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1

PARTICULATE COLLECTION PROBLEMS IN CONVERTING TO LOW SULFUR COALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Problems encountered in burning low-sulfur coal in electrical utility power plant boilers are discussed. Operating experience with electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), fabric filter baghouses, and wet scrubbers for control of fly ash stack emissions and techniques for improving pe...

2

Abundance and modes of occurrence of mercury in some low-sulfur coals from China  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mercury (Hg) is one of the hazardous trace elements in coal. Mercury in coal is almost totally emitted into the atmosphere during coal combustion. Especially for utilities burning low-sulfur coals that do not require scrubbers, Hg reduction will be neglected. Hg abundances of 52 low-sulfur coal samples from different coalfields in six provinces of China were determined by a flow injection mercury system (FIMS). The results show that Hg abundances in selected low-sulfur coals range from 0.03??ppm to 0.79??ppm, with an arithmetic mean of 0.24??ppm, which is higher than that of average Chinese coals (0.19??ppm). Correlation analysis and sequential extraction procedures are performed to study possible modes of occurrence of Hg in low-sulfur coals. Modes of occurrence of Hg are variable in low-sulfur coals, and the sulfide-bound and organic-bound Hg may be the dominant forms. In addition, the silicate-bound Hg may be the main form in some of these coals because of magmatic intrusion. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Zheng, L.; Liu, G.; Chou, C. -L.

2008-01-01

3

Low-Sulfur Fuel Oil from Coal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A high-sulfur bituminous coal suspended in coal tar was hydrodesulfurized by continuous processing through a fixed bed of pelletized cobalt molybdate on alumina catalyst, under conditions of highly turbulent flow of hydrogen to prevent obstruction of the ...

P. M. Yavorsky S. Akhtar S. Friedman

1971-01-01

4

Low-sulfur fuel oil from coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-S residual fuel oil is produced by hydroconversion of coal in an ebullated bed system without downstream processing and with a minimum amount of H, producing a fuel of high calorific value and low S content. Pulverized coal is mixed with recycle slurry oil to form a coal-oil slurry. This slurry is passed through a heater into the lower part

H. H. Stotler; M. Calderon; C. A. Johnson

1971-01-01

5

Central Appalachia: Production potential of low-sulfur coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vast preponderance of eastern US low sulfur and 1.2-lbs SOâ\\/MMBtu compliance coal comes from a relatively small area composed of 14 counties located in eastern Kentucky, southern West Virginia and western Virginia. These 14 counties accounted for 68% of all Central Appalachian coal production in 1989 as well as 85% of all compliance coal shipped to electric utilities from

1991-01-01

6

Central Appalachia: Production potential of low-sulfur coal  

SciTech Connect

The vast preponderance of eastern US low sulfur and 1.2-lbs SO{sub 2}/MMBtu compliance coal comes from a relatively small area composed of 14 counties located in eastern Kentucky, southern West Virginia and western Virginia. These 14 counties accounted for 68% of all Central Appalachian coal production in 1989 as well as 85% of all compliance coal shipped to electric utilities from this region. A property-by-property analysis of total production potential in 10 of the 14 counties (Floyd, Knott, Letcher, Harlan, Martin and Pike in Kentucky and Boone, Kanawha, Logan and Mingo in West Virginia) resulted in the following estimates of active and yet to be developed properties: (1) total salable reserves for all sulfur levels were 5.9 billion tons and (2) 1.2-lbs. SO{sub 2}/MMBtu compliance'' reserves totaled 2.38 billion tons. This potential supply of compliance coal is adequate to meet the expanded utility demand expected under acid rain for the next 20 years. Beyond 2010, compliance supplies will begin to reach depletion levels in some areas of the study region. A review of the cost structure for all active mines was used to categorize the cost structure for developing potential supplies. FOB cash costs for all active mines in the ten counties ranged from $15 per ton to $35 per ton and the median mine cost was about $22 per ton. A total of 47 companies with the ability to produce and ship coal from owned or leased reserves are active in the ten-county region. Identified development and expansion projects controlled by active companies are capable of expanding the region's current production level by over 30 million tons per year over the next twenty years. Beyond this period the issue of reserve depletion for coal of all sulfur levels in the ten county region will become a pressing issue. 11 figs., 12 tabs.

Watkins, J. (Hill and Associates, Inc., Annapolis, MD (United States))

1991-09-01

7

Low-sulfur coal usage alters transportation strategies  

SciTech Connect

As electricity production has grown, so has the amount of coal burned by US utilities. In order to comply with the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), many utilities have changed from high-sulfur coal to lower-sulfur coal to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions. The primary mode of transporting coal to utilities remains the railroad, and coal represents the largest freight tonnage shipped - two out of every five tons. Since coal is so important to the railroads, it is logical that as utilities have changed their coal-buying strategies, the railroads` strategies have also changed. The increased demand for Western coal has caused rail lines some capacity problems which they are attempting to meet head-on by buying new railcars and locomotives and expanding track capacities. The new railcars typically have aluminum bodies to reduce empty weight, enabling them to carry larger loads of coal. Train locomotives are also undergoing upgrade changes. Most new locomotives have as motors to drive the wheels which deliver more motive power (traction) to the wheel trucks. In fact the motors are up to 30% more efficient at getting the traction to the trucks. Trackage is also being expanded to alleviate serious congestion on the tracks when moving Western coal.

Stein, H.

1995-07-01

8

Sulfur isotopic variations in low-sulfur coals from the Rocky Mountain region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The isotopic composition of organic sulfur and disseminated and massive pyrite has been determined in vertical sections from eight low-sulfur coals (Paleocene and Cretaceous in age) in four coal fields of Wyoming and Colorado. The 34 S values of organic sulfur from five sites in the Anderson-Wyodak coal (Paleocene) of the eastern Powder River Basin, Wyoming, are more negative than

Keith C. Hackley; Thomas F. Anderson

1986-01-01

9

Coal slagging burner for producing clean low-sulfur fuel gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process is described for combusting coal containing about 2% to 8% sulfur by weight to release and recover the heat content thereof while producing a low-sulfur off-gas which comprises: combusting finely divided coal in a slagging cyclone burner under conditions of incomplete combustion to convert the sulfur content of the coal to hydrogen sulfide, carrying out the incomplete combustion

M. T. Hepworth; G. R. Wicker

1986-01-01

10

Microbially Mediated Leaching of Low-Sulfur Coal in Experimental Coal Columns †  

PubMed Central

The leaching of a low-sulfur bituminous coal was investigated with experimental coal columns subjected to simulated rainfall events. Leachates from the columns became dominated by iron-oxidizing bacteria as evidenced by specific enrichment cultures and measurements of CO2 assimilation. Heterotrophic microorganisms were also present in the coal leachates, but their numbers and activity decreased with decreasing pH. This pattern could be reversed by increasing the pH of the coal with lime. Organosulfur-utilizing bacteria made up a substantial portion of the heterotrophic community. Measurements of microbial activity in coal cores indicated that although much of the microbial community remained associated with coal particles, the relative abundance of heterotrophs and autotrophs in leachate seemed to reflect that in coal cores. When bacterial growth was delayed by autoclaving coal samples, acid production and leaching of iron and sulfur were also delayed. Rapid leaching of materials from coal thus appears to be strongly dependent on the presence of the natural bacterial microflora.

Radway, JoAnn C.; Tuttle, Jon H.; Fendinger, Nicholas J.; Means, Jay C.

1987-01-01

11

A novel coal feeder for production of low sulfur fuel  

SciTech Connect

A dual-screw feeder was designed for desulfurization of coal. This reactor contains two screw tubes, the inner tube acting as a coal pyrolizer and the outer tube acting as a desulfurizer with hot calcined lime pellets or other renewable sorbent pellets. The objectives of this project is to study the feasibility of an advanced concept of desulfurization and possibly some denitrification in this coal feeder. In this year, two basic studies have been performed: (1) the desulfurization and (2) the denitrification due to mild pyrolysis. Specifically, the following tasks have been performed: (1) Setting up the Dual-Screw reactor, (2) Determination of the pyrolysis product and the sulfur distribution in char, tar and gas based on experimental data, (3) Study of the devolatilization, the desulfurization kinetics and the denitrification kinetics and obtaining the basic kinetic parameters, (4) Study of the sulfur removal efficiency of lime pellets fed into the outer tube of the dual-feeder reactor, (5) Study of the effect of the coal particle size on pyrolysis and desulfurization, (6) Study of the coal pyrolysis and desulfurization using a TGA(Thermal Gravimetric Analyzer).

Khang, S.J.; Lin, L.; Keener, T.C.; Yeh, P.

1991-01-01

12

Sulfur isotopic variations in low-sulfur coals from the Rocky Mountain region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The isotopic composition of organic sulfur and disseminated and massive pyrite has been determined in vertical sections from eight low-sulfur coals (Paleocene and Cretaceous in age) in four coal fields of Wyoming and Colorado. The 34 S values of organic sulfur from five sites in the Anderson-Wyodak coal (Paleocene) of the eastern Powder River Basin, Wyoming, are more negative than expected for low-sulfur coals (-18.7 to +3.9%), suggesting that organic sulfur was derived from a combination of original plant sulfur and secondary, 34 S-depleted sulfur. The 34 S-depleted sulfur was probably produced from bacterial reduction of sulfate which infiltrated from the top and bottom during the peat stage. The 34 S of organic sulfur in a Paleocene coal from the Hanna Basin, Wyoming, ranges from +1.6 to +13.1 %. Vertical variation in 34 S here suggests bacterial reduction in a partially closed system of sulfate which infiltrated from the top of the seam. A Paleocene and a Cretaceous coal from the Green River Coal region, in Wyoming and Colorado, both yield 34 S values of organic sulfur (+2.4 to +8.1 %) consistent with what would be expected for original plant sulfur. 34 S values of pyrite at all sites varies widely (-52.6 to +34.6%). The isotope composition of the disseminated pyrite correlates with that of the organic sulfur, implying a similar mode and timing of incorporation. 34 S of the massive pyrite shows no such correlation.

Hackley, Keith C.; Anderson, Thomas F.

1986-08-01

13

Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect

This project Final Report is submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as part of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-03NT41987, 'Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas.' Sorbent injection technology is targeted as the primary mercury control process on plants burning low/medium sulfur bituminous coals equipped with ESP and ESP/FGD systems. About 70% of the ESPs used in the utility industry have SCAs less than 300 ft2/1000 acfm. Prior to this test program, previous sorbent injection tests had focused on large-SCA ESPs. This DOE-NETL program was designed to generate data to evaluate the performance and economic feasibility of sorbent injection for mercury control at power plants that fire bituminous coal and are configured with small-sized electrostatic precipitators and/or an ESP-flue gas desulfurization (FGD) configuration. EPRI and Southern Company were co-funders for the test program. Southern Company and Reliant Energy provided host sites for testing and technical input to the project. URS Group was the prime contractor to NETL. ADA-ES and Apogee Scientific Inc. were sub-contractors to URS and was responsible for all aspects of the sorbent injection systems design, installation and operation at the different host sites. Full-scale sorbent injection for mercury control was evaluated at three sites: Georgia Power's Plant Yates Units 1 and 2 [Georgia Power is a subsidiary of the Southern Company] and Reliant Energy's Shawville Unit 3. Georgia Power's Plant Yates Unit 1 has an existing small-SCA cold-side ESP followed by a Chiyoda CT-121 wet scrubber. Yates Unit 2 is also equipped with a small-SCA ESP and a dual flue gas conditioning system. Unit 2 has no SO2 control system. Shawville Unit 3 is equipped with two small-SCA cold-side ESPs operated in series. All ESP systems tested in this program had SCAs less than 250 ft2/1000 acfm. Short-term parametric tests were conducted on Yates Units 1 and 2 to evaluate the performance of low-cost activated carbon sorbents for removing mercury. In addition, the effects of the dual flue gas conditioning system on mercury removal performance were evaluated as part of short-term parametric tests on Unit 2. Based on the parametric test results, a single sorbent (e.g., RWE Super HOK) was selected for a 30-day continuous injection test on Unit 1 to observe long-term performance of the sorbent as well as its effects on ESP and FGD system operations as well as combustion byproduct properties. A series of parametric tests were also performed on Shawville Unit 3 over a three-week period in which several activated carbon sorbents were injected into the flue gas duct just upstream of either of the two Unit 3 ESP units. Three different sorbents were evaluated in the parametric test program for the combined ESP 1/ESP 2 system in which sorbents were injected upstream of ESP 1: RWE Super HOK, Norit's DARCO Hg, and a 62:38 wt% hydrated lime/DARCO Hg premixed reagent. Five different sorbents were evaluated for the ESP 2 system in which activated carbons were injected upstream of ESP 2: RWE Super HOK and coarse-ground HOK, Norit's DARCO Hg and DARCO Hg-LH, and DARCO Hg with lime injection upstream of ESP 1. The hydrated lime tests were conducted to reduce SO3 levels in an attempt to enhance the mercury removal performance of the activated carbon sorbents. The Plant Yates and Shawville studies provided data required for assessing carbon performance and long-term operational impacts for flue gas mercury control across small-sized ESPs, as well as for estimating the costs of full-scale sorbent injection processes.

Carl Richardson; Katherine Dombrowski; Douglas Orr

2006-12-31

14

Experimental study of an extractive coking process to produce low-sulfur liquid fuels from bituminous coal. Quarterly report, May 1, 1976July 31, 1976  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of a coal liquefaction process using hydrogenated solvent to produce gas, low-sulfur, low-ash coal liquid and high-ash coke from bituminous coal is being investigated. After some initial difficulties were resolved, conversions of moisture-and-ash-free coal to coal liquid with efficiencies of 39 to 49 percent have been attained. If this efficiency can be improved, the potential for coal liquefaction

E. Interess; S. A. Reber; R. M. Nadkarni; R. W. Hyde

1976-01-01

15

Preparation of low-sulfur fuel gas by gasification of Battelle Treated Coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Battelle has developed a proprietary process for treating coal with calcium compounds, called the Battelle Treated Coal Process. The action of the calcium is to convert agglomerating, low-reactivity, high-sulphur coals into the chemical equivalent of low-sulphur lignite. The coal then becomes an attractive feedstock for gasification systems. This paper reports on gasification tests carried out on Battelle Treated Coal. It

Conkle

1983-01-01

16

Pulse energization; A precipitator performance upgrade technology following low sulfur coal switching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Madison Gas and Electric operates two 50 MWe pulverized coal fired boilers at its Blount station. This paper reports that these two units have been designed to operate with gas or coalfiring in combination with refuse derived fuel. Both these units are fitted with electrostatic precipitators for particulate control. Historically, these units have utilized Midwestern and Appalachian coals varying in

K. S. Kumar; P. L. Feldman; P. L. Jacobus

1992-01-01

17

Arapahoe low-sulfur coal fabric filter pilot plant. Volume 2. Characterization and reverse-gas cleaning tests, October 1980April 1982. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes operations at EPRI's low-sulfur coal Fabric Filter Pilot Plant during the first 19 months following its startup in October 1980. The primary objectives of this operating period were to collect data to characterize the FFPP as a research tool, and to determine the effects of varying some of its basic operating parameters. The major parameters varied included

K. M. Cushing; R. R. Jr. Wilson; W. B. Smith

1985-01-01

18

Burning coal's waste  

SciTech Connect

In an old Pennsylvania coal valley, growing fresh produce and eliminating ancient waste piles both depend on a fluidized bed boiler cogeneration plant. The builders of a complex now nearing completion at Archbald, however, will soon begin to turn two of the waste piles, called culm banks, into economic assets. Culm will burn although it has a low, variable heat content. The project combines several recently developed technologies to use culm as fuel for a fluidized bed boiler cogeneration plant that will heat a hydroponic greenhouse. What makes the venture economically viable are the products that will be sold: 23 mw of electricity to the local utility and fresh produce to meet burgeoning demands in East Coast supermarkets. For instance, if the ''salad plant'' were completely devoted to growing lettuce, 3 million heads could be harvested in 11 hydroponic seasons a year. The owners, Archbald Power Corp., chose a 271 acre stie that had been mined for anthracite by both open pit and deep shaft methods.

Daly, J.M.; Duffy, T.J.

1988-07-01

19

Arapahoe low-sulfur coal Fabric Filter Pilot Plant. Volume 1. Fluid dynamics testing, May-September 1980. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a study of fluid dynamics at EPRI's low-sulfur coal Fabric Filter Pilot Plant (FFPP) located at the Arapahoe station of the Public Service Company of Colorado in Denver. The work describes the initial phase of operations of the FFPP. Follow-on studies of fabrics, cleaning methods, and effects of air-to-cloth ratio on pressure drop will be summarized in subsequent volumes. The FFPP is a 10-MW baghouse filtering flue gas on a sidestream from a 110-MW, full-scale, coal-fired boiler at the Arapahoe station. The study's objective was to measure the effects of bag resistance, flow distributors, and hopper inlet flow velocity on pressure drop. To that end, velocity profiles across the hopper inlet and tubesheet, as well as flow patterns in the hopper region and dust reentrainment in a fly ash-loaded hopper, were evaluated for several equipment configurations. Results indicate that proper fluid dynamics design can reduce system pressure drop, thereby lowering operating costs. For example, gas velocities in the hopper inlet exceeding 35 ft/s produced excessive turbulence and fly ash reentrainment in the hopper, and nonuniform velocity profiles across the tubesheet. It was also demonstrated that flow distributors in the hopper inlet helped to improve gas flow patterns in the hopper and to produce more uniform velocity profiles across the tubesheet. 32 figures, 60 tables.

Cushing, K.M.; Wilson, R.R. Jr.; Smith, W.B.; Gilbert, G.B.; Belkus, P.R.

1985-02-01

20

Pulse energization; A precipitator performance upgrade technology following low sulfur coal switching  

SciTech Connect

Madison Gas and Electric operates two 50 MWe pulverized coal fired boilers at its Blount station. This paper reports that these two units have been designed to operate with gas or coalfiring in combination with refuse derived fuel. Both these units are fitted with electrostatic precipitators for particulate control. Historically, these units have utilized Midwestern and Appalachian coals varying in sulfur contents between 2 and 5 %, with the SO{sub 2} emission level in the 3.5 pounds per million Btu range. Wisconsin's acid rain control law goes into effect in 1993 requiring utilities to control sulfur dioxide emissions below 1.2 pounds per million Btu.

Kumar, K.S.; Feldman, P.L. (Cottrell Environmental Sciences, Somerville, NJ (United States)); Jacobus, P.L. (Madison Gas and Electric Co., WI (United States))

1992-01-01

21

PILOT PLANT STUDY OF CONVERSION OF COAL TO LOW SULFUR FUEL  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a program to develop, on bench and pilot scales, operating conditions for the key step in the IGT process to desulfurize coal by thermal and chemical treatment. This process, to date, uses the 'sulfur-getter' concept. (A sulfur-getter is a material tha...

22

A novel dual-screw coal feeder for production of low sulfur fuel  

SciTech Connect

In this project, the following tasks have been performed: (1) Setting up the Dual-Screw feeder reactor. (2) Determination of the pyrolysis product and the sulfur distribution in char, tar and gas based on experimental data. (3) Study of the devolatilization and the desulfurization kinetics and obtaining the basic kinetic parameters. (4) Study of the sulfur removal efficiency of lime pellets fed into the outer tube of the dual-screw feeder reactor. (5) Study of the effect of the coal particle size on pyrolysis and desulfurization. (6) Study of the coal pyrolysis using a TGA (Thermal Gravimetric Analyzer). (7) Study of the coal desulfurization using a tube oven. (8) Setting up a combustor. (9) Study of the combustion characteristics of the pyrolysis products from the dual-screw feeder reactor. (10) Process simulation of the dual-screw feeder reactor. The experimental results of devolatilization and desulfurization of an Ohio {number_sign}8 coal demonstrate that an increasing the temperature in mild coal pyrolysis leads to the increase of both the devolatilization yield and the desulfurization yield. Under the experimental conditions, mainly the organic sulfur releases in the form of H{sub 2}S. Both the devolatilization and the desulfurization processes can be described by using the first-order-reaction model which gives the activation energy values for pyrolysis and desulfurization of 170,021 kJ/mol and 78,783 kJ/mol, indicating the sulfur is easier to release than volatiles. The outer screw region of CaO pellets also demonstrated almost a complete removal of hydrogen sulfide from volatiles. At a temperature of 475{degree}C and a residence time of 6 minutes, 73.1% of the organic sulfur was removed in the screw feeder reactor. The investigation of the combustion characteristics of the pyrolysis products showed a negligible reduction of the total heating value of the char and volatile products.

Lin, L.; Khang, S.J.; Keener, T.C.

1993-06-15

23

Disposal of Coal Burning Wastes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is a second literature synopsis concerning disposal of coal burning waste within the KHM-project. A large amount of ash and FGD-wastes in the US are disposed either wet or dry. Approximately 5 - 10 percent of the ash is utilized in one way or ...

J. E. Meijer

1983-01-01

24

Alternative to oil: burning coal with gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This monograph is an interdisciplinary assessment, funded in part by the American Gas Association, of the economic and environmental benefits of burning coal and natural gas mixtures in boilers originally designed for oil. It reviews US coal, natural gas, and unconventional gas sources; examines the physical basis for burning gas-coal in place of oil; analyzes the conversion costs of oil

A. E. S. Green; J. R. Jr Jones; M. J. Ellerbrock; J. M. Schwartz; S. J. Kuntz; B. Zeiler

1981-01-01

25

Alternative to oil: burning coal with gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book discusses the economic and environmental benefits of burning coal and natural gas mixtures in boilers originally designed for oil. A grant by the American Gas Association (AGA) to the Interdisciplinary Center for Aeronomy and Atmospheric Sciences (ICAAS) to study economic and related technical aspects of converting Florida's electric utility oil boilers to gas-coal burning. An abstract of this

1981-01-01

26

Characterization of fly ash from low-sulfur and high-sulfur coal sources: Partitioning of carbon and trace elements with particle size  

SciTech Connect

Fly ash samples were collected in November and December of 1994, from generating units at a Kentucky power station using high- and low-sulfur feed coals. The samples are part of a two-year study of the coal and coal combustion byproducts from the power station. The ashes were wet screened at 100, 200, 325, and 500 mesh (150, 75, 42, and 25 {micro}m, respectively). The size fractions were then dried, weighed, split for petrographic and chemical analysis, and analyzed for ash yield and carbon content. The low-sulfur heavy side and light side ashes each have a similar size distribution in the November samples. In contrast, the December fly ashes showed the trend observed in later months, the light-side ash being finer (over 20% more ash in the {minus}500 mesh [{minus}25 {micro}m] fraction) than the heavy-side ash. Carbon tended to be concentrated in the coarse fractions in the December samples. The dominance of the {minus}325 mesh ({minus}42 {micro}m) fractions in the overall size analysis implies, though, that carbon in the fine sizes may be an important consideration in the utilization of the fly ash. Element partitioning follows several patterns. Volatile elements, such as Zn and As, are enriched in the finer sizes, particularly in fly ashes collected at cooler, light-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) temperatures. The latter trend is a function of precipitation at the cooler-ESP temperatures and of increasing concentration with the increased surface area of the finest fraction. Mercury concentrations are higher in high-carbon fly ashes, suggesting Hg adsorption on the fly ash carbon. Ni and Cr are associated, in part, with the spinel minerals in the fly ash.

Hower, J.C.; Trimble, A.S. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research]|[Franklin County High School, Frankfort, KY (United States); Eble, C.F. [Kentucky Geological survey, Lexington, KY (United States); Palmer, C.A.; Kolker, A. [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)

1999-07-01

27

A novel coal feeder for production of low sulfur fuel. Quarterly technical process report, October 1, 1991--January 1, 1992  

SciTech Connect

In this project, a dual-screw feeder was designed for desulfurization of coal. The key parts of this reactor are two screw tubes which are used to feed coal and calcined lime particles separately, the inner tube acting as a coal pyrolyzer and the outer tube acting as a desulfurizer with hot calcined lime pellets or other renewable sorbent pellets. The objective of this project is to study the feasibility of an advanced concept of desulfurization in the coal feeder. (VC)

Lin, L.; Khang, S.J.; Keener, T.C.

1991-12-31

28

Did the 1977 Amendment to the Clean Air Act eliminate the low-sulfur coal incentive for electric power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1970 Clean Air Act and its 1977 Amendment affected many industries, including the electric power industry. In particular, regulations limiting sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) emissions forced utilities to alter their decisions regarding coal-fired generating plants. The Clean Air Act and its Amendment effectively created three classes of coal-fired plants with varying degrees of SO[sub 2] reduction mandates depending on

2009-01-01

29

A novel coal feeder for production of low sulfur fuel. Annual technical progress report, October 1, 1990--October 1, 1991  

SciTech Connect

A dual-screw feeder was designed for desulfurization of coal. This reactor contains two screw tubes, the inner tube acting as a coal pyrolizer and the outer tube acting as a desulfurizer with hot calcined lime pellets or other renewable sorbent pellets. The objectives of this project is to study the feasibility of an advanced concept of desulfurization and possibly some denitrification in this coal feeder. In this year, two basic studies have been performed: (1) the desulfurization and (2) the denitrification due to mild pyrolysis. Specifically, the following tasks have been performed: (1) Setting up the Dual-Screw reactor, (2) Determination of the pyrolysis product and the sulfur distribution in char, tar and gas based on experimental data, (3) Study of the devolatilization, the desulfurization kinetics and the denitrification kinetics and obtaining the basic kinetic parameters, (4) Study of the sulfur removal efficiency of lime pellets fed into the outer tube of the dual-feeder reactor, (5) Study of the effect of the coal particle size on pyrolysis and desulfurization, (6) Study of the coal pyrolysis and desulfurization using a TGA(Thermal Gravimetric Analyzer).

Khang, S.J.; Lin, L.; Keener, T.C.; Yeh, P.

1991-12-31

30

30 CFR 817.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine waste fires shall be...

2013-07-01

31

Burning coal more cleanly and efficiently  

SciTech Connect

Clean coal-burning technologies, long an object of research, have become a political hot potato overnight, caught up in the debate over how best to control acid rain. Suddenly a host of U.S. government officials have come forward, all determined to ''do something about acid rain.'' But what should be done. Some want to mandate pollution controls, like scrubbers, on existing coal-burning power plants; other want to push for new, cleaner ways to burn coal. Regardless of what Governemnt officials decide, engineers who have looked into the problem have reached a firm conclusion: the new technologies promise better pollution control at lower cost than attempts to patch the old systems; they also solve another utility problem-how to add small increments of generating capacity in only a few years. Unlike scrubbers, which capture pollutants from coal boilers as they flow up the stack, the new methods-fluidized-bed combustion and coal gasification-consume hydrocarbons and remove gaseous pollutants (such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide) during the combustion process itself. Integrating emission control into the combustion or gasification process is less costly, less energy-intensive, and more efficient than removing pollutants from the flue gas. The new alternatives will make better use of utility and ratepayer money, proponents of the new technologies maintain.

Not Available

1986-08-01

32

Development of a Process for Producing an Ashless, Low-Sulfur Fuel from Coal. Volume IV. Product Studies. Part 4. Sulfur Removal from Coal Minerals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sulfur removal from residual solids of the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) Process is investigated. The residue, called coal minerals, contains various amounts of ferrous oxide, silica, carbon, and alumina. The preferential oxidation technique for sulfur remov...

1974-01-01

33

From in-situ coal to fly ash: a study of coal mines and power plants from Indiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents data on the properties of coal and fly ash from two coal mines and two power plants that burn single-source coal from two mines in Indiana. One mine is in the low-sulfur (5%) Springfield Coal Member of the Petersburg Formation (Pennsylvanian). Both seams have comparable ash contents (?11%). Coals sampled at the mines (both raw and washed

Maria Mastalerz; James C Hower; Agnieszka Drobniak; Sarah M Mardon; Grzegorz Lis

2004-01-01

34

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in burning and non-burning coal waste piles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coal waste material that results from Douro Coalfield exploitation was analyzed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC–MS) for the identification and quantification of the 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), defined as priority pollutants. It is expected that the organic fraction of the coal waste material contains PAHs from petrogenic origin, and also from pyrolytic origin in burning coal

Joana Ribeiro; Tais Silva; Joao Graciano Mendonca Filho; Deolinda Flores

35

Speciation of Chromium in Feed Coals and Ash Byproducts from Canadian Power Plants Burning Subbituminous and Bituminous Coals  

SciTech Connect

The chromium species in the feed coals and ash byproducts from seven Canadian coal-fired power plants that were burning local subbituminous or bituminous coals with sulfur contents in the range of 0.30-3.5 wt % have been examined using Cr X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES). Chromium in the Canadian feed coals is always found as Cr{sup 3+} but generally has a dual occurrence, as Cr{sup 3+} is distributed to varying degrees between the clay mineral illite (Cr3+/illite) and a poorly crystallized chromium oxyhydroxide (CrOOH) phase associated with the organic fraction. In two subbituminous feed coals from Alberta, chromium is present largely as Cr{sup 3+}/illite, whereas in two other such coals, it is present predominantly as CrOOH. Chromium in a low-sulfur (0.50 wt %) bituminous feed coal from Alberta is found mostly as Cr{sup 3+}/illite, whereas for feed coals from Nova Scotia with high sulfur contents (2.60-3.56 wt %), chromium is distributed between both Cr{sup 3+}/illite and CrOOH. Very little chromium was found in the limestone used in a fluidized-bed combustor. The chromium species in most bottom ash samples from all seven combustion units is predominantly, if not entirely (>95%), Cr{sup 3+} associated with aluminosilicate phases. Chromium speciation for subbituminous electrostatic precipitator (ESP) fly ash is mostly Cr{sup 3+} (>95%), but in some cases, it is slightly less (>80%) and varies by sampling location at the plant. Chromium in fly ash from the combustion of bituminous feed coals is predominantly (>95%) Cr3+. A unique species of chromium found in one feed coal and an unrelated fly ash is metallic chromium (Cr0), similar to that in stainless steel. The occurrence of this form of chromium in these materials indicates contamination from machinery, such as the coal milling machine or possibly wearing down of stainless steel parts by the coal or ash. The observation of this unexpected contamination demonstrates the power and usefulness of X-ray absorption fine-structure (XAFS) spectroscopy for speciation determination.

Goodarzi,F.; Huggins, F.

2005-01-01

36

A New Type Heat Exchanger for Coal Burning Boilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

To make the best of heat energy in the flue gas exhausted from a coal burning boiler, the design proposal for a new type of heat exchanger was put forward in the paper. Via the new type of heat exchanger, temperature of the flue gas can be decreased from 130~140°C to 70~80°C for the boilers in a coal burning power

Bingwen Zhang; Yingjin Zhang

2010-01-01

37

Experimental study of an extractive coking process to produce low-sulfur liquid fuels from bituminous coal. Quarterly report, October 25, 1975January 30, 1976  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major objective is to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of the delayed coking process for the extractive coking of bituminous coals. The first two pilot plant runs using hydrotreated solvent have been completed at Foster Wheeler. For both, the slurrying mode of operation was used. The first run gave a conversion of 45 percent of the moisture-and-ash-free coal,

S. A. Reber; R. M. Nadkarni; R. W. Hyde

1976-01-01

38

Experimental study of an extractive coking process to produce low-sulfur liquid fuels from bituminous coal. Final report, January 1975July 1977. [Delayed coking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The delayed coking process is technically feasible. The following specific results of those detailed in the previous section contribute to this conclusion: coal conversions at near optimal conditions are greater than 50% of the M.A.F. coal; simulated process solvent is readily hydrotreated to a material with improved hydrogen-donor properties; the solvent properties can be modified by distillation; lower extraction temperatures

W. Interess; R. M. Nadkarni; R. W. Hyde; S. A. Reber

1977-01-01

39

Production of low sulfur binder pitich from high-sulfur Illinois coals. Quarterly report, 1 March 1995--31 May 1995  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to produce electrode binder pitch with sulfur content below 0.6 wt% from high-sulfur Illinois coal mild gasification liquids. Previously, flash thermocracking (FTC) was used to successfully upgrade the properties of mild gasification pitch, yielding a suitable blending stock for use as a binder in the production of carbon electrodes for the aluminum industry. However, in pitches from high-sulfur (4%) Illinois coal, the pitch sulfur content (2%) was still higher than preferred. In this project two approaches to sulfur reduction are being explored in conjunction with FTC: (1) the use of a moderate-sulfur (1.2%) Illinois coal as mild gasification feedstock, and (2) direct biodesulfurization of the liquids from high-sulfur coal prior to FTC. In Case 1, the liquids are being produced by mild gasification of IBC-109 coal in a bench-scale fluidized-bed reactor, followed by distillation to isolate the crude pitch. In Case 2, biodesulfurization with Rhodococcus Rhodochrous IGTS8 biocatalyst is being performed on crude pitch obtained from Illinois No. 6 coal tests conducted in the IGT MILDGAS PRU in 1990. Following preparation of the crude pitches, pitch upgrading experiments are being conducted in a continuous FTC reactor constructed in previous ICCI-sponsored studies. This quarter, mild gasification of IBC-109 coal was completed, producing 450 g of coal liquids, which were then distilled to recover 329 g of Case 1 crude pitch. Next month, the pitch will be subjected to FTC treatment and evaluated. Biodesulfurization experiments were performed on Case 2 pitch dispersed in l-undecanol, resulting in sulfur reductions of 15.1 to 21.4%. This was marginally lower than the 24.8% desulfurization obtained in l-dodecanol, but separation of pitch from the dispersant was facilitated by the greater volatility of l-undecanol.

Knight, R.A.

1995-12-31

40

Production of low-sulfur binder pitch from high-sulfur Illinois coals. Technical report, December 1, 1994--February 28, 1995  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to produce electrode binder pitch with sulfur content below 0.6 wt% from high-sulfur Illinois coal mild gasification liquids. In previous ICCI projects at IGT, flash thermocracking (FTC) was used to successfully upgrade the properties of mild gasification pitch, yielding a suitable blending stock for use as a binder in the production of carbon electrodes for the aluminum industry. However, in pitches from high-sulfur (4%) Illinois coal, the pitch sulfur content is still unacceptably high at 2%. In this project, two approaches to sulfur reduction are being explored in conjunction with FTC: (1) the use of conventionally cleaned coal with low ({approximately}1%) sulfur as a mild gasification feedstock, and (2) direct biodesulfurization of the liquids prior to FTC. In Case 1, the crude pitch is being produced by mild gasification of IBC-109 coal in an existing IGT bench-scale reactor, followed by distillation to isolate the crude pitch. In Case 2, the crude pitch for biodesulfurization was obtained from Illinois No. 6 coal tests conducted in the IGT mild gasification PRU in 1990. Biodesulfurization is to be performed by contacting the pitch with Rhodococcus Rhodochrous IGTS8 biocatalyst. Following preparation of the crude pitches, pitch upgrading experiments are to be conducted in a continuous FTC reactor constructed in previous ICCI-sponsored studies. The finished pitch is then characterized for physical and chemical properties (density, softening point, QI, TI, coking value, and elemental composition), and compared to typical specifications for binder pitches.

Knight, R.A.

1996-03-01

41

Small coal burning gas turbine for modular integrated utility systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary of a series of design studies pertaining to small coal-burning gas turbines for modular integrated utility systems. The effects of major parameters on both the capital cost and the thermal efficiency are discussed. The principal problems in the development of such systems are shown to be associated with the fluidized bed combustion chamber. These problems include the possibility of

A. P. Fraas

1974-01-01

42

Inert grinding and direct firing in coal burning systems  

SciTech Connect

A system in which coal is ground and transported in an inert atmosphere to a place of burning which may be a rotary kiln or a furnace, and in which system the coal being ground is used as the medium to produce the drying and inerting while the transporting media is the air brought in from outside the system and treated in a heating unit to consume part of the normal oxygen so it is rendered inert by the time it circulates in the system as the transporting media.

Willams, R.M.

1980-10-07

43

Radiative heat transfer in PC (pulverized coal) furnaces burning deeply cleaned coals  

SciTech Connect

A three-dimensional spectral radiation transport model has been developed for assessing the impact of burning deeply cleaned coals on heat absorption patterns in pulverized coal (PC) furnaces. Spectroscopic data are used for calculating the absorption coefficients of participating gases. Mie theory is invoked for determining the extinction and scattering efficiencies of combustion particulates. The optical constants of char, ash and soot are obtained from dispersion relations derived from reflectivity, transmissivity and extinction measurements. 8 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Ahluwalia, R.K.; Im, K.H.

1990-05-01

44

Cardowan coal mine explosion: experience of a mass burns incident.  

PubMed Central

A coal mine explosion 1700 feet (516 m) underground and two miles (3.2 km) from the pit head resulted in 40 casualties. Two hours elapsed between the explosion and the arrival of patients at hospital. Six patients suffered mechanical injuries, only one of which was life threatening. Thirty six suffered burns; in 18 over 15% of the total body surface area was affected. Nineteen patients had a mild respiratory upset requiring oxygen treatment. The average length of inpatient stay in those admitted was 24 days. Early assessment and treatment in the accident and emergency department was relatively simple because of the large proportion of burn injuries. Lack of communication between site and hospital made administration of the disaster difficult.

Allister, C; Hamilton, G M

1983-01-01

45

Encoal mild coal gasification project: Final design modifications report  

SciTech Connect

The design, construction and operation Phases of the Encoal Mild Coal Gasification Project have been completed. The plant, designed to process 1,000 ton/day of subbituminous Power River Basin (PRB) low-sulfur coal feed and to produce two environmentally friendly products, a solid fuel and a liquid fuel, has been operational for nearly five years. The solid product, Process Derived Fuel (PDF), is a stable, low-sulfur, high-Btu fuel similar in composition and handling properties to bituminous coal. The liquid product, Coal Derived Liquid (CDL), is a heavy, low-sulfur, liquid fuel similar in properties to heavy industrial fuel oil. Opportunities for upgrading the CDL to higher value chemicals and fuels have been identified. Significant quantities of both PDF and CDL have been delivered and successfully burned in utility and industrial boilers. A summary of the Project is given.

NONE

1997-07-01

46

Burning of suspended coal-water slurry droplet with oil as combustion additive  

SciTech Connect

Coal-water slurries have been regarded as a potential substitute for heavy fuel oil. Various demonstrations of coal-water slurry combustion have been performed; however, a fundamental understanding of how the combustion process of a slurry fuel is enhanced is still not adequate. The combustion of coal-water mixture droplets suspended on microthermocouples has been investigated. It was found that droplets of lignite coal (which is a noncaking coal) burn effectively; however, droplets of bituminous coal (which is a caking coal) are relatively difficult to burn. During the heat-up of bituminous coal-water slurry droplets may turn to ''popcorn'' and show significant agglomeration. The incomplete combustion of coal-water slurry droplets in furnaces has been reported, and this is a drawback of this process. The objective of the present study is to explore the possibility of enhancing the combustion of coal-water slurry droplets with the use of a combustible emulsified oil.

Yao, S.C.; Manwani, P.

1986-10-01

47

Gas turbine engine power plant with a coal burning fluidized bed  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gas turbine engine power plant having a coal burning fluidized bed utilized as the heating source for the power plant is described. The fluidized bed comprises inerts and coal in which is immersed a temperature sensitive device, the signal from which is used to control the supply of coal to the bed to maintain the bed at a predetermined

Jubb

1978-01-01

48

Coal burning leaves toxic heavy metal legacy in the Arctic.  

PubMed

Toxic heavy metals emitted by industrial activities in the midlatitudes are transported through the atmosphere and deposited in the polar regions; bioconcentration and biomagnification in the food chain mean that even low levels of atmospheric deposition may threaten human health and Arctic ecosystems. Little is known about sources and long-term trends of most heavy metals before approximately 1980, when modern measurements began, although heavy-metal pollution in the Arctic was widespread during recent decades. Lacking detailed, long-term measurements until now, ecologists, health researchers, and policy makers generally have assumed that contamination was highest during the 1960s and 1970s peak of industrial activity in North America and Europe. We present continuous 1772-2003 monthly and annually averaged deposition records for highly toxic thallium, cadmium, and lead from a Greenland ice core showing that atmospheric deposition was much higher than expected in the early 20th century, with tenfold increases from preindustrial levels by the early 1900s that were two to five times higher than during recent decades. Tracer measurements indicate that coal burning in North America and Europe was the likely source of these metals in the Arctic after 1860. Although these results show that heavy-metal pollution in the North Atlantic sector of the Arctic is substantially lower today than a century ago, contamination of other sectors may be increasing because of the rapid coal-driven growth of Asian economies. PMID:18711138

McConnell, Joseph R; Edwards, Ross

2008-08-18

49

Coal burning leaves toxic heavy metal legacy in the Arctic  

SciTech Connect

Toxic heavy metals emitted by industrial activities in the midlatitudes are transported through the atmosphere and deposited in the polar regions; bioconcentration and biomagnification in the food chain mean that even low levels of atmospheric deposition may threaten human health and Arctic ecosystems. Little is known about sources and long-term trends of most heavy metals before approximate to 1980, when modern measurements began, although heavy-metal pollution in the Arctic was widespread during recent decades. Lacking detailed, long-term measurements until now, ecologists, health researchers, and policy makers generally have assumed that contamination was highest during the 1960s and 1970s peak of industrial activity in North America and Europe. We present continuous 1772-2003 monthly and annually averaged deposition records for highly toxic thallium, cadmium, and lead from a Greenland ice core showing that atmospheric deposition was much higher than expected in the early 20th century, with tenfold increases from preindustrial levels by the early 1900s that were two to five times higher than during recent decades. Tracer measurements indicate that coal burning in North America and Europe was the likely source of these metals in the Arctic after 1860. Although these results show that heavy-metal pollution in the North Atlantic sector of the Arctic is substantially lower today than a century ago, contamination of other sectors may be increasing because of the rapid coal-driven growth of Asian economies.

McConnell, J.R.; Edwards, R. [Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV (United States)

2008-08-26

50

Speciation of chromium in feed coals and ash byproducts from Canadian power plants burning subbituminous and bituminous coals  

SciTech Connect

The chromium species in the feed coals and ash byproducts from seven Canadian coal-fired power plants were examined using Cr X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy. Chromium in the Canadian feed coals is always found as Cr{sup 3+} but generally has a dual occurrence, as Cr{sup 3+} is distributed to varying degrees between the clay mineral illite and a poorly crystallized chromium oxyhydroxide phase associated with the organic fraction. In two subbituminous feed coals from Alberta, chromium is present largely as Cr{sup 3+}/illite, whereas in two other such coals, it is present predominantly as CrOOH. Chromium in a low-sulfur bituminous feed coal from Alberta is found mostly as Cr{sup 3+}/illite, whereas for feed coals from Nova Scotia with high sulfur contents, chromium is distributed between both Cr{sup 3+}/illite and CrOOH. Very little chromium was found in the limestone used in a fluidized-bed combustor. The chromium species in most bottom ash samples from all seven combustion units is predominantly, if not entirely, Cr{sup 3+} associated with aluminosilicate phases. Chromium speciation for subbituminous electrostatic precipitator fly ash is mostly Cr{sup 3+}, but in some cases, it is slightly lessand varies by sampling location at the plant. Chromium in fly ash from the combustion of bituminous feed coals is predominantlyCr{sup 3+}. A unique species of chromium found in one feed coal and an unrelated fly ash is metallic chromium, similar to that in stainless steel. The occurrence of this form of chromium in these materials indicates contamination from machinery, such as the coal milling machine or possibly wearing down of stainless steel parts by the coal or ash. The observation of this unexpected contamination demonstrates the power and usefulness of X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy for speciation determination. 35 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

Fariborz Goodarzi; Frank E. Huggins [Geological Survey of Canada-Calgary Division, Calgary, AB (Canada)

2005-12-01

51

The mining and burning of coal: effects on health and the environment.  

PubMed

Australia's coal conundrum is that all political parties say they are concerned about climate change while sanctioning an unprecedented expansion of coalmining and coal seam gas extraction in Australia. Australia's coal contributes to climate change and its global health impacts. Each phase of coal's lifecycle (mining, disposal of contaminated water and tailings, transportation, washing, combustion, and disposing of postcombustion wastes) produces pollutants that affect human health. Communities in which coalmining or burning occurs have been shown to suffer significant health impacts. The health and climate costs of coal are unseen, and when costs to health systems are included, coal is an expensive fuel. PMID:21929497

Castleden, William M; Shearman, David; Crisp, George; Finch, Philip

2011-09-19

52

Health effects of fluoride pollution caused by coal burning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently a huge amount of fluoride in coal has been released into indoor environments by the combustion of coal and fluoride pollution seems to be increasing in some rural areas in China. Combustion of coal and coal bricks is the primary source of gaseous and aerosol fluoride and these forms of fluoride can easily enter exposed food products and the

Mitsuru Ando; Mihoko Tadano; Shoji Yamamoto; Kenji Tamura; Shinji Asanuma; Toshikazu Watanabe; Takeshi Kondo; Shiro Sakurai; Rongdi Ji; Chaoke Liang; Xueqing Chen; Zhang Hong; Shouren Cao

2001-01-01

53

Physical characterization of the cigarette coal: part 1—smolder burn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphology of the coal from the smoldering cigarette was characterized using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy, and image analysis. The coal of the smoked cigarette was divided into four regions: the char positioned at and behind the char line of the cigarette paper, the coal base located just in

Vicki L Baliga; Donald E Miser; Ramesh K Sharma; Michael E Thurston; W. Geoffrey Chan; Mohammad R Hajaligol

2003-01-01

54

Method of burning lightly loaded coal-water slurries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a preferred arrangement of the method of the invention, a lightly loaded coal-water slurry, containing in the range of approximately 40% to 52% + 2% by weight coal, is atomized to strip water from coal particles in the mixture. Primary combustor air is forced around the atomized spray in a combustion chamber of a combustor to swirl the air

Krishna

1984-01-01

55

Burns.  

PubMed

Burns are a leading cause of accidental injury and death. The American Burn Association statistics from 2001 to 2010 show that 68% of burns happen at home, 44% are from fires/flames, and 60% to 70% happen to white men. Smoke inhalation is the leading cause of adult death caused by fires. A patient with a 78% total body surface area burn has a 50% chance of survival. Burn injuries are described in terms of causative agents, depth, and severity. Crucial treatments for people with burns include assessment, stabilization, transfer to a burn unit, and fluid resuscitation. PMID:23692944

Ellison, Deborah L

2013-03-01

56

Comparison of costs, emissions, and waste products on an 80MW CFBC burning mine-run and washed coals  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Sargent Lundy (S L) have identified and evaluated differences between a circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) facility that burns a cleaning plant washed coal and one that burns the mine-run parent coal. The differences between the quantities of airborne emissions have been determined. The chemical composition, amounts, and suitability of the ash

M. K. Clemens; W. F. Podolski

1991-01-01

57

Tests and Studies of USSR Materials at the US Coal Burning MHD Facility UTSI-2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In accordance with the overall program of the US--USSR cooperation in the field of MHD power generation tests of Soviet electrode materials were conducted at the coal burning MHD facility UTSI-2 of the University of Tennessee Space Institute. The main pur...

G. P. Telegin A. I. Romanov A. I. Rekov E. G. Spiridonov T. I. Barodina

1978-01-01

58

Tests and studies of USSR materials at the US coal burning MHD facility UTSI-2  

Microsoft Academic Search

In accordance with the overall program of the US--USSR cooperation in the field of MHD power generation tests of Soviet electrode materials were conducted at the coal burning MHD facility UTSI-2 of the University of Tennessee Space Institute. The main purposes of the tests are evaluation of electrode materials behavior in the channel of the MHD generator operating with combustion

G. P. Telegin; A. I. Romanov; A. I. Rekov; E. G. Spiridonov; T. I. Barodina; D. A. Vysotsky

1978-01-01

59

OVERFIRE AIR TECHNOLOGY FOR TANGENTIALLY FIRED UTILITY BOILERS BURNING WESTERN U.S. COAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an investigation and evaluation of the effectiveness of overfire air in reducing NOx emissions from tangentially fired boilers burning Western U.S. coal. Results are compared with those obtained during phase II, 'Program for Reduction of NOx from Tange...

60

Method and composition for modifying burning of sulfur in coals and hydrocarbon fuels  

SciTech Connect

Efficiency of internal combustion engine performance, I.E. Improved mileage per gallon, and improved performance, E.G. Lower exhaust temperature, is increased by the addition of carotenoids, beta-carotene in particular, to diesel fuel before use, and the combustion of coal is improved, I.E. higher btu/lb results, sulfur in emission from such coal combustion is reduced, and sulfur in ash is increased, by the addition of squalene, squalane , carotenoids, beta-carotene in particular, hemoglobin and chlorophyll to the coal before burning.

Jordan, F.L.

1981-06-23

61

Process for clean-burning fuel from low-rank coal  

DOEpatents

A process is described for upgrading and stabilizing low-rank coal involving the sequential processing of the coal through three fluidized beds; first a dryer, then a pyrolyzer, and finally a cooler. The fluidizing gas for the cooler is the exit gas from the pyrolyzer with the addition of water for cooling. Overhead gas from pyrolyzing is likely burned to furnish the energy for the process. The product coal exits with a tar-like pitch sealant to enhance its safety during storage. 1 fig.

Merriam, N.W.; Sethi, V.; Brecher, L.E.

1994-06-21

62

Solvent refined coal (SRC) process. Research and development report No. 53. Interim report No. 23, 1976--1977. Development of a process for producing an ashless, low-sulfur fuel from coal. Volume IV. Product studies. Part 11. Processing of solvent refined coal minerals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solvent refining process of Pittsburgh and Midway Coal Mining Company for coal cleaning results in a residue termed coal mineral. This residue contains essentially all the ash and inorganic sulfur of the original coal plus some organic sulfur and undissolved carbon. The carbon content varies from 20% to 60% depending on the severity of treatment in the refining process.

Biswas

1979-01-01

63

Method of burning lightly loaded coal-water slurries  

DOEpatents

In a preferred arrangement of the method of the invention, a lightly loaded coal-water slurry, containing in the range of approximately 40% to 52% + 2% by weight coal, is atomized to strip water from coal particles in the mixture. Primary combustor air is forced around the atomized spray in a combustion chamber of a combustor to swirl the air in a helical path through the combustion chamber. A flame is established within the combustion chamber to ignite the stripped coal particles, and flame temperature regulating means are provided for maintaining the flame temperature within a desired predetermined range of temperatures that is effective to produce dry, essentially slag-free ash from the combustion process.

Krishna, C.R.

1984-07-27

64

Air extraction in gas turbines burning coal-derived gas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the first phase of this contracted research, a comprehensive investigation was performed. Principally, the effort was directed to identify the technical barriers which might exist in integrating the air-blown coal gasification process with a hot gas cl...

T. Yang A. K. Agrawal J. S. Kapat

1993-01-01

65

Florida CFB demo plant yields low emissions on variety of coals  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) has reported results of tests conducted at Jacksonville Electric Authority (JEA)'s Northside power plant using mid-to-low-sulfur coal, which indicate the facility is one of the cleanest burning coal-fired power plants in the world. A part of DOE's Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program, the JEA project is a repowering demonstration of the operating and environmental performance of Foster Wheeler's utility-scale circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFB) technology on a range of high-sulfur coals and blends of coal and high-sulfur petroleum coke. The 300 MW demonstration unit has a non-demonstration 300 MW twin unit.

NONE

2005-07-01

66

Child Skeletal Fluorosis from Indoor Burning of Coal in Southwestern China  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We assess the prevalence and pathogenic stage of skeletal fluorosis among children and adolescents residing in a severe coal-burning endemic fluorosis area of southwest China. Methods. We used a cross-sectional design. A total of 1,616 students aged between 7 and 16 years in Zhijin County, Guizhou, China in late 2004 were selected via a cluster sampling of all 9-year compulsory education schools to complete the study questionnaire. Any student lived in a household that burned coal, used an open-burning stove, or baked foodstuffs over a coal stove was deemed high-risk for skeletal fluorosis. About 23% (370) of students (188 boys, 182 girls) were identified as high-risk and further examined by X-ray. Results. One-third of the 370 high-risk participants were diagnosed with skeletal fluorosis. Overall prevalence of child skeletal fluorosis due to indoor burning of coal was 7.5%. Children aged 12–16 years were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with skeletal fluorosis than children aged 7–11 years (OR = 1.84, 95% CI: 1.17–2.90; P = .0082). Four types of skeletal fluorosis were identified: constrictive (60.7%), raritas (15.6%), mixed (16.4%), and soft (7.4%). Most diagnosed cases (91%) were mild or moderate in severity. In addition, about 97% of 370 high-risk children were identified with dental fluorosis. Dental fluorosis was highly correlated with skeletal fluorosis in this study. Conclusions. Skeletal fluorosis among children may contribute to poor health and reduced productivity when they reach adulthood. Further efforts to reduce fluoride exposure among children in southwestern of China where coal is burned indoors are desperately needed.

Qin, Xianghui; Wang, Shouying; Yu, Maojuan; Zhang, Lei; Li, Xinhua; Zuo, Zhen; Zhang, Xiuhui; Wang, Lihua

2009-01-01

67

Liquid-coal success to up DOE funds  

Microsoft Academic Search

A successful commercial-scale test burning of liquid solvent-refined coal (SRC-II) has intensified DOE financing for further research. The joint project of Consolidated Edison and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) found the fuel's performance to be camparable to low-sulfur oil. DOE will fund $206 million for direct liquefaction research and second-generation research on SRC-II and Exxon Donor Solvent. A small

1978-01-01

68

Development of a process for producing an ashless, low-sulfur fuel from coal. Volume IV. Product studies. Part 10. Final report of coal liquids catalyst work performed at Oklahoma State University. Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) process, June 17, 1970June 16, 1975  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report provides a summary of the coal liquids catalyst work at Oklahoma State University. The broad overall objective of this work has been to specifically tailor heterogeneous catalysts for upgrading coal derived liquids. The more specific goal has been to assess the effects of catalyst support pore properties on sulfur and nitrogen removal from certain coal liquids.

Crynes

1979-01-01

69

Solvent refined coal (SRC) process: development of a process for producing an ashless, low-sulfur fuel from coal. Research and development report No. 53, interim report No. 20. Volume IV. Product studies. Part II. Processing of coal minerals for the period 1975--1976  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solvent refined process for coal liquefaction results in a residue, termed coal minerals, containing approximately 50% carbon and the remainder mineral material. Silica, alumina, iron, and sulfur (pyrites) make up the majority of the minerals. The gasification of the carbon as fuel and the recovery of iron and sulfur are the main concern of this study. Pulverized coal minerals

Moh; T. T. L

1978-01-01

70

Baked shale and slag formed by the burning of coal beds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The baking and reddening of large masses of strata caused by the burning of coal beds is a striking feature of the landscape in most of the great western coal-bearing areas. The general character and broader effects of the burning have been described by many writers, but the fact that in places enough heat is generated to fuse and thoroughly recrystallize the overlying shale and sandstone has received less attention. Some of the natural slags thus formed simulate somewhat abnormal igneous rocks, but others consist largely of rare and little known minerals. A wide range in the mineral composition of such slags is to be expected, depending on the composition of the original sediment and the conditions of fusion and cooling. These products of purely thermal metamorphism offer a fertile field for petrologic investigation. The writer has observed the effects produced by the burning of coal beds in several localities in Montana, particularly along upper Tongue River in the southern part of the State, in the district lying southeast of the mouth of Bighorn River, and in the Little Sheep Mountain coal field north of Miles City. A number of specimens of the rock formed have been examined under the microscope, though time has not been available for a systematic examination. The writer is greatly indebted to Mr. E. S. Larsen for assistance in the study of some of the minerals.

Rogers, G. Sherburne

1918-01-01

71

Particle and gas emissions from a simulated coal-burning household fire pit.  

PubMed

An open fire was assembled with firebricks to simulate the household fire pit used in rural China, and 15 different coals from this area were burned to measure the gaseous and particulate emissions. Particle size distribution was studied with a microorifice uniform-deposit impactor (MOUDI). Over 90% of the particulate mass was attributed to sub-micrometer particles. The carbon balance method was used to calculate the emission factors. Emission factors for four pollutants (particulate matter, CO2, total hydrocarbons, and NOx) were 2-4 times higherfor bituminous coals than for anthracites. In past inventories of carbonaceous emissions used for climate modeling, these two types of coal were not treated separately. The dramatic emission factor difference between the two types of coal warrants attention in the future development of emission inventories. PMID:18504988

Tian, Linwei; Lucas, Donald; Fischer, Susan L; Lee, S C; Hammond, S Katharine; Koshland, Catherine P

2008-04-01

72

Air extraction in gas turbines burning coal-derived gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the first phase of this contracted research, a comprehensive investigation was performed. Principally, the effort was directed to identify the technical barriers which might exist in integrating the air-blown coal gasification process with a hot gas cleanup scheme and the state-of-the-art, US made, heavy-frame gas turbine. The guiding rule of the integration is to keep the compressor and the

Tah-teh Yang; A. K. Agrawal; J. S. Kapat

1993-01-01

73

Fire-Tube Boiler Test Burn on Coal-Water Fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER), in cooperation with the University of Alabama (UA) and the Mining Division of Jim Walter Resources, Inc. (JWRI), was awarded a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contract to retrofit an existing fire-tube boiler to burn coal-water fuel (CWF) A fire-tube boiler on the UA campus was retrofitted, and the CWF was made from

BRADLEY MITCHEL HALE; DAVID W. ARNOLD

1998-01-01

74

Identification of nanominerals and nanoparticles in burning coal waste piles from Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

A range of carbon nanoparticles, agglomerates and mineral phases have been identified in burning coal waste pile materials from the Douro Coalfield of Portugal, as a basis for identifying their potential environmental and human health impacts. The fragile nature and fine particle size of these materials required novel characterization methods, including energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM),

Joana Ribeiro; Deolinda Flores; Colin R. Ward; Luis F. O. Silva

2010-01-01

75

Trajectories of ash particles through a coal-burning gas turbine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-dimensional algorithm was previously developed to compute more accurate particle trajectories through turbomachinery blade rows. The capabilities of this algorithm are demonstrated in this paper with trajectory analyses through a coal-burning gas turbine developed by the Bureau of Mines. This five-stage axial turbine contains three-dimensional variations in both the geometry and the gas flow field that have a significant

B. Beacher; W. Tabakoff

1984-01-01

76

Burns  

MedlinePLUS

... staples the skin graft over the burned area. Artificial skin can also be used. Autografts are permanent. ... 21 days by the person's immune system, and artificial skin is removed. Although allografts and xenografts provide ...

77

Wintertime organic aerosols in Christchurch and Auckland, New Zealand: contributions of residential wood and coal burning and petroleum utilization  

SciTech Connect

Wintertime PM10 samples from two New Zealand cities (Christchurch and Auckland) have been characterized using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry for biomass burning tracers, hopanes, n-alkanes, fatty acids, n-alkanols and sugars. The aerosol samples of Christchurch, which were heavily influenced by residential wood and coal burning, showed substantially higher ambient concentrations for most of the organic compounds than those of Auckland, where major sources of aerosols were vehicular emissions and sea-salt. Mass ratios between the biomass burning tracers studied were found to be significantly different (e.g., {beta}-sitosterol to nssK{sup +} ratios were more than three times higher in Christchurch than in Auckland), although levoglucosan to nssK{sup +} ratios were similar at the both sites. We also estimated, for the first time using stereochemical configurations of hopanes, that 60% of fossil fuel emissions came from petroleum utilization with the remaining 40% being from coal burning in Christchurch. In contrast, contribution of coal burning was negligible in Auckland. Moreover, contributions of most biomass burning tracers to organic carbon (OC) were significantly higher in Christchurch than in Auckland. On the other hand, saccharides (excluding levoglucosan) and hopanes accounted for larger fractions of OC in Auckland. This study demonstrates that intensive wood and coal burning can significantly affect organic aerosol composition in an urban environment. 46 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Haobo Wang; Kimitaka Kawamura; David Shooter [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Institute of Low-Temperature Science

2006-09-01

78

Use of foaming mud cement to terminate underground coal fires and to control subsidence of burn cavities. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Foaming Mud Cement (FMC) is a class of materials related to cellular cement studied and developed for the purpose of addressing Abandoned Mine Land problems. During the 2-year program, significant advances were made using a specific methodology that properly employed will enable the successful termination of many surface and underground coal mine fires. Fundamental but key developments attained were: the ability to effectively isolate burning coal from the available air by effectively penetrating burning coal rubble with heat-resistive FMC and encapsulating and isolation of a wide range of coal particle sizes, resulting in permanent coal-fire termination by air exclusion. The materials developed were specifically designed to terminate underground coal fires and preventing further subsidence.

Lucero, R.F.

1988-09-29

79

Field tests of fabric filters on full-scale coal-fired utility boilers. Volume 1. Martin Drake Unit 6, Ray D. Nixon Unit 1, Cherokee Unit 3, Cameo Unit 2, and Arapahoe Unit 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report discusses the results of a field investigation of full-scale baghouses collecting fly ash at five coal-fired power plants. All five plants burned western, low-sulfur, subbituminous coal and were equipped with baghouses cleaned by reverse gas. Since all of the baghouses operated with clear stacks, particulate collection efficiencies were not measured. Instead, attention was focused on parameters associated with

L. G. Felix; K. M. Cushing; R. L. Merritt; W. B. Smith

1985-01-01

80

Low sulphur coal supplies for environmental purposes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental considerations are sharply narrowing the nation's coal resource base and emphasizing the need for more information on low sulfur coal reserves, particularly in the eastern United States. Pending economic processes for the reduction of pollutants, coal supplies for environmental purposes will be increasingly tight. Low sulfur coal reserves are estimated at 96 billion tons in Appalachia and 916 billion

1976-01-01

81

Burns  

MedlinePLUS

... fluids are needed to maintain blood pressure. Grafting with natural or artificial materials speeds the post-burn healing process. What is skin grafting? There are two types of skin grafts. An autologous skin graft transfers skin from one part of the body to another while an allograft ...

82

Urinary arsenic speciation and its correlation with 8-OHdG in Chinese residents exposed to arsenic through coal burning  

SciTech Connect

In contrast to arsenicosis caused by consumption of water contaminated by naturally occurring inorganic arsenic, human exposure to this metalloid through coal burning has been rarely reported. In this study, arsenic speciation and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels in urine were determined in the Chinese residents exposed to arsenic through coal burning in Guizhou, China, an epidemic area of chronic arsenic poisoning caused by coal burning. The urinary concentrations of inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and total arsenic (tAs) of high-arsenic exposed subjects were significantly higher than those of low-arsenic exposed residents. A biomarker of oxidative DNA damage, urinary 8-OHdG level was significantly higher in high-arsenic exposed subjects than that of low exposed. Significant positive correlations were found between 8-OHdG levels and concentrations of iAs, MMA, DMA and tAs, respectively. In addition, a significant negative correlation was observed between 8-OHdG levels and the secondary methylation ratio (DMA/(MMA + DMA)). The results suggest that chronic arsenic exposure through burning coal rich in arsenic is associated with oxidative DNA damages, and that secondary methylation capacity is potentially related to the susceptibility of individuals to oxidative DNA damage induced by arsenic exposure through coal burning in domestic living.

Li, X.; Pi, J.B.; Li, B.; Xu, Y.Y.; Jin, Y.P.; Sun, G.F. [China Medical University, Shenyang (China). Dept. for Occupational & Environmental Health

2008-10-15

83

Identification of nanominerals and nanoparticles in burning coal waste piles from Portugal.  

PubMed

A range of carbon nanoparticles, agglomerates and mineral phases have been identified in burning coal waste pile materials from the Douro Coalfield of Portugal, as a basis for identifying their potential environmental and human health impacts. The fragile nature and fine particle size of these materials required novel characterization methods, including energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) techniques. The chemical composition and possible correlations with morphology of the nanominerals and associated ultra-fine particles have been evaluated in the context of human health exposure, as well as in relation to management of such components in coal-fire environments. PMID:20855106

Ribeiro, Joana; Flores, Deolinda; Ward, Colin R; Silva, Luis F O

2010-09-19

84

Profile analysis of organic micropollutants in the environment of a coal burning area, NW Greece.  

PubMed

The concentrations and profiles of dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls and polynuclear aromatic compounds in various environmental matrices are presented in this study. The examined environmental matrices are total suspended particles, fly ash and soil collected in NW Greece, an area characterized by intensive coal burning for electrical power generation. Moreover, the occurrence of organic micropollutants in soot after an accidental fire was examined and the possible impact on the outdoor environment was evaluated. Results were statistically treated to obtain information on representative PCDD/F profiles in each matrix and to compare these profiles with the compositional patterns of possible sources from literature. Coal combustion, fly ash and vehicle exhausts appeared to be the most possible sources in local atmosphere. PMID:15006512

Voutsa, D; Terzi, H; Muller, L; Samara, C; Kouimtzis, Th

2004-04-01

85

Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility, Wilsonville, Alabama. Run 261 with Illinois No. 6 Burning Star Mine coal  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of Run 261 performed at the Advanced Coal Liquefaction R & D Facility in Wilsonville, Alabama. The run started on January 12, 1991 and continued until May 31, 1991, operating in the Close-Coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction mode processing Illinois No. 6 seam bituminous coal (from Burning star No. 2 mine). In the first part of Run 261, a new bimodal catalyst, EXP-AO-60, was tested for its performance and attrition characteristics in the catalytic/catalytic mode of the CC-ITSL process. The main objective of this part of the run was to obtain good process performance in the low/high temperature mode of operation along with well-defined distillation product end boiling points. In the second part of Run 261, Criterion (Shell) 324 catalyst was tested. The objective of this test was to evaluate the operational stability and catalyst and process performance while processing the high ash Illinois No. 6 coal. Increasing viscosity and preasphaltenes made it difficult to operate at conditions similar to EXP-AO-60 catalyst operation, especially at lower catalyst replacement rates.

Not Available

1992-09-01

86

Quantitative measurement of atomic sodium in the plume of a single burning coal particle  

SciTech Connect

The release of volatile sodium during coal combustion is a significant factor in the fouling and corrosion of heat transfer surfaces within industrial coal-fired boilers. A method for measuring the temporal release of atomic sodium from a single coal particle is described. Laser absorption was used to calibrate laser-induced fluorescence measurements of atomic sodium utilising the sodium D1 line (589.59 nm) in a purpose-designed flat flame environment. The calibration was then applied to planar laser-induced fluorescence measurements of sodium atoms in the plume from a single Victorian brown coal particle (53 mg) suspended within the flat flame. The peak concentration of atomic sodium was approximately 64.1 ppb after 1080.5 s, which appears to correspond to the end of char combustion. To our knowledge this is the first in situ quantitative measurement of the concentration field of atomic sodium in the plume above a burning particle. A simple kinetic model has been used to estimate the rate of sodium decay in the post-flame gases. Comparison of the estimated and measured decay rates showed reasonable agreement. (author)

van Eyk, P.J.; Ashman, P.J.; Alwahabi, Z.T. [Cooperative Research Centre for Clean Power from Lignite, School of Chemical Engineering, The University of Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia); Nathan, G.J. [School of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia)

2008-11-15

87

JV Task 126 - Mercury Control Technologies for Electric Utilities Burning Bituminous Coal  

SciTech Connect

The EERC developed an applied research consortium project to test cost-effective mercury (Hg) control technologies for utilities burning bituminous coals. The project goal was to test innovative Hg control technologies that have the potential to reduce Hg emissions from bituminous coal-fired power plants by {ge}90% at costs of one-half to three-quarters of current estimates for activated carbon injection (ACI). Hg control technology evaluations were performed using the EERC's combustion test facility (CTF). The CTF was fired on pulverized bituminous coals at 550,000 Btu/hr (580 MJ/hr). The CTF was configured with the following air pollution control devices (APCDs): selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit, electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization system (WFDS). The Hg control technologies investigated as part of this project included ACI (three Norit Americas, Inc., and eleven Envergex sorbents), elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) oxidation catalysts (i.e., the noble metals in Hitachi Zosen, Cormetech, and Hitachi SCR catalysts), sorbent enhancement additives (SEAs) (a proprietary EERC additive, trona, and limestone), and blending with a Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. These Hg control technologies were evaluated separately, and many were also tested in combination.

Jason Laumb; John Kay; Michael Jones; Brandon Pavlish; Nicholas Lentz; Donald McCollor; Kevin Galbreath

2009-03-29

88

Comparison of costs, emissions, and waste products on an 80-MW CFBC burning mine-run and washed coals  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Sargent Lundy (S L) have identified and evaluated differences between a circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) facility that burns a cleaning plant washed coal and one that burns the mine-run parent coal. The differences between the quantities of airborne emissions have been determined. The chemical composition, amounts, and suitability of the ash for landfill disposal have also been evaluated. The production and disposition of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) identified toxic elements, AS, BA, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg, Se, and Ag, have been examined in order to determine concentrations and potential for environmental contamination. 7 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

Clemens, M.K. (Sargent and Lundy, Chicago, IL (USA)); Podolski, W.F. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

1991-01-01

89

40 CFR 80.255 - Compliance plans and demonstration of commitment to produce low sulfur gasoline.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Compliance plans and demonstration of commitment to produce low sulfur gasoline. 80...Compliance plans and demonstration of commitment to produce low sulfur gasoline...under § 80.260. (a) Compliance commitment. By no later than June 1,...

2013-07-01

90

Ash deposition in the Coal Fired Flow Facility while burning Illinois [number sign]6 coal  

SciTech Connect

Deposition of coal fly ash and potassium sulfate on tubes representative of superheaters and intermediate temperature air heaters at the DOE Coal Fired Flow Facility during a 2000 hour POC test period is herein described. The deposition is unique to this test facility because of the high combustion temperatures and the use of potassium carbonate as the conducting seed.'' This seed material is required for coal fired MHD applications as a means to control sulfur dioxide emissions as it combines with the sulfur in coal to form potassium sulfate. Most of the potassium sulfate solids removed are in the form of a fine ash from which potassium can be recovered and recycled. Testing clearly indicated that the majority of ash/seed deposits can be removed by conventional sootblowing. A significant difference in ash removal is the increased volume of deposits, as potassium compounds make up 75% of the total deposits which must be removed for efficient heat transfer. Tube deposits on the heat exchange surfaces in the area of highest gas temperature have been difficult to remove due to the presence of molten potassium sulfate.

Dace, J.F.; Shaver, T.C.

1993-01-01

91

Upgrading low rank coal using the Koppelman Series C process  

SciTech Connect

Development of the K-Fuel technology began after the energy shortage of the early 1970s in the United States led energy producers to develop the huge deposits of low-sulfur coal in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming. PRB coal is a subbituminous C coal containing about 30 wt % moisture and having heating values of about 18.6 megajoules/kg (8150 Btu/lb). PRB coal contains from 0.3 to 0.5 wt % sulfur, which is nearly all combined with the organic matrix in the coal. It is in much demand for boiler fuel because of the low-sulfur content and the low price. However, the low-heating value limits the markets for PRB coal to boilers specially designed for the high- moisture coal. Thus, the advantages of the low-sulfur content are not available to many potential customers having boilers that were designed for bituminous coal. This year about 250 million tons of coal is shipped from the Powder River Basin of Wyoming. The high- moisture content and, consequently, the low-heating value of this coal causes the transportation and combustion of the coal to be inefficient. When the moisture is removed and the heating value increased the same bundle of energy can be shipped using one- third less train loads. Also, the dried product can be burned much more efficiently in boiler systems. This increase in efficiency reduces the carbon dioxide emissions caused by use of the low-heating value coal. Also, the processing used to remove water and restructure the coal removes sulfur, nitrogen, mercury, and chlorides from the coal. This precombustion cleaning is much less costly than stack scrubbing. PRB coal, and other low-rank coals, tend to be highly reactive when freshly mined. These reactive coals must be mixed regularly (every week or two) when fresh, but become somewhat more stable after they have aged for several weeks. PRB coal is relatively dusty and subject to self-ignition compared to bituminous coals. When dried using conventional technology, PRB coal is even more dusty and more susceptible to spontaneous combustion than the raw coal. Also, PRB coal, if dried at low temperature, typically readsorbs about two- thirds of the moisture removed by drying. This readsorption of moisture releases the heat of adsorption of the water which is a major cause of self- heating of low-rank coals at low temperature.

Merriam, N.W., Western Research Institute

1998-01-01

92

Assessment of elements, speciation of As, Cr, Ni and emitted Hg for a Canadian power plant burning bituminous coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed assessment of elements was carried out at a power plant rated at 150 MW burning western Canadian medium volatile bituminous coal with an ash content of 34 wt.%. The distributions of elements of environmental concern (As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni and Pb) in feed coals, ashes, and stack-emitted materials were determined using NAA, ICPES and ICP-MS, GFAA for Pb, and

F. Goodarzi; F. E. Huggins; H. Sanei

2008-01-01

93

Transboundary environmental problems: the case of the burning of coal in Poland for heating and electricity purposes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transboundary environmental problems have increased in prevalence over recent years in Eastern Europe where the scope and extent of the problems, and hence possibility of impacts outside of national borders, have been considerably greater than in western nations. This paper examines an example of a transboundary environmental risk problem, namely that of coal burning in Poland. The case study focuses

Ragnar E. Löfstedt

1998-01-01

94

OXIDATION OF MERCURY ACROSS SCR CATALYSTS IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS BURNING LOW RANK FUELS  

SciTech Connect

This is the seventh Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-03NT41728. The objective of this program is to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Argillon GmbH are providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, a model of Hg oxidation across SCRs was formulated based on full-scale data. The model took into account the effects of temperature, space velocity, catalyst type and HCl concentration in the flue gas.

Constance Senior

2004-10-29

95

Study of Kinetics of Iron Minerals in Coal by 57Fe Mössbauer and FT-IR Spectroscopy During Natural Burning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The process of burning of sulphur rich coal from Jaipur mine in North-Eastern India was carried out at a temperature of (675 ± 5) °C for different time intervals. 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy was applied to study the reaction products of iron compounds in each step of thermal treatment. The transformation of Szomolnokite (FeSO4·H2O) and Pyrite (FeS2) in the as received coal sample finally transformed to ?-Fe2O3 and ?-Fe2O3. Other clay minerals produce some low spin silicate ash. Fourier Transmission Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy gives the ratio of several structural parameters such as H ar/H al and H ar/C ar. DTA analysis of the coal sample gives the exothermic reaction at different temperatures. TGA and TG analysis of the coal sample in an inert atmosphere shows the weight loss of the coal sample in different temperature ranges.

Bandyopadhyay, Debashis

2005-06-01

96

Chemical and thermal variations in seeps discharged from a burning coal refuse pile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acid mine drainage generated by coal refuse piles is affecting the Moxahala watershed in Southeastern Ohio. The major contributor of acidity to this watershed is the Misco refuse pile. This pile was formed during the exploitation of the Misco Mine in Perry County, Ohio, in the early 1950's. In addition to the generation of acid mine drainage, the Misco Pile is burning. There is an impounded pond on the southwest end of the west gob pile, which was created when the valley was filled with refuse. The water from this pond flows into and throughout the gob pile and discharges on the northeast end into Bennet Run. At an elevation close to the elevation of the pond, two seeps are discharged. Temperature, specific conductivity, and pH was monitored in these seeps and correlated to rainfall. A lack of response of water temperature to small rainfall events was observed. This behavior suggest channeling of water inside the pile from the source pond to the main seep, and probably evaporation effects. In comparison, during high rainfall events, transfer of heat from the burning spots to the infiltrating water occurred and an increase in seep temperature was observed. A decrease in conductivity and an increase in pH was observed during the studied period as a dilution effect produced by an increased water storage within the pond and pile. Diurnal effects were stronger in the smaller seep, probably due to lower water velocities and greater residence time at the air-pile interface. From the location of the burning spots and seeps, a water velocity of 1 to 5 feet/s (0.3 to 1.7 m/s) was estimated. The pile can be viewed as a dual-porosity system of continuous conduits and matrix porosity. Only flow with sufficient head can penetrate and transfer heat from the hot areas in the matrix.

Lopez, D. L.; Doe, C. F.; Stuart, B. J.; Stoertz, M. W.

2002-12-01

97

Process for producing low-sulfur boiler fuel by hydrotreatment of solvent deashed SRC  

SciTech Connect

In this invention, a process is disclosed characterized by heating a slurry of coal in the presence of a process-derived recycle solvent and passing same to a dissolver zone, separating the resultant gases and liquid/solid products therefrom, vacuum distilling the liquid/solids products, separating the portions of the liquid/solids vacuum distillation effluent into a solid ash, unconverted coal particles and SRC material having a boiling point above 850/sup 0/ F. and subjecting same to a critical solvent deashing step to provide an ash-free SRC product. The lighter liquid products from the vacuum distillation possess a boiling point below 850/sup 0/ F. and are passed through a distillation tower, from which recycled solvent is recovered in addition to light distillate boiling below 400/sup 0/ F. (overhead). The ash-free SRC product in accompanyment with at least a portion of the process derived solvent is passed in combination to a hydrotreating zone containing a hydrogenation catalyst and in the presence of hydrogen is hydroprocessed to produce a desulfurized and denitrogenized low-sulfur, low-ash boiler fuel and a process derived recycle solvent which is recycled to slurry the coal in the beginning of the process before heating.

Roberts, G.W.; Tao, J.C.

1985-08-13

98

Process for producing low-sulfur boiler fuel by hydrotreatment of solvent deashed SRC  

DOEpatents

In this invention, a process is disclosed characterized by heating a slurry of coal in the presence of a process-derived recycle solvent and passing same to a dissolver zone, separating the resultant gases and liquid/solid products therefrom, vacuum distilling the liquid/solids products, separating the portions of the liquid/solids vacuum distillation effluent into a solid ash, unconverted coal particles and SRC material having a boiling point above 850.degree. F. and subjecting same to a critical solvent deashing step to provide an ash-free SRC product. The lighter liquid products from the vacuum distillation possess a boiling point below 850.degree. F. and are passed through a distillation tower, from which recycled solvent is recovered in addition to light distillate boiling below 400.degree. F. (overhead). The ash-free SRC product in accompanyment with at least a portion of the process derived solvent is passed in combination to a hydrotreating zone containing a hydrogenation catalyst and in the presence of hydrogen is hydroprocessed to produce a desulfurized and denitrogenized low-sulfur, low-ash boiler fuel and a process derived recycle solvent which is recycled to slurry the coal in the beginning of the process before heating.

Roberts, George W. (Emmaus, PA); Tao, John C. (Perkiomenville, PA)

1985-01-01

99

OXIDATION OF MERCURY ACROSS SCR CATALYSTS IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS BURNING LOW RANK FUELS  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this program were to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel and to develop a greater understanding of mercury oxidation across SCR catalysts in the form of a simple model. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Argillon GmbH provided co-funding for this program. REI used a multicatalyst slipstream reactor to determine oxidation of mercury across five commercial SCR catalysts at a power plant that burned a blend of 87% subbituminous coal and 13% bituminous coal. The chlorine content of the blend was 100 to 240 {micro}g/g on a dry basis. Mercury measurements were carried out when the catalysts were relatively new, corresponding to about 300 hours of operation and again after 2,200 hours of operation. NO{sub x}, O{sub 2} and gaseous mercury speciation at the inlet and at the outlet of each catalyst chamber were measured. In general, the catalysts all appeared capable of achieving about 90% NO{sub x} reduction at a space velocity of 3,000 hr{sup -1} when new, which is typical of full-scale installations; after 2,200 hours exposure to flue gas, some of the catalysts appeared to lose NO{sub x} activity. For the fresh commercial catalysts, oxidation of mercury was in the range of 25% to 65% at typical full-scale space velocities. A blank monolith showed no oxidation of mercury under any conditions. All catalysts showed higher mercury oxidation without ammonia, consistent with full-scale measurements. After exposure to flue gas for 2,200 hours, some of the catalysts showed reduced levels of mercury oxidation relative to the initial levels of oxidation. A model of Hg oxidation across SCRs was formulated based on full-scale data. The model took into account the effects of temperature, space velocity, catalyst type and HCl concentration in the flue gas.

Constance Senior

2004-12-31

100

OXIDATION OF MERCURY ACROSS SCR CATALYSTS IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS BURNING LOW RANK FUELS  

SciTech Connect

This is the first Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-03NT41728. The objective of this program is to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Ceramics GmbH are providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, analysis of the coal, ash and mercury speciation data from the first test series was completed. Good agreement was shown between different methods of measuring mercury in the flue gas: Ontario Hydro, semi-continuous emission monitor (SCEM) and coal composition. There was a loss of total mercury across the commercial catalysts, but not across the blank monolith. The blank monolith showed no oxidation. The data from the first test series show the same trend in mercury oxidation as a function of space velocity that has been seen elsewhere. At space velocities in the range of 6,000-7,000 hr{sup -1} the blank monolith did not show any mercury oxidation, with or without ammonia present. Two of the commercial catalysts clearly showed an effect of ammonia. Two other commercial catalysts showed an effect of ammonia, although the error bars for the no-ammonia case are large. A test plan was written for the second test series and is being reviewed.

Constance Senior; Temi Linjewile

2003-07-25

101

Solvent refined coal (SRC) process. Development of a process for producing an ashless, low-sulfur fuel from coal. Volume II. Laboratory studies. Part 4. Laboratory reactor studies and development of process variations. Research and development report No. 53, interim report No. 21, July 1974December 1975  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report is a detailed summary of the experimental program designed to develop a more efficient reactor for laboratory studies of the Solvent Refined Coal Process and to bring this into correlation with pilot plant reactors. The purpose of the studies at the beginning of the period was the development of procedures for working with solvent recycle techniques to bring

C. H. Wright; R. P. Anderson; W. G. Moon

1978-01-01

102

Coal combustion and cogeneration at New York Institute of Technology, Central Islip campus. Final report. [NYIT CI campus  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project is to study the technical and economic feasibility of conversion to coal with possible implementation of cogeneration at the central power plant of the New York Institute of Technology Central Islip (NYIT CI) campus. The existing facility contains five moderate pressure (155 psig) 60,000 pph boilers installed in 1953-1954 which were originally designed for coal firing. Among the several systems assessed, three potential projects were identified as having economic merit and conceptual designs for their implementation were developed. The final decision as to which should be pursued must await a final determination of environmental issues related to sulfur dioxide emissions and manufacturer recommendations on the ability to reconvert one of the existing boilers back to coal. The three projects, in order of economic merit, are as follows: (1) reconversion of one of the existing 60,000 pph stoker boilers back to firing coal; (2) installation of a new 60,000 pph stoker fired, high pressure coal boiler with a 2300 kW backpressure steam turbine, the turbine to provide some cogeneration capability. Compliance, low sulfur, coal is to be burned; (3) installation of a new 50,000 pph, low pressure, firetube, fluidized bed combustion (FBC), boiler burning high sulfur coal but including sulfur dioxide capture. The first two projects are predicated on the burning of a compliance, low sulfur, coal. This may be allowed under ''grandfather'' clauses in the regulations that permit such burning in boilers that once fired coal. If not permitted, the installation of the low pressure FBC boiler would be the only remaining viable coal conversion option. Though it has a smaller payback, it still provides significant savings to the college.

Not Available

1984-04-01

103

Direct-acting mutagenicity of extracts of coal burning-derived particulates and contribution of nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benzene–ethanol extracts from particulates produced by coal burning were separated into four fractions by silica-gel column chromatography using n-hexane (240ml), n-hexane–dichloromethane (3:1, v\\/v) (200ml), dichloromethane (200ml) and methanol (450ml), as the corresponding eluents. The mutagenicity of each fraction was assayed by the Ames test using the Salmonellatyphimurium YG1024 strain. The nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) of each fraction were assayed by

Rina Taga; Ning Tang; Tetsuyuki Hattori; Kenji Tamura; Shigekatsu Sakai; Akira Toriba; Ryoichi Kizu; Kazuichi Hayakawa

2005-01-01

104

The measurement of the rate of burning of different coal chars in an electrically heated fluidised bed of sand  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work measured the rates of burning of three coal chars. This was done by adding small batches (?3mg; particle size 106–150?m) of a char to a hot bed of silica sand (diam. 90–126?m) fluidised by different mixtures of O2+N2, varying from 0 to 100vol% O2. The bed was electrically heated and maintained at 700, 800, 900 or 950?C. The

P. S. Fennell; S. Kadchha; H.-Y. Lee; J. S. Dennis; A. N. Hayhurst

2007-01-01

105

Physical Coal Cleaning for Utility Boiler SO2 Emission Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report examines physical coal cleaning as a control technique for sulfur oxides emissions. It includes an analysis of the availability of low-sulfur coal and of coal cleanable to compliance levels for alternate New Source Performance Standards (NSPS)....

E. H. Hall L. Hoffman J. Hoffman R. A. Schilling

1978-01-01

106

LOW SULFUR HOME HEATING OIL DEMONSTRATION PROJECT SUMMARY REPORT.  

SciTech Connect

This project was funded by NYSERDA and has clearly demonstrated many advantages of using low sulfur content heating oil to provide thermal comfort in homes. Prior laboratory research in the United States and Canada had indicated a number of potential benefits of using lower sulfur (0.05%) heating oil. However, this prior research has not resulted in the widespread use of low sulfur fuel oil in the marketplace. The research project described in this report was conducted with the assistance of a well-established fuel oil marketer in New York State (NYS) and has provided clear proof of the many real-world advantages of marketing and using low sulfur content No. 2 fuel oil. The very positive experience of the participating marketer over the past three years has already helped to establish low sulfur heating oil as a viable option for many other fuel marketers. In large part, based on the initial findings of this project and the experience of the participating NYS oilheat marketer, the National Oilheat Research Alliance (NORA) has already fully supported a resolution calling for the voluntary use of low sulfur (0.05 percent) home heating oil nationwide. The NORA resolution has the goal of converting eighty percent of all oil-heated homes to the lower sulfur fuel (0.05 percent by weight) by the year 2007. The Oilheat Manufacturers Association (OMA) has also passed a resolution fully supporting the use of lower sulfur home heating oil in the equipment they manufacture. These are important endorsements by prominent national oil heat associations. Using lower sulfur heating oil substantially lowers boiler and furnace fouling rates. Laboratory studies had indicated an almost linear relationship between sulfur content in the oil and fouling rates. The completed NYSERDA project has verified past laboratory studies in over 1,000 occupied residential homes over the course of three heating seasons. In fact, the reduction in fouling rates so clearly demonstrated by this project is almost the same as predicted by past laboratory studies. Fouling deposition rates are reduced by a factor of two to three by using lower sulfur oil. This translates to a potential for substantial service cost savings by extending the interval between labor-intensive cleanings of the internal surfaces of the heating systems in these homes. In addition, the time required for annual service calls can be lowered, reducing service costs and customer inconvenience. The analyses conducted as part of this field demonstration project indicates that service costs can be reduced by up to $200 million a year nationwide by using lower sulfur oil and extending vacuum cleaning intervals depending on the labor costs and existing cleaning intervals. The ratio of cost savings to added fuel costs is economically attractive based on past fuel price differentials for the lower sulfur product. The ratio of cost savings to added costs vary widely as a function of hourly service rates and the additional cost for lower sulfur oil. For typical values, the expected benefit is a factor of two to four higher than the added fuel cost. This means that for every dollar spent on higher fuel cost, two to four dollars can be saved by lowered vacuum cleaning costs when the cleaning intervals are extended. Information contained in this report can be used by individual oil marketers to estimate the benefit to cost ratio for their specific applications. Sulfur oxide and nitrogen oxide air emissions are reduced substantially by using lower sulfur fuel oil in homes. Sulfur oxides emissions are lowered by 75 percent by switching from fuel 0.20 percent to 0.05 percent sulfur oil. This is a reduction of 63,000 tons a year nationwide. In New York State, sulfur oxide emissions are reduced by 13,000 tons a year. This translates to a total value of $12 million a year in Sulfur Oxide Emission Reduction Credits for an emission credit cost of $195 a ton. While this ''environmental cost'' dollar savings is smaller than the potential service costs reduction, it is very significant. It represents an important red

BATEY, J.E.; MCDONALD, R.J.

2005-06-01

107

Advanced atomization concept for CWF (coal-water fuels) burning in small combustors  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work performed on the design, fabrication, and characterization of a new device for atomizing coal-water fuels (CWF). The device is described as an opposed-jet atomizer. Two diametrically opposed streams of CWF are directed toward each other at high velocity. Normal to the opposing streams of CWF a blast of air (referred to as cross-flow atomizing air) crosses the colliding streams causing atomization and directing the spray into the combustion zone of a combustor. It has been estimated that the opposed-jet atomizer should be able to produce a spray MMD (mass median diameter) approaching 10 microns, given a suitably fine CWF. This fine a spray should then allow CWF to burn in combustors that are smaller than those used today for CWF firing. The ARC research combustor is a 1--2 MMBTU/H tunnel-type'' furnace, and will be used for combustion testing of the new atomization device. This quarter, the ancilliary equipment required to operate the opposed-jet atomizer was to be procured and assembled. The major subsystems are: feed-system for the No. 2 fuel oil, propane burner (with feed systems for propane and combustion air), feed system for CWF, atomizing air feed system, secondary air feed system, and also cooling water for the jacketed atomizer. Each of these systems is currently operational. 5 tabs.

Not Available

1990-01-01

108

Comprehensive report to Congress, Clean Coal Technology Program: Advanced Slagging Combustor Utility Demonstration Project: A project proposed by TRW, Inc  

SciTech Connect

The TRW project will develop an acid rain precursor control technology for retrofit applications. One of the main objectives of this project is to demonstrate that this slagging combustor technology can result in replacement of oil with coal with no loss in unit capacity while meeting the emission requirements normally achieved when firing with oil. Another key objective is to demonstrate that TRW's slagging combustor can burn low-sulfur and commercially washed high-sulfur eastern bituminous coals and still satisfy the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for utility boilers and thereby provide for control of acid rain precursors. Results are discussed. 5 figs.

Not Available

1988-10-01

109

Overburden characterization and post-burn study of the Hoe Creek, Wyoming underground coal gasification site and comparison with the Hanna, Wyoming site  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1978 the third test (Hoe Creek III) in a series of underground coal gasification (UCG) experiments was completed at a site south of Gillette, Wyoming. The post-burn study of the geology of the overburden and interlayered rock of the two coal seams affected by the experiment is based on the study of fifteen cores. The primary purpose of the

F. C. Ethridge; L. K. Burns; W. G. Alexander; G. N. II Craig; A. D. Youngberg

1983-01-01

110

The Clean Air Act impacts on rail coal  

SciTech Connect

These factors are examined in this article. In November 1990, President Bush signed the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 into law. Title IV, concerning acid rain control, calls for a two-phase reduction in power plant sulfur-dioxide emissions, culminating in a nationwide cap after the year 2000. A large part of this reduction will be obtained through substituting low-sulfur coals for the higher-sulfur fuels now used. Most commentators have characterized this legislation as a boon for low-sulfur coal producers and the railroads serving them. If, as projected, up to one-eighth of existing coal-burning plants shift to more distant suppliers, a surge in rail traffic would ensue. Whether this traffic originates at eastern or western mines, rail carriers would obtain longer hauls and greater coal volumes. We have examined the rail transport implications of the amendments and found that the potential rail benefits may be exaggerated. Although traffic volume will grow, margins on some new traffic are likely to be eroded by continued rate competition and reduced productivity. To satisfy coal transport needs in the 1990s, factors that challenge rail productivity must be recognized and resolved.

Sharp, R.G. (Transport and Management Consultants, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States))

1991-03-01

111

Impacts of halogen additions on mercury oxidation, in a slipstream selective catalyst reduction (SCR), reactor when burning sub-bituminous coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a comparison of impacts of halogen species on the elemental mercury (Hg(0)) oxidation in a real coal-derived flue gas atmosphere. It is reported there is a higher percentage of Hg(0) in the flue gas when burning sub-bituminous coal (herein Powder River Basin (PRB) coal) and lignite, even with the use of selective catalytic reduction (SCR). The higher

Yan Cao; Zhengyang Gao; Jiashun Zhu; Quanhai Wang; Yaji Huang; Chengchung Chiu; Bruce Parker; Paul Chu; Wei-ping Pan

2008-01-01

112

OXIDATION OF MERCURY ACROSS SCR CATALYSTS IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS BURNING LOW RANK FUELS  

SciTech Connect

This is the third Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-03NT41728. The objective of this program is to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Argillon GmbH are providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, the second set of mercury measurements was made after the catalysts had been exposed to flue gas for about 2,000 hours. There was good agreement between the Ontario Hydro measurements and the SCEM measurements. Carbon trap measurements of total mercury agreed fairly well with the SCEM. There did appear to be some loss of mercury in the sampling system toward the end of the sampling campaign. NO{sub x} reductions across the catalysts ranged from 60% to 88%. Loss of total mercury across the commercial catalysts was not observed, as it had been in the March/April test series. It is not clear whether this was due to aging of the catalyst or to changes in the sampling system made between March/April and August. In the presence of ammonia, the blank monolith showed no oxidation. Two of the commercial catalysts showed mercury oxidation that was comparable to that in the March/April series. The other three commercial catalysts showed a decrease in mercury oxidation relative to the March/April series. Oxidation of mercury increased without ammonia present. Transient experiments showed that when ammonia was turned on, mercury appeared to desorb from the catalyst, suggesting displacement of adsorbed mercury by the ammonia.

Constance Senior; Temi Linjewile

2003-10-31

113

Geothermal, Geochemical and Geomagnetic Mapping Of the Burning Coal Seam in Fire- Zone 18 of the Coal Mining Area Wuda, Inner Mongolia, PR China.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spontaneous combustion of coal has become a world wide problem caused by and affecting technical operations in coal mining areas. The localization of the burning centre is a prerequisite for any planning of fire fighting operations. In the German - Chinese coal fire project sponsored by the German Ministry of Science and Technologies (Grant No. 0330490K) the so called fire zone 18 of the coal mining area of Wuda (InnerMongolia, PR China) serves as a test area for geophysical measurements. For the geothermal and geochemical mapping 25 up to 1m deep boreholes with a diameter of approx. 30 mm are distributed over the particular fire-zone with an extension of 320 × 180 m2. To avoid the highly dynamic gas flow processes in fire induced fractures caused by weather conditions, all boreholes were situated in the undisturbed rock compartments. In these boreholes, plastic tubes of 12 mm diameter provide access to the borehole ground filled with highly permeable gravel. The boreholes are otherwise sealed to the atmosphere by clay. The geothermal observations consist of measurements of temperature profiles in the boreholes and thermal conductivity measurement on rock samples in the lab. For depths greater then 0.2 m diurnal variations in the temperature gradient were neglected. The derived heat flow with maximum values of 80 W/m2 is more then three orders of magnitude higher than the natural undisturbed heat flow. The high heat flow suggests that the dominant heat transport is gas convection through the system of porous rock and fractures. Any temperature anomaly caused by the burning coal in a depth of more than 18 m would need years to reach the surface by a heat transport restricted to conduction. The geochemical soil gas probing is performed by gas extraction from the boreholes. Measured are the concentrations of O2, CO, CO2, H2S and CH4. The O2 deficit in the soil air and the concentrations of the other combustion products compared to the concentrations in the free atmosphere are related to the combustion area. The magnetic mapping with point distances of 2 m and profile-distances of 3 to 4 m covered an area of 350 × 300m with 7913 points. The detected anomalies lie in a range between -130 and 176 nT. The maxima are most likely caused by heating of the top sandstones by burning coal, the origin for the high magnetization being the conversion of pyrite and markasit into maghemite, hematite and magnetite. Susceptibility measurements of clinkers in firezone 18 demonstrate this effect. Therefore the identified patches with high magnetic anomalies should have a direct connection to ranges with burning coal within firezone 18. Al the discussed geophysical measurements together allow an integrated interpretation. Each result can be related to the combustion process with a particular likelihood for the vertical projection to the combustion centre. Probability calculations with chosen weight factors for each observation method are discussed. References: Kessels, W., Wuttke, M. W., Wessling, S., and Li, X. Coalfires between self ignition and fire fighting: Numerical modeling and basic geophysical measurements. In ERSEC Ecological Book Series - 4 on Coal Fire Research (2007).

Kessels, W.; Han, J.; Halisch, M.; Lindner, H.; Rueter, H.; Wuttke, M. W.

2008-12-01

114

Coal-burning gas turbine combustion system for reducing turbine erosion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas-fluidized ground coal, and coal dust slurried with fuel oil, are supplied to a reverse flow cyclone combustor which provides the functions of combustion and particulate removal. Coal dust borne by the fluidizing gas is passed through a cyclone scrubber utilizing fuel oil, and the resulting slurry is introduced into the combustor adjacent the inner surface of the combustor wall.

1978-01-01

115

Fuel Flexibility for Dry Low Emission Gas Turbines - Cleanly Burning Biofuels, Coal Liquids and Petroleum Fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

successfully used with natural gas in combustion turbines to meet stringent emissions standards. However, the burning of liquid fuels in DLE systems is still a challenging task due to the complexities of fuel vaporization and air premixing. Lean, Premixed, Prevaporized (LPP) combustion has always provided the promise of obtaining low pollutant emissions while burning liquid fuels such as kerosene and

Michael J. Ramotowski; Richard J. Roby; Leo D. Eskin; Michael S. Klassen

116

Indirect and direct-acting mutagenicity of diesel, coal and wood burning-derived particulates and contribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particulates exhausted from two types of diesel engines (DEPs), burning-derived particulates from three types of coal (CBPs) and burning-derived particulates from three types of wood (WBPs) were separated into four fractions by silica-gel column chromatography using n-hexane, n-hexane–dichloromethane (3:1, v\\/v), dichloromethane and methanol, as the corresponding eluents. The indirect-acting mutagenicity of each fraction was assayed by the Ames test using

Xiao-Yang Yang; Kazuhiko Igarashi; Ning Tang; Jin-Ming Lin; Wei Wang; Takayuki Kameda; Akira Toriba; Kazuichi Hayakawa

2010-01-01

117

Direct-acting mutagenicity of extracts of coal burning-derived particulates and contribution of nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.  

PubMed

Benzene-ethanol extracts from particulates produced by coal burning were separated into four fractions by silica-gel column chromatography using n-hexane (240 ml), n-hexane-dichloromethane (3:1, v/v) (200 ml), dichloromethane (200 ml) and methanol (450 ml), as the corresponding eluents. The mutagenicity of each fraction was assayed by the Ames test using the Salmonellatyphimurium YG1024 strain. The nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) of each fraction were assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography with chemiluminescence detection. The highest activity was observed in the n-hexane-dichloromethane fraction (Fr. 2). The mutagenic contribution of this fraction was 69.9% of the total of the four fractions. Ten of 11 NPAHs detected were in Fr. 2 and one (1-nitropyrene) was most concentrated in Fr. 3. Among the NPAHs examined, 3-nitrobenzanthrone made the largest mutagenic contribution. This is the first report of detection of 3-nitrobenzanthrone in coal burning-derived particulates. PMID:15725608

Taga, Rina; Tang, Ning; Hattori, Tetsuyuki; Tamura, Kenji; Sakai, Shigekatsu; Toriba, Akira; Kizu, Ryoichi; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

2005-01-18

118

Coal-burning endemic fluorosis is associated with reduced activity in antioxidative enzymes and Cu/Zn-SOD gene expression.  

PubMed

To study the effect of fluorine on the oxidative stress in coal-burning fluorosis, we investigated the environmental characteristics of coal-burning endemic fluorosis combined with fluorine content surveillance in air, water, food, briquette, and clay binder samples from Bijie region, Guizhou Province, southwest of China. The activities of antioxidant enzymes including copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and level of lipid peroxidation such as malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in serum samples obtained from subjects residing in the Bijie region. Expression of the Cu/Zn-SOD gene was assessed by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR). Our results showed that people suffering from endemic fluorosis (the high and low exposure groups) had much higher MDA level. Their antioxidant enzyme activities and Cu/Zn-SOD gene expression levels were lower when compared to healthy people (the control group). Fluorosis can decrease the activities of antioxidant enzymes, which was associated with exposure level of fluorine. Down-regulation of Cu/Zn-SOD expression may play an important role in the aggravation of oxidative stress in endemic fluorosis. PMID:23567976

Wang, Qi; Cui, Kang-Ping; Xu, Yuan-Yuan; Gao, Yan-Ling; Zhao, Jing; Li, Da-Sheng; Li, Xiao-Lei; Huang, Hou-Jin

2013-04-01

119

Impact of petrographic properties on the burning behavior of pulverized coal using a drop tube furnace  

SciTech Connect

The combustion behavior of three Indian coals of different rank with wide variation in ash content and maceral compositions were studied using a drop tube furnace (DTF). Each coal was pulverized into a specific size (80% below 200 mesh) and fed into the DTF separately. The DTF runs were carried out under identical conditions for all of the coals. The carbon burnout was found out from the chemical analyses of the feed coals and the char samples collected from different ports of the DTF. Char morphology analyses was carried on the burnout residues of the top port. The top port results show better burnout of the lower rank coals which however was not observed in the last port. An attempt has been made to account for this variation in terms of rank and petrographic parameters of the respective coals. 20 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

S. Biswas; N. Choudhury; S. Ghosal; T. Mitra; A. Mukherjee; S.G. Sahu; M. Kumar [Jadavpur University, Dhanbad (India). Central Fuel Research Institute]. sb_cfri@yahoo.co.in

2007-12-15

120

Escaping radioactivity from coal-fired power plants (CPPs) due to coal burning and the associated hazards: a review.  

PubMed

Coal, like most materials found in nature, contains trace quantities of the naturally occurring primordial radionuclides, i.e. of (40)K and of (238)U, (232)Th and their decay products. Therefore, the combustion of coal results in the released into the environment of some natural radioactivity (1.48 TBq y(-1)), the major part of which (99%) escapes as very fine particles, while the rest in fly ash. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides measured in coals originated from coal mines in Greece varied from 117 to 435 Bq kg(-1) for (238)U, from 44 to 255 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, from 59 to 205 Bq kg(-1) for (210)Pb, from 9 to 41 Bq kg(-1) for (228)Ra ((232)Th) and from 59 to 227 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K. Fly ash escapes from the stacks of coal-fired power plants in a percentage of 3-1% of the total fly ash, in the better case. The natural radionuclide concentrations measured in fly ash produced and retained or escaped from coal-fired power plants in Greece varied from 263 to 950 Bq kg(-1) for (238)U, from 142 to 605 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, from 133 to 428 Bq kg(-1) for (210)Pb, from 27 to 68 Bq kg(-1) for (228)Ra ((232)Th) and from 204 to 382 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K. About 5% of the total ash produced in the coal-fired power plants is used as substitute of cement in concrete for the construction of dwellings, and may affect indoor radiation doses from external irradiation and the inhalation of radon decay products (internal irradiation) is the most significant. The resulting normalized collective effective doses were 6 and 0.5man-Sv(GWa)(-1) for typical old and modern coal-fired power plants, respectively. PMID:20005612

Papastefanou, Constantin

2009-12-14

121

Uncovering and evaluation of a twenty-five-year-old underground-coal-gasification burn at a site in Gorgas, Alabama  

SciTech Connect

During the late forties and into the fifties, the US Bureau of Mines (USBM) and the Alabama Power Company conducted a series of underground coal gasification burns in the Pratt and America coal beds at Gorgas, Alabama. Following the first burn, by the so called stream method, it was feasible to enter the burned out areas by deep mining and assess what had taken place during the operation of the test site. In the latter tests, however, it was not economically feasible to explore the burned out areas except by means of core drilling. Now, in early 1981, surface mining is being done in the vicinity of the first hydraulic fracture area. I had been there during the active operation of the burns and agreed to go to Gorgas, evaluate the exposed area, collect samples, take photographs, and provide this written report. I spent several days taking photographs and making observations at the exposed burn site, taking samples, and discussing the best ways to coordinate future exposures with the coal mining process. The uncovered burn area at the site of the first hydraulic fracture can be described as a flat, roughly circular shaped area, varying in thickness from about 1 foot to 2 feet high and covered with a mixture of the various materials removed in the mining operation, i.e., broken bits of coal, rock, clay, etc. However it rained the night before the observation and during the entire evaluation period making it extremely difficult to determine whether fine gray colored materials were clay or residual ash.

Capp, J.P.

1981-04-01

122

In Developping a Bench-Scale Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor to Burn High Ash Brazilian Coal-Dolomites Mixtures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work considers some of the questions in burning high ash Brazilian coal-dolomite mixtures in a bench-scale circulating fluidized bed combustor (CFBC). Experimental tests were performed with the CE4500 coal from Santa Catarina State, in southern Brazil, with a Sauter mean diameter d p =43 ?m. The coal particles were mixed with dolomite particles of d p = 111 ?m and this fuel mixture was fed into the circulating fluidized reactor, previously loaded with quartz sand particles of d p =353 ?m. This inert material was previously heated by the combustion of liquefied petroleum gas up to the ignition temperature of the fuel mixture. The CFBC unit has a 100mm internal diameter riser, 4.0m high, as well as a 62.8mm internal diameter downcomer. The loop has a cyclone, a sampling valve to collect particles and a 62.8mm internal diameter L-valve to recirculate the particles in the loop. A screw feeder with a rotation control system was used to feed the fuel mixture to the reactor. The operational conditions were monitored by pressure taps and thermocouples installed along the loop. A data acquisition system showed the main operational conditions to control. Experimental tests performed put in evidence the problems found during bed operation, with special attention to the solids feed device, to the L-valve operation, to particle size, solids inventory, fluidized gas velocity, fuel mixture and recirculated solids feeding positions.

Ramírez Behainne, Jhon Jairo; Hory, Rogério Ishikawa; Goldstein, Leonardo; Bernárdez Pécora, Araí Augusta

123

Tests and studies of USSR materials at the US coal burning MHD facility UTSI-2. [LaCrOâ--Cr cermet  

Microsoft Academic Search

In accordance with the overall program of the US--USSR cooperation in the field of MHD power generation tests of Soviet electrode materials were conducted at the coal burning MHD facility UTSI-2 of the University of Tennessee Space Institute. The main purposes of the tests are evaluation of electrode materials behavior in the channel of the MHD generator operating with combustion

G. P. Telegin; A. I. Romanov; A. I. Rekov; E. G. Spiridonov; T. I. Barodina; D. A. Vysotsky

1978-01-01

124

Respiratory symptoms in relation to residential coal burning and environmental tobacco smoke among early adolescents in Wuhan, China: a cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking and coal burning are the primary sources of indoor air pollution in Chinese households. However, effects of these exposures on Chinese children's respiratory health are not well characterized. METHODS: Seventh grade students (N = 5051) from 22 randomly selected schools in the greater metropolitan area of Wuhan, China, completed an in-class self-administered questionnaire on their respiratory health

Päivi M Salo; Jiang Xia; C Anderson Johnson; Yan Li; Grace E Kissling; Edward L Avol; Chunhong Liu; Stephanie J London

2004-01-01

125

Oxidation of Mercury Across SCR Catalysts in Coal-Fired Power Plants Burning Low Rank Fuels. Quarterly Progress Report April 1, 2004-June 30, 2004.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the sixth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26- 03NT41728. The objective of this program is to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels usin...

C. Senior

2004-01-01

126

Health Effects of Arsenic, Fluorine, and Selenium from Indoor Burning of Chinese Coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

China’s economy has developed rapidly in the last two decades, leading to an increase in energy consumption and consequently\\u000a emissions from energy generation. China is the largest coal producer and consumer in the world (Finkelman 1995). It has been estimated that more than 75% of the energy production in China is based on coal (Chen et al. 2004), and more

Guijian Liu; Liugen Zheng; Nurdan S. Duzgoren-Aydin; Lianfen Gao; Junhua Liu; Zicheng Peng

2007-01-01

127

Impact of coal-burning on turbo-machinery for future large scale power generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The directions the development of turbomachinery and power generation systems may take are reviewed and the changes in technology that will be required are considered. Three potential methods of utilizing coal in future large-scale power generation are considered, i.e., direct combustion of coal in the primary air circuit of an open-cycle gas turbine, with recovery of the exhaust heat from

1980-01-01

128

Burning of suspended coal-water slurry droplet with oil as combustion additive. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The combustion of single coal-water slurry droplet with oil as combustion additive (CWOM) has been studied. In this study, the droplet is suspended on a fine quartz fiber and is exposed to the hot combustion product of propane (C/sub 3/H/sub 8/) and air. The results are documented in a movie series. The combustion of CWOM with various combinations of concentrations are compared with that of coal-water slurry and water-oil mixture droplets. The combustion of coal-water slurry is enhanced significantly due to the presence of emulsified kerosene. The enhancement is also dependent upon the mixing procedure during preparation of CWOM. The presence of emulsified kerosene induces local boil-off and combustion that coal particles are splashed as fire works during the early evaporation stage of droplet heat-up. After particle splashing, blow-holes appear on the droplet surface. The popcorn and swelling phenomena usually occurred in coal-water-slurry combustion is greatly reduced. Significant combustion enhancement occurs with the use of kerosene in an amount of about 15 percent of the overall CWOM. This process of using kerosene as combustion additive may provide obvious advantage for the combustion of bituminous coal-water slurry. 4 references, 6 figures.

Yao, S.C.

1984-10-01

129

Coals and coal-bearing rocks of the Hanna Coal Field, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewed interest in Wyoming's vast coal deposits began in the late 1960's as power plant demands for inexpensive, low sulfur coals increased. Because of this demand, Wyoming's coal companies have set new production records every year since 1972. Table 1 summarizes annual production for the last 19 years on a county basis. Wyoming's 1978 tonnage set yet another record at

G. B. Glass; J. T. Roberts

1980-01-01

130

Single Particle Source Profiles of Gasoline and Diesel Powered Vehicles, Biomass Burning and Coal Combustion Exhaust Emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vehicular exhaust, biomass burning, and coal combustion are three significant aerosol sources that have local to global impacts on the earth's atmosphere. They may also contribute to health effects as they can emit carcinogenic species such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and trace metals including beryllium and vanadium. In these source characterization studies, combustion products were diluted to near ambient temperature and pressure using a two stage dilution source sampler. Diluted exhaust emissions were analyzed with an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) obtaining real-time measurements of single particle size and chemical composition. In addition, samples were collected using a micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI), which was operated in a manner compatible with advanced chemical analysis techniques, for size segregated mass concentrations. Due to the importance of these particle sources to the atmosphere, differentiating these emissions from each other and other particle sources is essential. Since ATOFMS is a relatively new single particle analysis technique, source characterization experiments are needed to determine qualitative signatures of specific particulate sources for their ambient identification. ATOFMS single particle mass spectra will be discussed introducing chemically distinct single particle types emitted from these combustion sources. Numerous particle types are emitted from each source, as indicated by distinct chemical associations on the single particle level. Examples include, the chemical associations of vanadium with organic carbon (OC) in gasoline powered vehicle emissions, calcium with black carbon (BC) in diesel powered vehicle emissions, beryllium and boron with BC in coal combustion emissions, and potassium with OC from biomass burning emissions. Most importantly, the overall particle type distributions from each source differ significantly. Finally, complementary MOUDI mass distribution data will be used to determine the relative fractions of these particle types to the overall particulate mass emissions from these tests. These results will be presented in terms of single particle source profiles for these environmentally important combustion aerosol sources.

Suess, D. T.; Prather, K. A.; Schauer, J.; Cass, G. R.

2001-12-01

131

Health effects of arsenic, fluorine, and selenium from indoor burning of Chinese coal  

SciTech Connect

China's economy has developed rapidly in the last two decades, leading to an increase in energy consumption and consequently emissions from energy generation. Coal is a primary energy source in China because of its abundance and will continue to be used in the future. The dominance of coal in energy production is expected to result in increasing levels of exposure to environmental pollution in China. Toxic trace elements emitted during coal combustion are the main sources of indoor air pollution. They are released into the atmosphere mainly in the forms of fine ash and vapors and have the potential to adversely affect human health. Those trace elements, which volatilize during combustion, are hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and are particularly rich in Chinese coals. Among the HAPs, arsenic (As), fluorine (F), and selenium (Se) have already been identified as pollutants that can induce severe health problems. In this review, the geochemical characteristics of As, F, and Se, including their concentration, distribution, and mode of occurrences in Chinese coal, are documented and discussed. Our investigations have confirmed the current As- and F-induced epidemics in Guizhou (Southwest China) and Se epidemic in Hubei (Northeast China). In this study, diagnostic symptoms of arseniasis, fluorosis, and selenosis are also illustrated.

Guijian, L.; Liugen, Z.; DuzgorenAydin, N.S.; Lianfen, G.; Junhua, L.; Zicheng, P. [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei Anhui (China)

2007-07-01

132

Health effects of arsenic, fluorine, and selenium from indoor burning of Chinese coal.  

PubMed

China's economy has developed rapidly in the last two decades, leading to an increase in energy consumption and consequently emissions from energy generation. Coal is a primary energy source in China because of its abundance and will continue to be used in the future. The dominance of coal in energy production is expected to result in increasing levels of exposure to environmental pollution in China. Toxic trace elements emitted during coal combustion are the main sources of indoor air pollution. They are released into the atmosphere mainly in the forms of fine ash and vapors and have the potential to adversely affect human health. Those trace elements, which volatilize during combustion, are hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and are particularly rich in Chinese coals. Among the HAPs, arsenic (As), fluorine (F), and selenium (Se) have already been identified as pollutants that can induce severe health problems. In this review, the geochemical characteristics of As, F, and Se, including their concentration, distribution, and mode of occurrences in Chinese coal, are documented and discussed. Our investigations have confirmed the current As- and F-induced epidemics in Guizhou (Southwest China) and Se epidemic in Hubei (Northeast China). In this study, diagnostic symptoms of arseniasis, fluorosis, and selenosis are also illustrated. PMID:17193737

Guijian, Liu; Liugen, Zheng; Duzgoren-Aydin, Nurdan S; Lianfen, Gao; Junhua, Liu; Zicheng, Peng

2007-01-01

133

The geochemistry and bioreactivity of fly-ash from coal-burning power stations.  

PubMed

Fly-ash is a byproduct of the combustion of coal in power stations for the generation of electricity. The fly-ash forms from the melting of incombustible minerals found naturally in the coal. The very high coal combustion temperatures result in the formation of microscopic glass particles from which minerals such as quartz, haematite and mullite can later recrystallize. In addition to these minerals, the glassy fly-ash contains a number of leachable metals. Mullite is a well-known material in the ceramics industry and a known respiratory hazard. Macroscopically mullite can be found in a large range of morphologies; however microscopic crystals appear to favour a fibrous habit. Fly-ash is a recognized bioreactive material in rat lung, generating hydroxyl radicals, releasing iron, and causing DNA damage. However, the mechanisms of the bioreactivity are still unclear and the relative contributions of the minerals and leachable metals to that toxicity are not well known. PMID:19604058

Jones, Timothy; Wlodarczyk, Anna; Koshy, Lata; Brown, Patrick; Shao, Longyi; BéruBé, Kelly

2009-07-01

134

Production of a pellet fuel from Illinois coal fines. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect

The primary goal of this research is to produce a pellet fuel from low-sulfur Illinois coal fines which could burn with emissions of less than 1.8 lbs SO{sub 2}/10{sup 6} Btu in stoker-fired boilers. The significance of 1.8 lbs SO{sub 2}/10{sup 6} Btu is that in the Chicago (9 counties) and St. Louis (2 counties) metropolitan areas, industrial users of coal currently must comply with this level of emissions. Stokers are an attractive market for pellets because pellets are well-suited for this application and because western coal is not a competitor in the stoker market. Compliance stoker fuels come from locations such as Kentucky and West Virginia and the price for fuels from these locations is high relative to the current price of Illinois coal. This market offers the most attractive near-term economic environment for commercialization of pelletization technology. For this effort, the authors will be investigating the use of fines from two Illinois mines which currently mine relatively low-sulfur reserves and that discard their fines fraction (minus 100 mesh). The research will involve investigation of multiple unit operations including column flotation, filtration and pellet production. The end result of the effort will allow for an evaluation of the commercial viability of the approach. This quarter pellet production work commenced and planning for collection and processing of a preparation plant fines fraction is underway.

Rapp, D.; Lytle, J.; Berger, R.

1994-12-31

135

Fluoride and sulfur dioxide indoor pollution situation and control in coal-burning endemic area in Zhaotong, Yunnan, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presented study aims to investigate the gaseous fluoride and sulfur dioxide (SO2) pollution level in the kitchen, traditional flue-curing barn and outdoor environment and to find economically feasible method to reduce fluorine and sulfur release. The gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentrations in air of outdoor environment, kitchen and traditional flue-curing barn were determined in 56 households in coal-burning endemic fluorosis areas of Zhaotong. Among these, 21 households in Yujiawan Village, Zhenxiong County, Zhaotong City were chosen for this experiment to reduce gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentration in traditional flue-curing barn air by using calcined dolomitic siliceous limestone (CDSL) instead of clay mixed with coal. The result showed that: (1) gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentration in the outdoor air in Mangbu Township area was 0.51 ?g dm?2?day and <0.05 mg m?3, respectively and in Xiaolongdong Township was 2.7 ?g dm?2 day and <0.05 mg m?3, respectively while in Zhaotong City these concentration were lower than the ambient air standard (3 ?g dm?2?day and 0.5 mg m?3, respectively). (2) The indoor gaseous fluoride concentration (3.7 ?g m?3) in air of kitchen with the improved coal stove was within the reference value (10 ?g m?3); SO2 concentration (0.94 mg m?3) in kitchen air had decline, but its concentration was still higher than indoor air quality standard (0.5 mg m?3). (3) Average concentration of gaseous fluoride and SO2 in air of traditional flue-curing barn of Xiaolongdong Township was 7.2 ?g m?3 and 6.8 mg m?3 respectively, and in Yujiawan village were 10.1 ?g m?3 and 14.4 mg m?3, respectively. (4) After using the calcined dolomitic siliceous limestone instead of clay mixed with coal, gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentration in the traditional flue-curing barn air decreased of 45% and 91%, respectively. The gaseous fluoride and SO2 pollution in the traditional flue-curing barn is very serious. The corn and chili baked by open stoves in traditional flue-curing barn (baking room) was also seriously polluted by fluoride and sulfur. After using the calcined dolomitic siliceous limestone instead of clay mixed with coal, gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentration in the traditional flue-curing barn air have declined markedly. The way of adding calcined dolomitic siliceous limestone instead of clay as a binder for briquette-making is an economically feasible way to control the indoor pollution of fluorine and sulfur in coal-burning endemic in Zhaotong, Yunnan.

Liu, Yonglin; Luo, Kunli; Li, Ling; Shahid, Muhammad Zeeshaan

2013-10-01

136

Daily and hourly sourcing of metallic and mineral dust in urban air contaminated by traffic and coal-burning emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multi-analytical approach to chemical analysis of inhalable urban atmospheric particulate matter (PM), integrating particle induced X-ray emission, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry/atomic emission spectroscopy, chromatography and thermal-optical transmission methods, allows comparison between hourly (Streaker) and 24-h (High volume sampler) data and consequently improved PM chemical characterization and source identification. In a traffic hot spot monitoring site in Madrid (Spain) the hourly data reveal metallic emissions (Zn, Cu, Cr, Fe) and resuspended mineral dust (Ca, Al, Si) to be closely associated with traffic flow. These pollutants build up during the day, emphasizing evening rush hour peaks, but decrease (especially their coarser fraction PM2.5-10) after nocturnal road washing. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis of a large Streaker database additionally reveals two other mineral dust components (siliceous and sodic), marine aerosol, and minor, transient events which we attribute to biomass burning (K-rich) and industrial (incinerator?) Zn, Pb plumes. Chemical data on 24-h filters allows the measurement of secondary inorganic compounds and carbon concentrations and offers PMF analysis based on a limited number of samples but using fuller range of trace elements which, in the case of Madrid, identifies the continuing minor presence of a coal combustion source traced by As, Se, Ge and Organic Carbon. This coal component is more evident in the city air after the change to the winter heating season in November. Trace element data also allow use of discrimination diagrams such as V/Rb vs. La/Ce and ternary plots to illustrate variations in atmospheric chemistry (such as the effect of Ce-emissions from catalytic converters), with Madrid being an example of a city with little industrial pollution, recently reduced coal emissions, but serious atmospheric contamination by traffic emissions.

Moreno, T.; Karanasiou, A.; Amato, F.; Lucarelli, F.; Nava, S.; Calzolai, G.; Chiari, M.; Coz, E.; Artíñano, B.; Lumbreras, J.; Borge, R.; Boldo, E.; Linares, C.; Alastuey, A.; Querol, X.; Gibbons, W.

2013-04-01

137

Burning of coal waste piles from Douro Coalfield (Portugal): Petrological, geochemical and mineralogical characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Douro Coalfield anthracites were exploited for decades (1795–1994). Besides many small mines Douro Coalfield had two principal mining areas (S. Pedro da Cova and Pejão). Coal mining activities cause several impacts on the environment, one of which is the amount of discard or waste which was disposed of all over Douro Coalfield resulting in one of the most

J. Ribeiro; E. Ferreira da Silva; D. Flores

2010-01-01

138

Chemical and thermal variations in seeps discharged from a burning coal refuse pile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid mine drainage generated by coal refuse piles is affecting the Moxahala watershed in Southeastern Ohio. The major contributor of acidity to this watershed is the Misco refuse pile. This pile was formed during the exploitation of the Misco Mine in Perry County, Ohio, in the early 1950's. In addition to the generation of acid mine drainage, the Misco Pile

D. L. Lopez; C. F. Doe; B. J. Stuart; M. W. Stoertz

2002-01-01

139

Tribological behavior of near-frictionless carbon coatings in high- and low-sulfur diesel fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sulfur content in diesel fuel has a significant effect on diesel engine emissions, which are currently subject to environmental regulations. It has been observed that engine particulate and gaseous emissions are directly proportional to fuel sulfur content. With the introduction of low-sulfur fuels, significant reductions in emissions are expected. The process of sulfur reduction in petroleum-based diesel fuels also

M. F. Alzoubi; O. O. Ajayi; O. L. Eryilmaz; O. Ozturk; A. Erdemir; G. Fenske

2000-01-01

140

Catalyst assessment for upgrading short contact time SRC to low sulfur boiler fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short contact time SRC can be upgraded via catalytic hydroprocessing into low sulfur boiler fuels. However, the solid SCT SRC feedstock requires solvent dilution to reduce its viscosity. Furthermore, even for a 50 wt % W. Kentucky SCT SRC blend, all pilot units lines and valves have to be heat-traced above 350°F in order to achieve smooth mechanical operations. Catalytically,

S. S. Shih; P. J. Angevine; R. H. Heck; S. Sawruk

1979-01-01

141

Production of low sulfur fuel oil and hydrogen from petroleum residuum  

Microsoft Academic Search

In producing low sulfur fuel oil by the ebullated bed hydroconversion of petroleum residue, the resulting heavy vacuum bottoms sulfur-containing residue material is utilized to produce hydrogen. The residue material from the hydroconversion operation is gasified to provide a fuel gas, which is then used to fire a steam-methane reformer. The chemical requirements for hydrogen production are met by feeding

R. H. Wolk; A. R. Johnson; G. Nongbri

1976-01-01

142

Tribological behavior of near-frictionless carbon coatings in high- and low-sulfur diesel fuels.  

SciTech Connect

The sulfur content in diesel fuel has a significant effect on diesel engine emissions, which are currently subject to environmental regulations. It has been observed that engine particulate and gaseous emissions are directly proportional to fuel sulfur content. With the introduction of low-sulfur fuels, significant reductions in emissions are expected. The process of sulfur reduction in petroleum-based diesel fuels also reduces the lubricity of the fuel, resulting in premature failure of fuel injectors. Thus, another means of preventing injector failures is needed for engines operating with low-sulfur diesel fuels. In this study, the authors evaluated a near-frictionless carbon (NFC) coating (developed at Argonne National Laboratory) as a possible solution to the problems associated with fuel injector failures in low-lubricity fuels. Tribological tests were conducted with NFC-coated and uncoated H13 and 52100 steels lubricated with high- and low- sulfur diesel fuels in a high-frequency reciprocating test machine. The test results showed that the NFC coatings reduced wear rates by a factor of 10 over those of uncoated steel surfaces. In low-sulfur diesel fuel, the reduction in wear rate was even greater (i.e., by a factor of 12 compared to that of uncoated test pairs), indicating that the NFC coating holds promise as a potential solution to wear problems associated with the use of low-lubricity diesel fuels.

Alzoubi, M. F.; Ajayi, O. O.; Eryilmaz, O. L.; Ozturk, O.; Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G.

2000-01-19

143

Retrofit of a Fire-Tube Boiler to Burn Coal-Water Fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER), in cooperation with the University of Alabama (UA) and the Mining Division of Jim Walter Resources, Inc. (JWRI), was awarded a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contract to retrofit an existing fire-tube boiler to bum coal-water fuel (CWF). A fire-tube boiler on the UA campus was retrofitted, and the CWF was made from

BRADLEY MITCHEL HALE; DAVID W. ARNOLD

1997-01-01

144

System Study of Rich Catalytic\\/Lean burn (RCL) Catalytic Combustion for Natural Gas and Coal-Derived Syngas Combustion Turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rich Catalytic\\/Lean burn (RCL{reg_sign}) technology has been successfully developed to provide improvement in Dry Low Emission gas turbine technology for coal derived syngas and natural gas delivering near zero NOx emissions, improved efficiency, extending component lifetime and the ability to have fuel flexibility. The present report shows substantial net cost saving using RCL{reg_sign} technology as compared to other technologies both

Shahrokh Etemad; Lance Smith; Kevin Burns

2004-01-01

145

Depositional environments, subsurface stratigraphy, and post-burn characterization of the Paleocene-Eocene Hanna Formation at the Hanna, Wyoming underground coal-gasification site: Hanna II Phase 1 experiment. [Hanna II; post mortem examination  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the summer of 1981, the Laramie Energy Technology Center conducted a post-burn coring program at the Hanna II, Phase 1, Underground Coal Gasification site, Hanna, Wyoming. Detailed geologic studies were conducted on the altered and unaltered overburden as well as an analysis of the burn cavity. The overburden consists of about 80 meters of Paleocene-Eocene Hanna formation above the

A. D. Youngberg; J. E. McClurg; J. G. Schmitt

1983-01-01

146

Production of a pellet fuel from Illinois coal mines. Quarterly report, 1 December 1994--28 February 1995  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this research is to produce a pellet fuel from low-sulfur Illinois coal fines which could burn with emissions of less than 1.8 lbs SO{sub 2}/10{sup 6} Btu in stoker-fired boilers. The significance of 1.8 lbs SO{sub 2}/10{sup 6} Btu is that in the Chicago (9 counties) and St. Louis (2 counties) metropolitan areas, industrial users of coal currently must comply with this level of emissions. Stokers are an attractive market for pellets because pellets are well-suited for this application and because western coal is not a competitor in the stoker market. Compliance stoker fuels come from locations such as Kentucky and West Virginia and the price for fuels from these locations is high relative to the current price of Illinois coal. This market offers the most attractive near-term economic environment for commercialization of pelletization technology. For this effort, we will be investigating the use of fines from two Illinois mines which currently mine relatively low-sulfur reserves and that discard their fines fraction (minus 100 mesh). The research will involve investigation of multiple unit operations including column flotation, filtration and pellet production. The end result of the effort will allow for an evaluation of the commercial viability of the approach.

Rapp, D.; Lytle, J. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Urbana, IL (United States); Berger, R. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States); Ho, Ken [Illinois Clean Coal Inst., Carterville, IL (United States)

1995-12-31

147

Advanced atomization concept for CWF (coal-water fuel) burning in small combustors  

SciTech Connect

Atlantic Research has undertaken a program to design, fabricate and test this new concept in coal-water fuel atomizers. The device employs two diametrically opposed jets of CWF which impinge on each other at high velocity. An air blast is directed at the impact zone of the two jets and the resulting high energy collision of all streams serves to break up the slurry fuel into fine droplets which are then directed by the air blast into the combustion zone. Prototypes of this atomizer have been built and tested under cold flow conditions using both water and CWF sprays. Based on the cold flow result with the prototypes, an atomizer has been fabricated for installation in a 1 MMBTU/H research tunnel-type'' furnace. A comprehensive testing program was conducted to evaluate the atomizer under firing conditions. The parameters covered in the test plan included CWF firing rate, atomizing air pressure, secondary air preheat temperature, secondary air diffuser design, CWF viscosity and solid content, CWF preheat temperature, and coal type. The effects of these parameters on combustion efficiency have been determined. 3 refs., 20 figs., 26 tabs.

McHale, E.T.; Heaton, H.L.; Lippold, J.H. Jr.

1989-09-01

148

The Deposition and Burning Characteristics During Slagging Co-Firing Coal and Wood: Modeling and Numerical Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical analysis was used to study the deposition and burning characteristics of combining co-combustion with slagging combustion technologies in this paper. The pyrolysis and burning kinetic models of different fuels were implanted into the WBSF-PCC2 (wall burning and slag flow in pulverized co-combustion) computation code, and then the slagging and co-combustion characteristics—especially the wall burning mechanism of different solid fuels

Xiaohan Wang; Daiqing Zhao; Liqiao Jiang; Weibin Yang

2009-01-01

149

Trace elements in coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trace elements can have profound adverse effects on the health of people burning coal in homes or living near coal deposits,\\u000a coal mines, and coal-burning power plants. Trace elements such as arsenic emitted from coal-burning power plants in Europe\\u000a and Asia have been shown to cause severe health problems. Perhaps the most widespread health problems are caused by domestic\\u000a coal

Robert B. Finkelman

1999-01-01

150

Refining the process that refines the coal  

SciTech Connect

First operated in 1973 to refine a sulfur-free solid fuel from coal, the Electric Power Research Institute's small pilot plant at Wilsonville, Alabama, is now a focal point for research and development in coal liquefaction. The solvent-refined coal process (SRC) is largely free of ash and so low in sulfur content that it can be burned without flue-gas desulfurization. The SRC, while still in the liquid form, is now being investigated as an intermediate product to be further upgraded into liquid boiler and turbine fuels. The segment of the process that is the principal focus at present is the separation of ash and unconverted coal residue from the SRC stream after it leaves the reaction section of the plant. Several techniques to upgrade the fuel have been tested at Wilsonville. The solvent extraction method known as critical solvent de-ashing will be combined with a catalytic hydrogenation unit to produce more liquid fuel as well as low-sulfur SRC in the near future. (SAC)

Whitaker, R.; Lebowitz, H.

1980-05-01

151

The internal microstructure and fibrous mineralogy of fly ash from coal-burning power stations.  

PubMed

Coal fly ash (CFA) is a significant environmental pollutant that presents a respiratory hazard when airborne. Although previous studies have identified the mineral components of CFA, there is a paucity of information on the structural habits of these minerals. Samples from UK, Polish and Chinese power stations were studied to further our understanding of the factors that affect CFA geochemistry and mineralogy. ICP-MS, FE-SEM/EDX, XRD, and laser diffraction were used to study physicochemical characteristics. Analysis revealed important differences in the elemental compositions and particle size distributions of samples between sites. Microscopy of HF acid-etched CFA revealed the mullite present possesses a fibrous habit; fibres ranged in length between 1 and 10 ?m. Respirable particles (<10 ?m) were frequently observed to contain fibrous mullite. We propose that the biopersistence of these refractory fibres in the lung environment could be contributing towards chronic lung diseases seen in communities and individuals continually exposed to high levels of CFA. PMID:21907473

Brown, Patrick; Jones, Tim; BéruBé, Kelly

2011-09-09

152

ASSESSMENT OF LOW COST NOVEL SORBENTS FOR COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT MERCURY CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

This is a Technical Report under a program funded by the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to obtain the necessary information to assess the viability of lower cost alternatives to commercially available activated carbon for mercury control in coal-fired utilities. During this reporting period, several sorbent samples have been tested by URS in their laboratory fixed-bed system. The sorbents were evaluated under conditions simulating flue gas from power plants burning Powder River Basin (PRB) and low sulfur eastern bituminous coals. The equilibrium adsorption capacities of the sorbents for both elemental and oxidized mercury are presented. A team meeting discussing the overall program and meetings with Midwest Generation and Wisconsin Electric Power Company (WEPCO) concerning field testing occurred during this reporting period.

Sharon Sjostrom

2002-02-22

153

PM 2.5 chemical source profiles for vehicle exhaust, vegetative burning, geological material, and coal burning in Northwestern Colorado during 1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 ?m) chemical source profiles applicable to speciated emissions inventories and receptor model source apportionment are reported for geological material, motor vehicle exhaust, residential coal (RCC) and wood combustion (RWC), forest fires, geothermal hot springs; and coal-fired power generation units from northwestern Colorado during 1995. Fuels and combustion conditions are similar to those

John G Watson; Judith C Chow; James E Houck

2001-01-01

154

Coal-oil slurry preparation  

DOEpatents

A pumpable slurry of pulverized coal in a coal-derived hydrocarbon oil carrier which slurry is useful as a low-ash, low-sulfur clean fuel, is produced from a high sulfur-containing coal. The initial pulverized coal is separated by gravity differentiation into (1) a high density refuse fraction containing the major portion of non-coal mineral products and sulfur, (2) a lowest density fraction of low sulfur content and (3) a middlings fraction of intermediate sulfur and ash content. The refuse fraction (1) is gasified by partial combustion producing a crude gas product from which a hydrogen stream is separated for use in hydrogenative liquefaction of the middlings fraction (3). The lowest density fraction (2) is mixed with the liquefied coal product to provide the desired fuel slurry. Preferably there is also separately recovered from the coal liquefaction LPG and pipeline gas.

Tao, John C. (Perkiomenville, PA)

1983-01-01

155

Overburden characterization and post-burn study of the Hoe Creek, Wyoming underground coal gasification site and comparison with the Hanna, Wyoming site  

SciTech Connect

In 1978 the third test (Hoe Creek III) in a series of underground coal gasification (UCG) experiments was completed at a site south of Gillette, Wyoming. The post-burn study of the geology of the overburden and interlayered rock of the two coal seams affected by the experiment is based on the study of fifteen cores. The primary purpose of the study was to characterize the geology of the overburden and interlayered rock and to determine and evaluate the mineralogical and textural changes that were imposed by the experiment. Within the burn cavity the various sedimentary units have been brecciated and thermally altered to form several pyrometamorphic rock types of paralava rock, paralava breccia, buchite, buchite breccia and hornfels. High temperature minerals of mullite, cordierite, oligo-clase-andesine, tridymite, cristobalite, clinopyroxenes, and magnetite are common in the pyrometamorphic rocks. The habit of these minerals indicates that they crystallized from a melt. These minerals and textures suggest that the rocks were formed at temperatures between 1200/sup 0/ and 1400/sup 0/C. A comparison of geologic and geological-technological factors between the Hoe Creek III site, which experienced substantial roof collapse, and the Hanna II site, which had only moderate roof collapse, indicates that overburden thickness relative to coal seam thickness, degree of induration of overburden rock, injection-production well spacing, and ultimate cavity size are important controls of roof collapse in the structural setting of the two sites.

Ethridge, F.C.; Burns, L.K.; Alexander, W.G.; Craig, G.N. II; Youngberg, A.D.

1983-01-01

156

Energy Policy Act transportation rate study: Interim report on coal transportation  

SciTech Connect

The primary purpose of this report is to examine changes in domestic coal distribution and railroad coal transportation rates since enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90). From 1988 through 1993, the demand for low-sulfur coal increased, as a the 1995 deadline for compliance with Phase 1 of CAAA90 approached. The shift toward low-sulfur coal came sooner than had been generally expected because many electric utilities switched early from high-sulfur coal to ``compliance`` (very low-sulfur) coal. They did so to accumulate emissions allowances that could be used to meet the stricter Phase 2 requirements. Thus, the demand for compliance coal increased the most. The report describes coal distribution and sulfur content, railroad coal transportation and transportation rates, and electric utility contract coal transportation trends from 1979 to 1993 including national trends, regional comparisons, distribution patterns and regional profiles. 14 figs., 76 tabs.

NONE

1995-10-01

157

Indirect- and direct-acting mutagenicity of diesel, coal and wood burning-derived particulates and contribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.  

PubMed

Particulates exhausted from two types of diesel engines (DEPs), burning-derived particulates from three types of coal (CBPs) and burning-derived particulates from three types of wood (WBPs) were separated into four fractions by silica-gel column chromatography using n-hexane, n-hexane-dichloromethane (3:1, v/v), dichloromethane and methanol, as the corresponding eluents. The indirect-acting mutagenicity of each fraction was assayed by the Ames test using the Salmonella typhimurium TA100 strain with S9 mix and the direct-acting mutagenicity was assayed using the S. typhimurium TA98 strain without S9 mix. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) of each fraction were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Both direct- and indirect-acting of mutagenicities were the highest in samples of DEPs. The contributions of PAHs in samples of WBPs and NPAHs in DEPs were the largest, respectively. PMID:19896557

Yang, Xiao-Yang; Igarashi, Kazuhiko; Tang, Ning; Lin, Jin-Ming; Wang, Wei; Kameda, Takayuki; Toriba, Akira; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

2009-11-05

158

Sodium and potassium released from burning particles of brown coal and pine wood in a laminar premixed methane flame using quantitative laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.  

PubMed

A quantitative point measurement of total sodium ([Na](total)) and potassium ([K](total)) in the plume of a burning particle of Australian Loy Yang brown coal (23 ± 3 mg) and of pine wood pellets (63 ± 3 mg) was performed using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) in a laminar premixed methane flame at equivalence ratios ( U ) of 1.149 and 1.336. Calibration was performed using atomic sodium or potassium generated by evaporation of droplets of sodium sulfite (Na(2)SO(3)) or potassium sulfate (K(2)SO(4)) solutions seeded into the flame. The calibration compensated for the absorption by atomic alkalis in the seeded flame, which is significant at high concentrations of solution. This allowed quantitative measurements of sodium (Na) and potassium (K) released into the flame during the three phases of combustion, namely devolatilization, char, and ash cooking. The [Na](total) in the plume released from the combustion of pine wood pellets during the devolatilization was found to reach up to 13 ppm. The maximum concentration of total sodium ([Na](max)M(total)) and potassium ([K](max)(total)) released during the char phase of burning coal particles for ? = 1.149 was found to be 9.27 and 5.90 ppm, respectively. The [Na](max)(total) and [K](max)(total) released during the char phase of burning wood particles for ? = 1.149 was found to be 15.1 and 45.3 ppm, respectively. For the case of ? = 1.336, the [Na](max)(total) and [K](max)(total) were found to be 13.9 and 6.67 ppm during the char phase from burning coal particles, respectively, and 21.1 and 39.7 ppm, respectively, from burning wood particles. The concentration of alkali species was higher during the ash phase. The limit of detection (LOD) of sodium and potassium with LIBS in the present arrangement was estimated to be 29 and 72 ppb, respectively. PMID:21639991

Hsu, Li-Jen; Alwahabi, Zeyad T; Nathan, Graham J; Li, Yu; Li, Z S; Aldén, Marcus

2011-06-01

159

Burning Characteristics and Gaseous\\/Solid Emissions of Blends of Pulverized Coal with WasteTire-Derived Fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work examined the combustion behavior (flame characteristics and temperatures) and the emissions (SO2, NO, NO2, CO, CO2, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), soot and ash) from blends of a pulverized bituminous coal and ground waste automobile tires. The following fuel feed compositions were examined: 100% coal, 75–25% and 50–50% coal and tire blends, as well as 100% tire. Coal and

YIANNISA. LEVENDIS; AJAY ATAL; BONNIE COURTEMANCHE; JOEL B. CARLSON

1998-01-01

160

The H-Coal project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The H-Coal process converts coal by catalytic hydrogenation to substitutes for petroleum ranging from an all distillate synthetic crude to a low sulfur fuel oil. The process is a related application to the H-Oil process which is used commercially for the desulfurization of residual oils from crude oil refining. The H-Coal process is primarily a liquefaction system but does produce

C. D. Hoertz

1978-01-01

161

Process for converting coal into liquid fuel and metallurgical coke  

DOEpatents

A method of recovering coal liquids and producing metallurgical coke utilizes low ash, low sulfur coal as a parent for a coal char formed by pyrolysis with a volatile content of less than 8%. The char is briquetted and heated in an inert gas over a prescribed heat history to yield a high strength briquette with less than 2% volatile content.

Wolfe, Richard A. (Abingdon, VA); Im, Chang J. (Abingdon, VA); Wright, Robert E. (Bristol, TN)

1994-01-01

162

PHYSICAL COAL CLEANING FOR UTILITY BOILER SO2 EMISSION CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

The report examines physical coal cleaning as a control technique for sulfur oxides emissions. It includes an analysis of the availability of low-sulfur coal and of coal cleanable to compliance levels for alternate New Source Performance Standards (NSPS). Various alternatives to ...

163

Estimates of SO2, NO x , and Solid Particles Emissions into the Atmosphere as a Result of Burning of Natural Gas and Coal by Heating and Electric Power Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The specific atmospheric emissions of SO2, NOx, and solid particles along the complete technological chains of motion of natural gas and Kuznetskii and Kansko-Achinskii coal from gas and coal deposits to burning by heating and power plants are calculated. The atmospheric emissions fractions for SO2, NOx, and solid particles directly from heating and power plants are 94–99%. The atmospheric emissions

D. A. Krylov; V. E. Putintseva

2002-01-01

164

Driver mutations among never smoking female lung cancer tissues in China identify unique EGFR and KRAS mutation pattern associated with household coal burning.  

PubMed

Lung cancer in never smokers, which has been partially attributed to household solid fuel use (i.e., coal), is etiologically and clinically different from lung cancer attributed to tobacco smoking. To explore the spectrum of driver mutations among lung cancer tissues from never smokers, specifically in a population where high lung cancer rates have been attributed to indoor air pollution from domestic coal use, multiplexed assays were used to detect >40 point mutations, insertions, and deletions (EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, HER2, NRAS, PIK3CA, MEK1, AKT1, and PTEN) among the lung tumors of confirmed never smoking females from Xuanwei, China [32 adenocarcinomas (ADCs), 7 squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), 1 adenosquamous carcinoma (ADSC)]. EGFR mutations were detected in 35% of tumors. 46% of these involved EGFR exon 18 G719X, while 14% were exon 21 L858R mutations. KRAS mutations, all of which were G12C_34G>T, were observed in 15% of tumors. EGFR and KRAS mutations were mutually exclusive, and no mutations were observed in the other tested genes. Most point mutations were transversions and were also found in tumors from patients who used coal in their homes. Our high mutation frequencies in EGFR exon 18 and KRAS and low mutation frequency in EGFR exon 21 are strikingly divergent from those in other smoking and never smoking populations from Asia. Given that our subjects live in a region where coal is typically burned indoors, our findings provide new insights into the pathogenesis of lung cancer among never smoking females exposed to indoor air pollution from coal. PMID:24055406

Hosgood, H Dean; Pao, William; Rothman, Nathaniel; Hu, Wei; Pan, Yumei Helen; Kuchinsky, Kyle; Jones, Kirk D; Xu, Jun; Vermeulen, Roel; Simko, Jeff; Lan, Qing

2013-09-03

165

Speciation of Arsenic in Canadian Subbituminous and Bituminous Feed Coals and their Ash Byproducts  

SciTech Connect

The arsenic species in the feed coals and ash byproducts from seven Canadian power plants (including one with a fluidized-bed combustor) that were burning local sub-bituminous and bituminous coals with sulfur contents in the range of 0.30-3.5 wt % have been examined using As X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. The feed coals can be grouped based on their contents of arsenic associated with pyrite (As/pyr) and as As{sup 3+} and As{sup 5+} (arsenate) species. The arsenic species in sub-bituminous feed coals with low sulfur (0.22-0.38 wt %) and arsenic (1.6-2.2 mg/kg) contents consist of {approx}50% As{sup 3+} and {approx}50% As{sup 5+}, whereas those with moderate sulfur (0.50 wt %) and arsenic (3.63 mg/kg) contents consist of 84% As/pyr, 7% As3+, and 9% As{sup 5+}. In bituminous feed coal with low sulfur (0.40 wt %) and arsenic (4.39 mg/kg) contents, the arsenic speciation consists of 34% As/pyr, 12% As{sup 3+}, and 54% As{sup 5+}, and for those with high sulfur (2.60-3.56 wt %) and arsenic (54-84 mg/kg) contents, it consists of 77%-82% As/pyr and 18%-23% As{sup 5+}. The bottom ash produced from sub-bituminous feed coals with low sulfur and arsenic contents consists of 10%-20% As3+ and 80%-90% As5+, and for moderate sulfur (0.50 wt %) and arsenic (3.63 mg/kg), the arsenic speciation consists of 5% As/pyr, 10% As{sup 3+} and 85% As{sup 5+} as arsenate. For bituminous feed coals with low sulfur and arsenic contents, the bottom ash is entirely As{sup 5+}, whereas for coals with high sulfur and arsenic contents, the bottom ash consists of 10%-15% As{sup 3+} and 85%-90% As{sup 5+}; and for the fluidized-bed combustor, the bottom ash is entirely As{sup 5+} arsenate. The species of arsenic in fly ash from sub-bituminous and bituminous coals are mostly arsenate (As5+), possibly in part incorporated in the glass matrix, and remains the same for coarse- and fine-grained electrostatic precipitator (ESP), baghouse, and stack-emitted ashes. The only difference between the ESP and baghouse fly ash is the higher amount of crystalline arsenates in the hopper fly ash. Neither the sulfur content nor the pyrite content of the feed coal seems to influence the speciation of arsenic, because virtually all of the arsenic in fly ash samples from high-sulfur coal is in the form of arsenate (As{sup 5+}). However, arsenic (mostly as As{sup 5+}) in these fly ashes is found to be very surface-enriched, because the amount measured by XPS decreases from >3 wt % to <0.8 wt % in the first few atomic layers. The presence of stable calcium or transition-metal iron hydroxyl arsenate hydrate [(M{sup 2+}){sub 2}Fe{sub 3}(AsO{sub 4}){sub 3}(OH){sub 4}{center_dot}10H{sub 2}O] complexes, as determined by X-ray diffractometry, in the fly ash produced from high-sulfur/pyrite feed coals indicates that some of the arsenic might be captured by calcium and iron compounds.

Goodarzi,F.; Huggins, F.

2005-01-01

166

Study on Low-NOx Emission of Lignite-Blended Burning Technology in the Bin and Feeder Coal Pulverizing System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrofit solution of mixing warm flue gas extracted from reversing chamber into the coal pulverizing system is provided so as to prevent the problems of the bituminous boiler caused by lignite blending in the bin and feeder coal pulverizing system. The radiant heat transfer with zone method in isotropic scattering media is established to simulate the temperature profile of

Jinfeng Ma; Jingxing Wu; Wei Wang; Shuqun Wang; Youning Xu; Jitang Liu

2010-01-01

167

Clean coal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fossil fuels such as coal can be powerful polluters of the environment. This article, part of site on the future of energy, introduces students to methods being implemented to make burning coal a cleaner process. Students read about the 1986 creation of the Clean Coal Technology Program and the coal-burning improvements it generated. Definitions of key terms are available, and a link is provided to an ABC News article about bacteria that have been bioengineered to clean coal. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Project, Iowa P.

2004-01-01

168

The effects of diesel particulate filters and a low-aromatic, low-sulfur diesel fuel on emissions for medium-duty diesel trucks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of diesel particulate filters (DPFs) on regulated emissions and organic species were measured for several medium-duty diesel vehicles. Vehicles were measured in three configurations: a baseline California in-use diesel fuel, a low-aromatic, low-sulfur diesel fuel, and a DPF with a low-aromatic, low-sulfur diesel and a more commercial low-sulfur diesel fuel. The organic species measurements included C1–C13 hydrocarbon species,

Thomas D Durbin; Xioana Zhu; Joseph M Norbeck

2003-01-01

169

Haze particles over a coal-burning region in the China Loess Plateau in winter: Three flight missions in December 2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heavy haze frequently occurs in winter over a coal-burning region, the Taiyuan Basin, in the eastern China Loess Plateau, which is the upstream area of the North China Plain. We participated in three research flights to collect aerosol particles and to monitor SO2concentration in hazes from the ground (780 m asl) up to ˜4000 m during 17-18 December, 2010. Meteorological records reveal that the whole haze column (ground to 4000 m) was stable and could be further divided into three sub-layers depending on the sampling altitude, which are characterized by two shifts of the lapse rate of virtual potential temperature and water vapor mixing ratio: Layer-1, surface to 1500 m; Layer-2, 1500 ˜ 3000 m on 17 December, and 1500 ˜ 2500 m on 18 December; Layer-3, above 3000 m on 17 December and above 2500 m on 18 December. SO2concentration was 16-116 ppb with an average of 58 ppb in the Layer-1, 2-45 ppb with an average of 10 ppb in the Layer-2, and 1-10 ppb with an average of 4 ppb in the Layer-3. The accumulation of SO2in the Layer-1 was due to the stable meteorological conditions and the strong anthropogenic emissions in addition to the possible valley topography. Analyses of the collected particles using a transmission electron microscope revealed the dominance of organic particles and fly ash in the Layer-1 and Layer-2 and sulfate particles in the Layer-3. The organic aerosols frequently contained certain amounts of Si and Cl. Fly ash particles consisted of O and Si with minor Fe, Mn, Zn, Ti, Pb, As, Co, and Cr. These two types of aerosol particles are typically emitted from coal burning. These results indicate that the haze particles were characterized in principle by aerosols from primary emissions of coal burning, which are different from those over the North China Plain where secondary sulfate particles are the dominant component.

Li, Weijun; Shi, Zongbo; Zhang, Daizhou; Zhang, Xiaoye; Li, Peiren; Feng, Qiujuan; Yuan, Qi; Wang, Wenxing

2012-06-01

170

Solids precipitation and polymerization of asphaltenes in coal-derived liquids  

DOEpatents

The precipitation and removal of particulate solids from coal-derived liquids by adding a process-derived anti-solvent liquid fraction and continuing the precipitation process at a temperature above the melting point of the mixed liquids for sufficient time to allow the asphaltenes to polymerize and solids to settle at atmospheric pressure conditions. The resulting clarified light hydrocarbon overflow liquid contains less than about 0.02 W % ash and is suitable as turbine fuel or as boiler fuel for burning without particulate emission control equipment. An underflow liquid fraction containing less than about 0.1 W % solids along with low sulfur and nitrogen concentrations is suitable as a boiler fuel with emission control equipment.

Kydd, Paul H. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

1984-01-01

171

Trace elements in atmospheric particulate matter over a coal burning power production area of western Macedonia, Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total suspended particle (TSP) concentrations were determined in the Eordea basin (western Macedonia, Greece), an area with intensive lignite burning for power generation. The study was conducted over a one-year period (November 2000–November 2001) at 10 sites located at variable distances from the power plants. Ambient TSP samples were analyzed for 27 major, minor and trace elements. Annual means of

Christina Petaloti; Athanasios Triantafyllou; Themistoklis Kouimtzis; Constantini Samara

2006-01-01

172

Coal article  

SciTech Connect

Coal is restructured by extrusion into a tube like article that has a hollow core, which may contain igniter material to facilitate ignition of the coal. The hollow core and possibly other deformities, such as ribs, flutes or the like in the inner or outer walls of the tube-like article and/or slotted, circular or like openings through the tube wall artifically create an environment that enhances the burning characteristics in a relatively open or uncontrolled environment that is ordinarily hostile to the burning of coal. The article may be burned according to a novel process that creates coke.

Christian, M.W.

1981-01-06

173

Navy Mobility Fuels Forecasting System Phase 5 report: Impacts of ultra low sulfur diesel fuel production on Navy fuel availability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Legislation for ultra low sulfur (ULS) diesel fuel, with a greatly reduced allowable sulfur content and a new limit on aromatics content, is expected to be in place by 1995. The ULS diesel fuel has been specified to satisfy national standards for particulate emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines. The economic and engineering models of the Navy Mobility Fuels Forecasting System

G. R. Hadder; S. Das; R. Lee; N. Domingo; R. M. Davis

1989-01-01

174

Exhaust Emissions and Fuel Properties of Partially Hydrogenated Soybean Oil Methyl Esters Blended with Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel Fuel  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Important fuel properties and emissions characteristics of blends (20 vol%) of soybean oil methyl esters (SME) and partially hydrogenated SME (PHSME) in ultra low sulfur diesel fuel (ULSD) were determined and compared with neat ULSD. The following changes in physical properties were noticed for B20...

175

ENCOAL mild coal gasification project public design and construction report  

SciTech Connect

This Public Design Report describes the 1000 ton per day ENCOAL mild coal gasification demonstration plant now in operation at the Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The objective of the project is to demonstrate that the proprietary Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology can reliably and economically convert low Btu PRB coal into a superior, high-Btu solid fuel (PDF), and an environmentally attractive low-sulfur liquid fuel (CDL). The Project`s plans also call for the production of sufficient quantities of PDF and CDL to permit utility companies to carry out full scale burn tests. While some process as well as mechanical design was done in 1988, the continuous design effort was started in July 1990. Civil construction was started in October 1990; mechanical erection began in May 1991. Virtually all of the planned design work was completed by July 1991. Most major construction was complete by April 1992 followed by plant testing and commissioning. Plant operation began in late May 1992. This report covers both the detailed design and initial construction aspects of the Project.

NONE

1994-12-01

176

Overburden characterization and post-burn study of the North Knobs steeply dipping bed underground coal gasification (SDB-UCG) site, Rawlins, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The encompassing sandstones, siltstones, shales and thin conglomerates of the gasified G Coal seam at the North Knobs SDB-UCG site were deposited mainly in fluvial and poorly-drained swamp environments. These beds dip at 65/sup 0/ at the North Knobs site. Thin section and SEM analyses of the sandstones and coarse siltstones show that they are sublithic to subarkosic arenites cemented with clay minerals, calcite hematite, siderite and silica. The sandstones of Unit D directly above the coal seam have the highest concentration of calcite cement, the lowest mean grain size, and are best sorted in terms of quartz grain size variations; however, they are the worst sorted in terms of sieve size variations. Clay minerals in the sandstones are dominantly kaolinite and smectite with lesser amounts of illite and chlorite. These clays are of secondary origin. Heat alteration is present only in coals and overburden rock from cores that penetrated the cavity. Thermally altered rocks including hornfels, buchite, paralava rock and paralava breccia were found in the bottom of the dipping cavity near the injection well. The high temperature minerals of tridymite, cristobalite, mullite, cordierite, monoclinic pyroxene and high temperature plagioclase indicate that temperatures of at least 1200/sup 0/C to 1400/sup 0/C were attained in the lower part of the burn cavity. The mechanical test on the unaltered and altered overburden rock show that the most important lithologic property controlling rock strength and seismic wave velocity is the amount and type of cement in the rock. Other parameters measured were grain size, amount of clay cement, and porosity; sorting had a secondary effect on the rock strength and seismic wave velocity. There is a non-linear and direct relationship between mechanical strength and ultrasonic wave velocities for the rock tests. 30 references.

Ethridge, F.G.; Saracino, A.M.; Burns, L.K.; Marks, T.R.; Youngberg, A.D.

1983-10-01

177

The ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Project, A DOE Assessment  

SciTech Connect

This report is a post-project assessment of the ENCOAL{reg_sign} Mild Coal Gasification Project, which was selected under Round III of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program. The CCT Demonstration Program is a government and industry cofunded technology development effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal utilization processes in a series of commercial-scale facilities. The ENCOAL{reg_sign} Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Bluegrass Coal Development Company (formerly SMC Mining Company), which is a subsidiary of Ziegler Coal Holding Company, submitted an application to the DOE in August 1989, soliciting joint funding of the project in the third round of the CCT Program. The project was selected by DOE in December 1989, and the Cooperative Agreement (CA) was approved in September 1990. Construction, commissioning, and start-up of the ENCOAL{reg_sign} mild coal gasification facility was completed in June 1992. In October 1994, ENCOAL{reg_sign} was granted a two-year extension of the CA with the DOE, that carried through to September 17, 1996. ENCOAL{reg_sign} was then granted a six-month, no-cost extension through March 17, 1997. Overall, DOE provided 50 percent of the total project cost of $90,664,000. ENCOAL{reg_sign} operated the 1,000-ton-per-day mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company's Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming, for over four years. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC{trademark}) technology originally developed by SMC Mining Company and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin (PRB) coal to produce two new fuels, Process-Derived Fuel (PDF{trademark}) and Coal-Derived Liquids (CDL{trademark}). The products, as alternative fuel sources, are capable of significantly lowering current sulfur emissions at industrial and utility boiler sites throughout the nation thus reducing pollutants causing acid rain. In support of this overall objective, the following goals were established for the ENCOAL{reg_sign} Project: Provide sufficient quantity of products for full-scale test burns; Develop data for the design of future commercial plants; Demonstrate plant and process performance; Provide capital and O&M cost data; and Support future LFC{trademark} technology licensing efforts. Each of these goals has been met and exceeded. The plant has been in operation for nearly 5 years, during which the LFC{trademark} process has been demonstrated and refined. Fuels were made, successfully burned, and a commercial-scale plant is now under contract for design and construction.

National Energy Technology Laboratory

2002-03-15

178

Emission factors of particulate matter and elemental carbon for crop residues and coals burned in typical household stoves in China  

PubMed Central

Both particulate matter (PM) and black carbon (BC) impact climate change and human health. Uncertainties in emission inventories of PM and BC are partially due to large variation of measured emission factors (EFs) and lack of EFs from developing countries. Although there is a debate whether thermal-optically measured elemental carbon (EC) may be referred to as BC, EC are often treated as the same mass of BC. In this study, EFs of PM (EFPM) and EC (EFEC) for 9 crop residues and 5 coals were measured in actual rural cooking and coal stoves using the carbon mass balance method. The dependence of the EFs on fuel properties and combustion conditions were investigated. It was found that the mean EFPM were 8.19 ± 4.27 and 3.17 ± 4.67 g/kg and the mean EFEC were 1.38 ± 0.70 and 0.23 ± 0.36 g/kg for crop residues and coals, respectively. PM with size less than 10 ?m (PM10) from crop residues were dominated by particles of aerodynamic size ranging from 0.7 to 2.1 ?m, while the most abundant size ranges of PM10 from coals were either from 0.7 to 2.1 ?m or less than 0.7 ?m. Of various fuel properties and combustion conditions tested, fuel moisture and modified combustion efficiency (MCE) were the most critical factors affecting EFPM and EFEC for crop residues. For coal combustion, EFPM were primarily affected by MCE and volatile matter, while EFEC were significantly influenced by ash content, volatile matter, heat value, and MCE. It was also found that EC emissions were significantly correlated with emissions of PM with size less than 0.4 ?m.

Shen, Guofeng; Yang, Yifeng; Wang, Wei; Tao, Shu; Zhu, Chen; Min, Yujia; Xue, Miao; Ding, Junnan; Wang, Bin; Wang, Rong; Shen, Huizhong; Li, Wei; Wang, Xilong; Russell, Armistead G.

2013-01-01

179

Status of H-Coal commercial activities. [Kentucky  

Microsoft Academic Search

The H-Coal process is a development of Hydrocarbon Research, Inc. (HRI). It converts coal by catalytic hydrogenation to substitutes for petroleum ranging from a low sulfur fuel oil to an all distillate synthetic crude, the latter representing a potential source of raw material for the petrochemical industry. The process is a related application to HRI's H-Oil process which is used

Hicks; H. N. Jr

1981-01-01

180

Pond Creek coal seam in eastern Kentucky - new look at an old resource  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Middle Pennsylvania\\/Westphalian B Pond Creek Coal is an important low-sulfur resource in Pike and Martin Counties, Kentucky. The Breathitt Formation seam, also known as the lower Elkhorn coal, accounted for nearly 40% of Pike County's 1983 production of 22 million tons. Although the coal is nearly mined out through central Pike County, substantial reserves still exist in the northern

J. C. Hower; J. D. Pollock; J. G. Klapheke

1986-01-01

181

Potential of coal strip-mine spoils as aquifers in the Powder River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tongue River Formation contains most of the strippable coal deposits in the Powder River Basin. Flat lying low sulfur coal beds up to 200 ft. thick are typically overlain by semiconsolidated shale and sandstone. Typical overburden to coal thickness ratios in working mines are 2:1. The overburden is generally dragline or scraper-dumped into the excavated pit. Pump tests were

Rahn

1976-01-01

182

ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Project  

SciTech Connect

ENCOAL Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Shell Mining Company, is constructing a mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company's Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology developed by Shell and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin Coal to produce two new fuels, Process Derived Fuel (PDF) and Coal Derived Liquids (CDL). The products, as alternative fuels sources, are expected to significantly reduce current sulfur emissions at industrial and utility boiler sites throughout the nation, thereby reducing pollutants causing acid rain.

Not Available

1992-02-01

183

Coal handling\\/The Licking River Terminal: a showcase in coal handling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oglebay Norton Co.'s new Licking River Terminal near Cincinnati is moving low-sulfur Kentucky coal onto barge fleets plying the Ohio River to serve electric power generating stations. The Louisville and Nashville Railroad hauls coal some 250 to 300 mi from the Harlan and the Hazard coalfields to the DeCoursey yard three miles from the Licking River Terminal, delivering the coal

Yewell

1978-01-01

184

Depositional environments, subsurface stratigraphy, and post-burn characterization of the Paleocene-Eocene Hanna Formation at the Hanna, Wyoming underground coal-gasification site: Hanna II Phase 1 experiment. [Hanna II; post mortem examination  

SciTech Connect

During the summer of 1981, the Laramie Energy Technology Center conducted a post-burn coring program at the Hanna II, Phase 1, Underground Coal Gasification site, Hanna, Wyoming. Detailed geologic studies were conducted on the altered and unaltered overburden as well as an analysis of the burn cavity. The overburden consists of about 80 meters of Paleocene-Eocene Hanna formation above the Hanna No. 1 coal bed used in the burn. The overburden contains three basic lithologic units: Unit A consists of very fine-grained sandstones, siltstones, and claystones deposited as a lacustrine delta. Unit A is immediately above the Hanna No. 1 coal. Unit B is above Unit A and consists of carbonaceous shales and mudstones containing isolated lenticular and tabular sandstone bodies deposited in a meandering fluvial system. Unit C is above Unit B and contains coarse-grained sandstones and conglomerates deposited in a braided river system. The Hanna No. 1 coal bed accumulated in a poorly drained swamp that was subject to clastic flooding from an adjacent fluvial system. A reactor cavity 26m x 16m x 15m was formed during the Hanna II, Phase 1 burn and partially filled with rubble and three types of pyrometamorphic rock: paralava, paralava breccia, and buchite. The lithology, thickness, and lateral continuity of Unit A had a definite influence on the success of the experiment as the growth of the reactor cavity was contained completely within the unit. Temperatures up to 1200/sup 0/C were reached during the UCG test.

Youngberg, A.D.; McClurg, J.E.; Schmitt, J.G.

1983-02-01

185

Method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile  

DOEpatents

A method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile comprises soaking the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution and distributing an oxygen-containing gas throughout the coal refuse pile for a time period sufficient to effect oxidation of coal contained in the coal refuse pile. The method further comprises leaching the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution to solubilize and extract the oxidized coal as alkali salts of humic acids and collecting the resulting solution containing the alkali salts of humic acids. Calcium hydroxide may be added to the solution of alkali salts of humic acid to form precipitated humates useable as a low-ash, low-sulfur solid fuel.

Yavorsky, Paul M. (Monongahela, PA)

1991-01-01

186

ENCOAL mild coal gasification demonstration project. Annual report, October 1994--September 1995  

SciTech Connect

This document is the combination of the fourth quarter report (July - September 1995) and the 1995 annual report for the ENCOAL project. The following pages include the background and process description for the project, brief summaries of the accomplishments for the first three quarters, and a detailed fourth quarter report. Its purpose is to convey the accomplishments and current progress of the project. ENCOAL Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of SMC Mining Company (formerly Shell Mining company, now owned by Zeigler Coal Holding Company), has completed the construction and start-up of a mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company`s Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology developed by SMC and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basis coal to produce two new fuels, Process Derived Fuel (PDF) and Coal Derived Liquids (CDL). The products, as alternative fuels sources, are expected to significantly lower current sulfur emissions at industrial and utility boiler sites throughout the nation, thereby reducing pollutants causing acid rain. In the LFC technology, coal is first deeply dried to remove water physically. The temperature is further raised in a second stage which results in decomposition reactions that form the new products. This chemical decomposition (mild gasification) creates gases by cracking reactions from the feed coal. The chemically altered solids are cooled and further processed to make PDF. The gases are cooled, condensing liquids as CDL, and the residual gases are burned in the process for heat. The process release for the ENCOAL plant predicted that one ton of feed coal would yield roughly {1/2} ton of PDF and {1/2} barrel of CDL. By varying plant running conditions, however, it has since been learned that the actual CDL recovery rate may be as much as 15% to 20% above the projections.

NONE

1996-01-01

187

Wisconsin might shift away from using midwestern coal  

SciTech Connect

The author discusses the possibility that Wisconsin utilities may be forced to make a wholesale shift from high-sulfur midwestern to low-sulfur western or Appalachian coal if the state legislature approves a regulatory agency's recent recommendations for cutting acid rain. The policy board of the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (DNR) recently approved measures requiring the state's five largest utilities to cut their sulfur dioxide emissions by nearly half by 1993, specifically by trimming the current limit of 3.2lb of sulfur dioxide per mmBtu to 1.5lb of sulfur dioxide per mmBtu. The DNR board does not specify how the utilities could meet these goals, but the choices include shifting to low-sulfur coal, adding scrubbers or installing boilers that reduce sulfur emissions. Many utilities believe adding scrubbers is too expensive and that switching to low-sulfur coal is their only option.

Not Available

1985-10-01

188

Near-frictionless carbon coatings for use in fuel injectors and pump systems operating with low-sulfur diesel fuels  

SciTech Connect

While sulfur in diesel fuels helps reduce friction and prevents wear and galling in fuel pump and injector systems, it also creates environmental pollution in the form of hazardous particulates and SO{sub 2} emissions. The environmental concern is the driving force behind industry's efforts to come up with new alternative approaches to this problem. One such approach is to replace sulfur in diesel fuels with other chemicals that would maintain the antifriction and antiwear properties provided by sulfur in diesel fuels while at the same time reducing particulate emissions. A second alternative might be to surface-treat fuel injection parts (i.e., nitriding, carburizing, or coating the surfaces) to reduce or eliminate failures associated with the use of low-sulfur diesel fuels. This research explores the potential usefulness of a near-frictionless carbon (NFC) film developed at Argonne National Laboratory in alleviating the aforementioned problems. The lubricity of various diesel fuels (i.e., high-sulfur, 500 ppm; low sulfur, 140 ppm; ultra-clean, 3 ppm; and synthetic diesel or Fischer-Tropsch, zero sulfur) were tested by using both uncoated and NFC-coated 52100 steel specimens in a ball-on-three-disks and a high-frequency reciprocating wear-test rig. The test program was expanded to include some gasoline fuels as well (i.e., regular gasoline and indolene) to further substantiate the usefulness of the NFC coatings in low-sulfur gasoline environments. The results showed that the NFC coating was extremely effective in reducing wear and providing lubricity in low-sulfur or sulfur-free diesel and gasoline fuels. Specifically, depending on the wear test rig, test pair, and test media, the NFC films were able to reduce wear rates of balls and flats by factors of 8 to 83. These remarkable reductions in wear rates raise the prospect for using the ultra slick carbon coatings to alleviate problems that will be caused by the use of low sulfur diesel and gasoline fuels. Surfaces of the wear scars and tracks were characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy, and by Raman spectroscopy.

Erdemir, A.; Ozturk, O.; Alzoubi, M.; Woodford, J.; Ajayi, L.; Fenske, G.

2000-01-19

189

SRC burn test in 700-hp oil-designed boiler. Volume 2. Engineering evaluation report. Final technical report. [Oil-fired boiler to solvent-refined coal  

SciTech Connect

Volume 2 of this report gives the results of an engineering evaluation study and economic analysis of converting an existing 560-MW residual (No. 6) oil-fired unit to burn solvent refined coal (SRC) fuel forms. Volume 1 represents an integrated overview of the test program conducted at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. Three SRC forms (pulverized SRC, a solution of SRC dissolved in process-derived distillates, and a slurry of SRC and water) were examined. The scope of modifications necessary to convert the unit to each of the three SRC fuel forms was identified and a capital cost of the necessary modifications estimated. A fuel conversion feasibility study of the boiler was performed wherein boiler modifications and performance effects of each fuel on the boiler were identified. An economic analysis of the capital and operating fuel expenses of conversion of the unit was performed. It was determined that conversion of the unit to any one of the three SRC fuel forms was feasible where appropriate modifications were made. It also was determined that the conversion of the unit can be economically attractive if SRC fuel forms can be manufactured and sold at prices discounted somewhat from the price of No. 16 Fuel Oil. As expected, greater discounts are required for the pulverized SRC and the slurry than for the solution of SRC dissolved in process-derived distillates.

Not Available

1983-12-01

190

Particle-induced oxidative damage of indoor PM10 from coal burning homes in the lung cancer area of Xuan Wei, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lung cancer mortality rate in the rural area of the Xuan Wei, Yunnan, is among the highest in China, especially in women. In this paper, the coal-burning indoor and corresponding outdoor PM10 samples were collected at the Hutou village, representing the case of high lung cancer rate, and the Xize village, representing the case of low lung cancer rate. Plasmid scission assay was used to investigate the bioreactivity of the PM10. The inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was employed to investigate the trace element compositions of the PM10. The results showed that the oxidative damage caused by both indoor and outdoor PM10 at the Hutou village was obviously higher than that at the Xize village, with the indoor PM10 having higher oxidative damage than corresponding outdoors. Among all analyzed samples, the indoor night PM10 samples from the Hutou village have the highest oxidative capacity. The levels of total water-soluble elements had a higher level in the PM10 of the Hutou village than that of the Xize village. It is interesting that the levels of water-soluble As, Cd, Cs, Pb, Sb, Tl and Zn in PM10 had better positive correlation with DNA damage rates, implying that these elements in their water-soluble state should be one of the main factors responsible for the high oxidative capacity of PM10, thus possibly the higher lung cancer rates, at the Hutou village.

Shao, Longyi; Hu, Ying; Wang, Jing; Hou, Cong; Yang, Yuanyuan; Wu, Mingyuan

2013-10-01

191

Thermodynamic analysis of low-temperature carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide capture from coal-burning power plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the possibility of capturing carbon dioxide from the flue gas of a coal-fired electrical power plant by cryogenically desublimating the carbon dioxide and then preparing it for transport in a pipeline to a sequestration site. Various other means have been proposed to accomplish the same goal. The problem discussed here is to estimate the “energy penalty” or “parasitic energy loss,' defined as the fraction of electrical output that will be needed to provide the refrigeration and that will then not be deliverable. We compute the energy loss (7.9-9.2% at 1 atm) based on perfect Carnot efficiency and estimate the achievable parasitic energy loss (22-26% at 1 atm) by incorporating the published coefficient of performance values for appropriately sized refrigeration or liquefaction cycles at the relevant temperatures. The analyses at 1 atm represent a starting point for future analyses using elevated pressures.

Swanson, Charles E.; Elzey, John W.; Hershberger, Robert E.; Donnelly, Russell J.; Pfotenhauer, John

2012-07-01

192

Compositional characteristics of the Fire Clay coal bed in a portion of eastern Kentucky  

SciTech Connect

The Fire Clay (Hazard No. 4) coal bed (Middle Pennsylvanian Breathitt Formation) is one of the most extensively mined coal in eastern Kentucky. The coal is used for metallurgical and steam end uses and, with its low sulfur content, should continue to be a prime steam coal. This study focuses on the petrology, mineralogy, ash geochemistry, and palynology of the coal in an eight 7.5-min quadrangle area of Leslie, Perry, Knott, and Letcher counties.

Hower, J.C.; Andrews, W.M. Jr.; Rimmer, S.M. (Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington (United States)); Eble, C.F. (Kentucky Geological Survey, Lexington (United States))

1991-08-01

193

Study of Ebullated Bed Fluid Dynamics for H-Coal. Monthly Progress Report No. 2, October 1--November 1, 1977.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The H-Coal process, developed by Hydrocarbon Research, Incorporated (HRI), involves the direct catalytic hydroliquefaction of coal to low-sulfur boiler fuel or synthetic crude oil. The H-Coal ebullated bed reactor contains at least four discrete component...

1977-01-01

194

Study of Ebullated Bed Fluid Dynamics for H-Coal. Quarterly Progress Report No. 6, March 1-May 31, 1979.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The H-Coal process, developed by Hydrocarbon Research, Incorporated (HRI), involves the direct catalytic hydroliquefaction of coal to low-sulfur boiler fuel or synthetic crude oil. The H-Coal ebullated bed reactor contains at least four discrete component...

D. N. Rundell E. M. Bild I. A. Vasalos J. W. Gorman

1979-01-01

195

Fossil Fuels: Coal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson provides an introduction to the use of coal as an energy source. Topics include the history of coal usage, applications of coal as an energy source, and major suppliers of coal (the United States). There is also discussion of how coal is created, located, and produced, and technologies for burning it more cleanly. The lesson includes a hands-on activity in which students measure the ash content of various types of coal.

Pratte, John

196

Trace elements in atmospheric particulate matter over a coal burning power production area of western Macedonia, Greece.  

PubMed

Total suspended particle (TSP) concentrations were determined in the Eordea basin (western Macedonia, Greece), an area with intensive lignite burning for power generation. The study was conducted over a one-year period (November 2000-November 2001) at 10 sites located at variable distances from the power plants. Ambient TSP samples were analyzed for 27 major, minor and trace elements. Annual means of TSP concentrations ranged between 47+/-33 microg m(-3) and 110+/-50 microg m(-3) at 9 out of the 10 sites. Only the site closest to the power stations and the lignite conveyor belts exhibited annual TSP levels (210+/-97 microg m(-3)) exceeding the European standard (150 microg m(-3), 80/779/EEC). Concentrations of TSP and almost all elemental components exhibited significant spatial variations; however, the elemental profiles of TSP were quite similar among all sites suggesting that they are affected by similar source types. At all sites, statistical analysis indicated insignificant (P<0.05) seasonal variation for TSP concentrations. Some elements (Cl, As, Pb, Br, Se, S, Cd) exhibited significantly higher concentrations at certain sites during the cold period suggesting more intense emissions from traffic, domestic heating and other combustion sources. On the contrary, concentrations significantly higher in the warm period were found at other sites mainly for crustal elements (Ti, Mn, K, P, Cr, etc.) suggesting stronger influence from soil resuspension and/or fly ash in the warm months. The most enriched elements against local soil or road dust were S, Cl, Cu, As, Se, Br, Cd and Pb, whereas negligible enrichment was found for Ti, Mn, Mg, Al, Si, P, Cr. At most sites, highest concentrations of TSP and elemental components were associated with low- to moderate-speed winds favoring accumulation of emissions from local sources. Influences from the power generation were likely at those sites located closest to the power plants and mining activities. PMID:16824578

Petaloti, Christina; Triantafyllou, Athanasios; Kouimtzis, Themistoklis; Samara, Constantini

2006-07-07

197

DEVELOPMENT OF A VALIDATED MODEL FOR USE IN MINIMIZING NOx EMISSIONS AND MAXIMIZING CARBON UTILIZATION WHEN CO-FIRING BIOMASS WITH COAL  

SciTech Connect

This is the eighth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00NT40895. A statement of the project objectives is included in the Introduction of this report. The final biomass co-firing test burn was conducted during this quarter. In this test (Test 14), up to 20% by weight dry switchgrass was comilled with Jim Walters No.7 mine coal and injected through the single-register burner. Jim Walters No.7 coal is a low-volatility, low-sulfur ({approx}0.7% S) Eastern bituminous coal. The results of this test are presented in this quarterly report. Progress has continued to be made in implementing a modeling approach to combine reaction times and temperature distributions from computational fluid dynamic models of the pilot-scale combustion furnace with char burnout and chemical reaction kinetics to predict NO{sub x} emissions and unburned carbon levels in the furnace exhaust. The REI Configurable Fireside Simulator (CFS) is now in regular use. Presently, the CFS is being used to generate CFD calculations for completed tests with Powder River Basin coal and low-volatility (Jim Walters No.7 Mine) coal. Niksa Energy Associates will use the results of these CFD simulations to complete their validation of the NOx/LOI predictive model. Work has started on the project final report.

Larry G. Felix; P. Vann Bush

2002-10-26

198

Mitigating the health impacts of pollution from oceangoing shipping: an assessment of low-sulfur fuel mandates.  

PubMed

Concerns about health effects due to emissions from ships have magnified international policy debate regarding low-sulfur fuel mandates for marine fuel. Policy discussions center on setting sulfur content levels and the geographic specification of low-sulfur fuel use. We quantify changes in premature mortality due to emissions from ships under several sulfur emissions control scenarios. We compare a 2012 No Control scenario (assuming 2.7% or 27 000 ppm S) with three emissions control scenarios. Two control scenarios represent cases where marine fuel is limited to 0.5% S (5000 ppm) and 0.1% S (1000 ppm) content, respectively, within 200 nautical miles of coastal areas. The third control scenario represents a global limit of 0.5% S. We apply the global climate model ECHAMSSy-MESSy1-MADE to geospatial emissions inventories to determine worldwide concentrations of particular matter (PM2.5) from ocean going vessels. Using those PM2.5 concentrations in cardiopulmonary and lung cancer concentration-risk functions and population models, we estimate annual premature mortality. Without control, our central estimate is approximately 87 000 premature deaths annually in 2012. Coastal area control scenarios reduce premature deaths by approximately 33 500 for the 0.5% case and approximately 43 500 for the 0.1% case. Where fuel sulfur content is reduced globally to 0.5% S, premature deaths are reduced by approximately 41 200. These results provide important support that global health benefits are associated with low-sulfur marine fuels, and allow for relative comparison of the benefits of alternative control strategies. PMID:19673264

Winebrake, J J; Corbett, J J; Green, E H; Lauer, A; Eyring, V

2009-07-01

199

Burn Institute  

MedlinePLUS

... of 8 experienced a horrific accident. He awoke one night to a house engulfed in flames... Read More Jerry Davee In 1978, Jerry Davee suffered severe burns while trying to ... severe burns. One year later, Jerry received the Burn Institute’s Spirit ...

200

Isolation of a low-sulfur tolerance gene from Eichhornia crassipes using a functional gene-mining approach.  

PubMed

Genes enhancing nutrient utilization efficiency are needed for crop improvement. Here, we report the isolation of a gene conferring low-sulfur tolerance from water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) using a functional gene-mining method. In doing this, an entry cDNA library was constructed from the roots of nutrient-starved water hyacinth using recombination cloning and subsequently shuttled into the plant transformation- and expression-ready vector. The plant transformation- and expression-ready library was transferred into Arabidopsis and a seed library of 50,000 independent transgenic lines was generated. Three transgenic lines with enhanced low-sulfur tolerance were isolated from the seed library. One of the transgenic lines, shl143-1, with improved tolerance to sulfate deficiency and an improved root system was further analyzed. It was found that a water hyacinth jacalin-related lectin gene (EcJRL-1) was overexpressed in shl143-1. Recapitulation analysis confirmed that the overexpression of the EcJRL-1 cDNA caused the phenotype. Therefore, this study demonstrates that a jacalin-related lectin is involved in root elongation under sulfur-deficient conditions. PMID:19898863

Liu, Xiao; Chen, Xi; Oliver, David J; Xiang, Cheng-Bin

2009-11-07

201

Chemical Desulfurization of Coal: Report of Bench-Scale Developments. Volume 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bench-scale and laboratory tests were conducted for chemical removal of sulfur (S) from coal to produce a low sulfur coal to meet air quality standards. The method used was the Meyer's process in which pyritic sulfur is oxidized by ferric compounds to a w...

E. P. Koutsoukos G. J. Ogle J. W. Hamersma M. L. Kraft R. A. Meyers

1973-01-01

202

Characterization of organic compounds in simulated rainfall runoffs from model coal piles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Model coal piles were constructed and leached with distilled water under simulated rainfall conditions. The piles were composed of one of four coals: two of high sulfur content (Illinois #6 and Western Kentucky), one of low sulfur content (Montana Nerco), and one of variable sulfur content (Texas lignite). There were nine rainfall simulations spaced 15 days apart. The runoffs were

Ralph G. Stahl; Joachim G. Liehr; Ernst M. Davis

1984-01-01

203

Pilot-Scale Study of the Effect of Selective Catalytic Reduction Catalyst on Mercury Speciation in Illinois and Powder River Basin Coal Combustion Flue Gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to investigate the effect of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst on mercury (Hg) speciation in bituminous and subbituminous coal combustion flue gases. Three different Illinois Basin bituminous coals (from high to low sulfur [S] and chlorine [Cl]) and one Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal with very low S and very low Cl were tested in

Chun W. Lee; Ravi K. Srivastava; S. Behrooz Ghorishi; Jarek Karwowski; Thomas W. Hastings; Joseph C. Hirschi

2006-01-01

204

The effects of diesel particulate filters and a low-aromatic, low-sulfur diesel fuel on emissions for medium-duty diesel trucks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of diesel particulate filters (DPFs) on regulated emissions and organic species were measured for several medium-duty diesel vehicles. Vehicles were measured in three configurations: a baseline California in-use diesel fuel, a low-aromatic, low-sulfur diesel fuel, and a DPF with a low-aromatic, low-sulfur diesel and a more commercial low-sulfur diesel fuel. The organic species measurements included C 1-C 13 hydrocarbon species, C 1-C 8 carbonyls, and semi-volatile and PM-based polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). Tests on vehicles operating with DPFs showed reductions ranged from 89±2.3% to 98±0.7% for PM, 72±2.5% to 80±0.6% for THC, and 81±1% to 90%±1.3 for CO. Although some fuel effects were observed, they were considerably smaller than those found for the DPFs. Detailed C 1-C 13 organic gas measurements showed alkenes and carbonyls to be the most prominent compound classes, with formaldehyde, ethene, acetaldehyde, and ethyne having the highest emission rates. Large reductions in alkenes, alkynes, and aromatics were found for the DPF, with smaller reductions also found for alkanes and carbonyls. Total PAC emissions were 4.34, 2.25, and 0.69 mg/mi, respectively, for the baseline fuel, the low-aromatic, low-sulfur diesel fuel and DPF with low-sulfur diesel fuel. The majority of the PACs were found in the semi-volatile phase.

Durbin, Thomas D.; Zhu, Xioana; Norbeck, Joseph M.

205

JV TASK 45-MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR ELECTRIC UTILITIES BURNING LIGNITE COAL, PHASE I BENCH-AND PILOT-SCALE TESTING  

SciTech Connect

The Energy & Environmental Research Center has completed the first phase of a 3-year, two-phase consortium project to develop and demonstrate mercury control technologies for utilities that burn lignite coal. The overall project goal is to maintain the viability of lignite-based energy production by providing utilities with low-cost options for meeting future mercury regulations. Phase I objectives are to develop a better understanding of mercury interactions with flue gas constituents, test a range of sorbent-based technologies targeted at removing elemental mercury (Hg{sup o}) from flue gases, and demonstrate the effectiveness of the most promising technologies at the pilot scale. The Phase II objectives are to demonstrate and quantify sorbent technology effectiveness, performance, and cost at a sponsor-owned and operated power plant. Phase I results are presented in this report along with a brief overview of the Phase II plans. Bench-scale testing provided information on mercury interactions with flue gas constituents and relative performances of the various sorbents. Activated carbons were prepared from relatively high-sodium lignites by carbonization at 400 C (752 F), followed by steam activation at 750 C (1382 F) and 800 C (1472 F). Luscar char was also steam-activated at these conditions. These lignite-based activated carbons, along with commercially available DARCO FGD and an oxidized calcium silicate, were tested in a thin-film, fixed-bed, bench-scale reactor using a simulated lignitic flue gas consisting of 10 {micro}g/Nm{sup 3} Hg{sup 0}, 6% O{sub 2}, 12% CO{sub 2}, 15% H{sub 2}O, 580 ppm SO{sub 2}, 120 ppm NO, 6 ppm NO{sub 2}, and 1 ppm HCl in N{sub 2}. All of the lignite-based activated (750 C, 1382 F) carbons required a 30-45-minute conditioning period in the simulated lignite flue gas before they exhibited good mercury sorption capacities. The unactivated Luscar char and oxidized calcium silicate were ineffective in capturing mercury. Lignite-based activated (800 C, 1472 F) carbons required a shorter (15-minute) conditioning period in the simulated lignite flue gas and captured gaseous mercury more effectively than those activated at 750 C (1382 F). Subsequent tests with higher acid gas concentrations including 50 ppm HCl showed no early mercury breakthrough for either the activated (750 C, 1382 F) Bienfait carbon or the DARCO FGD. Although these high acid gas tests yielded better mercury capture initially, significant breakthrough of mercury ultimately occurred sooner than during the simulated lignite flue gas tests. The steam-activated char, provided by Luscar Ltd., and DARCO FGD, provided by NORIT Americas, were evaluated for mercury removal potential in a 580 MJ/hr (550,000-Btu/hr) pilot-scale coal combustion system equipped with four particulate control devices: (1) an electrostatic precipitator (ESP), (2) a fabric filter (FF), (3) the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter, and (4) an ESP and FF in series, an EPRI-patented TOXECON{trademark} technology. The Ontario Hydro method and continuous mercury monitors were used to measure mercury species concentrations at the inlet and outlet of the control technology devices with and without sorbent injection. Primarily Hg{sup o} was measured when lignite coals from the Poplar River Plant and Freedom Mine were combusted. The effects of activated Luscar char, DARCO FGD, injection rates, particle size, and gas temperature on mercury removal were evaluated for each of the four particulate control device options. Increasing injection rates and decreasing gas temperatures generally promoted mercury capture in all four control devices. Relative to data reported for bituminous and subbituminous coal combustion flue gases, higher sorbent injection rates were generally required for the lignite coal to effectively remove mercury. Documented results in this report provide the impacts of these and other parameters and provide the inputs needed to direct Phase II of the project.

John H. Pavlish; Michael J. Holmes; Steven A. Benson; Charlene R. Crocker; Edwin S. Olson; Kevin C. Galbreath; Ye Zhuang; Brandon M. Pavlish

2003-10-01

206

Wilsonville Advanced Coal-Liquefaction Research and Development Facility, Wilsonville, Alabama. Topical report No. 5. 6000 TPD SRC-I demonstration plant support  

SciTech Connect

Initially, the Wilsonville facility consisted of a single stage (thermal) process, also known as the SRC-I process. The original plant has been expanded to become an advanced two-stage coal liquefaction facility. A Critical Solvent Deashing (CDS) unit was installed in 1978 and a second stage catalytic hydrogenation (HTR) unit was installed in 1981. The principal product of the first stage is a low sulfur solid fuel. The reaction product is deashed by the CSD unit using a proprietary process developed by the Kerr-McGee Corporation. The hydrotreater, or the second stage, was installed primarily for further enhancement of product properties, process flexibility, and overall hydrogen utilization efficiency. In the decoupled mode of operation, the HTR unit has no direct effect on the SRC unit. This operating mode is called the non-integrated two-stage liquefaction (NTSL) process. From 17 October 1981 to 14 October 1982, the Advanced Coal Liquefaction R and D Facility at Wilsonville, Alabama, was operated partly in support of the 6000 TPD-I demonstration plant design effort undertaken by ICRC. The ICRC support tests and operations performed were: Run 235 with Kentucky 9 (Fies) coal; Run 240 with Illinois 6 (Burning Star) coal; CSD unit second stage variability study; CSD unit continuous ash removal system study; SRC solidification test; wastewater sampling operation; and residual fuel oil blending operation.

Not Available

1983-08-01

207

Burns Encyclopedia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provide by Burns Country, this full-text, online version of "the definitive Robert Burns reference volume" serves as a useful handbook to Scotland's most famous poet and the intellectual circles in which he turned. The encyclopedia, which is in HTML format, is organized alphabetically. Burns Country offers a number of other related resources, chief among them a songs and poems archive containing 100 of the poet's works. Other features at the site include a discussion area, Burns and Scottish association links, and some commercial content.

Lindsay, Maurice.

208

Desulfurization of Coal Model Compounds and Coal Liquids.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Most US coals contain sulfur concentrations that prevent their being burned without some form of sulfur removal. Current coal-cleaning technology can only remove the fairly reactive pyritic (inorganic) and aliphatic (organic) sulfur. A process which remov...

J. A. Wrathall E. E. Peterson

1979-01-01

209

Co-combustion of refuse derived fuel and coal in a cyclone furnace at the Baltimore Gas and Electric Company, C. P. Crane Station  

SciTech Connect

A co-combustion demonstration burn of coal and fluff refuse-derived fuel (RDF) was conducted by Teledyne National and Baltimore Gas and Electric Company. This utility has two B and W cyclone furnaces capable of generating 400 MW. The facility is under a prohibition order to convert from No. 6 oil to coal; as a result, it was desirable to demonstrate that RDF, which has a low sulfur content, can be burned in combination with coals containing up to 2% sulfur, thus reducing overall sulfur emissions without deleterious effects. Each furnace consists of four cyclones capable of generating 1,360,000 pounds per hour steam. The tertiary air inlet of one of the cyclones was modified with an adapter to permit fluff RDF to be pneumatically blown into the cyclone. At the same time, coal was fed into the cyclone furnace through the normal coal feeding duct, where it entered the burning chamber tangentially and mixed with the RDF during the burning process. Secondary shredded fluff RDF was prepared by the Baltimore County Resource Recovery Facility. The RDF was discharged into a receiving station consisting of a belt conveyor discharging into a lump breaker, which in turn, fed the RDF into a pneumatic line through an air-lock feeder. A total of 2316 tons were burned at an average rate of 5.6 tons per hour. The average heat replacement by RDF for the cyclone was 25%, based on Btu input for a period of forty days. The range of RDF burned was from 3 to 10 tons per hour, or 7 to 63% heat replacement. The average analysis of the RDF (39 samples) for moisture, ash, heat (HHV) and sulfur content were 18.9%, 13.4%, 6296 Btu/lb and 0.26% respectively. RDF used in the test was secondary shredded through 1-1/2 inch grates producing the particle size distribution of from 2 inches to .187 inches. Findings to date after inspection of the boiler and superheater indicate satisfactory results with no deleterious effects from the RDF.

Not Available

1982-03-01

210

Dicarboxylic acids, metals and isotopic compositions of C and N in atmospheric aerosols from inland China: implications for dust and coal burning emission and secondary aerosol formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dicarboxylic acids (C2-C10), metals, elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), and stable isotopic compositions of total carbon (TC) and total nitrogen (TN) were determined for PM10 samples collected at three urban and one suburban sites of Baoji, an inland city of China, during winter and spring 2008. Oxalic acid (C2) was the dominant diacid, followed by succinic (C4) and malonic (C3) acids. Total diacids in the urban and suburban areas are 1546±203 and 1728±495 ng m-3 during winter and 1236±335 and 1028±193 ng m-3 during spring. EC in the urban and the suburban atmospheres are 17±3.8 and 8.0±2.1 ?g m-3 during winter and 20±5.9 and 7.1±2.7 ?g m-3 during spring whereas OC at the urban and suburban sites are 74±14 and 51±7.9 ?g m-3 in winter and 51±20 and 23±6.1 ?g m-3 in spring. Secondary organic carbon (SOC) accounted for 38±16% of OC in winter and 28±18% of OC in spring, suggesting an enhanced photochemical production of secondary organic aerosols in winter under an inversion layer development. Total metal elements in winter and spring are 34±10 and 61±27 ?g m-3 in the urban air and 18±7 and 32±23 ?g m-3 in the suburban air. A linear correlation (r2>0.8 in winter and r2>0.6 in spring) was found between primary organic carbon (POC) and Ca2+/Fe, together with a strong dependence of pH value on water-soluble inorganic carbon, suggesting fugitive dust as a major source of the airborne particles. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), sulfate, and Pb in the samples well correlated each other (r2>0.6) in winter samples, suggesting an importance of emissions from coal burning for house heating. Stable carbon isotope compositions of TC (?13C) became higher with an increase in the concentration ratios of C2/OC due to aerosol aging. In contrast, nitrogen isotope compositions of TN (?15N) became lower with an increases in the mass ratios of NH4+/PM10 and NO3-/PM10 due to an enhanced adsorption and/or condensation of NH3 and HNO3 from gas phase onto solid phase.

Wang, G.; Xie, M.; Hu, S.; Tachibana, E.; Kawamura, K.

2010-03-01

211

Dicarboxylic acids, metals and isotopic compositions of C and N in atmospheric aerosols from inland China: implications for dust and coal burning emission and secondary aerosol formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dicarboxylic acids (C2-C10), metals, elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), and stable isotopic compositions of total carbon (TC) and total nitrogen (TN) were determined for PM10 samples collected at three urban and one suburban sites of Baoji, an inland city of China, during winter and spring 2008. Oxalic acid (C2) was the dominant diacid, followed by succinic (C4) and malonic (C3) acids. Total diacids in the urban and suburban areas were 1546±203 and 1728±495 ng m-3 during winter and 1236±335 and 1028±193 ng m-3 during spring. EC in the urban and the suburban atmospheres were 17±3.8 and 8.0±2.1 ?g m-3 during winter and 20±5.9 and 7.1±2.7 ?g m-3 during spring, while OC at the urban and suburban sites were 74±14 and 51±7.9 ?g m-3 in winter and 51±20 and 23±6.1 ?g m-3 in spring. Secondary organic carbon (SOC) accounted for 38±16% of OC in winter and 28±18% of OC in spring, suggesting an enhanced photochemical production of secondary organic aerosols in winter under an inversion layer development. Total metal elements in winter and spring were 34±10 and 61±27 ?g m-3 in the urban air and 18±7 and 32±23 ?g m-3 in the suburban air. A linear correlation (r2>0.8 in winter and r2>0.6 in spring) was found between primary organic carbon (POC) and Ca2+/Fe, together with a strong dependence of pH value of sample extracts on water-soluble inorganic carbon, suggesting fugitive dust as an important source of the airborne particles. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), sulfate, and Pb in the samples well correlated each other (r2>0.6) in winter, indicating an importance of emissions from coal burning for house heating. Stable carbon isotope compositions of TC (?13C) became higher with an increase in the concentration ratios of C2/OC due to aerosol aging. In contrast, nitrogen isotope compositions of TN (?15N) became lower with an increases in the mass ratios of NH4+/PM10 and NO3-/PM10, which is possibly caused by an enhanced adsorption and/or condensation of gaseous NH3 and HNO3 onto particles.

Wang, G.; Xie, M.; Hu, S.; Gao, S.; Tachibana, E.; Kawamura, K.

2010-07-01

212

Coal-water slurries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal slurries using oil, methanol, or water could reduce the transportation costs that are one of the barriers to industrial and power-plant coal conversion. New coal-water slurry (CWS) technology eliminates the need for oil and the need to dewater before burning. Studies show that a CWS pipeline would be increasingly competitive with rail transport in the Southeast because pipelines are

Dunlop

2009-01-01

213

ETSI coal evaluation plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

ETSI Pipeline Project operated its Coal Evaluation Plant (CEP) from October 1981 to April 1982. The CEP facilities were located at the White Bluff Power Plant, Arkansas Power and Light's 1500 MW coal burning electric generating plant, thirty miles south of Little Rock. The Powder River coal fueling the White Bluff Power Plant comes from Kerr McGee's Jacobs Ranch mine

R. H. Derammelaere; M. L. Dina; P. F. McEwan

1982-01-01

214

Mössbauer study of the inorganic sulfur removal from coals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mössbauer Spectroscopy (MS) was applied to study the occurrence and behavior of the iron-sulfur-containing minerals in coal and coal fractions obtained by different separation methods: hydrocyclonic, flotation and chemical removal process. Samples of one high sulfur coal from Guachinte mine (Valle, Colombia) and three low sulfur coals from the El Salitre zone (Paipa-Boyacá, Colombia) were analyzed. MS evidenced only the presence of pyrite in Esmeralda and Las Casitas coals, while it identified pyrite and siderite on Cerezo coal. MS and SEM- EDX confirm the inorganic sulfur removal on Guachinte coal submitted to hydrocyclonic removal process. MS of the precipitated coal fraction from Las Casitas mine obtained by flotation in water showed the presence of ferrous sulfate because of coal-weathering process. Treatment with hot diluted HNO3 equal to 27 acid on raw coal sample from Las Casitas mine showed that almost all of the pyrite in raw coal was removed.

Reyes Caballero, F.; Martínez Ovalle, S. A.

2013-06-01

215

Impacts of the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 and changes in rail rates on western coal. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

This study examines the impacts of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90) on coal production and coal flows. In many cases, the lowest cost method of reducing pollution will be to purchase low sulfur coal. Because 86 percent of the nation`s recoverable low sulfur coal reserves are located in the west, this presents opportunity for western coal producers. Linear programs are estimated in the study, showing the large potential increases in western coal produciton resulting from the CAAA90. Finally, the study shows that future changes in nationwide transportation rates could have a major impact on regional coal production and market shares. This study also presents a model of rail rates, showing the influences of costs and competitive factors in determining individual rates for coal.

Bitzan, J.; Tolliver, D.; Linderman, W.

1996-04-01

216

Study of ebullated bed fluid dynamics for H-Coal. Quarterly progress report No. 6, March 1May 31, 1979  

Microsoft Academic Search

The H-Coal process, developed by Hydrocarbon Research, Incorporated (HRI), involves the direct catalytic hydroliquefaction of coal to low-sulfur boiler fuel or synthetic crude oil. The H-Coal ebullated bed reactor contains at least four discrete components: gas, liquid, catalyst, and unconverted coal and ash. Because of the complexity created by these four components, it is desirable to understand the fluid dynamics

I. A. Vasalos; E. M. Bild; D. N. Rundell; J. W. Gorman

1979-01-01

217

First Aid: Burns  

MedlinePLUS

... Return to Web version First Aid: Burns First Aid: Burns What causes burns? You can get burned by heat, fire, radiation, sunlight, electricity, chemicals or hot or boiling water. There are 3 degrees of burns: First-degree ...

218

Burning issues  

SciTech Connect

The idea of burning oil slicks at sea has intrigued oil-cleanup managers for more than a decade, but it wasn't until the advent of fireproof booms in the mid-1980's and a major spill opportunity (the March 1989 Exxon Valdez) that in-situ burning got a real sea trial. The results of this and other burning experiments indicate that, when conditions allow it, nothing can compete with fire's ability to remove oil from water. Burns have the potential to remove as much oil in one day as mechanical devices can in one month, along with minimal equipment, labor and cost. Reluctance to burn in appropriate situations comes primarily from the formation of oily, black smoke. Analysis of the potentially toxic gases have been done, indicating that burning will not increase the levels of polluting aldehydes, ketones, dioxins, furans, and PAHs above those that normally evaporate from spilled oil. This article contains descriptions of planned oil fires and the discussion on the advantages and concerns of such a policy.

Raloff, J.

1993-10-02

219

ULTRA-LOW SULFUR REDUCTION EMISSION CONTROL DEVICE/DEVELOPMENT OF AN ON-BOARD FUEL SULFUR TRAP  

SciTech Connect

Honeywell is actively working on a 3-year program to develop and demonstrate proof-of-concept for an ''on-vehicle'' desulfurization fuel filter for heavy-duty diesel engines. Integration of the filter into the vehicle fuel system will reduce the adverse effects sulfur has on post combustion emission control devices such as NO{sub x} adsorbers. The NO{sub x} adsorber may be required to meet the proposed new EPA Tier II and ''2007-Rule'' emission standards. The proposed filter concept is based on Honeywell's reactive filtration technology and experience in liquids handling and conditioning. A regeneration and recycling plan for the spent filters will also be examined. We have chosen to develop and demonstrate this technology based on criteria set forth for a heavy duty CIDI engine system because it represents a more challenging set of conditions of service intervals and overall fuel usage over light duty systems. It is anticipated that the technology developed for heavy-duty applications will be applicable to light-duty as well. Further, technology developed under this proposal would also have application for the use of liquid based fuels for fuel cell power generation. The program consists of four phases. Phase I will focus on developing a concept design and analysis and resolution of technical barriers concerning removal of sulfur-containing species in low sulfur fuels. In Phase II we will concentrate on prototype filter design and preparation followed by qualification testing of this component in a fuel line application. Phase III will study life cycle and regeneration options for the spent filter. Phase IV will focus on efficacy and life testing and component integration. The project team will include a number of partners, with Honeywell International as the prime contractor. The partners include an emission control technology developer (Honeywell International), a fuel technology developer (Marathon Ashland Petroleum), a catalyst technology developer (Johnson Matthey), a CIDI engine manufacturer (Mack Trucks Inc.), a filter recycler (American Wastes Industries), and a low-sulfur fuel supplier (Equilon, a joint venture between Shell and Texaco).

Ron Rohrbach; Gary Zulauf; Tim Gavin

2003-04-01

220

DEVELOPMENT OF A VALIDATED MODEL FOR USE IN MINIMIZING NOx EMISSIONS AND MAXIMIZING CARBON UTILIZATION WHEN CO-FIRING BIOMASS WITH COAL  

SciTech Connect

This is the fifth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00NT40895. A statement of the project objectives is included in the Introduction of this report. One additional biomass co-firing test burn was conducted during this quarter. In this test (Test 9), up to 20% by weight dry hardwood sawdust and switchgrass was injected through the center of the single-register burner with Jacobs Ranch coal. Jacobs Ranch coal is a low-sulfur Powder River Basin coal ({approx} 0.5% S). The results from Test 9 as well as for Test 8 (conducted late last quarter) are presented in this quarterly report. Significant progress has been made in implementing a modeling approach to combine reaction times and temperature distributions from computational fluid dynamic models of the pilot-scale combustion furnace with char burnout and chemical reaction kinetics to predict NO{sub x} emissions and unburned carbon levels in the furnace exhaust. Additional results of CFD modeling efforts have been received and preparations are under way for continued pilot-scale combustion experiments with the dual-register burner. Finally, a project review was held at NETL in Pittsburgh, on November 13, 2001.

Larry G. Felix; P. Vann Bush

2002-01-31

221

High gradient magnetic beneficiation of dry pulverized coal via upwardly directed recirculating fluidization  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to an improved device and method for the high gradient magnetic beneficiation of dry pulverized coal, for the purpose of removing sulfur and ash from the coal whereby the product is a dry environmentally acceptable, low-sulfur fuel. The process involves upwardly directed recirculating air fluidization of selectively sized powdered coal in a separator having sections of increasing diameters in the direction of air flow, with magnetic field and flow rates chosen for optimum separations depending upon particulate size.

Eissenberg, David M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Liu, Yin-An (Opelika, AL)

1980-01-01

222

Navy Mobility Fuels Forecasting System Phase 5 report: Impacts of ultra low sulfur diesel fuel production on Navy fuel availability  

SciTech Connect

Legislation for ultra low sulfur (ULS) diesel fuel, with a greatly reduced allowable sulfur content and a new limit on aromatics content, is expected to be in place by 1995. The ULS diesel fuel has been specified to satisfy national standards for particulate emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines. The economic and engineering models of the Navy Mobility Fuels Forecasting System have been used to study the impacts of ULS diesel fuel production on other refined petroleum products, with emphasis on the quality of Navy mobility fuels. The study predicts that to produce ULS diesel fuel, Gulf and West Coast refiners will have to invest about $4.4 billion in new processing capacity. Refiners will shift aromatics from No. 2 diesel fuel to jet fuel and to No. 2 fuel oil. Therefore, particulate emissions could be transferred from the nation's highways to the airways and to communities which use No. 2 fuel oil for residential and commercial heating. The study also predicts that there will be an increase in the aromatics content of domestically produced Navy JP-5 jet fuel and F-76 marine diesel fuel. The gum-forming tendencies of F-76 an F-77 burner fuel oil will increase in most cases. The freezing point of JP-5 will improve. There will be minor changes in the cost of JP-5, but sizable reductions in the cost of F-76 and F-77. 20 refs., 2 figs., 17 tabs.

Hadder, G.R.; Das, S.; Lee, R.; Domingo, N.; Davis, R.M.

1989-09-01

223

Emissions of particulate-bound elements from biodiesel and ultra low sulfur diesel: size distribution and risk assessment.  

PubMed

Use of waste cooking oil derived biodiesel (WCOB) as an alternative fuel in diesel engines has increased significantly in recent years. The impact of WCOB on particulate emissions from diesel engines needs to be investigated thoroughly. This study was conducted to make a comparative evaluation and size-differentiated speciation of the particulate bound elements from ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and WCOB and a blend of both of the fuels (B50). Particle mass and their elemental size distributions ranging from 0.01-5.6 ?m were measured. It was observed that more ultrafine particles (UFPs, <100 nm) were emitted when the engine was fueled with WCOB. Fifteen particulate-bound elements such as K, Al, Mg, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Cd, Ni, As, Ba, Pb, Zn and Sr were investigated and reported in this study. Potential health risk associated with these particulate bound elements upon inhalation was also evaluated based on dose-response assessments for both adults and children. The findings indicate that the exposure to PM of the B100 exhaust is relatively more hazardous and may pose adverse health effects compared to that of ULSD. Also, investigations on human health risk due to exposure to UFPs indicate that UFPs contribute a major fraction (>70%) of the total estimated health risk. PMID:22925425

Betha, Raghu; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

2012-08-24

224

Particulate emissions from a stationary engine fueled with ultra-low-sulfur diesel and waste-cooking-oil-derived biodiesel.  

PubMed

Stationary diesel engines, especially diesel generators, are increasingly being used in both developing countries and developed countries because of increased power demand. Emissions from such engines can have adverse effects on the environment and public health. In this study, particulate emissions from a domestic stationary diesel generator running on ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD) and biodiesel derived from waste cooking oil were characterized for different load conditions. Results indicated a reduction in particulate matter (PM) mass and number emissions while switching diesel to biodiesel. With increase in engine load, it was observed that particle mass increased, although total particle counts decreased for all the fuels. The reduction in total number concentration at higher loads was, however, dependent on percentage of biodiesel in the diesel-biodiesel blend. For pure biodiesel (B100), the reduction in PM emissions for full load compared to idle mode was around 9%, whereas for ULSD the reduction was 26%. A large fraction of ultrafine particles (UFPs) was found in the emissions from biodiesel compared to ULSD. Nearly 90% of total particle concentration in biodiesel emissions comprised ultrafine particles. Particle peak diameter shifted from a smaller to a lower diameter with increase in biodiesel percentage in the fuel mixture. PMID:22070039

Betha, Raghu; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

2011-10-01

225

PILOT-SCALE STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION CATALYST ON MERCURY SPECIATION IN ILLINOIS AND POWDER RIVER BASIN COAL COMBUSTION FLUE GASES  

EPA Science Inventory

A study was conducted to investigate the effect of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst on mercury (Hg) speciation in bituminous and subbituminous coal combustion flue gases. Three different Illinois Basin bituminous coals (from high to low sulfur and chlorine) and one Po...

226

Coal quality controls of the Danville coal in Indiana (Illinois Basin, Central USA)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Danville Coal Member (Dugger Formation, upper Desmoinesian, Pennsylvanian) is a significant economic coal resource in the Illinois Basin, central USA. Deposition of the Danville Coal (peat) was in coastal environments, varying distances from the coastline and, in turn, variable influences from saline waters. The purpose of this study is to examine the coal quality and petrography of the Danville Coal; and to discuss their relationship with depositional environment as it relates to the final coal product. A medium sulfur (1.0-1.5 wt.%) Danville Coal reserve area (northern Indiana coalfield) was compared to a low sulfur (3 m) of finer-grained clastic sediments atop the Danville, the sulfur and trace elements contents are significantly lower. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Mastalerz, M.; Padgett, P. L.

2002-01-01

227

Burning rubber  

SciTech Connect

Mario Andretti, look out You are about to be surpassed in the burning rubber category by a joint venture between Oxford Energy Company and General Electric. The two companies are building the first whole tire-to-energy facility in the US in Modesto, California. This $41 million facility does not require tires to be shredded prior to incineration; it has the capacity to burn 700 tires per minute. The electricity generated will be provided to a utility company. Oxford says there are two billion waste tires on the ground and this number is increasing by 220 million a year. Of that amount, only 18 million a year are recycled.

Not Available

1987-09-01

228

Baxter's Burns  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has never been any doubt about the importance of Robert Burns for James K. Baxter: the Scottish poet's ancestral, poetic, political and sexual inspirations and provocations appear everywhere across the range of Baxter's writing and it is a critical commonplace to note affinity and identification. At the same time it is curious to note how this debt is so

Dougal McNeill

229

[Burning mouth].  

PubMed

Various conditions of the oral mucosa can give rise to a burning sensation. Candidosis, geographic tongue (erythema migrans), mucocutaneous conditions and stomatitis can all cause mouth burns with visible changes to the oral mucosa. The so-called 'burning-mouth syndrome' (BMS) is a fairly rare but extremely unpleasant condition characterised by a bilateral burning sensation of the oral mucosa in the absence of clinically visible mucosal changes. Frequently-associated symptoms include dry mouth and loss or change of taste. The aetiology is unknown, even though most of the literature focuses on the role of a possible underlying psychogenic disorder. Several mucosal disorders can cause symptoms similar to BMS. Therefore, careful oral examination is required before establishing the diagnosis of BMS. Additional laboratory tests or a specialist examination rarely yield abnormal findings of relevance. Reassurance and understanding are important keywords in the management of patients suffering from BMS. Unless clearly indicated dental or medical treatment should be avoided, even if the patient insists on it, since such treatment is rarely effective. PMID:15932134

van der Waal, I

2005-05-14

230

Comparison of diesel exhaust emissions using JP-8 and low-sulfur diesel fuel. Interim report, March 1994-March 1995  

SciTech Connect

Comparative emission measurements were made in two dynamometer-based diesel engines using protocol specified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the California Air Resources Board (CARB). A single JP-8 fuel with a sulfur level of 0.06 wt% was adjusted to sulfur levels of 0.11 and 0.26 wt%. The emission characteristics of the three fuels were compared to the 1994 EPA certification low-sulfur diesel fuel (sulfur level equal to 0.035 wt%) in the Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) 1991 prototype Series 60 diesel engine and in the General Motors (GM) 6.2L diesel engine. Comparisons were made using the hot-start transient portion of the heavy-duty diesel engine Federal Test Procedure. Results from the Army study show that the gaseous emissions for the DDC Series 60 engine using kerosene-based JP-8 fuel are essentially equal to values obtained with the 0.035 wt% sulfur EPA certification diesel fuel, and that an approximate sulfur level of 0.21 wt% in kerosene-type JP-8 fuel would be equivalent to the 0.035 wt% sulfur reference fuel. Similarly, the regulated gaseous emissions for the GM 6.2L engine using JP-8 fuel are essentially equal to the values obtained with the 0.035 wt% sulfur EPA reference fuel. All sulfur levels of kerosene-type JP-8 fuel up to the 0.30 wt% MIL-T-83133 specification maximum would be equivalent to a 0.035 wt% sulfur EPA reference fuel.

Yost, D.M.; Montalvo, D.A.

1995-11-01

231

Experimental investigation on regulated and unregulated emissions of a diesel engine fueled with ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel blended with biodiesel from waste cooking oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were conducted on a 4-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine using ultra-low sulfur diesel, bi oesel and their blends, to investigate the regulated and unregulated emissions of the engine under five engine loads at an engine speed of 1800 rev\\/min. Blended fuels containing 19.6%, 39.4%, 59.4% and 79.6% by volume of biodiesel, corresponding to 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% by mass of

Yage Di; C. S. Cheung; Zuohua Huang

2009-01-01

232

Proxy mapping of fly-ash pollution of soils around a coal-burning power plant: a case study in the Czech Republic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The northern part of the Czech Republic ranks among the most industrially polluted areas of Europe due mainly to combustion of brown coal with high contents of pyrite and heavy metals. Fly ash produced through high-temperature combustion of fossil fuel is also rich in ferromagnetic minerals. These are also included in emissions, penetrate the soil, and can be identified using

A Kapi?ka; E Petrovský; S Ustjak; K Machá?ková

1999-01-01

233

Study of mercury oxidation by a selective catalytic reduction catalyst in a pilot-scale slipstream reactor at a utility boiler burning bituminous coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the cost-effective mercury control technologies in coal-fired power plants is the enhanced oxidation of elemental mercury in selective catalytic reduction (SCR) followed by the capture of the oxidized mercury in the wet scrubber. This paper is the first in a series of two in which the validation of the SCR slipstream test and Hg speciation variation in runs

Yan Cao; Bobby Chen; Jiang Wu; Hong Cui; John Smith; Chi-Kuan Chen; Paul Chu; Wei-Ping Pan

2007-01-01

234

Burning manifolds and burning lobes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present experimental studies of the propagation of a reaction front in a fluid flow composed of a chain of alternating vortices. We propose that the tools used to describe the transport of a passive impurity in a flow can be expanded to account for the behavior of a reaction front. In particular, we propose that motion of a reaction front from one region to another in the flow is determined by burning manifolds and burning lobes. These ideas are tested experimentally for both the time-independent and time-dependent vortex chain. For a time-independent flow, the time that it takes for a triggered reaction to propagate from one vortex to the next is the minimum time ? for the stable burning manifold BS(?) to envelope the original trigger point. For a time-dependent (oscillatory) vortex chain, we use the burning manifold/lobe framework to explain mode-locking behavior seen in earlier studies.ootnotetextM.S. Paoletti and T.H. Solomon, Europhys. Lett. 69, 819 (2005); Phys. Rev. E 72, 046204 (2005).

Kingsbury, Mark; Solomon, Tom

2010-11-01

235

Field tests of fabric filters on full-scale coal-fired utility boilers. Volume 1. Martin Drake Unit 6, Ray D. Nixon Unit 1, Cherokee Unit 3, Cameo Unit 2, and Arapahoe Unit 3  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the results of a field investigation of full-scale baghouses collecting fly ash at five coal-fired power plants. All five plants burned western, low-sulfur, subbituminous coal and were equipped with baghouses cleaned by reverse gas. Since all of the baghouses operated with clear stacks, particulate collection efficiencies were not measured. Instead, attention was focused on parameters associated with pressure drop, which is important because it is directly related to operating and capital costs. Cleaning-cycle information was taken at the baghouses, and measurements were made of air-to-cloth ratio and tube sheet pressure drop. In addition, seasoned bags and bag samples cut from seasoned bags were weighed to determie dustcake areal loading. Average drag (presure drop/air-to-cloth ratio) and drag measured using these bag samples were recorded. Also, data on the chemical analysis of the coals and their resultant fly ash were gathered, and particle size distribution measurements were made on fly ash samples. Electrical resistivity was measured on fly ash from three locations. 8 refs., 33 figs., 38 tabs.

Felix, L.G.; Cushing, K.M.; Merritt, R.L.; Smith, W.B.

1985-10-01

236

TRACE ELEMENT CHARACTERIZATION OF COAL WASTES. FOURTH ANNUAL PROGRESS REPORT, OCTOBER 1, 1978-SEPTEMBER 30, 1979  

EPA Science Inventory

In the past year assessment studies of low-sulfur coal wastes from the Appalachian Region have been continued. These included mineralogical and trace elemental analyses on these materials and studies of their weathering and leaching behavior. Although the concentrations of the ac...

237

Upgrading of Coal Liquids for Use as Power Generation Fuels. Final Report, February 1978-June 1979.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Residual coal liquids were hydroprocessed in a fixed bed unit to upgrade them to power generation fuels. A series of catalysts was evaluated for the desulfurization of short contact time (SCT) SRC. Low sulfur (0.4 wt %) boiler fuels were produced with hyd...

P. J. Angevine M. Becker R. B. Callen M. J. Dabkowski M. P. Granchi

1979-01-01

238

Upgrading of coal liquids for use as power generation fuels. Final report, February 1978June 1979  

Microsoft Academic Search

Residual coal liquids were hydroprocessed in a fixed bed unit to upgrade them to power generation fuels. A series of catalysts was evaluated for the desulfurization of short contact time (SCT) SRC. Low sulfur (0.4 wt %) boiler fuels were produced with hydrogen consumptions as low as 800 and 1200 scf\\/B from Indiana V regular SRC and W. Kentucky SCT

P. J. Angevine; M. Becker; R. B. Callen; M. J. Dabkowski; M. P. Granchi; L. A. Green; R. H. Heck; C. A. Simpson; S. S. Shih; T. R. Stein

1979-01-01

239

Effect of Liquefaction Processing Conditions on Combustion Characteristics of Solvent-Refined Coal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One of several direct liquefaction processes currently under advanced stages of development is the Solvent-Refined Coal-I (SRC-I) process. A major SRC-1 product option is a low sulfur, low ash solid (SRC) which could be used as an electric utility boiler ...

G. J. Goetz T. C. Lao A. K. Mehta N. Y. Nsakala

1982-01-01

240

Coal preparation for gasification. [Gasification for an industrial plant (7 Wellman-Galusha gasifiers)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glen Gery Corp., Reading, Pa., has initiated an energy-independence program of coal gasification to provide an uninterrupted supply of basic fuel for the company's face brick plants in Pennsylvania. Glen Gery now substitutes gas made from locally mined low-sulfur anthracite for natural gas as primary fuel for its brick kilns. By the end of the year all Pennsylvania plants run

1977-01-01

241

Uranium in coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

United States production of coal in 1977 was 695 million short tons of which 477 million tons were burned in power plants. The ash from these power plants was about 67 million tons containing an estimated 900 tons UâOâ, assuming 14 percent ash from the type of coal used by utilities and 12 ppM U contained in ash. Perhaps 1

Facer; J. F. Jr

1979-01-01

242

Emissions of toxic pollutants from compressed natural gas and low sulfur diesel-fueled heavy-duty transit buses tested over multiple driving cycles.  

PubMed

The number of heavy-duty vehicles using alternative fuels such as compressed natural gas (CNG) and new low-sulfur diesel fuel formulations and equipped with after-treatment devices are projected to increase. However, few peer-reviewed studies have characterized the emissions of particulate matter (PM) and other toxic compounds from these vehicles. In this study, chemical and biological analyses were used to characterize the identifiable toxic air pollutants emitted from both CNG and low-sulfur-diesel-fueled heavy-duty transit buses tested on a chassis dynamometer over three transient driving cycles and a steady-state cruise condition. The CNG bus had no after-treatment, and the diesel bus was tested first equipped with an oxidation catalyst (OC) and then with a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF). Emissions were analyzed for PM, volatile organic compounds (VOCs; determined on-site), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and mutagenic activity. The 2000 model year CNG-fueled vehicle had the highest emissions of 1,3-butadiene, benzene, and carbonyls (e.g., formaldehyde) of the three vehicle configurations tested in this study. The 1998 model year diesel bus equipped with an OC and fueled with low-sulfur diesel had the highest emission rates of PM and PAHs. The highest specific mutagenic activities (revertants/microg PM, or potency) and the highest mutagen emission rates (revertants/mi) were from the CNG bus in strain TA98 tested over the New York Bus (NYB) driving cycle. The 1998 model year diesel bus with DPF had the lowest VOCs, PAH, and mutagenic activity emission. In general, the NYB driving cycle had the highest emission rates (g/mi), and the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) had the lowest emission rates for all toxics tested over the three transient test cycles investigated. Also, transient emissions were, in general, higher than steady-state emissions. The emissions of toxic compounds from an in-use CNG transit bus (without an oxidation catalyst) and from a vehicle fueled with low-sulfur diesel fuel (equipped with DPF) were lower than from the low-sulfur diesel fueled vehicle equipped with OC. All vehicle configurations had generally lower emissions of toxics than an uncontrolled diesel engine. Tunnel backgrounds (measurements without the vehicle running) were measured throughout this study and were helpful in determining the incremental increase in pollutant emissions. Also, the on-site determination of VOCs, especially 1,3-butadiene, helped minimize measurement losses due to sample degradation after collection. PMID:16245838

Kado, Norman Y; Okamoto, Robert A; Kuzmicky, Paul A; Kobayashi, Reiko; Ayala, Alberto; Gebel, Michael E; Rieger, Paul L; Maddox, Christine; Zafonte, Leo

2005-10-01

243

Incidence and impact of axial malformations in larval bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) developing in sites polluted by a coal-burning power plant  

SciTech Connect

Amphibian malformations have recently received much attention from the scientific community, but few studies have provided evidence linking environmental pollution to larval amphibian malformations in the field. The authors document an increased incidence of axial malformations in bullfrog larvae (Rana catesbeiana) inhabiting two sites contaminated with coal combustion wastes. In the polluted sites, 18 and 37% of larvae exhibited lateral curvatures of the spine, whereas zero and 4% of larvae from two reference sites had similar malformations. Larvae from the most heavily polluted site had significantly higher tissue concentrations of potentially toxic trace elements, including As, Cd, Se, Cu, Cr, and V, compared with conspecifics from the reference sites. In addition, malformed larvae from the cost contaminated site had decreased swimming speeds compared with those of normal larvae from the same site. The authors hypothesize that the complex mixture of contaminants produced by coal combustion is responsible for the high incidence of malformations and associated effects on swimming performance.

Hopkins, W.A.; Congdon, J.; Ray, J.K.

2000-04-01

244

Ultra-low Sulfur Reduction Emission Control Device/Development of an On-board Fuel Sulfur Trap  

SciTech Connect

Honeywell has completed working on a multiyear program to develop and demonstrate proof-of-concept for an 'on-vehicle' desulfurization fuel filter for both light duty and heavy-duty diesel engines. Integration of the filter into the vehicle fuel system will reduce the adverse effects sulfur has on post combustion emission control devices such as NOx adsorbers. The NOx adsorber may be required to meet the proposed new EPA Tier II and '2007-Rule' emission standards. The proposed filter concept is based on Honeywell's reactive filtration technology and experience in liquids handling and conditioning. A regeneration and recycling plan for the spent filters was also examined. We have chosen to develop and demonstrate this technology based on criteria set forth for a heavy duty CIDI engine system because it represents a more challenging set of conditions of service intervals and overall fuel usage over light duty systems. In the second phase of the program a light duty diesel engine test was also demonstrated. Further, technology developed under this proposal would also have application for the use of liquid based fuels for fuel cell power generation. The program consisted of four phases. Phase I focused on developing a concept design and analysis and resolution of technical barriers concerning removal of sulfur-containing species in low sulfur fuels. In Phase II concentrated on prototype filter design and preparation followed by qualification testing of this component in a fuel line application. Phase III studied life cycle and regeneration options for the spent filter. Phase IV focused on efficacy and benefits in the desulfation steps of a NOx adsorber on both a heavy and light duty engine. The project team included a number of partners, with Honeywell International as the prime contractor. The partners include an emission control technology developer (Honeywell International), a fuel technology developer (Marathon Ashland Petroleum), a catalyst technology developer (Johnson Matthey), a CIDI engine manufacturer (Navistar Inc. (formerly International Truck & Engine Corporation) and Mack Trucks Inc.), and filter recycler (American Wastes Industries).

Rohrbach, Ron; Barron, Ann

2008-07-31

245

Pulverized coal fuel injector  

DOEpatents

A pulverized coal fuel injector contains an acceleration section to improve the uniformity of a coal-air mixture to be burned. An integral splitter is provided which divides the coal-air mixture into a number separate streams or jets, and a center body directs the streams at a controlled angle into the primary zone of a burner. The injector provides for flame shaping and the control of NO/NO.sub.2 formation.

Rini, Michael J. (Hebron, CT); Towle, David P. (Windsor, CT)

1992-01-01

246

Pelletization of fine coals. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Coal is one of the most abundant energy resources in the US with nearly 800 million tons of it being mined annually. Process and environmental demands for low-ash, low-sulfur coals and economic constraints for high productivity are leading the coal industry to use such modern mining methods as longwall mining and such newer coal processing techniques as froth flotation, oil agglomeration, chemical cleaning and synthetic fuel production. All these processes are faced with one common problem area--fine coals. Dealing effectively with these fine coals during handling, storage, transportation, and/or processing continues to be a challenge facing the industry. Agglomeration by the unit operation of pelletization consists of tumbling moist fines in drums or discs. Past experimental work and limited commercial practice have shown that pelletization can alleviate the problems associated with fine coals. However, it was recognized that there exists a serious need for delineating the fundamental principles of fine coal pelletization. Accordingly, a research program has been carried involving four specific topics: (i) experimental investigation of coal pelletization kinetics, (ii) understanding the surface principles of coal pelletization, (iii) modeling of coal pelletization processes, and (iv) simulation of fine coal pelletization circuits. This report summarizes the major findings and provides relevant details of the research effort.

Sastry, K.V.S.

1995-12-31

247

Full Useful Life (120,000 miles) Exhaust Emission Performance of a NOx Adsorber and Diesel Particle Filter Equipped Passenger Car and Medium-duty Engine in Conjunction with Ultra Low Sulfur Fuel (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

Discusses the full useful life exhaust emission performance of a NOx (nitrogen oxides) adsorber and diesel particle filter equipped light-duty and medium-duty engine using ultra low sulfur diesel fuel.

Thornton, M.; Tatur, M.; Tomazic, D.; Weber, P.; Webb, C.

2005-08-25

248

Sandal burns and their treatment in children.  

PubMed

Sandal is an ancient, primitive heating device that is still in use by both poor and rich people in mountain areas of Middle Asia. Sandal burn injuries are a serious health problem. Characteristics of sandal burns include not only skin injuries of various depths but also injuries to underlying tissues: subcutaneous fat, fasciae, muscles, and even bones. Sandal burns are characterized by such severe deep injuries because of a close contact of the body with live coals or woods. The main goal of this work was to present the most complete information about sandal burns and discuss the most effective methods of treatment for sandal burns. This treatment is used to accelerate the rejection of necrotic tissue, to prepare the wound for early autodermoplastic surgery, to decrease the postburn contractures/deformities, and also to shorten hospital stay for the patients. PMID:15534459

Shakirov, Babur M

249

Contribution of nitropyrene to the mutagenic activity of coal fly ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stack-collected coal fly ash from western low-sulfur coal was extracted with 60:40 benzene\\/methanol. This extract was fractionated by preparative-scale high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the mutagenic activity of 14 fractions was evaluated by microbial assay with salmonella typhimurium TA 1538. HPLC methods were also used to isolate 1-nitropyrene from the total benzene\\/methanol extract. The concentration of 1-nitropyrene in the

Wesley R. Harris; Edward K. Chess; Deborah Okamoto; Joyce F. Remsen; Douglas W. Later

1984-01-01

250

Contribution of nitropyrene to the mutagenic activity of coal fly ash  

SciTech Connect

Stack-collected coal fly ash from western low-sulfur coal was extracted with 60:40 benzene/methanol. This extract was fractionated by preparative-scale high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the mutagenic activity of 14 fractions was evaluated by microbial assay with Salmonella typhimuruim TA1538. A widespread distribution of direct-acting mutagens, which probably includes both mono- and di-nitroaromatics, was detected.

Harris, W.R.; Chess, E.K.; Okamoto, D.; Remsen, J.F.; Later, D.W.

1984-01-01

251

Environmental Impacts of Acid Leachate Derived from Coal-Storage Piles upon Groundwater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leachate emanating from a coal-storage area at an electricutility plant in Northwest Indiana (U.S.A.) is impacting groundwater quality. This assessment is based on results of along-term groundwater monitoring program conducted at Purdue University's Wade Utility Plant where a monthly average of 32,000metric tons of both high- and low-sulfur coal are stored. Groundwater from both a perched and major aquifer (the

Angie M. Cook; Steven J. Fritz

2002-01-01

252

Effect of liquefaction processing conditions on combustion characteristics of solvent-refined coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of several direct liquefaction processes currently under advanced stages of development is the Solvent-Refined Coal-I (SRC-I) process. A major SRC-1 product option is a low sulfur, low ash solid (SRC) which could be used as an electric utility boiler fuel much in the same manner that pulverized coal is currently fired in this type of combustion equipment. SRC-I processing

G. J. Goetz; T. C. Lao; A. K. Mehta; N. Y. Nsakala

1982-01-01

253

A New Concept for the Gasification of Wyoming Coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Background of the original proposal Wyoming produces 36% of US coal, most of which is burned in pulverized coal boilers to produce electricity. This coal is sold at fuel value, minus transportation cost, resulting in a relatively low economic value because the majority of the coal is shipped out of state. Higher value products from the coal could be

Stefan Heinz; Michael Stoellinger

2009-01-01

254

FEA warns 19 firms: don't burn oil, gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Federal Energy Administration (FEA) has warned 19 companies that 24 of their sites will not be allowed to burn oil and gas; another 23 companies were notified that they must include a coal-burning capability in 32 plants now in various stages of planning. The FEA is aware of the high cost (as much as $50 million for some) of

M. L. Millenson; P. McCarthy

1977-01-01

255

Research on a wood-burning gas turbine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wood burning gas turbine research apparatus was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of the filter system in preventing turbine blade erosion. Green wood pulverized to pass a half inch screen was used. A wood fueled gas turbine with pressurized fluidized coal burning bed and a large single cyclone filter is shown schematically. The burner arrangement is also explained schematically.

Hamrick

1982-01-01

256

Characterization and supply of coal based fuels  

SciTech Connect

Studies and data applicable for fuel markets and coal resource assessments were reviewed and evaluated to provide both guidelines and specifications for premium quality coal-based fuels. The fuels supplied under this contract were provided for testing of advanced combustors being developed under Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) sponsorship for use in the residential, commercial and light industrial (RCLI) market sectors. The requirements of the combustor development contractors were surveyed and periodically updated to satisfy the evolving needs based on design and test experience. Available coals were screened and candidate coals were selected for further detailed characterization and preparation for delivery. A team of participants was assembled to provide fuels in both coal-water fuel (CWF) and dry ultrafine coal (DUC) forms. Information about major US coal fields was correlated with market needs analysis. Coal fields with major reserves of low sulfur coal that could be potentially amenable to premium coal-based fuels specifications were identified. The fuels requirements were focused in terms of market, equipment and resource constraints. With this basis, the coals selected for developmental testing satisfy the most stringent fuel requirements and utilize available current deep-cleaning capabilities.

Not Available

1992-06-01

257

Metal Content of Stack Emissions, Coal and Fly Ash from Some Eastern and Western Power Plants in the U.S.A. as Obtained By ICP-AES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The metal profiles characterizing stack emissions, fly ashes and coals of three coal-fired power plants in the United States using one high-sulfur Eastern and two low-sulfur Western coals were obtained by quantitating 21 elements via inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. The stack emissions were collected with a modified sampling train approved by the U.S. EPA. Aluminum, calcium, iron, sodium,

Shane S. Que Hee; Vincent N. Finelli; Fred L. Fricke; Karen A. Wolnik

1982-01-01

258

Operation of the Ft. Lewis, Washington Solvent Refined Coal \\/SRC\\/ Pilot Plant in the SRC I and SRC II processing modes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The operating history of a Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) Pilot Plant from start-up through March 1978 is discussed. The Solvent Refined Coal Process SRC I (solid fuel product) and SRC II (liquid fuel product) operating modes for converting high-sulfur, high-ash bituminous coals into low-sulfur, ash-free boiler fuels have been successfully demonstrated. Extended periods of operation with both operating modes have

R. D. Moschitto

1978-01-01

259

Coal liquefaction in a synthoil reactor without added catalyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

In studies at the U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Research Center, parallel packed-bed runs of the liquefaction of Kentucky coal over silica\\/alumina-supported cobalt\\/molybdenum catalyst and over inert glass beads, designed to determine the catalyst activity, revealed that an acceptable fuel oil of low sulfur content was produced in high yields without the catalyst. The runs were carried out at

S. E. Rogers; N. J. Mazzocco; S. Akhtar; P. M. Yavorsky

1978-01-01

260

Laser diagnostics of mineral matter and combustion processes in coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the third report on this project. During the period covered by the first two reports (October 1, 1987 through August 30, 1988) a sample of low sulfur powdered coal was heated under vacuum from 25 to 1000°C at a heating rate of 5°C per minute. The vapors generated were analyzed by a Balzer Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer model QMG

P. Venkateswarlu; M. C. George; P. C. Sekhar; V. Subbarao

1989-01-01

261

Myeloperoxidase activity and its corresponding mRNA expression as well as gene polymorphism in the population living in the coal-burning endemic fluorosis area in Guizhou of China.  

PubMed

The myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and its corresponding mRNA expression as well as gene polymorphism were investigated in the population who live in the endemic fluorosis area. In the study, 150 people were selected from the coal-burning endemic fluorosis area and 150 normal persons from the non-fluorosis area in Guizhou province of China. The blood samples were collected from these people. The activity of MPO in the plasma was determined by spectrophotometer; the expression of MPO mRNA was measured by employing real-time polymerase chain reaction; DNAs were extracted from the leucocytes in blood and five SNP genotypes of MPO promoter gene detected by a multiplex genotyping method, adapter-ligation-mediated allele-specific amplification. The results showed that the MPO activity and its corresponding mRNA in blood were significantly increased in the population living in the area of fluorosis. The different genotype frequencies of MPO, including -1228G/A, -585T/C, -463G/A, and -163C/T, and the three haplotypes with higher frequencies, including -163C-463G-585T-1228G-1276T, -163C-463G-585T-1228G-1276C, and -163C-463G-585T-1228A-1276T, were significantly associated with fluorosis. The results indicated that the elevated activity of MPO induced by endemic fluorosis may be connected in mechanism to the stimulated expression of MPO mRNA and the changed gene polymorphism. PMID:23436245

Zhang, Ting; Shan, Ke-Ren; Tu, Xi; He, Yan; Pei, Jin-Jing; Guan, Zhi-Zhong

2013-02-26

262

Burn-In  

Microsoft Academic Search

Burn-In is used to screen weak parts from a population of completely processed chips to assist in meeting reliability requirements. This tutorial provides a general introduction to burn-in. It is shown how burn-in improves the failure rate. Typical burn-in conditions, the burn-in models and an example of failure mechanisms are given. The impact of burn-in on technology reliability (hot carriers,

R.-P. Vollertsen

1999-01-01

263

Production of low-metal and low-sulfur coke from high-metal and high-sulfur resids  

SciTech Connect

A process for demetallation and desulfurization of resids by visbreaking an admixture of resids, particulate solids, and steam and/or hydrogen, and then subjecting the visbroken mixture to high temperature settling and separating to provide a first vapor product, a liquid product, and a recycled underflow solids stream. The process further comprises coking the liquid product to produce a second vapor product and coke and then distilling the combined first and second vapor products to yield a plurality of demetallized and desulfurized liquid hydrocarbon products. A fraction of the recycled underflow from the settler/separator is removed as a purge stream and burned for recovery of heat and metals. If hydrogen is used in the visbreaking step, the first vapor product is condensed to separate the hydrogen for recycling.

Yan, T. Y.

1984-11-06

264

Experimental investigation on regulated and unregulated emissions of a diesel engine fueled with ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel blended with biodiesel from waste cooking oil.  

PubMed

Experiments were conducted on a 4-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine using ultra-low sulfur diesel, bi oesel and their blends, to investigate the regulated and unregulated emissions of the engine under five engine loads at an engine speed of 1800 rev/min. Blended fuels containing 19.6%, 39.4%, 59.4% and 79.6% by volume of biodiesel, corresponding to 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% by mass of oxygen in the blended fuel, were used. Biodiesel used in this study was converted from waste cooking oil. The following results are obtained with an increase of biodiesel in the fuel. The brake specific fuel consumption and the brake thermal efficiency increase. The HC and CO emissions decrease while NO(x) and NO(2) emissions increase. The smoke opacity and particulate mass concentrations reduce significantly at high engine load. In addition, for submicron particles, the geometry mean diameter of the particles becomes smaller while the total number concentration increases. For the unregulated gaseous emissions, generally, the emissions of formaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene, toluene, xylene decrease, however, acetaldehyde and benzene emissions increase. The results indicate that the combination of ultra-low sulfur diesel and biodiesel from waste cooking oil gives similar results to those in the literature using higher sulfur diesel fuels and biodiesel from other sources. PMID:18947856

Di, Yage; Cheung, C S; Huang, Zuohua

2008-10-22

265

ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Project. Annual report, October 1990--September 1991  

SciTech Connect

ENCOAL Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Shell Mining Company, is constructing a mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company`s Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology developed by Shell and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin Coal to produce two new fuels, Process Derived Fuel (PDF) and Coal Derived Liquids (CDL). The products, as alternative fuels sources, are expected to significantly reduce current sulfur emissions at industrial and utility boiler sites throughout the nation, thereby reducing pollutants causing acid rain.

Not Available

1992-02-01

266

IDENTIFICATION AND EMISSION RATES OF MOLECULAR TRACERS IN COAL SMOKE PARTICULATE MATTER. (R823990)  

EPA Science Inventory

The abundances and distributions of organic constituents in coal smoke particulate matter are dependent on thermal combustion temperature, ventilation, burn time, and coal rank (geologic maturity). Important coal rank indicators from smoke include (1) the decreases in CPIs of ...

267

America's role in the world coal-export market. Part 2. Pacific Rim outlook. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Energy and Mineral Resources of the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, Ninety-Seventh Congress, First Session, December 1, 1981  

SciTech Connect

Part 2 of the hearing record covers the statements of witnesses from the Western Governors' Policy Office, Pacific Rim manufacturers and utilities, and others interest in low-sulfur coal from Alaska. Inherent in the coal trade are long-standing mutual defense treaties with Taiwan, Japan, and others. Of special concern is the loss of US coal exports to Australia and Canada and the need for better policies to deal with the growing international demand for steam coal. (DCK)

Not Available

1983-01-01

268

Burn depth: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the plethora of technologic advances, the most common technique for diagnosing burn depth remains the clinical assessment of an experienced burn surgeon. It is clear that this assessment is accurate for very deep and very shallow burns. But since clinical judgment is not precise in telling whether a dermal burn will heal in 3 weeks, efforts to develop a

David Heimbach; Loren Engrav; Baiba Grube; Janet Marvin

1992-01-01

269

Modern burn care  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the United States nearly 2 million people are burned every year; about 100,000 burns are moderate to severe and require hospitalization and about 5,000 deaths occur because of burns. The overall improvement in mortality and outcome of patients with severe burn trauma over the last decades can be attributed to the following: (1) emergency medical treatment with aggressive early

David N. Herndon; Marcus Spies

2001-01-01

270

Coal Power and Combustion. Quarterly Report, January--March 1977.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

ERDA's coal combustion and power program has focused on two major areas: Direct combustion of coal and advanced power systems. Efforts in the area of direct combustion are concentrated on: Development of atmospheric and pressurized systems capable of burn...

1977-01-01

271

Key considerations in coal handling system design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The power generating utilities are placing increasing importance on achieving high availability an a cost effective coal handling operation within their plants. This paper addresses the key considerations directed towards achieving high availability in coal handling operation. The importance of knowing the flow properties of the coal to be burned, designing for system simplicity, flexibility and maintainability and use of

B. Torma; A. R. Weishar

1982-01-01

272

Coal fueled aero-derivative gas turbine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The direct use of coal as a gas turbine fuel offers the opportunity to burn coal in an environmentally sound manner at a competitive cost of energy. A development program is underway to verify the feasibility of using a coal water mixture to fuel an aero-derivative gas turbine. This paper presents the overall program approach, required gas turbine design modifications,

M. W. Horner; P. E. Sabla; S. G. Kimura

1988-01-01

273

Application of mathematical programming models to coal quality control  

SciTech Connect

The problem of utilizing blending techniques to control coal quality at the production-consumption phase is considered. Three blanding models were developed to provide coal of high thermal content and low pollutants. With the aid of operational mine planning, coal is blended at the coal producing mines such that the best quality of coal is mined during a planning period, while meeting the management production objectives. The first model developed uses 0-1 programming formulation to select potential working areas of a mine on the basis of predicted grade values obtainable from geostatics. A second model developed combines economically coals produced by different suppliers to meet the specification of a power plant. The second model uses a linear programming formulation to develop coal purchasing strategy. Finally, a multiobjective programming technique is used to determine the tonnages of coal which must be cleaned from various sources (e.g. stockpiles) in order to result in clean coal of high thermal content and low sulfur content. The two objectives used are minimization of total sulfur and maximization of total Btu. Both the operational mine planning and coal purchasing models were tested on actual mine data. The study demonstrated the capability of controlling coal quality by blending technique with the aid of three models. This can be translated into dollar savings to both the coal producer and the coal consumer.

Baafi, E.Y.

1983-01-01

274

Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems  

SciTech Connect

Westinghouse's Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine System Program (DE-AC2l-86MC23167) was originally split into two major phases - a Basic Program and an Option. The Basic Program also contained two phases. The development of a 6 atm, 7 lb/s, 12 MMBtu/hr slagging combustor with an extended period of testing of the subscale combustor, was the first part of the Basic Program. In the second phase of the Basic Program, the combustor was to be operated over a 3-month period with a stationary cascade to study the effect of deposition, erosion and corrosion on combustion turbine components. The testing of the concept, in subscale, has demonstrated its ability to handle high- and low-sulfur bituminous coals, and low-sulfur subbituminous coal. Feeding the fuel in the form of PC has proven to be superior to CWM type feed. The program objectives relative to combustion efficiency, combustor exit temperature, NO[sub x] emissions, carbon burnout, and slag rejection have been met. Objectives for alkali, particulate, and SO[sub x] levels leaving the combustor were not met by the conclusion of testing at Textron. It is planned to continue this testing, to achieve all desired emission levels, as part of the W/NSP program to commercialize the slagging combustor technology.

Not Available

1992-09-01

275

Clinical forensic evidence in burns: rescuer burns.  

PubMed

In the literature no systematic study is available on rescuer burn for victims of burn injury. This is a retrospective study of nine patients (five admitted and four outpatients) were treated in this hospital as rescuer burns in 3.5 years. All nine patients were males. Average age of the patient treated on outpatient basis was 47 years (ranging between 44 and 52) and total burn area ranged for 1-4%. Average age of the five patients treated on inpatient basis was 32.6 years (ranging between 30 and 34). The total burn area ranged from 14.5 to 38%. During the period of study, in addition to nine rescuer burns, one patient sustained burn before the rescue attempt due to the victim hugging the rescuer. Based on the study of patterns of burn, these patients were found to have three grades of burn injury: Grade 1--upper extremity involvement only. (A) only one upper extremity involvement, (B) both upper extremities involvement, Grade 2--upper extremity/extremities and face involvement, Grade 3--upper extremity/extremities, face-neck, adjacent chest and lower extremity involvement. PMID:17011132

Kumar, Pramod; Gopal, Kirun; Ramnani, Sunil

2006-09-29

276

PRB Coal Users' Group grapples with supply chain challenges  

SciTech Connect

An account is given of issues addressed at the Powder River Basin Coal Users' Group annual meeting, held in conjunction with the Electric Power 2007 conference. Transportation, buying equipment for switching plants burn PRB coal, finding and fighting fires in a coal silo, and coal handling were amongst the topics discussed. 1 fig., 4 photos.

Pettier, R.

2007-06-15

277

Ash characterization in laboratory-scale oxy-coal combustor  

EPA Science Inventory

Oxygen enriched coal (oxy-coal) combustion is a developing technology. During oxy-coal combustion, combustion air is separated and the coal is burned in a mixture of oxygen and recycled flue gas. The resulting effluent must be further processed before the C02 can be compressed, t...

278

Assessment of hydrocarbon and particulate emissions control and wastewater treatment technology for the solvent refined coal-II process. Volume I. Executive summary  

SciTech Connect

The Solvent Refined Coal-II (SRC-II) process provides a significant alternative to importing oil by producing oil derived from our abundant coal reserves. The primary product of this process is a low-sulfur distillate fuel suitable for burning in utility boilers. On the basis of preliminary design and pilot plant data, controlling particulates and hydrocarbons from the SRC-II plant is of primary concern. In addition, wastewater treatment technology should be studied further, as only limited data were derived from the experience at the pilot plant. This report examines the SRC-II process utilizing the preliminary design developed by Stearns-Roger, Incorporated. That process design uses noncatalytic, direct hydrogenation to liquefy up to 6078 metric tons per day of coal. This report proceeds through a process description of the SRC-II process based on the Phase Zero SRC-II Demonstration Project, estimates the air pollutant emissions from point and fugitive sources, characterizes wastewater streams from the process, and discusses available control technologies which can be applied to the streams. The costs of the different control technologies are also discussed. Preliminary and detailed screening analyses were performed to investigate the air quality problems to plant personnel and the surrounding community. Potential health risks from particulates and hydrocarbon emissions have been assessed based on studies undertaken at different laboratories in the country. Finally, a summary of environmental impacts and control technology consideration is presented. The summary includes research and development needs in the area of emission factors, waste stream characterization and control technologies. 8 figures, 15 tables.

Benedek, K.; Courant, R.; DeLucia, D.; Horne, R.; Mohr, C.M.; Porter, J.H.; Ray, A.

1984-06-01

279

Assessment of hydrocarbon and particulate emissions control and wastewater treatment technology for the Solvent Refined Coal-II process. Volume II. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

The Solvent Refined Coal-II (SRC-II) process provides a significant alternative to importing oil by producing oil derived from our abundant coal reserves. The primary product of this process is a low-sulfur distillate fuel suitable for burning in utility boilers. On the basis of preliminary design and pilot plant data, controlling particulates and hydrocarbons from the SRC-II plant is of primary concern. In addition, wastewater treatment technology should be studied further, as only limited data were derived from the experience at the pilot plant. This report examines the SRC-II process utilizing the preliminary design developed by Stearns-Roger, Incorporated. That process design uses noncatalytic, direct hydrogenation to liquefy up to 6078 metric tons per day of coal. This report proceeds through a process description of the SRC-II process based on the Phase Zero SRC-II Demonstration Project, estimates the air pollutant emissions from point and fugitive sources, characterizes wastewater streams from the process, and discusses available control technologies which can be applied to the streams. The costs of the different control technologies are also discussed. Preliminary and detailed screening analyses were performed to investigate the air quality problems to plant personnel and the surrounding community. Potential health risks from particulates and hydrocarbon emissions have been assessed based on studies undertaken at different laboratories in the country. Finally, a summary of environmental impacts and control technology consideration is presented. The summary includes research and development needs in the area of emission factors, waste stream characterization and control technologies. 40 references, 27 figures, 117 tables.

Benedek, K.; Courant, R.; DeLucia, D.; Horne, R.; Mohr, C.M.; Porter, J.H.; Ray, A.

1984-06-01

280

Comparisons of micronized coal, pulverized coal and No. 6 oil for gas\\/oil utility and industrial boiler firing  

Microsoft Academic Search

What minimum coal particle size is necessary for micronized coal to work What happens in the closed spaced convection passes of a gas\\/oil fired boiler when burning coal This paper details combustion research undertaken by Old Ben Coal Company and performed by Riley Stoker Research Center to answer these questions. Furnace heat flux \\/ temperature profiles are investigated and compared

E. T. Robinson; O. G. Jr. Briggs; R. D. Bessette

1988-01-01

281

Preparation for upgrading western subbituminous coal  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to establish the physical and chemical characteristics of western coal and determine the best preparation technologies for upgrading this resource. Western coal was characterized as an abundant, easily mineable, clean, low-sulfur coal with low heating value, high moisture, susceptibility to spontaneous ignition, and considerable transit distances from major markets. Project support was provided by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The research was conducted by the Western Research Institute, (WRI) in Laramie, Wyoming. The project scope of work required the completion of four tasks: (1) project planning, (2) literature searches and verbal contacts with consumers and producers of western coal, (3) selection of the best technologies to upgrade western coal, and (4) identification of research needed to develop the best technologies for upgrading western coals. The results of this research suggest that thermal drying is the best technology for upgrading western coals. There is a significant need for further research in areas involving physical and chemical stabilization of the dried coal product. Excessive particle-size degradation and resulting dustiness, moisture reabsorption, and high susceptibility to spontaneous combustion are key areas requiring further research. Improved testing methods for the determination of equilibrium moisture and susceptibility to spontaneous ignition under various ambient conditions are recommended.

Grimes, R.W.; Cha, C.Y.; Sheesley, D.C.

1990-11-01

282

Supercritical desulfurization rates of whole and treated coals  

SciTech Connect

Growing concern over the environmental effects of acid rain has resulted in increased interest in development of precombustion removal of sulfur from coal. Most coals are not in compliance with the recent requirements which call for reduction of sulfur emissions from various fuel sources. Under proposed guidelines, even low sulfur, western bituminous coals require some cleaning to meet new source standards of 1.2 lb of SO/sub 2/ per million Btu's and 90% reduction in sulfur content of the coal on a concentration basis. Typically, Illinois Basin coals contain more sulfur than coals from other coal bearing regions. In order for typical Illinois coals to meet EPA guidelines, some organic sulfur must be removed, in addition to most of the pyritic sulfur. Almost all Illinois coals contain greater than 1% organic sulfur, with most containing more than 2%. The Department of Mechanical Engineering and Energy Processes at Southern Illinois University is developing a desulfurization process to remove both organic and inorganic sulfur from coal without deleteriously affecting key combustion properties. This process employs alcohols under supercritical conditions. The coal/alcohol mixtures produce a clean solid product with an acceptable sulfur content, a high Btu gaseous product and coal derived liquids.

Hippo, E.J.; Tao, W.; Sarvela, D.P.; Muchmore, C.B.; Kent, A.C.

1988-06-01

283

Spectroscopy of Burn Wounds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research seeks to develop non-invasive burn depth evaluation from non-contacting visible and near-infrared spectroscopic measurements. In previous years, we demonstrated that features of the optical reflection spectra of burn wounds can be correlated...

M. A. Afromowitz J. D. Callis

1990-01-01

284

Burning Rate Emulator  

NASA Video Gallery

The Burning Rate Emulator is a gas fuel investigation attempting to emulate the burning of solids to improve our understanding of materials''flammability over a wide range of conditions. The approach relies on the fact that all burning solids are first converted into a gas. By understanding the rate of gasification and other physical properties of a given solid material, the experiments will emulate the burning process by carefully controlling a gas flame

Kristine Rainey

2013-01-11

285

Abundances of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 14 chinese and american coals and their relation to coal rank and weathering  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The abundances of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the priority list of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) have been determined in 14 Chinese and American coals. The ranks of the samples range from lignite, bituminous coal, anthracite, to natural coke. Soxhlet extraction was conducted on each coal for 48 h. The extract was analyzed on a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The results show that the total PAH content ranged from 0.31 to 57.6 ??g/g of coal (on a dry basis). It varied with coal rank and is highest in the maturity range of bituminous coal rank. High-molecular-weight (HMW) PAHs are predominant in low-rank coals, but low-molecular-weight (LMW) PAHs are predominant in high-rank coals. The low-sulfur coals have a higher PAH content than high-sulfur coals. It may be explained by an increasing connection between disulfide bonds and PAHs in high-sulfur coal. In addition, it leads us to conclude that the PAH content of coals may be related to the depositional environment. ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

Wang, R.; Liu, G.; Zhang, J.; Chou, C. -L.; Liu, J.

2010-01-01

286

DEVELOPMENT OF A VALIDATED MODEL FOR USE IN MINIMIZING NOx EMISSIONS AND MAXIMIZING CARBON UTILIZATION WHEN CO-FIRING BIOMASS WITH COAL  

SciTech Connect

This is the seventh Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00NT40895. A statement of the project objectives is included in the Introduction of this report. Two additional biomass co-firing test burns were conducted during this quarter. In the first test (Test 12), up to 20% by weight dry hardwood sawdust and switchgrass was comilled with Galatia coal and injected through the single-register burner. Liquid ammonia was intermittently added to the primary air stream to increase fuel-bound nitrogen and simulate cofiring with chicken litter. Galatia coal is a medium-sulfur ({approx} 1.2% S), high chlorine ({approx}0.5%) Illinois Basin coal. In the second test (Test 13), up to 20% by weight dry hardwood sawdust and switchgrass was comilled with Jim Walters No.7 mine coal and injected through the single-register burner. Jim Walters No.7 coal is a low-volatility, low-sulfur ({approx} 0.7% S) Eastern bituminous coal. The results of these tests are presented in this quarterly report. Progress has continued to be made in implementing a modeling approach to combine reaction times and temperature distributions from computational fluid dynamic models of the pilot-scale combustion furnace with char burnout and chemical reaction kinetics to predict NO{sub x} emissions and unburned carbon levels in the furnace exhaust. The Configurable Fireside Simulator has been delivered from REI, Inc. and is being tested with exiting CFD solutions. Preparations are under way for a final pilot-scale combustion experiment using the single-register burner fired with comilled mixtures of Jim Walters No.7 low-volatility bituminous coal and switchgrass. Because of the delayed delivery of the Configurable Fireside Simulator, it is planned to ask for a no-cost time extension for the project until the end of this calendar year. Finally, a paper describing this project that included preliminary results from the first four cofiring tests was presented at the 12th European Conference and Technology Exhibition on Biomass for Energy, Industry and Climate Protection in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, in June, 2002.

Larry G. Felix; P. Vann Bush

2002-07-01

287

Coal conversion processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal is processed sequentially over a range of temperatures up to a maximum of 750° F. and preferably considerably less to obtain a clean burning coke, refinable petroleum and bitumen products, fertilizer minerals, combustible gases and water; the process is capable of producing a highly porous, easily crushed coke substantially free of pollutants and almost entirely depleted of oil so

1984-01-01

288

Burns following petrol sniffing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two patients with burns following petrol sniffing are presented. They sustained an 8 per cent and a 70 per cent total body surface area burn. The majority of the burned areas of both patients were full thickness and were treated by early excision and autografting, and in one patient with cultured epidermal autografts also. Both patients came from disorganized families,

T. F. Janeži?

1997-01-01

289

Fluid replacement in burns  

PubMed Central

The successful treatment of major burns depends upon accurate and early fluid replacement in the first 36 h. A burns calculator has been designed, based upon the Muir and Barclay formula, which should facilitate the estimation of fluid requirements in burned patients and therefore improve their immediate management in accident and emergency departments. ImagesFIG. 2

Jenkinson, Lloyd R

1982-01-01

290

Secondary economic impact of acid deposition control legislation in six coal producing states: Final report  

SciTech Connect

Among the difficult policy questions on the US environmental agenda is what to do about emissions to the earth's atmosphere of pollutants that may result in ''acid rain''. The Congress has considered several pieces of legislation spelling out potential approaches to the problem and setting goals for emission reduction, mostly emphasizing the control of oxides of sulfur and nitrogen. Significant policy concern is the dollar costs to the nation's economy of achieving the intended effects of the legislation and the potential impacts on economic activity---in particular, losses of both coal mining and secondary service sector employment in states and regions dependent on the mining of high sulfur coal. There are several direct economic effects of regulations such as the acid rain control legislation. One of the more obvious effects was the switching from high sulfur coal to low sulfur coal. This would result in increases in employment and coal business procurements in low sulfur coal mining regions, but also would result in lower employment and lower coal business procurements in high sulfur coal mining areas. The potential negative effects are the immediate policy concern and are the focus of this report. 15 refs., 1 fig., 17 tabs.

Scott, M.J.; Guthrie, S.J.

1988-12-01

291

POC-SCALE TESTING OF AN ADVANCED FINE COAL DEWATERING EQUIPMENT/TECHNIQUE  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of the proposed program is to evaluate a novel surface modification technique, which utilizes the synergistic effect of metal ions-surfactant combination, for dewatering of ultra-fine clean coal on a proof-of-concept scale of 1 to 2 tph. The novel surface modification technique developed at the UKCAER will be evaluated using vacuum, centrifuge, and hyperbaric filtration equipment. Dewatering tests will be conducted using the fine clean-coal froth produced by the column flotation units at the Powell Mountain Coal Company, Mayflower Preparation Plant in St. Charles, Virginia. The POC-scale studies will be conducted on two different types of clean coal, namely, high-sulfur and low-sulfur clean coal. The Mayflower Plant processes coals from five different seams, thus the dewatering studies results could be generalized for most of the bituminous coals.

B.K. PAREKH; D. TAO; J.G. GROPPO

1998-02-03

292

Method of combining in-the-mill drying and firing of coal with enhanced heat recovery  

SciTech Connect

A method for drying coal in a coal mill and pneumatically conveying it to a kiln for burning, with a portion of the coaldust-laden air generated thereby being diverted to a clinker cooler adjacent the kiln in order to ignite the suspended particles and supply hot air for burning the coal. The diverted air is later recirculated back to the coal mill to help dry the coal.

Erhard, H.

1981-07-28

293

Pediatric burn injuries  

PubMed Central

Pediatric burns comprise a major mechanism of injury, affecting millions of children worldwide, with causes including scald injury, fire injury, and child abuse. Burn injuries tend to be classified based on the total body surface area involved and the depth of injury. Large burn injuries have multisystemic manifestations, including injuries to all major organ systems, requiring close supportive and therapeutic measures. Management of burn injuries requires intensive medical therapy for multi-organ dysfunction/failure, and aggressive surgical therapy to prevent sepsis and secondary complications. In addition, pain management throughout this period is vital. Specialized burn centers, which care for these patients with multidisciplinary teams, may be the best places to treat children with major thermal injuries. This review highlights the major components of burn care, stressing the pathophysiologic consequences of burn injury, circulatory and respiratory care, surgical management, and pain management of these often critically ill patients.

Krishnamoorthy, Vijay; Ramaiah, Ramesh; Bhananker, Sanjay M

2012-01-01

294

Clean coal power system  

SciTech Connect

A coal burning power plant which produces electricity at high efficiency and with very low levels of atmospheric contamination. A fluidized bed of limestone and coal is used to burn the coal with little air pollution, and a large quantity of specially constructed heat pipes transfer the heat to a closed cycle gas turbine with very low temperature loss. The preferred embodiments of the heat pipes are constructed with steel casing, have a thin aluminum oxide layer on their surfaces to prevent hydrogen permeation into the casing and have a plasma sprayed coating of ceramic on the portion within the fluidized bed to prevent erosion of the heat pipe casing by the solid particles within the bed.

Eastman, G.Y.

1983-04-19

295

Differential Burning, Recrystallization, and Fragmentation of Archaeological Bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents research on the conditions under which progressive levels of burning may occur to archaeological bone, and how burning damage changes bones' crystal structure and susceptibility to fragmentation (a.k.a. friability). Experiments were conducted to simulate common patterns of high-temperature bone diagenesis and fragmentation previously documented in Paleolithic shelter sites. Bones buried up to 6cm below the coal beds

Ofer Bar-Yosef

1995-01-01

296

Field Test Program for Long-Term Operation of a COHPAC System for Removing Mercury from Coal-Fired Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect

With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by the existing particle control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. During 2001, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) conducted a full-scale demonstration of sorbent-based mercury control technology at the Alabama Power E.C. Gaston Station (Wilsonville, Alabama). This unit burns a low-sulfur bituminous coal and uses a hot-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in combination with a Compact Hybrid Particulate Collector (COHPAC{reg_sign}) baghouse to collect fly ash. The majority of the fly ash is collected in the ESP with the residual being collected in the COHPAC{reg_sign} baghouse. Activated carbon was injected between the ESP and COHPAC{reg_sign} units to collect the mercury. Short-term mercury removal levels in excess of 90% were achieved using the COHPAC{reg_sign} unit. The test also showed that activated carbon was effective in removing both forms of mercury-elemental and oxidized. However, a great deal of additional testing is required to further characterize the capabilities and limitations of this technology relative to use with baghouse systems such as COHPAC{reg_sign}. It is important to determine performance over an extended period of time to fully assess all operational parameters. The project described in this report focuses on fully demonstrating sorbent injection technology at a coal-fired power generating plant that is equipped with a COHPAC{reg_sign} system. The overall objective is to evaluate the long-term effects of sorbent injection on mercury capture and COHPAC{reg_sign} performance. The work is being done on one-half of the gas stream at Alabama Power Company's Plant Gaston Unit 3 (nominally 135 MW). Data from the testing will be used to determine: (1) If sorbent injection into a high air-to-cloth ratio baghouse is a viable, long-term approach for mercury control; and (2) Design criteria and costs for new baghouse/sorbent injection systems that will use a similar, polishing baghouse (TOXECON{trademark}) approach.

Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac; Travis Starns; Sharon Sjostrom; Trent Taylor; Cindy Larson

2005-01-24

297

Field Test Program for Long-Term Operation of a COHPAC System for Removing Mercury from Coal-Fired Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect

With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by the existing particle control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. During 2001, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) conducted a full-scale demonstration of sorbent-based mercury control technology at the Alabama Power E.C. Gaston Station (Wilsonville, Alabama). This unit burns a low-sulfur bituminous coal and uses a hot-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in combination with a Compact Hybrid Particulate Collector (COHPAC{reg_sign}) baghouse to collect fly ash. The majority of the fly ash is collected in the ESP with the residual being collected in the COHPAC{reg_sign} baghouse. Activated carbon was injected between the ESP and COHPAC{reg_sign} units to collect the mercury. Short-term mercury removal levels in excess of 90% were achieved using the COHPAC{reg_sign} unit. The test also showed that activated carbon was effective in removing both forms of mercury-elemental and oxidized. However, a great deal of additional testing is required to further characterize the capabilities and limitations of this technology relative to use with baghouse systems such as COHPAC{reg_sign}. It is important to determine performance over an extended period of time to fully assess all operational parameters. The project described in this report focuses on fully demonstrating sorbent injection technology at a coal-fired power generating plant that is equipped with a COHPAC{reg_sign} system. The overall objective is to evaluate the long-term effects of sorbent injection on mercury capture and COHPAC{reg_sign} performance. The work is being done on one-half of the gas stream at Alabama Power Company's Plant Gaston Unit 3 (nominally 135 MW). Data from the testing will be used to determine: (1) If sorbent injection into a high air-to-cloth ratio baghouse is a viable, long-term approach for mercury control; and (2) Design criteria and costs for new baghouse/sorbent injection systems that will use a similar, polishing baghouse (TOXECON{trademark}) approach.

Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac; Travis Starns; Sharon Sjostrom; Trent Taylor; Cindy Larson

2004-08-06

298

FIELD TEST PROGRAM FOR LONG-TERM OPERATION OF A COHPAC SYSTEM FOR REMOVING MERCURY FROM COAL-FIRED FLUE GAS  

SciTech Connect

With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by the existing particle control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. During 2001, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) conducted a full-scale demonstration of sorbent-based mercury control technology at the Alabama Power E.C. Gaston Station (Wilsonville, AL). This unit burns a low-sulfur bituminous coal and uses a hot-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in combination with a Compact Hybrid Particulate Collector (COHPAC{trademark}) baghouse to collect fly ash. The majority of the fly ash is collected in the ESP with the residual being collected in the COHPAC{trademark} baghouse. Activated carbon was injected between the ESP and COHPAC{trademark} units to collect the mercury. Short-term mercury removal levels in excess of 90% were achieved using the COHPAC{trademark} unit. The test also showed that activated carbon was effective in removing both forms of mercury--elemental and oxidized. However, a great deal of additional testing is required to further characterize the capabilities and limitations of this technology relative to use with baghouse systems such as COHPAC{trademark}. It is important to determine performance over an extended period of time to fully assess all operational parameters. The project described in this report focuses on fully demonstrating sorbent injection technology at a coal-fired power generating plant that is equipped with a COHPAC{trademark} system. The overall objective is to evaluate the long-term effects of sorbent injection on mercury capture and COHPAC{trademark} performance. The work is being done on one-half of the gas stream at Alabama Power Company's Plant Gaston Unit 3 (nominally 135 MW). Data from the testing will be used to determine: (1) If sorbent injection into a high air-to-cloth ratio baghouse is a viable, long-term approach for mercury control; and (2) Design criteria and costs for new baghouse/sorbent injection systems that will use a similar, polishing baghouse (TOXECON{trademark}) approach.

Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac; Travis Starns; Sharon Sjostrom; Trent Taylor; Cindy Larson

2004-01-29

299

Field Test Program for Long-Term Operation of a COHPAC System for Removing Mercury from Coal-Fired Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect

With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by the existing particle control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. During 2001, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) conducted a full-scale demonstration of sorbent-based mercury control technology at the Alabama Power E.C. Gaston Station (Wilsonville, Alabama). This unit burns a low-sulfur bituminous coal and uses a hot-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in combination with a Compact Hybrid Particulate Collector (COHPAC{reg_sign}) baghouse to collect fly ash. The majority of the fly ash is collected in the ESP with the residual being collected in the COHPAC{reg_sign} baghouse. Activated carbon was injected between the ESP and COHPAC{reg_sign} units to collect the mercury. Short-term mercury removal levels in excess of 90% were achieved using the COHPAC{reg_sign} unit. The test also showed that activated carbon was effective in removing both forms of mercury-elemental and oxidized. However, a great deal of additional testing is required to further characterize the capabilities and limitations of this technology relative to use with baghouse systems such as COHPAC{reg_sign}. It is important to determine performance over an extended period of time to fully assess all operational parameters. The project described in this report focuses on fully demonstrating sorbent injection technology at a coal-fired power generating plant that is equipped with a COHPAC{reg_sign} system. The overall objective is to evaluate the long-term effects of sorbent injection on mercury capture and COHPAC{reg_sign} performance. The work is being done on one-half of the gas stream at Alabama Power Company's Plant Gaston Unit 3 (nominally 135 MW). Data from the testing will be used to determine: (1) If sorbent injection into a high air-to-cloth ratio baghouse is a viable, long-term approach for mercury control; and (2) Design criteria and costs for new baghouse/sorbent injection systems that will use a similar, polishing baghouse (TOXECON{trademark}) approach.

Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac; Travis Starns; Sharon Sjostrom; Cindy Larson

2005-07-14

300

FIELD TEST PROGRAM FOR LONG-TERM OPERATION OF A COHPAC SYSTEM FOR REMOVING MERCURY FROM COAL-FIRED FLUE GAS  

SciTech Connect

With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by the existing particle control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. During 2001 ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) conducted a full-scale demonstration of sorbent-based mercury control technology at the Alabama Power E.C. Gaston Station (Wilsonville, AL). This unit burns a low-sulfur bituminous coal and uses a hot-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in combination with a COHPAC baghouse to collect fly ash. The majority of the fly ash is collected in the ESP with the residual being collected in the COHPAC baghouse. Activated carbon was injected between the ESP and COHPAC units to collect the mercury. Short-term mercury removal levels in excess of 90% were achieved using the COHPAC unit. The test also showed that activated carbon was effective on removing both forms of mercury, elemental and oxidized. However, a great deal of additional testing is required to further characterize the capabilities and limitations of this technology relative to use with baghouse systems such as COHPAC. It is important to determine performance over an extended period of time to fully assess all operational parameters. The project described in this report focuses on fully demonstrating sorbent injection technology at a coal-fired power generating plant that is equipped with a COHPAC system. The overall objective is to evaluate the long term effects of sorbent injection on mercury capture and COHPAC performance. The work is being done on 1/2 of the gas stream at Alabama Power's Plant Gaston Unit 3 (nominally 135 MW). Data from the testing will be used to determine: (1) Is sorbent injection into a high air-to-cloth ratio baghouse a viable, long term approach for mercury control; and (2) Design criteria and costs for new baghouse/sorbent injection systems that will use a similar, polishing baghouse (TOXECON) approach.

Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey

2003-01-24

301

Field Test Program for Long-Term Operation of a COHPAC System for Removing Mercury from Coal-Fired Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect

With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by the existing particle control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. During 2001, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) conducted a full-scale demonstration of sorbent-based mercury control technology at the Alabama Power E.C. Gaston Station (Wilsonville, Alabama). This unit burns a low-sulfur bituminous coal and uses a hot-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in combination with a Compact Hybrid Particulate Collector (COHPAC{reg_sign}) baghouse to collect fly ash. The majority of the fly ash is collected in the ESP with the residual being collected in the COHPAC{reg_sign} baghouse. Activated carbon was injected between the ESP and COHPAC{reg_sign} units to collect the mercury. Short-term mercury removal levels in excess of 90% were achieved using the COHPAC{reg_sign} unit. The test also showed that activated carbon was effective in removing both forms of mercury-elemental and oxidized. However, a great deal of additional testing is required to further characterize the capabilities and limitations of this technology relative to use with baghouse systems such as COHPAC{reg_sign}. It is important to determine performance over an extended period of time to fully assess all operational parameters. The project described in this report focuses on fully demonstrating sorbent injection technology at a coal-fired power generating plant that is equipped with a COHPAC{reg_sign} system. The overall objective is to evaluate the long-term effects of sorbent injection on mercury capture and COHPAC{reg_sign} performance. The work is being done on one-half of the gas stream at Alabama Power Company's Plant Gaston Unit 3 (nominally 135 MW). Data from the testing will be used to determine: (1) If sorbent injection into a high air-to-cloth ratio baghouse is a viable, long-term approach for mercury control; and (2) Design criteria and costs for new baghouse/sorbent injection systems that will use a similar, polishing baghouse (TOXECON{trademark}) approach.

Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac; Travis Starns; Sharon Sjostrom; Cindy Larson

2006-01-27

302

Field Test Program for Long-Term Operation of a COHPAC System for Removing Mercury from Coal-Fired Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect

With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by the existing particle control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. During 2001, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) conducted a full-scale demonstration of sorbent-based mercury control technology at the Alabama Power E.C. Gaston Station (Wilsonville, Alabama). This unit burns a low-sulfur bituminous coal and uses a hot-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in combination with a Compact Hybrid Particulate Collector (COHPAC{reg_sign}) baghouse to collect fly ash. The majority of the fly ash is collected in the ESP with the residual being collected in the COHPAC{reg_sign} baghouse. Activated carbon was injected between the ESP and COHPAC{reg_sign} units to collect the mercury. Short-term mercury removal levels in excess of 90% were achieved using the COHPAC{reg_sign} unit. The test also showed that activated carbon was effective in removing both forms of mercury-elemental and oxidized. However, a great deal of additional testing is required to further characterize the capabilities and limitations of this technology relative to use with baghouse systems such as COHPAC{reg_sign}. It is important to determine performance over an extended period of time to fully assess all operational parameters. The project described in this report focuses on fully demonstrating sorbent injection technology at a coal-fired power generating plant that is equipped with a COHPAC{reg_sign} system. The overall objective is to evaluate the long-term effects of sorbent injection on mercury capture and COHPAC{reg_sign} performance. The work is being done on one-half of the gas stream at Alabama Power Company's Plant Gaston Unit 3 (nominally 135 MW). Data from the testing will be used to determine: (1) If sorbent injection into a high air-to-cloth ratio baghouse is a viable, long-term approach for mercury control; and (2) Design criteria and costs for new baghouse/sorbent injection systems that will use a similar, polishing baghouse (TOXECON{trademark}) approach.

Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac: Travis Starns; Sharon Sjostrom; Trent Taylor; Cindy Larson

2005-04-28

303

Field Test Program for Long-Term Operation of a COHPAC System for Removing Mercury from Coal-Fired Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect

With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by the existing particle control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. During 2001, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) conducted a full-scale demonstration of sorbent-based mercury control technology at the Alabama Power E.C. Gaston Station (Wilsonville, Alabama). This unit burns a low-sulfur bituminous coal and uses a hot-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in combination with a Compact Hybrid Particulate Collector (COHPAC{reg_sign}) baghouse to collect fly ash. The majority of the fly ash is collected in the ESP with the residual being collected in the COHPAC{reg_sign} baghouse. Activated carbon was injected between the ESP and COHPAC{reg_sign} units to collect the mercury. Short-term mercury removal levels in excess of 90% were achieved using the COHPAC{reg_sign} unit. The test also showed that activated carbon was effective in removing both forms of mercury-elemental and oxidized. However, a great deal of additional testing is required to further characterize the capabilities and limitations of this technology relative to use with baghouse systems such as COHPAC{reg_sign}. It is important to determine performance over an extended period of time to fully assess all operational parameters. The project described in this report focuses on fully demonstrating sorbent injection technology at a coal-fired power generating plant that is equipped with a COHPAC{reg_sign} system. The overall objective is to evaluate the long-term effects of sorbent injection on mercury capture and COHPAC{reg_sign} performance. The work is being done on one-half of the gas stream at Alabama Power Company's Plant Gaston Unit 3 (nominally 135 MW). Data from the testing will be used to determine: (1) If sorbent injection into a high air-to-cloth ratio baghouse is a viable, long-term approach for mercury control; and (2) Design criteria and costs for new baghouse/sorbent injection systems that will use a similar, polishing baghouse (TOXECON{trademark}) approach.

Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac; Travis Starns; Sharon Sjostrom; Trent Taylor; Cindy Larson

2004-06-04

304

Field Test Program for Long-Term Operation of a COHPAC System for Removing Mercury from Coal-Fired Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect

With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by the existing particle control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. During 2001, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) conducted a full-scale demonstration of sorbent-based mercury control technology at the Alabama Power E.C. Gaston Station (Wilsonville, Alabama). This unit burns a low-sulfur bituminous coal and uses a hot-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in combination with a Compact Hybrid Particulate Collector (COHPAC{reg_sign}) baghouse to collect fly ash. The majority of the fly ash is collected in the ESP with the residual being collected in the COHPAC{reg_sign} baghouse. Activated carbon was injected between the ESP and COHPAC{reg_sign} units to collect the mercury. Short-term mercury removal levels in excess of 90% were achieved using the COHPAC{reg_sign} unit. The test also showed that activated carbon was effective in removing both forms of mercury-elemental and oxidized. However, a great deal of additional testing is required to further characterize the capabilities and limitations of this technology relative to use with baghouse systems such as COHPAC{reg_sign}. It is important to determine performance over an extended period of time to fully assess all operational parameters. The project described in this report focuses on fully demonstrating sorbent injection technology at a coal-fired power generating plant that is equipped with a COHPAC{reg_sign} system. The overall objective is to evaluate the long-term effects of sorbent injection on mercury capture and COHPAC{reg_sign} performance. The work is being done on one-half of the gas stream at Alabama Power Company's Plant Gaston Unit 3 (nominally 135 MW). Data from the testing will be used to determine: (1) If sorbent injection into a high air-to-cloth ratio baghouse is a viable, long-term approach for mercury control; and (2) Design criteria and costs for new baghouse/sorbent injection systems that will use a similar, polishing baghouse (TOXECON{trademark}) approach.

Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac; Travis Starns; Sharon Sjostrom; Cindy Larson

2005-10-24

305

FIELD TEST PROGRAM FOR LONG-TERM OPERATION OF A COHPAC SYSTEM FOR REMOVING MERCURY FROM COAL-FIRED FLUE GAS  

SciTech Connect

With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by the existing particle control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. During 2001, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) conducted a full-scale demonstration of sorbent-based mercury control technology at the Alabama Power E.C. Gaston Station (Wilsonville, AL). This unit burns a low-sulfur bituminous coal and uses a hot-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in combination with a Compact Hybrid Particulate Collector (COHPAC{trademark}) baghouse to collect fly ash. The majority of the fly ash is collected in the ESP with the residual being collected in the COHPAC baghouse. Activated carbon was injected between the ESP and COHPAC units to collect the mercury. Short-term mercury removal levels in excess of 90% were achieved using the COHPAC unit. The test also showed that activated carbon was effective in removing both forms of mercury-elemental and oxidized. However, a great deal of additional testing is required to further characterize the capabilities and limitations of this technology relative to use with baghouse systems such as COHPAC. It is important to determine performance over an extended period of time to fully assess all operational parameters. The project described in this report focuses on fully demonstrating sorbent injection technology at a coal-fired power generating plant that is equipped with a COHPAC system. The overall objective is to evaluate the long-term effects of sorbent injection on mercury capture and COHPAC performance. The work is being done on one-half of the gas stream at Alabama Power Company's Plant Gaston Unit 3 (nominally 135 MW). Data from the testing will be used to determine: (1) If sorbent injection into a high air-to-cloth ratio baghouse is a viable, long-term approach for mercury control; and (2) Design criteria and costs for new baghouse/sorbent injection systems that will use a similar, polishing baghouse (TOXECON{trademark}) approach.

Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac; Travis Starns; Sharon Sjostrom; Trent Taylor; Cindy Larson

2003-10-31

306

FIELD TEST PROGRAM FOR LONG-TERM OPERATION OF A COHPAC SYSTEM FOR REMOVING MERCURY FROM COAL-FIRED FLUE GAS  

SciTech Connect

With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by the existing particle control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. During 2001 ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) conducted a full-scale demonstration of sorbent-based mercury control technology at the Alabama Power E.C. Gaston Station (Wilsonville, AL). This unit burns a low-sulfur bituminous coal and uses a hot-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in combination with a Compact Hybrid Particulate Collector (COHPAC) baghouse to collect fly ash. The majority of the fly ash is collected in the ESP with the residual being collected in the COHPAC baghouse. Activated carbon was injected between the ESP and COHPAC units to collect the mercury. Short-term mercury removal levels in excess of 90% were achieved using the COHPAC unit. The test also showed that activated carbon was effective in removing both forms of mercury: elemental and oxidized. However, a great deal of additional testing is required to further characterize the capabilities and limitations of this technology relative to use with baghouse systems such as COHPAC. It is important to determine performance over an extended period of time to fully assess all operational parameters. The project described in this report focuses on fully demonstrating sorbent injection technology at a coal-fired power generating plant that is equipped with a COHPAC system. The overall objective is to evaluate the long-term effects of sorbent injection on mercury capture and COHPAC performance. The work is being done on one-half of the gas stream at Alabama Power Company's Plant Gaston Unit 3 (nominally 135 MW). Data from the testing will be used to determine: (1) If sorbent injection into a high air-to-cloth ratio baghouse is a viable, long-term approach for mercury control; and (2) Design criteria and costs for new baghouse/sorbent injection systems that will use a similar, polishing baghouse (TOXECON) approach.

Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac; Travis Starns; Sharon Sjostrom; Tom Millar

2003-07-30

307

Field Test Program for Long-Term Operation of a COHPAC System for Removing Mercury from Coal-Fired Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect

With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by the existing particle control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. During 2001, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) conducted a full-scale demonstration of sorbent-based mercury control technology at the Alabama Power E.C. Gaston Station (Wilsonville, Alabama). This unit burns a low-sulfur bituminous coal and uses a hot-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in combination with a Compact Hybrid Particulate Collector (COHPAC{reg_sign}) baghouse to collect fly ash. The majority of the fly ash is collected in the ESP with the residual being collected in the COHPAC{reg_sign} baghouse. Activated carbon was injected between the ESP and COHPAC{reg_sign} units to collect the mercury. Short-term mercury removal levels in excess of 90% were achieved using the COHPAC{reg_sign} unit. The test also showed that activated carbon was effective in removing both forms of mercury-elemental and oxidized. However, a great deal of additional testing is required to further characterize the capabilities and limitations of this technology relative to use with baghouse systems such as COHPAC{reg_sign}. It is important to determine performance over an extended period of time to fully assess all operational parameters. The project described in this report focuses on fully demonstrating sorbent injection technology at a coal-fired power generating plant that is equipped with a COHPAC{reg_sign} system. The overall objective is to evaluate the long-term effects of sorbent injection on mercury capture and COHPAC{reg_sign} performance. The work is being done on one-half of the gas stream at Alabama Power Company's Plant Gaston Unit 3 (nominally 135 MW). Data from the testing will be used to determine: (1) If sorbent injection into a high air-to-cloth ratio baghouse is a viable, long-term approach for mercury control; and (2) Design criteria and costs for new baghouse/sorbent injection systems that will use a similar, polishing baghouse (TOXECON{trademark}) approach.

Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac; Travis Starns; Sharon Sjostrom; Trent Taylor; Cindy Larson

2004-10-25

308

FIELD TEST PROGRAM FOR LONG-TERM OPERATION OF A COHPAC SYSTEM FOR REMOVING MERCURY FROM COAL-FIRED FLUE GAS  

SciTech Connect

With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by the existing particle control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. During 2001 ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) conducted a full-scale demonstration of sorbent-based mercury control technology at the Alabama Power E.C. Gaston Station (Wilsonville, AL). This unit burns a low-sulfur bituminous coal and uses a hot-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in combination with a COHPAC baghouse to collect fly ash. The majority of the fly ash is collected in the ESP with the residual being collected in the COHPAC baghouse. Activated carbon was injected between the ESP and COHPAC units to collect the mercury. Short-term mercury removal levels in excess of 90% were achieved using the COHPAC unit. The test also showed that activated carbon was effective on removing both forms of mercury, elemental and oxidized. However, a great deal of additional testing is required to further characterize the capabilities and limitations of this technology relative to use with baghouse systems such as COHPAC. It is important to determine performance over an extended period of time to fully assess all operational parameters. The project described in this report focuses on fully demonstrating sorbent injection technology at a coal-fired power generating plant that is equipped with a COHPAC system. The overall objective is to evaluate the long term effects of sorbent injection on mercury capture and COHPAC performance. The work is being done on 1/2 of the gas stream at Alabama Power's Plant Gaston Unit 3 (nominally 135 MW). Data from the testing will be used to determine: (1) Is sorbent injection into a high air-to-cloth ratio baghouse a viable, long term approach for mercury control; and (2) Design criteria and costs for new baghouse/sorbent injection systems that will use a similar, polishing baghouse (TOXECON) approach.

Jean Bustard

2003-06-13

309

Field Test Program for Long-Term Operation of a COHPAC System for Removing Mercury from Coal-Fired Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect

With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by the existing particle control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. During 2001, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) conducted a full-scale demonstration of sorbent-based mercury control technology at the Alabama Power E.C. Gaston Station (Wilsonville, Alabama). This unit burns a low-sulfur bituminous coal and uses a hot-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in combination with a Compact Hybrid Particulate Collector (COHPAC{reg_sign}) baghouse to collect fly ash. The majority of the fly ash is collected in the ESP with the residual being collected in the COHPAC{reg_sign} baghouse. Activated carbon was injected between the ESP and COHPAC{reg_sign} units to collect the mercury. Short-term mercury removal levels in excess of 90% were achieved using the COHPAC{reg_sign} unit. The test also showed that activated carbon was effective in removing both forms of mercury-elemental and oxidized. However, a great deal of additional testing is required to further characterize the capabilities and limitations of this technology relative to use with baghouse systems such as COHPAC{reg_sign}. It is important to determine performance over an extended period of time to fully assess all operational parameters. The project described in this report focuses on fully demonstrating sorbent injection technology at a coal-fired power generating plant that is equipped with a COHPAC{reg_sign} system. The overall objective is to evaluate the long-term effects of sorbent injection on mercury capture and COHPAC{reg_sign} performance. The work is being done on one-half of the gas stream at Alabama Power Company's Plant Gaston Unit 3 (nominally 135 MW). Data from the testing will be used to determine: (1) If sorbent injection into a high air-to-cloth ratio baghouse is a viable, long-term approach for mercury control; and (2) Design criteria and costs for new baghouse/sorbent injection systems that will use a similar, polishing baghouse (TOXECON{trademark}) approach.

Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac; Travis Starns; Sharon Sjostrom; Cindy Larson

2006-04-24

310

Burning mouth syndrome and secondary oral burning.  

PubMed

Burning mouth syndrome is a complex disorder of unclear etiology that is most prevalent in perimenopausal women. It is often accompanied by dysguesia and subjective xerostomia. Recent evidence implicates both central and peripheral neuropathies, possibly representing a phantom pain syndrome in some patients. Ensuring that the patient's oral burning is not secondary to some other local or systemic factor is central to appropriate management. Current standard therapies include clonazepam, paroxetine, and cognitive behavioral therapy, and several promising new alternatives are described. PMID:21093630

Minor, Jacob S; Epstein, Joel B

2011-02-01

311

Teen Maps Contaminants from a Coal Plant  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video adapted from Earth Island Institute, meet a high school student who educated her community about how a coal-burning power plant was contributing to asthma and other health problems there.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2011-03-21

312

Materials challenges in advanced coal conversion technologies  

SciTech Connect

Coal is a critical component in the international energy portfolio, used extensively for electricity generation. Coal is also readily converted to liquid fuels and/or hydrogen for the transportation industry. However, energy extracted from coal comes at a large environmental price: coal combustion can produce large quantities of ash and CO{sub 2}, as well as other pollutants. Advanced technologies can increase the efficiencies and decrease the emissions associated with burning coal and provide an opportunity for CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration. However, these advanced technologies increase the severity of plant operating conditions and thus require improved materials that can stand up to the harsh operating environments. The materials challenges offered by advanced coal conversion technologies must be solved in order to make burning coal an economically and environmentally sound choice for producing energy.

Powem, C.A.; Morreale, B.D. [National Energy Technology Laboratory, Albany, OR (United States)

2008-04-15

313

Pediatric cutaneous bleach burns.  

PubMed

Bleach is a common household product which can cause caustic injuries. Its effects on mucosal tissues and the eye have been well-described in the literature. However, there is little information published regarding the appearance and effect of bleach on a child's skin. We report three children who sustained chemical burns after contact with bleach. All three children sustained accidental bleach burns while at home, and each child had a distinct brown discoloration to the skin from the injury. All three children had treatment and follow-up for their burns. Two of the children sustained more severe burns, which were extensive and required more time to heal. There was also long-term scarring associated with the severe burns. Like most burns, pain control is required until the injury heals. PMID:23545350

Lang, Cathleen; Cox, Matthew

2013-03-29

314

Burns and epilepsy.  

PubMed

This is a report of the first descriptive analytic study of a group of 183 burn patients, treated in the Burn Unit at the University Hospital of Cartagena, Colombia during the period since January 1985 until December 1990. There is presented experience with the selected group of 24 patients in whom the diagnosis of burn was associated with epilepsy. There is also analysed and described the gravity of the scars sequels, neurological disorders, the complication of the burn and an impact of this problem on the patient, his (her) family and the community. It is very important to report that there was found Neurocisticercosis in 66.6% of the group of burn patients with epilepsy, and it is probably the first risk factor of burn in this group. PMID:9212488

Berrocal, M

1997-01-01

315

A Comparative Analysis of the Life Cycle Costs of Compliance Coal Versus Noncompliance Coal with Regenerable FGD Equipment at Brandon Shores Units 1 and 2. Volume 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The relative costs of burning compliance coal and high sulfur coal with sulfur oxide removal are compared for the Brandon Shores Power Plant. Because of the plant's location next to potential markets for sulfur, sulfuric acid, and gypsum, only regenerable...

C. Demeter C. Pleatsikas K. Hollenbeck

1980-01-01

316

CHARACTERISTICS OF SINGLE PARTICLE COAL COMBUSTION  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the measurement of the burning history of single coal particles, using a two-color optical pyrometer. rom intensity traces at two wavelengths, information on burning times and temperatures, the duration of a volatile flame, and projected areas was obtained for...

317

Power from coal and biomass via CFB  

SciTech Connect

Circulating fluidized bed technology enables burning coal and biomass to generate power while reducing emissions at the same time. Flexi-Burn CFB is being developed. It produces a CO{sub 2} rich flue gas, form which CO{sub 2} can be captured.

Giglio, R.; Wehrenberg, J. [Foster Wheeler Power Group, Clinton, NY (United States)

2009-04-15

318

Coal/char reactivity  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of the coal/char reactivity project is to expand the fundamental combustion data base to support existing and advanced atmospheric combustion systems. Investigations will focus primarily on elucidating the burning rates of chars under realistic flame conditions as a function of fuel and system parameters. Key issues include the relative contributions of inorganic constituents, and the surface and structural effects on the burning behavior of the low-rank coal-derived chars. A second objective is to perform fundamental investigations on the ignition mechanisms of single particles of low-rank coals by measuring rates of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide production. This quarter's work included: design and testing of the videomicroscope sizing system; chars were prepared for combustion testing in the single-particle reactor using a flame burner. The following coals have been prepared: Beulah-Zap (PSOC- 1507), Lower Wilcox (PSOC-1443-D), New Mexico Blue (PSOC-1445-D), and Pittsburgh {number sign}8 (PSOC-1451-D); the morphologies of chars produced in the flame burner were examined; surface science studies using Auger and ESCA were performed on the suite of Beulah-Zap chars; the effect of various levels of sodium, potassium, and calcium on the burning rates of chars was examined; the ignition apparatus was completed and tested using Pittsburgh {number sign}8 (PSOC-1451) coal; the effect of moisture on the ignition and combustion of the vitrain lithotype of Beulah lignite (PSOC-1507) was determined; the combustion behaviors of vitrain, attritus, and fusain lithotypes of Beulah lignite were examined at 650{degree}C; the effect of temperature on the ignition and combustion of the vitrain lithotype of Beulah lignite and Pittsburgh {number sign}8 coal was examined; and the effect of coal rank on combustion behavior was determined at both 650{degree} and 1000{degree}C. 37 tabs., 29 figs., 21 tabs.

McCollor, D.P.; Sweeny, P.G.; Benson, S.A.

1988-05-01

319

Reactivity of Colombian coals toward combustion  

SciTech Connect

With the new world wide environment regulations, special attention is given to combustion efficiency in the electric utilities. Colombian coals are of cretaceous origen and the behavior towards combustion is different to the European and North American coals. The increase of international coal market has also created new power station operational problems in the areas of ignition, ash properties and residual carbon in ash so the characterization of coal toward combustion behavior is increasingly important. The study of pulverized coal char reactivity has been done by Drop tube reactor and Wire mesh tests. However these equipments are not common in most laboratories and easier methods must been suitable. Cumming has done burning profile test to assessing the coal reactivity by DTG output from thermobalance system. This combustion profile test has been subsequently used by different authors as a method for characterization of coal burning properties. Pisupati has found a good correlation between the Drop tube reactor test and the ignition temperature. Zhan has also found that the reactivity estimated from the burn out measurement on stainless steel plate at 800{degrees}C and DTG technique in the higher temperature range match quite well. The Martin del Corral Power Station localized near to Bogoti, is burning medium to low volatile coal and the fly ash carbon content is surprisingly high between 18-30%. The objective of the present work is to evaluated the reactivity profile of the coals used in the utility and to compare with the industrial test done in a boiler.

Rincon, J.M.; Escallon, M.; Baquero, M.C. [Universidad Nacional, Bogota (Colombia)] [and others

1996-12-31

320

ENCOAL mild coal gasification project. Annual report  

SciTech Connect

This document is the combination of the fourth quarter report (July--September 1993) and the 1993 annual report for the ENCOAL project. The following pages include the background and process description for the project, brief summaries of the accomplishments for the first three quarters, and a detailed fourth quarter report. Its purpose is to convey the accomplishments and current progress of the project. ENCOAL Corporation, has completed the construction of a mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company`s Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology developed by SMC and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin coal to produce two new fuels, Process Derived Fuel (PDF) and Coal Derived Liquids (CDL). ENCOAL submitted an application to the US Department of Energy (DOE) in August 1989, soliciting joint funding of the project in the third round of the Clean Coal Technology Program. The project was selected by DOE in December, 1989 and the Cooperative Agreement approved in September, 1990. Construction, commissioning, and start-up of the ENCOAL mild coal gasification facility was completed in June of 1992, and the project is currently in the operations phase. Some plant modifications have been required and are discussed in this report.

Not Available

1993-10-01

321

Coal gasification power generation, and product market study. Topical report, March 1, 1995--March 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect

This Western Research Institute (WRI) project was part of a WRI Energy Resource Utilization Program to stimulate pilot-scale improved technologies projects to add value to coal resources in the Rocky Mountain region. The intent of this program is to assess the application potential of emerging technologies to western resources. The focus of this project is on a coal resource near the Wyoming/Colorado border, in Colorado. Energy Fuels Corporation/Kerr Coal Company operates a coal mine in Jackson County, Colorado. The coal produces 10,500 Btu/lb and has very low sulfur and ash contents. Kerr Coal Company is seeking advanced technology for alternate uses for this coal. This project was to have included a significant cost-share from the Kerr Coal Company ownership for a market survey of potential products and technical alternatives to be studied in the Rocky Mountain Region. The Energy Fuels Corporation/Kerr Coal Company and WRI originally proposed this work on a cost reimbursable basis. The total cost of the project was priced at $117,035. The Kerr Coal Company had scheduled at least $60,000.00 to be spent on market research for the project that never developed because of product market changes for the company. WRI and Kerr explored potential markets and new technologies for this resource. The first phase of this project as a preliminary study had studied fuel and nonfuel technical alternatives. Through related projects conducted at WRI, resource utilization was studied to find high-value materials that can be targeted for fuel and nonfuel use and eventually include other low-sulfur coals in the Rocky Mountain region. The six-month project work was spread over about a three-year period to observe, measure, and confirm over time-any trends in technology development that would lead to economic benefits in northern Colorado and southern Wyoming from coal gasification and power generation.

Sheesley, D.; King, S.B.

1998-12-31

322

Impact of coal properties on coal combustion by-product quality: examples from a Kentucky power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal properties impact the quality of coal combustion by-products (CCBs). Tracking impacts can often be difficult, particularly in the eastern United States, because utilities use blended coal feeds to meet their quality specifications. To circumvent this problem, we made arrangements for a single seam\\/single mine coal to be burned at a 220-MW wall-fired boiler.The feed coal is a medium sulfur,

Sarah M. Mardon; James C. Hower

2004-01-01

323

Advanced coal conversion process demonstration. Technical progress report for the period July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from July 1, 1995 through September 30, 1995. The ACCP Demonstration Project is a US Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Project. This project demonstrates an advanced, thermal, coal upgrading process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal upgrading, the cola is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal.

NONE

1997-05-01

324

Burns and military clothing.  

PubMed

Burn injury is a ubiquitous threat in the military environment. The risks during combat are well recognised, but the handling of fuel, oil, munitions and other hot or flammable materials during peacetime deployment and training also imposes an inherent risk of accidental burn injury. Over the last hundred years, the burn threat in combat has ranged from nuclear weapons to small shoulder-launched missiles. Materials such as napalm and white phosphorus plainly present a risk of burn, but the threat extends to encompass personnel in vehicles attacked by anti-armour weapons, large missiles, fuel-air explosives and detonations/conflagrations on weapons platforms such as ships. Large numbers of burn casualties were caused at Pearl Harbor, in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Vietnam, during the Arab/Israeli Wars and in the Falkland Islands conflict. The threat from burns is unlikely to diminish, indeed new developments in weapons seek to exploit the vulnerability of the serviceman and servicewoman to burns. Clothing can be a barrier to some types of burn--both inherently in the properties of the material, but also by trapping air between clothing layers. Conversely, ignition of the clothing may exacerbate a burn. There is hearsay that burnt clothing products within a wound may complicate the clinical management, or that materials that melt (thermoplastic materials) should not be worn if there is a burn threat. This paper explores the incidence of burn injury, the mechanisms of heat transfer to bare skin and skin covered by materials, and the published evidence for the complication of wound management by materials. Even light-weight combat clothing can offer significant protection to skin from short duration flash burns; the most vulnerable areas are the parts of the body not covered--face and hands. Multilayered combat clothing can offer significant protection for short periods from engulfment by flames; lightweight tropical wear with few layers offers little protection. Under high heat loads in the laboratory, combat clothing can ignite, but there is little evidence that clothing ignition is a common occurrence in military burn casualties. Thermoplastic materials have many benefits in civil and military clothing. There is little objective evidence that they exacerbate burns, or complicate burn management. Their use in military clothing must be based on objective evidence, not hearsay. PMID:11307683

McLean, A D

2001-02-01

325

Investigation on Characteristics of an Innovative Lean Burn Catalytic Combustion Gas Turbine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fugitive methane, emitted from coal mines, landfill and animal waste etc. into atmosphere, is not only a greenhouse gas, but also a waste energy source if not utilized. This paper investigates a novel lean burn catalytic combustion gas turbine, which can be powered with low concentration fugitive methane. This paper presents our study results on performance of lean burn catalytic

Juan Yin; Yiwu Weng

2009-01-01

326

Spectroscopy of Burn Wounds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research seeks to develop non-invasive burn depth evaluation methods from non-contacting visible and near-infrared spectroscopic measurements. In previous years, we demonstrated that features of the optical reflection spectra of burn wounds can be co...

M. A. Afromowitz J. D. Callis

1992-01-01

327

Pediatric burn care  

Microsoft Academic Search

One third of patients with significant burn injuries are children who are injured in what are nearly always preventable incidents. These extremely painful and often scarring bunts are enormous stressors to patients and their families. Children are easily devastated by the burst injury and are often less able to respond to it than au adult. Pediatric burn injury provides multiple

Gary F. Purdue; John L. Hunt; Agnes M. Burris

2002-01-01

328

A Standard Animal Burn.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U. S. Army Surgical Research Unit uses a standard scald burn of rats for several kinds of studies. This injury is inflicted in anesthetized rats by immersion of the area to be burned in boiling water while the animal is held in a protective template w...

L. Harrel M. S. Walker A. D. Mason

1968-01-01

329

Tourniquet associated chemical burn  

PubMed Central

Chemical burn under pneumatic tourniquet is an iatrogenic preventable injury and is rarely reported in the literature. The two important mechanisms are maceration (friction) and wetness underneath the tourniquent. In this report, our experience with two illustrative patients who presented with iatrogenic tourniquet associated burn is described.

Yang, Jae-Hyuk; Lim, Hyungtae; Yoon, Jung-Ro; Jeong, Hyeon-Il

2012-01-01

330

Fossil Fuels. Pace and Focus of the Clean Coal Technology Program Need to Be Assessed.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Coal, one of the nation's most abundant energy resources, provides about 25 percent of the nation's energy needs. At the same time, however, emissions resulting from the burning of coal are major contributors to air pollution problems, particularly acid r...

J. A. Fowler M. R. Clark F. J. Kovalak R. G. Kleigleng F. W. Imbrogno

1990-01-01

331

Tearing Down Mountains: Using Spatial and Metabolic Analysis to Investigate the Socio-Ecological Contradictions of Coal Extraction in Appalachia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mountaintop removal is the most profitable and efficient way to extract the low-sulfur, bituminous coal found in Appalachia. This form of mining involves the blasting and leveling of entire mountain ranges, which dismantles integrated ecosystems and communities. We employ a political-economy perspective in order to assess the uneven capitalist development and socio-ecological contradictions of mountaintop removal. In particular, we use

Kelly Austin; Brett Clark

2012-01-01

332

Mercury Oxidation Promoted by a Selective Catalytic Reduction Catalyst under Simulated Powder River Basin Coal Combustion Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bench-scale reactor consisting of a natural gas burner and an electrically heated reactor housing a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst was constructed for studying elemental mercury (Hg0) oxidation under SCR conditions. A low sulfur Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal combustion fly ash was injected into the entrained-flow reactor along with sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), hydrogen chloride

Chun W. Lee; Shannon D. Serre; Yongxin Zhao; Sung Jun Lee; Thomas W. Hastings; Paul Chin; David Ollis; Jing Qian; Andrea Ferro; Kathleen Fowler; Hyukjin Oh; Kalyan Annamalai; John Sweeten; Jennifer Stokke; David Mazyck; James Corbett; James Winebrake; Lokman Tecer; Pinar ren; Omar Alagha; Ferhat Karaca; Sue Sheya; Clifford Glowacki; Ming-Chih Chang; Judith Chow; John Watson; Ching-Ho Lin; Edith Ge´go; Alice Gilliland; James Godowitch; S. Rao; P. Porter; Christian Hogrefe

2008-01-01

333

FATE OF COAL NITROGEN DURING COMBUSTION  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes the burning of 21 coals, covering all ranks and under a wide variety of conditions, to ascertain the impact of coal properties on the fate of fuel nitrogen. Fuel NC was identified by using a nitrogen-free oxidant consisting of Ar/O2/CO2. It was found that fuel...

334

Energy from Coal: A State-of-the-ART Review.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Coal as a solid fuel can be currently applied to only a limited portion of the total national energy demand. The primary user of coal is the electric utilities industry, where coal is mechanically cleaned, pulverized, and then burned in solid form in boil...

1975-01-01

335

Tennessee Valley Authority Coal Inventory Procedures and Observations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Tennessee Valley Authority participates in the CIPS Coal Inventory workshop because the TVA burns a lot of coal, more than 30 million tons per year, and because TVA engineers are always looking for ways to reduce the cost of power generated from coal....

S. R. Smith

1983-01-01

336

Coal in the UK: the past becomes the future  

Microsoft Academic Search

The British National Coal Board (NCB) and British Gas, together with the British government, are developing technology to supplement diminishing supplies of oil and natural gas with substitutes manufactured from coal. Direct burning of coal is expected to utilize fluidized-bed combustion, and there are plans to raise power generation efficiency by installing a gas turbine in the combustor exhaust. Rapid

Whitworth

1981-01-01

337

EFFECTS OF CHANGING COALS ON THE EMISSIONS OF METAL HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF PULVERIZED COAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses tests conducted at EPA's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division to evaluate the effects of changing coals on emissions of metal hazardous air pollutants from coal-fired boilers. Six coals were burned in a 29 kW (100,000 Btu/hr) down-fired combustor und...

338

Low levels of hazardous air pollutants in coal from the Pocahontas coal field, Virginia and West Virginia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act may result in regulations limiting the amount of hazardous air pollutants (HAPS) emitted from coal-burning powerplants. Trace element data on 88 coal channel samples from producing beds (Pocahontas 3, 4, 6, and 8) in the Pocahontas coal field in Virginia and West Virginia indicate that, on a grams per million Btu as-received

C. L. Oman; R. B. Finkelman

1994-01-01

339

Abundance of Iron-Oxidizing Thiobacilli and Biological Sulfur Oxidation Potential from Soil Impacted by Coal and Coal Refuse Piles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to assess the abundance of iron-oxidizing bacteria and biological sulfur oxidation potential from soil impacted by coal and coal refuse from two coal-burning electric power facilities located at the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (Aiken, S.C.) and the South Carolina Electric and Gas Site at Beech Island, S. C.

B. Klubek; C. Schmidt; D. C. Adriano

1998-01-01

340

Alaska coal geology, resources, and coalbed methane potential  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Estimated Alaska coal resources are largely in Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks distributed in three major provinces. Northern Alaska-Slope, Central Alaska-Nenana, and Southern Alaska-Cook Inlet. Cretaceous resources, predominantly bituminous coal and lignite, are in the Northern Alaska-Slope coal province. Most of the Tertiary resources, mainly lignite to subbituminous coal with minor amounts of bituminous and semianthracite coals, are in the other two provinces. The combined measured, indicated, inferred, and hypothetical coal resources in the three areas are estimated to be 5,526 billion short tons (5,012 billion metric tons), which constitutes about 87 percent of Alaska's coal and surpasses the total coal resources of the conterminous United States by 40 percent. Coal mining has been intermittent in the Central Alaskan-Nenana and Southern Alaska-Cook Inlet coal provinces, with only a small fraction of the identified coal resource having been produced from some dozen underground and strip mines in these two provinces. Alaskan coal resources have a lower sulfur content (averaging 0.3 percent) than most coals in the conterminous United States are within or below the minimum sulfur value mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments. The identified resources are near existing and planned infrastructure to promote development, transportation, and marketing of this low-sulfur coal. The relatively short distances to countries in the west Pacific Rim make them more exportable to these countries than to the lower 48 States of the United States. Another untapped but potential resource of large magnitude is coalbed methane, which has been estimated to total 1,000 trillion cubic feet (28 trillion cubic meters) by T.N. Smith 1995, Coalbed methane potential for Alaska and drilling results for the upper Cook Inlet Basin: Intergas, May 15 - 19, 1995, Tuscaloosa, University of Alabama, p. 1 - 21.

Flores, Romeo M.; Stricker, Gary D.; Kinney, Scott A.

2004-01-01

341

Petrographic and chemical studies of the Hanna IV Burn, Hanna UCG Site, Wyoming. [Hanna Basin; post burn sampling and analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples were removed from five cores which had been drilled at the Hanna IV A and Hanna IV B burn sites. Strata in four of the cores included paralava and\\/or coke or semicoke. The fifth core contained coal which had been visibly altered, but there was no other thermally metamorphosed rock. All samples were analyzed by four techniques, including white

Rich

1985-01-01

342

Method of recovering coal values by combining underground coal gasification with surface coal liquefaction  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a process for obtaining values from coal comprising establishing an underground combustion zone in a coal seam provided with at least one injection well and at least one production well. Oxygen and steam are injected through the injection well to maintain a combustion zone in the coal seam thereby producing synthesis gas, removing synthesis gas to the surface from the combustion zone, directly heat exchanging the synthesis gas with mined coal in a pyrolysis zone thereby removing pyrolysis gases and liquids from the mined coal leaving char, burning the char to produce heat. The heat is used to generate steam, and at least a portion of the steam is used for injection into the coal seam.

Puri, R.

1986-09-30

343

National Coal Quality Inventory (NACQI)  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted the National Coal Quality Inventory (NaCQI) between 1999 and 2005 to address a need for quality information on coals that will be mined during the next 20-30 years. Collaboration between the USGS, State geological surveys, universities, coal burning utilities, and the coal mining industry plus funding support from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) permitted collection and submittal of coal samples for analysis. The chemical data (proximate and ultimate analyses; major, minor and trace element concentrations) for 729 samples of raw or prepared coal, coal associated shale, and coal combustion products (fly ash, hopper ash, bottom ash and gypsum) from nine coal producing States are included. In addition, the project identified a new coal reference analytical standard, to be designated CWE-1 (West Elk Mine, Gunnison County, Colorado) that is a high-volatile-B or high-volatile-A bituminous coal with low contents of ash yield and sulfur, and very low, but detectable contents of chlorine, mercury and other trace elements.

Robert Finkelman

2005-09-30

344

Coal supply and transportation model analysis of the future US coal market. Final report, July 1, 1984-June 30, 1985  

SciTech Connect

The Coal Supply and Transporation Model (CSTM) is a computer simulation of the US coal market. It demonstrates the influence of costs of coal production and processing, costs of environmental control of SO/sub 2/ emissions, and costs of transporting coal by rail and barge. The model attempts to forecast the changes in regional coal production, given changes in any of these costs and a growing demand for coal in the future. The original CSTM was published by the Energy Information Administration of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The modeling analysis team at the Coal Technology Center (CTL) modified the original CSTM. CTL/CSTM, the new Coal Technology Laboratory version, contains improved information on flue gas desulfurization (FGD) devices, scrubbers, and calculates total SO/sub 2/ emissions which could be expected with various emission control standards applied to the electric utility sector of demand. Software was developed for use with the model which facilitates the task of data input and modification. The CTL/CSTM was used to examine changes in regional coal production, the total costs of using coal to meet energy demand, and total emissions of SO/sub 2/ which could be expected in 13 sets of conditions which could prevail in 1995. Scenarios of the future, which assumed no change in important variables, were constructed with different assumptions regarding contracts for coal, regulation of allowable rates of SO/sub 2/ emissions from utility boilers, charges for coal shipments by rail, and the choice of regulatory strategy for SO/sub 2/ emission reduction between scrubbing and the shift from using high-sulfur coal to using low-sulfur coal. 11 refs, 17 tabs.

Arey, D.; Dziegielewski, B.; Crenshaw, J.; Parker, G.; Primont, D.

1985-09-01

345

The prediction of pulverized coal ignition property based on piecewise least squares support vector machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aimed at the quantitative analysis of pulverized coal ignition temperature, this paper presents a piecewise least squares support vector machine modeling method, where several sub-models are created according to the burning characteristics of lignite, bituminous coal, lean coal and anthracite coal etc. and the parameters of each sub-model are optimized independently. By implementing the piecewise LSSVM and the global LSSVM

Chang Aiying; Wu Tiejun; Xin Bao

2010-01-01

346

Environmentally conscious coal combustion  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project was to evaluate the environmental impacts of home-scale coal combustion on the Navajo Reservation and develop strategies to reduce adverse health effects associated with home-scale coal combustion. Principal accomplishments of this project were: (1) determination of the metal and gaseous emissions of a representative stove on the Navajo Reservation; (2) recognition of cyclic gaseous emissions in combustion in home-scale combustors; (3) `back of the envelope` calculation that home-scale coal combustion may impact Navajo health; and (4) identification that improved coal stoves require the ability to burn diverse feedstocks (coal, wood, biomass). Ultimately the results of Navajo home-scale coal combustion studies will be extended to the Developing World, particularly China, where a significant number (> 150 million) of households continue to heat their homes with low-grade coal.

Hickmott, D.D.; Brown, L.F.; Currier, R.P. [and others

1997-08-01

347

Proceedings of the 9th annual conference on coal production and transportation  

SciTech Connect

This book presents the papers given at a conference which considered the economic and policy aspects of coal. Topics covered at the conference included forecasting US coal demands, forecasting foreign coal supply and demand, surface mining, acid rain, land leasing, the potential and economics of Gulf Coast and Southwestern lignite deposits, coal buying, transport, an electric utilities' shift from oil to coal, and coal burning.

Not Available

1983-01-01

348

Spectroscopy of Burn Wounds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research seeks to develop non-invasive techniques for evaluating burn depth based upon non-contacting visible and near-infrared spectroscopic measurement of the wounds. In previous years, we demonstrated that features of the optical reflection spectr...

J. B. Callis M. A. Afromowitz

1990-01-01

349

Carborane Burning Rate Catalysts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

New carborane burning rate accelerators designed for use in solid propellants, without the problems associated with current accelerators, have been prepared. High molecular weight, non-volatile derivatives of bis(1-carboranylmethyl) and bis-(1-carboranyle...

R. Fitzgerald L. J. Rosen R. L. Lou

1973-01-01

350

Burns (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... arrives. Back Continue What to Do (continued) For Flame Burns: Extinguish the flames by having your child roll on the ground. ... a hot-steam one. Choose sleepwear that's labeled flame retardant (either polyester or treated cotton). Cotton sweatshirts ...

351

Modern Treatment of Burns.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This monograph summarizes the experiences of treating persons suffering from burns which have been accumulated by the collective of the hospital surgical clinic of the Samarkand Medical Institute, and also uses the data of the modern literature concerning...

S. A. Mullakandov

1973-01-01

352

Management of burn wounds.  

PubMed

Small and moderate scalds in toddlers are still the most frequent thermal injuries the pediatric surgeons have to face today. Over the last years, surgical treatment of these patients has changed in many aspects. Due to new dressing materials and new surgical treatment strategies that are particularly suitable for children, today, far better functional and aesthetic long-term results are possible. While small and moderate thermal injuries can be treated in most European pediatric surgical departments, the severely burned child must be transferred to a specialized, ideally pediatric, burn center, where a well-trained multidisciplinary team under the leadership of a (ideally pediatric) burn surgeon cares for these highly demanding patients. In future, tissue engineered full thickness skin analogues will most likely play an important role, in pediatric burn as well as postburn reconstructive surgery. PMID:24026780

Schiestl, Clemens; Meuli, Martin; Trop, Marija; Neuhaus, Kathrin

2013-09-11

353

Lava Flow Burning Vegetation  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Lava flow activity continues to burn vegetation in the kipuka adjacent to the trail, causing the viewing trail to be closed beyond the trailhead. The new viewing area is still very close to the active flows. ...

2010-06-18

354

Chemical burn or reaction  

MedlinePLUS

... the skin has come in contact with the toxic substance Rash , blisters , burns on the skin Unconsciousness ... locked cabinet. Avoid mixing different products that contain toxic chemicals such as ammonia and bleach. The mixture ...

355

Cement-related burns.  

PubMed

Burns caused by prolonged contact of wet cement with skin are common in this country. Recent literature has highlighted other ways in which the use and manufacture of cement can lead to burn injuries, notably through explosion and contact with hot powder during manufacturing. These injuries are uncommon in this country and potentially very serious. Case studies are presented of two men injured in such a way in the same incident at a cement-manufacturing plant. PMID:8982549

Morley, S E; Humzah, D; McGregor, J C; Gilbert, P M

1996-12-01

356

Burns in Nigeria: a Review  

PubMed Central

Summary Burn injuries continue to be a major source of mortality and morbidity in low- and middle-income countries of the world, of which Nigeria is a part. Overview data on burn care in Nigeria are sparse but the available literature on burns and burn care in Nigeria was retrieved through Internet-based search engines, collated, and reviewed. Peculiarities of epidemiology, types of burn, pattern of injuries, complications, and outcome of burn care were reviewed. There were no broad-based overview statistical data on burns in Nigeria in all the articles reviewed. There was no documentation on the regionalization of care and there were no national databases. All reports on epidemiology were hospital-based. Flame is emerging as the predominant cause of burns, and burn injury is occurring increasingly away from the domestic setting. The severity of the injuries is also increasing. Deliberate burn injury remains a practice and a wide range of complications occur as burns sequelae in Nigeria. Several challenges militate against optimal care for burn victims. Burn injuries continue to contribute significantly to the burden of disease in Nigeria. There is a need for broad-based data collection systems. Avoidable complications are common and mortality remains high. Pooling of resources by regionalization of care could increase focus on burn prevention and improve the care of burn victims. Nongovernmental and governmental support to reduce the burden of burns is advocated.

Oladele, A.O.; Olabanji, J.K.

2010-01-01

357

PBXN-110 Burn Rate Estimate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is estimated that PBXN-110 will burn laminarly with a burn function of B = (0.6-1.3)*P(sup 1.0) (B is the burn rate in mm/s and P is pressure in MPa). This paper provides a brief discussion of how this burn behavior was estimated.

E. Glascoe

2008-01-01

358

PBXN-110 Burn Rate Estimate  

SciTech Connect

It is estimated that PBXN-110 will burn laminarly with a burn function of B = (0.6-1.3)*P{sup 1.0} (B is the burn rate in mm/s and P is pressure in MPa). This paper provides a brief discussion of how this burn behavior was estimated.

Glascoe, E

2008-08-11

359

Selectivity improvement in the solvent refined coal process. I - Detailed first-stage reaction studies - Coal mineral catalysis. II - Detailed second-stage reaction studies - Hydrotreating of coal liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A two stage process is investigated for the production of a low-sulfur solid SRC-I (solvent refined coal) type boiler fuel with a minimum consumption of hydrogen. The first stage involves the scavenging action of coal minerals. Mineral additives (e.g., iron oxide and iron) increase selectivity for hydrodesulfurization over hydrogenation in coal liquefaction reactions. Mineral residues from SRC processes show insignificant desulfurization activity, but through oxidation, their sulfurization activity increases to significant levels without an increase in hydrogenation activity. The sulfur removal activity of an additive depends on its surface area. The second stage involves hydrotreating the dissolver effluent for maximum sulfur removal, with a minimum consumption of hydrogen. The effect of a wide range of variables on hydrotreating of a coal liquid in the presence of a commercial Co-Mo-Al catalyst is evaluated. The variables include catalyst loading, hydrogen partial pressure, reaction temperature and time.

Garg, D.; Tarrer, A. R.; Guin, J. A.; Curtis, C. W.; Clinton, J. H.

1980-08-01

360

The media glorifying burns: a hindrance to burn prevention.  

PubMed

The media have a profound influence on the actions of children and adults. Burns and burn prevention tend to be ignored or even mocked. The purpose of this presentation is to reveal the callousness of the media in its dealings with burns and burn prevention. Printed materials with a relationship to burns, risk of burning, or disrespect for the consequences of burns were collected. The materials were tabulated into four categories: comics, advertisements (ads), articles that made light of burns, and television shows that portrayed behavior that would risk burn injury. Most burn-related materials were found in comics or advertisements. Several comics made light of high-risk behavior with flames, scald injury, contact injury, or burns. In addition, several advertisements showed people on fire or actions that could easily lead to burns. Several articles and televisions shows portrayed high-risk behavior that, in some instances, led to copycat injuries. Flames are frequently used to sell items that target adolescent boys or young men. The high incidence injuries that frequent this population parallel the high-risk behaviors portrayed by the media. The media portrays flames and high-risk behavior for burn injury as being cool, funny, and without consequence. The use of flames on clothing and recreational equipment (skateboards, hot rods) particularly targets the high-risk adolescent male. The burn community should make the media aware of the harm it causes with its callous depiction and glorification of burns. PMID:12792237

Greenhalgh, David G; Palmieri, Tina L

361

Ball lightning burn.  

PubMed

Ball lightning is a rare physical phenomenon, which is not yet completely explained. It is similar to lightning but with different, peculiar characteristics. It can be considered a mix of fire and electricity, concentrated in a fireball with a diameter of 20-cm that most commonly appears suddenly, even in indoor conditions, during a thunderstorm. It moves quickly for several meters, can change direction, and ultimately disappears. During a great storm, a 28-year-old man and his 5-year-old daughter sustained burn wounds after ball lightning came from the outdoors through a chimney. These two patients demonstrated signs of fire and electrical injuries. The father, who lost consciousness, sustained superficial second-degree burn wounds bilaterally on the zygomatic area and deep second-degree burn wounds on his right hand (total body surface area, 4%). His daughter demonstrated superficial second-degree burn wounds on the left part of the face and deep second-degree and third-degree burn wounds (total body surface area, 30%) on the left neck, both upper arms, and the back. In this article, the authors report the first two cases of burn injuries resulting from ball lightning contact indoors. The literature on this rare phenomenon is reviewed to elucidate the nature of ball lightning. Emphasis is placed on the nature of injuries after ball lightning contact, the therapy used, and the long-term complications. PMID:12792547

Selvaggi, Gennaro; Monstrey, Stan; von Heimburg, Dennis; Hamdi, Mustapha; Van Landuyt, Koen; Blondeel, Phillip

2003-05-01

362

Postburn roof stability analysis for the TONO CRIP UCG burn  

SciTech Connect

During the Ninth Annual Underground Coal Gasification Symposium, Sutherland, Hommert, Taylor, and Benzley presented a preburn prediction for the burn, roof fall and surface subsidence for the TONO CRIP UCG site in Washington state. That burn has now been completed and postburn measurements of cavity sizes have become available. In this manuscript we show that the preburn predictions are, in general, in good agreement with the postburn examination of the burn site. Discrepancies between the predictions and the measurements are shown to arise for two reasons. The first is that the burn sequence analyzed in the prediction was not followed during the course of the experiment due to experimental difficulties. The second reason is that the stratigraphic section analyzed in the preburn predictions is slightly different from that observed above the burn. To clarify the discrepancies, the roof stability of the measured burn cavity is analyzed using the two analysis schemes that were used in the preburn analysis. The first technique is the Rubble model. It uses a continuum description of the rubblization process that occurs as roof material fails and falls into the cavity below it. This technique is based on a standard finite element numerical analysis scheme. The second technique is the BLOCKS model. This technique divides the geologic strata into a collection of discrete, individual blocks and monitors all the collisions which occur between them. Both techniques yield very good descriptions of the roof stability for the measured burn cavity. 10 refs., 7 figs.

Taylor, L.M.; Sutherland, H.J.; Kuszmaul, J.S.

1985-01-01

363

Efficiency of coal use, electricity for EVs versus synfuels for ICEs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data are presented to show how electric vehicles will travel approximately twice as far per ton of coal burned to produce electricity for EV propulsion, than will an ICE vehicle burning the synfuel produced from an equal amount of coal. These figures are based on pessimistic calculations of the efficiencies of electricity generation, transmission, battery charging and EV drivetrains. The

H. G. Mueller; V. Wouk

1980-01-01

364

Coal fired power plant with pollution control and useful byproducts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a coal fired power plant. It comprises: coal gasification means for heating coal in the presence of an oxidant-lean atmosphere under partial coal-gasifying conditions; means for separating sulfur-containing compounds from the crude gas stream; means for converting the sulfur compound containing stream into elemental sulfur; energy-conversion means for burning a portion of the combustible gas stream and

J. H. Marten; G. M. Lloyd

1990-01-01

365

Solvent-refined coal keeps flue gas clean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of low-sulphur, low-ash solvent-refined coal is especially appropriate for users of small or medium-size boilers. Use of this coal avoids the capital cost of a flue gas desulphurization system, and prevents possible shut-downs because of failures in the scrubbing system. The solvent-refined coal process is described. The hot solent-refined coal produced can be burned in an adjacent power

Jimeson

1976-01-01

366

Corrosion of the Wash Solvent Column at the Fort Lewis, Washington, Solvent-Refined-Coal Pilot Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) liquefaction pilot plants have demonstrated the feasibility of converting high-sulfur, high-ash coals into clean-burning fuels. Scaleup to commercial levels of production demands component reliability, which depends on materials...

V. B. Baylor J. R. Keiser B. C. Leslie M. D. Allen R. T. King

1981-01-01

367

Effects of accounting rules on utility choices of energy technologies in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparisons of the costs of power systems, specifically the cost of nuclear versus other power systems, are discussed. The effects of inconsistent accounting are examined. Five systems that supply electrical power are cost analyzed: (1) light water reactors; (2) liquid metal fast breeder reactors; (3) coal plants, with scrubbers, burning low sulfur or processed high sulfur coal; (4) coal plants

B. I. Spinrad

1980-01-01

368

Characterization and supply of coal based fuels. Volume 1, Final report and appendix A (Topical report)  

SciTech Connect

Studies and data applicable for fuel markets and coal resource assessments were reviewed and evaluated to provide both guidelines and specifications for premium quality coal-based fuels. The fuels supplied under this contract were provided for testing of advanced combustors being developed under Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) sponsorship for use in the residential, commercial and light industrial (RCLI) market sectors. The requirements of the combustor development contractors were surveyed and periodically updated to satisfy the evolving needs based on design and test experience. Available coals were screened and candidate coals were selected for further detailed characterization and preparation for delivery. A team of participants was assembled to provide fuels in both coal-water fuel (CWF) and dry ultrafine coal (DUC) forms. Information about major US coal fields was correlated with market needs analysis. Coal fields with major reserves of low sulfur coal that could be potentially amenable to premium coal-based fuels specifications were identified. The fuels requirements were focused in terms of market, equipment and resource constraints. With this basis, the coals selected for developmental testing satisfy the most stringent fuel requirements and utilize available current deep-cleaning capabilities.

Not Available

1992-06-01

369

Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project. Technical progress report, January 1, 1993--December 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from January 1, 1993, through December 31, 1993. This project demonstrates an advanced, thermal, coal drying process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high-moisture, low- rank coals to a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal{reg_sign} process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal processing, the coal is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership`s ACCP Demonstration Facility entered Phase III, Demonstration Operation, in April 1992 and operated in an extended startup mode through August 10, 1993, when the facility became commercial. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership instituted an aggressive program to overcome startup obstacles and now focuses on supplying product coal to customers. Significant accomplishments in the history of the SynCoal{reg_sign} process development are shown in Appendix A.

NONE

1995-02-01

370

ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Demonstration Project. Annual report, October 1993--September 1994  

SciTech Connect

ENCOAL Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of SMC Mining Company (formerly Shell Mining Company, now owned by Zeigler Coal Holding Company), has completed the construction and start-up of a mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company`s Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology developed by SMC and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin coal to produce two new fuels, Process Derived Fuel (PDF) and Coal Derived Liquids (CDL). The LFC technology uses a mild pyrolysis or mild gasification process which involves heating the coal under carefully controlled conditions. The process causes chemical changes in the feed coal in contrast to conventional drying, which leads only to physical changes. Wet subbituminous coal contains considerable water, and conventional drying processes physically remove some of this moisture, causing the heating value to increase. The deeper the coal is physically dried, the higher the heating value and the more the pore structure permanently collapses, preventing resorption of moisture. However, deeply dried Powder River Basin coals exhibit significant stability problems when dried by conventional thermal processes. The LFC process overcomes these stability problems by thermally altering the solid to create PDF and CDL. Several of the major objectives of the ENCOAL Project have now been achieved. The LFC Technology has been essentially demonstrated. Significant quantities of specification CDL have been produced from Buckskin coal. Plant operation in a production mode with respectable availability (approaching 90%) has been demonstrated.

NONE

1995-03-01

371

Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1994--March 31, 1994  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from January 1, 1994, through March 31, 1994. This project demonstrates an advanced, thermal, coal drying process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal{reg_sign} process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal processing, the coal is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership`s ACCP Demonstration Facility entered Phase III, Demonstration Operation, in April 1992 and operated in an extended startup mode through August 10, 1993, when the facility became commercial. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership instituted an aggressive program to overcome startup obstacles and now focuses on supplying product coal to customers. Significant accomplishments in the history of the SynCoal{reg_sign} process development are shown in Appendix A.

NONE

1996-02-01

372

Mulled Coal: A beneficiated coal form for use as a fuel or fuel intermediate  

SciTech Connect

During the past quarter Energy International has evaluated additional mull formulations with varying reagent additives, mixing times, and particle sizes. The Environmental Review was completed and conceptual designs developed for the Mull Preparation and CWF Conversion Systems. As these technical developments move toward commercial application, the needs for coordinated efforts and integrated requirements have become increasingly apparent. Systems are vitally needed to integrate energy delivery systems from the raw resource through processing to application and end use. Problems have been encountered in the preparation of conventional coal-water fuels that mutually satisfy the requirements for storage stability, handling, preparation, atomization, combustion, and economics. Experience has been slow in evolving generic technologies or products and coal-specific requirements and specifications continue to dominate the development. Thus, prospects for commercialization remain highly specific to the coal, the processor, and the end use. Developments in advanced beneficiation of coal to meet stringent requirements for low ash and low sulfur can be anticipated to further complicate the problem areas. This is attributable to the beneficiated coal being produced in very fine particles with a high surface area, modified surface characteristics, reduced particle size distribution range, and high inherent moisture.

Not Available

1991-09-01

373

Burning and detonation  

SciTech Connect

The effect of confined burning explosive abutting nonburning explosive in a variety of one-dimensional geometries has been studied by numerical simulation, demonstrating the effects of confinement, burning rate, and shock sensitivity. The model includes porous bed burning, compressible solids and gases, shock-induced decomposition with possible transition to detonation, and constant velocity ignition waves. Two-phase flow, gas relative to solid, is not allowed. Because the shock sensitivity of an explosive changes with explosive density and because such experimental data is rarely available over a range of densities, a method for the calculation of the density effect on the initial-shock-pressure, distance-to-detonation (wedge test) measure of shock sensitivity is given. The calculation uses the invariance with density of the shock particle velocity as a function of time to detonation, and the experimental data at some high density.

Forest, C.A.

1981-01-01

374

Burns and pregnancy.  

PubMed

Pregnancy does not predispose to thermal injuries. Most burns are minor, and erythema usually subsides within 24 hours during the outpatient therapy. Severe burns during pregnancy are rare but alarming events. Care should be provided at a regional facility with expert burn care and fetal monitoring. Attempts should be undertaken during maternal transport to avoid hypovolemia, hypotension, and hypoxia. The wound should be covered with sterile dressings to prevent further contamination. Maternal and fetal survival is directly related to the extent of the body surface injury. When maternal injury is lethal, fetal survival is very unlikely because of sudden in-utero death or complications from prematurity following spontaneous labor. Complications to be considered during the emergent and acute phases of recovery include fluid and electrolyte imbalance, respiratory difficulties, systemic and wound infection, inadequate nutrition, and emotional disturbances. Therapy should be directed to saving the mother. Whether fetal well being is compromised by the burn and resultant therapy is difficult to determine from prior published reports. Periodic ultrasonic examination and biophysical testing of the fetus are recommended. If conditions are considered unfavorable to meet fetal circulatory and oxygen demands, prompt delivery during the late second and third trimesters has been advocated if the mother's burn covers 50 per cent or more of the surface area. If the patient has instead recovered satisfactorily and there has been no evidence of fetal jeopardy or premature labor within the first week following the burn injury, the eventual delivery of a healthy-appearing, term-sized fetus is quite likely. PMID:6352144

Smith, B K; Rayburn, W F; Feller, I

1983-06-01

375

Chemical debridement of burns.  

PubMed

The development of effective, non-toxic (local and systemic) methods for the rapid chemical (enzymatic and non-enzymatic) debridement of third degree burns would dramatically reduce the morbidity and mortality of severely burned patients. Sepsis is still the major cause of death of patients with extensive deep burns. The removal of the devitalized tissue, without damage to unburned skin or skin only partially injured by burning, and in ways which would permit immediate (or very prompt) skin grafting, would lessen substantially the problems of sepsis, speed convalescence and the return of these individuals to society as effective human beings, and would decrease deaths. The usefulness and limitations of surgical excision for patients with extensive third degree burns are discussed. Chemical debridement lends itself to complementary use with surgical excision and has the potential advantage over surgical excision in not requiring anesthesia or a formal surgical operation. The authors' work with the chemical debridement of burns, in particular the use of Bromelain, indicates that this approach will likely achieve clinical usefulness. The experimental studies indicate that rapid controlled debridement, with minimal local and systemic toxicity, is possible, and that effective chemotherapeutic agents may be combined with the Bromelain without either interfering with the actions of the other. The authors believe that rapid (hours) debridement accomplished by the combined use of chemical debriding and chemotherapeutic agents will obviate the possibility of any increase in infection, caused by the use of chemical agents for debridement, as reported for Paraenzyme(21) and Travase.(39,48) It is possible that the short term use of systemic antibiotics begun just before and continued during, and for a short time after, the rapid chemical debridement may prove useful for the prevention of infection, as appears to be the case for abdominal operations of the clean-contaminated and contaminated types. PMID:4606330

Levenson, S M; Kan, D; Gruber, C; Crowley, L V; Lent, R; Watford, A; Seifter, E

1974-10-01

376

Fast burning propellants  

SciTech Connect

A solid or semisolid propellant is described comprising grains of propellant or propellant components bonded together to create voids within the propellant volume. The grains are of near-uniform size and have less than about a 20% size variation between the largest and smallest grains, the voids comprising from about 10% to about 50% of the propellant volume. The grains are bonded together with sufficient strength to substantially delay the fluidization of the propellant by the onset of Taylor unstable burning. The propellant has a rapid burn rate of from about 10 cm sec/sup -1/ to about 10/sup 4/cm sec/sup -1/.

Colgate, S.A.; Roos, G.E.

1987-07-21

377

Self-inflicted burns in the Irish National Burns Unit.  

PubMed

We carried out a review of self-inflicted burns presenting to the National Burns Unit in the Republic of Ireland. 87 self-inflicted burns were identified over a 12-year period accounting for 4.2% of total Burns Unit admissions. Patient demographics were identified. The majority of patients had a history of mental illness and deliberate self harm. We also examined the motivation behind the self-immolation, the total body surface area involved and the mortality rates. PMID:21726948

Seoighe, D M; Conroy, F; Hennessy, G; Meagher, P; Eadie, P

2011-07-02

378

Effects of catalytic mineral matter on CO/CO(sub 2) temperature and burning time for char combustion. Quarterly progress report No. 11, April--June 1992.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The high temperature oxidation of char is of interest in a number of applications in which coal must be burned in confined spaces. These include: the conversion of oil-fired boilers to coal using coal-water slurries, the development of a new generation of...

J. P. Longwell A. F. Sarofim C. H. Lee

1992-01-01

379

Silicon Burning. II. Quasi-Equilibrium and Explosive Burning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Having examined the application of quasi-equilibrium to hydrostatic silicon burning in Paper I of this series, we now turn our attention to explosive silicon burning. Previous authors have shown that for material that is heated to high temperature by a passing shock and then cooled by adiabatic expansion, the results can be divided into three broad categories, incomplete burning, normal

W. Raphael Hix; Friedrich-Karl Thielemann

1999-01-01

380

Clean Coal III Project: Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection Project Trial 1 Report - Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection - Results with Low Volatile Coal  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the first coal trial test conducted with the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection System at Bethlehem Steel Corporation's Burns Harbor Plant. This demonstration project is divided into three phases: Phase I - Design Phase II - Construction Phase III - Operation The design phase was conducted in 1991-1993. Construction of the facility began in August 1993 and was completed in late 1994. The coal injection facility began operating in January 1995 and Phase III began in November 1995. The Trial 1 base test orI C furnace was carried out in October 1996 as a comparison period for the analysis of the operation during subsequent coal trials.

None

1997-11-01

381

Clean Coal III Project: Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection Project Trail 1 Report - Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection - Results with Low Volatile Coal  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the first coal trial test conducted with the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection System at Bethlehem Steel Corporation's Burns Harbor Plant. This demonstration project is divided into three phases: Phase I - Design Phase II - Construction Phase III - Operation The design phase was conducted in 1991-1993, Construction of the facility began in August 1993 and was completed in late 1994. The coal injection facility began operating in January 1995 and Phase III began in November 1995. The Trial 1 base test on C furnace was carried out in October 1996 as a comparison period for the analysis of the operation during subsequent coal trials.

None

1997-11-01

382

Economic feasibility and technical considerations of oil to coal conversions  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on a conversion study of a utility oil-designed boiler to coal. The unit examined is Karn No. 3 at Consumers Power, which is a front-fired unit designed to burn Canadian crude oil. Topics considered include fuel conversion, coal selection, design parameters, unit modifications, NOX, unit performance, and economic feasibility. A 1980 DOE survey of oil-fired utility boilers (50 MW and larger) identified 220 boilers with a total capacity of 30,165 MW as coal-designed and burning oil. The coal should be bituminous in order to maximize coal-firing capability and reduce required retrofit work. It is determined that the economic feasibility of converting fuel types is site-specific. The discussed study did not attempt an in-depth review of firing coal-oil mixture (COM) or coal-water slurry (CWS) in the modified unit.

Dunphy, D.F.; Sirois, R.H.

1983-01-01

383

Effect of Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 on use of Midwestern coal  

SciTech Connect

The acid rain provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (42 U.S.C. [section][section] 7,651--7651o) and implementing regulations of October 1992 will substantially modify use of high-sulfur coal by utilities during the next decade. The Act adopts a market-based approach, allowing utilities to meet those emission levels by (1) installing scrubbers, low-emission boilers, or coal-cleaning technology, (2) switching to lower-sulfur coal, or (3) purchasing emission allowances to cover excess emissions. Those allowances will be sold by utilities which have reduced emissions below required levels. Initial allowances are distributed according to a statutory formula to existing plants based on 1985 outputs and to new plants beginning operation before 2000. Small utility plants and nonutility or industrial plants can opt into the allowance program. New plants beginning operation after 2000 must purchase allowances from then existing plants. Beginning in 1995, each plant can (1) operate at the level of its allowance, (2) reduce its emissions below the level of its allowance, either selling the balance or saving it for future expansion, (3) emit at a higher level than its allowance and purchasing extra allowances. Although the cost of scrubbers is declining, many utilities will elect to switch from high to low-sulfur coal. That will cause a closing of many high-sulfur coal mines in Missouri and throughout the midwest. Low-sulfur coal mines in the West will expand substantially. But reductions in scrubber costs, development of boiler and coal-cleaning technologies, and changes in transportation charges will affect comparative costs, and may enable continued use of some high-sulfur coal.

Davis, P.N. (Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). School of Law)

1993-03-01

384

Infection and the Burn Patient.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Burn patient survival has significantly increased during the past four decades as hypovolaemic shock, acute renal failure, invasive bacterial burn wound infection, Curling's ulcer, and metabolic wasting have been controlled by timely adequate resuscitatio...

B. A. Pruitt

1990-01-01

385

Abdominal Complications after Severe Burns.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Abdominal catastrophe in the severely burned patient without abdominal injury has been described. We perceived an alarming recent incidence of this complication in our burn center, both during acute resuscitation and later in the hospital course. We sough...

C. E. White E. M. Renz K. W. Markell L. H. Blackbourne M. E. Albrecht

2009-01-01

386

Discovery Performs Terminal Initiation Burn  

NASA Video Gallery

The terminal initiation burn, a left Orbital Maneuvering System engine firing that gave Discovery one last big push toward the space station, took place Feb. 26, 2011 at 10:33 a.m. The burn lasted 11 seconds.

Mark Garcia

2011-02-26

387

Solid Propellant Burning Rate Detector.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The instrument measures accurately the burning rate of solid propellant rocket motors. This is accomplished by use of light-transmitting rods of different lengths embedded in a propellant grain and transmitting light energy during burning of the grain to ...

J. E. Fitzgerald N. C. Allen

1965-01-01

388

Large block tests. [In WIDCO coal mine  

SciTech Connect

The process of in-situ coal gasification, while extremely simple in concept, in practice is complicated because as the burn proceeds, the reacting volume is constantly changing geometry. In addition, the process takes place underground where it is extremely difficult to observe in detail. The five Large Block tests were planned as a series of gasification experiments that could be examined by post-burn excavation at a fairly early stage of cavity development. The experiments include 1:1 and 3:1 steam:oxygen injection at two different flow-rate schedules, an air-injection burn, and a test of the controlled retracting injection-point (CRIP) system. The results of the tests indicate that the process is insensitive to changes in steam:oxygen ratios or flow rate over the range used. The burn cavities were all mostly filled with rubble and thermally altered coal.

Hill, R.W.; Thorsness, C.B.

1982-05-11

389

Getting beyond burning dirt  

Microsoft Academic Search

To fix and make the nation's Superfund law work, two related questions must be answered. First, where will the innovative technology come from the clean up Superfund and other waste sites Burning dirt--the best technology currently available--is an expensive nonsolution. Second, can man muster the political will to make Superfund a waste cleanup law instead of an expanding welfare program

Mahoney

1994-01-01

390

The Earth Could Burn.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Environmental educators are worried about the ultimate ecological threat--nuclear war, which could burn thousands of square miles, sterilize the soil, destroy 70 percent of the ozone layer letting in lethal ultraviolet rays, and cause severe radiation sickness. Educators must inform themselves, teach others, contact government representatives,…

Yarrow, Ruth

1982-01-01

391

Utilization of coal powering a gas turbine engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus 10 for consuming coal in powering a gas turbine engine 12 is disclosed. The apparatus includes an auxiliary combustor 16 and a partial gasifier 18. The gasifier 18 produces combustible char and combustible fluids. The combustible fluids are burned in the gas turbine engine. The combustible char is burned in the auxiliary combustor to form high temperature gases.

1983-01-01

392

Large block experiments in underground coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

The process of in-situ coal gasification, while extremely simple in concept, is complicated in practice because, as the burn proceeds, the reacting volume is constantly changing geometry. In addition, the process takes place underground where it is extremely difficult to observe in detail. The five large block experiments described here were planned as a series of gasification experiments each of which was to be terminated at a fairly early stage of cavity development and examined by postburn excavation. The experiments included 1:1 and 3:1 steam:oxygen injection at two different flow-rate schedules, an air-injection burn, and a test of the controlled retracting injection point (CRIP) system. The results indicate that the underground coal gasification process at this location is insensitive to changes in steam:oxygen ratios or flow rate over the range used. The burn cavities were all mostly filled with rubble and thermally altered coal.

Mill, R.W.; Thorsness, C.B.

1983-01-01

393

Large block experiments in underground coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

The process of in-situ coal gasification, while extremely simple in concept, is complicated in practice because, as the burn proceeds, the reacting volume is constantly changing geometry. In addition, the process takes place underground where it is extremely difficult to observe in detail. The five large block experiments described here were planned as a series of gasification experiments, each of which was to be terminated at a fairly early stage of cavity development and examined by postburn excavation. The experiments included 1:1 and 3:1 steam:oxygen injection at two different flow-rate schedules, an air-injection burn, and a test of the controlled retracting injection point (CRIP) system. The results indicate that the underground coal gasification process at this location is insensitive to changes in steam:oxygen ratios or flow rate over the range used. The burn cavities were all mostly filled with rubble and thermally altered coal.

Hill, R.W.; Thorsness, C.B.

1983-01-01

394

Development of a burn prevention teaching tool for Amish children.  

PubMed

Although there are inherent risks for burn injury associated with the Amish lifestyle, burn prevention is not taught in Amish schools. The purpose of this study was to develop a burn prevention teaching tool for Amish children. An anonymous parental survey was designed to explore the content and acceptability of a teaching tool within an Old Order Amish community. After institutional review board approval, the Amish teacher distributed surveys to 16 families of the 30 children attending the one-room school. Fourteen (88%) of the families responded to identify these burn risks in and around their homes, barns, and shops: lighters, wood and coal stoves, kerosene heaters, gasoline-powered engines, and hot liquids used for canning, butchering, mopping, washing clothes, and making lye soap. All respondents were in favor of teaching familiar safety precautions, fire escape plans, burn first aid, and emergency care to the children. There was some minor objection to more modern devices such as bath tub thermometers (25%), fire extinguishers (19%), and smoke detectors (6%). The teacher was interested in a magnetic teaching board depicting Amish children and typical objects in their home environment. Movable pieces could afford the opportunity to identify hazards and to rearrange them for a safer situation. This survey served to introduce burn prevention to one Amish community and to develop an appropriate teaching tool for the school. It is anticipated that community participation would support its acceptance and eventual utilization within this tenaciously traditional culture. PMID:21983647

Rieman, Mary T; Kagan, Richard J

395

Curbing Inflammation in Burn Patients  

PubMed Central

Patients who suffer from severe burns develop metabolic imbalances and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) which can result in multiple organ failure and death. Research aimed at reducing the inflammatory process has yielded new insight into burn injury therapies. In this review, we discuss strategies used to curb inflammation in burn injuries and note that further studies with high quality evidence are necessary.

Farina, Jayme A.; Rosique, Marina Junqueira; Rosique, Rodrigo G.

2013-01-01

396

Anatomy of a Prescribed Burn  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This poster shows how prescribed burns operate, using careful planning and preparation to start a fire that will renew habitat without threatening ecosystems or homes. This image describes the steps required to prepare a prescribed burn, how fire crews set up for the burn, and how the wind is used to help control the fire.

Forestry, Florida D.; Smokeybear.com

397

Harborview Burns – 1974 to 2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundBurn demographics, prevention and care have changed considerably since the 1970s. The objectives were to 1) identify new and confirm previously described changes, 2) make comparisons to the American Burn Association National Burn Repository, 3) determine when the administration of fluids in excess of the Baxter formula began and to identify potential causes, and 4) model mortality over time, during

Loren H. Engrav; David M. Heimbach; Frederick P. Rivara; Kathleen F. Kerr; Turner Osler; Tam N. Pham; Sam R. Sharar; Peter C. Esselman; Eileen M. Bulger; Gretchen J. Carrougher; Shari Honari; Nicole S. Gibran

2012-01-01

398

The overall patterns of burns  

PubMed Central

Summary Burn patterns differ across the whole world and not only in relation to lack of education, overcrowding, and poverty. Cultures, habits, traditions, psychiatric illness, and epilepsy are strongly correlated to burn patterns. However, burns may also occur because of specific religious beliefs and activities, social events and festivals, traditional medical practices, occupational activities, and war.

Almoghrabi, A.; Abu Shaban, N.

2011-01-01

399

BURN DATA COORDINATING CENTER (BDCC)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Burn Data Coordinating Center (BDCC) began collecting data in 1994 and is currently the largest burn database in the country. Pediatric burn data was added in 1998. The BMS database contains over 2,800 cases supporting clinical research and research on outcomes including empl...

400

Combustion and emissions characterization of pelletized coal fuels. Technical report, December 1, 1992February 28, 1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this project is to demonstrate that sorbent-containing coal pellets made from low grade coal or coal wastes are viable clean burning fuels, and to compare their performance with that of standard run-of-mine coal. Fuels to be investigated are: (a) carbonated pellets containing calcium hydroxide sorbent, (b) coal fines-limestone pellets with cornstarch as binder, (c) pellets made from

Rajan

1993-01-01

401

The performance of a compact oil-designed utility boiler when firing coal-water fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Canadian coal-water fuel technology development program has been in progress since 1980. This phase of the work is the final stage in the demonstration of practicability of burning coal-water fuel in a boiler designed to burn oil. Early tests in small coal-capable front-wall and tangentially fired utility boilers have shown that two of the major problems to be addressed

D. M. Rankin; H. Whaley; P. J. Read; D. J. Burnett

1990-01-01

402

Coal cleaning: progress and potential  

SciTech Connect

Results from a detailed analysis of sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) reductions achievable through ''deep'' physical coal cleaning (PCC) at 20 coal-fired power plants in the Ohio-Indiana-Illinois region are presented here. These plants all have capacities larger than 500 MWe, are currently without any flue-gas-desulfurization (FGD) systems, and burn coal of greater than 1% sulfur content (in 1980). Their aggregate emissions of 2.4 million tons of SO/sub 2/ per year represents 55% of the SO/sub 2/ inventory for these states. The principal coal supplies for each power plant were identified and characterized as to coal seam and county of origin, so that published coal-washability data could be matched to each supplier. The SO/sub 2/ reductions that would result from deep cleaning (Level 4) and moderate cleaning (Level 3) of each coal were calculated using a PCC computer model. For deep cleaning, percentage reductions in sulfur content ranged from zero to 52%, with a mean value of 29% and costs ranged from a low of 364/ton SO/sub 2/ removed to over $2000/ton SO/sub 2/ removed. Because coal suppliers to these power plants employ some voluntary coal cleaning, the anticipated emissions reduction from current levels if deep cleaning were used should be near 20%. These emissions reductions were projected using conventional coal cleaning circuit designs. The basic elements of typical commercial PCC designs are briefly described and current research and development activities in physical, chemical, and biological desulfurization of coal are reviewed. Possible governmental actions to either encourage or mandate coal cleaning are identified and evaluated. 13 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Livengood, C.D.; Doctor, R.D.

1985-01-01

403

Geomorphology of coal seam fires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coal fires occur in underground natural coal seams, in exposed surface seams, and in coal storage or waste piles. The fires ignite through spontaneous combustion or natural or anthropogenic causes. They are reported from China, India, USA, South Africa, Australia, and Russia, as well as many other countries. Coal fires lead to loss of a valuable resource (coal), the emission of greenhouse-relevant and toxic gases, and vegetation deterioration. A dangerous aspect of the fires is the threat to local mines, industries, and settlements through the volume loss underground. Surface collapse in coal fire areas is common. Thus, coal fires are significantly affecting the evolution of the landscape. Based on more than a decade of experience with in situ mapping of coal fire areas worldwide, a general classification system for coal fires is presented. Furthermore, coal seam fire geomorphology is explained in detail. The major landforms associated with, and induced by, these fires are presented. The landforms include manifestations resulting from bedrock surface fracturing, such as fissures, cracks, funnels, vents, and sponges. Further manifestations resulting from surface bedrock subsidence include sinkholes, trenches, depressions, partial surface subsidence, large surface subsidence, and slides. Additional geomorphologic coal fire manifestations include exposed ash layers, pyrometamorphic rocks, and fumarolic minerals. The origin, evolution, and possible future development of these features are explained, and examples from in situ surveys, as well as from high-resolution satellite data analyses, are presented. The geomorphology of coal fires has not been presented in a systematic manner. Knowledge of coal fire geomorphology enables the detection of underground coal fires based on distinct surface manifestations. Furthermore, it allows judgments about the safety of coal fire-affected terrain. Additionally, geomorphologic features are indicators of the burning stage of fires. Finally, coal fire geomorphology helps to explain landscape features whose occurrence would otherwise not be understood. Although coal fire-induced thermal anomalies and gas release are also indications of coal fire activity, as addressed by many investigators, no assessment is complete without sound geomorphologic mapping of the fire-induced geomorphologic features.

Kuenzer, Claudia; Stracher, Glenn B.

2012-02-01

404

Densified refuse derived fuel (d-RDF) burn at Marcy Psychiatric Center. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A combustion demonstration involving a densified refuse derived fuel (d-RDF) product, fired for approximately 50 hours as a supplemental fuel in a coal-fired spreader stoker boiler is described. Observations were made and photographs taken of plant operation during all phases of the test project. Opacity and particulate emission tests were performed while firing d-RDF in a ratio of 1:2 with coal (by volume) and while firing 100% coal at high and low loads to provide comparisons with State Department of Environmental Conservation emission standards. No significant disadvantages over coal were found in burning d-RDF/coal in ratios up to 2:1 (43% heat input by d-RDF). Fuel handling, boiler operation, boiler efficiency, particulate emissions, and opacity were similar for the coal and d-RDF/coal mixtures tested.

Not Available

1980-11-01

405

LLNL underground coal gasification project. Quarterly progress report, July-Sep 1980. [Hoe Creek and Gorgas, Alabama tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory studies of forward gasification through drilled holes in blocks of coal have continued. Such studies give insight into cavity growth mechanisms and particulate production. In addition to obtaining a qualitative comparison of the forward burn characteristics of two coals, we obtained information on the influence of bedding plane\\/cleat structure orientation on the early-time shape of the burn cavity in

Olness

1980-01-01

406

Underground-coal-gasification technical summary  

SciTech Connect

There are three basic reasons for the recent emergence of underground coal gasification (UCG) as a leading synfuels candidate: (1) favorable projected economics, (2) ability to use coal seams that are unattractive for mining, and (3) modest environmental impact. The objective of this paper is to list major underground coal gasification results and conclusions, particularly field-oriented results. The twenty field tests and ten years' experience have demonstrated technical feasibility and allow us to make several generalizations concerning underground coal gasification. For example, burns tend to be bowl-shaped after roof collapse, since ash and slag (and high water content in coal) impede downward burning. Burns appear to be symmetrical in plan view, but not in elevation view. Injection and linking at the bottom of the seam can improve performance. Heat losses begin, and heating value of the product gas declines, when the burn reaches the roof and the roof rock begins to collapse. In general, heating value and chemistry appear to be insensitive to operational parameters but are sensitive to process-well geometry and overburden.

Stephens, D.R.; Thorsness, C.B.; Hill, R.W.; Thompson, D.S.

1983-03-14

407

Tracheostomies in burn patients.  

PubMed Central

The use of tracheostomies in burned patients with inhalation injuries is now reserved for specific indications rather than as prophylactic airway management. A 5-year burn center experience with tracheostomies used in this fashion is presented. Ninety-nine tracheostomies were performed in 3246 patients who had indications of prolonged respiratory failure or acute loss of airway. Although colonization of the sputum was universal, neither rates of pulmonary sepsis nor mortality were significantly increased in patients who underwent tracheostomies. Twenty-eight patients developed late upper airway sequelae, including tracheal stenosis (TS), tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF), and tracheoarterial fistula (TAF). Duration of intubation correlated only with development of TAF, whereas patients in whom TEF developed were significantly older and more likely to have evidence of tracheal necrosis at the time of tracheostomy. The pathogenesis of upper airway sequelae in these patients as divergent responses to the combined insults of inhalation injury, infection, and intubation is considered. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3.

Jones, W G; Madden, M; Finkelstein, J; Yurt, R W; Goodwin, C W

1989-01-01

408

Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

Western Energy Company (WECO) was selected by the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) which upgrades low rank coals into high Btu, low sulfur, synthetic bituminous coal. As specified in the Corporate Agreement, RSCP is required to develop an Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) which describes in detail the environmental monitoring activities to be performed during the project execution. The purpose of the EMP is to: (1) identify monitoring activities that will be undertaken to show compliance to applicable regulations, (2) confirm the specific environmental impacts predicted in the National Environmental Policy Act documentation, and (3) establish an information base of the assessment of the environmental performance of the technology demonstrated by the project. The EMP specifies the streams to be monitored (e.g. gaseous, aqueous, and solid waste), the parameters to be measured (e.g. temperature, pressure, flow rate), and the species to be analyzed (e.g. sulfur compounds, nitrogen compounds, trace elements) as well as human health and safety exposure levels. The operation and frequency of the monitoring activities is specified, as well as the timing for the monitoring activities related to project phase (e.g. preconstruction, construction, commissioning, operational, post-operational). The EMP is designed to assess the environmental impacts and the environmental improvements resulting from construction and operation of the project.

Not Available

1992-04-01

409

Regimes of Helium Burning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The burning regimes encountered by laminar deflagrations and Zeldovich von Neumann Döring (ZND) detonations propagating through helium-rich compositions in the presence of buoyancy-driven turbulence are analyzed. Particular attention is given to models of X-ray bursts that start with a thermonuclear runaway on the surface of a neutron star and to the thin-shell helium instability of intermediate-mass stars. In the X-ray

F. X. Timmes; J. C. Niemeyer

2000-01-01

410

[Pilot experiment of fluorine fixing ratio of coated lump stone coal fuel].  

PubMed

The pilot experiment on coated lump stone coal fuel selected from 16 families in Haoping Shanxi were studied. 8 families burned coating high fluorine lump stone coal with lime, clay and low fluorine anthracite, 8 families burned untreated lump stone coal. The results show that the fluorine-fixing ratio at treated group was 75.0% when coal fluorine compared with coal cinder fluorine. In comparison with untreated group, the concentration of door air fluoride lowered 85.7%, SO2 lowered 75.0%, dust lowered 55.3%. PMID:16007740

Feng, Fu-Jian; Yu, Jiang-Ping; Wang, Wu-Yi; Luo, Kun-Li; Chen, Dai-Zhong; Li, Ying; Bai, Guang-Lu; Li, Yue; Zheng, Lai-Yi; Bai, Ai-Mei

2005-03-01

411

Energy and environmental research emphasizing low-rank coal -- Task 5.1, Stability issues  

SciTech Connect

Low-sulfur subbituminous and lignite coals have high moisture content and, consequently, low heating value, leading to boiler derating in US midwestern and eastern utilities as well as switching and/or blending coals to achieve SO{sub 2} compliance. In the drive to develop cost-effective coal-drying processes, coal developers have focused on heat content of the products and generally neglected the critical stability issues of friability and dusting, moisture reabsorption, and spontaneous heating. The Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC), in an effort to establish new standards for dried products, has used established methods and has developed new ones to evaluate the propensity of lump western coals, raw and dried, to produce dust and absorb water. Three drying methods--air, hydrothermal, and saturated steam--were used to generate low-moisture upgraded products. New indices for dust generation and friability were determined to assess the effects of moisture removal and upgrading methodology on coal stability. Analysis of the dried coals using various strength tests indicated that the reduction in moisture made the lump coal unstable, yielding substantially higher dust and friability indices relative to those of the raw coals.

Anderson, C.M.; Musich, M.A.; Dewall, R.A.; Richter, J.J.

1995-04-01

412

Advanced coal fueled gas turbine system definition: Topical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coal-fired gas turbine system definition and economic assessments are based on the Coal Burning Locomotive Study previously conducted by the GE Transportation Systems Business Operations with Burlington Northern and Norfolk Southern railroad sponsorship, and later with additional funding from the United States Department of Energy. The objectives of that study were to validate the feasibility of locomotive designs using

A. M. James; M. W. Horner

1987-01-01

413

Construction Labor Assessment for Coal Gasification Plant Murphy Hill, Alabama.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

TVA's planned construction of a coal gasification plant, capable of processing about 20,000 tons of coal per day into a clean-burning fuel, will be a large and complex construction project by any relevant measure. The plant site examined here is in northe...

1980-01-01

414

Mechanisms of coal-water mixture combustion in fluidized beds  

SciTech Connect

The first quarter of FY 1990 was used to correct problems described in the previous progress report and to initiate a series of experiments on calcination and sulfation of coal-water-limestone mixtures (CWLM) in fluidized beds. Results are discussed and compared to the burning of dry coal in a limestone bed. 10 refs., 5 figs.

Brown, R.C.

1989-01-01

415

Coal gasification; An alternative energy source is coming of age  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on concerns over continued U.S. dependence on imported oil, and more importantly, increasing environmental restrictions on conventional power plants that are driving research and development of alternative energy sources. One alternative energy process being developed is coal gasification, which involves converting coal to a synthetic gas by heating it under pressure and burning that gas as a

Valenti

1992-01-01

416

Coal Fired Combined Cycle for Electric Power Generation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The coal-fired combined cycle (CFCC) is a unique power plant concept which when developed will provide a direct coal-burning gas turbine and steam turbine combined cycle suitable for base load application. The combined cycle operation offers the potential...

R. D. Brooks J. R. Peterson G. Weth

1977-01-01

417

Slag processing system for direct coal-fired gas turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct coal-fired gas turbine systems and methods for their operation are provided by this invention. The gas turbine system includes a primary zone for burning coal in the presence of compressed air to produce hot combustion gases and debris, such as molten slag. The turbine system further includes a secondary combustion zone for the lean combustion of the hot combustion

Pillsbury; Paul W

1990-01-01

418

Slag processing system for direct coal-fired gas turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an improvement in a direct coal-fired gas turbine system of the type having a primary combustion zone for burning coal in the presence of compressed air to product hot combustion gases and debris, such as molten slag, and a secondary combustion zone for the lean combustion of the hot combustion gases. The secondary combustion zone is coupled

Pillsbury

1990-01-01

419

Adsorption of UCG organics by coal, char, activated char and ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aqueous adsorption of Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) organics generated during gas production was tested in the laboratory to determine the organic's affinity for surroundings in the region of the burn cavity. Coal from the Rosebud coal mine in Hanna, Wyoming along with char, activated char, and ash were studied during this work. Contaminated ground water was simulated by preparing

M. J. Humenick; J. R. Morgan; B. T. Nolan

1987-01-01

420

Summary of the geology at the underground coal gasification site, Pricetown, WV  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Morgantown Energy Technology Center is planning to conduct a field experiment for the in situ recovery of the Pittsburgh Coal at the Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) test site, Pricetown, West Virginia. Since the project's inception, field data have been collected and used to evaluate the pre-burn character of the coal seam and the adjacent strata. The results show that

OBrien

1978-01-01

421

A novel combined cycle with synthetic utilization of coal and natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a novel combined cycle with synthetic utilization of coal and natural gas is proposed, in which the burning of coal provides thermal energy to the methane\\/steam reforming reaction. The syngas fuel, generated by the reforming reaction, is directly provided to the gas turbine as fuel. The reforming process with coal firing has been investigated based on the

Wei Han; Hongguang Jin; Wei Xu

2007-01-01

422

Development and evaluation of highly-loaded coal slurries. [Coal-fuel oils, coal-fuel oils-water and coal-water  

SciTech Connect

For the past two and one-half years Atlantic Research has been conducting a research program which involved development and combustion of slurries of coal in oil and in water. In Phase II good candidate slurries chosen from Phase I were burned in an experimental furnace and their combustion performance evaluated. Two slurry fuels were chosen for the combustion study. One consisted of a 50/40/10 (weight) coal/oil/water mixture, and the other was a 65/35 coal/water slurry stabilized with modified corn starch. The emphasis was placed on the coal/water slurry. Firings were conducted in a one MMBTUH experimental furnace constructed and instrumented for the purpose. A specially designed swirl burner/atomizer was developed for use with the coal/water slurry. Both slurries were burned successfully. Numerous firings were performed of up to one-half duration each. In the case of the coal/water slurry a small amount of gas assist was usually used, although this was eliminated in several shorter duration tests. Thermochemical calculations for coal/water slurries are presented. The presence of water in the slurry represents a relatively small energy penalty. A slurry made from a good coal will have a calorific value in the range of 10,000 Btu/lb. The heat required to vaporize the water of a 70/30 mixture is only about 300 Btu/lb slurry, or about 3 percent. Analysis of the results led to the conclusion that significant improvement in the burning maybe achievable, possibly to the point where combustion rates would be comparable to those of heavy oil. Because of the availability of coal, its cost advantage relative to oil, and especially because of the ease of handling of a liquid fuel, coal/water slurry appears to have considerable potential as a future fuel.

McHale, E.T.

1980-05-01

423

Two-dimensional thermodynamic model (second stage) of in situ underground coal gasification of eastern thin-seam coals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methodology and results of determining cavity growth via a side wall burn model in underground coal gasification (UCG) in Eastern, swelling coals is presented. Modeling techniques are still in preliminary stages but when perfected will aid in determining the feasibility of a particular site, dictate the design of the multi-well field pattern, and help control the product gas composition

S. H. Schwartz; T. L. Eddy

1980-01-01

424

Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems. Annual report, July 1991--June 1992  

SciTech Connect

Westinghouse`s Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine System Program (DE-AC2l-86MC23167) was originally split into two major phases - a Basic Program and an Option. The Basic Program also contained two phases. The development of a 6 atm, 7 lb/s, 12 MMBtu/hr slagging combustor with an extended period of testing of the subscale combustor, was the first part of the Basic Program. In the second phase of the Basic Program, the combustor was to be operated over a 3-month period with a stationary cascade to study the effect of deposition, erosion and corrosion on combustion turbine components. The testing of the concept, in subscale, has demonstrated its ability to handle high- and low-sulfur bituminous coals, and low-sulfur subbituminous coal. Feeding the fuel in the form of PC has proven to be superior to CWM type feed. The program objectives relative to combustion efficiency, combustor exit temperature, NO{sub x} emissions, carbon burnout, and slag rejection have been met. Objectives for alkali, particulate, and SO{sub x} levels leaving the combustor were not met by the conclusion of testing at Textron. It is planned to continue this testing, to achieve all desired emission levels, as part of the W/NSP program to commercialize the slagging combustor technology.

Not Available

1992-09-01

425

Coal combustion aerothermochemistry research. Final report  

SciTech Connect

On the basis of extensive aerothermochemistry analyses, laboratory investigations, and combustor tests, significant headway has been made toward improving the understanding of combustion phenomena and scaling of high swirl pulverized coal combustors. A special attempt has been made to address the gap between scientific data available on combustion and hardware design and scaling needs. Both experimental and theoretical investigations were conducted to improve the predictive capability of combustor scaling laws. The scaling laws derived apply to volume and wall burning of pulverized coal in a slagging high-swirl combustor. They incorporate the findings of this investigation as follows: laser pyrolysis of coal at 10/sup 6/ K/sec and 2500K; effect of coal particle shape on aerodynamic drag and combustion; effect of swirl on heat transfer; coal burnout and slag capture for 20 MW/sub T/ combustor tests for fine and coarse coals; burning particle trajectories and slag capture; particle size and aerodynamic size; volatilization extent and burnout fraction; and preheat level. As a result of this work, the following has been gained: an increased understanding of basic burning mechanisms in high-swirl combustors and an improved model for predicting combustor performance which is intended to impact hardware design and scaling in the near term.

Witte, A.B.; Gat, N.; Denison, M.R.; Cohen, L.M.

1980-12-15

426

Conversion of packaged boiler to micronized coal cuts operating cost  

SciTech Connect

The use of micronised coal can be an alternative to the purchase of new coal-fired boilers, since, in many cases, this fuel can be burned in existing oil- and gas-fired boilers with acceptable derating. The experience is quoted of Idaho Supreme, a potato processing company, where a packaged boiler designed to operate on oil and wood has been successfully run on micronised coal.

Schwieger, B.

1984-05-01

427

Coal Fires  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides an introduction to the environmental hazards presented by coal fires. Topics include natural and human-related causes of coal fires, their potential impacts, the global distribution of coal fires, spontaneous combustion, and gaseous emissions produced by coal fires. There are also discussions of coal fires in China and India, a photo gallery, links to news articles, and a frequently-asked-questions feature.

Prakash, Anumpa

428

Coal Fires  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides an introduction to the environmental hazards presented by coal fires. Topics include natural and human-related causes of coal fires, their potential impacts, the global distribution of coal fires, spontaneous combustion, and gaseous emissions produced by coal fires. There are also discussions of coal fires in China and India, a photo gallery, links to news articles, and a frequently-asked-questions feature.

Prakash, Anupma

2011-06-30

429

SRC: first coal synfuel  

SciTech Connect

The prospects for a clean boiler fuel look promising if plans for producing solvent refined coal (SRC) by 1984 are carried out. A much more effective process for removing impurities than conventional washing, SRC also promises to improve the operation and reliability of power plants and will help power plants meet the New Source Performance Standards for many types of coal. Utilities will find it an economical way to reconvert or retrofit existing plants to burn coal, while other plants could replace oil and gas with liquid SRC. A review of the project's status begins with work in the early 1970s aimed at making a clean boiler fuel out of high-sulfur Appalachian coal. Funding for the solid SRC-1 has had to compete with liquid SRC-II, although pressures for oil substitutes will force a demonstration of each. Commercialization of SRC-I is expected by 1990. A side effect of the competition is the development of a liquid SRC-I. (DCK)

Not Available

1980-02-01

430

Integrated Dry NOâ\\/SOâ Emissions Control System baseline SNCR test report, February 4March 6, 1992  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DOE sponsored Integrated Dry NOâSOâ Emissions Control System program, which is a Clean Coal Technology III demonstration, is being conducted by Public Service Company of Colorado. The test site is Arapahoe Generating Station Unit 4, which is a 100 MWe, down-fired utility boiler burning a low sulfur western coal. The project goal is to demonstrate 70 percent reductions in

R. A. Smith; G. H. Shiomoto; L. J. Muzio; T. Hunt

1993-01-01

431

Integrated Dry NO sub x \\/SO sub 2 Emissions Control System baseline test report, November 11December 15, 1991  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DOE sponsored Integrated Dry NOâ\\/SOâ Emissions Control System program, which is a Clean Coal Technology Ill demonstration, is being conducted by Public Service Company of Colorado. The test site is Arapahoe Generating Station Unit 4, which is a 100 MWe, down-fired utility boiler burning a low sulfur western coal. The project goal is to demonstrate 70 percent reductions in

G. H. Shiomoto; R. A. Smith

1992-01-01

432

Integrated dry NOâ\\/SOâ emissions control system calcium-based dry sorbent injection. Test report, April 30November 2, 1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DOE sponsored Integrated Dry NOâSOâ Emissions Control System program, which is a Clean Coal Technology III demonstration, is being conducted by Public Service Company of Colorado. The test site is Arapahoe Generating Station Unit 4, which is a 100 MWe, down-fired utility boiler burning a low sulfur Western coal. The project goal is to demonstrate up to 70 percent

G. H. Shiomoto; R. A. Smith; L. J. Muzio; T. Hunt

1994-01-01

433

Integrated Dry NOâ\\/SOâ Emissions Control System baseline test report, November 11December 15, 1991  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DOE sponsored Integrated Dry NOâ\\/SOâ Emissions Control System program, which is a Clean Coal Technology Ill demonstration, is being conducted by Public Service Company of Colorado. The test site is Arapahoe Generating Station Unit 4, which is a 100 MWe, down-fired utility boiler burning a low sulfur western coal. The project goal is to demonstrate 70 percent reductions in

G. H. Shiomoto; R. A. Smith

1992-01-01

434

Bridging the experience gap: Burning tires in a utility boiler  

SciTech Connect

For many communities, a solution to waste tire management problems may be no farther than the nearest coal-fired utility or industrial boiler. Sending waste tires to be used as a fuel in existing boilers is one way communities can prevent tires from creating problems in landfills, or from growing into nuisances and potentially dangerous stockpiles while waiting for recycling markets to develop. For utilities, using tire-derived fuel can help control fuel costs and conserve coal. When the State of Wisconsin sought alternatives to disposing of waste tires in its landfills, Wisconsin Power & Light came forward to meet the challenge. Now, the electric utility is shredding and burning more than 1 million tires a year at its coal-fired generating station in southern Wisconsin.

Denhof, D.

1993-03-01

435

Burning Buried Sunshine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article discusses the results of a mathematical study on how efficiently the energy of the sun is converted into fossil fuels. It points out that plants convert the sun's energy in to carbon, which is the basic constituent of natural gas, oil, and coal. However, the process is inefficient in that only about 9 percent of the carbon in the original plants is converted into the form of coal, and even less remains in oil or gas. As a way of pointing out the unsustainability of fossil fuels as an energy source, the study estimates that fossil fuel deposits accumulated over the last 500 million years have provided an ample and relatively cheap energy source for only the past 250 years.

436

Advanced coal conversion process demonstration. Progress report, January 1, 1992--March 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

This report contains a description of technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project (ACCP). This project will demonstrate an advanced thermal coal drying process coupled with physical cleaning techniques to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to produce a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel. The coal will be processed through two vibrating fluidized bed reactors that will remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After drying, the coal will be put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process effect separation of the pyrite rich ash. The process will enhance low-rank western coals, usually with a moisture content of 25--55%, sulfur content of 0.5--1.5%, and heating value of 5500--9000 Btu/lb by producing a stable, upgraded coal product with a moisture content as low as 1%, sulfur content as low as 0.3%, and heating value up to 12,0 00 Btu/lb. The 45 ton/hr unit will be located adjacent to a unit train loadout facility at Western Energy Company`s Rosebud coal mine near the town of Colstrip in southeastern Montana. The demonstration plant is sized at about one-tenth the projected throughput of a multiple processing train commercia; facility. The demonstration drying and cooling equipment is currently commercial size.

NONE

1992-05-01

437

Technical considerations relating to the use of coal for power generation in American Samoa  

SciTech Connect

This review focuses on apprasing the option of using coal for power generation in the US territory of American Samoa. The availability of Australian coal into the next century is almost guaranteed by the size of the Australian resource. This coal is about a third the price of fuel oil. One of the chief stumbling blocks to coal imports to American Samoa is lack of deep harbors. Possibilities for harbor expansions are discussed. A second drawback to coal-fired plants is high capital costs for construction relative to the diesel generators used now. A 25 MW/sub e/ plant equipped with spreader-stoker boiler, turbine generator, condensers, and feed system currently costs $18 to $20 million. A steam plant fueled with residual oil would be slightly less (approx. $17 million), but it would use a much more expensive fuel whose availability over the lifetime of the plant is questionable. The small size of the proposed power plant may exempt it from the New Source Performance Standards of the Clean Air Act. The low sulfur content of Australian coals require no or minimal SO/sub 2/ pollution control equipment. Ash can be ocean-dumped with EPA permit, used to reclaim nearshore land, or in a cement industry. Land requirements for dead (60 to 90-day) coal storage are one to two acres. Land availability is tied to site selection. In conclusion, coal use in Tutuila is constrained principally by lack of appropriate port facilities.

Borg, I.Y.

1982-10-01

438

Joint Theater Trauma System Implementation of Burn Resuscitation Guidelines Improves Outcomes in Severely Burned Military Casualties.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Between March 2003-June 2007, our burn center received 594 casualties from Iraq and Afghanistan. Ongoing acute burn resuscitation as severely burned casualties are evacuated is very challenging. To help standardize care, burn resuscitation guidelines (BRG...

D. J. Barillo E. M. Renz J. L. Ennis K. K. Chung M. C. Albrecht

2007-01-01

439

Acid burns from personal assault in Uganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid burns from assault represent a substantial and neglected proportion of burn injuries in the developing world. A retrospective chart review was conducted to assess the frequency of acid burns in relation to total burns requiring admission in Kampala, Uganda. Seventeen percent of the adult burns admitted at New Mulago hospital over an 18-month period resulted from acid assault. Patients

J. Asaria; O. C. Kobusingye; B. A. Khingi; R. Balikuddembe; M. Gomezc; M. Beveridge

2004-01-01

440

How to manage burns in primary care.  

PubMed Central

Burns are common injuries; more than 200,000 occur in Canada annually. Nearly all burn injuries can be managed on on outpatient basis. Appropriate treatment depends on burn depth, extent, and location. Special types of burns, such as chemical, tar, and electrical injuries, need specific management strategies. Prevention through education is important to reduce the incidence of burns. Images Figure 2 Figure 3

Waitzman, A. A.; Neligan, P. C.

1993-01-01