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1

Technological problems of burning low-sulfur western coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The burning of low-sulfur western coals in boilers designed for bituminous fuels can result in operational problems. Resolution of these problems requires modification of the existing systems. In examining five boiler types, cyclone, pulverized coal, spreader stoker, cross-feed, and under boilers, the necessary conversion factors were identified. To understand the significance of operational problems in burning western coals, a background

L. L. Huff; W. R. Haas

1975-01-01

2

Technological problems of burning low-sulfur western coal. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The burning of low-sulfur western coals in boilers designed for bituminous fuels can result in operational problems. Resolution of these problems requires modification of the existing systems. In examining five boiler types, cyclone, pulverized coal, spreader stoker, cross-feed, and under-feed boilers, the necessary conversion factors were identified. To understand the significance of operational problems in burning western coals, a background

L. L. Huff; W. R. Haas

1975-01-01

3

Low-Sulfur Fuel Oil from Coal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A high-sulfur bituminous coal suspended in coal tar was hydrodesulfurized by continuous processing through a fixed bed of pelletized cobalt molybdate on alumina catalyst, under conditions of highly turbulent flow of hydrogen to prevent obstruction of the ...

P. M. Yavorsky S. Akhtar S. Friedman

1971-01-01

4

TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT REPORT FOR INDUSTRIAL BOILER APPLICATIONS: COAL CLEANING AND LOW SULFUR COAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The report assesses the use of three pollution control technologies--low sulfur coals, physical coal cleaning (PCC), and chemical coal cleaning (CCC)--to comply with SO2 emission regulations. It is one of a series to be used in determining the technological basis for a new source...

5

Central Appalachia: Production potential of low-sulfur coal  

SciTech Connect

The vast preponderance of eastern US low sulfur and 1.2-lbs SO{sub 2}/MMBtu compliance coal comes from a relatively small area composed of 14 counties located in eastern Kentucky, southern West Virginia and western Virginia. These 14 counties accounted for 68% of all Central Appalachian coal production in 1989 as well as 85% of all compliance coal shipped to electric utilities from this region. A property-by-property analysis of total production potential in 10 of the 14 counties (Floyd, Knott, Letcher, Harlan, Martin and Pike in Kentucky and Boone, Kanawha, Logan and Mingo in West Virginia) resulted in the following estimates of active and yet to be developed properties: (1) total salable reserves for all sulfur levels were 5.9 billion tons and (2) 1.2-lbs. SO{sub 2}/MMBtu compliance'' reserves totaled 2.38 billion tons. This potential supply of compliance coal is adequate to meet the expanded utility demand expected under acid rain for the next 20 years. Beyond 2010, compliance supplies will begin to reach depletion levels in some areas of the study region. A review of the cost structure for all active mines was used to categorize the cost structure for developing potential supplies. FOB cash costs for all active mines in the ten counties ranged from $15 per ton to $35 per ton and the median mine cost was about $22 per ton. A total of 47 companies with the ability to produce and ship coal from owned or leased reserves are active in the ten-county region. Identified development and expansion projects controlled by active companies are capable of expanding the region's current production level by over 30 million tons per year over the next twenty years. Beyond this period the issue of reserve depletion for coal of all sulfur levels in the ten county region will become a pressing issue. 11 figs., 12 tabs.

Watkins, J. (Hill and Associates, Inc., Annapolis, MD (United States))

1991-09-01

6

A novel coal feeder for production of low sulfur fuel  

SciTech Connect

The first task of the project is to evaluate and model the pyrolysis section of the proposed coal feeder. Literature review on coal pyrolysis have been conducted and a mathematical/computer modeling of this work has begun. Both isothermal and non-isothermal conditions are considered for this model. A pseudo-component approach was adopted for coal pyrolysis kinetics. Initially, the literature values of pyrolysis kinetic are planned to be utilized. Later, actual kinetics will be measured from a feeder-pyrolyzer. A separate feeder-pyrolyzer is under construction for this purpose.

Khang, Soon-Jai; Keener, T.C.

1989-01-01

7

Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect

This project Final Report is submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as part of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-03NT41987, 'Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas.' Sorbent injection technology is targeted as the primary mercury control process on plants burning low/medium sulfur bituminous coals equipped with ESP and ESP/FGD systems. About 70% of the ESPs used in the utility industry have SCAs less than 300 ft2/1000 acfm. Prior to this test program, previous sorbent injection tests had focused on large-SCA ESPs. This DOE-NETL program was designed to generate data to evaluate the performance and economic feasibility of sorbent injection for mercury control at power plants that fire bituminous coal and are configured with small-sized electrostatic precipitators and/or an ESP-flue gas desulfurization (FGD) configuration. EPRI and Southern Company were co-funders for the test program. Southern Company and Reliant Energy provided host sites for testing and technical input to the project. URS Group was the prime contractor to NETL. ADA-ES and Apogee Scientific Inc. were sub-contractors to URS and was responsible for all aspects of the sorbent injection systems design, installation and operation at the different host sites. Full-scale sorbent injection for mercury control was evaluated at three sites: Georgia Power's Plant Yates Units 1 and 2 [Georgia Power is a subsidiary of the Southern Company] and Reliant Energy's Shawville Unit 3. Georgia Power's Plant Yates Unit 1 has an existing small-SCA cold-side ESP followed by a Chiyoda CT-121 wet scrubber. Yates Unit 2 is also equipped with a small-SCA ESP and a dual flue gas conditioning system. Unit 2 has no SO2 control system. Shawville Unit 3 is equipped with two small-SCA cold-side ESPs operated in series. All ESP systems tested in this program had SCAs less than 250 ft2/1000 acfm. Short-term parametric tests were conducted on Yates Units 1 and 2 to evaluate the performance of low-cost activated carbon sorbents for removing mercury. In addition, the effects of the dual flue gas conditioning system on mercury removal performance were evaluated as part of short-term parametric tests on Unit 2. Based on the parametric test results, a single sorbent (e.g., RWE Super HOK) was selected for a 30-day continuous injection test on Unit 1 to observe long-term performance of the sorbent as well as its effects on ESP and FGD system operations as well as combustion byproduct properties. A series of parametric tests were also performed on Shawville Unit 3 over a three-week period in which several activated carbon sorbents were injected into the flue gas duct just upstream of either of the two Unit 3 ESP units. Three different sorbents were evaluated in the parametric test program for the combined ESP 1/ESP 2 system in which sorbents were injected upstream of ESP 1: RWE Super HOK, Norit's DARCO Hg, and a 62:38 wt% hydrated lime/DARCO Hg premixed reagent. Five different sorbents were evaluated for the ESP 2 system in which activated carbons were injected upstream of ESP 2: RWE Super HOK and coarse-ground HOK, Norit's DARCO Hg and DARCO Hg-LH, and DARCO Hg with lime injection upstream of ESP 1. The hydrated lime tests were conducted to reduce SO3 levels in an attempt to enhance the mercury removal performance of the activated carbon sorbents. The Plant Yates and Shawville studies provided data required for assessing carbon performance and long-term operational impacts for flue gas mercury control across small-sized ESPs, as well as for estimating the costs of full-scale sorbent injection processes.

Carl Richardson; Katherine Dombrowski; Douglas Orr

2006-12-31

8

Production of low-sulfur coal powder from the disintegration of coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small lumps of coal are contacted in an upflow confined reactor with liquid SOâ and some recycled hydrocarbons at an elevated pressure to effect the disintegration of the coal to micro-sized dust particles and, preferably, the resulting coal dust and liquid SOâ with entrained liquid hydrocarbons that are withdrawn from the top of the reactor will undergo a further pressurized

Gleim; W. K. T

1978-01-01

9

Low-sulfur coal: the fastest gum-up in the West  

Microsoft Academic Search

S>Commonwealth Edison boilers were designed to use a high-rank, type-C ; bituminous coal from Illinois. The characteristics of the Illinois coal are ; given and compared to western coal, which is now being used. Illinois coal is ; not now acceptable in most of the system because of ordinances limiting sulfur ; and SOâ discharges and lack of technology to

Holyoak

1974-01-01

10

Preparation of low-sulfur fuel gas for gasification of Battelle treated coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Battelle's Columbus Laboratories has developed a proprietary process for treating coal with calcium compounds, called the Battelle Treated Coal process, in which the incorporated calcium produces an improved gasification feedstock. From the results of batch and continuous fixed-bed gasification testing of BTC the following conclusions were drawn: 1) 80-95% of the coal's sulfur can be captured in the coal ash,

H. N. Conkle; H. F. Feldmann; O. J. Hahn

1983-01-01

11

LOW-SULFUR WESTERN COAL USE IN EXISTING SMALL AND INTERMEDIATE SIZE BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of testing of 10 representative coal-fired boilers in the Upper-Midwest, including an assessment of SOx, NOx, CO, unburned HC, and particulate emissions from these units, as well as an assessment of the operational impact of coal switching. The study show...

12

Arapahoe low-sulfur coal fabric filter pilot plant. Volume 2. Characterization and reverse-gas cleaning tests, October 1980April 1982. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes operations at EPRI's low-sulfur coal Fabric Filter Pilot Plant during the first 19 months following its startup in October 1980. The primary objectives of this operating period were to collect data to characterize the FFPP as a research tool, and to determine the effects of varying some of its basic operating parameters. The major parameters varied included

K. M. Cushing; R. R. Jr. Wilson; W. B. Smith

1985-01-01

13

Method of burning pulverized coal  

SciTech Connect

A method of burning pulverized coal and other fuels comprises the steps of containing a primary flowing stream of coal/air mixture received adjacent an inlet end of a tubular nozzle for discharge at an outlet end into a combustion zone of a furnace for burning. The stream is accelerated in a convergent venturi section upstream of the outlet to distribute and concentrate the coal particles toward a central portion of the venturi in a minimum area throat, followed by decelerating the flow downstream of the venturi throat in a convergent flow section while forming a shallow, annular, conically shaped flow pattern around a hollow spreader cone mounted in the convergent section. The annular flow is caused to swirl around the axis of the cone by vanes outwardly thereof within the convergent flow section of the venturi, thus forming a stable, annularly-shaped, swirling flow pattern for discharge into the combustion zone, wherein the coal is burned in an elongated flame pattern extending along the stabilized conical flow pattern. A zone of high temperature and reducing atmosphere is formed adjacent the hollow outer end of the cone due to recirculation of combustion products into the rich fuel/air mixture wherein the volatiles in the coal are driven off early in the combustion process and are rapidly burned in a continuing process reducing the formation of oxides of nitrogen.

Itse, D.C.; Penterson, G.A.

1984-07-03

14

Production of Low-Sulfur Fuel from Sulfur-Bearing Coals and Oils.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Coal, lignite, oils, etc. are desulfurized by rapidly passing a fluid stream of the feedstock through an immobilized bed reactor, in the presence of a catalyst, under heat and pressure, while a reducing gas is simultaneously flowing through the reactor at...

P. M. Yavorsky S. Friedman S. Akhtar

1972-01-01

15

PILOT PLANT STUDY OF CONVERSION OF COAL TO LOW SULFUR FUEL  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a program to develop, on bench and pilot scales, operating conditions for the key step in the IGT process to desulfurize coal by thermal and chemical treatment. This process, to date, uses the 'sulfur-getter' concept. (A sulfur-getter is a material tha...

16

Characterization of fly ash from low-sulfur and high-sulfur coal sources: Partitioning of carbon and trace elements with particle size  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fly ash samples were collected in November and December of 1994, from generating units at a Kentucky power station using high- and low-sulfur feed coals. The samples are part of a two-year study of the coal and coal combustion byproducts from the power station. The ashes were wet screened at 100, 200, 325, and 500 mesh (150, 75, 42, and 25 ??m, respectively). The size fractions were then dried, weighed, split for petrographic and chemical analysis, and analyzed for ash yield and carbon content. The low-sulfur "heavy side" and "light side" ashes each have a similar size distribution in the November samples. In contrast, the December fly ashes showed the trend observed in later months, the light-side ash being finer (over 20 % more ash in the -500 mesh [-25 ??m] fraction) than the heavy-side ash. Carbon tended to be concentrated in the coarse fractions in the December samples. The dominance of the -325 mesh (-42 ??m) fractions in the overall size analysis implies, though, that carbon in the fine sizes may be an important consideration in the utilization of the fly ash. Element partitioning follows several patterns. Volatile elements, such as Zn and As, are enriched in the finer sizes, particularly in fly ashes collected at cooler, light-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) temperatures. The latter trend is a function of precipitation at the cooler-ESP temperatures and of increasing concentration with the increased surface area of the finest fraction. Mercury concentrations are higher in high-carbon fly ashes, suggesting Hg adsorption on the fly ash carbon. Ni and Cr are associated, in part, with the spinel minerals in the fly ash. Copyright ?? 1999 Taylor & Francis.

Hower, J. C.; Trimble, A. S.; Eble, C. F.; Palmer, C. A.; Kolker, A.

1999-01-01

17

Characterization of fly ash from low-sulfur and high-sulfur coal sources: Partitioning of carbon and trace elements with particle size  

SciTech Connect

Fly ash samples were collected in November and December of 1994, from generating units at a Kentucky power station using high- and low-sulfur feed coals. The samples are part of a two-year study of the coal and coal combustion byproducts from the power station. The ashes were wet screened at 100, 200, 325, and 500 mesh (150, 75, 42, and 25 {micro}m, respectively). The size fractions were then dried, weighed, split for petrographic and chemical analysis, and analyzed for ash yield and carbon content. The low-sulfur heavy side and light side ashes each have a similar size distribution in the November samples. In contrast, the December fly ashes showed the trend observed in later months, the light-side ash being finer (over 20% more ash in the {minus}500 mesh [{minus}25 {micro}m] fraction) than the heavy-side ash. Carbon tended to be concentrated in the coarse fractions in the December samples. The dominance of the {minus}325 mesh ({minus}42 {micro}m) fractions in the overall size analysis implies, though, that carbon in the fine sizes may be an important consideration in the utilization of the fly ash. Element partitioning follows several patterns. Volatile elements, such as Zn and As, are enriched in the finer sizes, particularly in fly ashes collected at cooler, light-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) temperatures. The latter trend is a function of precipitation at the cooler-ESP temperatures and of increasing concentration with the increased surface area of the finest fraction. Mercury concentrations are higher in high-carbon fly ashes, suggesting Hg adsorption on the fly ash carbon. Ni and Cr are associated, in part, with the spinel minerals in the fly ash.

Hower, J.C.; Trimble, A.S. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research]|[Franklin County High School, Frankfort, KY (United States); Eble, C.F. [Kentucky Geological survey, Lexington, KY (United States); Palmer, C.A.; Kolker, A. [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)

1999-07-01

18

FEASIBILITY OF BURNING COAL IN CATALYTIC COMBUSTORS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study, showing that pulverized coal can be burned in a catalytic combustor. Pulverized coal combustion in catalytic beds is markedly different from gaseous fuel combustion. Gas combustion gives uniform bed temperatures and reaction rates over the ent...

19

A novel coal feeder for production of low sulfur fuel. Quarterly technical progress report, September 1--December 1, 1989  

SciTech Connect

The first task of the project is to evaluate and model the pyrolysis section of the proposed coal feeder. Literature review on coal pyrolysis have been conducted and a mathematical/computer modeling of this work has begun. Both isothermal and non-isothermal conditions are considered for this model. A pseudo-component approach was adopted for coal pyrolysis kinetics. Initially, the literature values of pyrolysis kinetic are planned to be utilized. Later, actual kinetics will be measured from a feeder-pyrolyzer. A separate feeder-pyrolyzer is under construction for this purpose.

Khang, Soon-Jai; Keener, T.C.

1989-12-31

20

Production of low-sulfur binder pitch from high-sulfur Illinois coals. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to produce electrode binder pitch with sulfur content below 0.6 wt% from high-sulfur Illinois coal mild gasification liquids. In this project, two approaches to sulfur reduction are being explored in conjunction with thermocracking: (1) the use of conventionally cleaned coal with low ({approximately}1%) sulfur as a mild gasification feedstock, and (2) direct biodesulfurization of the liquids prior to thermocracking. In Case 1, the crude pitch is being produced by mild gasification of IBC-109 coal in an existing IGT bench-scale reactor, followed by distillation of the scrubbing solvent and light-to-middle oils to isolate the crude pitch. In Case 2, the crude pitch for biodesulfurization is the same material previously studied, which was obtained from Illinois No. 6 coal tests conducted in the IGT mild gasification PRU in 1990. Biodesulfurization is to be performed by contacting the pitch with Rhodococcus Rhodochrous either as live cultures or in the form of concentrated biocatalyst. Following preparation of the crude pitches, pitch upgrading experiments are to be conducted in a continuous flash thermocracker (FTC) constructed in previous ICCI-sponsored studies. The finished pitch is then characterized for physical and chemical properties (density, softening point, QI, TI, coking value, and elemental composition), and compared to typical specifications for binder pitches. This quarter, 45 kg of IBC-109 coal was obtained and sized to 40 x 80 mesh for mild gasification. Laboratory experiments were conducted to identify means of dispersing or emulsifying pitch in water to render is accessible to biocatalysts, and exploratory desulfurization tests on one-gram pitch samples were begun.

Knight, R.A. [Inst. of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

1994-12-31

21

Radioactivity connected with coal burning.  

PubMed

The enhanced environmental radioactivity resulting from the operation of a 72 MWe brown coal-fired power plant in central Italy is considered. A source-related control procedure is suggested. The calculated values for the atmospheric dispersion of radioactive effluents and the results of some measurements on brown coals, ash, environmental samples and gamma-exposure levels performed at representative points are reported. PMID:4081758

Borio, R; Campos Venuti, G; Risica, S; Simula, S

1985-10-01

22

Baghouse installation on pulverized coal-fired boilers burning low-sulfur eastern coals at Michigan State University  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the study made to determine the suitability of installing baghouses for the power plant boilers. It outlines the basic design criteria of the baghouse filter system, lists special design features incorporated in the baghouses, and covers startup and operating experiences.

P. A. Nilsson; T. J. Heil; P. Dimitry

1980-01-01

23

Coal. The Black Magic.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The coal reserves of the world and the U.S. are described with emphasis on resources of low sulfur coal. Environmental regulations on the amount of sulfur in coal allowed to be burned to produce electricity are summarized and the gap between the requireme...

R.P. Ouellette

1972-01-01

24

From in-situ coal to fly ash: a study of coal mines and power plants from Indiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents data on the properties of coal and fly ash from two coal mines and two power plants that burn single-source coal from two mines in Indiana. One mine is in the low-sulfur (5%) Springfield Coal Member of the Petersburg Formation (Pennsylvanian). Both seams have comparable ash contents (?11%). Coals sampled at the mines (both raw and washed

Maria Mastalerz; James C Hower; Agnieszka Drobniak; Sarah M Mardon; Grzegorz Lis

2004-01-01

25

Method for underground burning of coal for energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method and apparatus for generating heat from in situ in ground burning of coal. The method described involves lowering a boiler connected to a water line and a steam line into the burning coal region and heating the boiler to produce steam from water. The steam is useable to drive steam turbine\\/generator equipment or as a heat source. The

Hirch

1985-01-01

26

Eastern coal spray dryer evaluation. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development efforts for dry scrubbing technology for flue gas desulfurization (FGD) have been geared toward utility boilers burning low-sulfur western coals rather than eastern high-sulfur coals. This has been due to the low quantity of reagent and lower SOâ removal required with the use of western coals and has contributed to the economic attractiveness of the dry scrubber system. To

L. E. Sawyers; P. V. Smith; C. Caravano; B. J. Jankura

1984-01-01

27

Potential health impacts of burning coal beds and waste banks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Uncontrolled release of pollutants from burning coal beds and waste banks presents potential environmental and human health hazards. On a global scale, the emissions of large volumes of greenhouse gases from burning coal beds may contribute to climate change that alters ecosystems and patterns of disease occurrence. On regional and local scales, the emissions from burning coal beds and waste banks of acidic gases, particulates, organic compounds, and trace elements can contribute to a range of respiratory and other human health problems. Although there are few published reports of health problems caused by these emissions, the potential for problems can be significant. In India, large numbers of people have been displaced from their homes because of health problems caused by emissions from burning coal beds. Volatile elements such as arsenic, fluorine, mercury, and selenium are commonly enriched in coal deposits. Burning coal beds can volatilize these elements, which then can be inhaled, or adsorbed on crops and foods, taken up by livestock or bioaccumulated in birds and fish. Some of these elements can condense on dust particles that can be inhaled or ingested. In addition, selenium, arsenic, lead, tin, bismuth, fluorine, and other elements condense where the hot gaseous emissions come in contact with ambient air, forming mats of concentrated efflorescent minerals on the surface of the ground. These mats can be leached by rainwater and washed into local water bodies providing other potential routes of exposure. Although there are little data linking burning coal beds and waste banks to known health problems, a possibly analogous situation exists in rural China where mineralized coal burned in a residential environment has caused widespread and severe health problems such as fluorosis and arseniasis. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Finkelman, R. B.

2004-01-01

28

Economic Assessment of Coal Burning Diesel Locomotives: Topical Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The coal burning steam locomotive was displaced many years ago by the diesel electric locomotive due to its several well-known advantages. However, the recent escalation of diesel fuel oil prices and the relatively inexpensive and plentiful coal supply pr...

M. J. Hapeman S. D. Savkar

1985-01-01

29

Garbage and coal combination for clean burning fuel gas  

SciTech Connect

Columbia University professor Dr. Helmut Schulz gasification process to produce an inexpensive, clean-burning, high-energy fuel gas while helping to solve the problem of municipal waste disposal. Dr. Schulz contends that the process could produce the equivalent of 200 million barrels a year if it were used by the 50 largest US cities. The Simplex process combines coal with garbage in specially formulated briquettes which can be efficiently pyrolyzed to at a high temperatures. The patented briquetting procedure allows the use of eastern coals and permits efficient gas distribution. Simplex gas (a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen) burns at the same flame temperature as natural gas, simplifying fuel substitution. The ratio can be modified to synthesize methanol fuel. (DCK)

Not Available

1980-03-27

30

Basic problems with burning of coals of the Kansko-Achinsk basin at thermal electric power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kansko-Achinsk coals are characterized by a heat of combustion, low ash content, low sulfur concentration and high moisture content. Coals of the Berezovsk and Barandatsk formations have especially low ash content. The ash content of the Kansko-Achinsk coals is distinguished by a substantial concentration of calcium oxide (CaO = 20 to 60%), which is related to the organic part of

Y. L. Marshak; M. Y. Protsailo; V. M. Ivannikov; O. A. Kucheryavii

1981-01-01

31

Coal burning rate studies. Final report, September 1, 1978August 31, 1980  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of the work reported are: to obtain experimental data on the burning rate of individual coal particles in a bench scale fluidized bed; to develop a model of the burning rate of coal particles in a fluidized bed and compare the theory with the experimental data; and to investigate and analyze the unburned carbon carry-over from a bench

1980-01-01

32

Encoal mild coal gasification project: Final design modifications report  

SciTech Connect

The design, construction and operation Phases of the Encoal Mild Coal Gasification Project have been completed. The plant, designed to process 1,000 ton/day of subbituminous Power River Basin (PRB) low-sulfur coal feed and to produce two environmentally friendly products, a solid fuel and a liquid fuel, has been operational for nearly five years. The solid product, Process Derived Fuel (PDF), is a stable, low-sulfur, high-Btu fuel similar in composition and handling properties to bituminous coal. The liquid product, Coal Derived Liquid (CDL), is a heavy, low-sulfur, liquid fuel similar in properties to heavy industrial fuel oil. Opportunities for upgrading the CDL to higher value chemicals and fuels have been identified. Significant quantities of both PDF and CDL have been delivered and successfully burned in utility and industrial boilers. A summary of the Project is given.

NONE

1997-07-01

33

Lubricity requirement of low sulfur diesel fuels  

SciTech Connect

An engine rig test and a scuffing BOCLE test have been used to investigate the lubricity of low sulfur diesel fuels and its relationship with unit injector wear in heavy duty diesel engines. The rig test effectively ranks 11 selected fuels/fluids according to their actual performance. The scuffing BOCLE test correlates with the rig test by showing the same ranking capability, and it is easy to perform. A similar correlation has been established using ISO reference fuels. The scuffing BOCLE test has been to study 37 fuels randomly sampled from the field. The data shows that there is indeed a reduction in lubricity of low sulfur fuels. The variation in lubricity of low sulfur fuels is also much greater than high sulfur fuels. Data in this study shows that transition from good to poor lubricity usually occurs between 2500 to 3000 grams in the scuffing BOCLE. 7 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

Wang, J.C.; Reynolds, D.J.

1994-10-01

34

Development of the CO2 Acceptor Process Directed Towards Low-Sulfur Boiler Fuel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The economic and technical feasibility were studied of the adaptation of the CO2 Acceptor Process to the problem of producing low-sulfur, low-Btu power plant fuel by the gasification of bituminous coals. Combustion of fuel gas makes possible a drastic red...

B. Pasek C. E. Fink G. P. Curran J. T. Clancey M. Pell

1971-01-01

35

Process for clean-burning fuel from low-rank coal  

DOEpatents

A process for upgrading and stabilizing low-rank coal involving the sequential processing of the coal through three fluidized beds; first a dryer, then a pyrolyzer, and finally a cooler. The fluidizing gas for the cooler is the exit gas from the pyrolyzer with the addition of water for cooling. Overhead gas from pyrolyzing is likely burned to furnish the energy for the process. The product coal exits with a tar-like pitch sealant to enhance its safety during storage.

Merriam, Norman W. (Laramie, WY); Sethi, Vijay (Laramie, WY); Brecher, Lee E. (Laramie, WY)

1994-01-01

36

(Technology Data Base for utility gas turbines for burning coal-derived fuels)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technical progress made during FY 1979 to provide a critical-technology data base for utility gas-turbine systems capable of burning coal-derived fuels is summarized. Coal-derived fuels present two major problems to utility gas turbines. First, they are typically high in organcally bound nitrogen, which is converted in the combustion process to oxides of nitrogen (NO\\/sub x\\/). Second, they contain trace-metal

J. S. Clark; P. E. Hodge; C. E. Lowell; D. N. Anderson; D. F. Schulta

1981-01-01

37

Method of burning lightly loaded coal-water slurries  

DOEpatents

In a preferred arrangement of the method of the invention, a lightly loaded coal-water slurry, containing in the range of approximately 40% to 52% + 2% by weight coal, is atomized to strip water from coal particles in the mixture. Primary combustor air is forced around the atomized spray in a combustion chamber of a combustor to swirl the air in a helical path through the combustion chamber. A flame is established within the combustion chamber to ignite the stripped coal particles, and flame temperature regulating means are provided for maintaining the flame temperature within a desired predetermined range of temperatures that is effective to produce dry, essentially slag-free ash from the combustion process.

Krishna, C.R.

1984-07-27

38

Method and composition for modifying burning of sulfur in coals and hydrocarbon fuels  

SciTech Connect

Efficiency of internal combustion engine performance, I.E. Improved mileage per gallon, and improved performance, E.G. Lower exhaust temperature, is increased by the addition of carotenoids, beta-carotene in particular, to diesel fuel before use, and the combustion of coal is improved, I.E. higher btu/lb results, sulfur in emission from such coal combustion is reduced, and sulfur in ash is increased, by the addition of squalene, squalane , carotenoids, beta-carotene in particular, hemoglobin and chlorophyll to the coal before burning.

Jordan, F.L.

1981-06-23

39

Process for clean-burning fuel from low-rank coal  

DOEpatents

A process is described for upgrading and stabilizing low-rank coal involving the sequential processing of the coal through three fluidized beds; first a dryer, then a pyrolyzer, and finally a cooler. The fluidizing gas for the cooler is the exit gas from the pyrolyzer with the addition of water for cooling. Overhead gas from pyrolyzing is likely burned to furnish the energy for the process. The product coal exits with a tar-like pitch sealant to enhance its safety during storage. 1 fig.

Merriam, N.W.; Sethi, V.; Brecher, L.E.

1994-06-21

40

METEOROLOGICAL MEASUREMENTS IN THE VICINITY OF A COAL BURNING POWER PLANT  

EPA Science Inventory

High concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) are commonly observed uring the cool season in the vicinity of a 2.5 GW coal burning power plant located in the Mae Moh Valley of northern Thailand. The power plant is the source for nearly all of the observed So, since there are no oth...

41

OVERFIRE AIR TECHNOLOGY FOR TANGENTIALLY FIRED UTILITY BOILERS BURNING WESTERN U.S. COAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an investigation and evaluation of the effectiveness of overfire air in reducing NOx emissions from tangentially fired boilers burning Western U.S. coal. Results are compared with those obtained during phase II, 'Program for Reduction of NOx from Tange...

42

Particle and gas emissions from a simulated coal-burning household fire pit  

Microsoft Academic Search

An open fire was assembled with firebricks to simulate the household fire pit used in rural China, and 15 different coals from this area were burned to measure the gaseous and particulate emissions. Particle size distribution was studied with a microorifice uniform-deposit impactor (MOUDI). Over 90% of the particulate mass was attributed to sub-micrometer particles. The carbon balance method was

Linwei Tian; Donald Lucas; Susan L. Fischer; S. C. Lee; S. Katharine Hammond; Catherine P. Koshland

2008-01-01

43

Child Skeletal Fluorosis from Indoor Burning of Coal in Southwestern China  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We assess the prevalence and pathogenic stage of skeletal fluorosis among children and adolescents residing in a severe coal-burning endemic fluorosis area of southwest China. Methods. We used a cross-sectional design. A total of 1,616 students aged between 7 and 16 years in Zhijin County, Guizhou, China in late 2004 were selected via a cluster sampling of all 9-year compulsory education schools to complete the study questionnaire. Any student lived in a household that burned coal, used an open-burning stove, or baked foodstuffs over a coal stove was deemed high-risk for skeletal fluorosis. About 23% (370) of students (188 boys, 182 girls) were identified as high-risk and further examined by X-ray. Results. One-third of the 370 high-risk participants were diagnosed with skeletal fluorosis. Overall prevalence of child skeletal fluorosis due to indoor burning of coal was 7.5%. Children aged 12–16 years were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with skeletal fluorosis than children aged 7–11 years (OR = 1.84, 95% CI: 1.17–2.90; P = .0082). Four types of skeletal fluorosis were identified: constrictive (60.7%), raritas (15.6%), mixed (16.4%), and soft (7.4%). Most diagnosed cases (91%) were mild or moderate in severity. In addition, about 97% of 370 high-risk children were identified with dental fluorosis. Dental fluorosis was highly correlated with skeletal fluorosis in this study. Conclusions. Skeletal fluorosis among children may contribute to poor health and reduced productivity when they reach adulthood. Further efforts to reduce fluoride exposure among children in southwestern of China where coal is burned indoors are desperately needed.

Qin, Xianghui; Wang, Shouying; Yu, Maojuan; Zhang, Lei; Li, Xinhua; Zuo, Zhen; Zhang, Xiuhui; Wang, Lihua

2009-01-01

44

Burns  

MedlinePLUS

... In severe cases, such fluid loss can cause shock . Burns often lead to infection, due to damage ... trauma teams that care exclusively for patients with traumatic injuries that may accompany burns. How has basic ...

45

Significant emissions of 210Po by coal burning into the urban atmosphere of Seoul, Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We conducted a year-round survey of precipitation samples to investigate the sources of excess 210Po in the urban atmosphere of Seoul, Korea. The dominant fraction of 210Po in our samples, independent of the in-situ decay of tropospheric 210Pb, was linked with anthropogenic processes. Using vanadium and potassium as tracers, the excess 210Po was mainly attributed to combustion of coal, with minor contributions from biomass burning. The annual integrated amount of 210Po deposited over the Seoul area via precipitation was estimated to be 1.75 × 1010 Bq yr-1, which might represent a potential public health risk in the vicinity of major point sources, due to its highly adverse biological effects. Since the world coal consumption is growing, the magnitude of coal burning derived 210Po is expected to increase in the following decades, which should be carefully monitored.

Yan, Ge; Cho, Hyung-Mi; Lee, Insung; Kim, Guebuem

2012-07-01

46

Coal and cremation at the Tschudi burn, Chan Chan, Northern Peru  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Analyses of a 20-30 cm thick, completely combusted ash at the 25 ?? 70 m Tschudi burn at Chan Chan, northern Peru??, contain 52-55 wt% SiO2, 180-210 ppm zirconium and are consistent with coal ash. Soil geochemistry across the burn showed elevated calcium and phosphorus content, possible evidence for reported human cremation. A calcined, 5 g, 4.5 cm skull fragment recovered from the burn was confirmed as human by protein radioimmunoassay (pRIA). X-ray diffraction showed that the bone had been heated to 520??C. The burn took place c. ad 1312-1438 based on interpretation of a 14C date on carbonized plant tinder. ?? 2008 University of Oxford.

Brooks, W. E.; Galvez, Mora, C.; Jackson, J. C.; Mcgeehin, J. P.; Hood, D. G.

2008-01-01

47

Particle and gas emissions from a simulated coal-burning household fire pit  

SciTech Connect

An open fire was assembled with firebricks to simulate the household fire pit used in rural China, and 15 different coals from this area were burned to measure the gaseous and particulate emissions. Particle size distribution was studied with a microorifice uniform-deposit impactor (MOUDI). Over 90% of the particulate mass was attributed to sub-micrometer particles. The carbon balance method was used to calculate the emission factors. Emission factors for four pollutants (particulate matter, CO{sub 2}, total hydrocarbons, and NOx) were 2-4 times higher for bituminous coals than for anthracites. In past inventories of carbonaceous emissions used for climate modeling, these two types of coal were not treated separately. The dramatic emission factor difference between the two types of coal warrants attention in the future development of emission inventories. 25 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

Linwei Tian; Donald Lucas; Susan L. Fischer; S. C. Lee; S. Katharine Hammond; Catherine P. Koshland [University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). School of Public Health

2008-04-01

48

Particle and gas emissions from a simulated coal-burning household fire pit.  

PubMed

An open fire was assembled with firebricks to simulate the household fire pit used in rural China, and 15 different coals from this area were burned to measure the gaseous and particulate emissions. Particle size distribution was studied with a microorifice uniform-deposit impactor (MOUDI). Over 90% of the particulate mass was attributed to sub-micrometer particles. The carbon balance method was used to calculate the emission factors. Emission factors for four pollutants (particulate matter, CO2, total hydrocarbons, and NOx) were 2-4 times higherfor bituminous coals than for anthracites. In past inventories of carbonaceous emissions used for climate modeling, these two types of coal were not treated separately. The dramatic emission factor difference between the two types of coal warrants attention in the future development of emission inventories. PMID:18504988

Tian, Linwei; Lucas, Donald; Fischer, Susan L; Lee, S C; Hammond, S Katharine; Koshland, Catherine P

2008-04-01

49

Formation and use of coal combustion residues from three types of power plants burning Illinois coals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal, ash, and limestone samples from a fluidized bed combustion (FBC) plant, a pulverized coal combustion (PC) plant, and a cyclone (CYC) plant in Illinois were analyzed to determine the combustion behavior of mineral matter, and to propose beneficial uses for the power plant ashes. Pyrite and marcasite in coal were converted during combustion to glass, hematite and magnetite. Calcite

Ilham Demir; Randall E Hughes; Philip J DeMaris

2001-01-01

50

Development of a process for producing an ashless, low-sulfur fuel from coal. Volume IV. Product studies. Part 10. Final report of coal liquids catalyst work performed at Oklahoma State University. Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) process, June 17, 1970June 16, 1975  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report provides a summary of the coal liquids catalyst work at Oklahoma State University. The broad overall objective of this work has been to specifically tailor heterogeneous catalysts for upgrading coal derived liquids. The more specific goal has been to assess the effects of catalyst support pore properties on sulfur and nitrogen removal from certain coal liquids.

Crynes

1979-01-01

51

Reductive burning of high-yield spent pulping liquors by the addition of pulverized coal  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on the reductive burning of high-yield spent pulping liquors which can be accomplished by the addition of pulverized coal to increase the heat content and generate the proper reducing conditions. Samples from a 78%-yield sodium bisulfite pulping process employing a hardwood furnish were mixed with 10-50% pulveriized coal and burned at 950[degrees]C under reducing conditions in a box furnace. Even in these uncontrolled combustion conditions 76. 5% of the sulfur found in the soluble portion of the smelt was converted from lignousulfonates to useful sulfide ion. For the remainder of the sulfur, analyses determined it to be 19. 5% as sulfite ion, 3. 1% as thiosulfate ion, and 0.9% as sulfate ion.

Sell, N.J.; Norman, J.C. (Natural and Applied Sciences, Univ. of Wisconsin-Green Bay, Green Bay, WI (United States))

1992-10-01

52

Urinary Arsenic Speciation and its Correlation with 8-OHdG in Chinese Residents Exposed to Arsenic Through Coal Burning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In contrast to arsenicosis caused by consumption of water contaminated by naturally occurring inorganic arsenic, human exposure\\u000a to this metalloid through coal burning has been rarely reported. In this study, arsenic speciation and 8-hydroxy-2?-deoxyguanosine\\u000a (8-OHdG) levels in urine were determined in the Chinese residents exposed to arsenic through coal burning in Guizhou, China,\\u000a an epidemic area of chronic arsenic poisoning

Xin Li; Jingbo Pi; Bing Li; Yuanyuan Xu; Yaping Jin; Guifan Sun

2008-01-01

53

Burns  

MedlinePLUS

... 2nd Degree: partial thickness skin damage—blisters present 3rd Degree: full thickness skin damage—skin is white ... excision of damaged skin followed by skin grafting. 3rd Degree (Full Thickness Burns): The dead skin will ...

54

Burns  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... the inner layer of the skin, contains • Blood vessels • nerves • lymph vessels • hair follicles • glands This document is for informational ... are destroyed. Burns cause severe damage to blood vessels. This type of damage causes fluid to seep ...

55

Wintertime organic aerosols in Christchurch and Auckland, New Zealand: contributions of residential wood and coal burning and petroleum utilization  

SciTech Connect

Wintertime PM10 samples from two New Zealand cities (Christchurch and Auckland) have been characterized using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry for biomass burning tracers, hopanes, n-alkanes, fatty acids, n-alkanols and sugars. The aerosol samples of Christchurch, which were heavily influenced by residential wood and coal burning, showed substantially higher ambient concentrations for most of the organic compounds than those of Auckland, where major sources of aerosols were vehicular emissions and sea-salt. Mass ratios between the biomass burning tracers studied were found to be significantly different (e.g., {beta}-sitosterol to nssK{sup +} ratios were more than three times higher in Christchurch than in Auckland), although levoglucosan to nssK{sup +} ratios were similar at the both sites. We also estimated, for the first time using stereochemical configurations of hopanes, that 60% of fossil fuel emissions came from petroleum utilization with the remaining 40% being from coal burning in Christchurch. In contrast, contribution of coal burning was negligible in Auckland. Moreover, contributions of most biomass burning tracers to organic carbon (OC) were significantly higher in Christchurch than in Auckland. On the other hand, saccharides (excluding levoglucosan) and hopanes accounted for larger fractions of OC in Auckland. This study demonstrates that intensive wood and coal burning can significantly affect organic aerosol composition in an urban environment. 46 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Haobo Wang; Kimitaka Kawamura; David Shooter [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Institute of Low-Temperature Science

2006-09-01

56

Comprehensive report to Congress: Clean Coal Technology program: ENCOAL mild coal gasification project: A project proposed by ENCOAL Corporation  

SciTech Connect

This project involves the mild gasification of coal at moderate temperatures and near atmospheric pressure to produce two marketable products. Both products are new low-sulfur fuel forms. The high heating value, low-sulfur solid is called Process Derived Fuel (PDF). The low-sulfur, heavy-hydrocarbon liquid is called Coal Derived Liquid (CDL). The process chemically modifies the feed coal to create the two new fuel forms and also removes most of the moisture and some of the sulfur, depending on the sulfur form in the feed coal. The proposed demonstration plant would be put in service by the first quarter of 1992. The plant would be designed and operated as a small commercial facility and would be expected to produce sufficient quantities of PDF and CDL to conduct full-scale test burns of the products in industrial and utility boilers. There will be no waste water or toxic solid wastes generated by the demonstration plant. Source water requirements will have a very minimal environmental impact at the site. The plant could ultimately have a very favorable impact on sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions in the United States if the project is successful. ENCOAL has estimated that the new fuel forms, PDF and CDL, from one commercial plant using the LFC Technology would reduce SO{sub 2} emissions by about 160,000 tons per year when burned at utility customers plants. 5 figs., 1 tab.

Not Available

1990-06-01

57

From in-situ coal to fly ash: A study of coal mines and power plants from Indiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper presents data on the properties of coal and fly ash from two coal mines and two power plants that burn single-source coal from two mines in Indiana. One mine is in the low-sulfur (5%) Springfield Coal Member of the Petersburg Formation (Pennsylvanian). Both seams have comparable ash contents (???11%). Coals sampled at the mines (both raw and washed fractions) were analyzed for proximate/ultimate/sulfur forms/heating value, major oxides, trace elements and petrographic composition. The properties of fly ash from these coals reflect the properties of the feed coal, as well as local combustion and post-combustion conditions. Sulfur and spinel content, and As, Pb and Zn concentrations of the fly ash are the parameters that most closely reflect the properties of the source coal. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Mastalerz, M.; Hower, J. C.; Drobniak, A.; Mardon, S. M.; Lis, G.

2004-01-01

58

The use of medium volatile coals in the coking blend at the Burns Harbor Plant of Bethlehem Steel Corporation  

SciTech Connect

In an effort to maximize coke productivity and minimize the dependency on purchased coke supplies, Burns Harbor personnel began to consider the use of alternate coal blends which would increase both coke quality and coke yield and, consequently, decrease the outside coke requirements. In the past, Bethlehem, relied almost entirely on captive coal reserves and, as a result, coke plant personnel could not make major modifications to the coal blend composition because of the limited number of captive coal types. However, as business conditions changed, Bethlehem, like many other integrated producers, began to divest itself from many of the captive coal reserves. This change in Corporate strategy changed the manner in which the coke plant personnel developed their business plan coal blends. Now, coke plant personnel could consider making major changes to the coal blend composition because of the larger selection of coals that was now available.

Downey, J.; Benedict, L.G.; Strauss, A.D. (Bethlehem Steel Corp., PA (United States))

1993-01-01

59

Variation of elements in self-burning coal seam from Coalspur, Alberta, Canada  

SciTech Connect

The elemental and mineralogical variation in a self-burning coal seam from Coalspur, Alberta, is determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The elemental variation in the coal seam is related to temperatures in the various alteration zones, i.e., oxidation, combustion, or carbonization and nature of elements. Mobilization of elements is greatest for As, Br, Cl, Mo, N, S, and Sb. Some of these elements are released to the atmosphere, as evident by the presence of orthorombic sulfur crystals on the surface or in vents at the top of the burning seam or saturation of oxidation char by volatile matter (tar). Whewellite (CaC{sub 2}O{sub 4}, H{sub 2}O) is the only Ca-bearing mineral found in the cooler area of the coal seam. Decomposition of this mineral, coupled with the presence of SO{sub 2} formed by reaction of organic sulfur with O{sub 2} in combustion, resulted in formation of a relatively high gypsum content in the combustion zone.

Goodarzi, F. (Institute of Sedimentary and Petroleum Geology, Calgary, AB (Canada))

1990-01-01

60

Field tests of fabric filters on full-scale coal-fired utility boilers. Volume 1. Martin Drake Unit 6, Ray D. Nixon Unit 1, Cherokee Unit 3, Cameo Unit 2, and Arapahoe Unit 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report discusses the results of a field investigation of full-scale baghouses collecting fly ash at five coal-fired power plants. All five plants burned western, low-sulfur, subbituminous coal and were equipped with baghouses cleaned by reverse gas. Since all of the baghouses operated with clear stacks, particulate collection efficiencies were not measured. Instead, attention was focused on parameters associated with

L. G. Felix; K. M. Cushing; R. L. Merritt; W. B. Smith

1985-01-01

61

Benefits of Reducing Prenatal Exposure to Coal-Burning Pollutants to Children's Neurodevelopment in China  

PubMed Central

Background Coal burning provides 70% of the energy for China’s industry and power, but releases large quantities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other pollutants. PAHs are reproductive and developmental toxicants, mutagens, and carcinogens. Objective We evaluated the benefit to neurobehavioral development from the closure of a coal-fired power plant that was the major local source of ambient PAHs. Methods The research was conducted in Tongliang, Chongqing, China, where a coal-fired power plant operated seasonally before it was shut down in May 2004. Two identical prospective cohort studies enrolled nonsmoking women and their newborns in 2002 (before shutdown) and 2005 (after shutdown). Prenatal PAH exposure was measured by PAH–DNA adducts (benzo[a]pyrene–DNA) in umbilical cord blood. Child development was assessed by the Gesell Developmental Schedules at 2 years of age. Prenatal exposure to other neurotoxicants and potential confounders (including lead, mercury, and environmental tobacco smoke) was measured. We compared the cohorts regarding the association between PAH–DNA adduct levels and neurodevelopmental outcomes. Results Significant associations previously seen in 2002 between elevated adducts and decreased motor area developmental quotient (DQ) (p = 0.043) and average DQ (p = 0.047) were not observed in the 2005 cohort (p = 0.546 and p = 0.146). However, the direction of the relationship did not change. Conclusion The findings indicate that neurobehavioral development in Tongliang children benefited by elimination of PAH exposure from the coal-burning plant, consistent with the significant reduction in PAH–DNA adducts in cord blood of children in the 2005 cohort. The results have implications for children’s environmental health in China and elsewhere.

Perera, Frederica; Li, Tin-yu; Zhou, Zhi-jun; Yuan, Tao; Chen, Yu-hui; Qu, Lirong; Rauh, Virginia A.; Zhang, Yiguan; Tang, Deliang

2008-01-01

62

Quantitative measurement of atomic sodium in the plume of a single burning coal particle  

SciTech Connect

The release of volatile sodium during coal combustion is a significant factor in the fouling and corrosion of heat transfer surfaces within industrial coal-fired boilers. A method for measuring the temporal release of atomic sodium from a single coal particle is described. Laser absorption was used to calibrate laser-induced fluorescence measurements of atomic sodium utilising the sodium D1 line (589.59 nm) in a purpose-designed flat flame environment. The calibration was then applied to planar laser-induced fluorescence measurements of sodium atoms in the plume from a single Victorian brown coal particle (53 mg) suspended within the flat flame. The peak concentration of atomic sodium was approximately 64.1 ppb after 1080.5 s, which appears to correspond to the end of char combustion. To our knowledge this is the first in situ quantitative measurement of the concentration field of atomic sodium in the plume above a burning particle. A simple kinetic model has been used to estimate the rate of sodium decay in the post-flame gases. Comparison of the estimated and measured decay rates showed reasonable agreement. (author)

van Eyk, P.J.; Ashman, P.J.; Alwahabi, Z.T. [Cooperative Research Centre for Clean Power from Lignite, School of Chemical Engineering, The University of Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia); Nathan, G.J. [School of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia)

2008-11-15

63

A comparative study of fly ash from coal-burning installations (PCC and FBC)  

SciTech Connect

The predicted substantial rise in coal consumption in the Netherlands in the last two decades of this century - from 8.4 million tonnes in 1985 to 35.0 in 2000 against 3.9 in 1975 - necessitates a concerted action to study the consequences of such an increase. In this TNO laboratory, research on the environmental aspects of fly ash emissions is carried out within the framework of the Dutch National Research Programme on Coal Technology (NOK). This paper presents the results of a study aimed to compare the morphology and chemical properties of fly ash from the same coal obtained in two different combustion processes. It was envisaged that the results could provide an insight into the environmentally important differences between these fly ashes. Those differences could also be relevant with regard to the ways of disposal and use of fly ash. The formation of fly ash, the concentration and distribution of trace elements in or on fly ash particles strongly depend on the nature of the combustion process. Most modern electricity producing power plants use pulverised coal combustors (PCC), where fine coal particles of a size generally not exceeding 100 ..mu..m are injected into the furnace and burned at a high heating rate with temperatures reaching as high as 1600/sup 0/ C. At such temperatures most of the mineral matter in coal will have either melted (clay minerals) or evaporated (volatile trace element compounds, for example, those of As, Se, Pb etc.). As a result, spherical fly ash particles are formed, composed of an amorphous glassy or crystalline (mullite) matrix upon which the volatile compounds condense in the cooler parts of the combustor.

Gay, A.J.; van Duin, P.J.; von Rosentiel, A.P.

1983-06-01

64

Molecular and neurodevelopmental benefits to children of closure of a coal burning power plant in China.  

PubMed

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are major toxic air pollutants released during incomplete combustion of coal. PAH emissions are especially problematic in China because of their reliance on coal-powered energy. The prenatal period is a window of susceptibility to neurotoxicants. To determine the health benefits of reducing air pollution related to coal-burning, we compared molecular biomarkers of exposure and preclinical effects in umbilical cord blood to neurodevelopmental outcomes from two successive birth cohorts enrolled before and after a highly polluting, coal-fired power plant in Tongliang County, China had ceased operation. Women and their newborns in the two successive cohorts were enrolled at the time of delivery. We measured PAH-DNA adducts, a biomarker of PAH-exposure and DNA damage, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a protein involved in neuronal growth, in umbilical cord blood. At age two, children were tested using the Gesell Developmental Schedules (GDS). The two cohorts were compared with respect to levels of both biomarkers in cord blood as well as developmental quotient (DQ) scores across 5 domains. Lower levels of PAH-DNA adducts, higher concentrations of the mature BDNF protein (mBDNF) and higher DQ scores were seen in the 2005 cohort enrolled after closure of the power plant. In the two cohorts combined, PAH-DNA adducts were inversely associated with mBDNF as well as scores for motor (p?=?0.05), adaptive (p?=?0.022), and average (p?=?0.014) DQ. BDNF levels were positively associated with motor (p?=?0.018), social (p?=?0.001), and average (p?=?0.017) DQ scores. The findings indicate that the closure of a coal-burning plant resulted in the reduction of PAH-DNA adducts in newborns and increased mBDNF levels that in turn, were positively associated with neurocognitive development. They provide further evidence of the direct benefits to children's health as a result of the coal plant shut down, supporting clean energy and environmental policies in China and elsewhere. PMID:24647528

Tang, Deliang; Lee, Joan; Muirhead, Loren; Li, Ting Yu; Qu, Lirong; Yu, Jie; Perera, Frederica

2014-01-01

65

Epoxy-borax-coal tar composition for a radiation protective, burn resistant drum liner and centrifugal casting method  

DOEpatents

A boron containing burn resistant, low level radiation protection material useful, for example, as a liner for radioactive waste disposal and storage, a component for neutron absorber, and a shield for a neutron source. The material is basically composed of Borax in the range of 25-50%, coal tar in the range of 25-37.5%, with the remainder being an epoxy resin mix. A preferred composition is 50% Borax, 25% coal tar and 25% epoxy resin. The material is not susceptible to burning and is about 1/5 the cost of existing radiation protection material utilized in similar applications.

Taylor, Robert S. (Livermore, CA); Boyer, Norman W. (Livermore, CA)

1980-01-01

66

REVAMPING DIESEL HYDROTREATERS FOR ULTRA-LOW SULFUR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Just over two years remain before refiners must meet the new ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) specifications. Much has been learned about the chemistry of ULSD production since the EPA began discussing the new requirements. This paper discusses the kinetic and hydrogen requirement barriers to ULSD production and the impact these barriers have on the design of a conventional unit revamp.

Michael D. Ackerson

67

Two stages light gasoil hydrotreating for low sulfur diesel production  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to study the possibility for production of ultra low sulfur diesel in existent industrial plants, different tests of hydrotreating was developed in plant pilot. Hydrotreating of light gasoil (LGO) in two stages using a commercial catalyst of Co–Mo supported in alumina was made. The LGO was fed twice trough the reactor at operating conditions of industrial plants. The

S. Ramírez; C. Cabrera; C. Aguilar; H. Vaca; P. Vega; R. Agueda; A. García; R. Santiago; P. Schacht

2004-01-01

68

Composition and morphology of char particles of fly ashes from industrial burning of high-ash coals with different reactivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative investigation of the composition and the morphology of char particles was conducted: char particles were recovered from fly ashes of two power stations in Russia from burning of high- and low-reactivity high-ash coals; the known results of studies of char particles generated in laboratory conditions from coals characterized according to the ASTM D388-98a standard were also used. The

O. M. Sharonova; N. N. Anshits; V. V. Yumashev; A. G. Anshits

2008-01-01

69

Reduction of NO sub x and SO sub 2 emissions from coal burning pulse combustors  

SciTech Connect

Work accomplished during this quarter is presented and discussed. This project is concerned with the reduction of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emissions from Rijke type coal burning pulse combustors by sorbent addition and combustion staging. This quarter the assembly and installation of the sorbent feed system was completed. A series of baseline experiments was then completed to determine the NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} emissions in the absence of sorbent addition or combustion staging. For the baseline tests, sound pressure levels, frequencies, exhaust gas compositions (CO{sub 2}, CO, O{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2}) and temperatures were measured as a function of air/fuel ratio for a fixed coal feed rate of 75 g/min. Next a series of air staging tests was conducted to determine the effectiveness of substoichiometric primary coal combustion followed by secondary air injection above the bed in reducing the NO{sub x} emissions. Finally a series of non-pulsating tests was performed to determine the effect of pulsations on the NO{sub x} emissions. Comparison of the results of the pulsating and non-pulsating tests indicate that pulsations greatly increase the combustion efficiency for a given air/fuel radio. Unfortunately pulsations also greatly increase the efficiency with which the fuel-bound nitrogen is converted into nitrogen oxides.

Powell, E. A.; Zinn, B. T.

1990-05-01

70

A unique way to make ultra low sulfur diesel  

Microsoft Academic Search

SK Corporation has developed a new process, SK HDS Pretreatment process that enables the refiners to produce economically\\u000a ultra-low-sulfur-diesel of below 10 ppm. This technology is based on the adsorptive removal of nitrogen containing compounds\\u000a (NCC) from the feedstock to conventional hydrodesulfurization (HDS) units. The NCC is known to interfere with the activity\\u000a of HDS catalysts. In the SK HDS

Whasik Min

2002-01-01

71

Sedimentation in biodiesel and Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel Fuel blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

A biodiesel storage stability study was conducted on Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel Fuel (ULSDF) and three biodiesel fuels (B100), including a Tallow-based Methyl Ester (TME), a Canola-based Methyl Ester (CME), and, a Yellow Grease Methyl Ester (YGME), and fuel blends (B5 and B20). The stability study was conducted over ten months (Aug 07–Jun 08) and consisted of storing fuel samples

M. Farahani; D. J. Y. S. Pagé; M. P. Turingia

2011-01-01

72

Catalyst for ultra-low sulfur and aromatic diesel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A WNiPd\\/TiO2·Al2O3 new catalyst with improved desulfurization and hydrogenating capabilities was tested to produce ultra-low sulfur and aromatics diesel oil. The removal of the sterically hindered sulfur and nitrogen containing polyaromatic molecules is studied. It was observed that the new catalyst surface structure promotes the hydrogenating and ring opening of poly-alkyl-poly-aromatics that are less limiting step than that with conventional

Roberto Galiasso Tailleur; Juan Ravigli; Samuel Quenza; Norma Valencia

2005-01-01

73

OXIDATION OF MERCURY ACROSS SCR CATALYSTS IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS BURNING LOW RANK FUELS  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this program were to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel and to develop a greater understanding of mercury oxidation across SCR catalysts in the form of a simple model. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Argillon GmbH provided co-funding for this program. REI used a multicatalyst slipstream reactor to determine oxidation of mercury across five commercial SCR catalysts at a power plant that burned a blend of 87% subbituminous coal and 13% bituminous coal. The chlorine content of the blend was 100 to 240 {micro}g/g on a dry basis. Mercury measurements were carried out when the catalysts were relatively new, corresponding to about 300 hours of operation and again after 2,200 hours of operation. NO{sub x}, O{sub 2} and gaseous mercury speciation at the inlet and at the outlet of each catalyst chamber were measured. In general, the catalysts all appeared capable of achieving about 90% NO{sub x} reduction at a space velocity of 3,000 hr{sup -1} when new, which is typical of full-scale installations; after 2,200 hours exposure to flue gas, some of the catalysts appeared to lose NO{sub x} activity. For the fresh commercial catalysts, oxidation of mercury was in the range of 25% to 65% at typical full-scale space velocities. A blank monolith showed no oxidation of mercury under any conditions. All catalysts showed higher mercury oxidation without ammonia, consistent with full-scale measurements. After exposure to flue gas for 2,200 hours, some of the catalysts showed reduced levels of mercury oxidation relative to the initial levels of oxidation. A model of Hg oxidation across SCRs was formulated based on full-scale data. The model took into account the effects of temperature, space velocity, catalyst type and HCl concentration in the flue gas.

Constance Senior

2004-12-31

74

OXIDATION OF MERCURY ACROSS SCR CATALYSTS IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS BURNING LOW RANK FUELS  

SciTech Connect

This is the first Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-03NT41728. The objective of this program is to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Ceramics GmbH are providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, analysis of the coal, ash and mercury speciation data from the first test series was completed. Good agreement was shown between different methods of measuring mercury in the flue gas: Ontario Hydro, semi-continuous emission monitor (SCEM) and coal composition. There was a loss of total mercury across the commercial catalysts, but not across the blank monolith. The blank monolith showed no oxidation. The data from the first test series show the same trend in mercury oxidation as a function of space velocity that has been seen elsewhere. At space velocities in the range of 6,000-7,000 hr{sup -1} the blank monolith did not show any mercury oxidation, with or without ammonia present. Two of the commercial catalysts clearly showed an effect of ammonia. Two other commercial catalysts showed an effect of ammonia, although the error bars for the no-ammonia case are large. A test plan was written for the second test series and is being reviewed.

Constance Senior; Temi Linjewile

2003-07-25

75

(Technology Data Base for utility gas turbines for burning coal-derived fuels)  

SciTech Connect

The technical progress made during FY 1979 to provide a critical-technology data base for utility gas-turbine systems capable of burning coal-derived fuels is summarized. Coal-derived fuels present two major problems to utility gas turbines. First, they are typically high in organcally bound nitrogen, which is converted in the combustion process to oxides of nitrogen (NO/sub x/). Second, they contain trace-metal contaminants that can lead to hot corrosion and/or fouling in turbine hot sections. A combustion task is under way to address the first problem. A literature survey of coal-derived fuel properties was completed and a NO/sub x/ emission model was developed. A two-stage test rig was designed and tests were run to study the conversion of fuel-bound nitrogen to NO/sub x/. Catalytic combustion tests were also initiated to evaluate the feasibility of using heavy in catalytic combustors. To address the second problem, a statistially designed series of hot-corrosion burner rig tests were coducted to measure the corrosion rates of typical gas-turbine alloys with several fuel contaminants. The resultant data have been correlated into a hot-corrosion-life prediction model. This model was extended to longer times in 1979. Another approach to solving the hot-corrosion problem is to use a fuel additive that inhibits hot corrosion. Barium and strontium were identified as being particularly beneficial fuel additives. Still another approach to preventing hot corrosion is to protect the hot components with a coating. Ceramic thermal-barrier coatings offer potential corrosion resistance as well as thermal protection. Several advanced thermal-barrier coatings have demonstrated promising hot-corrosion resistance. Coating life was found to be a strong function of coating thickness.

Clark, J.S.; Hodge, P.E.; Lowell, C.E.; Anderson, D.N.; Schulta, D.F.

1981-03-01

76

Coal-Fired Power Plant (Western Coal): Environmental characterization information report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The latest available environmental and technical information on coal-fired power plants was collected from a number of sources. The typical plant chosen for characterization was a 500/MWe pulverized-coal plant burning western low-sulfur coal. The plant uses an electrostatic precipitator, a lime/limestone scrubber, and a wet, mechanical draft cooling tower. The plant fuel is supplied from offsite mines by unit-train deliveries with surface mined, thick seam coal, which undergoes minimum preparation prior to pulverization. The process, plant operating parameters, resources needed, and environmental residuals and products associated with the power plant are presented. Annual resource usage and pollutant discharges are given, assuming an annual plant capacity factor of 80 percent. Quantities are given in terms of ten to the twelth power Btu's of electric energy produced. Several plants are discussed individually. Environmental regulations are discussed. The overall physical requirements of the plant for land and water are discussed.

1981-01-01

77

An atmospheric pressure, fluidized bed combustion system burning high-chlorine coals in the convection section  

SciTech Connect

The possibility of fireside corrosion in power plant boiler components is always a major concern when the fuels include high-sulfur and high-chlorine coals (or refuse waste). Sulfur and chloride products may play important roles especially in fireside corrosion in atmospheric pressure, fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) systems, caused by the capture of sulfur and chlorine by limestone used as bed material in the combustor, and the resulting deposition of sulfur- or chlorine-rich compounds onto metallic surfaces. Results were reported from tests in a 0.1-MW{sub th} AFBC system where 1,000-h test burns were conducted using two coals with widely differing chlorine levels, and limestone was used as the sulfur sorbent. Coupons of three stainless steels (Types 304 [UNS S30400], 309 [UNS S30900], 347 [UNS S34700]) were exposed to the hot flue gases in the freeboard ({approximately} 10- cm below the location of the convection pass tubes). Deposits formed on the alloys contained high sulfur concentrations in their outer parts, as well as sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium. Sulfur appeared to be associated with calcium and magnesium, suggesting that the fly ash may have reacted further after being deposited on the surface of the coupon. Areas of high sulfur concentration also correlated well with areas of high chromium content of the inner layers of the scales. cross sections of samples indicated that sulfur had penetrated into the alloy and reacted to form sulfide corrosion products. There was no direct evidence to show that alkali chlorides were involved in the corrosion process. No chloride was identified in the alloy samples. There was slight oxide spallation observed on all three alloys, with the degree of spallation in the following order: Type 304 > Type 347 > Type 309.

Liu, K.; Xie, W.; Pan, W.P.; Riley, J.T.

2000-03-01

78

Epoxy-borax-coal tar composition for a radiation protective, burn resistant drum liner and centrifugal casting method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A boron containing burn resistant, low level radiation protection material useful, for example, as a liner for radioactive waste disposal and storage, a component for neutron absorber, and a shield for a neutron source. The material is basically composed of borax in the range of 25-50%, coal tar in the range of 25-37.5%, with the remainder being an epoxy resin

N. W. Boyer; R. S. Taylor

1980-01-01

79

Heat transfer to horizontal tubes in a pilot-scale fluidized-bed combustor burning low-rank coals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental data are obtained for the heat transfer coefficient between immersed horizontal tube bundles and an atmospheric-fluidized-bed combustor burning low-rank coals. Silica sand (d\\/sub p\\/ = 888 to 1484 ..mu..m) and limestone (d\\/sub p\\/ = 716 to 1895 ..mu..m) are used as bed material. The tests are conducted, with and without limestone addition and ash recycle, at average bed temperatures

N. S. Grewal; G. Goblirsch

1983-01-01

80

Heat transfer to horizontal tubes in a pilot-scale fluidized-bed combustor burning low-rank coals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental data are obtained for the heat transfer coefficient between immersed horizontal tube bundles and an atmospheric-fluidized-bed combustor burning low-rank coals. Silica sand and limestone are used as bed material. The tests are conducted, with and without limestone addition and ash recycle, at average bed temperatures ranging from 1047 to 1125 K, superficial fluidizing velocity of 1.66 to 2.04 m\\/s,

N. S. Grewal; G. Goblirsch

1983-01-01

81

HEAT TRANSFER TO HORIZONTAL TUBES IN A PILOT-SCALE FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTOR BURNING LOW-RANK COALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental data are obtained for the heat transfer coefficient between immersed horiziontal tube bundles and an atmospheric-fluidized-bed combustor burning low-rank coals. Silica sand (dp = 888 to 1484 ?m) and limestone (dp 7= 716 to 1895 ?m) are used as bed material. The tests are conducted, with and without limestone addition and ash recycle, at average bed temperatures ranging from 1047 to

N. S. GREWAL; E. S. SORENSON; G. GOBLIRSCH

1985-01-01

82

[The quality of voice in coal-miners after burn/inhalation injury due to methane explosion].  

PubMed

The job as a coal-miner exposes to the greatest risk. One of the most dangerous health hazard is a burn/inhalation injury during the methane explosion. The victims undergo physical trauma, effect of high temperature and inhalation of toxic gases and products of incomplete combustion, As a result of inhalation injury both, upper and lower airways are affected. The aim of the study was to analyse the relationship between burn/inhalation injury and quality of voice in affected coal-miners. A group of 23 patients (men) in age from 28 to 59 (mean 38.5) 3 years after burn/inhalation injury participated in this study. The voice evaluation based on ENT examination, videlaryngostroboscopy, acoustic analysis, MPT parameter and GRBAS analysis was performed. The special control group of coal-miners served as a control. On the basis of the subjective evaluation and the objective acoustic analysis, aerodynamic parameter and videlaryngostroboscopy the worse quality of voice in the group of injured coalminers was shown in comparison to the control group. No substantial correlation between the acoustic parameters, MPT parameter and ventilating rates was found. PMID:22500499

Orecka, Boguslawa; Sikora, ?ukasz; Misio?ek, Maciej; Fira, Rafa?; Mi?kiewicz-Orczyk, Katarzyna; Paluch, Zbigniew; Krzywiecki, Andrzej; Grzanka, Alicja; Namys?owski, Grzegorz

2012-01-01

83

Process for producing low-sulfur boiler fuel by hydrotreatment of solvent deashed SRC  

DOEpatents

In this invention, a process is disclosed characterized by heating a slurry of coal in the presence of a process-derived recycle solvent and passing same to a dissolver zone, separating the resultant gases and liquid/solid products therefrom, vacuum distilling the liquid/solids products, separating the portions of the liquid/solids vacuum distillation effluent into a solid ash, unconverted coal particles and SRC material having a boiling point above 850.degree. F. and subjecting same to a critical solvent deashing step to provide an ash-free SRC product. The lighter liquid products from the vacuum distillation possess a boiling point below 850.degree. F. and are passed through a distillation tower, from which recycled solvent is recovered in addition to light distillate boiling below 400.degree. F. (overhead). The ash-free SRC product in accompanyment with at least a portion of the process derived solvent is passed in combination to a hydrotreating zone containing a hydrogenation catalyst and in the presence of hydrogen is hydroprocessed to produce a desulfurized and denitrogenized low-sulfur, low-ash boiler fuel and a process derived recycle solvent which is recycled to slurry the coal in the beginning of the process before heating.

Roberts, George W. (Emmaus, PA); Tao, John C. (Perkiomenville, PA)

1985-01-01

84

Physical Coal Cleaning for Utility Boiler SO2 Emission Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report examines physical coal cleaning as a control technique for sulfur oxides emissions. It includes an analysis of the availability of low-sulfur coal and of coal cleanable to compliance levels for alternate New Source Performance Standards (NSPS)....

E. H. Hall L. Hoffman J. Hoffman R. A. Schilling

1978-01-01

85

OXIDATION OF MERCURY ACROSS SCR CATALYSTS IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS BURNING LOW RANK FUELS  

SciTech Connect

This is the third Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-03NT41728. The objective of this program is to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Argillon GmbH are providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, the second set of mercury measurements was made after the catalysts had been exposed to flue gas for about 2,000 hours. There was good agreement between the Ontario Hydro measurements and the SCEM measurements. Carbon trap measurements of total mercury agreed fairly well with the SCEM. There did appear to be some loss of mercury in the sampling system toward the end of the sampling campaign. NO{sub x} reductions across the catalysts ranged from 60% to 88%. Loss of total mercury across the commercial catalysts was not observed, as it had been in the March/April test series. It is not clear whether this was due to aging of the catalyst or to changes in the sampling system made between March/April and August. In the presence of ammonia, the blank monolith showed no oxidation. Two of the commercial catalysts showed mercury oxidation that was comparable to that in the March/April series. The other three commercial catalysts showed a decrease in mercury oxidation relative to the March/April series. Oxidation of mercury increased without ammonia present. Transient experiments showed that when ammonia was turned on, mercury appeared to desorb from the catalyst, suggesting displacement of adsorbed mercury by the ammonia.

Constance Senior; Temi Linjewile

2003-10-31

86

PROCEEDINGS ON SYNCHROTRON RADIATION: Investigation of sulfur speciation in particles from small coal-burning boiler by XANES spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy was employed to study the speciation of sulfur in raw coal, ash by-product and fine particulate matter from a small coal-burning boiler. By means of least square analysis of the XANES spectra, the major organic and inorganic sulfur forms were quantitatively determined. The results show that about 70% of the sulfur in raw coal is present as organic and a minor fraction of the sulfur occurs as other forms: 17% of pyrite and 13% of sulfate. While in bottom ash, fly ash, and PM2.5, the dominant form of sulfur is sulfate, with the percentage of 80,79 and 94, respectively. Moreover, a number of other reduced sulfur including thiophenic sulfur, element sulfur and pyrrhotite are also present. During coal combustion, most of organic sulfur and pyrite were oxidized and released into the atmosphere as SO2 gas, part of them was converted to sulfate existing in coal combustion by-products, and a small part of pyrite was probably reduced to elemental sulfur and pyrrhotite. The results may provide information for assessing the pollution caused by small boiler and developing new methods for the control of SO2 pollution.

Bao, Liang-Man; Lin, Jun; Liu, Wei; Lu, Wen-Zhong; Zhang, Gui-Lin; Li, Yan; Ma, Chen-Yan; Zhao, Yi-Dong; He, Wei; Hu, Tian-Dou

2009-11-01

87

The Clean Air Act impacts on rail coal  

SciTech Connect

These factors are examined in this article. In November 1990, President Bush signed the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 into law. Title IV, concerning acid rain control, calls for a two-phase reduction in power plant sulfur-dioxide emissions, culminating in a nationwide cap after the year 2000. A large part of this reduction will be obtained through substituting low-sulfur coals for the higher-sulfur fuels now used. Most commentators have characterized this legislation as a boon for low-sulfur coal producers and the railroads serving them. If, as projected, up to one-eighth of existing coal-burning plants shift to more distant suppliers, a surge in rail traffic would ensue. Whether this traffic originates at eastern or western mines, rail carriers would obtain longer hauls and greater coal volumes. We have examined the rail transport implications of the amendments and found that the potential rail benefits may be exaggerated. Although traffic volume will grow, margins on some new traffic are likely to be eroded by continued rate competition and reduced productivity. To satisfy coal transport needs in the 1990s, factors that challenge rail productivity must be recognized and resolved.

Sharp, R.G. (Transport and Management Consultants, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States))

1991-03-01

88

LOW SULFUR HOME HEATING OIL DEMONSTRATION PROJECT SUMMARY REPORT.  

SciTech Connect

This project was funded by NYSERDA and has clearly demonstrated many advantages of using low sulfur content heating oil to provide thermal comfort in homes. Prior laboratory research in the United States and Canada had indicated a number of potential benefits of using lower sulfur (0.05%) heating oil. However, this prior research has not resulted in the widespread use of low sulfur fuel oil in the marketplace. The research project described in this report was conducted with the assistance of a well-established fuel oil marketer in New York State (NYS) and has provided clear proof of the many real-world advantages of marketing and using low sulfur content No. 2 fuel oil. The very positive experience of the participating marketer over the past three years has already helped to establish low sulfur heating oil as a viable option for many other fuel marketers. In large part, based on the initial findings of this project and the experience of the participating NYS oilheat marketer, the National Oilheat Research Alliance (NORA) has already fully supported a resolution calling for the voluntary use of low sulfur (0.05 percent) home heating oil nationwide. The NORA resolution has the goal of converting eighty percent of all oil-heated homes to the lower sulfur fuel (0.05 percent by weight) by the year 2007. The Oilheat Manufacturers Association (OMA) has also passed a resolution fully supporting the use of lower sulfur home heating oil in the equipment they manufacture. These are important endorsements by prominent national oil heat associations. Using lower sulfur heating oil substantially lowers boiler and furnace fouling rates. Laboratory studies had indicated an almost linear relationship between sulfur content in the oil and fouling rates. The completed NYSERDA project has verified past laboratory studies in over 1,000 occupied residential homes over the course of three heating seasons. In fact, the reduction in fouling rates so clearly demonstrated by this project is almost the same as predicted by past laboratory studies. Fouling deposition rates are reduced by a factor of two to three by using lower sulfur oil. This translates to a potential for substantial service cost savings by extending the interval between labor-intensive cleanings of the internal surfaces of the heating systems in these homes. In addition, the time required for annual service calls can be lowered, reducing service costs and customer inconvenience. The analyses conducted as part of this field demonstration project indicates that service costs can be reduced by up to $200 million a year nationwide by using lower sulfur oil and extending vacuum cleaning intervals depending on the labor costs and existing cleaning intervals. The ratio of cost savings to added fuel costs is economically attractive based on past fuel price differentials for the lower sulfur product. The ratio of cost savings to added costs vary widely as a function of hourly service rates and the additional cost for lower sulfur oil. For typical values, the expected benefit is a factor of two to four higher than the added fuel cost. This means that for every dollar spent on higher fuel cost, two to four dollars can be saved by lowered vacuum cleaning costs when the cleaning intervals are extended. Information contained in this report can be used by individual oil marketers to estimate the benefit to cost ratio for their specific applications. Sulfur oxide and nitrogen oxide air emissions are reduced substantially by using lower sulfur fuel oil in homes. Sulfur oxides emissions are lowered by 75 percent by switching from fuel 0.20 percent to 0.05 percent sulfur oil. This is a reduction of 63,000 tons a year nationwide. In New York State, sulfur oxide emissions are reduced by 13,000 tons a year. This translates to a total value of $12 million a year in Sulfur Oxide Emission Reduction Credits for an emission credit cost of $195 a ton. While this ''environmental cost'' dollar savings is smaller than the potential service costs reduction, it is very significant. It represents an important red

BATEY, J.E.; MCDONALD, R.J.

2005-06-01

89

Coal-oil mixture (COM): conversion of major fuel-burning installations in Massachusetts. Final report. [9 companies listed as potential COM suppliers  

SciTech Connect

Massachusetts is dependent upon use of imported fuel oil for most of its industries. The consumption of No. 6 fuel oil and distillates was over 9 million barrels in 1979. It is anticipated that to remain competitive in the market, Massachusetts industries should seriously consider alternate fuels such as coal, coil-oil mixture, etc. In a 1979-80 survey of major fuel-burning installations (MFBI's) in Massachusetts, 30 units consuming 8.3 trillion Btu's per annum were found to be coal-designed, but burning oil, or oil/gas. In order to stimulate use of COM in the potential MFBI's, it is essential to initiate a COM test burn in an industrial boiler in Massachusetts. COM offers a near-term potential to burn coal in boilers originally designed to burn coal or oil, but which cannot be converted economically to burn 100% coal. COM technology status, including the results of the demonstration programs, is reviewed herein and the potential suppliers of COM have been identified. In order to assist the industries, a Task Force was established by the Executive Office of Energy Resources (EOER) to assist in evaluating technical and economic feasibility of conversion to COM. In-depth analyses provided by three Technical Advisory Groups on the areas relating to COM technology, environmental matters as well as COM economics and supply, are presented. Eastman Gelatine Corporation has planned a COM test burn in Unit No. 1 installed in Peabody, MA. Details of their test program and variance requirements are presented. Scotia Liquicoal has been contacted to supply COM for the test burn.

Not Available

1982-03-01

90

Geothermal, Geochemical and Geomagnetic Mapping Of the Burning Coal Seam in Fire- Zone 18 of the Coal Mining Area Wuda, Inner Mongolia, PR China.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spontaneous combustion of coal has become a world wide problem caused by and affecting technical operations in coal mining areas. The localization of the burning centre is a prerequisite for any planning of fire fighting operations. In the German - Chinese coal fire project sponsored by the German Ministry of Science and Technologies (Grant No. 0330490K) the so called fire zone 18 of the coal mining area of Wuda (InnerMongolia, PR China) serves as a test area for geophysical measurements. For the geothermal and geochemical mapping 25 up to 1m deep boreholes with a diameter of approx. 30 mm are distributed over the particular fire-zone with an extension of 320 × 180 m2. To avoid the highly dynamic gas flow processes in fire induced fractures caused by weather conditions, all boreholes were situated in the undisturbed rock compartments. In these boreholes, plastic tubes of 12 mm diameter provide access to the borehole ground filled with highly permeable gravel. The boreholes are otherwise sealed to the atmosphere by clay. The geothermal observations consist of measurements of temperature profiles in the boreholes and thermal conductivity measurement on rock samples in the lab. For depths greater then 0.2 m diurnal variations in the temperature gradient were neglected. The derived heat flow with maximum values of 80 W/m2 is more then three orders of magnitude higher than the natural undisturbed heat flow. The high heat flow suggests that the dominant heat transport is gas convection through the system of porous rock and fractures. Any temperature anomaly caused by the burning coal in a depth of more than 18 m would need years to reach the surface by a heat transport restricted to conduction. The geochemical soil gas probing is performed by gas extraction from the boreholes. Measured are the concentrations of O2, CO, CO2, H2S and CH4. The O2 deficit in the soil air and the concentrations of the other combustion products compared to the concentrations in the free atmosphere are related to the combustion area. The magnetic mapping with point distances of 2 m and profile-distances of 3 to 4 m covered an area of 350 × 300m with 7913 points. The detected anomalies lie in a range between -130 and 176 nT. The maxima are most likely caused by heating of the top sandstones by burning coal, the origin for the high magnetization being the conversion of pyrite and markasit into maghemite, hematite and magnetite. Susceptibility measurements of clinkers in firezone 18 demonstrate this effect. Therefore the identified patches with high magnetic anomalies should have a direct connection to ranges with burning coal within firezone 18. Al the discussed geophysical measurements together allow an integrated interpretation. Each result can be related to the combustion process with a particular likelihood for the vertical projection to the combustion centre. Probability calculations with chosen weight factors for each observation method are discussed. References: Kessels, W., Wuttke, M. W., Wessling, S., and Li, X. Coalfires between self ignition and fire fighting: Numerical modeling and basic geophysical measurements. In ERSEC Ecological Book Series - 4 on Coal Fire Research (2007).

Kessels, W.; Han, J.; Halisch, M.; Lindner, H.; Rueter, H.; Wuttke, M. W.

2008-12-01

91

40 CFR 80.255 - Compliance plans and demonstration of commitment to produce low sulfur gasoline.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...demonstration of commitment to produce low sulfur gasoline. 80.255 Section 80.255 Protection...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Hardship Provisions § 80...demonstration of commitment to produce low sulfur gasoline. The requirements of this...

2013-07-01

92

Coal and tire burning mixtures containing ultrafine and nanoparticulate materials induce oxidative stress and inflammatory activation in macrophages.  

PubMed

Ultra-fine and nano-particulate materials resulting from mixtures of coal and non-coal fuels combustion for power generation release to the air components with toxic potential. We evaluated toxicological and inflammatory effects at cellular level that could be induced by ultrafine/nanoparticles-containing ashes from burning mixtures of coal and tires from an American power plant. Coal fly ashes (CFA) samples from the combustion of high-S coal and tire-derived fuel, the latter about 2-3% of the total fuel feed, in a 100-MW cyclone utility boiler, were suspended in the cell culture medium of RAW 264.7 macrophages. Cell viability, assessed by MTT reduction, SRB incorporation and contrast-phase microscopy analysis demonstrated that CFA did not induce acute toxicity. However, CFA at 1mg/mL induced an increase of approximately 338% in intracellular TNF-?, while release of this proinflammatory cytokine was increased by 1.6-fold. The expression of the inflammatory mediator CD40 receptor was enhanced by 2-fold, the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) had a 5.7-fold increase and the stress response protein HSP70 was increased nearly 12-fold by CFA at 1mg/mL. Although CFA did not induce cell death, parameters of oxidative stress and reactive species production were found to be altered at several degrees, such as nitrite accumulation (22% increase), DCFH oxidation (3.5-fold increase), catalase (5-fold increase) and superoxide dismutase (35% inhibition) activities, lipoperoxidation (4.2 fold-increase) and sulfhydryl oxidation (40% decrease in free SH groups). The present results suggest that CFA containing ultra-fine and nano-particulate materials from coal and tire combustion may induce sub-chronic cell damage, as they alter inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters at the molecular and cellular levels, but do not induce acute cell death. PMID:23856402

Gasparotto, Juciano; Somensi, Nauana; Caregnato, Fernanda F; Rabelo, Thallita K; DaBoit, Kátia; Oliveira, Marcos L S; Moreira, José C F; Gelain, Daniel P

2013-10-01

93

Escaping radioactivity from coal-fired power plants (CPPs) due to coal burning and the associated hazards: a review.  

PubMed

Coal, like most materials found in nature, contains trace quantities of the naturally occurring primordial radionuclides, i.e. of (40)K and of (238)U, (232)Th and their decay products. Therefore, the combustion of coal results in the released into the environment of some natural radioactivity (1.48 TBq y(-1)), the major part of which (99%) escapes as very fine particles, while the rest in fly ash. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides measured in coals originated from coal mines in Greece varied from 117 to 435 Bq kg(-1) for (238)U, from 44 to 255 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, from 59 to 205 Bq kg(-1) for (210)Pb, from 9 to 41 Bq kg(-1) for (228)Ra ((232)Th) and from 59 to 227 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K. Fly ash escapes from the stacks of coal-fired power plants in a percentage of 3-1% of the total fly ash, in the better case. The natural radionuclide concentrations measured in fly ash produced and retained or escaped from coal-fired power plants in Greece varied from 263 to 950 Bq kg(-1) for (238)U, from 142 to 605 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, from 133 to 428 Bq kg(-1) for (210)Pb, from 27 to 68 Bq kg(-1) for (228)Ra ((232)Th) and from 204 to 382 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K. About 5% of the total ash produced in the coal-fired power plants is used as substitute of cement in concrete for the construction of dwellings, and may affect indoor radiation doses from external irradiation and the inhalation of radon decay products (internal irradiation) is the most significant. The resulting normalized collective effective doses were 6 and 0.5man-Sv(GWa)(-1) for typical old and modern coal-fired power plants, respectively. PMID:20005612

Papastefanou, Constantin

2010-03-01

94

Indirect and direct-acting mutagenicity of diesel, coal and wood burning-derived particulates and contribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particulates exhausted from two types of diesel engines (DEPs), burning-derived particulates from three types of coal (CBPs) and burning-derived particulates from three types of wood (WBPs) were separated into four fractions by silica-gel column chromatography using n-hexane, n-hexane–dichloromethane (3:1, v\\/v), dichloromethane and methanol, as the corresponding eluents. The indirect-acting mutagenicity of each fraction was assayed by the Ames test using

Xiao-Yang Yang; Kazuhiko Igarashi; Ning Tang; Jin-Ming Lin; Wei Wang; Takayuki Kameda; Akira Toriba; Kazuichi Hayakawa

2010-01-01

95

Coal-burning endemic fluorosis is associated with reduced activity in antioxidative enzymes and Cu/Zn-SOD gene expression.  

PubMed

To study the effect of fluorine on the oxidative stress in coal-burning fluorosis, we investigated the environmental characteristics of coal-burning endemic fluorosis combined with fluorine content surveillance in air, water, food, briquette, and clay binder samples from Bijie region, Guizhou Province, southwest of China. The activities of antioxidant enzymes including copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and level of lipid peroxidation such as malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in serum samples obtained from subjects residing in the Bijie region. Expression of the Cu/Zn-SOD gene was assessed by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR). Our results showed that people suffering from endemic fluorosis (the high and low exposure groups) had much higher MDA level. Their antioxidant enzyme activities and Cu/Zn-SOD gene expression levels were lower when compared to healthy people (the control group). Fluorosis can decrease the activities of antioxidant enzymes, which was associated with exposure level of fluorine. Down-regulation of Cu/Zn-SOD expression may play an important role in the aggravation of oxidative stress in endemic fluorosis. PMID:23567976

Wang, Qi; Cui, Kang-ping; Xu, Yuan-yuan; Gao, Yan-ling; Zhao, Jing; Li, Da-sheng; Li, Xiao-lei; Huang, Hou-jin

2014-02-01

96

Assessment of potential debris-flow peak discharges from basins burned by the 2002 Coal Seam fire, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

These maps present the results of assessments of peak discharges that can potentially be generated by debris flows issuing from the basins burned by the Coal Seam fire of June and July 2002, near Glenwood Springs, Colorado. The maps are based on a regression model for debris-flow peak discharge normalized by average storm intensity as a function of basin gradient and burned extent, and limited field checking. A range of potential peak discharges that could potentially be produced from each of the burned basins between 1 ft3/s (0.03 m3/s) and greater than 5,000 ft3/s (>141 m3/s) is calculated for the 5-year, 1-hour storm of 0.80 inches (20 mm). The 25-year, 1-hour storm of 1.3 inches (33 mm). The 100- year, 1-hour storm of 1.8 inches (46 mm) produced peak discharges between 1 and greater than 8,000 ft3/s (>227 m3/s). These maps are intended for use by emergency personnel to aid in the preliminary design of mitigation measures, and the planning of evacuation timing and routes.

Cannon, Susan H.; Michael, John A.; Gartner, Joseph E.

2003-01-01

97

Source profiles of particulate matter emissions from a pilot-scale boiler burning North American coal blends.  

PubMed

Recent awareness of suspected adverse health effects from ambient particulate matter (PM) emission has prompted publication of new standards for fine PM with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microm (PM2.5). However, scientific data on fine PM emissions from various point sources and their characteristics are very limited. Source apportionment methods are applied to identify contributions of individual regional sources to tropospheric particulate concentrations. The existing industrial database developed using traditional source measurement techniques provides total emission rates only, with no details on chemical nature or size characteristics of particulates. This database is inadequate, in current form, to address source-receptor relationships. A source dilution system was developed for sampling and characterization of total PM, PM2.5, and PM10 (i.e., PM with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 pm) from residual oil and coal combustion. This new system has automatic control capabilities for key parameters, such as relative humidity (RH), temperature, and sample dilution. During optimization of the prototype equipment, three North American coal blends were burned using a 0.7-megawatt thermal (MWt) pulverized coal-fired, pilot-scale boiler. Characteristic emission profiles, including PM2.5 and total PM soluble acids, and elemental and carbon concentrations for three coal blends are presented. Preliminary results indicate that volatile trace elements such as Pb, Zn, Ti, and Se are preferentially enriched in PM2.5. PM2.5 is also more concentrated in soluble sulfates relative to total PM. Coal fly ash collected at the outlet of the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) contains about 85-90% PM10 and 30-50% PM2.5. Particles contain the highest elemental concentrations of Si and Al while Ca, Fe, Na, Ba, and K also exist as major elements. Approximately 4-12% of the materials exists as soluble sulfates in fly ash generated by coal blends containing 0.2-0.8% sulfur by mass. Source profile data for an eastern U.S. coal show good agreement with those reported from a similar study done in the United States. Based on the inadequacies identified in the initial sampling equipment, a new, plume-simulating fine PM measurement system with modular components for field use is being developed for determining coal combustion PM source profiles from utility boiler stacks. PMID:11720104

Lee, S W

2001-11-01

98

Uncovering and evaluation of a twenty-five-year-old underground-coal-gasification burn at a site in Gorgas, Alabama  

SciTech Connect

During the late forties and into the fifties, the US Bureau of Mines (USBM) and the Alabama Power Company conducted a series of underground coal gasification burns in the Pratt and America coal beds at Gorgas, Alabama. Following the first burn, by the so called stream method, it was feasible to enter the burned out areas by deep mining and assess what had taken place during the operation of the test site. In the latter tests, however, it was not economically feasible to explore the burned out areas except by means of core drilling. Now, in early 1981, surface mining is being done in the vicinity of the first hydraulic fracture area. I had been there during the active operation of the burns and agreed to go to Gorgas, evaluate the exposed area, collect samples, take photographs, and provide this written report. I spent several days taking photographs and making observations at the exposed burn site, taking samples, and discussing the best ways to coordinate future exposures with the coal mining process. The uncovered burn area at the site of the first hydraulic fracture can be described as a flat, roughly circular shaped area, varying in thickness from about 1 foot to 2 feet high and covered with a mixture of the various materials removed in the mining operation, i.e., broken bits of coal, rock, clay, etc. However it rained the night before the observation and during the entire evaluation period making it extremely difficult to determine whether fine gray colored materials were clay or residual ash.

Capp, J.P.

1981-04-01

99

Preliminary Study: Use of Low-Sulfur Coal and Coal Cleaning in Control of Acid Rain.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This preliminary study was undertaken as part of a larger DOE assessment of the acid rain problem and the feasibility of various control techniques. From among the many strategies that are proposed for control of acid rain, this study deals with two: (1) ...

1981-01-01

100

Observations concerning the residue of a thirty-year-old underground-coal-gasification burn at a site in Gorgas, Alabama  

Microsoft Academic Search

In early February 1983, the Russel Coal Company partially uncovered a large burn area that appears to be the electro-linking site. This was the second site to be uncovered here and evaluated in this way. As in the first case, Mr. A.J. Liberatore of the METC and the author were contacted to access and photograph this latest exposure of an

Capp

1983-01-01

101

Optimization of regimes for the feed of highly concentrated culm-anthracite coal dust for burning in a TPP-210A boiler  

SciTech Connect

Results are presented for regime adjustment of feed systems for a TPP-210A boiler for the burning of highly concentrated culm-anthracite coal dust. As compared with nonoptimal regimes, optimal regimes of high-concentration-feed systems improve the economy of the boiler by 1.7% on average.

L.V. Golyshev; G.A. Dovgoteles [JSC 'L'vovORGRES', L'vov (Ukraine)

2007-05-15

102

Distillate Hydrotreating to Ultra-low-sulfur Diesel – the Impact of Aromatics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distillate hydrotreating has become a key concern in the refining industry owing to ultra-low-sulfur diesel legislation. Rate-limiting parameters that had previously been overlooked, such as aromatic inhibition, may need to be considered for the production of ultra-low-sulfur diesel (<10 weight parts per million wppm sulfur). As hydrodesulfurization (HDS) and aromatic saturation (HDA) reactions occur in parallel in a shared environment,

Soumendra Banerjee; Krishna Mani; Laura Leonard; Peter Kokayeff

2011-01-01

103

Health effects of arsenic, fluorine, and selenium from indoor burning of Chinese coal  

SciTech Connect

China's economy has developed rapidly in the last two decades, leading to an increase in energy consumption and consequently emissions from energy generation. Coal is a primary energy source in China because of its abundance and will continue to be used in the future. The dominance of coal in energy production is expected to result in increasing levels of exposure to environmental pollution in China. Toxic trace elements emitted during coal combustion are the main sources of indoor air pollution. They are released into the atmosphere mainly in the forms of fine ash and vapors and have the potential to adversely affect human health. Those trace elements, which volatilize during combustion, are hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and are particularly rich in Chinese coals. Among the HAPs, arsenic (As), fluorine (F), and selenium (Se) have already been identified as pollutants that can induce severe health problems. In this review, the geochemical characteristics of As, F, and Se, including their concentration, distribution, and mode of occurrences in Chinese coal, are documented and discussed. Our investigations have confirmed the current As- and F-induced epidemics in Guizhou (Southwest China) and Se epidemic in Hubei (Northeast China). In this study, diagnostic symptoms of arseniasis, fluorosis, and selenosis are also illustrated.

Guijian, L.; Liugen, Z.; DuzgorenAydin, N.S.; Lianfen, G.; Junhua, L.; Zicheng, P. [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei Anhui (China)

2007-07-01

104

The geochemistry and bioreactivity of fly-ash from coal-burning power stations.  

PubMed

Fly-ash is a byproduct of the combustion of coal in power stations for the generation of electricity. The fly-ash forms from the melting of incombustible minerals found naturally in the coal. The very high coal combustion temperatures result in the formation of microscopic glass particles from which minerals such as quartz, haematite and mullite can later recrystallize. In addition to these minerals, the glassy fly-ash contains a number of leachable metals. Mullite is a well-known material in the ceramics industry and a known respiratory hazard. Macroscopically mullite can be found in a large range of morphologies; however microscopic crystals appear to favour a fibrous habit. Fly-ash is a recognized bioreactive material in rat lung, generating hydroxyl radicals, releasing iron, and causing DNA damage. However, the mechanisms of the bioreactivity are still unclear and the relative contributions of the minerals and leachable metals to that toxicity are not well known. PMID:19604058

Jones, Timothy; Wlodarczyk, Anna; Koshy, Lata; Brown, Patrick; Shao, Longyi; BéruBé, Kelly

2009-07-01

105

Feasibility Study of Burning Waste Paper in Coal-Fired Boilers on Air Force Installations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis examined the feasibility of using waste paper derived fuel in coal-fired boilers on Air Force installations in an attempt to help solve air pollution and solid waste disposal problems. The implementation of waste paper derived fuel was examine...

K. P. Smith

1993-01-01

106

A comparative study of fly ash from coal-burning installations (PCC and FBC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The predicted substantial rise in coal consumption in the Netherlands in the last two decades of this century - from 8.4 million tonnes in 1985 to 35.0 in 2000 against 3.9 in 1975 - necessitates a concerted action to study the consequences of such an increase. In this TNO laboratory, research on the environmental aspects of fly ash emissions is

A. J. Gay; P. J. van Duin; A. P. von Rosentiel

1983-01-01

107

REVIEW OF CONCURRENT MASS EMISSION AND OPACITY MEASUREMENTS FOR COAL-BURNING UTILITY AND INDUSTRIAL BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of concurrent particulate emissions and opacity measurements based on visual observations and/or in-stack transmissometry for more than 400 compliance, acceptance, or experimental tests on coal-fired utility and industrial boilers. The sampling, which inc...

108

Daily and hourly sourcing of metallic and mineral dust in urban air contaminated by traffic and coal-burning emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multi-analytical approach to chemical analysis of inhalable urban atmospheric particulate matter (PM), integrating particle induced X-ray emission, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry/atomic emission spectroscopy, chromatography and thermal-optical transmission methods, allows comparison between hourly (Streaker) and 24-h (High volume sampler) data and consequently improved PM chemical characterization and source identification. In a traffic hot spot monitoring site in Madrid (Spain) the hourly data reveal metallic emissions (Zn, Cu, Cr, Fe) and resuspended mineral dust (Ca, Al, Si) to be closely associated with traffic flow. These pollutants build up during the day, emphasizing evening rush hour peaks, but decrease (especially their coarser fraction PM2.5-10) after nocturnal road washing. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis of a large Streaker database additionally reveals two other mineral dust components (siliceous and sodic), marine aerosol, and minor, transient events which we attribute to biomass burning (K-rich) and industrial (incinerator?) Zn, Pb plumes. Chemical data on 24-h filters allows the measurement of secondary inorganic compounds and carbon concentrations and offers PMF analysis based on a limited number of samples but using fuller range of trace elements which, in the case of Madrid, identifies the continuing minor presence of a coal combustion source traced by As, Se, Ge and Organic Carbon. This coal component is more evident in the city air after the change to the winter heating season in November. Trace element data also allow use of discrimination diagrams such as V/Rb vs. La/Ce and ternary plots to illustrate variations in atmospheric chemistry (such as the effect of Ce-emissions from catalytic converters), with Madrid being an example of a city with little industrial pollution, recently reduced coal emissions, but serious atmospheric contamination by traffic emissions.

Moreno, T.; Karanasiou, A.; Amato, F.; Lucarelli, F.; Nava, S.; Calzolai, G.; Chiari, M.; Coz, E.; Artíñano, B.; Lumbreras, J.; Borge, R.; Boldo, E.; Linares, C.; Alastuey, A.; Querol, X.; Gibbons, W.

2013-04-01

109

Selenium And Arsenic Speciation in Fly Ash From Full-Scale Coal-Burning Utility Plants  

SciTech Connect

X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy has been used to determine directly the oxidation states and speciation of selenium and arsenic in 10 fly ash samples collected from full-scale utility plants. Such information is needed to assess the health risk posed by these elements in fly ash and to understand their behavior during combustion and in fly ash disposal options, such as sequestration in tailings ponds. Selenium is found predominantly as Se(IV) in selenite (SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-}) species, whereas arsenic is found predominantly as As(V) in arsenate (AsO{sub 4}{sup 3-}) species. Two distinct types of selenite and arsenate spectra were observed depending upon whether the fly ash was derived from eastern U.S. bituminous (Fe-rich) coals or from western subbituminous or lignite (Ca-rich) coals. Similar spectral details were observed for both arsenic and selenium in the two different types of fly ash, suggesting that the post-combustion behavior and capture of both of these elements are likely controlled by the same dominant element or phase in each type of fly ash.

Huggins, F.E.; Senior, C.L.; Chu, P.; Ladwig, K.; Huffman, G.P.; /Kentucky U. /Reaction Engin. Int. /Elect. Power Res. Inst., Palo Alto

2007-07-09

110

JV TASK 45MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR ELECTRIC UTILITIES BURNING LIGNITE COAL, PHASE I BENCH-AND PILOT-SCALE TESTING  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Energy & Environmental Research Center has completed the first phase of a 3-year, two-phase consortium project to develop and demonstrate mercury control technologies for utilities that burn lignite coal. The overall project goal is to maintain the viability of lignite-based energy production by providing utilities with low-cost options for meeting future mercury regulations. Phase I objectives are to develop

John H. Pavlish; Michael J. Holmes; Steven A. Benson; Charlene R. Crocker; Edwin S. Olson; Kevin C. Galbreath; Ye Zhuang; Brandon M. Pavlish

2003-01-01

111

Effects of Prenatal Exposure to Coal-Burning Pollutants on Children's Development in China  

PubMed Central

Background Environmental pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), lead, and mercury are released by combustion of coal and other fossil fuels. Objectives In the present study we evaluated the association between prenatal exposure to these pollutants and child development measured by the Gesell Developmental Schedules at 2 years of age. Methods The study was conducted in Tongliang, Chongqing, China, where a seasonally operated coal-fired power plant was the major source of ambient PAHs and also contributed lead and mercury to the air. In a cohort of nonsmoking women and their newborns enrolled between March 2002 and June 2002, we measured levels of PAH–DNA adducts, lead, and mercury in umbilical cord blood. PAH–DNA adducts (specifically benzo[a]pyrene adducts) provided a biologically relevant measure of PAH exposure. We also obtained developmental quotients (DQs) in motor, adaptive, language, and social areas. Results Decrements in one or more DQs were significantly associated with cord blood levels of PAH–DNA adducts and lead, but not mercury. Increased adduct levels were associated with decreased motor area DQ (p = 0.043), language area DQ (p = 0.059), and average DQ (p = 0.047) after adjusting for cord lead level, environmental tobacco smoke, sex, gestational age, and maternal education. In the same model, high cord blood lead level was significantly associated with decreased social area DQ (p = 0.009) and average DQ (p = 0.038). Conclusion The findings indicate that exposure to pollutants from the power plant adversely affected the development of children living in Tongliang; these findings have implications for environmental health policy.

Tang, Deliang; Li, Tin-yu; Liu, Jason J.; Zhou, Zhi-jun; Yuan, Tao; Chen, Yu-hui; Rauh, Virginia A.; Xie, Jiang; Perera, Frederica

2008-01-01

112

Association between arsenic exposure from a coal-burning power plant and urinary arsenic concentrations in Prievidza District, Slovakia.  

PubMed Central

To assess the arsenic exposure of a population living in the vicinity of a coal-burning power plant with high arsenic emission in the Prievidza District, Slovakia, 548 spot urine samples were speciated for inorganic As (Asinorg), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), and their sum (Assum). The urine samples were collected from the population of a case-control study on nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC). A total of 411 samples with complete As speciations and sufficient urine quality and without fish consumption were used for statistical analysis. Although current environmental As exposure and urinary As concentrations were low (median As in soil within 5 km distance to the power plant, 41 micro g/g; median urinary Assum, 5.8 microg/L), there was a significant but weak association between As in soil and urinary Assum(r = 0.21, p < 0.01). We performed a multivariate regression analysis to calculate adjusted regression coefficients for environmental As exposure and other determinants of urinary As. Persons living in the vicinity of the plant had 27% higher Assum values (p < 0.01), based on elevated concentrations of the methylated species. A 32% increase of MMA occurred among subjects who consumed homegrown food (p < 0.001). NMSC cases had significantly higher levels of Assum, DMA, and Asinorg. The methylation index Asinorg/(MMA + DMA) was about 20% lower among cases (p < 0.05) and in men (p < 0.05) compared with controls and females, respectively.

Ranft, Ulrich; Miskovic, Peter; Pesch, Beate; Jakubis, Pavel; Fabianova, Elenora; Keegan, Tom; Hergemoller, Andre; Jakubis, Marian; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

2003-01-01

113

Production of a pellet fuel from Illinois coal mines. Quarterly report, 1 December 1994--28 February 1995  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this research is to produce a pellet fuel from low-sulfur Illinois coal fines which could burn with emissions of less than 1.8 lbs SO{sub 2}/10{sup 6} Btu in stoker-fired boilers. The significance of 1.8 lbs SO{sub 2}/10{sup 6} Btu is that in the Chicago (9 counties) and St. Louis (2 counties) metropolitan areas, industrial users of coal currently must comply with this level of emissions. Stokers are an attractive market for pellets because pellets are well-suited for this application and because western coal is not a competitor in the stoker market. Compliance stoker fuels come from locations such as Kentucky and West Virginia and the price for fuels from these locations is high relative to the current price of Illinois coal. This market offers the most attractive near-term economic environment for commercialization of pelletization technology. For this effort, we will be investigating the use of fines from two Illinois mines which currently mine relatively low-sulfur reserves and that discard their fines fraction (minus 100 mesh). The research will involve investigation of multiple unit operations including column flotation, filtration and pellet production. The end result of the effort will allow for an evaluation of the commercial viability of the approach.

Rapp, D.; Lytle, J. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Urbana, IL (United States); Berger, R. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States); Ho, Ken [Illinois Clean Coal Inst., Carterville, IL (United States)

1995-12-31

114

Tribological behavior of near-frictionless carbon coatings in high- and low-sulfur diesel fuels.  

SciTech Connect

The sulfur content in diesel fuel has a significant effect on diesel engine emissions, which are currently subject to environmental regulations. It has been observed that engine particulate and gaseous emissions are directly proportional to fuel sulfur content. With the introduction of low-sulfur fuels, significant reductions in emissions are expected. The process of sulfur reduction in petroleum-based diesel fuels also reduces the lubricity of the fuel, resulting in premature failure of fuel injectors. Thus, another means of preventing injector failures is needed for engines operating with low-sulfur diesel fuels. In this study, the authors evaluated a near-frictionless carbon (NFC) coating (developed at Argonne National Laboratory) as a possible solution to the problems associated with fuel injector failures in low-lubricity fuels. Tribological tests were conducted with NFC-coated and uncoated H13 and 52100 steels lubricated with high- and low- sulfur diesel fuels in a high-frequency reciprocating test machine. The test results showed that the NFC coatings reduced wear rates by a factor of 10 over those of uncoated steel surfaces. In low-sulfur diesel fuel, the reduction in wear rate was even greater (i.e., by a factor of 12 compared to that of uncoated test pairs), indicating that the NFC coating holds promise as a potential solution to wear problems associated with the use of low-lubricity diesel fuels.

Alzoubi, M. F.; Ajayi, O. O.; Eryilmaz, O. L.; Ozturk, O.; Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G.

2000-01-19

115

Tribological behavior of near-frictionless carbon coatings in high- and low-sulfur diesel fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sulfur content in diesel fuel has a significant effect on diesel engine emissions, which are currently subject to environmental regulations. It has been observed that engine particulate and gaseous emissions are directly proportional to fuel sulfur content. With the introduction of low-sulfur fuels, significant reductions in emissions are expected. The process of sulfur reduction in petroleum-based diesel fuels also

M. F. Alzoubi; O. O. Ajayi; O. L. Eryilmaz; O. Ozturk; A. Erdemir; G. Fenske

2000-01-01

116

A new method for obtaining ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel via ultrasound assisted oxidative desulfurization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the requirement of stringent rules for ultra-low sulfur content of diesel fuels, it is necessary to develop alternative methods for desulfurization of fossil fuel derived oil. Using appropriate oxidants and catalysts with the assistance of ultrasound irradiation, model compounds such as dibenzothiophene can be quantitatively oxidized in minutes. For diesel fuels containing various levels of sulfur content, and

Hai Mei; B. W Mei; Teh Fu Yen

2003-01-01

117

Recent advances in the science and technology of ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfur content of diesel fuel has been cut down to ultra low levels by environmental regulation in many countries with the aim of reducing diesel engine's harmful emissions and improving air quality. As a result, research on the production of ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) has gained enormous interest in the scientific community worldwide. The renewed interest in ULSD research

Antony Stanislaus; Abdulazeem Marafi; Mohan S. Rana

2010-01-01

118

Coal resources, production, and quality in the Eastern kentucky coal field: Perspectives on the future of steam coal production  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Eastern Kentucky coal field, along with adjacent portions of Virginia and southern West Virginia, is part of the greatest production concentration of high-heating-value, low-sulfur coal in the United States, accounting for over 27% of the 1993 U.S. production of coal of all ranks. Eastern Kentucky's production is spread among many coal beds but is particularly concentrated in a limited number of highquality coals, notably the Pond Creek coal bed and its correlatives, and the Fire Clay coal bed and its correlatives. Both coals are relatively low ash and low sulfur through the areas of the heaviest concentration of mining activity. We discuss production trends, resources, and the quality of in-place and clean coal for those and other major coals in the region. ?? 1994 Oxford University Press.

Hower, J. C.; Hiett, J. K.; Wild, G. D.; Eble, C. F.

1994-01-01

119

Coal-oil slurry preparation  

DOEpatents

A pumpable slurry of pulverized coal in a coal-derived hydrocarbon oil carrier which slurry is useful as a low-ash, low-sulfur clean fuel, is produced from a high sulfur-containing coal. The initial pulverized coal is separated by gravity differentiation into (1) a high density refuse fraction containing the major portion of non-coal mineral products and sulfur, (2) a lowest density fraction of low sulfur content and (3) a middlings fraction of intermediate sulfur and ash content. The refuse fraction (1) is gasified by partial combustion producing a crude gas product from which a hydrogen stream is separated for use in hydrogenative liquefaction of the middlings fraction (3). The lowest density fraction (2) is mixed with the liquefied coal product to provide the desired fuel slurry. Preferably there is also separately recovered from the coal liquefaction LPG and pipeline gas.

Tao, John C. (Perkiomenville, PA)

1983-01-01

120

Impacts of halogen additions on mercury oxidation, in a slipstream selective catalyst reduction (SCR), reactor when burning sub-bituminous coal.  

PubMed

This paper presents a comparison of impacts of halogen species on the elemental mercury (Hg(0)) oxidation in a real coal-derived flue gas atmosphere. It is reported there is a higher percentage of Hg(0) in the flue gas when burning sub-bituminous coal (herein Powder River Basin (PRB) coal) and lignite, even with the use of selective catalytic reduction (SCR). The higher Hg(0)concentration in the flue gas makes it difficult to use the wet-FGD process for the mercury emission control in coal-fired utility boilers. Investigation of enhanced Hg(0) oxidation by addition of hydrogen halogens (HF, HCl, HBr, and HI) was conducted in a slipstream reactor with and without SCR catalysts when burning PRB coal. Two commercial SCR catalysts were evaluated. SCR catalyst no. 1 showed higher efficiencies of both NO reduction and Hg(0) oxidation than those of SCR catalyst no. 2. NH3 addition seemed to inhibit the Hg(0) oxidation, which indicated competitive processes between NH3 reduction and Hg(0) oxidation on the surface of SCR catalysts. The hydrogen halogens, in the order of impact on Hg(0) oxidation, were HBr, HI, and HCl or HF. Addition of HBr at approximately 3 ppm could achieve 80% Hg(0) oxidation. Addition of HI at approximately 5 ppm could achieve 40% Hg(0) oxidation. In comparison to the empty reactor, 40% Hg(0) oxidation could be achieved when HCl addition was up to 300 ppm. The enhanced Hg(0) oxidation by addition of HBr and HI seemed not to be correlated to the catalytic effects by both evaluated SCR catalysts. The effectiveness of conversion of hydrogen halogens to halogen molecules or interhalogens seemed to be attributed to their impacts on Hg(0) oxidation. PMID:18350905

Cao, Yan; Gao, Zhengyang; Zhu, Jiashun; Wang, Quanhai; Huang, Yaji; Chiu, Chengchung; Parker, Bruce; Chu, Paul; Pant, Wei-Ping

2008-01-01

121

Indirect- and direct-acting mutagenicity of diesel, coal and wood burning-derived particulates and contribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.  

PubMed

Particulates exhausted from two types of diesel engines (DEPs), burning-derived particulates from three types of coal (CBPs) and burning-derived particulates from three types of wood (WBPs) were separated into four fractions by silica-gel column chromatography using n-hexane, n-hexane-dichloromethane (3:1, v/v), dichloromethane and methanol, as the corresponding eluents. The indirect-acting mutagenicity of each fraction was assayed by the Ames test using the Salmonella typhimurium TA100 strain with S9 mix and the direct-acting mutagenicity was assayed using the S. typhimurium TA98 strain without S9 mix. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) of each fraction were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Both direct- and indirect-acting of mutagenicities were the highest in samples of DEPs. The contributions of PAHs in samples of WBPs and NPAHs in DEPs were the largest, respectively. PMID:19896557

Yang, Xiao-Yang; Igarashi, Kazuhiko; Tang, Ning; Lin, Jin-Ming; Wang, Wei; Kameda, Takayuki; Toriba, Akira; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

2010-01-01

122

Fluidised-Bed Combustion. Burning Coal-Water Mixtures in a Pressurised Fluidised Bed: Some Initial Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The feeding of coal-water mixtures (CWMs) into a pressurised fluidised-bed combustor (PFBC) could considerably simplify the more usual method of pneumatically-feeding dried coal from lock hoppers. The UK National Coal Board has developed a flow sheeting c...

1983-01-01

123

System Study of Rich Catalytic/Lean burn (RCL) Catalytic Combustion for Natural Gas and Coal-Derived Syngas Combustion Turbines  

SciTech Connect

Rich Catalytic/Lean burn (RCL{reg_sign}) technology has been successfully developed to provide improvement in Dry Low Emission gas turbine technology for coal derived syngas and natural gas delivering near zero NOx emissions, improved efficiency, extending component lifetime and the ability to have fuel flexibility. The present report shows substantial net cost saving using RCL{reg_sign} technology as compared to other technologies both for new and retrofit applications, thus eliminating the need for Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) in combined or simple cycle for Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and natural gas fired combustion turbines.

Shahrokh Etemad; Lance Smith; Kevin Burns

2004-12-01

124

Fuel Properties of Biodiesel\\/Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) Blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiesel is an alternative fuel and fuel extender easily derived from vegetable oil or animal fat. In 2006, the US Environmental\\u000a Protection Agency mandated that maximum sulfur content of diesel fuels be reduced to 15 ppm to protect catalysts employed\\u000a in exhaust after-treatment devices. Processing to produce this ultra-low sulfur petrodiesel (ULSD) alters fuel lubricity,\\u000a density, cold flow, viscosity, and other

Robert O. Dunn

125

Conceptual design of a reactive distillation process for ultra-low sulfur diesel production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on a thermodynamic analysis in terms of reaction-separation feasibility, a conceptual design of a reactive distillation column for ultra-low sulfur diesel production has been developed. The thermodynamic analysis considers the computation of reactive and non-reactive residue curve maps for a mixture that models the sulfured diesel fuel. The visualization of the reactive residue curves is posed in terms of

Tomás Viveros-García; J. Alberto Ochoa-Tapia; Ricardo Lobo-Oehmichen; J. Antonio de los Reyes-Heredia; Eduardo S. Pérez-Cisneros

2005-01-01

126

Highly Active HDS Catalyst for Producing Ultra-low Sulfur Diesel Fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cosmo Oil Co., Ltd. developed a highly active CoMo HDS catalyst, C-606A, for the production of ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels.\\u000a This patented preparation method involves impregnation of the support with a solution containing CoCO3, MoO3, citric acid, and phosphoric acid, and air-drying without calcination, to provide the high activity HDS catalyst. XPS studies\\u000a suggested that the addition of citric acid

Takashi Fujikawa

2009-01-01

127

Nanoparticle formation in the exhaust of vehicles running on ultra-low sulfur fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concern of adverse health impacts from exposure to vehicle-emitted nanoparticles has been escalating over the past few years. In order to meet more stringent EPA emission standards for particle mass emissions, advanced exhaust after-treatment systems such as continuously regenerating diesel particle filters (CRDPFs) have to be employed on vehicles and fuel with ultra-low sulfur is to be used. Although

Hua Du; Fangqun Yu

2008-01-01

128

The effects of gas-to-oil rate in ultra low sulfur diesel hydrotreating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrotreating has become a critical refining process as fuel sulfur specifications are tightened around the world. Recently, refiners in the United States have been learning how to optimize the performance of ultra low sulfur diesel (ulsd) hydrotreaters. The gas-to-oil feed rate ratio is known to be an important variable in this respect. It is well known that the gas-to-oil rate

George Hoekstra

2007-01-01

129

Eastern coal spray dryer evaluation. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Development efforts for dry scrubbing technology for flue gas desulfurization (FGD) have been geared toward utility boilers burning low-sulfur western coals rather than eastern high-sulfur coals. This has been due to the low quantity of reagent and lower SO/sub 2/ removal required with the use of western coals and has contributed to the economic attractiveness of the dry scrubber system. To evaluate the use of the dry scrubber for flue gas desulfurization of eastern high-sulfur coals, the US Department of Energy contracted with the Babcock and Wilcox Company to perform a study to determine the technical and economical feasibility of such systems. The program was organized into the following tasks: (1) configuration specification and system preparation; (2) performance evaluation; (3) load-following and reliability evaluation; (4) commercial unit economic evaluation; and (5) report. The general conclusions of the program are: Effective dry scrubber operation for an eastern high-sulfur coal would include a higher stoichiometric ratio, low spray dryer approach temperature, and the optimized use of recycle material. A dry scrubber system designed for an eastern high-sulfur coal using a high-calcium lime reagent would not be economically competitive with a limestone wet scrubber system due to reagent costs. Use of an optimized furnace limestone injection system and recycle material would substantially reduce reagent costs and increase economic attractiveness of dry scrubber systems for eastern high-sulfur coals. This is in comparison to dry scrubber systems with nonlimestone injection. 10 references, 87 figures, 26 tables.

Sawyers, L.E.; Smith, P.V.; Caravano, C.; Jankura, B.J.

1984-11-01

130

Controlling dust emissions from coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect

Many coal-fired boilers have been converted to burn cleaner fuels such as natural gas and oil. But escalating fuel costs are causing many plants to re-examine the use of coal as a primary boiler fuel. However, before reconverting to coal, owners must evaluate pertinent environmental regulations and emission control strategies. Two common air pollutants that generally require some type of control are sulfur dioxide and particulate emissions. Sulfur dioxide control for small and medium-sized boilers is usually accomplished by limiting sulfur content in the fuel and using low-sulfur coal. Other sulfur dioxide control methods include flue gas desulfurization and fluidized bed combustion. However, these systems require substantial first costs, increased operating and maintenance costs, and special material handling systems, which are generally not cost effective for small or medium-sized boilers. The primary emphasis in this article is on controlling particulate emissions from small and mediumsized coal-fired, spreader-stoker boilers equipped with mechanical dust-collection systems. However, many of the principles discussed apply to other collection systems as well.

Weiss, C.A.; Erdmann, D.R.

1984-11-08

131

Burn Institute  

MedlinePLUS

... do each year – a burn injury. Learn more Fire and Burn Prevention Each year, the Burn Institute ... thousands of children and adults each year through fire and burn prevention education, burn survivor support programs ...

132

Driver mutations among never smoking female lung cancer tissues in China identify unique EGFR and KRAS mutation pattern associated with household coal burning.  

PubMed

Lung cancer in never smokers, which has been partially attributed to household solid fuel use (i.e., coal), is etiologically and clinically different from lung cancer attributed to tobacco smoking. To explore the spectrum of driver mutations among lung cancer tissues from never smokers, specifically in a population where high lung cancer rates have been attributed to indoor air pollution from domestic coal use, multiplexed assays were used to detect >40 point mutations, insertions, and deletions (EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, HER2, NRAS, PIK3CA, MEK1, AKT1, and PTEN) among the lung tumors of confirmed never smoking females from Xuanwei, China [32 adenocarcinomas (ADCs), 7 squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), 1 adenosquamous carcinoma (ADSC)]. EGFR mutations were detected in 35% of tumors. 46% of these involved EGFR exon 18 G719X, while 14% were exon 21 L858R mutations. KRAS mutations, all of which were G12C_34G>T, were observed in 15% of tumors. EGFR and KRAS mutations were mutually exclusive, and no mutations were observed in the other tested genes. Most point mutations were transversions and were also found in tumors from patients who used coal in their homes. Our high mutation frequencies in EGFR exon 18 and KRAS and low mutation frequency in EGFR exon 21 are strikingly divergent from those in other smoking and never smoking populations from Asia. Given that our subjects live in a region where coal is typically burned indoors, our findings provide new insights into the pathogenesis of lung cancer among never smoking females exposed to indoor air pollution from coal. PMID:24055406

Hosgood, H Dean; Pao, William; Rothman, Nathaniel; Hu, Wei; Pan, Yumei Helen; Kuchinsky, Kyle; Jones, Kirk D; Xu, Jun; Vermeulen, Roel; Simko, Jeff; Lan, Qing

2013-11-01

133

ALGAL BIOASSAYS WITH LEACHATES AND DISTILLATES FROM WESTERN COAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this research was to assess the effects on freshwater algae of materials derived from coal storage piles. Coal leachates and distillates were prepared in the laboratory from low-sulfur Montana coal. Three types of algal bioassays were conducted: (1) A laboratory ...

134

Process for converting coal into liquid fuel and metallurgical coke  

DOEpatents

A method of recovering coal liquids and producing metallurgical coke utilizes low ash, low sulfur coal as a parent for a coal char formed by pyrolysis with a volatile content of less than 8%. The char is briquetted and heated in an inert gas over a prescribed heat history to yield a high strength briquette with less than 2% volatile content.

Wolfe, Richard A. (Abingdon, VA); Im, Chang J. (Abingdon, VA); Wright, Robert E. (Bristol, TN)

1994-01-01

135

Tests to produce and recover carbon dioxide by burning coal in oxygen and recycled flue gas: Black Hills Power and Light Company Customer Service Center Boiler No. 2, Rapid City, South Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were conducted using a modified stoker-fired boiler (2.2 x 10 Btu\\/h) instrumented to examine the feasibility of producing and recovering carbon dioxide by burning coal in oxygen and recycled flue gas in a utility environment. The tests demonstrated that the boiler can be operated in the oxygen-blown\\/flue-gas-recirculation mode without any noticeable effects on coal combustion, heat delivery to the

R. Kumar; T. Fuller; R. Kocourek; G. Teats; J. Young; K. Myles; A. Wolsky

1987-01-01

136

Update on Transition to Ultra-Low-Sulfur Diesel Fuel (released in AEO2006)  

EIA Publications

On November 8, 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator signed a direct final rule that will shift the retail compliance date for offering ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) for highway use from September 1, 2006, to October 15, 2006. The change will allow more time for retail outlets and terminals to comply with the new 15 parts per million (ppm) sulfur standard, providing time for entities in the diesel fuel distribution system to flush higher sulfur fuel out of the system during the transition. Terminals will have until September 1, 2006, to complete their transitions to ULSD. The previous deadline was July 15, 2006.

Information Center

2006-02-01

137

Speciation of Arsenic in Canadian Subbituminous and Bituminous Feed Coals and their Ash Byproducts  

SciTech Connect

The arsenic species in the feed coals and ash byproducts from seven Canadian power plants (including one with a fluidized-bed combustor) that were burning local sub-bituminous and bituminous coals with sulfur contents in the range of 0.30-3.5 wt % have been examined using As X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. The feed coals can be grouped based on their contents of arsenic associated with pyrite (As/pyr) and as As{sup 3+} and As{sup 5+} (arsenate) species. The arsenic species in sub-bituminous feed coals with low sulfur (0.22-0.38 wt %) and arsenic (1.6-2.2 mg/kg) contents consist of {approx}50% As{sup 3+} and {approx}50% As{sup 5+}, whereas those with moderate sulfur (0.50 wt %) and arsenic (3.63 mg/kg) contents consist of 84% As/pyr, 7% As3+, and 9% As{sup 5+}. In bituminous feed coal with low sulfur (0.40 wt %) and arsenic (4.39 mg/kg) contents, the arsenic speciation consists of 34% As/pyr, 12% As{sup 3+}, and 54% As{sup 5+}, and for those with high sulfur (2.60-3.56 wt %) and arsenic (54-84 mg/kg) contents, it consists of 77%-82% As/pyr and 18%-23% As{sup 5+}. The bottom ash produced from sub-bituminous feed coals with low sulfur and arsenic contents consists of 10%-20% As3+ and 80%-90% As5+, and for moderate sulfur (0.50 wt %) and arsenic (3.63 mg/kg), the arsenic speciation consists of 5% As/pyr, 10% As{sup 3+} and 85% As{sup 5+} as arsenate. For bituminous feed coals with low sulfur and arsenic contents, the bottom ash is entirely As{sup 5+}, whereas for coals with high sulfur and arsenic contents, the bottom ash consists of 10%-15% As{sup 3+} and 85%-90% As{sup 5+}; and for the fluidized-bed combustor, the bottom ash is entirely As{sup 5+} arsenate. The species of arsenic in fly ash from sub-bituminous and bituminous coals are mostly arsenate (As5+), possibly in part incorporated in the glass matrix, and remains the same for coarse- and fine-grained electrostatic precipitator (ESP), baghouse, and stack-emitted ashes. The only difference between the ESP and baghouse fly ash is the higher amount of crystalline arsenates in the hopper fly ash. Neither the sulfur content nor the pyrite content of the feed coal seems to influence the speciation of arsenic, because virtually all of the arsenic in fly ash samples from high-sulfur coal is in the form of arsenate (As{sup 5+}). However, arsenic (mostly as As{sup 5+}) in these fly ashes is found to be very surface-enriched, because the amount measured by XPS decreases from >3 wt % to <0.8 wt % in the first few atomic layers. The presence of stable calcium or transition-metal iron hydroxyl arsenate hydrate [(M{sup 2+}){sub 2}Fe{sub 3}(AsO{sub 4}){sub 3}(OH){sub 4}{center_dot}10H{sub 2}O] complexes, as determined by X-ray diffractometry, in the fly ash produced from high-sulfur/pyrite feed coals indicates that some of the arsenic might be captured by calcium and iron compounds.

Goodarzi,F.; Huggins, F.

2005-01-01

138

Haze particles over a coal-burning region in the China Loess Plateau in winter: Three flight missions in December 2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heavy haze frequently occurs in winter over a coal-burning region, the Taiyuan Basin, in the eastern China Loess Plateau, which is the upstream area of the North China Plain. We participated in three research flights to collect aerosol particles and to monitor SO2concentration in hazes from the ground (780 m asl) up to ˜4000 m during 17-18 December, 2010. Meteorological records reveal that the whole haze column (ground to 4000 m) was stable and could be further divided into three sub-layers depending on the sampling altitude, which are characterized by two shifts of the lapse rate of virtual potential temperature and water vapor mixing ratio: Layer-1, surface to 1500 m; Layer-2, 1500 ˜ 3000 m on 17 December, and 1500 ˜ 2500 m on 18 December; Layer-3, above 3000 m on 17 December and above 2500 m on 18 December. SO2concentration was 16-116 ppb with an average of 58 ppb in the Layer-1, 2-45 ppb with an average of 10 ppb in the Layer-2, and 1-10 ppb with an average of 4 ppb in the Layer-3. The accumulation of SO2in the Layer-1 was due to the stable meteorological conditions and the strong anthropogenic emissions in addition to the possible valley topography. Analyses of the collected particles using a transmission electron microscope revealed the dominance of organic particles and fly ash in the Layer-1 and Layer-2 and sulfate particles in the Layer-3. The organic aerosols frequently contained certain amounts of Si and Cl. Fly ash particles consisted of O and Si with minor Fe, Mn, Zn, Ti, Pb, As, Co, and Cr. These two types of aerosol particles are typically emitted from coal burning. These results indicate that the haze particles were characterized in principle by aerosols from primary emissions of coal burning, which are different from those over the North China Plain where secondary sulfate particles are the dominant component.

Li, Weijun; Shi, Zongbo; Zhang, Daizhou; Zhang, Xiaoye; Li, Peiren; Feng, Qiujuan; Yuan, Qi; Wang, Wenxing

2012-06-01

139

Tests to Produce and Recover Carbon Dioxide by Burning Coal in Oxygen and Recycled Flue Gas: Black Hills Power and Light Company Customer Service Center Boiler No. 2, Rapid City, South Dakota.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experiments were conducted using a modified stoker-fired boiler (2.2 x 10 sup 6 Btu/h) instrumented to examine the feasibility of producing and recovering carbon dioxide by burning coal in oxygen and recycled flue gas in a utility environment. The tests d...

R. Kumar T. Fuller R. Kocourek G. Teats J. Young

1987-01-01

140

Lean flammability limits and laminar burning velocities of CHâ-air-graphite mixtures and fine coal dusts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas temperature, reactant concentrations, graphite burnup, and burning velocity have been measured close to the lean limit of CHâ-air-graphite mixtures on a low-pressure, premixed flame burner. The graphite dust was of about 4 \\/mu\\/m diameter. These experiments suggest a gas temperature of 1550 K at the lean flammability limit. This is the basis of a chemical kinetic model for fine

D. Bradley; G. Dixon-Lewis; S. El-din Habik

1989-01-01

141

Remediation and monitoring of a burning coal refuse bank affecting the Southsea Looproad at Brymbo, North Wales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Southsea Looproad at Brymbo suffers large and varied settlements where the highway crosses a smouldering coal refuse bank. A sudden surge in combustion activity during 1991 resulted in considerable subsidence within the carriageway and posed recurring and persistent difficulties for road safety and highway maintenance. Initial investigations involved subsurface temperature measurements to delimit the hot spots and provide a basis

D Nichol; N. P Tovey

1998-01-01

142

Solids precipitation and polymerization of asphaltenes in coal-derived liquids  

DOEpatents

The precipitation and removal of particulate solids from coal-derived liquids by adding a process-derived anti-solvent liquid fraction and continuing the precipitation process at a temperature above the melting point of the mixed liquids for sufficient time to allow the asphaltenes to polymerize and solids to settle at atmospheric pressure conditions. The resulting clarified light hydrocarbon overflow liquid contains less than about 0.02 W % ash and is suitable as turbine fuel or as boiler fuel for burning without particulate emission control equipment. An underflow liquid fraction containing less than about 0.1 W % solids along with low sulfur and nitrogen concentrations is suitable as a boiler fuel with emission control equipment.

Kydd, Paul H. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

1984-01-01

143

Emission factors of particulate matter and elemental carbon for crop residues and coals burned in typical household stoves in China.  

PubMed

Both particulate matter (PM) and black carbon (BC) impact climate change and human health. Uncertainties in emission inventories of PM and BC are partially due to large variation of measured emission factors (EFs) and lack of EFs from developing countries. Although there is a debate whether thermal-optically measured elemental carbon (EC) may be referred to as BC, EC is often treated as the same mass of BC. In this study, EFs of PM (EF(PM)) and EC (EF(EC)) for 9 crop residues and 5 coals were measured in actual rural cooking and coal stoves using the carbon mass balance method. The dependence of the EFs on fuel properties and combustion conditions was investigated. It was found that the mean EF(PM) were 8.19 ± 4.27 and 3.17 ± 4.67 g/kg and the mean EF(EC) were 1.38 ± 0.70 and 0.23 ± 0.36 g/kg for crop residues and coals, respectively. PM with size less than 10 ?m (PM(10)) from crop residues were dominated by particles of aerodynamic size ranging from 0.7 to 2.1 ?m, while the most abundant size ranges of PM(10) from coals were either from 0.7 to 2.1 ?m or less than 0.7 ?m. Of various fuel properties and combustion conditions tested, fuel moisture and modified combustion efficiency (MCE) were the most critical factors affecting EF(PM) and EF(EC) for crop residues. For coal combustion, EF(PM) were primarily affected by MCE and volatile matter, whereas EF(EC) were significantly influenced by ash content, volatile matter, heat value, and MCE. It was also found that EC emissions were significantly correlated with emissions of PM with size less than 0.4 ?m. PMID:20735038

Shen, Guofeng; Yang, Yifeng; Wang, Wei; Tao, Shu; Zhu, Chen; Min, Yujia; Xue, Miao; Ding, Junnan; Wang, Bin; Wang, Rong; Shen, Huizhong; Li, Wei; Wang, Xilong; Russell, Armistead G

2010-09-15

144

Overburden characterization and post-burn study of the Hanna IV, underground coal gasification site, Wyoming, and comparison to other Wyoming UCG sites  

SciTech Connect

Analysis of 21 post-burn cores taken from the Hanna IV UCG site allows 96 m (315 ft) of overburden to be subdivided into four local stratigraphic units. The 7.6 m (25 ft) thick Hanna No. 1 coal seam is overlain by a laterally discontinuous, 3.3 m (11 ft) thick shaley mudstone (Unit A') in part of the Hanna IV site. A more widespread, 30 m (90 ft) thick well-indurated sandstone (Unit A) overlies the A' unit. Unit A is the roof rock for both of the Hanna IV cavities. Overlying Unit A is a 33 m (108 ft) thick sequence of mudstone and claystone (Unit B), and the uppermost unit at the Hanna IV site (Unit C) is a coarse-grained sandstone that ranges in thickness from 40 to 67 m (131 to 220 ft). Two elliptical cavities were formed during the two phases of the Hanna IV experiment. The larger cavity, Hanna IVa, is 45 x 15 m in plan and has a maximum height of 18 m (59 ft) from the base of the coal seam to the top of the cavity; the Hanna IVb cavity is 40 x 15 m in plan and has a maximum height of 11 m (36 ft) from the base of the coal seam to the top of the cavity. Geotechnical tests indicated that the Hanna IV overburden rocks were moderately strong to strong, based on the empirical classification of Broch and Franklin (1972), and a positive, linear correlation exists between rock strength and volume percent calcite cement. There is an inverse linear correlation between rock strength and porosity for the Hanna IV overburden rocks. 28 refs., 34 figs., 13 tabs..

Marcouiller, B.A.; Burns, L.K.; Ethridge, F.G.

1984-11-01

145

Characterization and evaluation of washability of Alaskan coals. Final technical report for Phase II, July 1, 1977February 29, 1979  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report is a result of the second part of a continuing study to obtain washability data for Alaskan coals to supplement the efforts of the US Department of Energy in their ongoing studies on washability of US coals. Alaska, with its large coal resources, could supply the nation with environmentally acceptable low-ash, low-sulfur coals. Washability characteristics were determined for

P. D. Rao; E. N. Wolff

1980-01-01

146

The ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Project, A DOE Assessment  

SciTech Connect

This report is a post-project assessment of the ENCOAL{reg_sign} Mild Coal Gasification Project, which was selected under Round III of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program. The CCT Demonstration Program is a government and industry cofunded technology development effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal utilization processes in a series of commercial-scale facilities. The ENCOAL{reg_sign} Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Bluegrass Coal Development Company (formerly SMC Mining Company), which is a subsidiary of Ziegler Coal Holding Company, submitted an application to the DOE in August 1989, soliciting joint funding of the project in the third round of the CCT Program. The project was selected by DOE in December 1989, and the Cooperative Agreement (CA) was approved in September 1990. Construction, commissioning, and start-up of the ENCOAL{reg_sign} mild coal gasification facility was completed in June 1992. In October 1994, ENCOAL{reg_sign} was granted a two-year extension of the CA with the DOE, that carried through to September 17, 1996. ENCOAL{reg_sign} was then granted a six-month, no-cost extension through March 17, 1997. Overall, DOE provided 50 percent of the total project cost of $90,664,000. ENCOAL{reg_sign} operated the 1,000-ton-per-day mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company's Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming, for over four years. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC{trademark}) technology originally developed by SMC Mining Company and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin (PRB) coal to produce two new fuels, Process-Derived Fuel (PDF{trademark}) and Coal-Derived Liquids (CDL{trademark}). The products, as alternative fuel sources, are capable of significantly lowering current sulfur emissions at industrial and utility boiler sites throughout the nation thus reducing pollutants causing acid rain. In support of this overall objective, the following goals were established for the ENCOAL{reg_sign} Project: Provide sufficient quantity of products for full-scale test burns; Develop data for the design of future commercial plants; Demonstrate plant and process performance; Provide capital and O&M cost data; and Support future LFC{trademark} technology licensing efforts. Each of these goals has been met and exceeded. The plant has been in operation for nearly 5 years, during which the LFC{trademark} process has been demonstrated and refined. Fuels were made, successfully burned, and a commercial-scale plant is now under contract for design and construction.

National Energy Technology Laboratory

2002-03-15

147

ENCOAL mild coal gasification project public design and construction report  

SciTech Connect

This Public Design Report describes the 1000 ton per day ENCOAL mild coal gasification demonstration plant now in operation at the Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The objective of the project is to demonstrate that the proprietary Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology can reliably and economically convert low Btu PRB coal into a superior, high-Btu solid fuel (PDF), and an environmentally attractive low-sulfur liquid fuel (CDL). The Project`s plans also call for the production of sufficient quantities of PDF and CDL to permit utility companies to carry out full scale burn tests. While some process as well as mechanical design was done in 1988, the continuous design effort was started in July 1990. Civil construction was started in October 1990; mechanical erection began in May 1991. Virtually all of the planned design work was completed by July 1991. Most major construction was complete by April 1992 followed by plant testing and commissioning. Plant operation began in late May 1992. This report covers both the detailed design and initial construction aspects of the Project.

NONE

1994-12-01

148

ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Project  

SciTech Connect

ENCOAL Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Shell Mining Company, is constructing a mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company's Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology developed by Shell and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin Coal to produce two new fuels, Process Derived Fuel (PDF) and Coal Derived Liquids (CDL). The products, as alternative fuels sources, are expected to significantly reduce current sulfur emissions at industrial and utility boiler sites throughout the nation, thereby reducing pollutants causing acid rain.

Not Available

1992-02-01

149

Burn Wound.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Wound care is the central theme of burn patient management after successful resuscitation. Burn wound care has been revolutionized during the past four decades. The development of effective topical chemo-therapy, the timely surgical removal of burned tiss...

B. A. Pruitt

1995-01-01

150

Particulate Emissions from a Stationary Engine Fueled with Ultra-Low-Sulfur Diesel and Waste-Cooking-Oil-Derived Biodiesel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stationary diesel engines, especially diesel generators, are increasingly being used in both developing countries and developed countries because of increased power demand. Emissions from such engines can have adverse effects on the environment and public health. In this study, particulate emissions from a domestic stationary diesel generator running on ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD) and biodiesel derived from waste cooking oil were

Raghu Betha; Rajasekhar Balasubramanian

2011-01-01

151

Exhaust emissions and fuel properties of partially hydrogenated soybean oil methyl esters blended with ultra low sulfur diesel fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Important fuel properties and emission characteristics of blends (20 vol.%) of soybean oil methyl esters (SME) and partially hydrogenated SME (PHSME) in ultra low sulfur diesel fuel (ULSD) were determined and compared with neat ULSD. The following changes were observed for B20 blends of SME and PHSME versus neat ULSD: improved lubricity, higher kinematic viscosity and cetane number, lower sulfur content,

Bryan R. Moser; Aaron Williams; Michael J. Haas; Robert L. McCormick

2009-01-01

152

Navy Mobility Fuels Forecasting System Phase 5 report: Impacts of ultra low sulfur diesel fuel production on Navy fuel availability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Legislation for ultra low sulfur (ULS) diesel fuel, with a greatly reduced allowable sulfur content and a new limit on aromatics content, is expected to be in place by 1995. The ULS diesel fuel has been specified to satisfy national standards for particulate emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines. The economic and engineering models of the Navy Mobility Fuels Forecasting System

G. R. Hadder; S. Das; R. Lee; N. Domingo; R. M. Davis

1989-01-01

153

Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project. Technical progress report, April 1, 1991--June 30, 1991.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project will demonstrate an advanced thermal coal drying process coupled with physical cleaning techniques to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to produce a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel. The coal will be processed through two vibrating fluidized...

1991-01-01

154

Total Generating Costs: Coal and Nuclear Plants. Commercial Electric Power Cost Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study was confined to single and multi-unit coal and nuclear fueled electric generating stations. The stations are composed of 1200 MWe PWRs; 1200 MWe BWRs; 800 and 1200 MWe High Sulfur Coal units, and 800 and 1200 MWe Low Sulfur Coal units. Cost esti...

1979-01-01

155

Method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile  

DOEpatents

A method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile comprises soaking the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution and distributing an oxygen-containing gas throughout the coal refuse pile for a time period sufficient to effect oxidation of coal contained in the coal refuse pile. The method further comprises leaching the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution to solubilize and extract the oxidized coal as alkali salts of humic acids and collecting the resulting solution containing the alkali salts of humic acids. Calcium hydroxide may be added to the solution of alkali salts of humic acid to form precipitated humates useable as a low-ash, low-sulfur solid fuel.

Yavorsky, Paul M. (Monongahela, PA)

1991-01-01

156

Clean Coal?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video and accompanying essay examine carbon capture and storage and clean-coal technology, providing statistics for overall annual U.S. consumption as well as average household usage. Turning solid coal into a clean-burning fuel gas (syngas) and capture and storage pros and cons are discussed.

Pbs, Wgbh -.; Domain, Teachers'

157

Thermodynamic analysis of low-temperature carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide capture from coal-burning power plants.  

PubMed

We discuss the possibility of capturing carbon dioxide from the flue gas of a coal-fired electrical power plant by cryogenically desublimating the carbon dioxide and then preparing it for transport in a pipeline to a sequestration site. Various other means have been proposed to accomplish the same goal. The problem discussed here is to estimate the "energy penalty" or "parasitic energy loss,' defined as the fraction of electrical output that will be needed to provide the refrigeration and that will then not be deliverable. We compute the energy loss (7.9-9.2% at 1 atm) based on perfect Carnot efficiency and estimate the achievable parasitic energy loss (22-26% at 1 atm) by incorporating the published coefficient of performance values for appropriately sized refrigeration or liquefaction cycles at the relevant temperatures. The analyses at 1 atm represent a starting point for future analyses using elevated pressures. PMID:23005487

Swanson, Charles E; Elzey, John W; Hershberger, Robert E; Donnelly, Russell J; Pfotenhauer, John

2012-07-01

158

ENCOAL mild coal gasification demonstration project. Annual report, October 1994--September 1995  

SciTech Connect

This document is the combination of the fourth quarter report (July - September 1995) and the 1995 annual report for the ENCOAL project. The following pages include the background and process description for the project, brief summaries of the accomplishments for the first three quarters, and a detailed fourth quarter report. Its purpose is to convey the accomplishments and current progress of the project. ENCOAL Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of SMC Mining Company (formerly Shell Mining company, now owned by Zeigler Coal Holding Company), has completed the construction and start-up of a mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company`s Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology developed by SMC and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basis coal to produce two new fuels, Process Derived Fuel (PDF) and Coal Derived Liquids (CDL). The products, as alternative fuels sources, are expected to significantly lower current sulfur emissions at industrial and utility boiler sites throughout the nation, thereby reducing pollutants causing acid rain. In the LFC technology, coal is first deeply dried to remove water physically. The temperature is further raised in a second stage which results in decomposition reactions that form the new products. This chemical decomposition (mild gasification) creates gases by cracking reactions from the feed coal. The chemically altered solids are cooled and further processed to make PDF. The gases are cooled, condensing liquids as CDL, and the residual gases are burned in the process for heat. The process release for the ENCOAL plant predicted that one ton of feed coal would yield roughly {1/2} ton of PDF and {1/2} barrel of CDL. By varying plant running conditions, however, it has since been learned that the actual CDL recovery rate may be as much as 15% to 20% above the projections.

NONE

1996-01-01

159

Compositional characteristics of the Fire Clay coal bed in a portion of eastern Kentucky  

SciTech Connect

The Fire Clay (Hazard No. 4) coal bed (Middle Pennsylvanian Breathitt Formation) is one of the most extensively mined coal in eastern Kentucky. The coal is used for metallurgical and steam end uses and, with its low sulfur content, should continue to be a prime steam coal. This study focuses on the petrology, mineralogy, ash geochemistry, and palynology of the coal in an eight 7.5-min quadrangle area of Leslie, Perry, Knott, and Letcher counties.

Hower, J.C.; Andrews, W.M. Jr.; Rimmer, S.M. (Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington (United States)); Eble, C.F. (Kentucky Geological Survey, Lexington (United States))

1991-08-01

160

Mesoporous-molecular-sieve-supported nickel sorbents for adsorptive desulfurization of commercial ultra-low-sulfur diesel fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-performance nickel-based sorbent was developed by loading nickel on a mesoporous molecular sieve, MCM-48, for adsorptive desulfurization (ADS) of commercial ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) for fuel cell applications. The prepared sorbents were characterized by the N2 adsorption–desorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), H2 chemisorption, and transmission electron microscope (TEM), and the ADS performance was evaluated in a fixed-bed flow sorption

Cigdem Sentorun-Shalaby; Shyamal Kumar Saha; Xiaoliang Ma; Chunshan Song

2011-01-01

161

Future in industrial coal combustion equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal burning, as an alternative to gas or oil burning, boilers are discussed. Burning coal needs less volume in the combustion chamber, larger furnaces, and slower gas velocities (primarily to deal with the ash). The heating value for the types of coal--anthracite, bituminous, sub-bituminous, lignite, and peat--are determined. Coal-oil mixtures, and coal-water slurries are discussed. Firetube and watertube boiler types

1983-01-01

162

DEVELOPMENT OF A VALIDATED MODEL FOR USE IN MINIMIZING NOx EMISSIONS AND MAXIMIZING CARBON UTILIZATION WHEN CO-FIRING BIOMASS WITH COAL  

SciTech Connect

This is the eighth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00NT40895. A statement of the project objectives is included in the Introduction of this report. The final biomass co-firing test burn was conducted during this quarter. In this test (Test 14), up to 20% by weight dry switchgrass was comilled with Jim Walters No.7 mine coal and injected through the single-register burner. Jim Walters No.7 coal is a low-volatility, low-sulfur ({approx}0.7% S) Eastern bituminous coal. The results of this test are presented in this quarterly report. Progress has continued to be made in implementing a modeling approach to combine reaction times and temperature distributions from computational fluid dynamic models of the pilot-scale combustion furnace with char burnout and chemical reaction kinetics to predict NO{sub x} emissions and unburned carbon levels in the furnace exhaust. The REI Configurable Fireside Simulator (CFS) is now in regular use. Presently, the CFS is being used to generate CFD calculations for completed tests with Powder River Basin coal and low-volatility (Jim Walters No.7 Mine) coal. Niksa Energy Associates will use the results of these CFD simulations to complete their validation of the NOx/LOI predictive model. Work has started on the project final report.

Larry G. Felix; P. Vann Bush

2002-10-26

163

Near-frictionless carbon coatings for use in fuel injectors and pump systems operating with low-sulfur diesel fuels  

SciTech Connect

While sulfur in diesel fuels helps reduce friction and prevents wear and galling in fuel pump and injector systems, it also creates environmental pollution in the form of hazardous particulates and SO{sub 2} emissions. The environmental concern is the driving force behind industry's efforts to come up with new alternative approaches to this problem. One such approach is to replace sulfur in diesel fuels with other chemicals that would maintain the antifriction and antiwear properties provided by sulfur in diesel fuels while at the same time reducing particulate emissions. A second alternative might be to surface-treat fuel injection parts (i.e., nitriding, carburizing, or coating the surfaces) to reduce or eliminate failures associated with the use of low-sulfur diesel fuels. This research explores the potential usefulness of a near-frictionless carbon (NFC) film developed at Argonne National Laboratory in alleviating the aforementioned problems. The lubricity of various diesel fuels (i.e., high-sulfur, 500 ppm; low sulfur, 140 ppm; ultra-clean, 3 ppm; and synthetic diesel or Fischer-Tropsch, zero sulfur) were tested by using both uncoated and NFC-coated 52100 steel specimens in a ball-on-three-disks and a high-frequency reciprocating wear-test rig. The test program was expanded to include some gasoline fuels as well (i.e., regular gasoline and indolene) to further substantiate the usefulness of the NFC coatings in low-sulfur gasoline environments. The results showed that the NFC coating was extremely effective in reducing wear and providing lubricity in low-sulfur or sulfur-free diesel and gasoline fuels. Specifically, depending on the wear test rig, test pair, and test media, the NFC films were able to reduce wear rates of balls and flats by factors of 8 to 83. These remarkable reductions in wear rates raise the prospect for using the ultra slick carbon coatings to alleviate problems that will be caused by the use of low sulfur diesel and gasoline fuels. Surfaces of the wear scars and tracks were characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy, and by Raman spectroscopy.

Erdemir, A.; Ozturk, O.; Alzoubi, M.; Woodford, J.; Ajayi, L.; Fenske, G.

2000-01-19

164

Production of a pellet fuel from Illinois coal fines. Technical report, March 1--May 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

The primary goal of this research is to produce a pellet fuel from low-sulfur Illinois coal fines which could burn with emissions of less than 1.8 lbs SO{sub 2}/10{sup 6} Btu in stoker-fired boilers. The significance of 1.8 lbs SO{sub 2}/10{sup 6} Btu is that in the Chicago (9 counties) and St. Louis (2 counties) metropolitan areas, industrial users of coal currently must comply with this level of emissions. For this effort, we will be investigating the use of fines from two Illinois mines which currently mine relatively low-sulfur reserves and that discard their fines fraction (minus 100 mesh). The research will involve investigation of multiple unit operations including column flotation, filtration and pellet production. The end result of the effort will allow for an evaluation of the commercial viability of the approach. Previously it has been decided that corn starch would be used as binder and a roller-and-die mill would be used for pellet manufacture. A quality starch binder has been identified and tested. To potentially lower binder costs, a starch that costs about 50% of the high quality starch was tested. Results indicate that the lower cost starch will not lower binder cost because more is required to produce a comparable quality pellet. Also, a petroleum in water emulsion was evaluated as a potential binder. The compound seemed to have adhesive properties but was found to be a poor binder. Arrangements have been made to collect a waste slurry from the mine previously described.

Rapp, D.; Lytle, J.

1995-12-31

165

Biomass Burning  

Biomass Burning Data and Information This data set represents ... geographical and temporal distribution of total amount of biomass burned. These data may be used in general circulation models (GCMs) and ... models of the atmosphere. Project Title:  Biomass Burning Discipline:  Tropospheric Chemistry ...

2014-04-25

166

Coal combustion products  

SciTech Connect

Coal-burning power plants, which supply more than half of US electricity, also generate coal combustion products, which can be both a resource and a disposal problem. The US Geological Survey collaborates with the American Coal Ash Association in preparing its annual report on coal combustion products. This Fact Sheet answers questions about present and potential uses of coal combustion products. 5 refs., 5 figs.

Kalyoncu, R.S.; Olson, D.W.

2001-08-15

167

Clean coal: Global opportunities for small businesses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The parallel growth in coal demand and environmental concern has spurred interest in technologies that burn coal with greater efficiency and with lower emissions. Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) will ensure that continued use of the world's most abundant e...

1998-01-01

168

JV TASK 45-MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR ELECTRIC UTILITIES BURNING LIGNITE COAL, PHASE I BENCH-AND PILOT-SCALE TESTING  

SciTech Connect

The Energy & Environmental Research Center has completed the first phase of a 3-year, two-phase consortium project to develop and demonstrate mercury control technologies for utilities that burn lignite coal. The overall project goal is to maintain the viability of lignite-based energy production by providing utilities with low-cost options for meeting future mercury regulations. Phase I objectives are to develop a better understanding of mercury interactions with flue gas constituents, test a range of sorbent-based technologies targeted at removing elemental mercury (Hg{sup o}) from flue gases, and demonstrate the effectiveness of the most promising technologies at the pilot scale. The Phase II objectives are to demonstrate and quantify sorbent technology effectiveness, performance, and cost at a sponsor-owned and operated power plant. Phase I results are presented in this report along with a brief overview of the Phase II plans. Bench-scale testing provided information on mercury interactions with flue gas constituents and relative performances of the various sorbents. Activated carbons were prepared from relatively high-sodium lignites by carbonization at 400 C (752 F), followed by steam activation at 750 C (1382 F) and 800 C (1472 F). Luscar char was also steam-activated at these conditions. These lignite-based activated carbons, along with commercially available DARCO FGD and an oxidized calcium silicate, were tested in a thin-film, fixed-bed, bench-scale reactor using a simulated lignitic flue gas consisting of 10 {micro}g/Nm{sup 3} Hg{sup 0}, 6% O{sub 2}, 12% CO{sub 2}, 15% H{sub 2}O, 580 ppm SO{sub 2}, 120 ppm NO, 6 ppm NO{sub 2}, and 1 ppm HCl in N{sub 2}. All of the lignite-based activated (750 C, 1382 F) carbons required a 30-45-minute conditioning period in the simulated lignite flue gas before they exhibited good mercury sorption capacities. The unactivated Luscar char and oxidized calcium silicate were ineffective in capturing mercury. Lignite-based activated (800 C, 1472 F) carbons required a shorter (15-minute) conditioning period in the simulated lignite flue gas and captured gaseous mercury more effectively than those activated at 750 C (1382 F). Subsequent tests with higher acid gas concentrations including 50 ppm HCl showed no early mercury breakthrough for either the activated (750 C, 1382 F) Bienfait carbon or the DARCO FGD. Although these high acid gas tests yielded better mercury capture initially, significant breakthrough of mercury ultimately occurred sooner than during the simulated lignite flue gas tests. The steam-activated char, provided by Luscar Ltd., and DARCO FGD, provided by NORIT Americas, were evaluated for mercury removal potential in a 580 MJ/hr (550,000-Btu/hr) pilot-scale coal combustion system equipped with four particulate control devices: (1) an electrostatic precipitator (ESP), (2) a fabric filter (FF), (3) the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter, and (4) an ESP and FF in series, an EPRI-patented TOXECON{trademark} technology. The Ontario Hydro method and continuous mercury monitors were used to measure mercury species concentrations at the inlet and outlet of the control technology devices with and without sorbent injection. Primarily Hg{sup o} was measured when lignite coals from the Poplar River Plant and Freedom Mine were combusted. The effects of activated Luscar char, DARCO FGD, injection rates, particle size, and gas temperature on mercury removal were evaluated for each of the four particulate control device options. Increasing injection rates and decreasing gas temperatures generally promoted mercury capture in all four control devices. Relative to data reported for bituminous and subbituminous coal combustion flue gases, higher sorbent injection rates were generally required for the lignite coal to effectively remove mercury. Documented results in this report provide the impacts of these and other parameters and provide the inputs needed to direct Phase II of the project.

John H. Pavlish; Michael J. Holmes; Steven A. Benson; Charlene R. Crocker; Edwin S. Olson; Kevin C. Galbreath; Ye Zhuang; Brandon M. Pavlish

2003-10-01

169

Lateral variation in geochemistry, petrology, and palynology in the Elswick coal bed, Pike County, Kentucky  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Middle Pennsylvanian\\/Langsettian (Westphalian A) Elswick coal bed, correlative to the Upper Banner of Virginia, is a rare example of a mined high-sulfur (>2%) coal in Eastern Kentucky, a region known for low-sulfur coals. To characterize lateral variation in the geochemistry, petrography, and palynology of the Elswick coal bed, three sites were sampled along a southeast–northwest transect within a single

James C. Hower; Leslie F. Ruppert; Cortland F. Eble

2007-01-01

170

Progression in sulfur isotopic compositions from coal to fly ash: Examples from single-source combustion in Indiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sulfur occurs in multiple mineral forms in coals, and its fate in coal combustion is still not well understood. The sulfur isotopic composition of coal from two coal mines in Indiana and fly ash from two power plants that use these coals were studied using geological and geochemical methods. The two coal beds are Middle Pennsylvanian in age; one seam is the low-sulfur ( 5%) Springfield Coal Member of the Petersburg Formation. Both seams have ash contents of approximately 11%. Fly-ash samples were collected at various points in the ash-collection system in the two plants. The results show notable difference in ??34S for sulfur species within and between the low-sulfur and high-sulfur coal. The ??34S values for all sulfur species are exclusively positive in the low-sulfur Danville coal, whereas the ??34S values for sulfate, pyritic, and organic sulfur are both positive and negative in the high-sulfur Springfield coal. Each coal exhibits a distinct pattern of stratigraphic variation in sulfur isotopic composition. Overall, the ??34S for sulfur species values increase up the section in the low-sulfur Danville coal, whereas they show a decrease up the vertical section in the high-sulfur Springfield coal. Based on the evolution of ??34S for sulfur species, it is suggested that there was influence of seawater on peat swamp, with two marine incursions occurring during peat accumulation of the high-sulfur Springfield coal. Therefore, bacterial sulfate reduction played a key role in converting sulfate into hydrogen sulfide, sulfide minerals, and elemental sulfur. The differences in ??34S between sulfate sulfur and pyritic sulfur is very small between individual benches of both coals, implying that some oxidation occurred during deposition or postdeposition. The ??34S values for fly ash from the high-sulfur Springfield coal (averaging 9.7???) are greatly enriched in 34S relative to those in the parent coal (averaging 2.2???). This indicates a fractionation of sulfur isotopes during high-sulfur coal combustion. By contrast, the ??34S values for fly-ash samples from the low-sulfur Danville coal average 10.2???, only slightly enriched in 34S relative to those from the parent coal (average 7.5???). The ??34S values for bulk S determined directly from the fly-ash samples show close correspondence with the ??34S values for SO4- 2 leached from the fly ash in the low-sulfur coal, suggesting that the transition from pyrite to sulfate occurred via high-temperature oxidation during coal combustion. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Yaofa, Jiang; Elswick, E. R.; Mastalerz, M.

2008-01-01

171

Burns Encyclopedia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provide by Burns Country, this full-text, online version of "the definitive Robert Burns reference volume" serves as a useful handbook to Scotland's most famous poet and the intellectual circles in which he turned. The encyclopedia, which is in HTML format, is organized alphabetically. Burns Country offers a number of other related resources, chief among them a songs and poems archive containing 100 of the poet's works. Other features at the site include a discussion area, Burns and Scottish association links, and some commercial content.

Lindsay, Maurice.

172

Wilsonville Advanced Coal-Liquefaction Research and Development Facility, Wilsonville, Alabama. Topical report No. 5. 6000 TPD SRC-I demonstration plant support  

SciTech Connect

Initially, the Wilsonville facility consisted of a single stage (thermal) process, also known as the SRC-I process. The original plant has been expanded to become an advanced two-stage coal liquefaction facility. A Critical Solvent Deashing (CDS) unit was installed in 1978 and a second stage catalytic hydrogenation (HTR) unit was installed in 1981. The principal product of the first stage is a low sulfur solid fuel. The reaction product is deashed by the CSD unit using a proprietary process developed by the Kerr-McGee Corporation. The hydrotreater, or the second stage, was installed primarily for further enhancement of product properties, process flexibility, and overall hydrogen utilization efficiency. In the decoupled mode of operation, the HTR unit has no direct effect on the SRC unit. This operating mode is called the non-integrated two-stage liquefaction (NTSL) process. From 17 October 1981 to 14 October 1982, the Advanced Coal Liquefaction R and D Facility at Wilsonville, Alabama, was operated partly in support of the 6000 TPD-I demonstration plant design effort undertaken by ICRC. The ICRC support tests and operations performed were: Run 235 with Kentucky 9 (Fies) coal; Run 240 with Illinois 6 (Burning Star) coal; CSD unit second stage variability study; CSD unit continuous ash removal system study; SRC solidification test; wastewater sampling operation; and residual fuel oil blending operation.

Not Available

1983-08-01

173

Isolation of a low-sulfur tolerance gene from Eichhornia crassipes using a functional gene-mining approach.  

PubMed

Genes enhancing nutrient utilization efficiency are needed for crop improvement. Here, we report the isolation of a gene conferring low-sulfur tolerance from water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) using a functional gene-mining method. In doing this, an entry cDNA library was constructed from the roots of nutrient-starved water hyacinth using recombination cloning and subsequently shuttled into the plant transformation- and expression-ready vector. The plant transformation- and expression-ready library was transferred into Arabidopsis and a seed library of 50,000 independent transgenic lines was generated. Three transgenic lines with enhanced low-sulfur tolerance were isolated from the seed library. One of the transgenic lines, shl143-1, with improved tolerance to sulfate deficiency and an improved root system was further analyzed. It was found that a water hyacinth jacalin-related lectin gene (EcJRL-1) was overexpressed in shl143-1. Recapitulation analysis confirmed that the overexpression of the EcJRL-1 cDNA caused the phenotype. Therefore, this study demonstrates that a jacalin-related lectin is involved in root elongation under sulfur-deficient conditions. PMID:19898863

Liu, Xiao; Chen, Xi; Oliver, David J; Xiang, Cheng-Bin

2009-12-01

174

Selectivity improvement in the solvent refined coal process. I - Detailed first-stage reaction studies - Coal mineral catalysis. II - Detailed second-stage reaction studies - Hydrotreating of coal liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two stage process is investigated for the production of a low-sulfur solid SRC-I (solvent refined coal) type boiler fuel with a minimum consumption of hydrogen. The first stage involves the scavenging action of coal minerals. Mineral additives (e.g., iron oxide and iron) increase selectivity for hydrodesulfurization over hydrogenation in coal liquefaction reactions. Mineral residues from SRC processes show insignificant

D. Garg; A. R. Tarrer; J. A. Guin; C. W. Curtis; J. H. Clinton

1980-01-01

175

Studies in Coal Liquefaction with Application to the SRC and Related Processes. Quarterly Report, May-July 1979.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two improved processes for the conversion of coal to a low-sulfur solid product were studied. Developmental studies were made of a single-stage processing method by which coal mineral additives can be used to improve drastically the hydrogen economy of So...

J. A. Guin A. R. Tarrer

1979-01-01

176

Burning Issue: Handling Household Burns  

MedlinePLUS

... cooking food unattended on the stove. Set your water heater’s thermostat to 120 °F or lower to prevent scalding burns. And install smoke alarms on every floor of your home. Keep yourself and your family safe from unexpected ... For minor burns: Immerse in fresh, cool water, or apply cool compresses for 10-15 minutes. ...

177

Perspectives in Iowa coal. [80 refs. cited  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this manual coal is discussed as an alternative energy source. Since technology for mining and burning coal already exists, coal may play a critical role during the coming transition period. Coal's increasing worth may spur a new era of mining in Iowa. Mining has been on the decline until recently, though Iowa coal has been mined for well over

R. N. Stolp; F. P. DeLuca

1976-01-01

178

Biodiesel production using alkaline ionic liquid and adopted as lubricity additive for low-sulfur diesel fuel.  

PubMed

Preparation of biodiesel from vegetable oils, such as rapeseed oil, soybean oil and sunflower oil, catalyzed by an alkaline ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium imidazolide ([Bmim]Im) was investigated in this work. The results demonstrated that [Bmim]Im exhibited high activity and the yield of biodiesel was up to 95% or more when molar ratio of methanol to vegetable oil was 6:1, ionic liquid dosage was 6 wt.%, reaction temperature was 60°C, and reaction time was 60 min. After [Bmim]Im was used for the sixth time, the yield of biodiesel still remained at about 95%. The effects of the biodiesels on the lubricity of low-sulfur diesel fuel were also investigated using the High Frequency Reciprocating Rig method, and the results showed that sunflower biodiesel and soybean biodiesel had higher lubrication performance than that of rapeseed biodiesel. PMID:23708846

Luo, Hui; Fan, Weiyu; Li, Yang; Nan, Guozhi

2013-07-01

179

Biomass Burning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biomass burning may be the overwhelming regional or continental-scale source of methane (CH4) as in tropical Africa and a significant global source of CH4. Our best estimate of present methane emissions from biomass burning is about 51.9 Tg/yr, or 10% of the annual methane emissions to the atmosphere. Increased frequency of fires that may result as the Earth warms up may result in increases in this source of atmospheric methane.

Levine, Joel S.; Cofer, Wesley R., III; Pinto, Joseph P.

1993-01-01

180

Tests to produce and recover carbon dioxide by burning coal in oxygen and recycled flue gas: Black Hills Power and Light Company Customer Service Center Boiler No. 2, Rapid City, South Dakota  

SciTech Connect

Experiments were conducted using a modified stoker-fired boiler (2.2 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/h) instrumented to examine the feasibility of producing and recovering carbon dioxide by burning coal in oxygen and recycled flue gas in a utility environment. The tests demonstrated that the boiler can be operated in the oxygen-blown/flue-gas-recirculation mode without any noticeable effects on coal combustion, heat delivery to the water, or the coal-feed or ash-handling systems. Pretest calculations showed that a feasible set of operating parameters for a carbon-dioxide-producing combustor system tightly sealed against air infiltration and containing no more than about 5% O/sub 2/ (dry basis) at the furnace exit would be a flue-gas recycling ratio between 0.6 and 0.7 and an oxygen feed rate of 1.17 g-moles per g-atom of carbon, yielding an exhaust gas composition (wet basis) of approximately 46.9% CO/sub 2/, 50.6% H/sub 2/O, and 2.5% O/sub 2/. This composition corresponds to a product gas containing 95% CO/sub 2/ and 5% O/sub 2/ (dry basis). However, because air leaked into the test combustor and the flue-gas handling system, the highest carbon dioxide concentration achieved in the exhaust gas was 48.5% (dry basis). Major sources of inleakage were the furnace brickwork, the gas-handling system, and the coal-feed and ash-extraction systems. 40 figs.

Kumar, R.; Fuller, T.; Kocourek, R.; Teats, G.; Young, J.; Myles, K.; Wolsky, A.

1987-12-01

181

Future in industrial coal combustion equipment  

SciTech Connect

Coal burning, as an alternative to gas or oil burning, boilers are discussed. Burning coal needs less volume in the combustion chamber, larger furnaces, and slower gas velocities (primarily to deal with the ash). The heating value for the types of coal--anthracite, bituminous, sub-bituminous, lignite, and peat--are determined. Coal-oil mixtures, and coal-water slurries are discussed. Firetube and watertube boiler types are specified. Pulverized, stoker, and fluidized bed coal firing systems are studied. Underfeed, spreader, and overfeed stokers are detailed. As most steam plants are designed on a custom basis, all of these factors must be considered.

Mosher, R.N.

1983-06-01

182

Sulfur diagenesis in everglades peat and origin of pyrite in coal.  

PubMed

The pattern of sulfur transformation in peat across the Everglades basin indicates that pyrite formation in organic-rich swamps depends on the use of organic oxysulfur compounds in dissimilatory respiration by sulfur-reducing bacteria. This paragenesis explains the primary distribution of sulfur compounds in low-sulfur coals and possibly in most coals and many organic-rich soils and sediments. It also accounts for the occurrence of framboidal pyrite bound in fossil tissue in coal and sediments. PMID:17815176

Altschuler, Z S; Schnepfe, M M; Silber, C C; Simon, F O

1983-07-15

183

Sulfur diagenesis in Everglades peat and origin of pyrite in coal  

SciTech Connect

The pattern of sulfur transformation in peat across the Everglades basin indicates that pyrite formation in organic-rich swamps depends on the use of organic oxysulfur compounds in dissimilatory respiration by sulfur-reducing bacteria. This paragenesis explains the primary distribution of sulfur compounds in low-sulfur coals and possibly in most coals and many organic-rich soils and sediments. It also accounts for the occurrence of framboidal pyrite bound in fossil tissue in coal and sediments.

Altschuler, Z.S.; Schnepfe, M.M.; Silber, C.C.; Simon, F.O.

1983-07-15

184

High gradient magnetic beneficiation of dry pulverized coal via upwardly directed recirculating fluidization  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to an improved device and method for the high gradient magnetic beneficiation of dry pulverized coal, for the purpose of removing sulfur and ash from the coal whereby the product is a dry environmentally acceptable, low-sulfur fuel. The process involves upwardly directed recirculating air fluidization of selectively sized powdered coal in a separator having sections of increasing diameters in the direction of air flow, with magnetic field and flow rates chosen for optimum separations depending upon particulate size.

Eissenberg, David M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Liu, Yin-An (Opelika, AL)

1980-01-01

185

DEVELOPMENT OF A VALIDATED MODEL FOR USE IN MINIMIZING NOx EMISSIONS AND MAXIMIZING CARBON UTILIZATION WHEN CO-FIRING BIOMASS WITH COAL  

SciTech Connect

This is the fifth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00NT40895. A statement of the project objectives is included in the Introduction of this report. One additional biomass co-firing test burn was conducted during this quarter. In this test (Test 9), up to 20% by weight dry hardwood sawdust and switchgrass was injected through the center of the single-register burner with Jacobs Ranch coal. Jacobs Ranch coal is a low-sulfur Powder River Basin coal ({approx} 0.5% S). The results from Test 9 as well as for Test 8 (conducted late last quarter) are presented in this quarterly report. Significant progress has been made in implementing a modeling approach to combine reaction times and temperature distributions from computational fluid dynamic models of the pilot-scale combustion furnace with char burnout and chemical reaction kinetics to predict NO{sub x} emissions and unburned carbon levels in the furnace exhaust. Additional results of CFD modeling efforts have been received and preparations are under way for continued pilot-scale combustion experiments with the dual-register burner. Finally, a project review was held at NETL in Pittsburgh, on November 13, 2001.

Larry G. Felix; P. Vann Bush

2002-01-31

186

Emulsified Diesel Emissions Testing, Performance Evaluation and Operational Assessment; Project Extension to Examine an Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel Fuel: TxLED.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

When TxDOT began using an ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel, Texas Low Emission Diesel (TxLED), they commissioned a simultaneous study of the effectiveness of the use of TxLED by both the TxDOT fleet and their contractors, the Associated General Contractors (A...

R. Matthews R. Baker T. DeFries O. A. Ezekoye M. Hall S. Kishan

2005-01-01

187

An oxidative desulfurization method using ultrasound\\/Fenton's reagent for obtaining low and\\/or ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total development trend in the world is towards continuously lower of sulfur content as a quality standard of diesel fuels. Integrating of an oxidative desulfurization unit with a conventional hydrotreating unit can bring benefits to producing low and\\/or ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels. Using the hydrotreated Middle East diesel fuel as a feedstock, four processes of the oxidative desulfurization have

Yongchuan Dai; Yutai Qi; Dezhi Zhao; Huicheng Zhang

2008-01-01

188

A quantitative evaluation of a class 8 trucking fleet to compare #2 ultra low sulfur diesel and B20 fuels and their impact on overall fleet performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was performed on twenty Class-8 trucks paired by make, model, mileage, and drive cycles. Ten trucks were operated using #2 Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel and ten using a 20% soy methyl ester blend (B20). All trucks were equipped with data collection units that monitored engine information including fuel consumption, idle time, truck speed, engine load, and engine speed. Data

Cody Richard McKinley

2008-01-01

189

Overburden Characterization and Post-Burn Study of the North Knobs Steeply Dipping Bed Underground Coal Gasification (SDB-UCG) Site, Rawlins, Wyoming.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The encompassing sandstones, siltstones, shales and thin conglomerates of the gasified G Coal seam at the North Knobs SDB-UCG site were deposited mainly in fluvial and poorly-drained swamp environments. These beds dip at 65 exp 0 at the North Knobs site. ...

F. G. Ethridge A. M. Saracino L. K. Burns T. R. Marks A. D. Youngberg

1983-01-01

190

ULTRA-LOW SULFUR REDUCTION EMISSION CONTROL DEVICE/DEVELOPMENT OF AN ON-BOARD FUEL SULFUR TRAP  

SciTech Connect

Honeywell is actively working on a 3-year program to develop and demonstrate proof-of-concept for an ''on-vehicle'' desulfurization fuel filter for heavy-duty diesel engines. Integration of the filter into the vehicle fuel system will reduce the adverse effects sulfur has on post combustion emission control devices such as NO{sub x} adsorbers. The NO{sub x} adsorber may be required to meet the proposed new EPA Tier II and ''2007-Rule'' emission standards. The proposed filter concept is based on Honeywell's reactive filtration technology and experience in liquids handling and conditioning. A regeneration and recycling plan for the spent filters will also be examined. We have chosen to develop and demonstrate this technology based on criteria set forth for a heavy duty CIDI engine system because it represents a more challenging set of conditions of service intervals and overall fuel usage over light duty systems. It is anticipated that the technology developed for heavy-duty applications will be applicable to light-duty as well. Further, technology developed under this proposal would also have application for the use of liquid based fuels for fuel cell power generation. The program consists of four phases. Phase I will focus on developing a concept design and analysis and resolution of technical barriers concerning removal of sulfur-containing species in low sulfur fuels. In Phase II we will concentrate on prototype filter design and preparation followed by qualification testing of this component in a fuel line application. Phase III will study life cycle and regeneration options for the spent filter. Phase IV will focus on efficacy and life testing and component integration. The project team will include a number of partners, with Honeywell International as the prime contractor. The partners include an emission control technology developer (Honeywell International), a fuel technology developer (Marathon Ashland Petroleum), a catalyst technology developer (Johnson Matthey), a CIDI engine manufacturer (Mack Trucks Inc.), a filter recycler (American Wastes Industries), and a low-sulfur fuel supplier (Equilon, a joint venture between Shell and Texaco).

Ron Rohrbach; Gary Zulauf; Tim Gavin

2003-04-01

191

Bag filter performs well on cycling generating plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fabric filter was successfully used for a year on a cycling boiler system used for peaking power. Three different fuels were burned during the testing period: low-sulfur Western coal, low-sulfur Eastern coal, and a mixture of coal and tire chips. No bag failures or blinding were reported and reliability was high. Performance test results reveal the baghouse emission rates

W. Smit; K. Spitzer

1979-01-01

192

New Coal Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tighter federal air pollution control standards for new coal-burning electric power plants have been issued. Through use of air pollution control devices all types of coal will be useable under the new standards. Even stricter standards may be imposed where visibility may be affected in areas now enjoying very clean air. (RE)

Heritage, John

1979-01-01

193

Particulate emissions from a stationary engine fueled with ultra-low-sulfur diesel and waste-cooking-oil-derived biodiesel.  

PubMed

Stationary diesel engines, especially diesel generators, are increasingly being used in both developing countries and developed countries because of increased power demand. Emissions from such engines can have adverse effects on the environment and public health. In this study, particulate emissions from a domestic stationary diesel generator running on ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD) and biodiesel derived from waste cooking oil were characterized for different load conditions. Results indicated a reduction in particulate matter (PM) mass and number emissions while switching diesel to biodiesel. With increase in engine load, it was observed that particle mass increased, although total particle counts decreased for all the fuels. The reduction in total number concentration at higher loads was, however, dependent on percentage of biodiesel in the diesel-biodiesel blend. For pure biodiesel (B100), the reduction in PM emissions for full load compared to idle mode was around 9%, whereas for ULSD the reduction was 26%. A large fraction of ultrafine particles (UFPs) was found in the emissions from biodiesel compared to ULSD. Nearly 90% of total particle concentration in biodiesel emissions comprised ultrafine particles. Particle peak diameter shifted from a smaller to a lower diameter with increase in biodiesel percentage in the fuel mixture. PMID:22070039

Betha, Raghu; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

2011-10-01

194

Incidence and impact of axial malformations in larval bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) developing in sites polluted by a coal-burning power plant  

SciTech Connect

Amphibian malformations have recently received much attention from the scientific community, but few studies have provided evidence linking environmental pollution to larval amphibian malformations in the field. The authors document an increased incidence of axial malformations in bullfrog larvae (Rana catesbeiana) inhabiting two sites contaminated with coal combustion wastes. In the polluted sites, 18 and 37% of larvae exhibited lateral curvatures of the spine, whereas zero and 4% of larvae from two reference sites had similar malformations. Larvae from the most heavily polluted site had significantly higher tissue concentrations of potentially toxic trace elements, including As, Cd, Se, Cu, Cr, and V, compared with conspecifics from the reference sites. In addition, malformed larvae from the cost contaminated site had decreased swimming speeds compared with those of normal larvae from the same site. The authors hypothesize that the complex mixture of contaminants produced by coal combustion is responsible for the high incidence of malformations and associated effects on swimming performance.

Hopkins, W.A.; Congdon, J.; Ray, J.K.

2000-04-01

195

Microwave technologies in coal power engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis of the modern state and prospects of using microwave radiation in the processes of drying, dispersion, burning, and fine processing of low-rank coals for the purpose of increasing the energy efficiency of coal technologies and decreasing harmful emissions from them has been carried out. It is shown that the use of microwave-radiation energy in coal power engineering is a promising method of complex action on coal in the process of its preparation and burning.

Salomatov, V. V.; Sladkov, S. O.; Pashchenko, S. É.

2012-05-01

196

Burning manifolds and burning lobes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present experimental studies of the propagation of a reaction front in a fluid flow composed of a chain of alternating vortices. We propose that the tools used to describe the transport of a passive impurity in a flow can be expanded to account for the behavior of a reaction front. In particular, we propose that motion of a reaction front from one region to another in the flow is determined by burning manifolds and burning lobes. These ideas are tested experimentally for both the time-independent and time-dependent vortex chain. For a time-independent flow, the time that it takes for a triggered reaction to propagate from one vortex to the next is the minimum time ? for the stable burning manifold BS(?) to envelope the original trigger point. For a time-dependent (oscillatory) vortex chain, we use the burning manifold/lobe framework to explain mode-locking behavior seen in earlier studies.ootnotetextM.S. Paoletti and T.H. Solomon, Europhys. Lett. 69, 819 (2005); Phys. Rev. E 72, 046204 (2005).

Kingsbury, Mark; Solomon, Tom

2010-11-01

197

Physics-Related Problems of Coal-Fired Power Plant Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides facts which dispel widely held fallacies about the consequences of coal-burning, most of which are physics-related. Concentrates on air pollution as the major contributor to the public hazard from coal-burning. (GA)

Devaney, Joseph J.

1978-01-01

198

Pulverized coal fuel injector  

DOEpatents

A pulverized coal fuel injector contains an acceleration section to improve the uniformity of a coal-air mixture to be burned. An integral splitter is provided which divides the coal-air mixture into a number separate streams or jets, and a center body directs the streams at a controlled angle into the primary zone of a burner. The injector provides for flame shaping and the control of NO/NO.sub.2 formation.

Rini, Michael J. (Hebron, CT); Towle, David P. (Windsor, CT)

1992-01-01

199

TRACE ELEMENT CHARACTERIZATION OF COAL WASTES. FOURTH ANNUAL PROGRESS REPORT, OCTOBER 1, 1978-SEPTEMBER 30, 1979  

EPA Science Inventory

In the past year assessment studies of low-sulfur coal wastes from the Appalachian Region have been continued. These included mineralogical and trace elemental analyses on these materials and studies of their weathering and leaching behavior. Although the concentrations of the ac...

200

Studies in coal liquefaction with application to the SRC and related processes. Quarterly report, May-July 1979  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two improved processes for the conversion of coal to a low-sulfur solid product were studied. Developmental studies were made of a single-stage processing method by which coal mineral additives can be used to improve drastically the hydrogen economy of Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) processing technology and also to meet the present new source performance standards (NSPS). Laboratory-scale batch experiments were

J. A. Guin; A. R. Tarrer

1979-01-01

201

Ash handling systems for coal fired boilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an overview of the types of ash handling systems that can and are being used to handle the ash waste products from burning coal. The paper discusses systems for the two broad industry subdivisions of bottom ash and fly ash and discusses pulverized coal fired boilers as well as coal versus coal\\/oil direct combinations.

G. D. Mooney; J. Murphy

1982-01-01

202

Mass burning  

SciTech Connect

With only minimal sorting, garbage can be used to fire a boiler. But the design of a refuse-to-energy plant must account for the corrosive and abrasive nature of the fuel and must include means of scrubbing flue gases and removing ash. This paper describes the working of a typical mass-burning plant. Topics are grouped under the following headings: Firing equipment, Boiler Design, Control and operation, Research and Development, Air Pollution Controls, Ash removal.

Adkin, P.

1988-12-01

203

Pelletization of fine coals. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Coal is one of the most abundant energy resources in the US with nearly 800 million tons of it being mined annually. Process and environmental demands for low-ash, low-sulfur coals and economic constraints for high productivity are leading the coal industry to use such modern mining methods as longwall mining and such newer coal processing techniques as froth flotation, oil agglomeration, chemical cleaning and synthetic fuel production. All these processes are faced with one common problem area--fine coals. Dealing effectively with these fine coals during handling, storage, transportation, and/or processing continues to be a challenge facing the industry. Agglomeration by the unit operation of pelletization consists of tumbling moist fines in drums or discs. Past experimental work and limited commercial practice have shown that pelletization can alleviate the problems associated with fine coals. However, it was recognized that there exists a serious need for delineating the fundamental principles of fine coal pelletization. Accordingly, a research program has been carried involving four specific topics: (i) experimental investigation of coal pelletization kinetics, (ii) understanding the surface principles of coal pelletization, (iii) modeling of coal pelletization processes, and (iv) simulation of fine coal pelletization circuits. This report summarizes the major findings and provides relevant details of the research effort.

Sastry, K.V.S.

1995-12-31

204

Comparison of diesel exhaust emissions using JP-8 and low-sulfur diesel fuel. Interim report, March 1994-March 1995  

SciTech Connect

Comparative emission measurements were made in two dynamometer-based diesel engines using protocol specified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the California Air Resources Board (CARB). A single JP-8 fuel with a sulfur level of 0.06 wt% was adjusted to sulfur levels of 0.11 and 0.26 wt%. The emission characteristics of the three fuels were compared to the 1994 EPA certification low-sulfur diesel fuel (sulfur level equal to 0.035 wt%) in the Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) 1991 prototype Series 60 diesel engine and in the General Motors (GM) 6.2L diesel engine. Comparisons were made using the hot-start transient portion of the heavy-duty diesel engine Federal Test Procedure. Results from the Army study show that the gaseous emissions for the DDC Series 60 engine using kerosene-based JP-8 fuel are essentially equal to values obtained with the 0.035 wt% sulfur EPA certification diesel fuel, and that an approximate sulfur level of 0.21 wt% in kerosene-type JP-8 fuel would be equivalent to the 0.035 wt% sulfur reference fuel. Similarly, the regulated gaseous emissions for the GM 6.2L engine using JP-8 fuel are essentially equal to the values obtained with the 0.035 wt% sulfur EPA reference fuel. All sulfur levels of kerosene-type JP-8 fuel up to the 0.30 wt% MIL-T-83133 specification maximum would be equivalent to a 0.035 wt% sulfur EPA reference fuel.

Yost, D.M.; Montalvo, D.A.

1995-11-01

205

Work-related burns.  

PubMed

Work-related upper extremity burns often occur. The cause directs the course of action. Thermal burns should be assessed for system alterations, and depth of burn should be determined. Deep partial-thickness burns and more severe burns require a specialist evaluation. Chemical burns must be irrigated and the agent identified. Some chemical burns, such as those that involve phenols and metal fragments, require specific topical applications before water lavage. Hydrofluoric acid burns can cause life-threatening electrolyte abnormalities with a small, highly concentrated acid burn. The goal with any extremity burn is to provide the patient with a multidisciplinary team approach to achieve a functional, usable extremity. PMID:16647659

Pruitt, Valerie M

2006-01-01

206

Experimental study on particulate and NO x emissions of a diesel engine fueled with ultra low sulfur diesel, RME-diesel blends and PME-diesel blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultra low sulfur diesel and two different kinds of biodiesel fuels blended with baseline diesel fuel in 5% and 20% v\\/v were tested in a Cummins 4BTA direct injection diesel engine, with a turbocharger and an intercooler. Experiments were conducted under five engine loads at two steady speeds (1500rpm and 2500rpm). The study aims at investigating the engine performance, NOx

Lei Zhu; Wugao Zhang; Wei Liu; Zhen Huang

2010-01-01

207

The effect of biodiesel and ultra low sulfur diesel fuels on emissions in 11,000 CC heavy-duty diesel engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

It seems very difficult to comply with upcoming stringent emission standards in vehicles To develop low emission engines,\\u000a better quality of automotive fuels must be achieved Since sulfur contents in diesel fuels are transformed to sulfate—laden\\u000a particulate matters as a catalyst is applied, it is necessary to provide low sulfur fuels before any Pt-based oxidation catalysts\\u000a are applied In general,

Doo Sung Baik; Young Chool Han

2005-01-01

208

NITROUS OXIDE FORMATION DURING LIGHT-OFF OVER A COMMERCIAL PD-CONTAINING THREE-WAY CATALYTIC CONVERTER: THE EFFECT OF LOW-SULFUR GASOLINE  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we report how the use of low-sulfur gasoline decreases formation of N2O as a by-product during light-off of commercial Pd-only three-way catalytic converters (TWC). Our results also show that even in the absence of sulfur a large quantity of N2O (reaching instantaneous concentrations up to 700 ppm) is produced at low temperature, between 200° and 400°C. At high

Isidro Mejía-Centeno; Gustavo A. Fuentes

2009-01-01

209

Recovery of coal fines from preparation plant effluents  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this project were to test and demonstrate the feasibility of recovering coal fines that are currently disposed of with coal preparation plant effluent streams and producing a fine clean coal product that can be blended with the plant coarse clean coal. This recovery was effected by means of Michigan Technological University's static tube flotation process, which was successfully demonstrated on a number of raw coals to reject 85% of the pyritic sulfur and recover 90% of the combustible matter. Under this project, the process parameters for the technology were modified for this application in order to recover a low-ash, low-sulfur clean coal that is, at a minimum, compatible with the quality of the clean coal currently produced by the preparation plant.

Choudhry, V.

1991-01-01

210

A laboratory assessment of the slagging propensity of blended coals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of an experimental study to assess the stagging propensity of blends of UK coals with world traded coals when burned under low NOx conditions. Coals ground to pulverised coal grade were blended in a laboratory mixer. Ash deposits were formed by passing the coals through an entrained flow reactor designed to simulate the time-temperature conditions

N. J. Manton; J. Williamson; G. S. Riley

1996-01-01

211

Characterization and supply of coal based fuels  

SciTech Connect

Studies and data applicable for fuel markets and coal resource assessments were reviewed and evaluated to provide both guidelines and specifications for premium quality coal-based fuels. The fuels supplied under this contract were provided for testing of advanced combustors being developed under Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) sponsorship for use in the residential, commercial and light industrial (RCLI) market sectors. The requirements of the combustor development contractors were surveyed and periodically updated to satisfy the evolving needs based on design and test experience. Available coals were screened and candidate coals were selected for further detailed characterization and preparation for delivery. A team of participants was assembled to provide fuels in both coal-water fuel (CWF) and dry ultrafine coal (DUC) forms. Information about major US coal fields was correlated with market needs analysis. Coal fields with major reserves of low sulfur coal that could be potentially amenable to premium coal-based fuels specifications were identified. The fuels requirements were focused in terms of market, equipment and resource constraints. With this basis, the coals selected for developmental testing satisfy the most stringent fuel requirements and utilize available current deep-cleaning capabilities.

Not Available

1992-06-01

212

Sulfur Diagenesis in Everglades Peat and Origin of Pyrite in Coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pattern of sulfur transformation in peat across the Everglades basin indicates that pyrite formation in organic-rich swamps depends on the use of organic oxysulfur compounds in dissimilatory respiration by sulfur-reducing bacteria. This paragenesis explains the primary distribution of sulfur compounds in low-sulfur coals and possibly in most coals and many organic-rich soils and sediments. It also accounts for the

Z. S. Altschuler; M. M. Schnepfe; C. C. Silber; F. O. Simon

1983-01-01

213

Sulfur diagenesis in Everglades peat and origin of pyrite in coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pattern of sulfur transformation in peat across the Everglades basin indicates that pyrite formation in organic-rich swamps depends on the use of organic oxysulfur compounds in dissimilatory respiration by sulfur-reducing bacteria. This paragenesis explains the primary distribution of sulfur compounds in low-sulfur coals and possibly in most coals and many organic-rich soils and sediments. It also accounts for the

Z. S. Altschuler; M. M. Schnepfe; C. C. Silber; F. O. Simon

1983-01-01

214

Use of hollow cathode glow discharge technique in correlating spectral intensities of coal and coal ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique, utilizing emission spectroscopy, developed at Tennessee Tech (USA) to detect trace metals in thermal power plant coal ash has recently been extended to analyze coal prior to burning. Seven elements are of particular interest: arsenic; cadmium; lead; mercury; thallium; antimony; and selenium. The analysis of coal, as well as the corresponding coal ash, has been performed to develop

W. L. Collett; B. K. Bell; S. M. Mahajan; S. S. Munukutla

1997-01-01

215

Emissions of toxic pollutants from compressed natural gas and low sulfur diesel-fueled heavy-duty transit buses tested over multiple driving cycles.  

PubMed

The number of heavy-duty vehicles using alternative fuels such as compressed natural gas (CNG) and new low-sulfur diesel fuel formulations and equipped with after-treatment devices are projected to increase. However, few peer-reviewed studies have characterized the emissions of particulate matter (PM) and other toxic compounds from these vehicles. In this study, chemical and biological analyses were used to characterize the identifiable toxic air pollutants emitted from both CNG and low-sulfur-diesel-fueled heavy-duty transit buses tested on a chassis dynamometer over three transient driving cycles and a steady-state cruise condition. The CNG bus had no after-treatment, and the diesel bus was tested first equipped with an oxidation catalyst (OC) and then with a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF). Emissions were analyzed for PM, volatile organic compounds (VOCs; determined on-site), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and mutagenic activity. The 2000 model year CNG-fueled vehicle had the highest emissions of 1,3-butadiene, benzene, and carbonyls (e.g., formaldehyde) of the three vehicle configurations tested in this study. The 1998 model year diesel bus equipped with an OC and fueled with low-sulfur diesel had the highest emission rates of PM and PAHs. The highest specific mutagenic activities (revertants/microg PM, or potency) and the highest mutagen emission rates (revertants/mi) were from the CNG bus in strain TA98 tested over the New York Bus (NYB) driving cycle. The 1998 model year diesel bus with DPF had the lowest VOCs, PAH, and mutagenic activity emission. In general, the NYB driving cycle had the highest emission rates (g/mi), and the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) had the lowest emission rates for all toxics tested over the three transient test cycles investigated. Also, transient emissions were, in general, higher than steady-state emissions. The emissions of toxic compounds from an in-use CNG transit bus (without an oxidation catalyst) and from a vehicle fueled with low-sulfur diesel fuel (equipped with DPF) were lower than from the low-sulfur diesel fueled vehicle equipped with OC. All vehicle configurations had generally lower emissions of toxics than an uncontrolled diesel engine. Tunnel backgrounds (measurements without the vehicle running) were measured throughout this study and were helpful in determining the incremental increase in pollutant emissions. Also, the on-site determination of VOCs, especially 1,3-butadiene, helped minimize measurement losses due to sample degradation after collection. PMID:16245838

Kado, Norman Y; Okamoto, Robert A; Kuzmicky, Paul A; Kobayashi, Reiko; Ayala, Alberto; Gebel, Michael E; Rieger, Paul L; Maddox, Christine; Zafonte, Leo

2005-10-01

216

Ultra-low Sulfur Reduction Emission Control Device/Development of an On-board Fuel Sulfur Trap  

SciTech Connect

Honeywell has completed working on a multiyear program to develop and demonstrate proof-of-concept for an 'on-vehicle' desulfurization fuel filter for both light duty and heavy-duty diesel engines. Integration of the filter into the vehicle fuel system will reduce the adverse effects sulfur has on post combustion emission control devices such as NOx adsorbers. The NOx adsorber may be required to meet the proposed new EPA Tier II and '2007-Rule' emission standards. The proposed filter concept is based on Honeywell's reactive filtration technology and experience in liquids handling and conditioning. A regeneration and recycling plan for the spent filters was also examined. We have chosen to develop and demonstrate this technology based on criteria set forth for a heavy duty CIDI engine system because it represents a more challenging set of conditions of service intervals and overall fuel usage over light duty systems. In the second phase of the program a light duty diesel engine test was also demonstrated. Further, technology developed under this proposal would also have application for the use of liquid based fuels for fuel cell power generation. The program consisted of four phases. Phase I focused on developing a concept design and analysis and resolution of technical barriers concerning removal of sulfur-containing species in low sulfur fuels. In Phase II concentrated on prototype filter design and preparation followed by qualification testing of this component in a fuel line application. Phase III studied life cycle and regeneration options for the spent filter. Phase IV focused on efficacy and benefits in the desulfation steps of a NOx adsorber on both a heavy and light duty engine. The project team included a number of partners, with Honeywell International as the prime contractor. The partners include an emission control technology developer (Honeywell International), a fuel technology developer (Marathon Ashland Petroleum), a catalyst technology developer (Johnson Matthey), a CIDI engine manufacturer (Navistar Inc. (formerly International Truck & Engine Corporation) and Mack Trucks Inc.), and filter recycler (American Wastes Industries).

Rohrbach, Ron; Barron, Ann

2008-07-31

217

Effects of three biodiesels and a low sulfur diesel in male rats--a pilot 4-week oral study.  

PubMed

Because of the accessible and renewable nature of feedstock and the potential for the reduction of harmful combustion emissions and greenhouse gases, biodiesels have received increasing interest as an alternate fuel. Oral exposure to biodiesels is a concern because of contact during refuelling, accidental ingestion and exposure through ground water contamination. Although biodiesels from various feedstock are in use commercially and experimentally, very little is known about their potential adverse effects and no data is available on their potential for ground water contamination. A study was performed on male rats following oral treatment with experimental biodiesels (dissolved in corn oil) derived from canola oil (Bio-C), soy oil (Bio-S) and fish oil (Bio-F), at 500 mg/kg body weight/day, 5 days per week, for 4 weeks. Separate groups of animals were treated with low sulfur diesel (LSD) for comparison purpose, and with corn oil alone to serve as control. The potential for ground water contamination by biodiesels was investigated by the preparation of water-accommodated fractions (WAF) followed by gas chromatographic analysis. WAF from Bio-F and Bio-S was found to have the highest level of dichloromethane extractable materials. Gas chromatographic analysis indicated that the extractable materials from biodiesels contained much higher proportion of C15-C30 materials than LSD. Increased liver weight was observed in animal treated with Bio-C, Bio-S and LSD and decreased thymus weight was found in those treated with Bio-S. Histopathological changes typical of male-rat specific hyaline-droplet nephropathy were detected in kidney tubules of animals treated with LSD, Bio-S and Bio-C. Mild adaptive changes were observed in thyroids of animals treated with LSD, Bio-S and Bio-F. Clinical chemical and biochemical changes were confined to Bio-S and LSD treated rats and included elevation in some hepatic phase-I and phase-II drug metabolizing enzymes and hepatic palmitoyl Co-A oxidase, and elevated urinary concentrations of ascorbic acid and albumin. At the given dose level of 500 mg/kg bw/day, the overall treatment-related effects of biodiesels and LSD are mild, and the severity of the treatment effects may be ranked as: LSD>Bio-S>Bio-C>Bio-F. Considered together with the presence of a higher level of water extractable materials, Bio-S may be more of a concern for potential human health than Bio-C and Bio-F in an oral exposure scenario. Further studies are needed to identify and characterize the constituents contributing to the treatment-related effects specific to these experimental biodiesels. PMID:17532109

Poon, R; Chu, I; Valli, V E; Graham, L; Yagminas, A; Hollebone, B; Rideout, G; Fingas, M

2007-10-01

218

MERCURY OXIDATION PROMOTED BY A SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION CATALYST UNDER SIMULATED POWDER RIVER BASIN COAL COMBUSTION CONDITIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

A bench-scale reactor consisting of a natural gas burner and an electrically heated reactor housing a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst was constructed for studying elemental mercury oxidation under SCR conditions. A low sulfur Power River Basin (PRB) coal combustion ...

219

Trace elements in coal. Environmental and health significance  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Trace elements can have profound adverse effects on the health of people burning coal in homes or living near coal deposits, coal mines, and coal- burning power plants. Trace elements such as arsenic emitted from coal- burning power plants in Europe and Asia have been shown to cause severe health problems. Perhaps the most widespread health problems are caused by domestic coal combustion in developing countries where millions of people suffer from fluorosis and thousands from arsenism. Better knowledge of coal quality characteristics may help to reduce some of these health problems. For example, information on concentrations and distributions of potentially toxic elements in coal may help delineate areas of a coal deposit to be avoided. Information on the modes of occurrence of these elements and the textural relations of the minerals in coal may help to predict the behavior of the potentially toxic trace metals during coal cleaning, combustion, weathering, and leaching.

Finkelman, R. B.

1999-01-01

220

University of Iowa : burn oat hulls for economic, environmental benefit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is an alternative energy source that is available today? This article, part of a series about the future of energy, introduces students to a pilot project of burning oat hulls at the University of Iowa power plant. Students read that the burning of oak hulls instead of coal provides for cleaner air and additional space in landfills. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Project, Iowa P.

2004-01-01

221

An Atypical Cause of Alkali Chemical Burn: a Case Report  

PubMed Central

Summary It has already been reported that wet ash turns into a strong alkali agent, which can cause full-thickness skin burns. A case is presented which has the particularity of sustained, self-inflicted contact with wet ash. The coal used was the self-igniting type normally used for burning scented weed or for smoking the hubbly bubbly or shisha pipe.

Boutefnouchet, T.; Moiemen, N.; Papini, R.

2010-01-01

222

Coal as a fuel: a user's viewpoint. [Bowling Green State University, Ohio  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problems of a university heating plant burning 25,000 tons of coal per year are described. You cannot burn pulverized coal like the large electric utilities do, but have to use stoker-fed boilers. These have very specific requirements on the coal, so detailed specifications on the coal size, sulfur, volatile matter, ashes, moisture, etc. are required. There are several materials

Clodding

1980-01-01

223

Full Useful Life (120,000 miles) Exhaust Emission Performance of a NOx Adsorber and Diesel Particle Filter Equipped Passenger Car and Medium-duty Engine in Conjunction with Ultra Low Sulfur Fuel (Presentation)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discusses the full useful life exhaust emission performance of a NOx (nitrogen oxides) adsorber and diesel particle filter equipped light-duty and medium-duty engine using ultra low sulfur diesel fuel.

M. Thornton; M. Tatur; D. Tomazic; P. Weber; C. Webb

2005-01-01

224

ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Project. Annual report, October 1990--September 1991  

SciTech Connect

ENCOAL Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Shell Mining Company, is constructing a mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company`s Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology developed by Shell and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin Coal to produce two new fuels, Process Derived Fuel (PDF) and Coal Derived Liquids (CDL). The products, as alternative fuels sources, are expected to significantly reduce current sulfur emissions at industrial and utility boiler sites throughout the nation, thereby reducing pollutants causing acid rain.

Not Available

1992-02-01

225

Back to coal at Crystal River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Florida Power Corp.'s Crystal River plant is one of the first major fuel conversion projects to be successful. Originally designed to burn coal, the plant was soon converted to burn heavy fuel oil to reduce costs. A two-phase re-conversion to coal is under way to restore the coal-firing system and add an electrostatic precipitator. Complete restoration will be accomplished by

W. Szelistowski; C. Lewandowski

1978-01-01

226

Burns in diabetic patients  

PubMed Central

CONTEXT AND AIMS: Diabetic burn patients comprise a significant population in burn centers. The purpose of this study was to determine the demographic characteristics of diabetic burn patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective data were collected on 94 diabetic burn patients between March 20, 2000 and March 20, 2006. Of 3062 burns patients, 94 (3.1%) had diabetes; these patients were compared with 2968 nondiabetic patients with burns. Statistical analysis was performed using the statistical analysis software SPSS 10.05. Differences between the two groups were evaluated using Student's t-test and the chi square test. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. RESULTS: The major mechanism of injury for the diabetic patients was scalding and flame burns, as was also the case in the nondiabetic burn patients. The diabetic burn patients were significantly older, with a lower percentage of total burn surface area (TBSA) than the nondiabetic burn population. There was significant difference between the diabetic and nondiabetic patients in terms of frequency of infection. No difference in mortality rate between diabetic and nondiabetic burn patients was observed. The most common organism in diabetic and nondiabetic burn patients was methicillin-resistant staphylococcus. Increasing %TBSA burn and the presence of inhalation injury are significantly associated with increased mortality following burn injury. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetics have a higher propensity for infection. Education for diabetic patients must include caution about potential burn mishaps and the complications that may ensue from burns.

Maghsoudi, Hemmat; Aghamohammadzadeh, Naser; Khalili, Nasim

2008-01-01

227

Homogeneous hydrogenation of model-coal compounds; oxydesulfurization of coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to assure the full utilization of coal as an energy resource, technologies which provide for economical conversion to clean-burning solid and liquid fuels must be developed. The first part of this study was aimed at evaluating metal carbonyls as homogeneous hydrogenation catalysts for model-coal compounds - primarily polynuclear aromatic and polynuclear heteroaromatic components. Two separate means for the

Cremer

1982-01-01

228

Role of RIS/APC for manufacturing RFG/LSD. [Refinery Information Systems/Advanced Process Control, ReFormulated Gasoline/Low Sulfur Diesels  

SciTech Connect

Revolutionary changes in quality specifications (number, complexity, uncertainty, economic sensitivity) for reformulated gasolines (RFG) and low-sulfur diesels (LSD) are being addressed by powerful, new, computer-integrated manufacturing technology for Refinery Information Systems and Advanced Process Control (RIS/APC). This paper shows how the five active RIS/APC functions: performance measurement, optimization, scheduling, control and integration are used to manufacture new, clean fuels competitively. With current industry spending for this field averaging 2 to 3 cents/bbl crude, many refineries can capture 50 to 100 cents/bbl if the technology is properly employed and sustained throughout refining operations, organizations, and businesses.

Latour, P.R. (SETPOINT, Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

1994-01-01

229

Coal slurry combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental and numerical results are presented from examining the combustion of coal-slurry fuels. The combustion characteristics of a coal slurry agglomeration with and without metallic additives were investigated. The kinetics of the C-COâ reaction was re-examined since it has a significant influence upon the burning of the droplets. The inclusion of metallic additives influences the mass reduction rate in the

1984-01-01

230

Fuel-staging coal burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fuel-staging burner assembly and method in which a burner nozzle has separate, concentrically disposed elements to burn coarse and fine coal particles under different combustion conditions to reduce the production of nitrogen oxides from the combustion of coal as a fuel. The burner assembly further includes a control nozzle for maintaining a swirling motion in the combustion flame and

Vatsky

1980-01-01

231

CHARACTERIZATION OF ASH FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes existing data on the chemical and physical characteristics of ashes produced by the burning of coal in steam-electric generating plants. It summarizes several recent coal or ash characterization studies, emphasizing the elemental chemical composition, partic...

232

Combustion Characteristics of Occidental Coal-Oil Mixtures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Occidental Petroleum Corporation developed coal-oil mixture (COM) as a means for partial conversion of oil-burning equipment to coal. Subscale combustion tests were performed by KVB to determine the effect of COM compositional variables and firing paramet...

E. W. Knell M. N. Mansour

1983-01-01

233

Dry superconducting magnetic cleaning of pulverized coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are wet and dry methods of cleaning pulverized coal for thermal power stations. However, it may be desirable to use a dry process because dewatering finely pulverized coal is difficult and expensive, and burning wet coal reduces the thermal efficiency of the combustion process. It has been shown that high gradient magnetic filters can be constructed which will extract

S. Zhou; E. S. Garbett; R. F. Boucher

1996-01-01

234

Western Kentudky coal industry. An economic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, coal has been a principal source for the production of electric power, a use which with our vast coal reserves is expected to continue well into the future. A complicating factor concerning the future of Western Kentucky coal specifically, which contains large amounts of sulphur and tends to pollute the air as it burns, is the accompanying movement toward

2008-01-01

235

Coal Ash Corrosion Resistant Materials Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In April 1999, three identical superheater test sections were installed into the Niles Unit No.1 for the purpose of testing and ranking the coal ash corrosion resistance of candidate superheater alloys. The Niles boiler burns high sulfur coal (3% to 3.5%) that has a reasonably high alkali content, thus the constituents necessary for coal ash corrosion are present in the

D. K. McDonald; P. L. Daniel; D. J. DeVault

2003-01-01

236

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: RESIDENTIAL COMBUSTION OF COAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes the assessment of air emissions from the residential combustion of anthracite, bituminous, and lignite coals, with emphasis on bituminous coals. Approximately 2.6 million metric tons of coal were burned as a primary source of heat in an estimated 493,018 hou...

237

Burning mouth syndrome.  

PubMed

Pain in the tongue or oral tissues described as "burning" has been referred to by many terms including burning mouth syndrome. When a burning sensation in the mouth is caused by local or systemic factors, it is called secondary burning mouth syndrome and when these factors are treated the pain will resolve. When burning mouth syndrome occurs in the absence of identified risk indicators, the term primary burning mouth syndrome is utilized. This article focuses on descriptions, etiologic theories, and management of primary burning mouth syndrome, a condition for which underlying causative agents have been ruled out. PMID:23201368

Crow, Heidi C; Gonzalez, Yoly

2013-02-01

238

Clean coal technology  

SciTech Connect

The term clean coal technology'' entered the energy vocabulary in the 1980s. It describes a new generation of advanced coal technology, environmentally cleaner and in many cases more efficient and less costly than conventional coal-burning processes. These new power generating and pollution control concepts are the products of years of research and development in hundreds of government and private laboratories throughout the world. Their emergence in the 1980s is bringing about a new coal age -- one that not only responds to past problems with some of the most sophisticated technology available in the world today but offers a bright future for coal as well. Coal is the nation's most plentiful fossil fuel. One quarter of all the world's known coal lies within US borders. Coal also is an energy bargain. Even with the sharp decline in world oil and gas prices in the mid-1980s, coal has remained the least expensive fossil fuel in the US. In the future, coal can do more to help this country and our trading partners grow economically while enhancing national energy security -- if it can be used in greater amounts without endangering the Earth's fragile ecology. The new suite of advanced, clean coal technologies will help achieve that objective. They will ensure that the US can continue using its most abundant energy resource while maintaining a commitment to a clean, healthy environment.

Not Available

1991-01-01

239

Electrochemistry of carbonaceous materials and coal  

SciTech Connect

Electrochemistry of carbonaceous material and coal is reviewed comprehensively. The subject is divided into five categories: electrochemistry of various forms of carbon, chemical oxidation and reduction of coal, electrochemical oxidation and reduction of coal, photoelectrochemistry of coal, and direct power generation from coal burning fuel cells. Oxidation of coal by air or oxygen and reduction through hydrogenation reactions are not included in this review. Only reports relevant to solution chemistry are included. Characterization and derivatization of coal and carbonaceous material employing the above electrochemical reactions are discussed in each section.

Park, S.M.

1984-09-01

240

Process for coal liquefaction in staged dissolvers  

DOEpatents

There is described an improved liquefaction process by which coal is converted to a low ash and low sulfur carbonaceous material that can be used as a fuel in an environmentally acceptable manner without costly gas scrubbing equipment. In the process, coal is slurried with a pasting oil, passed through a preheater and at least two dissolvers in series in the presence of hydrogen-rich gases at elevated temperatures and pressures. Solids, including mineral ash and unconverted coal macerals, are separated from the condensed reactor effluent. In accordance with the improved process, the first dissolver is operated at a higher temperature than the second dissolver. This temperature sequence produces improved product selectivity and permits the incorporation of sufficient hydrogen in the solvent for adequate recycle operations.

Roberts, George W. (Emmaus, PA); Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA); Skinner, Ronald W. (Allentown, PA)

1983-01-01

241

Ash characterization in laboratory-scale oxy-coal combustor  

EPA Science Inventory

Oxygen enriched coal (oxy-coal) combustion is a developing technology. During oxy-coal combustion, combustion air is separated and the coal is burned in a mixture of oxygen and recycled flue gas. The resulting effluent must be further processed before the C02 can be compressed, t...

242

PRB Coal Users' Group grapples with supply chain challenges  

SciTech Connect

An account is given of issues addressed at the Powder River Basin Coal Users' Group annual meeting, held in conjunction with the Electric Power 2007 conference. Transportation, buying equipment for switching plants burn PRB coal, finding and fighting fires in a coal silo, and coal handling were amongst the topics discussed. 1 fig., 4 photos.

Pettier, R.

2007-06-15

243

Preparation for upgrading western subbituminous coal  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to establish the physical and chemical characteristics of western coal and determine the best preparation technologies for upgrading this resource. Western coal was characterized as an abundant, easily mineable, clean, low-sulfur coal with low heating value, high moisture, susceptibility to spontaneous ignition, and considerable transit distances from major markets. Project support was provided by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The research was conducted by the Western Research Institute, (WRI) in Laramie, Wyoming. The project scope of work required the completion of four tasks: (1) project planning, (2) literature searches and verbal contacts with consumers and producers of western coal, (3) selection of the best technologies to upgrade western coal, and (4) identification of research needed to develop the best technologies for upgrading western coals. The results of this research suggest that thermal drying is the best technology for upgrading western coals. There is a significant need for further research in areas involving physical and chemical stabilization of the dried coal product. Excessive particle-size degradation and resulting dustiness, moisture reabsorption, and high susceptibility to spontaneous combustion are key areas requiring further research. Improved testing methods for the determination of equilibrium moisture and susceptibility to spontaneous ignition under various ambient conditions are recommended.

Grimes, R.W.; Cha, C.Y.; Sheesley, D.C.

1990-11-01

244

40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a...of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning...

2013-07-01

245

40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a...of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning...

2013-07-01

246

POC-SCALE TESTING OF AN ADVANCED FINE COAL DEWATERING EQUIPMENT/TECHNIQUE  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of the proposed program is to evaluate a novel surface modification technique, which utilizes the synergistic effect of metal ions-surfactant combination, for dewatering of ultra-fine clean coal on a proof-of-concept scale of 1 to 2 tph. The novel surface modification technique developed at the UKCAER will be evaluated using vacuum, centrifuge, and hyperbaric filtration equipment. Dewatering tests will be conducted using the fine clean-coal froth produced by the column flotation units at the Powell Mountain Coal Company, Mayflower Preparation Plant in St. Charles, Virginia. The POC-scale studies will be conducted on two different types of clean coal, namely, high-sulfur and low-sulfur clean coal. The Mayflower Plant processes coals from five different seams, thus the dewatering studies results could be generalized for most of the bituminous coals.

B.K. PAREKH; D. TAO; J.G. GROPPO

1998-02-03

247

Burning Rate Emulator  

NASA Video Gallery

The Burning Rate Emulator is a gas fuel investigation attempting to emulate the burning of solids to improve our understanding of materials''flammability over a wide range of conditions. The approa...

248

Minor burns - aftercare  

MedlinePLUS

... all clothes that have the chemical on them. Cool the burn. Use cool water, not ice. If possible, especially if the ... caused by chemicals, hold the burned skin under cool running water for 10 to 15 minutes until ...

249

Comparison of the Eastern and Western Kentucky coal fields (Pennsylvanian), USA-why are coal distribution patterns and sulfur contents so different in these coal fields?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

More than 130 Mt of Pennsylvanian coal is produced annually from two coal fields in Kentucky. The Western Kentucky Coal Field occurs in part of the Illinois Basin, an intercratonic basin, and the Eastern Kentucky Coal Field occurs in the Central Appalachian Basin, a foreland basin. The basins are only separated by 140 km, but mined western Kentucky coal beds exhibit significantly higher sulfur values than eastern Kentucky coals. Higher-sulfur coal beds in western Kentucky have generally been inferred to be caused by more marine influences than for eastern Kentucky coals. Comparison of strata in the two coal fields shows that more strata and more coal beds accumulated in the Eastern than Western Kentucky Coal Field in the Early and Middle Pennsylvanian, inferred to represent greater generation of tectonic accommodation in the foreland basin. Eastern Kentucky coal beds exhibit a greater tendency toward splitting and occurring in zones than time-equivalent western Kentucky coal beds, which is also inferred to represent foreland accommodation influences, overprinted by autogenic sedimentation effects. Western Kentucky coal beds exhibit higher sulfur values than their eastern counterparts, but western Kentucky coals occurring in Langsettian through Bolsovian strata can be low in sulfur content. Eastern Kentucky coal beds may increase in sulfur content beneath marine zones, but generally are still lower in sulfur than mined Western Kentucky coal beds, indicating that controls other than purely marine influences must have influenced coal quality. The bulk of production in the Eastern Kentucky Coal Field is from Duckmantian and Bolsovian coal beds, whereas production in the Western Kentucky Coal Field is from Westphalian D coals. Langsettian through Bolsovian paleoclimates in eastern Kentucky were favorable for peat doming, so numerous low-sulfur coals accumulated. These coals tend to occur in zones and are prone to lateral splitting because of foreland tectonic and sedimentation influences. In contrast, Westphalian D coal beds of western Kentucky accumulated during low differential tectonic accommodation, and therefore tend to be widespread and uniform in characteristics, but exhibit higher sulfur values because they accumulated in seasonally drier paleoclimates that were unfavorable for peat doming. Hence, basin analyses indicate that many differences between the mined coals of Kentucky's two coal fields are related to temporal changes in paleoclimate and tectonic accommodation, rather than solely being a function of marine influences. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Greb, S. F.; Eble, C. F.; Chesnut, Jr. , D. R.

2002-01-01

250

Workplace-related burns.  

PubMed

Introduction. The key element of a safe workplace for employees is the maintenance of fire safety. Thermal, chemical, and electrical burns are common types of burns at the workplace. This study assessed the epidemiology of work-related burn injuries on the basis of the workers treated in a regional burn centre. Methods. Two years' retrospective data (2005-2006) from the Trauma Registry of the American College of Surgeons of the Joseph M. Still Burn Center at Doctors Hospital in Augusta, Georgia, were collected and analysed. Results. During the time period studied, 2510 adult patients with acute burns were admitted; 384 cases (15%) were work-related. The average age of the patients was 37 yr (range, 15-72 yr). Males constituted the majority (90%) of workrelated burn injury admissions. The racial distribution was in accordance with the Centre's admission census. Industrial plant explosions accounted for the highest number of work-related burns and, relatively, a significant number of patients had chemical burns. The average length of hospital stay was 5.54 days. Only three patients did not have health insurance and four patients (1%) died. Conclusion. Burn injuries at the workplace predominantly occur among young male workers, and the study has shown that chemical burns are relatively frequent. This study functions as the basis for the evaluation of work-related burns and identification of the causes of these injuries to formulate adequate safety measures, especially for young, male employees working with chemicals. PMID:22262966

Mian, M A H; Mullins, R F; Alam, B; Brandigi, C; Friedman, B C; Shaver, J R; Hassan, Z

2011-06-30

251

Prescribed Burn Apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Interagency Fire Center (NIFC) is the support center for wild land firefighting in the US located in Boise, ID. One of the many activities that the NIFC coordinates is prescribed burns. Prescribed burns are one of NIFC’smanagement tools to help prevent major forest fires by burning undergrowth and they also help with maintaining and improving habitat. Recently, NIFC

Brett Alspach; Xander Harmon; Kyle Vogel; Matt Murdock

2009-01-01

252

Burns and Fire Safety  

MedlinePLUS

1 Burns and Fire Safety Fact Sheet (2013) Fatalities ? 365 children ages 19 and under died from fires or burns in 2010. 88% ( ... 50% from 1999 to 2010. 1 1999?2010 Fire/Burn Fatalities and Death Rate Among Children Ages ...

253

Burns and Fire Safety  

MedlinePLUS

1 Burns and Fire Safety Fact Sheet (2014) Fatalities ? 325 children ages 19 and under died from fires or burns in 2011. 85% ( ... 55% from 1999 to 2011. 1 1999?2011 Fire/Burn Fatalities and Death Rate Among Children Ages ...

254

Remote detection of underground coal mine fires using geophysical methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abandoned coal mine fires can be found in coal basins across the United States and around the world. These fires can burn for decades, resulting in the emission of toxic gasses and smoke, and prompting subsidence damage to both homes and property. In order to facilitate containment and extinguishment of abandoned underground mine fires, the location of the active burn

K. L. Hauser; D. R. Tweeton; W. H. Pomroy

1995-01-01

255

POC-scale testing of an advanced fine coal dewatering equipment\\/technique: Quarterly technical progress report,January--March 1997  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory centrifugal dewatering tests were conducted to study the effects of anionic and cationic flocculants on filtration of PMCC compliance (low sulfur) and non-compliance (high sulfur) ultrafine coal slurry. The results obtained with compliance coal indicated that use of 30 g\\/t anionic flocculant reduced filter cake moisture from 32. 3 to 29.0 percent and increased solids recovery by two absolute

D. Tao; J. G. Grappo; B. K. Parekh

1997-01-01

256

Coal-oil slurry combustion demonstration. Phase I. Monthly report, August 1977  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combustion of a coal-oil slurry in an 80 MW utility boiler originally designed to burn coal but now burning No. 6 oil will be demonstrated. New low pressure air atomized oil burners will be installed. The stability of coal-oil mixtures produced with various commercially available blending equipment is being investigated in the laboratory. Stability is also being evaluated using

Dunn

1977-01-01

257

Coal--Oil Slurry Combustion Demonstration, Phase I. Monthly Report, December 1977.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The combustion of a coal-oil slurry in an 80 MW utility boiler originally designed to burn coal but now burning No. 6 oil will be demonstrated. New low pressure air atomized oil burners will be installed. The stability of coal-oil mixtures produced with v...

R. M. Dunn

1978-01-01

258

Economics of coal preparation of Indian coals for power generation  

SciTech Connect

The majority of coal burned in Indian power stations is high-ash, run-of-mine coal that has been subjected to little or no coal beneficiation to reduce its ash and sulfur content. This article considers each stage of the supply chain of coal from the coal mine to electricity generation in evaluating costs for the supply of power station fuels. The question of whether or not to wash mined coal prior to combustion is fundamentally addressed. Three cases of coal preparation are considered and the relative economics of all mine-to-electricity costs examined in order to establish a set of guidelines for determining the extent of beneficiation needed for optimum power generation economics.

Osborne, D.G. [Rio Tinto Technical Services, Australia, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Hughes-Narborough, C. [Kvaerner Metals, Cleveland (United Kingdom)

1998-07-01

259

Coal Combustion in a Ventilated Tunnel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bureau of Mines experimentally burned Pittsburgh Seam coal and other combustible materials found in mines in order to obtain a better knowledge of their emission products. These experiments were coducted in the Bureau's intermediate-scale fire tunnel,...

M. R. Egan

1987-01-01

260

Facial Burns - Our Experience  

PubMed Central

Facial burns are generally considered severe. This is due to the possibility of respiratory complications. First responders check the nostrils for singed hairs. In severe cases there may be soot around the nose and mouth and coughing may produce phlegm that includes ash. Facial and inhalational burns compromise airways. They pose difficulties in pre-hospital resuscitation and are challenge to clinicians managing surviving burn victims in the intensive care setting. Management problems – resuscitation, airway maintenance and clinical treatment of facial injuries are compounded if the victim is child. Inhalational burns reduce survivability, certainly in adult victim. In our retrospective study we found that facial burns dominated in male gender, liquids and scalds are the most common causes of facial burns in children whereas the flame and electricity were the most common causes of facial burns in adults. We came to the conclusion in our study that surgical treatment minimizes complications and duration of recovery.

Zatriqi, Violeta; Arifi, Hysni; Zatriqi, Skender; Duci, Shkelzen; Rrecaj, Sh.; Martinaj, M.

2013-01-01

261

Materials challenges in advanced coal conversion technologies  

SciTech Connect

Coal is a critical component in the international energy portfolio, used extensively for electricity generation. Coal is also readily converted to liquid fuels and/or hydrogen for the transportation industry. However, energy extracted from coal comes at a large environmental price: coal combustion can produce large quantities of ash and CO{sub 2}, as well as other pollutants. Advanced technologies can increase the efficiencies and decrease the emissions associated with burning coal and provide an opportunity for CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration. However, these advanced technologies increase the severity of plant operating conditions and thus require improved materials that can stand up to the harsh operating environments. The materials challenges offered by advanced coal conversion technologies must be solved in order to make burning coal an economically and environmentally sound choice for producing energy.

Powem, C.A.; Morreale, B.D. [National Energy Technology Laboratory, Albany, OR (United States)

2008-04-15

262

An atypical cause of alkali chemical burn: a case report.  

PubMed

It has already been reported that wet ash turns into a strong alkali agent, which can cause full-thickness skin burns. A case is presented which has the particularity of sustained, self-inflicted contact with wet ash. The coal used was the self-igniting type normally used for burning scented weed or for smoking the hubbly bubbly or shisha pipe. PMID:21991229

Boutefnouchet, T; Moiemen, N; Papini, R

2010-12-31

263

Field Test Program for Long-Term Operation of a COHPAC System for Removing Mercury from Coal-Fired Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect

With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by the existing particle control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. During 2001, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) conducted a full-scale demonstration of sorbent-based mercury control technology at the Alabama Power E.C. Gaston Station (Wilsonville, Alabama). This unit burns a low-sulfur bituminous coal and uses a hot-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in combination with a Compact Hybrid Particulate Collector (COHPAC{reg_sign}) baghouse to collect fly ash. The majority of the fly ash is collected in the ESP with the residual being collected in the COHPAC{reg_sign} baghouse. Activated carbon was injected between the ESP and COHPAC{reg_sign} units to collect the mercury. Short-term mercury removal levels in excess of 90% were achieved using the COHPAC{reg_sign} unit. The test also showed that activated carbon was effective in removing both forms of mercury-elemental and oxidized. However, a great deal of additional testing is required to further characterize the capabilities and limitations of this technology relative to use with baghouse systems such as COHPAC{reg_sign}. It is important to determine performance over an extended period of time to fully assess all operational parameters. The project described in this report focuses on fully demonstrating sorbent injection technology at a coal-fired power generating plant that is equipped with a COHPAC{reg_sign} system. The overall objective is to evaluate the long-term effects of sorbent injection on mercury capture and COHPAC{reg_sign} performance. The work is being done on one-half of the gas stream at Alabama Power Company's Plant Gaston Unit 3 (nominally 135 MW). Data from the testing will be used to determine: (1) If sorbent injection into a high air-to-cloth ratio baghouse is a viable, long-term approach for mercury control; and (2) Design criteria and costs for new baghouse/sorbent injection systems that will use a similar, polishing baghouse (TOXECON{trademark}) approach.

Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac; Travis Starns; Sharon Sjostrom; Trent Taylor; Cindy Larson

2005-01-24

264

FIELD TEST PROGRAM FOR LONG-TERM OPERATION OF A COHPAC SYSTEM FOR REMOVING MERCURY FROM COAL-FIRED FLUE GAS  

SciTech Connect

With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by the existing particle control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. During 2001 ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) conducted a full-scale demonstration of sorbent-based mercury control technology at the Alabama Power E.C. Gaston Station (Wilsonville, AL). This unit burns a low-sulfur bituminous coal and uses a hot-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in combination with a COHPAC baghouse to collect fly ash. The majority of the fly ash is collected in the ESP with the residual being collected in the COHPAC baghouse. Activated carbon was injected between the ESP and COHPAC units to collect the mercury. Short-term mercury removal levels in excess of 90% were achieved using the COHPAC unit. The test also showed that activated carbon was effective on removing both forms of mercury, elemental and oxidized. However, a great deal of additional testing is required to further characterize the capabilities and limitations of this technology relative to use with baghouse systems such as COHPAC. It is important to determine performance over an extended period of time to fully assess all operational parameters. The project described in this report focuses on fully demonstrating sorbent injection technology at a coal-fired power generating plant that is equipped with a COHPAC system. The overall objective is to evaluate the long term effects of sorbent injection on mercury capture and COHPAC performance. The work is being done on 1/2 of the gas stream at Alabama Power's Plant Gaston Unit 3 (nominally 135 MW). Data from the testing will be used to determine: (1) Is sorbent injection into a high air-to-cloth ratio baghouse a viable, long term approach for mercury control; and (2) Design criteria and costs for new baghouse/sorbent injection systems that will use a similar, polishing baghouse (TOXECON) approach.

Jean Bustard

2003-06-13

265

On the potential of absorption and reactive adsorption for desulfurization of ultra low-sulfur commercial diesel in the liquid phase in the presence of fuel additive and bio-diesel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sorption of sulfur components in the liquid phase was used to desulfurize ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) to below 1ppmw S. Several concepts of sorption were considered by using both physisorption and chemisorption materials and conditions. Adsorption assisted by reaction with Ni sorbent was found to be most successful. Using a pre-commercial diesel representing a mature diesel on all aspects

J. A. Z. Pieterse; S. van Eijk; H. A. J. van Dijk; R. W. van den Brink

2011-01-01

266

ENCOAL mild coal gasification project. Annual report  

SciTech Connect

This document is the combination of the fourth quarter report (July--September 1993) and the 1993 annual report for the ENCOAL project. The following pages include the background and process description for the project, brief summaries of the accomplishments for the first three quarters, and a detailed fourth quarter report. Its purpose is to convey the accomplishments and current progress of the project. ENCOAL Corporation, has completed the construction of a mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company`s Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology developed by SMC and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin coal to produce two new fuels, Process Derived Fuel (PDF) and Coal Derived Liquids (CDL). ENCOAL submitted an application to the US Department of Energy (DOE) in August 1989, soliciting joint funding of the project in the third round of the Clean Coal Technology Program. The project was selected by DOE in December, 1989 and the Cooperative Agreement approved in September, 1990. Construction, commissioning, and start-up of the ENCOAL mild coal gasification facility was completed in June of 1992, and the project is currently in the operations phase. Some plant modifications have been required and are discussed in this report.

Not Available

1993-10-01

267

Big coal: the dirty secret behind America's energy future  

SciTech Connect

Veteran journalist Jeff Goodell argues that coal is bad for the economy, bad for public health and especially bad for the environment, yet its future looks quite bright. It is relatively cheap. It is plentiful, and Americans, who get half their electric power from coal-burning generators, are addicted to it. As of 2005, more than 120 new coal-burning plants were either planned or under construction in the United States.

Jeff Goodell

2006-06-08

268

Burns associated with fondues.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To describe the causes of burns associated with fondues. DESIGN: Descriptive case series. PATIENTS: All 17 patients admitted to a burn centre between Apr. 1, 1985, and Mar. 31, 1990, whose burns were associated with fondue. Eleven agreed to complete a telephone interview. RESULTS: The age of the 17 patients varied from 2 to 56 (mean 27) years. Two causes were identified: spilling of the contents of the fondue pot and explosion of the fondue fuel when added to the burner during a meal. The telephone interview revealed that eight people other than the respondents were burned during the same accidents. CONCLUSION: Although we identified only badly burned patients the problem may be more extensive. The knowledge of specific causes of burns from handling fondue equipment indicates that preventive action should be undertaken. More epidemiologic information is needed to obtain a precise estimate of the magnitude of this public health problem.

Laliberte, D; Beaucage, C; Watts, N

1992-01-01

269

Pediatric cutaneous bleach burns.  

PubMed

Bleach is a common household product which can cause caustic injuries. Its effects on mucosal tissues and the eye have been well-described in the literature. However, there is little information published regarding the appearance and effect of bleach on a child's skin. We report three children who sustained chemical burns after contact with bleach. All three children sustained accidental bleach burns while at home, and each child had a distinct brown discoloration to the skin from the injury. All three children had treatment and follow-up for their burns. Two of the children sustained more severe burns, which were extensive and required more time to heal. There was also long-term scarring associated with the severe burns. Like most burns, pain control is required until the injury heals. PMID:23545350

Lang, Cathleen; Cox, Matthew

2013-07-01

270

Burning and detonation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of confined burning explosive abutting nonburning explosive in a variety of one-dimensional geometries has been studied by numerical simulation, demonstrating the effects of confinement, burning rate, and shock sensitivity. The model includes porous bed burning, compressible solids and gases, shock-induced decomposition with possible transition to detonation, and constant velocity ignition waves. Two-phase flow, gas relative to solid, is

Charles A. Forest

1981-01-01

271

Fossil fuel and biomass burning effect on climate - Heating or cooling?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The basic theory of the effect of pollution on cloud microphysics and its global implications is applied to compare the relative effect of a small increase in the consumption rate of oil, coal, or biomass burning on cooling and heating of the atmosphere. The characteristics of and evidence for the SO2 induced cooling effect are reviewed. This perturbation analysis approach permits linearization, therefore simplifying the analysis and reducing the number of uncertain parameters. For biomass burning the analysis is restricted to burning associated with deforestation. Predictions of the effect of an increase in oil or coal burning show that within the present conditions the cooling effect from oil and coal burning may range from 0.4 to 8 times the heating effect.

Kaufman, Yoram J.; Fraser, Robert S.; Mahoney, Robert L.

1991-01-01

272

Recovery of coal fines from preparation plant effluents. Final technical report, September 1, 1990--August 31, 1991  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this project were to test and demonstrate the feasibility of recovering coal fines that are currently disposed of with coal preparation plant effluent streams and producing a fine clean coal product that can be blended with the plant coarse clean coal. This recovery was effected by means of Michigan Technological University`s static tube flotation process, which was successfully demonstrated on a number of raw coals to reject 85% of the pyritic sulfur and recover 90% of the combustible matter. Under this project, the process parameters for the technology were modified for this application in order to recover a low-ash, low-sulfur clean coal that is, at a minimum, compatible with the quality of the clean coal currently produced by the preparation plant.

Choudhry, V.

1991-12-31

273

Advanced coal conversion process demonstration. Technical progress report for the period July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from July 1, 1995 through September 30, 1995. The ACCP Demonstration Project is a US Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Project. This project demonstrates an advanced, thermal, coal upgrading process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal upgrading, the cola is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal.

NONE

1997-05-01

274

Characterization and evaluation of washability of Alaskan coals. Final technical report for Phase II, July 1, 1977-February 29, 1979  

SciTech Connect

This report is a result of the second part of a continuing study to obtain washability data for Alaskan coals to supplement the efforts of the US Department of Energy in their ongoing studies on washability of US coals. Alaska, with its large coal resources, could supply the nation with environmentally acceptable low-ash, low-sulfur coals. Washability characteristics were determined for eleven coal samples, from the Northern Alaska, Broad Pass, Little Tonzona, Tramway Bar, Beluga, Yentna, Kenai and Nenana coal fields. The raw coals were crushed to 1-1/2 inches, 3/8 inch and 14 mesh top sizes and float-sink separations were made at 1.30, 1.40, and 1.60 specific gravities. Detailed results of the testing are given.

Rao, P. D.; Wolff, E. N.

1980-10-01

275

Burn Wound Infections  

PubMed Central

Burns are one of the most common and devastating forms of trauma. Patients with serious thermal injury require immediate specialized care in order to minimize morbidity and mortality. Significant thermal injuries induce a state of immunosuppression that predisposes burn patients to infectious complications. A current summary of the classifications of burn wound infections, including their diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, is given. Early excision of the eschar has substantially decreased the incidence of invasive burn wound infection and secondary sepsis, but most deaths in severely burn-injured patients are still due to burn wound sepsis or complications due to inhalation injury. Burn patients are also at risk for developing sepsis secondary to pneumonia, catheter-related infections, and suppurative thrombophlebitis. The introduction of silver-impregnated devices (e.g., central lines and Foley urinary catheters) may reduce the incidence of nosocomial infections due to prolonged placement of these devices. Improved outcomes for severely burned patients have been attributed to medical advances in fluid resuscitation, nutritional support, pulmonary and burn wound care, and infection control practices.

Church, Deirdre; Elsayed, Sameer; Reid, Owen; Winston, Brent; Lindsay, Robert

2006-01-01

276

1994 nendo kenkyu kaihatsu suishin chosa. Ryudosho boiler sekitanbai no cement seizo bun'ya ni okeru yuko riyo gijutsu ni kakawaru chosa. (Investigation on promotion of research and development during fiscal 1994. Investigation concerning technologies to utilize coal ash from fluidized boilers more effectively in the area of cement manufacturing).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Coal ash fluidized fluid bed boilers have their chemical and physical properties differ from those of coal ash from coal dust burning boilers. When compared with coal ash from coal dust burning boilers, the fluidized bed boilers are characterized first by...

1995-01-01

277

Coal combustion system  

DOEpatents

In a coal combustion system suitable for a gas turbine engine, pulverized coal is transported to a rich zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio exceeding 1 at a temperature above the slagging temperature of the coal so that combustible hot gas and molten slag issue from the rich zone combustor. A coolant screen of water stretches across a throat of a quench stage and cools the combustible gas and molten slag to below the slagging temperature of the coal so that the slag freezes and shatters into small pellets. The pelletized slag is separated from the combustible gas in a first inertia separator. Residual ash is separated from the combustible gas in a second inertia separator. The combustible gas is mixed with secondary air in a lean zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio of less than 1 to produce hot gas motive at temperature above the coal slagging temperature. The motive fluid is cooled in a dilution stage to an acceptable turbine inlet temperature before being transported to the turbine.

Wilkes, Colin (Lebanon, IN); Mongia, Hukam C. (Carmel, IN); Tramm, Peter C. (Indianapolis, IN)

1988-01-01

278

Burns and military clothing.  

PubMed

Burn injury is a ubiquitous threat in the military environment. The risks during combat are well recognised, but the handling of fuel, oil, munitions and other hot or flammable materials during peacetime deployment and training also imposes an inherent risk of accidental burn injury. Over the last hundred years, the burn threat in combat has ranged from nuclear weapons to small shoulder-launched missiles. Materials such as napalm and white phosphorus plainly present a risk of burn, but the threat extends to encompass personnel in vehicles attacked by anti-armour weapons, large missiles, fuel-air explosives and detonations/conflagrations on weapons platforms such as ships. Large numbers of burn casualties were caused at Pearl Harbor, in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Vietnam, during the Arab/Israeli Wars and in the Falkland Islands conflict. The threat from burns is unlikely to diminish, indeed new developments in weapons seek to exploit the vulnerability of the serviceman and servicewoman to burns. Clothing can be a barrier to some types of burn--both inherently in the properties of the material, but also by trapping air between clothing layers. Conversely, ignition of the clothing may exacerbate a burn. There is hearsay that burnt clothing products within a wound may complicate the clinical management, or that materials that melt (thermoplastic materials) should not be worn if there is a burn threat. This paper explores the incidence of burn injury, the mechanisms of heat transfer to bare skin and skin covered by materials, and the published evidence for the complication of wound management by materials. Even light-weight combat clothing can offer significant protection to skin from short duration flash burns; the most vulnerable areas are the parts of the body not covered--face and hands. Multilayered combat clothing can offer significant protection for short periods from engulfment by flames; lightweight tropical wear with few layers offers little protection. Under high heat loads in the laboratory, combat clothing can ignite, but there is little evidence that clothing ignition is a common occurrence in military burn casualties. Thermoplastic materials have many benefits in civil and military clothing. There is little objective evidence that they exacerbate burns, or complicate burn management. Their use in military clothing must be based on objective evidence, not hearsay. PMID:11307683

McLean, A D

2001-02-01

279

Potential Exports of U.S. Clean Coal Technology through 2030.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States is a world leader in technology that allows coal to be burned for electricity production without excessive emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, mercury, and particulate matter. To reduce overall emissions, the U.S. coal industry ...

S. Fraser S. Osborne

2007-01-01

280

Fate of some trace elements during coal pretreatment and combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal contains minute amounts of certain elements known to be toxic when present in appreciable quantities. As hundreds of millions of tons of coal are burned annually in the United States, the total amount of even materials present in trace amounts that could potentially be released from coal combustion is large. Research being conducted at the Pittsburgh Energy Research Center

H. Schultz; E. A. Hattman; W. B. Booher

1976-01-01

281

Economic evaluation of MHD-steam powerplants employing coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the efficacy and economics of producing power from coal, four ; open-cycle magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) processing schemes were selected for study. ; Each involved a different mode of coal combustion and level of gas cleanliness. ; The options considered were: (1) coal burned in a slagging combustor; (2) ; suspension gasification with slag removal prior to combustion; (3) parallel

P. D. Bergman; J. J. Demeter; D. Bienstock

1973-01-01

282

Controlling dust emissions from coal-fired boilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many coal-fired boilers have been converted to burn cleaner fuels such as natural gas and oil. But escalating fuel costs are causing many plants to re-examine the use of coal as a primary boiler fuel. However, before reconverting to coal, owners must evaluate pertinent environmental regulations and emission control strategies. Two common air pollutants that generally require some type of

C. A. Weiss; D. R. Erdmann

1984-01-01

283

Burlington Industries' program proves worth of shift to coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This US textile manufacturer started to convert its factories to coal in 1973. Boilers with spreader stokers and travelling grates burn low-sulphur, low-ash coal. Coal delivery and handling, the boilers, and the removal of fly ash from the flue gas are described.

R. G. Schwieger; W. OKeefe

1981-01-01

284

Fluidized bed approach under development for coal combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new combustion technique of burning coal in a fluidized bed and its efficiency and applications are described. Proposals have been drawn up to use coal-fired fluidized bed combustors in large industrial gas turbines. Such units should find particularly rewarding applications where both the power output and exhaust heat can be employed. Fluidized-bed combustion of coal in smaller atmospheric boilers

Harboe

1976-01-01

285

Emissions characteristics of ethyl and methyl ester of rapeseed oil compared with low sulfur diesel control fuel in a chassis dynamometer test of a pickup truck  

SciTech Connect

Comprehensive tests were performed on an on-road vehicle in cooperation with the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transit Authority emissions test facility. All tests were with a transient chassis dynamometer. Tests included both a double arterial cycle of 768 s duration and an EPA heavy duty vehicle cycle of 1,060 s duration. The test vehicle was a 1994 pickup truck with a 5.9-L turbocharged and intercooled, direct injection diesel engine. Rapeseed methyl (RME) and ethyl esters (REE) and blends were compared with low sulfur diesel control fuel. Emissions data include all regulated emissions: hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}), and particulate matter (PM). In these tests the average of 100% RME and 100% REE reduced HC (52.4%), CO (47.6%), NO{sub x} (10.0%), and increases in CO{sub 2} (0.9%) and PM (9.9%) compared to the diesel control fuel. Also, 100% REE reduced HC (8.7%), CO (4.3%), and NO{sub x} (3.4%) compared to 100% RME. 33 refs., 1 figs., 8 tabs.

Peterson, C.; Reece, D. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States)

1996-05-01

286

National Coal Quality Inventory (NACQI)  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted the National Coal Quality Inventory (NaCQI) between 1999 and 2005 to address a need for quality information on coals that will be mined during the next 20-30 years. Collaboration between the USGS, State geological surveys, universities, coal burning utilities, and the coal mining industry plus funding support from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) permitted collection and submittal of coal samples for analysis. The chemical data (proximate and ultimate analyses; major, minor and trace element concentrations) for 729 samples of raw or prepared coal, coal associated shale, and coal combustion products (fly ash, hopper ash, bottom ash and gypsum) from nine coal producing States are included. In addition, the project identified a new coal reference analytical standard, to be designated CWE-1 (West Elk Mine, Gunnison County, Colorado) that is a high-volatile-B or high-volatile-A bituminous coal with low contents of ash yield and sulfur, and very low, but detectable contents of chlorine, mercury and other trace elements.

Robert Finkelman

2005-09-30

287

Trace elements in world steam coal and their behaviour in Dutch coal-fired power stations: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trace elements associated with the combustion of coal have received more attention recently, as can be seen from the increasing demands laid down in legislation and permits.Knowledge of the trace element content of coal is essential. Coal used in the Netherlands is imported from all over the world. As a consequence, Dutch power stations are designed to burn a wide

R. Meij; B. H. te Winkel

2009-01-01

288

Burn shock resuscitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of fluid resuscitation in the burn patient is maintenance of vital organ function at the least immediate or delayed physiological cost. To optimize fluid resuscitation in severely burned patients, the amount of fluid should be just enough to maintain vital organ function without producing iatrogenic pathological changes. The composition of the resuscitation fluid in the first 24 hours

Glenn D. Warden

1992-01-01

289

Tourniquet associated chemical burn  

PubMed Central

Chemical burn under pneumatic tourniquet is an iatrogenic preventable injury and is rarely reported in the literature. The two important mechanisms are maceration (friction) and wetness underneath the tourniquent. In this report, our experience with two illustrative patients who presented with iatrogenic tourniquet associated burn is described.

Yang, Jae-Hyuk; Lim, Hyungtae; Yoon, Jung-Ro; Jeong, Hyeon-Il

2012-01-01

290

Fuel injection staged sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas  

DOEpatents

A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is described. The combustor comprises a plurality of individual combustor chambers. Each combustor chamber has a main burning zone and a pilot burning zone. A pipe for the low-BTU coal gas is connected to the upstream end of the pilot burning zone; this pipe surrounds a liquid fuel source and is in turn surrounded by an air supply pipe; swirling means are provided between the liquid fuel source and the coal gas pipe and between the gas pipe and the air pipe. Additional preheated air is provided by counter-current coolant air in passages formed by a double wall arrangement of the walls of the main burning zone communicating with passages of a double wall arrangement of the pilot burning zone; this preheated air is turned at the upstream end of the pilot burning zone through swirlers to mix with the original gas and air input (and the liquid fuel input when used) to provide more efficient combustion. One or more fuel injection stages (second stages) are provided for direct input of coal gas into the main burning zone. The countercurrent air coolant passages are connected to swirlers surrounding the input from each second stage to provide additional oxidant.

Vogt, Robert L. (Schenectady, NY)

1981-01-01

291

Fuel injection staged sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas  

DOEpatents

A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is described. The combustor comprises a plurality of individual combustor chambers. Each combustor chamber has a main burning zone and a pilot burning zone. A pipe for the low-BTU coal gas is connected to the upstream end of the pilot burning zone: this pipe surrounds a liquid fuel source and is in turn surrounded by an air supply pipe: swirling means are provided between the liquid fuel source and the coal gas pipe and between the gas pipe and the air pipe. Additional preheated air is provided by counter-current coolant air in passages formed by a double wall arrangement of the walls of the main burning zone communicating with passages of a double wall arrangement of the pilot burning zone: this preheated air is turned at the upstream end of the pilot burning zone through swirlers to mix with the original gas and air input (and the liquid fuel input when used) to provide more efficient combustion. One or more fuel injection stages (second stages) are provided for direct input of coal gas into the main burning zone. The countercurrent air coolant passages are connected to swirlers surrounding the input from each second stage to provide additional oxidant.

Vogt, Robert L. (Schenectady, NY)

1985-02-12

292

Mercury Oxidation Promoted by a Selective Catalytic Reduction Catalyst under Simulated Powder River Basin Coal Combustion Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bench-scale reactor consisting of a natural gas burner and an electrically heated reactor housing a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst was constructed for studying elemental mercury (Hg0) oxidation under SCR conditions. A low sulfur Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal combustion fly ash was injected into the entrained-flow reactor along with sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), hydrogen chloride

Chun W. Lee; Shannon D. Serre; Yongxin Zhao; Sung Jun Lee; Thomas W. Hastings; Paul Chin; David Ollis; Jing Qian; Andrea Ferro; Kathleen Fowler; Hyukjin Oh; Kalyan Annamalai; John Sweeten; Jennifer Stokke; David Mazyck; James Corbett; James Winebrake; Lokman Tecer; Pinar ren; Omar Alagha; Ferhat Karaca; Sue Sheya; Clifford Glowacki; Ming-Chih Chang; Judith Chow; John Watson; Ching-Ho Lin; Edith Ge´go; Alice Gilliland; James Godowitch; S. Rao; P. Porter; Christian Hogrefe

2008-01-01

293

Dissolution of coal with petroleum pitch  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for making a meltable uniform carbonaceous mixture from coal, petroleum pitch and calcium oxide or calcium carbonate. It comprises mixing coal particles in the range of 100-200 mesh size with petroleum pitch and sufficient calcium oxide or calcium carbonate to convert the sulfur content of the pitch and the coal to calcium sulfate during burning, and heating the mixture at 300-500{degrees} F for ten to thirty minutes.

Orth, J.C.; Berg, L.

1992-06-30

294

Coal Ash Corrosion Resistant Materials Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In April 1999, three identical superheater test sections were installed into the Niles Unit No.1 for the purpose of testing and ranking the coal ash corrosion resistance of candidate superheater alloys. The Niles boiler burns high sulfur coal (3% to 3.5%) that has a moderate alkali content (0.2% sodium equivalents), thus the constituents necessary for coal ash corrosion are present

D. K. McDonald; P. L. Daniel; D. J. DeVault

2007-01-01

295

Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection. Volume 3, Gas reburning-sorbent injection at Edwards Unit 1, Central Illinois Light Company  

SciTech Connect

Design work has been completed for a Gas Reburning-Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) system to reduce emissions of NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} from a wall fired unit. A GR-SI system was designed for Central Illinois Light Company`s Edwards Station Unit 1, located in Bartonville, Illinois. The unit is rated at 117 MW(e) (net) and is front wall fired with a pulverized bituminous coal blend. The goal of the project was to reduce emissions of NO{sub x} by 60%, from the ``as found`` baseline of 0.98 lb/MBtu (420 mg/MJ), and to reduce emissions of S0{sub 2} by 50%. Since the unit currently fires a blend of high sulfur Illinois coal and low sulfur Kentucky coal to meet an S0{sub 2} limit Of 1.8 lb/MBtu (770 mg/MJ), the goal at this site was amended to meeting this limit while increasing the fraction of high sulfur coal to 57% from the current 15% level. GR-SI requires injection of natural gas into the furnace at the level of the top burner row, creating a fuel-rich zone in which NO{sub x} formed in the coal zone is reduced to N{sub 2}. The design natural gas input corresponds to 18% of the total heat input. Burnout (overfire) air is injected at a higher elevation to burn out fuel combustible matter at a normal excess air level of 18%. Recycled flue gas is used to increase the reburning fuel jet momentum, resulting in enhanced mixing. Recycled flue gas is also used to cool the top row of burners which would not be in service during GR operation. Dry hydrated lime sorbent is injected into the upper furnace to react with S0{sub 2}, forming solid CaSO{sub 4} and CaSO{sub 3}, which are collected by the ESP. The SI system design was optimized with respect to gas temperature, injection air flow rate, and sorbent dispersion. Sorbent injection air flow is equal to 3% of the combustion air. The design includes modifications of the ESP, sootblowing, and ash handling systems.

NONE

1994-10-01

296

Coal supply and transportation model analysis of the future US coal market. Final report, July 1, 1984-June 30, 1985  

SciTech Connect

The Coal Supply and Transporation Model (CSTM) is a computer simulation of the US coal market. It demonstrates the influence of costs of coal production and processing, costs of environmental control of SO/sub 2/ emissions, and costs of transporting coal by rail and barge. The model attempts to forecast the changes in regional coal production, given changes in any of these costs and a growing demand for coal in the future. The original CSTM was published by the Energy Information Administration of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The modeling analysis team at the Coal Technology Center (CTL) modified the original CSTM. CTL/CSTM, the new Coal Technology Laboratory version, contains improved information on flue gas desulfurization (FGD) devices, scrubbers, and calculates total SO/sub 2/ emissions which could be expected with various emission control standards applied to the electric utility sector of demand. Software was developed for use with the model which facilitates the task of data input and modification. The CTL/CSTM was used to examine changes in regional coal production, the total costs of using coal to meet energy demand, and total emissions of SO/sub 2/ which could be expected in 13 sets of conditions which could prevail in 1995. Scenarios of the future, which assumed no change in important variables, were constructed with different assumptions regarding contracts for coal, regulation of allowable rates of SO/sub 2/ emissions from utility boilers, charges for coal shipments by rail, and the choice of regulatory strategy for SO/sub 2/ emission reduction between scrubbing and the shift from using high-sulfur coal to using low-sulfur coal. 11 refs, 17 tabs.

Arey, D.; Dziegielewski, B.; Crenshaw, J.; Parker, G.; Primont, D.

1985-09-01

297

Synergistic Utilization of Coal Fines and Municipal Solid Waste in Coal-Fired Boilers. Phase I Final Report  

SciTech Connect

A feasibility study was performed on a novel concept: to synergistically utilize a blend of waste coal fines with so-called E-fuel for cofiring and reburning in utility and industrial boilers. The E-fuel is produced from MSW by the patented EnerTech's slurry carbonization process. The slurry carbonization technology economically converts MSW to a uniform, low-ash, low-sulfur, and essentially chlorine-free fuel with energy content of about 14,800 Btu/lb.

V. Zamansky; P. Maly; M. Klosky

1998-06-12

298

Control Strategies of Atmospheric Mercury Emissions from Coal-fired Power Plants in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric Hg emission from coal is one of the primary sources of anthropogenic discharge and pollution. China is one of the few countries in the world whose coal consumption constitutes about 70% of total primary energy, and over half of coals are burned directly for electricity generation. Atmospheric emissions of Hg and its speciation from coal-fired power plants are of

Hezhong Tian; Yan Wang; Ke Cheng; Yiping Qu; Jiming Hao; Zhigang Xue; Fahe Chai

2012-01-01

299

Coal-Quality Information - Key to the Efficient and Environmentally Sound Use of Coal  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The rock that we refer to as coal is derived principally from decomposed organic matter (plants) consisting primarily of the element carbon. When coal is burned, it produces energy in the form of heat, which is used to power machines such as steam engines or to drive turbines that produce electricity. Almost 60 percent of the electricity produced in the United States is derived from coal combustion. Coal is an extraordinarily complex material. In addition to organic matter, coal contains water (up to 40 or more percent by weight for some lignitic coals), oils, gases (such as methane), waxes (used to make shoe polish), and perhaps most importantly, inorganic matter (fig. 1). The inorganic matter--minerals and trace elements--cause many of the health, environmental, and technological problems attributed to coal use (fig. 2). 'Coal quality' is the term used to refer to the properties and characteristics of coal that influence its behavior and use. Among the coal-quality characteristics that will be important for future coal use are the concentrations, distribution, and forms of the many elements contained in the coal that we intend to burn. Knowledge of these quality characteristics in U.S. coal deposits may allow us to use this essential energy resource more efficiently and effectively and with less undesirable environmental impact.

Finkleman, Robert B.

1997-01-01

300

Comparative emissions from Pakistani coals and traditional coals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Airborne emissions from a traditional Paldstani cooking stove were measured and compared for fuels composed of raw and amended coal briquettes, wood, charcoal, and dung. Small charges of fuel, 200 g, were burned inside a 12 m(sup 3) shed with a forced rat...

R. B. Gammage E. A. Wachter J. Wade D. L. Wilson N. Ahmad

1993-01-01

301

Coal Gasification and Coal Hydrogenation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present state of the development works on the coal gasification and coal hydrogenation processes carried out by the coal producing and engineering companies is presented. The coal gasification projects are the following: Texaco suspended dust gasifica...

1980-01-01

302

Environmental protecting effect of industrial coal briquette  

SciTech Connect

This paper has analyzed the necessity of developing industrial coal briquette in China and introduced the present development of coal briquette and its environmental protecting effect in the country. The laboratory research shows that the rate of captured sulfur of coal briquette produced with calcium oxide as a capturing agent is up to 82%. Comparing with the combustion of raw coal, coal briquette produced in briquette cohesive agent made of magnesium oxide etc, can reduce the amount of sulfur dioxide by 78% and the amount of dust smoke by 29.3% when the coal briquette is burned in industrial boiler. When it is used as raw material of coal gasification, the amount of hydrogen sulfide in the gas generated by the gasification of mixed coal composed of 25% coal briquette and 75% lumps is lowered by 6.8% (volume ration) compared with that generated by the gasification of full lumps. Moreover, the sodium sulfocyanide is discovered in the boiler ashes and the amount of sodium sulfocyanide is up to 10% of the total (weight ration) when the boiler ashes are tested with x-ray diffractometer. The discovery shows that the coal briquette has the function of nitrogen fixation. The rate of captured sulfur of coal briquette which is briquetting at the front of industrial boiler and in which limestone is used as a capturing agent is up to 48% when it is burned in industrial boiler.

Zhao, Y.; Chen, L.

1999-07-01

303

Selectivity improvement in the solvent refined coal process. I - Detailed first-stage reaction studies - Coal mineral catalysis. II - Detailed second-stage reaction studies - Hydrotreating of coal liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A two stage process is investigated for the production of a low-sulfur solid SRC-I (solvent refined coal) type boiler fuel with a minimum consumption of hydrogen. The first stage involves the scavenging action of coal minerals. Mineral additives (e.g., iron oxide and iron) increase selectivity for hydrodesulfurization over hydrogenation in coal liquefaction reactions. Mineral residues from SRC processes show insignificant desulfurization activity, but through oxidation, their sulfurization activity increases to significant levels without an increase in hydrogenation activity. The sulfur removal activity of an additive depends on its surface area. The second stage involves hydrotreating the dissolver effluent for maximum sulfur removal, with a minimum consumption of hydrogen. The effect of a wide range of variables on hydrotreating of a coal liquid in the presence of a commercial Co-Mo-Al catalyst is evaluated. The variables include catalyst loading, hydrogen partial pressure, reaction temperature and time.

Garg, D.; Tarrer, A. R.; Guin, J. A.; Curtis, C. W.; Clinton, J. H.

1980-08-01

304

New Fashioned Book Burning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on results of a teacher's experiment in book burning as a lesson accompanying the teaching of Ray Bradbury's "Fahrenheit 451." Discusses student reactions and the purpose of or justification for the experimental lesson. (TB)

Gardner, Robert

1997-01-01

305

Burning Mouth Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... infection in the mouth acid reflux poorly-fitting dentures or allergies to denture materials anxiety and depression. In some people, burning ... to check for oral candidiasis allergy testing for denture materials, certain foods, or other substances that may ...

306

Burns and Traumatic Injury  

MedlinePLUS

... than $100 billion in medical treatment and lost productivity. Burns: In the mid-1970s, about 9,000 ... exceeded $99 billion in medical expenses and lost productivity. The World Health Organization projects that by 2020, ...

307

Lava Flow Burning Vegetation  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Lava flow activity continues to burn vegetation in the kipuka adjacent to the trail, causing the viewing trail to be closed beyond the trailhead. The new viewing area is still very close to the active flows. ...

2010-06-18

308

Books2burn  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed by Professor Matthew Weinstein of Kent State University, Books2burn translates text files into a series of audio files, which may then subsequently be converted to mp3's or other formats. This program will be a great boon to scholars and the general public alike, as the application allows for the easy transfer and replication of potentially large and problematic files into a number of audio formats. Books2burn is compatible with all systems running Mac OS X.

Weinstein, Matthew

309

Assessment of the radiological impact of coal utilization. 2: Radionuclides in Western coal ash  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential radiological impact of coal utilization is investigated. A survey of western US coal mines and an assessment of emissions from a power plant burning Western coal were performed. Environmental deposition of radionuclides from stack emissions over a 20 year accumulation at a power plant burning. Western coal was estimated to be 0.1 to 1.0% of measured background. An interlaboratory comparison of results of radioanalytical procedures, determining partitioning coefficients for radionuclides in bottom ash and fly ash, and an assessment of the potential for migration of radionuclides from ash disposal sites are made. Essentially all the nonvolatile radionuclides (uranium, radium, and thorium) from feed coal are accounted for in fly ash and bottom ash. However, 20 to 50% of the volatile radionuclides (lead and polonium) from subbituminous and lignitic coals are not accounted for in ahs, and it is assumed that this fraction exists via the stack.

Styron, C. E.; Bishop, C. T.; Casella, V. R.; Jenkins, P. H.; Yanko, W. H.

1981-04-01

310

Ball lightning burn.  

PubMed

Ball lightning is a rare physical phenomenon, which is not yet completely explained. It is similar to lightning but with different, peculiar characteristics. It can be considered a mix of fire and electricity, concentrated in a fireball with a diameter of 20-cm that most commonly appears suddenly, even in indoor conditions, during a thunderstorm. It moves quickly for several meters, can change direction, and ultimately disappears. During a great storm, a 28-year-old man and his 5-year-old daughter sustained burn wounds after ball lightning came from the outdoors through a chimney. These two patients demonstrated signs of fire and electrical injuries. The father, who lost consciousness, sustained superficial second-degree burn wounds bilaterally on the zygomatic area and deep second-degree burn wounds on his right hand (total body surface area, 4%). His daughter demonstrated superficial second-degree burn wounds on the left part of the face and deep second-degree and third-degree burn wounds (total body surface area, 30%) on the left neck, both upper arms, and the back. In this article, the authors report the first two cases of burn injuries resulting from ball lightning contact indoors. The literature on this rare phenomenon is reviewed to elucidate the nature of ball lightning. Emphasis is placed on the nature of injuries after ball lightning contact, the therapy used, and the long-term complications. PMID:12792547

Selvaggi, Gennaro; Monstrey, Stan; von Heimburg, Dennis; Hamdi, Mustapha; Van Landuyt, Koen; Blondeel, Phillip

2003-05-01

311

Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project. Technical progress report, January 1, 1993--December 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from January 1, 1993, through December 31, 1993. This project demonstrates an advanced, thermal, coal drying process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high-moisture, low- rank coals to a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal{reg_sign} process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal processing, the coal is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership`s ACCP Demonstration Facility entered Phase III, Demonstration Operation, in April 1992 and operated in an extended startup mode through August 10, 1993, when the facility became commercial. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership instituted an aggressive program to overcome startup obstacles and now focuses on supplying product coal to customers. Significant accomplishments in the history of the SynCoal{reg_sign} process development are shown in Appendix A.

NONE

1995-02-01

312

Characterization and supply of coal based fuels. Volume 1, Final report and appendix A (Topical report)  

SciTech Connect

Studies and data applicable for fuel markets and coal resource assessments were reviewed and evaluated to provide both guidelines and specifications for premium quality coal-based fuels. The fuels supplied under this contract were provided for testing of advanced combustors being developed under Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) sponsorship for use in the residential, commercial and light industrial (RCLI) market sectors. The requirements of the combustor development contractors were surveyed and periodically updated to satisfy the evolving needs based on design and test experience. Available coals were screened and candidate coals were selected for further detailed characterization and preparation for delivery. A team of participants was assembled to provide fuels in both coal-water fuel (CWF) and dry ultrafine coal (DUC) forms. Information about major US coal fields was correlated with market needs analysis. Coal fields with major reserves of low sulfur coal that could be potentially amenable to premium coal-based fuels specifications were identified. The fuels requirements were focused in terms of market, equipment and resource constraints. With this basis, the coals selected for developmental testing satisfy the most stringent fuel requirements and utilize available current deep-cleaning capabilities.

Not Available

1992-06-01

313

ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Demonstration Project. Annual report, October 1993--September 1994  

SciTech Connect

ENCOAL Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of SMC Mining Company (formerly Shell Mining Company, now owned by Zeigler Coal Holding Company), has completed the construction and start-up of a mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company`s Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology developed by SMC and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin coal to produce two new fuels, Process Derived Fuel (PDF) and Coal Derived Liquids (CDL). The LFC technology uses a mild pyrolysis or mild gasification process which involves heating the coal under carefully controlled conditions. The process causes chemical changes in the feed coal in contrast to conventional drying, which leads only to physical changes. Wet subbituminous coal contains considerable water, and conventional drying processes physically remove some of this moisture, causing the heating value to increase. The deeper the coal is physically dried, the higher the heating value and the more the pore structure permanently collapses, preventing resorption of moisture. However, deeply dried Powder River Basin coals exhibit significant stability problems when dried by conventional thermal processes. The LFC process overcomes these stability problems by thermally altering the solid to create PDF and CDL. Several of the major objectives of the ENCOAL Project have now been achieved. The LFC Technology has been essentially demonstrated. Significant quantities of specification CDL have been produced from Buckskin coal. Plant operation in a production mode with respectable availability (approaching 90%) has been demonstrated.

NONE

1995-03-01

314

Mulled Coal: A beneficiated coal form for use as a fuel or fuel intermediate  

SciTech Connect

During the past quarter Energy International has evaluated additional mull formulations with varying reagent additives, mixing times, and particle sizes. The Environmental Review was completed and conceptual designs developed for the Mull Preparation and CWF Conversion Systems. As these technical developments move toward commercial application, the needs for coordinated efforts and integrated requirements have become increasingly apparent. Systems are vitally needed to integrate energy delivery systems from the raw resource through processing to application and end use. Problems have been encountered in the preparation of conventional coal-water fuels that mutually satisfy the requirements for storage stability, handling, preparation, atomization, combustion, and economics. Experience has been slow in evolving generic technologies or products and coal-specific requirements and specifications continue to dominate the development. Thus, prospects for commercialization remain highly specific to the coal, the processor, and the end use. Developments in advanced beneficiation of coal to meet stringent requirements for low ash and low sulfur can be anticipated to further complicate the problem areas. This is attributable to the beneficiated coal being produced in very fine particles with a high surface area, modified surface characteristics, reduced particle size distribution range, and high inherent moisture.

Not Available

1991-09-01

315

Potential health and environmental effects of the fluidized-bed combustion of coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

A summary of the potential health and environmental effects of burning coal by fluidized bed combustion is presented. An increased use of coal combustion as a whole, an increasing fraction of which may be burned at the low temperature of fluidized bed combustors (FBC), is causing concern about potential health and environmental effects. The following concerns, in particular, are addressed:

F. A. Seiler; C. H. Hobbs; R. G. Cuddihy

1982-01-01

316

Rocky Mountain Tertiary coal-basin models and their applicability to some world basins  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tertiary intermontane basins in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States contain large amounts of coal resources. The first major type of Tertiary coal basin is closed and lake-dominated, either mud-rich (e.g., North Park Basin, Colorado) or mud plus carbonate (e.g., Medicine Lodge Basin, Montana), which are both infilled by deltas. The second major type of Tertiary coal basin is open and characterized by a preponderance of sediments that were deposited by flow-through fluvial systems (e.g., Raton Basin, Colorado and New Mexico, and Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana). The setting for the formation of these coals varies with the type of basin sedimentation, paleotectonism, and paleoclimate. The mud-rich lake-dominated closed basin (transpressional paleotectonism and warm, humid paleoclimate), where infilled by sandy "Gilbert-type" deltas, contains thick coals (low ash and low sulfur) formed in swamps of the prograding fluvial systems. The mud- and carbonate-rich lake-dominated closed basin is infilled by carbonate precipitates plus coarse-grained fan deltas and fine-grained deltas. Here, thin coals (high ash and high sulfur) formed in swamps of the fine-grained deltas. The coarse-clastic, open basins (compressional paleotectonism and warm, paratropical paleoclimate) associated with flow-through fluvial systems contain moderately to anomalously thick coals (high to low ash and low sulfur) formed in swamps developed in intermittently abandoned portions of the fluvial systems. These coal development patterns from the Tertiary Rocky Mountain basins, although occurring in completely different paleotectonic settings, are similar to that found in the Tertiary, Cretaceous, and Permian intermontane coal basins in China, New Zealand, and India. ?? 1989.

Flores, R. M.

1989-01-01

317

The magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility  

SciTech Connect

In this quarterly technical progress report, UTSI reports on progress on a multi-task contract to develop the technology for the steam bottoming plant for an MHD Steam Combined Cycle power plant. Two proof-of-concept (POC) tests totaling 614 hours of coal fired operation were conducted during the quarter using low sulfur Montana Rosebud coal. The results of these tests are summarized. Operational aspects of the particulate control devices being evaluated, a dry electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and a reverse air baghouse, are discussed. A sootblowing control system for the convective heat transfer surfaces that senses the need to clean the tubes by temperatures is described. Environmental reporting includes measurement of levels of ground water wells over time and the remote air quality measurements of impact of the stack emissions from the two tests. Results of testing candidate ceramic tubes for a recuperative high temperature air heater are included. Analyses of the tube materials tested in the 2000 hour test series previously completed on high sulfur Illinois No. 6 coal are summarized. Facility maintenance and repair activities for the DOE Coal Fired Flow Facility are summarized. The major facility modification discussed is the completion of the installation of a Wet ESP with rotary vacuum filter which is replacing the venturi scrubber as the primary facility particulate control device for any exhaust gases that are not routed through the dry ESP or baghouse.

Not Available

1993-02-01

318

Application of computer graphics to generate coal resources of the Cache coal bed, Recluse geologic model area, Campbell County, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Low-sulfur subbituminous coal resources have been calculated, using both manual and computer methods, for the Cache coal bed in the Recluse Model Area, which covers the White Tail Butte, Pitch Draw, Recluse, and Homestead Draw SW 7 1/2 minute quadrangles, Campbell County, Wyoming. Approximately 275 coal thickness measurements obtained from drill hole data are evenly distributed throughout the area. The Cache coal and associated beds are in the Paleocene Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation. The depth from the surface to the Cache bed ranges from 269 to 1,257 feet. The thickness of the coal is as much as 31 feet, but in places the Cache coal bed is absent. Comparisons between hand-drawn and computer-generated isopach maps show minimal differences. Total coal resources calculated by computer show the bed to contain 2,316 million short tons or about 6.7 percent more than the hand-calculated figure of 2,160 million short tons.

Schneider, G. B.; Crowley, S. S.; Carey, M. A.

1982-01-01

319

Clean Coal III Project: Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection Project Trail 1 Report - Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection - Results with Low Volatile Coal  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the first coal trial test conducted with the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection System at Bethlehem Steel Corporation's Burns Harbor Plant. This demonstration project is divided into three phases: Phase I - Design Phase II - Construction Phase III - Operation The design phase was conducted in 1991-1993, Construction of the facility began in August 1993 and was completed in late 1994. The coal injection facility began operating in January 1995 and Phase III began in November 1995. The Trial 1 base test on C furnace was carried out in October 1996 as a comparison period for the analysis of the operation during subsequent coal trials.

None

1997-11-01

320

Clean coal project nears commercial operation  

SciTech Connect

A first for NYSEG and the US: a clean coal system that turns power plant waste into sales. This article describes a power plant on the eastern shore of Cayuga Lake in upstate New York, where New York State Electric and Gas Corp. (NYSEG) has finished building and is now operating an advanced clean coal system that represents a first for the US and a milestone for the nation's coal-burning utilities. The system's state-of-the-art technologies show how this country can use its vast coal reserves while reducing the fuel's impact on the environment.

Baron, E.S. II

1995-02-01

321

Clean Coal III Project: Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection Project Trial 1 Report - Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection - Results with Low Volatile Coal  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the first coal trial test conducted with the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection System at Bethlehem Steel Corporation's Burns Harbor Plant. This demonstration project is divided into three phases: Phase I - Design Phase II - Construction Phase III - Operation The design phase was conducted in 1991-1993. Construction of the facility began in August 1993 and was completed in late 1994. The coal injection facility began operating in January 1995 and Phase III began in November 1995. The Trial 1 base test orI C furnace was carried out in October 1996 as a comparison period for the analysis of the operation during subsequent coal trials.

None

1997-11-01

322

ENTHALPIES OF THE FORMATION OF POWER-GENERATING COALS FROM THE ELEMENTS IN STANDARD STATES AND THERMODYNAMIC CALCULATIONS OF GASIFICATION OF BROWN COALS AS AN EXAMPLE OF USING FORMATION ENTHALPIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

To calculate thermodynamical properties and composition of the products of coal burning, gasification and pyrolysis the recommendations on calculating (by reference data) initial atomic composition of coals and the method for calculating enthalpies of coal formation from the elements in standard states were proposed. Formation enthalpies of basic power station coals in in-service, analytical and dry ash-free states are calculated.

E. V. Samuilov; L. N. Lebedeva; N. A. Sheveleva; G. M. Krzhizhanovskiy

323

Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project. Technical progress report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

This detailed report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Project demonstrates an advanced thermal coal upgrading process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to high-quality, low-sulfur fuel. During this reporting period, the primary focus for the project was to expand market awareness and acceptability for the products and the technology. The use of covered hopper cars has been successful and marketing efforts have focused on this technique. Operational improvements are currently aimed at developing fines marketing systems, increasing throughput capacity, decreasing operation costs, and developing standardized continuous operator training. Testburns at industrial user sites were also conducted. A detailed process description; technical progress report including facility operations/plant production, facility testing, product testing, and testburn product; and process stability report are included. 3 figs., 8 tabs.

NONE

1996-06-01

324

Burning and detonation  

SciTech Connect

The effect of confined burning explosive abutting nonburning explosive in a variety of one-dimensional geometries has been studied by numerical simulation, demonstrating the effects of confinement, burning rate, and shock sensitivity. The model includes porous bed burning, compressible solids and gases, shock-induced decomposition with possible transition to detonation, and constant velocity ignition waves. Two-phase flow, gas relative to solid, is not allowed. Because the shock sensitivity of an explosive changes with explosive density and because such experimental data is rarely available over a range of densities, a method for the calculation of the density effect on the initial-shock-pressure, distance-to-detonation (wedge test) measure of shock sensitivity is given. The calculation uses the invariance with density of the shock particle velocity as a function of time to detonation, and the experimental data at some high density.

Forest, C.A.

1981-01-01

325

Phenol burns and intoxications.  

PubMed

Phenol burns and intoxications are life-threatening injuries. Roughly 50 per cent of all reported cases have a fatal outcome. Only a small number of cases have been reported with high serum concentrations after phenol burns who survived. In our own experience a patient with 20.5 per cent total body surface area deep partial skin thickness phenol burns and serum concentrations of 17,400 micrograms/litre survived after immediate and repeated treatment of the scalds with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and silver sulphadiazine. A literature review of experiences with phenol intoxications reveals the advantages of PEG application. Questions on the need for enforced diuresis and haemodialysis as well as the initial treatment procedures are discussed. Advantages of different solutions for local therapy are reported. PMID:8148075

Horch, R; Spilker, G; Stark, G B

1994-02-01

326

Burning mouth syndrome.  

PubMed

Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic condition that is characterized by burning symptoms of the oral mucosa without obvious clinical examination findings. This syndrome has complex characteristics, but its cause remains largely enigmatic, making treatment and management of patients with BMS difficult. Despite not being accompanied by evident organic changes, BMS can significantly reduce the quality of life for such patients. Therefore, it is incumbent on dental professionals to diagnose and manage patients with BMS as a part of comprehensive care. PMID:23809306

Thoppay, Jaisri R; De Rossi, Scott S; Ciarrocca, Katharine N

2013-07-01

327

Comparative analysis of the life cycle costs of compliance coal versus noncompliance coal with regenerable FGD equipment at Brandon Shores Units 1 and 2. Volume 1. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative costs of burning compliance coal and high sulfur coal with sulfur oxide removal are compared for the Brandon Shores Power Plant. Because of the plant's location next to potential markets for sulfur, sulfuric acid, and gypsum, only regenerable scrubbers were considered. The marketability of these products was surveyed and costs of coal and capital equipment were projected. For

C. Demeter; C. Pleatsikas; K. Hollenbeck

1980-01-01

328

Clean coal fluidized-bed technology in Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of a circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) for power generation is a rapidly growing technology in Poland. The ability of CFBs to burn a wide variety of fuels, while meeting strict emission-control regulations, makes them an ideal choice for burning such fuels as high-sulfur coal, lignite, peat, oil, sludge, petroleum coke, gas and wastes. All these fuels are burned cleanly

W. Nowak

2003-01-01

329

Cardiac Infections in Burns.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The clinical and pathologic features of sixty-four cases of infection of the heart in 3,064 burned patients are reviewed. In the majority of the cases, the heart became involved as part of a generalized septicemia with a portal of entry through either the...

A. M. Munster B. A. Pruitt F. C. DiVincenti F. D. Foley

1971-01-01

330

Refuse burning process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is provided for burning refuse containing polyvinyl chloride without the consequent production of phosgene. The refuse is carbonized in a rotary furnace at temperatures below 1200 degrees F., especially 700 degrees F., in an oxygen deficient atmosphere. A burnable gas containing the carbonized refuse is drawn from the furnace by an air jet wherein same is mixed with

Lientz

1983-01-01

331

TRIAL BURNS: METHODS PERSPECTIVE  

EPA Science Inventory

When conducting a trial burn, it is necessary to make a number of measurements in order to adequately define the performance of the incinerator. n addition to flue gas emissions for particulate matter, HCl, and selected organics, it is also necessary to measure selected organics ...

332

Wood burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

An air tight wood burning stove (10) for heating a designated space comprises a housing (12) having an access opening (50) in the front wall (14) thereof and at least one glass panel (64) containing door (54, 56) hingedly mounted on the front wall for closing the opening (50). A latching mechanism (60) on the door (54, 56) engages with

1982-01-01

333

Burn a Peanut  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners burn a peanut, which produces a flame that can be used to boil away water and count the calories contained in the peanut. Learners use a formula to calculate the calories in a peanut and then differentiate between food calories and physicist calories as well as calories and joules.

Doherty, Paul

2000-01-01

334

Burn Scar Neoplasm  

PubMed Central

Summary Marjolin's ulcer is a rare and aggressive cutaneous malignancy that occurs in previously traumatized and chronically inflamed skin, especially after burns. The majority of burn scar carcinomas are seen after a lag period in burns that were not grafted following injury. Between 2000 and 2006, 48 patients with Marjolin's ulcer were treated in our centre (Sulaimani Teaching Hospital and Emergency Hospital). All the lesions were secondary to burns from various causes. The medical records of these 48 patients were reviewed prospectively. The mean age at tumour diagnosis was 40 yr and the ratio of male to female was 2:1 (67% males and 33% female). Upon histological examination, all the cases were diagnosed as well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. The scalp was most frequently affected (16 patients = 33.3%), followed by the lower limb (14 patients = 29.1%). Treatment of the neoplasm consisted of excision and grafting in 36 patients (75.0%), excision and reconstruction with flaps in eight patients (16.6%), and amputation in three patients (6.2%). A chemotherapy combination of the above treatments was used in two patients (4.1%). Local recurrence was noted in 16 patients (33.3%) out of the 48, and all died from these recurrences.

Kadir, A.R.

2007-01-01

335

Correlating Aluminum Burning Times  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characteristics of aluminum combustion are summarized in an overview of the subject, focusing on the burning time of individual particles. Combustion data from over ten different sources with almost 400 datum points have been cataloged and correlated. Available models have also been used to evaluate combustion trends with key environmental parameters. The fundamental concepts that control aluminum combustion are discussed,

M. W. Beckstead

2005-01-01

336

Burning Your Own CDs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of CDs (Compact Disks) for backing up data as an alternative to using floppy disks and explains how to burn, or record, a CD. Topics include differences between CD-R (CD-Recordable) and CD-RW (CD-Rewritable); advantages of CD-R and CD-RW; selecting a CD burner; technology trends; and care of CDs. (LRW)

Ekhaml, Leticia

2001-01-01

337

Solid Propellant Burning Rate Detector.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The instrument measures accurately the burning rate of solid propellant rocket motors. This is accomplished by use of light-transmitting rods of different lengths embedded in a propellant grain and transmitting light energy during burning of the grain to ...

J. E. Fitzgerald N. C. Allen

1965-01-01

338

Burning mouth syndrome: update.  

PubMed

Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS) is a chronic disorder that predominately affects middle-aged women in the postmenopausal period. The condition is distinguished by burning symptoms of the oral mucosa and the absence of any clinical signs. The etiology of BMS is complex and it includes a variety of factors. Local, systemic and psychological factors such as stress, anxiety and depression are listed among the possible causes of BMS. BMS may sometimes be classified as BMS Type I, II or III. Although this syndrome is not accompanied by evident organic alterations and it does not present health risks, it can significantly reduce the patient's quality of life. This study analyzes the available literature related to BMS, and makes special reference to its therapeutic management. The pages that follow will also discuss the diagnostic criteria that should be respected, etiological factors, and clinical aspects. We used the PubMed database and searched it by using the keywords "burning mouth syndrome", "BMS and review", and "burning mouth and review", in the title or abstract of the publication. BMS treatment usually steers towards the management of the symptoms; however, the specific local factors that could play a significant role in worsening the oral burning sensation should be eradicated. The most widely accepted treatment options that show variable results include tricyclic antidepressants, benzodiazepines and antipsychotic drugs; nevertheless there are other therapies that can also be carried out. Professionals that work in the field of dentistry should formulate standardized symptomatic and diagnostic criteria in order to more easily identify the most effective and reliable strategies in BMS treatment through multidisciplinary research. PMID:24984658

Spanemberg, Juliana Cassol; Rodríguez de Rivera Campillo, Eugenia; Salas, Enric Jané; López López, José

2014-06-01

339

Virginia coal production: impacts and projections  

SciTech Connect

Virginia's coal sales have been largely for metallurgical (coking) applications. The met coal market is facing a serious decline. Those suppliers with long-term contracts believe they will not be affected unless force majeure (coercive power) is imposed. Long-term projections, based on a worldwide recovery of the steel industry and the changing technology and economics of steel making, suggest that future sales will be flat. Based on studies of market trade-preferences, evidence suggests that Australia will displace the Unted States as the leading exporter of met coal. The possible requirement that US coal-burning utilities reduce sulfur dioxide effluents may lead to met coal being burned in steam boilers as a measure to avoid installing the more costly flue-gas scrubbers. This requirement, if it becomes law, would improve sales prospects for the central Appalachian coal market. Coal slurries to replace fuel oil in commercial and utility boilers and clean fine coal for chemical feed stocks are other potential new markets totaling 200 million tons per year. In any event, the Virginia coal market is presently an erratic buyers market with more production capacity than demand, and a growing sensitivity to prices resulting from the unstable world economic situation. Our coal suppliers, because of rising mine, railroad, port, and shipping costs, now charge the highest worldwide delivery prices which will make Virginia a residual supplier and possibly vulnerable to more foreign imports. A coal slurry pipeline which will reduce the delivered cost of Virginia's coal and make it more competitive with eastern Kentucky and southern West Virginia coal, of similar quality, will assist the state in maintaining its market share as the market recovers. Although it will not increase the world-market share exported from Hampton Roads, it may increase Virginia's share of that market from 22.8% to 50%.

Hibbard, Jr, W R

1983-06-01

340

BURN DATA COORDINATING CENTER (BDCC)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Burn Data Coordinating Center (BDCC) began collecting data in 1994 and is currently the largest burn database in the country. Pediatric burn data was added in 1998. The BMS database contains over 2,800 cases supporting clinical research and research on outcomes including empl...

341

The overall patterns of burns  

PubMed Central

Summary Burn patterns differ across the whole world and not only in relation to lack of education, overcrowding, and poverty. Cultures, habits, traditions, psychiatric illness, and epilepsy are strongly correlated to burn patterns. However, burns may also occur because of specific religious beliefs and activities, social events and festivals, traditional medical practices, occupational activities, and war.

Almoghrabi, A.; Abu Shaban, N.

2011-01-01

342

Anatomy of a Prescribed Burn  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This poster shows how prescribed burns operate, using careful planning and preparation to start a fire that will renew habitat without threatening ecosystems or homes. This image describes the steps required to prepare a prescribed burn, how fire crews set up for the burn, and how the wind is used to help control the fire.

Forestry, Florida D.; Smokeybear.com

343

Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

Western Energy Company (WECO) was selected by the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) which upgrades low rank coals into high Btu, low sulfur, synthetic bituminous coal. As specified in the Corporate Agreement, RSCP is required to develop an Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) which describes in detail the environmental monitoring activities to be performed during the project execution. The purpose of the EMP is to: (1) identify monitoring activities that will be undertaken to show compliance to applicable regulations, (2) confirm the specific environmental impacts predicted in the National Environmental Policy Act documentation, and (3) establish an information base of the assessment of the environmental performance of the technology demonstrated by the project. The EMP specifies the streams to be monitored (e.g. gaseous, aqueous, and solid waste), the parameters to be measured (e.g. temperature, pressure, flow rate), and the species to be analyzed (e.g. sulfur compounds, nitrogen compounds, trace elements) as well as human health and safety exposure levels. The operation and frequency of the monitoring activities is specified, as well as the timing for the monitoring activities related to project phase (e.g. preconstruction, construction, commissioning, operational, post-operational). The EMP is designed to assess the environmental impacts and the environmental improvements resulting from construction and operation of the project.

Not Available

1992-04-01

344

Densified refuse derived fuel (d-RDF) burn at Marcy Psychiatric Center. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A combustion demonstration involving a densified refuse derived fuel (d-RDF) product, fired for approximately 50 hours as a supplemental fuel in a coal-fired spreader stoker boiler is described. Observations were made and photographs taken of plant operation during all phases of the test project. Opacity and particulate emission tests were performed while firing d-RDF in a ratio of 1:2 with coal (by volume) and while firing 100% coal at high and low loads to provide comparisons with State Department of Environmental Conservation emission standards. No significant disadvantages over coal were found in burning d-RDF/coal in ratios up to 2:1 (43% heat input by d-RDF). Fuel handling, boiler operation, boiler efficiency, particulate emissions, and opacity were similar for the coal and d-RDF/coal mixtures tested.

Not Available

1980-11-01

345

Is proportion burned severely related to daily area burned?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ecological effects of forest fires burning with high severity are long-lived and have the greatest impact on vegetation successional trajectories, as compared to low-to-moderate severity fires. The primary drivers of high severity fire are unclear, but it has been hypothesized that wind-driven, large fire-growth days play a significant role, particularly on large fires in forested ecosystems. Here, we examined the relative proportion of classified burn severity for individual daily areas burned that occurred during 42 large forest fires in central Idaho and western Montana from 2005 to 2007 and 2011. Using infrared perimeter data for wildfires with five or more consecutive days of mapped perimeters, we delineated 2697 individual daily areas burned from which we calculated the proportions of each of three burn severity classes (high, moderate, and low) using the differenced normalized burn ratio as mapped for large fires by the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity project. We found that the proportion of high burn severity was weakly correlated (Kendall ? = 0.299) with size of daily area burned (DAB). Burn severity was highly variable, even for the largest (95th percentile) in DAB, suggesting that other variables than fire extent influence the ecological effects of fires. We suggest that these results do not support the prioritization of large runs during fire rehabilitation efforts, since the underlying assumption in this prioritization is a positive relationship between severity and area burned in a day.

Birch, Donovan S.; Morgan, Penelope; Kolden, Crystal A.; Hudak, Andrew T.; Smith, Alistair M. S.

2014-05-01

346

Chemical Debridement of Burns  

PubMed Central

The development of effective, non-toxic (local and systemic) methods for the rapid chemical (enzymatic and non-enzymatic) debridement of third degree burns would dramatically reduce the morbidity and mortality of severely burned patients. Sepsis is still the major cause of death of patients with extensive deep burns. The removal of the devitalized tissue, without damage to unburned skin or skin only partially injured by burning, and in ways which would permit immediate (or very prompt) skin grafting, would lessen substantially the problems of sepsis, speed convalescence and the return of these individuals to society as effective human beings, and would decrease deaths. The usefulness and limitations of surgical excision for patients with extensive third degree burns are discussed. Chemical debridement lends itself to complementary use with surgical excision and has the potential advantage over surgical excision in not requiring anesthesia or a formal surgical operation. The authors' work with the chemical debridement of burns, in particular the use of Bromelain, indicates that this approach will likely achieve clinical usefulness. The experimental studies indicate that rapid controlled debridement, with minimal local and systemic toxicity, is possible, and that effective chemotherapeutic agents may be combined with the Bromelain without either interfering with the actions of the other. The authors believe that rapid (hours) debridement accomplished by the combined use of chemical debriding and chemotherapeutic agents will obviate the possibility of any increase in infection, caused by the use of chemical agents for debridement, as reported for Paraenzyme21 and Travase.39,48 It is possible that the short term use of systemic antibiotics begun just before and continued during, and for a short time after, the rapid chemical debridement may prove useful for the prevention of infection, as appears to be the case for abdominal operations of the clean-contaminated and contaminated types. ImagesFigs. 1a-c.Fig. 1b.Fig. 1c.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8.Fig. 9a.Fig. 9B.Fig. 10.Fig. 11.Figs. 12a-c.Fig. 12b.Fig. 12c.Figs. 14a-c.Fig. 14b.Fig. 14c.Figs. 15a-c.Fig. 15b.Fig. 15c.

Levenson, Stanley M.; Kan, Dorinne; Gruber, Charles; Crowley, Leo V.; Lent, Richard; Watford, Alvin; Seifter, Eli

1974-01-01

347

Energy and environmental research emphasizing low-rank coal -- Task 5.1, Stability issues  

SciTech Connect

Low-sulfur subbituminous and lignite coals have high moisture content and, consequently, low heating value, leading to boiler derating in US midwestern and eastern utilities as well as switching and/or blending coals to achieve SO{sub 2} compliance. In the drive to develop cost-effective coal-drying processes, coal developers have focused on heat content of the products and generally neglected the critical stability issues of friability and dusting, moisture reabsorption, and spontaneous heating. The Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC), in an effort to establish new standards for dried products, has used established methods and has developed new ones to evaluate the propensity of lump western coals, raw and dried, to produce dust and absorb water. Three drying methods--air, hydrothermal, and saturated steam--were used to generate low-moisture upgraded products. New indices for dust generation and friability were determined to assess the effects of moisture removal and upgrading methodology on coal stability. Analysis of the dried coals using various strength tests indicated that the reduction in moisture made the lump coal unstable, yielding substantially higher dust and friability indices relative to those of the raw coals.

Anderson, C.M.; Musich, M.A.; Dewall, R.A.; Richter, J.J.

1995-04-01

348

Coal Fly-Ash Utilisation in Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant economic and environmental problems coming from the disposal of coal ash have led to the implementation of various alternative uses, in which combustion residues are considered as value-added products. In Greece, a large quantity of fly-ash is the inevitable by-product of Greek brown coal burning, due to its high ash content. In this paper, the main characteristics of fly-ash

G. Skodras; M. Anagnostakis; E. Hinis; E. Kakaras

349

Circulating fluidised bed co-combustion of coal and biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Circulating fluidised bed combustion (CFBC) is receiving wide research attention in view its potential as an economic and environmentally acceptable technology for burning low-grade coals, biomass and organic wastes, and thereby mixtures of them. Designs of the existing fluidised bed boilers for biomass combustion are mainly based on experience from coal combustion because the mechanism of combustion of biomass in

Pilar Gayan; Juan Adanez; Luis F. de Diego; Francisco Garc??a-Labiano; Andres Cabanillas; Alberto Bahillo; Martti Aho; Kati Veijonen

2004-01-01

350

Coal characteristics and their relationship to combustion techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analyses of coal characteristics versus combustion techniques indicate the following: (1) The single retort stoker will burn all coals from anthracite to lignite but not necessarily with equal success. Characteristics such as size consist, ash fusibility, and degree of caking nature are important and tend to influence the performance. (2) The multiple retort stoker performs best with the eastern

Spicer

1959-01-01

351

Coal in our future energy mix: Examples of emerging technologies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Coal has played an important role in the energy picture in the United States for many years, although significant changes have occurred in the end use. For example, coal production was more than 600 million tons in 1920. Direct burning was the largest use...

C. L. Wagoner R. C. Attig T. E. Dowdy

1992-01-01

352

Construction Labor Assessment for Coal Gasification Plant Murphy Hill, Alabama.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

TVA's planned construction of a coal gasification plant, capable of processing about 20,000 tons of coal per day into a clean-burning fuel, will be a large and complex construction project by any relevant measure. The plant site examined here is in northe...

1981-01-01

353

Mulled coal - a beneficiation coal form for use as a fuel or fuel intermediate. Technical progress report No. 9, April 1, 1992--June 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect

Under the auspices of the DOE and private industry, considerable progress has been made in: preparation of coal-water fuels; combustion of low-ash coal-based fuel forms; processes to provide deeply-cleaned coal. Developments in advanced beneficiation of coal to meet stringent requirements for low ash and low sulfur can be anticipated to further complicate the problem areas associated with this product. This is attributable to the beneficiated coal being procured in very fine particles with high surface areas, modified surface characteristics, reduced particle size distribution range, and high inherent moisture. Experience in the storage, handling, and transport of highly beneficiated coal has been limited. This is understandable, as quantities of such product are only now becoming available in meaningful quantities. During this reporting period the authors have: developed a suite of empirical tests covering water retention, rewetting, mull stability, angle of repose, dusting, etc.; a standardized suite for testing handling properties has been developed; initiated screening studies of alternate mulling agent formulations; mulls from six different coals and coals cleaned at different levels are being prepared for evaluation.

Not Available

1993-01-01

354

Experimental studies on group ignition of a cloud of coal particles. Quarterly progress report No. 7, February 16, 1990-May 15, 1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

While the combustion characteristics of a single coal particle are well known, most practical applications of coal combustion involve a large number of particles burning collectively as a group. A group combustion model has been developed which models the...

K. Annamalai

1990-01-01

355

Removal of pyrite from coal by dry separation methods. Report of investigations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfur dioxide emissions from coal-burning power plants can be ; significantly lowered by removing pyrite from the coal prior to buming. ; Conventional wet washing methods remove-pyrite down to fine size; however, ; because of difficulties associated with wet processing of fine-size coal, dry ; removal methods offer an attractive alternate. The dry pyrite removal process ; reported cleans fine-size

W. T. Abel; M. Zulkoski; G. A. Brady; J. W. Eckerd

1973-01-01

356

Economics\\/reliability trade-offs in materials for various coal conversion and utilization processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The economics and reliability in materials for coal conversion and utilization processes with emphasis on the conventional coal-burning system, pressurized fluidized bed combustion, and open cycle coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics power generation are examined. Corrosion and stress corrosion cracking are the most important problems in conventional systems, which are discussed relative to steam turbines, high pressure feed water heaters, and scrubbers. In

M. K. Guha

1979-01-01

357

Fly ash grout snuffs stubborn coal refuse fire. [Ohio Edison power station  

Microsoft Academic Search

A slurry made of fly ash and water can be used to extinguish a particularly difficult kind of fire--a burning pile of coal refuse. Not an uncommon problem in coal mining areas, such a fire had smoldered for several decades at a coal slag pile behind an Ohio Edison generating plant. The basic procedure involved driving pipes into and through

Ryan

1976-01-01

358

Analysis of fly ash produced from combustion of refuse-derived fuel and coal mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mixtures of coal and refuse-derived fuel (RDF) were burned and the fly ash was collected and analyzed for concentration trends with respect to RDF\\/coal ratio and particle size. RDF contributes more Ca, Mn, Sb, and Pb to the fly ash while coal contributes greater amounts of As, Br, Hf, Ni, Sc, V, and the rare earths. Smaller particles in the

David R. Taylor; Michael A. Tompkins; Sarah E. Kirton; Thad Mauney; David F. S. Natusch; Philip K. Hopke

1982-01-01

359

Crystallization in coal ash slags and its effect on slag strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, low-rank coals from the U.S. were combusted and deposits were formed in a laboratory scale laminar flow tube furnace. This system has been used to evaluate the fundamentals of coal ash deposition relative to utility boilers. In this test a thin ray of pulverized coal is burned in a tube furnace heated to simulate the temperature history

S. A. Benson; L. G. Austin

1988-01-01

360

[Burning mouth syndrome (glossalgia)].  

PubMed

Burning mouth syndrome (glossalgia) is manifested by oral pin and tingling sensations, numbness and even burning and severe pains, more frequently in the tongue. Unpleasant sensations may involve the anterior two thirds of the tongue or be extended to the front part of the hard palate and the mucous membrane of the lower lip. This condition is characterized by "mirror" and "food dominant" symptoms, disordered salivation, dysgeusia, or psychological disorders. The disease shows a chronic course. Its etiology may be multifactorial. There are no universally accepted diagnostic criteria; the diagnosis of glossalgia is made to rule out all other causes. A thorough examination should be conducted to establish a differential diagnosis. Glossalgia occurs primarily in middle-aged and elderly people. Women get sick much more frequently than men of the same age. Glossalgia remains difficult to treat. Continuous symptomatic treatment and follow-up help relieve its symptoms. PMID:24757710

2014-01-01

361

Burns and beauty nails.  

PubMed

A case involving a five-month-old girl brought to the emergency department with burns over her abdomen is described. The child was reported to have spilled two small bottles of beauty nail adhesive on her clothes while her mother was preparing dinner. After undressing the infant, the mother discovered several lesions on the child's abdomen and quickly sought medical attention. Given the unusual circumstances of the presentation, the child was hospitalized for both treatment and supervision. The beauty nail adhesive contained cyanoacrylate. In addition to its well-appreciated adhesive capacity, cyanoacrylate, in the presence of cotton or other tissues, is known to produce an exothermic reaction that may cause burns. Cyanoacrylate-based products, due to their possible adverse effects, should be kept away from children as advised. Odd injuries should always raise concerns about the possibility of inflicted injury. PMID:24421671

Bélanger, Richard E; Marcotte, Marie-Eve; Bégin, François

2013-03-01

362

Burns and beauty nails  

PubMed Central

A case involving a five-month-old girl brought to the emergency department with burns over her abdomen is described. The child was reported to have spilled two small bottles of beauty nail adhesive on her clothes while her mother was preparing dinner. After undressing the infant, the mother discovered several lesions on the child’s abdomen and quickly sought medical attention. Given the unusual circumstances of the presentation, the child was hospitalized for both treatment and supervision. The beauty nail adhesive contained cyanoacrylate. In addition to its well-appreciated adhesive capacity, cyanoacrylate, in the presence of cotton or other tissues, is known to produce an exothermic reaction that may cause burns. Cyanoacrylate-based products, due to their possible adverse effects, should be kept away from children as advised. Odd injuries should always raise concerns about the possibility of inflicted injury.

Belanger, Richard E; Marcotte, Marie-Eve; Begin, Francois

2013-01-01

363

Burning Magnesium (GCMP)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Burning Magnesium: this is a resource in the collection "General Chemistry Multimedia Problems". In this problem we will look at the reactions of two elements with oxygen in air. We will begin by observing the reaction of magnesium metal with oxygen when the metal is heated in air. General Chemistry Multimedia Problems ask students questions about experiments they see presented using videos and images. The questions asked apply concepts from different parts of an introductory course, encouraging students to decompartmentalize the material.

364

Burning of hydroxylammonium nitrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Burning of solid crystalline hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN) and its water solutions is studied in a constant-pressure bomb\\u000a within the pressure range from 0.1 to 36 MPa. Abnormally high pressure exponents are found to be typical of combustion of\\u000a the crystalline substance, its ?9-mole\\/liter water solution, and a solution containing ethanolamine nitrate as a fuel: for\\u000a pressures below ?10 MPa, the

B. N. Kondrikov; V. É. Annikov; V. Yu. Egorshev; L. T. De Luca

2000-01-01

365

Small boiler uses waste coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Burning coal waste in small boilers at low emissions poses considerable problem. While larger boiler suppliers have successfully installed designs in the 40 to 80 MW range for some years, the author has been developing small automated fluid bed boiler plants for 25 years that can be applied in the range of 10,000 to 140,000 lbs\\/hr of steam. Development has

Virr

2009-01-01

366

Modelling fly ash generation for pulverised coal combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

An in-depth characterisation was made of three U.K. bituminous coals and the combustion products from these coals when burned at a power station and on a range of experimental combustion facilities. CCSEM analysis of pulverised coals was performed to provide quantitative data on the size and chemical composition of individual mineral occurrences, and to determine the nature of the mineral-mineral

F. Wigley; J. Williamson

1998-01-01

367

The partitioning of iron during the combustion of pulverized coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The partitioning of iron during pulverized coal combustion was investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Emphasis was on determining how coal variables and combustion conditions influenced the formation of slagging precursors. Experimental work consisted of burning a suite of six well-characterized coals in an aerodynamically well-defined 17 kW downflow combustor. Speciation of iron in collected ash samples was determined by Mössbauer

Lawrence E. Bool; Thomas W. Peterson; Jost O. L. Wendt

1995-01-01

368

Enhanced desulfurizing flotation of coal using sonoelectrochemical method.  

PubMed

Enhanced desulfurizing flotation of low sulfur coal was investigated using sonoelectrochemical method. The supporting electrolyte used in this process was sodium chloride and the additive was anhydrous ethanol. The effects of treatment conditions on desulfurization were studied by a single-factor method. The conditions include anhydrous ethanol concentration, sodium chloride concentration, sonoelectrolytic voltage, sonoelectrolytic temperature, sonoelectrolytic time and coal sample granulometry. The optimal experimental conditions achieved for anhydrous ethanol concentration, sodium chloride concentration, sonoelectrolytic voltage, sonoelectrolytic temperature and sonoelectrolytic time are 1.7 mol L(-1), 5.1×10(-3) mol L(-1), 10 V, 70 °C, 50 min achieved for a -0.18 mm coal sample. Optimal conditions cause a sulfur reduction of up to 69.4%. The raw and treated coals were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy and a chemical method. Pyritic sulfur, organic sulfur, ash as well as moisture are partially removed. The combination of high sulfur reduction, high yield, as well as high ash reduction was obtained in the newly developed method of enhanced flotation by sonoelectrochemistry. Ultrasound irradiation promotes electron transfer efficiency and increases clean coal yield. PMID:23558374

Zhang, Hong-Xi; Hou, Xiao-Yang; Xu, Shi-Xun; Li, Zhi-Long; Yu, Hai-Feng; Shen, Xue-Hua

2013-09-01

369

Process for coal liquefaction by separation of entrained gases from slurry exiting staged dissolvers  

DOEpatents

There is described an improved liquefaction process by which coal is converted to a low ash and low sulfur carbonaceous material that can be used as a fuel in an environmentally acceptable manner without costly gas scrubbing equipment. In the process, coal is slurried with a solvent, passed through a preheater and at least two dissolvers in series in the presence of hydrogen-rich gases at elevated temperatures and pressures. Solids, including mineral ash and unconverted coal macerals are separated from the condensed dissolver effluent. In accordance with the improved process, fresh hydrogen is fed to each dissolver and the entrained gas from each dissolver is separated from the slurry phase and removed from the reactor system before the condensed phase is passed to the next dissolver in the series. In accordance with another process, the feeds to the dissolvers are such that the top of each downstream dissolver is used as a gas-liquid separator.

Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA); Ying, David H. S. (Macungie, PA)

1983-01-01

370

Design of advanced fossil fuel systems (DAFFS): a study of three developing technologies for coal-fired, base-load electric power generation. Pulverized coal-fired power plant with a lime slurry spray dryer/fabric filter flue gas desulfurization system  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this report are to present: the facility description, plant layouts and additional information which define the conceptual engineering design, performance and cost estimates for the pulverized coal fired (PCF) power plant which utilizes high-sulfur coal as fuel, and a spray dryer/fabric filter flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system; an assessment of the impact of using low-sulfur coal on the results of the base case conceptual engineering studies, plant layouts and cost estimates. Following the introductory comments, the results of the study of the PCF power plant with a spray dryer/fabric filter FGD system are summarized in Section 2. In Section 3, the high-sulfur coal case steam cycle heat balance, a performance and operating data summary and an availability assessment are provided. Sections 4 and 5 present the high-sulfur coal case power plant and FGD system descriptive information and costs, respectively. In Section 6, an assessment of the impacts of using low-sulfur coal as fuel is presented. Appendix A is the power plant and FGD system major equipment list. The design and cost estimate classification chart referenced in Section 5 is included as Appendix B. 5 references, 18 figures, 29 tables.

Not Available

1983-06-01

371

Acoustic emission strand burning technique for motor burning rate prediction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An acoustic emission (AE) method is being used to measure the burning rate of solid propellant strands. This method has a precision of 0.5% and excellent burning rate correlation with both subscale and large rocket motors. The AE procedure burns the sample under water and measures the burning rate from the acoustic output. The acoustic signal provides a continuous readout during testing, which allows complete data analysis rather than the start-stop clockwires used by the conventional method. The AE method helps eliminate such problems as inhibiting the sample, pressure increase and temperature rise, during testing.

Christensen, W. N.

1978-01-01

372

Upgraded Coal Interest Group. Technical progress report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

This report presents information from the coal interest group. Topics of discussion at the meeting included the current political views concerning the Department of Energy and programs contained therein. The group met on January 10 and 11, in Nashville, TN. The status of various coal upgrading technologies was also reviewed. Four new technology opportunities were given reviews, Coal/Waste pellets, Custom Coals advanced technology, CSRC sulfur removing bacteria and a Mag-Mill which is a magnetic separation done within the pulverizer. Coal Waste pellets is a technology for making pellets of coal and fiber waste from recycling plants. The incentives are low cost and low sulfur and nitrogen. Lebowitz made a field trip to the pilot unit in Canton Ohio. The Mag Mill takes advantage of the natural concentration of pyrite in the pulverizer recycle stream (due to its hardness). Special magnets are installed in the mill to remove pyrite from this stream. Custom Coals reported on an advanced two step process for removal of organic sulfur from coal. Consolidated Sulfur Reduction Co. reported on a two step microbial desulfurization process.

Weber, W. [Electric Power Research Institute, Chattanooga, TN (United States); Lebowitz, H.E. [Fossil Fuel Sciences, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

1995-08-01

373

Technical considerations relating to the use of coal for power generation in American Samoa  

SciTech Connect

This review focuses on apprasing the option of using coal for power generation in the US territory of American Samoa. The availability of Australian coal into the next century is almost guaranteed by the size of the Australian resource. This coal is about a third the price of fuel oil. One of the chief stumbling blocks to coal imports to American Samoa is lack of deep harbors. Possibilities for harbor expansions are discussed. A second drawback to coal-fired plants is high capital costs for construction relative to the diesel generators used now. A 25 MW/sub e/ plant equipped with spreader-stoker boiler, turbine generator, condensers, and feed system currently costs $18 to $20 million. A steam plant fueled with residual oil would be slightly less (approx. $17 million), but it would use a much more expensive fuel whose availability over the lifetime of the plant is questionable. The small size of the proposed power plant may exempt it from the New Source Performance Standards of the Clean Air Act. The low sulfur content of Australian coals require no or minimal SO/sub 2/ pollution control equipment. Ash can be ocean-dumped with EPA permit, used to reclaim nearshore land, or in a cement industry. Land requirements for dead (60 to 90-day) coal storage are one to two acres. Land availability is tied to site selection. In conclusion, coal use in Tutuila is constrained principally by lack of appropriate port facilities.

Borg, I.Y.

1982-10-01

374

Burning Buried Sunshine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article discusses the results of a mathematical study on how efficiently the energy of the sun is converted into fossil fuels. It points out that plants convert the sun's energy in to carbon, which is the basic constituent of natural gas, oil, and coal. However, the process is inefficient in that only about 9 percent of the carbon in the original plants is converted into the form of coal, and even less remains in oil or gas. As a way of pointing out the unsustainability of fossil fuels as an energy source, the study estimates that fossil fuel deposits accumulated over the last 500 million years have provided an ample and relatively cheap energy source for only the past 250 years.

375

Marginally Stable Nuclear Burning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermonuclear X-ray bursts result from unstable nuclear burning of the material accreted on neutron stars in some low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). Theory predicts that close to the boundary of stability oscillatory burning can occur. This marginally stable regime has so far been identified in only a small number of sources. We present Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations of the bursting, high- inclination LMXB 4U 1323-619 that reveal for the first time in this source the signature of marginally stable burning. The source was observed during two successive RXTE orbits for approximately 5 ksec beginning at 10:14:01 UTC on March 28, 2011. Significant mHz quasi- periodic oscillations (QPO) at a frequency of 8.1 mHz are detected for approximately 1600 s from the beginning of the observation until the occurrence of a thermonuclear X-ray burst at 10:42:22 UTC. The mHz oscillations are not detected following the X-ray burst. The average fractional rms amplitude of the mHz QPOs is 6.4% (3 - 20 keV), and the amplitude increases to about 8% below 10 keV.This phenomenology is strikingly similar to that seen in the LMXB 4U 1636-53. Indeed, the frequency of the mHz QPOs in 4U 1323-619 prior to the X-ray burst is very similar to the transition frequency between mHz QPO and bursts found in 4U 1636-53 by Altamirano et al. (2008). These results strongly suggest that the observed QPOs in 4U 1323-619 are, like those in 4U 1636-53, due to marginally stable nuclear burning. We also explore the dependence of the energy spectrum on the oscillation phase, and we place the present observations within the context of the spectral evolution of the accretion-powered flux from the source.

Strohmayer, Tod E.; Altamirano, D.

2012-01-01

376

Development and evaluation of highly-loaded coal slurries. [Coal-fuel oils, coal-fuel oils-water and coal-water  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the past two and one-half years Atlantic Research has been conducting a research program which involved development and combustion of slurries of coal in oil and in water. In Phase II good candidate slurries chosen from Phase I were burned in an experimental furnace and their combustion performance evaluated. Two slurry fuels were chosen for the combustion study. One

McHale

1980-01-01

377

Clothing burns in Canadian children  

PubMed Central

A Canadian survey of 11 tertiary care pediatric centres with specialized burn facilities revealed that an estimated 37 children up to 9 years of age are admitted annually to such hospitals because of clothing burns. Sleepwear accounts for an estimated 21 such burns per year. Girls were found to suffer the most severe burns and represented eight of the nine children in the series who died. Loose and flowing garments dominated the girls' styles. The results of multiple-regression analysis confirmed that style of clothing (loose and flowing as opposed to snug) was the most significant predictor of burn severity, length of hospital stay, the need for skin grafting and survival. The ignition situation (avoidance of parental supervision at the time of injury) was the only other important predictor. The success of regulatory actions in other countries in reducing the incidence of severe clothing burns is reviewed, and preventive strategies for Canada are explored. ImagesFig. 2

Stanwick, Richard S.

1985-01-01

378

Community integration after burn injuries.  

PubMed

Evaluation of community integration is a meaningful outcome criterion after major burn injury. The Community Integration Questionnaire (CIQ) was administered to 463 individuals with major burn injuries. The CIQ results in Total, Home Integration, Social Integration, and Productivity scores. The purposes of this study were to determine change in CIQ scores over time and what burn injury and demographic factors predict CIQ scores. The CIQ scores did not change significantly from 6 to 12 to 24 months postburn injury. Home integration scores were best predicted by sex and living situation; Social Integration scores by marital status; and Productivity scores by functional outcome, burn severity, age, and preburn work factors. The data demonstrate that individuals with burn injuries have significant difficulties with community integration due to burn and nonburn related factors. CIQ scores did not improve over time but improvement may have occurred before the initial 6-month postburn injury follow-up in this study. PMID:11403244

Esselman, P C; Ptacek, J T; Kowalske, K; Cromes, G F; deLateur, B J; Engrav, L H

2001-01-01

379

Mulled coal - a beneficiation coal form for use as a fuel or fuel intermediate. Technical progress report No. 8, January 1, 1992--March 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

Under the auspices of the DOE and private industry, considerable progress has been made in: preparation of coal-water fuels; combustion of low-ash coal-based fuel forms; processes to provide deeply-cleaned coal. Developments in advanced beneficiation of coal to meet stringent requirements for low ash and low sulfur can be anticipated to further complicate the problem areas associated with this product. This is attributable to the beneficiated coal being procured in very fine particles with high surface areas, modified surface characteristics, reduced particle size distribution range, and high inherent moisture. Experience in the storage, handling, and transport of highly beneficiated coal has been limited. This is understandable, as quantities of such product are only now becoming available in meaningful quantities. During this period the authors have: finished phase II design and testing activities; started the phase II report; applied for and received a contract extension for phase III - extended studies; started phase III activities with evaluation of available beneficiated coal products to be utilized in further formulations and handling applications.

Not Available

1992-06-01

380

Geochemistry of trace elements in coals from the Zhuji Mine, Huainan Coalfield, Anhui, China  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The abundances of nine major elements and thirty-eight trace elements in 520 samples of low sulfur coals from the Zhuji Mine, Huainan Coalfield, Anhui, China, were determined. Samples were mainly collected from 10 minable coal seams of 29 boreholes during exploration. The B content in coals shows that the influence of brackish water decreased toward the top of coal seams; marine transgression and regression occurred frequently in the Lower Shihezi Formation. A wide range of elemental abundances is found. Weighted means of Na, K, Fe, P, Be, B, Co, Ni, Cr, Se, Sb, Ba, and Bi abundances in Zhuji coals are higher, and the remainder elements are either lower or equal to the average values of elements in coals of northern China. Compared to the Chinese coals, the Zhuji coals are higher in Na, K, Be, B, Cr, Co, Se, Sn, Sb, and Bi, but lower in Ti, P, Li, V and Zn. The Zhuji coals are lower only in S, P, V and Zn than average U.S. and world coals. Potassium, Mg, Ca, Mn, Sr, As, Se, Sb and light rare earth elements (LREE) had a tendency to be enriched in thicker coal seams, whereas Fe, Ti, P, V, Co, Ni, Y, Mo, Pb and heavy rare earth elements (HREE) were inclined to concentrate in thinner coal seams. The enrichment of some elements in the Shanxi or Upper Shihezi Formations is related to their depositional environments. The elements are classified into three groups based on their stratigraphic distributions from coal seams 3 to 11-2, and the characteristics of each group are discussed. Lateral distributions of selected elements are also investigated. The correlation coefficients of elemental abundances with ash content show that the elements may be classified into four groups related to modes of occurrence of these elements. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Sun, R.; Liu, G.; Zheng, L.; Chou, C. -L.

2010-01-01

381

Carbon coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Carbon Coal Co. mines one million tons of coal per year from thin seams. In this arid area water requirements for coal washing are met by using treated waste water from Gallup's municipal waste treatment plant for which they pay 5 cents per 1000 gallons.

1981-01-01

382

Burning mouth syndrome.  

PubMed

Burning mouth syndrome is a debilitating medical condition affecting nearly 1.3 million of Americans. Its common features include a burning painful sensation in the mouth, often associated with dysgeusia and xerostomia, despite normal salivation. Classically, symptoms are better in the morning, worsen during the day and typically subside at night. Its etiology is largely multifactorial, and associated medical conditions may include gastrointestinal, urogenital, psychiatric, neurologic and metabolic disorders, as well as drug reactions. BMS has clear predisposition to peri-/post menopausal females. Its pathophysiology has not been fully elucidated and involves peripheral and central neuropathic pathways. Clinical diagnosis relies on careful history taking, physical examination and laboratory analysis. Treatment is often tedious and is aimed at correction of underlying medical conditions, supportive therapy, and behavioral feedback. Drug therapy with alpha lipoic acid, clonazepam, capsaicin, and antidepressants may provide symptom relief. Psychotherapy may be helpful. Short term follow up data is promising, however, long term prognosis with treatment is lacking. BMS remains an important medical condition which often places a recognizable burden on the patient and health care system and requires appropriate recognition and treatment. PMID:23429751

Gurvits, Grigoriy E; Tan, Amy

2013-02-01

383

Burning mouth syndrome  

PubMed Central

Burning mouth syndrome is a debilitating medical condition affecting nearly 1.3 million of Americans. Its common features include a burning painful sensation in the mouth, often associated with dysgeusia and xerostomia, despite normal salivation. Classically, symptoms are better in the morning, worsen during the day and typically subside at night. Its etiology is largely multifactorial, and associated medical conditions may include gastrointestinal, urogenital, psychiatric, neurologic and metabolic disorders, as well as drug reactions. BMS has clear predisposition to peri-/post menopausal females. Its pathophysiology has not been fully elucidated and involves peripheral and central neuropathic pathways. Clinical diagnosis relies on careful history taking, physical examination and laboratory analysis. Treatment is often tedious and is aimed at correction of underlying medical conditions, supportive therapy, and behavioral feedback. Drug therapy with alpha lipoic acid, clonazepam, capsaicin, and antidepressants may provide symptom relief. Psychotherapy may be helpful. Short term follow up data is promising, however, long term prognosis with treatment is lacking. BMS remains an important medical condition which often places a recognizable burden on the patient and health care system and requires appropriate recognition and treatment.

Gurvits, Grigoriy E; Tan, Amy

2013-01-01

384

Burning Fuel Droplet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fuel ignites and burns in the Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE) on STS-94 on July 4 1997, MET:2/05:40 (approximate). The DCE was designed to investigate the fundamental combustion aspects of single, isolated droplets under different pressures and ambient oxygen concentrations for a range of droplet sizes varying between 2 and 5 mm. DCE used various fuels -- in drops ranging from 1 mm (0.04 inches) to 5 mm (0.2 inches) -- and mixtures of oxidizers and inert gases to learn more about the physics of combustion in the simplest burning configuration, a sphere. The experiment elapsed time is shown at the bottom of the composite image. The DCE principal investigator was Forman Williams, University of California, San Diego. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations plarned for the International Space Station. (121KB JPEG, 654 x 977 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) The MPG from which this composite was made is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300169.html.

2003-01-01

385

Sulfate Aerosols from Western Low-Rank Coal-Fired Boilers with FGD: Summary of Tests at Coal Creek, Clay Boswell, Milton R. Young, and San Miguel Stations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The overall purpose of this study was to evaluate the primary sulfate emissions from utility boilers burning pulverized western subbituminous coal or lignite and equipped with flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wet scrubber systems. Of the four sites tested, ...

G. J. Woffinden G. R. Markowski J. L. Downs

1983-01-01

386

Mobilizable RDF/d-RDF burning program  

SciTech Connect

The Mobilizable RDF/d-RDF Burning Program was conceived to promote the utilization of refuse-derived fuels (RDF) as a supplement to existing fossil fuel sources in industrial-sized boilers. The program explores the design, development, and eventual construction of densified-RDF (d-RDF) for use in boiler combustion testing as a supplement to stoker coal or wood wastes. The equipment would be mounted on trailers and assembled and operated at preselected sites throughout the country where approximately 750 tons of RDF would be produced and test burned in a local boiler. The equipment, to include a transportable RDF boiler metering and feed system, would then be moved and operated at two to three test sites annually. The program is intended to encourage the construction of permanent resource recovery facilities by involving local waste handling groups in operating the equipment and producing fuel, and potential local fuel users in testing the fuel in their boilers. The Mobilizable Program was developed from two separate tasks. The first task developed the concept behind the program and defined its operational and organizational structure. The second task, a follow-up to the first, was intended principally to finalize test locations, develop equipment designs and specifications, and formalize a management program. This report summarizes the principal findings of both tasks. It identifies the criteria used to identify test locations, outlines the program's management structure, presents design and performance specifications for both the fuel production equipment and boiler fuel feed systems, and provides a detailed evaluation of the parameters involved in burning RDF in industrial-sized boilers. Final conclusions and recommendations identify problem areas encountered in the program, and discuss possible future directions for such a program.

Niemann, K.; Campbell, J.

1982-03-01

387

Controller for pulverized coal burner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Burning pulverized coal in power boilers causes considerable emission of atmospheric pollution. In order to decrease it the combustion process itself has been modified, however at cost of side effects like: increased level of unburned coal particles in the ashes. There are tens of burners in a single power boiler and emission level measurements are made in flue gas duct, so the control based on such averaged and heavily delayed values often results ineffective. The neural controller of the pulverized coal burner attempts to resolve these problems. The clue is utilization of fiber-optic system for monitoring of chosen zone of flame developed in Department of Electronics of Technical University of Lublin. The article contains description of controlled system and optical fiber measurement system, an idea of the controller as well as some results obtained for experimental burner.

Wojcik, Waldemar; Golec, Tomasz; Kotyra, Andrzej; Smolarz, Andrzej; Komada, Pawel; Kalita, Mariusz

2004-09-01

388

Combat Burn Life Support: A Military Burn-Education Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Advanced Burn Life Support Course has been used to train military physicians and nurses for more than 16 years. Although% it useful for teaching the fundamentals of burn care, the course is designed for a civilian audience, covers only the first 24 ho...

B. G. Hutton D. J. Barillo G. E. Gueller L. C. Canclo P. J. Mittelsteadt

2005-01-01

389

Global Burned Area and Biomass Burning Emissions from Small Fires  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In several biomes, including croplands, wooded savannas, and tropical forests, many small fires occur each year that are well below the detection limit of the current generation of global burned area products derived from moderate resolution surface reflectance imagery. Although these fires often generate thermal anomalies that can be detected by satellites, their contributions to burned area and carbon fluxes have not been systematically quantified across different regions and continents. Here we developed a preliminary method for combining 1-km thermal anomalies (active fires) and 500 m burned area observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to estimate the influence of these fires. In our approach, we calculated the number of active fires inside and outside of 500 m burn scars derived from reflectance data. We estimated small fire burned area by computing the difference normalized burn ratio (dNBR) for these two sets of active fires and then combining these observations with other information. In a final step, we used the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3) biogeochemical model to estimate the impact of these fires on biomass burning emissions. We found that the spatial distribution of active fires and 500 m burned areas were in close agreement in ecosystems that experience large fires, including savannas across southern Africa and Australia and boreal forests in North America and Eurasia. In other areas, however, we observed many active fires outside of burned area perimeters. Fire radiative power was lower for this class of active fires. Small fires substantially increased burned area in several continental-scale regions, including Equatorial Asia (157%), Central America (143%), and Southeast Asia (90%) during 2001-2010. Globally, accounting for small fires increased total burned area by approximately by 35%, from 345 Mha/yr to 464 Mha/yr. A formal quantification of uncertainties was not possible, but sensitivity analyses of key model parameters caused estimates of global burned area increases from small fires to vary between 24% and 54%. Biomass burning carbon emissions increased by 35% at a global scale when small fires were included in GFED3, from 1.9 Pg C/yr to 2.5 Pg C/yr. The contribution of tropical forest fires to year-to-year variability in carbon fluxes increased because small fires amplified emissions from Central America, South America and Southeast Asia-regions where drought stress and burned area varied considerably from year to year in response to El Nino-Southern Oscillation and other climate modes.

Randerson, J. T.; Chen, Y.; vanderWerf, G. R.; Rogers, B. M.; Morton, D. C.

2012-01-01

390

The management of white phosphorus burns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus burns are a rarely encountered chemical burn, typically occurring in battle, industrial accidents, or from fireworks. Death may result even with minimal burn areas. Early recognition of affected areas and adequate resuscitation is crucial. Amongst our 2765 admissions between 1984 and 1998, 326 patients had chemical burns. Seven admissions were the result of phosphorus burns. Our treatment protocol comprises

Trong-Duo Chou; Tz-Win Lee; Shao-Liang Chen; Yeou-Ming Tung; Nai-Tz Dai; Shyi-Gen Chen; Chiu-Hong Lee; Tim-Mo Chen; Hsian-Jenn Wang

2001-01-01

391

Oral Rehydration Therapy in Burn Patients  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Burn Any Degree Involving 20-29 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 30-39 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 40-49 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 50-59 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 60-65 Percent of Body Surface

2014-04-24

392

The magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility  

SciTech Connect

In this Quarterly Technical Progress Report, UTSI reports on a continuing proof-of-concept (POC) test program for the steam bottoming plant of an MHD/steam combined cycle power plant. In this report, the first POC test on western, low sulfur coal is reported. Analyses of tube materials from the previously completed 2004 hour POC tests on eastern, high sulfur coal are also included. The first test results with the wet electrostatic precipitator (ESP), which was installed to replace the wet venturi scrubber are reported. Detailed results of testing ceramic tubes and test components under a variety of high temperature conditions, for application to a high temperature air heater are included. Progress in application of advanced diagnostics equipment by both UTSI and Mississippi State University (MSU) is summarized. In addition, the laboratory effort to measure the transmissivity and absorption coefficient of the gas in the temperature range of condensing slag and potassium compounds is described. The current status of the CFFF environmental program is summarized.

Not Available

1993-02-01

393

Burn Teams and Burn Centers: The Importance of a Comprehensive Team Approach to Burn Care  

PubMed Central

Synopsis Advances in burn care have been colossal, but while extra work is needed, it is clear that the organized effort of burn teams can continue making improvements in survival rates and quality of life possible for patients. Burn patients are unique, representing the most severe model of trauma,33 and hence this necessitates treatment in the best facilities available for that endeavor. Burn centers have developed to meet these intricate needs but can only function productively and most efficiently through well organized, multifaceted, patient-centered teams in areas of clinical care and research.

Al-Mousawi, Ahmed M.; Mecott-Rivera, Gabriel A.; Jeschke, Marc G.; Herndon, David N.

2009-01-01

394

Research timetables for acid rain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several bills have been introduced to Congress which would require that emissions of sulfur-bearing gases from power plants and other coal burning facilities be reduced. The principal options available at present are switching to low-sulfur coal or installing scrubbers which remove potentially harmful gases from exhaust streams. Both options would significantly increase the cost of generating electricity. What is not

Swisher

1984-01-01

395

Aztreonam pharmacokinetics in burn patients.  

PubMed Central

The pharmacokinetics of aztreonam in eight adult patients with severe burn injuries (total body surface area burn, 49% +/- 21% [mean +/- standard deviation]) were studied. The time of initiation of study following burn injury was 7.0 +/- 1.4 days. Four patients at first dose and at steady state were studied. Aztreonam concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, and a two-compartment model was used to fit the data. No significant differences in any pharmacokinetic parameters between first dose and steady state were observed. Volume of distribution of the central compartment after first dose (0.14 liters/kg) and volume of distribution at steady state (0.31 liters/kg) were approximately 30% higher than those reported for other patient populations. Total drug clearance and renal drug clearance when normalized to creatinine clearance (CLCR) were similar to those previously reported for other critically ill patients. CLCR was strongly correlated with renal drug clearance (r = 0.94) and total drug clearance (r = 0.95). The extent and degree of burn (percent second or third degree burn) were poorly correlated with all pharmacokinetic parameters with the exception of the volume of distribution at steady state, which was correlated with both total body surface area burn (r = 0.95) and percent second degree burn (r = 0.83). Aztreonam pharmacokinetics are altered as a result of thermal injury; however, CLCR can be used to assess the clearance of aztreonam in burn patients.

Friedrich, L V; White, R L; Kays, M B; Brundage, D M; Yarbrough, D

1991-01-01

396

Treatment of hot tar burns  

PubMed Central

Hot tar burns, although rare, usually occur in workers in the paving and roofing industries. When tar is heated to high temperatures it can cause deep burns, and its removal often causes further damage. However, the use of one of the polysorbates (surface-active agents) makes removal easy and painless. ImagesFIG. 1

Bose, B.; Tredget, T.

1982-01-01

397

Smoke hazards from burning plastics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smoke hazards to people and property from unwanted fires have attracted increasing attention. The use of plastics in construction, furnishings, clothing, and recreational and transportation equipment has increased. Actual fire experiences indicate that organic materials, whether natural or man-made, will burn; those with large surface areas such as films, fabrics, or foams will ignite readily and burn rapidly. Addition of

J. R. Gaskill

1974-01-01

398

Biomass Burning over South America  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Biomass burning is the burning of living and dead vegetation. It includes the human-initiated burning of vegetation for land clearing and land-use change as well as natural, lightning-induced fires. Scientists estimate that humans are responsible for about 90% of biomass burning with only a small percentage of natural fires contributing to the total amount of vegetation burned. Burning vegetation releases large amounts of particulates (solid carbon combustion particles) and gases, including greenhouse gases that help warm the Earth. Studies suggest that biomass burning has increased on a global scale over the last 100 years, and computer calculations indicate that a hotter Earth resulting from global warming will lead to more frequent and larger fires. Biomass burning particulates impact climate and can also affect human health when they are inhaled, causing respiratory problems. Here are three images of South America on October 7, 2004. The first image is shows clouds and fires on that day. The second image is clouds and Nitrous Dioxide (NO2) concentations in the stratosphere. The last image overlays the fires on the NO2 data.

Perkins, Lori; Shirah, Greg; Hilsenrath, Ernest; Schoeberl, Mark; Veefkind, Pepijn

2004-12-09

399

Coal-gasification/MHD/steam-turbine combined-cycle (GMS) power generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advantages of a clean fuel system are presented and include the elimination of mineral matter or slag from all components other than the coal gasifier and gas cleanup system; reduced wear and corrosion on components; and increased seed recovery resulting from reduced exposure of seed to mineral matter or slag. Efficiencies in some specific GMS power plants were shown to be higher than for a comparably sized coal burning MHD power plant. The use of energy from the MHD exhaust gas to gasify coal (rather than the typical approach of burning part of the coal) results in these higher efficiencies.

Lytle, J. M.; Marchant, D. D.

1980-11-01

400

Using the CQIM to assess the benefits of gas cofiring. Topical report, December 1990. [Coal Quality Impact Model  

SciTech Connect

The capability of the Coal Quality Impact Model (CQIM), which presently models the performance and operating costs of power plants that burn only coal, was evaluated to consider gas cofiring. The report includes an explanation of how the CQIM evaluates coal quality impacts and the identification of potential enhancements to the model which address issues specific to cofiring.

Anderson, A.A.; Mitas, D.W.; Stallard, G.S.; McDaniel, D.L.

1990-12-01

401

ANALYSIS OF FLY ASH PRODUCED FROM COMBUSTION OF REFUSE-DERIVED FUEL AND COAL MIXTURES (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

Mixtures of coal and refuse-derived fuel (RDF) were burned and the fly ash was collected and analyzed for concentration trends with respect to RDF/coal ratio and particle size. RDF contributes more Cs, Mn, Sb, and Pb to the fly ash while coal contributes greater amounts of As, Br...

402

Blend of magnesium oxide and copper oxychloride as calcium oxide deposit inhibitors in coal fired lime kilns  

SciTech Connect

The instant invention is directed to a method of inhibiting and dispersing calcium oxide deposit formation in coal-fired lime kilns, comprising burning the coal in the presence of from 1 to 2 pounds/ton of coal of a blend of 80 to 95%, by weight, magnesium oxide and 5 to 20%, by weight, copper oxychloride.

Sinha, R.K.

1985-03-05

403

The year in burns 2012.  

PubMed

Approximately 2457 research articles were published with burns in the title, abstract, and/or keyword in 2012. This number continues to rise through the years; this article reviews those selected by the Editor of one of the major journals in the field (Burns) and his colleague that are most likely to have the greatest likelihood of affecting burn care treatment and understanding. As done previously, articles were found and divided into these topic areas: epidemiology of injury and burn prevention, wound and scar characterization, acute care and critical care, inhalation injury, infection, psychological considerations, pain and itching management, rehabilitation, long-term outcomes, and burn reconstruction. Each selected article is mentioned briefly with comment from the authors; readers are referred to the full papers for further details. PMID:24252249

Wolf, Steven E; Arnoldo, Brett D

2013-12-01

404

Rocky Mountain 1 Underground Coal Gasification Project  

SciTech Connect

The Rocky Mountain 1 Underground Coal Gasification Test or Burn was conducted from approximately mid-November, 1987 through February, 1988. After the burn the project began proceeding with the following overall tasks: venting, flushing and cooling of the cavities; subsurface or groundwater cleanup; post-burn coring and drilling; groundwater monitoring, and site restoration/reclamation. By the beginning of 1991 field activities associated with venting, flushing and cooling of the cavities and post-burn coring and drilling had been completed. However, data analysis continued including the University of North Dakota analyzing drilling and coring data, and the US Department of Energy (DOE)/EG G developing a chronological listing of project events.

Not Available

1992-03-01

405

Plasma-supported coal combustion in boiler furnace  

SciTech Connect

Plasma activation promotes more effective and environmentally friendly low-rank coal combustion. This paper presents Plasma Fuel Systems that increase the burning efficiency of coal. The systems were tested for fuel oil-free start-up of coal-fired boilers and stabilization of a pulverized-coal flame in power-generating boilers equipped with different types of burners, and burning all types of power-generating coal. Also, numerical modeling results of a plasma thermochemical preparation of pulverized coal for ignition and combustion in the furnace of a utility boiler are discussed in this paper. Two kinetic mathematical models were used in the investigation of the processes of air/fuel mixture plasma activation: ignition and combustion. A I-D kinetic code PLASMA-COAL calculates the concentrations of species, temperatures, and velocities of the treated coal/air mixture in a burner incorporating a plasma source. The I-D simulation results are initial data for the 3-D-modeling of power boiler furnaces by the code FLOREAN. A comprehensive image of plasma-activated coal combustion processes in a furnace of a pulverized-coal-fired boiler was obtained. The advantages of the plasma technology are clearly demonstrated.

Askarova, A.S.; Karpenko, E.I.; Lavrishcheva, Y.I.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B. [Kazakh National University, Alma Ata (Kazakhstan). Dept. of Physics

2007-12-15

406

Oxy-combustion of pulverized coal : modeling of char combustion kinetics.  

SciTech Connect

In this study, char combustion of pulverized coal under oxy-fuel combustion conditions was investigated on the basis of experimentally observed temperature-size characteristics and corresponding predictions of numerical simulations. Using a combustion-driven entrained flow reactor equipped with an optical particle-sizing pyrometer, combustion characteristics (particle temperatures and apparent size) of pulverized coal char particles was determined for combustion in both reduced oxygen and oxygen-enriched atmospheres with either a N{sub 2} or CO{sub 2} bath gas. The two coals investigated were a low-sulfur, high-volatile bituminous coal (Utah Skyline) and a low-sulfur subbituminous coal (North Antelope), both size-classified to 75-106 {micro}m. A particular focus of this study lies in the analysis of the predictive modeling capabilities of simplified models that capture char combustion characteristics but exhibit the lowest possible complexity and thus facilitate incorporation in existing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation codes. For this purpose, char consumption characteristics were calculated for char particles in the size range 10-200 {micro}m using (1) single-film, apparent kinetic models with a chemically 'frozen' boundary layer, and (2) a reacting porous particle model with detailed gas-phase kinetics and three separate heterogeneous reaction mechanisms of char-oxidation and gasification. A comparison of model results with experimental data suggests that single-film models with reaction orders between 0.5 and 1 with respect to the surface oxygen partial pressure may be capable of adequately predicting the temperature-size characteristics of char consumption, provided heterogeneous (steam and CO{sub 2}) gasification reactions are accounted for.

Shaddix, Christopher R.; Haynes, Brian S. (University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia); Geier, Manfred

2010-09-01

407

Oxy-combustion of pulverized coal : modeling of char-combustion kinetics.  

SciTech Connect

In this study, char combustion of pulverized coal under oxy-fuel combustion conditions was investigated on the basis of experimentally observed temperature-size characteristics and corresponding predictions of numerical simulations. Using a combustion-driven entrained flow reactor equipped with an optical particle-sizing pyrometer, combustion characteristics (particle temperatures and apparent size) of pulverized coal char particles was determined for combustion in both reduced oxygen and oxygen-enriched atmospheres with either a N{sub 2} or CO{sub 2} bath gas. The two coals investigated were a low-sulfur, high-volatile bituminous coal (Utah Skyline) and a low-sulfur subbituminous coal (North Antelope), both size-classified to 75-106 {micro}m. A particular focus of this study lies in the analysis of the predictive modeling capabilities of simplified models that capture char combustion characteristics but exhibit the lowest possible complexity and thus facilitate incorporation in existing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation codes. For this purpose, char consumption characteristics were calculated for char particles in the size range 10-200 {micro}m using (1) single-film, apparent kinetic models with a chemically 'frozen' boundary layer, and (2) a reacting porous particle model with detailed gas-phase kinetics and three separate heterogeneous reaction mechanisms of char-oxidation and gasification. A comparison of model results with experimental data suggests that single-film models with reaction orders between 0.5 and 1 with respect to the surface oxygen partial pressure may be capable of adequately predicting the temperature-size characteristics of char consumption, provided heterogeneous (steam and CO{sub 2}) gasification reactions are accounted for.

Shaddix, Christopher R.; Haynes, Brian S. (University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia); Geier, Manfred

2010-09-01

408

Mulled coal - a beneficiation coal form for use as a fuel or fuel intermediate. Technical progress report No. 10, July 1, 1992--September 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect

Under the auspices of the DOE and private industry, considerable progress has been made in: preparation of coal-water fuels; combustion of low-ash coal-based fuel forms; processes to provide deeply-cleaned coal. Developments in advanced beneficiation of coal to meet stringent requirements for low ash and low sulfur can be anticipated to further complicate the problem areas associated with this product. This is attributable to the beneficiated coal being procured in very fine particles with high surface areas, modified surface characteristics, reduced particle size distribution range, and high inherent moisture. Experience in the storage, handling, and transport of highly beneficiated coal has been limited. This is understandable, as quantities of such product are only now becoming available in meaningful quantities. During this reporting period the authors have: begun weathering studies on neat mull and source fuel; completed design of integrated continuous process circuit for mull formulations; extended aging studies on various mull formulations; started cost estimates on 100 tph mulling circuit.

Not Available

1993-01-01

409

Petrographic characterization of Kentucky coals. Final report. Part IV. A petrographic and chemical model for the evolution of the Tradewater Formation coals in Western Kentucky  

SciTech Connect

A depositional model for the coals of the Tradewater Formation and associated rock units was constructed as a predictive device for the occurrence of economically important low sulfur coal. Twenty-one cores were examined and ninety-eight coal samples were analyzed for maceral, ash, and sulfur contents. These data were then analyzed to determine regional variation as well as vertical variation in single coal columns. Core data indicate that the majority of the Tradewater rocks consist of irregularly distributed, coarsening-upward, fine-grained detrital material which was deposited in shallow bodies of water. Minor fossiliferous shales and limestones suggest a marine influence. Less common coarse-grained, fining-upward sequences appear to be deposits of meandering channels. Like the detrital rocks, the coal seams are also irregularly distributed and exhibit variable petrographic and chemical properties reflecting changes in the Eh and pH of the coal swamp waters as well as detrital influx into the swamps. These swamps were relatively limited in extent and probably occupied the upper reaches of the tidal zone. The lack of significant stratigraphic and geographic trends in the regional data suggests that this mode of deposition was widespread and continued for a long period of time. 42 references, 19 figures, 9 tables.

Graese, A.M.; Hower, J.C.; Ferm, J.C.

1984-01-01

410

INFLUENCE OF FUEL COMPOSITION ON NITRIC OXIDE FORMATION IN MASS-BURNING STOKERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The article gives results of testing seven coals of varying rank in an experimental mass-burning simulation to assess general nitric oxide (NO) emission characteristics. The fuels were compared to ascertain a relationship between NO emissions, fuel nitrogen content, nitrogen vola...

411

High-Temperature Corrosion Resistance of Basic Refractories to Coal and Lignite Ash Slags.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bureau of Mines conducted research to determine the resistance of basic refractories to corrosion by ash slags that would result from the burning of coal and lignite in metallurgical operations. Basic refractories are of economic interest because they...

J. E. Pahlman C. F. Anderson S. E. Khalafalla

1982-01-01

412

Coal--Oil Slurry Combustion Demonstration, Phase I. Monthly Report, September 1977.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Engineering and design activities to date have centered around completion of procurement for installation of the air atomized Forney Verloop burner system into the existing boiler which was designed to burn pulverized coal but converted to residual oil in...

R. M. Dunn

1977-01-01

413

Model Study of Combined Forced and Free Convection in Underground Coal Conversion of Thin Coal Seams.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An experimental test model, which is dynamically similar to an actual UCC (Under ground Coal Conversion) system, has been used to determine fluid flow patterns and local heat transfer that occur in the UCC burn cavity. This study should provide in-sight i...

J. B. Riggs

1983-01-01

414

Model Study of Combined Forced and Free Convection in Underground Coal Conversion of Thin Coal Seams.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An experimental test model, which is dynamically similar to an actual UCC (Underground Coal Conversion) system, has been used to determine fluid flow patterns and local heat transfer that occur in the UCC burn cavity. This study was designed to provide in...

J. B. Riggs

1984-01-01

415

Ground-Water Quality in Unmined Areas and Near Reclaimed Surface Coal Mines in the Northern and Central Appalachian Coal Regions, Pennsylvania and West Virginia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Findings are presented from investigations during 1996-1998 by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Ground-water quality in 58 wells downgradient of reclaimed surface coal mines is compared to ground-water quality from 25 wells in unmined areas (background concentrations) in the bituminous coal fields of the northern Appalachian coal region (high-sulfur coal region) in Pennsylvania, Maryland, and West Virginia and the central Appalachian coal region (low-sulfur coal region) in West Virginia. Ground water in the mined high-sulfur coal region has significantly greater median concentrations of sulfate, hardness, calcium, and specific conductance compared to the unmined high-sulfur coal region and to both mined and unmined areas in the low-sulfur coal region. Ground water in mined areas had median values of mine-drainage constituents (sulfate, iron, manganese, aluminum, hardness, calcium, magnesium, turbidity, and specific conductance) that were significantly greater than medians for wells in unmined areas. Mine-drainage constituents include cations such as calcium and magnesium that become elevated compared to levels in unmined areas because of exposure of acidic mine drainage to calcareous materials. The transport of pyrite-oxidation products from the mined site and subsequent neutralization reactions by calcareous materials at the mine site or along the flow path are likely processes that result in greater concentrations of mine-drainage constituents in mined areas compared to unmined areas. Mine-drainage constituents generally exceeded unmined-area background concentrations within about 500 feet of mined sites but were at or below background levels in wells more than 1,000 feet downgradient of mined sites. Concentrations of sulfate, hardness, and total dissolved solids were greatest at well depths of 50 to 150 feet but generally were less than background concentrations in wells deeper than 150 feet. Concentrations of iron, manganese, and aluminum exceeded background concentrations in many wells less than 150 feet deep. In mined areas, median ground-water ages are nearly as old in hill locations as in valley locations. Older ground-water age correlates with increased distance from mined areas. The lack of significant correlation among mine-drainage-constituent concentrations, ground-water age, distance from mined areas, and topographic locations may be the result of factors such as (1) mixing of ground-water ages in wells open to fractures with variable depths, lengths, and interconnections; (2) disturbance of rock from blasting; and (3) variations in slope and terrain relief in the study area.

McAuley, Steven D.; Kozar, Mark D.

2006-01-01

416

Extraction, separation, and analysis of high sulfur coal  

SciTech Connect

The work described in this report studies the removal of sulfur by oxidative interaction of various cupric salts with coal and also considers the possibility of removing organic sulfur by the selective interaction of supercritical ethanol with the organic coal matrix. Either one of these methods could potentially be used to pretreat coals before burning. The primary purpose of these studies is to ascertain the nature of the chemical reactions occurring, the chemical composition of the resultant products, and information on possible reaction mechanisms. This information should allow prediction of reasonable reaction conditions for the removal of organosulfur compound from coal.

Olesik, S.V.; Pekay, L.A.; Larkins, W. Jr. (comps.)

1992-05-31

417

Extraction, separation, and analysis of high sulfur coal. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The work described in this report studies the removal of sulfur by oxidative interaction of various cupric salts with coal and also considers the possibility of removing organic sulfur by the selective interaction of supercritical ethanol with the organic coal matrix. Either one of these methods could potentially be used to pretreat coals before burning. The primary purpose of these studies is to ascertain the nature of the chemical reactions occurring, the chemical composition of the resultant products, and information on possible reaction mechanisms. This information should allow prediction of reasonable reaction conditions for the removal of organosulfur compound from coal.

Olesik, S.V.; Pekay, L.A.; Larkins, W. Jr. [comps.

1992-05-31

418

Coal gasification pilot plant support studies. Subtask 1-1. Effects of process variables on the initial gasification reactions of noncaking coals. Topical report, April 1978-April 1980  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this investigation was to develop the necessary fundamental kinetic information needed to predict the yields of devolatilization products during the initial stages of hydrogasification of noncaking coals. 56 devolatilization tests were conducted with three different subbituminous coals: Colorado subbituminous B (CSB), Wyodak (W-38), and Adaville (W-16). All three are low-sulfur, Western coals that were chosen for this study mainly because they are abundant in reserve and have a low O/C atomic ratio. The devolatilization tests were conducted over a temperature range of 800/sup 0/ to 1400/sup 0/F at 35 atmospheres in either helium or hydrogen. Both isothermal and nonisothermal experiments were conducted. The limiting yield parameters of these coals were obtained from the experimental results using a previously developed procedure. The previously developed kinetic model described the devolatilization behavior of the three coals satisfactorily with respect to CO, CO/sub 2/, CH/sub 4/, C/sub 2/H/sub 6/, and H/sub 2/O yields. The model was unable to predict the yield of heavy hydrocarbons. Correlations were developed for determining the limiting yields of the oxygenated species, CO, CO/sub 2/, and H/sub 2/O, from all coals using only the atomic O/C ratio of the raw coal. In general, the kinetic model works well for subbituminous and lignite coals. However, additional work with higher ranked coals will expand the applicability of the model. Also, much effort is needed to improve the prediction of heavy hydrocarbons and oils. Studies aimed at determining the origin of the devolatilization products from the raw coal will be a great help in understanding the mechanism of devolatilization and will doubtedly yield valuable kinetic information.

Not Available

1980-12-01

419

Densified refuse-derived fuel (d-RDF) burn at Marcy Psychiatric Center. Final report Mar 80-Nov 80  

SciTech Connect

A densified refuse derived fuel (d-RDF) product was fired for approximately 50 hours as a supplemental fuel in a coal fired spreader stoker boiler at the Marcy Psychiatric Center in Marcy, New York. Observations were made and photographs were taken of plant operation during all phases of the test project. Opacity and particulate emission tests were performed while firing d-RDF in a ratio of 1:2 with coal (by volume) and while firing 100 percent coal at high and low loads to provide comparisons with State Department of Environmental Conservation emission standards. No significant disadvantages over coal were found in burning d-RDF/coal in ratios up to 2:1 (43 percent heat input by d-RDF). Fuel handling, boiler operation, boiler efficiency, particulate emissions and opacity were similar for the coal and d-RDF/coal mixtures.

Galson, E.

1980-11-01

420

Rehabilitation of the burn patient  

PubMed Central

Rehabilitation is an essential and integral part of burn treatment. It is not something which takes place following healing of skin grafts or discharge from hospital; instead it is a process that starts from day one of admission and continues for months and sometimes years after the initial event. Burns rehabilitation is not something which is completed by one or two individuals but should be a team approach, incorporating the patient and when appropriate, their family. The term ‘Burns Rehabilitation’ incorporates the physical, psychological and social aspects of care and it is common for burn patients to experience difficulties in one or all of these areas following a burn injury. Burns can leave a patient with severely debilitating and deforming contractures, which can lead to significant disability when left untreated. The aims of burn rehabilitation are to minimise the adverse effects caused by the injury in terms of maintaining range of movement, minimising contracture development and impact of scarring, maximising functional ability, maximising psychological wellbeing, maximising social integration

Procter, Fiona

2010-01-01

421

Assault by burning in Jordan  

PubMed Central

Summary Criminal attacks by burns on women in Jordan are highlighted in this retrospective study carried out of all proved cases of criminal burns in female patients treated at the burn unit of the Royal Rehabilitation Center in Jordan between January 2005 and June 2012. Thirteen patients were included in our study, out of a total of 550 patients admitted, all in the age range of 16-45 yr. Of these 13 women, six were burned by acid throwing, five by hot water, and two by direct flames from fuel thrown over them. Burn percentage ranged from 15 to 75% of the total body surface area, with involvement in most cases of the face and upper trunk. The mean hospital stay was 33 days and the mortality rate was 3/13, i.e. 23%. Violence against women exists in Jordanian society, yet burning assaults are rare. Of these, burning by throwing acid is the most common and most disfiguring act, with a higher mortality rate in domestic environments.

Haddadin, W.

2012-01-01

422

Rheology of coal-water slurries prepared by the high-pressure roll mill grinding of coal. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The preparation of coal water slurries to replace fuel oil for direct combustion has become an important field in modem coal technology. The U.S. Department of Energy has planned or has underway several demonstration projects to burn coal-water slurries to replace fuel oil is attractive not only because there is an assured domestic supply of coal, but also on various technoeconomic grounds. Coal-water slurries combine the handling flexibility of fuel oil in power plants and various other industrial applications. This report discusses the rheology of coal-water slurries and the correlation to the coal preparation by grinding with a choke-fed high pressure roll mill. Performance of the roll mills and energy consumption are described.

Fuerstenau, D.W.; De, A.

1996-08-01

423

Coal Field Fire Fighting - Practiced methods, strategies and tactics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subsurface coal fires destroy millions of tons of coal each year, have an immense impact to the ecological surrounding and threaten further coal reservoirs. Due to enormous dimensions a coal seam fire can develop, high operational expenses are needed. As part of the Sino-German coal fire research initiative "Innovative technologies for exploration, extinction and monitoring of coal fires in Northern China" the research team of University of Wuppertal (BUW) focuses on fire extinction strategies and tactics as well as aspects of environmental and health safety. Besides the choice and the correct application of different extinction techniques further factors are essential for the successful extinction. Appropriate tactics, well trained and protected personnel and the choice of the best fitting extinguishing agents are necessary for the successful extinction of a coal seam fire. The chosen strategy for an extinction campaign is generally determined by urgency and importance. It may depend on national objectives and concepts of coal conservation, on environmental protection (e.g. commitment to green house gases (GHG) reductions), national funding and resources for fire fighting (e.g. personnel, infrastructure, vehicles, water pipelines); and computer-aided models and simulations of coal fire development from self ignition to extinction. In order to devise an optimal fire fighting strategy, "aims of protection" have to be defined in a first step. These may be: - directly affected coal seams; - neighboring seams and coalfields; - GHG emissions into the atmosphere; - Returns on investments (costs of fire fighting compared to value of saved coal). In a further step, it is imperative to decide whether the budget shall define the results, or the results define the budget; i.e. whether there are fixed objectives for the mission that will dictate the overall budget, or whether the limited resources available shall set the scope within which the best possible results shall be achieved. For an effective and efficient fire fighting optimal tactics are requiered and can be divided into four fundamental tactics to control fire hazards: - Defense (digging away the coal, so that the coal can not begin to burn; or forming a barrier, so that the fire can not reach the not burning coal), - Rescue the coal (coal mining of a not burning seam), - Attack (active and direct cooling of burning seam), - Retreat (only monitoring till self-extinction of a burning seam). The last one is used when a fire exceeds the organizational and/or technical scope of a mission. In other words, "to control a coal fire" does not automatically and in all situations mean "to extinguish a coal fire". Best-practice tactics or a combination of them can be selected for control of a particular coal fire. For the extinguishing works different extinguishing agents are available. They can be applied by different application techniques and varying distinctive operating expenses. One application method may be the drilling of boreholes from the surface or covering the surface with low permeability soils. The mainly used extinction agents for coal field fire are as followed: Water (with or without additives), Slurry, Foaming mud/slurry, Inert gases, Dry chemicals and materials and Cryogenic agents. Because of its tremendous dimension and its complexity the worldwide challenge of coal fires is absolutely unique - it can only be solved with functional application methods, best fitting strategies and tactics, organisation and research as well as the dedication of the involved fire fighters, who work under extreme individual risks on the burning coal fields.

Wündrich, T.; Korten, A. A.; Barth, U. H.

2009-04-01

424

Efficacy of moist exposed burn ointment on burns.  

PubMed

In this study, we sought to test the medical efficacy of a Chinese medical herb product, moist exposed burn ointment (MEBO), on wound healing rate and infection control in burn injury. Standardized deep burn wounds were created on the back skin of rats by applying a hot brass bar for 12 to 18 seconds. MEBO was applied four times per day and compared with petroleum jelly, silver sulfadiazine, and dry exposure therapy. Under such a controlled setting, although MEBO had a better wound healing rate than the dry exposure treatment, it did not show the medical advantage statistically, as has been claimed, over the other two treatments (P > .05), either in terms of wound healing rate or bacterial control. We conclude that the MEBO is not suitable for deep burn wound treatment, particularly when infection is a concern. PMID:15879746

Zhang, Hong-Qi; Yip, Tsui-Pik; Hui, Irene; Lai, Vincy; Wong, Ann

2005-01-01

425

Catalyst deactivation in direct coal liquefaction: a comparative study of Wilsonville runs. [Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction (ITSL) mode; Doubly Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction (DITSL) mode; Reconfigured Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction (RITSL) mode  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catalyst samples from Wilsonville runs 242, 246 and 247 have been extensively characterized and tested to determine the effects of different coals and process configurations on the causes and rates of catalyst deactivation. The two coals used in these runs were Illinois No. 6 Burning Star bituminous coal and Wyodak Clovis Point subbituminous coal. Process configurations used in these runs

F. V. Stohl; H. P. Stephens

1985-01-01

426

[Compression treatment after burns].  

PubMed

After healing up of the injury wounds, hypertrophic scars and keloids often develop, which are histologically characterised by irregulary arranged collagen fibre bundles and a strong vascularisation. Approximately 20 years ago, the so-called compression clothing, as for example suits, masks, gloves, stockings, were first employed for the prevention and therapy of these complications. These means of compressions are crosswise and lengthwise elastical and consist predominantly of elasthan and viscose. The pressure acting on the skin lies between 25 and 32 mmHg: thereby the values are above the average capillary pressure of 20 mmHg. The efficiency of the compression clothing after a burn injury is well proved by several studies, and one knows today that, for example in the case of children as from the 5th year of life, the results are better than in the case of adults from the 35th year of life. The compression effected at least during a period of 15 months slows down the blood circulation, reduces the number of capillaries and makes the scar become more pale. Furthermore, the orthologically parallel arranged collagen fibres maintain their arrangement due to the compression pressure and do not get irregularily arranged. PMID:10666821

Wienert, V

1999-01-01

427

Several Flame Balls Burning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Structure of Flameballs at Low Lewis Numbers (SOFBALL) experiments aboard the space shuttle in 1997 a series of sturningly successful burns. This sequence was taken during STS-94, July 12, 1997, MET:10/08:18 (approximate). It was thought these extremely dim flameballs (1/20 the power of a kitchen match) could last up to 200 seconds -- in fact, they can last for at least 500 seconds. This has ramifications in fuel-spray design in combustion engines, as well as fire safety in space. The SOFBALL principal investigator was Paul Ronney, University of Southern California, Los Angeles. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations planned for the International Space Station. (925KB, 9-second MPEG spanning 10 minutes, screen 320 x 240 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) A still JPG composite of this movie is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300186.html.

2003-01-01

428

POC-scale testing of an advanced fine coal dewatering equipment/technique. Quarterly technical progress report 3, April--June 1995  

SciTech Connect

Economical dewatering of an ultra-fine clean coal product to a 20% or lower level moisture will be an important step in successful implementation of the advanced fine coal cleaning processes. The main objective of the proposed program is to evaluate a novel surface modification technique, which utilizes the synergistic effect of metal ions-surfactant combination, for dewatering of ultra-fine clean coal on a proof-of-concept (POC) scale of 1 to 2 tph. The novel surface modification technique developed at the UKCAER will be evaluated using vacuum, centrifuge, and hyperbaric filtration equipment. Dewatering tests will be conducted using the fine clean coal froth produced by the column flotation units at the Powell Mountain Coal Company, Mayflower Preparation Plant in St. Charles, Virginia. The POC-scale studies will be conducted on two different types of clean coal, namely, high sulfur and low sulfur clean coal. The Mayflower Plant processes coals from five different seams, thus the dewatering studies results could be generalized for most of the bituminous coals. During this quarter, addition of reagents such as ferric ions and a novel concept of in-situ polymerization (ISP) was studied in the laboratory. Using the ISP approach with vacuum filtration provided 25% moisture filter cake compared to 65.5% moisture obtained conventionally without using the ISP. A series of dewatering tests were conducted using the Andritz hyperbaric pilot filter unit with high sulfur clean coal slurry.

Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K.

1995-08-05

429

Phoenix Society for Burn Survivors  

MedlinePLUS

... Available Feb 20, 2014 Connect with us ... Phoenix World Burn Congress 2014 Registration NOW OPEN! Phoenix World ... recovery can make all the difference in the world. View the transformation you make possible in the ...

430

Evaluation of pitches and cokes from solvent-extracted coal materials  

SciTech Connect

Three initial coal-extracted (C-E) samples were received from the West Virginia University (WVU) Chemical Engineering Department. Two samples had been hydrogenated to obtain pitches that satisfy Theological requirements. One of the hydrogenated (HC-E) samples had been extracted by toluene to remove ash and higher molecular weight aromatic compounds. We were unable to measure the softening point and viscosity of the non-hydro treated solid extract sample, Positive characteristics in the HC-E materials were softening points of 113-119{degrees}C, low sulfur and ash. The oxygen and nitrogen content of the HC-E samples may limit future usage in premium carbon and graphite products. Coking values were similar to petroleum pitches. Laboratory anode testing indicates that in combination with standard coal-tar pitch, the HC-E material can be used as a binder pitch.

McHenry, E.R.

1996-12-01

431

Coal extraction  

SciTech Connect

Coal is extracted using a mixed solvent which includes a substantially aromatic component and a substantially naphthenic component, at a temperature of 400/sup 0/ to 500/sup 0/C. Although neither component is an especially good solvent for coal by itself, the use of mixed solvent gives greater flexibility to the process and offers efficiency gains.

Clarke, J.W.; Kimber, G.M.; Rantell, T.D.; Snape, C.E.

1985-06-04

432

Nitramine propellants. [gun propellant burning rate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nitramine propellants without a pressure exponent shift in the burning rate curves are prepared by matching the burning rate of a selected nitramine or combination of nitramines within 10% of burning rate of a plasticized active binder so as to smooth out the break point appearance in the burning rate curve.

Cohen, N. S.; Strand, L. D. (inventors)

1978-01-01

433

Health impacts of domestic coal use in China  

PubMed Central

Domestic coal combustion has had profound adverse effects on the health of millions of people worldwide. In China alone several hundred million people commonly burn raw coal in unvented stoves that permeate their homes with high levels of toxic metals and organic compounds. At least 3,000 people in Guizhou Province in southwest China are suffering from severe arsenic poisoning. The primary source of the arsenic appears to be consumption of chili peppers dried over fires fueled with high-arsenic coal. Coal samples in the region were found to contain up to 35,000 ppm arsenic. Chili peppers dried over high-arsenic coal fires adsorb 500 ppm arsenic on average. More than 10 million people in Guizhou Province and surrounding areas suffer from dental and skeletal fluorosis. The excess fluorine is caused by eating corn dried over burning briquettes made from high-fluorine coals and high-fluorine clay binders. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons formed during coal combustion are believed to cause or contribute to the high incidence of esophageal and lung cancers in parts of China. Domestic coal combustion also has caused selenium poisoning and possibly mercury poisoning. Better knowledge of coal quality parameters may help to reduce some of these health problems. For example, information on concentrations and distributions of potentially toxic elements in coal may help delineate areas of a coal deposit to be avoided. Information on the modes of occurrence of these elements and the textural relations of the minerals and macerals in coal may help predict the behavior of the potentially toxic components during coal combustion.

Finkelman, Robert B.; Belkin, Harvey E.; Zheng, Baoshan

1999-01-01

434

Correlation Between Spectral Intensities of Coal and Coal Ash Using Emission Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Leaching of trace metals such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, thallium, antimony, and selenium from coal ash into groundwater is a serious environmental concern. In an effort to develop an on-line technique to monitor these elements, a glow discharge based emission spectroscopy technique has been developed at Tennessee Tech University. A glow discharge at 1.25 torr of argon generates a plume near the base of a cooled hollow cathode with a compacted coal or coal ash sample as the base of the cathode. Five different samples of mineral coal and the corresponding samples of coal ash were obtained from a power plant. Spectral intensities were recorded for all seven trace metals with three discs of each sample and four scans of each disc. A correlation between coal and coal ash for each trace metal is currently being established. Such a correlation will help power plants to determine the toxicity level as a result of coal ash disposal prior to burning a particular batch of mineral coal.

Collett, W. L.; Bell, B.; Mahajan, S. M.; Munukutla, S. S.

1996-10-01

435

Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 128-F-3 PNL Burn Pit, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-042  

SciTech Connect

The 128-F-3 waste site is a former burn pit associated with the 100-F Area experimental animal farm. The site was overlain by coal ash associated with the 126-F-1 waste site and could not be located during confirmatory site evaluation. Therefore, a housekeeping action was performed to remove the coal ash potentially obscuring residual burn pit features. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

L. M. Dittmer

2006-10-20

436

Burn plasma transfer induces burn edema in healthy rats.  

PubMed

Thermal injuries greater than 20% body surface area (BSA) result in systemic shock with generalized edema in addition to local tissue destruction. Burn shock is induced by a variety of mediators, mainly immunomodulative cytokines. This experimental study evaluates if burn shock can be induced in healthy rats by transfer of burn plasma (BP) with mediators. Thermal injury was induced by hot water (100 degrees C water, 12 s, 30% BSA) in male syngenic Wistar rats. Donor rats were killed 4 h posttrauma, and BP was harvested. Burn plasma was transferred to healthy animals by continuous intravenous infusion in three types of dilution (100%, 10%, and 1%). Positive controls were directly examined 4 h after thermal injury, and negative control rats had a continuous infusion done with sham burn (SB) plasma (37 degrees C water, 12 s, 30% BSA). Afterwards, intravital fluorescence microscopy was performed in postcapillary mesenteric venules at 0, 60, and 120 min. Edema formation was assessed by relative changes over time in fluorescence intensity of fluorescein isothiocyanate-albumin in the intravascular versus the extravascular space. The interactions of leucocytes and endothelium were evaluated by quantification of leukocyte sticking. Additionally, microhemodynamic (volumetric blood flow, erythrocyte velocity, venular wall shear rate, venular diameters) and macrohemodynamic parameters (blood pressure, heart frequency, temperature) were assessed online (arterial catheter). For statistics, an ANOVA was performed with Bonferroni adjustment procedure. Differences were considered significant when P < 0.05. There are no statistically significant differences in microhemodynamics or macrohemodynamics between study groups. Burn plasma infusion and thermal injury lead to significant increases in fluorescein isothiocyanate-albumin extravasation, whereas SB plasma shows no significant changes. Even BP diluted in 0.9% saline (10% and 1%) results in a similar transvascular flux of plasma proteins as direct thermal injury. Differences between positive controls and BP infusion are not significant, whereas all groups are statistically different from the SB group (P<0.05). Leukocyte sticking is significantly increased in all groups except the SB group, and the number of adherent leukocytes is dose dependent. The present study demonstrates that as early as 4 h after thermal injury, there are sufficient factors (e.g., cytokines) in BP to induce systemic burn shock in healthy rats even in diluted plasma (1%). However, the "key" cytokines are not identified at this point. The burned tissue is no longer required for burn shock induction, and the pathophysiologic process seems to be self-perpetuating as early as 4 h posttrauma. Leukocytes are activated by thermal injury and BP infusion. The role of leukocyte-endothelium interactions for edema formation remains uncertain and requires further investigation. PMID:18323747

Kremer, Thomas; Abé, Dorotheé; Weihrauch, Marc; Peters, Christopher; Gebhardt, Martha Maria; Germann, Guenter; Heitmann, Christoph; Walther, Andreas

2008-10-01

437

Genital and perineal burns in children: 10 years of experience at a major burn center  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The aim of this report is to review a decade of experience in the management of perineal and genital burns at a major burn center. Methods: Seventy-eight children who sustained perineal or genital burns admitted to the Shriners Hospitals for Children in Galveston are discussed. Results: Genital and perineal burns occurred in the context of major burns and were

Carlos Angel; Tung Shu; Dan French; Eduardo Orihuela; James Lukefahr; David N. Herndon

2002-01-01

438

Mulled Coal: A beneficiated coal form for use as a fuel or fuel intermediate. Technical progress report No. 4, January 1, 1991--March 31, 1991  

SciTech Connect

During the past quarter Energy International has evaluated additional mull formulations with varying reagent additives, mixing times, and particle sizes. The Environmental Review was completed and conceptual designs developed for the Mull Preparation and CWF Conversion Systems. As these technical developments move toward commercial application, the needs for coordinated efforts and integrated requirements have become increasingly apparent. Systems are vitally needed to integrate energy delivery systems from the raw resource through processing to application and end use. Problems have been encountered in the preparation of conventional coal-water fuels that mutually satisfy the requirements for storage stability, handling, preparation, atomization, combustion, and economics. Experience has been slow in evolving generic technologies or products and coal-specific requirements and specifications continue to dominate the development. Thus, prospects for commercialization remain highly specific to the coal, the processor, and the end use. Developments in advanced beneficiation of coal to meet stringent requirements for low ash and low sulfur can be anticipated to further complicate the problem areas. This is attributable to the beneficiated coal being produced in very fine particles with a high surface area, modified surface characteristics, reduced particle size distribution range, and high inherent moisture.

Not Available

1991-09-01

439

Burns in children: standard and new treatments.  

PubMed

Outcomes of patients with burns have improved substantially over the past two decades. Findings from a 2012 study in The Lancet showed that a burn size of more than 60% total body surface area burned (an increase from 40% a decade ago) is associated with risks and mortality. Similar data have been obtained in adults and elderly people who have been severely burned. We discuss recent and future developments in burn care to improve outcomes of children. PMID:24034453

Jeschke, Marc G; Herndon, David N

2014-03-29

440

Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project. Environmental Monitoring Plan  

SciTech Connect

Western Energy Company (WECO) was selected by the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) which upgrades low rank coals into high Btu, low sulfur, synthetic bituminous coal. As specified in the Corporate Agreement, RSCP is required to develop an Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) which describes in detail the environmental monitoring activities to be performed during the project execution. The purpose of the EMP is to: (1) identify monitoring activities that will be undertaken to show compliance to applicable regulations, (2) confirm the specific environmental impacts predicted in the National Environmental Policy Act documentation, and (3) establish an information base of the assessment of the environmental performance of the technology demonstrated by the project. The EMP specifies the streams to be monitored (e.g. gaseous, aqueous, and solid waste), the parameters to be measured (e.g. temperature, pressure, flow rate), and the species to be analyzed (e.g. sulfur compounds, nitrogen compounds, trace elements) as well as human health and safety exposure levels. The operation and frequency of the monitoring activities is specified, as well as the timing for the monitoring activities related to project phase (e.g. preconstruction, construction, commissioning, operational, post-operational). The EMP is designed to assess the environmental impacts and the environmental improvements resulting from construction and operation of the project.

Not Available

1992-04-01

441

Impact of solid discharges from coal usage in the southwest  

PubMed Central

The Southwestern region of the United States is extremely wealthy in low sulfur coal resources which must be eventually utilized in response to national energy balance priorities. Fly ash and scrubber sludge can be safely disposed of using properly managed techniques to ensure that any potential impact from elements such as boron, molybdenum, or selenium is rendered insignificant. Alternative methods of solids utilization are presently being developed. Fly ash is presently being marketed commercially as an additive for concrete manufacture. Successful experiments have been completed to demonstrate the manufacture of commercial-grade wallboard from scrubber sludge. Also, greenhouse studies and field experiments have been conducted to demonstrate increased yields of selected crops grown on typical soils amended with fly ash in amounts ranging from 2% to 8%, by weight. These studies also indicate that barium and strontium may be good monitoring indices for determining atmospheric deposition of fly ash, due to their concentration ratios in soil and vegetation samples. Further studies are being conducted to confirm encouraging irrigation and crop-yield data obtained with fly ash amended soils. Finally, the composition of many fly ashes and soils are similar in the Southwest, and there are no anticipated solid discharges from coal usage which cannot be rendered insignificant with proper management of existing and emerging methods of treatment. Compared with the water availability impact of coal usage in the Southwest, the impact of solid waste discharges are insignificant.

Jones, D. G.; Straughan, I. R.

1978-01-01

442

Harborview Burns - 1974 to 2009  

PubMed Central

Background Burn demographics, prevention and care have changed considerably since the 1970s. The objectives were to 1) identify new and confirm previously described changes, 2) make comparisons to the American Burn Association National Burn Repository, 3) determine when the administration of fluids in excess of the Baxter formula began and to identify potential causes, and 4) model mortality over time, during a 36-year period (1974–2009) at the Harborview Burn Center in Seattle, WA, USA. Methods and Findings 14,266 consecutive admissions were analyzed in five-year periods and many parameters compared to the National Burn Repository. Fluid resuscitation was compared in five-year periods from 1974 to 2009. Mortality was modeled with the rBaux model. Many changes are highlighted at the end of the manuscript including 1) the large increase in numbers of total and short-stay admissions, 2) the decline in numbers of large burn injuries, 3) that unadjusted case fatality declined to the mid-1980s but has changed little during the past two decades, 4) that race/ethnicity and payer status disparity exists, and 5) that the trajectory to death changed with fewer deaths occurring after seven days post-injury. Administration of fluids in excess of the Baxter formula during resuscitation of uncomplicated injuries was evident at least by the early 1990s and has continued to the present; the cause is likely multifactorial but pre-hospital fluids, prophylactic tracheal intubation and opioids may be involved. Conclusions 1) The dramatic changes include the rise in short-stay admissions; as a result, the model of burn care practiced since the 1970s is still required but is no longer sufficient. 2) Fluid administration in excess of the Baxter formula with uncomplicated injuries began at least two decades ago. 3) Unadjusted case fatality declined to ?6% in the mid-1980s and changed little since then. The rBaux mortality model is quite accurate.

Engrav, Loren H.; Heimbach, David M.; Rivara, Frederick P.; Kerr, Kathleen F.; Osler, Turner; Pham, Tam N.; Sharar, Sam R.; Esselman, Peter C.; Bulger, Eileen M.; Carrougher, Gretchen J.; Honari, Shari; Gibran, Nicole S.

2012-01-01

443

Coal combustion products 2007 production and use report  

SciTech Connect

The American Coal Ash Association's 2007 Annual Coal Combustion Products (CCP) are derived from data from more than 170 power plants. The amount of CCPs used was 40.55%, a decrease of 2.88% from 2006, attributed to reduced fuel burn and a decrease in demand in the building industry. Figures are given for the production of fly ash, flue gas desulfurization gypsum, bottom ash, FBC ash and boiler slag. The article summarises results of the survey. 1 ref., 1 tab.

NONE

2009-07-01

444

Analysis of Underground Coal Mine Fire Incidents in the United States from 1978 through 1992.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This U.S. Bureau of Mines publication is an analysis of underground coal mine fire incidents in the United States from 1978 through 1992. Fires were analyzed by year, state, coal bed thickness, mine size, mining method, ignition source, burning substance,...

W. H. Pomroy A. M. Carigiet

1995-01-01

445

Abatement of mercury emissions in the coal combustion process equipped with a Fabric Filter Baghouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the dependence of mercury emissions on coal ranks and electric utility boilers equipped with Fabric Filter Baghouses (FF). A comparison of mercury emission rates and fly ash properties was made between a circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor (CFBC) with FF and a Pulverized Coal (PC) combustor with FF during the burning of all

Yan Cao; Chin-Min Cheng; Chien-Wei Chen; Mingchong Liu; Chiawei Wang; Wei-Ping Pan

2008-01-01

446

Ground Penetrating Radar, a Method for Exploration and Monitoring of Coal Fires in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the climate change it is a global task to fight against gas emission of coal fires. In China exists many burning coal seams which should be extinguished. A Chinese-German initiative tries to find new technologies and solutions to control these fires. Most of the fires are close to the surface in arid areas. In that case GPR is

Volker Gundelach

2010-01-01

447

Combustion Tests on a Specially Processed Low-Ash Low-Sulphur Coal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the tests was to determine the burning characteristics of a fuel obtained by a solvent extraction of the combustible matter in coal. The material appears very similar to a high volatile bituminous coal except for a reduction in sulphur and ...

W. L. Sage

1964-01-01

448

Dynamics of mercury at coal-fired power plant and adjacent cooling lake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamics of mercury at the Kincaid Power Plant-Lake Sangchris complex in central Illinois were investigated by collecting and analyzing samples of coal, slag, fly ash, airborne particulate matter, soil, lake sediment, fish macrophytes, and ducks. Of 546 kg of mercury calculated to be in the 2.7 million metric tons of coal burned by the power plant from September 1973

William L. Anderson; Kenneth E. Smith

1977-01-01

449

Environmental control aspects of in situ coal gasification: ground-water quality changes and subsidence effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research progress for FY 1980 is reported. The effects of in situ coal gasification (now called Underground Coal Gasification - UCG) on ground water quality are being investigated. The subsurface ground movement and surface subsidence associated with UCG are also being studied. Measurements show that organic contaminants are concentrated in a shell just outside the burn boundary. (ACR)

Mead

1981-01-01

450

Environmental control aspects of in situ coal gasification: ground-water quality changes and subsidence effects  

SciTech Connect

Research progress for FY 1980 is reported. The effects of in situ coal gasification (now called Underground Coal Gasification - UCG) on ground water quality are being investigated. The subsurface ground movement and surface subsidence associated with UCG are also being studied. Measurements show that organic contaminants are concentrated in a shell just outside the burn boundary. (ACR)

Mead, S.W.

1981-02-01

451

Commercialization of Fired Paving Bricks with Class F Fly Ash from Illinois Basin Coals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Burning coal for energy produces fly ash as one of the by-products. Fly ash is not currently regulated as a hazardous material by the US EPA and is discarded as waste, most often in impoundments or landfills. The development and marketing of commercial fly ash-containing bricks would benefit the coal industry, utilities, and brick manufacturers by converting discarded fly ash

Mei-In M. Chou; J. Chou; Vinod. Patel; Howard S. Lewis; Joseph P. Kimlinger; Mark M. Bryant; Francois Botha

452

Deployment of coal briquettes and improved stoves: possibly an option for both environment and climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of coal briquettes and improved stoves by Chinese households has been encouraged by the government as a means of reducing air pollution and health impacts. In this study we have shown that these two improvements also relate to climate change. Our experimental measurements indicate that, if all coal were burned as briquettes in improved stoves, particulate matter (PM),

Guorui Zhi; Conghu Peng; Yingjun Chen; Dongyan Liu; Guoying Sheng; Jiamo Fu

2009-01-01

453