensation of the oral mucosa in the absence of clinically visible mucosal changes. Frequently-associated symptoms include dry mouth and loss or change of taste. The aetiology is unknown, even though most of the literature focuses on the role of a possible underlying psychogenic disorder. Several mucosal disorders can cause symptoms similar to BMS. Therefore, careful oral examination is required before establishing the diagnosis of BMS. Additional laboratory tests or a specialist examination rarely yield abnormal findings of relevance. Reassurance and understanding are important keywords in the management of patients suffering from BMS. Unless clearly indicated dental or medical treatment should be avoided, even if the patient insists on it, since such treatment is rarely effective. PMID:15932134

van der Waal, I

2005-05-14

164

Coal desulfurization by chlorinolysis production and combustion test evaluation of product coals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laboratory-scale screening tests were carried out on coal from Harrison County, Ohio to establish chlorination and hydrodesulfurization conditions for the batch reactor production of chlorinolysis and chlorinolysis-hydrodesulfurized coals. In addition, three bituminous coals, were treated on the lab scale by the chlorinolysis process to provide 39 to 62% desulfurization. Two bituminous coals and one subbituminous coal were then produced in 11 to 15 pound lots as chlorinolysis and hydrodesulfurized coals. The chlorinolysis coals had a desulfurization of 29-69%, reductions in voltatiles and hydrogen. Hydrodesulfurization provided a much greater desulfurization (56-86%), reductions in volatiles and hydrogen. The three coals were combustion tested in the Penn State ""plane flame furnace'' to determine ignition and burning characteristics. All three coals burned well to completion as: raw coals, chlorinolysis processed coals, and hydrodesulfurized coals. The hydrodesulfurized coals experienced greater ignition delays and reduced burning rates than the other coals because of the reduced volatile content. It is thought that the increased open pore volume in the desulfurized-devolatilized coals compensates in part for the decreased volatiles effect on ignition and burning.

Kalvinskas, J. J.; Daly, D.

1982-01-01

165

Coal-Fired Rocket Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Brief report describes concept for coal-burning hybrid rocket engine. Proposed engine carries larger payload, burns more cleanly, and safer to manufacture and handle than conventional solid-propellant rockets. Thrust changeable in flight, and stops and starts on demand.

Anderson, Floyd A.

1987-01-01

166

Experimental investigation on regulated and unregulated emissions of a diesel engine fueled with ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel blended with biodiesel from waste cooking oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were conducted on a 4-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine using ultra-low sulfur diesel, bi oesel and their blends, to investigate the regulated and unregulated emissions of the engine under five engine loads at an engine speed of 1800rev\\/min. Blended fuels containing 19.6%, 39.4%, 59.4% and 79.6% by volume of biodiesel, corresponding to 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% by mass of

Yage Di; C. S. Cheung; Zuohua Huang

2009-01-01

167

Upgrading low-rank coals using the liquids from coal (LFC) process  

SciTech Connect

Three unmistakable trends characterize national and international coal markets today that help to explain coal`s continuing and, in some cases, increasing share of the world`s energy mix: the downward trend in coal prices is primarily influenced by an excess of increasing supply relative to increasing demand. Associated with this trend are the availability of capital to expand coal supplies when prices become firm and the role of coal exports in international trade, especially for developing nations; the global trend toward reducing the transportation cost component relative to the market, preserves or enhances the producer`s profit margins in the face of lower prices. The strong influence of transportation costs is due to the geographic relationships between coal producers and coal users. The trend toward upgrading low grade coals, including subbituminous and lignite coals, that have favorable environmental characteristics, such as low sulfur, compensates in some measure for decreasing coal prices and helps to reduce transportation costs. The upgrading of low grade coal includes a variety of precombustion clean coal technologies, such as deep coal cleaning. Also included in this grouping are the coal drying and mild pyrolysis (or mild gasification) technologies that remove most of the moisture and a substantial portion of the volatile matter, including organic sulfur, while producing two or more saleable coproducts with considerable added value. SGI International`s Liquids From Coal (LFC) process falls into this category. In the following sections, the LFC process is described and the coproducts of the mild pyrolysis are characterized. Since the process can be applied widely to low rank coals all around the world, the characteristics of coproducts from three different regions around the Pacific Rim-the Powder River Basin of Wyoming, the Beluga Field in Alaska near the Cook Inlet, and the Bukit Asam region in south Sumatra, Indonesia - are compared.

Nickell, R.E.; Hoften, S.A. van

1993-12-31

168

Coal combustion ash haulback  

SciTech Connect

Coal mining disturbs large tracts of land which must be reclaimed. Unfortunately, iron sulfides which are common in most coals and the adjacent strata weather, forming acid mine drainage (AMD) which degrades surface and ground water. Burning of coal produces combustion by products, most of which are placed in ponds or landfills. Suitable disposal areas are difficult to find and permit, especially in urban areas. This has led to ash haulback--where the waste generated during coal burning is hauled back to a mine for disposal. The potential advantages of coal combustion ash haulback are: Disposal occurs in a disturbed area (mine) rather than disturb additional land near the power plant; The same vehicles used to haul coal from the mine can be used to return the ash to the mine; Ash, if alkaline, may provide neutralization of acidic water or mine overburden commonly found at coal mines; and Low permeability ash could reduce ground water flow through the mine backfill, thus reducing leaching of acid forming constituents or metals. Placement of ash in surface mines provides an efficient, cost-effective method of disposal while at the same time contributing to reclamation of the mine. Wise natural resource management suggests a reasonable approach to disposal of coal ash is to return it to its original location--the mine.

Gray, R.E.; Gray, T.A. [GAI Consultants, Inc., Monroeville, PA (United States)

1998-12-31

169

Coal regulations spelled out. almost  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to Energy Secretary J. P. Schlesinger, the regulations to be issued by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for the conversion of existing oil-burning plants to coal may not be as strict as originally expected, due to the current glut of natural gas; conversion to gas rather than coal may be preferred in the short term for many existing

J. J. Oconnor; J. P. Schlesinger

1979-01-01

170

Emissions of toxic pollutants from compressed natural gas and low sulfur diesel-fueled heavy-duty transit buses tested over multiple driving cycles.  

PubMed

The number of heavy-duty vehicles using alternative fuels such as compressed natural gas (CNG) and new low-sulfur diesel fuel formulations and equipped with after-treatment devices are projected to increase. However, few peer-reviewed studies have characterized the emissions of particulate matter (PM) and other toxic compounds from these vehicles. In this study, chemical and biological analyses were used to characterize the identifiable toxic air pollutants emitted from both CNG and low-sulfur-diesel-fueled heavy-duty transit buses tested on a chassis dynamometer over three transient driving cycles and a steady-state cruise condition. The CNG bus had no after-treatment, and the diesel bus was tested first equipped with an oxidation catalyst (OC) and then with a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF). Emissions were analyzed for PM, volatile organic compounds (VOCs; determined on-site), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and mutagenic activity. The 2000 model year CNG-fueled vehicle had the highest emissions of 1,3-butadiene, benzene, and carbonyls (e.g., formaldehyde) of the three vehicle configurations tested in this study. The 1998 model year diesel bus equipped with an OC and fueled with low-sulfur diesel had the highest emission rates of PM and PAHs. The highest specific mutagenic activities (revertants/microg PM, or potency) and the highest mutagen emission rates (revertants/mi) were from the CNG bus in strain TA98 tested over the New York Bus (NYB) driving cycle. The 1998 model year diesel bus with DPF had the lowest VOCs, PAH, and mutagenic activity emission. In general, the NYB driving cycle had the highest emission rates (g/mi), and the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) had the lowest emission rates for all toxics tested over the three transient test cycles investigated. Also, transient emissions were, in general, higher than steady-state emissions. The emissions of toxic compounds from an in-use CNG transit bus (without an oxidation catalyst) and from a vehicle fueled with low-sulfur diesel fuel (equipped with DPF) were lower than from the low-sulfur diesel fueled vehicle equipped with OC. All vehicle configurations had generally lower emissions of toxics than an uncontrolled diesel engine. Tunnel backgrounds (measurements without the vehicle running) were measured throughout this study and were helpful in determining the incremental increase in pollutant emissions. Also, the on-site determination of VOCs, especially 1,3-butadiene, helped minimize measurement losses due to sample degradation after collection. PMID:16245838

Kado, Norman Y; Okamoto, Robert A; Kuzmicky, Paul A; Kobayashi, Reiko; Ayala, Alberto; Gebel, Michael E; Rieger, Paul L; Maddox, Christine; Zafonte, Leo

2005-10-01

171

Steam Plant Conversion Eliminating Campus Coal Use  

E-print Network

Steam Plant Conversion Eliminating Campus Coal Use at the Steam Plant #12;· Flagship campus region produce 14% of US coal (TN only 0.2%) Knoxville and the TN Valley #12;· UT is one of about 70 U.S. colleges and universities w/ steam plant that burns coal · Constructed in 1964, provides steam for

Dai, Pengcheng

172

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: RESIDENTIAL COMBUSTION OF COAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes the assessment of air emissions from the residential combustion of anthracite, bituminous, and lignite coals, with emphasis on bituminous coals. Approximately 2.6 million metric tons of coal were burned as a primary source of heat in an estimated 493,018 hou...

173

A comparitive study between the coal-biomass briquette and raw coal in SO2 pollution and adverse effects in rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to evaluate the adverse health effects on rabbits exposed to SO2 emitted indoors from burning coals, and compare differences between coal-biomass briquette (B.B.) and raw coal (R.C.). Thirty-six male rabbits were divided equally into three groups at random, and then exposed to burning R.C., B.B., and the third without burning coal (Control) for 90 days. Data

Cheng Shuqun; Zhou Yanrong; Wang Yinan; Wang Xun; Liu Yuanfu; Iwao Uchiyama; Wang Qiangyue; Kazuhiki Sakamoto

2006-01-01

174

Ultra-low Sulfur Reduction Emission Control Device/Development of an On-board Fuel Sulfur Trap  

SciTech Connect

Honeywell has completed working on a multiyear program to develop and demonstrate proof-of-concept for an 'on-vehicle' desulfurization fuel filter for both light duty and heavy-duty diesel engines. Integration of the filter into the vehicle fuel system will reduce the adverse effects sulfur has on post combustion emission control devices such as NOx adsorbers. The NOx adsorber may be required to meet the proposed new EPA Tier II and '2007-Rule' emission standards. The proposed filter concept is based on Honeywell's reactive filtration technology and experience in liquids handling and conditioning. A regeneration and recycling plan for the spent filters was also examined. We have chosen to develop and demonstrate this technology based on criteria set forth for a heavy duty CIDI engine system because it represents a more challenging set of conditions of service intervals and overall fuel usage over light duty systems. In the second phase of the program a light duty diesel engine test was also demonstrated. Further, technology developed under this proposal would also have application for the use of liquid based fuels for fuel cell power generation. The program consisted of four phases. Phase I focused on developing a concept design and analysis and resolution of technical barriers concerning removal of sulfur-containing species in low sulfur fuels. In Phase II concentrated on prototype filter design and preparation followed by qualification testing of this component in a fuel line application. Phase III studied life cycle and regeneration options for the spent filter. Phase IV focused on efficacy and benefits in the desulfation steps of a NOx adsorber on both a heavy and light duty engine. The project team included a number of partners, with Honeywell International as the prime contractor. The partners include an emission control technology developer (Honeywell International), a fuel technology developer (Marathon Ashland Petroleum), a catalyst technology developer (Johnson Matthey), a CIDI engine manufacturer (Navistar Inc. (formerly International Truck & Engine Corporation) and Mack Trucks Inc.), and filter recycler (American Wastes Industries).

Rohrbach, Ron; Barron, Ann

2008-07-31

175

Effects of three biodiesels and a low sulfur diesel in male rats--a pilot 4-week oral study.  

PubMed

Because of the accessible and renewable nature of feedstock and the potential for the reduction of harmful combustion emissions and greenhouse gases, biodiesels have received increasing interest as an alternate fuel. Oral exposure to biodiesels is a concern because of contact during refuelling, accidental ingestion and exposure through ground water contamination. Although biodiesels from various feedstock are in use commercially and experimentally, very little is known about their potential adverse effects and no data is available on their potential for ground water contamination. A study was performed on male rats following oral treatment with experimental biodiesels (dissolved in corn oil) derived from canola oil (Bio-C), soy oil (Bio-S) and fish oil (Bio-F), at 500 mg/kg body weight/day, 5 days per week, for 4 weeks. Separate groups of animals were treated with low sulfur diesel (LSD) for comparison purpose, and with corn oil alone to serve as control. The potential for ground water contamination by biodiesels was investigated by the preparation of water-accommodated fractions (WAF) followed by gas chromatographic analysis. WAF from Bio-F and Bio-S was found to have the highest level of dichloromethane extractable materials. Gas chromatographic analysis indicated that the extractable materials from biodiesels contained much higher proportion of C15-C30 materials than LSD. Increased liver weight was observed in animal treated with Bio-C, Bio-S and LSD and decreased thymus weight was found in those treated with Bio-S. Histopathological changes typical of male-rat specific hyaline-droplet nephropathy were detected in kidney tubules of animals treated with LSD, Bio-S and Bio-C. Mild adaptive changes were observed in thyroids of animals treated with LSD, Bio-S and Bio-F. Clinical chemical and biochemical changes were confined to Bio-S and LSD treated rats and included elevation in some hepatic phase-I and phase-II drug metabolizing enzymes and hepatic palmitoyl Co-A oxidase, and elevated urinary concentrations of ascorbic acid and albumin. At the given dose level of 500 mg/kg bw/day, the overall treatment-related effects of biodiesels and LSD are mild, and the severity of the treatment effects may be ranked as: LSD>Bio-S>Bio-C>Bio-F. Considered together with the presence of a higher level of water extractable materials, Bio-S may be more of a concern for potential human health than Bio-C and Bio-F in an oral exposure scenario. Further studies are needed to identify and characterize the constituents contributing to the treatment-related effects specific to these experimental biodiesels. PMID:17532109

Poon, R; Chu, I; Valli, V E; Graham, L; Yagminas, A; Hollebone, B; Rideout, G; Fingas, M

2007-10-01

176

CHARACTERIZATION OF ASH FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes existing data on the chemical and physical characteristics of ashes produced by the burning of coal in steam-electric generating plants. It summarizes several recent coal or ash characterization studies, emphasizing the elemental chemical composition, partic...

177

Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems  

SciTech Connect

Westinghouse's Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine System Program (DE-AC2l-86MC23167) was originally split into two major phases - a Basic Program and an Option. The Basic Program also contained two phases. The development of a 6 atm, 7 lb/s, 12 MMBtu/hr slagging combustor with an extended period of testing of the subscale combustor, was the first part of the Basic Program. In the second phase of the Basic Program, the combustor was to be operated over a 3-month period with a stationary cascade to study the effect of deposition, erosion and corrosion on combustion turbine components. The testing of the concept, in subscale, has demonstrated its ability to handle high- and low-sulfur bituminous coals, and low-sulfur subbituminous coal. Feeding the fuel in the form of PC has proven to be superior to CWM type feed. The program objectives relative to combustion efficiency, combustor exit temperature, NO[sub x] emissions, carbon burnout, and slag rejection have been met. Objectives for alkali, particulate, and SO[sub x] levels leaving the combustor were not met by the conclusion of testing at Textron. It is planned to continue this testing, to achieve all desired emission levels, as part of the W/NSP program to commercialize the slagging combustor technology.

Not Available

1992-09-01

178

Process for coal liquefaction in staged dissolvers  

DOEpatents

There is described an improved liquefaction process by which coal is converted to a low ash and low sulfur carbonaceous material that can be used as a fuel in an environmentally acceptable manner without costly gas scrubbing equipment. In the process, coal is slurried with a pasting oil, passed through a preheater and at least two dissolvers in series in the presence of hydrogen-rich gases at elevated temperatures and pressures. Solids, including mineral ash and unconverted coal macerals, are separated from the condensed reactor effluent. In accordance with the improved process, the first dissolver is operated at a higher temperature than the second dissolver. This temperature sequence produces improved product selectivity and permits the incorporation of sufficient hydrogen in the solvent for adequate recycle operations.

Roberts, George W. (Emmaus, PA); Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA); Skinner, Ronald W. (Allentown, PA)

1983-01-01

179

Preparation for upgrading western subbituminous coal  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to establish the physical and chemical characteristics of western coal and determine the best preparation technologies for upgrading this resource. Western coal was characterized as an abundant, easily mineable, clean, low-sulfur coal with low heating value, high moisture, susceptibility to spontaneous ignition, and considerable transit distances from major markets. Project support was provided by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The research was conducted by the Western Research Institute, (WRI) in Laramie, Wyoming. The project scope of work required the completion of four tasks: (1) project planning, (2) literature searches and verbal contacts with consumers and producers of western coal, (3) selection of the best technologies to upgrade western coal, and (4) identification of research needed to develop the best technologies for upgrading western coals. The results of this research suggest that thermal drying is the best technology for upgrading western coals. There is a significant need for further research in areas involving physical and chemical stabilization of the dried coal product. Excessive particle-size degradation and resulting dustiness, moisture reabsorption, and high susceptibility to spontaneous combustion are key areas requiring further research. Improved testing methods for the determination of equilibrium moisture and susceptibility to spontaneous ignition under various ambient conditions are recommended.

Grimes, R.W.; Cha, C.Y.; Sheesley, D.C.

1990-11-01

180

Burning system and method  

SciTech Connect

A substantially smokeless burning system is discussed for burning waste material fuels. An elongated hollow burning chamber is supported in a generally horizontal orientation. An elongated fuel accumulation chamber and a hydraulic hoist driven ram in the chamber are adapted to push elongated volumes of new fuel into the lower front end of the burning chamber such that already burning fuel is pushed to the rear of the chamber. This establishes a charcoal burning zone which at least partially overlies a volatile burning zone such that incomplete combustion products from the volatile burning zone pass over and through the charcoal burning zone to be substantially burned before exiting at the rear of the burning chamber. Integral preheat and air delivery channels are formed in the walls of the burning chamber. A pipe section is mounted within the burning chamber for incinerating liquid waste materials.

Burton, E.B.

1984-02-07

181

Combustion of black coal in the form of coal-water slurry in low-capacity boilers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper describes the examples of experimental and industrial implementation of technologies of flame-droplet combustion of the coal-water mixture in furnaces above a bed consisting of burning coal and in a swirling-type furnace chamber. For preparing coal-water fuel (CWF), Kuznetsk coals of G and D ranks, as well as tailings of coking coals, were used. The future prospect of both technologies of coal combustion has been shown from both economic and environmental standpoints.

Maltsev, L. I.; Kravchenko, I. V.; Lazarev, S. I.; Lapin, D. A.

2014-07-01

182

Abundances of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 14 chinese and american coals and their relation to coal rank and weathering  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The abundances of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the priority list of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) have been determined in 14 Chinese and American coals. The ranks of the samples range from lignite, bituminous coal, anthracite, to natural coke. Soxhlet extraction was conducted on each coal for 48 h. The extract was analyzed on a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The results show that the total PAH content ranged from 0.31 to 57.6 ??g/g of coal (on a dry basis). It varied with coal rank and is highest in the maturity range of bituminous coal rank. High-molecular-weight (HMW) PAHs are predominant in low-rank coals, but low-molecular-weight (LMW) PAHs are predominant in high-rank coals. The low-sulfur coals have a higher PAH content than high-sulfur coals. It may be explained by an increasing connection between disulfide bonds and PAHs in high-sulfur coal. In addition, it leads us to conclude that the PAH content of coals may be related to the depositional environment. ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

Wang, R.; Liu, G.; Zhang, J.; Chou, C.-L.; Liu, J.

2010-01-01

183

Phenols and hydroxy-PAHs (arylphenols) as tracers for coal smoke particulate matter: source tests and ambient aerosol assessments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Source tests were conducted to analyze and characterize diagnostic key tracers for emissions from burning of coals with various ranks. Coal samples included lignite from Germany, semibituminous coal from Arizona, USA, bituminous coal from Wales, UK and sample from briquettes of semibituminous coal, bituminous coal and anthracite from China. Ambient aerosol particulate matter was also collected in three areas of

Bernd R. T. Simoneit; Xinhui Bi; Daniel R. Oros; Patricia M. Medeiros; Guoying Sheng; Jiamo Fu

2007-01-01

184

Ram Burn Observations (RAMBO)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ram Burn Observations (RAMBO) is a Department of Defense experiment that observes shuttle Orbital Maneuvering System engine burns for the purpose of improving plume models. On STS-107 the appropriate sensors will observe selected rendezvous and orbit adjust burns.

2002-01-01

185

Planning a Prescribed Burn  

E-print Network

This leaflet explains how to plan for adequate fuel for a prescribed burn, control the fire, notify the proper authority, manage the burn itself, and conduct follow-up management. A ranch checklist for prescribed burning is included....

Hanselka, C. Wayne

2009-04-01

186

Comparison of the Eastern and Western Kentucky coal fields (Pennsylvanian), USA-why are coal distribution patterns and sulfur contents so different in these coal fields?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

More than 130 Mt of Pennsylvanian coal is produced annually from two coal fields in Kentucky. The Western Kentucky Coal Field occurs in part of the Illinois Basin, an intercratonic basin, and the Eastern Kentucky Coal Field occurs in the Central Appalachian Basin, a foreland basin. The basins are only separated by 140 km, but mined western Kentucky coal beds exhibit significantly higher sulfur values than eastern Kentucky coals. Higher-sulfur coal beds in western Kentucky have generally been inferred to be caused by more marine influences than for eastern Kentucky coals. Comparison of strata in the two coal fields shows that more strata and more coal beds accumulated in the Eastern than Western Kentucky Coal Field in the Early and Middle Pennsylvanian, inferred to represent greater generation of tectonic accommodation in the foreland basin. Eastern Kentucky coal beds exhibit a greater tendency toward splitting and occurring in zones than time-equivalent western Kentucky coal beds, which is also inferred to represent foreland accommodation influences, overprinted by autogenic sedimentation effects. Western Kentucky coal beds exhibit higher sulfur values than their eastern counterparts, but western Kentucky coals occurring in Langsettian through Bolsovian strata can be low in sulfur content. Eastern Kentucky coal beds may increase in sulfur content beneath marine zones, but generally are still lower in sulfur than mined Western Kentucky coal beds, indicating that controls other than purely marine influences must have influenced coal quality. The bulk of production in the Eastern Kentucky Coal Field is from Duckmantian and Bolsovian coal beds, whereas production in the Western Kentucky Coal Field is from Westphalian D coals. Langsettian through Bolsovian paleoclimates in eastern Kentucky were favorable for peat doming, so numerous low-sulfur coals accumulated. These coals tend to occur in zones and are prone to lateral splitting because of foreland tectonic and sedimentation influences. In contrast, Westphalian D coal beds of western Kentucky accumulated during low differential tectonic accommodation, and therefore tend to be widespread and uniform in characteristics, but exhibit higher sulfur values because they accumulated in seasonally drier paleoclimates that were unfavorable for peat doming. Hence, basin analyses indicate that many differences between the mined coals of Kentucky's two coal fields are related to temporal changes in paleoclimate and tectonic accommodation, rather than solely being a function of marine influences. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Greb, S. F.; Eble, C. F.; Chesnut, Jr. , D. R.

2002-01-01

187

POC-SCALE TESTING OF AN ADVANCED FINE COAL DEWATERING EQUIPMENT/TECHNIQUE  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of the proposed program is to evaluate a novel surface modification technique, which utilizes the synergistic effect of metal ions-surfactant combination, for dewatering of ultra-fine clean coal on a proof-of-concept scale of 1 to 2 tph. The novel surface modification technique developed at the UKCAER will be evaluated using vacuum, centrifuge, and hyperbaric filtration equipment. Dewatering tests will be conducted using the fine clean-coal froth produced by the column flotation units at the Powell Mountain Coal Company, Mayflower Preparation Plant in St. Charles, Virginia. The POC-scale studies will be conducted on two different types of clean coal, namely, high-sulfur and low-sulfur clean coal. The Mayflower Plant processes coals from five different seams, thus the dewatering studies results could be generalized for most of the bituminous coals.

B.K. PAREKH; D. TAO; J.G. GROPPO

1998-02-03

188

Secondary economic impact of acid deposition control legislation in six coal producing states: Final report  

SciTech Connect

Among the difficult policy questions on the US environmental agenda is what to do about emissions to the earth's atmosphere of pollutants that may result in ''acid rain''. The Congress has considered several pieces of legislation spelling out potential approaches to the problem and setting goals for emission reduction, mostly emphasizing the control of oxides of sulfur and nitrogen. Significant policy concern is the dollar costs to the nation's economy of achieving the intended effects of the legislation and the potential impacts on economic activity---in particular, losses of both coal mining and secondary service sector employment in states and regions dependent on the mining of high sulfur coal. There are several direct economic effects of regulations such as the acid rain control legislation. One of the more obvious effects was the switching from high sulfur coal to low sulfur coal. This would result in increases in employment and coal business procurements in low sulfur coal mining regions, but also would result in lower employment and lower coal business procurements in high sulfur coal mining areas. The potential negative effects are the immediate policy concern and are the focus of this report. 15 refs., 1 fig., 17 tabs.

Scott, M.J.; Guthrie, S.J.

1988-12-01

189

Study of Coal Water Slurry Particle Size Distribution with Ultrasonic Testing Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal is a kind of conventional energy resource with the largest reserves and the most widely distributing in the world. The key to reduce coal pollution are the development of clean coal technology and the improvement of the backward coal-burning technology. The coal water slurry (CWS) is produced with the physical method which is simple, low investment, low cost, and

Wang Weidong; Xu Zhiqiang; Zhang Chenglian; Liu Gangfeng; Tian Jinyun

2010-01-01

190

Experimental investigation on regulated and unregulated emissions of a diesel engine fueled with ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel blended with biodiesel from waste cooking oil.  

PubMed

Experiments were conducted on a 4-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine using ultra-low sulfur diesel, bi oesel and their blends, to investigate the regulated and unregulated emissions of the engine under five engine loads at an engine speed of 1800 rev/min. Blended fuels containing 19.6%, 39.4%, 59.4% and 79.6% by volume of biodiesel, corresponding to 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% by mass of oxygen in the blended fuel, were used. Biodiesel used in this study was converted from waste cooking oil. The following results are obtained with an increase of biodiesel in the fuel. The brake specific fuel consumption and the brake thermal efficiency increase. The HC and CO emissions decrease while NO(x) and NO(2) emissions increase. The smoke opacity and particulate mass concentrations reduce significantly at high engine load. In addition, for submicron particles, the geometry mean diameter of the particles becomes smaller while the total number concentration increases. For the unregulated gaseous emissions, generally, the emissions of formaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene, toluene, xylene decrease, however, acetaldehyde and benzene emissions increase. The results indicate that the combination of ultra-low sulfur diesel and biodiesel from waste cooking oil gives similar results to those in the literature using higher sulfur diesel fuels and biodiesel from other sources. PMID:18947856

Di, Yage; Cheung, C S; Huang, Zuohua

2009-01-01

191

Remote detection of underground coal mine fires using geophysical methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abandoned coal mine fires can be found in coal basins across the United States and around the world. These fires can burn for decades, resulting in the emission of toxic gasses and smoke, and prompting subsidence damage to both homes and property. In order to facilitate containment and extinguishment of abandoned underground mine fires, the location of the active burn

K. L. Hauser; D. R. Tweeton; W. H. Pomroy

1995-01-01

192

Teen Maps Contaminants from a Coal Plant  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video adapted from Earth Island Institute, meet a high school student who educated her community about how a coal-burning power plant was contributing to asthma and other health problems there.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2011-03-21

193

Coal waste seen as valuable resource Published: March. 29, 2011 at 8:09 PM  

E-print Network

Coal waste seen as valuable resource Published: March. 29, 2011 at 8:09 PM ANAHEIM, Calif., March 29 (UPI) -- Fly ash, a byproduct of coal-burning electric power plants, could save billions. More than 450 coal-burning electric power plants in the United States produce about 130 million tons

Belogay, Eugene A.

194

AIR QUALITY IMPACTS USING SRC VERSUS CONVENTIONAL COAL IN POWER PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of air quality modeling to assess the impact of burning solvent-refined coal (SRC) instead of conventional coal in three power plants which exceeded National Ambient Air Quality Standards when burning conventional coal. The EPA CRSTER Gaussian plume model...

195

Burning Mouth Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Burning mouth syndrome is characterized by a painful burning or stinging sensation affecting the tongue or other areas of the mouth without obvious signs of an organic cause on physical examination. A burning mouth sensation can occur in several cutaneous or systemic diseases that must be ruled out prior to making a diagnosis of burning mouth syndrome, since this term

C. Brufau-Redondo; R. Martn-Brufau; R. Corbaln-Velez; A. de Concepcin-Salesa

2008-01-01

196

ENCOAL mild coal gasification project. Annual report  

SciTech Connect

This document is the combination of the fourth quarter report (July--September 1993) and the 1993 annual report for the ENCOAL project. The following pages include the background and process description for the project, brief summaries of the accomplishments for the first three quarters, and a detailed fourth quarter report. Its purpose is to convey the accomplishments and current progress of the project. ENCOAL Corporation, has completed the construction of a mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company`s Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology developed by SMC and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin coal to produce two new fuels, Process Derived Fuel (PDF) and Coal Derived Liquids (CDL). ENCOAL submitted an application to the US Department of Energy (DOE) in August 1989, soliciting joint funding of the project in the third round of the Clean Coal Technology Program. The project was selected by DOE in December, 1989 and the Cooperative Agreement approved in September, 1990. Construction, commissioning, and start-up of the ENCOAL mild coal gasification facility was completed in June of 1992, and the project is currently in the operations phase. Some plant modifications have been required and are discussed in this report.

Not Available

1993-10-01

197

Factors affecting the export of high-sulfur coal from the Eastern Interior Basin. Prepared by the Congressional Research Service Library of Congress  

SciTech Connect

Domestic market losses for Eastern Interior Basin coal may not preclude a future for high-sulfur coal because of growing international demand. New markets will develop as coal-cleaning and synthetic-fuel processes improve. Cement industries throughout the world accept large amounts of higher-sulfur coals for their baking processes. Low-sulfur emissions are possible, with little or no loss in energy content, by blending Illinois Basin coal with Western or Eastern coal before export. The committee suggests that careful planning by labor, the coal industry, and - where needed - state, local, and federal government will make this coal a viable export. The report also emphasizes the importance of recognizing the restraints as well as the advantages. The Mississippi River, the Great Lakes, and 11,000 miles of mostly new railroad track are available to transport this coal. 21 references, 4 figures, 7 tables.

Thompson, D.A.

1981-01-01

198

Coal combustion system  

DOEpatents

In a coal combustion system suitable for a gas turbine engine, pulverized coal is transported to a rich zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio exceeding 1 at a temperature above the slagging temperature of the coal so that combustible hot gas and molten slag issue from the rich zone combustor. A coolant screen of water stretches across a throat of a quench stage and cools the combustible gas and molten slag to below the slagging temperature of the coal so that the slag freezes and shatters into small pellets. The pelletized slag is separated from the combustible gas in a first inertia separator. Residual ash is separated from the combustible gas in a second inertia separator. The combustible gas is mixed with secondary air in a lean zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio of less than 1 to produce hot gas motive at temperature above the coal slagging temperature. The motive fluid is cooled in a dilution stage to an acceptable turbine inlet temperature before being transported to the turbine.

Wilkes, Colin (Lebanon, IN); Mongia, Hukam C. (Carmel, IN); Tramm, Peter C. (Indianapolis, IN)

1988-01-01

199

Burn epidemiology: a basis for burn prevention.  

PubMed

An appreciation of the causes of burn injury is essential in order to direct burn prevention programs. Toward this goal, 1,564 patients treated at the UCI Burn Center were studied. There were 699 patients admitted acutely and 865 outpatients. The most common cause of thermal injury in both adults and children was scalding. In children scald burns accounted for 42% of the total number of children treated. In children under 4 years old scalds caused 75% of all burn injuries, most in the kitchen. Flammable liquids were responsible for the majority of the severe burns in the adult group (19% of acute admissions). Housefires, while accounting for only 5% of the adults treated, were responsible for 44% of the adult deaths. Continued public education in safety practices at home especially in the kitchen and bath, and with automobiles and outdoor stoves and fires is recommended, as well as planned escapes from homes and use of smoke detectors. PMID:592443

Jay, K M; Bartlett, R H; Danet, R; Allyn, P A

1977-12-01

200

CHARACTERISTICS OF SINGLE PARTICLE COAL COMBUSTION  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the measurement of the burning history of single coal particles, using a two-color optical pyrometer. rom intensity traces at two wavelengths, information on burning times and temperatures, the duration of a volatile flame, and projected areas was obtained for...

201

Coal Gasification and Coal Hydrogenation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present state of the development works on the coal gasification and coal hydrogenation processes carried out by the coal producing and engineering companies is presented. The coal gasification projects are the following: Texaco suspended dust gasifica...

1980-01-01

202

Determination of sulfur isotope abundance ratios for SI-traceable low sulfur concentration measurements in fossil fuels by ID-TIMS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work describes the development of an existing TIMS procedure to a reference procedure for low sulfur concentration measurements in fossil fuels. With this enhanced procedure SI-traceable sulfur mass fractions below 10 mg kg-1 can be obtained. The achieved detection limit is approximately 0.2 mg kg-1. The procedure was validated by certified reference materials. The procedure was already applied to candidate reference materials and to samples analysed within projects of the "Comit Consultatif pour la Quantit de Matire - CCQM". Additionally the influence of the isotopic composition on the results and its corresponding uncertainty was studied. Reference data published in the literature on the isotopic composition of sulfur were assessed.

Pritzkow, W.; Vogl, J.; Kppen, R.; Ostermann, M.

2005-04-01

203

Evaluation of alkyl esters from Camelina sativa oil as biodiesel and as blend components in ultra low-sulfur diesel fuel.  

PubMed

Methyl and ethyl esters were prepared from camelina [Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz] oil by homogenous base-catalyzed transesterification for evaluation as biodiesel fuels. Camelina oil contained high percentages of linolenic (32.6 wt.%), linoleic (19.6 wt.%), and oleic (18.6 wt.%) acids. Consequently, camelina oil methyl and ethyl esters (CSME and CSEE) exhibited poor oxidative stabilities and high iodine values versus methyl esters prepared from canola, palm, and soybean oils (CME, PME, and SME). Other fuel properties of CSME and CSEE were similar to CME, PME, and SME, such as low temperature operability, acid value, cetane number, kinematic viscosity, lubricity, sulfur and phosphorous contents, as well as surface tension. As blend components in ultra low-sulfur diesel fuel, CSME and CSEE were essentially indistinguishable from SME and soybean oil ethyl ester blends with regard to low temperature operability, kinematic viscosity, lubricity, and surface tension. PMID:19740653

Moser, Bryan R; Vaughn, Steven F

2010-01-01

204

Big coal: the dirty secret behind America's energy future  

SciTech Connect

Veteran journalist Jeff Goodell argues that coal is bad for the economy, bad for public health and especially bad for the environment, yet its future looks quite bright. It is relatively cheap. It is plentiful, and Americans, who get half their electric power from coal-burning generators, are addicted to it. As of 2005, more than 120 new coal-burning plants were either planned or under construction in the United States.

Jeff Goodell

2006-06-08

205

Environmentally conscious coal combustion  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project was to evaluate the environmental impacts of home-scale coal combustion on the Navajo Reservation and develop strategies to reduce adverse health effects associated with home-scale coal combustion. Principal accomplishments of this project were: (1) determination of the metal and gaseous emissions of a representative stove on the Navajo Reservation; (2) recognition of cyclic gaseous emissions in combustion in home-scale combustors; (3) `back of the envelope` calculation that home-scale coal combustion may impact Navajo health; and (4) identification that improved coal stoves require the ability to burn diverse feedstocks (coal, wood, biomass). Ultimately the results of Navajo home-scale coal combustion studies will be extended to the Developing World, particularly China, where a significant number (> 150 million) of households continue to heat their homes with low-grade coal.

Hickmott, D.D.; Brown, L.F.; Currier, R.P. [and others

1997-08-01

206

FIELD TEST PROGRAM FOR LONG-TERM OPERATION OF A COHPAC SYSTEM FOR REMOVING MERCURY FROM COAL-FIRED FLUE GAS  

SciTech Connect

With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by the existing particle control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. During 2001, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) conducted a full-scale demonstration of sorbent-based mercury control technology at the Alabama Power E.C. Gaston Station (Wilsonville, AL). This unit burns a low-sulfur bituminous coal and uses a hot-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in combination with a Compact Hybrid Particulate Collector (COHPAC{trademark}) baghouse to collect fly ash. The majority of the fly ash is collected in the ESP with the residual being collected in the COHPAC baghouse. Activated carbon was injected between the ESP and COHPAC units to collect the mercury. Short-term mercury removal levels in excess of 90% were achieved using the COHPAC unit. The test also showed that activated carbon was effective in removing both forms of mercury-elemental and oxidized. However, a great deal of additional testing is required to further characterize the capabilities and limitations of this technology relative to use with baghouse systems such as COHPAC. It is important to determine performance over an extended period of time to fully assess all operational parameters. The project described in this report focuses on fully demonstrating sorbent injection technology at a coal-fired power generating plant that is equipped with a COHPAC system. The overall objective is to evaluate the long-term effects of sorbent injection on mercury capture and COHPAC performance. The work is being done on one-half of the gas stream at Alabama Power Company's Plant Gaston Unit 3 (nominally 135 MW). Data from the testing will be used to determine: (1) If sorbent injection into a high air-to-cloth ratio baghouse is a viable, long-term approach for mercury control; and (2) Design criteria and costs for new baghouse/sorbent injection systems that will use a similar, polishing baghouse (TOXECON{trademark}) approach.

Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac; Travis Starns; Sharon Sjostrom; Trent Taylor; Cindy Larson

2003-10-31

207

FIELD TEST PROGRAM FOR LONG-TERM OPERATION OF A COHPAC SYSTEM FOR REMOVING MERCURY FROM COAL-FIRED FLUE GAS  

SciTech Connect

With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by the existing particle control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. During 2001 ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) conducted a full-scale demonstration of sorbent-based mercury control technology at the Alabama Power E.C. Gaston Station (Wilsonville, AL). This unit burns a low-sulfur bituminous coal and uses a hot-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in combination with a Compact Hybrid Particulate Collector (COHPAC) baghouse to collect fly ash. The majority of the fly ash is collected in the ESP with the residual being collected in the COHPAC baghouse. Activated carbon was injected between the ESP and COHPAC units to collect the mercury. Short-term mercury removal levels in excess of 90% were achieved using the COHPAC unit. The test also showed that activated carbon was effective in removing both forms of mercury: elemental and oxidized. However, a great deal of additional testing is required to further characterize the capabilities and limitations of this technology relative to use with baghouse systems such as COHPAC. It is important to determine performance over an extended period of time to fully assess all operational parameters. The project described in this report focuses on fully demonstrating sorbent injection technology at a coal-fired power generating plant that is equipped with a COHPAC system. The overall objective is to evaluate the long-term effects of sorbent injection on mercury capture and COHPAC performance. The work is being done on one-half of the gas stream at Alabama Power Company's Plant Gaston Unit 3 (nominally 135 MW). Data from the testing will be used to determine: (1) If sorbent injection into a high air-to-cloth ratio baghouse is a viable, long-term approach for mercury control; and (2) Design criteria and costs for new baghouse/sorbent injection systems that will use a similar, polishing baghouse (TOXECON) approach.

Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac; Travis Starns; Sharon Sjostrom; Tom Millar

2003-07-30

208

Field Test Program for Long-Term Operation of a COHPAC System for Removing Mercury from Coal-Fired Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect

With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by the existing particle control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. During 2001, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) conducted a full-scale demonstration of sorbent-based mercury control technology at the Alabama Power E.C. Gaston Station (Wilsonville, Alabama). This unit burns a low-sulfur bituminous coal and uses a hot-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in combination with a Compact Hybrid Particulate Collector (COHPAC{reg_sign}) baghouse to collect fly ash. The majority of the fly ash is collected in the ESP with the residual being collected in the COHPAC{reg_sign} baghouse. Activated carbon was injected between the ESP and COHPAC{reg_sign} units to collect the mercury. Short-term mercury removal levels in excess of 90% were achieved using the COHPAC{reg_sign} unit. The test also showed that activated carbon was effective in removing both forms of mercury-elemental and oxidized. However, a great deal of additional testing is required to further characterize the capabilities and limitations of this technology relative to use with baghouse systems such as COHPAC{reg_sign}. It is important to determine performance over an extended period of time to fully assess all operational parameters. The project described in this report focuses on fully demonstrating sorbent injection technology at a coal-fired power generating plant that is equipped with a COHPAC{reg_sign} system. The overall objective is to evaluate the long-term effects of sorbent injection on mercury capture and COHPAC{reg_sign} performance. The work is being done on one-half of the gas stream at Alabama Power Company's Plant Gaston Unit 3 (nominally 135 MW). Data from the testing will be used to determine: (1) If sorbent injection into a high air-to-cloth ratio baghouse is a viable, long-term approach for mercury control; and (2) Design criteria and costs for new baghouse/sorbent injection systems that will use a similar, polishing baghouse (TOXECON{trademark}) approach.

Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac; Travis Starns; Sharon Sjostrom; Trent Taylor; Cindy Larson

2004-08-06

209

Field Test Program for Long-Term Operation of a COHPAC System for Removing Mercury from Coal-Fired Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect

With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by the existing particle control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. During 2001, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) conducted a full-scale demonstration of sorbent-based mercury control technology at the Alabama Power E.C. Gaston Station (Wilsonville, Alabama). This unit burns a low-sulfur bituminous coal and uses a hot-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in combination with a Compact Hybrid Particulate Collector (COHPAC{reg_sign}) baghouse to collect fly ash. The majority of the fly ash is collected in the ESP with the residual being collected in the COHPAC{reg_sign} baghouse. Activated carbon was injected between the ESP and COHPAC{reg_sign} units to collect the mercury. Short-term mercury removal levels in excess of 90% were achieved using the COHPAC{reg_sign} unit. The test also showed that activated carbon was effective in removing both forms of mercury-elemental and oxidized. However, a great deal of additional testing is required to further characterize the capabilities and limitations of this technology relative to use with baghouse systems such as COHPAC{reg_sign}. It is important to determine performance over an extended period of time to fully assess all operational parameters. The project described in this report focuses on fully demonstrating sorbent injection technology at a coal-fired power generating plant that is equipped with a COHPAC{reg_sign} system. The overall objective is to evaluate the long-term effects of sorbent injection on mercury capture and COHPAC{reg_sign} performance. The work is being done on one-half of the gas stream at Alabama Power Company's Plant Gaston Unit 3 (nominally 135 MW). Data from the testing will be used to determine: (1) If sorbent injection into a high air-to-cloth ratio baghouse is a viable, long-term approach for mercury control; and (2) Design criteria and costs for new baghouse/sorbent injection systems that will use a similar, polishing baghouse (TOXECON{trademark}) approach.

Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac; Travis Starns; Sharon Sjostrom; Cindy Larson

2005-07-14

210

Field Test Program for Long-Term Operation of a COHPAC System for Removing Mercury from Coal-Fired Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect

With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by the existing particle control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. During 2001, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) conducted a full-scale demonstration of sorbent-based mercury control technology at the Alabama Power E.C. Gaston Station (Wilsonville, Alabama). This unit burns a low-sulfur bituminous coal and uses a hot-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in combination with a Compact Hybrid Particulate Collector (COHPAC{reg_sign}) baghouse to collect fly ash. The majority of the fly ash is collected in the ESP with the residual being collected in the COHPAC{reg_sign} baghouse. Activated carbon was injected between the ESP and COHPAC{reg_sign} units to collect the mercury. Short-term mercury removal levels in excess of 90% were achieved using the COHPAC{reg_sign} unit. The test also showed that activated carbon was effective in removing both forms of mercury-elemental and oxidized. However, a great deal of additional testing is required to further characterize the capabilities and limitations of this technology relative to use with baghouse systems such as COHPAC{reg_sign}. It is important to determine performance over an extended period of time to fully assess all operational parameters. The project described in this report focuses on fully demonstrating sorbent injection technology at a coal-fired power generating plant that is equipped with a COHPAC{reg_sign} system. The overall objective is to evaluate the long-term effects of sorbent injection on mercury capture and COHPAC{reg_sign} performance. The work is being done on one-half of the gas stream at Alabama Power Company's Plant Gaston Unit 3 (nominally 135 MW). Data from the testing will be used to determine: (1) If sorbent injection into a high air-to-cloth ratio baghouse is a viable, long-term approach for mercury control; and (2) Design criteria and costs for new baghouse/sorbent injection systems that will use a similar, polishing baghouse (TOXECON{trademark}) approach.

Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac; Travis Starns; Sharon Sjostrom; Cindy Larson

2005-10-24

211

Field Test Program for Long-Term Operation of a COHPAC System for Removing Mercury from Coal-Fired Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect

With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by the existing particle control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. During 2001, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) conducted a full-scale demonstration of sorbent-based mercury control technology at the Alabama Power E.C. Gaston Station (Wilsonville, Alabama). This unit burns a low-sulfur bituminous coal and uses a hot-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in combination with a Compact Hybrid Particulate Collector (COHPAC{reg_sign}) baghouse to collect fly ash. The majority of the fly ash is collected in the ESP with the residual being collected in the COHPAC{reg_sign} baghouse. Activated carbon was injected between the ESP and COHPAC{reg_sign} units to collect the mercury. Short-term mercury removal levels in excess of 90% were achieved using the COHPAC{reg_sign} unit. The test also showed that activated carbon was effective in removing both forms of mercury-elemental and oxidized. However, a great deal of additional testing is required to further characterize the capabilities and limitations of this technology relative to use with baghouse systems such as COHPAC{reg_sign}. It is important to determine performance over an extended period of time to fully assess all operational parameters. The project described in this report focuses on fully demonstrating sorbent injection technology at a coal-fired power generating plant that is equipped with a COHPAC{reg_sign} system. The overall objective is to evaluate the long-term effects of sorbent injection on mercury capture and COHPAC{reg_sign} performance. The work is being done on one-half of the gas stream at Alabama Power Company's Plant Gaston Unit 3 (nominally 135 MW). Data from the testing will be used to determine: (1) If sorbent injection into a high air-to-cloth ratio baghouse is a viable, long-term approach for mercury control; and (2) Design criteria and costs for new baghouse/sorbent injection systems that will use a similar, polishing baghouse (TOXECON{trademark}) approach.

Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac: Travis Starns; Sharon Sjostrom; Trent Taylor; Cindy Larson

2005-04-28

212

Field Test Program for Long-Term Operation of a COHPAC System for Removing Mercury from Coal-Fired Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect

With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by the existing particle control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. During 2001, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) conducted a full-scale demonstration of sorbent-based mercury control technology at the Alabama Power E.C. Gaston Station (Wilsonville, Alabama). This unit burns a low-sulfur bituminous coal and uses a hot-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in combination with a Compact Hybrid Particulate Collector (COHPAC{reg_sign}) baghouse to collect fly ash. The majority of the fly ash is collected in the ESP with the residual being collected in the COHPAC{reg_sign} baghouse. Activated carbon was injected between the ESP and COHPAC{reg_sign} units to collect the mercury. Short-term mercury removal levels in excess of 90% were achieved using the COHPAC{reg_sign} unit. The test also showed that activated carbon was effective in removing both forms of mercury-elemental and oxidized. However, a great deal of additional testing is required to further characterize the capabilities and limitations of this technology relative to use with baghouse systems such as COHPAC{reg_sign}. It is important to determine performance over an extended period of time to fully assess all operational parameters. The project described in this report focuses on fully demonstrating sorbent injection technology at a coal-fired power generating plant that is equipped with a COHPAC{reg_sign} system. The overall objective is to evaluate the long-term effects of sorbent injection on mercury capture and COHPAC{reg_sign} performance. The work is being done on one-half of the gas stream at Alabama Power Company's Plant Gaston Unit 3 (nominally 135 MW). Data from the testing will be used to determine: (1) If sorbent injection into a high air-to-cloth ratio baghouse is a viable, long-term approach for mercury control; and (2) Design criteria and costs for new baghouse/sorbent injection systems that will use a similar, polishing baghouse (TOXECON{trademark}) approach.

Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac; Travis Starns; Sharon Sjostrom; Trent Taylor; Cindy Larson

2004-06-04

213

Field Test Program for Long-Term Operation of a COHPAC System for Removing Mercury from Coal-Fired Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect

With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by the existing particle control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. During 2001, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) conducted a full-scale demonstration of sorbent-based mercury control technology at the Alabama Power E.C. Gaston Station (Wilsonville, Alabama). This unit burns a low-sulfur bituminous coal and uses a hot-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in combination with a Compact Hybrid Particulate Collector (COHPAC{reg_sign}) baghouse to collect fly ash. The majority of the fly ash is collected in the ESP with the residual being collected in the COHPAC{reg_sign} baghouse. Activated carbon was injected between the ESP and COHPAC{reg_sign} units to collect the mercury. Short-term mercury removal levels in excess of 90% were achieved using the COHPAC{reg_sign} unit. The test also showed that activated carbon was effective in removing both forms of mercury-elemental and oxidized. However, a great deal of additional testing is required to further characterize the capabilities and limitations of this technology relative to use with baghouse systems such as COHPAC{reg_sign}. It is important to determine performance over an extended period of time to fully assess all operational parameters. The project described in this report focuses on fully demonstrating sorbent injection technology at a coal-fired power generating plant that is equipped with a COHPAC{reg_sign} system. The overall objective is to evaluate the long-term effects of sorbent injection on mercury capture and COHPAC{reg_sign} performance. The work is being done on one-half of the gas stream at Alabama Power Company's Plant Gaston Unit 3 (nominally 135 MW). Data from the testing will be used to determine: (1) If sorbent injection into a high air-to-cloth ratio baghouse is a viable, long-term approach for mercury control; and (2) Design criteria and costs for new baghouse/sorbent injection systems that will use a similar, polishing baghouse (TOXECON{trademark}) approach.

Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac; Travis Starns; Sharon Sjostrom; Trent Taylor; Cindy Larson

2005-01-24

214

FIELD TEST PROGRAM FOR LONG-TERM OPERATION OF A COHPAC SYSTEM FOR REMOVING MERCURY FROM COAL-FIRED FLUE GAS  

SciTech Connect

With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by the existing particle control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. During 2001 ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) conducted a full-scale demonstration of sorbent-based mercury control technology at the Alabama Power E.C. Gaston Station (Wilsonville, AL). This unit burns a low-sulfur bituminous coal and uses a hot-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in combination with a COHPAC baghouse to collect fly ash. The majority of the fly ash is collected in the ESP with the residual being collected in the COHPAC baghouse. Activated carbon was injected between the ESP and COHPAC units to collect the mercury. Short-term mercury removal levels in excess of 90% were achieved using the COHPAC unit. The test also showed that activated carbon was effective on removing both forms of mercury, elemental and oxidized. However, a great deal of additional testing is required to further characterize the capabilities and limitations of this technology relative to use with baghouse systems such as COHPAC. It is important to determine performance over an extended period of time to fully assess all operational parameters. The project described in this report focuses on fully demonstrating sorbent injection technology at a coal-fired power generating plant that is equipped with a COHPAC system. The overall objective is to evaluate the long term effects of sorbent injection on mercury capture and COHPAC performance. The work is being done on 1/2 of the gas stream at Alabama Power's Plant Gaston Unit 3 (nominally 135 MW). Data from the testing will be used to determine: (1) Is sorbent injection into a high air-to-cloth ratio baghouse a viable, long term approach for mercury control; and (2) Design criteria and costs for new baghouse/sorbent injection systems that will use a similar, polishing baghouse (TOXECON) approach.

Jean Bustard

2003-06-13

215

Field Test Program for Long-Term Operation of a COHPAC System for Removing Mercury from Coal-Fired Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect

With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by the existing particle control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. During 2001, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) conducted a full-scale demonstration of sorbent-based mercury control technology at the Alabama Power E.C. Gaston Station (Wilsonville, Alabama). This unit burns a low-sulfur bituminous coal and uses a hot-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in combination with a Compact Hybrid Particulate Collector (COHPAC{reg_sign}) baghouse to collect fly ash. The majority of the fly ash is collected in the ESP with the residual being collected in the COHPAC{reg_sign} baghouse. Activated carbon was injected between the ESP and COHPAC{reg_sign} units to collect the mercury. Short-term mercury removal levels in excess of 90% were achieved using the COHPAC{reg_sign} unit. The test also showed that activated carbon was effective in removing both forms of mercury-elemental and oxidized. However, a great deal of additional testing is required to further characterize the capabilities and limitations of this technology relative to use with baghouse systems such as COHPAC{reg_sign}. It is important to determine performance over an extended period of time to fully assess all operational parameters. The project described in this report focuses on fully demonstrating sorbent injection technology at a coal-fired power generating plant that is equipped with a COHPAC{reg_sign} system. The overall objective is to evaluate the long-term effects of sorbent injection on mercury capture and COHPAC{reg_sign} performance. The work is being done on one-half of the gas stream at Alabama Power Company's Plant Gaston Unit 3 (nominally 135 MW). Data from the testing will be used to determine: (1) If sorbent injection into a high air-to-cloth ratio baghouse is a viable, long-term approach for mercury control; and (2) Design criteria and costs for new baghouse/sorbent injection systems that will use a similar, polishing baghouse (TOXECON{trademark}) approach.

Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac; Travis Starns; Sharon Sjostrom; Cindy Larson

2006-01-27

216

FIELD TEST PROGRAM FOR LONG-TERM OPERATION OF A COHPAC SYSTEM FOR REMOVING MERCURY FROM COAL-FIRED FLUE GAS  

SciTech Connect

With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by the existing particle control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. During 2001, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) conducted a full-scale demonstration of sorbent-based mercury control technology at the Alabama Power E.C. Gaston Station (Wilsonville, AL). This unit burns a low-sulfur bituminous coal and uses a hot-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in combination with a Compact Hybrid Particulate Collector (COHPAC{trademark}) baghouse to collect fly ash. The majority of the fly ash is collected in the ESP with the residual being collected in the COHPAC{trademark} baghouse. Activated carbon was injected between the ESP and COHPAC{trademark} units to collect the mercury. Short-term mercury removal levels in excess of 90% were achieved using the COHPAC{trademark} unit. The test also showed that activated carbon was effective in removing both forms of mercury--elemental and oxidized. However, a great deal of additional testing is required to further characterize the capabilities and limitations of this technology relative to use with baghouse systems such as COHPAC{trademark}. It is important to determine performance over an extended period of time to fully assess all operational parameters. The project described in this report focuses on fully demonstrating sorbent injection technology at a coal-fired power generating plant that is equipped with a COHPAC{trademark} system. The overall objective is to evaluate the long-term effects of sorbent injection on mercury capture and COHPAC{trademark} performance. The work is being done on one-half of the gas stream at Alabama Power Company's Plant Gaston Unit 3 (nominally 135 MW). Data from the testing will be used to determine: (1) If sorbent injection into a high air-to-cloth ratio baghouse is a viable, long-term approach for mercury control; and (2) Design criteria and costs for new baghouse/sorbent injection systems that will use a similar, polishing baghouse (TOXECON{trademark}) approach.

Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac; Travis Starns; Sharon Sjostrom; Trent Taylor; Cindy Larson

2004-01-29

217

FIELD TEST PROGRAM FOR LONG-TERM OPERATION OF A COHPAC SYSTEM FOR REMOVING MERCURY FROM COAL-FIRED FLUE GAS  

SciTech Connect

With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by the existing particle control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. During 2001 ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) conducted a full-scale demonstration of sorbent-based mercury control technology at the Alabama Power E.C. Gaston Station (Wilsonville, AL). This unit burns a low-sulfur bituminous coal and uses a hot-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in combination with a COHPAC baghouse to collect fly ash. The majority of the fly ash is collected in the ESP with the residual being collected in the COHPAC baghouse. Activated carbon was injected between the ESP and COHPAC units to collect the mercury. Short-term mercury removal levels in excess of 90% were achieved using the COHPAC unit. The test also showed that activated carbon was effective on removing both forms of mercury, elemental and oxidized. However, a great deal of additional testing is required to further characterize the capabilities and limitations of this technology relative to use with baghouse systems such as COHPAC. It is important to determine performance over an extended period of time to fully assess all operational parameters. The project described in this report focuses on fully demonstrating sorbent injection technology at a coal-fired power generating plant that is equipped with a COHPAC system. The overall objective is to evaluate the long term effects of sorbent injection on mercury capture and COHPAC performance. The work is being done on 1/2 of the gas stream at Alabama Power's Plant Gaston Unit 3 (nominally 135 MW). Data from the testing will be used to determine: (1) Is sorbent injection into a high air-to-cloth ratio baghouse a viable, long term approach for mercury control; and (2) Design criteria and costs for new baghouse/sorbent injection systems that will use a similar, polishing baghouse (TOXECON) approach.

Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey

2003-01-24

218

Field Test Program for Long-Term Operation of a COHPAC System for Removing Mercury from Coal-Fired Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect

With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by the existing particle control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. During 2001, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) conducted a full-scale demonstration of sorbent-based mercury control technology at the Alabama Power E.C. Gaston Station (Wilsonville, Alabama). This unit burns a low-sulfur bituminous coal and uses a hot-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in combination with a Compact Hybrid Particulate Collector (COHPAC{reg_sign}) baghouse to collect fly ash. The majority of the fly ash is collected in the ESP with the residual being collected in the COHPAC{reg_sign} baghouse. Activated carbon was injected between the ESP and COHPAC{reg_sign} units to collect the mercury. Short-term mercury removal levels in excess of 90% were achieved using the COHPAC{reg_sign} unit. The test also showed that activated carbon was effective in removing both forms of mercury-elemental and oxidized. However, a great deal of additional testing is required to further characterize the capabilities and limitations of this technology relative to use with baghouse systems such as COHPAC{reg_sign}. It is important to determine performance over an extended period of time to fully assess all operational parameters. The project described in this report focuses on fully demonstrating sorbent injection technology at a coal-fired power generating plant that is equipped with a COHPAC{reg_sign} system. The overall objective is to evaluate the long-term effects of sorbent injection on mercury capture and COHPAC{reg_sign} performance. The work is being done on one-half of the gas stream at Alabama Power Company's Plant Gaston Unit 3 (nominally 135 MW). Data from the testing will be used to determine: (1) If sorbent injection into a high air-to-cloth ratio baghouse is a viable, long-term approach for mercury control; and (2) Design criteria and costs for new baghouse/sorbent injection systems that will use a similar, polishing baghouse (TOXECON{trademark}) approach.

Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac; Travis Starns; Sharon Sjostrom; Trent Taylor; Cindy Larson

2004-10-25

219

Field Test Program for Long-Term Operation of a COHPAC System for Removing Mercury from Coal-Fired Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect

With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by the existing particle control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. During 2001, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) conducted a full-scale demonstration of sorbent-based mercury control technology at the Alabama Power E.C. Gaston Station (Wilsonville, Alabama). This unit burns a low-sulfur bituminous coal and uses a hot-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in combination with a Compact Hybrid Particulate Collector (COHPAC{reg_sign}) baghouse to collect fly ash. The majority of the fly ash is collected in the ESP with the residual being collected in the COHPAC{reg_sign} baghouse. Activated carbon was injected between the ESP and COHPAC{reg_sign} units to collect the mercury. Short-term mercury removal levels in excess of 90% were achieved using the COHPAC{reg_sign} unit. The test also showed that activated carbon was effective in removing both forms of mercury-elemental and oxidized. However, a great deal of additional testing is required to further characterize the capabilities and limitations of this technology relative to use with baghouse systems such as COHPAC{reg_sign}. It is important to determine performance over an extended period of time to fully assess all operational parameters. The project described in this report focuses on fully demonstrating sorbent injection technology at a coal-fired power generating plant that is equipped with a COHPAC{reg_sign} system. The overall objective is to evaluate the long-term effects of sorbent injection on mercury capture and COHPAC{reg_sign} performance. The work is being done on one-half of the gas stream at Alabama Power Company's Plant Gaston Unit 3 (nominally 135 MW). Data from the testing will be used to determine: (1) If sorbent injection into a high air-to-cloth ratio baghouse is a viable, long-term approach for mercury control; and (2) Design criteria and costs for new baghouse/sorbent injection systems that will use a similar, polishing baghouse (TOXECON{trademark}) approach.

Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac; Travis Starns; Sharon Sjostrom; Cindy Larson

2006-04-24

220

Micronized-Coal Burner Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Micronized-coal (coal-in-oil mix) burner facility developed to fulfill need to generate erosion/corrosion data on series of superalloy specimens. In order to successfully operate gas turbine using COM, two primary conditions must be met. First, there must be adequate atomization of COM and second, minimization of coking of burner. Meeting these conditions will be achieved only by clean burning and flame stability.

Calfo, F. D.; Lupton, M. W.

1986-01-01

221

FATE OF COAL NITROGEN DURING COMBUSTION  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes the burning of 21 coals, covering all ranks and under a wide variety of conditions, to ascertain the impact of coal properties on the fate of fuel nitrogen. Fuel NC was identified by using a nitrogen-free oxidant consisting of Ar/O2/CO2. It was found that fuel...

222

Combustion of coal dust-air mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal dust flammability studies are essential in order to evaluate propagation limit concentrations and the fundamental burning velocity as a function of dust concentration. This work presents such data for Pittsburgh seam bituminous coal dust using a relatively large scale horizontal flammability apparatus, the Gravity Tumbler Flammability Tube (GTFT). The reported lean limit (based on propagating a steady-state constant pressure

Slezak

1984-01-01

223

Burning system and method  

SciTech Connect

A substantially smokeless burning system for burning waste material fuels. An elongated hollow burning chamber is supported in a generally horizontal orientation with a slight degree of upward tilt from front to rear. An elongated fuel accumulation chamber and a hydraulic hoist driven ram in the chamber are adapted to push elongated volumes of new fuel into the lower front end of the burning chamber such that already burning fuel is pushed to the rear of the chamber. This establishes a charcoal burning zone which at least partially overlies a volatile burning zone such that incomplete combustion products from the volatile burning zone pass over and through the charcoal burning zone to be substantially burned before exiting at the rear of the burning chamber. The burning chamber is formed of a plurality of pipe sections which are molded of refractory material in a concrete pipe making machine. Integral preheat and air delivery channels are formed in the walls of the burning chamber during the molding process.

Burton, R.E.

1982-05-18

224

Alaska coal geology, resources, and coalbed methane potential  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Estimated Alaska coal resources are largely in Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks distributed in three major provinces. Northern Alaska-Slope, Central Alaska-Nenana, and Southern Alaska-Cook Inlet. Cretaceous resources, predominantly bituminous coal and lignite, are in the Northern Alaska-Slope coal province. Most of the Tertiary resources, mainly lignite to subbituminous coal with minor amounts of bituminous and semianthracite coals, are in the other two provinces. The combined measured, indicated, inferred, and hypothetical coal resources in the three areas are estimated to be 5,526 billion short tons (5,012 billion metric tons), which constitutes about 87 percent of Alaska's coal and surpasses the total coal resources of the conterminous United States by 40 percent. Coal mining has been intermittent in the Central Alaskan-Nenana and Southern Alaska-Cook Inlet coal provinces, with only a small fraction of the identified coal resource having been produced from some dozen underground and strip mines in these two provinces. Alaskan coal resources have a lower sulfur content (averaging 0.3 percent) than most coals in the conterminous United States are within or below the minimum sulfur value mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments. The identified resources are near existing and planned infrastructure to promote development, transportation, and marketing of this low-sulfur coal. The relatively short distances to countries in the west Pacific Rim make them more exportable to these countries than to the lower 48 States of the United States. Another untapped but potential resource of large magnitude is coalbed methane, which has been estimated to total 1,000 trillion cubic feet (28 trillion cubic meters) by T.N. Smith 1995, Coalbed methane potential for Alaska and drilling results for the upper Cook Inlet Basin: Intergas, May 15 - 19, 1995, Tuscaloosa, University of Alabama, p. 1 - 21.

Flores, Romeo M.; Stricker, Gary D.; Kinney, Scott A.

2004-01-01

225

A New Use for High-Sulfur Coal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New process recovers some of economic value of high-sulfur coal. Although high-sulfur content is undesirable in most coal-utilization schemes (such as simple burning), proposed process prefers high-sulfur coal to produce electrical power or hydrogen. Potential exists for widespread application in energy industry.

Lawson, D. D.; England, C.

1982-01-01

226

Burning Rate Emulator  

NASA Video Gallery

The Burning Rate Emulator is a gas fuel investigation attempting to emulate the burning of solids to improve our understanding of materials''flammability over a wide range of conditions. The approa...

227

40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a...of a permit under 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning...

2011-07-01

228

40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a...of a permit under 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning...

2010-07-01

229

40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a...of a permit under 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning...

2011-07-01

230

40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a...of a permit under 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning...

2010-07-01

231

40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a...of a permit under 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning...

2013-07-01

232

40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a...of a permit under 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning...

2013-07-01

233

40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a...of a permit under 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning...

2012-07-01

234

40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a...of a permit under 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning...

2012-07-01

235

EFFECTS OF CHANGING COALS ON THE EMISSIONS OF METAL HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF PULVERIZED COAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses tests conducted at EPA's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division to evaluate the effects of changing coals on emissions of metal hazardous air pollutants from coal-fired boilers. Six coals were burned in a 29 kW (100,000 Btu/hr) down-fired combustor und...

236

Coal cleaning program for Kazakstan  

SciTech Connect

In 1992 the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) started sponsoring general projects in the Energy and Environmental Sector to improve health and well-being, to improve the efficiency of the existing fuel and energy base, and to assist in the establishment of a strong private sector. Coal Cleaning Program, covered in this report, is one of the recently completed projects by Burns and Roe, which is a prime USAID contractor in the field of energy and environment for the NIS. The basis for coal cleaning program is that large coal resources exist in northeast Kazakstan and coal represents the major fuel for heat and electricity generation at present and in the foreseeable future. The coal mined at Karaganda and Ekibastuz, the two main coal mining areas of Kazakstan, currently contains up to 55% ash, whereas most boilers in Kazakstan are designed to fire a coal with an ash content no greater than 36%. The objective of the task was to determine optimum, state-of-the-art coal cleaning and mining processes which are applicable to coals in Kazakstan considering ultimate coal quality of 36% ash, environmental quality, safety and favorable economics.

Popovic, N. [Burns and Roe Enterprises, Oradell. NJ (United States); Daley, D.P. [Burns and Roe Services Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Jacobsen, P.S. [Jacobsen (P. Stanley), Littleton, CO (United States)

1996-12-31

237

In the People's Republic of China (PRC), coal is the most important mineral resource for the national economy. The PRC is also the largest producer of coal in the world  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uncontrolled fires burning of coal seams, stock piles and waste dumps pose one of the major threats in the coal mining areas world over. Besides burning of non-renewable energy resources, these fires cause immense environmental pollution. The gaseous emissions from coal fires are a major contributor to the phenomenon of global warming. At a regional scale besides, detecting and

Freek van der Meer; Paul van Dijk; Prasun K Gangopadhyay; Chris Hecker

238

Synergistic Utilization of Coal Fines and Municipal Solid Waste in Coal-Fired Boilers. Phase I Final Report  

SciTech Connect

A feasibility study was performed on a novel concept: to synergistically utilize a blend of waste coal fines with so-called E-fuel for cofiring and reburning in utility and industrial boilers. The E-fuel is produced from MSW by the patented EnerTech's slurry carbonization process. The slurry carbonization technology economically converts MSW to a uniform, low-ash, low-sulfur, and essentially chlorine-free fuel with energy content of about 14,800 Btu/lb.

V. Zamansky; P. Maly; M. Klosky

1998-06-12

239

Method of operating a rotary calciner retrofitted to coal-firing  

SciTech Connect

Method of operating a rotary calciner retrofitted from oil- or natural gas-firing to coal-firing, in which coal is burned in a coal furnace and the coal combustion gases are then heated further in a booster burner utilizing oil or natural gas, to raise the combustion gas temperature to permit processing of calcine at up to a design capacity rate.

Pfeffer, H.A.; Fradkin, J.N.

1984-07-31

240

Particle Size Distribution Control of Coal-Water Slurry with Effective Medium Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The key to reduce coal pollution is the development of clean coal technology and the improvement of the backward coal-burning technology. The coal water slurry (CWS) is the first substitute of the oil. The particle size distribution of CWS plays an important role in the quality control of CWS. This article proposes an ultrasonic method with effective medium theory model

Weidong Wang; Lei Wang; Chenglian Zhang

2010-01-01

241

An Atypical Cause of Alkali Chemical Burn: a Case Report  

PubMed Central

Summary It has already been reported that wet ash turns into a strong alkali agent, which can cause full-thickness skin burns. A case is presented which has the particularity of sustained, self-inflicted contact with wet ash. The coal used was the self-igniting type normally used for burning scented weed or for smoking the hubbly bubbly or shisha pipe. PMID:21991229

Boutefnouchet, T.; Moiemen, N.; Papini, R.

2010-01-01

242

Facial Burns - Our Experience  

PubMed Central

Facial burns are generally considered severe. This is due to the possibility of respiratory complications. First responders check the nostrils for singed hairs. In severe cases there may be soot around the nose and mouth and coughing may produce phlegm that includes ash. Facial and inhalational burns compromise airways. They pose difficulties in pre-hospital resuscitation and are challenge to clinicians managing surviving burn victims in the intensive care setting. Management problems resuscitation, airway maintenance and clinical treatment of facial injuries are compounded if the victim is child. Inhalational burns reduce survivability, certainly in adult victim. In our retrospective study we found that facial burns dominated in male gender, liquids and scalds are the most common causes of facial burns in children whereas the flame and electricity were the most common causes of facial burns in adults. We came to the conclusion in our study that surgical treatment minimizes complications and duration of recovery. PMID:23687458

Zatriqi, Violeta; Arifi, Hysni; Zatriqi, Skender; Duci, Shkelzen; Rrecaj, Sh.; Martinaj, M.

2013-01-01

243

Pediatric burn injuries  

PubMed Central

Pediatric burns comprise a major mechanism of injury, affecting millions of children worldwide, with causes including scald injury, fire injury, and child abuse. Burn injuries tend to be classified based on the total body surface area involved and the depth of injury. Large burn injuries have multisystemic manifestations, including injuries to all major organ systems, requiring close supportive and therapeutic measures. Management of burn injuries requires intensive medical therapy for multi-organ dysfunction/failure, and aggressive surgical therapy to prevent sepsis and secondary complications. In addition, pain management throughout this period is vital. Specialized burn centers, which care for these patients with multidisciplinary teams, may be the best places to treat children with major thermal injuries. This review highlights the major components of burn care, stressing the pathophysiologic consequences of burn injury, circulatory and respiratory care, surgical management, and pain management of these often critically ill patients. PMID:23181206

Krishnamoorthy, Vijay; Ramaiah, Ramesh; Bhananker, Sanjay M

2012-01-01

244

"Coal Poisons Everything It Touches." Teaching about Coal, Climate, and the Future of the Earth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes an activity in which ninth graders explore a plan to strip-mine coal in Wyoming and Montana, send it by train to the Northwest, then ship it to Asia to be burned. Students' questions ranged from "Why are we mining for more coal if it's the biggest contributor to global warming" and "How can adults

Bigelow, Bill

2013-01-01

245

[The pain from burns].  

PubMed

The painful events associated with the treatment of a severe burn can, because of their long-lasting and repetitive characteristics, be one of the most excruciating experiences in clinical practice. Moreover, burn pain has been shown to be detrimental to burn patients. Although nociception and peripheral hyperalgesia are considered the major causes of burn pain, the study of more hypothetical mechanisms like central hyperalgesia and neuropathic pain may lead to a better understanding of burn pain symptoms and to new therapeutic approaches. Continuous pain and intermittent pain due to therapeutic procedures are two distinct components of burn pain. They have to be evaluated and managed separately. Although continuous pain is by far less severe than intermittent pain, the treatment is, in both cases, essentially pharmacological relying basically on opioids. Because of wide intra- and inter-individual variations, protocols will have to leave large possibilities of adaptation for each case, systematic pain evaluation being mandatory to achieve the best risk/benefit ratio. Surprisingly, the dose of medication decreases only slowly with time, a burn often remaining painful for long periods after healing. Non pharmacological treatments are often useful and sometimes indispensable adjuncts; but their rationale and their feasibility depends entirely on previous optimal pharmacological control of burn pain. Several recent studies show that burn pain management is inadequate in most burn centres. PMID:11933833

Latarjet, J

2002-03-01

246

Coal fired power plant with pollution control and useful byproducts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a coal fired power plant. It comprises: coal gasification means for heating coal in the presence of an oxidant-lean atmosphere under partial coal-gasifying conditions; means for separating sulfur-containing compounds from the crude gas stream; means for converting the sulfur compound containing stream into elemental sulfur; energy-conversion means for burning a portion of the combustible gas stream and

J. H. Marten; G. M. Lloyd

1990-01-01

247

Page 1 of 3 National Research Council Burning Plasma Assessment Committee  

E-print Network

through traditional approaches: coal, oil, and natural gas. Fission will most likely play an increasing a compelling case that a burning plasma experiment is the essential next scientific step for fusion research. I

248

Mulled Coal: A beneficiated coal form for use as a fuel or fuel intermediate  

SciTech Connect

During the past quarter Energy International has evaluated additional mull formulations with varying reagent additives, mixing times, and particle sizes. The Environmental Review was completed and conceptual designs developed for the Mull Preparation and CWF Conversion Systems. As these technical developments move toward commercial application, the needs for coordinated efforts and integrated requirements have become increasingly apparent. Systems are vitally needed to integrate energy delivery systems from the raw resource through processing to application and end use. Problems have been encountered in the preparation of conventional coal-water fuels that mutually satisfy the requirements for storage stability, handling, preparation, atomization, combustion, and economics. Experience has been slow in evolving generic technologies or products and coal-specific requirements and specifications continue to dominate the development. Thus, prospects for commercialization remain highly specific to the coal, the processor, and the end use. Developments in advanced beneficiation of coal to meet stringent requirements for low ash and low sulfur can be anticipated to further complicate the problem areas. This is attributable to the beneficiated coal being produced in very fine particles with a high surface area, modified surface characteristics, reduced particle size distribution range, and high inherent moisture.

Not Available

1991-09-01

249

Fossil fuel and biomass burning effect on climate - Heating or cooling?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The basic theory of the effect of pollution on cloud microphysics and its global implications is applied to compare the relative effect of a small increase in the consumption rate of oil, coal, or biomass burning on cooling and heating of the atmosphere. The characteristics of and evidence for the SO2 induced cooling effect are reviewed. This perturbation analysis approach permits linearization, therefore simplifying the analysis and reducing the number of uncertain parameters. For biomass burning the analysis is restricted to burning associated with deforestation. Predictions of the effect of an increase in oil or coal burning show that within the present conditions the cooling effect from oil and coal burning may range from 0.4 to 8 times the heating effect.

Kaufman, Yoram J.; Fraser, Robert S.; Mahoney, Robert L.

1991-01-01

250

Characterization and supply of coal based fuels. Volume 1, Final report and appendix A (Topical report)  

SciTech Connect

Studies and data applicable for fuel markets and coal resource assessments were reviewed and evaluated to provide both guidelines and specifications for premium quality coal-based fuels. The fuels supplied under this contract were provided for testing of advanced combustors being developed under Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) sponsorship for use in the residential, commercial and light industrial (RCLI) market sectors. The requirements of the combustor development contractors were surveyed and periodically updated to satisfy the evolving needs based on design and test experience. Available coals were screened and candidate coals were selected for further detailed characterization and preparation for delivery. A team of participants was assembled to provide fuels in both coal-water fuel (CWF) and dry ultrafine coal (DUC) forms. Information about major US coal fields was correlated with market needs analysis. Coal fields with major reserves of low sulfur coal that could be potentially amenable to premium coal-based fuels specifications were identified. The fuels requirements were focused in terms of market, equipment and resource constraints. With this basis, the coals selected for developmental testing satisfy the most stringent fuel requirements and utilize available current deep-cleaning capabilities.

Not Available

1992-06-01

251

ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Demonstration Project. Annual report, October 1993--September 1994  

SciTech Connect

ENCOAL Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of SMC Mining Company (formerly Shell Mining Company, now owned by Zeigler Coal Holding Company), has completed the construction and start-up of a mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company`s Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology developed by SMC and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin coal to produce two new fuels, Process Derived Fuel (PDF) and Coal Derived Liquids (CDL). The LFC technology uses a mild pyrolysis or mild gasification process which involves heating the coal under carefully controlled conditions. The process causes chemical changes in the feed coal in contrast to conventional drying, which leads only to physical changes. Wet subbituminous coal contains considerable water, and conventional drying processes physically remove some of this moisture, causing the heating value to increase. The deeper the coal is physically dried, the higher the heating value and the more the pore structure permanently collapses, preventing resorption of moisture. However, deeply dried Powder River Basin coals exhibit significant stability problems when dried by conventional thermal processes. The LFC process overcomes these stability problems by thermally altering the solid to create PDF and CDL. Several of the major objectives of the ENCOAL Project have now been achieved. The LFC Technology has been essentially demonstrated. Significant quantities of specification CDL have been produced from Buckskin coal. Plant operation in a production mode with respectable availability (approaching 90%) has been demonstrated.

NONE

1995-03-01

252

Pediatric cutaneous bleach burns.  

PubMed

Bleach is a common household product which can cause caustic injuries. Its effects on mucosal tissues and the eye have been well-described in the literature. However, there is little information published regarding the appearance and effect of bleach on a child's skin. We report three children who sustained chemical burns after contact with bleach. All three children sustained accidental bleach burns while at home, and each child had a distinct brown discoloration to the skin from the injury. All three children had treatment and follow-up for their burns. Two of the children sustained more severe burns, which were extensive and required more time to heal. There was also long-term scarring associated with the severe burns. Like most burns, pain control is required until the injury heals. PMID:23545350

Lang, Cathleen; Cox, Matthew

2013-07-01

253

Combustion studies of coal derived solid fuels by thermogravimetric analysis. III. Correlation between burnout temperature and carbon combustion efficiency  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Burning profiles of 35-53 ??m size fractions of an Illinois coal and three partially devolatilized coals prepared from the original coal were obtained using a thermogravimetric analyzer. The burning profile burnout temperatures were higher for lower volatile fuels and correlated well with carbon combustion efficiencies of the fuels when burned in a laboratory-scale laminar flow reactor. Fuels with higher burnout temperatures had lower carbon combustion efficiencies under various time-temperature conditions in the laboratory-scale reactor. ?? 1990.

Rostam-Abadi, M.; Debarr, J. A.; Chen, W. T.

1990-01-01

254

Outpatient burn management.  

PubMed

Most burn patients have injuries that may be treated on an outpatient basis. Newer silver-based dressings and improved medications for the treatment of pain and pruritus have led to further growth of outpatient care. The final barrier of distance from the burn center will decrease with the growth of telemedicine. It is incumbent for burn centers to develop outpatient guidelines to facilitate this growth of outpatient care. PMID:25085094

Warner, Petra M; Coffee, Tammy L; Yowler, Charles J

2014-08-01

255

Coal Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coal slurries are "clean" pulverized coal mixed with oil or water. Significant fuel savings can be realized when using coal slurries. Advanced Fuels Technology (AFT) utilized a COSMIC program, (Calculation of Complex Chemical Equilibrium Compositions), which provides specific capabilities for determining combustion products. The company has developed a cleaning process that removes much of the mineral sulphur and ash from the coals.

1986-01-01

256

Geomorphology of coal seam fires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coal fires occur in underground natural coal seams, in exposed surface seams, and in coal storage or waste piles. The fires ignite through spontaneous combustion or natural or anthropogenic causes. They are reported from China, India, USA, South Africa, Australia, and Russia, as well as many other countries. Coal fires lead to loss of a valuable resource (coal), the emission of greenhouse-relevant and toxic gases, and vegetation deterioration. A dangerous aspect of the fires is the threat to local mines, industries, and settlements through the volume loss underground. Surface collapse in coal fire areas is common. Thus, coal fires are significantly affecting the evolution of the landscape. Based on more than a decade of experience with in situ mapping of coal fire areas worldwide, a general classification system for coal fires is presented. Furthermore, coal seam fire geomorphology is explained in detail. The major landforms associated with, and induced by, these fires are presented. The landforms include manifestations resulting from bedrock surface fracturing, such as fissures, cracks, funnels, vents, and sponges. Further manifestations resulting from surface bedrock subsidence include sinkholes, trenches, depressions, partial surface subsidence, large surface subsidence, and slides. Additional geomorphologic coal fire manifestations include exposed ash layers, pyrometamorphic rocks, and fumarolic minerals. The origin, evolution, and possible future development of these features are explained, and examples from in situ surveys, as well as from high-resolution satellite data analyses, are presented. The geomorphology of coal fires has not been presented in a systematic manner. Knowledge of coal fire geomorphology enables the detection of underground coal fires based on distinct surface manifestations. Furthermore, it allows judgments about the safety of coal fire-affected terrain. Additionally, geomorphologic features are indicators of the burning stage of fires. Finally, coal fire geomorphology helps to explain landscape features whose occurrence would otherwise not be understood. Although coal fire-induced thermal anomalies and gas release are also indications of coal fire activity, as addressed by many investigators, no assessment is complete without sound geomorphologic mapping of the fire-induced geomorphologic features.

Kuenzer, Claudia; Stracher, Glenn B.

2012-02-01

257

Clean Coal III Project: Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection Project Trial 1 Report - Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection - Results with Low Volatile Coal  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the first coal trial test conducted with the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection System at Bethlehem Steel Corporation's Burns Harbor Plant. This demonstration project is divided into three phases: Phase I - Design Phase II - Construction Phase III - Operation The design phase was conducted in 1991-1993. Construction of the facility began in August 1993 and was completed in late 1994. The coal injection facility began operating in January 1995 and Phase III began in November 1995. The Trial 1 base test orI C furnace was carried out in October 1996 as a comparison period for the analysis of the operation during subsequent coal trials.

None

1997-11-01

258

Clean Coal III Project: Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection Project Trail 1 Report - Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection - Results with Low Volatile Coal  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the first coal trial test conducted with the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection System at Bethlehem Steel Corporation's Burns Harbor Plant. This demonstration project is divided into three phases: Phase I - Design Phase II - Construction Phase III - Operation The design phase was conducted in 1991-1993, Construction of the facility began in August 1993 and was completed in late 1994. The coal injection facility began operating in January 1995 and Phase III began in November 1995. The Trial 1 base test on C furnace was carried out in October 1996 as a comparison period for the analysis of the operation during subsequent coal trials.

None

1997-11-01

259

Fire in the hole - Paging in mines from Pennsylvania to China, coal fires threaten towns, poison air and water, and add to global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

China has the most coal fires, but India has the largest concentration of them. The effect of coal fires on the once thriving town of Centralia, Pennsylvania is described. There have been eight attempts to put the fire out using different methods (it has been burning for 43 years), but has now been left to burn. It could burn for

Krajick

2005-01-01

260

Coal Fires  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides an introduction to the environmental hazards presented by coal fires. Topics include natural and human-related causes of coal fires, their potential impacts, the global distribution of coal fires, spontaneous combustion, and gaseous emissions produced by coal fires. There are also discussions of coal fires in China and India, a photo gallery, links to news articles, and a frequently-asked-questions feature.

Prakash, Anumpa

261

Coal Fires  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides an introduction to the environmental hazards presented by coal fires. Topics include natural and human-related causes of coal fires, their potential impacts, the global distribution of coal fires, spontaneous combustion, and gaseous emissions produced by coal fires. There are also discussions of coal fires in China and India, a photo gallery, links to news articles, and a frequently-asked-questions feature.

Prakash, Anupma

2011-06-30

262

Boiler efficiency calculation for multiple fuel burning boilers  

SciTech Connect

A rigorous method based on the output/loss approach is developed for calculating the coal flow rate for multiple fuel burning boilers. It is assumed that the ultimate analyses of all the fuels are known. In addition, it is assumed that the flow rates of all the fuels with the exception of coal are known. The calculations are performed iteratively, with the first iteration taking into consideration coal as the only fuel. The results converge to the correct answer after a few number of iterations, typically four or five.

Khodabakhsh, F.; Munukutla, S. [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States). Center for Electric Power; Clary, A.T. [Eastman Chemical Co., Kingsport, TN (United States). Power and Services Div.

1996-12-31

263

Burns and military clothing.  

PubMed

Burn injury is a ubiquitous threat in the military environment. The risks during combat are well recognised, but the handling of fuel, oil, munitions and other hot or flammable materials during peacetime deployment and training also imposes an inherent risk of accidental burn injury. Over the last hundred years, the burn threat in combat has ranged from nuclear weapons to small shoulder-launched missiles. Materials such as napalm and white phosphorus plainly present a risk of burn, but the threat extends to encompass personnel in vehicles attacked by anti-armour weapons, large missiles, fuel-air explosives and detonations/conflagrations on weapons platforms such as ships. Large numbers of burn casualties were caused at Pearl Harbor, in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Vietnam, during the Arab/Israeli Wars and in the Falkland Islands conflict. The threat from burns is unlikely to diminish, indeed new developments in weapons seek to exploit the vulnerability of the serviceman and servicewoman to burns. Clothing can be a barrier to some types of burn--both inherently in the properties of the material, but also by trapping air between clothing layers. Conversely, ignition of the clothing may exacerbate a burn. There is hearsay that burnt clothing products within a wound may complicate the clinical management, or that materials that melt (thermoplastic materials) should not be worn if there is a burn threat. This paper explores the incidence of burn injury, the mechanisms of heat transfer to bare skin and skin covered by materials, and the published evidence for the complication of wound management by materials. Even light-weight combat clothing can offer significant protection to skin from short duration flash burns; the most vulnerable areas are the parts of the body not covered--face and hands. Multilayered combat clothing can offer significant protection for short periods from engulfment by flames; lightweight tropical wear with few layers offers little protection. Under high heat loads in the laboratory, combat clothing can ignite, but there is little evidence that clothing ignition is a common occurrence in military burn casualties. Thermoplastic materials have many benefits in civil and military clothing. There is little objective evidence that they exacerbate burns, or complicate burn management. Their use in military clothing must be based on objective evidence, not hearsay. PMID:11307683

McLean, A D

2001-02-01

264

Fuel injection staged sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas  

DOEpatents

A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is described. The combustor comprises a plurality of individual combustor chambers. Each combustor chamber has a main burning zone and a pilot burning zone. A pipe for the low-BTU coal gas is connected to the upstream end of the pilot burning zone; this pipe surrounds a liquid fuel source and is in turn surrounded by an air supply pipe; swirling means are provided between the liquid fuel source and the coal gas pipe and between the gas pipe and the air pipe. Additional preheated air is provided by counter-current coolant air in passages formed by a double wall arrangement of the walls of the main burning zone communicating with passages of a double wall arrangement of the pilot burning zone; this preheated air is turned at the upstream end of the pilot burning zone through swirlers to mix with the original gas and air input (and the liquid fuel input when used) to provide more efficient combustion. One or more fuel injection stages (second stages) are provided for direct input of coal gas into the main burning zone. The countercurrent air coolant passages are connected to swirlers surrounding the input from each second stage to provide additional oxidant.

Vogt, Robert L. (Schenectady, NY)

1981-01-01

265

COMBUSTION OF COAL IN AN OPPOSED FLOW DIFFUSION BURNER  

E-print Network

rank, particle size, heat of combustion, porosity, and otherheat transfer from high temperature product gases or the combustionheat loss, it is not possible to burn coal samples in air, but oxygen enrichment is required to sustain combustion.

Chin, W.K.

2010-01-01

266

A Next Step Burning Plasma Experiment Dale M. Meade  

E-print Network

of $100/ton Carbon Tax. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Natural Gas Coal Nuclear Wind (Intermittent) Fusion (ARIES Heating Fraction 0.0 ARIES Vision Tokamaks Alternates Paths to Develop the Science for Attractive Fusion Capability (more advanced) Burning Plasma Self-heating (Self organization) External- heating (control) Wave

267

Gas\\/particle flow and combustion characteristics and NO x emissions of a new swirl coal burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the limits of reserves and price for the high rank coal, the low rank coal has been employed as fuel for power generation in China and will be eventually employed in the world. To burn low rank coal, centrally fuel-rich swirl coal combustion burner has been studied in Harbin Institute of Technology. This paper reviews and analyzes the

Zhichao Chen; Zhengqi Li; Qunyi Zhu; Jianping Jing

2011-01-01

268

Virginia coal production: impacts and projections  

SciTech Connect

Virginia's coal sales have been largely for metallurgical (coking) applications. The met coal market is facing a serious decline. Those suppliers with long-term contracts believe they will not be affected unless force majeure (coercive power) is imposed. Long-term projections, based on a worldwide recovery of the steel industry and the changing technology and economics of steel making, suggest that future sales will be flat. Based on studies of market trade-preferences, evidence suggests that Australia will displace the Unted States as the leading exporter of met coal. The possible requirement that US coal-burning utilities reduce sulfur dioxide effluents may lead to met coal being burned in steam boilers as a measure to avoid installing the more costly flue-gas scrubbers. This requirement, if it becomes law, would improve sales prospects for the central Appalachian coal market. Coal slurries to replace fuel oil in commercial and utility boilers and clean fine coal for chemical feed stocks are other potential new markets totaling 200 million tons per year. In any event, the Virginia coal market is presently an erratic buyers market with more production capacity than demand, and a growing sensitivity to prices resulting from the unstable world economic situation. Our coal suppliers, because of rising mine, railroad, port, and shipping costs, now charge the highest worldwide delivery prices which will make Virginia a residual supplier and possibly vulnerable to more foreign imports. A coal slurry pipeline which will reduce the delivered cost of Virginia's coal and make it more competitive with eastern Kentucky and southern West Virginia coal, of similar quality, will assist the state in maintaining its market share as the market recovers. Although it will not increase the world-market share exported from Hampton Roads, it may increase Virginia's share of that market from 22.8% to 50%.

Hibbard, Jr, W R

1983-06-01

269

Performance of a diesel engine; operating on raw coal-diesel engine; solvent refined coal-diesel fuel slurries. Quarterly report  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been difficult to obtain stable experimental slurries of coal or solvent-refined coal for testing in diesel engines. Attempts to burn the 40 percent by weight raw coal-fuel oil slurry were hampered from the outset. First the transfer pump would not deliver the slurry to the injection pump. This problem was overcome by raising the slurry storage tank to

1979-01-01

270

Tribological Properties Of Coal Slurries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report describes study of tribological properties of coal/methanol slurries with pin-on-disk tribometer. Coefficients of friction, rates of wear of steel pin, and morphological studies of worn surfaces conducted on pins and disks of AISI 440C HT stainless steel and M-50 tool steel, both used as bearing steels. Coal slurries considered as replacement fuels in terrestrial oil-burning facilities and possible fuels for future aircraft turbine engines. Rates of wear of metallic components through which slurries flow limit such practical applications.

Fusaro, Robert L.; Schrubens, Dale L.

1988-01-01

271

Development and evaluation of highly-loaded coal slurries. [Coal-fuel oils, coal-fuel oils-water and coal-water  

SciTech Connect

For the past two and one-half years Atlantic Research has been conducting a research program which involved development and combustion of slurries of coal in oil and in water. In Phase II good candidate slurries chosen from Phase I were burned in an experimental furnace and their combustion performance evaluated. Two slurry fuels were chosen for the combustion study. One consisted of a 50/40/10 (weight) coal/oil/water mixture, and the other was a 65/35 coal/water slurry stabilized with modified corn starch. The emphasis was placed on the coal/water slurry. Firings were conducted in a one MMBTUH experimental furnace constructed and instrumented for the purpose. A specially designed swirl burner/atomizer was developed for use with the coal/water slurry. Both slurries were burned successfully. Numerous firings were performed of up to one-half duration each. In the case of the coal/water slurry a small amount of gas assist was usually used, although this was eliminated in several shorter duration tests. Thermochemical calculations for coal/water slurries are presented. The presence of water in the slurry represents a relatively small energy penalty. A slurry made from a good coal will have a calorific value in the range of 10,000 Btu/lb. The heat required to vaporize the water of a 70/30 mixture is only about 300 Btu/lb slurry, or about 3 percent. Analysis of the results led to the conclusion that significant improvement in the burning maybe achievable, possibly to the point where combustion rates would be comparable to those of heavy oil. Because of the availability of coal, its cost advantage relative to oil, and especially because of the ease of handling of a liquid fuel, coal/water slurry appears to have considerable potential as a future fuel.

McHale, E.T.

1980-05-01

272

Coal desulfurization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for enhancing solubilizing mass transport of reactive agents into and out of carbonaceous materials, such as coal. Solubility parameters of mass transfer and solvent media are matched to individual peaks in the solubility parameter spectrum of coals to enhance swelling and/or dissolution. Methanol containing reactive agent carriers are found particularly effective for removing organic sulfur from coals by chlorinolysis.

Corcoran, William H. (Inventor); Vasilakos, Nicholas P. (Inventor); Lawson, Daniel D. (Inventor)

1982-01-01

273

Chemical burn or reaction  

MedlinePLUS

... the skin has come in contact with the toxic substance Rash , blisters , burns on the skin Unconsciousness ... locked cabinet. Avoid mixing different products that contain toxic chemicals such as ammonia and bleach. The mixture ...

274

Burns (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... hot faucet to an accidental tipping of a coffee cup, burns are a potential hazard in every ... culprit (from steam, hot bath water, tipped-over coffee cups, hot foods, cooking fluids, etc.) contact with ...

275

Treating and Preventing Burns  

MedlinePLUS

... injury worse. For anything more serious than a superficial burn, or if redness and pain continue for ... or ignition sources. Lower the temperature of your water heater to below 120 degrees Fahrenheit (48.9 ...

276

Burned to the bone.  

PubMed

Heterotopic ossification-a complication of severe burns, head or blast injuries, and orthopaedic trauma-can result from altered adenosine metabolism in mesenchymal stem cells in response to elevated extracellular ATP (Peterson et al., this issue). PMID:25253672

Forsberg, Jonathan A; Davis, Thomas A; Elster, Eric A; Gimble, Jeffrey M

2014-09-24

277

American Burn Association  

MedlinePLUS

... center and disaster related information View the ABA U.S. Regional Map Click above to access the new ... and Exhibitor Prospectus Now Available! 2014 Western Region Burn Conference November 6-8, 2014 | Las ...

278

Lava Flow Burning Vegetation  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Lava flow activity continues to burn vegetation in the kipuka adjacent to the trail, causing the viewing trail to be closed beyond the trailhead. The new viewing area is still very close to the active flows. ...

2010-06-18

279

Energy and environmental research emphasizing low-rank coal -- Task 5.1, Stability issues  

SciTech Connect

Low-sulfur subbituminous and lignite coals have high moisture content and, consequently, low heating value, leading to boiler derating in US midwestern and eastern utilities as well as switching and/or blending coals to achieve SO{sub 2} compliance. In the drive to develop cost-effective coal-drying processes, coal developers have focused on heat content of the products and generally neglected the critical stability issues of friability and dusting, moisture reabsorption, and spontaneous heating. The Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC), in an effort to establish new standards for dried products, has used established methods and has developed new ones to evaluate the propensity of lump western coals, raw and dried, to produce dust and absorb water. Three drying methods--air, hydrothermal, and saturated steam--were used to generate low-moisture upgraded products. New indices for dust generation and friability were determined to assess the effects of moisture removal and upgrading methodology on coal stability. Analysis of the dried coals using various strength tests indicated that the reduction in moisture made the lump coal unstable, yielding substantially higher dust and friability indices relative to those of the raw coals.

Anderson, C.M.; Musich, M.A.; Dewall, R.A.; Richter, J.J.

1995-04-01

280

Burning mouth syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic disease characterized by burning of the oral mucosa associated with a sensation\\u000a of dry mouth and\\/or taste alterations. BMS occurs more frequently among postmenopausal women. The pathophysiology of the disease\\u000a is still unknown, and evidence is conflicting; although some studies suggest a central origin, others point to a peripheral\\u000a neuropathic origin. The efficacy

Jos G. Speciali; Juliana Stuginski-Barbosa

2008-01-01

281

Coal gasification; An alternative energy source is coming of age  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on concerns over continued U.S. dependence on imported oil, and more importantly, increasing environmental restrictions on conventional power plants that are driving research and development of alternative energy sources. One alternative energy process being developed is coal gasification, which involves converting coal to a synthetic gas by heating it under pressure and burning that gas as a

Valenti

1992-01-01

282

Multispectral Imaging Of Burn Wounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research program successfully developed a real-time video imaging system (the Imaging Burn Depth Indicator, or IBDI) which can discriminate areas of burn wounds expected to heal in three weeks or less from the day of injury from those areas not expected to heal in that time period. The analysis can be performed on or about the third day post-burn on debrided burn wounds. Early evaluation of burn healing probability is a crucial factor in the decision to tangentially excise the burn wound. The IBDI measures the reflectivity of the burn wound in the red, green, and near infrared wavelength bands, which data correlate with burn healing probability. The instrument uses an algorithm established in an earlier study to translate the optical data into burn healing probabilities. The IBDI produces two types of images: a true-color image of the burn and a false-color image of the burn. The false-color image consists of up to four colors, each of which indicates a distinct range of probability that the area of the burn so colored will heal within 21 days. Over 100 burn wound sites were studied. Burn sites were evaluated on day three post-burn by our instrument and by the attending physician. Of 55 sites considered to be of intermediate depth, the IBDI predicted the healing outcome accurately in 84% of the cases. By comparison, the predictions of burn surgeons supervising the care of these patients were accurate in 62% of the cases.

Afromowitz, Martin A.; Callis, James B.; Heimbach, David M.; DeSoto, Larry A.; Norton, Mary K.

1988-06-01

283

Burns in Nigeria: a Review  

PubMed Central

Summary Burn injuries continue to be a major source of mortality and morbidity in low- and middle-income countries of the world, of which Nigeria is a part. Overview data on burn care in Nigeria are sparse but the available literature on burns and burn care in Nigeria was retrieved through Internet-based search engines, collated, and reviewed. Peculiarities of epidemiology, types of burn, pattern of injuries, complications, and outcome of burn care were reviewed. There were no broad-based overview statistical data on burns in Nigeria in all the articles reviewed. There was no documentation on the regionalization of care and there were no national databases. All reports on epidemiology were hospital-based. Flame is emerging as the predominant cause of burns, and burn injury is occurring increasingly away from the domestic setting. The severity of the injuries is also increasing. Deliberate burn injury remains a practice and a wide range of complications occur as burns sequelae in Nigeria. Several challenges militate against optimal care for burn victims. Burn injuries continue to contribute significantly to the burden of disease in Nigeria. There is a need for broad-based data collection systems. Avoidable complications are common and mortality remains high. Pooling of resources by regionalization of care could increase focus on burn prevention and improve the care of burn victims. Nongovernmental and governmental support to reduce the burden of burns is advocated. PMID:21991210

Oladele, A.O.; Olabanji, J.K.

2010-01-01

284

The media glorifying burns: a hindrance to burn prevention.  

PubMed

The media have a profound influence on the actions of children and adults. Burns and burn prevention tend to be ignored or even mocked. The purpose of this presentation is to reveal the callousness of the media in its dealings with burns and burn prevention. Printed materials with a relationship to burns, risk of burning, or disrespect for the consequences of burns were collected. The materials were tabulated into four categories: comics, advertisements (ads), articles that made light of burns, and television shows that portrayed behavior that would risk burn injury. Most burn-related materials were found in comics or advertisements. Several comics made light of high-risk behavior with flames, scald injury, contact injury, or burns. In addition, several advertisements showed people on fire or actions that could easily lead to burns. Several articles and televisions shows portrayed high-risk behavior that, in some instances, led to copycat injuries. Flames are frequently used to sell items that target adolescent boys or young men. The high incidence injuries that frequent this population parallel the high-risk behaviors portrayed by the media. The media portrays flames and high-risk behavior for burn injury as being cool, funny, and without consequence. The use of flames on clothing and recreational equipment (skateboards, hot rods) particularly targets the high-risk adolescent male. The burn community should make the media aware of the harm it causes with its callous depiction and glorification of burns. PMID:12792237

Greenhalgh, David G; Palmieri, Tina L

2003-01-01

285

The Coal-Waste Artificial Reef Program (C-WARP): A New Resource  

E-print Network

The Coal-Waste Artificial Reef Program (C-WARP): A New Resource Potential for Fishing Reef ABSTRACT-Thefeasibility ofusing solid blocks of waste materialfrom coal:firedpower plantslor underwater (scrubber) sludge from coal-burning power stations. was constructed in the Atlantic Ocean offLong Island. N

286

Caustic washing for refining of direct coal liquefaction products  

SciTech Connect

Extensive research and development sponsored by the U.S. DOE/PETC over the past two decades has resulted in dramatic improvements in the quality of direct coal liquefaction products. High-quality coal-derived distillates are obtainable from catalytic two-stage liquefaction (TSL) processes, such as those developed at the Wilsonville, AL pilot plant and the Hydrocarbon Technologies Inc. (HTI) pilot plant and bench units. The products of the Wilsonville and HTI TSL operations are suitable as high quality feedstocks for producing transportation fuels in a refinery. These products have important quality advantages over crude petroleum: they are distillates boiling below about 700{degrees}F and are thus virtually free of resid and metals, and they have very low sulfur contents and low nitrogen contents. The coal liquids have carbon and hydrogen contents and Watson characterization factors within the range of crude petroleums. However, relative to crude petroleum, the crude coal products have elevated oxygen contents. This report describes the removal of phenols from coal liquids by caustic washing, and the the recovery of the cresylic acid by-product.

Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.; Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D. [CONSOL, Inc., Library, PA (United States); Zhou, P. [Burns and Roe Services Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1995-12-31

287

Sepsis in burned patients.  

PubMed

A prospective study was conducted from June 2001 to May 2002 at the Burns Unit of Hospital Regional da Asa Norte, Braslia, Brazil. During the period of the study, 252 patients were treated at the Burns Unit, 49 (19.4%) developed clinically and microbiologically proven sepsis. Twenty-six (53.1%) were males and 23 (46.9%) females with a mean age of 22 years (range one to 89 years) and mean burned body surface area of 37.7 +/- 18.4% (range 7 to 84%). Forty-three patients had flame burns, five a scald and one an electric burn. These 49 patients had a total of 62 septic episodes. Forty (81.6%) patients had only one and nine (18.4%) had up to three episodes of sepsis. Thirty (61.2%) patients had their first septicemic episode either earlier or by one week postburn. Out of 62 septic episodes, 58 were due to bacteria and four due to Candida sp. The most common bacteria isolated from blood culture were Staphylococccus aureus, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, Acinetobacter baumannii, Enterobacter cloacae and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Eleven (18.9%) episodes were due to oxacillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Acinetobacter baumannii was sensitive to ampicillin/sulbactam in 71.4% and to imipenem in 85.7% of the cases. The primary foci of sepsis were the burn wound in 15 (24.2%) episodes. The most common clinical findings of sepsis in these patients were fever, dyspnea, hypotension and oliguria. The most common laboratory findings of these patients were anemia, leukocytosis, hypoalbuminemia and thrombocytopenia. Twelve (24.5%) patients died. The appropriate knowledge of clinical, epidemiological, laboratorial and microbiological aspects of sepsis in burned patients permits an adequate diagnosis and treatment of this complication. PMID:15049101

de Macedo, Jefferson Lessa; Rosa, Simone C; Castro, Cleudson

2003-01-01

288

Modelling fly ash generation for pulverised coal combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

An in-depth characterisation was made of three U.K. bituminous coals and the combustion products from these coals when burned at a power station and on a range of experimental combustion facilities. CCSEM analysis of pulverised coals was performed to provide quantitative data on the size and chemical composition of individual mineral occurrences, and to determine the nature of the mineral-mineral

F. Wigley; J. Williamson

1998-01-01

289

LLL In Situ Coal Gasification Project. Quarterly progress report, October--December 1977. [Hoe Creek No. 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gasification phase of Hoe Creek Coal Gasification Experiment No. 2 at Hoe Creek, Wyoming was carried out. The coal was ignited on Oct. 14, and two reverse-burn links were simultaneously initiated toward the injection well and a dewatering well. Data from traveling thermocouples, fixed thermocouples, and HFEM instrumentation indicated that there were several reverse burn paths near the bottom

D. R. Stephens; K. J. Minkel

1978-01-01

290

Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems. Annual report, July 1991--June 1992  

SciTech Connect

Westinghouse`s Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine System Program (DE-AC2l-86MC23167) was originally split into two major phases - a Basic Program and an Option. The Basic Program also contained two phases. The development of a 6 atm, 7 lb/s, 12 MMBtu/hr slagging combustor with an extended period of testing of the subscale combustor, was the first part of the Basic Program. In the second phase of the Basic Program, the combustor was to be operated over a 3-month period with a stationary cascade to study the effect of deposition, erosion and corrosion on combustion turbine components. The testing of the concept, in subscale, has demonstrated its ability to handle high- and low-sulfur bituminous coals, and low-sulfur subbituminous coal. Feeding the fuel in the form of PC has proven to be superior to CWM type feed. The program objectives relative to combustion efficiency, combustor exit temperature, NO{sub x} emissions, carbon burnout, and slag rejection have been met. Objectives for alkali, particulate, and SO{sub x} levels leaving the combustor were not met by the conclusion of testing at Textron. It is planned to continue this testing, to achieve all desired emission levels, as part of the W/NSP program to commercialize the slagging combustor technology.

Not Available

1992-09-01

291

Comparative emissions from Pakistani coals and traditional coals  

SciTech Connect

Airborne emissions from a traditional Paldstani cooking stove were measured and compared for fuels composed of raw and amended coal briquettes, wood, charcoal, and dung. Small charges of fuel, 200 g, were burned inside a 12 m[sup 3] shed with a forced rate of air exchange of 14 hr[sup [minus]1]. The amended coal contained slaked lime, clay catalyst and 1 % potassium nitrate oxidant. The lime proved effective in reducing the integrated S0[sub 2] emissions but not the early peak S0[sub 2] emissions while combustion was restricted to the skin of the briquettes. Volatile and semivolatile organic emissions and respirable suspended particulates (RSP) were considerably reduced in amended coal compared to raw coal briquettes. The measurements overall indicated that, with respect to CO, S0[sub 2], N0[sub 2], organics and RSP, substitution of amended coal briquettes for traditional fuels will not worsen indoor air quality during domestic cooking. Better utilization of Pakistani's reserves of high-sulfur coal is an attractive energy option for both economic and environmental reasons.

Gammage, R.B.; Wachter, E.A.; Wade, J.; Wilson, D.L. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Ahmad, N.; Sibtain, F.; Raza, M.Z. (Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Karachi (Pakistan). Fuel Research Center)

1993-01-01

292

Combat burn life support: a military burn-education program.  

PubMed

The Advanced Burn Life Support Course has been used to train military physicians and nurses for more than 16 years. Although it useful for teaching the fundamentals of burn care, the course is designed for a civilian audience, covers only the first 24 hours of burn care, and presumes the availability of a burn center for patient transfer. In preparation for hostilities in Iraq, we developed several add-on modules to the standard Advanced Burn Life Support course to meet specific needs of military audiences. These modules cover the treatment of white phosphorus burns; the treatment of mustard gas exposure; the long-range aeromedical transfer of burn patients; the management of burn patients beyond the first 24 hours; and the delivery of burn care in austere environments. These add-on modules are termed Combat Burn Life Support. Between January 22, 2003, and May 12, 2003, Advanced Burn Life Support and/or Combat Burn Life Support courses were provided to a total of 1035 military health care providers in the United States, Germany, and the Middle East. Student feedback was largely positive and is being used for further course refinement. The Combat Burn Life Support Course is designed to augment, rather than replace, the Advanced Burn Life Support Course. Although intended for a military audience, the course material is equally applicable to civilian terrorist or mass casualty situations. PMID:15756118

Barillo, David J; Cancio, Leopoldo C; Hutton, Brad G; Mittelsteadt, Paul J; Gueller, Glen E; Holcomb, John B

2005-01-01

293

Upgraded Coal Interest Group. Technical progress report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

This report presents information from the coal interest group. Topics of discussion at the meeting included the current political views concerning the Department of Energy and programs contained therein. The group met on January 10 and 11, in Nashville, TN. The status of various coal upgrading technologies was also reviewed. Four new technology opportunities were given reviews, Coal/Waste pellets, Custom Coals advanced technology, CSRC sulfur removing bacteria and a Mag-Mill which is a magnetic separation done within the pulverizer. Coal Waste pellets is a technology for making pellets of coal and fiber waste from recycling plants. The incentives are low cost and low sulfur and nitrogen. Lebowitz made a field trip to the pilot unit in Canton Ohio. The Mag Mill takes advantage of the natural concentration of pyrite in the pulverizer recycle stream (due to its hardness). Special magnets are installed in the mill to remove pyrite from this stream. Custom Coals reported on an advanced two step process for removal of organic sulfur from coal. Consolidated Sulfur Reduction Co. reported on a two step microbial desulfurization process.

Weber, W. [Electric Power Research Institute, Chattanooga, TN (United States); Lebowitz, H.E. [Fossil Fuel Sciences, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

1995-08-01

294

Controller for pulverized coal burner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Burning pulverized coal in power boilers causes considerable emission of atmospheric pollution. In order to decrease it the combustion process itself has been modified, however at cost of side effects like: increased level of unburned coal particles in the ashes. There are tens of burners in a single power boiler and emission level measurements are made in flue gas duct, so the control based on such averaged and heavily delayed values often results ineffective. The neural controller of the pulverized coal burner attempts to resolve these problems. The clue is utilization of fiber-optic system for monitoring of chosen zone of flame developed in Department of Electronics of Technical University of Lublin. The article contains description of controlled system and optical fiber measurement system, an idea of the controller as well as some results obtained for experimental burner.

Wojcik, Waldemar; Golec, Tomasz; Kotyra, Andrzej; Smolarz, Andrzej; Komada, Pawel; Kalita, Mariusz

2004-09-01

295

Burning trees and bridges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most burning of biomass is the result of human activity, and on a global scale it is increasing. Tropospheric concentrations of CO2, CO, CH4, non-methane hydrocarbons, and ozone are all increasing with time; global biomass burning may make an important contribution to this increase and thus to potential global climate change. The nitrogen cycle also can have important climatic effects. Nitrous oxide put into the atmosphere by biomass burning is a greenhouse gas 250 times more powerful (molecule for molecule) than carbon dioxide. Nitric oxide, as well as being a photochemical precursor of ozone, a major pollutant in the troposphere, produces nitric acid, the fastest-growing component of acid rain. Hence, the new bridge in the nitrogen cycle is of more than mere technical interest.

Levine, Joel S.

1990-01-01

296

Physical cleaning of coal: present and developing methods  

SciTech Connect

In recent years much attention has been given to precombustion and postcombustion cleanup as means of controlling sulfur dioxide emissions from burning coal. Most processes for controlling sulfur dioxide emissions have entailed some form of either pretreatment by chemical desulfurization or posttreatment by stack gas scrubbing (flue gas desulfurization). Coal cleaning for precombustion cleanup has been overlooked except by a few dozen experts who advocate the merit of removing ash and inorganic sulfur (mainly pyrite) as a means of improving boiler performance and, with most coals, controlling objectionable pollutants. Many coals are amenable to cleaning using advanced technology at costs ranging from 25 to 50% of those for chemical desulfurization or stack gas scrubbing. Furthermore, physical cleaning wastes containing the worrisome trace elements can be disposed of safely in stable embankments and land fills. Thanks to the vision and the perseverance of a few researchers who never abandoned the old technology of coal preparation for the new technology of coal conversion, some significant advances have been made in cleaning coal. Instead of removing large sulfur balls, new processes are becoming available for removing micrometer-sized pyrite crystallites from powdered coal. This book describes the new methods and developments in physical coal cleaning that will permit us to replace natural gas and oil-fired utility boilers with coal-fired ones and also allow us to burn coal in home furnaces without the noxious gases and soot that many of us can remember. All ten chapters have been entered individually into EDB and ERA.

Liu, Y.A. (ed.)

1982-01-01

297

Fast burning propellants  

SciTech Connect

A solid or semisolid propellant is described comprising grains of propellant or propellant components bonded together to create voids within the propellant volume. The grains are of near-uniform size and have less than about a 20% size variation between the largest and smallest grains, the voids comprising from about 10% to about 50% of the propellant volume. The grains are bonded together with sufficient strength to substantially delay the fluidization of the propellant by the onset of Taylor unstable burning. The propellant has a rapid burn rate of from about 10 cm sec/sup -1/ to about 10/sup 4/cm sec/sup -1/.

Colgate, S.A.; Roos, G.E.

1987-07-21

298

Burning Down the House  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this demonstration, the teacher will use a potato and hydrogen peroxide to generate oxygen in a closed environment. Students can then observe its effects on a burning wooden splint and on burning steel wool. They will understand that a large amount of energy can be released by the process of oxidation. As an extension, the teacher can discuss how the appearance of oxygen (produced by cyanobacteria) in Earth's early atmosphere initially resulted in the formation of large deposits of iron oxide (Banded Iron Formations) and then aided in the evolution of more complex life forms.

Dolphin, Glenn

299

Organic Sulfur and HAP Removal from Coal with Subcritical Water  

SciTech Connect

To date, no economically feasible organic sulfur and hazardous air pollutant (HAP) precursor removal process has been developed; however, an effective sulfur and selected HAP removal process is needed to enhance the utilization of high-sulfur coals and to comply with increasingly stringent regulations. Subcritical water has been shown by the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) researchers on this project to be an extremely effective fluid for the removal of organic sulfur from coals. A multigram reactor designed and built at the EERC for supercritical water extraction was used to scale up from milligram-sized samples to 10-20 grams of coal charge. Work performed during this project year resulted in production of low-sulfur (as low as 0.5% S) extracted coal first at supercritical conditions, i.e., 450{degrees}C and 400 atm (5880 psig), but then at conditions below the critical conditions, i.e., 420{degrees}C and 156 atm (2300 psig). Still milder conditions of 400{degrees}C and 156 atm (2300 psig) resulted in sulfur values similar to those of obtained under the supercritical conditions. IBC-102 extracted with supercritical water had a sulfur value of 0.7 wt%. Extraction of IBC-102 at subcritical conditions of 420{degrees}C and 156 atm (2300 psig) resulted in a sulfur content of 0.490A. The tar obtained from the extracted coal had sulfur values ranging from 1.4 to 6.5 wt% and when treated by catalytic desulfurization, tar was quantitatively recovered with a sulfur value of 0.6 wt%. Float-sink physical cleaning of IBC-102 with Certigrav 1.4 reduced the sulfur content of the coal to 1.5 wt% in a recovered float fraction of 83.3%. Approximately 300 lb of IBC-102 was obtained for use in preparing 100 lb of low-sulfur fuel. Float- sink cleaning on a sample of this new coal returned 87.1 wt% as float fraction, with 1.7 wt% sulfur. 158 lb of physically cleaned IBC-102 was used for the continuous process test on the pilot scale. An additional 150 lb of physically cleaned coal slurry was received from Dr. R. Honaker of southern Illinois University (SIU) for testing in the continuous unit. The hydrothermal process development unit (PDU) in the continuous mode was used to prepare 100 lb of low-sulfur fuel from physically cleaned IBC-102 at three temperatures (300{degrees}, 325{degrees} and 340{degrees}C) and a pressure of 2300 psig. Residence time was controlled by flow rate. Treating a swelling coal such as IBC-102 required a slurry with low solids loading to prevent plugging due to expansion during residence in the reactor. In this preliminary test with physically cleaned IBC-102, the sulfur content was decreased by as much as one-third, few volatiles were lost, and mercury and selenium levels were decreased by 87% and 46%, respectively.

NONE

1996-12-31

300

Coal systems analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This collection of papers provides an introduction to the concept of coal systems analysis and contains examples of how coal systems analysis can be used to understand, characterize, and evaluate coal and coal gas resources. Chapter are: Coal systems analysis: A new approach to the understanding of coal formation, coal quality and environmental considerations, and coal as a source rock

2005-01-01

301

Emissions of fine particle fluoride from biomass burning.  

PubMed

The burning of biomasses releases fluorine to the atmosphere, representing a major and previously uncharacterized flux of this atmospheric pollutant. Emissions of fine particle (PM2.5) water-soluble fluoride (F(-)) from biomass burning were evaluated during the fourth Fire Laboratory at Missoula Experiment (FLAME-IV) using scanning electron microscopy energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) and ion chromatography with conductivity detection. F(-) was detected in 100% of the PM2.5 emissions from conifers (n = 11), 94% of emissions from agricultural residues (n = 16), and 36% of the grasses and other perennial plants (n = 14). When F(-) was quantified, it accounted for an average (standard error) of 0.13 0.02% of PM2.5. F(-) was not detected in remaining samples (n = 15) collected from peat burning, shredded tire combustion, and cook-stove emissions. Emission factors (EF) of F(-) emitted per kilogram of biomass burned correlated with emissions of PM2.5 and combustion efficiency, and also varied with the type of biomass burned and the geographic location where it was harvested. Based on recent evaluations of global biomass burning, we estimate that biomass burning releases 76 Gg F(-) yr(-1) to the atmosphere, with upper and lower bounds of 40-150 Gg F(-) yr(-1). The estimated F(-) flux from biomass burning is comparable to total fluorine emissions from coal combustion plus other anthropogenic sources. These data demonstrate that biomass burning represents a major source of fluorine to the atmosphere in the form of fine particles, which have potential to undergo long-range transport. PMID:25275955

Jayarathne, Thilina; Stockwell, Chelsea E; Yokelson, Robert J; Nakao, Shunsuke; Stone, Elizabeth A

2014-11-01

302

Burning Your Own CDs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of CDs (Compact Disks) for backing up data as an alternative to using floppy disks and explains how to burn, or record, a CD. Topics include differences between CD-R (CD-Recordable) and CD-RW (CD-Rewritable); advantages of CD-R and CD-RW; selecting a CD burner; technology trends; and care of CDs. (LRW)

Ekhaml, Leticia

2001-01-01

303

Burns and Fire Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... Pressman M, Blank E, Mickalide A. Hot tap water legislation in the United States. J Burn Care Res . 2010; 31(6): 918?925. 13 Safe Kids Worldwide, Public Policy Department, 2005. 14 AntiScald, Inc. Available from: http:// ...

304

[Burns with lighter gas].  

PubMed

Attention is drawn to a particularly dangerous party activity. Balloons filled with lighter gas so as to float are used for party decorations. A case of hand burn caused by accidentally lighting such a balloon with a cigarette is reported. The method is strongly advised against, it is a much better idea to use helium for such purposes. PMID:7734004

Davidsen, M T

1993-06-28

305

TIRES, OPEN BURNING  

EPA Science Inventory

The chapter describes available information on the health effects from open burning of rubber tires. It concentrates on the three known sources of detailed measurements: (1) a small-scale emissions characterization study performed by the U.S. EPA in a facility designed to simulat...

306

Bacteriology of burns  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective study was undertaken at University College of Medical Sciences and Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital, Delhi, to examine the bacterial isolates from the Burns unit and to determine the antibiograms of the isolates to commonly used antimicrobial agents. A total of 600 pus samples from as many patients received, over a period of 5 years (June 1993June 1997) yielded

G. Revathi; J. Puri; B. K. Jain

1998-01-01

307

The Earth Could Burn.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Environmental educators are worried about the ultimate ecological threat--nuclear war, which could burn thousands of square miles, sterilize the soil, destroy 70 percent of the ozone layer letting in lethal ultraviolet rays, and cause severe radiation sickness. Educators must inform themselves, teach others, contact government representatives, and

Yarrow, Ruth

1982-01-01

308

Coal extraction  

SciTech Connect

Coal is extracted using a mixed solvent which includes a substantially aromatic component and a substantially naphthenic component, at a temperature of 400/sup 0/ to 500/sup 0/C. Although neither component is an especially good solvent for coal by itself, the use of mixed solvent gives greater flexibility to the process and offers efficiency gains.

Clarke, J.W.; Kimber, G.M.; Rantell, T.D.; Snape, C.E.

1985-06-04

309

Discovery Performs Terminal Initiation Burn  

NASA Video Gallery

The terminal initiation burn, a left Orbital Maneuvering System engine firing that gave Discovery one last big push toward the space station, took place Feb. 26, 2011 at 10:33 a.m. The burn lasted ...

310

Plane flame furnace combustion tests on JPL desulfurized coal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The combustion characteristics of three raw bituminous (PSOC-282 and 276) and subbituminous (PSOC-230) coals, the raw coals partially desulfurized (ca -60%) by JPL chlorinolysis, and the chlorinated coals more completely desulfurized (ca -75%) by JPL hydrodesulfurization were determined. The extent to which the combustion characteristics of the untreated coals were altered upon JPL sulfur removal was examined. Combustion conditions typical of utility boilers were simulated in the plane flame furnace. Upon decreasing the parent coal voltaile matter generically by 80% and the sulfur by 75% via the JPL desulfurization process, ignition time was delayed 70 fold, burning velocity was retarded 1.5 fold, and burnout time was prolonged 1.4 fold. Total flame residence time increased 2.3 fold. The JPL desulfurization process appears to show significant promise for producing technologically combustible and clean burning (low SO3) fuels.

Reuther, J. J.; Kim, H. T.; Lima, J. G. H.

1982-01-01

311

Plane flame furnace combustion tests on JPL desulfurized coal  

SciTech Connect

The combustion characteristics of three raw bituminous (PSOC-282 and 276) and subbituminous (PSOC-230) coals, the raw coals partially desulfurized (ca -60%) by JPL chlorinolysis, and the chlorinated coals more completely desulfurized (ca -75%) by JPL hydrodesulfurization were determined. The extent to which the combustion characteristics of the untreated coals were altered upon JPL sulfur removal was examined. Combustion conditions typical of utility boilers were simulated in the plane flame furnace. Upon decreasing the parent coal voltaile matter generically by 80% and the sulfur by 75% via the JPL desulfurization process, ignition time was delayed 70 fold, burning velocity was retarded 1.5 fold, and burnout time was prolonged 1.4 fold. Total flame residence time increased 2.3 fold. The JPL desulfurization process appears to show significant promise for producing technologically combustible and clean burning (low SO3) fuels.

Reuther, J.J.; Kim, H.T.; Lima, J.G.H.

1982-05-01

312

Harborview Burns 1974 to 2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundBurn demographics, prevention and care have changed considerably since the 1970s. The objectives were to 1) identify new and confirm previously described changes, 2) make comparisons to the American Burn Association National Burn Repository, 3) determine when the administration of fluids in excess of the Baxter formula began and to identify potential causes, and 4) model mortality over time, during

Loren H. Engrav; David M. Heimbach; Frederick P. Rivara; Kathleen F. Kerr; Turner Osler; Tam N. Pham; Sam R. Sharar; Peter C. Esselman; Eileen M. Bulger; Gretchen J. Carrougher; Shari Honari; Nicole S. Gibran

2012-01-01

313

7, 1733917366, 2007 Biomass burning  

E-print Network

ACPD 7, 17339­17366, 2007 Biomass burning plumes during the AMMA wet season experiment C. H. Mari a Creative Commons License. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Tracing biomass burning plumes from. Mari (marc@aero.obs-mip.fr) 17339 #12;ACPD 7, 17339­17366, 2007 Biomass burning plumes during the AMMA

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

314

Biomass Burning Data and Information  

Biomass Burning Data and Information This data set represents ... geographical and temporal distribution of total amount of biomass burned. These data may be used in general circulation models (GCMs) and ... models of the atmosphere. Project Title: Biomass Burning Discipline: Tropospheric Chemistry ...

2014-08-06

315

13, 3226932289, 2013 Biomass burning  

E-print Network

ACPD 13, 32269­32289, 2013 Biomass burning aerosol properties over the Northern Great Plains T (ACP). Please refer to the corresponding final paper in ACP if available. Biomass burning aerosol Geosciences Union. 32269 #12;ACPD 13, 32269­32289, 2013 Biomass burning aerosol properties over the Northern

Dong, Xiquan

316

Anatomy of a Prescribed Burn  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This poster shows how prescribed burns operate, using careful planning and preparation to start a fire that will renew habitat without threatening ecosystems or homes. This image describes the steps required to prepare a prescribed burn, how fire crews set up for the burn, and how the wind is used to help control the fire.

Forestry, Florida D.; Smokeybear.com

317

Plasma-supported coal combustion in boiler furnace  

SciTech Connect

Plasma activation promotes more effective and environmentally friendly low-rank coal combustion. This paper presents Plasma Fuel Systems that increase the burning efficiency of coal. The systems were tested for fuel oil-free start-up of coal-fired boilers and stabilization of a pulverized-coal flame in power-generating boilers equipped with different types of burners, and burning all types of power-generating coal. Also, numerical modeling results of a plasma thermochemical preparation of pulverized coal for ignition and combustion in the furnace of a utility boiler are discussed in this paper. Two kinetic mathematical models were used in the investigation of the processes of air/fuel mixture plasma activation: ignition and combustion. A I-D kinetic code PLASMA-COAL calculates the concentrations of species, temperatures, and velocities of the treated coal/air mixture in a burner incorporating a plasma source. The I-D simulation results are initial data for the 3-D-modeling of power boiler furnaces by the code FLOREAN. A comprehensive image of plasma-activated coal combustion processes in a furnace of a pulverized-coal-fired boiler was obtained. The advantages of the plasma technology are clearly demonstrated.

Askarova, A.S.; Karpenko, E.I.; Lavrishcheva, Y.I.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B. [Kazakh National University, Alma Ata (Kazakhstan). Dept. of Physics

2007-12-15

318

Is proportion burned severely related to daily area burned?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ecological effects of forest fires burning with high severity are long-lived and have the greatest impact on vegetation successional trajectories, as compared to low-to-moderate severity fires. The primary drivers of high severity fire are unclear, but it has been hypothesized that wind-driven, large fire-growth days play a significant role, particularly on large fires in forested ecosystems. Here, we examined the relative proportion of classified burn severity for individual daily areas burned that occurred during 42 large forest fires in central Idaho and western Montana from 2005 to 2007 and 2011. Using infrared perimeter data for wildfires with five or more consecutive days of mapped perimeters, we delineated 2697 individual daily areas burned from which we calculated the proportions of each of three burn severity classes (high, moderate, and low) using the differenced normalized burn ratio as mapped for large fires by the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity project. We found that the proportion of high burn severity was weakly correlated (Kendall ? = 0.299) with size of daily area burned (DAB). Burn severity was highly variable, even for the largest (95th percentile) in DAB, suggesting that other variables than fire extent influence the ecological effects of fires. We suggest that these results do not support the prioritization of large runs during fire rehabilitation efforts, since the underlying assumption in this prioritization is a positive relationship between severity and area burned in a day.

Birch, Donovan S.; Morgan, Penelope; Kolden, Crystal A.; Hudak, Andrew T.; Smith, Alistair M. S.

2014-05-01

319

Chemical Debridement of Burns  

PubMed Central

The development of effective, non-toxic (local and systemic) methods for the rapid chemical (enzymatic and non-enzymatic) debridement of third degree burns would dramatically reduce the morbidity and mortality of severely burned patients. Sepsis is still the major cause of death of patients with extensive deep burns. The removal of the devitalized tissue, without damage to unburned skin or skin only partially injured by burning, and in ways which would permit immediate (or very prompt) skin grafting, would lessen substantially the problems of sepsis, speed convalescence and the return of these individuals to society as effective human beings, and would decrease deaths. The usefulness and limitations of surgical excision for patients with extensive third degree burns are discussed. Chemical debridement lends itself to complementary use with surgical excision and has the potential advantage over surgical excision in not requiring anesthesia or a formal surgical operation. The authors' work with the chemical debridement of burns, in particular the use of Bromelain, indicates that this approach will likely achieve clinical usefulness. The experimental studies indicate that rapid controlled debridement, with minimal local and systemic toxicity, is possible, and that effective chemotherapeutic agents may be combined with the Bromelain without either interfering with the actions of the other. The authors believe that rapid (hours) debridement accomplished by the combined use of chemical debriding and chemotherapeutic agents will obviate the possibility of any increase in infection, caused by the use of chemical agents for debridement, as reported for Paraenzyme21 and Travase.39,48 It is possible that the short term use of systemic antibiotics begun just before and continued during, and for a short time after, the rapid chemical debridement may prove useful for the prevention of infection, as appears to be the case for abdominal operations of the clean-contaminated and contaminated types. ImagesFigs. 1a-c.Fig. 1b.Fig. 1c.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8.Fig. 9a.Fig. 9B.Fig. 10.Fig. 11.Figs. 12a-c.Fig. 12b.Fig. 12c.Figs. 14a-c.Fig. 14b.Fig. 14c.Figs. 15a-c.Fig. 15b.Fig. 15c. PMID:4606330

Levenson, Stanley M.; Kan, Dorinne; Gruber, Charles; Crowley, Leo V.; Lent, Richard; Watford, Alvin; Seifter, Eli

1974-01-01

320

Air-Freshener Burns: A New Paradigm in Burns Etiology?  

PubMed Central

Objectives: We report a rare case of burns following the use of automated air-fresheners. Methods: We present a case report with a brief overview of the literature relating to burns associated with air-fresheners. The mechanism and treatment of these types of injuries are also described. Results: A 44 year-old female was admitted under the care of the burns team following burns secondary to an exploding air-freshener canister. The patient sustained burns to the face, thorax and arms resulting in a seven-day hospital admission. The burns were treated conservatively. Conclusions: To our knowledge this is one of the few documented cases of burns as a result of air-fresheners. As they become more ubiquitous, we anticipate the incidence of such cases to increase. As such, they pose a potential public health concern on a massive scale. PMID:22174972

Sarwar, Umran; Nicolaou, M.; Khan, M. S.; Tiernan, E.

2011-01-01

321

Petrographic characterization of Kentucky coals. Final report. Part IV. A petrographic and chemical model for the evolution of the Tradewater Formation coals in Western Kentucky  

SciTech Connect

A depositional model for the coals of the Tradewater Formation and associated rock units was constructed as a predictive device for the occurrence of economically important low sulfur coal. Twenty-one cores were examined and ninety-eight coal samples were analyzed for maceral, ash, and sulfur contents. These data were then analyzed to determine regional variation as well as vertical variation in single coal columns. Core data indicate that the majority of the Tradewater rocks consist of irregularly distributed, coarsening-upward, fine-grained detrital material which was deposited in shallow bodies of water. Minor fossiliferous shales and limestones suggest a marine influence. Less common coarse-grained, fining-upward sequences appear to be deposits of meandering channels. Like the detrital rocks, the coal seams are also irregularly distributed and exhibit variable petrographic and chemical properties reflecting changes in the Eh and pH of the coal swamp waters as well as detrital influx into the swamps. These swamps were relatively limited in extent and probably occupied the upper reaches of the tidal zone. The lack of significant stratigraphic and geographic trends in the regional data suggests that this mode of deposition was widespread and continued for a long period of time. 42 references, 19 figures, 9 tables.

Graese, A.M.; Hower, J.C.; Ferm, J.C.

1984-01-01

322

[Burning mouth syndrome (glossalgia)].  

PubMed

Burning mouth syndrome (glossalgia) is manifested by oral pin and tingling sensations, numbness and even burning and severe pains, more frequently in the tongue. Unpleasant sensations may involve the anterior two thirds of the tongue or be extended to the front part of the hard palate and the mucous membrane of the lower lip. This condition is characterized by "mirror" and "food dominant" symptoms, disordered salivation, dysgeusia, or psychological disorders. The disease shows a chronic course. Its etiology may be multifactorial. There are no universally accepted diagnostic criteria; the diagnosis of glossalgia is made to rule out all other causes. A thorough examination should be conducted to establish a differential diagnosis. Glossalgia occurs primarily in middle-aged and elderly people. Women get sick much more frequently than men of the same age. Glossalgia remains difficult to treat. Continuous symptomatic treatment and follow-up help relieve its symptoms. PMID:24757710

2014-01-01

323

ANALYSIS OF FLY ASH PRODUCED FROM COMBUSTION OF REFUSE-DERIVED FUEL AND COAL MIXTURES (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

Mixtures of coal and refuse-derived fuel (RDF) were burned and the fly ash was collected and analyzed for concentration trends with respect to RDF/coal ratio and particle size. RDF contributes more Cs, Mn, Sb, and Pb to the fly ash while coal contributes greater amounts of As, Br...

324

Extraction, separation, and analysis of high sulfur coal. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The work described in this report studies the removal of sulfur by oxidative interaction of various cupric salts with coal and also considers the possibility of removing organic sulfur by the selective interaction of supercritical ethanol with the organic coal matrix. Either one of these methods could potentially be used to pretreat coals before burning. The primary purpose of these studies is to ascertain the nature of the chemical reactions occurring, the chemical composition of the resultant products, and information on possible reaction mechanisms. This information should allow prediction of reasonable reaction conditions for the removal of organosulfur compound from coal.

Olesik, S.V.; Pekay, L.A.; Larkins, W. Jr. [comps.

1992-05-31

325

Extraction, separation, and analysis of high sulfur coal  

SciTech Connect

The work described in this report studies the removal of sulfur by oxidative interaction of various cupric salts with coal and also considers the possibility of removing organic sulfur by the selective interaction of supercritical ethanol with the organic coal matrix. Either one of these methods could potentially be used to pretreat coals before burning. The primary purpose of these studies is to ascertain the nature of the chemical reactions occurring, the chemical composition of the resultant products, and information on possible reaction mechanisms. This information should allow prediction of reasonable reaction conditions for the removal of organosulfur compound from coal.

Olesik, S.V.; Pekay, L.A.; Larkins, W. Jr. (comps.)

1992-05-31

326

Pyrolysis and ignition behavior of coal, cattle biomass, and coal/cattle biomass blends  

E-print Network

derived from biomass. Current research at Texas A&M University is focused on the effectiveness of using cattle manure biomass as a fuel source in conjunction with coal burning utilities. The scope of this project includes fuel property analysis, pyrolysis...

Martin, Brandon Ray

2009-05-15

327

Rheology of coal-water slurries prepared by the high-pressure roll mill grinding of coal. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The preparation of coal water slurries to replace fuel oil for direct combustion has become an important field in modem coal technology. The U.S. Department of Energy has planned or has underway several demonstration projects to burn coal-water slurries to replace fuel oil is attractive not only because there is an assured domestic supply of coal, but also on various technoeconomic grounds. Coal-water slurries combine the handling flexibility of fuel oil in power plants and various other industrial applications. This report discusses the rheology of coal-water slurries and the correlation to the coal preparation by grinding with a choke-fed high pressure roll mill. Performance of the roll mills and energy consumption are described.

Fuerstenau, D.W.; De, A.

1996-08-01

328

Coal Field Fire Fighting - Practiced methods, strategies and tactics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subsurface coal fires destroy millions of tons of coal each year, have an immense impact to the ecological surrounding and threaten further coal reservoirs. Due to enormous dimensions a coal seam fire can develop, high operational expenses are needed. As part of the Sino-German coal fire research initiative "Innovative technologies for exploration, extinction and monitoring of coal fires in Northern China" the research team of University of Wuppertal (BUW) focuses on fire extinction strategies and tactics as well as aspects of environmental and health safety. Besides the choice and the correct application of different extinction techniques further factors are essential for the successful extinction. Appropriate tactics, well trained and protected personnel and the choice of the best fitting extinguishing agents are necessary for the successful extinction of a coal seam fire. The chosen strategy for an extinction campaign is generally determined by urgency and importance. It may depend on national objectives and concepts of coal conservation, on environmental protection (e.g. commitment to green house gases (GHG) reductions), national funding and resources for fire fighting (e.g. personnel, infrastructure, vehicles, water pipelines); and computer-aided models and simulations of coal fire development from self ignition to extinction. In order to devise an optimal fire fighting strategy, "aims of protection" have to be defined in a first step. These may be: - directly affected coal seams; - neighboring seams and coalfields; - GHG emissions into the atmosphere; - Returns on investments (costs of fire fighting compared to value of saved coal). In a further step, it is imperative to decide whether the budget shall define the results, or the results define the budget; i.e. whether there are fixed objectives for the mission that will dictate the overall budget, or whether the limited resources available shall set the scope within which the best possible results shall be achieved. For an effective and efficient fire fighting optimal tactics are requiered and can be divided into four fundamental tactics to control fire hazards: - Defense (digging away the coal, so that the coal can not begin to burn; or forming a barrier, so that the fire can not reach the not burning coal), - Rescue the coal (coal mining of a not burning seam), - Attack (active and direct cooling of burning seam), - Retreat (only monitoring till self-extinction of a burning seam). The last one is used when a fire exceeds the organizational and/or technical scope of a mission. In other words, "to control a coal fire" does not automatically and in all situations mean "to extinguish a coal fire". Best-practice tactics or a combination of them can be selected for control of a particular coal fire. For the extinguishing works different extinguishing agents are available. They can be applied by different application techniques and varying distinctive operating expenses. One application method may be the drilling of boreholes from the surface or covering the surface with low permeability soils. The mainly used extinction agents for coal field fire are as followed: Water (with or without additives), Slurry, Foaming mud/slurry, Inert gases, Dry chemicals and materials and Cryogenic agents. Because of its tremendous dimension and its complexity the worldwide challenge of coal fires is absolutely unique - it can only be solved with functional application methods, best fitting strategies and tactics, organisation and research as well as the dedication of the involved fire fighters, who work under extreme individual risks on the burning coal fields.

Wndrich, T.; Korten, A. A.; Barth, U. H.

2009-04-01

329

26. Wood coal quencher, coal conveyor for powerhouse coal pulverizer ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

26. Wood coal quencher, coal conveyor for powerhouse coal pulverizer house, DX coke battery, stack, coke batteries to right. Looking east - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, Wayne County, MI

330

Coal Sampling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This USGS publication explains the use of fluxes for preparation of coal for elemental analysis. The material would be useful to supplement textbooks concerning sample preparation and may be helpful in designing an XRF laboratory experiment.

Golightly, D. W.; Simon, Frederick Otto, 1939-

2011-03-29

331

Physics-related problems of coal-fired power plant polution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The air pollution problems associated with coal burning are discussed. The movement of the pollutants and their natural removal from the atmosphere are reviewed as are the general inefficiencies at emission control attempts. (AIP)

Joseph J. Devaney

1978-01-01

332

VIRGINIA CENTER FOR COAL & ENERGY RESEARCH WINTER 1998-99 / VOL. XVIII, NO. 1 Global Warming  

E-print Network

?" Is this the result of an enhanced greenhouse effect encouraged by burning fossil fuels, or merely the continuance QUARTERLY COAL PRODUCTION STATISTICS 5 GAS PRODUCTION STATISTICS 6 1840 1860 1880 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980

333

Bridging the experience gap: Burning tires in a utility boiler  

SciTech Connect

For many communities, a solution to waste tire management problems may be no farther than the nearest coal-fired utility or industrial boiler. Sending waste tires to be used as a fuel in existing boilers is one way communities can prevent tires from creating problems in landfills, or from growing into nuisances and potentially dangerous stockpiles while waiting for recycling markets to develop. For utilities, using tire-derived fuel can help control fuel costs and conserve coal. When the State of Wisconsin sought alternatives to disposing of waste tires in its landfills, Wisconsin Power & Light came forward to meet the challenge. Now, the electric utility is shredding and burning more than 1 million tires a year at its coal-fired generating station in southern Wisconsin.

Denhof, D.

1993-03-01

334

Burning Buried Sunshine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article discusses the results of a mathematical study on how efficiently the energy of the sun is converted into fossil fuels. It points out that plants convert the sun's energy in to carbon, which is the basic constituent of natural gas, oil, and coal. However, the process is inefficient in that only about 9 percent of the carbon in the original plants is converted into the form of coal, and even less remains in oil or gas. As a way of pointing out the unsustainability of fossil fuels as an energy source, the study estimates that fossil fuel deposits accumulated over the last 500 million years have provided an ample and relatively cheap energy source for only the past 250 years.

335

POC-scale testing of an advanced fine coal dewatering equipment/technique. Quarterly technical progress report 3, April--June 1995  

SciTech Connect

Economical dewatering of an ultra-fine clean coal product to a 20% or lower level moisture will be an important step in successful implementation of the advanced fine coal cleaning processes. The main objective of the proposed program is to evaluate a novel surface modification technique, which utilizes the synergistic effect of metal ions-surfactant combination, for dewatering of ultra-fine clean coal on a proof-of-concept (POC) scale of 1 to 2 tph. The novel surface modification technique developed at the UKCAER will be evaluated using vacuum, centrifuge, and hyperbaric filtration equipment. Dewatering tests will be conducted using the fine clean coal froth produced by the column flotation units at the Powell Mountain Coal Company, Mayflower Preparation Plant in St. Charles, Virginia. The POC-scale studies will be conducted on two different types of clean coal, namely, high sulfur and low sulfur clean coal. The Mayflower Plant processes coals from five different seams, thus the dewatering studies results could be generalized for most of the bituminous coals. During this quarter, addition of reagents such as ferric ions and a novel concept of in-situ polymerization (ISP) was studied in the laboratory. Using the ISP approach with vacuum filtration provided 25% moisture filter cake compared to 65.5% moisture obtained conventionally without using the ISP. A series of dewatering tests were conducted using the Andritz hyperbaric pilot filter unit with high sulfur clean coal slurry.

Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K.

1995-08-05

336

[Clinical aspects of corneal burns].  

PubMed

Clinical aspects and prognosis of corneal burns mainly depend on the agent responsible for the trauma. The most severe burns are caustic burns, which should be classified as burns caused by basic agents, associated with deep and prolonged injuries, and burns caused by acidic agents, associated with more superficial injuries. At the acute stage, caustic burns induce epithelial defects, corneal edema, and ischemic necrosis of the limbus, conjunctiva, iris and ciliary body. At the early stage, reepithelialization occurs and is often associated with corneal vascularization and stromal infiltrates, followed by corneal scar formation. At the chronic stage, the following complications are possible: corneal scars, limbal stem cell insufficiency, lachrymal insufficiency, irregular astigmatism, ocular surface fibrosis, cataract, glaucoma, decreased intraocular pressure, and ocular atrophy. The Ropper-Hall classification is based on the extent of limbal ischemia. Thermal burns induce epithelial defects at the acute stage, with the more severe forms giving the same complications as caustic burns. Radiation-related burns can be caused by ultraviolet radiations (acute epithelial keratitis, pterygium, droplet-like keratitis), microwaves, infrared radiations, ionizing radiations or, laser radiations. Electrical burns are often a result of torture and give corneal stroma opacification. PMID:15687932

Borderie, V

2004-12-01

337

Reducing the moisture content of clean coals  

SciTech Connect

Coal moisture content can profoundly effect the cost of burning coal in utility boilers. Because of the large effect of coal moisture, the Empire State Electric Energy Research Corporation (ESEERCO) contracted with the Electric Power Research Institute to investigate advanced coal dewatering methods at its Coal Quality Development Center. This report contains the test result on the high-G solid-bowl centrifuge, the second of four devices to be tested. The high-G solid-bowl centrifuge removes water for coal by spinning the coal/water mixture rapidly in a rotating bowl. This causes the coal to cling to the sides of the bowl where it can be removed, leaving the water behind. Testing was performed at the CQDC to evaluate the effect of four operating variables (G-ratio, feed solids concentration, dry solids feed rate, and differential RPM) on the performance of the high-G solid-bowl centrifuge. Two centrifuges of different bowl diameter were tested to establish the effect of scale-up of centrifuge performance. Testing of the two centrifuges occurred from 1985 through 1987. CQDC engineers performed 32 tests on the smaller of the two centrifuges, and 47 tests on the larger. Equations that predict the performance of the two centrifuges for solids recovery, moisture content of the produced coal, and motor torque were obtained. The equations predict the observed data well. Traditional techniques of establishing the performance of centrifuge of different scale did not work well with the two centrifuges, probably because of the large range of G-ratios used in the testing. Cost of operating a commercial size bank of centrifuges is approximately $1.72 per ton of clean coal. This compares well with thermal drying, which costs $1.82 per ton of clean coal.

Kehoe, D. (CQ, Inc., Homer City, PA (United States))

1992-12-01

338

Acoustic emission strand burning technique for motor burning rate prediction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An acoustic emission (AE) method is being used to measure the burning rate of solid propellant strands. This method has a precision of 0.5% and excellent burning rate correlation with both subscale and large rocket motors. The AE procedure burns the sample under water and measures the burning rate from the acoustic output. The acoustic signal provides a continuous readout during testing, which allows complete data analysis rather than the start-stop clockwires used by the conventional method. The AE method helps eliminate such problems as inhibiting the sample, pressure increase and temperature rise, during testing.

Christensen, W. N.

1978-01-01

339

Evaluation of pitches and cokes from solvent-extracted coal materials  

SciTech Connect

Three initial coal-extracted (C-E) samples were received from the West Virginia University (WVU) Chemical Engineering Department. Two samples had been hydrogenated to obtain pitches that satisfy Theological requirements. One of the hydrogenated (HC-E) samples had been extracted by toluene to remove ash and higher molecular weight aromatic compounds. We were unable to measure the softening point and viscosity of the non-hydro treated solid extract sample, Positive characteristics in the HC-E materials were softening points of 113-119{degrees}C, low sulfur and ash. The oxygen and nitrogen content of the HC-E samples may limit future usage in premium carbon and graphite products. Coking values were similar to petroleum pitches. Laboratory anode testing indicates that in combination with standard coal-tar pitch, the HC-E material can be used as a binder pitch.

McHenry, E.R.

1996-12-01

340

Efficiency of coal use, electricity for EVs versus synfuels for ICEs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data are presented to show how electric vehicles will travel approximately twice as far per ton of coal burned to produce electricity for EV propulsion, than will an ICE vehicle burning the synfuel produced from an equal amount of coal. These figures are based on pessimistic calculations of the efficiencies of electricity generation, transmission, battery charging and EV drivetrains. The synfuel calculations are based on optimistic upper limits of coal conversion efficiency and ICE systems' efficiencies. EVs are less harmful to the environment than conventional vehicles. The emissions from coal-burning power plants are more readily controlled than the pollutants from refineries that convert coal to synfuel. The emissions from EVs are negligible, whereas those from ICEs still have not been reduced to the levels originally mandated for 1976. Synfuels should be reserved mainly for those applications for which electricity is impractical or impossible, such as planes, long-haul trucks and buses, and the petrochemical industry.

Mueller, H. G.; Wouk, V.

1980-02-01

341

Clothing burns in Canadian children  

PubMed Central

A Canadian survey of 11 tertiary care pediatric centres with specialized burn facilities revealed that an estimated 37 children up to 9 years of age are admitted annually to such hospitals because of clothing burns. Sleepwear accounts for an estimated 21 such burns per year. Girls were found to suffer the most severe burns and represented eight of the nine children in the series who died. Loose and flowing garments dominated the girls' styles. The results of multiple-regression analysis confirmed that style of clothing (loose and flowing as opposed to snug) was the most significant predictor of burn severity, length of hospital stay, the need for skin grafting and survival. The ignition situation (avoidance of parental supervision at the time of injury) was the only other important predictor. The success of regulatory actions in other countries in reducing the incidence of severe clothing burns is reviewed, and preventive strategies for Canada are explored. ImagesFig. 2 PMID:3995433

Stanwick, Richard S.

1985-01-01

342

CAD tool for burn diagnosis.  

PubMed

In this paper a new system for burn diagnosis is proposed. The aim of the system is to separate burn wounds from healthy skin, and the different types of burns (burn depths) from each other, identifying each one. The system is based on the colour and texture information, as these are the characteristics observed by physicians in order to give a diagnosis. We use a perceptually uniform colour space (L*u*v*), since Euclidean distances calculated in this space correspond to perceptually colour differences. After the burn is segmented, some colour and texture descriptors are calculated and they are the inputs to a Fuzzy-ARTMAP neural network. The neural network classifies them into three types of bums: superficial dermal, deep dermal and full thickness. Clinical effectiveness of the method was demonstrated on 62 clinical burn wound images obtained from digital colour photographs, yielding an average classification success rate of 82% compared to expert classified images. PMID:15344466

Acha, Begoa; Serrano, Carmen; Acha, Jos I; Roa, Laura M

2003-07-01

343

Curbing Inflammation in Burn Patients  

PubMed Central

Patients who suffer from severe burns develop metabolic imbalances and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) which can result in multiple organ failure and death. Research aimed at reducing the inflammatory process has yielded new insight into burn injury therapies. In this review, we discuss strategies used to curb inflammation in burn injuries and note that further studies with high quality evidence are necessary. PMID:23762773

Farina, Jayme A.; Rosique, Marina Junqueira; Rosique, Rodrigo G.

2013-01-01

344

Genital burns and vaginal delivery.  

PubMed

Obstetric complications may result from burn scarring in the genital area. Women in developing countries typically squat around cooking fires, and burns are common. This recent case in Nepal describes obstructed labor in a young woman whose genital area had extensive scarring from a cooking fire injury. Proper antenatal assessment by health care providers can reduce the risk to mothers and infants of the consequences of a birth canal damaged or obstructed by burn scarring. PMID:7556863

Pant, R; Manandhar, V; Wittgenstein, F; Fortney, J A; Fukushima, C

1995-07-01

345

Fire in the hole - Paging in mines from Pennsylvania to China, coal fires threaten towns, poison air and water, and add to global warming  

SciTech Connect

China has the most coal fires, but India has the largest concentration of them. The effect of coal fires on the once thriving town of Centralia, Pennsylvania is described. There have been eight attempts to put the fire out using different methods (it has been burning for 43 years), but has now been left to burn. It could burn for another 205 years. The population of the town have mostly been relocated.

Krajick, K.

2005-05-01

346

Impact of solid discharges from coal usage in the Southwest.  

PubMed

The Southwestern region of the United States is extremely wealthy in low sulfur coal resources which must be eventually utilized in response to national energy balance priorities. Fly ash and scrubber sludge can be safely disposed of using properly managed techniques to ensure that any potential impact from elements such as boron, molybdenum, or selenium is rendered insignificant. Alternative methods of solids utilization are presently being developed. Fly ash is presently being marketed commercially as an additive for concrete manufacture. Successful experiments have been completed to demonstrate the manufacture of commercial-grade wallboard from scrubber sludge. Also, greenhouse studies and field experiments have been conducted to demonstrate increased yields of selected crops grown on typical soils amended with fly ash in amounts ranging from 2% to 8%, by weight. These studies also indicate that barium and strontium may be good monitoring indices for determining atmospheric deposition of fly ash, due to their concentration ratios in soil and vegetation samples. Further studies are being conducted to confirm encouraging irrigation and crop-yield data obtained with fly ash amended soils. Finally, the composition of many fly ashes and soils are similar in the Southwest, and there are no anticipated solid discharges from coal usage which cannot be rendered insignificant with proper management of existing and emerging methods of treatment. Compared with the water availability impact of coal usage in the Southwest, the impact of solid waste discharges are insignificant. PMID:738243

Jones, D G; Straughan, I R

1978-12-01

347

Impact of solid discharges from coal usage in the southwest  

PubMed Central

The Southwestern region of the United States is extremely wealthy in low sulfur coal resources which must be eventually utilized in response to national energy balance priorities. Fly ash and scrubber sludge can be safely disposed of using properly managed techniques to ensure that any potential impact from elements such as boron, molybdenum, or selenium is rendered insignificant. Alternative methods of solids utilization are presently being developed. Fly ash is presently being marketed commercially as an additive for concrete manufacture. Successful experiments have been completed to demonstrate the manufacture of commercial-grade wallboard from scrubber sludge. Also, greenhouse studies and field experiments have been conducted to demonstrate increased yields of selected crops grown on typical soils amended with fly ash in amounts ranging from 2% to 8%, by weight. These studies also indicate that barium and strontium may be good monitoring indices for determining atmospheric deposition of fly ash, due to their concentration ratios in soil and vegetation samples. Further studies are being conducted to confirm encouraging irrigation and crop-yield data obtained with fly ash amended soils. Finally, the composition of many fly ashes and soils are similar in the Southwest, and there are no anticipated solid discharges from coal usage which cannot be rendered insignificant with proper management of existing and emerging methods of treatment. Compared with the water availability impact of coal usage in the Southwest, the impact of solid waste discharges are insignificant. PMID:738243

Jones, D. G.; Straughan, I. R.

1978-01-01

348

Mulled Coal: A beneficiated coal form for use as a fuel or fuel intermediate. Technical progress report No. 4, January 1, 1991--March 31, 1991  

SciTech Connect

During the past quarter Energy International has evaluated additional mull formulations with varying reagent additives, mixing times, and particle sizes. The Environmental Review was completed and conceptual designs developed for the Mull Preparation and CWF Conversion Systems. As these technical developments move toward commercial application, the needs for coordinated efforts and integrated requirements have become increasingly apparent. Systems are vitally needed to integrate energy delivery systems from the raw resource through processing to application and end use. Problems have been encountered in the preparation of conventional coal-water fuels that mutually satisfy the requirements for storage stability, handling, preparation, atomization, combustion, and economics. Experience has been slow in evolving generic technologies or products and coal-specific requirements and specifications continue to dominate the development. Thus, prospects for commercialization remain highly specific to the coal, the processor, and the end use. Developments in advanced beneficiation of coal to meet stringent requirements for low ash and low sulfur can be anticipated to further complicate the problem areas. This is attributable to the beneficiated coal being produced in very fine particles with a high surface area, modified surface characteristics, reduced particle size distribution range, and high inherent moisture.

Not Available

1991-09-01

349

Burning Fuel Droplet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fuel ignites and burns in the Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE) on STS-94 on July 4 1997, MET:2/05:40 (approximate). The DCE was designed to investigate the fundamental combustion aspects of single, isolated droplets under different pressures and ambient oxygen concentrations for a range of droplet sizes varying between 2 and 5 mm. DCE used various fuels -- in drops ranging from 1 mm (0.04 inches) to 5 mm (0.2 inches) -- and mixtures of oxidizers and inert gases to learn more about the physics of combustion in the simplest burning configuration, a sphere. The experiment elapsed time is shown at the bottom of the composite image. The DCE principal investigator was Forman Williams, University of California, San Diego. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations plarned for the International Space Station. (121KB JPEG, 654 x 977 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) The MPG from which this composite was made is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300169.html.

2003-01-01

350

Burns: Treatment and Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Burns can cause extensive and devastating injuries of the head and neck. Prevention of the initial injury must always be a priority, but once an injury has occurred, then prevention of progression of the damage together with survival of the patient must be the immediate goals. The acute care will have a major influence on the subsequent scarring, reconstructive need, and long-term outcome. In the majority of cases, the reconstruction will involve restoration of form and function to the soft tissues, and the methods used will depend very much on the extent of scarring locally and elsewhere in the body. In nearly all cases, a significant improvement in functional and aesthetic outcomes can be achieved, which, in conjunction with intensive psychosocial rehabilitation, can lead to high-quality patient outcomes. With the prospect of facial transplantation being a clinical reality, the reconstructive spectrum has opened up even further, and, with appropriate reconstruction and support, no patient should be left economically deprived or socially isolated after a burn injury. PMID:22550448

Burd, Andrew

2010-01-01

351

Coal as an abundant source of graphene quantum dots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coal is the most abundant and readily combustible energy resource being used worldwide. However, its structural characteristic creates a perception that coal is only useful for producing energy via burning. Here we report a facile approach to synthesize tunable graphene quantum dots from various types of coal, and establish that the unique coal structure has an advantage over pure sp2-carbon allotropes for producing quantum dots. The crystalline carbon within the coal structure is easier to oxidatively displace than when pure sp2-carbon structures are used, resulting in nanometre-sized graphene quantum dots with amorphous carbon addends on the edges. The synthesized graphene quantum dots, produced in up to 20% isolated yield from coal, are soluble and fluorescent in aqueous solution, providing promise for applications in areas such as bioimaging, biomedicine, photovoltaics and optoelectronics, in addition to being inexpensive additives for structural composites.

Ye, Ruquan; Xiang, Changsheng; Lin, Jian; Peng, Zhiwei; Huang, Kewei; Yan, Zheng; Cook, Nathan P.; Samuel, Errol L. G.; Hwang, Chih-Chau; Ruan, Gedeng; Ceriotti, Gabriel; Raji, Abdul-Rahman O.; Mart, Angel A.; Tour, James M.

2013-12-01

352

Coal as an abundant source of graphene quantum dots.  

PubMed

Coal is the most abundant and readily combustible energy resource being used worldwide. However, its structural characteristic creates a perception that coal is only useful for producing energy via burning. Here we report a facile approach to synthesize tunable graphene quantum dots from various types of coal, and establish that the unique coal structure has an advantage over pure sp2-carbon allotropes for producing quantum dots. The crystalline carbon within the coal structure is easier to oxidatively displace than when pure sp2-carbon structures are used, resulting in nanometre-sized graphene quantum dots with amorphous carbon addends on the edges. The synthesized graphene quantum dots, produced in up to 20% isolated yield from coal, are soluble and fluorescent in aqueous solution, providing promise for applications in areas such as bioimaging, biomedicine, photovoltaics and optoelectronics, in addition to being inexpensive additives for structural composites. PMID:24309588

Ye, Ruquan; Xiang, Changsheng; Lin, Jian; Peng, Zhiwei; Huang, Kewei; Yan, Zheng; Cook, Nathan P; Samuel, Errol L G; Hwang, Chih-Chau; Ruan, Gedeng; Ceriotti, Gabriel; Raji, Abdul-Rahman O; Mart, Angel A; Tour, James M

2013-01-01

353

Global Burned Area and Biomass Burning Emissions from Small Fires  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In several biomes, including croplands, wooded savannas, and tropical forests, many small fires occur each year that are well below the detection limit of the current generation of global burned area products derived from moderate resolution surface reflectance imagery. Although these fires often generate thermal anomalies that can be detected by satellites, their contributions to burned area and carbon fluxes have not been systematically quantified across different regions and continents. Here we developed a preliminary method for combining 1-km thermal anomalies (active fires) and 500 m burned area observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to estimate the influence of these fires. In our approach, we calculated the number of active fires inside and outside of 500 m burn scars derived from reflectance data. We estimated small fire burned area by computing the difference normalized burn ratio (dNBR) for these two sets of active fires and then combining these observations with other information. In a final step, we used the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3) biogeochemical model to estimate the impact of these fires on biomass burning emissions. We found that the spatial distribution of active fires and 500 m burned areas were in close agreement in ecosystems that experience large fires, including savannas across southern Africa and Australia and boreal forests in North America and Eurasia. In other areas, however, we observed many active fires outside of burned area perimeters. Fire radiative power was lower for this class of active fires. Small fires substantially increased burned area in several continental-scale regions, including Equatorial Asia (157%), Central America (143%), and Southeast Asia (90%) during 2001-2010. Globally, accounting for small fires increased total burned area by approximately by 35%, from 345 Mha/yr to 464 Mha/yr. A formal quantification of uncertainties was not possible, but sensitivity analyses of key model parameters caused estimates of global burned area increases from small fires to vary between 24% and 54%. Biomass burning carbon emissions increased by 35% at a global scale when small fires were included in GFED3, from 1.9 Pg C/yr to 2.5 Pg C/yr. The contribution of tropical forest fires to year-to-year variability in carbon fluxes increased because small fires amplified emissions from Central America, South America and Southeast Asia-regions where drought stress and burned area varied considerably from year to year in response to El Nino-Southern Oscillation and other climate modes.

Randerson, J. T.; Chen, Y.; vanderWerf, G. R.; Rogers, B. M.; Morton, D. C.

2012-01-01

354

Global burned area and biomass burning emissions from small fires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In several biomes, including croplands, wooded savannas, and tropical forests, many small fires occur each year that are well below the detection limit of the current generation of global burned area products derived from moderate resolution surface reflectance imagery. Although these fires often generate thermal anomalies that can be detected by satellites, their contributions to burned area and carbon fluxes have not been systematically quantified across different regions and continents. Here we developed a preliminary method for combining 1-km thermal anomalies (active fires) and 500 m burned area observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to estimate the influence of these fires. In our approach, we calculated the number of active fires inside and outside of 500 m burn scars derived from reflectance data. We estimated small fire burned area by computing the difference normalized burn ratio (dNBR) for these two sets of active fires and then combining these observations with other information. In a final step, we used the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3) biogeochemical model to estimate the impact of these fires on biomass burning emissions. We found that the spatial distribution of active fires and 500 m burned areas were in close agreement in ecosystems that experience large fires, including savannas across southern Africa and Australia and boreal forests in North America and Eurasia. In other areas, however, we observed many active fires outside of burned area perimeters. Fire radiative power was lower for this class of active fires. Small fires substantially increased burned area in several continental-scale regions, including Equatorial Asia (157%), Central America (143%), and Southeast Asia (90%) during 2001-2010. Globally, accounting for small fires increased total burned area by approximately by 35%, from 345 Mha/yr to 464 Mha/yr. A formal quantification of uncertainties was not possible, but sensitivity analyses of key model parameters caused estimates of global burned area increases from small fires to vary between 24% and 54%. Biomass burning carbon emissions increased by 35% at a global scale when small fires were included in GFED3, from 1.9 Pg C/yr to 2.5 Pg C/yr. The contribution of tropical forest fires to year-to-year variability in carbon fluxes increased because small fires amplified emissions from Central America, South America and Southeast Asiaregions where drought stress and burned area varied considerably from year to year in response to El Nino-Southern Oscillation and other climate modes.

Randerson, J. T.; Chen, Y.; van der Werf, G. R.; Rogers, B. M.; Morton, D. C.

2012-12-01

355

Beach and campfire burns: a site of pleasure and tragedy.  

PubMed

Seasonal use of campground bonfires and beach fire pits is a common practice. A sense of fellowship is derived from this experience. Unfortunately, many people are injured by these fires. It was the objective of this study to quantify and better identify those factors that lead to these injuries. A retrospective review of patients injured from a beach or campground, fire pits, or bonfires was conducted using data from a regional burn registry (1999-2007). Patients sustaining burns serious enough to merit admission were included in this study. Demographic information, circumstances surrounding the injury events, size and location of burn, operative procedures, length of stay, and outcomes were analyzed. There were 3083 patients admitted to the burn center of which 241 met criteria for inclusion in this study. Each year, between 12 and 39 patients were injured by this mechanism; 84% were men. Ages fell into two discrete groups; young age (2-9 years) and adults (18-64 years). Alcohol was a contributing factor in 60.6% of adult burns. The areas of burn, by location and rank order include upper extremities (35.3% of patients), thorax/abdomen/buttocks (32.8%), lower extremities (30.7%), and hands (29.5%). The mean TBSA was 6.1% (1-100%). Approximately 80.7% of the patients sustained combination partial- and full-thickness burns whereas, 4.2% were only partial and 5.1% only full-thickness burns; 36.6% of the patients required skin grafting. The mean length of stay was 8.6 days. There were four fatalities including one suicide. Burn injuries from recreational bonfires remain a problem in our community. Beaches were the most common location for these injuries. Universal safeguards to prevent burn injury should be implemented, including designated areas for fires, protective mechanical barriers to keep children and adults from inadvertently walking or falling into the fire pit. Disposal areas for hot coals from fires or charcoal grills must be furnished and usage strictly enforced. Consideration of the elimination of free-standing beach bonfires should be considered. PMID:20061854

Fraga, Andrea M A; Fraga, Gustavo P; Noordenbos, John; Tenenhaus, Mayer; Castle, Shanon; Bhavsar, Dhaval; Lee, Jeanne G; Coimbra, Raul; Potenza, Bruce M

2010-01-01

356

Coal combustion products 2007 production and use report  

SciTech Connect

The American Coal Ash Association's 2007 Annual Coal Combustion Products (CCP) are derived from data from more than 170 power plants. The amount of CCPs used was 40.55%, a decrease of 2.88% from 2006, attributed to reduced fuel burn and a decrease in demand in the building industry. Figures are given for the production of fly ash, flue gas desulfurization gypsum, bottom ash, FBC ash and boiler slag. The article summarises results of the survey. 1 ref., 1 tab.

NONE

2009-07-01

357

Burn Teams and Burn Centers: The Importance of a Comprehensive Team Approach to Burn Care  

PubMed Central

Synopsis Advances in burn care have been colossal, but while extra work is needed, it is clear that the organized effort of burn teams can continue making improvements in survival rates and quality of life possible for patients. Burn patients are unique, representing the most severe model of trauma,33 and hence this necessitates treatment in the best facilities available for that endeavor. Burn centers have developed to meet these intricate needs but can only function productively and most efficiently through well organized, multifaceted, patient-centered teams in areas of clinical care and research. PMID:19793550

Al-Mousawi, Ahmed M.; Mecott-Rivera, Gabriel A.; Jeschke, Marc G.; Herndon, David N.

2009-01-01

358

Smoke hazards from burning plastics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smoke hazards to people and property from unwanted fires have attracted increasing attention. The use of plastics in construction, furnishings, clothing, and recreational and transportation equipment has increased. Actual fire experiences indicate that organic materials, whether natural or man-made, will burn; those with large surface areas such as films, fabrics, or foams will ignite readily and burn rapidly. Addition of

J. R. Gaskill

1974-01-01

359

[Psychological support to burn patients].  

PubMed

Severe burns and their treatment are among the most painful experiences a person can have. Emotional needs of burn patients have long been overshadowed by the focus on survival. Today, when the survival rate is much higher than in the past, the need of psychological and psychosocial engagement in working with victims of severe burns has emerged. A patient undergoing various stages of adjustment is faced with emotional challenges that accompany physical recovery. Adapting to burn injury involves a complex interplay between patient characteristics before the occurrence of burn, environmental factors, and the nature of the burns and medical care required. Adaptation implies adoption of new ideas about themselves and their body, new body image and new self image. Psychiatric and psychological treatment must be incorporated in burn treatment centers within a multidisciplinary treatment team. Psychology and psychotherapy should address the problem of loss, grief, acceptance of body image and self image, in terms of psychiatric conditions of delirium, acute stress disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, depression and other psychiatric disorders. Technical assistance and support should be provided to the patient family members. In some cases, psychosocial treatment never ends; it takes years, later related to rehabilitated burns. PMID:25326989

Vlastelica, Mirela

2014-10-01

360

Burning mouth syndrome: An update  

Microsoft Academic Search

Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) refers to chronic orofacial pain, unaccompanied by mucosal lesions or other evident clinical signs. It is observed principally in middle-aged patients and postmenopausal women. BMS is characterized by an intense burning or stinging sensation, preferably on the tongue or in other areas of the oral mucosa. It can be accompanied by other sensory disorders such as

P. Lopez-Jornet; Fabio Camacho-Alonso; Paz Andujar-Mateos; Mariano Sanchez-Siles; F. Gomez-Garcia

2010-01-01

361

Biomass Burning over South America  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Biomass burning is the burning of living and dead vegetation. It includes the human-initiated burning of vegetation for land clearing and land-use change as well as natural, lightning-induced fires. Scientists estimate that humans are responsible for about 90% of biomass burning with only a small percentage of natural fires contributing to the total amount of vegetation burned. Burning vegetation releases large amounts of particulates (solid carbon combustion particles) and gases, including greenhouse gases that help warm the Earth. Studies suggest that biomass burning has increased on a global scale over the last 100 years, and computer calculations indicate that a hotter Earth resulting from global warming will lead to more frequent and larger fires. Biomass burning particulates impact climate and can also affect human health when they are inhaled, causing respiratory problems. Here are three images of South America on October 7, 2004. The first image is shows clouds and fires on that day. The second image is clouds and Nitrous Dioxide (NO2) concentations in the stratosphere. The last image overlays the fires on the NO2 data.

Perkins, Lori; Shirah, Greg; Hilsenrath, Ernest; Schoeberl, Mark; Veefkind, Pepijn

2004-12-09

362

Animal models in burn research.  

PubMed

Burn injury is a severe form of trauma affecting more than 2 million people in North America each year. Burn trauma is not a single pathophysiological event but a devastating injury that causes structural and functional deficits in numerous organ systems. Due to its complexity and the involvement of multiple organs, in vitro experiments cannot capture this complexity nor address the pathophysiology. In the past two decades, a number of burn animal models have been developed to replicate the various aspects of burn injury, to elucidate the pathophysiology, and to explore potential treatment interventions. Understanding the advantages and limitations of these animal models is essential for the design and development of treatments that are clinically relevant to humans. This review aims to highlight the common animal models of burn injury in order to provide investigators with a better understanding of the benefits and limitations of these models for translational applications. While many animal models of burn exist, we limit our discussion to the skin healing of mouse, rat, and pig. Additionally, we briefly explain hypermetabolic characteristics of burn injury and the animal model utilized to study this phenomena. Finally, we discuss the economic costs associated with each of these models in order to guide decisions of choosing the appropriate animal model for burn research. PMID:24714880

Abdullahi, A; Amini-Nik, S; Jeschke, M G

2014-09-01

363

Genital burns and vaginal delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obstetric complications may result from burn scarring in the genital area. Women in developing countries typically squat around cooking fires, and burns are common. This recent case in Nepal describes obstructed labor in a young woman whose genital area had extensive scarring from a cooking fire injury. Proper antenatal assessment by health care providers can reduce the risk to mothers

R. Pant; V. Manandhar; F. Wittgenstein; J. A. Fortney; C. Fukushima

1995-01-01

364

The treatment of hand burns  

Microsoft Academic Search

In more than 80% of all burns, the hand is involved. Even if a burned hand does not play a major role for the survival of a patient, its function and aesthetic appearance are of utmost importance for the re-integration into society and professional life. Adequate treatment demands a number of major decisions: necessity of an escharotomy in the early

Lars-Peter Kamolz; Hugo B. Kitzinger; Birgit Karle; Manfred Frey

2009-01-01

365

[Burns in an aeronautic environment].  

PubMed

Following an examination of the aetiology of burns in aeronautic environments, the physiopathology, classification and general and local treatment of the burn case is discussed. Special mention is then made of aircraft as an extremely useful means of transport. PMID:114895

Rigotti, G

1979-10-27

366

Abatement of mercury emissions in the coal combustion process equipped with a Fabric Filter Baghouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the dependence of mercury emissions on coal ranks and electric utility boilers equipped with Fabric Filter Baghouses (FF). A comparison of mercury emission rates and fly ash properties was made between a circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor (CFBC) with FF and a Pulverized Coal (PC) combustor with FF during the burning of all

Yan Cao; Chin-Min Cheng; Chien-Wei Chen; Mingchong Liu; Chiawei Wang; Wei-Ping Pan

2008-01-01

367

CONTROL OF CRITERIA AND NON-CRITERIA POLLUTANTS FROM COAL/OIL MIXTURE COMBUSTION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes the existing data base on NOx, SO2, and particulate emissions from combustion sources burning coal/oil mixtures (COMs). The need for the U.S. to reduce its dependence on oil and expand its use of coal has prompted a number of industrial and utility energy pr...

368

Online Particle Size And Concentration Measurement In A Pressurized Coal Combustion Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energy industry has to face the demand for highly efficient coal combustion power plants in order to minimize the CO emissions. Efforts are made in new combustion processes, where coal powder is burned at a temperature of 1400 C and a pressure of 16 bars. The hot flue gas is used for a combined gas and steam turbine process.

A. Schiel; H. Umhauer; G. Kasper; W. Christmann

2002-01-01

369

INFLUENCE OF COAL COMPOSITION ON THE FATE OF VOLATILE AND CHAR NITROGEN DURING COMBUSTION  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of burning 50 coals from North America, Europe, Asia, South Africa, and Australia in a 21 kWt refactory-lined tunnel furnace to determine the influence of coal properties on the fate of volatile and char nitrogen. Excess-air fuel NO emissions (determined b...

370

Energy Recycling by Co-Combustion of Coal and Recovered Paint Solids from Automobile Paint Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were carried out in a pilot-scale pulverized coal combustor at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) burning a Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. A scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and an electrical low-pressure impactor (ELPI) were used to measure the particle size distributions (PSDs) in the range of 17 nm to 10 ?m at the inlet and

Ying Li; Achariya Suriyawong; Michael Daukoru; Ye Zhuang; Pratim Biswas

2009-01-01

371

Development of a Software System to Facilitate Implementation of Coal and Wood Co-Fired Bilers  

E-print Network

Coal and wood co-fired boiler technology has improved significantly over the years. The term "co-firing", when used by members of the biomass or utility communities, has come to mean mixing a modest amount of clean, dry sawdust with coal and burning...

Gopalakrishnan, B.; Gump, C. D.; Gupta, D. P.; Chaudhari, S.

2013-01-01

372

BLAST FURNACE GRANULAR COAL INJECTION SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC) requested financial assistance from the Department of Energy (DOE), for the design, construction and operation of a 2,800-ton-per-day blast furnace granulated coal injection (BFGCI) system for two existing iron-making blast furnaces. The blast furnaces are located at BSC's facilities in Burns Harbor, Indiana. The demonstration project proposal was selected by the DOE and awarded to Bethlehem

1999-01-01

373

Coal-gasification/MHD/steam-turbine combined-cycle (GMS) power generation  

SciTech Connect

The coal-gasification/MHD/steam-turbine combined cycle (GMS) refers to magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) systems in which coal gasification is used to supply a clean fuel (free of mineral matter and sulfur) for combustion in an MHD electrical power plant. Advantages of a clean-fuel system include the elimination of mineral matter or slag from all components other than the coal gasifier and gas cleanup system; reduced wear and corrosion on components; and increased seed recovery resulting from reduced exposure of seed to mineral matter or slag. Efficiencies in some specific GMS power plants are shown to be higher than for a comparably sized coal-burning MHD power plant. The use of energy from the MHD exhaust gas to gasify coal (rather than the typical approach of burning part of the coal) results in these higher efficiencies.

Lytle, J.M.; Marchant, D.D.

1980-11-01

374

Blast furnace granular coal injection project. Annual report, January--December 1993  

SciTech Connect

This initial annual report describes the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection project being implemented at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s (BSC) Burns Harbor, Indiana, plant. This installation will be the first in the United States to employ British Steel technology that uses granular coal to provide part of the fuel requirement of blast furnaces. The project will demonstrate/assess a broad range of technical/economic issues associated with the use of coal for this purpose. These include: coal grind size, coal injection rate, coal source (type) and blast furnace conversion method. Preliminary Design (Phase 1) began in 1991 with detailed design commencing in 1993. Construction at Burns Harbor (Phase 2) began in August 1993. Construction is expected to complete in the first quarter of 1995 which will be followed by the demonstration test program (Phase 3). Progress is described.

Not Available

1994-06-01

375

Coal gasification: Kellogg's coal gasification process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gasification of coal in a bath of molten sodium carbonate through which ; steam is passed is the basis of the Kellogg Coal Gasification process. The bath ; of moiten salt strongly catalyzes the basic steam- coal reaction permi tting ; essentially complete gasificntion of coal at reduced temperature. The molten ; salt can be used to supply heat to

W. C. Schreiner; G. T. Skaperdas

1973-01-01

376

An understanding of lump coal physical property behaviour (density and particle size effects) impacting on a commercial-scale Sasol-Lurgi FBDB gasifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal processes which utilize coarse coal, such as fixed-bed gasification and chain grate stoker boilers, are dependant on a stable particle size for stable operation. During coarse coal utilization, thermal fragmentation of lump coal (upon heating) produces hydrodynamic effects (pressure drop fluctuations) manifesting itself in a variety of ways, and include: channel-burning and solids elutriation. Primary thermal fragmentation occurring in

J. R. Bunt; F. B. Waanders

2008-01-01

377

Treatment of Eyelid Deformities Due to Burns.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Neglected periocular burns may result in conjunctivitis, ectropion, and corneal ulceration in surviving burned patients. Early recognition of the problems associated with burns of the eyelids and conjunctiva, and the institution of proper therapy, may ave...

H. D. Peterson, P. Silverstein

1972-01-01

378

Supply curves for using powder river basin coal to reduce sulfur emissions.  

PubMed

Supply curves were prepared for coal-fired power plants in the contiguous United States switching to Wyoming's Powder River Basin (PRB) low-sulfur coal. Up to 625 plants, representing approximately 44% of the nameplate capacity of all coal-fired plants, could switch. If all switched, more than dollars 8.8 billion additional capital would be required and the cost of electricity would increase by up to dollars 5.9 billion per year, depending on levels of plant derating. Coal switching would result in sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions reduction of 4.5 million t/yr. Increase in cost of electricity would be in the range of 0.31-0.73 cents per kilowatt-hour. Average cost of S emissions reduction could be as high as dollars 1298 per t of SO2. Up to 367 plants, or 59% of selected plants with 32% of 44% nameplate capacity, could have marginal cost in excess of dollars 1000 per t of SO2. Up to 73 plants would appear to benefit from both a lowering of the annual cost and a lowering of SO2 emissions by switching to the PRB coal. PMID:15242153

Malvadkar, Shreekant B; Smith, Dennis; McGurl, Gilbert V

2004-06-01

379

The hair color-highlighting burn: a unique burn injury.  

PubMed

A unique, preventable, 2.8 x 3.7-cm, full-thickness scalp burn resulted after a woman underwent a professional color-highlighting procedure at a hair salon. The burn appeared to result from scalp contact with aluminum foil that had been overheated by a hair dryer during the procedure. The wound required debridement and skin grafting and 3 subsequent serial excisions to eliminate the resulting area of burn scar alopecia. The preventive aspects of this injury are discussed. PMID:10752740

Peters, W

2000-01-01

380

Coal desulfurization in a rotary kiln combustor  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the combustion of coal and coal wastes in a rotary kiln reactor with limestone addition for sulfur control. The rationale for the project was the perception that rotary systems could bring several advantages to combustion of these fuels, and may thus offer an alternative to fluid-bed boilers. Towards this end, an existing wood pyrolysis kiln (the Humphrey Charcoal kiln) was to be suitably refurbished and retrofitted with a specially designed version of a patented air distributor provided by Universal Energy, Inc. (UEI). As the project progressed beyond the initial stages, a number of issues were raised regarding the feasibility and the possible advantages of burning coals in a rotary kiln combustor and, in particular, the suitability of the Humphrey Charcoal kiln as a combustor. Instead, an opportunity arose to conduct combustion tests in the PEDCO Rotary Cascading-Bed Boiler (RCBB) commercial demonstration unit at the North American Rayon CO. (NARCO) in Elizabethton, TN. The tests focused on anthracite culm and had two objectives: (a) determine the feasibility of burning anthracite culms in a rotary kiln boiler and (b) obtain input for any further work involving the Humphrey Charcoal kiln combustor. A number of tests were conducted at the PEDCO unit. The last one was conducted on anthracite culm procured directly from the feed bin of a commercial circulating fluid-bed boiler. The results were disappointing; it was difficult to maintain sustained combustion even when large quantities of supplemental fuel were used. Combustion efficiency was poor, around 60 percent. The results suggest that the rotary kiln boiler, as designed, is ill-suited with respect to low-grade, hard to burn solid fuels, such as anthracite culm. Indeed, data from combustion of bituminous coal in the PEDCO unit suggest that with respect to coal in general, the rotary kiln boiler appears inferior to the circulating fluid bed boiler.

Cobb, J.T. Jr.

1992-09-11

381

Identification and emission rates of molecular tracers in coal smoke particulate matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abundances and distributions of organic constituents in coal smoke particulate matter are dependent on thermal combustion temperature, ventilation, burn time, and coal rank (geologic maturity). Important coal rank indicators from smoke include (1) the decreases in CPIs of n-alkanoic acids, UCM and phenolic compounds with increasing rank, and (2) the increase in the homohopane index [S\\/(S+R)] with increasing rank.

D. R. Oros; B. R. T. Simoneit

2000-01-01

382

Novel Mercury Oxidant and Sorbent for Mercury Emissions Control from Coal-fired Power Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors have successfully developed novel efficient and cost-effective sorbent and oxidant for removing mercury from power\\u000a plant flue gases. These sorbent and oxidant offer great promise for controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants\\u000a burning a wide range of coals including bituminous, sub-bituminous, and lignite coals. A preliminary analysis from the bench-scale\\u000a test results shows that this new sorbent

Joo-Youp Lee; Yuhong Ju; Sang-Sup Lee; Tim C. Keener; Rajender S. Varma

2008-01-01

383

Removal of sulfur and HAPs from coal using water extraction  

SciTech Connect

To date, no economically feasible process for organic sulfur and hazardous air pollutant (HAP) precursor removal from coal has been developed. However, a hydrothermal method based on supercritical water extraction techniques developed at the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (UNDEERC) with support from the Illinois Clean Coal Institute (ICCI), USDOE and the Center for Air Toxic Metals (CATM) has shown promise. Analytical (milligram) scale supercritical water extraction of sulfur from Illinois high sulfur bituminous coals were used to evaluate the sulfur and HAPs removal effectiveness of the process. Multigram extractions were used to establish effective conditions, and the multi-kilogram pilot scale extraction provided evidence of the scale-up potential of the technology. Tests at the multigram scale resulted in production of low sulfur (as low as 0.5% S, mf) coal solids, first, at supercritical conditions, e.g., 450 C and 400 atm (5,880 psig), then at conditions below the critical pressure, e.g., 420 C and 156 atm (2,300 psig). Even milder conditions of 400 C and 156 atm (2,300 psig) resulted in sulfur values of 0.8% S. IBC-102 containing 3.1% S was extracted with supercritical water resulting in a sulfur value of 0.7 wt% in the recovered solids. Extraction of IBC-102 at subcritical pressure of 420 C and 156 atm (2,300 psi) resulted in a sulfur content of 0.49%. The tar obtained from extracted coal had sulfur values ranging from 1.4 wt% to 6.5 wt%, but when treated by catalytic desulfurization, was quantitatively recovered with a sulfur value of 0.6 wt%. Selected HAP (Se, Hg, Cd, Cl) removal from IBC coals resulted in decreases of as much as 57% of the Se, 99% of Hg, 85% of As, and 73% of Cl in coal solids, but was determined to be coal dependent. Freshly mined coals were also tested and gave similar results. In later tests emphasis was on hydrothermal treatment of physically cleaned coal. Batch testing on the pilot scale, which consisted of hydrothermal treatment of physically cleaned freshly mined Illinois coal followed by on-line catalytic desulfurization of the tar, resulted in a reconstituted product which was easily briquetted. Analysis showed the briquettes to have 1.6% S (1.2% organic sulfur), 3.7% ash and a heating value of 14,475 Btu/lb. The focus of the economic evaluation has been primarily on the coal cleaning. The cost effectiveness of conventional coal cleaning, froth flotation, selective agglomeration, and hydrothermal treatment have been preliminarily compared. The primary cost of coal cleaning incurred by the utility company is an incremental increase in the price of fuel. This can range from $2 to over $30 per ton of coal. Coal cleaning, however, also offers a number of benefits to the utility in the form of lower SO{sub 2} emissions, lower operating and maintenance costs resulting from reduced ash content, and lower waste disposal costs. Of the advanced coal cleaning methods, the hydrothermal treatment shows the most promise, both in terms of achievable mercury levels, and in cost. Taking a credit of $100/ton SO{sub 2} removed, the cost of mercury removal ranged from $40,000 to $84,000/lb Hg removed. This is within the range of costs of $4,920 to $70,000/lb Hg removed presented by EPA in its recent report to congress as the projected cost of mercury control in utility applications. Future work at the EERC will focus on optimizing the hydrothermal treatment process and developing more accurate cost estimates.

Timpe, R.; Mann, M. [Energy and Environmental Research Center (United States); Ho, K. [Illinois Clean Coal Inst., IL (United States)

1998-12-31

384

Effects of rank and calcium catalysis on oxygen chemisorption and gasification reactivity of coal chars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of coal rank and calcium catalysis on oxygen gasification of coal chars have been investigated. Five different coals, from lignite to anthracite were used. Coals were demineralized and a calcium catalyst was deposited on the carbon in different amounts, by ion exchange for lignite and subbituminous coals and by impregnation for the others. Chars from all coals were obtained by both slow and rapid pyrolysis. Oxygen chemisorption studies conducted under conditions far away from gasification and measured oxygen uptakes during gasification revealed that large amounts of oxygen are chemisorbed. The lower the coal rank, the greater the amount of chemisorbed oxygen in both cases. The presence of a calcium catalyst additionally increased the oxygen uptake by solid carbons. The chemisorption tests also showed the influence of diffusion inside the smallest micropores on the kinetics of the process. Reactivity profiles were investigated in detail. Demineralized coal chars showed monotonic, linear increases with burn-off for a broad range of conversion (20-80%). The higher the coal rank, the greater the reactivity increase per unit burn-off. A comparison of reactivities of the demineralized form of coal chars confirmed that the reactivity is affected by diffusion inside the smallest micropores for experiments in the intermediate temperature range, usually 700-800 K. A comparison of reactivities of the calcium-loaded and demineralized coal chars prepared and subsequently reacted at the same conditions has confirmed that the catalytic effect of calcium is the greatest for lower-rank coals, and that it decreases with increasing coal rank. Comparable reactivities for as-received and calcium-loaded lignite and subbituminous char were about two orders of magnitude greater than for a corresponding demineralized char. For higher ranks of coal the effect of calcium loading is smaller than one order of magnitude. For the lower ranks of coal, where calcium is very well dispersed, reactivity profiles are confirmed to be dominated by the catalytic effect. Based on the reactivity and oxygen chemisorption studies, it was concluded that the effect of oxygen diffusion on char reactivity is much greater for higher-rank coals than for lower-rank coals. For the lignite char the diffusion effect is only important at the beginning of gasification and it decreases with increasing burn-off. For the anthracite char it is about 3 times greater at the very low burn-offs than at 85% burn-off. In addition, for demineralized anthracite char this diffusion effect lasts longer in terms of time and conversion.

Piotrowski, Andrzej

385

Analysis of energy production systems integrated with coal pyrolysis  

SciTech Connect

Coal pyrolysis technology carried out in a circulating fluidized bed reactor, according to the method developed by the Institute for Chemical Processing of Coal, offers possibilities to significantly decrease coal consumption in both the industrial and the communal sectors of the national economy. Pyrolysis can be considered a primary process of coal conversion that in integrated systems provides high efficiency together with full environmental protection. In the communal sector, integration of pyrolysis with smokeless solid fuel manufacturing enables users to save approximately 26 to 32 % of the amount of coal used in a power plant equipped with a gas-steam combiblock. The technical solution is simple and easily adaptable in industry. The paper discusses high temperature coal degasification in a circulating fluidized bed reactor; typical data of the coal degasification process; the communal and individual coal consumers sector; general overview of the combined cycle; structure of the combined cycle integrated with a coal degasification plant; and thermodynamic parameters of the combined gas-steam cycle. Integrating pyrolysis technology with smokeless fuel production results in a new type of solid fuel for the internal energy market in Poland. Integrating pyrolysis with a power plant leads to the utilization of coal gas in a gas turbine. The second pyrolysis product, char, is burned in a circulating fluidized bed boiler.

Chmielniak, T.; Kotowicz, J. [Silesian Technical Univ., Gliwice (Poland). Institute of Power Generation Engineering; Kaczmarzyk, G.; Sciazko, M. [Institute for Chemical Processing of Coal, Zabrze (Poland)

1994-12-31

386

Burns treatment in ancient times.  

PubMed

Discovery of fire at the dawn of prehistoric time brought not only the benefits to human beings offering the light and heat, but also misfortune due to burns; and that was the beginning of burns treatment. Egyptian doctors made medicines from plants, animal products and minerals, which they combined with magic and religious procedures. The earliest records described burns dressings with milk from mothers of male babies. Goddess Isis was called upon to help. Some remedies and procedures proved so successful that their application continued for centuries. The Edwin Smith papyrus (1500 BC) mentioned the treatment of burns with honey and grease. Ebers Papyrus (1500 BC) contains descriptions of application of mud, excrement, oil and plant extracts. They also used honey, Aloe and tannic acid to heal burns. Ancient Egyptians did not know about microorganisms but they knew that honey, moldy bread and copper salts could prevent infections from dirt in burns healing. Thyme, opium and belladona were used for pain relief. In the 4th century BC, Hippocrates recorded that Greek and Roman doctors used rendered pig fat, resin and bitumen to treat burns. Mixture of honey and bran, or lotion of wine and myrrh were used by Celsus. Honey was also known in Ayurveda (Indian medicine) time. Ayurvedic records Characa and Sushruta included honey in their dressing aids to purify sores and promote the healing. Burn treatment in Chinese medicine was traditional. It was a compilation of philosophy, knowledge and herbal medicine. The successful treatment of burns started in recent time and it has been made possible by better knowledge of the pathophysiology of thermal injuries and their consequences, medical technology advances and improved surgical techniques. PMID:23888738

Pe?anac, Marija; Janji?, Zlata; Komarcevi?, Aleksandar; Paji?, Milos; Dobanovacki, Dusanka; Miskovi?, Sanja Skeledzija

2013-01-01

387

Coal Industry Annual 1995  

SciTech Connect

This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

NONE

1996-10-01

388

Coal industry annual 1996  

SciTech Connect

This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

NONE

1997-11-01

389

Inland out: Midwestern river coal transloaders deal with increased pressures  

SciTech Connect

As greater amounts of US western coal is burned by many eastern and south-eastern power plants located along the Ohio River and its tributaries, Midwestern coal transload facilities are playing an ever growing role in the nation's coal transportation system by moving traffic off clogged rail lines onto barges on inland rivers. The article describes operations by three mid-western ports - American Electric Power's (AEP) Cook Terminal in Metropolis, IL; Kinder-Morgan's Cora Terminal in Cora, IL; and Kinder-Morgan's Grand Rivers Terminal near Paducah, KY. Together these terminals transferred more than 30 m tons onto barges in 2006. 5 figs.

Buchsbaum, L.

2007-06-15

390

Detecting coal fires in China using Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the feasibility of detecting fires in subsurface coal deposits through InSAR observations of accompa- nying surface displacements. Uncontrolled burning of subsurface coal seams have been reported from many locations around the world. In northern China alone, more than 10 Million tons (Mt) of coal are estimated to burn every year. This has massive implications for the regional economy and ecology. In fighting these fires and controlling burning coal seams the timely and reliable detection and mapping of the affected regions is critical. However, this has proven to be ex- tremely difficult in the often remote regions of northern China, where many of the fires have been caused by uncontrolled, small-scale mining operations. Both volume change of the burning coal and thermal effects in the adjacent rock mass are expected to cause measurable surface displacements and numerous reports of collapses of the earth's surface exist. Unfortunately, reliable data on surface deformation accompanying the fires are not available. Nevertheless, theoretical considerations and individual reports suggest that subsidence mapping using differential InSAR may be a suitable tool to detect burning regions and map the spatial extent of the affected areas. Though topography, temporal decorrelation, and poor data coverage complicate the analysis we have identified several localized areas of subsidence in the region. Here we discuss the potential and limitations of using InSAR for coal-fire detection in northern China.

Hoffmann, J.; Roth, A.; Voigt, S.

2004-06-01

391

Quarterly Coal Distribution  

EIA Publications

The Quarterly Coal Distribution Report (QCDR) provides detailed U.S. domestic coal distribution data by coal origin state, coal destination state, mode of transportation, and consuming sector. Quarterly data for all years are preliminary and will be superseded by the release of the corresponding Annual Coal Distribution Report.

2014-01-01

392

Microbial solubilization of coal  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to a cell-free preparation and process for the microbial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products. More specifically, the present invention relates to bacterial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products and a cell-free bacterial byproduct useful for solubilizing coal. 5 tabs.

Strandberg, G.W.; Lewis, S.N.

1988-01-21

393

Hair bleaching and skin burning  

PubMed Central

Summary Hairdressing-related burns are preventable and therefore each case is one too many. We report a unique case of a 16-yr-old girl who suffered full-thickness chemical and thermal burns to the nape of her neck and superficial burns to the occiput after her hair had been dyed blond and placed under a dryer to accelerate the highlighting procedure. The wound on the nape of the neck required surgical debridement and skin grafting. The grafted area resulted in subsequent scar formation. PMID:23766754

Forster, K.; Lingitz, R.; Prattes, G.; Schneider, G.; Sutter, S.; Schintler, M.; Trop, M.

2012-01-01

394

Mercury in US coal: Observations using the COALQUAL and ICR data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The COALQUAL data set lists the mercury content of samples collected from the in-ground US coal resource, whereas the ICR data set lists the mercury content of samples collected from coal shipments delivered to US electric utilities. After selection and adjustment of records, the COALQUAL data average 0.17 ??g Hg/g dry coal or 5.8 kg Hg/PJ, whereas the ICR data average 0.10 ??g Hg/g dry coal or 3.5 kg Hg/PJ. Because sample frequency does not correspond to the inground or produced tonnage, these values are not accurate estimates of the mercury content of either in-ground or delivered US coal. Commercial US coal contains less mercury than previously estimated, and its mercury content has declined during the 1990s. Selective mining and more extensive coal washing may accelerate the current trend towards lower mercury content in coal burned at US electric utilities.

Quick, J.C.; Brill, T.C.; Tabet, D.E.

2003-01-01

395

EFFECTIVE MIXING PROCESSES FOR SOX, SORBENT, AND COAL COMBUSTION PRODUCTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes an evaluation of the mixing of jets of calcium based sorbents injected into large wall-fired coal burning utility boiler furnaces for sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission control. Pilot scale combustion experiments at 1.41 and 24 MW thermal input tested the dependen...

396

Coal-oxygen process provides CO for enhanced recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is given of a process which is based on the production of CO in electric power plants that burn coal in an O-CO mixture (not air). The process eliminates the need for flue gas desulfurization and carbon dioxide purification required in more conventional approaches to recovery from flue gases. It is environmentally attractive because CO is not vented

B. M. Abraham; J. G. Asbury; E. P. Lynch; A. P. S. Teotia

1982-01-01

397

Mutagenicity of coal fly ash from electric power plant precipitators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The earlier work of Chrisp et al showed that stack-collected fly ash carried a low level of mutagenic activity, approximately 30 revertants per milligram. We find, in contrast, that fly ash collected from precipitators of the same kinds of electrical power plants, burning a similar type of coal, are not observably mutagenic in the same assay system. Our results indicate

H. E. Kubitschek; Luz Venta

1979-01-01

398

Burns, hypertrophic scar and galactorrhea  

PubMed Central

Abstract: An 18-year old woman was admitted to Motahari Burn Center suffering from 30% burns. Treatment modalities were carried out for the patient and she was discharged after 20 days. Three to four months later she developed hypertrophic scar on her chest and upper limbs. At the same time she developed galactorrhea in both breasts and had a disturbed menstrual cycle four months post-burn. On investigation, we found hyperprolactinemia and no other reasons for the high level of prolactin were detected. She received treatment for both the hypertrophic scar and the severe itching she was experiencing. After seven months, her prolactin level had decreased but had not returned to the normal level. It seems that refractory hypertrophic scar is related to the high level of prolactin in burns patients. PMID:23456048

Karimi, Hamid; Nourizad, Samad; Momeni, Mahnoush; Rahbar, Hosein; Momeni, Mazdak; Farhadi, Khosro

2013-01-01

399

JAMA Patient Page: Burn Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... the skins thickness is involved. First-degree (or superficial) burns involve only the top layer of the ... put electrical appliances or cords in or near water. Do not touch downed power lines. FIRST AID ...

400

Acalculous Cholecystitis in Burned Patients.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ten cases of acalculous cholecystitis in burned patients are reviewed. The disorder appears to be associated with overwhelming bacterial invasion or other postburn complications leading to dehydration or necessitating surgery. Recommendations regarding pr...

A. M. Munster, B. A. Pruitt, M. N. Goodwin

1971-01-01

401

Prescribed Range Burning in Texas  

E-print Network

Prescribed burning is an effective brush management technique for improving pasture accessibility and increasing the production of forage and browse. Fire also suppresses most brush and cactus species. This bulletin discusses how to plan...

White, Larry D.; Hanselka, C. Wayne

2000-04-25

402

The NEAR Rendezvous Burn Anomaly  

E-print Network

The NEAR Rendezvous Burn Anomaly of December 1998 Final Report of the NEAR (Near Earth Asteroid Report of the NEAR (Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous) Anomaly Review Board November 1999 ©1999 The Johns .................................................................................................................................................... 4 Reconstructed Timeline

Rhoads, James

403

Combination coal and wood stove  

SciTech Connect

The combination stove has a fire chamber that is partially cylindrical including a side loading door for loading wood or other combustible material such as coke or coal into the fire chamber. The front of the stove may be opened to enable viewing of the wood or coal burning in the stove by means of an arcuate sliding door that is operable to substantially totally close the chamber or open a section of the front thereof for viewing purposes. The sliding door is covered by a window construction including a tempered glass face. The stove is provided with an open base for supporting the chamber in a shroud covering the top and back of the chamber, preferably including blower means associated therewith. Particularly for wood combustion, the chamber is provided with a top draft extending longitudinally of the chamber and has supported therein a grate. For coal combustion, air input draft is coupled under the grate, preferably also including the capability of forced air draft using a portion of the forced air from the blower.

Gillis, G.A.; Lucier, R.

1983-05-17

404

Cheap Talk and Burned Money  

Microsoft Academic Search

We augment the standard CrawfordSobel (1982, Econometrica50, 14311451) model of cheap talk communication by allowing the informed party to use both costless and costly messages. The issues on which we focus are the consequences for cheap talk signaling of the option to burn money and the circumstances under which both cheap talk and burned money are used to signal information.

David Austen-Smith; Jeffrey S. Banks

2000-01-01

405

Coal liquefaction and hydrogenation  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a coal liquefaction process using two stages. The first stage liquefies the coal and maximizes the product while the second stage hydrocracks the remainder of the coal liquid to produce solvent.

Schindler, Harvey D. (Fair Lawn, NJ); Chen, James M. (Edison, NJ)

1985-01-01

406

Coal industry annual 1993  

SciTech Connect

Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

Not Available

1994-12-06

407

Smokeless burning system and method  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a system for burning wood and other fuel materials: an elongated, pivotally mounted burning chamber having inlet and outlet ends and being capable of being tilted to different angles of inclination to facilitate movement of material through the chamber, an accumulation chamber at the inlet end of the burning chamber, a hopper for receiving fuel material to be burned, an air lock chamber positioned between the hopper and the accumulation chamber, a first gate between the hopper and the air lock chamber for passing the fuel material from the hopper to the air lock chamber when opened and preventing the passage of smoke from the air lock chamber to the hopper when closed, a second gate between the air lock chamber and the accumulation chamber for passing the fuel material from the air lock chamber to the accumulation chamber when opened and preventing the passage of smoke from the burning chamber to the air lock chamber when closed, and means for pushing the fuel material from the accumulation chamber into the inlet end of the burning chamber and thereby causing material already in the chamber to move down the inclined chamber toward the outlet end.

Burton, R.E.

1988-10-04

408

Comparative analysis of the life cycle costs of compliance coal versus noncompliance coal with regenerable FGD equipment at Brandon Shores Units 1 and 2. Volume 1. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The relative costs of burning compliance coal and high sulfur coal with sulfur oxide removal are compared for the Brandon Shores Power Plant. Because of the plant's location next to potential markets for sulfur, sulfuric acid, and gypsum, only regenerable scrubbers were considered. The marketability of these products was surveyed and costs of coal and capital equipment were projected. For this plant, it was found that unless a highly optimistic scenario was adopted, compliance coal was the preferred option. The review of markets may be useful for comparison with non-regenerable scrubbers for new plants where scrubbers are required.

Demeter, C.; Pleatsikas, C.; Hollenbeck, K.

1980-09-01

409

Septicemia: The Principal Killer of Burns Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Burn injury is a major problem in many areas of the world and it has been estimated that 75% of all deaths following burns are related to infection. Burns impair the skin's normal barrier function thus allowing microbial colonization of the burn wounds and even with the use of topical antimicrobial agents, contamination is almost unavoidable. It is therefore essential

B. R. Sharma; Virendar Pal Singh; Sumedha Bangar; Neha Gupta

2005-01-01

410

Nitramine propellants. [gun propellant burning rate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nitramine propellants without a pressure exponent shift in the burning rate curves are prepared by matching the burning rate of a selected nitramine or combination of nitramines within 10% of burning rate of a plasticized active binder so as to smooth out the break point appearance in the burning rate curve.

Cohen, N. S.; Strand, L. D. (inventors)

1978-01-01

411

Hydrogen from Coal Edward Schmetz  

E-print Network

Hydrogen from Coal Edward Schmetz Office of Sequestration, Hydrogen and Clean Coal Fuels U #12;Presentation Outline Hydrogen Initiatives Hydrogen from Coal Central Production Goal Why Coal Why Hydrogen Separation Membranes Coal-based Synthesis Gas Characteristics Technical Barriers

412

Effects of catalytic mineral matter on CO/CO[sub 2] temperature and burning time for char combustion  

SciTech Connect

The high temperature oxidation of char is of interest in a number of applications in which coal must be burned in confined spaces. These include: the conversion of oil-fired boilers to coal using coal-water slurries, the development of a new generation of pulverized-coal-fired cyclone burners, the injection of coal into the tuyeres of blast furnaces, the use of coal as a fuel in direct-fired gas turbines in large-bore low-speed diesels, and entrained flow gasifiers. In addition, there is a need to better understand the temperature history of char particles in conventional pulverized-coal-fired boilers in order to better understand the processes governing the formation of pollutants and the transformation of mineral matter. The temperature of a char particle burning in an oxygen containing atmosphere is the product of a strongly coupled balance between particle size and physical properties, heat transfer from the particle, surface reactivity, CO/CO[sub 2] ratio and gas phase diffusion in the surrounding boundary layer and within the particle. In addition to its effects on burning rate, particle temperature has major effects on ash proper-ties and mineral matter vaporization. Measurements of the temperature of individual burning char particles have become available in recent years and have clearly demonstrated large particle to particle temperature variations which depend strongly on particle size and on panicle composition. These studies, done with pulverized coal, do not allow direct determination of the CO/CO[sub 2] ratio produced at the char surface or the catalytic effects of mineral matter in the individual char particles and it has generally been assumed that CO is the only product of the carbon-oxygen reaction and that CO[sub 2] is formed by subsequent gas phase reaction More recent work, however, has pointed out the need to take CO[sub 2] Production into consideration in order to account for observed particle temperatures.

Longwell, J.P.; Sarofim, A.F.; Lee, C.H.

1992-01-01

413

Full-scale laboratory simulation facility to test particulate and organic emissions from a Third World residential combustion process. III. Evaluation of a potential technique for the control of emissions from the indoor, open-hearth combustion of coal. Rept. for Jul 91-Feb 92  

SciTech Connect

The paper reports controlled full-scale laboratory studies designed to determine if clay addition holds promise as a technique to control emissions from higher grade coals. (NOTE: Abnormally high rates of lung cancer are observed among persons in Xuan Wei County, China, who burn bituminous 'smoky' coal as compared with those who burn 'smokeless' coal, which is produced by mixing low grade coals with clay.) Statistically significant reductions in emissions of total particulate (70%), gravimetrically determined (nonvolatile) organics (70%), total chromatographable (semivolatile) organics (90%), and benzo(a)pyrene (65%) were observed (measured on a mass emitted/mass coal combusted basis) when clay binder material was added to a ground smoky coal. These reductions, however, did not fully account for the order of magnitude lower pollutant levels previously observed in homes burning smokeless (as compared to smoky) coal. Thus, the authors believe that the composition of the low rank coals used to produce smokeless coal also helps to control emissions.

Lutes, C.C.; Ryan, J.V.; Harris, D.B.; Chapman, R.S.

1992-01-01

414

Advances in measurements and simulation of gas-particle flows and coal combustion in burners/combustors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Innovative coal combustors were developed, and measurement and simulation of gas-particle flows and coal combustion in such combustors were done in the Department of Engineering Mechanics, Tsinghua University. LDV/PDPA measurements are made to understand the behavior of turbulent gas-particle flows in coal combustors. Coal combustion test was done for the non-slagging cyclone coal combustor. The full two-fluid model developed by the present author was used to simulate turbulent gas-particle flows, coal combustion and NOx formation. It is found by measurements and simulation that the optimum design can give large-size recirculation zones for improving the combustion performance for all the combustors. The combustion test shows that the nonslagging coal combustor can burn 3-5mm coal particles with good combustion efficiency and low NO emission. Simulation in comparison with experiments indicates that the swirl number can significantly affect the NO formation in the swirl coal combustor.

Zhou, L. X.

2009-02-01

415

Coal liquefaction  

DOEpatents

In a two-stage liquefaction wherein coal, hydrogen and liquefaction solvent are contacted in a first thermal liquefaction zone, followed by recovery of an essentially ash free liquid and a pumpable stream of insoluble material, which includes 850.degree. F.+ liquid, with the essentially ash free liquid then being further upgraded in a second liquefaction zone, the liquefaction solvent for the first stage includes the pumpable stream of insoluble material from the first liquefaction stage, and 850.degree. F.+ liquid from the second liquefaction stage.

Schindler, Harvey D. (Fairlawn, NJ)

1985-01-01

416

Coping with Severe Burns in the Early Stage After Burn Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationship between coping strategies, anxiety and depression levels and burn injury char- acteristics in the early phase of the treatment in burn-injured patients. Seventy patients with severe burns were inter- viewed within two weeks of their burn trauma. Coping strategies were measured by the coping with burns questionnaire (CBQ). Anxiety and depression levels were assessed with

Marijana Bra; Zoran Lon; Lovorka Brajkovi; Rudolf Gregurek

417

Harborview Burns - 1974 to 2009  

PubMed Central

Background Burn demographics, prevention and care have changed considerably since the 1970s. The objectives were to 1) identify new and confirm previously described changes, 2) make comparisons to the American Burn Association National Burn Repository, 3) determine when the administration of fluids in excess of the Baxter formula began and to identify potential causes, and 4) model mortality over time, during a 36-year period (19742009) at the Harborview Burn Center in Seattle, WA, USA. Methods and Findings 14,266 consecutive admissions were analyzed in five-year periods and many parameters compared to the National Burn Repository. Fluid resuscitation was compared in five-year periods from 1974 to 2009. Mortality was modeled with the rBaux model. Many changes are highlighted at the end of the manuscript including 1) the large increase in numbers of total and short-stay admissions, 2) the decline in numbers of large burn injuries, 3) that unadjusted case fatality declined to the mid-1980s but has changed little during the past two decades, 4) that race/ethnicity and payer status disparity exists, and 5) that the trajectory to death changed with fewer deaths occurring after seven days post-injury. Administration of fluids in excess of the Baxter formula during resuscitation of uncomplicated injuries was evident at least by the early 1990s and has continued to the present; the cause is likely multifactorial but pre-hospital fluids, prophylactic tracheal intubation and opioids may be involved. Conclusions 1) The dramatic changes include the rise in short-stay admissions; as a result, the model of burn care practiced since the 1970s is still required but is no longer sufficient. 2) Fluid administration in excess of the Baxter formula with uncomplicated injuries began at least two decades ago. 3) Unadjusted case fatality declined to ?6% in the mid-1980s and changed little since then. The rBaux mortality model is quite accurate. PMID:22792216

Engrav, Loren H.; Heimbach, David M.; Rivara, Frederick P.; Kerr, Kathleen F.; Osler, Turner; Pham, Tam N.; Sharar, Sam R.; Esselman, Peter C.; Bulger, Eileen M.; Carrougher, Gretchen J.; Honari, Shari; Gibran, Nicole S.

2012-01-01

418

The magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility. Technical progress report, July 1, 1992--September 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect

In this quarterly technical progress report, UTSI reports on progress on a multi-task contract to develop the technology for the steam bottoming plant for an MHD Steam Combined Cycle power plant. Two proof-of-concept (POC) tests totaling 614 hours of coal fired operation were conducted during the quarter using low sulfur Montana Rosebud coal. The results of these tests are summarized. Operational aspects of the particulate control devices being evaluated, a dry electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and a reverse air baghouse, are discussed. A sootblowing control system for the convective heat transfer surfaces that senses the need to clean the tubes by temperatures is described. Environmental reporting includes measurement of levels of ground water wells over time and the remote air quality measurements of impact of the stack emissions from the two tests. Results of testing candidate ceramic tubes for a recuperative high temperature air heater are included. Analyses of the tube materials tested in the 2000 hour test series previously completed on high sulfur Illinois No. 6 coal are summarized. Facility maintenance and repair activities for the DOE Coal Fired Flow Facility are summarized. The major facility modification discussed is the completion of the installation of a Wet ESP with rotary vacuum filter which is replacing the venturi scrubber as the primary facility particulate control device for any exhaust gases that are not routed through the dry ESP or baghouse.

Not Available

1993-02-01

419

Coal use, stove improvement, and adult pneumonia mortality in Xuanwei, China: a retrospective cohort study  

SciTech Connect

In Xuanwei County, China, unvented indoor coal burning is strongly associated with increased risk of lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, the impact of coal burning and stove improvement on risk of pneumonia is not clear. We conducted a retrospective cohort study among all farmers born 1917 through 1951 and living in Xuanwei as of 1 January 1976. The analysis included a total of 42,422 cohort members. Follow-up identified all deaths in the cohort from 1976 through 1996. Ages at entry into and at exit from follow-up ranged from 24 to 59 years and from 25 to 80 years, respectively. The record search detected 225 deaths from pneumonia, and 32,332 (76%) were alive as of 31 December 1996. We constructed multivariable Cox models (time variable = age) to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Use of coal, especially smokeless coal, was positively associated with pneumonia mortality. Annual tonnage and lifetime duration of smoky and smokeless coal use were positively associated with pneumonia mortality. Stove improvement was associated with a 50% reduction in pneumonia deaths (smoky coal users: HR, 0.521; 95% CI, 0.340-0.798; smokeless coal users: HR, 0.449; 95% CI, 0.215-0.937). Our analysis is the first to suggest that indoor air pollution from unvented coal burning is an important risk factor for pneumonia death in adults and that improving ventilation by installing a chimney is an effective measure to decrease it.

Shen, M.; Chapman, R.S.; Vermeulen, R.; Tian, L.W.; Zheng, T.Z.; Chen, B.E.; Engels, E.A.; He, X.Z.; Blair, A.; Lan, Q. [NCI, Bethesda, MD (USA)

2009-02-15

420

Zinc isotopic composition of particulate matter generated during the combustion of coal and coal + tire-derived fuels.  

PubMed

Atmospheric Zn emissions from the burning of coal and tire-derived fuel (TDF) for power generation can be considerable. In an effort to lay the foundation for tracking these contributions, we evaluated the Zn isotopes of coal, a mixture of 95 wt % coal + 5 wt % TDF, and the particulate matter (PM) derived from their combustion in a power-generating plant. The average Zn concentrations and ?(66)Zn were 36 mg/kg and 183 mg/kg and +0.24 and +0.13 for the coal and coal + TDF, respectively. The ?(66)Zn of the PM sequestered in the cyclone-type mechanical separator was the lightest measured, -0.48 for coal and -0.81 for coal+TDF. The ?(66)Zn of the PM from the electrostatic precipitator showed a slight enrichment in the heavier Zn isotopes relative to the starting material. PM collected from the stack had the heaviest ?(66)Zn in the system, +0.63 and +0.50 for the coal and coal + TDF, respectively. Initial fractionation during the generation of a Zn-rich vapor is followed by temperature-dependent fractionation as Zn condenses onto the PM. The isotopic changes of the two fuel types are similar, suggesting that their inherent chemical differences have only a secondary impact on the isotopic fractionation process. PMID:21047059

Borrok, David M; Gier, Reto; Ren, Minghua; Landa, Edward R

2010-12-01

421

Zinc isotopic composition of particulate matter generated during the combustion of coal and coal + tire-derived fuels  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Atmospheric Zn emissions from the burning of coal and tire-derived fuel (TDF) for power generation can be considerable. In an effort to lay the foundation for tracking these contributions, we evaluated the Zn isotopes of coal, a mixture of 95 wt % coal + 5 wt % TDF, and the particulate matter (PM) derived from their combustion in a power-generating plant. The average Zn concentrations and ?(66)Zn were 36 mg/kg and 183 mg/kg and +0.24 and +0.13 for the coal and coal + TDF, respectively. The ?(66)Zn of the PM sequestered in the cyclone-type mechanical separator was the lightest measured, -0.48 for coal and -0.81 for coal+TDF. The ?(66)Zn of the PM from the electrostatic precipitator showed a slight enrichment in the heavier Zn isotopes relative to the starting material. PM collected from the stack had the heaviest ?(66)Zn in the system, +0.63 and +0.50 for the coal and coal + TDF, respectively. Initial fractionation during the generation of a Zn-rich vapor is followed by temperature-dependent fractionation as Zn condenses onto the PM. The isotopic changes of the two fuel types are similar, suggesting that their inherent chemical differences have only a secondary impact on the isotopic fractionation process.

Borrok, D.M.; Gier, R.; Ren, M.; Landa, E.R.

2010-01-01

422

Low sulfur depletion in the Horsehead PDR  

E-print Network

We present 3.65''x3.34'' angular-resolution IRAM PdBI observations of the CS J=2-1 line toward the Horsehead Photodissociation Region (PDR), complemented with IRAM-30m single-dish observations of several rotational lines of CS, C34S and HCS+. We analyse the CS and HCS+ photochemistry, excitation and radiative transfer to obtain their abundances and the physical conditions prevailing in the cloud edge. Since the CS abundance scales to that of sulfur, we determine the gas phase sulfur abundance in the PDR, an interesting intermediate medium between translucent clouds (where sulfur remains in the gas phase) and dark clouds (where large depletions have been invoked). A nonlocal non-LTE radiative transfer code including dust and cosmic background illumination adapted to the Horsehead geometry has been developed to carefuly analyse the CS, C34S, HCS+ and C18O rotational line emission. We use this model to consistently link the line observations with photochemical models to determine the CS/HCS+/S/S+ structure of the PDR. The combination of CS, C34S and HCS+ observations together with the inclusion of the most recent CS collisional and chemical rates in our models implies that sulfur depletion invoked to account for CS and HCS+ abundances is much smaller than in previous studies.

J. R. Goicoechea; J. Pety; M. Gerin; D. Teyssier; E. Roueff; P. Hily-Blant; S. Baek

2006-05-30

423

POC-scale testing of an advanced fine coal dewatering equipment/technique. Quarterly technical progress report No. 5, October--December, 1995  

SciTech Connect

Froth flotation technique is an effective and efficient process for recovering of ultra-fine (minus 74{mu}m) clean coal. Economical dewatering of an ultrafine clean coal product to a 20% level moisture will be an important step in successful implementation of the advanced cleaning processes. The main objective of the proposed program is to evaluate a novel surface modification technique, which utilizes the synergistic effect of metal ions-surfactant combination, for dewatering of ultra-fine clean coal on a proof-of-concept scale of 1 to 2 tph. The novel surface modification technique developed at the the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research will be evaluated using vacuum, centrifuge, and hyperbaric filtration equipment. Dewatering tests will be conducted using the fine clean coal froth produced by the column flotation units at the Powell Mountain Coal Company, Mayflower Preparation Plant in St. Charles, Virginia. The POC-scale studies will be conducted on two different types of clean coal, namely, high sulfur and low sulfur clean coal. Accomplishments for the past quarter are described.

Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K.

1996-02-01

424

Exercise behaviors after burn injury.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate exercise behaviors in adult burn survivors and to identify barriers to exercise in this population. A two-page questionnaire developed by the authors was administered on a single occasion to adults attending the ambulatory burns clinic at a metropolitan hospital. Data from 68 adult burn survivors were analyzed. Within this cohort, 59% of subjects reported exercising several times per week or more and the remaining 41% exercised once per week or less. There was no correlation among exercise frequency and age, TBSA, or hospital length of stay. Walking was the most common type of exercise, and subjects reported lower compliance with stretching and strengthening exercises. Physical condition and motivation were identified as the main barriers to exercise. Although this preliminary study reveals that a higher proportion of burn survivors engage in exercise compared with their healthy counterparts, a substantial number are exercising just once per week or less, below the recommended guidelines to improve physical fitness. Physical and occupational therapists play an important role in providing exercise prescription and education, as well as addressing barriers to exercise in burn survivors. The potential for further research into physical activity across all domains of life using a validated questionnaire is identified. PMID:23816997

Baldwin, Jennifer; Li, Frank

2013-01-01

425

Hydrogen Burning on Magnetar Surfaces  

E-print Network

We compute the rate of diffusive nuclear burning for hydrogen on the surface of a "magnetar" (Soft Gamma-Ray Repeater or Anomalous X-Ray Pulsar). We find that hydrogen at the photosphere will be burned on an extremely rapid timescale of hours to years, depending on composition of the underlying material. Improving on our previous studies, we explore the effect of a maximally thick "inert" helium layer, previously thought to slow down the burning rate. Since hydrogen diffuses faster in helium than through heavier elements, we find this helium buffer actually increases the burning rate for magnetars. We compute simple analytic scalings of the burning rate with temperature and magnetic field for a range of core temperature. We conclude that magnetar photospheres are very unlikely to contain hydrogen. This motivates theoretical work on heavy element atmospheres that are needed to measure effective temperature from the observed thermal emission and constrains models of AXPs that rely on magnetar cooling through thick light element envelopes.

P. Chang; P. Arras; L. Bildsten

2004-10-18

426

The changing structure of the US coal industry: An update, July 1993  

SciTech Connect

Section 205(a)(2) of the Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 requires the Administrator of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to carry out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program that will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information relevant to energy resources, reserves, production, demand, technology, and related economic and statistical information. The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive overview of changes in the structure of the US coal industry between 1976 and 1991. The structural elements examined include the number of mines, average mine size, the size distribution of mines, and the size distribution of coal firms. The report measures changes in the market shares of the largest coal producers at the national level and in various regions. The Central Appalachian low-sulfur coal market is given special attention, and the market for coal reserves is examined. A history of mergers in the coal industry is presented, and changes in the proportions of US coal output that are produced by various types of companies, including foreign-controlled firms, are described. Finally, the impact of post-1991 mergers on the structure of the industry is estimated. The legislation that created the EIA vested the organization with an element of statutory independence. The EIA does not take positions on policy questions. The EIA`s responsibility is to provide timely, high-quality information and to perform objective, credible analyses in support of deliberations by both public and private decisionmakers. Accordingly, this report does not purport to represent the policy positions of the US Department of Energy or the Administration.

Not Available

1993-07-29

427

Desulfurization of coal with hydroperoxides of vegetable oils. [Quarterly] report, September 1--November 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect

This project proposes a new method for removing organic sulfur from Illinois coals using readily available farm products. It proposes to use air and vegetable oils to disrupt the coal matrix, oxidize sulfur forms, increase volatiles, and desulfurize coal. This will be accomplished by impregnating coals with polyunsaturated oils, converting the oils to their hydroperoxides, and heating. Since these oils are relatively inexpensive and easily applied, this project could lead to a cost effective method for removing organic sulfur from coals. Moreover, the oils are environmentally safe; they will produce no noxious products and will improve burning qualities of the solid products. Preliminary experiments showed that EBC 104 coal catalyzes the formation of hydroperoxides in safflower oil and that more sulfur is extracted from the treated than untreated coal. During this first quarter the requirement of an added photosensitizer has been eliminated, the catalytic effect of coal has been confirmed, and the existence of a complex set of reactions revealed. These reactions between the oxygen, oil, hydroperoxides, and coal are hydroperoxide formation, which is catalyzed by the coal surface and by heat, an unknown coal-hydroperoxide reaction, and oil polymerization. Additionally, diffusion phenomena must be playing a role because oil polymerization occurs, but the importance of diffusion is difficult to assess because less polymerization occurs when coal is present. The first task has been completed and we are now ready to determine the ability of linseed oil hydroperoxides to oxidize organic sulfur in EBC 108 coal.

Smith, G.V.; Gaston, R.D.; Song, Ruozhi; Cheng, Jianjun [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

1994-12-31

428

Application of Isotopic Analyses to Study the Influence of Exploitation of Brown Coal on the Pollution of Groundwater  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research deals with pollution impact on natural water resources in the industrial area of Belchatw, central Poland, where a large brown coal deposit is exploited and the coal is burned in an electric power plant. To trace the sources of groundwater pollutants the stable isotope analysis of oxygen and sulfur in sulfates was applied. The mass-spectrometric analysis was performed

Stanis?aw Ha?as; Andrzej Trembaczowski; Wojciech So?tyk

1997-01-01

429

Coal pyrolysis and coal briquetting for production of smokeless fuel  

SciTech Connect

To investigate the possibility of direct production of smokeless fuel, a moderate temperature coking was applied. Coals used for this purpose are named as No. 800 in International Classification and cause considerable amounts of smoke emissions due to their high tar contents, when burned. Following a preheating treatment at 120{degree}C, the smokeless fuels (semicokes) were produced by coking of the samples 16-32 mm at 450{degree}C, with a heating rate of 150{degree}C/h. These semicokes have been found to be strong, their tar contents are far below 2%, and volatile matters are mainly composed of CH{sub 4} and H{sub 2}. The formation of semicoke particles smaller than 10 mm at the level of 25 to 30%, could not be avoided. Briquetts prepared by using these particles and tar or molasses as binder, were also found suitable for heating purposes. 8 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

Arayici, S. [Istanbul Univ. (Turkey)

1996-09-01

430

Improvement of storage, handling, and transportability of fine coal. Quarterly technical progress report number 8, October 1--December 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Mulled Coal process was developed as a means of overcoming the adverse handling characteristics of wet fine coal without thermal drying. The process involves the addition of a low cost, harmless reagent to wet fine coal using off-the-shelf mixing equipment. Based on laboratory- and bench-scale testing, Mulled coal can be stored, shipped, and burned without causing any of the plugging, pasting, carryback and freezing problems normally associated with wet coal. On the other hand, Mulled Coal does not cause the fugitive and airborne dust problems normally associated with thermally dried coal. The objectives of this project are to demonstrate that: the Mulled Coal process, which has been proved to work on a wide range of wet fine coals at bench scale, will work equally well on a continuous basis, producing consistent quality, and at a convincing rate of production in a commercial coal preparation plant; the wet product from a fine coal cleaning circuit can be converted to a solid fuel form for ease of handling and cost savings in storage and rail car transportation; and a wet fine coal product thus converted to a solid fuel form, can be stored, shipped, and burned with conventional fuel handling, transportation, and combustion systems.

NONE

1996-03-15

431

Successful so far, coal lobby's campaign may run out of steam  

SciTech Connect

The anti-coal lobby has mounted a highly successful campaign that has brought the permitting, financing, and construction of new conventional coal-fired plants to a virtual halt. But the coal lobby is not yet ready to concede defeat. With powerful constituents in coal-mining and coal-burning states and influential utilities, mining companies, and railroads, it continues to fight for its survival using any and all gimmicks and scare tactics in the book. The battle is being waged in courtrooms, public forums, media campaigns, and especially in Congress. The problem with the coal lobby is that it refuses to admit that coal combustion to generate electricity is among the chief sources of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions; unless they address this issue honestly, effectively, and immediately, their efforts are going to win few converts in the courts of law or public opinion.

NONE

2009-05-15

432