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Sample records for bursal disease vaccination

  1. 9 CFR 113.212 - Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.212 Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bursal Disease...

  2. 9 CFR 113.212 - Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.212 Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bursal Disease...

  3. 9 CFR 113.212 - Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.212 Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bursal Disease...

  4. 9 CFR 113.212 - Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.212 Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bursal Disease...

  5. 9 CFR 113.212 - Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.212 Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bursal Disease...

  6. 9 CFR 113.331 - Bursal Disease Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.331 Bursal Disease Vaccine. Bursal Disease Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids or embryonated chicken eggs. Only Master Seed Virus which has been...

  7. 9 CFR 113.331 - Bursal Disease Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.331 Bursal Disease Vaccine. Bursal Disease Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids or embryonated chicken eggs. Only Master Seed Virus which has been...

  8. 9 CFR 113.331 - Bursal Disease Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.331 Bursal Disease Vaccine. Bursal Disease Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids or embryonated chicken eggs. Only Master Seed Virus which has been...

  9. 9 CFR 113.331 - Bursal Disease Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.331 Bursal Disease Vaccine. Bursal Disease Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids or embryonated chicken eggs. Only Master Seed Virus which has been...

  10. 9 CFR 113.331 - Bursal Disease Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bursal Disease Vaccine. 113.331 Section 113.331 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.331 Bursal...

  11. Current status of vaccines against infectious bursal disease.

    PubMed

    Müller, Hermann; Mundt, Egbert; Eterradossi, Nicolas; Islam, M Rafiqul

    2012-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is the aetiological agent of the acute and highly contagious infectious bursal disease (IBD) or "Gumboro disease". IBD is one of the economically most important diseases that affects commercially produced chickens worldwide. Along with strict hygiene management of poultry farms, vaccination programmes with inactivated and live attenuated viruses have been used to prevent IBD. Live vaccines show a different degree of attenuation; many of them may cause bursal atrophy and thus immunosuppression with poor immune response to vaccination against other pathogens and an increase in vulnerability to various types of infections as possible consequences. Depending on their intrinsic characteristics or on the vaccination procedures, some of the vaccines may not induce full protection against the very virulent IBDV strains and antigenic variants observed in the last three decades. As chickens are most susceptible to IBDV in their first weeks of life, active immunity to the virus has to be induced early after hatching. However, maternally derived IBDV-specific antibodies may interfere with early vaccination with live vaccines. Thus new technologies and second-generation vaccines including rationally designed and subunit vaccines have been developed. Recently, live viral vector vaccines have been licensed in several countries and are reaching the market. Here, the current status of IBD vaccines is discussed. PMID:22515532

  12. Bursal transcriptome of chickens protected by DNA vaccination versus those challenged with infectious bursal disease virus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chih-Chun; Kim, Bong-Suk; Wu, Ching Ching; Lin, Tsang Long

    2015-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) infection destroys the bursa of Fabricius, causing immunosuppression and rendering chickens susceptible to secondary bacterial or viral infections. IBDV large-segment-protein-expressing DNA has been shown to confer complete protection of chickens from infectious bursal disease (IBD). The purpose of the present study was to compare DNA-vaccinated chickens and unvaccinated chickens upon IBDV challenge by transcriptomic analysis of bursa regarding innate immunity, inflammation, immune cell regulation, apoptosis and glucose transport. One-day-old specific-pathogen-free chickens were vaccinated intramuscularly three times at weekly intervals with IBDV large-segment-protein-expressing DNA. Chickens were challenged orally with 8.2 × 10(2) times the egg infective dose (EID)50 of IBDV strain variant E (VE) one week after the last vaccination. Bursae collected at 0.5, 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 days post-challenge (dpc) were subjected to real-time RT-PCR quantification of bursal transcripts related to innate immunity, inflammation, immune cell regulation, apoptosis and glucose transport. The expression levels of granzyme K and CD8 in DNA-vaccinated chickens were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those in unvaccinated chickens upon IBDV challenge at 0.5 or 1 dpc. The expression levels of other genes involved in innate immunity, inflammation, immune cell regulation, apoptosis and glucose transport were not upregulated or downregulated in DNA-vaccinated chickens during IBDV challenge. Bursal transcripts related to innate immunity and inflammation, including TLR3, MDA5, IFN-α, IFN-β, IRF-1, IRF-10, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, iNOS, granzyme A, granzyme K and IL-10, were upregulated or significantly (p < 0.05) upregulated at 3 dpc and later in unvaccinated chickens challenged with IBDV. The expression levels of genes related to immune cell regulation, apoptosis and glucose transport, including CD4, CD8, IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-12(p40), IL-18, GM-CSF, GATA-3

  13. Evaluation of immune responses by live infectious bursal disease vaccines to avoid vaccination failures.

    PubMed

    Jakka, P; Reddy, Y K; Kirubaharan, J J; Chandran, N D J

    2014-06-01

    Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD) is a viral, contagious immunosuppressive disease posing an important threat to the commercial poultry industry. Evolution of highly virulent strains of IBD virus warranted the need for detailed characterization of the immune responses offered by the currently available vaccines. Two extensively used live vaccines of varied attenuation levels - intermediate and intermediate plus - strains were analyzed for the induction of immune responses. Both the vaccines induced protective antibody titers with the onset, quicker and higher with the intermediate plus vaccine. The intermediate plus strain vaccinate was observed to induce higher levels of IFN-γ in the birds. These results were supported by immunophenotype analyses with an increase in CD8+ and simultaneous decrease in CD4+ cell population. Both vaccine strains conferred protective immunity against virulent challenge. The study warrants the use of intermediate plus vaccines in disease endemic regions and intermediate vaccines in non-endemic regions to prevent IBD infection. PMID:24883198

  14. The affect of infectious bursal disease virus on avian influenza virus vaccine efficacy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Immunosuppressive viruses are known to affect vaccinal immunity, however the impact of virally induced immunosuppression on avian influenza vaccine efficacy has not been quantified. In order to determine the effect of exposure to infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) on vaccinal immunity to highly ...

  15. A new recombinant hybrid polypeptide and its immunologic adjuvant activity for inactivated infectious bursal disease vaccine.

    PubMed

    Cai, Mei-hong; Zhu, Feng; Wu, Hao-chen; Shen, Ping-ping

    2014-07-01

    Both bursin (Lys-His-Gly-NH2) and Gagnon's peptides (Lys-Asn-Pro-Tyr) can induce B-cell differentiation. However, it is unclear whether a recombinant hybrid polypeptide consisting of a tandem array of 14 copies of bursin and two copies of Gagnon's peptide can induce the proliferative activity of lymphocytes. Here, this recombinant hybrid polypeptide was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by SDS-PAGE. Various assays showed that it not only promoted B-lymphocyte proliferation in vitro but also increased the titers of antibodies directed against infectious bursal disease virus fourfold in the sera of chickens vaccinated with the inactivated infectious bursal disease virus vaccine. The recombinant hybrid polypeptide also reduced the pathological lesions in the bursa of Fabricius caused by infectious bursal disease virus BC6/85. Our results show that this recombinant hybrid polypeptide may be a promising immune adjuvant. PMID:24652544

  16. Risk factors associated with infectious bursal disease vaccination failures in broiler farms in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mutinda, Wanzila Usyu; Nyaga, Philip Njeru; Mbuthia, Paul Gichohi; Bebora, Lilly Caroline; Muchemi, Gerald

    2014-04-01

    Immunization together with application of biosecurity measures are the principal methods of preventing infectious bursal disease outbreaks in high-risk areas. However, outbreaks in vaccinated chicken flocks have been reported in many parts of the world as a result of factors of vaccine virus, animal, or vaccine handler. In Kenya, such outbreaks have been reported, but the causes have not been studied. This study aimed at determining the risk factors associated with vaccine handling leading to vaccine failure in broiler flocks in Kwale County, Kenya. Structured questionnaires and visual observations were used to collect data from 83 broiler farms, 6 breeding farms, and 17 vaccine outlets. Relative risk (RR) analysis was used to determine the association between identified potential risk factors and vaccination failure. Results show that vaccines were properly handled in all vaccine outlet shops. Breeding farms maintained high levels of biosecurity and employed standard vaccine handling practices. Basic biosecurity practices were poor in broiler farms. Broiler farms failed to meet all the recommended standard procedures for vaccine storage, reconstitution, and administration. Risk factors included poor vaccine storage (RR = 8.7) and use of few drinkers to administer vaccine (RR = 5.8); traces of disinfectants in drinkers used to administer live vaccine (RR = 2.8); use of wrong vaccine-infectious bronchitis instead of infectious bursal disease vaccine (RR = 2.1); and use of improper diluents (RR = 1.6). Broiler farmers need training on basic farm biosecurity measures and standard vaccine handling practices. PMID:24414247

  17. DNA prime-protein boost vaccination enhances protective immunity against infectious bursal disease virus in chickens.

    PubMed

    Gao, Honglei; Li, Kai; Gao, Li; Qi, Xiaole; Gao, Yulong; Qin, Liting; Wang, Yongqiang; Wang, Xiaomei

    2013-05-31

    Infectious bursal disease virus causes an acute contagious immunosuppressive disease in chickens. Using VP2 protein from IBDV (Gx strain) as the immunogen, the goal of the current study was to evaluate the immune responses and protective efficacy elicited by different prime-boost vaccination regimens (DNA only, protein only, and DNA plus protein) in chickens. The results indicated that both pCAGoptiVP2 plasmid and rVP2 protein induced humoral and cellular immune responses. Chickens in the DNA prime-protein boost group developed significantly higher levels of ELISA and neutralizing antibodies to IBDV compared with those immunized with either the DNA vaccine or the protein vaccine alone (P<0.05). Furthermore, the highest levels of lymphocyte proliferation response, IL-4 and IFN-γ production were induced following priming with the DNA vaccine and boosting with the rVP2 protein. Additionally, chickens inoculated with the DNA prime-protein boost vaccine had 100% protection against challenge with vvIBDV, as evidenced by the absence of clinical signs, mortality, and bursal atrophy. In contrast, chickens receiving the DNA vaccine and the rVP2 protein vaccine had 67% and 80% protection, respectively. These findings demonstrated that the DNA prime-protein boost immunization strategy was effective in eliciting both humoral and cellular immune responses in chickens, highlighting the potential value of such an approach in the prevention of vvIBDV infection. PMID:23419823

  18. Infectious bursal disease DNA vaccination conferring protection by delayed appearance and rapid clearance of invading viruses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yung-Yi; Hsieh, Ming Kun; Tung, Chun-Yu; Wu, Ching Ching; Lin, Tsang Long

    2011-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the kinetics of viral load and immune response in protection against infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) by DNA vaccination. Chickens were DNA-vaccinated and challenged with IBDV one week after the third vaccination. Tissues were collected at 12 hours postinfection (HPI), 1 day postinfection (DPI), 3, 5, 7 and 10 DPI. The vaccinated chickens had less viral RNA, with delayed appearance and shorter duration in the bursa of Fabricius, spleen, and cecal tonsil than the challenged control chickens. Their ELISA and neutralizing antibody titers were decreased at 12 HPI and significantly lower (P < 0.05) than those in the challenged control chickens at later time points. Their spleen IFNγ expression was up-regulated compared to that in the DNA-vaccinated chickens without IBDV challenge. These results indicate that DNA vaccination confers protection against IBDV challenge by delayed appearance and rapid clearance of the invading viruses. PMID:21984266

  19. Determination of the optimal time of vaccination against infectious bursal disease virus (Gumboro) in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Besseboua, Omar; Ayad, Abdelhanine; Benbarek, Hama

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of maternally derived antibody (MDA) on live vaccine against infectious bursal disease. A total of 140 chicks selected from vaccinated parent stock were used in this investigation. In a preset vaccination schedule, blood samples were collected to check for the actual effect. It was noticed that on day 1 the chicks contained a high level (6400.54 ± 2993.67) of maternally derived antibody that gradually decreased below a positive level within 21 days (365.86 ± 634.46). It was found that a high level of MDA interferes with the vaccine virus, resulting in no immune response. For better immune response, it is suggested that the chickens should be vaccinated at day 21, as the uniformity of MDA is poor (coefficient of the variation [CV] > 30%), and boosted at day 28. Indeed, two vaccinations are necessary to achieve good protection against infectious bursal disease virus of the entire flock. PMID:26018110

  20. Field efficacy of different vaccines against infectious bursal disease in broiler flocks.

    PubMed

    Zorman Rojs, Olga; Krapež, Uroš; Slavec, Brigita; Juršič-Cizerl, Rahela; Poljanec, Tea

    2011-09-01

    A field study was performed to determine the efficacy of three commercially available vaccines against infectious bursal disease (IBD) in commercial broilers raised in a high IBD virus (IBDV) risk area. Live attenuated intermediate and intermediate plus vaccines were used in four flocks. Birds were vaccinated orally at the estimated vaccination time. Three broiler flocks were vaccinated subcutaneously with a turkey herpesvirus (HVT)-IBD vector vaccine at one day old. Evaluation of the efficacy of different vaccines was focused on humoral immune response, bursa/body weight (B/Bw) ratio, molecular detection of IBDV in ileocaecal tonsils and bursa of Fabricius, and production parameters. The serological results showed that although the uptake of all three vaccine strains was confirmed in the lymphoid organs, no significant antibody response to vaccination was detected in flocks vaccinated with intermediate and intermediate plus vaccines. A significant increase in antibody titres detected in flocks vaccinated with the vector vaccine indicated its ability to induce an immune response in birds with a high level of maternally derived antibodies. Observations obtained in this field trial did not confirm the expected reduction of the B/Bw ratio in flocks vaccinated with less attenuated vaccines. No significant differences were observed between birds vaccinated with the vector vaccine and those immunised with the intermediate plus vaccine. Very virulent IBDV was confirmed in the flock vaccinated with the intermediate vaccine. The infection induced reduced B/Bw and moderate mortality but did not affect the production parameters. Field infection was not detected in broilers vaccinated with the intermediate plus vaccine and the vector vaccine. PMID:21727070

  1. Immunoreactivity and morphological changes of bursal follicles in chickens infected with vaccine or wild-type strains of the infectious bursal disease virus.

    PubMed

    Aihara, Naoyuki; Horiuchi, Noriyuki; Hikichi, Nanase; Ochiai, Mariko; Hosoda, Yuko; Ishikawa, Yoko; Shimazaki, Yoko; Oishi, Koji

    2015-08-01

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is characterized by immunosuppression due to the depletion of lymphocytes in the atrophied bursa of Fabricius (BF). We have sometimes encountered contradictory findings: chickens infected with the vaccine IBD virus (IBDV) strain have sometimes exhibited a highly atrophied BF, but not immunosuppression. In this study, chickens administered vaccine or wild-type strains of IBDV were later vaccinated with the B1 strain of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Bursal changes were examined histologically with a focus on the bursal follicle. The immunoreactivity to NDV was also evaluated with the hemagglutination inhibition test. In gross examination, we observed a few chickens with a severely atrophied BF in vaccine strain-administered groups (vaccine groups), and the level of severity was the same as that in the wild-type strain-administered group (wild-type group). However, these chickens retained humoral antibody responses to NDV and were revealed to possess a higher number of bursal follicles than those of the wild-type group. These results indicated that macroscopic evaluation dose not accurately reflect the immunoreactivity and degree of bursal damage in IBDV-administered chickens. We also found non-immunosuppressed chickens in the wild-type group. These non-immunosuppressed chickens retained a significantly higher number of normal follicles and total follicles according to our statistical analysis. Furthermore, a high correlation coefficient between the NDV-HI titer and the number of normal follicles was found in the wild-type group. These results implied that the retained number of normal follicles is important for the immunoreactivity of chickens infected with IBDV. PMID:25866403

  2. Immunoreactivity and morphological changes of bursal follicles in chickens infected with vaccine or wild-type strains of the infectious bursal disease virus

    PubMed Central

    AIHARA, Naoyuki; HORIUCHI, Noriyuki; HIKICHI, Nanase; OCHIAI, Mariko; HOSODA, Yuko; ISHIKAWA, Yoko; SHIMAZAKI, Yoko; OISHI, Koji

    2015-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is characterized by immunosuppression due to the depletion of lymphocytes in the atrophied bursa of Fabricius (BF). We have sometimes encountered contradictory findings: chickens infected with the vaccine IBD virus (IBDV) strain have sometimes exhibited a highly atrophied BF, but not immunosuppression. In this study, chickens administered vaccine or wild-type strains of IBDV were later vaccinated with the B1 strain of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Bursal changes were examined histologically with a focus on the bursal follicle. The immunoreactivity to NDV was also evaluated with the hemagglutination inhibition test. In gross examination, we observed a few chickens with a severely atrophied BF in vaccine strain-administered groups (vaccine groups), and the level of severity was the same as that in the wild-type strain-administered group (wild-type group). However, these chickens retained humoral antibody responses to NDV and were revealed to possess a higher number of bursal follicles than those of the wild-type group. These results indicated that macroscopic evaluation dose not accurately reflect the immunoreactivity and degree of bursal damage in IBDV-administered chickens. We also found non-immunosuppressed chickens in the wild-type group. These non-immunosuppressed chickens retained a significantly higher number of normal follicles and total follicles according to our statistical analysis. Furthermore, a high correlation coefficient between the NDV-HI titer and the number of normal follicles was found in the wild-type group. These results implied that the retained number of normal follicles is important for the immunoreactivity of chickens infected with IBDV. PMID:25866403

  3. Concomitant turkey herpesvirus-infectious bursal disease vector vaccine and oil-adjuvanted inactivated Newcastle disease vaccine administration: consequences for vaccine intake and protection.

    PubMed

    Lemiere, Stephane; Fernández, Rafael; Pritchard, Nikki; Cruz-Coy, Julio; Rojo, Francisco; Wong, Siam Yit; Saint-Gerand, Anne-Lise; Gauthier, Jean-Claude; Perozo, Francisco

    2011-12-01

    Hatchery vaccination protocols in day-old chicks are designed to provide early priming and protection against several poultry diseases including, but not limited to, Marek's disease (MD), infectious bursal disease (IBD), and Newcastle disease (ND). The constraint of concomitant administration of live MD and IBD vaccines plus ND inactivated oil-adjuvanted vaccines (IOAVs) requires improvements in vaccine technology. Single-needle concomitant subcutaneous (SC) application of IBD/MDV and killed NDV vaccine and the use of viral vectors for expression of immunogenic proteins are a current trend in the industry. The objective of this work was to assess the compatibility of a turkey herpesvirus (HVT)-infectious bursal disease (vHVT-IBD) vector vaccine applied simultaneously with IOAV and to evaluate the consequences for vaccine intake, the need for additional immunizations with the respective vaccines, and protection. Five separate trials were performed using double- and/or single-needle injectors. The levels and persistence of vaccine intake, serologic response, vHVT-IBD virus combination with the MD Rispens strain, and/or live NDV vaccination were also assessed. Histopathology and PCR at injection sites showed adequate vaccine intake detected up to 44 days postvaccination. Serologic evidence of vaccine priming was observed, and all vaccinated groups differed (P < 0.05) from the control at different time points. MD, NDV, and IBD protection results after concomitant double-shot single-needle vaccination were near 85%, 95%, and 100%, respectively. Taken together the results indicate no deleterious effects on the efficacy of the vHVT-IBD vaccine monitored by vaccine intake, serologic and challenge results, and combinations after concomitant live/killed vaccination, suggesting the suitability of its use in hatchery vaccination. All types of injectors used as well as injection techniques, vaccines injected separately or together, gave the same results. PMID:22312985

  4. Protective oral vaccination against infectious bursal disease virus using the major viral antigenic protein VP2 produced in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Taghavian, Omid; Spiegel, Holger; Hauck, Rüdiger; Hafez, Hafez M; Fischer, Rainer; Schillberg, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) causes economically important immunosuppressive disease in young chickens. The self-assembling capsid protein (VP2) from IBDV strain IR01 was expressed in Pichia pastoris resulting in the formation of homomeric, 23-nm infectious bursal disease subviral particles (IBD-SVPs) with a yield of 76 mg/l before and 38 mg/l after purification. Anti-IBDV antibodies were detected in chickens injected with purified IBD-SVPs or fed with either purified IBD-SVPs or inactivated P. pastoris cells containing IBD-VP2 (cell-encapsulated). Challenge studies using the heterologous classical IBDV strain (MB3) showed that intramuscular vaccination with 20 µg purified IBD-SVPs conferred full protection, achieved complete virus clearance and prevented bursal damage and atrophy, compared with only 40% protection, 0-10% virus clearance accompanied by severe atrophy and substantial bursal damage in mock-vaccinated and challenge controls. The commercial IBDV vaccine also conferred full protection and achieved complete virus clearance, albeit with partial bursal atrophy. Oral administration of 500 µg purified IBD-SVPs with and without adjuvant conferred 100% protection but achieved only 60% virus clearance with adjuvant and none without it. Moderate bursal damage was observed in both cases but the inclusion of adjuvant resulted in bursal atrophy similar to that observed with live-attenuated vaccine and parenteral administration of 20 µg purified IBD-SVPs. The oral administration of 250 mg P. pastoris cells containing IBD-VP2 resulted in 100% protection with adjuvant and 60% without, accompanied by moderate bursal damage and atrophy in both groups, whereas 25 mg P. pastoris cells containing IBD-VP2 resulted in 90-100% protection with moderate bursal lesions and severe atrophy. Finally, the oral delivery of 50 µg purified IBD-SVPs achieved 40-60% protection with severe bursal lesions and atrophy. Both oral and parenteral administration of yeast

  5. Protective Oral Vaccination against Infectious bursal disease virus Using the Major Viral Antigenic Protein VP2 Produced in Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Taghavian, Omid; Spiegel, Holger; Hauck, Rüdiger; Hafez, Hafez M.; Fischer, Rainer; Schillberg, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) causes economically important immunosuppressive disease in young chickens. The self-assembling capsid protein (VP2) from IBDV strain IR01 was expressed in Pichia pastoris resulting in the formation of homomeric, 23-nm infectious bursal disease subviral particles (IBD-SVPs) with a yield of 76 mg/l before and 38 mg/l after purification. Anti-IBDV antibodies were detected in chickens injected with purified IBD-SVPs or fed with either purified IBD-SVPs or inactivated P. pastoris cells containing IBD-VP2 (cell-encapsulated). Challenge studies using the heterologous classical IBDV strain (MB3) showed that intramuscular vaccination with 20 µg purified IBD-SVPs conferred full protection, achieved complete virus clearance and prevented bursal damage and atrophy, compared with only 40% protection, 0–10% virus clearance accompanied by severe atrophy and substantial bursal damage in mock-vaccinated and challenge controls. The commercial IBDV vaccine also conferred full protection and achieved complete virus clearance, albeit with partial bursal atrophy. Oral administration of 500 µg purified IBD-SVPs with and without adjuvant conferred 100% protection but achieved only 60% virus clearance with adjuvant and none without it. Moderate bursal damage was observed in both cases but the inclusion of adjuvant resulted in bursal atrophy similar to that observed with live-attenuated vaccine and parenteral administration of 20 µg purified IBD-SVPs. The oral administration of 250 mg P. pastoris cells containing IBD-VP2 resulted in 100% protection with adjuvant and 60% without, accompanied by moderate bursal damage and atrophy in both groups, whereas 25 mg P. pastoris cells containing IBD-VP2 resulted in 90–100% protection with moderate bursal lesions and severe atrophy. Finally, the oral delivery of 50 µg purified IBD-SVPs achieved 40–60% protection with severe bursal lesions and atrophy. Both oral and parenteral administration of yeast

  6. Combination of Two Marek's Disease Virus Vectors Shows Effective Vaccination Against Marek's Disease, Infectious Bursal Disease, and Newcastle Disease.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Yukari; Esaki, Motoyuki; Saitoh, Shuji; Yasuda, Atsushi

    2016-06-01

    Herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) is a widely used vector for poultry vaccines. However, different HVTs expressing different foreign antigens cannot always be used simultaneously because of the risk of recombination and interference. In this study, we inoculated a mixture of an HVT-expressing the antigen of Newcastle disease virus (NDV; HVT/ND) and Marek's disease virus (MDV) serotype 1 Rispens virus expressing the antigen of infectious bursal disease virus (IBD; Ripens/IBD) into chickens. This mixture showed 94%, 100%, or 94% protection against MDV, IBDV, or NDV challenge, respectively. In conclusion, the combination of Rispens/IBD and HVT/ND is effective for vaccination against MDV, IBDV, and NDV without significant interference. PMID:27309290

  7. Presence of infectious bursal disease virus in chicken meat and effect of vaccination in decreasing the virus titers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) causes economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide and impacts chicken meat importation in countries with self-declared freedom. This study sought to determine the presence of IBDV in chicken meat and the role of vaccination as a mitigation strategy. In...

  8. Efficacy, Safety, and Interactions of a Live Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Vaccine for Chickens Based on Strain IBD V877.

    PubMed

    Geerligs, Harm J; Ons, Ellen; Boelm, Gert Jan; Vancraeynest, Dieter

    2015-03-01

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is a highly contagious disease in young chickens which can result in high morbidity and mortality and also in great economic losses. The main target for the virus is the lymphoid tissue with a special predilection for the bursa of Fabricius. Several vaccines are available to control the disease. Intermediate plus vaccines are used in chickens with high maternal antibody titers which face high infection pressure. An example of an intermediate plus vaccine is a live vaccine based on IBD strain V877. The results of an efficacy study in commercial broilers with different levels of maternally derived antibodies (MDA) showed that the V877-based IBD vaccine can break through maternal antibody titers of higher than 1100 as determined by an IBD ELISA. The safety of the vaccine was demonstrated in a study in which specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens were vaccinated with a tenfold dose of the vaccine strain and a tenfold dose of the vaccine strain after five back passages in SPF chickens. The vaccine virus caused lesions, as could be expected for an intermediate plus vaccine, but the scores were not much higher than the maximal scores allowed for mild IBD vaccines in the European Pharmacopoeia, and reversion to virulence was absent. In studies in SPF chickens, there were no negative impacts by the IBD V877 vaccine on the efficacy of a live QX-like IB vaccine and a live Newcastle disease La Sota vaccine in vaccination challenge studies, although the IBD vaccine had a negative effect on the antibody response generated by the QX-like IB vaccine. It is concluded that the IBD V877 vaccine has the capacity to break through high levels of MDA, has a satisfactory safety profile, and interactions with other live vaccines are limited. In order to limit bursal lesions after vaccination it is recommended to confirm the presence of MDA before vaccinating with the V877 vaccine. PMID:26292544

  9. A reassortment vaccine candidate as the improved formulation to induce protection against very virulent infectious bursal disease virus.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xiaole; Chen, Yuming; Ren, Xiangang; Zhang, Lizhou; Gao, Li; Wang, Nian; Qin, Liting; Wang, Yongqiang; Gao, Yulong; Wang, Xiaomei

    2014-03-14

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is a highly contagious immunosuppressive disease affecting all major poultry producing areas of the world. Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is genetically prone to mutation so that vaccines have to be changed accordingly. However, the traditional method of vaccine development with blind passage could not fit the style of the emergency prevention of IBDV. In this study, for the first time, a segment-reassortment attenuated IBDV rXATB, consisting of modified segment A of a prevalent strain and segment B of an attenuated strain, was designed and rescued; rXATB was stable and could induce good humoral and cellular immune responses which resulted in excellent protection against the lethal challenge of vvIBDV without obvious immunosuppression in chicken. This study revolutionarily provides a new formulation based on reverse genetics to develop new vaccine against prevalent IBDV. PMID:24486309

  10. Novel in-ovo chimeric recombinant Newcastle disease vaccine protects against both Newcastle disease and infectious bursal disease.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jinying; Wang, Xijun; Tian, Meijie; Wen, Zhiyuan; Feng, Qiulin; Qi, Xiaole; Gao, Honglei; Wang, Xiaomei; Bu, Zhigao

    2014-03-14

    Development of a safe and efficient in-ovo vaccine against Newcastle disease (NDV) and very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) is of great importance. In this study, a chimeric NDV LaSota virus with the L gene of Clone-30 (rLaC30L) was used to generate a recombinant chimeric virus expressing the VP2 protein of vvIBDV (rLaC30L-VP2). The safety and efficacy of rLaC30L-VP2 in-ovo vaccination was then evaluated in 18-day-old special pathogen free (SPF) chicken embryos and commercial broiler embryos for prevention of NDV and vvIBDV. Hatchability and global survival rate of the hatched birds was not affected by in-ovo rLaC30L-VP2 vaccination. However, rLaC30L-VP2 in-ovo vaccination induced significant anti-IBDV and anti-NDV antibodies in SPF birds and commercial broilers, and 100% of vaccinated chickens were protected against a lethal NDV challenge. In-ovo rLaC30L-VP2 vaccination also provided resistance against vvIBDV challenge in a significant amount of animals. These results suggest that rLaC30L-VP2 is a safe and efficient bivalent live in-ovo vaccine against NDV and vvIBDV. PMID:24486349

  11. Structure-dependent efficacy of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) recombinant vaccines.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Torrecuadrada, Jorge L; Saubi, Narciís; Pagès-Manté, Albert; Castón, José R; Espuña, Enric; Casal, J Ignacio

    2003-07-01

    The immunogenicity and protective capability of several baculovirus-expressed infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV)-derived assemblies as VP2 capsids, VPX tubules and polyprotein (PP)-derived mixed structures, were tested. Four-week-old chickens were immunised subcutaneously with one dose of each particulate antigen. VP2 icosahedral capsids induced the highest neutralising response, followed by PP-derived structures and then VPX tubules. All vaccinated animals were protected when challenged with a very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV) isolate, however the degree of protection is directly correlated with the levels of neutralising antibodies. VP2 capsids elicited stronger protective immunity than tubular structures and 3 micrograms of them were sufficient to confer a total protection comparable to that induced by an inactivated vaccine. Therefore, VP2 capsids represent a suitable candidate recombinant vaccine instead of virus-like particles (VLPs) for IBDV infections. Our results also provide clear evidence that the recombinant IBDV-derived antigens are structure-dependent in order to be efficient as vaccine components. PMID:12804866

  12. Structure-dependent efficacy of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) recombinant vaccines.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Torrecuadrada, Jorge L; Saubi, Narcis; Pagès-Manté, Albert; Castón, José R; Espuña, Enric; Casal, J Ignacio

    2003-05-16

    The immunogenicity and protective capability of several baculovirus-expressed infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV)-derived assemblies as VP2 capsids, VPX tubules and polyprotein (PP)-derived mixed structures, were tested. Four-week-old chickens were immunised subcutaneously with one dose of each particulate antigen. VP2 icosahedral capsids induced the highest neutralising response, followed by PP-derived structures and then VPX tubules. All vaccinated animals were protected when challenged with a very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV) isolate, however the degree of protection is directly correlated with the levels of neutralising antibodies. VP2 capsids elicited stronger protective immunity than tubular structures and 3& mgr;g of them were sufficient to confer a total protection comparable to that induced by an inactivated vaccine. Therefore, VP2 capsids represent a suitable candidate recombinant vaccine instead of virus-like particles (VLPs) for IBDV infections. Our results also provide clear evidence that the recombinant IBDV-derived antigens are structure-dependent in order to be efficient as vaccine components. PMID:12706682

  13. DNA vaccination with VP2 gene fragment confers protection against Infectious Bursal Disease Virus in chickens.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Satya Narayan; Prince, Prabhu Rajaiah; Madhumathi, Jayaprakasam; Arunkumar, Chakkaravarthy; Roy, Parimal; Narayanan, Rangarajan Badri; Antony, Usha

    2014-06-25

    Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV) causes immunosuppression in young chickens by destruction of antibody producing B cells in the Bursa of Fabricius and poses a potential threat to the poultry industry. We have examined the protective efficacy of a subunit DNA vaccine against IBDV infection in chickens in this study. An immunodominant VP2 gene fragment (VP252-417) was cloned into CMV promoter based DNA vaccine vector pVAX1 and in vitro expression of the DNA encoded antigens was confirmed by transfection of CHO cells with vaccine constructs followed by RT-PCR and western blot analysis using IBDV-antiserum. Two weeks old chickens were immunized intramuscularly with pVAXVP252-417 and the in vivo transcription of the plasmid DNA was confirmed by RT-PCR analysis of DNA injected muscle tissue at different intervals of post immunization. Tissue distribution analysis revealed that the plasmid DNA was extensively distributed in muscle, spleen, kidney, liver, and bursa tissues. Chickens immunized with pVAXVP252-417 developed high titer (1:12,000) of anti-VP252-417 antibodies. Further, chicken splenocytes from pVAXVP252-417 immunized group showed a significantly high proliferation to the whole viral and recombinant antigen (P<0.01) compared to control groups, which implies that pVAXVP252-417 codes for immunogenic fragment which has epitopes capable of eliciting both B and T cell responses. This is evident by the fact that, pVAXVP252-417 immunized chicken conferred 75% protection against virulent IBDV (vIBDV) challenge compared to the control group. Thus, the present study confirms that the immunodominant VP2 fragment can be used as a potential DNA vaccine against IBDV infection in chickens. PMID:24745626

  14. Compatibility of turkey herpesvirus-infectious bursal disease vector vaccine with Marek's disease rispens vaccine injected into day-old pullets.

    PubMed

    Lemiere, Stephane; Wong, Siam Yit; Saint-Gerand, Anne-lise; Goutebroze, Sylvain; Le Gros, François-Xavier

    2011-03-01

    Mixtures of turkey herpesvirus (HVT) and Rispens poultry vaccines have been used worldwide for over 20 yr, mainly for vaccination of future layers and breeders. With increasing virulence of Marek's disease (MD) virus strains, vaccination strategies are evolving toward the use of vaccines combining HVT and Rispens. A single vaccination either in ovo or at 1 day of age with the HVT + infectious bursal disease (IBD) vector vaccine is efficient against IBD. However, with vaccination programs that include a hatchery administration of the HVT + IBD vaccine, additional protection against very virulent and very virulent-plus MD viruses is needed, especially for layers and breeders. This study looked at the combination of four commercially available Rispens vaccines with the HVT + IBD vector vaccine injected at 1 day of age. MD challenge tests that were superior to 90% in relative score in all the groups vaccinated with both vaccines showed that the mixture of HVT + IBD and Rispens vaccines had no effect on clinical protection against MD, and IBD challenge tests showed that the mixture of HVT + IBD and Rispens vaccines had no effect on clinical protection against IBD, which was equal to 100% protection in all the groups vaccinated with both vaccines. PMID:21500646

  15. [Evaluation of the safety of live attenuated vaccine viruses against infectious bursal disease (Gumboro disease) in conventional broiler chicks].

    PubMed

    Boudaoud, A; Alloui, N

    2008-12-01

    The pathological and immunological effects of two infectious bursal disease (Gumboro disease) vaccines containing attenuated virus were evaluated under experimental conditions. A total of 200 conventional broiler chicks were divided into three batches, two of which were administered an experimental dose of Gumboro disease vaccine via the ocular route, at 14 days of age, using an 'intermediate' strain for one group and an 'intermediate plus' strain for the other. At different post-inoculation intervals, the chicks from the three batches were weighed and slaughtered and their bursa of Fabricius were removed to be weighed and subjected to histological examination. This allowed a lesion score and a ratio between the weight of the bursa of Fabricius and body weight to be calculated for each group of chicks. The immunosuppressive potential of the two vaccines was also estimated by evaluating the chicks' serological response to a Newcastle disease vaccine administered by eye-drop two weeks following vaccination against Gumboro disease. The results showed that the two vaccine strains were not of equal pathogenicity and that one was potentially immunosuppressive. The 'intermediate plus' strain proved to be more virulent than the 'intermediate' strain, as it caused greater atrophy and more severe lesions of the bursa of Fabricius. By exerting a more suppressive effect on the serological response of the chicks, the 'intermediate plus' vaccine also proved to be immunosuppressive. The three weeks of observation were not sufficient to ascertain whether the lesions caused by the two vaccines were temporary or whether the immunosuppressive state induced by the 'intermediate plus' strain was reversible. PMID:19284047

  16. Enhanced immune responses of chickens to oral vaccination against infectious bursal disease by ginseng stem-leaf saponins.

    PubMed

    Zhai, L; Wang, Y; Yu, J; Hu, S

    2014-10-01

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD), caused by infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), is an immunosuppressive infectious disease of global economic importance in poultry. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of oral administration of ginseng stem-leaf saponins (GSLS) on humoral and gut mucosal immunity in chickens vaccinated with live IBDV vaccine, and furthermore, to test its protective efficacy against virulent IBDV challenge following vaccination. In experiment 1, chickens were orally administered with GSLS at 5 mg/kg of BW for 7 d, and then immunized with live IBDV vaccine via the oral route. Serum was sampled on 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 wk postvaccination for detecting antibody titers by ELISA, and intestinal tissues were collected on 0, 1, 3, and 5 wk postvaccination for measurement of IgA-positive cells and intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes by immunohistochemical and hematoxylin-eosin staining, respectively. Result showed that antibody titers, IgA-positive cells and intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes were significantly higher in chickens drinking GSLS than the control, suggesting an enhanced effect of GSLS on humoral and gut mucosal immune responses. In experiment 2, chickens were delivered with GSLS and then vaccinated in the same way as in experiment 1. The birds were challenged with virulent IBDV at wk 3 postvaccination. Then the birds were weighed, bled, and necropsied at d 3 postchallenge and the bursae were sampled for gross and histopathological examination. Results demonstrated that GSLS provided a better protection against virulent IBDV challenge following vaccination than the control. In conclusion, oral administration of GSLS enhances both humoral and gut mucosal immune responses to IBDV and offers a better protection against virulent IBDV challenge. Considering its immunomodulatory properties to IBDV vaccine, GSLS might be a promising oral adjuvant for vaccination against infectious diseases in poultry. PMID:25125559

  17. Protective vaccination against infectious bursal disease virus with whole recombinant Kluyveromyces lactis yeast expressing the viral VP2 subunit.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Marina; Durairaj, Vijay; Mundt, Egbert; Schulze, Katja; Breunig, Karin D; Behrens, Sven-Erik

    2012-01-01

    Here we report on vaccination approaches against infectious bursal disease (IBD) of poultry that were performed with complete yeast of the species Kluyveromyces lactis (K. lactis). Employing a genetic system that enables the rapid production of stably transfected recombinant K. lactis, we generated yeast strains that expressed defined quantities of the virus capsid forming protein VP2 of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). Both, subcutaneous as well as oral vaccination regiments with the heat-inactivated but otherwise untreated yeast induced IBDV-neutralizing antibodies in mice and chickens. A full protection against a subsequent IBDV infection was achieved by subcutaneous inoculation of only milligram amounts of yeast per chicken. Oral vaccination also generated protection: while mortality was observed in control animals after virus challenge, none of the vaccinees died and ca. one-tenth were protected as indicated by the absence of lesions in the bursa of Fabricius. Recombinant K. lactis was thus indicated as a potent tool for the induction of a protective immune response by different applications. Subcutaneously applied K. lactis that expresses the IBDV VP2 was shown to function as an efficacious anti-IBD subunit vaccine. PMID:23024743

  18. Protective Vaccination against Infectious Bursal Disease Virus with Whole Recombinant Kluyveromyces lactis Yeast Expressing the Viral VP2 Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Marina; Durairaj, Vijay; Mundt, Egbert; Schulze, Katja; Breunig, Karin D.; Behrens, Sven-Erik

    2012-01-01

    Here we report on vaccination approaches against infectious bursal disease (IBD) of poultry that were performed with complete yeast of the species Kluyveromyces lactis (K. lactis). Employing a genetic system that enables the rapid production of stably transfected recombinant K. lactis, we generated yeast strains that expressed defined quantities of the virus capsid forming protein VP2 of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). Both, subcutaneous as well as oral vaccination regiments with the heat-inactivated but otherwise untreated yeast induced IBDV-neutralizing antibodies in mice and chickens. A full protection against a subsequent IBDV infection was achieved by subcutaneous inoculation of only milligram amounts of yeast per chicken. Oral vaccination also generated protection: while mortality was observed in control animals after virus challenge, none of the vaccinees died and ca. one-tenth were protected as indicated by the absence of lesions in the bursa of Fabricius. Recombinant K. lactis was thus indicated as a potent tool for the induction of a protective immune response by different applications. Subcutaneously applied K. lactis that expresses the IBDV VP2 was shown to function as an efficacious anti-IBD subunit vaccine. PMID:23024743

  19. Multivalent virus-like-particle vaccine protects against classic and variant infectious bursal disease viruses.

    PubMed

    Jackwood, Daral J

    2013-03-01

    Nucleotide sequences that encode the pVP2 proteins from a variant infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) strain designated USA08MD34p and a classic IBDV strain designated Mo195 were produced with the use of reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and cloned into a pGEM-T Easy vector. A nucleotide sequence that encodes the VP3 protein was also produced from the USA08MD34p viral genome with the use of RT-PCR and cloned into a pGEM-T Easy vector. The VP3 and pVP2 clones were inserted into the pVL1393 baculovirus transfer vector and sequenced to confirm their orientation to the promoter and to ensure they contained uninterrupted open reading frames. Recombinant baculoviruses were constructed by transfection in Sf9 cells. Three recombinant baculoviruses were produced and contained the USA08MD34p-VP3, USA08MD34p-pVP2, or Mo195-pVP2 genomic sequences. Virus-like particles (VLPs) were observed with the use of transmission electron microscopy when the USA08MD34p-VP3 baculovirus was co-inoculated into Sf9 cells with either of the pVP2 constructs. VLPs were also observed when the USA08MD34p-pVP2 and Mo195-pVP2 were coexpressed with USA08MD34p-VP3. These multivalent VLPs contained both classic and variant pVP2 molecules. Stability tests demonstrated the VLPs were stable at 4 and 24 C for 8 wk. The USA08MD34p, Mo195, and multivalent VLPs were used to vaccinate chickens. They induced an IBDV-specific antibody response that was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and virus-neutralizing antibodies were detected in vitro. Chickens vaccinated with the multivalent VLPs were protected from a virulent variant IBDV strain (V1) and a virulent classic IBDV strain (STC). The results indicate the multivalent VLPs maintained the antigenic integrity of the variant and classic viruses and have the potential to serve as a multivalent vaccine for use in breeder-flock vaccination programs. PMID:23678728

  20. An overview of infectious bursal disease.

    PubMed

    Mahgoub, Hebata Allah; Bailey, Michael; Kaiser, Pete

    2012-11-01

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is a viral immunosuppressive disease of chickens attacking mainly an important lymphoid organ in birds [the bursa of Fabricius (BF)]. The emergence of new variant strains of the causative agent [infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV)] has made it more urgent to develop new vaccination strategies against IBD. One of these strategies is the use of recombinant vaccines (DNA and viral-vectored vaccines). Several studies have investigated the host immune response towards IBDV. This review will present a detailed background on the disease and its causative agent, accompanied by a summary of the most recent findings regarding the host immune response to IBDV infection and the use of recombinant vaccines against IBD. PMID:22707044

  1. Development and Evaluation of the Protective Efficacy of Novel Marek's Disease Virus Rispens Vector Vaccines Against Infectious Bursal Disease.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Yukari; Esaki, Motoyuki; Saitoh, Shuji; Sato, Takanori; Yasuda, Atsushi

    2016-09-01

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is a major disease affecting the poultry industry and is caused by infection with IBD virus (IBDV). To develop a novel vaccine to prevent IBD in chickens, recombinant Marek's disease virus Rispens viruses carrying the VP2 gene of IBDV driven by five different promoters (Rispens/IBD) were constructed using homologous recombination and a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC). Rispens/IBD driven by the chicken beta-actin (Bac) promoter (Rispens/Bac-IBD), Rous sarcoma virus promoter, or simian virus 40 promoter were administered to 1-day-old SPF chicks, and the protective efficacy against IBDV was evaluated by challenging chicks with virulent IBDV. As a result, Rispens/Bac-IBD showed the best protection (87%). Next, we constructed the virus driven by the Bac-derived Coa5 promoter (Rispens/Coa5-IBD) for a secondary in vivo trial using commercial layer chickens since Rispens/Bac-IBD was thought to be genetically unstable. Rispens/Coa5-IBD showed stability in vitro and exhibited better antibody production and protection during challenge against virulent IBDV at both 5 (95%) and 7 wk of age (91%) compared with that of Rispens/Bac-IBD (90% at 5 wk of age and 84% at 7 wk of age). Thus, Rispens/Coa5-IBD may be a novel promising vaccine against IBD and virulent Marek's disease. PMID:27610721

  2. Adjuvant effects of interleukin-18 in DNA vaccination against infectious bursal disease virus in chickens.

    PubMed

    Li, Kai; Gao, Honglei; Gao, Li; Qi, Xiaole; Gao, Yulong; Qin, Liting; Wang, Yongqiang; Wang, Xiaomei

    2013-04-01

    Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is an important cytokine with multiple functions in innate and acquired immunity. In this study, chicken IL-18 was evaluated for its adjuvant effects on the protective immunity of a DNA vaccine carrying the VP243 gene of IBDV. Groups of 14-day-old SPF chickens were given twice at 2-week intervals with 100 μg of the plasmid DNA vaccine pCAGVP243, pCAGVP243-IL-18 and the blank vector pCAGGS, respectively, and challenged with vvIBDV (HLJ0504 strain) 2 weeks later. Chickens immunized with plasmid pCAGVP243-IL-18 carrying both VP243 and IL-18 genes induced significantly higher levels of antibodies, lymphocyte proliferation responses and of the cytokines IL-4 and IFN-γ than those injected with pCAGVP243 encoding the VP243 gene alone. Furthermore, pCAGVP243-IL-18 provided higher protection (93%) against vvIBDV challenge in chickens than pCAGVP243 (60%), as evidenced by the absence of clinical signs, mortality, and bursal atrophy. These results indicated that the cytokine IL-18 could enhance the immune responses and protection efficacy of DNA vaccine against IBDV infection in chickens, highlighting the potential value of chicken IL-18 as an adjuvant in the prevention of vvIBDV infection. PMID:23395585

  3. Development of a tailored vaccine against challenge with very virulent infectious bursal disease virus of chickens using reverse genetics.

    PubMed

    Gao, Li; Qi, Xiaole; Li, Kai; Gao, Honglei; Gao, Yulong; Qin, Liting; Wang, Yongqiang; Wang, Xiaomei

    2011-07-26

    Due to the problems associated with traditional methods for infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) vaccine development and the pressure of evolution and variation of very virulent strains, it is urgent to develop IBDV vaccine rapidly with novel approaches. Using reverse genetics, the aim of this study was to generate a tailored vaccine strain (rGtHLJVP2) with its VP2 gene similar to very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV) to prevent the prevalence of IBDV. Characteristics of rGtHLJVP2 were evaluated in both cell culture and SPF chickens. rGtHLJVP2 replicated well as its parental strain Gt in vitro and in vivo. Immunization of SPF chickens with rGtHLJVP2 resulted in comparable antibody titers against IBDV as that of the medium virulent live vaccine B87, which was significant higher than that of attenuated vaccine Gt. Challenge studies with 10(4)ELD(50) of prevalent homogeneous or heterogeneous vvIBDV revealed complete (100%) protection in the groups immunized with rGtHLJVP2. No significant clinical and pathological lesions were observed in chickens immunized with rGtHLJVP2. Our data demonstrated that rGtHLJVP2 could be used as a novel vaccine candidate for prevention against vvIBDV. PMID:21658423

  4. Characterization of field and vaccine infectious bursal disease viruses from Nigeria revealing possible virulence and regional markers in the VP2 minor hydrophilic peaks.

    PubMed

    Adamu, J; Owoade, A A; Abdu, P A; Kazeem, H M; Fatihu, M Y

    2013-01-01

    Outbreaks of infectious bursal disease in vaccinated chicken flocks are frequent in Nigeria. For the control of infectious bursal disease, live vaccines based on foreign infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) strains are used. The present study investigated the phylogenetic relationship between field and vaccine IBDV strains from northwestern Nigeria. Thirty field IBDV strains and three commercial vaccines strains were characterized through sequencing the VP2 hypervariable region. In addition, the complete genome segment A coding region for two vaccines and two field strains was sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequences (position 212 to 331) of IBDV strains from Nigeria and other regions of the world were aligned and possible regional and virulence markers were identified associated with VP2 minor hydrophilic peaks. Reversion to virulence of a vaccine strain with a Q to L mutation at position 253 was observed. Phylogenetic analyses revealed a unique cluster of northwest Nigerian field IBDV strains alone or related to imported characterized classical and very virulent IBDV vaccines. The results suggest that when IBDV strains spread from their region of origin to a different region they mutate alongside indigenous field strains but may retain their identity on the VP2 region. PMID:23919308

  5. [Preparation and immunogenicity of silk fibroin/chitosan microspheres for DNA vaccine delivery against infectious bursal disease virus].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Lv, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Cun; Zhu, Xingrong; Shi, Tuanyuan; Zhong, Shi; Meng, Zhiqi

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the immunities of biodegradable microsphere as a release delivery system for DNA vaccine against Infectious Bursal Disease Virus, in our study, silk fibroin/chitosan microsphere adjuvant was prepared with a precipitation/coacervation method. Both glutaraldehyde and Na2SO4 solution were used in cross-linking. No immune chicken were intramuscularly inoculated at 14 day-old and boosted 2 weeks later. The results show that glutaraldehyde destroyed the DNA activity of the vaccine whereas Na2SO4 solution did not. Factors of the chitosan concentration 0.5% (pH 5.0), silk fibroin concentration 0.6%, plasmid DNA (500 microg/mL) dissolved in 2% Na2SO4 solution were optimized to produce microsphere, with a loading capacity of 89.14%. The average particle size of SF-CS/pCI-VP2/4/3 microsphere is 1.98 microm, and it can protect the loading DNA vaccine from DNase I digestion. Data from anti IBDV ELISA antibodies in the serum show that immunization activity of the microsphere groups were generally higher than plasmid vaccine group (P < 0.05), and the SF/CS compound microspheres group was better than that of sole CS microsphere group. The developed SF/CS microspheres are a very promising vaccine delivery system. PMID:25007575

  6. Comparison of infectious bursal disease live vaccines and a HVT-IBD vector vaccine and their effects on the immune system of commercial layer pullets.

    PubMed

    Prandini, Francesco; Simon, Birgid; Jung, Arne; Pöppel, Manfred; Lemiere, Stéphane; Rautenschlein, Silke

    2016-02-01

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is an economically important disease affecting poultry production worldwide. Previous experimental studies indicated that IBD live vaccination may induce transient immunosuppression, leading to suboptimal vaccine responses and therefore insufficient protection against other pathogens. Layer pullets are commonly not only vaccinated against IBD within their rearing period, but also against a variety of other pathogens. Therefore, it is of interest to investigate the effects of different IBD vaccination regimes on conventionally applied vaccines against other pathogens, and possible protection against widely spread very virulent IBD-virus (vvIBDV). A commercially available Herpesvirus of turkey vector vaccine (vHVT-IBD) expressing viral protein 2 of IBDV, and two IBD live vaccines were compared in commercial pullets for their effects on circulating B cell numbers, the ability of vaccinated birds to mount a humoral immune response against different antigens as well as their ability to induce protection against vvIBDV challenge. The results of this study demonstrate a clear immunosuppressive effect of the intermediate plus IBD live vaccine on the humoral branch of the immune system. On the other hand, no detectable effects of vHVT-IBD vaccination on these parameters were observed. All tested IBD vaccines protected against clinical IBD, although none induced sterile immunity in commercial layer pullets. vHVT-IBD-vaccinated birds showed significantly less lesions after vvIBDV challenge than IBD live-vaccinated or non-vaccinated birds (P < 0.05). Therefore, vHVT-IBD may be a suitable alternative to conventional IBD live vaccines, and may be applied even in the presence of maternally derived IBD antibodies without induction of detectable humoral immunosuppression. PMID:26743805

  7. Development and evaluation of a Salmonella typhimurium flagellin based chimeric DNA vaccine against infectious bursal disease of poultry.

    PubMed

    Deb, Rajib; Dey, Sohini; Madhan Mohan, C; Gaikwad, Satish; Kamble, Nitin; Khulape, Sagar A; Gupta, Shishir Kumar; Maity, Hemanta Kumar; Pathak, Dinesh Chandra

    2015-10-01

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is an acute immunosuppressive disease of young chicks, caused by a double-stranded RNA virus. VP2 being the major capsid protein of the virus is an ideal vaccine candidate possessing the neutralizing epitopes. The present study involves the use of flagellin (fliC) as a genetic adjuvant to improve the immune response of VP2 based DNA vaccine against IBD. Our findings revealed that birds immunized with plasmid pCIVP2fliC showed robust immune response than pCIVP2 immunized groups. Further, challenge study proved that genetic fusion of fliC and VP2 can provide a comparatively higher level of protection against vvIBDV challenge in chickens than VP2 alone. These results thus indicate that Salmonella flagellin could enhance the immune responses and protection efficacy of a DNA vaccine candidate against IBDV infection in chickens, highlighting the potential of flagellin as a genetic adjuvant in the prevention of vvIBDV infection. PMID:26412511

  8. A practical validation approach for virus titer testing of avian infectious bursal disease live vaccine according to current regulatory guidelines.

    PubMed

    Weber Sušanj, Mirta; Košiček, Miljenko; Krnić, Ela Kosor; Ballarin-Perharić, Alenka; Terzić, Svjetlana

    2012-01-01

    The method for virus titer determination of avian infectious bursal disease (IBD) live vaccine, developed long before regulatory validation guidelines is a cell culture based biological assay intended for use in vaccine release testing. The aim of our study was to perform a validation, based on fit-for-purpose principle, of an old 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID(50)) method according to Guidelines of the International Cooperation on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medicinal Products (VICH). This paper addresses challenges and discusses some key aspects that should be considered when validating biological methods. A different statistical approach and non-parametric statistics was introduced in validation protocol in order to derive useful information from experimental data. This approach is applicable for a wide range of methods. In conclusion, the previous virus titration method had showed to be precise, accurate, linear, robust and in accordance with current regulatory standards, which indicates that there is no need for additional re-development or upgrades of the method for its suitability for intended use. PMID:21996052

  9. The effect of infectious bursal disease virus induced immunosuppression on avian influenza virus vaccine efficacy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the field, poultry are exposed to a variety of infectious agents, many of which are immunosuppressive. Co-infections between these agents are common, and these co-infections have effects on disease, immune response, and vaccine efficacy. The effect of co-infections in poultry between immunosupp...

  10. Transient expression of VP2 in Nicotiana benthamiana and its use as a plant-based vaccine against infectious bursal disease virus.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Evangelina; Lucero, María Soledad; Chimeno Zoth, Silvina; Carballeda, Juan Manuel; Gravisaco, María José; Berinstein, Analía

    2013-05-28

    Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV) is the etiological agent of an immunosuppressive and highly contagious disease that affects young birds. This disease causes important economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. The VP2 protein has been used for the development of subunit vaccines in a variety of heterologous platforms. In this context, the aim of this study was to investigate VP2 expression and immunogenicity using an experimental plant-based vaccine against IBDV. We determined that the agroinfiltration of N. benthamiana leaves allowed the production of VP2 with no apparent change on its conformational epitopes. Chickens intramuscularly immunized in a dose/boost scheme with crude concentrated extracts developed a specific humoral response with viral neutralizing ability. Given these results, it seems plausible for a plant-based vaccine to have a niche in the veterinary field. Thus, plants can be an adequate system of choice to produce immunogens against IBDV. PMID:23583894

  11. Mucosal application of cationic poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) microparticles as carriers of DNA vaccine and adjuvants to protect chickens against infectious bursal disease.

    PubMed

    Negash, Tamiru; Liman, Martin; Rautenschlein, Silke

    2013-08-12

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is an immunosuppressive virus of chickens. The virus protein (VP) 2 induces neutralizing antibodies, which protect chickens against the disease. The aim of this study was to develop a cationic poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microparticle (MP) based IBDV-VP2 DNA vaccine (MP-IBDV-DNA) for chickens to be delivered orally and by eye drop route. The tested IBDV-VP2 DNA vaccines were immunogenic for specific-pathogen-free chickens and induced an antibody response after intramuscular application. Co-inoculation with a plasmid encoding chicken IL-2 (chIL-2) or CpG-ODN did not significantly improve protection against IBDV challenge. However, the application of a MP-IBDV-DNA vaccine alone or in combination with a delayed oral and eye drop application of cationic MP loaded with CpG-ODN or chIL-2 improved protection against challenge. The MP-IBDV-DNA-vaccinated chickens showed less pathological and histopathological bursal lesions, a reduced IBDV antigen load as well as T-cell influx into the bursa of Fabricius (BF) compared to the other groups (p<0.05). The addition of chIL-2 loaded MP improved challenge virus clearance from the BF as demonstrated by lower neutralizing antibody titers and reduced IL-4 and IFN-α mRNA expression in the bursa at 7 days postchallenge compared to the other challenged groups. Overall, the efficacy of the IBDV-DNA vaccine was improved by adsorption of the DNA vaccine onto cationic PLGA-MP, which also allowed mucosal application of the DNA vaccine. PMID:23777953

  12. Codon optimization and woodchuck hepatitis virus posttranscriptional regulatory element enhance the immune responses of DNA vaccines against infectious bursal disease virus in chickens.

    PubMed

    Li, Kai; Gao, Li; Gao, Honglei; Qi, Xiaole; Gao, Yulong; Qin, Liting; Wang, Yongqiang; Wang, Xiaomei

    2013-08-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the protective efficacy of DNA vaccines against infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) in chickens and to determine whether codon optimization and the woodchuck hepatitis virus posttranscriptional regulatory element (WPRE) could improve the immunogenicity of the DNA vaccines. The VP2, VP243 and codon-optimized VP243 genes of IBDV were cloned into pCAGGS vector, and designated as pCAGVP2, pCAGVP243 and pCAGoptiVP243, respectively. Plasmids pCAGWVP243 and pCAGWoptiVP243 carrying the WPRE elements were also constructed as DNA vaccines. To evaluate vaccine efficacy, 2-week-old chickens were injected intramuscularly with the constructed plasmids twice at 2-week intervals and challenged with very virulent IBDV 2 weeks post-boost. Plasmid pCAGVP243 induced better immune responses than pCAGVP2. Chickens immunized with pCAGoptiVP243 and pCAGWVP243 had higher levels of antibody titers, lymphoproliferation responses and cytokine production compared with pCAGVP243. Furthermore, plasmid pCAGWoptiVP243 induced the highest levels of immune responses among the groups. After challenged, DNA vaccines pCAGVP2, pCAGVP243, pCAGoptiVP243, pCAGWVP243 and pCAGWoptiVP243 conferred protection for 33%, 60%, 80%, 87% and 100% of chickens, respectively, as evidenced by the absence of clinical signs, mortality, and bursal atrophy. These results indicate that codon optimization and WPRE could enhance the protective efficacy of DNA vaccines against IBDV and these two approaches could work together synergistically in a single DNA vaccine. PMID:23631937

  13. Chimeric infectious bursal disease virus-like particles as potent vaccines for eradication of established HPV-16 E7-dependent tumors.

    PubMed

    Martin Caballero, Juan; Garzón, Ana; González-Cintado, Leticia; Kowalczyk, Wioleta; Jimenez Torres, Ignacio; Calderita, Gloria; Rodriguez, Margarita; Gondar, Virgínia; Bernal, Juan Jose; Ardavín, Carlos; Andreu, David; Zürcher, Thomas; von Kobbe, Cayetano

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is caused by persistent high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection and represents the second most frequent gynecological malignancy in the world. The HPV-16 type accounts for up to 55% of all cervical cancers. The HPV-16 oncoproteins E6 and E7 are necessary for induction and maintenance of malignant transformation and represent tumor-specific antigens for targeted cytotoxic T lymphocyte-mediated immunotherapy. Therapeutic cancer vaccines have become a challenging area of oncology research in recent decades. Among current cancer immunotherapy strategies, virus-like particle (VLP)-based vaccines have emerged as a potent and safe approach. We generated a vaccine (VLP-E7) incorporating a long C-terminal fragment of HPV-16 E7 protein into the infectious bursal disease virus VLP and tested its therapeutic potential in HLA-A2 humanized transgenic mice grafted with TC1/A2 tumor cells. We performed a series of tumor challenge experiments demonstrating a strong immune response against already-formed tumors (complete eradication). Remarkably, therapeutic efficacy was obtained with a single dose without adjuvant and against two injections of tumor cells, indicating a potent and long-lasting immune response. PMID:23300838

  14. Enhancement of immune responses to infectious bursal disease vaccine by supplement of an extract made from Momordica cochinchinensis (Lour.) Spreng. seeds.

    PubMed

    Rajput, Z I; Xiao, C W; Hu, S H; Habib, M; Soomro, N A

    2010-06-01

    The immunological effect of an extract from Momordica cochinchinensis seed (ECMS) on immune responses against infectious bursal disease (IBD) in chickens was evaluated. Fifty-two birds were equally divided into 4 groups and immunized with inactivated IBD vaccine alone (controls) or IBD vaccine emulsified with ECMS (20, 40, and 80 microg). Serum IgG antibody levels against IBD and BW were measured on 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 d after immunization. The ELISA results revealed that the chickens that received 20 microg of ECMS had significantly enhanced antibody levels on 14, 21, 28, and 35 d when compared with controls (P<0.05). A significant increase in mitogenic stimulated lymphocyte proliferation was also recorded in all ECMS groups as compared with controls (P<0.05; P<0.01). No adverse effect of ECMS was noted on growth performance, although average weight gain was significantly higher in 20 microg (7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 d) and 40 or 80 microg (14 d) of ECMS groups as compared with controls (P<0.05; P<0.01). Further studies are suggested for the investigation of immunological effects of ECMS. PMID:20460658

  15. Protective efficacy of a DNA vaccine construct encoding the VP2 gene of infectious bursal disease and a truncated HSP70 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in chickens.

    PubMed

    Maity, Hemanta Kumar; Dey, Sohini; Mohan, C Madhan; Khulape, Sagar A; Pathak, Dinesh C; Vakharia, Vikram N

    2015-02-18

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is an acute, infectious, immunosuppressive disease affecting young chicken worldwide. The etiological agent IBD virus (IBDV) is a double stranded RNA virus with outer capsid protein VP2 of IBDV is the major antigenic determinant capable of inducing neutralizing antibody. DNA vaccines encoding VP2 has been extensively studied achieving only partial protection. However, the efficacy of DNA vaccines against IBDV can be augmented by choosing a potential molecular adjuvant. The goal of the present study is to evaluate the immune response and protective efficacy of a DNA vaccine encoding the C-terminal domain of the heat shock protein 70 (cHSP70) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis gene genetically fused with the full length VP2 gene of IBDV (pCIVP2-cHSP70) in comparison to a 'DNA prime-protein boost' approach and a DNA vaccine encoding the VP2 gene (pCIVP2) alone. The results indicate that both pCIVP2-cHSP70 and 'DNA prime-protein boost' elicited humoral as well as cellular immune responses. Chickens in the pCIVP2-cHSP70 and 'DNA prime-protein boost' groups developed significantly higher levels of ELISA titer to IBDV antigen compared to the group immunized with pCIVP2 alone (p<0.01). However, significantly higher levels of lymphocyte proliferative response, IL-12 and IFN-γ production were found in the pCIVP2-cHSP70 group compared to 'DNA prime-protein boost' group. Additionally, chickens immunized with pCIVP2-cHSP70 and 'DNA prime-protein boost' vaccines were completely protected against the vvIBDV whereas pCIVP2 DNA vaccine alone was able to protect only 70%. These findings suggest that the truncated C-terminal HSP70 mediated DNA vaccine genetically fused with the VP2 gene construct stimulated both humoral and cell mediated immune responses and conferred complete protection against IBDV. This novel strategy is perhaps a seminal concept in utilizing HSP70 as an adjuvant molecule to elicit an immune response against IBD affecting chickens. PMID

  16. Molecular characterization of infectious bursal disease viruses from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Shabbir, Muhammad Zubair; Ali, Muhammad; Abbas, Muhammad; Chaudhry, Umer Naveed; Zia-Ur-Rehman; Munir, Muhammad

    2016-07-01

    Since the first report of infectious bursal disease in Pakistan in 1987, outbreaks have been common even in vaccinated flocks. Despite appropriate administration of vaccines, concerns arise if the circulating strains are different from the ones used in the vaccine. Here, we sequenced the hypervariable region (HVR) of the VP2 gene of circulating strains of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) originating from outbreaks (n = 4) in broiler flocks in Pakistan. Nucleotide sequencing followed by phylogeny and deduced amino acid sequence analysis showed the circulating strains to be very virulent (vv) and identified characteristic residues at position 222 (A), 242 (I), 256 (I), 294 (I) and 299 (S). In addition, a substitution at positions 221 (Q→H) was found to be exclusive to Pakistani strains in our analysis, although a larger dataset is required to confirm this finding. Compared to vaccine strains that are commonly used in Pakistan, substitution mutations were found at key amino acid positions in VP2 that may be responsible for potential changes in neutralization epitopes and vaccine failure. PMID:27107876

  17. Nutrition and immunity: the effects of the combination of arginine and tryptophan on growth performance, serum parameters and immune response in broiler chickens challenged with infectious bursal disease vaccine.

    PubMed

    Emadi, M; Jahanshiri, F; Kaveh, K; Hair-Bejo, M; Ideris, A; Alimon, A R

    2011-02-01

    To explore the effects of the combination of tryptophan (Trp) and arginine (Arg) on growth performance, serum parameters and immune response of broiler chickens challenged with intermediate plus strain of infectious bursal disease virus vaccine, an in vivo experiment was conducted. A corn-soybean meal-based diet containing different levels of Arg and Trp was used. Cobb500 male broiler chickens from 0 to 49 days of age were subjected to a diet supplemented with the combination of Trp and Arg. Growth performance parameters and serum parameters were measured at 27 and 49 days of age. To evaluate the immunomodulatory effects of the combination of Trp and Arg on the challenged chickens, we measured the serum levels of interferon-α, interferon-γ and immunoglobulin G at 27, 35, 42, and 49 days of age. The results showed that the three evaluated immune system parameters including interferon-α, interferon-γ and immunoglobulin G were significantly enhanced after treatment. This enhancement resulted in the recovery of infectious bursal disease virus-infected chickens compared with controls as confirmed by histopathological examinations. Moreover, serum parameters such as albumin and total protein increased, whereas the treatment decreased (P<0.05) the feed:gain ratio, aspartate amino-transferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactic dehydrogenase, triglyceride and cholesterol. These findings suggest that the combination of Arg and Trp has a regulatory effect on growth performance. Moreover, it modulates the systemic immune response against infectious bursal disease. PMID:21331949

  18. Molecular and phenotypic characterization of infectious bursal disease virus isolates.

    PubMed

    Dormitorio, T V; Giambrone, J J; Guo, K; Jackwood, D J

    2007-06-01

    Two infectious bursal disease viruses (IBDVs 1174 and V1) were isolated from IBDV-vaccinated broiler flocks in California and Georgia. These flocks had a history of subclinical immunosuppression. These isolates are commonly used in IBDV progeny challenge studies at Auburn, AL, as well as vaccine manufacturer's vaccine efficacy studies, because they come from populated poultry-producing states, and are requested by poultry veterinarians from those states. Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) generated viral genome products for sequencing. A 491-bp segment from the VP2 gene, covering the hypervariable region, from each isolate was analyzed and compared with previously sequenced isolates. Sequence analysis showed that they were more closely related to the Delaware (Del) E antigenic variant than they are to the Animal Health Plant Inspection Service (APHIS) standard, both at the nucleotide level (96%, 97%) and at the amino acid level (94%, 97%). Both isolates had the glutamine to lysine shift in amino acid 249 which has been reported to be critical in binding the virus neutralizing Mab B69. Phenotypic studies showed that both isolates produced rapid atrophy of the bursae and weight loss, without the edematous bursal phase, in 2-wk-old commercial broilers having antibody against IBDV. A progeny challenge study showed both isolates produced more atrophy of the bursae (less percentage of protection) than the Del E isolate. Molecular and phenotypic data of these important IBDV isolates help in the improved detection and control of this continually changing and important viral pathogen of chickens. PMID:17626491

  19. The peptide motif of the single dominantly expressed class I molecule of the chicken MHC can explain the response to a molecular defined vaccine of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV).

    PubMed

    Butter, Colin; Staines, Karen; van Hateren, Andrew; Davison, T Fred; Kaufman, Jim

    2013-08-01

    In contrast to typical mammals, the chicken MHC (the BF-BL region of the B locus) has strong genetic associations with resistance and susceptibility to infectious pathogens as well as responses to vaccines. We have shown that the chicken MHC encodes a single dominantly expressed class I molecule whose peptide-binding motifs can determine resistance to viral pathogens, such as Rous sarcoma virus and Marek's disease virus. In this report, we examine the response to a molecular defined vaccine, fp-IBD1, which consists of a fowlpox virus vector carrying the VP2 gene of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) fused with β-galactosidase. We vaccinated parental lines and two backcross families with fp-IBD1, challenged with the virulent IBDV strain F52/70, and measured damage to the bursa. We found that the MHC haplotype B15 from line 15I confers no protection, whereas B2 from line 61 and B12 from line C determine protection, although another locus from line 61 was also important. Using our peptide motifs, we found that many more peptides from VP2 were predicted to bind to the dominantly expressed class I molecule BF2*1201 than BF2*1501. Moreover, most of the peptides predicted to bind BF2*1201 did in fact bind, while none bound BF2*1501. Using peptide vaccination, we identified one B12 peptide that conferred protection to challenge, as assessed by bursal damage and viremia. Thus, we show the strong genetic association of the chicken MHC to a T cell vaccine can be explained by peptide presentation by the single dominantly expressed class I molecule. PMID:23644721

  20. Infectious Bursal Disease: a complex host-pathogen interaction.

    PubMed

    Ingrao, Fiona; Rauw, Fabienne; Lambrecht, Bénédicte; van den Berg, Thierry

    2013-11-01

    Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD) is caused by a small, non-enveloped virus, highly resistant in the outside environment. Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV) targets the chicken's immune system in a very comprehensive and complex manner by destroying B lymphocytes, attracting T cells and activating macrophages. As an RNA virus, IBDV has a high mutation rate and may thus give rise to viruses with a modified antigenicity or increased virulence, as emphasized during the last decades. The molecular basis of pathogenicity and the exact cause of clinical disease and death are still poorly understood, as it is not clearly related to the severity of the lesions and the extent of the bursal damage. Recent works however, pointed out the role of an exacerbated innate immune response during the early stage of the infection with upregulated production of promediators that will induce a cytokine storm. In the case of IBDV, immunosuppression is both a direct consequence of the infection of specific target immune cells and an indirect consequence of the interactions occurring in the immune network of the host. Recovery from disease or subclinical infection will be followed by immunosuppression with more serious consequences if the strain is very virulent and infection occurs early in life. Although the immunosuppression caused by IBDV is principally directed towards B-lymphocytes, an effect on cell-mediated immunity (CMI) has also been demonstrated therefore increasing the impact of IBDV on the immunocompetence of the chicken. In addition to its zootechnical impact and its role in the development of secondary infections, it may affect the immune response of the chicken to subsequent vaccinations, essential in all types of intensive farming. Recent progress in the field of avian immunology has allowed a better knowledge of the immunological mechanisms involved in the disease but also should give improved tools for the measurement of immunosuppression in the field situation

  1. Addition of a UL5 helicase-primase subunit point mutation eliminates bursal-thymic atrophy of Marek's disease virus ∆Meq recombinant virus but reduces vaccinal protection.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, Evin; Dunn, John R; Cheng, Hans H

    2015-01-01

    Marek's disease virus (MDV) is an oncogenic alphaherpesvirus and the causative agent of Marek's disease (MD), characterized by immunosuppression, paralysis, nerve enlargement and induction of T-cell lymphomas in chickens. Despite widespread usage of vaccines since the 1970s to control MD, more virulent field strains of MDV have emerged that overcome vaccinal protection, necessitating the development of new and more protective MD vaccines. The ∆Meq virus, a recombinant Md5 strain MDV lacking the viral oncogene Meq, is one candidate MD vaccine with great potential but unfortunately it also causes bursal-thymic atrophy (BTA) in maternal antibody negative chickens, raising concerns that impede commercial use as a vaccine. Previously, we identified a point mutation within UL5 that reduced in vivo replication in attenuated viruses. We proposed that introduction of the UL5 point mutation into the ∆Meq virus would reduce in vivo replication and eliminate BTA yet potentially retain high protective abilities. In birds, the ∆Meq+UL5 recombinant MDV had reduced replication compared to the original ∆Meq virus, while weights of lymphoid organs indicated that ∆Meq+UL5 did not induce BTA, supporting the hypothesis that reduction of in vivo replication would also abolish BTA. Vaccine trials of the ∆Meq+UL5 virus compared to other ∆Meq-based viruses and commercial vaccines show that, while the ∆Meq+UL5 does provide vaccinal protection, this protection was also reduced compared to the original ∆Meq virus. Therefore, it appears that a very delicate balance is required between levels of replication able to induce high vaccinal protection, yet not so high as to induce BTA. PMID:25968878

  2. Baculovirus virions displaying infectious bursal disease virus VP2 protein protect chickens against infectious bursal disease virus infection.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xin-Gang; Tong, De-Wen; Wang, Zhi Sheng; Zhang, Qi; Li, Zhao-Cai; Zhang, Kuan; Li, Wei; Liu, Hung-Jen

    2011-06-01

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is an acute and contagious viral infection of young chickens caused by IBD virus (IBDV). The VP2 protein of IBDV is the only antigen for inducing neutralizing antibodies and protective immunity in the natural host. In the current study, we have succeeded in construction of one recombinant baculovirus BacSC-VP2 expressing His6-tagged VP2 with the baculovirus envelope protein gp64 transmembrane domain (TM) and cytoplasmic domain (CTD). The His6-tagged recombinant VP2 was expressed and anchored on the plasma membrane of Sf-9 cells, as examined by western blot and confocal microscopy. Immunogold electron microscopy demonstrated that the VP2 protein of IBDV was successfully displayed on the viral surface. Vaccination of chickens with the VP2-pseudotyped baculovirus vaccine (BacSC-VP2) elicited significantly higher levels of VP2-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay antibodies and neutralizing antibodies than the control groups. IBDV-specific proliferation of lymphocytes was observed in chickens immunized with the recombinant BacSC-VP2. An in vivo challenge study of the recombinant baculovirus BacSC-VP2 showed effective protection against a very virulent (vv) IBDV infection in chickens. In addition, mortality and gross and histopathological findings in the bursa demonstrated the efficacy of the vaccine in reducing virulence of the disease. These results indicate that the recombinant baculovirus BacSC-VP2 can be a potential vaccine against IBDV infections. PMID:21793437

  3. Infectious bursal disease virus rescued efficiently with 3' authentic RNA sequence induces humoral immunity without bursal atrophy.

    PubMed

    Mosley, Yung-Yi C; Wu, Ching Ching; Lin, Tsang Long

    2013-01-11

    A reverse genetics infectious bursal disease virus (RG-IBDV) that contained authentic 3' RNA sequence was characterized both in vitro and in vivo. LP1-IBDV, a cell line-adapted IBDV strain variant E (VE) was used as the parent virus for constructing viral cDNA clones. Authentic 3' RNA sequence was generated by using cis-acting hepatitis delta virus ribozyme (HDR). The absence of HDR in the clones did not affect viral protein expression, but the obtained viral titers were reduced by 200-folds when compared to the clones with HDR sequence. RG-IBDV generated from clones with HDR sequence was similar to LP1-IBDV by plaque size, growth kinetics and electron microscopic morphology. RG-IBDV did not cause bursal atrophy in 3-week-old chickens at 3, 7 and 17 days post infection (DPI) and induced high ELISA and neutralizing antibody titers to IBDV at 7 and 17 DPI. The results indicated that RG-IBDV can be generated efficiently with an authentic 3' RNA terminus and the obtained RG-IBDV is non-pathogenic and immunogenic with the potential as a vaccine strain that can be further genetically modified to broaden its application. PMID:23196210

  4. Genome Sequence of a Distinct Infectious Bursal Disease Virus

    PubMed Central

    Tomás, Gonzalo; Hernández, Martín; Marandino, Ana; Hernández, Diego; Techera, Claudia; Grecco, Sofía; Panzera, Yanina

    2015-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus is a relevant avian pathogen that affects poultry production. Here, we report the full-length coding sequence of the Uruguayan strain dIBDV/UY/2014/2202, isolated from a commercial broiler flock. The strain belongs to the distinct IBDV lineage that is widely distributed in South America. PMID:26430025

  5. Naturally occurring reassortant infectious bursal disease virus in northern China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhen; Zhang, Lizhou; Wang, Nian; Chen, Yuming; Gao, Li; Wang, Yongqiang; Gao, Honglei; Gao, Yulong; Li, Kai; Qi, Xiaole; Wang, Xiaomei

    2015-05-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a bi-segmented, double-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the genus Avibirnavirus of the family of Birnavirideae. The co-evolution of genome segments is a major evolutionary feature for IBDV. However, in recent years, some strains exhibited markedly different genetic relationships for segments A and B. In this study, we firstly isolated a new type of reassortment IBDV strain named IBD13HeB01 from northern China. The full-length genomes of segments A and B were cloned and identified. Sequence analysis revealed that IBD13HeB01 was a segment-reassortment strain, whose segment A was derived from very virulent strain and segment B from attenuated IBDV. In addition, the virulence of IBD13HeB01 strain was evaluated using SPF chickens. This study is not only beneficial for further understanding of the viral evolution but also suggests the potential risk of application of the live vaccines of IBDV. PMID:25869881

  6. Evaluation of infectious bursal disease virus stability at different conditions of temperature and pH.

    PubMed

    Rani, Surabhi; Kumar, Sachin

    2015-11-01

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is one of the highly pathogenic viral diseases of poultry. The disease poses a serious threat to the economy of many developing countries where agriculture serves as the primary source of national income. Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) belongs to the family Birnaviridae. The IBDV is well characterized to cause immunosuppression in poultry. The live attenuated vaccine is the only way to protect the chickens from IBDV infection. The ineffectiveness of vaccine is one of the major causes of IBDV outbreaks in field condition. In the present study, we discuss briefly about the biology of IBDV genome and its proteins under different conditions of temperature and pH in order to evaluate its infectivity under adverse physical conditions. Our results indicate that the IBDV is non-infective above 42 °C and unstable above 72 °C. However, the change in pH does not significantly contribute to the IBDV stability. The study will be useful in estimating an optimum storage condition for IBDV vaccines without causing any deterioration in its viability and effectiveness. PMID:26265229

  7. An in vivo experimental model to determine antigenic variations among infectious bursal disease viruses.

    PubMed

    Durairaj, Vijay; Linnemann, Erich; Icard, Alan H; Williams, Susan M; Sellers, Holly S; Mundt, Egbert

    2013-08-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a double-stranded RNA virus causing infectious bursal disease in chickens. IBDV undergoes antigenic drift, so characterizing the antigenicity of IBDV plays an important role for identification and selection of vaccine candidates. In this study, an in vivo experimental model was developed to differentiate a new antigenic variant of IBDV. To this end, a hyper-immune serum to IBDV E/Del-type virus was generated in specific pathogen-free chickens and a standard volume of the hyper-immune serum was serially diluted and injected in specific pathogen-free birds via intravenous, subcutaneous, or intramuscular routes. The chickens were bled at different time points in order to evaluate the dynamics of virus neutralization titres. Based on the results, chickens were injected with different serum dilutions by the subcutaneous route. Twenty-four hours later, chickens were bled and then challenged with 100 median chicken infectious doses of the E/Del virus and a new IBDV variant. Chickens were euthanized at 7 days post infection and the bursa of Fabricius was removed for microscopic evaluation to determine the bursal lesion score. The determined virus neutralization titre along with the bursal lesion score was used to determine the breakthrough titre in the in vivo chicken model. Based on the data obtained, an antigenic subtype of IBDV was identified and determined to be different from E/Del. This model is a sensitive model for determination of IBDV antigenicity of non-tissue culture adapted IBDV. PMID:23662946

  8. Construction of Recombinant Baculoviruses Expressing Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Main Protective Antigen and Their Immune Effects on Chickens.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jingping; An, Qi; Song, Shanshan; Gao, Dongni; Ping, Wenxiang

    2015-01-01

    In order to overcome the limitations of conventional vaccines for infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), we constructed recombinant dual expression system baculoviruses with VP2 and VP2/4/3, the main protective antigens of IBDV. We compared the immune effects of the baculoviruses in avian cells and detected their control effects on chickens with infectious bursal disease. We used Western blot analysis to measure VP2 protein and VP2/4/3 polyprotein expression in avian cells infected using the Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system. The recombinant baculoviruses were used to vaccinate specific pathogen-free chickens, which produced specific protective antibodies and strong cellular immune responses. The results of the virus challenge experiment revealed that the protective efficiency of VP2 and VP2/4/3 virus vaccines were 95.8% and 100%, respectively, both of which were higher than the vaccine group (87.5%), and significantly higher than the control group (50%). The results demonstrated that the immune effect of BV-S-ITRs-VP2/4/3 was superior to that of BV-S-ITRs-VP2. Compared with traditional attenuated vaccine and genetically engineered live vector vaccine, the dual expression viral vector vaccine has good bio-safety. The results of this study provide a foundation for the further development of poultry vaccines, in addition to providing a useful reference for developing non-replicating live vaccines against other viral diseases. PMID:26167907

  9. Construction of Recombinant Baculoviruses Expressing Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Main Protective Antigen and Their Immune Effects on Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Song, Shanshan; Gao, Dongni; Ping, Wenxiang

    2015-01-01

    In order to overcome the limitations of conventional vaccines for infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), we constructed recombinant dual expression system baculoviruses with VP2 and VP2/4/3, the main protective antigens of IBDV. We compared the immune effects of the baculoviruses in avian cells and detected their control effects on chickens with infectious bursal disease. We used Western blot analysis to measure VP2 protein and VP2/4/3 polyprotein expression in avian cells infected using the Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system. The recombinant baculoviruses were used to vaccinate specific pathogen-free chickens, which produced specific protective antibodies and strong cellular immune responses. The results of the virus challenge experiment revealed that the protective efficiency of VP2 and VP2/4/3 virus vaccines were 95.8% and 100%, respectively, both of which were higher than the vaccine group (87.5%), and significantly higher than the control group (50%). The results demonstrated that the immune effect of BV-S-ITRs-VP2/4/3 was superior to that of BV-S-ITRs-VP2. Compared with traditional attenuated vaccine and genetically engineered live vector vaccine, the dual expression viral vector vaccine has good bio-safety. The results of this study provide a foundation for the further development of poultry vaccines, in addition to providing a useful reference for developing non-replicating live vaccines against other viral diseases. PMID:26167907

  10. Protective immune responses of recombinant VP2 subunit antigen of infectious bursal disease virus in chickens.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Satya Narayan; Prince, Prabhu Rajaiah; Madhumathi, Jayaprakasam; Roy, Parimal; Narayanan, Rangarajan Badri; Antony, Usha

    2012-08-15

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is the causative agent of Gumboro disease and poses a huge threat to poultry industry. The risks associated with conventional attenuated viral vaccines make it indispensable to probe into the development of novel and rationally designed subunit vaccines which are safer as well as effective. VP2 is the major host-protective antigen found in IBDV capsid. It encompasses different independent epitopes responsible for the induction of neutralizing antibody. Here, we report the efficacy of the immunodominant fragment of VP2 which induces both humoral and cellular immunity against infectious bursal disease. A 366 bp fragment (52-417 bp) of the VP2 gene from an IBDV field isolate was amplified and expressed in Escherichia coli as a 21 kDa recombinant protein. The efficacy of rVP2(52-417) antigen was compared with two commercial IBDV whole virus vaccine strains. The rVP2(52-417) induced significantly high antibody titres in chicken compared to commercial vaccines and the anti-rVP2(52-417) sera showed reactivity with viral antigens from both commercial strains (P<0.0001) and field isolates. Also, the chicken splenocytes from rVP2(52-417) immunized group showed a significantly high proliferation (P<0.01) compared to other groups, which implies that the rVP2(52-417) fragment contains immunogenic epitopes capable of eliciting both B and T cell responses. Further, rVP2(52-417) conferred 100% protection against vIBDV challenge in the immunized chickens which was significantly higher (P<0.001) compared to 55-60% protection by commercial vaccine strains. Hence, the study confirms the efficacy of the immunodominant VP2 fragment that could be used as a potent vaccine against IBDV infection in chicken. PMID:22795186

  11. An optimized, highly efficient, self-assembled, subvirus-like particle of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV).

    PubMed

    Wang, Miao; Pan, Qing; Lu, Zhen; Li, Kai; Gao, Honglei; Qi, Xiaole; Gao, Yulong; Wang, Xiaomei

    2016-06-24

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) causes immunosuppression in young chickens, leading to increased susceptibility to other diseases and a reduction in the immune response to other vaccines. Thus, IBDV results in great economic losses to the poultry industry. The most effective method of prevention is vaccination. However, medium-virulence vaccines can cause bursal pathological damage and immunosuppression. Here, we describe a safer, self-assembled, subvirus-like particle (sVP) vaccine without a complex purification process. The IBD-VP2 gene was cloned into Pichia pastoris, and the expressed protein self-assembled into T=1 sVPs (∼23nm). Immunization experiments showed that the sVP vaccine elicited high IBDV-neutralizing antibodies in each group, and all birds survived challenge with very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV). Additionally, IBDV RNA was not detected, and sterile immunity was achieved. In conclusion, the IBD-sVP is a suitable candidate for a recombinant subunit vaccine against IBDV. PMID:27164218

  12. Prophylactic potential of resiquimod against very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) challenge in the chicken.

    PubMed

    Annamalai, Arunsaravanakumar; Ramakrishnan, Saravanan; Sachan, Swati; Kumar, B S Anand; Sharma, Bal Krishan; Kumar, Vimal; Palanivelu, Munuswamy; Varghese, Berin P; Kumar, Ajay; Saravanan, B C; Krishnaswamy, Narayanan

    2016-05-01

    The study evaluated the prophylactic potential of resiquimod (R-848), a synthetic TLR7 agonist, against very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) infection in chicken. Specific pathogen free White Leghorn chicks of three week age were treated with R-848 (50μg/bird, intramuscular) or PBS (n=26/group). Twenty four hour later, half of the birds from each group were challenged with 10(5) ELD50 of vvIBDV and observed for 10days. To understand the effect of R-848, immune response genes such as interferon (IFN)-β, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-4, iNOS and TLR7 were analyzed at 24 and 48h post-challenge in PBMCs ex vivo by real-time PCR (n=6/group). On day 4 post-challenge, representative birds (n=3/group) were sacrificed to study the bursal damage and IBDV antigen clearance. Immunosuppression was assessed by antibody response against live Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine, which was administered on day 10 post-challenge. R-848 pre-treatment significantly upregulated the transcripts of each immune response gene studied (P<0.05). There was 50% mortality on vvIBDV challenge in control birds, while it was only 20% with R-848 group. R-848 pre-treatment reduced the bursal damage as indicated by lower bursal lesion score in histopathology, reduced IBDV antigen signal in immunohistochemistry and improved antigen clearance in agar gel immunodiffusion test. Further, it protected significantly against vvIBDV induced immunosuppression as indicated by HI antibody titre. It is concluded that pre-treatment of R-848 conferred partial protection from mortality and bursal damage while complete protection against immunosuppression in chicken when challenged with vvIBDV, which could be due to the upregulation of immune response genes. PMID:27066705

  13. Seroprevalence of infectious bursal disease virus in local chickens in Udu Local Government Area of Delta State, South East Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Abraham-Oyiguh, J; Adewumi, M O; Onoja, A B; Suleiman, I; Sulaiman, L K; Ahmed, S J; Jagboro, S T

    2015-01-01

    Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV) poses a great global threat to the poultry industry. Knowledge of the occurrence of the disease is important in the design and implementation of a control program, therefore this study determines the seroprevalence of IBDV in local chickens in Udu Local Government Area of Delta State. 250 chickens were bled by exsanguination and sera obtained were screened using Agar Gel Immunodiffusion (AGID) test. The seropositivity was 51.6%, which is indicates endemicity of the disease. Biosecurity and good sanitary measures are recommended. Molecular characterization of the strains should be carried out for inclusion in generic vaccines. PMID:25331185

  14. Structural and growth characteristics of infectious bursal disease virus.

    PubMed Central

    Nick, H; Cursiefen, D; Becht, H

    1976-01-01

    The infectious bursal disease virus is not enveloped and has a diameter of 60 nm and a density of about 1.32 g/ml. It contains two pieces of single-stranded RNA with molecular weights close to 2 X 10(6). The capsid is made up of four major polypeptides with molecular weights of 110,000, 50,000, 35,000, and 25,000. The virus replicates in chicken embryo fibroblasts rather than in epitheloid cells. After an eclipse period of 4 h, virus production reaches a maximum about 12 h later. The virus has no structural or biological similarities with defined avian reoviruses, and it cannot be classified in one of the established taxonomic groups. Images PMID:176463

  15. Molecular characterization of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) isolated in Argentina indicates a regional lineage.

    PubMed

    Vera, F; Craig, M I; Olivera, V; Rojas, F; König, G; Pereda, A; Vagnozzi, A

    2015-08-01

    In Argentina, classical vaccines are used to control infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV); however, outbreaks of IBDV are frequently observed. This could be due to failures in the vaccination programs or to the emergence of new strains, which would be able to break through the protection given by vaccines. Hence, genetic characterization of the viruses responsible for the outbreaks that occurred in recent years is crucial for the evaluation of the control programs and the understanding of the epidemiology and evolution of IBDV. In this study, we characterized 51 field samples collected in Argentina (previously identified as IBDV positive) through the analysis of previously identified apomorphic sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of regVP2 showed that 42 samples formed a unique cluster (Argentinean lineage), seven samples were typical classical strains (one of them was a vaccine strain), and two belonged to the very virulent lineage (vvIBDV). Interestingly, when the analysis was performed on the regVP1 sequences, the field samples segregated similarly to regVP2; thus, we observed no evidence of a reassortment event in the Argentinean samples. Amino acid sequence analysis of regVP2 showed a particular pattern of residues in the Argentinean lineage, particularly the presence of T272, P289 and F296, which had not been reported before as signature sequences for any IBDV phenotype. Notably, the residue S254, characteristic of the antigenic variant, was not present in any of the Argentinean samples. PMID:26026955

  16. [Immunogenicity of recombinant Lactobacillus casei expressing VP2 protein of infectious bursal disease virus in chickens].

    PubMed

    Lin, Hongli; Hou, Shenda; Wang, Song; Wang, Yupeng; LuanI, Yunyan; Hou, Xilin

    2014-11-01

    In order to determine immunogenicity and protective effect in chickens, we used the IBDV (Infectious bursal disease virus)-Vp2/Lactobacillus casei as antigen transfer system. First, the immunized and control chickens were challenged by IBDV/DQ at lethal dose to determine the protective ratio. Second, chickens were orallyand intranasally vaccinated twice with 10(9) CFU/mL pLA-VP2/L. casei, pLA/L. casei and PBS as negativecontrol and commercial vaccine as positive control. The bursa injury and the lesion score wererecorded post challenge. The level of specific IgG and sIgA in pLA-VP2/L. casei and positive control groups was significantly higher than that in negativecontrol groups. The protection efficacy in pLA-VP2/L. casei oral group was higher than that inintranasal group. The SI. of pLA-VP2/L. casei oral group was significant higher than other groups. The lesion score indicated the pLA-VP2/L. casei was safer than commercial vaccine for bursa. Collectively, the pLA-VP2/L. casei could be a vaccine candidate for IBDV. PMID:25985519

  17. Genomic sequence analysis of a new reassortant infectious bursal disease virus from commercial broiler flocks in Central China.

    PubMed

    Cui, Pei; Ma, Shi-Jie; Zhang, Yu-Geng; Li, Xin-Sheng; Gao, Xiao-Yun; Cui, Bao-An; Chen, Hong-Ying

    2013-09-01

    We report the complete nucleotide sequence of a reassortant infectious bursal disease (IBD) virus (IBDV) HN isolate from commercial broiler flocks in central China. The genome consisted of 3,232 and 2,652 nucleotides in the coding regions of segments A and B, respectively. Alignment of both nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences and phylogenetic analysis revealed that the genome segments A and B of HN were derived from the attenuated strain B87 and the VV strain OKYM. This is a new reassortant IBDV strain that has emerged in nature, involving segment A of a cell-culture-adapted attenuated vaccine strain B87. PMID:23543159

  18. Addition of a UL5 helicase-primase subunit point mutation eliminates bursal-thymic atrophy of Marek’s disease virus delta-Meq recombinant virus but reduces vaccinal protection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease virus (MDV) is an oncogenic alphaherpesvirus and the causative agent of Marek’s disease (MD), a T-cell lymphoma of chickens. Despite widespread usage of vaccines since the 1970’s to control MD, more virulent field strains of MDV have emerged that overcome vaccinal protection, necessi...

  19. Synbiotic enhances immune responses against infectious bronchitis, infectious bursal disease, Newcastle disease and avian influenza in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Talebi, Alireza; Amani, Amir; Pourmahmod, Masoud; Saghaei, Poya; Rezaie, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Increased susceptibility of birds to avian pathogens in intensive husbandry system has emphasized on necessity of improvement of innate and specific immune responses of birds by the fast establishment of a beneficial microflora and immune stimulator factors to guarantee healthy and low-price products. During this study, 192 one-day-old broiler chicks (Ross-380) in four groups with three replicates per group were used to investigate effectiveness of synbiotic Biomin Imbo on immune responses of the chickens following routine vaccination against Newcastle disease (ND), avian influenza (AI), infectious bronchitis (IB) and infectious bursal disease (IBD). The results of this study indicated that supplementation of Biomin Imbo in diet enhanced humoral immune responses significantly in the case of ND, IB, IBD (p = 0.049, p = 0.020, p = 0.036, respectively), but insignificantly in the case of AI (p = 0.160) following vaccination of the chickens against these most common important viral poultry diseases. It was more effective following vaccination with live than killed vaccines. In conclusion, application of synbiotic Biomin Imbo, as a feed-additive adjuvant promotes acquired humoral immune responses of broiler chickens. PMID:26893807

  20. Synbiotic enhances immune responses against infectious bronchitis, infectious bursal disease, Newcastle disease and avian influenza in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Talebi, Alireza; Amani, Amir; Pourmahmod, Masoud; Saghaei, Poya; Rezaie, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Increased susceptibility of birds to avian pathogens in intensive husbandry system has emphasized on necessity of improvement of innate and specific immune responses of birds by the fast establishment of a beneficial microflora and immune stimulator factors to guarantee healthy and low-price products. During this study, 192 one-day-old broiler chicks (Ross-380) in four groups with three replicates per group were used to investigate effectiveness of synbiotic Biomin Imbo on immune responses of the chickens following routine vaccination against Newcastle disease (ND), avian influenza (AI), infectious bronchitis (IB) and infectious bursal disease (IBD). The results of this study indicated that supplementation of Biomin Imbo in diet enhanced humoral immune responses significantly in the case of ND, IB, IBD (p = 0.049, p = 0.020, p = 0.036, respectively), but insignificantly in the case of AI (p = 0.160) following vaccination of the chickens against these most common important viral poultry diseases. It was more effective following vaccination with live than killed vaccines. In conclusion, application of synbiotic Biomin Imbo, as a feed-additive adjuvant promotes acquired humoral immune responses of broiler chickens. PMID:26893807

  1. Recombinant infectious bursal disease virus carrying hepatitis C virus epitopes.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Chitra; Ammayappan, Arun; Patel, Deendayal; Kovesdi, Imre; Vakharia, Vikram N

    2011-02-01

    The delivery of foreign epitopes by a replicating nonpathogenic avian infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) was explored. The aim of the study was to identify regions in the IBDV genome that are amenable to the introduction of a sequence encoding a foreign peptide. By using a cDNA-based reverse genetics system, insertions or substitutions of sequences encoding epitope tags (FLAG, c-Myc, or hepatitis C virus epitopes) were engineered in the open reading frames of a nonstructural protein (VP5) and the capsid protein (VP2). Attempts were also made to generate recombinant IBDV that displayed foreign epitopes in the exposed loops (P(BC) and P(HI)) of the VP2 trimer. We successfully recovered recombinant IBDVs expressing c-Myc and two different virus-neutralizing epitopes of human hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope glycoprotein E in the VP5 region. Western blot analyses with anti-c-Myc and anti-HCV antibodies provided positive identification of both the c-Myc and HCV epitopes that were fused to the N terminus of VP5. Genetic analysis showed that the recombinants carrying the c-Myc/HCV epitopes maintained the foreign gene sequences and were stable after several passages in Vero and 293T cells. This is the first report describing efficient expression of foreign peptides from a replication-competent IBDV and demonstrates the potential of this virus as a vector. PMID:21106739

  2. Differentiation of infectious bursal disease virus strains using real-time RT-PCR and high resolution melt curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Ghorashi, Seyed A; O'Rourke, Denise; Ignjatovic, Jagoda; Noormohammadi, Amir H

    2011-01-01

    Differentiation of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) strains is crucial for effective vaccination programs and epidemiological investigations. In this study, a combination of real-time RT-PCR and high resolution melt (HRM) curve analysis was developed for simultaneous detection and differentiation of IBDV strains/isolates. The hypervariable region of VP2 gene was amplified from several IBDV strains and subjected to HRM curve analysis. The method could readily differentiate between classical vaccines/isolates and variants. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the amplicons from each strain revealed that each melt curve profile was related to a unique DNA sequence. The real-time RT-PCR HRM curve analysis was also able to differentiate IBDV strains/isolates directly in bursal tissues from field submissions and from vaccinated commercial flocks. The differences between melting peaks generated from IBDV strains were significantly different (P<0.0001) demonstrating the high discriminatory power of this technique. The results presented in this study indicated that real-time RT-PCR followed by HRM curve analysis provides a rapid and robust technique for genotyping IBDV isolates/strains and can contribute to effective control of IBDV outbreaks. PMID:21111004

  3. Isolation of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Using Indigenous Chicken Embryos in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Mutinda, W. U.; Njagi, L. W.; Nyaga, P. N.; Bebora, L. C.; Mbuthia, P. G.; Kemboi, D.; Githinji, J. W. K.; Muriuki, A.

    2015-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) isolates were recovered from outbreaks to initiate activities towards developing a local vaccine strain. Use of indigenous chicken embryos was exploited to determine their potential, promote utilization of local resources for research, and enhance household economic activities. Bursa of Fabricius (BFs) samples from outbreaks shown to be IBDV positive was homogenized and inoculated in 4-week-old specific pathogen-free (SPF) IBDV seronegative white leghorn chicks. The harvested virus was inoculated into 11-day-old indigenous chicken embryos that were IBDV seronegative and passaged serially three times after which they were inoculated into 4-week-old indigenous chicks to test for presence and virulence of propagated virus. Out of 153 BFs collected from outbreaks, 43.8% (67/153) were positive for IBDV antigen and 65.7% (44/67) caused disease in SPF chicks. The embryo mean mortalities were 88% on primary inoculation, 94% in 1st passage, 91% in 2nd passage, and 67% in 3rd passage. After the third passage in embryos all the 44 isolates were virulent in 4-week-old indigenous chicks. The results show that indigenous chicken embryos support growth of IBDV and can be used to propagate the virus as an alternative viral propagating tool for respective vaccine preparation. PMID:27347520

  4. Activation of the immune response against Infectious Bursal Disease Virus after intramuscular inoculation of an intermediate strain.

    PubMed

    Carballeda, Juan Manuel; Zoth, Silvina Chimeno; Gómez, Evangelina; Gravisaco, María José; Berinstein, Analía

    2011-09-01

    Infectious bursal disesase is a highly contagious, wide spread immunosuppressive chicken disease caused by the Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV). IBDV is a two segmented double-strand RNA virus, member of the Birnaviridae family. In order to study the interaction between IBDV and the immune system, chickens were exposed to an intermediate IBDV strain by intramuscular route, and using Real Time PCR the expression of a panel of avian cytokines and chemokines in duodenum, spleen and bursa of Fabricius was analyzed. Also, splenic nitrite (NO₂) production and the frequencies of different mononuclear cell populations were evaluated by Griess reaction and flow cytometry, respectively. Intramuscular (i.m.) IBDV inoculation promoted an over expression of proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-15 and gIFN in spleen, which correlated with an increase of gIFN plasma concentration measured by ELISA, together with an increment of NO₂ concentration in splenocyte supernatants at 1dpi. Results obtained in the present work showed that IBDV of intermediate virulence, given i.m., induced similar effects to those previously described for highly virulent IBDV in early innate immune responses. Considering that the i.m. route is the route of choice for the delivery of new generation vaccines, and that the use of recombinant antigens also requires the addition of adjuvants for proper immune stimulation, results presented here could contribute to identify suitable cytokines to be used or to be stimulated when utilizing subunit vaccines, for the improvement of prevention tools for avian health. PMID:21514000

  5. Adjuvant activity of chicken interleukin-12 co-administered with infectious bursal disease virus recombinant VP2 antigen in chickens.

    PubMed

    Su, Bor Sheu; Chiu, Hua Hsien; Lin, Cheng Chung; Shien, Jui Hung; Yin, Hsien Sheng; Lee, Long Huw

    2011-02-15

    A recombinant fowlpox virus (rFPV/VP2) expressing infectious bursal diseases virus (IBDV) VP2 gene has been constructed. After purification and identification of rFPV/VP2, the adjuvant activity of the recombinant chicken IL-12 (rchIL-12), synthesized by our previous construct of rFPV/chIL-12, in rFPV/VP2-expressed rVP2 antigen was assessed in one-week-old specific-pathogen free chickens. The results indicated that rchIL-12 alone or rchIL-12 plus mineral oil (MO) co-administered with rVP2 antigen significantly enhanced the production of serum neutralization (SN) antibody against IBDV, compared to those with MO alone. The SN titers in groups receiving rVP2 antigen with MO alone were more inconsistent after vaccination. On the other hand, rchIL-12 significantly stimulated IFN-γ production in serum and in splenocyte cultured supernatant, suggesting that rchIL-12 alone or plus MO significantly induced a cell-mediated immune response. Finally, bursal lesion protection from very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV) challenge in chickens receiving rVP2 antigen with rchIL-12 alone or plus MO was much more effective than that with MO alone at two weeks after boosting. Taken together, rchIL-12 alone augmented in vivo the induction of a primary and also a secondary SN antibody production and a cell-mediated immunity against IBDV rVP2 antigen, which conferred the enhancement of bursal lesion protective efficacy from vvIBDV challenge. These data indicated that a potential for chIL-12 as immunoadjuvant for chicken vaccine development such as IBDV rVP2 antigen. PMID:21035196

  6. Identification and molecular analysis of infectious bursal disease in broiler farms in the Kurdistan Regional Government of Iraq.

    PubMed

    Amin, Oumed Gerjis M; Jackwood, Daral J

    2014-10-01

    The present study was undertaken to characterize field isolates of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). The identification was done using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and partial sequencing of the VP2 gene. Pooled bursal samples were collected from commercial broiler farms located in the Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) of Iraq. The genetic material of the IBDV was detected in 10 out of 29 field samples. Sequences of the hypervariable VP2 region were determined for 10 of these viruses. Molecular analysis of the VP2 gene of five IBDVs showed amino acid sequences consistent with the very virulent (vv) IBDV. Two samples were identified as classic vaccine viruses, and three samples were classic vaccine viruses that appear to have mutated during replication in the field. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all five field IBDV strains of the present study were closely related to each other. On the basis of nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, it is very likely that IBD-causing viruses in this part of Iraq are of the very virulent type. These IBDVs appear to be evolving relative to their type strains. PMID:25027738

  7. Evaluation of modified vaccinia virus Ankara expressing VP2 protein of infectious bursal disease virus as an immunogen in chickens.

    PubMed

    Zanetti, Flavia Adriana; Del Médico Zajac, María Paula; Taboga, Oscar Alberto; Calamante, Gabriela

    2012-06-01

    A recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) virus expressing mature viral protein 2 (VP2) of the infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) was constructed to develop MVA-based vaccines for poultry. We demonstrated that this recombinant virus was able to induce a specific immune response by observing the production of anti-IBDV-seroneutralizing antibodies in specific pathogen-free chickens. Besides, as the epitopes of VP2 responsible to induce IBDV-neutralizing antibodies are discontinuous, our results suggest that VP2 protein expressed from MVA-VP2 maintained the correct conformational structure. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the usefulness of MVA-based vectors for developing recombinant vaccines for poultry. PMID:22705743

  8. Evaluation of modified vaccinia virus Ankara expressing VP2 protein of infectious bursal disease virus as an immunogen in chickens

    PubMed Central

    Zajac, María Paula Del Médico; Taboga, Oscar Alberto; Calamante, Gabriela

    2012-01-01

    A recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) virus expressing mature viral protein 2 (VP2) of the infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) was constructed to develop MVA-based vaccines for poultry. We demonstrated that this recombinant virus was able to induce a specific immune response by observing the production of anti-IBDV-seroneutralizing antibodies in specific pathogen-free chickens. Besides, as the epitopes of VP2 responsible to induce IBDV-neutralizing antibodies are discontinuous, our results suggest that VP2 protein expressed from MVA-VP2 maintained the correct conformational structure. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the usefulness of MVA-based vectors for developing recombinant vaccines for poultry. PMID:22705743

  9. Analysis of the Early Immune Response to Infection by Infectious Bursal Disease Virus in Chickens Differing in Their Resistance to the Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sadeyen, Jean-Remy; Butter, Colin; Kaiser, Pete; Burt, David W.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chicken whole-genome gene expression arrays were used to analyze the host response to infection by infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). Spleen and bursal tissue were examined from control and infected birds at 2, 3, and 4 days postinfection from two lines that differ in their resistance to IBDV infection. The host response was evaluated over this period, and differences between susceptible and resistant chicken lines were examined. Antiviral genes, including IFNA, IFNG, MX1, IFITM1, IFITM3, and IFITM5, were upregulated in response to infection. Evaluation of this gene expression data allowed us to predict several genes as candidates for involvement in resistance to IBDV. IMPORTANCE Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is of economic importance to the poultry industry and thus is also important for food security. Vaccines are available, but field strains of the virus are of increasing virulence. There is thus an urgent need to explore new control solutions, one of which would be to breed birds with greater resistance to IBD. This goal is perhaps uniquely achievable with poultry, of all farm animal species, since the genetics of 85% of the 60 billion chickens produced worldwide each year is under the control of essentially two breeding companies. In a comprehensive study, we attempt here to identify global transcriptomic differences in the target organ of the virus between chicken lines that differ in resistance and to predict candidate resistance genes. PMID:25505077

  10. Identification and characterization of two distinct bursal B-cell subpopulations following infectious bursal disease virus infection of White Leghorn chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is an immunosuppressive virus which primarily infects IgM, B-cells in the bursa of Fabricius. Flow cytometric analysis was used to phenotype B-cell populations in the bursa and spleen following IBDV infection. In the bursa, two IgM B-cell subpopulations, desig...

  11. Canarypox virus expressing infectious bursal disease VP2 protein as immunogen for chickens.

    PubMed

    Zanetti, Flavia Adriana; Grand, María Daniela Conte; Mitarotonda, Romina Cristina; Taboga, Oscar Alberto; Calamante, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    Canarypox viruses (CNPV) carrying the coding sequence of VP2 protein from infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) were obtained. These viruses were able to express VP2 protein in vitro and to induce IBDV-neutralizing antibodies when inoculated in specific pathogen-free chickens demonstrating that CNPV platform is usefulness to develop immunogens for chickens. PMID:24948937

  12. Sequence comparisons of the variable VP2 region of eight infectious bursal disease virus isolates.

    PubMed

    Dormitorio, T V; Giambrone, J J; Duck, L W

    1997-01-01

    The VP2 gene is part of the genomic segment A of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). It has been identified as the major host-protective antigen of IBDV and is known to contain conformationally dependent protective epitopes. A 643-base pair segment covering the hypervariable region of this gene from three recent serologic variant IBDV isolates from the southeastern United States, two variants from the Delmarva Peninsula, and three serologic standard viruses were amplified and sequenced using the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and cycle sequencing techniques. This was done to determine the molecular similarity among isolates that differ antigenically and pathologically. Sequence analysis suggested that the Arkansas (Ark) and Mississippi (Miss) isolates evolved closely and separately from the Delmarva variants (GLS and DELE), in contrast to the other southeastern variant Georgia (Ga), which is more closely related (98.32%) to Delaware E (DELE). All variants, except for Miss, underwent a shift in amino acid number 222 from proline to threonine. The sequence of Univax BD virus, a commercially available intermediate vaccine, was markedly different, evolving from a separate lineage than the others. Restriction enzyme sites could differentiate most isolates. Except for Miss, variants do not have EcoRII site at the larger hydrophilic domain. All variants lost their HaeIII, StuI, and StyI cutting sites with a change in base number 856. The TaqI site is in DELE, whereas the SpeI site is absent in the standard vaccine viruses. The SWASASGS heptapeptide is conserved in all virulent viruses, including APHIS, but not in the attenuated (Univax BD and Bursa Vac 3) and published (D78 and PBG98) vaccines. PMID:9087318

  13. Occurrence of Newcastle Disease and Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Antibodies in Double-Spurred Francolins in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oluwayelu, Daniel Oladimeji; Adebiyi, Adebowale Idris; Olaniyan, Ibukunoluwa; Ezewele, Phyllis; Aina, Oluwasanmi

    2014-01-01

    The double-spurred francolin Francolinus bicalcaratus has been identified as a good candidate for future domestication due to the universal acceptability of its meat and its adaptability to anthropogenically altered environments. Therefore, in investigating the diseases to which they are susceptible, serum samples from 56 francolins in a major live-bird market (LBM) in Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria, were screened for antibodies against Newcastle disease (ND) and infectious bursal disease (IBD) viruses. Haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) revealed 25.0% and 35.7% prevalence of ND virus (NDV) antibodies, respectively, while 5.4% and 57.1% prevalence of IBD virus (IBDV) antibodies was detected by agar gel precipitation test (AGPT) and ELISA, respectively. This first report on the occurrence of NDV and IBDV antibodies in apparently healthy, unvaccinated double-spurred francolins from a LBM suggests that they were subclinically infected with either field or vaccine viruses and could thus serve as possible reservoirs of these viruses to domestic poultry. Furthermore, if they are to be domesticated for intensive rearing, a vaccination plan including ND and IBD should be developed and implemented. PMID:26464918

  14. Occurrence of Newcastle Disease and Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Antibodies in Double-Spurred Francolins in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oluwayelu, Daniel Oladimeji; Adebiyi, Adebowale Idris; Olaniyan, Ibukunoluwa; Ezewele, Phyllis; Aina, Oluwasanmi

    2014-01-01

    The double-spurred francolin Francolinus bicalcaratus has been identified as a good candidate for future domestication due to the universal acceptability of its meat and its adaptability to anthropogenically altered environments. Therefore, in investigating the diseases to which they are susceptible, serum samples from 56 francolins in a major live-bird market (LBM) in Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria, were screened for antibodies against Newcastle disease (ND) and infectious bursal disease (IBD) viruses. Haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) revealed 25.0% and 35.7% prevalence of ND virus (NDV) antibodies, respectively, while 5.4% and 57.1% prevalence of IBD virus (IBDV) antibodies was detected by agar gel precipitation test (AGPT) and ELISA, respectively. This first report on the occurrence of NDV and IBDV antibodies in apparently healthy, unvaccinated double-spurred francolins from a LBM suggests that they were subclinically infected with either field or vaccine viruses and could thus serve as possible reservoirs of these viruses to domestic poultry. Furthermore, if they are to be domesticated for intensive rearing, a vaccination plan including ND and IBD should be developed and implemented. PMID:26464918

  15. Complete Genome Sequence of a Chicken Embryo Fibroblast-Adapted Attenuated Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Isolate from India

    PubMed Central

    Priyadharsini, C. V.; Raja, P.; Kumanan, K.

    2016-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus is an avian pathogen that causes huge morbidity and mortality in the poultry sector all over the world. Here, we report the full-length genome sequence of an Indian strain, MB11/ABT/MVC/2016, isolated from a commercial broiler flock. This is a first report of a complete genome sequence of infectious bursal disease virus from India. PMID:27174268

  16. Complete Genome Sequence of a Chicken Embryo Fibroblast-Adapted Attenuated Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Isolate from India.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumar, T M A; Priyadharsini, C V; Raja, P; Kumanan, K

    2016-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus is an avian pathogen that causes huge morbidity and mortality in the poultry sector all over the world. Here, we report the full-length genome sequence of an Indian strain, MB11/ABT/MVC/2016, isolated from a commercial broiler flock. This is a first report of a complete genome sequence of infectious bursal disease virus from India. PMID:27174268

  17. Genetic characterization of infectious bursal disease viruses associated with gumboro outbreaks in commercial broilers from asyut province, egypt.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Moemen A; Elzanaty, Kamal E S; Bakhit, Bakhit M; Safwat, Marwa M

    2014-01-01

    Ten infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) field strains were isolated from 15 broiler flocks located in various parts of Asyut, Egypt. Seven strains were subjected to comparative sequencing and phylogenetic analyses to help provide optimal control program for protection against IBDV infection. Sequence analysis of a 530 bp hypervariable region in the VP2 gene revealed that the rate of identity and homology was around 95.6~99.1%. Sequence characterization revealed the 7 strains identified as vvIBDV with the four amino acids residues typical of vvIBDV (242I, 256I, 294I, 299S). The BURSA-VAC vaccine was the nearest vaccine in sequence similarity to the local examined IBDV strains followed by CEVACIBDL then Bursine plus and Nobilis Gumboro indicating its probable success in the face of incoming outbreaks when using these vaccines. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the presence of three clusters for the examined strains and are grouped with reference very virulent IBDVs of European and Asian origin (Japanese and Hong Kong) strains suggesting the different ancestors of our isolates. The antigenic index showed a number of changes on the major and minor hydrophilic antigenic peaks of the virus surface structures indicating a new genetic evolution of the surface structure epitopes that may lead to vaccination failure and reemergence of the disease. PMID:24977049

  18. Genetic Characterization of Infectious Bursal Disease Viruses Associated with Gumboro Outbreaks in Commercial Broilers from Asyut Province, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Moemen A.; Elzanaty, Kamal E. S.; Bakhit, Bakhit M.; Safwat, Marwa M.

    2014-01-01

    Ten infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) field strains were isolated from 15 broiler flocks located in various parts of Asyut, Egypt. Seven strains were subjected to comparative sequencing and phylogenetic analyses to help provide optimal control program for protection against IBDV infection. Sequence analysis of a 530 bp hypervariable region in the VP2 gene revealed that the rate of identity and homology was around 95.6~99.1%. Sequence characterization revealed the 7 strains identified as vvIBDV with the four amino acids residues typical of vvIBDV (242I, 256I, 294I, 299S). The BURSA-VAC vaccine was the nearest vaccine in sequence similarity to the local examined IBDV strains followed by CEVACIBDL then Bursine plus and Nobilis Gumboro indicating its probable success in the face of incoming outbreaks when using these vaccines. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the presence of three clusters for the examined strains and are grouped with reference very virulent IBDVs of European and Asian origin (Japanese and Hong Kong) strains suggesting the different ancestors of our isolates. The antigenic index showed a number of changes on the major and minor hydrophilic antigenic peaks of the virus surface structures indicating a new genetic evolution of the surface structure epitopes that may lead to vaccination failure and reemergence of the disease. PMID:24977049

  19. Molecular and Structural Bases for the Antigenicity of VP2 of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus▿

    PubMed Central

    Letzel, Tobias; Coulibaly, Fasseli; Rey, Felix A.; Delmas, Bernard; Jagt, Erik; van Loon, Adriaan A. M. W.; Mundt, Egbert

    2007-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), a member of the family Birnaviridae, is responsible for a highly contagious and economically important disease causing immunosuppression in chickens. IBDV variants isolated in the United States exhibit antigenic drift affecting neutralizing epitopes in the capsid protein VP2. To understand antigenic determinants of the virus, we have used a reverse-genetics approach to introduce selected amino acid changes—individually or in combination—into the VP2 gene of the classical IBDV strain D78. We thus generated a total of 42 mutants with changes in 8 amino acids selected by sequence comparison and their locations on loops PBC and PHI at the tip of the VP2 spikes, as shown by the crystal structure of the virion. The antibody reactivities of the mutants generated were assessed using a panel of five monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Our results show that a few amino acids of the projecting domain of VP2 control the reactivity pattern. Indeed, the binding of four out of the five MAbs analyzed here is affected by mutations in these loops. Furthermore, their importance is highlighted by the fact that some of the engineered mutants display identical reactivity patterns but have different growth phenotypes. Finally, this analysis shows that a new field strain isolated from a chicken flock in Belgium (Bel-IBDV) represents an IBDV variant with a hitherto unobserved antigenic profile, involving one change (P222S) in the PBC loop. Overall, our data provide important new insights for devising efficient vaccines that protect against circulating IBDV strains. PMID:17881448

  20. Detection of infectious bursal disease virus isolates with unknown antigenic properties by reverse genetics.

    PubMed

    Icard, Alan H; Sellers, Holly S; Mundt, Egbert

    2008-12-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) serotype 1 is the causative agent of a highly contagious immunosuppressive disease of young chickens. In the past, a number of antigenic, as well as pathogenic, subtypes have been described. The determination of the antigenic makeup of circulating strains is of vital interest to the poultry industry because changes in the antigenicity of circulating field strains have an impact on the use of vaccines. To obtain a more comprehensive overview of the relationship between the nucleotide and amino acid sequence and the antigenic makeup of field isolates, a system based on reverse genetics of IBDV was established. Using this approach, a database for field isolates from three different states in the United States (Georgia, Alabama, and Louisiana), consisting of nucleotide sequence, amino acid sequence, and a reaction pattern based on a panel of monoclonal antibodies, was established. The obtained results showed that phylogenic analysis, which is based on the similarity of sequences, would lead to false conclusions regarding a possible antigenic makeup of the particular isolate. Sequences of field samples were divided into three groups: 1) those that grouped with variant strain E/Del sequences but were antigenically different, 2) those that did not group with sequences of E/Del but were similar in their antigenic makeup, and 3) those that did not group with E/Del sequences and were antigenically different. In addition, using the reverse-genetics approach, a number of field isolates showed no reactivity with any of the used monoclonal antibodies, indicating that an unknown, antigenic subtype of IBDV serotype 1 is circulating in the field. PMID:19166049

  1. Molecular evidence for a geographically restricted population of infectious bursal disease viruses.

    PubMed

    Jackwood, Daral J; Stoute, Simone T

    2013-03-01

    A population of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) in northeast Ohio that appears to be geographically restricted was identified. Thirteen broiler farms containing a total of 36 houses were examined for the presence of IBDV. Twenty-four of the 36 houses were positive for IBDV, and of those viruses, 15 viruses from six different broiler farms formed a unique phylogenetic group. Nucleotide sequence analysis identified glutamic acid (E) at position 253 in all 15 viruses. Only one other virus in the GenBank database contained this mutation, and it was also from northeast Ohio. All 15 viruses from this study and the one identified in GenBank also had a unique VP1 sequence. The amino acids located at position 253 in VP2 are typically histidine (attenuated viruses) and glutamine (pathogenic viruses). Because amino acid 253 has been linked to pathogenicity in IBDV, two viruses from the E253 population were selected for pathogenicity studies. They were observed to be pathogenic in 4-wk-old specific-pathogen-free layer chicks. When these two viruses were used to challenge broilers from the parent flock that supplies the birds to all 13 broiler farms examined in this study, the viruses were able to break through the maternal immunity at 14 and 21 days of age but not at 7 days of age. A similar scenario was observed on the six broiler farms that had these viruses. The phylogeographic data suggest this population of IBDV has been restricted for more than 14 yr to northeast Ohio. Because commercially available classic and variant vaccines do not effectively control this population of IBDV, other alternatives are needed. PMID:23678730

  2. Single-tube, noninterrupted reverse transcription-PCR for detection of infectious bursal disease virus.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, L H; Ting, L J; Shien, J H; Shieh, H K

    1994-01-01

    An assay protocol based on single-tube, noninterrupted reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) for the detection of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is described. After the conditions for RT-PCR had been optimized, a primer set framing a region within the gene coding for IBDV VP2 protein was used to amplify a 318-bp fragment of the IBDV genome. Amplified product was detected with three strains of IBDV, whereas none was obtained from uninfected bursal tissue or seven unrelated avian viruses. The sensitivity of this RT-PCR was tested with purified viral RNA from three strains of IBDV. The detection limit was 10 fg in an ethidium bromide-stained gel. In addition, this assay system was used to detect IBDV in bursal-tissue specimens from commercially reared chickens. The identity of the amplified products from the tissue specimen preparation was determined by using a rapid, simple procedure in which internally nested, end-labeled probes were used. Images PMID:8051255

  3. Genotypic characterization of Indian isolates of infectious bursal disease virus strains by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.

    PubMed

    Priyadharsini, C V; Senthilkumar, T M A; Raja, P; Kumanan, K

    2016-03-01

    The reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) is used for the differentiation of classical virulent (cv), virulent (v) and very virulent (vv) strains of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) isolates from chicken bursal tissues in southern states of India. In the present study, six different isolates (MB11, HY12, PY12, BGE14, VCN14 and NKL14) of IBDV strains were subjected for genotyping along with vaccine virus (Georgia, intermediate strain) using RT-PCR for amplification of a 743 bp sequence in the hypervariable region of VP2 gene followed by restriction enzyme digestion with 5 different restriction enzymes (BspMI, SacI, HhaI, StuI and SspI). The RT-PCR products obtained from vvIBDV strains were digested by SspI enzyme except PY12, BGE14 and MB11 isolates. The SacI digested the isolate MB11, PY12 and the vaccine strain, but it did not cleave the very virulent isolates of IBDV. HhaI cleaved all the isolates with different restriction profile patterns. StuI digested all the vvIBDV isolates and BspMI was not able to differentiate field isolates from vaccine strain. Though RT-PCR combined with RFLP is a genotypic method, further confirmation of serotypes to distinguish the vvIBDV from cvIBDV has to be carried out using pathogenicity studies. PMID:26982465

  4. Recombinant infectious bursal disease virus expressing Newcastle disease virus (NDV) neutralizing epitope confers partial protection against virulent NDV challenge in chickens.

    PubMed

    Li, Kai; Gao, Li; Gao, Honglei; Qi, Xiaole; Gao, Yulong; Qin, Liting; Wang, Yongqiang; Wang, Xiaomei

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the regions in the infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) genome that are amenable to the introduction of a sequence encoding a virus-neutralizing epitope of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein were identified. By using the reverse genetics approach, insertions or substitutions of sequences encoding the NDV epitope were engineered in the exposed loops (PBC, PHI and [Formula: see text] ) of the VP2 capsid protein and the N terminus of the nonstructural VP5 protein as well as the pep7a and pep7b regions of the pVP2 precursor of a commonly used IBDV vaccine strain, Gt. Three recombinant IBDVs expressing the NDV epitopes were successfully rescued in the PBC, pep7b and VP5 regions and the expressed epitope was recognized by anti-HN antibodies. Genetic analysis showed that the IBDV recombinants carrying the NDV epitopes were stable in cell cultures and in chickens. Animal studies demonstrated that the IBDV recombinants were innocuous in chickens. Vaccination with the recombinant viruses generated antibody responses against both IBDV and NDV, and provided 70-80% protection against IBDV and 50-60% protection against NDV. These results indicate that the recombinant IBDV has the potential to serve as a novel vaccine vector for other pathogens. In future studies, it is worth considering research to improve IBDV vector vaccine to get complete protection and safety of animals and humans. PMID:24200519

  5. Outbreaks of Virulent Infectious Bursal Disease in Flocks of Battery Cage Brooding System of Commercial Chickens.

    PubMed

    Aliyu, H B; Sa'idu, L; Jamilu, A; Andamin, A D; Akpavie, S O

    2016-01-01

    Clinical and pathological investigations were conducted on outbreaks of infectious bursal disease (IBD) in pullets under brooding using the battery cage system in a commercial poultry farm in Kaduna, Nigeria. Two consecutive outbreaks of IBD on the same farm were studied. The onset of the disease and morbidity and mortality rates were recorded. Postmortem examinations were conducted and gross lesions recorded. Tissues were collected and fixed in 10% buffered formalin and processed for histopathological examinations. In the first outbreak, 80 to 100% of the chicks were affected at the age of 4 to 5 weeks and mortality rate was 95.8% and lasted for 9 days. In the second outbreak, the mortality rate was 43.3% and it also lasted for 9 days. At the onset of the disease, the birds were also 4-week-old like in case 1. The disease was diagnosed based on clinical signs, pathology, and agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID). Clinical signs, gross lesions, and histopathological findings were characteristic of virulent infectious bursal disease. After the first outbreak (case 1) the house was disinfected using polidine® (iodophor compound), V-ox® (inorganic peroxygen compounds), CID20® (quaternary ammonium chloride, aldehydes, and alcohol), terminator III® (phenols), and glutasan® (aldehyde and quaternary ammonium chloride). But they failed to eliminate the IBD virus from the poultry pen. PMID:27597990

  6. Outbreaks of Virulent Infectious Bursal Disease in Flocks of Battery Cage Brooding System of Commercial Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Sa'idu, L.; Jamilu, A.; Andamin, A. D.; Akpavie, S. O.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical and pathological investigations were conducted on outbreaks of infectious bursal disease (IBD) in pullets under brooding using the battery cage system in a commercial poultry farm in Kaduna, Nigeria. Two consecutive outbreaks of IBD on the same farm were studied. The onset of the disease and morbidity and mortality rates were recorded. Postmortem examinations were conducted and gross lesions recorded. Tissues were collected and fixed in 10% buffered formalin and processed for histopathological examinations. In the first outbreak, 80 to 100% of the chicks were affected at the age of 4 to 5 weeks and mortality rate was 95.8% and lasted for 9 days. In the second outbreak, the mortality rate was 43.3% and it also lasted for 9 days. At the onset of the disease, the birds were also 4-week-old like in case 1. The disease was diagnosed based on clinical signs, pathology, and agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID). Clinical signs, gross lesions, and histopathological findings were characteristic of virulent infectious bursal disease. After the first outbreak (case 1) the house was disinfected using polidine® (iodophor compound), V-ox® (inorganic peroxygen compounds), CID20® (quaternary ammonium chloride, aldehydes, and alcohol), terminator III® (phenols), and glutasan® (aldehyde and quaternary ammonium chloride). But they failed to eliminate the IBD virus from the poultry pen. PMID:27597990

  7. The genome of infectious bursal disease virus consists of two segments of double-stranded RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Müller, H; Scholtissek, C; Becht, H

    1979-01-01

    The RNA of infectious bursal disease virus was reexamined in a detailed analysis. It could be established that its genome consists of two segments of double-stranded RNA. The RNA is RNase resistant and has a sedimentation coefficient of 14S and a buoyant density of 1.62 g/ml. The purine/pyrimidine ratio is nearly 1; the guanine plus cytosine content is 55.3%; the Tm is 95.5 degrees C. The molecular weights of the two double-stranded segments were determined to be 2.2 x 10(6) and 2.5 x 10(6). Images PMID:229240

  8. Complete Genome Sequence Analysis of a Naturally Reassorted Infectious Bursal Disease Virus from India.

    PubMed

    Raja, P; Senthilkumar, T M A; Parthiban, M; Thangavelu, A; Gowri, A Mangala; Palanisammi, A; Kumanan, K

    2016-01-01

    The novel infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) isolate BGE14/ABT1/MVC/India is a very virulent IBDV that was isolated from broiler flocks in southern parts of India during 2014. Here, we report, for the first time in India, the complete genome sequence of BGE14/ABT1/MVC/India, a reassortment strain with segments A and B derived from a very virulent IBDV strain and an attenuated IBDV, respectively. The findings from this study provide additional insight into the genetic exchange between attenuated and very virulent strains of IBDV circulating in the field. PMID:27445389

  9. Complete Genome Sequence Analysis of a Naturally Reassorted Infectious Bursal Disease Virus from India

    PubMed Central

    Raja, P.; Parthiban, M.; Thangavelu, A.; Gowri, A. Mangala; Palanisammi, A.; Kumanan, K.

    2016-01-01

    The novel infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) isolate BGE14/ABT1/MVC/India is a very virulent IBDV that was isolated from broiler flocks in southern parts of India during 2014. Here, we report, for the first time in India, the complete genome sequence of BGE14/ABT1/MVC/India, a reassortment strain with segments A and B derived from a very virulent IBDV strain and an attenuated IBDV, respectively. The findings from this study provide additional insight into the genetic exchange between attenuated and very virulent strains of IBDV circulating in the field. PMID:27445389

  10. Histopathological and immunohistochemical diagnosis of infectious bursal disease in poultry birds

    PubMed Central

    Singh, J.; Banga, H. S.; Brar, R. S.; Singh, N. D.; Sodhi, S.; Leishangthem, G. D.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to diagnose infectious bursal disease (IBD) using gross, histopathological, and immunopathological approaches and to compare efficacy of immunohistochemical techniques with conventional diagnostic techniques. Materials and Methods: A total of 33 samples were collected from the six different poultry farms from Ludhiana and the nearby districts. Upon gross analysis of the necropsied birds, the relevant tissue samples such as bursa, kidney, junction of proventriculus and gizzard, heart, and muscles were then processed for histopathological and immunohistochemical studies. Results: Varied macroscopic changes were noted in bursa, characterized as swollen, hemorrhages to atrophy in size. Nonetheless, hemorrhages over thigh muscles were rarely seen. Histologically, the bursa showed prominent fibrotic and atrophic changes. Rarefaction of bursal follicles with intermittent infiltration of lympho-mononuclear cells with chronic cystic changes was additional changes, considered to be paramount for IBD. Expression and localization of IBD specific viral antigens were noticed mainly intracellular to the rarefied areas of bursal follicle section(s), in conjunction to inner lining of the cystic cavities of affected follicles. In addition, the junction of proventriculus and gizzard, the heart muscle, respiratory ciliated epithelium, and proventriculus also revealed positive expression to IBD virus (IBDV) antigen. Advanced immunopathological techniques, i.e., immunofluorescence further testified the evidence of antigen as positive green signal within affected follicles. Further consideration to the reliability of various techniques employed, positive correlation (r=0.64623) was emerged out with conventional pathological scoring. Conclusion: It is concluded that the bursa acts as an organ of choice for demonstrating IBDV antigen for specific diagnosis of disease using immunohistochemistry (IHC), and IHC staining is a precise, specific, rapid, and

  11. A neutralizing scFv antibody against infectious bursal disease virus screened by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yao; Xie, Zhi-Gang

    2015-09-01

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is considered a vital viral disease that threatens the poultry industry worldwide. In this study, a recombinant single chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody library derived from chickens immunized with VP2 protein of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) was constructed. The library was subjected to three rounds of screening by flow cytometry (FCM) against VP2/IBDV through a bacteria display technology, resulting in the enrichment of scFvs. Three scFv clones with different fluorescence intensity were obtained by colony pick up at random. The obtained scFv antibodies were expressed and purified. Relative affinity assay showed the three clones had different sensitivity to VP2, in accordance with fluorescence activity cell sorting analysis (FACS). The potential use of the isolated IBDV-specific scFv antibodies was demonstrated by the successful application of these antibodies in Western blotting and ELISA assay. What's more, in vitro neutralization measurement showed that one of the three isolated antibodies possessed the neutralization function against IBDV. This study provides new strategies for screening of antibody library, and scFv antibodies isolated in this study may be utilized as lead candidates for further development of diagnostic or therapeutic antibodies for detection and treatment of IBDV infection. PMID:26003676

  12. Inactivation of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Through Composting of Litter from Poultry Houses.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Rocio; Badcoe, Lyndon M; Williams, Cheryl; Bary, Andrew I

    2016-06-01

    Very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) was diagnosed in a pullet farm in Washington in 2014. Infectious bursal disease virus is resistant to many environmental stresses and often persists on farms for months. There have been conflicting reports as to whether composting can destroy vvIBDV in the manure. This project investigated the composting of litter from the affected house using an aerated static pile to inactivate the virus. Two weeks before the affected pullet flocks were moved to the layer house, specific-pathogen-free (SPF) birds were placed in the barns. Ten days after they were placed, three SPF birds died and were positive for vvIBDV. Thirty percent of the SPF birds were positive for vvIBDV. After the pullets were moved, at 20 wk of age, the litter in the house was composted using the aerated static pile method. The pile was maintained at above 55 C for 4 wk. After this time, 30 additional SPF birds were placed on the composted material. Two weeks later, the birds were healthy and there was no evidence of vvIBDV. The subsequent pullet flock did not break with vvIBDV. These results demonstrate that this composting method can be used to decontaminate the litter from vvIBDV and help prevent the spread of vvIBDV. PMID:27309296

  13. Phylogenetic analysis of the polyprotein coding region of an infectious South African bursal disease virus (IBDV) strain.

    PubMed

    Vukea, Phillia R; Willows-Munro, Sandi; Horner, Roger F; Coetzer, Theresa H T

    2014-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) causes Gumboro disease, which is highly contagious and immunosuppressive in young chickens. A virulent form of IBDV reached South Africa in 1989 and to date there has been little molecular information available for this strain. In this study, the polyprotein coding region of the South African strain SA-KZN95 was sequenced and analysed along with 52 representative sequences of other serotype I and II strains. We explored the relative impact of recombination on phylogenetic reconstruction using a multidimensional scaling approach. Phylogenetic analyses consistently placed the South African isolate within the very virulent IBDV clade. Selection analyses were also conducted to identify evolutionarily relevant amino acid residues. Previously, 19 residues in the polyprotein were shown to be potentially diagnostic for the different IBDV pathotypes. This study identified an additional two unique residues in the polyprotein which may be used as genetic signatures in future viral identifications. Better strain identification would aid in the development and application of vaccines. PMID:24291011

  14. Overexpression of recombinant infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) capsid protein VP2 in the middle silk gland of transgenic silkworm.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hanfu; Yuan, Lin; Wang, Feng; Wang, Yuancheng; Wang, Riyuan; Song, Chunnuan; Xia, Qingyou; Zhao, Ping

    2014-10-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is the causative agent of a highly contagious disease affecting young chickens and causes serious economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. Development of subunit vaccine using its major caspid protein, VP2, is one of the promising strategies to protect against IBDV. This study aim to test the feasibility of using silkworm to produce recombinant VP2 protein (rVP2) derived from a very virulent strain of IBDV (vvIBDV). A total of 16 transgenic silkworm lines harboring a codon-optimized VP2 gene driven by the sericin1 promoter were generated and analyzed. The results showed that the rVP2 was synthesized in the middle silk gland of all lines and secreted into their cocoons. The content of rVP2 in the cocoon of each line was ranged from 0.07 to 16.10 % of the total soluble proteins. The rVP2 was purified from 30 g cocoon powders with a yield of 3.33 mg and a purity >90 %. Further analysis indicated that the rVP2 was able to tolerate high temperatures up to 80 °C, and exhibited specific immunogenic activity in mice. To our knowledge, this is the first report of overexpressing rVP2 in the middle silk gland of transgenic silkworm, which demonstrates the capability of silkworm as an efficient tool to produce recombinant immunogens for use in new vaccines against animal diseases. PMID:25106848

  15. Isolation of novel variants of infectious bursal disease virus from different outbreaks in Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Morla, Sudhir; Deka, Pankaj; Kumar, Sachin

    2016-04-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a highly infectious disease of young chicken that predominantly affects the immune system. In the present study, we are reporting first comprehensive study of IBDV outbreaks from the Northeastern part of India. Northeast India shares a porous border with four different countries; and as a rule any outbreak in the neighboring countries substantially affects the poultry population in the adjoining states. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the VP2 gene of the IBDV isolates from the Northeastern part of India suggested the extreme virulent nature of the virus. The virulent marker amino acids (A222, I242, Q253, I256 and S299) in the hypervariable region of the Northeastern isolates were found identical with the reported very virulent strains of IBDV. A unique insertion of I/L294V was recorded in all the isolates of the Northeastern India. The study will be useful in understanding the circulating pathotypes of IBDV in India. PMID:26854869

  16. Vaccines in dermatological diseases.

    PubMed

    Magel, G D; Mendoza, N; Digiorgio, C M; Haitz, K A; Lapolla, W J; Tyring, S K

    2011-06-01

    Vaccines have been a cornerstone in medicine and public health since their inception in the 18th century by Edward Jenner. Today, greater than 20 vaccines are used worldwide for the prevention of both viral and bacterial diseases. This article will review the vaccines used for the following dermatological diseases: smallpox, measles, mumps, rubella, chickenpox, shingles, and human papillomavirus. PMID:21566552

  17. Protection from infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV)-induced immunosuppression by immunization with a fowlpox recombinant containing IBDV-VP2.

    PubMed

    Butter, C; Sturman, T D M; Baaten, B J G; Davison, T F

    2003-12-01

    Immunosuppression resulting from infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) infection has critical health and welfare implications for birds, yet it is incompletely understood and largely overlooked as a measure of vaccine efficacy. The ability of a fowlpoxvirus recombinant (fpIBD1) containing the VP2 protein of IBDV to protect against IBDV-induced immunosuppression was investigated by measuring the convalescent chicken's ability to mount antibody responses to IBDV infection, and to inactivated IBDV and salmonella vaccines. An immunoglobulin (Ig)M response, but no IgG response, occurred after IBDV infection. Uninfected chickens produced a sustained IgM response and some IgG response to inactivated IBDV vaccine, while in previously infected birds only a transient IgM response was detected. A moderate suppression of the response to a commercial salmonella vaccine was evident after IBDV infection, which was largely prevented by immunization with fpIBD1. These results indicate that measurement of immunosuppression could be a useful strategy for assessing the efficacy of vaccines to protect against the consequences of IBDV infection. PMID:14676010

  18. Infectious bursal disease virus antibodies in eider ducks and Herring Gulls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hollmen, T.; Franson, J.C.; Docherty, D.E.; Kilpi, Mikael; Hario, Martti; Creekmore, L.H.; Petersen, M.R.

    2000-01-01

    We measured antibodies to infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) in blood of nesting Common Eider (Somateria mollissima) females and immature Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus) in the Baltic Sea, and in blood of Spectacled Eider (Somateria fischeri) females nesting in a remote area of western Alaska. Positive (??? 1:16) IBDV titers occurred in 75% of the eiders and 45% of the Herring Gull chicks. In eiders, the prevalence of positive titers differed among locations. We found no evidence that IBDV exposure impaired the immune function of Herring Gull chicks, based on their response to inoculation of sheep red blood cells. We suggest that eider ducks and Herring Gulls have been exposed to IBDV, even in locations where contact with poultry is unlikely. The presence of this virus in wild bird populations is of concern because it causes mortality of up to 30% in susceptible poultry.

  19. A second form of infectious bursal disease virus-associated tubule contains VP4.

    PubMed Central

    Granzow, H; Birghan, C; Mettenleiter, T C; Beyer, J; Köllner, B; Mundt, E

    1997-01-01

    Preparations of density gradient-purified infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) were found to contain full and empty icosahedral virions, type I tubules with a diameter of about 60 nm, and type II tubules 24 to 26 nm in diameter. By immunoelectron microscopy we demonstrate that virions and both types of tubular structures specifically react with anti-IBDV serum. In infected cells intracytoplasmic and intranuclear type II tubules reacted exclusively with an anti-VP4 monoclonal antibody, as did type II tubules in virion preparations. The immunofluorescence pattern with the anti-VP4 antibody correlated with electron microscopical findings. Neither purified extracellular nor intracellular virions were labeled with the anti-VP4 MAb. Our data show that the type II tubules contain VP4 and suggest that VP4 is not part of the virus particle. PMID:9343252

  20. Cell culture attenuation eliminates rMd5deltaMeq-induced bursal and thymic atrophy and renders the mutant virus as an effective and safe vaccine against Marek's disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease virus (MDV) encodes a basic leucine zipper oncoprotein, meq, which structurally resembles jun/fos family of transcriptional activators. It has been clearly demonstrated that deletion of meq results in loss of transformation and oncogenic capacity of MDV. The rMd5'meq virus provided s...

  1. Induction of protective immunity in chickens immunized with plant-made chimeric Bamboo mosaic virus particles expressing very virulent Infectious bursal disease virus antigen.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tsung-Hsien; Chen, Ten-Hong; Hu, Chung-Chi; Liao, Jia-Teh; Lee, Chin-Wei; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Lin, Maw-Yeong; Liu, Hung-Jen; Wang, Min-Ying; Lin, Na-Sheng; Hsu, Yau-Heiu

    2012-06-01

    Very virulent Infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) causes a highly contagious disease in young chickens and leads to significant economic loss in the poultry industry. Effective new vaccines are urgently needed. Autonomously replicating plant virus-based vector provides attractive means for producing chimeric virus particles (CVPs) in plants that can be developed into vaccines. In this study, we demonstrate the potential for vaccine development of Bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV) epitope-presentation system, where the antigen from vvIBDV VP2 was fused to the N-terminus of BaMV coat protein. Accordingly, an infections plasmid, pBIBD2, was constructed. Inoculation of the recombinant BaMV clone pBIBD2 enabled the generation of chimeric virus, BIBD2, and stable expression of IBDV VP2 antigen on its coat protein. After intramuscular immunization with BIBD2 CVPs, chickens produced antibodies against IBDV and were protected from vvIBDV (V263/TW strain) challenges. These results corroborate the feasibility of BaMV-based CVP platform in plants for the development and production of vaccines against IBDV. PMID:22406128

  2. Vaccination for Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oehen, Stephan; Hengartner, Hans; Zinkernagel, Rolf M.

    1991-01-01

    Recombinant virus vaccines that express a limited number of epitopes are currently being developed to prevent disease by changing the relative balance between viral spread and the immune response. Some circumstances, however, were found in infections with a noncytopathic virus in which vaccination caused disease; sensitive parameters included the genetic background of the host, the time or dose of infection, and the constituents of the vaccine. Thus, immunopathologic damage by T cells may be an unwanted consequence of vaccination with the new types of peptide or recombinant vaccines that are being investigated for the human immunodeficiency viruses and other pathogens.

  3. A molecular epidemiology study based on VP2 gene sequences reveals that a new genotype of infectious bursal disease virus is dominantly prevalent in Italy.

    PubMed

    Lupini, Caterina; Giovanardi, Davide; Pesente, Patrizia; Bonci, Michela; Felice, Viviana; Rossi, Giulia; Morandini, Emilio; Cecchinato, Mattia; Catelli, Elena

    2016-08-01

    A distinctive infectious bursal disease (IBD) virus genotype (ITA) was detected in IBD-live vaccinated broilers in Italy without clinical signs of IBD. It was isolated in specific-pathogen-free eggs and molecularly characterized in the hypervariable region of the virus protein (VP) 2. Phylogenetic analysis showed that ITA strains clustered separately from other homologous reference sequences of IBDVs, either classical or very virulent, retrieved from GenBank or previously reported in Italy, and from vaccine strains. The new genotype shows peculiar molecular characteristics in key positions of the VP2 hypervariable region, which affect charged or potentially glycosylated amino acids virtually associated with important changes in virus properties. Characterization of 41 IBDV strains detected in Italy between 2013 and 2014 showed that ITA is emergent in densely populated poultry areas of Italy, being 68% of the IBDV detections made during routine diagnostic activity over a two-year period, in spite of the immunity induced by large-scale vaccination. Four very virulent strains (DV86) and one classical strain (HPR2), together with eight vaccine strains, were also detected. The currently available epidemiological and clinical data do not allow the degree of pathogenicity of the ITA genotype to be defined. Only in vivo experimental pathogenicity studies conducted in secure isolation conditions, through the evaluation of clinical signs and macro/microscopic lesions, will clarify conclusively the virulence of the new Italian genotype. PMID:27108539

  4. Eliciting specific humoral immunity from a plasmid DNA encoding infectious bursal disease virus polyprotein gene fused with avian influenza virus hemagglutinin gene.

    PubMed

    Mosley, Yung-Yi C; Hsieh, Ming Kun; Wu, Ching Ching; Lin, Tsang Long

    2015-01-01

    DNA vaccine coding for infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) polyprotein gene and that for avian influenza virus (AIV) hemagglutinin (HA) gene have been shown to induce immunity and provide protection against the respective disease. The present study was carried out to determine whether an IBDV polyprotein gene-based DNA fused with AIV HA gene could trigger immune response to both IBDV and AIV. After transfection, VP2 and HA were detected in the cytoplasm and at cell membrane, respectively, by immunofluorescent antibody double staining method, suggesting the fusion strategy did not affect the location of protein expression. VP4 cleavage between VP2 and HA was confirmed by Western blot, indicating the fusion strategy did not affect VP4 function in transfected cells. After vaccination in chickens, the DNA construct VP24-HA/pcDNA induced ELISA and virus neutralizing antibodies against VP2 and hemagglutination inhibition antibody against the HA subtype. The results indicated that a single plasmid construct carrying IBDV VP243 gene-based DNA fused with AIV HA gene can elicit specific antibody responses to both IBDV and AIV by DNA vaccination. PMID:25445883

  5. [Does vaccination cause disease?].

    PubMed

    Zingg, W

    2005-10-01

    Not many inventions in medical history have influenced our society as much as vaccination. The concept is old and simple. When Edward Jenner published his work on cowpox, "variolation" was quite common. In this procedure, pus of patients with mild smallpox was transferred to healthy individuals. Meanwhile smallpox has been eradicated worldwide. Diseases such as poliomyelitis, diphtheria or tetanus almost disappeared in industrialized countries. The same happened with epiglottitis and meningitis due to Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) after vaccination against Hib was introduced in Switzerland in 1990. This success was possible because of routine vaccination. Immunization is a save procedure and adverse events are much lower than complications in the natural course of the prevented diseases. However vaccinations were accused to cause diseases themselves such as asthma, multiple sclerosis, diabetes mellitus, chronic arthritis or autism. Hitherto no large cohort study or case-control-study was able to proof responsibility of vaccines in any of these diseases. Public media are eager to publish early data from surveillance reports or case reports which are descriptive and never a principle of cause and effect. In large controlled trials there was no proof that vaccination causes asthma, hepatitis-B-vaccination causes multiple sclerosis or macrophagic myofasciitis, Hib-vaccination causes diabetes mellitus, rubella-vaccination causes chronic arthritis, measles-mumps-rubella-vaccination causes gait disturbance or thiomersal causes autism. These results are rarely published in newspapers or television. Thus, many caring parents are left with negative ideas about immunization. Looking for the best for their children they withhold vaccination and give way to resurgence of preventable diseases in our communities. This must be prevented. There is more evidence than expected that vaccination is safe and this can and must be told to parents. PMID:16277033

  6. Very virulent infectious bursal disease virus produces more-severe disease and lesions in specific pathogen free (SPF) Leghorn than in SPF broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is an important pathogen of chickens causing negative economic impacts in poultry industries worldwide. IBDV has a variable range of virulence, with very virulent (vvIBDV) strains being responsible for the greatest losses from mortality and decreased performanc...

  7. Infectious bursal disease virus changes the potassium current properties of chicken embryo fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Repp, H; Nieper, H; Draheim, H J; Koschinski, A; Müller, H; Dreyer, F

    1998-07-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is the causative agent of an economically significant poultry disease. IBDV infection leads to apoptosis in chicken embryos and cell cultures. Since changes in cellular ion fluxes during apoptosis have been reported, we investigated the membrane ion currents of chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) inoculated with the Cu-1 strain of IBDV using the patch-clamp recording technique. Incubation of CEFs with IBDV led to marked changes in their K+ outward current properties, with respect to both the kinetics of activation and inactivation and the Ca2+ dependence of the activation. The changes occurred in a time-dependent manner and were complete after 8 h. UV-treated noninfectious virions induced the same K+ current changes as live IBDV. When CEFs were inoculated with IBDV after pretreatment with a neutralizing antibody, about 30% of the cells showed a normal K+ current, whereas the rest exhibited K+ current properties identical to or closely resembling those of IBDV-infected cells. Incubation of CEFs with culture supernatant from IBDV-infected cells from which the virus particles were removed had no influence on the K+ current. Our data strongly suggest that the K+ current changes induced by IBDV are not due to virus replication, but are the result of attachment and/or membrane penetration. Possibly, the altered K+ current may delay the apoptotic process in CEFs after IBDV infection. PMID:9657954

  8. Infectious bursal disease: seroprevalence and associated risk factors in major poultry rearing areas of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Jenbreie, Shiferaw; Ayelet, Gelagay; Gelaye, Esayas; Kebede, Fekadu; Lynch, Stacey E; Negussie, Haileleul

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted in eight districts of Ethiopia with the objectives of determining the seroprevalence and associated risk factors of infectious bursal disease (IBD). From the total of 2,597 chicken serum samples examined using ELISA, 83.1 % were found positive. The highest seroprevalence was found at Mekele (90.3 %) while the lowest was recorded at Gondar district (69.8 %). These differences among the study areas were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Highest seroprevalence was found in crossbreed of chicken (91.4 %) while the lowest was recorded in indigenous breed of chicken (81.4 %). This difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05) among the three breeds of chickens, but sex was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The seroprevalence of the disease was found high in young (≤ 8 weeks) age group (86.6 %) while the lowest prevalence was recorded in adults (>8 weeks) (72 %). This is also statistically significant (p < 0.05) between young and adult age groups. The prevalence of IBD in different production system indicated that higher seroprevalence was recorded in intensive production system (85.9 %) while the lowest was recorded in extensive production system (81.6 %). This difference is also statistically significant (p < 0.05). PMID:22639033

  9. Virus-like particles of hepatitis B virus core protein containing five mimotopes of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) protect chickens against IBDV.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-shan; Ouyang, Wei; Liu, Xiao-juan; He, Kong-wang; Yu, Sheng-qing; Zhang, Hai-bin; Fan, Hong-jie; Lu, Cheng-ping

    2012-03-01

    Current infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) vaccines suffer from maternal antibody interference and mimotope vaccines might be an alternative. Previously we demonstrated an IBDV VP2 five-mimotope polypeptide, 5EPIS, elicited protective immunity in chickens. In the current study, the 5epis gene was inserted into a plasmid carrying human hepatitis B virus core protein (HBc) gene at its major immunodominant region site. The recombinant gene was efficiently expressed in Escherichia coli to produce chimeric protein HBc-5EPIS which self-assembles to virus-like particles (VLP). Two-week old specific-pathogen-free chickens were immunized intramuscularly with HBc-5EPIS VLP or 5EPIS polypeptide without adjuvant (50 μg/injection) on day 0, 7, 14 and 21. Anti-5EPIS antibody was first detected on day 7 and day 21 in HBc-5EPIS and 5EPIS groups, respectively; on day 28, anti-5EPIS titers reached 12,800 or 1600 by ELISA, and 3200 or 800 by virus neutralization assay in HBc-5EPIS and 5EPIS groups, respectively. No anti-5EPIS antibody was detected in the buffer control group throughout the experiment. Challenge on day 28 with a virulent IBDV strain (GX8/99) resulted in 100%, 40.0% and 26.7% survival for chickens immunized with HBc-5EPIS, 5EPIS and buffer, respectively. These data suggest epitope presentation on chimeric VLP is a promising approach for improving mimotope vaccines for IBDV. PMID:22285269

  10. Exchange of the C-Terminal Part of VP3 from Very Virulent Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Results in an Attenuated Virus with a Unique Antigenic Structure

    PubMed Central

    Boot, Hein J.; ter Huurne, A. Agnes H. M.; Hoekman, Arjan J. W.; Pol, Jan M.; Gielkens, Arno L. J.; Peeters, Ben P. H.

    2002-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is the major viral pathogen in the poultry industry. Live attenuated serotype 1 vaccine strains are commonly used to protect susceptible chickens during their first 6 weeks of life. Wild-type serotype 1 IBDV strains are highly pathogenic only in chickens, whereas serotype 2 strains are apathogenic in chickens and other birds. Here we describe the replacement of the genomic double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) encoding the N- or C-terminal part of VP3 of serotype 1 very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV) (isolate D6948) with the corresponding part of serotype 2 (isolate TY89) genomic dsRNA. The modified virus containing the C-terminal part of serotype 2 VP3 significantly reduced the virulence in specific-pathogen-free chickens, without affecting the distinct bursa tropism of serotype 1 IBDV strains. Furthermore, by using serotype-specific antibodies we were able to distinguish bursas infected with wild-type vvIBDV from bursas infected with the modified vvIBDV. We are currently evaluating the potential of this recombinant strain as an attenuated live vaccine that induces a unique serological response (i.e., an IBDV marker vaccine). PMID:12239311

  11. Renal Disease and Adult Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources for Healthcare Professionals Renal Disease and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccines are ... have immunity to this disease Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...

  12. Liver Disease and Adult Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources for Healthcare Professionals Liver Disease and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccines are ... have immunity to this disease Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...

  13. Molecular characteristics and evolutionary analysis of a very virulent infectious bursal disease virus.

    PubMed

    Li, Zan; Qi, XiaoLe; Ren, XianGang; Cui, Lei; Wang, XiaoMei; Zhu, Ping

    2015-08-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) poses a significant threat to the poultry industry. Viral protein 2 (VP2), the major structural protein of IBDV, has been subjected to frequent mutations that have imparted tremendous genetic diversity to the virus. To determine how amino acid mutations may affect the virulence of IBDV, we built a structural model of VP2 of a very virulent strain of IBDV identified in China, vvIBDV Gx, and performed a molecular dynamics simulation of the interaction between virulence sites. The study showed that the amino acid substitutions that distinguish vvIBDV from attenuated IBDV (H253Q and T284A) favor a hydrophobic and flexible conformation of β-barrel loops in VP2, which could promote interactions between the virus and potential IBDV-specific receptors. Population sequence analysis revealed that the IBDV strains prevalent in East Asia show a significant signal of positive selection at virulence sites 253 and 284. In addition, a signal of co-evolution between sites 253 and 284 was identified. These results suggest that changes in the virulence of IBDV may result from both the interaction and the co-evolution of multiple amino acid substitutions at virulence sites. PMID:26245145

  14. Cyclophilin A Interacts with Viral VP4 and Inhibits the Replication of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Nian; Zhang, Lizhou; Chen, Yuming; Lu, Zhen; Gao, Li; Wang, Yongqiang; Gao, Yulong; Gao, Honglei; Cui, Hongyu; Li, Kai; Liu, Changjun; Zhang, Yanping; Qi, Xiaole; Wang, Xiaomei

    2015-01-01

    Nonstructural protein VP4, a serine protease of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) that catalyzes the hydrolysis of polyprotein pVP2-VP4-VP3 to form the viral proteins VP2, VP4, and VP3, is essential to the replication of IBDV. However, the interacting partners of VP4 in host cells and the effects of the interaction on the IBDV lifecycle remain incompletely elucidated. In this study, using the yeast two-hybrid system, the putative VP4-interacting partner cyclophilin A (CypA) was obtained from a chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) expression library. CypA was further confirmed to interact with VP4 of IBDV using co-immunoprecipitation (CO-IP), GST pull-down, and confocal microscopy assays. Moreover, we found that the overexpression of CypA suppressed IBDV replication, whereas the knock-down of CypA by small interfering RNAs promoted the replication of IBDV. Taken together, our findings indicate that the host cell protein CypA interacts with viral VP4 and inhibits the replication of IBDV. PMID:26090438

  15. Both genome segments contribute to the pathogenicity of very virulent infectious bursal disease virus.

    PubMed

    Escaffre, Olivier; Le Nouën, Cyril; Amelot, Michel; Ambroggio, Xavier; Ogden, Kristen M; Guionie, Olivier; Toquin, Didier; Müller, Hermann; Islam, Mohammed R; Eterradossi, Nicolas

    2013-03-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) causes an economically significant disease of chickens worldwide. Very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV) strains have emerged and induce as much as 60% mortality. The molecular basis for vvIBDV pathogenicity is not understood, and the relative contributions of the two genome segments, A and B, to this phenomenon are not known. Isolate 94432 has been shown previously to be genetically related to vvIBDVs but exhibits atypical antigenicity and does not cause mortality. Here the full-length genome of 94432 was determined, and a reverse genetics system was established. The molecular clone was rescued and exhibited the same antigenicity and reduced pathogenicity as isolate 94432. Genetically modified viruses derived from 94432, whose vvIBDV consensus nucleotide sequence was restored in segment A and/or B, were produced, and their pathogenicity was assessed in specific-pathogen-free chickens. We found that a valine (position 321) that modifies the most exposed part of the capsid protein VP2 critically modified the antigenicity and partially reduced the pathogenicity of 94432. However, a threonine (position 276) located in the finger domain of the virus polymerase (VP1) contributed even more significantly to attenuation. This threonine is partially exposed in a hydrophobic groove on the VP1 surface, suggesting possible interactions between VP1 and another, as yet unidentified molecule at this amino acid position. The restored vvIBDV-like pathogenicity was associated with increased replication and lesions in the thymus and spleen. These results demonstrate that both genome segments influence vvIBDV pathogenicity and may provide new targets for the attenuation of vvIBDVs. PMID:23269788

  16. Both Genome Segments Contribute to the Pathogenicity of Very Virulent Infectious Bursal Disease Virus

    PubMed Central

    Escaffre, Olivier; Le Nouën, Cyril; Amelot, Michel; Ambroggio, Xavier; Ogden, Kristen M.; Guionie, Olivier; Toquin, Didier; Müller, Hermann; Islam, Mohammed R.

    2013-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) causes an economically significant disease of chickens worldwide. Very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV) strains have emerged and induce as much as 60% mortality. The molecular basis for vvIBDV pathogenicity is not understood, and the relative contributions of the two genome segments, A and B, to this phenomenon are not known. Isolate 94432 has been shown previously to be genetically related to vvIBDVs but exhibits atypical antigenicity and does not cause mortality. Here the full-length genome of 94432 was determined, and a reverse genetics system was established. The molecular clone was rescued and exhibited the same antigenicity and reduced pathogenicity as isolate 94432. Genetically modified viruses derived from 94432, whose vvIBDV consensus nucleotide sequence was restored in segment A and/or B, were produced, and their pathogenicity was assessed in specific-pathogen-free chickens. We found that a valine (position 321) that modifies the most exposed part of the capsid protein VP2 critically modified the antigenicity and partially reduced the pathogenicity of 94432. However, a threonine (position 276) located in the finger domain of the virus polymerase (VP1) contributed even more significantly to attenuation. This threonine is partially exposed in a hydrophobic groove on the VP1 surface, suggesting possible interactions between VP1 and another, as yet unidentified molecule at this amino acid position. The restored vvIBDV-like pathogenicity was associated with increased replication and lesions in the thymus and spleen. These results demonstrate that both genome segments influence vvIBDV pathogenicity and may provide new targets for the attenuation of vvIBDVs. PMID:23269788

  17. Vaccination against Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Fettelschoss, Antonia; Zabel, Franziska; Bachmann, Martin F

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer disease is a devastating chronic disease without adequate therapy. More than 10 years ago, it was demonstrated in transgenic mouse models that vaccination may be a novel, disease-modifying therapy for Alzheimer. Subsequent clinical development has been a roller-coaster with some positive and many negative news. Here, we would like to summarize evidence that next generation vaccines optimized for old people and focusing on patients with mild disease stand a good chance to proof efficacious for the treatment of Alzheimer. PMID:24535580

  18. Further evidence for the association of distinct amino acid residues with in vitro and in vivo growth of infectious bursal disease virus.

    PubMed

    Noor, M; Mahmud, M S; Ghose, P R; Roy, U; Nooruzzaman, M; Chowdhury, E H; Das, P M; Islam, M R; Müller, H

    2014-04-01

    A cell-culture-adapted reverse genetics strain of very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) of chickens, designated as BD-3tcC, having four amino acid substitutions (Gln253His, Asp279Asn, Ala284Thr and Ser330Arg) in the capsid protein VP2 was tested for its genetic stability during serial passage in chickens and chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cell culture. Results of in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated that all four introduced mutations in BD-3tcC remained stable during serial passage in CEF cell culture, but during passage in chickens, amino acid residues at position 253 and 284 reverted from histidine to glutamine and threonine to alanine, respectively. In a parallel experiment, the same substitutions also occurred in a conventionally attenuated vaccine strain D-78 on serial passage in chickens. However, no reversion or substitution took place at positions 279 and 330 during in vivo passage of the mutant virus BD-3tcC or vaccine virus D-78. The findings provide conclusive evidence that while IBDV requires histidine and threonine at positions 253 and 284 for cell culture adaptation, glutamine and alanine at these positions are selected preferentially during in vivo replication. PMID:24136723

  19. The Maturation Process of pVP2 Requires Assembly of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Capsids

    PubMed Central

    Chevalier, Christophe; Lepault, Jean; Erk, Inge; Da Costa, Bruno; Delmas, Bernard

    2002-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a nonenveloped avian virus with a two-segment double-stranded RNA genome. Its T=13 icosahedral capsid is most probably assembled with 780 subunits of VP2 and 600 copies of VP3 and has a diameter of about 60 nm. VP1, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, resides inside the viral particle. Using a baculovirus expression system, we first observed that expression of the pVP2-VP4-VP3 polyprotein encoded by the genomic segment IBDA results mainly in the formation of tubules with a diameter of about 50 nm and composed of pVP2, the precursor of VP2. Very few virus-like particles (VLPs) and VP4 tubules with a diameter of about 25 nm were also identified. The inefficiency of VLP assembly was further investigated by expression of additional IBDA-derived constructs. Expression of pVP2 without any other polyprotein components results in the formation of isometric particles with a diameter of about 30 nm. VLPs were observed mainly when a large exogeneous polypeptide sequence (the green fluorescent protein sequence) was fused to the VP3 C-terminal domain. Large numbers of VLPs were visualized by electron microscopy, and single particles were shown to be fluorescent by standard and confocal microscopy analysis. Moreover, the final maturation process converting pVP2 into the VP2 mature form was observed on generated VLPs. We therefore conclude that the correct scaffolding of the VP3 can be artificially induced to promote the formation of VLPs and that the final processing of pVP2 to VP2 is controlled by this particular assembly. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the engineering of a morphogenesis switch to control a particular type of capsid protein assembly. PMID:11836416

  20. Different Domains of the RNA Polymerase of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Contribute to Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Le Nouën, Cyril; Toquin, Didier; Müller, Hermann; Raue, Rüdiger; Kean, Katherine M.; Langlois, Patrick; Cherbonnel, Martine; Eterradossi, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Background Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a pathogen of worldwide significance to the poultry industry. IBDV has a bi-segmented double-stranded RNA genome. Segments A and B encode the capsid, ribonucleoprotein and non-structural proteins, or the virus polymerase (RdRp), respectively. Since the late eighties, very virulent (vv) IBDV strains have emerged in Europe inducing up to 60% mortality. Although some progress has been made in understanding the molecular biology of IBDV, the molecular basis for the pathogenicity of vvIBDV is still not fully understood. Methodology, Principal Findings Strain 88180 belongs to a lineage of pathogenic IBDV phylogenetically related to vvIBDV. By reverse genetics, we rescued a molecular clone (mc88180), as pathogenic as its parent strain. To study the molecular basis for 88180 pathogenicity, we constructed and characterized in vivo reassortant or mosaic recombinant viruses derived from the 88180 and the attenuated Cu-1 IBDV strains. The reassortant virus rescued from segments A of 88180 (A88) and B of Cu-1 (BCU1) was milder than mc88180 showing that segment B is involved in 88180 pathogenicity. Next, the exchange of different regions of BCU1 with their counterparts in B88 in association with A88 did not fully restore a virulence equivalent to mc88180. This demonstrated that several regions if not the whole B88 are essential for the in vivo pathogenicity of 88180. Conclusion, Significance The present results show that different domains of the RdRp, are essential for the in vivo pathogenicity of IBDV, independently of the replication efficiency of the mosaic viruses. PMID:22253687

  1. Inhibition of infectious bursal disease virus by vector delivered SiRNA in cell culture.

    PubMed

    Sahare, Amol Ashok; Bedekar, Megha Kadam; Jain, Sudhir Kumar; Singh, Azad; Singh, Sanjeev; Sarkhel, Bikas Chandra

    2015-01-01

    Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD) is major threat to poultry industry. It causes severe immunosuppression and mortality in chicken generally at 3 to 6 weeks of age. RNA intereference (RNAi) emerges as a potent gene regulatory tool in last few years. The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of RNAi to inhibit the IBD virus (IDBV) replication in-vitro. VP2 gene of virus encodes protein involved in capsid formation, cell entry and induction of protective immune responses against it. Thus, VP2 gene of IBDV is the candidate target for the molecular techniques applied for IBDV detection and inhibition assay. In this study, IBDV was isolated from field cases and confirmed by RT-PCR. The virus was then adapted on chicken embryo fibroblast cells (CEF) in which it showed severe cytopathic effects (CPE). The short hairpin RNA (shRNAs) constructs homologous to the VP2 gene were designed and one, having maximum score and fulfilling maximum Reynolds criteria, was selected for evaluation of effective inhibition. Selected shRNA construct (i.e., VP2-shRNA) was observed to be the most effective for inhibiting VP2 gene expression. Real time PCR analysis was performed to measure the relative expression of VP2 gene in different experimental groups. The VP2 gene was less expressed in virus infected cells co-transfected with VP2-shRNA as compared to mock transfected cells and IBDV+ cells (control) at dose 1.6 µ g. The result showed ∼95% efficient down regulation of VP2 gene mRNA in VP2-shRNA treated cells. These findings suggested that designed shRNA construct achieved high level of inhibition of VP2 gene expression in-vitro. PMID:25153457

  2. Sequence analysis of both genome segments of three Croatian infectious bursal disease field viruses.

    PubMed

    Lojkić, I; Bidin, Z; Pokrić, B

    2008-09-01

    In order to determine the mutations responsible for virulence, three Croatian field infectious bursal disease viruses (IBDV), designated Cro-Ig/02, Cro-Po/00, and Cro-Pa/98 were characterized. Coding regions of both genomic segments were sequenced, and the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences were compared with previously reported full-length sequenced IBDV strains. Phylogenetic analysis, based on the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of polyprotein and VP1, was performed. Eight characteristic amino acid residues, that were common to very virulent (vv) IBDV, were detected on polyprotein: 222A, 256I, 294I, 451L, 685N, 715S, 751D, and 1005A. All eight were found in Cro-Ig/02 and Cro-Po/00. C-Pa/98 had all the characteristics of an attenuated strain, except for glutamine on residue 253, which is common for vv, classical virulent, and variant strains. Between less virulent and vvIBDV, three substitutions were found on VP5: 49 G --> R, 79 --> F, and 137 R --> W. In VP1, there were nine characteristic amino acid residues common to vvwIBDV: 146D, 147N, 242E, 390M, 393D, 511S, 562P, 687P, and 695R. All nine residues were found in A-Ig/02, and eight were found in B-Po/00, which had isoleucine on residue 390. Based on our analyses, isolates Cro-Ig/02 and Cro-Po/00 were classified with vv IBDV strains. C-Pa/98 shared all characteristic amino acid residues with attenuated and classical virulence strains, so it was classified with those. PMID:18939645

  3. Different architectures in the assembly of infectious bursal disease virus capsid proteins expressed in insect cells.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Torrecuadrada, J L; Castón, J R; Castro, M; Carrascosa, J L; Rodriguez, J F; Casal, J I

    2000-12-20

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) capsid is formed by the processing of a large polyprotein and subsequent assembly of VPX/VP2 and VP3. To learn more about the processing of the polyprotein and factors affecting the correct assembly of the viral capsid in vitro, different constructs were made using two baculovirus transfer vectors, pFastBac and pAcYM1. Surprisingly, the expression of the capsid proteins gave rise to different types of particles in each system, as observed by electron microscopy and immunofluorescence. FastBac expression led to the production of only rigid tubular structures, similar to those described as type I in viral infection. Western blot analysis revealed that these rigid tubules are formed exclusively by VPX. These tubules revealed a hexagonal arrangement of units that are trimer clustered, similar to those observed in IBDV virions. In contrast, pAcYM1 expression led to the assembly of virus-like particles (VLPs), flexible tubules, and intermediate assembly products formed by icosahedral caps elongated in tubes, suggesting an aberrant morphogenesis. Processing of VPX to VP2 seems to be a crucial requirement for the proper morphogenesis and assembly of IBDV particles. After immunoelectron microscopy, VPX/VP2 was detected on the surface of tubules and VLPs. We also demonstrated that VP3 is found only on the inner surfaces of VLPs and caps of the tubular structures. In summary, assembly of VLPs requires the internal scaffolding of VP3, which seems to induce the closing of the tubular architecture into VLPs and, thereafter, the subsequent processing of VPX to VP2. PMID:11118356

  4. Viral competition and maternal immunity influence the clinical disease caused by very virulent infectious bursal disease virus.

    PubMed

    Jackwood, Daral J

    2011-09-01

    The very virulent form of infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) causes an immunosuppressive disease that is further characterized by the rapid onset of morbidity and high mortality in susceptible chickens. In 2009, vvIBDV was first reported in California, U. S. A., and since that time only a few cases of acute infectious bursal disease attributed to vvIBDV have been recognized in California. In other countries where vvIBDV has become established, it rapidly spreads to most poultry-producing regions. Two factors that may be involved in limiting the spread or reducing the severity of the clinical disease caused by vvIBDV in the U. S. A. are maternal immunity and competition with endemic variant strains of the virus. In this study, the ability of vvIBDV to infect and cause disease in maternally immune layer chickens was examined at weekly intervals over a 5-wk period during which their neutralizing maternal antibodies waned. Birds inoculated with vvIBDV at 2, 3, and 4 wk of age seemed healthy throughout the duration of the experiment, but macroscopic and microscopic lesions were observed in their bursa tissues. A real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay also confirmed the presence of vvIBDV RNA in their bursa tissues, indicating this virus was infecting the birds even at 2 wk of age when neutralizing maternal antibodies to infectious bursal disease virus were still relatively high (> 2000 geometric mean antibody titer). No mortality was observed in any birds when inoculated at 2, 3, or 4 wk of age; however, inoculation at 5 and 6 wk of age resulted in 10% and 20% mortality, respectively. Three experiments on the competition between vvIBDV and the two variant viruses T1 and FF6 were conducted. In all three experiments, specific-pathogen-free (SPF) birds that were inoculated with only the vvIBDV became acutely moribund, and except for Experiment 1 (62% mortality) all succumbed to the infection within 4 days of being exposed. When the

  5. The Infectious Bursal Disease Virus RNA-Binding VP3 Polypeptide Inhibits PKR-Mediated Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Busnadiego, Idoia; Maestre, Ana M.; Rodríguez, Dolores; Rodríguez, José F.

    2012-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is an avian pathogen responsible for an acute immunosuppressive disease that causes major losses to the poultry industry. Despite having a bipartite dsRNA genome, IBDV, as well as other members of the Birnaviridae family, possesses a single capsid layer formed by trimers of the VP2 capsid protein. The capsid encloses a ribonucleoprotein complex formed by the genome associated to the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and the RNA-binding polypeptide VP3. A previous report evidenced that expression of the mature VP2 IBDV capsid polypeptide triggers a swift programmed cell death response in a wide variety of cell lines. The mechanism(s) underlying this effect remained unknown. Here, we show that VP2 expression in HeLa cells activates the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-dependent protein kinase (PKR), which in turn triggers the phosphorylation of the eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α). This results in a strong blockade of protein synthesis and the activation of an apoptotic response which is efficiently blocked by coexpression of a dominant negative PKR polypeptide. Our results demonstrate that coexpression of the VP3 polypeptide precludes phosphorylation of both PKR and eIF2α and the onset of programmed cell death induced by VP2 expression. A mutation blocking the capacity of VP3 to bind dsRNA also abolishes its capacity to prevent PKR activation and apoptosis. Further experiments showed that VP3 functionally replaces the host-range vaccinia virus (VACV) E3 protein, thus allowing the E3 deficient VACV deletion mutant WRΔE3L to grow in non-permissive cell lines. According to results presented here, VP3 can be categorized along with other well characterized proteins such us VACV E3, avian reovirus sigmaA, and influenza virus NS1 as a virus-encoded dsRNA-binding polypeptide with antiapoptotic properties. Our results suggest that VP3 plays a central role in ensuring the viability of the IBDV replication cycle by preventing programmed

  6. Effects of chicken anaemia virus and infectious bursal disease virus-induced immunodeficiency on infectious bronchitis virus replication and genotypic drift.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, Rodrigo A; van Santen, Vicky L; Toro, Haroldo

    2012-10-01

    We followed changes in a portion of the S1 gene sequence of the dominant populations of an infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) Arkansas (Ark) vaccine strain during serial passage in chickens infected with the immunosuppressive chicken anaemia virus (CAV) and/or infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) as well as in immunocompetent chickens. The IBV-Ark vaccine was applied ocularly and tears were collected from infected chickens for subsequent ocular inoculation in later passages. The experiment was performed twice. In both experiments the dominant S1 genotype of the vaccine strain was rapidly and negatively selected in all chicken groups (CAV, IBDV, CAV+IBDV and immunocompetent). Based on the S1 genotype, the same IBV subpopulations previously reported in immunocompetent chickens and named component (C) 1 to C5 emerged both in immunocompetent and immunodeficient chickens. During the first passage different subpopulations emerged, followed by the establishment of one or two predominant populations after further passages. Only when the subpopulation designated C2 became established in either CAV-infected or IBDV-infected chickens was IBV maintained for more than four passages. These results indicate that selection does not cease in immunodeficient chickens and that phenotype C2 may show a distinct adaptation to this environment. Subpopulations C1 or C4 initially became established in immunocompetent birds but became extinct after only a few succeeding passages. A similar result was observed in chickens co-infected with CAV+IBDV. These results suggest that the generation of genetic diversity in IBV is constrained. This finding constitutes further evidence for phenotypic drift occurring mainly as a result of selection. PMID:22897690

  7. Comparative analysis of viral RNA and apoptotic cells in bursae following infection with infectious bursal disease virus.

    PubMed

    Kong, Lih L; Omar, Abdul R; Hair-Bejo, M; Aini, I; Seow, Heng F

    2004-11-01

    Specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens infected with very virulent (vv) infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) UPM94/273 developed lower pathogenicity compared to UPM97/61. Sequence analysis indicated that UPM94/273 is an exceptional vvIBDV. In this study, a SYBR Green I based real-time reverse transcriptase reaction assay was developed to measure viral RNA in the bursae of SPF chickens infected with IBDV. Specificity of the amplified products was confirmed by melting temperature analysis. A linear relationship was observed between the amount of input viral RNA and the threshold values for IBDV-specific product over five log10 dilutions. The viral RNA level following infection with UPM94/273 was significantly higher at day 1 and 2 post-inoculation (p.i.) compared to UPM97/61 infected chickens. However, chickens infected with UPM97/61 had significantly higher numbers of bursal cells undergoing apoptosis compared to UPM94/273 infected chickens. In both groups, the number of apoptotic cells and viral RNA levels peak at day 3 p.i. This study indicates that UPM97/61 and UPM94/273 have different efficiency of replication and percentage of apoptotic cells in bursae during the acute phase of IBDV infection. PMID:15325516

  8. Effects of early age feed restriction and heat conditioning on heat shock protein 70 expression, resistance to infectious bursal disease, and growth in male broiler chickens subjected to heat stress.

    PubMed

    Liew, P K; Zulkifli, I; Hair-Bejo, M; Omar, A R; Israf, D A

    2003-12-01

    The effects of early age feed restriction and heat conditioning on heat shock protein (HSP) 70 expression, antibody production, resistance to infectious bursal disease (IBD), and growth of heat-stressed male broiler chickens were investigated. Chicks were divided into 4 groups: 60% feed restriction on d 4,5, and 6 (FR); exposure to 36 +/- 1 degrees C for 1 h from d 1 to 21 (HT); combination of FR and HT (FRHT); and control. From d 35 to 50, heat stress was induced by exposing birds to 38 +/- 1 degrees C and 80% RH for 2 h/d. On d 36, each bird was administered 10 times the normal dose of live IBD vaccine. After heat exposure, the FRHT birds had higher HSP 70 density (d 41) and weight gain (from d 35 to 49) and lower bursal histological score (BHS) (d 51) than their HT and control counterparts. The HSP 70 expression and BHS of FR birds were not significantly different from those of the other 3 groups during the heat exposure period. Heat shock protein 70 and BHS data were negatively correlated (r = -0.33, P = 0.0008). We concluded that FRHT could improve weight gain and resistance to IBD in male broiler chickens under heat stress conditions. The improved heat tolerance and disease resistance in FRHT birds could be attributed to better HSP 70 response. PMID:14717545

  9. A single amino acid in the C-terminus of VP3 protein influences the replication of attenuated infectious bursal disease virus in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongqiang; Qi, Xiaole; Kang, Zhonghui; Yu, Fei; Qin, Liting; Gao, Honglei; Gao, Yulong; Wang, Xiaomei

    2010-08-01

    The very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) Gx strain causes over 60% mortality in chickens but cannot replicate in CEF cultures. The attenuated Gt strain, however, is not virulent in chickens and replicates well in CEF cultures. The two strains display differences in 6 amino acids in VP4 and 4 amino acids in VP3. To determine whether VP4 and VP3 are involved in the virulence and replication of IBDV, three chimeric viruses, in which the VP4/VP3/3'UTR, VP3/3'UTR or VP4 region of Gt were replaced by the corresponding region of Gx, were constructed and characterized in vitro and in vivo. The substituted regions in VP4 or VP3 did not affect virulence of Gt. While the substituted region in VP4 had no effect on viral replication of Gt in CEF cultures, substitution of the VP3/3'UTR region did reduce the replicative capacity of the virus. Through site-directed mutagenesis, three rescued recombinant viruses with a single amino acid substitution in the C-terminus of VP3 of the Gt strain (L981P, A990V and T1005A) were characterized in a similar manner. Amino acid substitution at position 990 reduced viral replication of Gt and reduced its efficacy of protection against vvIBDV Gx challenge in vivo. This study provides important information for the design and development of more effective IBDV vaccines using reverse genetics. PMID:20471998

  10. Immunomodulatory vaccination in autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Urbanek-Ruiz, Irene; Ruiz, Pedro J; Steinman, Lawrence; Fathman, C Garrison

    2002-06-01

    The development of vaccines is arguably the most significant achievement in medicine to date. The practice of innoculation with the fluid from a sore to protect from a disease actually dates back to ancient China; however, with the introduction of Jenner's smallpox vaccine, and greater understanding of the immune system, vaccines have become specific and systematic. Traditional vaccines have used killed pathogens (hepatitis A and the Salk polio vaccines), immunogenic subunits of a given pathogen (hepatitis B subunit vaccine), or live attenuated pathogens (measles, mumps, rubella, Sabin polio vaccines) to generate protective immunity. Currently, a new generation of vaccines that use the genetic material of a pathogen to elicit protective immunity are being developed. Although the most widespread and successful use of vaccines today remains in the arena of infectious diseases, manipulations of immune responses to protect against cancers, neurologic diseases, and autoimmunity are being explored rigorously. PMID:12092460

  11. Spatiotemporal Phylogenetic Analysis and Molecular Characterisation of Infectious Bursal Disease Viruses Based on the VP2 Hyper-Variable Region

    PubMed Central

    Dolz, Roser; Valle, Rosa; Perera, Carmen L.; Bertran, Kateri; Frías, Maria T.; Majó, Natàlia; Ganges, Llilianne; Pérez, Lester J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Infectious bursal disease is a highly contagious and acute viral disease caused by the infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV); it affects all major poultry producing areas of the world. The current study was designed to rigorously measure the global phylogeographic dynamics of IBDV strains to gain insight into viral population expansion as well as the emergence, spread and pattern of the geographical structure of very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV) strains. Methodology/Principal Findings Sequences of the hyper-variable region of the VP2 (HVR-VP2) gene from IBDV strains isolated from diverse geographic locations were obtained from the GenBank database; Cuban sequences were obtained in the current work. All sequences were analysed by Bayesian phylogeographic analysis, implemented in the Bayesian Evolutionary Analysis Sampling Trees (BEAST), Bayesian Tip-association Significance testing (BaTS) and Spatial Phylogenetic Reconstruction of Evolutionary Dynamics (SPREAD) software packages. Selection pressure on the HVR-VP2 was also assessed. The phylogeographic association-trait analysis showed that viruses sampled from individual countries tend to cluster together, suggesting a geographic pattern for IBDV strains. Spatial analysis from this study revealed that strains carrying sequences that were linked to increased virulence of IBDV appeared in Iran in 1981 and spread to Western Europe (Belgium) in 1987, Africa (Egypt) around 1990, East Asia (China and Japan) in 1993, the Caribbean Region (Cuba) by 1995 and South America (Brazil) around 2000. Selection pressure analysis showed that several codons in the HVR-VP2 region were under purifying selection. Conclusions/Significance To our knowledge, this work is the first study applying the Bayesian phylogeographic reconstruction approach to analyse the emergence and spread of vvIBDV strains worldwide. PMID:23805195

  12. Triplet amino acids located at positions 145/146/147 of the RNA polymerase of very virulent infectious bursal disease virus contribute to viral virulence.

    PubMed

    Gao, Li; Li, Kai; Qi, Xiaole; Gao, Honglei; Gao, Yulong; Qin, Liting; Wang, Yongqiang; Shen, Nan; Kong, Xiangang; Wang, Xiaomei

    2014-04-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) causes an economically significant disease of chickens worldwide. The emergence of very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV) has brought more challenges for effective prevention of this disease. The molecular basis for the virulence of vvIBDV is not fully understood. In this study, 20 IBDV strains were analysed phylogenically and clustered in three branches based on their full-length B segments. The amino acid triplet located at positions 145/146/147 of VP1 was found highly conserved in branch I non-vvIBDVs as asparagine/glutamic acid/glycine (NEG), in branch II vvIBDVs as threonine/glutamic acid/glycine (TEG) and in branch III vvIBDVs as threonine/aspartic acid/asparagine (TDN). Further studies showed that the three amino acids play a critical role in the replication and pathogenicity of vvIBDV. Substitution of the TDN triplet with TEG or NEG reduced viral replication and pathogenicity of the vvIBDV HuB-1 strain in chickens. However, the replication of the attenuated IBDV Gt strain was reduced in chicken embryo fibroblast cells, whilst it was enhanced in the bursa by substituting NEG with TEG or TDN. The exchange of the three amino acids was also found to be capable of affecting the polymerase activity of VP1. The important role of segment B in the pathogenicity of IBDV was confirmed in this study. These results also provided new insights into the mechanism of the virulence of vvIBDVs and may offer new targets for their attenuation to develop potential vaccines using reverse genetics. PMID:24431234

  13. Development of SYBR green I based one-step real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection and differentiation of very virulent and classical strains of infectious bursal disease virus.

    PubMed

    Kong, Lih Ling; Omar, Abdul Rahman; Hair Bejo, Mohd; Ideris, Aini; Tan, Sheau Wei

    2009-11-01

    A SYBR Green I based one-step real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was developed for the detection and differentiation of very virulent (vv) and classical strains of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). The assay showed high PCR efficiency >93% and high reproducibility with coefficient of variation less than 0.5%. When tested on characterized IBDV strains, the very virulent and classical-specific primers detected accurately only vvIBDV and classical IBDV strains, respectively. The diagnostic efficacy of the assay was also tested on 140 bursal samples from experimental infection and 37 bursal samples from cases suspected of IBD. The assay was able to detect IBDV from bursal samples collected at days 3 and 5 post-infection with the vvIBDV strain UPM94/273 and the classical IBDV strain D78. The assay was also able to detect bursal samples infected dually with D78 and UPM94/273. The melting temperature values of the amplification products from the classical and very virulent viral infection were statistically significant (P<0.05). The specificity of the assay for detecting IBDV from suspected cases was confirmed by sequence analysis of the VP2 gene. The assay showed high sensitivity since bursal samples which were negative for IBDV were confirmed by virus isolation and PCR amplification. Hence, the new assay offers an attractive method for rapid detection of strains of IBDV. PMID:19591873

  14. Immunomodulatory effect of baculovirus in chickens: How it modifies the immune response against infectious bursal disease virus.

    PubMed

    Chimeno Zoth, Silvina; Carballeda, Juan Manuel; Gravisaco, María José; Lucero, María Soledad; Richetta, Matías; Gómez, Evangelina; Berinstein, Analía

    2016-07-01

    Several reports have shown that baculoviruses (BVs) have strong adjuvant properties on the mammalian immune system. Recent studies of our group demonstrated the ability of BV to stimulate the innate immunity in chickens. In this investigation, we aimed to assess the potential antiviral effect of BV given both, before and after infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). In the first case, specific pathogen free chickens were intravenously inoculated with 5 × 10(7) pfu of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus and 3 h later were orally administered 2.5 × 10(5) egg infectious doses 50 of IBDV. In the second case, chickens received IBDV 3 h before BV inoculation. Five days later, chickens were bled and euthanized. RNA from the bursa was analyzed for cytokine production. Also, bursae were used for virus recovery, and processed for lymphocyte isolation. The results showed that the administration of BV 3 h after the inoculation with IBDV produced important changes in the effect that IBDV causes in the bursa. BV reduced the infiltration of T lymphocytes, decreased the expression pattern of IL-6 and IFN-γ and inhibited IBDV replication. The results herein presented demonstrate that this Lepidopteran virus shows antiviral activity in chickens under experimental conditions. Investigations under field conditions have to be done to probe this strategy as a valuable sanitary tool for the treatment and prevention of chicken diseases. PMID:27063861

  15. Combination vaccines against diarrheal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesan, Malabi M; Van de Verg, Lillian L

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Diarrheal diseases remain a leading cause of global childhood mortality and morbidity. Several recent epidemiological studies highlight the rate of diarrheal diseases in different parts of the world and draw attention to the impact on childhood growth and survival. Despite the well-documented global burden of diarrheal diseases, currently there are no combination diarrheal vaccines, only licensed vaccines for rotavirus and cholera, and Salmonella typhi-based vaccines for typhoid fever. The recognition of the impact of diarrheal episodes on infant growth, as seen in resource-poor countries, has spurred action from governmental and non-governmental agencies to accelerate research toward affordable and effective vaccines against diarrheal diseases. Both travelers and children in endemic countries will benefit from a combination diarrheal vaccine, but it can be argued that the greater proportion of any positive impact will be on the public health status of the latter. The history of combination pediatric vaccines indicate that monovalent or single disease vaccines are typically licensed first prior to formulation in a combination vaccine, and that the combinations themselves undergo periodic revision in response to need for improvement in safety or potential for wider coverage of important pediatric pathogens. Nevertheless combination pediatric vaccines have proven to be an effective tool in limiting or eradicating communicable childhood diseases worldwide. The landscape of diarrheal vaccine candidates indicates that there now several in active development that offer options for potential testing of combinations to combat those bacterial and viral pathogens responsible for the heaviest disease burden—rotavirus, ETEC, Shigella, Campylobacter, V. cholera and Salmonella. PMID:25891647

  16. Biological and phylogenetic characterization of a genotype VII Newcastle disease virus from Venezuela: efficacy of field vaccination.

    PubMed

    Perozo, Francisco; Marcano, Rosmar; Afonso, Claudio L

    2012-04-01

    Here we report the biological and molecular characterization of a virulent genotype VII Newcastle disease virus (NDV) circulating in Venezuela and the assessment of the vaccination efficacy under field conditions compared to controlled rearing conditions. Biological pathotyping showed a mean embryo dead time of 50 h and an intracerebral pathogenicity index of 1.86. Sequence-based phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the virus belongs to genotype VII in class II (a genotype often found in Asia and Africa), representing the first report of the presence of this genotype in the continent of South America. A vaccine-challenge trial in commercial broilers reared in fields or in a experimental setting included dual (live/killed) priming of 1-day-old chicks plus two live NDV and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) field vaccinations at days 7 and 17, followed by a very stringent genotype VII NDV challenge at day 28. Serology for NDV and IBDV, bursal integrity, and protection against NDV lethal challenge were assessed. At 28 days, field vaccinates showed significantly lower NDV (1,356 versus 2,384) and higher IBD (7,295 versus 1,489) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) antibody titers than the experimentally reared birds. A lower bursal size and bursa-body weight ratio (P < 0.05) and higher bursa lesion score were also detected in the field set. Only 57.1% of field vaccinates survived the lethal challenge, differing (P < 0.05) from 90.5% survival in the experimental farm. Overall, results confirmed the presence of the genotype VII viruses in South America and suggest that field-associated factors such as immunosuppression compromise the efficacy of the vaccination protocols implemented. PMID:22238433

  17. Susceptibility of chicken lymphoid cells to infectious bursal disease virus does not correlate with the presence of specific binding sites.

    PubMed

    Nieper, H; Müller, H

    1996-06-01

    Pathogenic serotype 1 strains of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) replicate efficiently in lymphoid cells of the bursa of Fabricius of chicken. Lymphoid cells in other organs are not susceptible. Apathogenic serotype 2 strains do not replicate in lymphoid bursa cells or in other lymphoid cells. Chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF), however, efficiently replicate strains of either serotype. Binding studies showed that strains of both IBDV serotypes bind to lymphoid cells isolated from the bursa, thymus or spleen, indicating that restriction of IBDV replication to lymphoid B cells is not determined by the presence of specific receptor sites. The specificity of binding was demonstrated by saturation and competition experiments. These revealed the presence of different receptors: CEF had receptors common to both serotypes and specific ones for each serotype. Receptor sites common to both serotypes were also present on lymphoid cells; however, additional serotype-specific sites were only demonstrated for the apathogenic serotype 2 strain. Strains of both serotypes specifically bound to proteins with molecular masses of 40 kDa and 46 kDa, exposed on the surface of CEF and lymphoid cells. Competition experiments indicated that these proteins might represent the common receptor sites of IBDV. PMID:8683211

  18. Antigenic properties and diagnostic potential of baculovirus-expressed infectious bursal disease virus proteins VPX and VP3.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Torrecuadrada, J L; Lázaro, B; Rodriguez, J F; Casal, J I

    2000-07-01

    The routine technique for detecting antibodies specific to infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a serological evaluation by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with preparations of whole virions as the antigens. To avoid using complete virus in the standard technique, we have developed two new antigens through the expression of the VPX and VP3 genes in insect cells. VPX and especially VP3 were expressed at high levels in insect cells and simple to purify. The immunogenicity of both proteins was similar to that of the native virus. VPX was able to elicit neutralizing antibodies but VP3 was not. Purified VPX and VP3 were tested in an indirect ELISA with more than 300 chicken sera. There was an excellent correlation between the results of the ELISA using VPX and those of the two commercial kits. VP3 did not perform as well as VPX, and the linear correlation was significantly lower. A comparison with the standard reference technique, seroneutralization, showed that the indirect ELISA was more sensitive. Therefore, VPX-based ELISA is a good alternative to conventional ELISAs that use whole virions. PMID:10882666

  19. Survey for antibodies to infectious bursal disease virus serotype 2 in wild turkeys and Sandhill Cranes of Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Candelora, Kristen L; Spalding, Marilyn G; Sellers, Holly S

    2010-07-01

    Captive-reared Whooping Cranes (Grus americana) released into Florida for the resident reintroduction project experienced unusually high mortality and morbidity during the 1997-98 and 2001-02 release seasons. Exposure to infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) serotype 2 as evidenced by seroconversion was suspected to be the factor that precipitated these mortality events. Very little is known about the incidence of IBD in wild bird populations. Before this study, natural exposure had not been documented in wild birds of North America having no contact with captive-reared cranes, and the prevalence and transmission mechanisms of the virus in wild birds were unknown. Sentinel chickens (Gallus gallus) monitored on two Whooping Crane release sites in central Florida, USA, during the 2003-04 and 2004-05 release seasons seroconverted, demonstrating natural exposure to IBDV serotype 2. Blood samples collected from Wild Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) and Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis) in eight of 21 counties in Florida, USA, and one of two counties in southern Georgia, USA, were antibody-positive for IBDV serotype 2, indicating that exposure from wild birds sharing habitat with Whooping Cranes is possible. The presence of this virus in wild birds in these areas is a concern for the resident flock of Whooping Cranes because they nest and raise their chicks in Florida, USA. However, passively transferred antibodies may protect them at this otherwise vulnerable period in their lives. PMID:20688680

  20. Vaccines against invasive Salmonella disease

    PubMed Central

    MacLennan, Calman A; Martin, Laura B; Micoli, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Though primarily enteric pathogens, Salmonellae are responsible for a considerable yet under-appreciated global burden of invasive disease. In South and South-East Asia, this manifests as enteric fever caused by serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A. In sub-Saharan Africa, a similar disease burden results from invasive nontyphoidal Salmonellae, principally serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis. The existing Ty21a live-attenuated and Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccines target S. Typhi and are not effective in young children where the burden of invasive Salmonella disease is highest. After years of lack of investment in new Salmonella vaccines, recent times have seen increased interest in the area led by emerging-market manufacturers, global health vaccine institutes and academic partners. New glycoconjugate vaccines against S. Typhi are becoming available with similar vaccines against other invasive serovars in development. With other new vaccines under investigation, including live-attenuated, protein-based and GMMA vaccines, now is an exciting time for the Salmonella vaccine field. PMID:24804797

  1. [Vaccination therapy for Alzheimer's disease].

    PubMed

    Tabira, Takeshi

    2009-11-01

    Since AN-1792 vaccine induced autoimmune encephalitis, several pharmaceutical companies are now concentrated in developing antibody therapy in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Each antibody has own characteristics. Thus, it is unpredictable at present which antibody is the most beneficial until we see the result of clinical trials. If disease modifying antibodies were found, they will be widely used for treatment of AD in near future. As a candidate of such antibodies, we have developed TAPIR-like antibody with much higher affinity to Abeta42 than Abeta40, and it effectively deleted senile plaque amyloid and Abeta oligomers without increasing microhemorrhages. Although passive immunization can avoid autoimmune encephalitis, it is expensive and it is not suitable for prevention. Thus, safe vaccines by active immunization would be better. Vaccines that induce Th2 type immune responses such as oral vaccine or per-nasal vaccine would be promising. PMID:20030228

  2. Vaccine-Preventable Childhood Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... News and Media Resources News Newsletters Events Redirect: Vaccine-Preventable Childhood Diseases Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir This content exists at the following URL. Please update your links or ... Formats Help: How ...

  3. Chicken Heat Shock Protein 90 Is a Component of the Putative Cellular Receptor Complex of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus▿

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ta-Wei; Lo, Chi-Wen; Lai, Su-Yuan; Fan, Ruey-Jane; Lo, Chao-Jung; Chou, Yu-mei; Thiruvengadam, Rekha; Wang, Andrew H.-J.; Wang, Min-Ying

    2007-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) causes a highly contagious disease in young chicks and leads to significant economic losses in the poultry industry. The capsid protein VP2 of IBDV plays an important role in virus binding and cell recognition. VP2 forms a subviral particle (SVP) with immunogenicity similar to that of the IBDV capsid. In the present study, we first showed that SVP could inhibit IBDV infection to an IBDV-susceptible cell line, DF-1 cells, in a dose-dependent manner. Second, the localizations of the SVP on the surface of DF-1 cells were confirmed by fluorescence microscopy, and the specific binding of the SVP to DF-1 cells occurred in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the attachment of SVP to DF-1 cells was inhibited by an SVP-induced neutralizing monoclonal antibody against IBDV but not by denatured-VP2-induced polyclonal antibodies. Third, the cellular factors in DF-1 cells involved in the attachment of SVP were purified by affinity chromatography using SVP bound on the immobilized Ni2+ ions. A dominant factor was identified as being chicken heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) (cHsp90) by mass spectrometry. Results of biotinylation experiments and indirect fluorescence assays indicated that cHsp90 is located on the surface of DF-1 cells. Virus overlay protein binding assays and far-Western assays also concluded that cHsp90 interacts with IBDV and SVP, respectively. Finally, both Hsp90 and anti-Hsp90 can inhibit the infection of DF-1 cells by IBDV. Taken together, for the first time, our results suggest that cHsp90 is part of the putative cellular receptor complex essential for IBDV entry into DF-1 cells. PMID:17522206

  4. Chimaeric VP2 proteins from infectious bursal disease virus containing the N-terminal M2e of H9 subtype avian influenza virus induce neutralizing antibody responses to both viruses.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yinghua; Gong, Yuzhen; Wang, Yongwei; Wu, Peipei; Liu, Yamei; Lu, Jihu; Gao, Feng; Chen, Tao; Hou, Fengxiang; Hou, Jibo

    2013-01-01

    Subunit vaccines capable of inducing antibody against both infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) and H9 subtype avian influenza virus (AIV) were developed. The VP2 protein of IBDV was used as a cargo protein to display a 12-amino-acid immunodominant epitope derived from the N-terminal M2 extracellular domain (nM2e) of the H9 subtype AIV. Two chimaeric proteins were constructed by insertion of one copy of the nM2e into the PBC region (VP2BCnM2e(H9)) or by fusing four copies of nM2e to the carboxyl terminal (VP2-4nM2e(H9)) of VP2. Genes that encoded the VP2 chimaeras were subsequently cloned into a baculovirus vector and expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda cells. The recombinant proteins were used to vaccinate chickens at day 0 and again after 4 weeks. Blood was collected at 2-week intervals after primary and secondary vaccination to detect the antibody titre against VP2 or the nM2e via indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Virus neutralization tests were also performed to measure anti-IBDV or anti-H9 AIV neutralizing antibodies in chick embryo fibroblasts. Oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs were collected 3, 5 and 7 days post H9 subtype AIV infection for virus isolation. Vaccination with VP2-4nM2e(H9) induced higher levels of antibody responses against IBDV or H9 subtype AIV, and provided better protection against an IBDV virulent challenge compared with vaccination with VP2BCnM2e(H9) vaccine, the wild-type VP2 subunit vaccine or the IBDV subunit commercial vaccines. Both chimaeric VP2 vaccines showed poor efficacy in inhibiting H9 virus replication post challenge. In summary, chimaeric proteins that contain the nM2e epitope were able to induce both IBDV and H9 subtype AIV-neutralizing antibody responses. PMID:23607544

  5. The Endosomal Pathway and the Golgi Complex Are Involved in the Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Life Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Delgui, Laura R.; Rodríguez, José F.

    2013-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), a double-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Birnaviridae family, causes immunosuppression in chickens. In this study, we defined the localization of IBDV replication complexes based on colocalization analysis of VP3, the major protein component of IBDV ribonucleoproteins (RNPs). Our results indicate that VP3 localizes to vesicular structures bearing features of early and late endocytic compartments located in the juxtanuclear region. Interfering with the endocytic pathway with a dominant negative version of Rab5 after the internalization step leads to a reduction in virus titer. Triple-immunostaining studies between VP3, the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase VP1, and viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) showed a well-defined colocalization, indicating that the three critical components of the RNPs colocalize in the same structure, likely representing replication complexes. Interestingly, recombinant expressed VP3 also localizes to endosomes. Employing Golgi markers, we found that VP3-containing vesicles were closely associated with this organelle. Depolymerization of microtubules with nocodazole caused a profound change in VP3 localization, showing a punctate distribution scattered throughout the cytoplasm. However, these VP3-positive structures remained associated with Golgi ministacks. Similarly, brefeldin A (BFA) treatment led to a punctate distribution of VP3, scattered throughout the cytoplasm of infected cells. In addition, analysis of intra- and extracellular viral infective particles after BFA treatment of avian cells suggested a role for the Golgi complex in viral assembly. These results constitute the first study elucidating the localization of IBDV replication complexes (i.e., in endocytic compartments) and establishing a role for the Golgi apparatus in the assembly step of a birnavirus. PMID:23741000

  6. The Last C-Terminal Residue of VP3, Glutamic Acid 257, Controls Capsid Assembly of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus

    PubMed Central

    Chevalier, Christophe; Lepault, Jean; Da Costa, Bruno; Delmas, Bernard

    2004-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a nonenveloped virus with an icosahedral capsid composed of two proteins, VP2 and VP3, that derive from the processing of the polyprotein NH2-pVP2-VP4-VP3-COOH. The virion contains VP1, the viral polymerase, which is both free and covalently linked to the two double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genomic segments. In this study, the virus assembly process was studied further with the baculovirus expression system. While expression of the wild-type polyprotein was not found to be self-sufficient to give rise to virus-like particles (VLPs), deletion or replacement of the five C-terminal residues of VP3 was observed to promote capsid assembly. Indeed, the single deletion of the C-terminal glutamic acid was sufficient to induce VLP formation. Moreover, fusion of various peptides or small proteins (a green fluorescent protein or a truncated form of ovalbumin) at the C terminus of VP3 also promoted capsid assembly, suggesting that assembly required screening of the negative charges at the C terminus of VP3. The fused polypeptides mimicked the effect of VP1, which interacts with VP3 to promote VLP assembly. The C-terminal segment of VP3 was found to contain two functional domains. While the very last five residues of VP3 mainly controlled both assembly and capsid architecture, the five preceding residues constituted the VP1 (and possibly the pVP2/VP2) binding domain. Finally, we showed that capsid formation is associated with VP2 maturation, demonstrating that the protease VP4 is involved in the virus assembly process. PMID:15016850

  7. Dietary methionine and n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio reduce adverse effects of infectious bursal disease in broilers.

    PubMed

    Maroufyan, E; Kasim, A; Ebrahimi, M; Loh, T C; Hair-Bejo, M; Soleimani, A F

    2012-09-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the modulatory effects of dietary methionine and n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) ratio on immune response and performance of infectious bursal disease (IBD)-challenged broiler chickens. In total, 350 one-day-old male broiler chicks were assigned to 1 of the 6 dietary treatment groups in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement. There were 3 n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios (45, 5.5, and 1.5) and 2 levels of methionine (NRC recommendation and twice NRC recommendation). The results showed that birds fed with dietary n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio of 5.5 had higher BW, lower feed intake, and superior FCR than other groups. However, the highest antibody response was observed in birds with dietary n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio of 1.5. Lowering n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio reduced bursa lesion score equally in birds fed with n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio of 5.5 and 1.5. Supplementation of methionine by twice the recommendation also improved FCR and reduced feed intake and bursa lesion score. However, in this study, the optimum performance (as measured by BW, feed intake, and FCR) did not coincide with the optimum immune response (as measured by antibody titer). It seems that dietary n-3 PUFA modulates the broiler chicken performance and immune response in a dose-dependent but nonlinear manner. Therefore, it can be suggested that a balance of moderate level of dietary n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio (5.5) and methionine level (twice recommendation) might enhance immune response together with performance in IBD-challenged broiler chickens. PMID:22912451

  8. Mutations of residues 249 and 256 in VP2 are involved in the replication and virulence of infectious Bursal disease virus.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xiaole; Zhang, Lizhou; Chen, Yuming; Gao, Li; Wu, Guan; Qin, Liting; Wang, Yongqiang; Ren, Xiangang; Gao, Yulong; Gao, Honglei; Wang, Xiaomei

    2013-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a pathogen of worldwide significance to the poultry industry. Although the PDE and PFG domains of the capsid protein VP2 contribute significantly to virulence and fitness, the detailed molecular basis for the pathogenicity of IBDV is still not fully understood. Because residues 253 and 284 of VP2 are not the sole determinants of virulence, we hypothesized that other residues involved in virulence and fitness might exist in the PDE and PFG domains of VP2. To test this, five amino acid changes selected by sequence comparison of the PDE and PFG domains of VP2 were introduced individually using a reverse genetics system into the virulent strain (rGx-F9VP2). Then reverse mutations of the selected residues 249 and 256 were introduced individually into the attenuated strain (rGt). Seven modified viruses were generated and evaluated in vitro (CEF cells) and in vivo (SPF chicken). For residue 249, Q249R could elevate in vitro and reduce in vivo the replication of rGx-F9VP2 while R249Q could reduce in vitro and elevate in vivo the replication of rGt; meanwhile Q249R reduced the virulence of rGx-F9VP2 while R249Q increased the virulence of rGt, which indicated that residue 249 significantly contributed to the replication and virulence of IBDV. For residue 256, I256V could elevate in vitro and reduce in vivo the replication of rGx-F9VP2 while V256I could reduce in vitro but didn't change in vivo the replication of rGt; although V256I didn't increase the virulence of rGt, I256V obviously reduced the virulence of virulent IBDV. The present results demonstrate for the first time, to different extent, residues 249 and 256 of VP2 are involved in the replication efficiency and virulence of IBDV; this is not only beneficial to further understanding of pathogenic mechanism but also to the design of newly tailored vaccines against IBDV. PMID:23923037

  9. Directed vaccination against pneumococcal disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Hill, Andrew; Beitelshees, Marie; Shao, Shuai; Lovell, Jonathan F; Davidson, Bruce A; Knight, Paul R; Hakansson, Anders P; Pfeifer, Blaine A; Jones, Charles H

    2016-06-21

    Immunization strategies against commensal bacterial pathogens have long focused on eradicating asymptomatic carriage as well as disease, resulting in changes in the colonizing microflora with unknown future consequences. Additionally, current vaccines are not easily adaptable to sequence diversity and immune evasion. Here, we present a "smart" vaccine that leverages our current understanding of disease transition from bacterial carriage to infection with the pneumococcus serving as a model organism. Using conserved surface proteins highly expressed during virulent transition, the vaccine mounts an immune response specifically against disease-causing bacterial populations without affecting carriage. Aided by a delivery technology capable of multivalent surface display, which can be adapted easily to a changing clinical picture, results include complete protection against the development of pneumonia and sepsis during animal challenge experiments with multiple, highly variable, and clinically relevant pneumococcal isolates. The approach thus offers a unique and dynamic treatment option readily adaptable to other commensal pathogens. PMID:27274071

  10. Impact of Feeding Systems and Vaccination Programs on Salmonella Enteritidis Colonization and Clearance of E. Coli In Broiler Broiler Breeders Pullets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broiler breeder pullets from a single grandparent flock were in ovo-vaccinated with Marek's vaccines herpesvirus of turkey (HVT) + chicken herpesvirus (SB1) or a vector HVT + Infectious bursal disease (IBD) vaccine+SB1. The chicks were placed in an experimental broiler breeder facility at the Univer...

  11. Impact of Feeding Systems and Hatchery Vaccination Programs on Immune System Development, Salmonella Colonization, Clearance of E. Coli and Reproductive Traits In Broiler Breeder Pullets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broiler breeder pullets from a single grandparent flock were vaccinated at 19 days of embryonation with Marek's vaccines HVT +SB1 or a Vector HVT + Infectious bursal disease (IBD) vaccine. The birds were placed in an experimental broiler breeder facility at the University of Georgia and fed ad libit...

  12. Lung Disease Including Asthma and Adult Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthcare Professionals Lung Disease including Asthma and Adult Vaccination Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... more about health insurance options. Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Heart Disease, ...

  13. FAQs about Vaccines and Diseases They Prevent

    MedlinePlus

    ... Newsletters Events FAQs about Vaccines and Diseases They Prevent Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Are there ... in the United States? What diseases do vaccines prevent? What would happen if we stopped immunizations ? Who ...

  14. Vaccine-Preventable Disease Photos

    MedlinePlus

    ... About | A-Z | Contact | Follow Vaccine Information You Need VACCINE BASICS Evaluating Online Health Information FAQs How Vaccines Work Importance of Vaccines Paying for Vaccines State Immunization Programs Tips for Finding Vaccine Records Trusted Sources of Vaccine ... PRETEENS Vaccines You Need ...

  15. Vaccine Preventable Disease on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bart, Kenneth J.

    1984-01-01

    While morbidity and mortality from vaccine preventable diseases have declined, some college students remain susceptible to measles, rubella, diptheria, tetanus, or polio. Colleges and universities have the opportunity to ensure protection of students, faculty, and employees by establishing and enforcing immunization requirements. (Author/DF)

  16. Heart Disease, Stroke, or Other Cardiovascular Disease and Adult Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease, Stroke, or Other Cardiovascular Disease and Adult Vaccination Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... more about health insurance options. Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Heart Disease, ...

  17. Generation of serotype 1/serotype 2 reassortant viruses of the infectious bursal disease virus and their investigation in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zierenberg, Kati; Raue, Rüdiger; Nieper, Hermann; Islam, Md Rafiqul; Eterradossi, Nicolas; Toquin, Didier; Müller, Hermann

    2004-09-15

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is the causative agent of acute or immunosuppressive disease in chickens. Serotype 1 strains are pathogenic whereas serotype 2 strains neither cause disease nor protect against infection with the serotype 1 strains. The target organ of serotype 1 strains is the bursa Fabricii (BF). The molecular determinants of this tropism, and therefore pathogenicity, are poorly understood. IBDV is a non-enveloped icosahedral virus particle of 60 nm in diameter, which contains two genome segments of double-stranded RNA. Here, the generation of interserotypic reassortants using the reverse genetics approach is reported. The results of in vitro and in vivo investigations show that genome segment A determines the bursa tropism of IBDV, whereas segment B is involved in the efficiency of viral replication; they further indicate the significance of the interaction of the polymerase (segment B) with the structural protein VP3 (segment A) or the viral genome for efficient virus formation and replication. PMID:15325078

  18. Immunomodulatory vaccines against autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Sela, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Vaccines are for healthy people, to prevent them from becoming ill. Such prophylactic vaccines have been a great success. Therapeutic vaccines become more and more important, especially as life expectancy increases. Efforts to develop vaccines against such diseases as cancer, AIDS, hepatitis, tuberculosis, Alzheimer disease, and mad cow disease have not yet reached the stage where they can be successfully used on a daily basis. However, significant progress has been made in the realm of autoimmune diseases, resulting (at least in one case) in an immunomodulatory vaccine against multiple sclerosis that was developed in the author's laboratory, and that is in daily use by about 100,000 patients. The drug or therapeutic vaccine against the exacerbating-remitting type of multiple sclerosis is a copolymer of four amino acid residues, denoted Copaxone, which are related to myelin basic protein. This paper discusses Copaxone as well as a candidate immunomodulatory vaccine against myasthenia gravis, a peptide derived from the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Copolymer 1 (Cop 1, glatiramer acetate, Copaxone) is a synthetic amino acid random copolymer that is immunologically cross-reactive with myelin basic protein and suppresses experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in several animal species. Cop 1 slows the progression of disability and reduces the relapse rate in exacerbating-remitting multiple sclerosis patients. Cop 1 is a potent inducer of T helper 2 (Th2) regulatory cells in mice and humans; and Th2 cells are found in both the brains and spinal cords of Cop 1-treated mice and humans. MG and experimental autoimmune MG are T cell-regulated, antibody-mediated autoimmune diseases. Two peptides, representing sequences of the human AChR-alpha-subunit, p195-212 and p259-271, are immunodominant T-cell epitopes in MG patients and two strains of mice. Altered peptide ligand, composed of the randomly arranged two single amino acid analogs inhibits in vitro and in vivo MG

  19. Vaccination against salmonid bacterial kidney disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial kidney disease (BKD) of salmonid fishes, caused by Renibacterium salmoninarum, has presented challenges for development of effective vaccines, despite several decades of research. The only vaccine against BKD that is commercially licensed is an injectable preparation containing live cells ...

  20. Plant-based vaccines against diarrheal diseases.

    PubMed

    Tacket, Carol O

    2007-01-01

    Every year 1.6 million deaths occur due to diarrhea related to unsafe water and inadequate sanitation-the vast majority in children under 5 years old. Safe and effective vaccines against enteric infections could contribute to control of these diseases. However, purification of protective antigens for inclusion in vaccines using traditional expression systems is expensive and unattractive to vaccine manufacturers who see the vaccine market as economically uninviting. Cost is one of the persistent barriers to deployment of new vaccines to populations that need them most urgently. Transgenic plant-derived vaccines offer a new strategy for development of safe, inexpensive vaccines against diarrheal diseases. In phase 1 clinical studies, these vaccines have been safe and immunogenic without the need for a buffer or vehicle other than the plant cell. This paper describes early clinical studies evaluating oral transgenic plant vaccines against enteric infections such as enterotoxigenic E. coli infection and norovirus. PMID:18528491

  1. Newcastle disease virus vaccine potency determination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potency of inactivated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccines is determined using vaccination and challenge. If the minimum killed viral antigen necessary for clinical protection can be determined, vaccines meeting or exceeding this dose might be considered of adequate potency. In these studies, c...

  2. Further observations on serotype 2 Marek's disease virus-induced enhancement of spontaneous avian leukosis virus-like bursal lymphomas in ALVA6 transgenic chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Breeders of the 2009 generation of Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory transgenic chicken line ALVA6, known to be resistant to infection with subgroups A and E avian leukosis virus (ALV), were vaccinated at hatch with a trivalent Marek's disease (MD) vaccine containing serotypes 1, 2, and 3 Marek'...

  3. [Vaccinations in patients with autoimmune diseases].

    PubMed

    Bühler, Silja; Hatz, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    The number of individuals with autoimmune diseases treated with immunosuppressive drugs is increasing steadily. The variety of immunosuppressive drugs and in particular biological therapies is also rising. The autoimmune disease itself as well as the immunosuppressive therapy increases the risk of infection in this population. Particularly the risk of vaccine-preventable infections is elevated. Thus, preventing infections by the means of vaccination is of utmost importance. The Division of Infectious Diseases of the Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Prevention Institute, University of Zurich, performed a literature search on the topic of vaccinations in patients with autoimmune diseases upon request by the Swiss Federal Commission for Vaccination Issues. Overall, data are scarce. The following main points were retrieved from the literature: Inactivated vaccines are safe, but their immunogenicity may be reduced under immunosuppressive therapy. In addition to the generally recommended basic vaccinations, specific vaccinations, such as influenza and pneumococcal vaccination are indicated in these patient groups. Live vaccines are generally contraindicated under immunosuppressive therapy due to safety concerns. However, specific exceptions apply. Furthermore, certain time intervals for the administration of live vaccines after pausing or ceasing an immunosuppressive therapy should be respected. PMID:27268452

  4. [Autoimmune connective tissue diseases and vaccination].

    PubMed

    Więsik-Szewczyk, Ewa; Jahnz-Różyk, Karina

    2015-01-01

    The idea that infectious agents can induce autoimmune diseases in genetically susceptible subjects has been a matter of discussion for years. Moreover, increased incidence of autoimmune diseases and introduction of prophylactic vaccinations from early childhood suggest that these two trends are linked. In the medical literature and even non-professional media, case reports or events temporally related to vaccination are reported. It raises the issue of vaccination safety. In everyday practice medical professionals, physicians, rheumatologists and other specialists will be asked their opinion of vaccination safety. The decision should be made according to evidence-based medicine and the current state of knowledge. The purpose of this paper is to discuss a potential mechanism which links infections, vaccinations and autoimmunity. We present an overview of published case reports, especially of systemic connective tissue diseases temporally related to vaccination and results from case-nested studies. As yet, no conclusive evidence supports a causal relationship between vaccination and autoimmune diseases. It has to be determined whether the performed studies are sufficiently sensitive to detect the link. The debate is ongoing, and new data may be required to explain the pathogenesis of autoimmunity. We would like to underscore the need for prophylactic vaccination in patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases and to break down the myth that the vaccines are contraindicated in this target group. PMID:27259225

  5. Vaccination recommendations for patients with neuromuscular disease.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Susanna; Bruno, Claudio; Berardinelli, Angela; Filosto, Massimiliano; Mongini, Tiziana; Morandi, Lucia; Musumeci, Olimpia; Pegoraro, Elena; Siciliano, Gabriele; Tonin, Paola; Marrosu, Gianni; Minetti, Carlo; Servida, Maura; Fiorillo, Chiara; Conforti, Giorgio; Scapolan, Silvia; Ansaldi, Filippo; Vianello, Andrea; Castaldi, Silvana; Principi, Nicola; Toscano, Antonio; Moggio, Maurizio

    2014-10-14

    Neuromuscular diseases (NMDs) encompass a broad spectrum of conditions. Because infections may be relevant to the final prognosis of most NMDs, vaccination appears to be the simplest and most effective solution for protecting NMD patients from vaccine-preventable infections. However, very few studies have evaluated the immunogenicity, safety, tolerability, and efficacy of different vaccines in NMD patients; therefore, detailed vaccination recommendations for NMD patients are not available. Here, we present vaccination recommendations from a group of Italian Scientific Societies for optimal disease prevention in NMD patients that maintain high safety levels. We found that NMD patients can be classified into two groups according to immune function: patients with normal immunity and patients who are immunocompromised, including those who intermittently or continuously take immunosuppressive therapy. Patients with normal immunity and do not take immunosuppressive therapy can be vaccinated as healthy subjects. In contrast, immunocompromised patients, including those who take immunosuppressive therapy, should receive all inactivated vaccines as well as influenza and pneumococcal vaccines; these patients should not be administered live attenuated vaccines. In all cases, the efficacy and long-term persistence of immunity from vaccination in NMD patients can be lower than in normal subjects. Household contacts of immunocompromised NMD patients should also be vaccinated appropriately. PMID:25223270

  6. Vaccination against bacterial kidney disease: Chapter 22

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, Diane G.; Wiens, Gregory D.; Hammell, K. Larry; Rhodes, Linda D.

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial kidney disease (BKD) of salmonid fishes, caused by Renibacterium salmoninarum, has been recognized as a serious disease in salmonid fishes since the 1930s. This chapter discusses the occurrence and significance, etiology, and pathogenesis of BKD. It then describes the different vaccination procedures and the effects and side-effects of vaccination. Despite years of research, however, only a single vaccine has been licensed for prevention of BKD, and has demonstrated variable efficacy. Therefore, in addition to a presentation of the current status of BKD vaccination, a discussion of potential future directions for BKD vaccine development is included in the chapter. This discussion is focused on the unique characteristics of R. salmoninarum and its biology, as well as aspects of the salmonid immune system that might be explored specifically to develop more effective vaccines for BKD prevention.

  7. Rescue of Very Virulent and Mosaic Infectious Bursal Disease Virus from Cloned cDNA: VP2 Is Not the Sole Determinant of the Very Virulent Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Boot, Hein J.; ter Huurne, A. Agnes H. M.; Hoekman, Arjan J. W.; Peeters, Ben P. H.; Gielkens, Arno L. J.

    2000-01-01

    Many recent outbreaks of infectious bursal disease in commercial chicken flocks worldwide are due to the spread of very virulent strains of infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV). The molecular determinants for the enhanced virulence of vvIBDV compared to classical IBDV are unknown. The lack of a reverse genetics system to rescue vvIBDV from its cloned cDNA hampers the identification and study of these determinants. In this report we describe, for the first time, the rescue of vvIBDV from its cloned cDNA. Two plasmids containing a T7 promoter and either the full-length A- or B-segment cDNA of vvIBDV (D6948) were cotransfected into QM5 cells expressing T7 polymerase. The presence of vvIBDV could be detected after passage of the transfection supernatant in either primary bursa cells (in vitro) or embryonated eggs (in vivo), but not QM5 cells. Rescued vvIBDV (rD6948) appeared to have the same virulence as the parental isolate, D6948. Segment-reassorted IBDV, in which one of the two genomic segments originated from cDNA of classical attenuated IBDV CEF94 and the other from D6948, could also be rescued by using this system. Segment-reassorted virus containing the A segment of the classical attenuated isolate (CEF94) and the B segment of the very virulent isolate (D6948) is not released until 15 h after an in vitro infection. This indicates a slightly retarded replication, as the first release of CEF94 is already found at 10 h after infection. Next to segment reassortants, we generated and analyzed mosaic IBDVs (mIBDVs). In these mIBDVs we replaced the region of CEF94 encoding one of the viral proteins (pVP2, VP3, or VP4) by the corresponding region of D6948. Analysis of these mIBDV isolates showed that tropism for non-B-lymphoid cells was exclusively determined by the viral capsid protein VP2. However, the very virulent phenotype was not solely determined by this protein, since mosaic virus containing VP2 of vvIBDV induced neither morbidity nor mortality in young

  8. Chondroitin sulfate N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase-2 contributes to the replication of infectious bursal disease virus via interaction with the capsid protein VP2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lizhou; Ren, Xiangang; Chen, Yuming; Gao, Yulong; Wang, Nian; Lu, Zhen; Gao, Li; Qin, Liting; Wang, Yongqiang; Gao, Honglei; Li, Kai; Jiang, Lili; Cui, Hongyu; Liu, Changjun; Zhang, Yanping; Qi, Xiaole; Wang, Xiaomei

    2015-03-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a birnavirus that causes a highly contagious immunosuppressive disease in young chickens. The capsid protein VP2 of IBDV plays multiple roles in its life cycle. To more comprehensively understand the functions of VP2 involved in the communication between virus and host, we used yeast two-hybrid screening to identify the cellular factors that interact with this protein. We found that chondroitin sulfate N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase-2 (CSGalNAcT2), a typical type II transmembrane protein located in Golgi apparatus, could interact with VP2, and we confirmed this interaction by co-immunoprecipitation and confocal laser scanning microscopy assays. Additionally, up-regulation of CSGalNAcT2 during IBDV infection was observed. Overexpression and siRNA-mediated knockdown of CSGalNAcT2 assays suggested that CSGalNAcT2 promoted IBDV replication. Moreover, this enhancing effect of CSGalNAcT2 could be inhibited by Brefeldin A, which is a Golgi-disturbing agent. This indicated that the integrity of Golgi apparatus structure was involved in the function of CSGalNAcT2. Taken together, we concluded that CSGalNAcT2, located in the Golgi apparatus, contributed to the replication of IBDV via interaction with VP2. PMID:25807054

  9. Chondroitin Sulfate N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase-2 Contributes to the Replication of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus via Interaction with the Capsid Protein VP2

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lizhou; Ren, Xiangang; Chen, Yuming; Gao, Yulong; Wang, Nian; Lu, Zhen; Gao, Li; Qin, Liting; Wang, Yongqiang; Gao, Honglei; Li, Kai; Jiang, Lili; Cui, Hongyu; Liu, Changjun; Zhang, Yanping; Qi, Xiaole; Wang, Xiaomei

    2015-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a birnavirus that causes a highly contagious immunosuppressive disease in young chickens. The capsid protein VP2 of IBDV plays multiple roles in its life cycle. To more comprehensively understand the functions of VP2 involved in the communication between virus and host, we used yeast two-hybrid screening to identify the cellular factors that interact with this protein. We found that chondroitin sulfate N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase-2 (CSGalNAcT2), a typical type II transmembrane protein located in Golgi apparatus, could interact with VP2, and we confirmed this interaction by co-immunoprecipitation and confocal laser scanning microscopy assays. Additionally, up-regulation of CSGalNAcT2 during IBDV infection was observed. Overexpression and siRNA-mediated knockdown of CSGalNAcT2 assays suggested that CSGalNAcT2 promoted IBDV replication. Moreover, this enhancing effect of CSGalNAcT2 could be inhibited by Brefeldin A, which is a Golgi-disturbing agent. This indicated that the integrity of Golgi apparatus structure was involved in the function of CSGalNAcT2. Taken together, we concluded that CSGalNAcT2, located in the Golgi apparatus, contributed to the replication of IBDV via interaction with VP2. PMID:25807054

  10. Critical Role for Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel 2 in Infectious Bursal Disease Virus-Induced Apoptosis in Host Cells via Interaction with VP5

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhonghua; Wang, Yongqiang; Xue, Yanfei; Li, Xiaoqi; Cao, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is an acute, highly contagious, and immunosuppressive avian disease caused by IBD virus (IBDV). Although IBDV-induced host cell apoptosis has been established, the underlying molecular mechanism is still unclear. We report here that IBDV viral protein 5 (VP5) is a major apoptosis inducer in DF-1 cells by interacting with the voltage-dependent anion channel 2 (VDAC2) in the mitochondrion. We found that in DF-1 cells, VP5-induced apoptosis can be completely abolished by 4,4′-diisothiocyanatostibene-2,2′-disulfonic acid (DIDS), an inhibitor of VDAC. Furthermore, knockdown of VDAC2 by small interfering RNA markedly inhibits IBDV-induced apoptosis associated with decreased caspase-9 and -3 activation and cytochrome c release, leading to increased IBDV growth in host cells. Thus, VP5-induced apoptosis during IBDV infection is mediated by interacting with VDAC2, a protein that appears to restrict viral replication via induction of cell death. PMID:22114330

  11. Changes of CD4+CD25+ Cells Ratio in Immune Organs from Chickens Challenged with Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Strains with Varying Virulences

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaoxue; Rui, Lei; Shao, Qiang; Liu, Haiwen; Lu, Yanan; Zhang, Yongchao; Li, Zandong

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, we investigate changes in CD4+CD25+ cells in chickens during infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) infection. The percentage of CD4+CD25+ cells in lymph organs, e.g., the thymus, spleen, bursa of Fabricius and peripheral blood, during the first 1–5 days post infection (dpi) was assessed by flow cytometry. The data revealed a remarkable decrease in the percentage of CD4+CD25+ cells in the thymus from 1 to 5 dpi and in the spleen during early infection. An increase of the percentage of CD4+CD25+ cells among peripheral blood lymphocytes was observed during the first two days of IBDV infection. Additionally, CD4+CD25+ cells infiltrated the bursa along with CD4+ cells after IBDV infection. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to measure the mRNA levels of immune-related cytokines in IBDV-infected thymus and bursa of Fabricius tissues. The data revealed that IBDV caused a significant increase in interleukin (IL)-10 mRNA levels, with the Harbin-1 strain (vvIBDV) inducing higher IL-10 expression than the Ts strain. Taken together, our data suggest that chicken CD4+CD25+ cells may participate in IBDV pathogenicity by migrating from their sites of origin and storage, the thymus and spleen, to the virally targeted bursa of Fabricius during IBDV infection. PMID:25803101

  12. Enhancing yield of infectious Bursal disease virus structural proteins in baculovirus expression systems: focus on media, protease inhibitors, and dissolved oxygen.

    PubMed

    Hu, Y C; Bentley, W E

    1999-01-01

    Structural proteins of the poultry pathogen, infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), were expressed in the baculovirus/insect cell expression system. To date, several reports have indicated that animal virus structural proteins are expressed only at low yield in this system. In this article, several factors were examined to enhance yield. These include medium, dissolved oxygen level, and the addition (in vivo and in vitro) of protease inhibitors. Specifically, two media were compared, and SF-900 II was superior to Ex-Cell 401 for cell growth and IBDV protein expression. A cocktail of protease inhibitors including phenylmethyl sulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), leupeptin, and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) minimized proteolysis in vitro. Also, aprotinin and pepstatin A deterred product degradation in vivo and increased the product yield nearly 2-fold. Finally, in 3 L bioreactors, a dissolved oxygen tension of 50% DO (air saturation) was optimal. Results demonstrated that several relatively simple adjustments to the baculovirus system significantly improved the yield of IBD virus structural proteins. PMID:10585191

  13. Modifications of the 3′-UTR stem–loop of infectious bursal disease virus are allowed without influencing replication or virulence

    PubMed Central

    Boot, Hein J.; Pritz-Verschuren, Sylvia B. E.

    2004-01-01

    Many questions regarding the initiation of replication and translation of the segmented, double-stranded RNA genome of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) remain to be solved. Computer analysis shows that the non-polyadenylated extreme 3′-untranslated regions (UTRs) of the coding strand of both genomic segments are able to fold into a single stem–loop structure. To assess the determinants for a functional 3′-UTR, we mutagenized the 3′-UTR stem–loop structure of the B-segment. Rescue of infectious virus from mutagenized cDNA plasmids was impaired in all cases. However, after one passage, the replication kinetics of these viruses were restored. Sequence analysis revealed that additional mutations had been acquired in most of the stem–loop structures, which compensated the introduced ones. A rescued virus with a modified stem–loop structure containing four nucleotide substitutions, but preserving its overall secondary structure, was phenotypically indistinguishable from wild-type virus, both in vitro (cell culture) and in vivo (chickens, natural host). Sequence analysis showed that the modified stem–loop structure of this virus was fully preserved after four serial passages. Apparently, it is the stem–loop structure and not the primary sequence that is the functional determinant in the 3′-UTRs of IBDV. PMID:14718548

  14. Molecular characterization of two Bangladeshi infectious bursal disease virus isolates using the hypervariable sequence of VP2 as a genetic marker

    PubMed Central

    Le, Thanh Hoa; Rahman, Md. Mostafizur; Islam, Md. Alimul

    2012-01-01

    Two Bangladeshi infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) isolates collected in 2007, termed GB1 and GB3, were subjected to comparative sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. Sequence analysis of a 474-bp hypervariable region in the VP2 gene revealed that among four major amino acid substitutions observed in the strains, two were unique to GB1 and GB3 (Ser217Leu and Ala270Thr) while one substitution was only found in GB1 (Asn299Ser). Among IBDVs from Bangladesh including GB1 and GB3, the rate of identity and homology was around 97~99%. The amino acid sequences of GB1 and GB3 differ from those of previous Bangladeshi IBDV isolates and contain amino acid substitutions Pro222Ala and Asn299Ser (in GB3 only). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that GB1 and GB3 are grouped with other very virulent IBDVs of European and American origin in contrast to two previously isolated Bangladeshi IBDV strains (GenBank accession Nos. AF362776 and AF260317), which belong to the Asian group. It was concluded that GB1 and GB3 belong to a very virulent group of IBDVs. However, amino acid sequences of GB1 and GB3 differ from those of the other Bangladeshi IBDVs by one or two amino acids encoded in the hypervariable region of the VP2 gene. PMID:23271182

  15. Adaptation of Very Virulent Infectious Bursal Disease Virus to Chicken Embryonic Fibroblasts by Site-Directed Mutagenesis of Residues 279 and 284 of Viral Coat Protein VP2

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Boon-Leong; Cao, Yongchang; Yu, Tiffany; Mo, Chi-Wai

    1999-01-01

    The full-length RNA genomes of a chicken embryonic fibroblast (CEF)-nonpermissive, very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) (strain HK46) were amplified into cDNAs by reverse transcription-PCR. The full-length cDNAs were sequenced and subcloned into a eukaryotic expression vector, from which point mutations were introduced into the VP2 region by site-directed mutagenesis. The wild-type and mutated plasmids were transfected directly into CEFs to examine their ability to generate CEF-permissive recombinant viruses. Substitution of amino acid residues 279 (Asp→Asn) and 284 (Ala→Thr) of the VP2 protein yielded a recombinant virus which was able to be passaged in CEFs, whereas the wild-type cDNAs and an amino acid substitution at residue 330 (Ser→Arg) of the VP2 protein alone did not yield viable virus. The results indicated that mutation of other viral proteins, including VP1, VP3, VP4, and VP5, was not required for CEF adaptation of the virus. The same approach may be used to produce CEF-adapted strains from newly evolved IBDVs or to manipulate the antigenicity of the virus. PMID:10074133

  16. Apoptosis is induced by infectious bursal disease virus replication in productively infected cells as well as in antigen-negative cells in their vicinity.

    PubMed

    Jungmann, A; Nieper, H; Müller, H

    2001-05-01

    The kinetics of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) replication and induction of apoptosis were investigated in vitro and in vivo. After infection of chicken embryo (CE) cells with IBDV strain Cu-1, the proportion of apoptotic cells increased from 5.8% at 4 h post-infection (p.i.) to 64.5% at 48 h p.i. The proportion of apoptotic cells correlated with IBDV replication. UV-inactivated IBDV particles did not induce apoptosis. Double labelling revealed that, early after infection, the majority of antigen-expressing cells were not apoptotic; double-labelled cells appeared more frequently at later times. Remarkably, apoptotic cells were frequently located in the vicinity of antigen-expressing cells. This indicated that an apoptosis-inducing factor(s) might be released by cells that replicate IBDV. Since interferon (IFN) production has been demonstrated after IBDV infection, IFN was considered to be one of several factors. However, supernatants of infected CE cells in which virus infectivity had been neutralized were not sufficient to induce apoptosis. Similar results were observed in the infected bursae of Fabricius: early after infection, most of the cells either showed virus antigens or were apoptotic. Again, double-labelled cells appeared more frequently late after infection. This suggests that indirect mechanisms might also be involved in the induction of apoptosis in vivo, contributing to the rapid depletion of cells in the IBDV-infected bursa. PMID:11297685

  17. Effect of Dietary Combination of Methionine and Fish Oil on Cellular Immunity and Plasma Fatty Acids in Infectious Bursal Disease Challenged Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Kasim, Azhar; Yong Meng, Goh; Teck Chwen, Loh; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Soleimani Farjam, Abdoreza

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the modulatory effects of dietary methionine and fish oil on immune response, plasma fatty acid profile, and blood parameters of infectious bursal disease (IBD) challenged broiler chickens. A total of 300 one-day-old male broiler chicks were assigned to one of six dietary treatment groups in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement. There were three levels of fish oil (0, 2.5 and 5.5%), and two levels of methionine (NRC recommendation and twice NRC recommendation). The results showed that the birds fed with 5.5% fish oil had higher total protein, white blood cell count, and IL-2 concentration than those of other groups at 7 days after IBD challenge. Inclusion of fish oil in diet had no effect on IFN-γ concentration. However, supplementation of methionine twice the recommendation enhanced the serum IFN-γ and globulin concentration. Neither of fish oil nor methionine supplementation affected the liver enzymes concentration. It can be suggested that a balance of moderate level of fish oil (2.5%) and methionine level (twice NRC recommendation) might enhance immune response in IBD challenged broiler chickens. PMID:24198724

  18. Foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly infectious and economically devastating disease of livestock. Although vaccines, available since the early 1900s, have been instrumental in eradicating FMD from parts of the world, the disease still affects millions of animals around the globe and remains the...

  19. Foot-and-mouth disease vaccines: progress and problems.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yimei; Lu, Zengjun; Liu, Zaixin

    2016-06-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) has been a major threat to livestock across the world. The predominant method of controlling this disease in endemic regions is through regular vaccination with inactivated vaccine. However, there are many limitations. For instance, cultivation of virulent FMD virus (FMDV) in the manufacturing units poses a risk of escape from production sites. Vaccines may sometimes contain traces of FMD viral non-structural proteins (NSPs), therefore, interfering with the NSP-based serological differentiation infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA). Moreover, vaccines are unable to eliminate virus from carrier animals. To address the shortcomings of inactivated vaccines, many efforts are currently devoted to develop novel vaccines including attenuated and/or marker inactivated vaccines, recombinant protein vaccines, synthetic peptide vaccines, and empty capsid vaccines. Here, we review the research progress of novel vaccines, problems that remain to be solved, and also raise some suggestions that would help in the development of FMD vaccines. PMID:26760264

  20. C Terminus of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Major Capsid Protein VP2 Is Involved in Definition of the T Number for Capsid Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Castón, José R.; Martínez-Torrecuadrada, Jorge L.; Maraver, Antonio; Lombardo, Eleuterio; Rodríguez, José F.; Casal, J. Ignacio; Carrascosa, José L.

    2001-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), a member of the Birnaviridae family, is a double-stranded RNA virus. The IBDV capsid is formed by two major structural proteins, VP2 and VP3, which assemble to form a T=13 markedly nonspherical capsid. During viral infection, VP2 is initially synthesized as a precursor, called VPX, whose C end is proteolytically processed to the mature form during capsid assembly. We have computed three-dimensional maps of IBDV capsid and virus-like particles built up by VP2 alone by using electron cryomicroscopy and image-processing techniques. The IBDV single-shelled capsid is characterized by the presence of 260 protruding trimers on the outer surface. Five classes of trimers can be distinguished according to their different local environments. When VP2 is expressed alone in insect cells, dodecahedral particles form spontaneously; these may be assembled into larger, fragile icosahedral capsids built up by 12 dodecahedral capsids. Each dodecahedral capsid is an empty T=1 shell composed of 20 trimeric clusters of VP2. Structural comparison between IBDV capsids and capsids consisting of VP2 alone allowed the determination of the major capsid protein locations and the interactions between them. Whereas VP2 forms the outer protruding trimers, VP3 is found as trimers on the inner surface and may be responsible for stabilizing functions. Since elimination of the C-terminal region of VPX is correlated with the assembly of T=1 capsids, this domain might be involved (either alone or in cooperation with VP3) in the induction of different conformations of VP2 during capsid morphogenesis. PMID:11602723

  1. Vaccines to combat the neglected tropical diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bethony, Jeffrey M.; Cole, Rhea N.; Guo, Xiaoti; Kamhawi, Shaden; Lightowlers, Marshall W.; Loukas, Alex; Petri, William; Reed, Steven; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Hotez, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) represent a group of parasitic and related infectious diseases such as amebiasis, Chagas disease, cysticercosis, echinococcosis, hookworm, leishmaniasis, and schistosomiasis. Together, these conditions are considered the most common infections in low- and middle-income countries, where they produce a level of global disability and human suffering equivalent to better known conditions such as human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and malaria. Despite their global public health importance, progress on developing vaccines for NTD pathogens has lagged because of some key technical hurdles and the fact that these infections occur almost exclusively in the world’s poorest people living below the World Bank poverty line. In the absence of financial incentives for new products, the multinational pharmaceutical companies have not embarked on substantive research and development programs for the neglected tropical disease vaccines. Here, we review the current status of scientific and technical progress in the development of new neglected tropical disease vaccines, highlighting the successes that have been achieved (cysticercosis and echinococcosis) and identifying the challenges and opportunities for development of new vaccines for NTDs. Also highlighted are the contributions being made by non-profit product development partnerships that are working to overcome some of the economic challenges in vaccine manufacture, clinical testing, and global access. PMID:21198676

  2. Vaccines to combat the neglected tropical diseases.

    PubMed

    Bethony, Jeffrey M; Cole, Rhea N; Guo, Xiaoti; Kamhawi, Shaden; Lightowlers, Marshall W; Loukas, Alex; Petri, William; Reed, Steven; Valenzuela, Jesus G; Hotez, Peter J

    2011-01-01

    The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) represent a group of parasitic and related infectious diseases such as amebiasis, Chagas disease, cysticercosis, echinococcosis, hookworm, leishmaniasis, and schistosomiasis. Together, these conditions are considered the most common infections in low- and middle-income countries, where they produce a level of global disability and human suffering equivalent to better known conditions such as human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and malaria. Despite their global public health importance, progress on developing vaccines for NTD pathogens has lagged because of some key technical hurdles and the fact that these infections occur almost exclusively in the world's poorest people living below the World Bank poverty line. In the absence of financial incentives for new products, the multinational pharmaceutical companies have not embarked on substantive research and development programs for the neglected tropical disease vaccines. Here, we review the current status of scientific and technical progress in the development of new neglected tropical disease vaccines, highlighting the successes that have been achieved (cysticercosis and echinococcosis) and identifying the challenges and opportunities for development of new vaccines for NTDs. Also highlighted are the contributions being made by non-profit product development partnerships that are working to overcome some of the economic challenges in vaccine manufacture, clinical testing, and global access. PMID:21198676

  3. Tilapia Vaccines: Important Disease Prevention, Biosecurity Tools

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Minimizing the effects of disease is crucial to prevent mortality, morbidity and to promote rapid growth and optimal feed conversion of tilapia cultured in fresh, estuarine and marine waters. Vaccination, a valuable biosecurity safeguard, can protect tilapia against infectious diseases. Vaccinat...

  4. [Dengue fever: from disease to vaccination].

    PubMed

    Teyssou, R

    2009-08-01

    Dengue is a tropical disease affecting 110 countries throughout the world and placing over 3 billion people at risk of infection. According the World Health Organization 70 to 500 million persons are infected every year including 2 million who develop hemorrhagic form and 20,000 who die. Children are at highest risk for death. Due to the absence of specialized laboratories in most endemic regions and to the lack of specifici clinical presentation, the incidence of dengue and its economic costs are certainly underestimated. Dengue iscaused by an arbovirus belonging to the Flavivirus genus of the family Flaviviridae. There are four dengue virus serotypes and no cross protection between them. The disease is transmitted through the bites of mosquitoes belonging to the Aedes genus, mainly Aedes aegypti. However A. albopictus has played an important role in the spread of the disease and other species may be involved in specific locations (e.g., A. polynesiensis in the South Pacific). There is no specific treatment for dengue. Management of severe forms depends on symptomatic treatment of hemorrhagic complications and hypovolemic shock. Prevention requires control of vector mosquitoes that is difficult to implement and maintain. Dengue is a major emerging infectious disease with a heavy impact on public health. The high human and economic costs as well as the absence of specific preventive measures underscore the need to develop a vaccine. However finding and distributing such a vaccine to populations at risk is hampered by numerous obstacles. The most notable challenges standing in the way of development of a candidate vaccine are as follows: absence of an animal model, which has important implications for the preclinical development strategy; need to develop a live attenuated vaccine; existence of 4 antigenically distinct serotypes with the resulting risk of competition between vaccine strains; immunologic risks related to antibody-dependent enhancement that has been

  5. Development of an improved vaccine evaluation protocol to compare the efficacy of Newcastle disease vaccines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The failure to control and to eradicate Newcastle Disease (ND) with vaccination alone in countries where the etiological agent of the disease, virulent Newcastle Disease Virus (vNDV) is endemic underscores the need to improve the efficacy of currently available NDV vaccines and vaccination approache...

  6. Alzheimer's disease: is a vaccine possible?

    PubMed

    Alves, R P S; Yang, M J; Batista, M T; Ferreira, L C S

    2014-06-01

    The cause of Alzheimer's disease is still unknown, but the disease is distinctively characterized by the accumulation of β-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain. These features have become the primary focus of much of the research looking for new treatments for the disease, including immunotherapy and vaccines targeting β-amyloid in the brain. Adverse effects observed in a clinical trial based on the β-amyloid protein were attributed to the presence of the target antigen and emphasized the relevance of finding safer antigen candidates for active immunization. For this kind of approach, different vaccine formulations using DNA, peptide, and heterologous prime-boost immunization regimens have been proposed. Promising results are expected from different vaccine candidates encompassing B-cell epitopes of the β-amyloid protein. In addition, recent results indicate that targeting another protein involved in the etiology of the disease has opened new perspectives for the effective prevention of the illness. Collectively, the evidence indicates that the idea of finding an effective vaccine for the control of Alzheimer's disease, although not without challenges, is a possibility. PMID:24878604

  7. Alzheimer's disease: is a vaccine possible?

    PubMed Central

    Alves, R.P.S.; Yang, M.J.; Batista, M.T.; Ferreira, L.C.S.

    2014-01-01

    The cause of Alzheimer's disease is still unknown, but the disease is distinctively characterized by the accumulation of β-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain. These features have become the primary focus of much of the research looking for new treatments for the disease, including immunotherapy and vaccines targeting β-amyloid in the brain. Adverse effects observed in a clinical trial based on the β-amyloid protein were attributed to the presence of the target antigen and emphasized the relevance of finding safer antigen candidates for active immunization. For this kind of approach, different vaccine formulations using DNA, peptide, and heterologous prime-boost immunization regimens have been proposed. Promising results are expected from different vaccine candidates encompassing B-cell epitopes of the β-amyloid protein. In addition, recent results indicate that targeting another protein involved in the etiology of the disease has opened new perspectives for the effective prevention of the illness. Collectively, the evidence indicates that the idea of finding an effective vaccine for the control of Alzheimer's disease, although not without challenges, is a possibility. PMID:24878604

  8. Inflammation and therapeutic vaccination in CNS diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiner, Howard L.; Selkoe, Dennis J.

    2002-12-01

    The spectrum of inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system has been steadily expanding from classical autoimmune disorders such as multiple sclerosis to far more diverse diseases. Evidence now suggests that syndromes such as Alzheimer's disease and stroke have important inflammatory and immune components and may be amenable to treatment by anti-inflammatory and immunotherapeutic approaches. The notion of 'vaccinating' individuals against a neurodegenerative disorder such as Alzheimer's disease is a marked departure from classical thinking about mechanism and treatment, and yet therapeutic vaccines for both Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis have been validated in animal models and are in the clinic. Such approaches, however, have the potential to induce unwanted inflammatory responses as well as to provide benefit.

  9. Meningococcal Disease (Bacterial Meningitis) Vaccine and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Meningococcal Disease (Bacterial meningitis) Vaccine and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having a baby ... advice from your health care provider. What is meningitis? Meningitis is an infection of the lining that ...

  10. Efficacy of HVT-IBD vector vaccine compared to attenuated live vaccine using in-ovo vaccination against a Korean very virulent IBDV in commercial broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Roh, J-H; Kang, M; Wei, B; Yoon, R-H; Seo, H-S; Bahng, J-Y; Kwon, J-T; Cha, S-Y; Jang, H-K

    2016-05-01

    The production performance, efficacy, and safety of two types of vaccines for infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) were compared with in-ovo vaccination of Cobb 500 broiler chickens for gross and microscopic examination of the bursa of Fabricius, bursa/body weight (b/B) ratio, flow cytometry, and serologic response to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccination. One vaccine was a recombinant HVT-IBD vector vaccine (HVT as for herpesvirus of turkeys) and the other was an intermediate plus live IBDV vaccine. A significant difference was detected at 21 d. Eight of 10 chickens that received the IBDV live vaccine had severe bursal lesions and a relatively low b/B ratio of 0.95, and an inhibited NDV vaccine response. On the other hand, the HVT-IBD vector vaccine resulted in mild bursal lesions and a b/B ratio of 1.89. Therefore, the live vaccine had lower safety than that of the HVT-IBD vector vaccine. To determine the protective efficacy, chickens were intraocularly challenged at 24 d. Eight of 10 chickens in the IBDV live vaccination group showed gross and histological lesions characterized by hemorrhage, cyst formation, lymphocytic depletion, and a decreased b/B ratio. In contrast, the HVT-IBD vector vaccinated chickens showed mild gross and histological lesions in three of 10 chickens with a b/B ratio of 1.36, which was similar to that of the unchallenged controls. Vaccinated chickens showed a significant increase in IBDV antibody titers, regardless of the type of vaccine used. In addition, significantly better broiler flock performance was observed with the HVT-IBD vector vaccine compared to that of the live vaccine. Our results revealed that the HVT-IBD vector vaccine could be used as an alternative vaccine to increase efficacy, and to have an improved safety profile compared with the IBDV live vaccine using in-ovo vaccination against the Korean very virulent IBDV in commercial broiler chickens. PMID:26944964

  11. Role of chicken melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 in induction and activation of innate and adaptive immune responses to infectious bursal disease virus in cultured macrophages.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chih-Chun; Wu, Ching Ching; Lin, Tsang Long

    2015-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine if chicken melanoma-differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) senses infectious bursal disease virus infection to induce innate immunity that bridges to adaptive immunity. During IBDV infection in HD11 cells, IBDV titers and RNA loads increased up to 3.4 × 10(7) plaque-forming units (PFU)/mL and 1114 ng/µL, respectively, at 24 hours postinfection (hpi). IBDV infection in HD11 cells induced significantly upregulated (p < 0.05) expression levels of chicken MDA5 (59-fold), interferon-β (IFN-β) (693-fold), dsRNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) (4-fold), 2', 5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS) (286-fold), myxovirus resistance gene (Mx) (22-fold), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) (5-fold), IL-6 (146-fold), IL-8 (4-fold), IL-10 (4-fold), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) (15-fold), and major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC class I) (4-fold). Nitric oxide production in the culture supernatants increased significantly (p < 0.05) up to 6.5 μM at 24 hpi. The expressed chMDA5 and IBDV-derived dsRNA were localized in the cytoplasm of HD11 cells during IBDV infection. ChMDA5-knockdown HD11 cells had significantly higher (p < 0.05) IBDV RNA loads at 24 hpi and significantly lower (p < 0.05) nitric oxide production and expression levels of chicken MDA5, IFN-β, PKR, OAS, Mx, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12(p40), IL-18, IL-10, iNOS, MHC class I and CD86 at 24 hpi. In addition, chMDA5 overexpression in HD11 cells resulted in significantly reduced (p < 0.05) IBDV titers and RNA loads and significantly increased (p < 0.05) nitric oxide production at 16 and 24 hpi. It also resulted in significantly higher (p < 0.05) expression levels of chicken MDA5, IFN-β, PKR, OAS, Mx, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12(p40), IL-10 and iNOS at 2 hpi. In conclusion, the results indicate that chMDA5 senses IBDV infection in chicken macrophages, and this is associated with IBDV-induced expression of IFN-β and initiation of an innate immune response that in

  12. [Pneumococcal vaccine recommendations in chronic respiratory diseases].

    PubMed

    Casas Maldonado, F; Alfageme Michavila, I; Barchilón Cohen, V S; Peis Redondo, J I; Vargas Ortega, D A

    2014-09-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia is an acute respiratory infectious disease which has an incidence of 3-8 cases/1,000 inhabitants, and increases with age and comorbidities. The pneumococcus is the organism most frequently involved in community-acquired pneumonia in the adult (30-35%). Around 40% of patients with community-acquired pneumonia require hospital admission, and around 10% need to be admitted to an intensive care unit. The most serious forms of pneumococcal infection include invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), which covers cases of bacteremia (associated or not to pneumonia), meningitis, pleuritis, arthritis, primary peritonitis and pericarditis. Currently, the biggest problem with the pneumococcus is the emergence of resistance to antimicrobial agents, and its high morbimortality, despite the use of appropriate antibiotics and proper medical treatment. Certain underlying medical conditions increase the risk of IPD and its complications, especially, from the respiratory diseases point of view, smoking and chronic respiratory diseases. Pneumococcal disease, according to the WHO, is the first preventable cause of death worldwide in children and adults. Among the strategies to prevent IPD is vaccination. WHO considers that its universal introduction and implementation against pneumococcus is essential and a priority in all countries. There are currently 2 pneumococcal vaccines for adults: the 23 serotypes polysaccharide and conjugate 13 serotypes. The scientific societies represented here have worked to develop some recommendations, based on the current scientific evidence, regarding the pneumococcal vaccination in the immunocompetent adult with chronic respiratory disease and smokers at risk of suffering from IPD. PMID:25107494

  13. Effect of oral administration of ginseng stem-and-leaf saponins (GSLS) on the immune responses to Newcastle disease vaccine in chickens.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Lijuan; Li, Yutao; Wang, Weiyu; Wang, Yuemin; Hu, Songhua

    2011-07-12

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of oral administration of ginseng stem-and-leaf saponin (GSLS) on immune responses in chickens vaccinated with live Newcastle disease (ND) vaccines. In experiment 1, chickens were orally administered GSLS (2.5, 5, 10, and 20mg/kg) in drinking water for 3 days, and then intranasally vaccinated with ND vaccine. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test showed that the optimal dose of GSLS for enhancing HI titers was 5mg/kg. In experiment 2, chickens were fed with GSLS (5mg/kg) for 7, 5 or 3 days before vaccination. Result indicated that GSLS enhanced HI titers in a time-dependent manner. The order of the duration for drinking GSLS on increasing HI titers was 7 days>5 days>3 days. In experiment 3, chickens were fed with GSLS before or after immunization. Serum was sampled at a week interval for 5 weeks for HI test, splenic lymphocytes were prepared at weeks 2 and 4 after the booster immunization for lymphocyte proliferation test (LPT) and intestinal tissues were sampled at week 4 after the booster immunization for immunohistochemistry and histological examination. Results showed that HI titer, LPT, IgA+ cells and intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (iIELs) were significantly higher in chickens drinking GSLS before vaccination than those after vaccination. Therefore, oral administration of GSLS in drinking water at a dose of 5mg/kg for 7 days significantly increased systemic as well as gut mucosal immunity in chickens immunized with ND vaccine. Considering the immune potentiating effect of GSLS on ND vaccine, GSLS should be evaluated for its oral adjuvant effect on the immune response against other diseases such avian influenza and infectious bursal disease. PMID:21569814

  14. [Prevention of virus-related neurological diseases by vaccines].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, M

    1997-04-01

    Prevention of virus-related neurological diseases are surveyed. Patients of poliomyelitis has recently been drastically reduced by world-wide administrating live vaccines. In view of rare incidence of paralysis after giving live vaccine, adoption of inactivated vaccine has recently been reconsidered. A live varicella vaccine was developed and has been world-wide used for normal and high-risk children. Incidence of zoster in vaccinated acute leukemic children is several times higher in those who with rash after vaccination as compared with those without rash, and as no or few rash appears after vaccination of normal children, it is expected that vaccination of normal children would lead to reduction of zoster after their aging. Measles encephalitis has rapidly been reduced by world-wide use of live vaccines. Mouse-brain derived vaccine against Japanese encephalitis(JE) has been used in Asian countries. Development of tissue-culture derived JE vaccine is under way. PMID:9103901

  15. Newcastle disease: current vaccine research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the most important infectious diseases that affect poultry due to its devastating economic impact and world-wide distribution and contribution towards malnutrition in countries that rely on production of village chickens as a source of animal protein. Besides biosec...

  16. Vaccination strategies for Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Ramos, Marina; von Euler Chelpin, Marianne; Sanchez-Guajardo, Vanesa

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disease in the world, but there is currently no available cure for it. Current treatments only alleviate some of the symptoms for a few years, but they become ineffective in the long run and do not stop the disease. Therefore it is of outmost importance to develop therapeutic strategies that can prevent, stop, or cure Parkinson disease. A very promising target for these therapies is the peripheral immune system due to its probable involvement in the disease and its potential as a tool to modulate neuroinflammation. But for such strategies to be successful, we need to understand the particular state of the peripheral immune system during Parkinson disease in order to avoid its weaknesses. In this review we examine the available data regarding how dopamine regulates the peripheral immune system and how this regulation is affected in Parkinson disease; the specific cytokine profiles observed during disease progression and the alterations documented to date in patients’ peripheral blood mononuclear cells. We also review the different strategies used in Parkinson disease animal models to modulate the adaptive immune response to salvage dopaminergic neurons from cell death. After analyzing the evidence, we hypothesize the need to prime the immune system to restore natural tolerance against α-synuclein in Parkinson disease, including at the same time B and T cells, so that T cells can reprogram microglia activation to a beneficial pattern and B cell/IgG can help neurons cope with the pathological forms of α-synuclein. PMID:24670306

  17. 9 CFR 113.329 - Newcastle Disease Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.329 Newcastle Disease Vaccine. Newcastle Disease Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids or embryonated chicken eggs. Only Master Seed Virus which has...

  18. 9 CFR 113.329 - Newcastle Disease Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.329 Newcastle Disease Vaccine. Newcastle Disease Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids or embryonated chicken eggs. Only Master Seed Virus which has...

  19. 9 CFR 113.330 - Marek's Disease Vaccines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.330 Marek's Disease Vaccines. Marek's disease vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing tissue culture cells. Only Master Seed Virus which has been established as pure, safe,...

  20. 9 CFR 113.329 - Newcastle Disease Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.329 Newcastle Disease Vaccine. Newcastle Disease Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids or embryonated chicken eggs. Only Master Seed Virus which has...

  1. 9 CFR 113.329 - Newcastle Disease Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.329 Newcastle Disease Vaccine. Newcastle Disease Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids or embryonated chicken eggs. Only Master Seed Virus which has...

  2. 9 CFR 113.329 - Newcastle Disease Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.329 Newcastle Disease Vaccine. Newcastle Disease Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids or embryonated chicken eggs. Only Master Seed Virus which has...

  3. 9 CFR 113.330 - Marek's Disease Vaccines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.330 Marek's Disease Vaccines. Marek's disease vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing tissue culture cells. Only Master Seed Virus which has been established as pure, safe,...

  4. 9 CFR 113.330 - Marek's Disease Vaccines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.330 Marek's Disease Vaccines. Marek's disease vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing tissue culture cells. Only Master Seed Virus which has been established as pure, safe,...

  5. 9 CFR 113.330 - Marek's Disease Vaccines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.330 Marek's Disease Vaccines. Marek's disease vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing tissue culture cells. Only Master Seed Virus which has been established as pure, safe,...

  6. The effect of vaccination on Marek's disease virus shedding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current Marek’s Disease vaccines are efficient at preventing disease. However, vaccination can reduce but not completely eliminate virus shedding. Our hypothesis is that an efficient vaccine will result in fewer viruses being shed. To test this hypothesis, we developed a real-time PCR to measure Mar...

  7. The Association of Receptor of Activated Protein Kinase C 1(RACK1) with Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Viral Protein VP5 and Voltage-dependent Anion Channel 2 (VDAC2) Inhibits Apoptosis and Enhances Viral Replication*

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wencheng; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Xu, Zhichao; Wang, Bin; Li, Xiaoqi; Cao, Hong; Wang, Yongqiang; Zheng, Shijun J.

    2015-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is an acute, highly contagious, and immunosuppressive avian disease caused by IBD virus (IBDV). Our previous report indicates that IBDV VP5 induces apoptosis via interaction with voltage-dependent anion channel 2 (VDAC2). However, the underlying molecular mechanism is still unclear. We report here that receptor of activated protein kinase C 1 (RACK1) interacts with both VDAC2 and VP5 and that they could form a complex. We found that overexpression of RACK1 inhibited IBDV-induced apoptosis in DF-1 cells and that knockdown of RACK1 by small interfering RNA induced apoptosis associated with activation of caspases 9 and 3 and suppressed IBDV growth. These results indicate that RACK1 plays an antiapoptotic role during IBDV infection via interaction with VDAC2 and VP5, suggesting that VP5 sequesters RACK1 and VDAC2 in the apoptosis-inducing process. PMID:25583988

  8. Formulation of novel nano-encapsulated Newcastle disease vaccine tablets for vaccination of village chickens.

    PubMed

    Wambura, Philemon N

    2011-01-01

    Formulation of nano-encapsulated vaccine tablet is a novel technique for the delivery of Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine to village chickens. Vaccine tablets were prepared using gelatin, trehalose and casein as thermostabilisers and binders, respectively, and each vaccine tablet contained a nominal oral dose of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain I-2 for a single chicken. These ND vaccine tablets maintained a titre of 10(8.5) EID(50)/0.1 mL for 90 days at ambient room temperatures (25-34°C). When these vaccine tablets were given to village chickens, a single oral administration of the vaccine produced protective antibody response (≥3.0 log(2)) against challenge with virulent NDV. The findings from the present study showed that, if the vaccine tablet formulation technique is optimised, it will allow the delivery of the ND vaccine without depending on cold chains to rural areas in tropical countries. PMID:20683657

  9. List of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patient Education Programs and Tools VTrckS (Vaccine Tracking System) Immunization Registries (IIS) Vaccines for Children (VFC) Stop Transmission of Polio (STOP) Vaccine Management Business Improvement Project (VMBIP) Global Immunizations & Vaccinations Immunization Program ...

  10. Vaccines and recommendations for their use in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Tembleque, María Dolores; Corella, Carmen; Pérez-Calle, Jose L

    2013-01-01

    The patient with inflammatory bowel disease will be predisposed to numerous infections due their immune status. It is therefore important to understand the immune and serologic status at diagnosis and to put the patient into an adapted vaccination program. This program would be applied differently according to two patient groups: the immunocompromised and the non-immunocom-promised. In general, the first group would avoid the use of live-virus vaccines, and in all cases, inflammatory bowel disease treatment would take precedence over vaccine risk. It is important to individualize vaccination schedules according to the type of patient, the treatment used and the disease pattern.In addition, patient with inflammatory bowel disease should be considered for the following vaccines: varicella vaccine, human papilloma virus, influenza, pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine and hepatitis B vaccine. PMID:23538680

  11. Vaccinations in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases

    PubMed Central

    Rahier, Jean-François; Moutschen, Michel; Van Gompel, Alfons; Van Ranst, Marc; Louis, Edouard; Segaert, Siegfried; Masson, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMID) such as RA, IBD or psoriasis, are at increased risk of infection, partially because of the disease itself, but mostly because of treatment with immunomodulatory or immunosuppressive drugs. In spite of their elevated risk for vaccine-preventable disease, vaccination coverage in IMID patients is surprisingly low. This review summarizes current literature data on vaccine safety and efficacy in IMID patients treated with immunosuppressive or immunomodulatory drugs and formulates best-practice recommendations on vaccination in this population. Especially in the current era of biological therapies, including TNF-blocking agents, special consideration should be given to vaccination strategies in IMID patients. Clinical evidence indicates that immunization of IMID patients does not increase clinical or laboratory parameters of disease activity. Live vaccines are contraindicated in immunocompromized individuals, but non-live vaccines can safely be given. Although the reduced quality of the immune response in patients under immunotherapy may have a negative impact on vaccination efficacy in this population, adequate humoral response to vaccination in IMID patients has been demonstrated for hepatitis B, influenza and pneumococcal vaccination. Vaccination status is best checked and updated before the start of immunomodulatory therapy: live vaccines are not contraindicated at that time and inactivated vaccines elicit an optimal immune response in immunocompetent individuals. PMID:20591834

  12. The foot-and-mouth disease carrier state divergence in vaccinated and non-vaccinated cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pathogenesis of persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection was investigated following simulated-natural virus exposure of 43 cattle that were either naïve or vaccinated using a recombinant, adenovirus-vectored vaccine. Although vaccinated cattle were protected against clinical dise...

  13. Social Contact Networks and Disease Eradicability under Voluntary Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Perisic, Ana; Bauch, Chris T.

    2009-01-01

    Certain theories suggest that it should be difficult or impossible to eradicate a vaccine-preventable disease under voluntary vaccination: Herd immunity implies that the individual incentive to vaccinate disappears at high coverage levels. Historically, there have been examples of declining coverage for vaccines, such as MMR vaccine and whole-cell pertussis vaccine, that are consistent with this theory. On the other hand, smallpox was globally eradicated by 1980 despite voluntary vaccination policies in many jurisdictions. Previous modeling studies of the interplay between disease dynamics and individual vaccinating behavior have assumed that infection is transmitted in a homogeneously mixing population. By comparison, here we simulate transmission of a vaccine-preventable SEIR infection through a random, static contact network. Individuals choose whether to vaccinate based on infection risks from neighbors, and based on vaccine risks. When neighborhood size is small, rational vaccinating behavior results in rapid containment of the infection through voluntary ring vaccination. As neighborhood size increases (while the average force of infection is held constant), a threshold is reached beyond which the infection can break through partially vaccinated rings, percolating through the whole population and resulting in considerable epidemic final sizes and a large number vaccinated. The former outcome represents convergence between individually and socially optimal outcomes, whereas the latter represents their divergence, as observed in most models of individual vaccinating behavior that assume homogeneous mixing. Similar effects are observed in an extended model using smallpox-specific natural history and transmissibility assumptions. This work illustrates the significant qualitative differences between behavior–infection dynamics in discrete contact-structured populations versus continuous unstructured populations. This work also shows how disease eradicability in

  14. Pneumococcal Vaccines: Understanding Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Schraufnagel, Dean E.

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae infection is a common and serious health problem that is best prevented by the pneumococcal vaccine. The first vaccine approved by the U.S. Federal Drug Administration in 1977 contained 14 polysaccharide antigens. An improved vaccine introduced in 1983 included 23 polysaccharide antigens. Both vaccines were effective for immunocompetent adults; however, young children and immunocompromised adults remained susceptible. A pediatric vaccine was developed consisting of the capsular antigens of seven pneumococcal serotypes commonly found in children. The antigens in this preparation are covalently conjugated to diphtheria protein to make them more antigenic. The conjugate vaccine was expanded to include 13 serotypes by 2010. Although more immunogenic, the conjugate vaccine has fewer serotypes than the older 23-valent vaccine. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend that children at risk for pneumococcal pneumonia as defined by the presence of chronic disease should receive the 13-valent conjugated vaccine. Adults at risk for pneumococcal pneumonia, which includes those over 65 years of age and those who have a chronic disease, should receive the 23-polysaccharide vaccine. Immunosuppressed patients of any age should receive both vaccines. Adults should be revaccinated once at age 65 years or older with the 23-polysaccharide vaccine provided that at least 5 years have elapsed since the previous vaccination. PMID:25032872

  15. Vaccination of chickens decreased Newcastle disease virus contamination in eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Newcastle disease is an important health issue of poultry causing major economic losses and inhibits trade worldwide. Vaccination is used as a control measure, but it is unknown whether vaccination will prevent virus contamination of eggs. In this study, hens were sham-vaccinated or received one or ...

  16. Factors Affecting the Efficacy of Recombinant Marek's Disease Vaccine Protection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many factors have the potential to influence the efficacy of Marek's disease (MD) vaccination. Some of these factors include maternal antibody, vaccine dose, age of birds at vaccination or challenge, challenge virus strain and genetic background of chickens. The objective of this study was to evalua...

  17. Vaccinations in children on immunosuppressive medications for renal disease.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Sushmita; Dissanayake, Pathum Vindana; Abeyagunawardena, Asiri Samantha

    2016-09-01

    Renal diseases are often treated with immunosuppressive medications, placing patients at risk of infections, some of which are vaccine-preventable. However, in such patients vaccinations may be delayed or disregarded due to complications of the underlying disease process and challenges in its management. The decision to administer vaccines to immunosuppressed children is a risk-benefit balance as such children may have a qualitatively diminished immunological response or develop diseases caused by the vaccine pathogen. Vaccination may cause a flare-up of disease activity or provocation of graft rejection in renal transplant recipients. Moreover, it cannot be assumed that a given antibody level provides the same protection in immunosupressed children as in healthy ones. We have evaluated the safety and efficacy of licensed vaccines in children on immunosuppressive therapy and in renal transplant recipients. The limited evidence available suggests that vaccines are most effective if given early, ideally before the requirement for immunosuppressive therapy, which may require administration of accelerated vaccine courses. Once treatment with immunosuppressive drugs is started, inactivated vaccines are usually considered to be safe when the disease is quiescent, but supplemental doses may be required. In the majority of cases, live vaccines are to be avoided. All vaccines are generally contraindicated within 3-6 months of a renal transplant. PMID:26450774

  18. Vaccines for the prevention of neglected diseases--dengue fever.

    PubMed

    Pang, Tikki

    2003-06-01

    Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever have spread to all tropical areas of the developing world, but still remain largely neglected diseases. Several promising vaccine candidates in the form of live attenuated and chimeric vaccines have been developed and are currently in human clinical trials. However, significant practical, logistic, and scientific challenges remain before these vaccines can widely and safely be applied to vulnerable populations. Vector control, community education and public health measures must be pursued in parallel with vaccine development. PMID:12849789

  19. Mycoplasma synoviae infection on Newcastle disease vaccination of chickens

    PubMed Central

    de Cássia Figueira Silva, Rita; do Nascimento, Elmiro Rosendo; de Almeida Pereira, Virgínia Léo; Barreto, Maria Lúcia; do Nascimento, Maria da Graça Fichel

    2008-01-01

    Newcastle disease is characterized by respiratory manifestations in association with nervous and/or digestive symptoms. Its prevention is done by vaccination with live attenuated (lentogenic strains) and/or killed vaccines. The lentogenic strains can lead to strong post-vaccination reaction, principally due to the presence of other pathogenic agents. Among them, Mycoplasma synoviae is worldwide important, mainly in Brazil. The dissemination of this agent in poultry flocks has been achieved due to difficulties in diagnosis and disease reproduction, virulence variations among different M.synoviae strains, and attribution of typical M.synoviae disease manifestation to other disease agents. This experimental study in SPF chicks (Gallus gallus), previously infected by M.synoviae and thereafter vaccinated against Newcastle disease, was done with the objective of evaluating M.synoviae pathogenicity through assessment of post-vaccinal respiratory reactions and serologic responses to Newcastle disease virus vaccine in the absence of environmental factors. A total of 86 three days old chicks were used, being 57 infected by eye and nostril drop, with chicken activated M. synoviae strain WVU 1853. Seven days later, 21 mycoplasma infected birds plus 29 not mycoplasma infected ones were vaccinated against Newcastle disease. As results, the not infected and vaccinated birds yielded, significantly, higher and longer lasting serologic responses to Newcastle disease vaccine virus than those infected and vaccinated. Similarly, the infected and vaccinated birds yielded lower serologic reactions to M.synoviae than those only mycoplasma infected. No post-vaccinal respiratory reaction was observed in the vaccinated birds. PMID:24031234

  20. Recent Advances of Vaccine Adjuvants for Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Minh Trang

    2015-01-01

    Vaccines are the most effective and cost-efficient method for preventing diseases caused by infectious pathogens. Despite the great success of vaccines, development of safe and strong vaccines is still required for emerging new pathogens, re-emerging old pathogens, and in order to improve the inadequate protection conferred by existing vaccines. One of the most important strategies for the development of effective new vaccines is the selection and usage of a suitable adjuvant. Immunologic adjuvants are essential for enhancing vaccine potency by improvement of the humoral and/or cell-mediated immune response to vaccine antigens. Thus, formulation of vaccines with appropriate adjuvants is an attractive approach towards eliciting protective and long-lasting immunity in humans. However, only a limited number of adjuvants is licensed for human vaccines due to concerns about safety and toxicity. We summarize current knowledge about the potential benefits of adjuvants, the characteristics of adjuvants and the mechanisms of adjuvants in human vaccines. Adjuvants have diverse modes of action and should be selected for use on the basis of the type of immune response that is desired for a particular vaccine. Better understanding of current adjuvants will help exploring new adjuvant formulations and facilitate rational design of vaccines against infectious diseases. PMID:25922593

  1. Immune responses to pertussis vaccines and disease.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Kathryn M; Berbers, Guy A M

    2014-04-01

    In this article we discuss the following: (1) acellular vaccines are immunogenic, but responses vary by vaccine; (2) pertussis antibody levels rapidly wane but promptly increase after vaccination; (3) whole-cell vaccines vary in immunogenicity and efficacy; (4) whole-cell vaccines and naturally occurring pertussis generate predominantly T-helper 1 (Th1) responses, whereas acellular vaccines generate mixed Th1/Th2 responses; (5) active transplacental transport of pertussis antibody is documented; (6) neonatal immunization with diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, and acellular pertussis vaccine has been associated with some suppression of pertussis antibody, but suppression has been seen less often with acellular vaccines; (7) memory B cells persist in both acellular vaccine- and whole cell vaccine-primed children; and (8) in acellular vaccine-primed children, T-cell responses remain elevated and do not increase with vaccine boosters, whereas in whole-cell vaccine-primed children, these responses can be increased by vaccine boosting and natural exposure. Despite these findings, challenges remain in understanding the immune response to pertussis vaccines. PMID:24158958

  2. Titration of Marek's disease cell-associated vaccine virus (CVI 988) of reconstituted vaccine and vaccine ampoules from Dutch hatcheries.

    PubMed

    Landman, W J M; Verschuren, S B E

    2003-01-01

    Thirty-one outbreaks of Marek's disease (MD) were reported in the Netherlands and retrospectively analyzed. The outbreaks occurred mostly in vaccinated commercial layer and a few breeder flocks of several breeds; however, the cause of the outbreaks could not be established. Therefore, in a prospective study, the occurrence of true vaccine failures was assessed onfive hatcheries. The plaque-forming units (PFU) of MD vaccine per chicken dose were determined through in vitro assays on vacine ampoules (2 to 5 per hatchery) and samples of reconstituted vaccine (approximately 22 per hatchery). All forty reconstituted vaccine samples of hatcheries 1 and 4 showed PFU doses <10(3). In hatchery 4, 14 samples showed extreme low PFU (< or = 10 PFU). In hatcheries 2, 3, and 5, the numbers of MD vaccine suspensions with a titer > or = 10(3) PFU, which is the standard required, were 1 (5%), 17 (77%), and 3 (14%), respectively. Some vaccine ampoules showed < 10(3) PFU per chicken dose. This study shows the usefulness to assess the PFU per chicken dose of reconstituted MD vaccine and vaccine ampoules to unravel true vaccine failures, which could result in disease outbreaks in the field. PMID:14708997

  3. Novel approaches to foot-and-mouth disease vaccine development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The need for better Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines is not new, a report from the Research Commission on FMD, authored by F. Loeffler and P. Frosch in 1897, highlighted the need for developing a vaccine against FMD and qualified this as a devastating disease causing “severe economic damage to ...

  4. 9 CFR 113.205 - Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.205 Section 113.205 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.205 Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Newcastle Disease...

  5. 9 CFR 113.205 - Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.205 Section 113.205 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.205 Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Newcastle Disease...

  6. 9 CFR 113.205 - Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.205 Section 113.205 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.205 Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Newcastle Disease...

  7. 9 CFR 113.205 - Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.205 Section 113.205 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.205 Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Newcastle Disease...

  8. 9 CFR 113.205 - Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.205 Section 113.205 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.205 Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Newcastle Disease...

  9. Economics and financing of vaccines for diarrheal diseases.

    PubMed

    Bartsch, Sarah M; Lee, Bruce Y

    2014-01-01

    The considerable burden of infectious disease-caused diarrhea around the world has motivated the continuing development of a number of vaccine candidates over the past several decades with some reaching the market. As with all major public health interventions, understanding the economics and financing of vaccines against diarrheal diseases is essential to their development and implementation. This review focuses on each of the major infectious pathogens that commonly cause diarrhea, the current understanding of their economic burden, the status of vaccine development, and existing economic evaluations of the vaccines. While the literature on the economics and financing of vaccines against diarrhea diseases is growing, there is considerable room for more inquiry. Substantial gaps exist for many pathogens, circumstances, and effects. Economics and financing studies are integral to vaccine development and implementation. PMID:24755623

  10. Modelling vaccination strategies against foot-and-mouth disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeling, M. J.; Woolhouse, M. E. J.; May, R. M.; Davies, G.; Grenfell, B. T.

    2003-01-01

    Vaccination has proved a powerful defence against a range of infectious diseases of humans and animals. However, its potential to control major epidemics of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in livestock is contentious. Using an individual farm-based model, we consider either national prophylactic vaccination campaigns in advance of an outbreak, or combinations of reactive vaccination and culling strategies during an epidemic. Consistent with standard epidemiological theory, mass prophylactic vaccination could reduce greatly the potential for a major epidemic, while the targeting of high-risk farms increases efficiency. Given sufficient resources and preparation, a combination of reactive vaccination and culling might control ongoing epidemics. We also explore a reactive strategy, `predictive' vaccination, which targets key spatial transmission loci and can reduce markedly the long tail that characterizes many FMD epidemics. These analyses have broader implications for the control of human and livestock infectious diseases in heterogeneous spatial landscapes.

  11. Vaccination greatly reduces disease, disability, death and inequity worldwide.

    PubMed

    Andre, F E; Booy, R; Bock, H L; Clemens, J; Datta, S K; John, T J; Lee, B W; Lolekha, S; Peltola, H; Ruff, T A; Santosham, M; Schmitt, H J

    2008-02-01

    In low-income countries, infectious diseases still account for a large proportion of deaths, highlighting health inequities largely caused by economic differences. Vaccination can cut health-care costs and reduce these inequities. Disease control, elimination or eradication can save billions of US dollars for communities and countries. Vaccines have lowered the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma and will control cervical cancer. Travellers can be protected against "exotic" diseases by appropriate vaccination. Vaccines are considered indispensable against bioterrorism. They can combat resistance to antibiotics in some pathogens. Noncommunicable diseases, such as ischaemic heart disease, could also be reduced by influenza vaccination. Immunization programmes have improved the primary care infrastructure in developing countries, lowered mortality in childhood and empowered women to better plan their families, with consequent health, social and economic benefits. Vaccination helps economic growth everywhere, because of lower morbidity and mortality. The annual return on investment in vaccination has been calculated to be between 12% and 18%. Vaccination leads to increased life expectancy. Long healthy lives are now recognized as a prerequisite for wealth, and wealth promotes health. Vaccines are thus efficient tools to reduce disparities in wealth and inequities in health. PMID:18297169

  12. Vaccinating behaviour, information, and the dynamics of SIR vaccine preventable diseases.

    PubMed

    d'Onofrio, Alberto; Manfredi, Piero; Salinelli, Ernesto

    2007-05-01

    The increasing level of disease control by vaccination jointly with the growing standard of living and health of modern societies could favour the spread of exemption as a "rational" behaviour towards vaccination. Rational exemption implies that families will tend to relate the decision to vaccinate their children to the available information on the state of the disease. Using an SIR model with information dependent vaccination we show that rational exemption might make elimination of the disease an unfeasible task even if coverages as high as 100% are actually reached during epochs of high social alarm. Moreover, we show that rational exemption may also become responsible for the onset of sustained oscillations when the decision to vaccinate also depends on the past history of the disease. PMID:17335862

  13. Dual infections with low virulent chicken infectious anaemia virus (lvCIAV) and intermediate infectious bursal disease virus (iIBDV) in young chicks increase lvCIAV in thymus and bursa while decreasing lymphocyte disorders induced by iIBDV.

    PubMed

    Vaziry, Asaad; Silim, Amer; Bleau, Christian; Frenette, Diane; Lamontagne, Lucie

    2013-04-01

    The use of attenuated vaccines or the occurrence of low virulent T-lymphotropic or B-lymphotropic viruses in flocks may alter the immune responses of young chicks in spite of the absence of clinical signs. Infections with a low virulent T-lymphotropic chicken infectious anaemia virus (lvCIAV) followed by infection with an intermediate B-lymphotropic infectious bursal disease virus (iIBDV) were conducted in specific pathogen free chicks. Thirty-six 1-day-old chicks were infected with the lvCIAV strain (CAV-VAC®) and a similar number of chicks were inoculated with phosphate-buffered saline. At 14 days after lvCIAV infection, one group of 18 lvCIAV-infected chicks and one group of 18 uninfected chicks were infected with an iIBDV strain. At 4, 7 and 14 days post infection with iIBDV, six chicks from each group were euthanized and lymphoid organs were collected. Detection of lvCIAV and iIBDV genomes was conducted by polymerase chain reaction and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Double-labelled lymphoid subsets from the thymus, spleen and bursa were studied by cytofluorometric analysis. The results reveal that previous infection with lvCIAV increases the occurrence of the lvCIAV and iIBDV genome in thymus and/or bursa without the occurrence of clinical signs in dually lvCIAV/iIBDV-infected chicks. However, the decreases of B cells in spleen and bursa and increases of T-cell subsets in bursa observed in chicks infected with iIBDV did not occur in chicks previously infected with lvCIAV. Taken together, these results suggest that previous infection of young chicks with lvCIAV decreases lymphoid disorders induced by iIBDV while subsequent iIBDV infection increases the lvCIAV genome in lymphoid organs. PMID:23581435

  14. Newcastle Disease Virus as a Vaccine Vector for Development of Human and Veterinary Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Shin-Hee; Samal, Siba K.

    2016-01-01

    Viral vaccine vectors have shown to be effective in inducing a robust immune response against the vaccine antigen. Newcastle disease virus (NDV), an avian paramyxovirus, is a promising vaccine vector against human and veterinary pathogens. Avirulent NDV strains LaSota and B1 have long track records of safety and efficacy. Therefore, use of these strains as vaccine vectors is highly safe in avian and non-avian species. NDV replicates efficiently in the respiratory track of the host and induces strong local and systemic immune responses against the foreign antigen. As a vaccine vector, NDV can accommodate foreign sequences with a good degree of stability and as a RNA virus, there is limited possibility for recombination with host cell DNA. Using NDV as a vaccine vector in humans offers several advantages over other viral vaccine vectors. NDV is safe in humans due to host range restriction and there is no pre-existing antibody to NDV in the human population. NDV is antigenically distinct from common human pathogens. NDV replicates to high titer in a cell line acceptable for human vaccine development. Therefore, NDV is an attractive vaccine vector for human pathogens for which vaccines are currently not available. NDV is also an attractive vaccine vector for animal pathogens. PMID:27384578

  15. Vaccinations for Neuroinfectious Disease: A Global Health Priority.

    PubMed

    Leibovitch, Emily C; Jacobson, Steven

    2016-07-01

    Vaccines for neuroinfectious diseases are becoming an ever-increasing global health priority, as neurologic manifestations and sequelae from existing and emerging central nervous system infections account for significant worldwide morbidity and mortality. The prevention of neurotropic infections can be achieved through globally coordinated vaccination campaigns, which have successfully eradicated nonzoonotic agents such as the variola viruses and, hopefully soon, poliovirus. This review discusses vaccines that are currently available or under development for zoonotic flaviviruses and alphaviruses, including Japanese and tick-borne encephalitis, yellow fever, West Nile, dengue, Zika, encephalitic equine viruses, and chikungunya. Also discussed are nonzoonotic agents, including measles and human herpesviruses, as well as select bacterial, fungal, and protozoal pathogens. While therapeutic vaccines will be required to treat a multitude of ongoing infections of the nervous system, the ideal vaccination strategy is pre-exposure vaccination, with the ultimate goals of minimizing disease associated with zoonotic viruses and the total eradication of nonzoonotic agents. PMID:27365085

  16. Vaccination of chickens decreased Newcastle disease virus contamination in eggs.

    PubMed

    Sá E Silva, Mariana; Susta, Leonardo; Moresco, Kira; Swayne, David E

    2016-02-01

    Newcastle disease is an important health issue of poultry causing major economic losses and inhibits trade worldwide. Vaccination is used as a control measure, but it is unknown whether vaccination will prevent virus contamination of eggs. In this study, hens were sham-vaccinated or received one or two doses of inactivated LaSota vaccine, followed three weeks later by virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) challenge. Eggs were collected daily and shell, albumen and yolk were subjected to virus isolation, as were oral and cloacal swabs at 2 and 4 days post-challenge (dpc). A second experiment evaluated the distribution of the virus in the reproductive tract of non-vaccinates. All vaccinated chickens survived challenge, and the levels of virus shed from cloacal swabs were decreased significantly when compared to shams. In non-vaccinated hens, virus was detected in the ovary and all segments of the oviduct. Yolk, albumen and eggshell surface from eggs laid at day 4 and 5 post-infection by sham-vaccinated hens were positive for NDV, but eggs from LaSota vaccinated hens lacked virus in internal egg components (i.e. yolk and albumen) and had reduction in the number of positive eggshell surfaces. These results indicate virulent NDV can replicate in the reproductive tract of hens and contaminate internal components of eggs and eggshell surface, but vaccination was able to prevent internal egg contamination, reducing eggshell surface contamination, and reducing shedding from digestive and respiratory tracts in virulent NDV challenged hens. PMID:26503831

  17. A Review of Factors Affecting Vaccine Preventable Disease in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Ching, Michael SL

    2014-01-01

    Japan is well known as a country with a strong health record. However its incidence rates of vaccine preventable diseases (VPD) such as hepatitis B, measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella remain higher than other developed countries. This article reviews the factors that contribute to the high rates of VPD in Japan. These include historical and political factors that delayed the introduction of several important vaccines until recently. Access has also been affected by vaccines being divided into government-funded “routine” (eg, polio, pertussis) and self-pay “voluntary” groups (eg, hepatitis A and B). Routine vaccines have higher rates of administration than voluntary vaccines. Administration factors include differences in well child care schedules, the approach to simultaneous vaccination, vaccination contraindication due to fever, and vaccination spacing. Parental factors include low intention to fully vaccinate their children and misperceptions about side effects and efficacy. There are also provider knowledge gaps regarding indications, adverse effects, interval, and simultaneous vaccination. These multifactorial issues combine to produce lower population immunization rates and a higher incidence of VPD than other developed countries. This article will provide insight into the current situation of Japanese vaccinations, the issues to be addressed and suggestions for public health promotion. PMID:25628969

  18. Influenza A virus hemagglutinin protein subunit vaccine elicits vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease (VAERD) can occur when pigs are challenged with heterologous virus in the presence of non-neutralizing but cross-reactive antibodies elicited by whole inactivated virus (WIV) vaccine. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of heterologous del...

  19. Infectious bursal disease virus activates the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway by interaction of VP5 protein with the p85{alpha} subunit of PI3K

    SciTech Connect

    Wei Li; Hou Lei; Zhu Shanshan; Wang Jing; Zhou Jiao; Liu Jue

    2011-08-15

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling is commonly activated upon virus infection and has been implicated in the regulation of diverse cellular functions such as proliferation and apoptosis. The present study demonstrated for the first time that infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), the causative agent of a highly contagious disease in chickens, can induce Akt phosphorylation in cultured cells, by a mechanism that is dependent on PI3K. Inhibition of PI3K activation greatly enhanced virus-induced cytopathic effect and apoptotic cell death as evidenced by cleavage of poly-ADP ribose polymerase and activation of caspase-3. Investigations into the mechanism of PI3K/Akt activation revealed that IBDV activates PI3K/Akt signaling through binding of the non-structural protein VP5 to regulatory subunit p85{alpha} of PI3K resulting in the suppression of premature apoptosis and improved virus growth after infection. The results presented here provide a basis for understanding molecular mechanism of IBDV infection.

  20. Controlling Johne's disease: Vaccination is the way forward

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this article, we summarize current research on the state of vaccination against Johne’s disease. We promote the use of live attenuated vaccine candidates over subunit approaches, but don’t wholly discount other strategies. We conclude by suggesting new research directions that may make the highes...

  1. 9 CFR 113.330 - Marek's Disease Vaccines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marek's Disease Vaccines. 113.330 Section 113.330 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.330 Marek's...

  2. New South Wales annual vaccine-preventable disease report, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Rosewell, Alexander; Spokes, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Aim To describe the epidemiology of selected vaccine-preventable diseases in New South Wales, Australia for 2013. Methods Data from the New South Wales Notifiable Conditions Information Management System were analysed by local health district of residence, age, Aboriginality, vaccination status and organism. Risk factor and vaccination status data were collected by public health units. Results Pertussis notification rates in infants were low, and no infant pertussis deaths were reported. Despite a high number of imported measles cases, there was limited secondary transmission. The invasive meningococcal disease notification rate declined, and disease due to serogroup C remained low and stable. Conclusion Vaccine-preventable diseases were relatively well controlled in New South Wales in 2013, with declining or stable notification rates in most diseases compared with the previous year. PMID:26306215

  3. Studies on naturally occurring infectious bursal disease viruses suggest that a single amino acid substitution at position 253 in VP2 increases pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Jackwood, D J; Sreedevi, B; LeFever, L J; Sommer-Wagner, S E

    2008-07-20

    Three classic IBDV strains were previously isolated from commercial layer chicken flocks and shown to be phylogenetically related to vaccine strains but pathogenic in susceptible chickens. In this study, their viral genomes were sequenced and compared to sequences of vaccines being used in those flocks. The vaccine strains examined were sequenced directly from the manufacturer and had identical genome segment B sequences. Compared to these vaccines, the GA-1, H-30 and CS-2-35 isolates each had one silent mutation in the gene that encodes VP1. Compared to the two vaccines used at the time CS-2-35 was isolated, the segment A sequence of CS-2-35 contained numerous nucleotide and amino acid mutations suggesting the CS-2-35 virus was not closely related to these vaccines. This virus however did have amino acid mutations in VP2 that are reported to be necessary for replication in cell culture and lacked two of the three amino acid mutations previously shown to be necessary for virulence. These data suggest that CS-2-35 was a descendant from an attenuated strain of IBDV. When the segment A genomic sequences of the GA-1 and H-30 viruses were compared to the vaccines being used in those flocks they were most closely related to the attenuated D78 vaccine strain. In genome segment A, three nucleotide mutations in GA-1 and four in H-30 were observed compared to the D78 classic vaccine. These nucleotide mutations caused one amino acid (H253N) change in the GA-1 virus and two amino acids (H253Q and G259D) were different in the H-30 virus. In addition, both the GA-1 and H-30 viruses had the amino acid G76 in VP2 that appears to be unique to the vaccine D78. The data suggest that GA-1 and H-30 are genetically related and have a common ancestor even though they were isolated from geographically distant flocks. The evidence also suggests that GA-1, H-30 and CS-2-35 could be reversions from attenuated vaccine viruses or by coincidence genetically resemble classic IBDV vaccines. It

  4. Prophylactic vaccinations in chronic kidney disease: Current status

    PubMed Central

    Grzegorzewska, Alicja E

    2015-01-01

    In this review, recent data on results concerning prophylactic vaccinations against hepatitis B virus, influenza viruses, and pneumococci are presented. Effects of active immunization in chronic kidney disease depend on category of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The lower GFR category the better results of response to vaccination. Abnormalities in toll-like receptors and down-regulation of B-cell activating factor receptor in transitional B cells were recently included into uremia-associated deficits in immunocompetence. Development of novel, more potent vaccines containing toll-like receptor agonists as adjuvants may help to achieve more effective immunization against hepatitis B virus in immunocompromised patients. Experimental studies announce further vaccine adjuvants. A vaccine against hepatitis C virus is not available yet, but promising results were already obtained in the experimental and preliminary clinical studies. Prophylactic vaccinations against influenza viruses and pneumococci become increasingly popular in dialysis facilities due to their proved benefits. PMID:25911956

  5. Vaccine-preventable diseases in Europe: where do we stand?

    PubMed

    Wicker, Sabine; Maltezou, Helena C

    2014-08-01

    During the second half of the 20th century, vaccinations led to the control or even eradication of several vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs) in Europe. However, outbreaks of VPDs continue to occur even in countries with well-established vaccination programs. Reasons include the existence of under-vaccinated populations, the increasing anti-vaccination movement and the increasing movement of populations across borders. Ensuring adequate levels of herd immunity is the only reliable method for preventing epidemics and a re-emergence of VPDs. In order to achieve this, more flexible vaccine delivery platforms are needed targeting the less-privileged people, especially in the context of the current economic crisis. Healthcare personnel and healthcare systems should be prepared to address these challenges in the following years. PMID:24958075

  6. Adenovirus vectored vaccines against influenza a virus do not result in vaccine associated enhanced respiratory disease following heterologous challenge in contrast to whole inactivated virus vaccine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heterologous influenza A virus (IAV) challenge following vaccination with an intramuscular (IM) whole inactivated vaccine (WIV) can result in vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease (VAERD). The objective of this study was to use an adenovirus (Ad5) vector vaccine platform that expressed IAV...

  7. [New vaccines against group B meningococcal diseases].

    PubMed

    Hietalahti, Jukka; Meri, Seppo

    2015-01-01

    There has been no efficient general vaccine against serogroup B meningococcus (MenB), since its polysialic acid capsule is of low immunogenicity and could potentially induce autoimmunity. Reverse vaccinology has revealed new promising protein candidates for vaccine development. One of them is factor H-binding protein (fHbp), which has the potential to curb the alternative pathway of human complement. As fHbp can elicit antibodies that promote complement-mediated lysis, a vaccine partly based on it has been introduced against MenB infections. FHbp has been the milestone protein for structural vaccinology to create optimal chimeric antigens for vaccine use. PMID:26237895

  8. Vaccines against invasive Salmonella disease: current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    MacLennan, Calman A; Martin, Laura B; Micoli, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Though primarily enteric pathogens, Salmonellae are responsible for a considerable yet under-appreciated global burden of invasive disease. In South and South-East Asia, this manifests as enteric fever caused by serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A. In sub-Saharan Africa, a similar disease burden results from invasive nontyphoidal Salmonellae, principally serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis. The existing Ty21a live-attenuated and Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccines target S. Typhi and are not effective in young children where the burden of invasive Salmonella disease is highest. After years of lack of investment in new Salmonella vaccines, recent times have seen increased interest in the area led by emerging-market manufacturers, global health vaccine institutes and academic partners. New glycoconjugate vaccines against S. Typhi are becoming available with similar vaccines against other invasive serovars in development. With other new vaccines under investigation, including live-attenuated, protein-based and GMMA vaccines, now is an exciting time for the Salmonella vaccine field. PMID:24804797

  9. Sequence analysis of Malaysian infectious bursal disease virus isolate and the use of reverse transcriptase nested polymerase chain reaction enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of VP2 hypervariable region.

    PubMed

    Phong, S F; Hair-Bejo, M; Omar, A R; Aini, I

    2003-01-01

    The VP2 hypervariable region of P97/302 local infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) isolate was amplified by the reverse transcriptase (RT) nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and cloned. This region of P97/302 local isolate was sequenced and compared with eight other reported IBDV sequences. The result showed that P97/302 IBDV was most identical to the reported very virulent IBDV strains because it has amino acid substitutions at positions 222, 256, 294, and 299, which encode alanine, isoleucine, isoleucine, and serine, respectively. This region can be digested with restriction enzymes of Taq1, Sty1, Ssp1 but not with Sac1. The P97/302 isolate was then used for the optimization of RT nested PCR enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The RT nested PCR ELISA was able to detect 10(-4) dilution of the infected bursa homogenates and was 10 times more sensitive when compared with the agarose gel detection method. The RT nested PCR ELISA can detect up to 0.48 ng of the PCR product. The specificity of this nested PCR ELISA was also high (100%). PMID:12713171

  10. Vaccination against Lyme disease: Are we ready for it?

    PubMed

    Kaaijk, Patricia; Luytjes, Willem

    2016-03-01

    Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne illness in the Northern hemisphere and is caused by spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. A first sign of Borrelia infection is a circular skin rash, erythema migrans, but it can develop to more serious manifestations affecting skin, nervous system, joints, and/or heart. The marked increase in Lyme disease incidence over the past decades, the severity of the disease, and the associated high medical costs of, in particular, the persistent forms of Lyme disease requires adequate measures for control. Vaccination would be the most effective intervention for prevention, but at present no vaccine is available. In the 1990s, 2 vaccines against Lyme disease based on the OspA protein from the predominant Borrelia species of the US showed to be safe and effective in clinical phase III studies. However, failed public acceptance led to the demise of these monovalent OspA-based vaccines. Nowadays, public seem to be more aware of the serious health problems that Lyme disease can cause and seem more ready for the use of a broadly protective vaccine. This article discusses several aspects that should be considered to enable the development and implementation of a vaccine to prevent Lyme disease successfully. PMID:26337648

  11. Vaccination against Lyme disease: Are we ready for it?

    PubMed Central

    Kaaijk, Patricia; Luytjes, Willem

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne illness in the Northern hemisphere and is caused by spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. A first sign of Borrelia infection is a circular skin rash, erythema migrans, but it can develop to more serious manifestations affecting skin, nervous system, joints, and/or heart. The marked increase in Lyme disease incidence over the past decades, the severity of the disease, and the associated high medical costs of, in particular, the persistent forms of Lyme disease requires adequate measures for control. Vaccination would be the most effective intervention for prevention, but at present no vaccine is available. In the 1990s, 2 vaccines against Lyme disease based on the OspA protein from the predominant Borrelia species of the US showed to be safe and effective in clinical phase III studies. However, failed public acceptance led to the demise of these monovalent OspA-based vaccines. Nowadays, public seem to be more aware of the serious health problems that Lyme disease can cause and seem more ready for the use of a broadly protective vaccine. This article discusses several aspects that should be considered to enable the development and implementation of a vaccine to prevent Lyme disease successfully. PMID:26337648

  12. Influenza vaccination with live-attenuated and inactivated virus-vaccines during an outbreak of disease.

    PubMed Central

    Rocchi, G.; Ragona, G.; Piga, C.; Pelosio, A.; Volpi, A.; Vella, S.; Legniti, N.; de Felici, A.

    1979-01-01

    Immunization procedures with live attenuated and inactivated vaccines were carried out on a group of young recruits at the beginning of an outbreak of infection due to an A/Victoria/3/75-related virus strain, which occurred in February 1977 in a military camp. A retrospective investigation on protection from clinical influenza was then performed in order to investigate whether immunization with live virus vaccines, administered at the beginning of an epidemic, could provide early protection from the disease. In the course of the two weeks following vaccination, laboratory-confirmed clinical influenza cases occurred in 4 subjects among the 110 volunteers of the control group which received placebo, and in 8, 7 and 4 subjects respectively of the 3 groups of about 125 individuals, each of which received one of the following vaccine preparations: (a), live attenuated A/Victoria/3/75 influenza virus oral vaccine, grown on chick embryo kidney culture; (b), live attenuated nasal vaccine, a recombinant of A/Puerto Rico/8/34 with A/Victoria/3/75 virus; and (c), inactivated A/Victoria/3/75 virus intramuscular vaccine. These data do not support the hypothesis that, during an epidemic of infection, early protection from clinical influenza can be achieved through immunization with live attenuated or inactivated influenza virus vaccines, in spite of the high immunizing capability of the vaccine preparations. PMID:512351

  13. Newcastle disease virus as a vaccine vector for infectious laryngotracheitis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effective, safe, and incapable of reverting to virulence are characteristics desirable for infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) vaccines. Recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) expressing foreign antigens of avian and mammalian pathogens have been demonstrated to elicit protective immunity....

  14. EV71 vaccines: a first step towards multivalent hand, foot and mouth disease vaccines.

    PubMed

    Klein, Michel H

    2015-03-01

    Enterovirus A infections are the primary cause of hand, foot and mouth disease in infants and young children. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 have emerged as neurotropic viruses responsible for severe neurological complications and a serious public health threat across the Asia-Pacific region. Formalin-inactivated EV71 vaccines have elicited protection against EV71 but not against coxsackievirus A16 infections. The development of a bivalent formalin-inactivated EV71/FI coxsackievirus A16 vaccine should be the next step towards that of multivalent hand, foot and mouth disease vaccines which should ultimately include other prevalent pathogenic coxsackieviruses and echovirus 30. This editorial summarizes the major challenges faced by the development of hand, foot and mouth disease vaccines. PMID:25536888

  15. Protection against exotic Newcastle disease virus (NDV) challenge of chickens vaccinated with NDV vaccines made from different genetic lineages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccines for control of Newcastle Disease (ND) have been used for over fifty years in the United States. The available ND vaccines, both live and killed have been shown to prevent mortality and symptoms of disease. However, they typically do not prevent vaccinated birds from becoming infected and ...

  16. Updates in vaccination: Recommendations for adult inflammatory bowel disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Chaudrey, Khadija; Salvaggio, Michelle; Ahmed, Aftab; Mahmood, Sultan; Ali, Tauseef

    2015-01-01

    Treatment regimens for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) incorporate the use of a variety of immunosuppressive agents that increase the risk of infections. Prevention of many of these infections can be achieved by the timely and judicious use of vaccinations. IBD patients tend to be under-immunized. Some of the contributing factors are lack of awareness regarding the significance of vaccinating IBD patients, misperception about safety of vaccinations in immunocompromised patients, ambiguity about the perceived role of the gastroenterologist in contrast to the primary care physician and unavailability of vaccination guidelines focused on IBD population. In general, immunocompetent IBD patients can be vaccinated using standard vaccination recommendations. However there are special considerations for IBD patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy, IBD travelers and pregnant women with IBD. This review discusses current vaccination recommendations with updates for adult IBD patients. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2013 vaccination guidelines with 2014 updates and the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommendations have been highlighted as a primary source of recommendations. PMID:25805924

  17. [VACCINES].

    PubMed

    Bellver Capella, Vincente

    2015-10-01

    Vaccines are an extraordinary instrument of immunization of the population against infectious diseases. Around them there are many ethical issues. One of the most debated is what to do with certain groups opposition to vaccination of their children. States have managed in different ways the conflict between the duty of vaccination and the refusal to use vaccines: some impose the vaccination and others simply promote it. In this article we deal with which of these two approaches is the most suitable from an ethical and legal point of view. We stand up for the second option, which is the current one in Spain, and we propose some measures which should be kept in mind to improve immunization programs. PMID:26685562

  18. Fatal SIR diseases and rational exemption to vaccination.

    PubMed

    d'Onofrio, Alberto; Manfredi, Piero; Salinelli, Ernesto

    2008-12-01

    A challenge to disease control in modern societies is the spread of rational exemption to vaccination as a consequence of the rational comparison between the steadily declining risk of infection and the risk of side effects from the vaccine. Here, we consider rational exemption in an susceptible-infectious-removed (SIR) model with information-dependent vaccination where individuals use information on the disease's mortality as their information set. Using suitable assumptions on the dynamics of the population, we show the dynamic implications of the interaction between rational exemption, current and delayed information and the risk of death by the disease. In particular, we illustrate the onset of the long cycles caused by rational exemption when vaccination decisions are based on delayed informations. PMID:18840601

  19. Voluntary vaccination strategy and the spread of sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fei; Cressman, Ross

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we investigate the spread and control of sexually transmitted diseases when a game-theory based vaccination strategy is involved. An individual's decision on vaccination uptake may follow a cost-benefit analysis since the individual obtains immunity against the disease from the vaccination and, at the same time, may have some perceived side effects. Evolutionary game theory is integrated into the epidemic model to reveal the relationship between individuals' voluntary decisions on vaccination uptake and the spread and control of such diseases. We show that decreasing the perceived cost of taking vaccine or increasing the payoff from social obligation is beneficial to controlling the disease. It is also shown how the "degree of rationality" of males and females affects the disease spread through the net payoff of the game. In particular, individual awareness of the consequences of the disease on the infectives also contributes to slowing down the disease spread. By analyzing an asymmetric version of our evolutionary game, it is shown that the disease is better controlled when individuals are more sensitive to fitness differences when net payoff is positive than when it is negative. PMID:26877073

  20. New South Wales annual vaccine-preventable disease report, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Spokes, Paula; Gilmour, Robin

    2014-01-01

    We aim to describe the epidemiology of selected vaccine-preventable diseases in New South Wales (NSW) for 2012. Data from the NSW Notifiable Conditions Information Management System were analysed by: local health district of residence, age, Aboriginality, vaccination status and organism, where available. Risk factor and vaccination status data were collected by public health units for cases following notification under the NSW Public Health Act 2010. The largest outbreak of measles since 1998 was reported in 2012. Pacific Islander and Aboriginal people were at higher risk as were infants less than 12 months of age. Notifications of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children less than five years declined; however, the overall number of notifications for IPD increased. Mumps case notifications were also elevated. There were no Haemophilus influenzae type b case notifications in children less than five years of age for the first time since the vaccine was introduced. Invasive meningococcal disease case notifications were at their lowest rates since case notification began in 1991. Case notification rates for other selected vaccine-preventable diseases remained stable. Vaccine-preventable disease control is continually strengthening in NSW with notable successes in invasive bacterial infections. However, strengthening measles immunization in Pacific Islander and Aboriginal communities remains essential to maintain measles elimination. PMID:25077033

  1. Teenagers’ understandings of and attitudes towards vaccines and vaccine-preventable diseases: A qualitative study☆

    PubMed Central

    Hilton, S.; Patterson, C.; Smith, E.; Bedford, H.; Hunt, K.

    2013-01-01

    Background To examine immunisation information needs of teenagers we explored understandings of vaccination and vaccine-preventable diseases, attitudes towards immunisation and experiences of immunisation. Diseases discussed included nine for which vaccines are currently offered in the UK (human papillomavirus, meningitis, tetanus, diphtheria, polio, whooping cough, measles, mumps and rubella), and two not currently included in the routine UK schedule (hepatitis B and chickenpox). Methods Twelve focus groups conducted between November 2010 and March 2011 with 59 teenagers (29 girls and 30 boys) living in various parts of Scotland. Results Teenagers exhibited limited knowledge and experience of the diseases, excluding chickenpox. Measles, mumps and rubella were perceived as severe forms of chickenpox-like illness, and rubella was not associated with foetal damage. Boys commonly believed that human papillomavirus only affects girls, and both genders exhibited confusion about its relationship with cancer. Participants considered two key factors when assessing the threat of diseases: their prevalence in the UK, and their potential to cause fatal or long-term harm. Meningitis was seen as a threat, but primarily to babies. Participants explained their limited knowledge as a result of mass immunisation making once-common diseases rare in the UK, and acknowledged immunisation's role in reducing disease prevalence. Conclusions While it is welcome that fewer teenagers have experienced vaccine-preventable diseases, this presents public health advocates with the challenge of communicating benefits of immunisation when advantages are less visible. The findings are timely in view of the Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation's recommendation that a booster of meningitis C vaccine should be offered to teenagers; that teenagers did not perceive meningitis C as a significant threat should be a key concern of promotional information. While teenagers’ experiences of

  2. Vaccination against Alzheimer disease: an update on future strategies.

    PubMed

    Fettelschoss, Antonia; Zabel, Franziska; Bachmann, Martin F

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer disease is a devastating chronic disease without adequate therapy. More than 10 years ago, it was demonstrated in transgenic mouse models that vaccination may be a novel, disease-modifying therapy for Alzheimer. Subsequent clinical development has been a roller-coaster with some positive and many negative news. Here, we would like to summarize evidence that next generation vaccines optimized for old people and focusing on patients with mild disease stand a good chance to proof efficacious for the treatment of Alzheimer. PMID:24535580

  3. Measles -- Q&A about Disease & Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Autism Top of Page Related Page Measles Vaccination File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  4. Diarrheal Diseases Hospitalization in Yemen before and after Rotavirus Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Amood Al-Kamarany, Mohammed; Al-Areqi, Lina; Mujally, Abulatif; Alkarshy, Fawzya; Nasser, Arwa; Jumaan, Aisha O

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to assess the impact of rotavirus vaccine introduction on diarrheal diseases hospitalization and to identify the rotavirus genotypes most prevalent before and after vaccine introduction among children ≤ 5 years of age. Rotarix™ ® rotavirus vaccine is currently licensed for infants in Yemen and was introduced in 2012. The vaccination course consists of two doses. The first dose is administrated at 6 weeks of age and the second dose is completed by 10 weeks. Based on a longitudinal observational study, we assessed the impact of vaccination on rotavirus hospitalization before and after vaccination among children ≤ 5 years of age at the Yemeni-Swedish Hospital (YSH) in Taiz, Yemen. Prevaccination covered January 2009-July 2012 during which 2335 fecal samples were collected from children ≤ 5 years old. Postvaccination covered January 2013-December 2014 during which 1114 fecal samples were collected. Rotavirus was detected by Enzyme Linkage Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). The incidence of rotavirus hospitalization decreased from 43.79% in 2009 to 10.54% in 2014. Hospitalization due to rotavirus diarrhea was reduced by 75.93%. Vaccine coverage increased from 23% in 2012 to 72% in 2014. Also, the results showed that the most predominant genotypes in prevaccination period were G2P[4] (55.0%), followed by G1P[8] (15.0%), while in postvaccination period G1P[8] (31%) was the predominant genotype, followed by G9P[8] (27.5%). In conclusion, rotavirus vaccination in Yemen resulted in sharp reduction in diarrheal hospitalization. A successful rotavirus vaccination program in Yemen will rely upon efficient vaccine delivery systems and sustained vaccine efficacy against diverse and evolving rotavirus strains. PMID:27437161

  5. Diarrheal Diseases Hospitalization in Yemen before and after Rotavirus Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Al-Areqi, Lina; Mujally, Abulatif; Alkarshy, Fawzya; Nasser, Arwa; Jumaan, Aisha O.

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to assess the impact of rotavirus vaccine introduction on diarrheal diseases hospitalization and to identify the rotavirus genotypes most prevalent before and after vaccine introduction among children ≤ 5 years of age. Rotarix™ ® rotavirus vaccine is currently licensed for infants in Yemen and was introduced in 2012. The vaccination course consists of two doses. The first dose is administrated at 6 weeks of age and the second dose is completed by 10 weeks. Based on a longitudinal observational study, we assessed the impact of vaccination on rotavirus hospitalization before and after vaccination among children ≤ 5 years of age at the Yemeni-Swedish Hospital (YSH) in Taiz, Yemen. Prevaccination covered January 2009–July 2012 during which 2335 fecal samples were collected from children ≤ 5 years old. Postvaccination covered January 2013–December 2014 during which 1114 fecal samples were collected. Rotavirus was detected by Enzyme Linkage Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). The incidence of rotavirus hospitalization decreased from 43.79% in 2009 to 10.54% in 2014. Hospitalization due to rotavirus diarrhea was reduced by 75.93%. Vaccine coverage increased from 23% in 2012 to 72% in 2014. Also, the results showed that the most predominant genotypes in prevaccination period were G2P[4] (55.0%), followed by G1P[8] (15.0%), while in postvaccination period G1P[8] (31%) was the predominant genotype, followed by G9P[8] (27.5%). In conclusion, rotavirus vaccination in Yemen resulted in sharp reduction in diarrheal hospitalization. A successful rotavirus vaccination program in Yemen will rely upon efficient vaccine delivery systems and sustained vaccine efficacy against diverse and evolving rotavirus strains. PMID:27437161

  6. Vaccination coverage of children with rare genetic diseases and attitudes of their parents toward vaccines.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Susanna; Cerutti, Marta; Milani, Donatella; Menni, Francesca; Principi, Nicola

    2016-03-01

    Despite the fact that the achievement of appropriate immunization coverage for routine vaccines is a priority for health authorities worldwide, vaccination delays or missed opportunities for immunization are common in children with chronic diseases. The main aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate immunization coverage and the timeliness of vaccination in children suffering from 3 different rare genetic diseases: Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS), Sotos syndrome (SS), and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS). A total of 57 children with genetic diseases (15 with RSTS, 14 children with SS, and 28 with BWS) and 57 healthy controls with similar characteristics were enrolled. The coverage of all the recommended vaccines in children with genetic syndromes was significantly lower than that observed in healthy controls (p < 0.05 for all the comparisons). However, when vaccinated, all of the patients, independent of the genetic syndrome from which they suffer, were administered the primary series and the booster doses at a similar time to healthy controls. In comparison with parents of healthy controls, parents of children with genetic diseases were found to more frequently have negative attitudes toward vaccination (p < 0.05 for all the comparisons), mainly for fear of the emergence of adverse events or deterioration of the underlying disease. This study shows that vaccination coverage is poor in pediatric patients with RSTS, BWS, and SS and significantly lower than that observed in healthy children. These results highlight the need for educational programs specifically aimed at both parents and pediatricians to increase immunization coverage in children with these rare genetic diseases. PMID:26337545

  7. Telling stories of vaccine-preventable diseases: why it works.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Rachel M; Boom, Julie A

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the benefits of storytelling in health communication and, in particular, immunization education. During the mid-20th century polio epidemic, both personal stories and scientific information abounded in the media. However, as rates of vaccine-preventable diseases declined, narratives about the dangers of such diseases faded as did the public fear of them. Meanwhile, anti-vaccine advocates flooded the media and Internet with stories of injured children and tied those injuries, such as autism, to vaccines. Medical experts often counter anti-vaccine concerns with scientific information which can fail to persuade parents. Furthermore, evidence suggests that many people misunderstand quantitative information resulting in a misinterpretation of risk. Compared to scientific information, stories relate life lessons and values. They are effective because they are memorable and relatable. Evidence also suggests that storytelling can effectively improve health knowledge and behaviors. Inspired by In Harm's Way--True Stories of Uninsured Texas Children by the Children's Defense Fund and Faces of Influenza by the American Lung Association, we published Vaccine-Preventable Disease: The Forgotten Story, a collection of photographs and personal stories of families affected by vaccine-preventable diseases. We have found that the stories included in our booklet capture all the benefits of storytelling. Given the many benefits of storytelling, providers should strive to include stories along with medical facts in their daily practice. PMID:23444587

  8. Evaluation of a Phylogenetic Marker Based on Genomic Segment B of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus: Facilitating a Feasible Incorporation of this Segment to the Molecular Epidemiology Studies for this Viral Agent

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Pérez, Orlando; Dolz, Roser; Valle, Rosa; Perera, Carmen L.; Bertran, Kateri; Frías, Maria T.; Ganges, Llilianne; Díaz de Arce, Heidy; Majó, Natàlia; Núñez, José I.; Pérez, Lester J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is a highly contagious and acute viral disease, which has caused high mortality rates in birds and considerable economic losses in different parts of the world for more than two decades and it still represents a considerable threat to poultry. The current study was designed to rigorously measure the reliability of a phylogenetic marker included into segment B. This marker can facilitate molecular epidemiology studies, incorporating this segment of the viral genome, to better explain the links between emergence, spreading and maintenance of the very virulent IBD virus (vvIBDV) strains worldwide. Methodology/Principal Findings Sequences of the segment B gene from IBDV strains isolated from diverse geographic locations were obtained from the GenBank Database; Cuban sequences were obtained in the current work. A phylogenetic marker named B-marker was assessed by different phylogenetic principles such as saturation of substitution, phylogenetic noise and high consistency. This last parameter is based on the ability of B-marker to reconstruct the same topology as the complete segment B of the viral genome. From the results obtained from B-marker, demographic history for both main lineages of IBDV regarding segment B was performed by Bayesian skyline plot analysis. Phylogenetic analysis for both segments of IBDV genome was also performed, revealing the presence of a natural reassortant strain with segment A from vvIBDV strains and segment B from non-vvIBDV strains within Cuban IBDV population. Conclusions/Significance This study contributes to a better understanding of the emergence of vvIBDV strains, describing molecular epidemiology of IBDV using the state-of-the-art methodology concerning phylogenetic reconstruction. This study also revealed the presence of a novel natural reassorted strain as possible manifest of change in the genetic structure and stability of the vvIBDV strains. Therefore, it highlights the need to obtain

  9. Modeling the economic value of a Chagas’ disease therapeutic vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bruce Y.; Bacon, Kristina M.; Wateska, Angela R.; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Dumonteil, Eric; Hotez, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    The health burden of Chagas’ disease (resulting from Trypanosoma cruzi infection) in Latin America (estimated to outweigh that of malaria by 5-fold and affect 2–6 million people in Mexico alone) has motivated development of therapeutic vaccines to prevent infection progression to severe disease. Our economic model for a Chagas’ therapeutic vaccine in Mexico suggests that a vaccine would be highly cost-effective and in many cases economically dominant (providing both cost savings and health benefits) throughout a range of protection durations, severe adverse event risk, and dosing regimens and would be most likely to provide a positive return on investment if the vaccine prevented (rather than delayed) the onset of cardiomyopathy. PMID:22894964

  10. The immunological underpinnings of vaccinations to prevent cytomegalovirus disease

    PubMed Central

    Louise McCormick, A.; Mocarski, Edward S.

    2015-01-01

    A universal cytomegalovirus (CMV) vaccination promises to reduce the burden of the developmental damage that afflicts up to 0.5% of live births worldwide. An effective vaccination that prevents transplacental transmission would reduce CMV congenital disease and CMV-associated still births and leave populations less susceptible to opportunistic CMV disease. Thus, a vaccination against this virus has long been recognized for the potential of enormous health-care savings because congenital damage is life-long and existing anti-viral options are limited. Vaccine researchers, industry leaders, and regulatory representatives have discussed the challenges posed by clinical efficacy trials that would lead to a universal CMV vaccine, reviewing the links between infection and disease, and identifying settings where disrupting viral transmission might provide a surrogate endpoint for disease prevention. Reducing the complexity of such trials would facilitate vaccine development. Children and adolescents are the targets for universal vaccination, with the expectation of protecting the offspring of immunized women. Given that a majority of females worldwide experience CMV infection during childhood, a universal vaccine must boost natural immunity and reduce transmission due to reactivation and re-infection as well as primary infection during pregnancy. Although current vaccine strategies recognize the value of humoral and cellular immunity, the precise mechanisms that act at the placental interface remain elusive. Immunity resulting from natural infection appears to limit rather than prevent reactivation of latent viruses and susceptibility to re-infection, leaving a challenge for universal vaccination to improve upon natural immunity levels. Despite these hurdles, early phase clinical trials have achieved primary end points in CMV seronegative subjects. Efficacy studies must be expanded to mixed populations of CMV-naive and naturally infected subjects to understand the overall

  11. Vaccination with a multicomponent meningococcal B vaccine in prevention of disease in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Terry; O'Ryan, Miguel; Wassil, James; Abitbol, Véronique; Dull, Peter

    2015-08-26

    Vaccination programs employing capsular-based meningococcal vaccines have proved successful in a variety of settings globally since first introduced over 40 years ago. Similar successes have been demonstrated using meningococcal vaccines for use against serogroup B (MenB) outbreak strains but the diversity of MenB strains has limited vaccine use outside targeted geographic regions. MenB continues to be a significant cause of outbreaks in adolescents and young adults, as recently demonstrated in university settings in the US (Princeton, New Jersey and Santa Barbara, California) and has the potential for hyperendemic disease levels such as currently experienced in Québec and the United Kingdom. In adolescents, increased endemic disease rates and outbreak potential are likely associated with social behaviors putting individuals at risk for carriage acquisition and may explain regional and temporal variations in epidemiology. A protein-based, multi-component MenB vaccine (4CMenB) is currently licensed for use in 37 countries including EU/EEA countries, Australia, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Uruguay, and the US. In this article we review the most recent clinical trial data with 4CMenB with a focus on adolescents and young adults. The vaccine appears to have an acceptable safety profile and is well-tolerated in adolescents and young adults while providing robust, persistent levels of bactericidal antibodies considered protective for each of the four antigenic components of the vaccine. With the recent availability of this vaccine, health care providers have the first comprehensive opportunity to control meningococcal disease, a highly disruptive public health problem with a disproportionate impact on adolescents and young adults. PMID:26187261

  12. Marek's Disease Virus As a Vectored Vaccine for Infectious Laryngotracheitis and Marek's Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We replaced the MEQ gene from a bacterial artificial chromosome clone of Marek’s disease virus with gJ and gB genes from infectious laryngotracheitis virus. We will compare the efficacy of these vectored vaccines with commercial vaccines for Marek’s disease and infectious laryngotracheitis....

  13. Vaccination against Lyme disease: past, present, and future

    PubMed Central

    Embers, Monica E.; Narasimhan, Sukanya

    2013-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato bacteria transmitted to humans and domestic animals by the bite of an Ixodes spp. tick (deer tick). Despite improvements in diagnostic tests and public awareness of Lyme disease, the reported cases have increased over the past decade to approximately 30,000 per year. Limitations and failed public acceptance of a human vaccine, comprised of the outer surface A (OspA) lipoprotein of B. burgdorferi, led to its demise, yet current research has opened doors to new strategies for protection against Lyme disease. In this review we discuss the enzootic cycle of B. burgdorferi, and the unique opportunities it poses to block infection or transmission at different levels. We present the correlates of protection for this infectious disease, the pros and cons of past vaccination strategies, and new paradigms for future vaccine design that would include elements of both the vector and the pathogen. PMID:23407755

  14. Successful vaccines for naturally occurring protozoal diseases of animals should guide human vaccine research. A review of protozoal vaccines and their designs.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Milton M

    2014-04-01

    Effective vaccines are available for many protozoal diseases of animals, including vaccines for zoonotic pathogens and for several species of vector-transmitted apicomplexan haemoparasites. In comparison with human diseases, vaccine development for animals has practical advantages such as the ability to perform experiments in the natural host, the option to manufacture some vaccines in vivo, and lower safety requirements. Although it is proper for human vaccines to be held to higher standards, the enduring lack of vaccines for human protozoal diseases is difficult to reconcile with the comparatively immense amount of research funding. Common tactical problems of human protozoal vaccine research include reliance upon adapted rather than natural animal disease models, and an overwhelming emphasis on novel approaches that are usually attempted in replacement of rather than for improvement upon the types of designs used in effective veterinary vaccines. Currently, all effective protozoal vaccines for animals are predicated upon the ability to grow protozoal organisms. Because human protozoal vaccines need to be as effective as animal vaccines, researchers should benefit from a comparison of existing veterinary products and leading experimental vaccine designs. With this in mind, protozoal vaccines are here reviewed. PMID:24476952

  15. Influenza A virus hemagglutinin protein subunit vaccine elicits vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease in pigs.

    PubMed

    Rajão, Daniela S; Loving, Crystal L; Gauger, Phillip C; Kitikoon, Pravina; Vincent, Amy L

    2014-09-01

    Vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease (VAERD) can occur when pigs are challenged with heterologous virus in the presence of non-neutralizing but cross-reactive antibodies elicited by whole inactivated virus (WIV) vaccine. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of heterologous δ1-H1N2 influenza A virus (IAV) challenge of pigs after vaccination with 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus (H1N1pdm09) recombinant hemagglutinin (HA) subunit vaccine (HA-SV) or temperature-sensitive live attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) vaccine, and to assess the role of immunity to HA in the development of VAERD. Both HA-SV and LAIV vaccines induced high neutralizing antibodies to virus with homologous HA (H1N1pdm09), but not heterologous challenge virus (δ1-H1N2). LAIV partially protected pigs, resulting in reduced virus shedding and faster viral clearance, as no virus was detected in the lungs by 5 days post infection (dpi). HA-SV vaccinated pigs developed more severe lung and tracheal lesions consistent with VAERD following challenge. These results demonstrate that the immune response against the HA protein alone is sufficient to cause VAERD following heterologous challenge. PMID:25077416

  16. The Impact of War on Vaccine Preventable Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Obradovic, Zarema; Balta, Snjezana; Obradovic, Amina; Mesic, Salih

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: During the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina, which lasted from 1992-1995, the functioning of all sectors was disturbed, including the health sector. The priority of the heath sector was treatment and less attention was paid to prevention, and this applies also to the Program of implementation of obligatory immunization, as one of the most important prevention measures. This program was conducted with difficulty and sometimes was completely interrupted because of the lack of necessary vaccines and the inability of adequate maintenance of the cold chain. It was difficult and sometimes completely impossible to bring children to vaccination. Because of these problems, a great number of children stayed unvaccinated so they suffered from vaccine-preventable diseases several years after the war. Materials and methods: This is a retrospective epidemiological study. We analyzed data from January 1994 to July 2014 in Canton Sarajevo, and data about measles outbreak in 2014. Results: In the period from January 1994 to July 2014, 3897 vaccine-preventable diseases were registered in Canton Sarajevo. Among them measles, rubella and mumps were the most frequent. In March 2014, measles outbreak was registered. Almost all cases are unvaccinated (99%) and 43% of all cases are connected with failure of vaccination during the war. Conclusion: During the war, routine immunization program was disrupted in Bosnia and Herzegovina (also in Canton Sarajevo). The consequences are presented as vaccine preventable diseases cases. PMID:25685082

  17. A fresh perspective from immunologists and vaccine researchers: active vaccination strategies to prevent and reverse Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Agadjanyan, Michael G; Petrovsky, Nikolai; Ghochikyan, Anahit

    2015-10-01

    Traditional vaccination against infectious diseases relies on generation of cellular and humoral immune responses that act to protect the host from overt disease even though they do not induce sterilizing immunity. More recently, attempts have been made with mixed success to generate therapeutic vaccines against a wide range of noninfectious diseases including neurodegenerative disorders. After the exciting first report of successful vaccine prevention of progression of an Alzheimer's disease (AD) animal model in 1999, various epitope-based vaccines targeting amyloid beta (Aβ) have proceeded to human clinical trials, with varied results. More recently, AD vaccines based on tau protein have advanced into clinical testing too. This review seeks to put perspective to the mixed results obtained so far in clinical trials of AD vaccines and discusses the many pitfalls and misconceptions encountered on the path to a successful AD vaccine, including better standardization of immunologic efficacy measures of antibodies, immunogenicity of platform/carrier and adjuvants. PMID:26192465

  18. Transmission of virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) between unvaccinated, sub-optimally vaccinated, and well-vaccinated SPF chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the transmissibility of virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in vaccinated chickens. Chickens were vaccinated with live LaSota and challenged 21 days later with CA02. Two days after challenge, the vaccinated and infected chickens were moved into clean i...

  19. Framework for Optimal Global Vaccine Stockpile Design for Vaccine-Preventable Diseases: Application to Measles and Cholera Vaccines as Contrasting Examples.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Kimberly M; Duintjer Tebbens, Radboud J

    2016-07-01

    Managing the dynamics of vaccine supply and demand represents a significant challenge with very high stakes. Insufficient vaccine supplies can necessitate rationing, lead to preventable adverse health outcomes, delay the achievements of elimination or eradication goals, and/or pose reputation risks for public health authorities and/or manufacturers. This article explores the dynamics of global vaccine supply and demand to consider the opportunities to develop and maintain optimal global vaccine stockpiles for universal vaccines, characterized by large global demand (for which we use measles vaccines as an example), and nonuniversal (including new and niche) vaccines (for which we use oral cholera vaccine as an example). We contrast our approach with other vaccine stockpile optimization frameworks previously developed for the United States pediatric vaccine stockpile to address disruptions in supply and global emergency response vaccine stockpiles to provide on-demand vaccines for use in outbreaks. For measles vaccine, we explore the complexity that arises due to different formulations and presentations of vaccines, consideration of rubella, and the context of regional elimination goals. We conclude that global health policy leaders and stakeholders should procure and maintain appropriate global vaccine rotating stocks for measles and rubella vaccine now to support current regional elimination goals, and should probably also do so for other vaccines to help prevent and control endemic or epidemic diseases. This work suggests the need to better model global vaccine supplies to improve efficiency in the vaccine supply chain, ensure adequate supplies to support elimination and eradication initiatives, and support progress toward the goals of the Global Vaccine Action Plan. PMID:25109229

  20. Seroprevalence and vaccination coverage of vaccine-preventable diseases in perinatally HIV-1-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Sticchi, Laura; Bruzzone, Bianca; Caligiuri, Patrizia; Rappazzo, Emanuela; Lo Casto, Michele; De Hoffer, Laura; Gustinetti, Giulia; Viscoli, Claudio; Di Biagio, Antonio

    2014-08-27

    Background Even in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), HIV-infected subjects are at higher risk of complications from vaccine-preventable diseases than those uninfected. The current international guidelines strongly recommend that these patients should receive all the routine childhood vaccinations. Although these children represent an appropriate target for immunization, the available data indicate suboptimal coverage rates. Methods To evaluate seroprotection/seropositivity rates and vaccination coverage against the common vaccine-preventable diseases, all patients with vertically transmitted HIV-1 infection who attended San Martino Hospital were enrolled. Blood samples were collected for testing antibodies against diphtheria, tetanus, hepatitis A and B viruses by Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay and polioviruses by microneutralization test. In order to assess immunization coverage, retrospectively was recorded the vaccination history collecting data from Regional Immunization Database. Results A total of 39 perinatally HIV-1 infected patients were included in the study. At the time of serum was obtained, the mean age was 18,1 years (range: 6-28). The median CD4+ T-lymphocyte count was 702 cells/mm (3) (2-1476 cells/mm (3)). Twenty-nine (74.4%) patients were found with HIV RNA load<50 copies/mL. The proportion of subjects with protective anti-tetanus and anti-HBs were 43.6% and 30.8%, respectively. Seroprotection rates about 20% against rubella and measles were found, less than 20% against all the other antigens investigated. In particular, all patients resulted susceptible to mumps. High immunization rates were observed for polio and HBV (100% and 92.3%, respectively) and suboptimal for diphtheria-tetanus (84.6%). For the other recommended vaccines the rates were generally low. None of the patients received varicella vaccine doses. Conclusions As in the HAART era the vertically acquired HIV infection has become a chronic treatable disease

  1. The VP2 variable region of African and German isolates of infectious bursal disease virus: comparison with very virulent, "classical" virulent, and attenuated tissue culture-adapted strains.

    PubMed

    Zierenberg, K; Nieper, H; van den Berg, T P; Ezeokoli, C D; Voss, M; Müller, H

    2000-01-01

    11 African and two German IBDV strains isolated in the mid '80s from field outbreaks in vaccinated and unvaccinated chicken flocks displayed features of very virulent (vv) IBDV strains. The sequence data of the VP2 variable region and phylogenetic analysis confirm that these strains can be grouped within vv IBDV strains which appeared at the same time on the three continents Africa, Asia, and Europe. Strain Cu-1wt, responsible for severe IBD outbreaks in Germany 13 years earlier, showed some relatedness to these strains, but also significant differences at the genomic level, even though this strain has also features of the vv IBDV strains. PMID:10664410

  2. Vaccinations in disease models with antibody-dependent enhancement.

    PubMed

    Billings, Lora; Fiorillo, Amy; Schwartz, Ira B

    2008-02-01

    This paper examines the effects of single-strain vaccine campaigns on the dynamics of an epidemic multistrain model with antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE). ADE is a disease spreading process causing individuals with their secondary infection to be more infectious than during their first infection by a different strain. We follow the two-strain ADE model described in Cummings et al. [D.A.T. Cummings, Doctoral Thesis, Johns Hopkins University, 2004] and Schwartz et al. [I.B. Schwartz, L.B. Shaw, D.A.T. Cummings, L. Billings, M. McCrary, D. Burke, Chaotic desynchronization of multi-strain diseases, Phys. Rev. E, 72:art. no. 066201, 2005]. After describing the model and its steady state solutions, we modify it to include vaccine campaigns and explore if there exists vaccination rates that can eradicate one or more strains of a virus with ADE. PMID:17923138

  3. Advancing a vaccine to prevent hookworm disease and anemia.

    PubMed

    Hotez, Peter J; Beaumier, Coreen M; Gillespie, Portia M; Strych, Ulrich; Hayward, Tara; Bottazzi, Maria Elena

    2016-06-01

    A human hookworm vaccine is under development and in clinical trials in Africa and the Americas. The vaccine contains the Na-APR-1 and Na-GST-1 antigens. It elicits neutralizing antibodies that interfere with establishment of the adult hookworm in the gut and the ability of the parasite to feed on blood. The vaccine target product profile is focused on the immunization of children to prevent hookworm infection and anemia caused by Necator americanus. It is intended for use in low- and middle-income countries where hookworm is highly endemic and responsible for at least three million disability-adjusted life years. So far, the human hookworm vaccine is being developed in the non-profit sector through the Sabin Vaccine Institute Product Development Partnership (PDP), in collaboration with the HOOKVAC consortium of European and African partners. We envision the vaccine to be incorporated into health systems as part of an elimination strategy for hookworm infection and other neglected tropical diseases, and as a means to reduce global poverty and address the Sustainable Development Goals. PMID:27040400

  4. Preventive medicines: vaccination, prophylaxis of infectious diseases, disinfectants.

    PubMed

    Heininger, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Immunizations belong to the most successful interventions in medicine. Like other drugs, vaccines undergo long periods of pre-clinical development, followed by careful clinical testing through study Phases I, II, and III before they receive licensure. A successful candidate vaccine will move on to be an investigational vaccine to undergo three phases of pre-licensure clinical trials in a stepwise fashion before it can be considered for approval, followed by an optional fourth phase of post-marketing assessment. The overall risk-benefit assessment of a candidate vaccine is very critical in making the licensure decision for regulatory authorities, supported by their scientific committees. It includes analyses of immunogenicity, efficacy, reactogenicity or tolerability, and safety of the vaccine. Public trust in vaccines is a key to the success of immunization programs worldwide. Maintaining this trust requires knowledge of the benefits and scientific understanding of real or perceived risks of immunizations. Under certain circumstances, pre- or post-exposure passive immunization can be achieved by administration of immunoglobulines. In terms of prevention of infectious diseases, disinfection can be applied to reduce the risk of transmission of pathogens from patient to patient, health-care workers to patients, patients to health-care workers, and objects or medical devices to patients. PMID:21882119

  5. Capripox disease in Ethiopia: Genetic differences between field isolates and vaccine strain, and implications for vaccination failure.

    PubMed

    Gelaye, Esayas; Belay, Alebachew; Ayelet, Gelagay; Jenberie, Shiferaw; Yami, Martha; Loitsch, Angelika; Tuppurainen, Eeva; Grabherr, Reingard; Diallo, Adama; Lamien, Charles Euloge

    2015-07-01

    Sheeppox virus (SPPV), goatpox virus (GTPV) and lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) of the genus Capripoxvirus (CaPV) cause capripox disease in sheep, goats and cattle, respectively. These viruses are not strictly host-specific and their geographical distribution is complex. In Ethiopia, where sheep, goats and cattle are all affected, a live attenuated vaccine strain (KS1-O180) is used for immunization of both small ruminants and cattle. Although occurrences of the disease in vaccinated cattle are frequently reported, information on the circulating isolates and their relation to the vaccine strain in use are still missing. The present study addressed the parameters associated with vaccination failure in Ethiopia. Retrospective outbreak data were compiled and isolates collected from thirteen outbreaks in small ruminants and cattle at various geographical locations and years were analyzed and compared to the vaccine strain. Isolates of GTPV and LSDV genotypes were responsible for the capripox outbreaks in small ruminants and cattle, respectively, while SPPV was absent. Pathogenic isolates collected from vaccinated cattle were identical to those from the non-vaccinated ones. The vaccine strain, genetically distinct from the outbreak isolates, was not responsible for these outbreaks. This study shows capripox to be highly significant in Ethiopia due to low performance of the local vaccine and insufficient vaccination coverage. The development of new, more efficient vaccine strains, a GTPV strain for small ruminants and a LSDV for cattle, is needed to promote the acceptance by farmers, thus contribute to better control of CaPVs in Ethiopia. PMID:25907637

  6. Efficacy of live adjuvanted mesogenic Newcastle disease vaccine in chickens.

    PubMed

    Roy, P; Venugopalan, A T; Koteeswaran, A

    1999-06-01

    120 white leghorn chickens primed with a lentogenic Newcastle disease (ND) live vaccine at 7 days of age were divided into three equal groups of 8 weeks of age and vaccinated with a live mesogenic ND vaccine (NDV). One group received only Newcastle disease mesogenic vaccine (RDVK) in normal saline, the second group received RDVK with groundnut oil as adjuvant and the third group received RDVK with liquid paraffin as adjuvant. Sera were collected at different time points for the assessment of antibody level against ND virus (NDV) by the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. The commonly used non-adjuvanted RDVK could not evince 100% protective HI titre beyond 11 weeks of age but in both the adjuvanted groups 100% protective HI titre was evident up to 20 weeks of age. On challenge at 20 weeks of age both the adjuvanted groups withstood challenge but in the non-adjuvanted group 80% of chickens withstood the challenge. A significant difference in immune response between the adjuvanted and non-adjuvanted groups was seen but not between both the adjuvanted groups. The advantage of vegetable oil (groundnut oil) as an adjuvant for live mesogenic ND vaccine has been discussed. PMID:10418918

  7. Biotechnology in the diagnosis of infectious diseases and vaccine development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molecular biological methods have become increasingly applicable to the diagnosis of infectious diseases and vaccine development. To become widely used the methods need to be easy, safe, sensitive, reproducible and eventually automated to facilitate the evaluation of large number of samples. The p...

  8. Recombinant bivalent vaccines against infectious laryngotracheitis and Newcastle disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a highly contagious acute respiratory disease of chickens caused by infection of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). The current commercial ILT vaccines are either not safe or less effective. Therefore, there is a pressing need to develop safer and more...

  9. The role of antigenic composition of Newcastle disease (ND) vaccines in ND control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates from recent outbreaks are the same serotype but are antigenically different from current vaccine strains. Recent experiments in chickens with an inactivated vaccine show significantly less virus shed in birds vaccinated with homologous vaccines compar...

  10. Prospects for safe and effective vaccines against prion diseases.

    PubMed

    Mabbott, Neil Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Prion diseases are subacute neurodegenerative diseases that affect humans and animals. An abnormally folded isoform (PrP(Sc)) of the host cellular prion protein is considered to constitute the major, if not sole, component of the infectious prion. The occurrence of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans most likely arose due to consumption of food contaminated with bovine spongiform encephalopathy prions. The demonstration that some prion infections may have the capacity to transmit to other species, especially humans, has focused attention on the development of safe and effective vaccines against these invariably fatal and currently incurable diseases. Although much effort has been invested in the development of safe and effective anti-PrP vaccines, many important issues remain to be resolved. PMID:25266267

  11. Advances in combating fungal diseases: vaccines on the threshold

    PubMed Central

    Cutler, Jim E.; Deepe, George S.; Klein, Bruce S.

    2008-01-01

    The dramatic increase in fungal diseases in recent years can be attributed to the increased aggressiveness of medical therapy and other human activities. Immunosuppressed patients are at risk of contracting fungal diseases in healthcare settings and from natural environments. Increased prescribing of antifungals has led to the emergence of resistant fungi, resulting in treatment challenges. These concerns, together with the elucidation of the mechanisms of protective immunity against fungal diseases, have renewed interest in the development of vaccines against the mycoses. Most research has used murine models of human disease and, as we review in this article, the knowledge gained from these studies has advanced to the point where the development of vaccines targeting human fungal pathogens is now a realistic and achievable goal. PMID:17160002

  12. Optimizing strategies for meningococcal C disease vaccination in Valencia (Spain)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Meningococcal C (MenC) conjugate vaccines have controlled invasive diseases associated with this serogroup in countries where they are included in National Immunization Programs and also in an extensive catch-up program involving subjects up to 20 years of age. Catch-up was important, not only because it prevented disease in adolescents and young adults at risk, but also because it decreased transmission of the bacteria, since it was in this age group where the organism was circulating. Our objective is to develop a new vaccination schedule to achieve maximum seroprotection in these groups. Methods A recent study has provided detailed age-structured information on the seroprotection levels against MenC in Valencia (Spain), where vaccination is routinely scheduled at 2 months and 6 months, with a booster dose at 18 months of age. A complementary catch-up campaign was also carried out in n for children from 12 months to 19 years of age. Statistical analyses of these data have provided an accurate picture on the evolution of seroprotection in the last few years. Results An agent-based model has been developed to study the future evolution of the seroprotection histogram. We have shown that the optimum strategy for achieving high protection levels in all infants, toddlers and adolescents is a change to a 2 months, 12 months and 12 years of age vaccination pattern. If the new schedule were implemented in January 2014, high-risk subjects between 15-19 years of age would have very low seroprotection for the next 6 years, thereby threatening the program. Conclusions High protection levels and a low incidence of meningococcal C disease can be achieved in the future by means of a cost-free change in vaccination program. However, we recommend a new catch-up program simultaneous to the change in regular vaccination program. PMID:24886054

  13. Routinely vaccinating adolescents against meningococcus: targeting transmission & disease

    PubMed Central

    Vetter, Volker; Baxter, Roger; Denizer, Gülhan; Sáfadi, Marco A. P.; Silfverdal, Sven-Arne; Vyse, Andrew; Borrow, Ray

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Adolescents have the highest rates of meningococcal carriage and transmission. Interrupting the adolescent habitat in order to reduce carriage and transmission within adolescents and to other age groups could help to control meningococcal disease at a population level. Compared to immunization strategies restricted to young children, a strategy focused on adolescents may have more profound and long-lasting indirect impacts, and may be more cost effective. Despite challenges in reaching this age-group, experience with other vaccines show that high vaccine coverage of adolescents is attainable. PMID:26651380

  14. Routinely vaccinating adolescents against meningococcus: targeting transmission & disease.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Volker; Baxter, Roger; Denizer, Gülhan; Sáfadi, Marco A P; Silfverdal, Sven-Arne; Vyse, Andrew; Borrow, Ray

    2016-05-01

    Adolescents have the highest rates of meningococcal carriage and transmission. Interrupting the adolescent habitat in order to reduce carriage and transmission within adolescents and to other age groups could help to control meningococcal disease at a population level. Compared to immunization strategies restricted to young children, a strategy focused on adolescents may have more profound and long-lasting indirect impacts, and may be more cost effective. Despite challenges in reaching this age-group, experience with other vaccines show that high vaccine coverage of adolescents is attainable. PMID:26651380

  15. Newcastle disease virus vaccine encapsulated in biodegradable nanoparticles for mucosal delivery of a human vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yanwei; Zhang, Yang; Shi, Ci; Li, Wei; Chen, Gang; Wang, Xiaohua; Zhao, Kai

    2014-01-01

    An overwhelming number of medicines on the market are oral medicine with the disadvantage of lower bioavailability universally. Newcastle disease (ND) has become a serious disease that threatens the poultry industries in many countries, and there are no treatments available for ND. The biodegradable materials could be surface modified and protect antigen or DNA from damage. Furthermore, nanoparticles are also a potential drug delivery with proper size. However, Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccines encapsulated in nanoparticles were widely used due to their proved a high safety and induced quicker and better mucosal and humoral immune responses. Here we review the results of mucosal immune delivery system for ND. Due to the safety, low toxicity, and better immunogenicity of the mucosal immune delivery system, our studies provide a clearly view that used the biodegradable materials to research and develop the human vaccines to save more patients’ lives. These promising results provide a foundation for testing the approach in humans. PMID:25424963

  16. Immunity of foot-and-mouth disease serotype Asia 1 by sublingual vaccination.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao-tai; Liu, Yong-sheng

    2013-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes vesicular disease of cloven-hoofed animals, with severe agricultural and economic losses. Here we present study using a sublingual (SL) route with the killed serotype Asia 1 FMDV vaccine. Guinea pigs were vaccinated using a commercially available vaccine formulation at the manufacturer's recommended full, 1/4, and 1/16 antigen doses. Animals were challenged with homologous FMDV Asia1 strain at various times following vaccination. All control guinea pigs exhibited clinical disease, including fever, viremia, and lesions, specifically vesicle formation in feet. Animals vaccinated with the 1/16 and 1/4 doses were protected after challenge at days 7, 28, and 35 post vaccination. These data suggest that effective protection against foot-and-mouth disease can be achieved with 1/16 of the recommended vaccine dose using SL vaccination, indicating that the sublingual route is an attractive alternative for the administration of the FMDV vaccine. PMID:23717497

  17. Vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease is influenced by haemagglutinin and neuraminidase in whole inactivated influenza virus vaccines.

    PubMed

    Rajão, Daniela S; Chen, Hongjun; Perez, Daniel R; Sandbulte, Matthew R; Gauger, Phillip C; Loving, Crystal L; Shanks, G Dennis; Vincent, Amy

    2016-07-01

    Multiple subtypes and many antigenic variants of influenza A virus (IAV) co-circulate in swine in the USA, complicating effective use of commercial vaccines to control disease and transmission. Whole inactivated virus (WIV) vaccines may provide partial protection against IAV with substantial antigenic drift, but have been shown to induce vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease (VAERD) when challenged with an antigenic variant of the same haemagglutinin (HA) subtype. This study investigated the role the immune response against HA, neuraminidase (NA) and nucleoprotein (NP) may play in VAERD by reverse engineering vaccine and challenge viruses on a common backbone and using them in a series of vaccination/challenge trials. Mismatched HA between vaccine and challenge virus was necessary to induce VAERD. However, vaccines containing a matched NA abrogated the VAERD phenomenon induced by the HA mismatch and this was correlated with NA-inhibiting (NI) antibodies. Divergence between the two circulating swine N2 lineages (92 % identity) resulted in a loss of NI cross-reactivity and also resulted in VAERD with the mismatched HA. The NP lineage selected for use in the WIV vaccine strains did not affect protection or pathology. Thus the combination of HA and NA in the vaccine virus strains played a substantial role in vaccine protection versus immunopathology, suggesting that vaccines that target the HA protein alone could be more prone to VAERD due to the absence of cross-protective NI antibodies. PMID:27031847

  18. Booster vaccinations: can immunologic memory outpace disease pathogenesis?

    PubMed

    Pichichero, Michael E

    2009-12-01

    Almost all current vaccines work by the induction of antibodies in serum or on the mucosa to block adherence of pathogens to epithelial cells or interfere with microbial invasion of the bloodstream. However, antibody levels usually decline after vaccination to undetectable amounts if further vaccination does not occur. Persistence of vaccine-induced antibodies usually goes well beyond the time when they should have decayed to undetectable levels because of ongoing "natural" boosting or other immunologic mechanisms. The production of memory B and T cells is of clear importance, but the likelihood that a memory response will be fast enough in the absence of a protective circulating antibody level likely depends on the pace of pathogenesis of a specific organism. This concept is discussed with regard to Haemophilus influenzae type b, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Neisseria meningitidis; hepatitis A and B; diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis; polio, measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella; rotavirus; and human papilloma virus. With infectious diseases for which the pace of pathogenesis is less rapid, some individuals will contract infection before the memory response is fully activated and implemented. With infectious diseases for which the pace of pathogenesis is slow, immune memory should be sufficient to prevent disease. PMID:19933727

  19. Therapeutic vaccines for chronic diseases: successes and technical challenges

    PubMed Central

    Bachmann, Martin F.; Jennings, Gary T.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic, non-communicable diseases are the major cause of death and disability worldwide and have replaced infectious diseases as the major burden of society in large parts of the world. Despite the complexity of chronic diseases, relatively few predisposing risk factors have been identified by the World Health Organization. Those include smoking, alcohol abuse, obesity, high cholesterol and high blood pressure as the cause of many of these chronic conditions. Here, we discuss several examples of vaccines that target these risk factors with the aim of preventing the associated diseases and some of the challenges they face. PMID:21893545

  20. Self-disseminating vaccines for emerging infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Aisling A.; Redwood, Alec J.; Jarvis, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Modern human activity fueled by economic development is profoundly altering our relationship with microorganisms. This altered interaction with microbes is believed to be the major driving force behind the increased rate of emerging infectious diseases from animals. The spate of recent infectious disease outbreaks, including Ebola virus disease and Middle East respiratory syndrome, emphasize the need for development of new innovative tools to manage these emerging diseases. Disseminating vaccines are one such novel approach to potentially interrupt animal to human (zoonotic) transmission of these pathogens. PMID:26524478

  1. Is a multivalent hand, foot, and mouth disease vaccine feasible?

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Michel; Chong, Pele

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus A infections are the primary cause of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in infants and young children. Although enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) are the predominant causes of HFMD epidemics worldwide, EV-A71 has emerged as a major neurovirulent virus responsible for severe neurological complications and fatal outcomes. HFMD is a serious health threat and economic burden across the Asia-Pacific region. Inactivated EV-A71 vaccines have elicited protection against EV-A71 but not against CV-A16 infections in large efficacy trials. The current development of a bivalent inactivated EV-A71/CV-A16 vaccine is the next step toward that of multivalent HFMD vaccines. These vaccines should ultimately include other prevalent pathogenic coxsackieviruses A (CV-A6 and CV-A10), coxsackieviruses B (B3 and B5) and echovirus 30 that often co-circulate during HFMD epidemics and can cause severe HFMD, aseptic meningitis and acute viral myocarditis. The prospect and challenges for the development of such multivalent vaccines are discussed. PMID:26009802

  2. Evaluation of novel oral vaccine candidates and validation of a caprine model of Johne's disease

    PubMed Central

    Hines, Murray E.; Turnquist, Sue E.; Ilha, Marcia R. S.; Rajeev, Sreekumari; Jones, Arthur L.; Whittington, Lisa; Bannantine, John P.; Barletta, Raúl G.; Gröhn, Yrjö T.; Katani, Robab; Talaat, Adel M.; Li, Lingling; Kapur, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    Johne's disease (JD) caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is a major threat to the dairy industry and possibly some cases of Crohn's disease in humans. A MAP vaccine that reduced of clinical disease and/or reduced fecal shedding would aid in the control of JD. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate the efficacy of 5 attenuated strains of MAP as vaccine candidates compared to a commercial control vaccine using the protocol proposed by the Johne's Disease Integrated Program (JDIP) Animal Model Standardization Committee (AMSC), and (2) to validate the AMSC Johne's disease goat challenge model. Eighty goat kids were vaccinated orally twice at 8 and 10 weeks of age with an experimental vaccine or once subcutaneously at 8 weeks with Silirum® (Zoetis), or a sham control oral vaccine at 8 and 10 weeks. Kids were challenged orally with a total of approximately 1.44 × 109 CFU divided in two consecutive daily doses using MAP ATCC-700535 (K10-like bovine isolate). All kids were necropsied at 13 months post-challenge. Results indicated that the AMSC goat challenge model is a highly efficient and valid model for JD challenge studies. None of the experimental or control vaccines evaluated prevented MAP infection or eliminated fecal shedding, although the 329 vaccine lowered the incidence of infection, fecal shedding, tissue colonization and reduced lesion scores, but less than the control vaccine. Based on our results the relative performance ranking of the experimental live-attenuated vaccines evaluated, the 329 vaccine was the best performer, followed by the 318 vaccine, then 316 vaccine, 315 vaccine and finally the 319 vaccine was the worst performer. The subcutaneously injected control vaccine outperformed the orally-delivered mutant vaccine candidates. Two vaccines (329 and 318) do reduce presence of JD gross and microscopic lesions, slow progression of disease, and one vaccine (329) reduced fecal shedding and tissue colonization. PMID

  3. Vaccination of hens decreases virus contamination in eggs after challenge with the virulent Newcastle disease virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Newcastle disease is an important infectious disease of poultry causing economic losses worldwide. The control is routinely performed by vaccination, however vaccinated birds can shed virus, creating a barrier for trade exports. To determine if vaccination could mitigate these negative outcomes, h...

  4. Pneumococcal Disease in the Era of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Inci; Shea, Kimberly M; Pelton, Stephen I

    2015-12-01

    Universal immunization of infants and toddlers with pneumococcal conjugate vaccines over the last 15 years has dramatically altered the landscape of pneumococcal disease. Decreases in invasive pneumococcal disease, all-cause pneumonia, empyema, mastoiditis, acute otitis media, and complicated otitis media have been reported from multiple countries in which universal immunization has been implemented. Children with comorbid conditions have higher rates of pneumococcal disease and increased case fatality rates compared with otherwise healthy children, and protection for the most vulnerable pediatric patients will require new strategies to address the underlying host susceptibility and the expanded spectrum of serotypes observed. PMID:26610421

  5. Experimental Vaccines against Chagas Disease: A Journey through History

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Morales, Olivia; Monteón-Padilla, Víctor; Carrillo-Sánchez, Silvia C.; Rios-Castro, Martha; Martínez-Cruz, Mariana; Carabarin-Lima, Alejandro; Arce-Fonseca, Minerva

    2015-01-01

    Chagas disease, or American trypanosomiasis, which is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is primarily a vector disease endemic in 21 Latin American countries, including Mexico. Although many vector control programs have been implemented, T. cruzi has not been eradicated. The development of an anti-T. cruzi vaccine for prophylactic and therapeutic purposes may significantly contribute to the transmission control of Chagas disease. Immune protection against experimental infection with T. cruzi has been studied since the second decade of the last century, and many types of immunogens have been used subsequently, such as killed or attenuated parasites and new DNA vaccines. This primary prevention strategy appears feasible, effective, safe, and inexpensive, although problems remain. The objective of this review is to summarize the research efforts about the development of vaccines against Chagas disease worldwide. A thorough literature review was conducted by searching PubMed with the terms “Chagas disease” and “American trypanosomiasis” together with “vaccines” or “immunization”. In addition, reports and journals not cited in PubMed were identified. Publications in English, Spanish, and Portuguese were reviewed. PMID:26090490

  6. The influence of social norms on the dynamics of vaccinating behaviour for paediatric infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Oraby, Tamer; Thampi, Vivek; Bauch, Chris T

    2014-04-01

    Mathematical models that couple disease dynamics and vaccinating behaviour often assume that the incentive to vaccinate disappears if disease prevalence is zero. Hence, they predict that vaccine refusal should be the rule, and elimination should be difficult or impossible. In reality, countries with non-mandatory vaccination policies have usually been able to maintain elimination or very low incidence of paediatric infectious diseases for long periods of time. Here, we show that including injunctive social norms can reconcile such behaviour-incidence models to observations. Adding social norms to a coupled behaviour-incidence model enables the model to better explain pertussis vaccine uptake and disease dynamics in the UK from 1967 to 2010, in both the vaccine-scare years and the years of high vaccine coverage. The model also illustrates how a vaccine scare can perpetuate suboptimal vaccine coverage long after perceived risk has returned to baseline, pre-vaccine-scare levels. However, at other model parameter values, social norms can perpetuate depressed vaccine coverage during a vaccine scare well beyond the time when the population's baseline vaccine risk perception returns to pre-scare levels. Social norms can strongly suppress vaccine uptake despite frequent outbreaks, as observed in some small communities. Significant portions of the parameter space also exhibit bistability, meaning long-term outcomes depend on the initial conditions. Depending on the context, social norms can either support or hinder immunization goals. PMID:24523276

  7. The influence of social norms on the dynamics of vaccinating behaviour for paediatric infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Oraby, Tamer; Thampi, Vivek; Bauch, Chris T.

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical models that couple disease dynamics and vaccinating behaviour often assume that the incentive to vaccinate disappears if disease prevalence is zero. Hence, they predict that vaccine refusal should be the rule, and elimination should be difficult or impossible. In reality, countries with non-mandatory vaccination policies have usually been able to maintain elimination or very low incidence of paediatric infectious diseases for long periods of time. Here, we show that including injunctive social norms can reconcile such behaviour-incidence models to observations. Adding social norms to a coupled behaviour-incidence model enables the model to better explain pertussis vaccine uptake and disease dynamics in the UK from 1967 to 2010, in both the vaccine-scare years and the years of high vaccine coverage. The model also illustrates how a vaccine scare can perpetuate suboptimal vaccine coverage long after perceived risk has returned to baseline, pre-vaccine-scare levels. However, at other model parameter values, social norms can perpetuate depressed vaccine coverage during a vaccine scare well beyond the time when the population's baseline vaccine risk perception returns to pre-scare levels. Social norms can strongly suppress vaccine uptake despite frequent outbreaks, as observed in some small communities. Significant portions of the parameter space also exhibit bistability, meaning long-term outcomes depend on the initial conditions. Depending on the context, social norms can either support or hinder immunization goals. PMID:24523276

  8. Role of pneumococcal vaccination in prevention of pneumococcal disease among adults in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Eng, Philip; Lim, Lean Huat; Loo, Chian Min; Low, James Alvin; Tan, Carol; Tan, Eng Kiat; Wong, Sin Yew; Setia, Sajita

    2014-01-01

    The burden of disease associated with Streptococcus pneumoniae infection in adults can be considerable but is largely preventable through routine vaccination. Although substantial progress has been made with the recent licensure of the new vaccines for prevention of pneumonia in adults, vaccine uptake rates need to be improved significantly to tackle adult pneumococcal disease effectively. Increased education regarding pneumococcal disease and improved vaccine availability may contribute to a reduction in pneumococcal disease through increased vaccination rates. The increase in the elderly population in Singapore as well as globally makes intervention in reducing pneumococcal disease an important priority. Globally, all adult vaccines remain underused and family physicians give little priority to pneumococcal vaccination for adults in daily practice. Family physicians are specialists in preventive care and can be leaders in ensuring that adult patients get the full benefit of protection against vaccine-preventable diseases. They can play a key role in the immunization delivery of new and routine vaccines by educating the public on the risks and benefits associated with vaccines. Local recommendations by advisory groups on vaccination in adults will also help to tackle vaccine preventable diseases in adults. PMID:24729726

  9. Ebola virus disease candidate vaccines under evaluation in clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Martins, Karen A; Jahrling, Peter B; Bavari, Sina; Kuhn, Jens H

    2016-09-01

    Filoviruses are the etiological agents of two human illnesses: Ebola virus disease and Marburg virus disease. Until 2013, medical countermeasure development against these afflictions was limited to only a few research institutes worldwide as both infections were considered exotic due to very low case numbers. Together with the high case-fatality rate of both diseases, evaluation of any candidate countermeasure in properly controlled clinical trials seemed impossible. However, in 2013, Ebola virus was identified as the etiological agent of a large disease outbreak in Western Africa including almost 30,000 infections and more than 11,000 deaths, including case exportations to Europe and North America. These large case numbers resulted in medical countermeasure development against Ebola virus disease becoming a global public-health priority. This review summarizes the status quo of candidate vaccines against Ebola virus disease, with a focus on those that are currently under evaluation in clinical trials. PMID:27160784

  10. Vaccination strategies to prevent emerging diseases for Spanish aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Romalde, J L; Ravelo, C; López-Romalde, S; Avendaño-Herrera, R; Magariños, B; Toranzo, A E

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, three serious diseases have emerged in Spanish aquaculture. These are lactococcosis caused by Lactococcus garvieae, which is of economical importance in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss); pseudomonadiasis caused by Pseudomonas anguilliseptica which affects gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) and turbot (Scophthalmus maximus); and flexibacteriosis caused by Tenacibaculum maritimum which became a devastating problem in the emerging culture of sole (Solea spp). To obtain useful information for the design and development of new vaccines, antigenic characterisation of representative strains was performed. In this work we present the strategies adopted for the vaccine formulation (strains included, use of adjuvants) and administration (route, necessity of booster, etc.). The results from laboratory and/or field vaccination trials performed showed that for lactococcosis, protection lasting for five months was obtained with an oil-adjuvanted bacterin formulation. Unadjuvanted bacterin gave only a short duration of protection, which could, however, be prolonged by an antigen boost administered via the feed. A bacterin against Pseudomonas anguilliseptica gave protection for 12 weeks when tested in an experimental challenge trial in turbot. Besides the flexibacteriosis vaccine developed by our group for turbot, and due to the antigenic host-associated variability within T. maritimum, a new bacterin was developed against this bacterium to be used specifically in sole. This new bacterin, administered to sole by intraperitoneal injection, yielded RPS values of 94 % six weeks after immunization. In conclusion, these results suggest that vaccination constitutes a cost-effective method of controlling diseases that have emerged in the most important fish species being cultured in Spain. PMID:15962472

  11. Comparative Evaluation of Vaccine Efficacy of Recombinant Marek's Disease Virus Vaccine Lacking Meq Oncogene in Commercial Chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek's disease virus oncogene meq has been identified as the gene involved in tumorigenesis in chickens. We have recently developed a Meq-null virus, rMd5delMeq, in which the oncogene Meq was deleted. Vaccine efficacy experiments conducted in ADOL 15I5 x 71 chickens vaccinated with rMd5delMeq virus...

  12. Vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease is influenced by hemagglutinin and neuraminidase in whole inactivated influenza virus vaccines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multiple subtypes and many antigenic variants of influenza A virus (IAV) co-circulate in swine in the USA, complicating effective use of commercial vaccines to control disease and transmission. Whole inactivated virus (WIV) vaccines may provide partial protection against IAV with substantial antigen...

  13. Pathogenesis of primary foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in the nasopharynx of vaccinated and non-vaccinated cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A time-course pathogenesis study was performed to compare and contrast primary foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection in vaccinated and non-vaccinated cattle following simulated-natural virus exposure. FMDV genome and infectious virus were detected during the initial phase of infection from b...

  14. Peste des petits ruminants vaccine and vaccination in India: sharing experience with disease endemic countries.

    PubMed

    Singh, R P; Bandyopadhyay, S K

    2015-12-01

    Peste des petits ruminants, a viral disease of small ruminants, the control of which is important for poverty alleviation and to ensure livelihood security in Asia, Middle East and Africa. In recognition of these issues, we developed and applied vaccine and diagnostics to demonstrate effective control of PPR during preceding 6 years in a sub-population of small ruminants in India. Two south Indian states, namely Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka, strongly indicated possibility of PPR control with more than 90 % reduction in number of reported outbreaks of PPR, mostly through mass vaccination. Similarly, the situation at the national level also demonstrated a decline of more than 75 % in the number of reported outbreaks. Sharing these experiences may motivate other countries for similar initiatives leading to progressive control of PPR, which is in line with the initiatives of the organizations like FAO/OIE and the recent platforms on global PPR research alliance. PMID:26645031

  15. Nontyphoidal salmonella disease: Current status of vaccine research and development.

    PubMed

    Tennant, Sharon M; MacLennan, Calman A; Simon, Raphael; Martin, Laura B; Khan, M Imran

    2016-06-01

    Among more than 2500 nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica (NTS) serovars, S. enterica serovar Typhimurium and S. enterica serovar Enteritidis account for approximately fifty percent of all human isolates of NTS reported globally. The global incidence of NTS gastroenteritis in 2010 was estimated to be 93 million cases, approximately 80 million of which were contracted via food-borne transmission. It is estimated that 155,000 deaths resulted from NTS in 2010. NTS also causes severe, extra-intestinal, invasive bacteremia, referred to as invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease. iNTS disease usually presents as a febrile illness, frequently without gastrointestinal symptoms, in both adults and children. Symptoms of iNTS are similar to malaria, often including fever (>90%) and splenomegaly (>40%). The underlying reasons for the high rates of iNTS disease in Africa are still being elucidated. Evidence from animal and human studies supports the feasibility of developing a safe and effective vaccine against iNTS. Both antibodies and complement can kill Salmonella species in vitro. Proof-of-principle studies in animal models have demonstrated efficacy for live attenuated and subunit vaccines that target the O-antigens, flagellin proteins, and other outer membrane proteins of serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis. More recently, a novel delivery strategy for NTS vaccines has been developed: the Generalized Modules for Membrane Antigens (GMMA) technology which presents surface polysaccharides and outer membrane proteins in their native conformation. GMMA technology is self-adjuvanting, as it delivers multiple pathogen-associated molecular pattern molecules. GMMA may be particularly relevant for low- and middle-income countries as it has the potential for high immunologic potency at a low cost and involves a relatively simple production process without the need for complex conjugation. Several vaccines for the predominant NTS serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis, are

  16. Efficacy of various Marek's disease vaccines protocols for prevention of Marek's disease virus-induced immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Faiz, Nik M; Cortes, Aneg L; Guy, James S; Fogle, Jonathan E; Gimeno, Isabel M

    2016-07-29

    Marek's disease virus (MDV) induces tumors and severe immunosuppression in chickens. MDV-induced immunosuppression (MDV-IS) is very complex and difficult to study. In particular, the late MDV-IS (late-MDV-IS) is of great concern since it can occur in the absence of lymphoid organ atrophy or gross tumors. We have recently developed a model to reproduce late-MDV-IS under laboratory conditions. This model measures MDV-IS indirectly by assessing the effect of MDV infection on the efficacy of infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) vaccination; hence the name late-MDV-IS ILT model. In this study, we have used the late-MDV-IS ILT model to evaluate if MD vaccination can protect against late-MDV-IS. One experiment was conducted to determine whether serotype 1 MD vaccines (CVI988 and Md5ΔMEQ) could induce late-MDV-IS by themselves. Three additional experiments were conducted to evaluate efficacy of different MD vaccines (HVT, HVT+SB-1, CVI988, and Md5ΔMEQ) and different vaccine protocols (day-old vaccination, in ovo vaccination, and double vaccination) against late-MDV-IS. Our results show that none of the currently used vaccine protocols (HVT, HVT+SB-1, or CVI988 administered at day of age, in ovo, or in double vaccination protocols) protected against late-MDV-IS induced by vv+MDV strains 648A and 686. Experimental vaccine Md5ΔMEQ administered subcutaneously at one day of age was the only vaccine protocol that significantly reduced late-MDV-IS induced by vv+MDV strain 686. This study demonstrates that currently used vaccine protocols confer high levels of protection against MDV-induced tumors (protection index=100), but do not protect against late-MDV-IS; thus, commercial poultry flocks could suffer late-MDV-IS even in complete absence of tumors. Our results suggest that MDV-IS might not be related to the development of tumors and novel control methods are needed. Further evaluation of the experimental vaccine Md5ΔMEQ might shed light on protective mechanisms against late

  17. Routine pediatric immunization, special cases in pediatrics: prematurity, chronic disease, congenital heart disease: recent advancements/changes in pediatric vaccines.

    PubMed

    Walmsley, Daniel

    2011-12-01

    Vaccination is a powerful and dynamic weapon in reducing the impact of infectious diseases in children. The field and schedules are constantly evolving, with significant changes resulting in new and exciting vaccines almost yearly. Special cases in pediatrics represent unique challenges and differences in vaccinations. Health care providers need to be knowledgable about the current vaccines and to remain up to date with the constant evolution, as well as be aware of the latest recommendations, warnings, and news about vaccines and their use. This article updates and discusses current but ever-changing routine pediatric vaccination programs. PMID:22094135

  18. Global Foot-and-Mouth Disease Research Update and Gap Analysis: 3 - Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Robinson, L; Knight-Jones, T J D; Charleston, B; Rodriguez, L L; Gay, C G; Sumption, K J; Vosloo, W

    2016-06-01

    This study assessed research knowledge gaps in the field of FMDV (foot-and-mouth disease virus) vaccines. The study took the form of a literature review (2011-15) combined with research updates collected in 2014 from 33 institutes from across the world. Findings were used to identify priority areas for future FMD vaccine research. Vaccines play a vital role in FMD control, used both to limit the spread of the virus during epidemics in FMD-free countries and as the mainstay of disease management in endemic regions, particularly where sanitary controls are difficult to apply. Improvements in the performance or cost-effectiveness of FMD vaccines will allow more widespread and efficient disease control. FMD vaccines have changed little in recent decades, typically produced by inactivation of whole virus, the quantity and stability of the intact viral capsids in the final preparation being key for immunogenicity. However, these are exciting times and several promising novel FMD vaccine candidates have recently been developed. This includes the first FMD vaccine licensed for manufacture and use in the USA; this adenovirus-vectored FMD vaccine causes in vivo expression of viral capsids in vaccinated animals. Another promising vaccine candidate comprises stabilized empty FMDV capsids produced in vitro in a baculovirus expression system. Recombinant technologies are also being developed to improve otherwise conventionally produced inactivated vaccines, for example, by creating a chimeric vaccine virus to increase capsid stability and by inserting sequences into the vaccine virus for desired antigen expression. Other important areas of ongoing research include enhanced adjuvants, vaccine quality control procedures and predicting vaccine protection from immune correlates, thus reducing dependency on animal challenge studies. Globally, the degree of independent vaccine evaluation is highly variable, and this is essential for vaccine quality. Previously neglected, the

  19. Vaccinating Italian infants with a new multicomponent vaccine (Bexsero®) against meningococcal B disease: A cost-effectiveness analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gasparini, Roberto; Landa, Paolo; Amicizia, Daniela; Icardi, Giancarlo; Ricciardi, Walter; de Waure, Chiara; Tanfani, Elena; Bonanni, Paolo; Lucioni, Carlo; Testi, Angela; Panatto, Donatella

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The European Medicines Agency has approved a multicomponent serogroup B meningococcal vaccine (Bexsero®) for use in individuals of 2 months of age and older. A cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) from the societal and Italian National Health Service perspectives was performed in order to evaluate the impact of vaccinating Italian infants less than 1 y of age with Bexsero®, as opposed to non-vaccination. The analysis was carried out by means of Excel Version 2011 and the TreeAge Pro® software Version 2012. Two basal scenarios that differed in terms of disease incidence (official and estimated data to correct for underreporting) were considered. In the basal scenarios, we considered a primary vaccination cycle with 4 doses (at 2, 4, 6 and 12 months of age) and 1 booster dose at the age of 11 y, the societal perspective and no cost for death. Sensitivity analyses were carried out in which crucial variables were changed over probable ranges. In Italy, on the basis of official data on disease incidence, vaccination with Bexsero® could prevent 82.97 cases and 5.61 deaths in each birth cohort, while these figures proved to be three times higher on considering the estimated incidence. The results of the CEA showed that the Incremental Cost Effectiveness Ratio (ICER) per QALY was €109,762 in the basal scenario if official data on disease incidence are considered and €26,599 if estimated data are considered. The tornado diagram indicated that the most influential factor on ICER was the incidence of disease. The probability of sequelae, the cost of the vaccine and vaccine effectiveness also had an impact. Our results suggest that vaccinating infants in Italy with Bexsero® has the ability to significantly reduce meningococcal disease and, if the probable underestimation of disease incidence is considered, routine vaccination is advisable. PMID:27163398

  20. Vaccinations

    MedlinePlus

    ... vaccinated? For many years, a set of annual vaccinations was considered normal and necessary for dogs and ... to protect for a full year. Consequently, one vaccination schedule will not work well for all pets. ...

  1. A case suspected for yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van de Pol, Eva M; Gisolf, Elizabeth H; Richter, Clemens

    2014-01-01

    Yellow fever (YF) 17D vaccine is one of the most successful vaccines ever developed. Since 2001, 56 cases of yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD) have been published in the peer-reviewed literature. Here, we report a new case suspected for YEL-AVD in the Netherlands. Further research is needed to determine the true incidence of YEL-AVD and to clarify host and vaccine-associated factors in the pathogenesis of YEL-AVD. Because of the potential adverse events, healthcare providers should carefully consider vaccination only in people who are truly at risk for YF infection, especially in primary vaccine recipients. PMID:24920138

  2. Immune mechanisms associated with enhanced influenza A virus disease versus cross-protection in vaccinated pigs.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccine associated enhanced respiratory disease (VAERD) has been described in pigs vaccinated with whole-inactivated influenza virus (WIV) following infection with heterologous influenza A virus (IAV). WIV vaccination elicits production of cross-reactive, non-neutralizing antibody to the challenge I...

  3. EV-A71 vaccine licensure: a first step for multivalent enterovirus vaccine to control HFMD and other severe diseases.

    PubMed

    Mao, Qunying; Wang, Yiping; Bian, Lianlian; Xu, Miao; Liang, Zhenglun

    2016-01-01

    Enteroviruses (EVs) are the most common viral agents in humans. Although most infections are mild or asymptomatic, there is a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations that may be caused by EV infections with varying degrees of severity. Among these viruses, EV-A71 and coxsackievirus (CV) CV-A16 from group A EVs attract the most attention because they are responsible for hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Other EV-A viruses such as CV-A6 and CV-A10 were also reported to cause HFMD outbreaks in several countries or regions. Group B EVs such as CV-B3, CV-B5 and echovirus 30 were reported to be the main pathogens responsible for myocarditis and encephalitis epidemics and were also detected in HFMD patients. Vaccines are the best tools to control infectious diseases. In December 2015, China's Food and Drug Administration approved two inactivated EV-A71 vaccines for preventing severe HFMD.The CV-A16 vaccine and the EV-A71-CV-A16 bivalent vaccine showed substantial efficacy against HFMD in pre-clinical animal models. Previously, research on EV-B group vaccines was mainly focused on CV-B3 vaccine development. Because the HFMD pathogen spectrum has changed, and the threat from EV-B virus-associated severe diseases has gradually increased, it is necessary to develop multivalent HFMD vaccines. This study summarizes the clinical symptoms of diseases caused by EVs, such as HFMD, myocarditis and encephalitis, and the related EV vaccine development progress. In conclusion, developing multivalent EV vaccines should be strongly recommended to prevent HFMD, myocarditis, encephalitis and other severe diseases. PMID:27436364

  4. Vaccination of pigs against Aujeszky's disease by the intradermal route using live attenuated and inactivated virus vaccines.

    PubMed

    Vannier, P; Cariolet, R

    1989-09-01

    A study was undertaken of the protection induced by inactivated and live Aujeszky's disease virus vaccines. The vaccines were administered using a special device which, without the use of a needle, delivered the preparation intradermally. The trials were performed on 88 pigs which were vaccinated at the beginning of the fattening period both in experimental conditions and in pig herds. All the pigs were challenged at the end of the fattening period in isolation units. The results obtained were compared with those obtained using the same vaccines injected intramuscularly. It was shown that vaccination via the intradermal route induced good protection in the vaccinated animals and was similar to that conferred by live virus vaccine injected intramuscularly. The results, with the inactivated virus vaccine, were not so good when it was injected via the intradermal route. Studies with intradermal vaccination showed no local lesion or very small nodules strictly localized to the dermis. The results also confirmed that the effects of challenge exposure depended on the health status of animals prior to infection and show the necessity to use a synthetic value (delta G) to interpret the data and mainly to compare the results objectively. In fattening pigs this vaccination procedure is attractive because (i) less animal constraint is needed than would be for intramuscular injections, (ii) injection can be checked by the presence of a visible papula at the site of inoculation and, (iii) pigs can be vaccinated in the ham while they are feeding. Injection without a needle also contributes to avoiding bacterial contamination under practical farm conditions of vaccination. PMID:2554623

  5. Bursal synovial chondromatosis formation following osteochondroma resection.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Ching; Goldsmith, Jeffrey D; Gebhardt, Mark G; Wu, Jim S

    2014-07-01

    Osteochondroma is a common tumor of the bone and can be complicated by adventitial bursa formation and malignant transformation of the cartilaginous cap. Synovial chondromatosis formation within these bursae is extremely rare and can be confused with malignant transformation of the osteochondroma cap to a chondrosarcoma. We describe a case of extra-articular synovial chondromatosis formation several years following osteochondroma resection. Cartilage nodule formation within the bursal synovial lining and proliferation of cartilage debris shed from the cartilaginous cap during surgery or biopsy are potential etiologies of this rare complication of osteochondromas. PMID:24453028

  6. A literature review on the patients with autoimmune diseases following vaccination against infections

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yan; Meng, Fan-Ya; Pan, Hai-Feng; Ye, Dong-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Due to immune abnormalities and the use of steroids and immunosuppressant treatment, patients with rheumatic diseases are susceptible to infections. Vaccination is one of the most important prevention tools in modern medicine. A discussion on risk-benefit or cost-benefit analysis, and advisory on individual vaccines or vaccination programs falls outside the scope of this review. In particularly, this review summarizes the knowledge about the effectiveness and safety vaccinations in patients with autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases (AIIRD) treated with biologics. Finally, we aim to provide vaccination plans basis for clinical management of rheumatic patients depending upon prevaccination antibody titers, drug treatments and immunological potential. PMID:25875802

  7. Intentions to receive a potentially available Lyme disease vaccine in an urban sample

    PubMed Central

    Fogel, Joshua; Kusz, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The only human Lyme disease vaccine of LYMErix was voluntarily removed from the market in the United States in 2002 for a number of reasons. A new human Lyme disease vaccine is currently being developed. We would like any future approved human Lyme disease vaccine to be of interest and marketable to consumers. Methods: We surveyed 714 participants to determine variables associated with intentions to receive a Lyme disease vaccine. Predictor variables included demographics, protection motivational theory, Lyme disease knowledge, Lyme disease preventive behaviors, beliefs and perceived health. Results: We found in multivariate linear regression analyses that Asian/Asian American race/ethnicity (p < 0.001), South Asian race/ethnicity (p = 0.01) and coping appraisal variables of response efficacy (p < 0.001) and self-efficacy (p < 0.001) were each significantly associated with increased intentions. The belief that vaccines are typically not safe was significantly associated with decreased intentions (p = 0.03). Conclusions: Asian/Asian American and South Asian race/ethnicities have a strong interest in receiving a Lyme disease vaccine. Although pharmaceutical companies may benefit by advertising a Lyme disease vaccine to Asian/Asian Americans and South Asians, marketers need to address and use approaches to interest those from other race/ethnicities. Also, marketers need to address the erroneous belief that vaccines are typically not safe in order to interest those with such beliefs to use a Lyme disease vaccine. PMID:27551427

  8. The Discovery and Development of a Novel Vaccine to Protect against Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup B Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zlotnick, Gary W; Jones, Thomas R; Liberator, Paul; Hao, Li; Harris, Shannon; McNeil, Lisa K; Zhu, Duzhang; Perez, John; Eiden, Joseph; Jansen, Kathrin U; Anderson, Annaliesa S

    2014-01-01

    Vaccines have had a major impact on the reduction of many diseases globally. Vaccines targeted against invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) due to serogroups A, C, W, and Y are used to prevent these diseases. Until recently no vaccine had been identified that could confer broad protection against Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B (MnB). MnB causes IMD in the very young, adolescents and young adults and thus represents a significant unmet medical need. In this brief review, we describe the discovery and development of a vaccine that has the potential for broad protection against this devastating disease. PMID:25483509

  9. Archaeosomes display immunoadjuvant potential for a vaccine against Chagas disease

    PubMed Central

    Higa, Leticia H.; Corral, Ricardo S.; Morilla, María José; Romero, Eder L.; Petray, Patricia B.

    2013-01-01

    Archaeosomes (ARC), vesicles made from lipids extracted from Archaea, display strong adjuvant properties. In this study, we evaluated the ability of the highly stable ARC formulated from total polar lipids of a new Halorubrum tebenquichense strain found in Argentinean Patagonia, to act as adjuvant for soluble parasite antigens in developing prophylactic vaccine against the intracellular protozoan T. cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease. We demonstrated for the first time that C3H/HeN mice subcutaneously immunized with trypanosomal antigens entrapped in these ARC (ARC-TcAg) rapidly developed higher levels of circulating T. cruzi antibodies than those measured in the sera from animals receiving the antigen alone. Enhanced humoral responses elicited by ARC-TcAg presented a dominant IgG2a antibody isotype, usually associated with Th1-type immunity and resistance against T. cruzi. More importantly, ARC-TcAg-vaccinated mice displayed reduced parasitemia during early infection and were protected against an otherwise lethal challenge with the virulent Tulahuén strain of the parasite. Our findings suggest that, as an adjuvant, H. tebenquichense-derived ARC may hold great potential to develop a safe and helpful vaccine against this relevant human pathogen. PMID:23291939

  10. Archaeosomes display immunoadjuvant potential for a vaccine against Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    Higa, Leticia H; Corral, Ricardo S; Morilla, María José; Romero, Eder L; Petray, Patricia B

    2013-02-01

    Archaeosomes (ARC), vesicles made from lipids extracted from Archaea, display strong adjuvant properties. In this study, we evaluated the ability of the highly stable ARC formulated from total polar lipids of a new Halorubrum tebenquichense strain found in Argentinean Patagonia, to act as adjuvant for soluble parasite antigens in developing prophylactic vaccine against the intracellular protozoan T. cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease. We demonstrated for the first time that C3H/HeN mice subcutaneously immunized with trypanosomal antigens entrapped in these ARC (ARC-TcAg) rapidly developed higher levels of circulating T. cruzi antibodies than those measured in the sera from animals receiving the antigen alone. Enhanced humoral responses elicited by ARC-TcAg presented a dominant IgG2a antibody isotype, usually associated with Th1-type immunity and resistance against T. cruzi. More importantly, ARC-TcAg-vaccinated mice displayed reduced parasitemia during early infection and were protected against an otherwise lethal challenge with the virulent Tulahuén strain of the parasite. Our findings suggest that, as an adjuvant, H. tebenquichense-derived ARC may hold great potential to develop a safe and helpful vaccine against this relevant human pathogen. PMID:23291939

  11. A New Wave of Vaccines for Non-Communicable Diseases: What Are the Regulatory Challenges?

    PubMed

    Darrow, Jonathan J; Kesselheim, Aaron S

    2015-01-01

    Vaccines represent one of the greatest achievements of medicine, dramatically reducing the incidence of serious or life-threatening infectious diseases and allowing people to live longer, healthier lives. As life expectancy has increased, however, the burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as cancer, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and diabetes has increased. This shifting burden of disease has heightened the already urgent need for therapies that treat or prevent NCDs, a need that is now being met with increased efforts to develop NCD vaccines. Like traditional vaccines, NCD vaccines work by modulating the human immune system, but target cells, proteins or other molecules that are associated with the NCD in question rather than pathogens or pathogen-infected cells. Efforts are underway to develop NCD vaccines to address not only cancer and hypertension, but also addiction, obesity, asthma, arthritis, psoriasis, multiple sclerosis, and Crohn's disease, among others. NCD vaccines present an interesting challenge for the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), which is tasked with approving new treatments on the basis of efficacy and safety. Should NCD vaccines be evaluated under the same analytic frame as traditional vaccines, or that of biologic drugs? Despite the borrowed nomenclature, NCD vaccines differ in important ways from infectious disease vaccines. Because infectious disease vaccines are generally administered to healthy individuals, often children, tolerance for adverse events is low and willingness to pay is limited. It is important to have infectious disease vaccines even for rare or eradicated disease (e.g., smallpox), in the event of an outbreak. The efficacy of infectious disease vaccines is generally high, and the vaccines convey population level benefits associated with herd immunity and potential eradication. The combination of substantial population-level benefits, low willingness to pay, and low tolerance for adverse events explains the

  12. Immunogenicity and mechanisms impairing the response to vaccines in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Marín, Alicia C; Gisbert, Javier P; Chaparro, María

    2015-10-28

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an immunological disorder that is usually treated with immunosuppressive therapy, potentially leading to increases in vulnerability to infections. Although many infections can be prevented by vaccination, vaccination coverage in these patients in clinical practice is insufficient. Therefore, the seroprotection condition should be verified, even for routine vaccines, such as hepatitis B or pneumococcus. Response to vaccines in IBD patients is thought to be impaired due to the immunological alterations generated by the disease and to the immunomodulatory treatments. The immunogenicity of hepatitis B, influenza, and pneumococcal vaccines is impaired in IBD patients, whereas the response to papillomavirus vaccine seems similar to that observed in the healthy population. On the other hand, data on the immunogenicity of tetanus vaccine in IBD patients are conflicting. Studies assessing the response to measles-mumps-rubella, varicella, and herpes zoster vaccines in IBD patients are scarce. The cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the impairment of the response to vaccination in IBD patients are poorly understood. Studies aiming to assess the response to vaccines in IBD patients and to identify the mechanisms involved in their immunogenicity are warranted. A better understanding of the immune response, specifically to vaccines, in patients with immune-mediated diseases (such as IBD), is crucial when developing vaccines that trigger more potent immunologic responses. PMID:26527572

  13. Immunogenicity and mechanisms impairing the response to vaccines in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Marín, Alicia C; Gisbert, Javier P; Chaparro, María

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an immunological disorder that is usually treated with immunosuppressive therapy, potentially leading to increases in vulnerability to infections. Although many infections can be prevented by vaccination, vaccination coverage in these patients in clinical practice is insufficient. Therefore, the seroprotection condition should be verified, even for routine vaccines, such as hepatitis B or pneumococcus. Response to vaccines in IBD patients is thought to be impaired due to the immunological alterations generated by the disease and to the immunomodulatory treatments. The immunogenicity of hepatitis B, influenza, and pneumococcal vaccines is impaired in IBD patients, whereas the response to papillomavirus vaccine seems similar to that observed in the healthy population. On the other hand, data on the immunogenicity of tetanus vaccine in IBD patients are conflicting. Studies assessing the response to measles-mumps-rubella, varicella, and herpes zoster vaccines in IBD patients are scarce. The cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the impairment of the response to vaccination in IBD patients are poorly understood. Studies aiming to assess the response to vaccines in IBD patients and to identify the mechanisms involved in their immunogenicity are warranted. A better understanding of the immune response, specifically to vaccines, in patients with immune-mediated diseases (such as IBD), is crucial when developing vaccines that trigger more potent immunologic responses. PMID:26527572

  14. Pathogenesis of Primary Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Infection in the Nasopharynx of Vaccinated and Non-Vaccinated Cattle.

    PubMed

    Stenfeldt, Carolina; Eschbaumer, Michael; Pacheco, Juan M; Rekant, Steven I; Rodriguez, Luis L; Arzt, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    A time-course pathogenesis study was performed to compare and contrast primary foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection following simulated-natural (intra-nasopharyngeal) virus exposure of cattle that were non-vaccinated or vaccinated using a recombinant adenovirus-vectored FMDV vaccine. FMDV genome and infectious virus were detected during the initial phase of infection in both categories of animals with consistent predilection for the nasopharyngeal mucosa. A rapid progression of infection with viremia and widespread dissemination of virus occurred in non-vaccinated animals whilst vaccinated cattle were protected from viremia and clinical FMD. Analysis of micro-anatomic distribution of virus during early infection by lasercapture microdissection localized FMDV RNA to follicle-associated epithelium of the nasopharyngeal mucosa in both groups of animals, with concurrent detection of viral genome in nasopharyngeal MALT follicles in vaccinated cattle only. FMDV structural and non-structural proteins were detected in epithelial cells of the nasopharyngeal mucosa by immunomicroscopy 24 hours after inoculation in both non-vaccinated and vaccinated steers. Co-localization of CD11c+/MHC II+ cells with viral protein occurred early at primary infection sites in vaccinated steers while similar host-virus interactions were observed at later time points in non-vaccinated steers. Additionally, numerous CD8+/CD3- host cells, representing presumptive natural killer cells, were observed in association with foci of primary FMDV infection in the nasopharyngeal mucosa of vaccinated steers but were absent in non-vaccinated steers. Immunomicroscopic evidence of an activated antiviral response at primary infection sites of vaccinated cattle was corroborated by a relative induction of interferon -α, -β, -γ and -λ mRNA in micro-dissected samples of nasopharyngeal mucosa. Although vaccination protected cattle from viremia and clinical FMD, there was subclinical infection of

  15. Pathogenesis of Primary Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Infection in the Nasopharynx of Vaccinated and Non-Vaccinated Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Stenfeldt, Carolina; Eschbaumer, Michael; Pacheco, Juan M.; Rekant, Steven I.; Rodriguez, Luis L.; Arzt, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    A time-course pathogenesis study was performed to compare and contrast primary foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection following simulated-natural (intra-nasopharyngeal) virus exposure of cattle that were non-vaccinated or vaccinated using a recombinant adenovirus-vectored FMDV vaccine. FMDV genome and infectious virus were detected during the initial phase of infection in both categories of animals with consistent predilection for the nasopharyngeal mucosa. A rapid progression of infection with viremia and widespread dissemination of virus occurred in non-vaccinated animals whilst vaccinated cattle were protected from viremia and clinical FMD. Analysis of micro-anatomic distribution of virus during early infection by lasercapture microdissection localized FMDV RNA to follicle-associated epithelium of the nasopharyngeal mucosa in both groups of animals, with concurrent detection of viral genome in nasopharyngeal MALT follicles in vaccinated cattle only. FMDV structural and non-structural proteins were detected in epithelial cells of the nasopharyngeal mucosa by immunomicroscopy 24 hours after inoculation in both non-vaccinated and vaccinated steers. Co-localization of CD11c+/MHC II+ cells with viral protein occurred early at primary infection sites in vaccinated steers while similar host-virus interactions were observed at later time points in non-vaccinated steers. Additionally, numerous CD8+/CD3- host cells, representing presumptive natural killer cells, were observed in association with foci of primary FMDV infection in the nasopharyngeal mucosa of vaccinated steers but were absent in non-vaccinated steers. Immunomicroscopic evidence of an activated antiviral response at primary infection sites of vaccinated cattle was corroborated by a relative induction of interferon -α, -β, -γ and -λ mRNA in micro-dissected samples of nasopharyngeal mucosa. Although vaccination protected cattle from viremia and clinical FMD, there was subclinical infection of

  16. Vaccine-preventable disease and immunization in the developing world.

    PubMed

    Bart, K J; Lin, K F

    1990-06-01

    Vaccines have given health care providers control over a substantial portion of the morbidity and mortality in the developing world. Global efforts have immunized two-thirds of the world's children with DTP and polio vaccines; 72% have received BCG and 59% measles vaccine; but only 29% of pregnant women have received two doses of tetanus toxoid. In addition, vaccines against yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, hepatitis B, rubella, and mumps and meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine are being used in specific regions of the world. New vaccine candidates will enhance the vaccine armamentarium over the next decade to include the causes of pneumonia, diarrhea, and meningitis: Haemophilus influenzae type b, pneumococcal and meningococcal protein conjugate vaccines, typhoid and rotavirus vaccine. Genetically engineered vaccine vehicles, genetic reassortants, and genetic deletions are being investigated as new vaccine candidates. PMID:2190145

  17. A game dynamic model for delayer strategies in vaccinating behaviour for pediatric infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Samit; Bauch, C T

    2010-12-01

    Several studies have found that some parents delay the age at which their children receive pediatric vaccines due to perception of higher vaccine risk at the recommended age of vaccination. This has been particularly apparently during the Measles-Mumps-Rubella scare in the United Kingdom. Under a voluntary vaccination policy, vaccine coverage in certain age groups is a potentially complex interplay between vaccinating behaviour, disease dynamics, and age-specific risk factors. Here, we construct an age-structured game dynamic model, where individuals decide whether to vaccinate according to imitation dynamics depending on age-dependent disease prevalence and perceived risk of vaccination. Individuals may be timely vaccinators, delayers, or non-vaccinators. The model exhibits multiple equilibria and a broad range of possible dynamics. For certain parameter regimes, the proportion of timely vaccinators and delayers oscillate in an anti-phase fashion in response to oscillations in infection prevalence. Under an exogenous change to the perceived risk of vaccination as might occur during a vaccine scare, the model can also capture an increase in delayer strategists similar in magnitude to that observed during the Measles-Mumps-Rubella vaccine scare in the United Kingdom. Our model also shows that number of delayers steadily increases with increasing severity of the scare, whereas it saturates to specific value with increases in duration of the scare. Finally, by comparing the model dynamics with and without the option of a delayer strategy, we show that adding a third delayer strategy can have a stabilizing effect on model dynamics. In an era where individual choice--rather than accessibility--is becoming an increasingly important determinant of vaccine uptake, more infectious disease models may need to use game theory or related techniques to determine vaccine uptake. PMID:20831873

  18. Meningococcal vaccine: a new vaccine to combat meningococcal disease in India.

    PubMed

    Verma, Ramesh; Khanna, Pardeep

    2012-12-01

    Meningococcal meningitis is caused by Neisseria meningitidis, a gram-negative, aerobic, encapsulated diplococcus. Meningococci are divided into numerous serogroups based on the composition of their capsular polysaccharide (Ps) antigens. At least 13 serogroups have been described: A, B, C, D, 29E, H, I, K, L, W-135, X, Y and Z. Out of these 13, six (A, B, C, W135, X and Y) can cause epidemics. The incubation period averages 3-4 d (range 1-10 d), which is the period of communicability. Bacteria can be found for 2-4 d in the nose and pharynx, and for up to 24 h after starting antibiotics. N. meningitidis is a leading cause of meningitis worldwide and a significant public health problem and dreaded disease in most countries. Morbidity and mortality rates from the disease remain high. Apart from epidemics, at least 1.2 million cases of bacterial meningitis are estimated to occur every year, 135,000 of which are fatal--of these, ~500,000 and ~50,000 respectively are caused by meningococci. Many outbreaks of meningococcal meningitis have been documented, with major outbreaks mainly seen in large cities of northern, western and eastern India like New Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata and northeastern states. In 2011, 245 people died in India, the vast majority (179) in West Bengal, while 467 and 341 people in 2009 and 2010 respectively died of this disease. The meningococcal conjugate vaccines (MCV) are preferred for reasons of immunogenicity and persistence of immunity but are unavailable in India. Only the quadrivalent and bivalent meningococcal Ps vaccines (MPV) are available in India. The quadrivalent MPV is preferred for Haj pilgrims, international travelers and students in that it provides protection against emerging W-135 and Y disease in these areas. A single-dose 0.5mL injection is recommended. PMID:22906940

  19. Human adenovirus-vectored foot-and-mouth disease vaccines: establishment of a vaccine product profile through in vitro testing.

    PubMed

    Brake, D A; McIlhaney, M; Miller, T; Christianson, K; Keene, A; Lohnas, G; Purcell, C; Neilan, J; Schutta, C; Barrera, J; Burrage, T; Brough, D E; Butman, B T

    2012-01-01

    Next generation, foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) molecular vaccines based on replication deficient human adenovirus serotype 5 viral vectored delivery of FMD capsid genes (AdFMD) are being developed by the United States Dept. of Homeland Security and industry partners. The strategic goal of this program is to develop AdFMD licensed vaccines for the USA National Veterinary Stockpile for use, if needed, as emergency response tools during an FMD outbreak. This vaccine platform provides a unique opportunity to develop a set of in vitro analytical parameters to generate an AdFMD vaccine product profile to replace the current lot release test for traditional, inactivated FMD vaccines that requires FMDV challenge in livestock. The possibility of an indirect FMD vaccine potency test based on a serological alternative was initially investigated for a lead vaccine candidate, Adt.A24. Results show that serum virus neutralization (SVN) based serology testing for Adt.A24 vaccine lot release is not feasible, at least not in the context of vaccine potency assessment at one week post-vaccination. Thus, an in vitro infectious titer assay (tissue culture infectious dose 50, TCID50) which measures FMD infectious (protein expression) titer was established. Pre-validation results show acceptable assay variability and linearity and these data support further studies to validate the TCID50 assay as a potential potency release test. In addition, a quantitative physiochemical assay (HPLC) and three immunochemical assays (Fluorescent Focus-Forming Unit (FFU); tissue culture expression dose 50 (TCED50); Western blot) were developed for potential use as in vitro assays to monitor AdFMD vaccine lot-to-lot consistency and other potential applications. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using a traditional modified-live vaccine virus infectivity assay in combination with a set of physiochemical and immunochemical tests to build a vaccine product profile that will ensure the each Ad

  20. Newcastle disease oil emulsion vaccines prepared with animal, vegetable, and synthetic oils.

    PubMed

    Stone, H D

    1997-01-01

    Animal, vegetable, and synthetic oils were tested as potential replacements for mineral oil in Newcastle disease oil emulsion vaccines. Emulsifying surfactants of seed oil origin comprised 10% of the the oil phase that was used to prepare water-in-oil emulsion vaccines that contained a final concentration of 20% aqueous antigen. The hemagglutination inhibition responses of chickens inoculated with 46 of the newly formulated oil vaccines were, in most cases, not significantly different from those of control chickens inoculated with mineral oil vaccine. Tissue reactions associated with animal, vegetable, and synthetic oil vaccines were less severe than those associated with mineral oil vaccines. Viscosity of the mineral oil formulations ranged from 1/2 to 3 1/2 times that of the mineral oil control vaccines. These findings indicate that any of several oils may be more suitable than mineral oil for preparation of immune adjuvants for poultry vaccines. PMID:9356704

  1. Emergency vaccination use in a modelled foot and mouth disease outbreak in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Miller, G; Gale, S B; Eshelman, C E; Wells, S J

    2015-12-01

    Epidemiological modelling is an important approach used by the Veterinary Services of the United States Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service to evaluate the potential effectiveness of different strategies for handling foot and mouth disease (FMD). Identifying the potential spread of FMD by modelling an outbreak, and then considering the impacts of FMD vaccination, is important in helping to inform decision-makers about the potential outcomes of vaccination programmes. The objective of this study was to evaluate emergency vaccination control strategies used in a simulated FMD outbreak in Minnesota. The North American Animal Disease Spread Model (NAADSM, Version 3.2.18) was used to simulate the outbreak. Large-scale (1,500 herds per day) emergency vaccination reduced the size of the modelled outbreak in both swine and dairy production types, but the effect was larger when the outbreak began in a dairy herd. Large-scale vaccination also overcame limitations caused by delays in vaccine delivery. Thus, even if vaccination did not begin until 21 days into the outbreak, large-scale vaccination still reduced the size and duration of the outbreak. The quantity of vaccine used was markedly larger when large-scale vaccination was used, compared with small-scale (50 herds per day) vaccine administration. In addition, the number of animals and herds vaccinated in an outbreak originating in a herd of swine was substantially lower than in an outbreak beginning in a herd of dairy cattle. PMID:27044148

  2. Efficacy of combined killed-in-oil emulsion and live Newcastle disease vaccines in chickens.

    PubMed

    Folitse, R; Halvorson, D A; Sivanandan, V

    1998-01-01

    Following the introduction of routine vaccination regimes with different types of Newcastle disease (ND) vaccines, the incidence of velogenic viscerotropic Newcastle disease (VVND) in commercial poultry worldwide has declined dramatically. Unfortunately, these vaccination regimes are not feasible in free-range and backyard systems of poultry production practiced in many developing countries. In this study, we sought to develop a single vaccination regime in chickens with ND vaccines to elicit a long-lasting high level of ND virus (NDV) antibodies adequate to protect chickens against ND. The level of antibody response, as measured by the hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) test, and the degree of protection against the virulent strain of NDV were studied in chickens immunized with different vaccines. The vaccines used were: killed-in-oil emulsion (subcutaneous; s.c.) plus live virus (oculanasal; o.n.), given concurrently; experimental vaccine (s.c.) plus live virus (o.n.), given concurrently; killed-in-oil (s.c.); experimental vaccine prepared by homogenizing commercial live vaccine and oil emulsion (s.c.); and live virus (o.n.). The results obtained in this study indicate that concurrent administration of oil emulsion and live NDV vaccines induced the best antibody response, but there was no significant difference in protection among the vaccinated groups. PMID:9533096

  3. Advanced Nanobiomaterials: Vaccines, Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Torres-Sangiao, Eva; Holban, Alina Maria; Gestal, Monica Cartelle

    2016-01-01

    The use of nanoparticles has contributed to many advances due to their important properties such as, size, shape or biocompatibility. The use of nanotechnology in medicine has great potential, especially in medical microbiology. Promising data show the possibility of shaping immune responses and fighting severe infections using synthetic materials. Different studies have suggested that the addition of synthetic nanoparticles in vaccines and immunotherapy will have a great impact on public health. On the other hand, antibiotic resistance is one of the major concerns worldwide; a recent report of the World Health Organization (WHO) states that antibiotic resistance could cause 300 million deaths by 2050. Nanomedicine offers an innovative tool for combating the high rates of resistance that we are fighting nowadays, by the development of both alternative therapeutic and prophylaxis approaches and also novel diagnosis methods. Early detection of infectious diseases is the key to a successful treatment and the new developed applications based on nanotechnology offer an increased sensibility and efficiency of the diagnosis. The aim of this review is to reveal and discuss the main advances made on the science of nanomaterials for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases. Highlighting innovative approaches utilized to: (i) increasing the efficiency of vaccines; (ii) obtaining shuttle systems that require lower antibiotic concentrations; (iii) developing coating devices that inhibit microbial colonization and biofilm formation. PMID:27376260

  4. Successful vaccination for Lyme disease: a novel mechanism?

    PubMed

    Exner, M

    2001-09-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato is the aetiologic agent of Lyme disease, which is a multi-system disorder resulting from the transmission of organisms from an infected tick. According to the US Centers for Disease Control, the incidence of Lyme disease in the US has increased 25-fold since national surveillance began and the geographical spread of Lyme disease causing spirochetes would indicate that the annual number of cases will continue to rise. Humoral immunity has been shown to play a role in protection and this has spurred efforts towards developing a Lyme disease vaccine. A number of protective immunogens have been characterised to date, but due to the heterogeneity of Lyme disease Borreliae, no single molecule has proven to be completely effective as a vaccinogen. This review will describe the immunogens that have been used to protect against B. burgdorferi infection, with a focus on the inherent challenges involved with providing successful immunity to B. burgdorferi. In addition, the promising aspects and the limitations of each protective immunogen will be discussed. PMID:11728214

  5. Global practices of meningococcal vaccine use and impact on invasive disease

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Asad; Jafri, Rabab Zehra; Messonnier, Nancy; Tevi-Benissan, Carol; Durrheim, David; Eskola, Juhani; Fermon, Florence; Klugman, Keith P; Ramsay, Mary; Sow, Samba; Zhujun, Shao; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Abramson, Jon

    2014-01-01

    A number of countries now include meningococcal vaccines in their routine immunization programs. This review focuses on different approaches to including meningococcal vaccines in country programs across the world and their effect on the burden of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) as reflected by pre and post-vaccine incidence rates in the last 20 years. Mass campaigns using conjugated meningococcal vaccines have lead to control of serogroup C meningococcal disease in the UK, Canada, Australia, Spain, Belgium, Ireland, and Iceland. Serogroup B disease, predominant in New Zealand, has been dramatically decreased, partly due to the introduction of an outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccine. Polysaccharide vaccines were used in high risk people in Saudi Arabia and Syria and in routine immunization in China and Egypt. The highest incidence region of the meningitis belt initiated vaccination with the serogroup A conjugate vaccine in 2010 and catch-up vaccination is ongoing. Overall results of this vaccine introduction are encouraging especially in countries with a moderate to high level of endemic disease. Continued surveillance is required to monitor effectiveness in countries that recently implemented these programs. PMID:24548156

  6. A novel thermostable Newcastle disease virus vaccine vector for expression of a heterologous gene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The thermostable Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccines have been used widely to control Newcastle disease for village flocks, especially in the developing countries. To explore the potential use of the thermostable NDV as a vaccine vector, a reverse genetic system for the thermostable avirulent NDV...

  7. Improved Newcastle disease vaccine approaches using virus strains selected on antigenic composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Virulent Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) from the 1971 to 2002 U.S. outbreaks, are the same serotype but a different genotype than current vaccine strains. It is widely recognized that an efficacious Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine made with any NDV does induce protection against morbidity and morta...

  8. Evaluation of novel oral vaccine candidates and validation of a caprine model of Johne's disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) vaccine that reduced the incidence of clinical disease and/or reduced fecal shedding of MAP would aid control of Johne’s disease (JD). The objectives of this study were 1) to evaluate the efficacy of 5 attenuated strains of MAP as vaccine candi...

  9. CURRENT STATUS OF RECOMBINANT MAREK'S DISEASE VACCINES FOR CONTROL OF FUTURE OUTBREAKS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More than 4 decades of vaccination has resulted in good control of Marek’s disease (MD). Although vaccination has dramatically reduced the incidence of the disease, more virulent viruses are emerging and the development of new control strategies is needed. Recently, the student of MD virus (MDV) g...

  10. Development of a novel thermostable Newcastle disease virus vaccine vector for expression of a heterologous gene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The thermostable Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccines have been used widely to control Newcastle disease (ND) for village flocks, due to their independence of cold chains for delivery and storage. To explore the potential use of the thermostable NDV as a vaccine vector, an infectious clone of the...

  11. Development of an improved vaccine evaluation protocol to compare the efficacy of Newcastle disease vaccines.

    PubMed

    Cardenas-Garcia, Stivalis; Diel, Diego G; Susta, Leonardo; Lucio-Decanini, Eduardo; Yu, Qingzhong; Brown, Corrie C; Miller, Patti J; Afonso, Claudio L

    2015-03-01

    While there is typically 100% survivability in birds challenged with vNDV under experimental conditions, either with vaccines formulated with a strain homologous or heterologous (different genotype) to the challenge virus, vaccine deficiencies are often noted in the field. We have developed an improved and more stringent protocol to experimentally evaluate live NDV vaccines, and showed for the first time under experimental conditions that a statistically significant reduction in mortality can be detected with genotype matched vaccines. Using both vaccine evaluation protocols (traditional and improved), birds were challenged with a vNDV of genotype XIII and the efficacy of live heterologous (genotype II) and homologous (genotype XIII) NDV vaccines was compared. Under traditional vaccination conditions there were no differences in survival upon challenge, but the homologous vaccine induced significantly higher levels of antibodies specific to the challenge virus. With the more stringent challenge system (multiple vaccine doses and early challenge with high titers of vNDV), the birds administered the homologous vaccine had superior humoral responses, reduced clinical signs, and reduced mortality levels than those vaccinated with the heterologous vaccine. These results provide basis for the implementation of more sensitive methods to evaluate vaccine efficacy. PMID:25511007

  12. Effects of Chicken Interferon Gamma on Newcastle Disease Virus Vaccine Immunogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Cardenas-Garcia, Stivalis; Dunwoody, Robert P.; Marcano, Valerie; Diel, Diego G.; Williams, Robert J.; Gogal, Robert M.; Brown, Corrie C.; Miller, Patti J.; Afonso, Claudio L.

    2016-01-01

    More effective vaccines are needed to control avian diseases. The use of chicken interferon gamma (chIFNγ) during vaccination is a potentially important but controversial approach that may improve the immune response to antigens. In the present study, three different systems to co-deliver chIFNγ with Newcastle disease virus (NDV) antigens were evaluated for their ability to enhance the avian immune response and their protective capacity upon challenge with virulent NDV. These systems consisted of: 1) a DNA vaccine expressing the Newcastle disease virus fusion (F) protein co-administered with a vector expressing the chIFNγ gene for in ovo and booster vaccination, 2) a recombinant Newcastle disease virus expressing the chIFNγ gene (rZJ1*L/IFNγ) used as a live vaccine delivered in ovo and into juvenile chickens, and 3) the same rZJ1*L/IFNγ virus used as an inactivated vaccine for juvenile chickens. Co-administration of chIFNγ with a DNA vaccine expressing the F protein resulted in higher levels of morbidity and mortality, and higher amounts of virulent virus shed after challenge when compared to the group that did not receive chIFNγ. The live vaccine system co-delivering chIFNγ did not enhanced post-vaccination antibody response, nor improved survival after hatch, when administered in ovo, and did not affect survival after challenge when administered to juvenile chickens. The low dose of the inactivated vaccine co-delivering active chIFNγ induced lower antibody titers than the groups that did not receive the cytokine. The high dose of this vaccine did not increase the antibody titers or antigen-specific memory response, and did not reduce the amount of challenge virus shed or mortality after challenge. In summary, regardless of the delivery system, chIFNγ, when administered simultaneously with the vaccine antigen, did not enhance Newcastle disease virus vaccine immunogenicity. PMID:27409587

  13. Vaccination: Is it Effective in Preventing Respiratory Disease or Influencing Weight Gains in Feedlot Calves?

    PubMed Central

    Martin, S. W.

    1983-01-01

    Respiratory disease, both undifferentiated and etiologically defined, remains a major problem in feedlot cattle. Vaccination has been used in an attempt to reduce the frequency and/or severity of respiratory disease in the first few weeks after the cattle arrive at the feedlot. The efficacy of vaccination has been studied both in controlled laboratory experiments and field trials as well as observational studies. (In this review, efficacy refers to the ability to reduce overall treatment rate and/or increase weight gains.) This review summarizes the data resulting from studies of vaccine efficacy. In general, there is little published data to support the use of vaccines against respiratory disease under feedlot conditions. Treatment rates and weight gains usually did not differ between vaccinated and nonvaccinated groups. The use of live bovine virus diarrhea virus vaccines was associated with a significant subsequent increase in treatment rates. Criteria to be considered in future field trials are described. PMID:17422213

  14. Meningococcal serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine: a new conjugate vaccine against invasive meningococcal disease

    PubMed Central

    Hedari, Carine P; Khinkarly, Rima W; Dbaibo, Ghassan S

    2014-01-01

    Invasive meningococcal disease is a serious infection that occurs worldwide. It is caused by Neisseria meningitidis, of which six serogroups (A, B, C, W-135, X, and Y) are responsible for most infections. The case fatality rate of meningococcal disease remains high and can lead to significant sequelae. Vaccination remains the best strategy to prevent meningococcal disease. Polysaccharide vaccines were initially introduced in the late 1960s but their limitations (poor immunogenicity in infants and toddlers and hyporesponsiveness after repeated doses) have led to the development and use of meningococcal conjugate vaccines, which overcome these limitations. Two quadrivalent conjugated meningococcal vaccines – MenACWY-DT (Menactra®) and MenACWY-CRM197 (Menveo®) – using diphtheria toxoid or a mutant protein, respectively, as carrier proteins have already been licensed in the US. Recently, a quadrivalent meningococcal vaccine conjugated to tetanus toxoid (MenACWY-TT; Nimenrix®) was approved for use in Europe in 2012. The immunogenicity of MenACWY-TT, its reactogenicity and safety profile, as well as its coadministration with other vaccines are discussed in this review. Clinical trials showed that MenACWY-TT was immunogenic in children above the age of 12 months, adolescents, and adults, and has an acceptable reactogenicity and safety profile. Its coadministration with several other vaccines that are commonly used in children, adolescents, and adults did not affect the immunogenicity of MenACWY-TT or the coadministered vaccine, nor did it affect its reactogenicity and safety. Other studies are now ongoing in order to determine the immunogenicity, reactogenicity, and safety of MenACWY-TT in infants from the age of 6 weeks. PMID:24729718

  15. Vaccines

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Vaccinations are injections of antigens into the body. Once the antigens enter the blood, they circulate along ... suppressor T cells stop the attack. After a vaccination, the body will have a memory of an ...

  16. History of Meningococcal Outbreaks in the United States: Implications for Vaccination and Disease Prevention.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Bruce; Gandhi, Ashesh; Balmer, Paul

    2016-08-01

    Invasive meningococcal disease caused by Neisseria meningitidis presents a significant public health concern. Meningococcal disease is rare but potentially fatal within 24 hours of onset of illness, and survivors may experience permanent sequelae. This review presents the epidemiology, incidence, and outbreak data for invasive meningococcal disease in the United States since 1970, and it highlights recent changes in vaccine recommendations to prevent meningococcal disease. Relevant publications were obtained by database searches for articles published between January 1970 and July 2015. The incidence of meningococcal disease has decreased in the United States since 1970, but serogroup B meningococcal disease is responsible for an increasing proportion of disease burden in young adults. Recent serogroup B outbreaks on college campuses warrant broader age-based recommendations for meningococcal group B vaccines, similar to the currently recommended quadrivalent vaccine that protects against serogroups A, C, W, and Y. After the recent approval of two serogroup B vaccines, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices first updated its recommendations for routine meningococcal vaccination to cover at-risk populations, including those at risk during serogroup B outbreaks, and later it issued a recommendation for those aged 16-23 years. Meningococcal disease outbreaks remain challenging to predict, making the optimal disease management strategy one of prevention through vaccination rather than containment. How the epidemiology of serogroup B disease and prevention of outbreaks will be affected by the new category B recommendation for serogroup B vaccines remains to be seen. PMID:27332671

  17. Pentavalent Rotavirus Vaccine in Infants With Surgical Gastrointestinal Disease

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, Eric J.; Thomas, Ron; Duggan, Christopher; Asmar, Basim I.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5) has been shown to be well-tolerated and efficacious in preventing rotavirus gastroenteritis in healthy infants. Safety and immunogenicity of RV5 in infants with surgical gastrointestinal disease have not been studied. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of RV5 in infants with a history of congenital or acquired intestinal disease requiring resection compared with healthy infants. Methods Infants with intestinal resection were matched by gestational age and chronological age to healthy infants (controls). Dose 1 of RV5 was given at 10 to 12 weeks of chronological age. Doses 2 and 3 were given at intervals of 4 to 10 weeks, with all 3 doses given by 32 weeks. All infants were monitored for adverse events (AEs) by telephone calls, clinic visits, and parental written reports during the first 42 days after each dose and monthly thereafter by telephone for 12 months. Serum anti-rotavirus immunoglobulin A (IgA) titers were measured prevaccination and 2 weeks after dose 3. Results A total of 5 infants with surgical gastrointestinal disease and 3 control subjects were enrolled. All participants (100%) mounted a 3-fold increase in serum anti-rotavirus IgA geometric mean titer postvaccination. RV5 administration to surgical infants was well tolerated with a majority of AEs being attributed to the underlying medical condition. Conclusions Postvaccination serum anti-rotavirus IgA levels indicate that RV5 is immunogenic in infants with a history of bowel resection, despite varying lengths of residual bowel. RV5 was well tolerated with few vaccine-related AEs. PMID:24614127

  18. The impact of epidemics of vaccine-preventable disease on vaccine uptake: lessons from the 2011-2012 US pertussis epidemic.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Elizabeth R; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Opel, Douglas J

    2015-07-01

    Conventional wisdom suggests that if there is a vaccine that is effective in preventing a disease, vaccine uptake will increase when the disease risk is high. Recent evidence, however, suggests that this may not always be the case. In a study we conducted in Washington State, we found no population-level increase in pertussis vaccination of infants during a pertussis epidemic. In this paper, we aim to review what is known about the history of vaccine uptake during epidemics of vaccine-preventable disease, the challenges facing public health campaigns responding to these epidemics, and how the effect of a vaccine-preventable disease epidemic on vaccine uptake can be studied. PMID:25872609

  19. Evaluation of different adjuvants for foot-and-mouth disease vaccine containing all the SAT serotypes.

    PubMed

    Cloete, M; Dungu, B; Van Staden, L I; Ismail-Cassim, N; Vosloo, W

    2008-03-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an economically important disease of cloven-hoofed animals that is primarily controlled by vaccination of susceptible animals and movement restrictions for animals and animal-derived products in South Africa. Vaccination using aluminium hydroxide gel-saponin (AS) adjuvanted vaccines containing the South African Territories (SAT) serotypes has been shown to be effective both in ensuring that disease does not spread from the endemic to the free zone and in controlling outbreaks in the free zone. Various vaccine formulations containing antigens derived from the SAT serotypes were tested in cattle that were challenged 1 year later. Both the AS and ISA 206B vaccines adjuvanted with saponin protected cattle against virulent virus challenge. The oil-based ISA 206B-adjuvanted vaccine with and without stimulators was evaluated in a field trial and both elicited antibody responses that lasted for 1 year. Furthermore, the ISA 206 adjuvanted FMD vaccine protected groups of cattle against homologous virus challenge at very low payloads, while pigs vaccinated with an emergency ISA 206B-based FMD vaccine containing the SAT 1 vaccine strains were protected against the heterologous SAT 1 outbreak strain. PMID:18575060

  20. Novel bivalent vectored vaccine for control of myxomatosis and rabbit haemorrhagic disease.

    PubMed

    Spibey, N; McCabe, V J; Greenwood, N M; Jack, S C; Sutton, D; van der Waart, L

    2012-03-24

    A novel, recombinant myxoma virus-rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) vaccine has been developed for the prevention of myxomatosis and rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD). A number of laboratory studies are described illustrating the safety and efficacy of the vaccine following subcutaneous administration in laboratory rabbits from four weeks of age onwards. In these studies, both vaccinated and unvaccinated control rabbits were challenged using pathogenic strains of RHD and myxoma viruses, and 100 per cent of the vaccinated rabbits were protected against both myxomatosis and RHD. PMID:22266680

  1. Comparison of Newcastle disease vaccine administered as powder or liquid in relation to the serum antibody response and adverse vaccinal reactions in broilers.

    PubMed

    Landman, W J M; Huyge, K; Remon, J P; Vervaet, C; van Eck, J H H

    2015-01-01

    Liquid spray and aerosol mass vaccination of poultry have several drawbacks, such as uncontrolled deposition of vaccine particles in the respiratory tract and vaccine virus inactivation by formation and evaporation of droplets. These may be addressed by using dry powder vaccines with defined particle size distribution targeting the upper (primary vaccination) or the entire respiratory tract (booster vaccination). Therefore, a coarse Newcastle disease (LZ58 strain) powder vaccine was administered to specified pathogen free (SPF) broiler hens to compare the antibody response and adverse vaccinal reactions with those induced by a coarse liquid spray and a fine liquid aerosol. Groups of 40 broilers each housed in isolators were vaccinated at 4 days of age and intratracheally inoculated with Escherichia coli (strain 506) at 11 days of age. Adverse vaccinal reactions were evaluated by measuring body weight gain and mortality between 4 and 11 days of age and between 11 and 18 days of age, and by recording colibacillosis lesions at 18 days of age. The antibody serum response was measured at 18 days of age by the haemagglutination inhibition test. Despite the relative low initial vaccine virus loss and narrow particle size distribution of the powder vaccines in comparison with their liquid counter parts, no significant differences (P > 0.05) regarding adverse vaccinal reactions and antibody response were observed between broilers vaccinated with the powder vaccines or with their liquid counterparts. PMID:25588317

  2. Comparative evaluation of vaccine efficacy of recombinant Marek's disease virus vaccine lacking Meq oncogene in commercial chickens.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lucy F; Kreager, K S; Arango, J; Paraguassu, A; Beckman, B; Zhang, Huanmin; Fadly, Aly; Lupiani, B; Reddy, S M

    2010-02-01

    Marek's disease virus (MDV) oncogene meq has been identified as the gene involved in tumorigenesis in chickens. We have recently developed a Meq-null virus, rMd5 Delta Meq, in which the oncogene meq was deleted. Vaccine efficacy experiments conducted in Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory (ADOL) 15I(5) x 7(1) chickens vaccinated with rMd5 Delta Meq virus or an ADOL preparation of CVI988/Rispens indicated that rMd5 Delta Meq provided superior protection than CVI988/Rispens when challenged with the very virulent plus MDV 648A strain. In the present study we set to investigate the vaccine efficacy of rMd5 Delta Meq in the field compared to several commercial preparations of CVI988/Rispens. Three large-scale field experiments, in which seeder chickens were inoculated with a very virulent plus strain of 686, vv+ MDV, were conducted in a model developed by Hy-Line International. In addition, comparisons were made with bivalent vaccine (HVT+SB-1), HVT alone and several serotype 3 HVT-vectored vaccines individually or in combination with CVI988/Rispens. Experimental results showed that addition of HVT to either of the two commercial CVI988/Rispens preparations tested (A or B) did not enhance protection conferred by CVI988/Rispens alone and that rMd5 Delta Meq was a better or equal vaccine compared to any of the CVI988/Rispens vaccines tested under the conditions of the field trials presented herein. Our results also emphasized the complexity of factors affecting vaccine efficacy and the importance of challenge dose in protection. PMID:19941987

  3. Protective effect of vaccination against Mycoplasma pulmonis respiratory disease in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Cassell, G H; Davis, J K

    1978-01-01

    Intravenous vaccination of rats with either viable or Formalin-inactivated Mycoplasma pulmonis reduced the incidence and severity of lower respiratory tract lesions after intranasal challenge with viable organisms. Intranasal vaccination with killed organisms reduced the severity of rhinitis, but did not affect lesions in any other region of the respiratory tract. The maximum protection against upper tract lesions (rhinitis, otitis, and laryngotracheitis) was provided by intravenous immunization with viable organisms. Dual vaccination (intraperitoneal plus intranasal) with killed organisms provided no significant protection in any segment of the tract. However, these ineffective vaccine regimens did not potentiate the lesions. These results conclusively demonstrate that vaccination of rats against mycoplasma respiratory disease is feasible and also suggest that systemic vaccination may provide greater protection for the lungs than intranasal vaccination, at least when equivalent antigen doses are used. PMID:711323

  4. Efficacy of experimental animal and vegetable oil-emulsion vaccines for Newcastle disease and avian influenza.

    PubMed

    Stone, H D

    1993-01-01

    Acceptable oil-emulsion vaccines were sought to replace mineral oil-emulsion vaccines that, by regulations, require a 42-day minimum holding period for poultry between injection and slaughter for consumption. Water-in-oil emulsions were prepared using animal or vegetable oils in a ratio of 4 parts oil to 1 part Newcastle disease or avian influenza aqueous antigen. Beeswax particles suspended in the oil at the 5% or 10% level (wt:vol) served as the oil-phase surfactant. Hemagglutination-inhibition titers induced by mineral-oil vaccines were not significantly different from those induced by the most efficacious formulations prepared from animal and vegetable oils. Tissue reaction from injection of animal- and vegetable-oil vaccines was less than that induced by mineral-oil vaccines. An inactivated avian influenza vaccine formulated from peanut oil induced protection against morbidity and death when vaccinated chickens were challenged with a virulent isolate of avian influenza virus. PMID:8363505

  5. Aerosol administration of Newcastle disease vaccines at one day of age.

    PubMed

    Kleven, S H; Eidson, C S; Villegas, P

    1976-01-01

    Newcastle disease vaccines were administered at one day of age by 3 general procedures: 1) discharge of a vaccine aerosol over chicks confined in an enclosed space, 2) aerosol adminstration in a poultry house, 3) a commercial device which emits a fine spray into the nasopharynx while the chick is being debeaked. From this work the following conclusions have been drawn: 1) All 3 methods are of some value with respect to the development of antibody titers and resistance to challenge. 2) The efficacy is universely proportional to the maternal antibody titer. 3) Aerosol vaccination into an enclosed air space is superior to the other methods tested. 4) Day-old vaccination is useful primarily in conferring some early resistance until a subsequent aerosol vaccination at 9-14 days of age confers additional protection. Other important factors include strain of vaccine, vaccine titer, the nature of the diluent, and site of the aerolized particles. PMID:955274

  6. New approaches and omics tools for mining of vaccine candidates against vector-borne diseases.

    PubMed

    Kuleš, Josipa; Horvatić, Anita; Guillemin, Nicolas; Galan, Asier; Mrljak, Vladimir; Bhide, Mangesh

    2016-08-16

    Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) present a major threat to human and animal health, as well as place a substantial burden on livestock production. As a way of sustainable VBD control, focus is set on vaccine development. Advances in genomics and other "omics" over the past two decades have given rise to a "third generation" of vaccines based on technologies such as reverse vaccinology, functional genomics, immunomics, structural vaccinology and the systems biology approach. The application of omics approaches is shortening the time required to develop the vaccines and increasing the probability of discovery of potential vaccine candidates. Herein, we review the development of new generation vaccines for VBDs, and discuss technological advancement and overall challenges in the vaccine development pipeline. Special emphasis is placed on the development of anti-tick vaccines that can quell both vectors and pathogens. PMID:27384976

  7. Improved immunogenicity of Newcastle disease virus inactivated vaccine following DNA vaccination using Newcastle disease virus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase and fusion protein genes

    PubMed Central

    Firouzamandi, Masoumeh; Moeini, Hassan; Hosseini, Davood; Bejo, Mohd Hair; Omar, Abdul Rahman; Mehrbod, Parvaneh

    2016-01-01

    The present study describes the development of DNA vaccines using the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and fusion (F) genes from AF2240 Newcastle disease virus strain, namely pIRES/HN, pIRES/F and pIRES-F/HN. Transient expression analysis of the constructs in Vero cells revealed the successful expression of gene inserts in vitro. Moreover, in vivo experiments showed that single vaccination with the constructed plasmid DNA (pDNA) followed by a boost with inactivated vaccine induced a significant difference in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay antibody levels (p < 0.05) elicited by either pIRES/F, pIRES/F+ pIRES/HN or pIRES-F/HN at one week after the booster in specific pathogen free chickens when compared with the inactivated vaccine alone. Taken together, these results indicated that recombinant pDNA could be used to increase the efficacy of the inactivated vaccine immunization procedure. PMID:27051336

  8. Challenges and opportunities in developing and marketing vaccines for OIE List A and emerging animal diseases.

    PubMed

    Gay, C G; Salt, J; Balaski, C

    2003-01-01

    Veterinary pharmaceutical products generated 14.5 billion U.S. Dollars (USD) in worldwide sales in 2000, with biological products contributing 16.2 percent or 2.3 billion USD. The leading biological products were foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines, with 284 million USD in sales, representing 26.4 percent of the entire livestock biological business. Despite the potential opportunities for the biologicals industry, non-vaccination policies and undefined control and eradication strategies have deterred the private sector from significant investments in the research and development of vaccines against List A diseases. The primary research focus remains vaccines for infectious diseases that have an impact on current domestic herd health management systems. Changing the vaccine paradigm, investing in new technologies, and creating the future by integrating into key alliances with producers and regulatory authorities will be paramount in protecting our poultry and livestock industries against highly infectious diseases and potential acts of bioterrorism. PMID:14677694

  9. Therapeutic vaccination to treat chronic infectious diseases: current clinical developments using MVA-based vaccines.

    PubMed

    Boukhebza, Houda; Bellon, Nadine; Limacher, Jean Marc; Inchauspé, Geneviève

    2012-12-01

    A famous milestone in the vaccine field has been the first successful vaccination against smallpox, in 1798, by Edward Jenner. Using the vaccinia cowpox virus, Jenner was able to protect vaccinees from variola or smallpox. The Modified Virus Ankara (MVA) poxvirus strain has been one of the vaccines subsequently developed to prevent smallpox infection and was selected by the US government in their Biodefense strategy. Progress in molecular biology and immunology associated with MVA infection has led to the development of MVA as vaccine platform, both in the field of preventive and therapeutic vaccines. This later class of therapeutics has witnessed growing interest that has translated into an increasing number of vaccine candidates reaching the clinics. Among those, MVA-based therapeutic vaccines have addressed four major chronic infections including viral hepatitis, AIDS, human papillomavirus-linked pathologies and tuberculosis. Clinical trials encompass phase 1 and 2 and have started to show significant results and promises. PMID:22894957

  10. The Need for Evolutionarily Rational Disease Interventions: Vaccination Can Select for Higher Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Boots, Mike

    2015-01-01

    There is little doubt evolution has played a major role in preventing the control of infectious disease through antibiotic and insecticide resistance, but recent theory suggests disease interventions such as vaccination may lead to evolution of more harmful parasites. A new study published in PLOS Biology by Andrew Read and colleagues shows empirically that vaccination against Marek’s disease has favored higher virulence; without intervention, the birds die too quickly for any transmission to occur, but vaccinated hosts can both stay alive longer and shed the virus. This is an elegant empirical demonstration of how evolutionary theory can predict potentially dangerous responses of infectious disease to human interventions. PMID:26305571

  11. Mechanisms of immunity in hydatid disease: implications for vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenbao; Ross, Allen G; McManus, Donald P

    2008-11-15

    The Echinococcus organisms, the cause of echinococcosis (hydatid disease), are parasitic helminths with life cycles involving a carnivorous definitive host (usually dog or fox) and an intermediate host (human, ungulate, or rodent). They are complex multicellular pathogens that, despite being under constant barrage by the immune system, are able to modulate antiparasite immune responses and persist and flourish in their mammalian hosts. Understanding how the immune system deals with these parasites is a major challenge. Recent application of modern molecular and immunological approaches has revealed insights on the nature of immune responses generated during the course of hydatid infection, although many aspects of the Echinococcus-host interplay remain unexplored. This review summarizes current understanding of the immunology of echinococcosis, indicates areas where information is lacking, and shows how knowledge of host protective immunity has been translated into the design and development of anti-Echinococcus vaccines for application in intermediate hosts. PMID:18981082

  12. Viable Newcastle Disease Vaccine Strains in a Pharmaceutical Dump

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Silvia; Canuti, Marta; Zappa, Alessandra; Zanoni, Giovanna; Koncan, Raffaella; Tanzi, Elisabetta; Cornaglia, Giuseppe; Zanetti, Alessandro Remo; Tridente, Giuseppe

    2007-01-01

    To assess the viability of discarded and buried vaccine strains, we examined vaccines that had been buried for >20 years in an industrial waste dump in the city of Milan, Italy. Viability results showed potential biological risk associated with uncontrolled burial of pharmaceutical industry waste, including some live vaccines. PMID:18258042

  13. VACCINES FOR LIST A POULTRY DISEASES: EMPHASIS ON AVIAN INFLUENZA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various vaccine technologies have been shown experimentally to be effective for immunization against AI virus and include conventional inactivated oil-based whole AI virus, vectored virus, subunit protein and DNA vaccines. Vaccine-induced protection is based upon antibodies produced against the surf...

  14. The Potential Economic Value of a Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas Disease) Vaccine in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bruce Y.; Bacon, Kristina M.; Connor, Diana L.; Willig, Alyssa M.; Bailey, Rachel R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Chagas disease, caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi), is the leading etiology of non-ischemic heart disease worldwide, with Latin America bearing the majority of the burden. This substantial burden and the limitations of current interventions have motivated efforts to develop a vaccine against T. cruzi. Methodology/Principal Findings We constructed a decision analytic Markov computer simulation model to assess the potential economic value of a T. cruzi vaccine in Latin America from the societal perspective. Each simulation run calculated the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER), or the cost per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) avoided, of vaccination. Sensitivity analyses evaluated the impact of varying key model parameters such as vaccine cost (range: $0.50–$200), vaccine efficacy (range: 25%–75%), the cost of acute-phase drug treatment (range: $10–$150 to account for variations in acute-phase treatment regimens), and risk of infection (range: 1%–20%). Additional analyses determined the incremental cost of vaccinating an individual and the cost per averted congestive heart failure case. Vaccination was considered highly cost-effective when the ICER was ≤1 times the GDP/capita, still cost-effective when the ICER was between 1 and 3 times the GDP/capita, and not cost-effective when the ICER was >3 times the GDP/capita. Our results showed vaccination to be very cost-effective and often economically dominant (i.e., saving costs as well providing health benefits) for a wide range of scenarios, e.g., even when risk of infection was as low as 1% and vaccine efficacy was as low as 25%. Vaccinating an individual could likely provide net cost savings that rise substantially as risk of infection or vaccine efficacy increase. Conclusions/Significance Results indicate that a T. cruzi vaccine could provide substantial economic benefit, depending on the cost of the vaccine, and support continued efforts to develop a human vaccine

  15. Is gonococcal disease preventable? The importance of understanding immunity and pathogenesis in vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Jennifer L; Jennings, Michael P; Apicella, Michael A; Seib, Kate L

    2016-11-01

    Gonorrhea is a major, global public health problem for which there is no vaccine. The continuing emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains raises concerns that untreatable Neisseria gonorrhoeae may become widespread in the near future. Consequently, there is an urgent need for increased efforts towards the development of new anti-gonococcal therapeutics and vaccines, as well as suitable models for potential pre-clinical vaccine trials. Several current issues regarding gonorrhea are discussed herein, including the global burden of disease, the emergence of antibiotic-resistance, the status of vaccine development and, in particular, a focus on the model systems available to evaluate drug and vaccine candidates. Finally, alternative approaches to evaluate vaccine candidates are presented. Such approaches may provide valuable insights into the protective mechanisms, and correlates of protection, required to prevent gonococcal transmission, local infection and disease sequelae. PMID:26805040

  16. Assessing the Immunogenic Response of a Single Center's Pneumococcal Vaccination Protocol in Sickle Cell Disease.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Jonathan D; Myers, Leann; Kanter, Julie

    2016-04-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is the most common inherited hematologic disorder in the United States. Patients with SCD are at increased risk of invasive pneumococcal disease and are reliant on both early penicillin prophylaxis and antipneumococcal vaccination for prevention of infection. Although studies examining vaccine response have demonstrated a drop-off of titer response after 3 years, an optimal vaccination regimen has not been identified. Our study sought to assess the immunogenicity of our center's pneumococcal vaccination strategy, which included Prevnar (PCV-7) (before the introduction of PCV-13) followed by Pneumovax (PPV-23) given routinely at 2 and 5 years of age and then every 5 years thereafter. Our goal was to assess vaccine response in a population of patients with SCD who had received vaccines according to this regimen using multiplex bead analysis. Our study demonstrated a significant percentage of persons with SCD do not maintain a sufficient vaccination response to PPV-23 for 5 years. Our study revealed that only 36% of patients had protective levels of antipneumococcal antibody titers at an average of 37 months after vaccination. Most alarmingly, within the group of patients with subtherapeutic titers, 64% demonstrated vaccine response to <25% of the tested serotypes. These findings were significantly associated with duration of time since last vaccine administration, but the mean age of lack of response was below the 3-year window where vaccine response was previously reported to wane. Our results indicate antipneumococcal immunity may not be optimally maintained using this vaccination strategy in patients with SCD leaving them vulnerable to invasive pneumococcal disease. Many pediatric hematologists stop prophylactic penicillin at 5 years of age making these results alarming. We recommend further investigation into an optimal vaccine schedule and monitoring of antipneumococcal titers in at-risk patients. PMID:26886376

  17. BCG Vaccine-Induced Neuroprotection in a Mouse Model of Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Jing; Lacan, Goran; Dang, Hoa; Hsieh, Terry; Middleton, Blake; Wasserfall, Clive; Tian, Jide; Melega, William P.; Kaufman, Daniel L.

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing interest in using vaccination with CNS antigens to induce autoreactive T cell responses that home to damaged areas in the CNS and ameliorate neurodegenerative disease. Neuroprotective vaccine studies have focused on administering oligodendrocyte antigens or Copaxone® in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). Theoretical considerations, however, suggest that vaccination with a neuronal antigen may induce more robust neuroprotective immune responses. We assessed the neuroprotective potential of vaccines containing tyrosine hydroxylase (a neuronal protein involved in dopamine synthesis) or Copaxone® in CFA in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Surprisingly, we observed that the main beneficial factor in these vaccines was the CFA. Since the major immunogenic component in CFA is Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which closely related to the bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) that is used in human vaccines, we tested BCG vaccination in the MPTP mouse model. We observed that BCG vaccination partially preserved markers of striatal dopamine system integrity and prevented an increase in activated microglia in the substantia nigra of MPTP-treated mice. These results support a new neuroprotective vaccine paradigm in which general (nonself-reactive) immune stimulation in the periphery can limit potentially deleterious microglial responses to a neuronal insult and exert a neurorestorative effect in the CNS. Accordingly, BCG vaccination may provide a new strategy to augment current treatments for a wide range of neuropathological conditions. PMID:21304945

  18. BCG vaccine-induced neuroprotection in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Yong, Jing; Lacan, Goran; Dang, Hoa; Hsieh, Terry; Middleton, Blake; Wasserfall, Clive; Tian, Jide; Melega, William P; Kaufman, Daniel L

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing interest in using vaccination with CNS antigens to induce autoreactive T cell responses that home to damaged areas in the CNS and ameliorate neurodegenerative disease. Neuroprotective vaccine studies have focused on administering oligodendrocyte antigens or Copaxone® in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). Theoretical considerations, however, suggest that vaccination with a neuronal antigen may induce more robust neuroprotective immune responses. We assessed the neuroprotective potential of vaccines containing tyrosine hydroxylase (a neuronal protein involved in dopamine synthesis) or Copaxone® in CFA in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Surprisingly, we observed that the main beneficial factor in these vaccines was the CFA. Since the major immunogenic component in CFA is Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which closely related to the bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) that is used in human vaccines, we tested BCG vaccination in the MPTP mouse model. We observed that BCG vaccination partially preserved markers of striatal dopamine system integrity and prevented an increase in activated microglia in the substantia nigra of MPTP-treated mice. These results support a new neuroprotective vaccine paradigm in which general (nonself-reactive) immune stimulation in the periphery can limit potentially deleterious microglial responses to a neuronal insult and exert a neurorestorative effect in the CNS. Accordingly, BCG vaccination may provide a new strategy to augment current treatments for a wide range of neuropathological conditions. PMID:21304945

  19. B cell function and influenza vaccine responses in healthy aging and disease

    PubMed Central

    Frasca, Daniela; Blomberg, Bonnie B.

    2015-01-01

    Influenza vaccination is less effective in elderly as compared to young individuals. Several studies have addressed the identification of immune biomarkers able to monitor or predict a protective humoral immune response to the vaccine. In this review, we summarize these data, with emphasis on the effects of aging on influenza vaccine-specific B cell responses in healthy individuals and patients with Type-2 Diabetes, HIV and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24934648

  20. Transgenic sickle cell disease mice have high mortality and dysregulated immune responses after vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Szczepanek, Steven M.; Secor, Eric R.; Bracken, Sonali J.; Guernsey, Linda; Rafti, Ektor; Matson, Adam; Thrall, Roger S.; Andemariam, Biree

    2014-01-01

    Background Children with sickle cell disease (SCD) are susceptible to recurrent infections, which are often life threatening and necessitate frequent vaccinations. Given the altered baseline immunity and proinflammatory state associated with SCD, we sought to determine the relative safety and efficacy of vaccination in transgenic SCD mice. Methods Eight week-old SCD mice were vaccinated with ovalbumin (OVA) and aluminum hydroxide weekly for three weeks by the intraperitoneal (IP) or intramuscular (IM) route. One week after the third vaccination, serum cytokines/chemokines, immunoglobulins, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid cytokines were measured. Results Only SCD mice were prone to mortality associated with vaccination as 40% of the animals died after the IP vaccinations and 50% died after the IM vaccinations. Serum IgG2b and IgM were significantly lower in SCD than C57Bl/6 mice after vaccination, but OVA-specific IgE was significantly higher. Serum interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1α), IL-2, IL-5, macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha (MIP-1α), and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) were significantly lower in SCD mice than C57Bl/6 mice after vaccination, whereas BAL fluid IL-1β and IL-6 were elevated. Conclusions Mice with SCD appear to have a dysregulated immune response to vaccination. Thus, the relative safety and immunogenicity of vaccination should be studied in greater detail in the context of SCD. PMID:23728384

  1. Perspective on the development of vaccines against Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Edelman, R

    1991-08-01

    Lyme disease, the multisystem illness caused by the tick-borne spirochaete, Borrelia burgdorferi, has emerged as a threat to public health worldwide. It is a particularly vexing problem in the United States where it is growing in range and intensity. In fact, in some hyperendemic regions of New York and New England, Lyme disease is now such a threat that it interferes with all sorts of outdoor activities, and has even led to depreciation of real estate values. Family dogs in these areas seem to have been particularly hard hit by a near epidemic of lameness caused by Lyme arthritis. Persons at high risk for infection, such as outdoor workers, campers and hikers, suburbanites with lawns to cut, and pregnant women exposed to potentially infected Ixodes ticks, are clamouring for some means of protection beyond simple behaviour modification and tick avoidance which are known not always to work. Hence, the interest in human and veterinary vaccines against Lyme disease is growing. PMID:1771965

  2. Protection induced by infectious laryngotracheitis virus vaccines alone and combined with Newcastle disease virus and/or infectious bronchitis virus vaccines.

    PubMed

    Vagnozzi, Ariel; García, Maricarmen; Riblet, Sylva M; Zavala, Guillermo

    2010-12-01

    Two types of live attenuated vaccines have been used worldwide for the control of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV): 1) chicken embryo origin (CEO) vaccines; and 2) tissue culture origin vaccines (TCO). However, the disease persists in spite of extensive use of vaccination, particularly in areas of intense broiler production. Among the factors that may influence the efficiency of ILTV live attenuated vaccines is a possible interference of Newcastle Disease virus (NDV) and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) vaccines with the protection induced by ILTV vaccines. The protection induced by CEO and TCO vaccines was evaluated when administered at 14 days of age alone or in combination with the B1 type strain of NDV (B1) and/or the Arkansas (ARK) and Massachusetts (MASS) serotypes of IBV vaccines. Two weeks after vaccination (28 days of age), the chickens were challenged with a virulent ILTV field strain (63140 isolate, group V genotype). Protection was evaluated at 5 and 7 days postchallenge by scoring clinical signs and quantifying the challenge virus load in the trachea using real-time PCR (qPCR). In addition, the viral load of the vaccine viruses (ILTV, NDV, and IBV) was quantified 3 and 5 days postvaccination also using qPCR. The results of this study indicate that the NDV (B1) and IBV (ARK) vaccines and a multivalent vaccine constituted by NDV (B1) and IBV (ARK and MASS) did not interfere with the protection induced by the CEO ILTV vaccine. However, the NDV (BI) and the multivalent (B1/MASS/ARK) vaccines interfered with the protection induced by the TCO vaccine (P < 0.05). Either in combination or by themselves, the NDV and IBV vaccines decreased the tracheal replication of the TCO vaccine and the protection induced by this vaccine, since the ILTV-vaccinated and -challenged chickens displayed significantly more severe clinical signs and ILTV load (P < 0.05) than chickens vaccinated with the TCO vaccine alone. Although NDV and IBV challenges were not performed

  3. First case of yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD) in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Leung, Wai Shing; Chan, Man Chun; Chik, Shiu Hong; Tsang, Tak Yin

    2016-04-01

    Yellow fever is an important and potentially fatal infection in tropical regions of Africa, South America, eastern Panama in Central America and Trinidad in the Caribbean. Yellow fever vaccination is not only crucial to reduce the disease risk and mortality in individuals travelling to these areas, but also an important public health measure to prevent the spread of the disease. Despite generally considered as a safe vaccine, yellow fever vaccine can rarely be associated with severe adverse reactions including yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD). Here, we report the first case of YEL-AVD in Hong Kong. Clinicians should alert to the possibility of YEL-AVD in vaccinees presenting with compatible symptoms after yellow fever vaccination, particularly in people at higher risk of adverse events. PMID:27087559

  4. Vaccination of ferrets with a recombinant G glycoprotein subunit vaccine provides protection against Nipah virus disease for over 12 months

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Nipah virus (NiV) is a zoonotic virus belonging to the henipavirus genus in the family Paramyxoviridae. Since NiV was first identified in 1999, outbreaks have continued to occur in humans in Bangladesh and India on an almost annual basis with case fatality rates reported between 40% and 100%. Methods Ferrets were vaccinated with 4, 20 or 100 μg HeVsG formulated with the human use approved adjuvant, CpG, in a prime-boost regime. One half of the ferrets were exposed to NiV at 20 days post boost vaccination and the other at 434 days post vaccination. The presence of virus or viral genome was assessed in ferret fluids and tissues using real-time PCR, virus isolation, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry; serology was also carried out. Non-immunised ferrets were also exposed to virus to confirm the pathogenicity of the inoculum. Results Ferrets exposed to Nipah virus 20 days post vaccination remained clinically healthy. Virus or viral genome was not detected in any tissues or fluids of the vaccinated ferrets; lesions and antigen were not identified on immunohistological examination of tissues; and there was no increase in antibody titre during the observation period, consistent with failure of virus replication. Of the ferrets challenged 434 days post vaccination, all five remained well throughout the study period; viral genome – but not virus - was recovered from nasal secretions of one ferret given 20 μg HeVsG and bronchial lymph nodes of the other. There was no increase in antibody titre during the observation period, consistent with lack of stimulation of a humoral memory response. Conclusions We have previously shown that ferrets vaccinated with 4, 20 or 100 μg HeVsG formulated with CpG adjuvant, which is currently in several human clinical trials, were protected from HeV disease. Here we show, under similar conditions of use, that the vaccine also provides protection against NiV-induced disease. Such protection persists for at least 12 months

  5. Vaccine hesitancy

    PubMed Central

    Dubé, Eve; Laberge, Caroline; Guay, Maryse; Bramadat, Paul; Roy, Réal; Bettinger, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite being recognized as one of the most successful public health measures, vaccination is perceived as unsafe and unnecessary by a growing number of individuals. Lack of confidence in vaccines is now considered a threat to the success of vaccination programs. Vaccine hesitancy is believed to be responsible for decreasing vaccine coverage and an increasing risk of vaccine-preventable disease outbreaks and epidemics. This review provides an overview of the phenomenon of vaccine hesitancy. First, we will characterize vaccine hesitancy and suggest the possible causes of the apparent increase in vaccine hesitancy in the developed world. Then we will look at determinants of individual decision-making about vaccination. PMID:23584253

  6. Optimal Control for TB disease with vaccination assuming endogeneous reactivation and exogeneous reinfection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anggriani, N.; Wicaksono, B. C.; Supriatna, A. K.

    2016-06-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the deadliest infectious disease in the world which caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The disease is spread through the air via the droplets from the infectious persons when they are coughing. The World Health Organization (WHO) has paid a special attention to the TB by providing some solution, for example by providing BCG vaccine that prevent an infected person from becoming an active infectious TB. In this paper we develop a mathematical model of the spread of the TB which assumes endogeneous reactivation and exogeneous reinfection factors. We also assume that some of the susceptible population are vaccinated. Furthermore we investigate the optimal vaccination level for the disease.

  7. Comparative Full Length Sequence Analysis of Oncogenic and Vaccine (Rispens) Strains of Marek's Disease Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The complete DNA sequence of the Marek’s disease virus serotype 1 vaccine strain CVI988 was determined and consists of 178,311 bp with an overall gene organization identical to that of the oncogenic strains. In examining open reading frames (ORFs), nine ORFs differ between vaccine and oncogenic stra...

  8. Presence of Virulent Newcastle Disease Virus in Vaccinated Chickens in Farms in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Rehmani, Shafqat Fatima; Wajid, Abdul; Bibi, Tasra; Nazir, Bushra; Mukhtar, Nadia; Hussain, Abid; Lone, Nazir Ahmad; Yaqub, Tahir

    2015-01-01

    One year after a virulent Newcastle disease virus (vNDV) outbreak in Pakistan, the causative strain was present in vaccinated chickens of multiple farms despite the existence of high-average NDV-specific antibody titers (>4.75 log2). The data suggest a possible role of vaccinated birds as reservoirs of vNDV. PMID:25694525

  9. Use of vaccination against enteric septicemia of catfish and columnaris disease by the US catfish industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccination is an effective strategy used for the protection of food animals against infectious diseases. The USDA APHIS 2010 NAHMS Catfish Questionnaire included questions related to US catfish industry use of two commercial vaccines that provide protection against enteric septicemia of catfish (E...

  10. Towards broadly protective polyvalent vaccines against hand, foot and mouth disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qingwei; Tong, Xin; Huang, Zhong

    2015-02-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) caused by multiple enterovirus infections is a serious health threat to children in the Asia-Pacific region. This article reviews progresses in the development of vaccines for HFMD and discusses the need for polyvalent HFMD vaccines for conferring broad-spectrum protection. PMID:25449959

  11. Effects of chicken interferon Gamma on Newcastle disease virus vaccine immunogenicity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More effective vaccines are needed to control avian diseases. The use of chicken interferon gamma (chIFN') during vaccination is a potentially important but controversial approach that may improve the immune response to antigens. In the present study, three different systems to co-deliver chIFN' wit...

  12. Adjuvant effects of chitosan and calcium phosphate particles in an inactivated Newcastle disease vaccine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The adjuvant activity of chitosan and calcium phosphate-particles (CAP) was studied following intranasal coadministration of commercial chickens with inactivated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine. After three vaccinations with inactivated NDV in combination with chitosan or CAP an increase in an...

  13. Estimating the clinical benefits of vaccinating boys and girls against HPV-related diseases in Europe

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background HPV is related to a number of cancer types, causing a considerable burden in both genders in Europe. Female vaccination programs can substantially reduce the incidence of HPV-related diseases in women and, to some extent, men through herd immunity. The objective was to estimate the incremental benefit of vaccinating boys and girls using the quadrivalent HPV vaccine in Europe versus girls-only vaccination. Incremental benefits in terms of reduction in the incidence of HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18-related diseases (including cervical, vaginal, vulvar, anal, penile, and head and neck carcinomas and genital warts) were assessed. Methods The analysis was performed using a model constructed in Microsoft®Excel, based on a previously-published dynamic transmission model of HPV vaccination and published European epidemiological data on incidence of HPV-related diseases. The incremental benefits of vaccinating 12-year old girls and boys versus girls-only vaccination was assessed (70% vaccine coverage were assumed for both). Sensitivity analyses around vaccine coverage and duration of protection were performed. Results Compared with screening alone, girls-only vaccination led to 84% reduction in HPV 16/18-related carcinomas in females and a 61% reduction in males. Vaccination of girls and boys led to a 90% reduction in HPV 16/18-related carcinomas in females and 86% reduction in males versus screening alone. Relative to a girls-only program, vaccination of girls and boys led to a reduction in female and male HPV-related carcinomas of 40% and 65%, respectively and a reduction in the incidence of HPV 6/11-related genital warts of 58% for females and 71% for males versus girls-only vaccination. Conclusions In Europe, the vaccination of 12-year old boys and girls against HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18 would be associated with substantial additional clinical benefits in terms of reduced incidence of HPV-related genital warts and carcinomas versus girls-only vaccination. The incremental

  14. Occurrence of Autoimmune Diseases Related to the Vaccine against Yellow Fever

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Ana Cristina Vanderley; Maria Henrique da Mota, Licia; dos Santos-Neto, Leopoldo Luiz; De Carvalho, Jozélio Freire; Caldas, Iramaya Rodrigues; Martins Filho, Olindo Assis; Tauil, Pedro Luis

    2014-01-01

    Yellow fever is an infectious disease, endemic in South America and Africa. This is a potentially serious illness, with lethality between 5 and 40% of cases. The most effective preventive vaccine is constituted by the attenuated virus strain 17D, developed in 1937. It is considered safe and effective, conferring protection in more than 90% in 10 years. Adverse effects are known as mild reactions (allergies, transaminases transient elevation, fever, headache) and severe (visceral and neurotropic disease related to vaccine). However, little is known about its potential to induce autoimmune responses. This systematic review aims to identify the occurrence of autoinflammatory diseases related to 17D vaccine administration. Six studies were identified describing 13 possible cases. The diseases were Guillain-Barré syndrome, multiple sclerosis, multiple points evanescent syndrome, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, autoimmune hepatitis, and Kawasaki disease. The data suggest that 17D vaccination may play a role in the mechanism of loss of self-tolerance. PMID:25405025

  15. Occurrence of Autoimmune Diseases Related to the Vaccine against Yellow Fever.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ana Cristina Vanderley; Maria Henrique da Mota, Licia; Dos Santos-Neto, Leopoldo Luiz; De Carvalho, Jozélio Freire; Caldas, Iramaya Rodrigues; Martins Filho, Olindo Assis; Tauil, Pedro Luis

    2014-01-01

    Yellow fever is an infectious disease, endemic in South America and Africa. This is a potentially serious illness, with lethality between 5 and 40% of cases. The most effective preventive vaccine is constituted by the attenuated virus strain 17D, developed in 1937. It is considered safe and effective, conferring protection in more than 90% in 10 years. Adverse effects are known as mild reactions (allergies, transaminases transient elevation, fever, headache) and severe (visceral and neurotropic disease related to vaccine). However, little is known about its potential to induce autoimmune responses. This systematic review aims to identify the occurrence of autoinflammatory diseases related to 17D vaccine administration. Six studies were identified describing 13 possible cases. The diseases were Guillain-Barré syndrome, multiple sclerosis, multiple points evanescent syndrome, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, autoimmune hepatitis, and Kawasaki disease. The data suggest that 17D vaccination may play a role in the mechanism of loss of self-tolerance. PMID:25405025

  16. Assessment of recombinant beak and feather disease virus capsid protein as a vaccine for psittacine beak and feather disease.

    PubMed

    Bonne, Nicolai; Shearer, Patrick; Sharp, Margaret; Clark, Phillip; Raidal, Shane

    2009-03-01

    Beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) is a significant pathogen of wild Australasian and African psittacine birds. We assessed the immunogenicity of recombinant BFDV capsid (recBFDVcap) to protect against the development of psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD). Long-billed corellas (Cacatua tenuirostris) (n=13) received (by injection) 1 ml vaccine containing 10 microg recBFDVcap on day 0 and 0.4 ml vaccine containing 66.8 microg recBFDVcap on day 11. All vaccinated corellas and five non-vaccinated control corellas were given 0.4 ml BFDV suspension [titre=log(2) 12 haemagglutination units (HAU) 50 microl(-1)] intramuscularly and 0.1 ml orally 16 days after booster vaccination. Blood was collected during the vaccination period and blood and feathers were collected after BFDV administration. Testing of blood samples included BFDV DNA detection by PCR and quantitative PCR (qPCR) as well as antibody detection by haemagglutination inhibition (HI) and on feather samples, BFDV DNA and antigen was detected by haemagglutination (HA) and qPCR. Four of 97 blood samples collected from vaccinated birds after virus challenge tested positive by PCR, whereas 17 of 35 samples taken from non-vaccinated control corellas tested positive. Vaccinated birds did not develop feather lesions, had only transient PCR-detectable viraemia and had no evidence of persistent infection 270 days post-challenge using PCR, histopathology and immunohistochemistry. Non-vaccinated control corellas developed transient feather lesions and had PCR, HI and HA test results consistent with PBFD. They were BFDV PCR-positive for up to 41 days post-challenge and qPCR demonstrated reduced virus replication in vaccinated birds compared with non-vaccinated control birds. PMID:19218209

  17. Vaccine-preventable disease among homeschooled children: two cases of tetanus in Oklahoma.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Matthew G; Bradley, Kristy K; Mendus, Susan; Burnsed, Laurence; Clinton, Rachel; Tiwari, Tejpratap

    2013-12-01

    Homeschooled children represent an increasing proportion of school-aged children in the United States. Immunization rates among homeschooled children are largely unknown because they are usually not subject to state-based school-entry vaccination requirements. Geographic foci of underimmunized children can increase the risk for outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases. In 2012, 2 cases of tetanus were reported in Oklahoma; both cases involved homeschooled children without documentation of diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccination. We describe the characteristics of both patients and outline innovative outreach measures with the potential to increase vaccination access and coverage among homeschooled children. PMID:24218463

  18. Towards a vaccine for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Clancy, R L

    2012-06-01

    This review discusses chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as an outcome of two pathogenic pathways: the first resulting from inhalation of toxins and the second a consequence of bacterial colonisation of damaged airways. Earlier assessment of the role played by bacteria in acute exacerbations was compromised by a deficiency of quality data and the use of parameters more relevant to invasive infection. Data are reviewed to support a hypothesis that states intrabronchial inflammation reflects an excessive and inappropriate host response (largely mediated by Th17 cells derived from gut-associated lymphoid tissues) to colonising bacteria acting as an 'antigen sump' (in essence, a hypersensitivity reaction). It is proposed that both viral and bacterial infections exacerbate inflammation through a common pathway that involves colonising bacteria. An oral vaccine containing inactivated non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae augments a protective loop that involves the aspiration of bronchus content into the gut and reduces the severity of acute exacerbations including the need for hospital admission by reducing the 'load' of bacteria comprising this final common path. The positive clinical results from trials using oral NTHi support both the concept that bacterial colonisation of damaged airways is a potent second pathogenic pathway and that oral immunotherapy provides a significant therapeutic advance in limiting damage in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. PMID:22372964

  19. Putative evidence that genes outside the MHC have a significant influence on efficacy of Marek's disease vaccine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mechanism of Marek’s disease virus (MDV) pathogenesis and vaccine protection is poorly understood. Since the great success using the very first vaccine in defeating Marek’s disease (MD) in the 1970s, the research community has been focusing on development of more sophisticated vaccines, such as ...

  20. Increase in Invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae Infections in Children with Sickle Cell Disease since Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Licensure

    PubMed Central

    McCavit, Timothy L.; Quinn, Charles T.; Techasaensiri, Chonnamet; Rogers, Zora R.

    2010-01-01

    Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children with sickle cell disease (SCD) has decreased with prophylactic penicillin, pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, and pneumococcal protein-conjugate vaccine (PCV7) usage. We report 10 IPD cases since PCV7 licensure, including a recent surge of non-vaccine serotypes. IPD continues to be a serious risk in SCD. PMID:21193205

  1. EV71 vaccine, a new tool to control outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD).

    PubMed

    Mao, Qun-Ying; Wang, Yiping; Bian, Lianlian; Xu, Miao; Liang, Zhenglun

    2016-05-01

    On December 3rd 2015, the China Food and Drug Administration (CFDA) approved the first inactivated Enterovirus 71 (EV71) whole virus vaccine for preventing severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). As one of the few preventive vaccines for children's infectious diseases generated by the developing countries in recent years, EV71 vaccine is a blessing to children's health in China and worldwide. However, there are still a few challenges facing the worldwide use of EV71 vaccine, including the applicability against various EV71 pandemic strains in other countries, international requirements on vaccine production and quality control, standardization and harmonization on different pathogen monitoring and detecting methods, etc. In addition, the affordability of EV71 vaccine in other countries is a factor to be considered in HFMD prevention. Therefore, with EV71 vaccine commercially available, there is still a long way to go before reaching effective protection against severe HFMD after EV71 vaccines enter the market. In this paper, the bottlenecks and prospects for the wide use of EV71 vaccine after its approval are evaluated. PMID:26732723

  2. Inadvertent yellow fever vaccination of a patient with Crohn's disease treated with infliximab and methotrexate.

    PubMed

    Ekenberg, Christina; Friis-Møller, Nina; Ulstrup, Thomas; Aalykke, Claus

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of a 56-year-old woman with Crohn's disease, treated with methotrexate and infliximab, who inadvertently received yellow fever vaccination (YFV) prior to a journey to Tanzania. She was not previously vaccinated against YF. YFV contains live-attenuated virus, and is contraindicated in patients treated with immunosuppressive drugs. Following vaccination, the patient fell ill with influenza-like illness. Elevated transaminase levels and YF viremia were detected. Despite being immunocompromised, the patient did not develop more severe adverse effects. Neutralising antibodies to YF virus were detected on day 14 following vaccination and remained protective at least 10 months after vaccination. Limited data is available on outcomes of YFV in patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy, including biologics, and we report this case as a reminder of vigilance of vaccine recommendations in this population. PMID:27571912

  3. [Development of transcutaneous vaccination system for infectious disease countermeasure].

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Kazuhiko

    2012-01-01

    The recent vigorous transnational migration of people and materials reflecting the development of transportation facilities, changes in social structure, and war disasters has increased the global spread of emerging and re-emerging infections. Once, as the 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus, person-to-person transmission was achieved, the spread of pandemic cannot be contained in reality. Thus enhancement of the crisis-management structure against pandemic is critically important to maintain national function. On the basis of this social background, the development of vaccination, which is the only fundamental prophylaxis, is in attention, and earliest possible establishment of system that supply mass-vaccines in a short time is required. Even if, however, rapid manufacture of vaccine antigen is actualized, there are several problems that vaccine is not easily spread across the developing country and mass vaccination is not performed immediately at the time of the crisis, because conventional vaccination is performed mainly by injection. Our research group developed transcutaneous vaccine devices; a hydrogel patch and a dissolving microneedle array which delivered antigens to antigen-presenting cells in the epidermal layer. Our transcutaneous vaccination system receives a high evaluation as novel, easy-to-use, and less-invasive vaccination method against infections from home and abroad. In this review, we introduce the research progress resulted from our basic, preclinical, and clinical study for practical use. PMID:23208052

  4. Virus like particle-based vaccines against emerging infectious disease viruses.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinliang; Dai, Shiyu; Wang, Manli; Hu, Zhihong; Wang, Hualin; Deng, Fei

    2016-08-01

    Emerging infectious diseases are major threats to human health. Most severe viral disease outbreaks occur in developing regions where health conditions are poor. With increased international travel and business, the possibility of eventually transmitting infectious viruses between different countries is increasing. The most effective approach in preventing viral diseases is vaccination. However, vaccines are not currently available for numerous viral diseases. Virus-like particles (VLPs) are engineered vaccine candidates that have been studied for decades. VLPs are constructed by viral protein expression in various expression systems that promote the selfassembly of proteins into structures resembling virus particles. VLPs have antigenicity similar to that of the native virus, but are non-infectious as they lack key viral genetic material. VLP vaccines have attracted considerable research interest because they offer several advantages over traditional vaccines. Studies have shown that VLP vaccines can stimulate both humoral and cellular immune responses, which may offer effective antiviral protection. Here we review recent developments with VLP-based vaccines for several highly virulent emerging or re-emerging infectious diseases. The infectious agents discussed include RNA viruses from different virus families, such as the Arenaviridae, Bunyaviridae, Caliciviridae, Coronaviridae, Filoviridae, Flaviviridae, Orthomyxoviridae, Paramyxoviridae, and Togaviridae families. PMID:27405928

  5. Accelerating the development of a therapeutic vaccine for human Chagas disease: rationale and prospects

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Bin; Heffernan, Michael J; Jones, Kathryn; Valenzuela, Jesus G; Kamhawi, Shaden; Ortega, Jaime; de Leon Rosales, Samuel Ponce; Lee, Bruce Y; Bacon, Kristina M; Fleischer, Bernhard; Slingsby, BT; Cravioto, Miguel Betancourt; Tapia-Conyer, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Chagas disease is a leading cause of heart disease affecting approximately 10 million people in Latin America and elsewhere worldwide. The two major drugs available for the treatment of Chagas disease have limited efficacy in Trypanosoma cruzi-infected adults with indeterminate (patients who have seroconverted but do not yet show signs or symptoms) and determinate (patients who have both seroconverted and have clinical disease) status; they require prolonged treatment courses and are poorly tolerated and expensive. As an alternative to chemotherapy, an injectable therapeutic Chagas disease vaccine is under development to prevent or delay Chagasic cardiomyopathy in patients with indeterminate or determinate status. The bivalent vaccine will be comprised of two recombinant T. cruzi antigens, Tc24 and TSA-1, formulated on alum together with the Toll-like receptor 4 agonist, E6020. Proof-of-concept for the efficacy of these antigens was obtained in preclinical testing at the Autonomous University of Yucatan. Here the authors discuss the potential for a therapeutic Chagas vaccine as well as the progress made towards such a vaccine, and the authors articulate a roadmap for the development of the vaccine as planned by the nonprofit Sabin Vaccine Institute Product Development Partnership and Texas Children’s Hospital Center for Vaccine Development in collaboration with an international consortium of academic and industrial partners in Mexico, Germany, Japan, and the USA. PMID:23151163

  6. [Anti-hepatitis B vaccination and postvaccinal immunity stimulation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Kostinov, M P; Chikina, E Y; Kulakova, N A; Borisova, V N; Magarshak, O O

    2015-01-01

    The problem of the anti-hepatitis B vaccination of patients with chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) was discussed due to the lack of studies concerning the developing of the postvaccinal immunity, especially when vaccination is combined with the immunomodulating treatment. The data on the vaccination safety and its influence on the clinical course of COPD are also insufficient. Therefore, in this work we investigated the efficiency of the antihepatitis B vaccination in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease under the treatment with the immunomodulating Affonoleikin drug. A total of 93 patients were tested including 59 patients with severe and moderate COPD (aged from 35 to 65 years). 34 of these 59 patients were vaccinated against hepatitis B (Kombioteh) according to 0-1-6 month scheme, and 25 of them were vaccinated against hepatitis B during the treatment with Affinoleikin. The control group, consisted of 34 healthy patients. Our study demonstrated good tolerance and high immune efficiency of the anti-hepatitis B vaccine. However, after the first vaccination the level of HBs-AT was below protective level in patients with COPD compared to healthy patients. Also, 64 to 70 % of patients with COPD were seronegative excluding the patients receiving the Affinoleikin treatment, whose antibody titer was protective after the first vaccine dose, but did not reach the level typical of healthy patients. After the second vaccination we detected low and medium protective antibody levels in 58.9% of patients from the 1st group, whereas 41% were seronegative. Introduction of the third vaccine-dose led to fast and significant increase in the antibody level mainly in high concentrations with 100% seroconversion in all patients. Combined antihepatitis B vaccination and Affinoleikin treatment in patients with COPD leads to faster biosynthesis of HBs- AT in protective concentrations and decrease of seronegative response, but it has no effect on frequency and type of

  7. Hepatitis B Vaccination in Chronic Kidney Disease: Review of Evidence in Non-Dialyzed Patients

    PubMed Central

    Grzegorzewska, Alicja E.

    2012-01-01

    Context Hepatitis B vaccination of hemodialysis patients is performed all over the world. There are also recommendations from world health organizations to vaccinate patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) prior dialysis commencement, but the implementation of a hepatitis B vaccination program is less common and not well organized. Evidence Acquisition This review article summarizes data indicating why, when and how to vaccinate CKD patients before they start renal replacement therapy. Publication for this review was bringing into being from PubMed. Results There is an agreement in the nephrological societies and among clinicians and scientists that CKD patients should be vaccinated in early stages of their disease, because a higher glomerular filtration rate is more likely to be associated with the responsiveness to vaccination. Schedules of vaccination and optimal vaccine doses are still being investigated. Differences in data with respect to these problems may result from comparisons of various vaccine doses and vaccination schedules without reference to one gold standard, variations in patients` clinical status and glomerular filtration rate, and also the small groups of the affected patients make statistical analysis non-conclusive. A titer of antibodies to surface antigen of hepatitis B virus (anti-HBs) > 10 IU/L or ≥ 10 IU/L is commonly considered as a marker of seroconversion to anti-HBs positivity after vaccination in both non-dialyzed and dialyzed patients. In advanced CKD, vaccine–induced serconversion rate is seldom observed in more than 90% of vaccinees. Various strategies have been utilized in order to increase vaccine-induced seroconversion rate in patients with advanced CKD. Changing the injection mode, the use of adjuvants and immunostimulants to improve the immunogenicity of existing recombinant hepatitis B vaccines, introduction of mammalian-cell derived pre-S/S HBV vaccines (third-generation vaccines) were tried in order to improve the

  8. Biodegradable polymeric microsphere-based vaccines and their applications in infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chi-Ying; Lin, Shih-Jie; Yang, Yi-Chen; Wang, Der-Yuan; Cheng, Hwei-Fang; Yeh, Ming-Kung

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination, which provides effective, safe infectious disease protection, is among the most important recent public health and immunological achievements. However, infectious disease remains the leading cause of death in developing countries because several vaccines require repeated administrations and children are often incompletely immunized. Microsphere-based systems, providing controlled release delivery, can obviate the need for repeat immunizations. Here, we review the function of sustained and pulsatile release of biodegradable polymeric microspheres in parenteral and mucosal single-dose vaccine administration. We also review the active-targeting function of polymeric particles. With their shield and co-delivery functions, polymeric particles are applied to develop single-dose and mucosally administered vaccines as well as to improve subunit vaccines. Because polymeric particles are easily surface-modified, they have been recently used in vaccine development for cancers and many infectious diseases without effective vaccines (e.g., human immunodeficiency virus infection). These polymeric particle functions yield important vaccine carriers and multiple benefits. PMID:25839217

  9. Biodegradable polymeric microsphere-based vaccines and their applications in infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chi-Ying; Lin, Shih-Jie; Yang, Yi-Chen; Wang, Der-Yuan; Cheng, Hwei-Fang; Yeh, Ming-Kung

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination, which provides effective, safe infectious disease protection, is among the most important recent public health and immunological achievements. However, infectious disease remains the leading cause of death in developing countries because several vaccines require repeated administrations and children are often incompletely immunized. Microsphere-based systems, providing controlled release delivery, can obviate the need for repeat immunizations. Here, we review the function of sustained and pulsatile release of biodegradable polymeric microspheres in parenteral and mucosal single-dose vaccine administration. We also review the active-targeting function of polymeric particles. With their shield and co-delivery functions, polymeric particles are applied to develop single-dose and mucosally administered vaccines as well as to improve subunit vaccines. Because polymeric particles are easily surface-modified, they have been recently used in vaccine development for cancers and many infectious diseases without effective vaccines (e.g., human immunodeficiency virus infection). These polymeric particle functions yield important vaccine carriers and multiple benefits. PMID:25839217

  10. Viral load and clinical disease enhancement associated with a lentivirus cytotoxic T lymphocyte vaccine regimen

    PubMed Central

    Mealey, Robert H.; Leib, Steven R.; Littke, Matt H.; Wagner, Bettina; Horohov, David W.; McGuire, Travis C.

    2009-01-01

    Effective DNA-based vaccines against lentiviruses will likely induce CTL against conserved viral proteins. Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) infects horses worldwide, and serves as a useful model for lentiviral immune control. Although attenuated live EIAV vaccines have induced protective immune responses, DNA-based vaccines have not. In particular, DNA-based vaccines have had limited success in inducing CTL responses against intracellular pathogens in the horse. We hypothesized that priming with a codon-optimized plasmid encoding EIAV Gag p15/p26 with co-administration of a plasmid encoding an equine IL-2/IgG fusion protein as a molecular adjuvant, followed by boosting with a vaccinia vector expressing Gag p15/p26, would induce protective Gag-specific CTL responses. Although the regimen induced Gag-specific CTL in four of seven vaccinated horses, CTL were not detected until after the vaccinia boost, and protective effects were not observed in EIAV challenged vaccinates. Unexpectedly, vaccinates had significantly higher viral loads and more severe clinical disease, associated with the presence of vaccine-induced CTL. It was concluded that 1.) further optimization of the timing and route of DNA immunization was needed for efficient CTL priming in vivo, 2.) co-administration of the IL-2/IgG plasmid did not enhance CTL priming by the Gag p15/p26 plasmid, 3.) vaccinia vectors are useful for lentivirus-specific CTL induction in the horse, 4.) Gag-specific CTL alone are either insufficient or a more robust Gag-specific CTL response is needed to limit EIAV viremia and clinical disease, and 5.) CTL-inducing vaccines lacking envelope immunogens can result in lentiviral disease enhancement. Although the mechanisms for enhancement associated with this vaccine regimen remain to be elucidated, these results have important implications for development of lentivirus T cell vaccines. PMID:19368787

  11. An oral Aujeszky's disease vaccine (YS-400) induces neutralizing antibody in pigs

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Aujeszky's disease (AD) is an economically important disease affecting both wild and domestic pigs of the species Sus scrofa. A previous study yielded serological evidence of AD in Korean wild boars, which could spread AD to other animals. A new Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV) bait vaccine is required to prevent AD outbreaks in swine. In the present study, we investigated the safety and immunogenicity of a gE-deleted marker vaccine, strain YS-400, in young domestic pigs. Materials and Methods The YS-400 strain was propagated in Vero cells, and the trial ADV bait vaccine (a vaccine blister in a matrix including an attractant) was prepared. Pigs were orally immunized with the vaccine (2 mL, 107.5 TCID50/mL) delivered using a syringe or in the bait vaccine. The animals were observed for 9 weeks after vaccination, and immunogenicity was assessed using a virus neutralization (VN) test and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Results The YS-400 strain was non-pathogenic to pigs when given orally and induced high VN titers (1:32-1:128) 6 weeks post-administration. Of the pigs given the ADV bait vaccine twice or three times, 40% were seropositive by 2 weeks, and 100% were seropositive by 7 weeks after the first dose. Pigs that consumed the AD bait vaccine three times developed VN titers that were slightly higher than those of pigs given the vaccine twice. Conclusion Domestic pigs given the trial ADV bait vaccine exhibited no adverse effects and developed high VN titers against ADV, indicating that the YS-400 strain is safe and can prevent ADV infection in domestic pigs. PMID:27489803

  12. Improvement of DNA vaccination by adjuvants and sophisticated delivery devices: vaccine-platforms for the battle against infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Advantages of DNA vaccination against infectious diseases over more classical immunization methods include the possibilities for rapid manufacture, fast adaptation to newly emerging pathogens and high stability at ambient temperatures. In addition, upon DNA immunization the antigen is produced by the cells of the vaccinated individual, which leads to activation of both cellular and humoral immune responses due to antigen presentation via MHC I and MHC II molecules. However, so far DNA vaccines have shown most efficient immunogenicity mainly in small rodent models, whereas in larger animals including humans there is still the need to improve effectiveness. This is mostly due to inefficient delivery of the DNA plasmid into cells and nuclei. Here, we discuss technologies used to overcome this problem, including physical means such as in vivo electroporation and co-administration of adjuvants. Several of these methods have already entered clinical testing in humans. PMID:25648133

  13. The Case for Live Attenuated Vaccines against the Neglected Zoonotic Diseases Brucellosis and Bovine Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Aseem; Cabello, Ana; Akoolo, Lavoisier; Rice-Ficht, Allison; Arenas-Gamboa, Angela; McMurray, David; Ficht, Thomas A.; de Figueiredo, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Vaccination of humans and animals with live attenuated organisms has proven to be an effective means of combatting some important infectious diseases. In fact, the 20th century witnessed tremendous improvements in human and animal health worldwide as a consequence of large-scale vaccination programs with live attenuated vaccines (LAVs). Here, we use the neglected zoonotic diseases brucellosis and bovine tuberculosis (BTb) caused by Brucella spp. and Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), respectively, as comparative models to outline the merits of LAV platforms with emphasis on molecular strategies that have been pursued to generate LAVs with enhanced vaccine safety and efficacy profiles. Finally, we discuss the prospects of LAV platforms in the fight against brucellosis and BTb and outline new avenues for future research towards developing effective vaccines using LAV platforms. PMID:27537413

  14. Evaluation of the safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of three capripoxvirus vaccine strains against lumpy skin disease virus.

    PubMed

    Gari, Getachew; Abie, Getnet; Gizaw, Daniel; Wubete, Alehegn; Kidane, Membere; Asgedom, Hagos; Bayissa, Berecha; Ayelet, Gelagay; Oura, Christopher A L; Roger, Francois; Tuppurainen, Eeva S M

    2015-06-22

    The safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of three commercially available vaccines against lumpy skin disease (LSD) in cattle have been evaluated using a combination of vaccine challenge experiments and the monitoring of immune responses in vaccinated animals in the field. The three vaccines evaluated in the study included two locally produced (Ethiopian) vaccines (lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) Neethling and Kenyan sheep and goat pox (KSGP) O-180 strain vaccines) and a Gorgan goat pox (GTP) vaccine manufactured by Jordan Bio-Industries Centre (JOVAC). The latter vaccine was evaluated for the first time in cattle against LSDV. The Ethiopian Neethling and KSGPO-180 vaccines failed to provide protection in cattle against LSDV, whereas the Gorgan GTP vaccine protected all the vaccinated calves from clinical signs of LSD. There was no significant difference in protective efficacy detected between two dosage levels (P=0.2, P=0.25, and P=0.1 for KSGP, Neethling and Gorgan vaccines, respectively). Additionally, the Gorgan GTP vaccinated cattle showed stronger levels of cellular immune responses measured using Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions at the vaccination site indicating higher levels of immunogenicity produced by the GTPV vaccine in cattle, as opposed to the other two vaccines. This study indicated, for the first time, that the Gorgan GTP vaccine can effectively protect cattle against LSDV and that the Neethling and KSGP O-180 vaccine were not protective. The results emphasise the need for molecular characterization of the Neethling and KSGP O-180 vaccine seed viruses used for vaccine production in Ethiopia. In addition, the potency and efficacy testing process of the Ethiopian LSD Neethling and KSGP O-180 vaccines should be re-evaluated. PMID:26056063

  15. Biological and phylogenetic characterization of a genotype VII Newcastle disease virus from Venezuela: Efficacy of vaccination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Here we describe the characterization a virulent genotype VII Newcastle disease virus (NDV) from Venezuela and evaluate the efficacy of heterologous genotype commercial vaccination under field and controlled rearing conditions. Biological pathotyping and molecular analysis were applied. Results sh...

  16. Age at Vaccination and Timing of Infection Do Not Alter Vaccine-Associated Enhanced Respiratory Disease in Influenza A Virus-Infected Pigs.

    PubMed

    Souza, Carine K; Rajão, Daniela S; Loving, Crystal L; Gauger, Phillip C; Pérez, Daniel R; Vincent, Amy L

    2016-06-01

    Whole inactivated virus (WIV) vaccines are widely used in the swine industry to reduce clinical disease against homologous influenza A virus (IAV) infection. In pigs experimentally challenged with antigenically distinct heterologous IAV of the same hemagglutinin subtype, WIV vaccinates have been shown to develop vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease (VAERD). We evaluated the impact of vaccine valency, age at vaccination, and duration between vaccination and challenge on the development of VAERD using vaccine containing δ1-H1N2 and challenge with pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) virus. Pigs were vaccinated with monovalent WIV MN08 (δ1-H1N2) and bivalent (δ1-H1N2-H3N2 or δ1-H1N2-pH1N1) vaccines and then were challenged with pH1N1 at 3 weeks postboost (wpb). Another group was vaccinated with the same monovalent WIV and challenged at 6 wpb to determine if the time postvaccination plays a role in the development of VAERD. In a follow-up study, the impact of age of first WIV vaccination (at 4 versus 9 weeks of age) with a boost 3 weeks later (at 7 versus 12 weeks of age) was evaluated. A monovalent live-attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) vaccine administered at 4 and 7 weeks of age was also included. All mismatched WIV groups had significantly higher lung lesions than the LAIV, bivalent MN08-CA09, and control groups. Age of first vaccination or length of time between booster dose and subsequent challenge did not alter the development of VAERD in WIV-vaccinated pigs. Importantly, the mismatched component of the bivalent MN08-CA09 WIV did not override the protective effect of the matched vaccine component. PMID:27030585

  17. Vaccination against pancreas disease in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., reduces shedding of salmonid alphavirus.

    PubMed

    Skjold, Pål; Sommerset, Ingunn; Frost, Petter; Villoing, Stephane

    2016-01-01

    Salmon pancreas disease virus, often referred to as salmonid alphavirus (SAV), causes pancreas disease (PD) in European salmonids. SAV transmits horizontally from fish shedding virus into the water and ocean currents are believed to be a main contributor of viral spread between marine farms. Vaccination against PD is previously shown to reduce mortality and severity of clinical PD. In this study, we demonstrate that vaccination against PD significantly reduces viral shedding from infected individuals. The results suggest that PD vaccination can be an important tool to reduce the infection pressure, a known key risk for PD outbreaks at neighbouring farms. PMID:27496170

  18. [Invasive pneumococcal disease in two non-vaccinated pediatric cases: pleural empyema and bacteremia].

    PubMed

    Kanık Yüksek, Saliha; Gülhan, Belgin; Tezer, Hasan; Özkaya Parlakay, Aslınur; Uzun Kenan, Bahriye; Sayed Oskovi, Hülya; Nar Ötgün, Selin

    2015-07-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae, a gram-positive diplococcus, is the causative agent of invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPDs) characterized by severe infections such as bacteraemia, sepsis and meningitis. S.pneumoniae and IPDs are situated in the focus of the vaccine studies because of being encompassed of a significant burden of disease in the world, severe mortality and morbidities, and location in vaccine-preventable diseases group. Although S.pneumoniae has more than 90 defined serotypes, certain serotypes are often identified as the cause of IPDs. Individuals with comorbid and chronic diseases, primary or secondary immune deficiencies, and <2 years or >65 years of age are at increased risk for IPDs. Currently, a 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine and also 7, 10 and 13 valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccines (PCV) have been produced for pneumococci. Phase studies of protein based vaccines, which will provide protection independent of serotypes, and 15-valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccine are still ongoing. In Turkey, in November 2008 PCV7 and in April 2011 PCV13 have been implemented in the national immunization program. First case of the pneumococcal unvaccinated cases presented in this report was a 6-year-old girl patient with pneumonia and pleural empyema due to S.pneumoniae serotype 1, without any underlying risk factors. The other case is a 52-days-old male patient, who had a history of pneumococcal septicemia in the newborn period and was followed for bacteremia associated S.pneumoniae serotype 12B and diagnosed as complement deficiency on follow-up. S.pneumoniae serotype 1 is within serotypes covered by 10 and 13 valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine that are in use today, and is a highly invasive strain often isolated in pneumococcal lobar pneumonia and empyema. S.pneumoniae serotype 12B is a non-vaccine serotype not included in any of conjugate and polysaccharide vaccines, and usually obtained in respiratory infections

  19. Exposed and concealed antigens as vaccine targets for controlling ticks and tick-borne diseases.

    PubMed

    Nuttall, P A; Trimnell, A R; Kazimirova, M; Labuda, M

    2006-04-01

    Tick vaccines derived from Bm86, a midgut membrane-bound protein of the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus, are currently the only commercially available ectoparasite vaccines. Despite its introduction to the market in 1994, and the recognized need for alternatives to chemical pesticides, progress in developing effective antitick vaccines (and ectoparasite vaccines in general) is slow. The primary rate-limiting step is the identification of suitable antigenic targets for vaccine development. Two sources of candidate vaccine antigens have been identified: 'exposed' antigens that are secreted in tick saliva during attachment and feeding on a host and 'concealed' antigens that are normally hidden from the host. Recently, a third group of antigens has been distinguished that combines the properties of both exposed and concealed antigens. This latter group offers the prospect of a broad-spectrum vaccine effective against both adults and immature stages of a wide variety of tick species. It also shows transmission-blocking and protective activity against a tick-borne pathogen. With the proliferation of molecular techniques and their application to vaccine development, there are high hopes for new and effective antitick vaccines that also control tick-borne diseases. PMID:16542317

  20. Network-based vaccination improves prospects for disease control in wild chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Rushmore, Julie; Caillaud, Damien; Hall, Richard J; Stumpf, Rebecca M; Meyers, Lauren Ancel; Altizer, Sonia

    2014-08-01

    Many endangered wildlife populations are vulnerable to infectious diseases for which vaccines exist; yet, pragmatic considerations often preclude large-scale vaccination efforts. These barriers could be reduced by focusing on individuals with the highest contact rates. However, the question then becomes whether targeted vaccination is sufficient to prevent large outbreaks. To evaluate the efficacy of targeted wildlife vaccinations, we simulate pathogen transmission and control on monthly association networks informed by behavioural data from a wild chimpanzee community (Kanyawara N = 37, Kibale National Park, Uganda). Despite considerable variation across monthly networks, our simulations indicate that targeting the most connected individuals can prevent large outbreaks with up to 35% fewer vaccines than random vaccination. Transmission heterogeneities might be attributed to biological differences among individuals (e.g. sex, age, dominance and family size). Thus, we also evaluate the effectiveness of a trait-based vaccination strategy, as trait data are often easier to collect than interaction data. Our simulations indicate that a trait-based strategy can prevent large outbreaks with up to 18% fewer vaccines than random vaccination, demonstrating that individual traits can serve as effective estimates of connectivity. Overall, these results suggest that fine-scale behavioural data can help optimize pathogen control efforts for endangered wildlife. PMID:24872503

  1. Intranasal DNA Vaccine for Protection against Respiratory Infectious Diseases: The Delivery Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yingying; Yuen, Pak-Wai; Lam, Jenny Ka-Wing

    2014-01-01

    Intranasal delivery of DNA vaccines has become a popular research area recently. It offers some distinguished advantages over parenteral and other routes of vaccine administration. Nasal mucosa as site of vaccine administration can stimulate respiratory mucosal immunity by interacting with the nasopharyngeal-associated lymphoid tissues (NALT). Different kinds of DNA vaccines are investigated to provide protection against respiratory infectious diseases including tuberculosis, coronavirus, influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) etc. DNA vaccines have several attractive development potential, such as producing cross-protection towards different virus subtypes, enabling the possibility of mass manufacture in a relatively short time and a better safety profile. The biggest obstacle to DNA vaccines is low immunogenicity. One of the approaches to enhance the efficacy of DNA vaccine is to improve DNA delivery efficiency. This review provides insight on the development of intranasal DNA vaccine for respiratory infections, with special attention paid to the strategies to improve the delivery of DNA vaccines using non-viral delivery agents. PMID:25014738

  2. 16th International Pathogenic Neisseria Conference: recent progress towards effective meningococcal disease vaccines.

    PubMed

    Gorringe, Andrew R; van Alphen, Loek

    2009-02-01

    The report describes developments in meningococcal disease vaccines presented at the 16th International Pathogenic Neisseria Conference, Rotterdam, 7-12 September 2008. Great progress has been made by the Meningitis Vaccine Project to provide an affordable and effective serogroup A conjugate vaccine for use in the meningitis belt of Sub-Saharan Africa. The vaccine has been shown to be safe and to produce excellent immune response in phase 2 clinical trials in India and Africa in the target populations and will be rolled out to the worst affected countries from 2009. This vaccine has the potential to make a huge impact on public health in this region. This conference heard that the use of an epidemic strain-specific outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccine in New Zealand has been discontinued. Views for and against this decision were presented. Several MenB vaccines have progressed to clinical evaluation. The most advanced are the Novartis five recombinant protein variants and the Wyeth vaccine based on two factor H binding protein variants. Promising results from both vaccines with genetically-detoxified lipooligosaccharide and overexpressed heterologous antigens, OMV's from Neisseria lactamica and recombinant Opa proteins. PMID:19684470

  3. Network-based vaccination improves prospects for disease control in wild chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Rushmore, Julie; Caillaud, Damien; Hall, Richard J.; Stumpf, Rebecca M.; Meyers, Lauren Ancel; Altizer, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Many endangered wildlife populations are vulnerable to infectious diseases for which vaccines exist; yet, pragmatic considerations often preclude large-scale vaccination efforts. These barriers could be reduced by focusing on individuals with the highest contact rates. However, the question then becomes whether targeted vaccination is sufficient to prevent large outbreaks. To evaluate the efficacy of targeted wildlife vaccinations, we simulate pathogen transmission and control on monthly association networks informed by behavioural data from a wild chimpanzee community (Kanyawara N = 37, Kibale National Park, Uganda). Despite considerable variation across monthly networks, our simulations indicate that targeting the most connected individuals can prevent large outbreaks with up to 35% fewer vaccines than random vaccination. Transmission heterogeneities might be attributed to biological differences among individuals (e.g. sex, age, dominance and family size). Thus, we also evaluate the effectiveness of a trait-based vaccination strategy, as trait data are often easier to collect than interaction data. Our simulations indicate that a trait-based strategy can prevent large outbreaks with up to 18% fewer vaccines than random vaccination, demonstrating that individual traits can serve as effective estimates of connectivity. Overall, these results suggest that fine-scale behavioural data can help optimize pathogen control efforts for endangered wildlife. PMID:24872503

  4. Vaccines against diseases transmitted from animals to humans: a one health paradigm.

    PubMed

    Monath, Thomas P

    2013-11-01

    This review focuses on the immunization of animals as a means of preventing human diseases (zoonoses). Three frameworks for the use of vaccines in this context are described, and examples are provided of successes and failures. Framework I vaccines are used for protection of humans and economically valuable animals, where neither plays a role in the transmission cycle. The benefit of collaborations between animal health and human health industries and regulators in developing such products is discussed, and one example (West Nile vaccine) of a single product developed for use in animals and humans is described. Framework II vaccines are indicated for domesticated animals as a means of preventing disease in both animals and humans. The agents of concern are transmitted directly or indirectly (e.g. via arthropod vectors) from animals to humans. A number of examples of the use of Framework II vaccines are provided, e.g. against brucellosis, Escherichia coli O157, rabies, Rift Valley fever, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, and Hendra virus. Framework III vaccines are used to immunize wild animals as a means of preventing transmission of disease agents to humans and domesticated animals. Examples are reservoir-targeted, oral bait rabies, Mycobacterium bovis and Lyme disease vaccines. Given the speed and lost cost of veterinary vaccine development, some interventions based on the immunization of animals could lead to rapid and relatively inexpensive advances in public health. Opportunities for vaccine-based approaches to preventing zoonotic and emerging diseases that integrate veterinary and human medicine (the One Health paradigm) are emphasized. PMID:24060567

  5. Importance of foot and mouth disease vaccine purity in interpreting serological surveys.

    PubMed

    Smitsaart, E; Espinoza, A M; Maradei, E; Cosentino, B; Guinzburg, M; Madonni, G; Cadenazzi, G; Bottini, R; Filippi, J; Bergmann, I

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the degree of purity achieved in conventional vaccines against the foot and mouth disease virus in Argentina interferes with the interpretation of seroepidemiological surveys for confirming the absence of viral activity, which are performed to support the recognition of free zones practising vaccination. The evaluation of 168 vaccine series due to be marketed in Argentina (2006-2012) and subjected to official control testing in cattle, as well as repeated vaccination of cattle and other species using vaccines with high antigen concentrations, demonstrated that they did not induce antibodies to non-structural proteins (NSPs). The results show clearly that vaccines with satisfactory potency do not induce a response to NSPs, even by forcing the immune response through more concentrated doses with multiple valences and revaccination protocols at shorter irtervals than in vaccination campaigns. These results confirm that the vaccines used in routine vaccination programmes have a degree of antigen purification consistent with the needs observed on the basis of sampling for serological surveillance. Moreover, serological surveys conducted in 2006-2011 by Argentina's official Veterinary Services--the National Health and Agrifood Quality Service (SENASA)--on more than 23,000 sera per year from cattle included in the vaccination programme, in order to confirm the absence of virus circulation, revealed an average 0.05% of reactive results, consistent with the specificity of the tests. In conclusion, the vaccines produced by conventional methods and with proven potencythat are available in Argentina are sufficiently purified to ensure thatthey do not interfere with the interpretation of sampling for serological surveillance performed to support the recognition of FMD-free zones practising vaccination. PMID:27044149

  6. Prevention of pneumococcal diseases in the post-seven valent vaccine era: A European perspective

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The burden of invasive pneumococcal disease in young children decreased dramatically following introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7). The epidemiology of S. pneumoniae now reflects infections caused by serotypes not included in PCV7. Recently introduced higher valency pneumococcal vaccines target the residual burden of invasive and non-invasive infections, including those caused by serotypes not included in PCV7. This review is based on presentations made at the European Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases in June 2011. Discussion Surveillance data show increased circulation of the non-PCV7 vaccine serotypes 1, 3, 6A, 6C, 7 F and 19A in countries with routine vaccination. Preliminary evidence suggests that broadened serotype coverage offered by higher valency vaccines may be having an effect on invasive disease caused by some of those serotypes, including 19A, 7 F and 6C. Aetiology of community acquired pneumonia remains a difficult clinical diagnosis. However, recent reports indicate that pneumococcal vaccination has reduced hospitalisations of children for vaccine serotype pneumonia. Variations in serotype circulation and occurrence of complicated and non-complicated pneumonia caused by non-PCV7 serotypes highlight the potential of higher valency vaccines to decrease the remaining burden. PCVs reduce nasopharyngeal carriage and acute otitis media (AOM) caused by vaccine serotypes. Recent investigations of the interaction between S. pneumoniae and non-typeable H. influenzae suggest that considerable reduction in severe, complicated AOM infections may be achieved by prevention of early pneumococcal carriage and AOM infections. Extension of the vaccine serotype spectrum beyond PCV7 may provide additional benefit in preventing the evolution of AOM. The direct and indirect costs associated with pneumococcal disease are high, thus herd protection and infections caused by non-vaccine serotypes both have strong effects on

  7. Vaccines

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... help the body defend itself against foreign invaders. As the antigens invade the body's tissues, they attract ... the suppressor T cells stop the attack. After a vaccination, the body will have a memory of ...

  8. Strategies for Development of a Peptide Vaccine for Poultry Respiratory Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial respiratory disease of turkeys causes millions of dollars in economic losses to the poultry industries. Poultry or avian respiratory disease complex may involve several pathogens both viral and bacterial, and disease is exacerbated by environmental stress. Live attenuated vaccines are avai...

  9. Effectiveness of Ring Vaccination as Control Strategy for Ebola Virus Disease

    PubMed Central

    Eggo, Rosalind M.; Watson, Conall H.; Camacho, Anton; Funk, Sebastian; Edmunds, W. John

    2016-01-01

    Using an Ebola virus disease transmission model, we found that addition of ring vaccination at the outset of the West Africa epidemic might not have led to containment of this disease. However, in later stages of the epidemic or in outbreaks with less intense transmission or more effective control, this strategy could help eliminate the disease. PMID:26691346

  10. Comparative genomic sequence analysis of the Marek’s disease vaccine strain SB-1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease virus (MDV) is one of the most oncogenic herpesviruses known and induces a rapid onset T-cell lymphoma and demyelinating disease in chickens. Since the 1970s, the disease has been controlled through mass vaccination with meleagrid herpesvirus type 1 (MeHV-1). Over time the efficacy o...

  11. Comparative genomic sequence analysis of the Marek’s disease vaccine SB-1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease virus (MDV) is one of the most oncogenic herpesviruses known and induces a rapid onset T-cell lymphoma and demyelinating disease in chickens. Since the 1970s the disease has been controlled through mass vaccination with the meleagrid herpesvirus type 1 (MeHV-1). Since then the effica...

  12. Comparative genomic sequence analysis of the Marek’s disease vaccine strain SB-1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease virus (MDV) is one of the most oncogenic herpesviruses known and induces a rapid onset T-cell lymphoma and demyelinating disease in chickens. Since the 1970s the disease has been controlled through mass vaccination with meleagrid herpesvirus type 1 (MeHV-1). Over time the efficacy of...

  13. Non-MHC genomic variation affecting Marek’s disease resistance and vaccine protective efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of the domestic chicken caused by a highly infectious, oncogenic herpesvirus commonly referred to as Marek’s disease virus (MDV). MD has been controlled by vaccination with non-oncogenic turkey herpesvirus (HVT), non-oncogenic chicken herpesvirus...

  14. Characterization of cytotoxic T lymphocyte function following foot-and-mouth disease virus infection and vaccination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an economically important disease of cloven-hoofed animals that remains a global threat to livestock species. The induction of neutralizing antibodies against FMD virus (FMDV) has been the central goal of vaccination efforts against this disease. Although these effort...

  15. Targeting Marek's disease virus by RNA interference delivered from a herpesvirus vaccine.

    PubMed

    Lambeth, Luke S; Zhao, Yuguang; Smith, Lorraine P; Kgosana, Lydia; Nair, Venugopal

    2009-01-01

    Live attenuated herpesvirus vaccines such as herpesvirus of turkey (HVT) have been used since 1970 for the control of Marek's disease (MD), a highly infectious lymphoproliferative disease of poultry. Despite the success of these vaccines in reducing losses from the disease, Marek's disease virus (MDV) strains have shown a continuing increase in virulence, presumably due to the inability of the current vaccines in preventing MDV replication. The highly specific and effective nature of RNA interference (RNAi) makes this technology particularly attractive for new antiviral strategies. In order to exploit the power of RNAi-mediated suppression of MDV replication in vivo delivered through existing vaccines, we engineered recombinant HVT expressing short hairpin RNA (shRNA) against MDV genes gB and UL29. The levels of protection induced by the RNAi-expressing HVT against virulent virus challenge were similar to the parent pHVT3 virus. However, chickens vaccinated with recombinant HVT expressing shRNA showed moderate reduction of challenge virus replication in blood and feather samples. Delivery of RNAi-based gene silencing through live attenuated vaccines for reducing replication of pathogenic viruses is a novel approach for the control of infectious diseases. PMID:18977264

  16. Vaccine-preventable diseases in humanitarian emergencies among refugee and internally-displaced populations.

    PubMed

    Lam, Eugene; McCarthy, Amanda; Brennan, Muireann

    2015-01-01

    Humanitarian emergencies may result in breakdown of regular health services including routine vaccination programs. Displaced populations including refugees and internally displaced persons are particularly susceptible to outbreaks of communicable diseases such as vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs). Common VPDs encountered in humanitarian emergencies include measles, polio, and depending on geographical location, meningococcal meningitis, yellow fever, hepatitis A, and cholera. We conducted a review of 50 published articles from 2000 to 2015 concerning VPDs in humanitarian emergencies. This article provides an update on the available literature regarding vaccinations among this highly vulnerable population and describes the unique challenges of VPDs during humanitarian emergencies. Humanitarian emergencies place affected populations at risk for elevated morbidity and mortality from VPDs due to creation or exacerbation of factors associated with disease transmission such as mass population movements, overcrowding, malnutrition, and poor water and sanitation conditions. Vaccination is one of the most basic and critical health interventions for protecting vulnerable populations during emergencies. Growing insecurity, as seen in the increasing number of targeted attacks on health workers in recent years, as well as destruction of cold chain and infrastructure for transportation of supplies, are creating new challenges in provision of life saving vaccines in conflict settings. Population displacement can also threaten global VPD eradication and elimination efforts. While highly effective vaccines and guidelines to combat VPDs are available, the trend of increasing number of humanitarian emergencies globally poses new and emerging challenges in providing vaccination among displaced populations. PMID:26406333

  17. Advances in vaccination against avian pathogenic Escherichia coli respiratory disease: potentials and limitations.

    PubMed

    Ghunaim, Haitham; Abu-Madi, Marwan Abdelhamid; Kariyawasam, Subhashinie

    2014-08-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) is one of the most economically devastating pathogens affecting the poultry industry. This group of extra-intestinal E. coli causes a variety of clinical conditions including airsacculitis and cellulitis. The economic impact of APEC is mainly due to mortality, slower growth rates, and carcass downgrading. In commercial broiler operations, APEC infections are controlled indirectly by vaccination against other respiratory diseases and minimizing stress conditions, and directly by administration of antimicrobial agents to suppress the infection in already infected flocks. The fact that most APEC strains possess some common virulence factors suggests that an effective vaccine against APEC is a viable option. The most important virulence factors that have been investigated over the years include type I and P fimbriae, aerobactin iron-acquisition system, and serum resistance traits. Despite the potential for developing an efficacious vaccine to combat this economically important poultry disease, several obstacles hinder such efforts. Those obstacles include the cost, vaccine delivery method and timing of vaccination as the birds should be immune to APEC by 21 days of age. Herein, we review the various attempts to develop an effective vaccine against the respiratory form of APEC diseases in poultry. We also discuss in-depth the potentials and limitations of such vaccines. PMID:24878325

  18. Vaccines for Prevention of Bluetongue and Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease in Livestock: A North American Perspective.

    PubMed

    McVey, D Scott; MacLachlan, N James

    2015-06-01

    Bluetongue (BT) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) are noncontagious, insect-transmitted diseases of domestic and wild ruminants caused by related but distinct viruses. There are significant gaps in our scientific knowledge and available countermeasures to control an outbreak of orbivirus-induced disease, whether BT or EHD. Both BT virus (BTV) and EHD virus (EHDV) cause hemorrhagic fevers in susceptible ruminants; however, BT is principally a disease of domestic livestock whereas EHD is principally a disease of certain species of wild, non-African ungulates, notably white-tailed deer. The live-attenuated (modified live virus [MLV]) vaccines available in the United States for use in small ruminant livestock do provide good protection against clinical disease following infection with the homologous virus serotype. Although there is increasing justification that the use of MLV vaccines should be avoided if possible, these are the only vaccines currently available in the United States. Specifically, MLVs are used in California to protect sheep against infection with BTV serotypes 10, 11, and 17, and a MLV to BTV serotype 10 is licensed for use in sheep throughout the United States. These MLV vaccines may need to continue to be used in the immediate future for protective immunization of sheep and goats against BT. There are currently no licensed vaccines available for EHD in the United States other than autogenous vaccines. If there is a need to rapidly develop a vaccine to meet an emerging crisis associated with either BTV or EHDV infections, development of an inactivated virus vaccine in a conventional adjuvanted formulation will likely be required. With two doses of vaccine (and in some instances just one dose), inactivated vaccines can provide substantial immunity to the epizootic serotype of either BTV or EHDV. This strategy is similar to that used in the 2006-2008 BTV serotype 8 outbreaks in northern Europe that provided vaccine to the field within 2 years of

  19. [Vaccination perspectives].

    PubMed

    Saliou, P; Plotkin, S

    1994-01-01

    The aim of vaccinology is to improve the available vaccines and to develop new ones in the light of progress in immunology, molecular biology and biotechnologies. But it must go beyond this, and aim to protect all populations and control diseases, even eradicate them where possible. New vaccine strategies must be developed taking into account the epidemiology of diseases and the inherent logistic problems of implementing these strategies under local conditions. There are three major thrusts to the progress of the discipline. The improvement of the vaccines available. One of the drives of vaccinology is not only to deliver vaccines of increasing safety (replacement of the current vaccine for whooping cough with an acellular vaccine for example), but also to improve vaccine efficacy and immunogenicity (in particular for flu, tuberculosis, cholera and rabies vaccines). The optimisation of vaccination programmes and strategies for vaccinations. The ideal is to protect against the greatest possible number of diseases with the smallest number of vaccinations. The development of combinations of vaccines is central to this goal. The objective for the year 2000 is a hexavalent vaccine DTPP Hib HB. The development of new vaccines. Classic techniques continue to be successfully used (inactivated hepatitis A vaccine; attenuated live vaccines for chicken pox and dengue fever; conjugated polyosidic bacterial vaccines for meningococci and Streptococcus pneumoniae). However, it will become possible to prepare vaccines against most transmissible diseases using genetic engineering techniques.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7921696

  20. Invasive pneumococcal disease in patients with haematological malignancies before routine use of conjugate vaccines in Finland.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Vesa; Aittoniemi, Janne; Lyytikäinen, Outi; Klemets, Peter; Ollgren, Jukka; Silvennoinen, Raija; Nuorti, J Pekka; Sinisalo, Marjatta

    2016-05-01

    The baseline national invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) incidence rate, serotype distribution and serotype coverage of pneumococcal vaccines were evaluated in patients with Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, myeloma and leukaemia within 1 year after haematological diagnosis during 1995-2002, before introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. Pneumococcal serotype distribution among these patients was different from serotypes causing IPD in the general population. The serotype coverages of PCV13 and PPSV23 were 57% and 64%, respectively, lower than in the general population. This reflects a higher predisposition to IPD in vaccinated patients with haematological malignancies and possibly less benefit of herd immunity gained with the wide use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in the general population. This data will be useful as a baseline for determining the future role of adult PCV vaccination in these patient groups. PMID:26635103

  1. Efficacy of cellular vaccines and genetic adjuvants against bacterial kidney disease in chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha).

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Linda D; Rathbone, Cindra K; Corbett, Stephen C; Harrell, Lee W; Strom, Mark S

    2004-04-01

    DNA adjuvants and whole bacterial cell vaccines against bacterial kidney disease (BKD) were tested in juvenile chinook salmon. Whole cell vaccines of either a nonpathogenic Arthrobacter spp. or an attenuated Renibacterium salmoninarum strain provided limited prophylactic protection against acute intraperitoneal challenge with virulent R. salmoninarum, and the addition of either synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides or purified R. salmoninarum genomic DNA as adjuvants did not increase protection. However, a combination of both whole cell vaccines significantly increased survival among fish naturally infected with R. salmoninarum, and the surviving fish treated with the combination vaccine exhibited reduced levels of bacterial antigens in the kidney. This is the first demonstration of a potential therapeutic effect of a whole cell vaccine against BKD. PMID:15123289

  2. Immunization coverage and natural infection rates of vaccine-preventable diseases among children by questionnaire survey in 2005 in Japan.

    PubMed

    Baba, Koichi; Okuno, Yoshinobu; Tanaka-Taya, Keiko; Okabe, Nobuhiko

    2011-04-01

    We performed questionnaire survey in 2005, just before the introduction of the MR vaccine, concerning child vaccination and/or infection history for measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, influenza, diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus (DPT), BCG, and Japanese encephalitis. The vaccination rate against measles and rubella did not exceed 95% at any age levels. As a result, children who had contracted measles and/or rubella were observed at all age levels. The vaccination rate was 95% or higher only for BCG and DPT. The vaccination rates for influenza, mumps, and varicella, although vaccination against which diseases was being performed voluntarily, were low, and outbreaks of these diseases were expected to persist. The vaccination rates at a low level for these infectious diseases might be one of the most possible risk factors to the high prevalence of the diseases in nursery schools (daycare centers), kindergartens, and elementary schools all over Japan. PMID:20870055

  3. Adverse Reactions to Field Vaccination Against Lumpy Skin Disease in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Abutarbush, S M; Hananeh, W M; Ramadan, W; Al Sheyab, O M; Alnajjar, A R; Al Zoubi, I G; Knowles, N J; Bachanek-Bankowska, K; Tuppurainen, E S M

    2016-04-01

    Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is an emerging disease in the Middle East region and has been recently reported in Jordan. The aim of this study was to investigate the adverse reactions that were reported after vaccine administration. Geographical areas enrolled in the study were free of the disease and away from the outbreak governorate. Sixty-three dairy cattle farms, with a total of 19,539 animals, were included in the study. Of those, 56 farms reported adverse clinical signs after vaccine administration. The duration between vaccine administration and appearance of adverse clinical signs ranged from 1 to 20 days (Mean = 10.3, SD ± 3.9). Clinical signs were similar to those observed with natural cases of lumpy skin disease. These were mainly fever, decreased feed intake, decreased milk production and variable sized cutaneous nodules (a few millimetres to around 2 cm in diameter) that could be seen anywhere on the body (head, neck, trunk, perineum), udder, and/or teats. Nodules were raised and firm initially and then formed dry scabs that could be peeled off the skin. The characteristic deep 'sit fast' appearance was rarely seen and most lesions were superficial. Some cattle had swollen lymph nodes, while a few pregnant animals aborted. The percentage of affected cattle ranged from 0.3 to 25% (Mean = 8, SD ± 5.1). Fever, decreased feed intake, and decreased milk production were seen in 83.9, 85.7, and 94.6% in cattle on the affected farms, respectively. All affected cattle displayed skin nodules over their entire bodies, while 33.9 and 7.1% of the affected farms reported nodular lesions present on the udders and teats, respectively. No mortalities were reported due to vaccine adverse reactions. Duration (course) of clinical signs ranged from 3 to 20 days (Mean = 13.7, SD ± 4.1). Two types of LSD vaccines were used by the farmers in this study. The first one was a sheep pox virus (SPPV) vaccine derived from the RM65 isolate [Jovivac, manufactured by Jordan

  4. Maternal derived antibodies induce vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease in weaned pigs challenged with heterologous virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effective vaccine immunization against influenza A viruses (IAV) in pigs in the United States is a challenge because of the great antigenic diversity of co-circulating viruses. Maternally derived antibodies (MDA) interfere with vaccine efficacy and can lead to vaccine-enhanced respiratory disease (V...

  5. Heterologous challenge of weaned piglets in the presence of maternal derived antibodies results in vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effective vaccine immunization against influenza A viruses (IAV) in pigs in the United States is challenging because of the great antigenic diversity of co-circulating viruses. Maternally derived antibodies (MDA) interfere with vaccine efficacy and can lead to vaccine-enhanced respiratory disease (V...

  6. Adenoviral-based foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine: effect of duration of antigen expression on immunogenicity in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An adenoviral (Ad5)-based foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) subunit vaccine, Ad5-A24, is an effective alternative to the current inactivated whole virus vaccine and has a number of advantages including no requirement for infectious FMDV and DIVA (Differentiation of Infected from Vaccinated Animals...

  7. Insufficient Knowledge of Korean Gastroenterologists Regarding the Vaccination of Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yoon Suk; Park, Jung Ho; Kim, Hong Joo; Cho, Yong Kyun; Sohn, Chong Il; Jeon, Woo Kyu; Kim, Byung Ik

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims There is an increased risk for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients to develop infections due to the use of immunomodulators and biologics. Several infections are preventable by immunizations. This study investigated the knowledge and awareness of Korean gastroenterologists regarding the vaccination of patients with IBD. Methods A self-reported questionnaire was sent by e-mail to the faculty members of tertiary hospitals. Gastroenterologists were asked ten questions regarding the immunization of patients with IBD. A total of 56 gastroenterologists completed the questionnaire. Results A majority of gastroenterologists (>60%) had rarely or never recorded an immunization history from their patients with IBD. Moreover, 50% to 70% of the gastroenterologists did not know that live vaccines should be avoided in immunosuppressed patients. The most commonly mentioned resistance to vaccinations was "the lack of concern and knowledge regarding vaccination." Gastroenterologists more frequently asked about the immunization history of influenza, pneumococcal, hepatitis A, and hepatitis B vaccines and recommended these vaccines more often than others. Conclusions Korean gastroenterologists' awareness and knowledge regarding the vaccination of patients with IBD were very poor. Intensive educational programs on immunization guidelines directed toward gastroenterologists who care for patients with IBD are required to ensure that these patients receive the necessary vaccinations. PMID:24827619

  8. Construction of recombinant baculovirus vaccines for Newcastle disease virus and an assessment of their immunogenicity.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jingping; Liu, Ying; Jin, Liying; Gao, Dongni; Bai, Chengle; Ping, Wenxiang

    2016-08-10

    Newcastle disease (ND) is a lethal avian infectious disease caused by Newcastle disease virus (NDV) which poses a substantial threat to China's poultry industry. Conventional live vaccines against NDV are available, but they can revert to virulent strains and do not protect against mutant strains of the virus. Therefore, there is a critical unmet need for a novel vaccine that is safe, efficacious, and cost effective. Here, we designed novel recombinant baculovirus vaccines expressing the NDV F or HN genes. To optimize antigen expression, we tested the incorporation of multiple regulatory elements including: (1) truncated vesicular stomatitis virus G protein (VSV-GED), (2) woodchuck hepatitis virus post-transcriptional regulatory element (WPRE), (3) inverted terminal repeats (ITRs) of adeno-associated virus (AAV Serotype II), and (4) the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter. To test the in vivo efficacy of the viruses, we vaccinated chickens with each construct and characterized the cellular and humoral immune response to challenge with virulent NDV (F48E9). All of the vaccine constructs provided some level of protection (62.5-100% protection). The F-series of vaccines provided a greater degree of protection (87.5-100%) than the HN-series (62.5-87.5%). While all of the vaccines elicited a robust cellular and humoral response subtle differences in efficacy were observed. The combination of the WPRE and VSV-GED regulatory elements enhanced the immune response and increased antigen expression. The ITRs effectively increased the length of time IFN-γ, IL-2, and IL-4 were expressed in the plasma. The F-series elicited higher titers of neutralizing antibody and NDV-specific IgG. The baculovirus system is a promising platform for NDV vaccine development that combines the immunostimulatory benefits of a recombinant virus vector with the non-replicating benefits of a DNA vaccine. PMID:27015979

  9. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in China: Critical Community Size and Spatial Vaccination Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Van Boeckel, Thomas P.; Takahashi, Saki; Liao, Qiaohong; Xing, Weijia; Lai, Shengjie; Hsiao, Victor; Liu, Fengfeng; Zheng, Yaming; Chang, Zhaorui; Yuan, Chen; Metcalf, C. Jessica E.; Yu, Hongjie; Grenfell, Bryan T.

    2016-01-01

    Hand Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) constitutes a considerable burden for health care systems across China. Yet this burden displays important geographic heterogeneity that directly affects the local persistence and the dynamics of the disease, and thus the ability to control it through vaccination campaigns. Here, we use detailed geographic surveillance data and epidemic models to estimate the critical community size (CCS) of HFMD associated enterovirus serotypes CV-A16 and EV-A71 and we explore what spatial vaccination strategies may best reduce the burden of HFMD. We found CCS ranging from 336,979 (±225,866) to 722,372 (±150,562) with the lowest estimates associated with EV-A71 in the southern region of China where multiple transmission seasons have previously been identified. Our results suggest the existence of a regional immigration-recolonization dynamic driven by urban centers. If EV-A71 vaccines doses are limited, these would be optimally deployed in highly populated urban centers and in high-prevalence areas. If HFMD vaccines are included in China’s National Immunization Program in order to achieve high coverage rates (>85%), routine vaccination of newborns largely outperforms strategies in which the equivalent number of doses is equally divided between routine vaccination of newborns and pulse vaccination of the community at large. PMID:27125917

  10. Efficacy of early Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccination against mixed respiratory disease in older fattening pigs.

    PubMed

    Del Pozo Sacristán, R; Sierens, A; Marchioro, S B; Vangroenweghe, F; Jourquin, J; Labarque, G; Haesebrouck, F; Maes, D

    2014-02-22

    The present field study investigated the efficacy of early Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccination in a farrow-to-finish pig herd with respiratory disease late in the fattening period due to combined infections with M hyopneumoniae and viral pathogens. Five hundred and forty piglets were randomly divided into three groups of 180 piglets each: two groups were vaccinated (Stellamune Once) at either 7 (V1) or 21 days of age (V2), and a third group was left non-vaccinated (NV). The three treatment groups were housed in different pens within the same compartment during the nursery period, and were housed in different but identical compartments during the fattening period. The efficacy was evaluated using performance and pneumonia lesions. The average daily weight gain during the fattening period was 19 (V1) and 18 g/day (V2) higher in both vaccinated groups when compared with the NV group. However, the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). The prevalence of pneumonia was significantly lower in both vaccinated groups (V1: 71.5 and V2: 67.1 per cent) when compared with the NV group (80.2 per cent) (P<0.05). There were no significant differences between the two vaccination groups. In conclusion, in the present herd with respiratory disease during the second half of the fattening period caused by M hyopneumoniae and viral infections, prevalence of pneumonia lesions were significantly reduced and growth losses numerically (not statistically significant) decreased by both vaccination schedules. PMID:24436349

  11. Application of mouse model for effective evaluation of foot-and-mouth disease vaccine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seo-Yong; Ko, Mi-Kyeong; Lee, Kwang-Nyeong; Choi, Joo-Hyung; You, Su-Hwa; Pyo, Hyun-Mi; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Kim, Byounghan; Lee, Jong-Soo; Park, Jong-Hyeon

    2016-07-19

    Efficacy evaluation of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines has been conducted in target animals such as cows and pigs. In particular, handling FMD virus requires a high level of biosafety management and facilities to contain the virulent viruses. The lack of a laboratory animal model has resulted in inconvenience when it comes to using target animals for vaccine evaluation, bringing about increased cost, time and labor for the experiments. The FMD mouse model has been studied, but most FMD virus (FMDV) strains are not known to cause disease in adult mice. In the present study, we created a series of challenge viruses that are lethal to adult C57BL/6 mice. FMDV types O, A, and Asia1, which are related to frequent FMD outbreaks, were adapted for mice and the pathogenesis of each virus was evaluated in the mouse model. Challenge experiments after vaccination using in-house and commercial vaccines demonstrated vaccine-mediated protection in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, we propose that FMD vaccine evaluation should be carried out using mouse-adapted challenge viruses as a swift, effective efficacy test of experimental or commercial vaccines. PMID:27340094

  12. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in China: Critical Community Size and Spatial Vaccination Strategies.

    PubMed

    Van Boeckel, Thomas P; Takahashi, Saki; Liao, Qiaohong; Xing, Weijia; Lai, Shengjie; Hsiao, Victor; Liu, Fengfeng; Zheng, Yaming; Chang, Zhaorui; Yuan, Chen; Metcalf, C Jessica E; Yu, Hongjie; Grenfell, Bryan T

    2016-01-01

    Hand Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) constitutes a considerable burden for health care systems across China. Yet this burden displays important geographic heterogeneity that directly affects the local persistence and the dynamics of the disease, and thus the ability to control it through vaccination campaigns. Here, we use detailed geographic surveillance data and epidemic models to estimate the critical community size (CCS) of HFMD associated enterovirus serotypes CV-A16 and EV-A71 and we explore what spatial vaccination strategies may best reduce the burden of HFMD. We found CCS ranging from 336,979 (±225,866) to 722,372 (±150,562) with the lowest estimates associated with EV-A71 in the southern region of China where multiple transmission seasons have previously been identified. Our results suggest the existence of a regional immigration-recolonization dynamic driven by urban centers. If EV-A71 vaccines doses are limited, these would be optimally deployed in highly populated urban centers and in high-prevalence areas. If HFMD vaccines are included in China's National Immunization Program in order to achieve high coverage rates (>85%), routine vaccination of newborns largely outperforms strategies in which the equivalent number of doses is equally divided between routine vaccination of newborns and pulse vaccination of the community at large. PMID:27125917

  13. Farming of Plant-Based Veterinary Vaccines and Their Applications for Disease Prevention in Animals

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Pit Sze; Hair-Bejo, Mohd

    2015-01-01

    Plants have been studied for the production of pharmaceutical compounds for more than two decades now. Ever since the plant-made poultry vaccine against Newcastle disease virus made a breakthrough and went all the way to obtain regulatory approval, research to use plants for expression and delivery of vaccine proteins for animals was intensified. Indeed, in view of the high production costs of veterinary vaccines, plants represent attractive biofactories and offer many promising advantages in the production of recombinant vaccine proteins. Furthermore, the possibility of conducting immunogenicity and challenge studies in target animals has greatly exaggerated the progress. Although there are no edible plant-produced animal vaccines in the market, plant-based vaccine technology has great potentials. In this review, development, uses, and advantages of plant-based recombinant protein production in various expression platforms are discussed. In addition, examples of plant-based veterinary vaccines showing strong indication in terms of efficacy in animal disease prevention are also described. PMID:26351454

  14. Farming of Plant-Based Veterinary Vaccines and Their Applications for Disease Prevention in Animals.

    PubMed

    Liew, Pit Sze; Hair-Bejo, Mohd

    2015-01-01

    Plants have been studied for the production of pharmaceutical compounds for more than two decades now. Ever since the plant-made poultry vaccine against Newcastle disease virus made a breakthrough and went all the way to obtain regulatory approval, research to use plants for expression and delivery of vaccine proteins for animals was intensified. Indeed, in view of the high production costs of veterinary vaccines, plants represent attractive biofactories and offer many promising advantages in the production of recombinant vaccine proteins. Furthermore, the possibility of conducting immunogenicity and challenge studies in target animals has greatly exaggerated the progress. Although there are no edible plant-produced animal vaccines in the market, plant-based vaccine technology has great potentials. In this review, development, uses, and advantages of plant-based recombinant protein production in various expression platforms are discussed. In addition, examples of plant-based veterinary vaccines showing strong indication in terms of efficacy in animal disease prevention are also described. PMID:26351454

  15. Highlights of the 8th International Conference on Vaccines for Enteric Diseases: the Scottish Encounter To Defeat Diarrheal Diseases.

    PubMed

    Tennant, Sharon M; Steele, A Duncan; Pasetti, Marcela F

    2016-04-01

    Infectious diarrhea is a leading cause of morbidity and of mortality; the burden of disease affects individuals of all ages but particularly young children, especially those living in poor regions where the disease is endemic. It is also a health concern for international travelers to these areas. Experts on vaccines and enteric infections and advocates for global health improvement gathered in Scotland from 8 to 10 July 2015 to discuss recent advances in the assessment and understanding of the burden of enteric diseases and progress in the development and implementation of strategies to prevent these infections. Highlights of the meeting included description of advances in molecular assays to estimate pathogen-specific prevalence, methods to model epidemiologic trends, novel approaches to generate broad-spectrum vaccines, new initiatives to evaluate vaccine performance where they are most needed, renewed interest in human challenge models, immunological readouts as predictors of vaccine efficacy, maternal immunization to prevent enteric infections, and the impact of maternal immunity on the vaccine take of infants. A follow-up scientific gathering to advance Shigella and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) vaccine efforts will be held from 28 to 30 June 2016 in Washington, DC. PMID:26936100

  16. Using Computerized Physician Order Entry to Ensure Appropriate Vaccination of Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Karr, Jacob R.; Lu, Jonathan J.; Smith, Robert B.; Thomas, Austin C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a disorder in which an aberrant immune response in a genetically susceptible host, with influences from environmental factors, leads to intestinal inflammation. Vaccines against influenza and pneumococcal pneumonia are indicated for all patients with IBD, while vaccines such as hepatitis A and B, human papillomavirus, and meningococcal meningitis are only indicated for patients with specific risk factor profiles. Some vaccines are contraindicated for patients receiving immunosuppressive medications; typically, these are live or live attenuated vaccines such as measles-mumps-rubella, varicella zoster, and herpes zoster. Given the importance of ensuring patients with IBD are properly vaccinated, we designed a quality improvement project to determine the perceived barriers to ordering these vaccines and to make the process easier. Methods: At the outset of the study, providers in our gastroenterology department who treat patients with IBD received a survey about vaccinations. Based on the preintervention survey responses, we created an order panel in our electronic medical record (Epic Systems Corporation) to facilitate vaccination ordering. This order panel prompted physicians to order the vaccinations and informed them of contraindications. At the end of the 2-month implementation period, we distributed a second survey to assess the utility of the order panel. Results: Respondents generally agreed that the Epic SmartSet order panel made vaccinations easier to order, ensured physician confidence in ordering vaccinations, was helpful for use in practice, made the clinic more efficient, and reminded physicians which vaccinations are contraindicated because of immunosuppression. Respondents were divided regarding whether a greater number of patients with IBD were actually receiving vaccinations after the order panel was implemented. Conclusion: We used the order entry function in Epic to facilitate vaccination ordering for

  17. Expert-novice differences in mental models of viruses, vaccines, and the causes of infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Jee, Benjamin D; Uttal, David H; Spiegel, Amy; Diamond, Judy

    2015-02-01

    Humans are exposed to viruses everywhere they live, play, and work. Yet people's beliefs about viruses may be confused or inaccurate, potentially impairing their understanding of scientific information. This study used semi-structured interviews to examine people's beliefs about viruses, vaccines, and the causes of infectious disease. We compared people at different levels of science expertise: middle school students, teachers, and professional virologists. The virologists described more entities involved in microbiological processes, how these entities behaved, and why. Quantitative and qualitative analyses revealed distinctions in the cognitive organization of several concepts, including infection and vaccination. For example, some students and teachers described viral replication in terms of cell division, independent of a host. Interestingly, most students held a mental model for vaccination in which the vaccine directly attacks a virus that is present in the body. Our findings have immediate implications for how to communicate about infectious disease to young people. PMID:23959975

  18. Expert-Novice Differences in Mental Models of Viruses, Vaccines, and the Causes of Infectious Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jee, Benjamin D.; Uttal, David H.; Spiegel, Amy; Diamond, Judy

    2014-01-01

    Humans are exposed to viruses everywhere they live, play, and work. Yet people’s beliefs about viruses may be confused or inaccurate, potentially impairing their understanding of scientific information. This study used semi-structured interviews to examine people’s beliefs about viruses, vaccines, and the causes of infectious disease. We compared people at different levels of science expertise: middle school students, teachers, and professional virologists. The virologists described more entities involved in microbiological processes, how these entities behaved, and why. Quantitative and qualitative analyses revealed distinctions in the cognitive organization of several concepts, including infection and vaccination. For example, some students and teachers described viral replication in terms of cell division, independent of a host. Interestingly, most students held a mental model for vaccination in which the vaccine directly attacks a virus that is present in the body. Our findings have immediate implications for how to communicate about infectious disease to young people. PMID:23959975

  19. Age at vaccination and timing of infection do not alter vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease in influenza A virus infected pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whole inactivated virus (WIV) vaccines are widely used in the swine industry to reduce clinical disease against homologous influenza A virus (IAV) infection. In pigs experimentally challenged with antigenically distinct heterologous IAV of the same hemagglutinin subtype, WIV vaccinates have been sho...

  20. Development of a genotype specific live Newcastle disease vaccine by replacing the fusion (F) and hemagglutinin-neuramindase (HN) genes into a LaSota vaccine backbone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    All Newcastle disease viruses (NDVs) are part of a single serotype; however, current vaccine strains display between 15 and 18% amino acid differences at the F and HN protein compared with current virulent viruses. Previous studies have shown that increased amino acid similarity between NDV vaccine...

  1. Practical aspects in the use of passive immunization as an alternative to attenuated viral vaccines.

    PubMed

    Aizenshtein, Elina; Yosipovich, Roni; Kvint, Moran; Shadmon, Roy; Krispel, Simcha; Shuster, Efrat; Eliyahu, Dalia; Finger, Avner; Banet-Noach, Caroline; Shahar, Ehud; Pitcovski, Jacob

    2016-05-11

    Passive immunization as a method to protect birds has been tested for many years and shown to be effective. Its advantages over active vaccination include no use of partially virulent viruses, overcoming the gap in the level of protection at young age due to interference of maternal antibodies to raise self-immune response following active vaccination and the possible immunosuppressive effect of attenuated vaccine viruses. However, a major obstacle to its implementation is its relatively high cost which is dependent, among other things, mainly on two factors: the efficacy of antibody production, and the use of specific pathogen-free (SPF) birds for antibody production to avoid the possible transfer of pathogens from commercial layers. In this study we show efficient production of immunoglobulin Y (IgY) against four different pathogens simultaneously in the same egg, and treatment of the extracted IgY with formalin to negate the need for SPF birds. Formalin, a common registered sterilization compound in vaccine production, was shown not to interfere with the Fab specific antigen binding or Fc-complement activation of the antibody. Following injection of 1-day-old broilers with antibodies against infectious bursal disease virus, protective antibody levels were acquired for the entire period of sensitivity to this pathogen (35 days). Passive vaccination with formalin-sterilized IgY against multiple antigens extracted from one commercial egg may be a cost-effective and advantageous complementary or alternative to attenuated vaccines in poultry. PMID:27079929

  2. Prevention of early episodes of otitis media by pneumococcal vaccines might reduce progression to complex disease.

    PubMed

    Dagan, Ron; Pelton, Stephen; Bakaletz, Lauren; Cohen, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Otitis media is a common childhood infection of the middle ear and a major cause of morbidity. This multifactorial disease manifests as a spectrum of clinical syndromes from uncomplicated acute otitis media to more complex recurrent and chronic cases (frequently polymicrobial), with the major pathogens involved being Streptococcus pneumoniae and non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) target only a few serotypes that cause otitis media; however, results from studies suggest that existing PCVs can prevent early episodes of disease associated with vaccine serotypes, resulting in a reduction of subsequent complex cases caused by non-vaccine serotypes and other otopathogens, which contribute considerably to the disease burden. In this Review, we discuss the role of pneumococcus in the disease continuum and assess clinical evidence showing the effect of prevention of early episodes on the complex interplay between bacterial species implicated in otitis media. PMID:27036355

  3. Immunogenicity and safety of the human papillomavirus vaccine in patients with autoimmune diseases: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pellegrino, Paolo; Radice, Sonia; Clementi, Emilio

    2015-07-01

    Whereas safety and efficacy of HPV vaccines in healthy women have been shown in several randomised controlled clinical trials and in post marketing analyses, only few data exist in patients affected by autoimmune diseases. These issues are significant as autoimmune conditions are recognised as a risk factor for the persistence of HPV infection. Herein we review and systematise the existing literature to assess immunogenicity and safety of HPV vaccination in patients with autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus and juvenile idiopathic arthritis. The results of our literature revision suggest that the HPV vaccines are efficacious and safe in most of the patients affected by autoimmune diseases. Yet, some points of concern remain to be tackled, including the effects of concomitant therapies, the risk of disease exacerbation and the cost-effectiveness of such immunisation programmes in these populations. PMID:26036945

  4. Development, standardization and assessment of PCR systems for purity testing of avian viral vaccines.

    PubMed

    Ottiger, Hans-Peter

    2010-05-01

    The European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) requires avian viral vaccines to be free of adventitious agents. Purity testing is an essential quality requirement of immunological veterinary medicinal products (IVMPs) and testing for extraneous agents includes monitoring for many different viruses. Conventional virus detection methods include serology or virus culture, however, molecular tests have become a valid alternative testing method. Nucleic acid testing (NAT) is fast, highly sensitive and has a higher degree of discrimination than conventional approaches. These advantages have led to the development and standardization of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for the detection of avian leucosis virus, avian orthoreovirus, infectious bursal disease virus, infectious bronchitis virus, Newcastle disease virus, infectious laryngotracheitis virus, influenza A virus, Marek's disease virus, turkey rhinotracheitis virus, egg drop syndrome virus, chicken anaemia virus, avian adenovirus and avian encephalomyelitis virus. This paper reviews the development, standardization and assessment of PCR for extraneous agent testing in IVMPs with examples from an Official Medicines Control Laboratory (OMCL). PMID:20338785

  5. ANTIDotE: anti-tick vaccines to prevent tick-borne diseases in Europe

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Ixodes ricinus transmits bacterial, protozoal and viral pathogens, causing disease and forming an increasing health concern in Europe. ANTIDotE is an European Commission funded consortium of seven institutes, which aims to identify and characterize tick proteins involved in feeding and pathogen transmission. The knowledge gained will be used to develop and evaluate anti-tick vaccines that may prevent multiple human tick-borne diseases. Strategies encompassing anti-tick vaccines to prevent transmission of pathogens to humans, animals or wildlife will be developed with relevant stakeholders with the ultimate aim of reducing the incidence of tick-borne diseases in humans. PMID:24559082

  6. Mass vaccination, immunity and coverage: modelling population protection against foot-and-mouth disease in Turkish cattle

    PubMed Central

    Knight-Jones, T. J. D.; Gubbins, S.; Bulut, A. N.; Stärk, K. D. C.; Pfeiffer, D. U.; Sumption, K. J.; Paton, D. J.

    2016-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Turkey is controlled using biannual mass vaccination of cattle. However, vaccine protection is undermined by population turnover and declining immunity. A dynamic model of the Turkish cattle population was created. Assuming biannual mass vaccination with a single-dose primary course, vaccine history was calculated for the simulated population (number of doses and time since last vaccination). This was used to estimate population immunity. Six months after the last round of vaccination almost half the cattle aged <24 months remain unvaccinated. Only 50% of all cattle would have received >1 vaccine dose in their life with the last dose given ≤6 months ago. Five months after the last round of vaccination two-thirds of cattle would have low antibody titres (<70% protection threshold). Giving a two-dose primary vaccination course reduces the proportion of 6–12 month old cattle with low titres by 20–30%. Biannual mass vaccination of cattle leaves significant immunity gaps and over-reliance on vaccine protection should be avoided. Using more effective vaccines and vaccination strategies will increase population immunity, however, the extent to which FMD can be controlled by vaccination alone without effective biosecurity remains uncertain. PMID:26916556

  7. Mass vaccination, immunity and coverage: modelling population protection against foot-and-mouth disease in Turkish cattle.

    PubMed

    Knight-Jones, T J D; Gubbins, S; Bulut, A N; Stärk, K D C; Pfeiffer, D U; Sumption, K J; Paton, D J

    2016-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Turkey is controlled using biannual mass vaccination of cattle. However, vaccine protection is undermined by population turnover and declining immunity. A dynamic model of the Turkish cattle population was created. Assuming biannual mass vaccination with a single-dose primary course, vaccine history was calculated for the simulated population (number of doses and time since last vaccination). This was used to estimate population immunity. Six months after the last round of vaccination almost half the cattle aged <24 months remain unvaccinated. Only 50% of all cattle would have received >1 vaccine dose in their life with the last dose given ≤6 months ago. Five months after the last round of vaccination two-thirds of cattle would have low antibody titres (<70% protection threshold). Giving a two-dose primary vaccination course reduces the proportion of 6-12 month old cattle with low titres by 20-30%. Biannual mass vaccination of cattle leaves significant immunity gaps and over-reliance on vaccine protection should be avoided. Using more effective vaccines and vaccination strategies will increase population immunity, however, the extent to which FMD can be controlled by vaccination alone without effective biosecurity remains uncertain. PMID:26916556

  8. Effects of stresroak as an immunomodulator on birds vaccinated with newcastle disease vaccine.

    PubMed

    Sanda, M E; Anene, B M; Owoade, A A

    2010-12-01

    The efficacy of Stresroak--an Ayurvedic product (India) was tested in cockerel chicks. Eighty day-old chicks were randomly allocated into four groups with 20 birds per group. Group 1 received Stresroak at the recommended dosage of 1 ml/20 birds for 5 days prior to the NDV vaccinations (i/o, LaSota and Komarov). Group 2 received Stresroak at double the recommended dosage prior to vaccinations. Group 3 received no treatment but had all the afore mentioned vaccinations while Group 4 received neither treatments nor vaccinations and therefore served as the control group. Sera samples were analyzed by Haemagglutination Inhibition (HI) tests. There was no significant immunostimulation by Stresroak except on days 42 and 63 of life during the period of this study. It is therefore concluded that the manufacturer's claim of immunomodulatory property of Stresroak could not be validated in the humoral immunity studied. It is therefore suggested that further works be conducted using immunosuppressed hosts like birds with subclinical IBD and coccidiosis. In addition, research can be extended to the cell-mediated immunity. PMID:22416665

  9. [Consensus document by the Spanish Society of Paediatric Infectious Diseases and the advisory committee on vaccines of the Spanish Paediatrics Association on vaccination in immunocompromised children].

    PubMed

    Mellado Peña, M J; Moreno-Pérez, D; Ruíz Contreras, J; Hernández-Sampelayo Matos, T; Navarro Gómez, M L

    2011-12-01

    Vaccination in immunocompromised infants, children and adolescents is a major aspect in the follow-up of this complex pathology in specific Paediatric Units. Vaccination is also an important prevention tool, as this can, to a certain extent, determine the morbidity and mortality in these patients. This consensus document was jointly prepared by Working Groups of the Spanish Society of Paediatric Infectious Diseases and the Advisory Committee on Vaccines of the Spanish Paediatric Association, who are usually involved in updating the management of vaccinations in immunocompromised children, and reflects their opinions. The consensus specifically summarises indications for vaccination in the following special paediatric populations: Solid organ and haematopoietic transplant-recipients; primary immunodeficiency; asplenic children; non-previously transplanted immunocompromised patients; chronically ill patients; HIV-infected children and also the vaccines recommended for immunodeficient children who travel. PMID:21963606

  10. Assessing the impact of vaccination programmes on burden of disease: Underlying complexities and statistical methods.

    PubMed

    Mealing, Nicole; Hayen, Andrew; Newall, Anthony T

    2016-06-01

    It is important to assess the impact a vaccination programme has on the burden of disease after it is implemented. For example, this may reveal herd immunity effects or vaccine-induced shifts in the incidence of disease or in circulating strains or serotypes of the pathogen. In this article we summarise the key features of infectious diseases that need to be considered when trying to detect any changes in the burden of diseases at a population level as a result of vaccination efforts. We outline the challenges of using routine surveillance databases to monitor infectious diseases, such as the identification of diseased cases and the availability of vaccination status for cases. We highlight the complexities in modelling the underlying patterns in infectious disease rates (e.g. presence of autocorrelation) and discuss the main statistical methods that can be used to control for periodicity (e.g. seasonality) and autocorrelation when assessing the impact of vaccination programmes on burden of disease (e.g. cosinor terms, generalised additive models, autoregressive processes and moving averages). For some analyses, there may be multiple methods that can be used, but it is important for authors to justify the method chosen and discuss any limitations. We present a case study review of the statistical methods used in the literature to assess the rotavirus vaccination programme impact in Australia. The methods used varied and included generalised linear models and descriptive statistics. Not all studies accounted for autocorrelation and seasonality, which can have a major influence on results. We recommend that future analyses consider the strength and weakness of alternative statistical methods and justify their choice. PMID:27156635

  11. Normal or defective immune response to Hepatitis B vaccine in patients with diabetes and celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Zanoni, Giovanna; Contreas, Giovanna; Valletta, Enrico; Gabrielli, Oretta; Mengoli, Carlo; Veneri, Dino

    2015-01-01

    A defective production of protective levels of antibodies to Hepatitis B (HB) vaccine is reported to occur in 4-10% of healthy subjects and a correlation with the presence of specific human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules, including DQ2, which also confers genetic predisposition to celiac disease (CD) and type I diabetes mellitus (T1DM), has been suggested.   The aim of this study was to analyze the serological response to HB vaccine and measles-containing vaccines in 69 diabetic patients (T1DM), 42 patients with celiac disease (CD) and 79 healthy control subjects (CT). The median interval between the third dose of HB vaccine and serum collection was 6.8, 3.5, and 4.7 years for T1DM, CD and CT groups, respectively. 50/69 (72%) T1DM patients, 32/42 (76%) CD patients and 61/79 (77%) CT subjects showed protective anti-HBs antibodies after vaccination, with no statistically significant difference. On the contrary, a lower statistically significant difference was found in the mean HBsAb level of T1DM subjects when compared with the other two groups. No correlation between HLA DQ2 expression in T1DM and vaccine response was detected. The comparison of serological response to measles after vaccination also showed no statistically significant differences in the three groups. Contrasting results between these data and those reported in the literature might be due to differences in the time intervals between vaccination and testing. Prospective studies in pathological and healthy groups with the same age at HBV vaccination and with the same time interval for blood sample collection to determine antibody titers are necessary in order to provide more conclusive data. PMID:25483516

  12. Cellular and Cytokine Responses in Feathers of Chickens Vaccinated Against Marek's Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the study was to characterize cellular and cytokine responses as indicators of cell-mediated immune response in feathers of chickens vaccinated against Marek’s disease (MD). Feathers constitute the site of virus shedding in the case of Marek’s disease virus (MDV). The feather sample...

  13. Custom-engineered chimeric foot-and-mouth disease vaccine elicits protective immune responses in pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chimeric foot-and-mouth disease viruses (FMDV) of which the antigenic properties can be readily manipulated is a potentially powerful approach in the control of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in sub-Saharan Africa. FMD vaccine application is complicated by the extensive variability of the South Africa...

  14. The influence of major histocompatibility complex and vaccination with turkey herpesvirus on Marek's disease virus evolution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the last five decades, the pathogenicity of the Marek’s disease virus (MDV) has evolved from the relatively mild strains (mMDV) observed in the 1960s to the more severe very-virulent-plus strains currently observed in today’s outbreaks. The use of vaccines to control Marek’s disease (MD), but n...

  15. A combination in-ovo vaccine for avian influenza virus and Newcastle disease virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The protection of poultry from H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza A (HPAI) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) can be achieved through vaccination, as part of a broader disease control strategy. We have previously generated a recombinant influenza virus expressing; (i) an H5N1 hemagglutinin protei...

  16. Heterogeneity in the antibody response to foot-and-mouth disease primo-vaccinated calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is the most economically important viral disease of wild and domesticated biungulate species and presents a major constraint to international trade of livestock and their associated products. FMD vaccines are routinely used as effective control tools in large regions wor...

  17. Enhancing the role of veterinary vaccines reducing zoonotic diseases of humans: Linking systems biology with vaccine development

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Leslie G.; Khare, Sangeeta; Lawhon, Sara D.; Rossetti, Carlos A.; Lewin, Harris A.; Lipton, Mary S.; Turse, Joshua E.; Wylie, Dennis C.; Bai, Yu; Drake, Kenneth L.

    2011-09-22

    The aim of research on infectious diseases is their prevention, and brucellosis and salmonellosis as such are classic examples of worldwide zoonoses for application of a systems biology approach for enhanced rational vaccine development. When used optimally, vaccines prevent disease manifestations, reduce transmission of disease, decrease the need for pharmaceutical intervention, and improve the health and welfare of animals, as well as indirectly protecting against zoonotic diseases of people. Advances in the last decade or so using comprehensive systems biology approaches linking genomics, proteomics, bioinformatics, and biotechnology with immunology, pathogenesis and vaccine formulation and delivery are expected to enable enhanced approaches to vaccine development. The goal of this paper is to evaluate the role of computational systems biology analysis of host:pathogen interactions (the interactome) as a tool for enhanced rational design of vaccines. Systems biology is bringing a new, more robust approach to veterinary vaccine design based upon a deeper understanding of the host pathogen interactions and its impact on the host's molecular network of the immune system. A computational systems biology method was utilized to create interactome models of the host responses to Brucella melitensis (BMEL), Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis (MAP), Salmonella enterica Typhimurium (STM), and a Salmonella mutant (isogenic *sipA, sopABDE2) and linked to the basis for rational development of vaccines for brucellosis and salmonellosis as reviewed by Adams et al. and Ficht et al. [1,2]. A bovine ligated ileal loop biological model was established to capture the host gene expression response at multiple time points post infection. New methods based on Dynamic Bayesian Network (DBN) machine learning were employed to conduct a comparative pathogenicity analysis of 219 signaling and metabolic pathways and 1620 gene ontology (GO) categories that defined the host's biosignatures

  18. Continuous cell lines from the Muscovy duck as potential replacement for primary cells in the production of avian vaccines.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Ingo; John, Katrin; Höwing, Kristin; Lohr, Verena; Penzes, Zoltán; Gubucz-Sombor, Erzsébet; Fu, Yan; Gao, Peng; Harder, Timm; Zádori, Zoltán; Sandig, Volker

    2016-01-01

    Veterinary vaccines contribute to food security, interrupt zoonotic transmissions, and help to maintain overall health in livestock. Although vaccines are usually cost-effective, their adoption depends on a multitude of factors. Because poultry vaccines are usually given to birds with a short life span, very low production cost per dose is one important challenge. Other hurdles are to ensure a consistent and reliable supply of very large number of doses, and to have flexible production processes to accommodate a range of different pathogens and dosage requirements. Most poultry vaccines are currently being produced on primary avian cells derived from chicken or waterfowl embryos. This production system is associated with high costs, logistic complexities, rigid intervals between harvest and production, and supply limitations. We investigated whether the continuous cell lines Cairina retina and CR.pIX may provide a substrate independent of primary cell cultures or embryonated eggs. Viruses examined for replication in these cell lines are strains associated with, or contained in vaccines against egg drop syndrome, Marek's disease, Newcastle disease, avian influenza, infectious bursal disease and Derzsy's disease. Each of the tested viruses required the development of unique conditions for replication that are described here and can be used to generate material for in vivo efficacy studies and to accelerate transfer of the processes to larger production volumes. PMID:26814192

  19. Evaluation of factors associated with response to hepatitis B vaccination in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Cekic, Cem; Aslan, Fatih; Krc, Adnan; Gümüs, Zeynep Zehra; Arabul, Mahmut; Yüksel, Elif Sartas; Vatansever, Sezgin; Yurtsever, Süreyya Gül; Alper, Emrah; Ünsal, Belks

    2015-06-01

    It is recommended to investigate the serology of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and vaccinate seronegative patients at the time of diagnosis in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of HBV vaccine and factors affecting the response.In this retrospective, observational study, HBV-seronegative IBD patients were administered 3 doses (at months 0, 1, and 6) recombinant 20  μg HbsAg. Patients' demographics, IBD attributes, and treatment methods were investigated as the factors with potential impacts on vaccination outcomes.One hundred twenty-five patients with IBD were evaluated. The number of patients with Anti-HBs >10  IU/L was 71 (56.8%), and the number of patients with anti-HBs >100  IU/L was 50 (40%). Age, disease activity, Crohn disease subtype, and immunosuppressive treatment (IST) were found to have significant effects on immune response (P = 0.011, P < 0.001, P = 0.003, and P < 0.001, respectively). With multivariate analysis, age < 45 years (OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.2-8.3, P = 0.020), vaccination during remission (OR 5.6, 95% CI 2.3-14, P < 0.001), and non-IST (OR 11.1, 95% CI 2.9-43.2, P = 0.001) had favorable effects on the occurrence of adequate vaccine response.The likelihood of achieving adequate immune response with standard HBV vaccination protocol in IBD is low. Selecting vaccination protocols with more potent immunogenicity is a better approach to achieve effective vaccine response in patients with multiple unfavorable factors. PMID:26039133

  20. Evaluation of Factors Associated With Response to Hepatitis B Vaccination in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cekic, Cem; Aslan, Fatih; Kirci, Adnan; Gümüs, Zeynep Zehra; Arabul, Mahmut; Yüksel, Elif Sarıtas; Vatansever, Sezgin; Yurtsever, Süreyya Gül; Alper, Emrah; Ünsal, Belkıs

    2015-01-01

    Abstract It is recommended to investigate the serology of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and vaccinate seronegative patients at the time of diagnosis in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of HBV vaccine and factors affecting the response. In this retrospective, observational study, HBV-seronegative IBD patients were administered 3 doses (at months 0, 1, and 6) recombinant 20 μg HbsAg. Patients’ demographics, IBD attributes, and treatment methods were investigated as the factors with potential impacts on vaccination outcomes. One hundred twenty-five patients with IBD were evaluated. The number of patients with Anti-HBs >10 IU/L was 71 (56.8%), and the number of patients with anti-HBs >100 IU/L was 50 (40%). Age, disease activity, Crohn disease subtype, and immunosuppressive treatment (IST) were found to have significant effects on immune response (P = 0.011, P < 0.001, P = 0.003, and P < 0.001, respectively). With multivariate analysis, age < 45 years (OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.2–8.3, P = 0.020), vaccination during remission (OR 5.6, 95% CI 2.3–14, P < 0.001), and non-IST (OR 11.1, 95% CI 2.9–43.2, P = 0.001) had favorable effects on the occurrence of adequate vaccine response. The likelihood of achieving adequate immune response with standard HBV vaccination protocol in IBD is low. Selecting vaccination protocols with more potent immunogenicity is a better approach to achieve effective vaccine response in patients with multiple unfavorable factors. PMID:26039133