Sample records for bursting electrical activity

  1. Widespread synchronous [Ca 2+ ] i oscillations due to bursting electrical activity in single pancreatic islets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosa M. Santos; Luis M. Rosario; Angel Nadal; Javier Garcia-Sancho; Bernat Soria; Miguel Valdeolmillos

    1991-01-01

    Pancreatic ß cells, tightly organized in the islet of Langerhans, secrete insulin in response to glucose in a calcium-dependent manner. The calcium input required for this secretory activity is thought to be provided by an oscillatory electrical activity occurring in the form of “bursts” of calcium action potentials. The previous observation that islet intracellular free Ca2+ levels undergo spontaneous oscillations

  2. Bursting electrical activity in pancreatic ? -cells: evidence that the channel underlying the burst is sensitive to Ca 2+ influx through L-type Ca 2+ channels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luís M. Rosário; Rui M. Barbosa; Célia M. Antunes; Amélia M. Silva; Antero J. Abrunhosa; Rosa M. Santos

    1993-01-01

    In glucose-stimulated pancreatic ß-cells, the membrane potential alternates between a hyperpolarized silent phase and a depolarized phase with Ca2+ action potentials. The molecular and ionic mechanisms underlying these bursts of electrical activity remain unknown. We have observed that 10.2–12.8 mM Ca2+, 1 µM Bay K 8644 and 2 mM tetraethylammonium (TEA) trigger bursts of electrical activity and oscillations of intracellular

  3. Non-thermal and transient thermal effects of burst 100 MHz sinusoidal electric fields on apoptotic activity in HeLa cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sunao Katsuki; Kazunori Mitsutake; Masahiko Yano; Hidenori Akiyama; Hirofumi Kai; Tsuyoshi Shuto

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes non-thermal and transient thermal effects of burst 100 MHz, 100 kV\\/m sinusoidal electric fields on the apoptotic activity in cultured HeLa cells. Two kinds of pulsing sequences, 50 0.2 ms-long pulses with 2 s intervals and a single 10 ms-long pulse, were used for the non-thermal and the superposition of transient thermal shock on the non-thermal loading,

  4. Calcium bursts induced by nanosecond electric pulses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Thomas Vernier; Yinghua Sun; Laura Marcu; Sarah Salemi; Cheryl M. Craft; Martin A. Gundersena

    2003-01-01

    We report here real-time imaging of calcium bursts in human lymphocytes exposed to nanosecond, megavolt-per-meter pulsed electric fields. Ultra-short (less than 30ns), high-field (greater than 1MV\\/m), electric pulses induce increases in cytosolic calcium concentration and translocation of phosphatidylserine (PS) to the outer layer of the plasma membrane in Jurkat T lymphoblasts. Pulse-induced calcium bursts occur within milliseconds and PS externalization

  5. Calculation of heating and burst phenomena in electrically exploded foils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Logan; R. S. Lee; R. C. Weingart; K. S. Yee

    1977-01-01

    A method is presented for computing the transient current and temperature distributions in electrically exploded foils. The model employed is applicable up until the time of burst. Calculations are presented for Al, Cu, and Au foils showing good agreement with experimental current waveforms and burst times over a wide range of capacitor-bank charging voltages and for varying foil cross sections.

  6. Elevated neutrophil respiratory burst activity in essential hypertensive patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajesh Ramasamy; Maryam Maqbool; Abdul Latiff Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    Neutrophils play a significant role in maintaining the integrity of innate immunity via their potent respiratory burst activity. However, the uncontrolled activation of respiratory burst in neutrophils also attributes to chronic diseases such as primary hypertension and atherosclerosis. In our study, we have investigated the activation of respiratory burst function of neutrophils harvested from essential hypertensive patients. In the presence

  7. Bursts of Active Transport in Living Cells

    E-print Network

    Bo Wang; James Kuo; Steve Granick

    2013-07-07

    We scrutinize the temporally-resolved speed of active cargo transport in living cells, and show intermittent bursting motions. These nonlinear fluctuations follow a scaling law over several decades of time and space, the statistical regularities displaying a time-averaged shape that we interpret to reflect stress buildup followed by rapid release. The power law of scaling is the same as seen in driven jammed colloids, granular, and magnetic systems. The implied regulation of active transport with environmental obstruction extends the classical notion of molecular crowding.

  8. Genesis and Control of bursting activity in a neuronal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cymbalyuk, Gennady

    2005-11-01

    Neurons are observed in one of four fundamental activity modes: silence, sub-threshold oscillations, tonic spiking, and bursting. Neurons exhibit various activity regimes and regime transitions that reflect their complement of ionic channels and modulatory state. The leech presents unique opportunities for experimental and theoretical studies on the dynamics of neuronal activity. The central pattern generator controlling the leech's heartbeat contains identified pairs of mutually inhibitory neurons. Bursting activity of neurons is an oscillatory activity consisting of intervals of repetitive spiking separated by intervals of quiescence. It has been observed in neurons under normal and pathological conditions. Neurons which are capable of generating bursting activity endogenously play an important role in motor control and other brain functions. Burst duration, interburst interval and spike frequency are crucial temporal characteristics of bursting activity and thus have to be regulated. Application of the bifurcation theory of dynamical systems suggests new mechanism of how bursting activity can be generated by neurons and how burst duration can be regulated. Here we describe two mechanisms for the transition between tonic spiking and bursting. First mechanism describes a smooth, continuous and reversible transition from tonic spiking into bursting in a model neuron. The burst duration increases with no bound as 1/(a-a0)^1/2, where a0 is a parameter determining the transition. The characteristic features of this mechanism are that (a) the burst duration can be made arbitrarily long while (b) inter-burst interval does not depend on the parameter. The second mechanism is concerned with bi-stability where simultaneous tonic spiking and bursting activities co-exist in a neuron. The mechanism is based on a saddle-node periodic orbit bifurcation with non-central homoclinic orbits. This bifurcation describes a transition between three qualitatively different types of dynamics of a neuron. If one varies the control parameter a towards the critical value a0 at which the transition from the bistability region to the region where only tonic spiking is observed, the burst duration of the bursting activity becomes proportional to ln(a-a0). The interburst interval does not correlate with the burst duration. In terms of neuron's activity these two mechanisms describe a biophysically plausible means for regulation of burst duration. We show how this bifurcation can be found in a Hodgkin-Huxley type model of a neuron and how to identify control parameters determining properties of bursting activity. The work is supported by NIH NS 43098.

  9. Regulation of electrical bursting in a spatiotemporal model of a GnRH neuron.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xingjiang; Iremonger, Karl; Herbison, Allan; Kirk, Vivien; Sneyd, James

    2013-10-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons are hypothalamic neurons that control the pulsatile release of GnRH that governs fertility and reproduction in mammals. The mechanisms underlying the pulsatile release of GnRH are not well understood. Some mathematical models have been developed previously to explain different aspects of these activities, such as the properties of burst action potential firing and their associated Ca(2+) transients. These previous studies were based on experimental recordings taken from the soma of GnRH neurons. However, some research groups have shown that the dendrites of GnRH neurons play very important roles. In particular, it is now known that the site of action potential initiation in these neurons is often in the dendrite, over 100 ?m from the soma. This raises an important question. Since some of the mechanisms for controlling the burst length and interburst interval are located in the soma, how can electrical bursting be controlled when initiated at a site located some distance from these controlling mechanisms? In order to answer this question, we construct a spatio-temporal mathematical model that includes both the soma and the dendrite. Our model shows that the diffusion coefficient for the spread of electrical potentials in the dendrite is large enough to coordinate burst firing of action potentials when the initiation site is located at some distance from the soma. PMID:23943344

  10. Burst firing in gonadotrophin-releasing hormone neurones does not require ionotrophic GABA or glutamate receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Lee, K; Liu, X; Herbison, A E

    2012-12-01

    Burst firing is a feature of many neuroendocrine cell types, including the hypothalamic gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurones that control fertility. The role of intrinsic and extrinsic influences in generating GnRH neurone burst firing is presently unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of fast amino acid transmission in burst firing by examining the effects of receptor antagonists on bursting displayed by green fluorescent protein GnRH neurones in sagittal brain slices prepared from adult male mice. Blockade of AMPA and NMDA glutamate receptors with a cocktail of CNQX and AP5 was found to have no effects on burst firing in GnRH neurones. The frequency of bursts, dynamics of individual bursts, or percentage of firing clustered in bursts was not altered. Similarly, GABA(A) receptor antagonists bicuculline and picrotoxin had no effects upon burst firing in GnRH neurones. To examine the importance of both glutamate and GABA ionotrophic signalling, a cocktail including picrotoxin, CNQX and AP5 was used but, again, this was found to have no effects on GnRH neurone burst firing. To further question the impact of endogenous amino acid release on burst firing, electrical activation of anteroventral periventricular nuclei GABA/glutamate inputs to GnRH neurones was undertaken and found to have no impact on burst firing. Taken together, these observations indicate that bursting in GnRH neurones is not dependent upon acute ionotrophic GABA and glutamate signalling and suggest that extrinsic inputs to GnRH neurones acting through AMPA, NMDA and GABA(A) receptors are unlikely to be required for burst initiation in these cells. PMID:22831560

  11. Electrical Conduction Activity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This resource provides an introductory activity on electrical conduction. As the module states, "electrical conduction, the movement of electrical charges, is a mechanism for passing energy and signals from one place to another." The activity covers concepts such as insulators, conductors, semiconductors, superconductors, and ballistic conduction at nanoscale. This module allows students to test their knowledge as they go. Although a preview of the activity is available, instructors and students are encouraged to sign up with the Electron Technologies site before starting to use these materials.

  12. Brief Communications Dendritic Calcium Activity Precedes Inspiratory Bursts in

    E-print Network

    Del Negro, Christopher A.

    evidence that respiratory rhythmogenesis may depend on den- dritic burst-generating conductances activated distribution of active conductances in the so- matodendritic membrane and their role in rhythmogenesis (Ramirez of rhythmogenesis remains uncertain. We measured postsynap- tic Ca2 dynamics in soma-close and soma-distal dendritic

  13. SGR J1550-5418 BURSTS DETECTED WITH THE FERMI GAMMA-RAY BURST MONITOR DURING ITS MOST PROLIFIC ACTIVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Van der Horst, A. J.; Finger, M. H. [Universities Space Research Association, NSSTC, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Kouveliotou, C. [Space Science Office, VP62, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Gorgone, N. M. [Connecticut College, New London, CT 06320 (United States); Kaneko, Y.; Goegues, E.; Lin, L. [Sabanc Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I University, Orhanl Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I -Tuzla, Istanbul 34956 (Turkey); Baring, M. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, MS-108, P.O. Box 1892, Houston, TX 77251 (United States); Guiriec, S.; Bhat, P. N.; Chaplin, V. L.; Goldstein, A. [University of Alabama, Huntsville, CSPAR, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Granot, J. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Watts, A. L. [Astronomical Institute 'Anton Pannekoek', University of Amsterdam, Postbus 94249, 1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bissaldi, E.; Gruber, D. [Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Giessenbachstrasse, Postfach 1312, 85748 Garching (Germany); Gehrels, N.; Harding, A. K. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Gibby, M. H.; Giles, M. M., E-mail: A.J.VanDerHorst@uva.nl [Jacobs Technology, Inc., Huntsville, AL (United States); and others

    2012-04-20

    We have performed detailed temporal and time-integrated spectral analysis of 286 bursts from SGR J1550-5418 detected with the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) in 2009 January, resulting in the largest uniform sample of temporal and spectral properties of SGR J1550-5418 bursts. We have used the combination of broadband and high time-resolution data provided with GBM to perform statistical studies for the source properties. We determine the durations, emission times, duty cycles, and rise times for all bursts, and find that they are typical of SGR bursts. We explore various models in our spectral analysis, and conclude that the spectra of SGR J1550-5418 bursts in the 8-200 keV band are equally well described by optically thin thermal bremsstrahlung (OTTB), a power law (PL) with an exponential cutoff (Comptonized model), and two blackbody (BB) functions (BB+BB). In the spectral fits with the Comptonized model, we find a mean PL index of -0.92, close to the OTTB index of -1. We show that there is an anti-correlation between the Comptonized E{sub peak} and the burst fluence and average flux. For the BB+BB fits, we find that the fluences and emission areas of the two BB functions are correlated. The low-temperature BB has an emission area comparable to the neutron star surface area, independent of the temperature, while the high-temperature BB has a much smaller area and shows an anti-correlation between emission area and temperature. We compare the properties of these bursts with bursts observed from other SGR sources during extreme activations, and discuss the implications of our results in the context of magnetar burst models.

  14. The spontaneous electrical activity of neurons in leech ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Moshtagh-Khorasani, Majid; Miller, Evan W; Torre, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Using the newly developed voltage-sensitive dye VF2.1.Cl, we monitored simultaneously the spontaneous electrical activity of ?80 neurons in a leech ganglion, representing around 20% of the entire neuronal population. Neurons imaged on the ventral surface of the ganglion either fired spikes regularly at a rate of 1–5 Hz or fired sparse spikes irregularly. In contrast, neurons imaged on the dorsal surface, fired spikes in bursts involving several neurons. The overall degree of correlated electrical activity among leech neurons was limited in control conditions but increased in the presence of the neuromodulator serotonin. The spontaneous electrical activity in a leech ganglion is segregated in three main groups: neurons comprising Retzius cells, Anterior Pagoda, and Annulus Erector motoneurons firing almost periodically, a group of neurons firing sparsely and randomly, and a group of neurons firing bursts of spikes of varying durations. These three groups interact and influence each other only weakly. PMID:24303164

  15. Phagocytic and oxidative burst activity of chicken thrombocytes to Salmonella, Escherichia coli and other bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Wigley; Scott D. Hulme; Paul A. Barrow

    1999-01-01

    The potential role of chicken thrombocytes in immune responses to Salmonella, Escherichia coli and other bacteria was investigated by in vitro assays of phagocytosis and respiratory burst activity. Thrombocytes were found to phagocytose bacteria, but were found to be less phagocytic than heterophils. Oxidative burst activity was generated upon challenge of thrombocytes with various Salmonella strains, E. coli, three other

  16. Direct radiation from a strong dc electric field. [Related to solar millisecond radio bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Wentzel, D.G. (Maryland, University, College Park (USA))

    1991-05-01

    Simulations have shown that a strong dc electric field yields, after electrostatic transients, a beam of electrons that is nearly flat in velocity distribution yet emits strong electrostatic and electromagnetic waves. Electric energy is converted 'directly' into radiation. This radiation is derived analytically in order to learn how the radiation may depend on field strength and beam density in astronomical objects. Any wave with a significant electric component along the dc electric field grows exponentially in time, with the growth rate proportional to the number of electrons in the beam. The lower limits on the dc electric field and the beam density are set by competing plasma processes. The results are related to solar millisecond radio bursts. 7 refs.

  17. 60 Hz electric field changes the membrane potential during burst phase in pancreatic ?-cells: in silico analysis.

    PubMed

    Neves, Gesilda F; Silva, José R F; Moraes, Renato B; Fernandes, Thiago S; Tenorio, Bruno M; Nogueira, Romildo A

    2014-06-01

    The production, distribution and use of electricity can generate low frequency electric and magnetic fields (50-60 Hz). Considering that some studies showed adverse effects on pancreatic ?-cells exposed to these fields; the present study aimed to analyze the effects of 60 Hz electric fields on membrane potential during the silent and burst phases in pancreatic ?-cells using a mathematical model. Sinusoidal 60 Hz electric fields with amplitude ranging from 0.5 to 4 mV were applied on pancreatic ?-cells model. The sinusoidal electric field changed burst duration, inter-burst intervals (silent phase) and spike sizes. The parameters above presented dose-dependent response with the voltage amplitude applied. In conclusion, theoretical analyses showed that a 60 Hz electric field with low amplitudes changes the membrane potential in pancreatic ?-cells. PMID:24643285

  18. Activity-dependent long-term depression of electrical synapses.

    PubMed

    Haas, Julie S; Zavala, Baltazar; Landisman, Carole E

    2011-10-21

    Use-dependent forms of synaptic plasticity have been extensively characterized at chemical synapses, but a relationship between natural activity and strength at electrical synapses remains elusive. The thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), a brain area rich in gap-junctional (electrical) synapses, regulates cortical attention to the sensory surround and participates in shifts between arousal states; plasticity of electrical synapses may be a key mechanism underlying these processes. We observed long-term depression resulting from coordinated burst firing in pairs of coupled TRN neurons. Changes in gap-junctional communication were asymmetrical, indicating that regulation of connectivity depends on the direction of use. Modification of electrical synapses resulting from activity in coupled neurons is likely to be a widespread and powerful mechanism for dynamic reorganization of electrically coupled neuronal networks. PMID:22021860

  19. Electrical Membrane Activity and Intracellular Calcium Buffering Control Exocytosis Efficiency in Xenopus Melanotrope Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wim J. J. M. Scheenen; Marc M. Dernison; Jacco R. Lieste; Bruce G. Jenks; Eric W. Roubos

    2003-01-01

    In neural and neuroendocrine cells, Ca2+ influx is essential for exocytosis. Ca2+ influx takes place through electrical membrane activity, which often occurs in bursts of action potentials that lead to intracellular Ca2+ oscillations. Cytoplasmic Ca2+ buffers and intracellular Ca2+ stores are involved in the propagation of the oscillations through the cell. Studies focused on action potential bursts with a high

  20. A bursting potassium channel in isolated cholinergic synaptosomes of Torpedo electric organ.

    PubMed Central

    Edry-Schiller, J; Ginsburg, S; Rahamimoff, R

    1991-01-01

    1. Pinched-off cholinergic nerve terminals (synaptosomes) prepared from the electric organ of Torpedo ocelata were fused into large structures (greater than 20 microns) using dimethyl sulphoxide and polyethylene glycol 1500, as previously described for synaptic vesicles from the same organ. 2. The giant fused synaptosomes were easily amenable to the patch clamp technique and 293 seals with a resistance greater than 4 G omega were obtained in the 'cell-attached' configuration. In a large fraction of the experiments, an 'inside-out' patch configuration was achieved. 3. Several types of unitary ionic currents were observed. This study describes the most frequently observed single-channel activity which was found in 247 out of the 293 membrane patches (84.3%). 4. The single-channel current-voltage relation was linear between -60 and 20 mV and showed a slope conductance of 23.8 +/- 1.3 pS when the pipette contained 350-390 mM-Na+ and the bath facing the inside of the synaptosomal membrane contained 390 mM-K+. 5. From extrapolated reversal potential measurements, it was concluded that this channel has a large selectivity for K+ over Na+ (70.4 +/- 11.5, mean +/- S.E.M.). Chloride ions are not transported significantly through this potassium channel. 6. This potassium channel has a low probability of opening. The probability of being in the open state increases upon depolarization and reaches about 1% when the inside of the patch is 20 mV positive compared to the pipette side. 7. The mean channel open time increases with depolarization; thus the product current x time (= charge) also increases upon depolarization, showing properties of an outward rectifier. 8. The potassium channel in the giant synaptosome membrane has a bursting behaviour. Open-time distribution, closed-time distribution and a Poisson analysis indicate that the minimal kinetic scheme requires one open state and three closed states. PMID:1654418

  1. Activity from Magnetar Candidate 4U 0142+61: Bursts and Emission Lines

    E-print Network

    Fotis P. Gavriil; Rim. Dib; Victoria M. Kaspi

    2007-12-27

    After 6 years of quiescence, Anomalous X-ray Pulsar (AXP) 4U 0142+61 entered an active phase in 2006 March that lasted several months. During the active phase, several bursts were detected, and many aspects of the X-ray emission changed. We report on the discovery of six X-ray bursts, the first ever seen from this AXP in ~10 years of Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) monitoring. All the bursts occurred in the interval between 2006 April 6 and 2007 February 7. The bursts had the canonical fast rise slow decay profiles characteristic of SGR/AXP bursts. The burst durations ranged from 8-3x10^3 s as characterized by T90,these are very long durations even when compared to the broad T90 distributions of other bursts from SGRs and AXPs. The first five burst spectra are well modeled by simple blackbodies, with temperature kT ~2-6 keV. However, the sixth burst had a complicated spectrum consisting of at least three emission lines with possible additional emission and absorption lines. The most significant feature was at ~14 keV. Similar 14-keV spectral features were seen in bursts from AXPs 1E 1048.1-5937 and XTE J1810-197. If this feature is interpreted as a proton cyclotron line, then it supports the existence of a magnetar-strength field for these AXPs. Several of the bursts were accompanied by a short-term pulsed flux enhancement. We discuss these events in the context of the magnetar model.

  2. Emergence of spatially heterogeneous burst suppression in a neural field model of electrocortical activity

    PubMed Central

    Bojak, Ingo; Stoyanov, Zhivko V.; Liley, David T. J.

    2015-01-01

    Burst suppression in the electroencephalogram (EEG) is a well-described phenomenon that occurs during deep anesthesia, as well as in a variety of congenital and acquired brain insults. Classically it is thought of as spatially synchronous, quasi-periodic bursts of high amplitude EEG separated by low amplitude activity. However, its characterization as a “global brain state” has been challenged by recent results obtained with intracranial electrocortigraphy. Not only does it appear that burst suppression activity is highly asynchronous across cortex, but also that it may occur in isolated regions of circumscribed spatial extent. Here we outline a realistic neural field model for burst suppression by adding a slow process of synaptic resource depletion and recovery, which is able to reproduce qualitatively the empirically observed features during general anesthesia at the whole cortex level. Simulations reveal heterogeneous bursting over the model cortex and complex spatiotemporal dynamics during simulated anesthetic action, and provide forward predictions of neuroimaging signals for subsequent empirical comparisons and more detailed characterization. Because burst suppression corresponds to a dynamical end-point of brain activity, theoretically accounting for its spatiotemporal emergence will vitally contribute to efforts aimed at clarifying whether a common physiological trajectory is induced by the actions of general anesthetic agents. We have taken a first step in this direction by showing that a neural field model can qualitatively match recent experimental data that indicate spatial differentiation of burst suppression activity across cortex. PMID:25767438

  3. Magnetar Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kouveliotou, Chryssa

    2014-01-01

    The Fermi/Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) was launched in June 2008. During the last five years the instrument has observed several hundreds of bursts from 8 confirmed magnetars and 19 events from unconfirmed sources. I will discuss the results of the GBM magnetar burst catalog, expand on the different properties of their diverse source population, and compare these results with the bursting activity of past sources. I will then conclude with thoughts of how these properties fit the magnetar theoretical models.

  4. Gamma-ray bursts, QSOs and active galaxies.

    PubMed

    Burbidge, Geoffrey

    2007-05-15

    The similarity of the absorption spectra of gamma-ray burst (GRB) sources or afterglows with the absorption spectra of quasars (QSOs) suggests that QSOs and GRB sources are very closely related. Since most people believe that the redshifts of QSOs are of cosmological origin, it is natural to assume that GRBs or their afterglows also have cosmological redshifts. For some years a few of us have argued that there is much optical evidence suggesting a very different model for QSOs, in which their redshifts have a non-cosmological origin, and are ejected from low-redshift active galaxies. In this paper I extend these ideas to GRBs. In 2003, Burbidge (Burbidge 2003 Astrophys. J. 183, 112-120) showed that the redshift periodicity in the spectra of QSOs appears in the redshift of GRBs. This in turn means that both the QSOs and the GRB sources are similar objects ejected from comparatively low-redshift active galaxies. It is now clear that many of the GRBs of low redshift do appear in, or very near, active galaxies.A new and powerful result supporting this hypothesis has been produced by Prochter et al. (Prochter et al. 2006 Astrophys. J. Lett. 648, L93-L96). They show that in a survey for strong MgII absorption systems along the sightlines to long-duration GRBs, nearly every sightline shows at least one absorber. If the absorbers are intervening clouds or galaxies, only a small fraction should show absorption of this kind. The number found by Prochter et al. is four times higher than that normally found for the MgII absorption spectra of QSOs. They believe that this result is inconsistent with the intervening hypothesis and would require a statistical fluctuation greater than 99.1% probability. This is what we expect if the absorption is intrinsic to the GRBs and the redshifts are not associated with their distances. In this case, the absorption must be associated with gas ejected from the QSO. This in turn implies that the GRBs actually originate in comparatively low-redshift active galaxies and are ejected in the same way as are the QSOs. This relates these phenomena to a supernova origin for the GRBs. The current situation based on the latest observational data will be discussed. PMID:17301024

  5. Modeling Electrically Active Viscoelastic Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Sitikantha; Brownell, William E.; Spector, Alexander A.

    2012-01-01

    The membrane protein prestin is native to the cochlear outer hair cell that is crucial to the ear's amplification and frequency selectivity throughout the whole acoustic frequency range. The outer hair cell exhibits interrelated dimensional changes, force generation, and electric charge transfer. Cells transfected with prestin acquire unique active properties similar to those in the native cell that have also been useful in understanding the process. Here we propose a model describing the major electromechanical features of such active membranes. The model derived from thermodynamic principles is in the form of integral relationships between the history of voltage and membrane resultants as independent variables and the charge density and strains as dependent variables. The proposed model is applied to the analysis of an active force produced by the outer hair cell in response to a harmonic electric field. Our analysis reveals the mechanism of the outer hair cell active (isometric) force having an almost constant amplitude and phase up to 80 kHz. We found that the frequency-invariance of the force is a result of interplay between the electrical filtering associated with prestin and power law viscoelasticity of the surrounding membrane. Paradoxically, the membrane viscoelasticity boosts the force balancing the electrical filtering effect. We also consider various modes of electromechanical coupling in membrane with prestin associated with mechanical perturbations in the cell. We consider pressure or strains applied step-wise or at a constant rate and compute the time course of the resulting electric charge. The results obtained here are important for the analysis of electromechanical properties of membranes, cells, and biological materials as well as for a better understanding of the mechanism of hearing and the role of the protein prestin in this mechanism. PMID:22701528

  6. Magnetar Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouveliotou, Chryssa

    Magnetar bursts The Fermi/Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) was launched in June 2008. During the last five years the instrument has observed several hundreds of bursts from 8 confirmed magnetars and 19 events from unconfirmed sources. I will discuss the results of the GBM magnetar burst catalog, expand on the different properties of their diverse source population, and compare these results with the bursting activity of past sources. I will then conclude with thoughts of how these properties fit the magnetar theoretical models.

  7. The dynamics underlying pseudo-plateau bursting in a pituitary cell model

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Pituitary cells of the anterior pituitary gland secrete hormones in response to patterns of electrical activity. Several types of pituitary cells produce short bursts of electrical activity which are more effective than single spikes in evoking hormone release. These bursts, called pseudo-plateau bursts, are unlike bursts studied mathematically in neurons (plateau bursting) and the standard fast-slow analysis used for plateau bursting is of limited use. Using an alternative fast-slow analysis, with one fast and two slow variables, we show that pseudo-plateau bursting is a canard-induced mixed mode oscillation. Using this technique, it is possible to determine the region of parameter space where bursting occurs as well as salient properties of the burst such as the number of spikes in the burst. The information gained from this one-fast/two-slow decomposition complements the information obtained from a two-fast/one-slow decomposition. PMID:22268000

  8. Electrical Activity in the Spinal Cord of the Chick Embryo, in situ

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. R. Provine; S. C. Sharma; T. T. Sandel; V. Hamburger

    1970-01-01

    Unit electrical activity was recorded from single neurons in the lumbo-sacral spinal cord of 15-, 17-, and 19-day chick embryos, in situ. The dorsal columns showed relatively continuous single-unit activity. Below this lies an area of relative quiet 100-200mu deep. The ventral two thirds of the cord was the most active region, being characterized by polyneuronal bursts and intermittently active

  9. Number of transients/Q-bursts in ELF-band as possible criterion for global thunderstorm activity estimation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ondraskova, Adriena; Sevcik, Sebastian

    2015-04-01

    Schumann resonances (SR) are resonant electromagnetic oscillations in extremely low frequency band (ELF, 3 Hz - 3 kHz), which arise in the Earth-ionosphere cavity due to lightning activity in planetary range. The time records in the ELF-band consist of background signals and ELF transients/Q-bursts superimposed on the background exceeding it by a factor of 5 - 10. The former are produced by the common worldwide thunderstorm activity (100 - 150 events per second), the latter origin from individual intense distant lightning discharges (100 - 120 powerful strokes per hour). A Q-burst is produced by a combination of direct and antipodal pulses and the decisive factor for its shape follows from the source-to-observer distance (SOD). Diurnal/seasonal variations of global thunderstorm activity can be deduced from spectral amplitudes of SR modes. Here we focus on diurnal/seasonal variations of the number of ELF-transients assuming that it is another way of lightning activity estimation. To search for transients, our own code was applied to the SR vertical electric component measured in October 2004 - December 2008 at the Astronomical and Geophysical Observatory of FMPI CU, Slovakia. Limits (min-max) for the width of primary spike, time difference between primary and secondary spike and the amplitude of the spike were chosen as criteria for the identification of the burst. Cumulative spectral amplitude of the first three SR modes compared with number of ELF-transients in monthly averaged diurnal variations quite successfully confirmed, that the number of transients can be a suitable criterion for the quantification of global lightning activity.

  10. Effect of dietary administration of Porphyridium cruentum on the respiratory burst activity of sole, Solea senegalensis (Kaup), phagocytes.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Rosales, P; Chabrillón, M; Abdala, R T; Figueroa, F L; Balebona, M C; Moriñigo, M A

    2008-07-01

    The stimulatory effect of the red microalga Porphyridium cruentum on respiratory burst activity of sole phagocytes was evaluated in vivo. Oral administration of a diet supplemented with lyophilized P. cruentum cells (10 g kg(-1)) stimulated respiratory burst activity after 4 weeks feeding in sole vaccinated with Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida bacterin. PMID:18577098

  11. Optical monitoring of progressive synchronization in dentate granule cells during population burst activities.

    PubMed

    Murayama, Masanori; Miyazaki, Kenichi; Kudo, Yoshihisa; Miyakawa, Hiroyoshi; Inoue, Masashi

    2005-06-01

    Monitoring multiple neurons is essential for understanding neuronal network activities. While calcium imaging from a population of cells is an effective method to study the network dynamics of a neural structure, it has been difficult to image from densely packed structures, such as the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus, due to overlap of the cells. We have developed a novel method to label multiple granule cells with a Ca(2+) indicator in rat hippocampal slices using Oregon Green 488 BAPTA-1 (OGB-1) AM. Synchronized burst activities (0.3-1.4 Hz), which were induced by applying 50 microm 4-aminopyridine, were monitored extracellularly with a glass electrode placed at the granule cell layer in the dentate gyrus. During the burst activities, spontaneously occurring action potential-induced Ca(2+) transients from multiple (4-12) granule cells were monitored with a cooled CCD camera with single-cell resolution. Temporal structures of firing patterns from the multiple neurons were determined from Ca(2+) transients. In each single-burst-event recorded from the extracellular electrode, each neuron fired synchronously within a 200 ms time window. The latency and its variance from the onset time of the single-burst-events to one of the Ca(2+) transients decreased over time (< 7.5 min). These results indicate that the synchrony of the action potentials within a single-burst-event was enhanced as the burst activities proceeded. This progressive synchronization may be a key feature in making self-organizing neuronal networks. PMID:16026472

  12. Detection of Spectral Evolution in the Bursts Emitted During the 2008-2009 Active Episode of SGR J1550 - 5418

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    von Kienlin, Andreas; Gruber, David; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Granot, Jonathan; Baring, Matthew G.; Gogus, Ersin; Huppenkothen, Daniela; Kaneko, Yuki; Lin, Lin; Watts, Anna L.; Bhat, Narayana; Guiriec, Sylvain; van der Horst, Alexander J.; Bissaldi, Elisabetta; Greiner, Jochen; Meegan, Charles A.; Paciesas, William S.; Preece, Robert D.; Rau, Arne

    2012-01-01

    In early October 2008, the Soft Gamma Repeater SGRJ1550 - 5418 (1E1547.0 - 5408, AXJ155052 - 5418, PSR J1550 - 5418) became active, emitting a series of bursts which triggered the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) after which a second especially intense activity period commenced in 2009 January and a third, less active period was detected in 2009 March-April. Here we analyze the GBM data of all the bursts from the first and last active episodes. We performed temporal and spectral analysis for all events and found that their temporal characteristics are very similar to the ones of other SGR bursts, as well the ones reported for the bursts of the main episode (average burst durations 170ms). In addition, we used our sample of bursts to quantify the systematic uncertainties of the GBM location algorithm for soft gamma-ray transients to less than or equal to 8 degrees. Our spectral analysis indicates significant spectral evolution between the first and last set of events. Although the 2008 October events are best fit with a single blackbody function, for the 2009 bursts an Optically Thin Thermal Bremsstrahlung (OTTB) is clearly preferred. We attribute this evolution to changes in the magnetic field topology of the source, possibly due to effects following the very energetic main bursting episode.

  13. SOLAR CYCLE VARIATIONS OF THE OCCURRENCE OF CORONAL TYPE III RADIO BURSTS AND A NEW SOLAR ACTIVITY INDEX

    SciTech Connect

    Lobzin, Vasili; Cairns, Iver H.; Robinson, Peter A. [School of Physics, University of Sydney, New South Wales (Australia)

    2011-07-20

    This Letter presents the results of studies of solar cycle variations of the occurrence rate of coronal type III radio bursts. The radio spectra are provided by the Learmonth Solar Radio Observatory (Western Australia), part of the USAF Radio Solar Telescope Network (RSTN). It is found that the occurrence rate of type III bursts strongly correlates with solar activity. However, the profiles for the smoothed type III burst occurrence rate differ considerably from those for the sunspot number, 10.7 cm solar radio flux, and solar flare index. The type III burst occurrence rate (T3BOR) is proposed as a new index of solar activity. T3BOR provides complementary information about solar activity and should be useful in different studies including solar cycle predictions and searches for different periodicities in solar activity. This index can be estimated from daily results of the Automated Radio Burst Identification System. Access to data from other RSTN sites will allow processing 24 hr radio spectra in near-real time and estimating true daily values of this index. It is also shown that coronal type III bursts can even occur when there are no visible sunspots on the Sun. However, no evidence is found that the bursts are not associated with active regions. It is also concluded that the type III burst productivity of active regions exhibits solar cycle variations.

  14. Burst and Persistent Emission Properties during the Recent Active Episode of the Anomalous X-Ray Pulsar 1E 1841-045

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Lin; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Gogus, Ersin; van der Horst, Alexander J.; Watts, Anna L.; Baring, Matthew G.; Kaneko, Yuki; Wijers, Ralph A. M. J.; Woods, Peter M.; Barthelmy, Scott; Burgess, J. Michael; Chaplin, Vandiver; Gehrels, Neil; Goldstein, Adam; Granot, Jonathan; Guiriec, Sylvain; Mcenery, Julie; Preece, Robert D.; Tierney, David; van der Klis, Michiel; von Kienlin, Andreas; Zhang, Shuang Nan

    2011-01-01

    SWift/BAT detected the first burst from 1E 1841-045 in May 2010 with intermittent burst activity recorded through at least July 2011. Here we present Swift and Fermi/GBM observations of this burst activity and search for correlated changes to the persistent X-ray emission of the source. The T90 durations of the bursts range between 18 - 140 ms, comparable to other magnetar burst durations, while the energy released in each burst ranges between (0.8-25) x 1038 erg, which is in the low side of SGR bursts. We find that the bursting activity did not have a significant effect on the persistent flux level of the source. We argue that the mechanism leading to this sporadic burst activity in IE 1841-045 might not involve large scale restructuring (either crustal or magnetospheric) as seen in other magnetar sources.

  15. Burst and Persistent Emission Properties during the Recent Active Episode of the Anomalous X-ray Pulsar 1E 1841-045

    E-print Network

    Lin, Lin; Gogus, Ersin; van der Horst, Alexander J; Watts, Anna L; Baring, Matthew G; Kaneko, Yuki; Wijers, Ralph A M J; Woods, Peter M; Barthelmy, Scott; Burgess, J Michael; Chaplin, Vandiver; Gehrels, Neil; Goldstein, Adam; Granot, Jonathan; Guiriec, Sylvain; Mcenery, Julie; Preece, Robert D; Tierney, David; van der Klis, Michiel; von Kienlin, Andreas; Zhang, Shuang Nan

    2011-01-01

    Swift/BAT detected the first burst from 1E 1841-045 in May 2010 with intermittent burst activity recorded through at least July 2011. Here we present Swift and Fermi/GBM observations of this burst activity and search for correlated changes to the persistent X-ray emission of the source. The T90 durations of the bursts range between 18-140 ms, comparable to other magnetar burst durations, while the energy released in each burst ranges between (0.8 - 25)E38 erg, which is in the low side of SGR bursts. We find that the bursting activity did not have a significant effect on the persistent flux level of the source. We argue that the mechanism leading to this sporadic burst activity in 1E 1841-045 might not involve large scale restructuring (either crustal or magnetospheric) as seen in other magnetar sources.

  16. THE 2006-2007 ACTIVE PHASE OF ANOMALOUS X-RAY PULSAR 4U 0142+61: RADIATIVE AND TIMING CHANGES, BURSTS, AND BURST SPECTRAL FEATURES

    SciTech Connect

    Gavriil, Fotis P. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Astrophysics Science Division, Code 662, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Dib, Rim; Kaspi, Victoria M. [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada)

    2011-08-01

    After at least six years of quiescence, anomalous X-ray pulsar (AXP) 4U 0142+61 entered an active phase in 2006 March that lasted several months and included six X-ray bursts as well as many changes in the persistent X-ray emission. The bursts, the first seen from this AXP in >11 yr of Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer monitoring, all occurred in the interval between 2006 April 6 and 2007 February 7. The burst durations ranged from (0.4-1.8) x 10{sup 3} s. The first five burst spectra are well modeled by blackbodies, with temperatures kT {approx} 2-9 keV. However, the sixth burst had a complicated spectrum that is well characterized by a blackbody plus two emission features whose amplitude varied throughout the burst. The most prominent feature was at 14.0 keV. Upon entry into the active phase, the pulsar showed a significant change in pulse morphology and a likely timing glitch. The glitch had a total frequency jump of (1.9 {+-} 0.4) x 10{sup -7} Hz, which recovered with a decay time of 17 {+-} 2 days by more than the initial jump, implying a net spin-down of the pulsar. Within the framework of the magnetar model, the net spin-down of the star could be explained by regions of the superfluid that rotate slower than the rest. The bursts, flux enhancements, and pulse morphology changes can be explained as arising from crustal deformations due to stresses imposed by the highly twisted internal magnetic field. However, unlike other AXP outbursts, we cannot account for a major twist being implanted in the magnetosphere.

  17. The 2006-2007 Active Phase of Anomalous X-Ray Pulsar 4U 0142+61: Radiative and Timing Changes, Bursts,and Burst Spectral Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gavriil, Fotis P.; Dib, Rim; Kaspi, Victoria M.

    2011-01-01

    After at least 6 years of quiescence, Anomalous X-ray Pulsar (AXP) 4U 0142+61 entered an active phase in 2006 March that lasted several months and included six X-ray bursts as well as many changes in the persistent X-ray emission. The bursts, the first seen from this AXP in > 11 years of Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer monitoring, all occurred in the interval between 2006 April 6 and 2007 February 7. The burst durations ranged from 0.4 - 1.8 x 10(exp 3) s. The first five burst spectra are well modeled by blackbodies, with temperatures kT approx 2 - 9 keV. However, the sixth burst had a complicated spectrum that is well characterized by a blackbody plus two emission features whose amplitude varied throughout the burst. The most prominent feature was at 14.0 keV. Upon entry into the active phase the pulsar showed a significant change in pulse morphology and a likely timing glitch. The glitch had a total frequency jump of (1.9+/-0.4) x 10(exp -7) Hz, which recovered with a decay time of 17+/-2 days by more than the initial jump, implying a net spin-down of the pulsar. Within the framework of the magnetar model, the net spin-down of the star could be explained by regions of the superfluid that rotate. slower than the rest. The bursts, flux enhancements, and pulse morphology changes can be explained as arising from crustal deformations due to stresses imposed by the highly twisted internal magnetic field. However, unlike other AXP outbursts, we cannot account for a major twist being implanted in the magnetosphere.

  18. Extracting Information from the Electrical Activity of

    E-print Network

    Clancy, Ted

    Extracting Information from the Electrical Activity of Human Skeletal Muscle Edward (Ted) A. Clancy/351/ch6outline.html) · Muscle fibers contract "all or nothing" · One mechanical twitch per contraction Institute Presentation Overview · Brief background: ­ Muscle electrical activity (EMG) · Engineering models

  19. Dendritic calcium activity precedes inspiratory bursts in preBotzinger complex neurons.

    PubMed

    Del Negro, Christopher A; Hayes, John A; Rekling, Jens C

    2011-01-19

    Medullary interneurons of the preBötzinger complex assemble excitatory networks that produce inspiratory-related neural rhythms, but the importance of somatodendritic conductances in rhythm generation is still incompletely understood. Synaptic input may cause Ca(2+) accumulation postsynaptically to evoke a Ca(2+)-activated inward current that contributes to inspiratory burst generation. We measured Ca(2+) transients by two-photon imaging dendrites while recording neuronal somata electrophysiologically. Dendritic Ca(2+) accumulation frequently precedes inspiratory bursts, particularly at recording sites 50-300 ?m distal from the soma. Preinspiratory Ca(2+) transients occur in hotspots, not ubiquitously, in dendrites. Ca(2+) activity propagates orthodromically toward the soma (and antidromically to more distal regions of the dendrite) at rapid rates (300-700 ?m/s). These high propagation rates suggest that dendritic Ca(2+) activates an inward current to electrotonically depolarize the soma, rather than propagate as a regenerative Ca(2+) wave. These data provide new evidence that respiratory rhythmogenesis may depend on dendritic burst-generating conductances activated in the context of network activity. PMID:21248126

  20. Suppression of acute seizures by theta burst electrical stimulation of the hippocampal commissure using a closed-loop system.

    PubMed

    Siah, Boon Hong; Chiang, Chia-Chu; Ju, Ming-Shaung; Lin, Chou-Ching K

    2014-12-17

    This study investigated the effects of electrical stimulation with theta burst stimulation (eTBS) on seizure suppression. Optimal parameters of eTBS were determined through open-loop stimulation experiments and then implemented in a close-loop seizure control system. For the experiments, 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) was injected into the right hippocampus of Sprague-Dawley rats to induce an acute seizure. eTBS was applied on the ventral hippocampal commissure and the effects of eTBS with different combinations of burst frequency and number of pulses per burst were analyzed in terms of seizure suppression. A closed-loop seizure control system was then implemented based on optimal eTBS parameters. The efficiency of the closed-loop eTBS was evaluated and compared to that of high frequency stimulation. The results show that eTBS induced global suppression in the hippocampus and this was sustained even after the application of eTBS. The optimal parameter of eTBS in the open-loop stimulation experiments was a burst frequency at 100Hz with nine pulses in a burst. The eTBS integrated with the on-off control law yielded less actions and cumulative delivered charge, but induced longer after-effects of seizure suppression compared to continuous high frequency stimulation (cHFS). To conclude, eTBS has suppressive effects on 4-AP induced seizure. A closed-loop eTBS system provides a more effective way of suppressing seizure and requires less effort compared to cHFS. eTBS may be a novel stimulation protocol for effective seizure control. PMID:25451100

  1. SGR J1550-5418 bursts detected with the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor during its most prolific activity

    E-print Network

    van der Horst, A J; Gorgone, N M; Kaneko, Y; Baring, M G; Guiriec, S; Gogus, E; Granot, J; Watts, A L; Lin, L; Bhat, P N; Bissaldi, E; Chaplin, V L; Connaughton, V; Finger, M H; Gehrels, N; Gibby, M H; Giles, M M; Goldstein, A; Gruber, D; Harding, A K; Kaper, L; von Kienlin, A; van der Klis, M; McBreen, S; Mcenery, J; Meegan, C A; Paciesas, W S; Pe'er, A; Preece, R D; Ramirez-Ruiz, E; Rau, A; Wachter, S; Wilson-Hodge, C; Woods, P M; Wijers, R A M J

    2012-01-01

    We have performed detailed temporal and time-integrated spectral analysis of 286 bursts from SGR J1550-5418 detected with the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) in January 2009, resulting in the largest uniform sample of temporal and spectral properties of SGR J1550-5418 bursts. We have used the combination of broadband and high time-resolution data provided with GBM to perform statistical studies for the source properties. We determine the durations, emission times, duty cycles and rise times for all bursts, and find that they are typical of SGR bursts. We explore various models in our spectral analysis, and conclude that the spectra of SGR J1550-5418 bursts in the 8-200 keV band are equally well described by optically thin thermal bremsstrahlung (OTTB), a power law with an exponential cutoff (Comptonized model), and two black-body functions (BB+BB). In the spectral fits with the Comptonized model we find a mean power-law index of -0.92, close to the OTTB index of -1. We show that there is an anti-correlati...

  2. Detection of spectral evolution in the bursts emitted during the 2008-2009 active episode of SGR J1550 - 5418

    E-print Network

    von Kienlin, Andreas; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Granot, Jonathan; Baring, Matthew G; Gö?ü?, Ersin; Huppenkothen, Daniela; Kaneko, Yuki; Lin, Lin; Watts, Anna L; Bhat, P Narayana; Guiriec, Sylvain; van der Horst, Alexander J; Bissaldi, Elisabetta; Greiner, Jochen; Meegan, Charles A; Paciesas, William S; Preece, Robert D; Rau, Arne

    2012-01-01

    In early October 2008, the Soft Gamma Repeater SGRJ1550 - 5418 (1E 1547.0 - 5408, AXJ155052 - 5418, PSR J1550 - 5418) became active, emitting a series of bursts which triggered the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) after which a second especially intense activity period commenced in 2009 January and a third, less active period was detected in 2009 March-April. Here we analyze the GBM data all the bursts from the first and last active episodes. We performed temporal and spectral analysis for all events and found that their temporal characteristics are very similar to the ones of other SGR bursts, as well the ones reported for the bursts of the main episode (average burst durations \\sim 170 ms). In addition, we used our sample of bursts to quantify the systematic uncertainties of the GBM location algorithm for soft gamma-ray transients to < 8 deg. Our spectral analysis indicates significant spectral evolution between the first and last set of events. Although the 2008 October events are best fit with a sin...

  3. Emergence of population bursts from simultaneous activation of small subsets of preBötzinger complex inspiratory neurons.

    PubMed

    Kam, Kaiwen; Worrell, Jason W; Ventalon, Cathie; Emiliani, Valentina; Feldman, Jack L

    2013-02-20

    During rhythmic movements, central pattern generators (CPGs) trigger bursts of motor activity with precise timing. However, the number of neurons that must be activated within CPGs to generate motor output is unknown. In the mammalian breathing rhythm, a fundamentally important motor behavior, the preBötzinger Complex (preBötC) produces synchronous population-wide bursts of activity to control inspiratory movements. We probed mechanisms underlying inspiratory burst generation in the preBötC using holographic photolysis of caged glutamate in medullary slices from neonatal mice. With stimulation parameters determined to confine photoactivation to targeted neurons, simultaneous excitation of 4-9 targeted neurons could initiate ectopic, endogenous-like bursts with delays averaging 255 ms, placing a critical and novel boundary condition on the microcircuit underlying respiratory rhythmogenesis. PMID:23426661

  4. Bursts of Vertex Activation and Epidemics in Evolving Networks

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Luis E. C.; Blondel, Vincent D.

    2013-01-01

    The dynamic nature of contact patterns creates diverse temporal structures. In particular, empirical studies have shown that contact patterns follow heterogeneous inter-event time intervals, meaning that periods of high activity are followed by long periods of inactivity. To investigate the impact of these heterogeneities in the spread of infection from a theoretical perspective, we propose a stochastic model to generate temporal networks where vertices make instantaneous contacts following heterogeneous inter-event intervals, and may leave and enter the system. We study how these properties affect the prevalence of an infection and estimate , the number of secondary infections of an infectious individual in a completely susceptible population, by modeling simulated infections (SI and SIR) that co-evolve with the network structure. We find that heterogeneous contact patterns cause earlier and larger epidemics in the SIR model in comparison to homogeneous scenarios for a vast range of parameter values, while smaller epidemics may happen in some combinations of parameters. In the case of SI and heterogeneous patterns, the epidemics develop faster in the earlier stages followed by a slowdown in the asymptotic limit. For increasing vertex turnover rates, heterogeneous patterns generally cause higher prevalence in comparison to homogeneous scenarios with the same average inter-event interval. We find that is generally higher for heterogeneous patterns, except for sufficiently large infection duration and transmission probability. PMID:23555211

  5. Theoretical studies on the electrical activity of pancreatic beta-cells as a function of glucose.

    PubMed Central

    Himmel, D M; Chay, T R

    1987-01-01

    The electrical activity of pancreatic beta-cells, which has been closely correlated both with intracellular Ca2+ concentration and insulin release, is characterized by a biphasic response to glucose and bursts of spiking action potentials. Recent voltage clamp and single channel patch clamp experiments have identified several transmembrane ionic channels that may play key roles in the electrophysiological behavior of beta-cells. There is a hypothesis that Ca2+-activated K+ channels are responsible for both the resting potential during low glucose concentration and the silent phase during bursting. The discovery of the ATP-inactivated K+ channel raises the possibility that the current for this latter K+ channel may dominate the resting potential, while the Ca2+-activated K+ current dominates the silent phase potential between bursts. The recent discovery that Ca2+-activated K+ channels are pH sensitive raises an interesting possibility for the biphasic electrical response. In this paper, numerical methods are presented for evaluating these hypotheses against experimental evidence. PMID:3542073

  6. Mycophenolic acid inhibits PMA-induced activation of the neutrophil respiratory burst.

    PubMed

    Jüttner, B; Bencel, M; Weissig, A; Studzinski, A; Stenger, K; Scheinichen, D

    2009-06-01

    Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is commonly used in immunosuppressive regimens for solid organ transplantation. There is evidence that the hydrolyzed active agent mycophenolic acid (MPA) causes the endothelial depletion of intracellular guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP) levels. This depletion may cause inactivation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase. The purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of MPA on the neutrophil respiratory burst and phagocytic activity using flow cytometry. In whole blood of healthy volunteers, 2 different doses of MPA (1 and 10 mumol/L) did not alter hydrogen peroxide production of neutrophils induced by receptor-dependent activators. In contrast, MPA inhibits the protein kinase C (PKC)-mediated hydrogen peroxide production by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) in a time-dependent manner (negative: 21.17 +/- 1.64 vs. 120 min: 14.46 +/- 1.28 mean fluorescence intensity, incubation with 1 mumol/L MPA). In conclusion, our results corroborated that the neutrophil respiratory burst activity of healthy volunteers, induced by either formyl-methionyl-leucylphenylalanine (fMLP), priming with tumor necrosis factor alpha followed by fMLP or Escherichia coli and neutrophil phagocytic capacity, were not significantly affected after MPA treatment. We also could demonstrate that the hydrogen peroxide production of neutrophils decreased in response to the PKC activator PMA in a time-dependent manner. PMID:19302273

  7. Origin of initial burst in activity for Trichoderma reesei endo-glucanases hydrolyzing insoluble cellulose.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Leigh; Cruys-Bagger, Nicolaj; Damgaard, Heidi Delcomyn; Baumann, Martin J; Olsen, Søren Nymand; Borch, Kim; Lassen, Søren Flensted; Sweeney, Matt; Tatsumi, Hirosuke; Westh, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The kinetics of cellulose hydrolysis have long been described by an initial fast hydrolysis rate, tapering rapidly off, leading to a process that takes days rather than hours to complete. This behavior has been mainly attributed to the action of cellobiohydrolases and often linked to the processive mechanism of this exo-acting group of enzymes. The initial kinetics of endo-glucanases (EGs) is far less investigated, partly due to a limited availability of quantitative assay technologies. We have used isothermal calorimetry to monitor the early time course of the hydrolysis of insoluble cellulose by the three main EGs from Trichoderma reesei (Tr): TrCel7B (formerly EG I), TrCel5A (EG II), and TrCel12A (EG III). These endo-glucanases show a distinctive initial burst with a maximal rate that is about 5-fold higher than the rate after 5 min of hydrolysis. The burst is particularly conspicuous for TrCel7B, which reaches a maximal turnover of about 20 s(-1) at 30 °C and conducts about 1200 catalytic cycles per enzyme molecule in the initial fast phase. For TrCel5A and TrCel12A the extent of the burst is 2-300 cycles per enzyme molecule. The availability of continuous data on EG activity allows an analysis of the mechanisms underlying the initial kinetics, and it is suggested that the slowdown is linked to transient inactivation of enzyme on the cellulose surface. We propose, therefore, that the frequency of structures on the substrate surface that cause transient inactivation determine the extent of the burst phase. PMID:22110134

  8. Characterization of inward currents and channels underlying burst activity in motoneurons of crab cardiac ganglion.

    PubMed

    Ransdell, Joseph L; Temporal, Simone; West, Nicole L; Leyrer, Megan L; Schulz, David J

    2013-07-01

    Large cell motoneurons in the Cancer borealis cardiac ganglion generate rhythmic bursts of action potentials responsible for cardiac contractions. While it is well known that these burst potentials are dependent on coordinated interactions among depolarizing and hyperpolarizing conductances, the depolarizing currents present in these cells, and their biophysical characteristics, have not been thoroughly described. In this study we used a combined molecular biology and electrophysiology approach to look at channel identity, expression, localization, and biophysical properties for two distinct high-voltage-activated calcium currents present in these cells: a slow calcium current (ICaS) and a transient calcium current (ICaT). Our data indicate that CbCaV1 is a putative voltage-gated calcium channel subunit in part responsible for an L-type current, while CbCaV2 (formerly cacophony) is a subunit in part responsible for a P/Q-type current. These channels appear to be localized primarily to the somata of the motoneurons. A third calcium channel gene (CbCaV3) was identified that encodes a putative T-type calcium channel subunit and is expressed in these cells, but electrophysiological studies failed to detect this current in motoneuron somata. In addition, we identify and characterize for the first time in these cells a calcium-activated nonselective cationic current (ICAN), as well as a largely noninactivating TTX-sensitive current reminiscent of a persistent sodium current. The identification and further characterization of these currents allow both biological and modeling studies to move forward with more attention to the complexity of interactions among these distinct components underlying generation of bursting output in motoneurons. PMID:23576706

  9. A Codimension-2 Bifurcation Controlling Endogenous Bursting Activity and Pulse-Triggered Responses of a Neuron Model

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, William H.; Cymbalyuk, Gennady S.

    2014-01-01

    The dynamics of individual neurons are crucial for producing functional activity in neuronal networks. An open question is how temporal characteristics can be controlled in bursting activity and in transient neuronal responses to synaptic input. Bifurcation theory provides a framework to discover generic mechanisms addressing this question. We present a family of mechanisms organized around a global codimension-2 bifurcation. The cornerstone bifurcation is located at the intersection of the border between bursting and spiking and the border between bursting and silence. These borders correspond to the blue sky catastrophe bifurcation and the saddle-node bifurcation on an invariant circle (SNIC) curves, respectively. The cornerstone bifurcation satisfies the conditions for both the blue sky catastrophe and SNIC. The burst duration and interburst interval increase as the inverse of the square root of the difference between the corresponding bifurcation parameter and its bifurcation value. For a given set of burst duration and interburst interval, one can find the parameter values supporting these temporal characteristics. The cornerstone bifurcation also determines the responses of silent and spiking neurons. In a silent neuron with parameters close to the SNIC, a pulse of current triggers a single burst. In a spiking neuron with parameters close to the blue sky catastrophe, a pulse of current temporarily silences the neuron. These responses are stereotypical: the durations of the transient intervals–the duration of the burst and the duration of latency to spiking–are governed by the inverse-square-root laws. The mechanisms described here could be used to coordinate neuromuscular control in central pattern generators. As proof of principle, we construct small networks that control metachronal-wave motor pattern exhibited in locomotion. This pattern is determined by the phase relations of bursting neurons in a simple central pattern generator modeled by a chain of oscillators. PMID:24497927

  10. Aberrant activation and regulation of the oxidative burst in neutrophils with Mo1 glycoprotein deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Nauseef, W.M.; de Alarcon, P.; Bale, J.F.; Clark, R.A.

    1986-07-15

    Patients whose cells are deficient in the glycoproteins LFA-1, Mo1, and p150,95 have recurrent infections and pronounced abnormalities in neutrophil adherence, aggregation, chemotaxis, and phagocytosis. Activation and regulation of oxidative metabolism of Mo1-deficient neutrophils have been characterized. These cells failed to depolarize or to produce O/sub 2//sup -/ or H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ normally when stimulated by opsonized zymosan. The chemotactic peptide formyl methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine depolarized Mo1-deficient neutrophils normally but caused supernormal production of O/sub 2//sup -/ and H/sub 2/O/sub 2/, a result of a prolonged burst in oxidative metabolism. Phorbol myristate acetate depolarized Mo1-deficient neutrophils at a nearly normal rate but evoked release of significantly less O/sub 2//sup -/ and H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ than from normal PMN. The aberrant activation and regulation of the oxidative burst in Mo1-deficient neutrohpils are considered in light of recently neutrophils are considered in light of recently emerging concepts in the cell biology of this process, and the possibility that these abnormalities reflect a defect in the cytoskeleton-membrane interaction is discussed.

  11. Electrical activity and development of neural circuits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li I. Zhang; Mu-ming Poo

    2001-01-01

    A distinct feature of the nervous system is the intricate network of synaptic connections among neurons of diverse phenotypes. Although initial connections are formed largely through molecular mechanisms that depend on intrinsic developmental programs, spontaneous and experience-driven electrical activities in the developing brain exert critical epigenetic influence on synaptic maturation and refinement of neural circuits. Selective findings discussed here illustrate

  12. Magnetogastrographic detection of gastric electrical response activity in humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrei Irimia; William O Richards; L Alan Bradshaw

    2006-01-01

    The detection and characterization of gastric electrical activity has important clinical applications, including the early diagnosis of gastric diseases in humans. In mammals, this phenomenon has two important features: an electrical control activity (ECA) that manifests itself as an electric slow wave (with a frequency of 3 cycles per minute in humans) and an electrical response activity (ERA) that is

  13. Nickel induces oxidative burst, NF-?B activation and interleukin-8 production in human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Marisa; Gomes, Ana; Porto, Graça; Fernandes, Eduarda

    2010-11-01

    Many lines of evidence have suggested that oxidative stress and inflammation play a pivotal role in the toxicity of nickel salts. Considering that neutrophils are active participants in inflammatory processes, namely by producing high amounts of reactive oxygen species, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the putative activation of human neutrophils' oxidative burst by nickel. Subsequently, the influence of nickel in the pathways leading to NADPH oxidation in neutrophils was evaluated by measuring protein kinase C (PKC) activation. The effects of nickel on neutrophils' nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) activation and on the production of the proinflammatory mediators interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, IL-8 and tumour necrosis factor ? were also evaluated. The results obtained showed that nickel, at concentrations that may be attained in vivo, stimulates the production of superoxide radical (O(2)(·-)), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) in human neutrophils in vitro, via activation of PKC. In addition, nickel was shown to activate NF-?B and to induce the production of IL-8 in these cells. These observations indicate that the sustained activation of human neutrophils by nickel may contribute for the long-term adverse effects on human health mediated by this metal. PMID:20632048

  14. A Dynamic Dendritic Refractory Period Regulates Burst Discharge in the Electrosensory Lobe of Weakly Electric Fish

    E-print Network

    Turner, Ray

    of Weakly Electric Fish Liza Noonan,1* Brent Doiron,2* Carlo Laing,2* Andre Longtin,2 and Ray W. Turner1 1 other voltage-dependent currents (Yuste et al., 1994; Golding et al., 1999; Magee and Car- ruth, 1999 lateral line lobe (ELL) of weakly electr

  15. Calcium-activated non-selective cation currents are involved in generation of tonic and bursting activity in dopamine neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta

    PubMed Central

    Mrejeru, Ana; Wei, Aguan; Ramirez, Jan Marino

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Nigral dopamine neurons are transiently activated by high frequency glutamatergic inputs relaying reward-predicting sensory information. The tonic firing pattern of dopamine cells responds to these inputs with a transient burst of spikes that requires NMDA receptors. Here, we show that NMDA receptor activation further excites the cell by recruiting a calcium-activated non-selective cation current (ICAN) capable of generating a plateau potential. Burst firing in vitro is eliminated after blockade of ICAN with flufenamic acid, 9-phenanthrol, or intracellular BAPTA. ICAN is likely to be mediated by a transient receptor potential (TRP) channel, and RT-PCR was used to confirm expression of TRPM2 and TRPM4 mRNA in substantia nigra pars compacta. We propose that ICAN is selectively activated during burst firing to boost NMDA currents and allow plateau potentials. This boost mechanism may render DA cells vulnerable to excitotoxicity. PMID:21486760

  16. Electricity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Miss Lerdahl

    2010-02-23

    5th Grade Electricity Try this Using Electricity Activity. Don't forget to follow the directions! Use this to learn more about electricity: Blobz Guide to Electricity Follow the directions closely! Learn more about Electricity with Electricity Tech-Topics. ...

  17. Variable Spin-Down in the Soft Gamma Repeater SGR 1900+14 and Correlations with Burst Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, Peter M.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; VanParadijs, Jan; Finger, Mark H.; Thompson, Christopher; Duncan, Robert C.; Hurley, Kevin; Strohmayer, Tod; Swank, Jean; Murakami, Toshio

    1999-01-01

    We have analyzed Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array observations of the pulsed emission from SGR 1900+ 14 during 1996 September, 1998 June-October, and early 1999. Using these measurements and results reported elsewhere, we construct a period history of this source for 2.5 yr. We find significant deviations from a steady spin-down trend during quiescence and the burst active interval. Burst and Transient Source Experiment observations of the burst emission are presented and correlations between the burst activity and spin-down rate of SGR 1900+14 are discussed. We find an 80 day interval during the summer of 1998 when the average spin-down rate is larger than the rate elsewhere by a factor approximately 2.3. This enhanced spin-down may be the result of a discontinuous spin-down event or "braking glitch" at the time of the giant flare on 1998 August 27. Furthermore, we find a large discrepancy between the pulsar period and average spin-down rate in X-rays as compared to radio observations for 1998 December and 1999 January.

  18. Variable Spin-Down in the Soft Gamma Repeater SGR 1900+14 and Correlations with Burst Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, Peter M.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; vanParadijs, Jan; Finger, Mark H.; Thompson, Christopher; Duncan, Robert C.; Hurley, Kevin; Swank, Jean; Murakami, Toshio

    1999-01-01

    We have analyzed Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array observation of the pulsed emission from SGR 1900+14 during September 1996, June-October 1998, and early 1999. Using these measurements and results reported elsewhere. we construct a period history of this source for 2.5 years. We find significant deviations from a steady spin-down trend during quiescence and the burst active interval. Burst And Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) observations of the burst emission are presented and correlations between the burst activity and spin-down rate of SGR 1900 + 14 are discussed. We find an 80 day interval during the summer of 1998 when the average spin-down rate is larger than the rate elsewhere by a factor of about 2.3. This enhanced spin-down may, be the result of a discontinuous spin-down event or "braking glitch" at the time of the giant flare on 27 August 1998. Furthermore find a large discrepancy between the pulsar period and average spin-down rate in X-rays as compared to radio observation for December 1998 and January 1999.

  19. The Effects of Plantago major on the Activation of the Neutrophil Respiratory Burst.

    PubMed

    Reina, Elaine; Al-Shibani, Nouf; Allam, Eman; Gregson, Karen S; Kowolik, Michael; Windsor, L Jack

    2013-10-01

    Plantago major is a common plant that grows worldwide in temperate zones and is found in fields, lawns, and on the roadsides. Its leaves and seeds have been used in almost all parts of the world for centuries as a wound healer, analgesic, antioxidant, and antibiotic, as well as an immune system modulator, antiviral, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory agent. Baicalein and aucubin are the two most biologically active components of P. major, and both have been shown to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties. Neutrophils have a pivotal role in wound healing and inflammation. Their principal mechanism of host defense is the killing of pathogens via the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The aim of the present study was to determine the in vitro effects of P. major extract, baicalein, and aucubin on human neutrophil respiratory burst activity. The cytotoxicity of the agents was assessed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays. A standard luminol-dependent chemiluminescence (CL) assay was utilized to monitor the respiratory burst of the neutrophils after exposure to P. major extract and its two active ingredients, baicalein and aucubin. Three replicates per group were included in each of the three runs of the experiments and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for statistical analysis. P. major and baicalein were not toxic to the cells at any of the concentrations examined. Aucubin was toxic to the cells only at the highest concentration tested (P = 0.0081). However, genistein was toxic to the cells at all of the concentrations examined except for the lowest concentration of 16.9 ?g/ml (P = 0.985). P. major (-0.10 ± 0.11), aucubin (0.06 ± 0.16), baicalein (-0.10 ± 0.11), and genistein (-0.18 ± 0.07) all significantly (P < 0.0001) inhibited ROS production from the neutrophils. P. major extract inhibited neutrophil ROS production, as did aucubin and baicalein. Therefore, these components should be investigated further with relation to the regulation of destructive ROS production in conditions such as periodontal disease. PMID:24716188

  20. Diacylglycerol Kinases Terminate Diacylglycerol Signaling during the Respiratory Burst Leading to Heterogeneous Phagosomal NADPH Oxidase Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Schlam, Daniel; Bohdanowicz, Michal; Chatilialoglu, Alexandros; Steinberg, Benjamin E.; Ueyama, Takehiko; Du, Guangwei; Grinstein, Sergio; Fairn, Gregory D.

    2013-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that all phagosomes have identical molecular composition. This assumption has remained largely unchallenged due to a paucity of methods to distinguish individual phagosomes. We devised an assay that extends the utility of nitro blue tetrazolium for detection and quantification of NAPDH oxidase (NOX) activity in individual phagosomes. Implementation of this assay revealed that in murine macrophages there is heterogeneity in the ability of individual phagosomes to generate superoxide, both between and within cells. To elucidate the molecular basis of the variability in NOX activation, we employed genetically encoded fluorescent biosensors to evaluate the uniformity in the distribution of phospholipid mediators of the oxidative response. Despite variability in superoxide generation, the distribution of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate, phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate, and phosphatidic acid was nearly identical in all phagosomes. In contrast, diacylglycerol (DAG) was not generated uniformly across the phagosomal population, varying in a manner that directly mirrored superoxide production. Modulation of DAG levels suggested that NOX activation is precluded when phagosomes fail to reach a critical DAG concentration. In particular, forced expression of diacylglycerol kinase ? abrogated DAG accumulation at the phagosome, leading to impaired respiratory burst. Conversely, pharmacological inhibition of DAG kinases or expression of an inactive diacylglycerol kinase ? mutant increased the proportion of DAG-positive phagosomes, concomitantly potentiating phagosomal NOX activity. Our data suggest that diacylglycerol kinases limit the extent of NADPH oxidase activation, curtailing the production of potentially harmful reactive oxygen species. The resulting heterogeneity in phagosome responsiveness could enable the survival of a fraction of invading microorganisms. PMID:23814057

  1. Magnetotail Flow Bursts: Association to Global Magnetospheric Circulation, Relationship to Ionospheric Activity and Direct Evidence for Localization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelopoulos, V.; Phan, T. D.; Larson, D. E.; Mozer, F. S.; Lin, R. P.; Parks, G. K.; Brittnacher, M. J.; Germany, G. A.; Spann, J. F., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    A series of bursty bulk flow events (BBFs) were observed by GEOTAIL and WIND in the geomagnetotail. IMP8 at the solar wind showed significant energy coupling into the magnetosphere, while the UVI instrument of POALR evidenced significant energy transfer to the ionosphere during two substorms. There was good correlation between BBFs and ionospheric activity observed by UVI even when ground magnetic signatures were absent, suggesting that low ionospheric conductivity at the active sector may be responsible for this observation. During the second substorm no significant flux transport was evidenced past WIND in stark contrast to GEOTAIL and despite the small intersatellite separation ((3.54, 2.88, -0.06) Re). Throughout the intervals studied there were significant differences in the individual flow bursts at the two satellites, even during longitudinally extended ionospheric activations. We conclude that the half-scale-size of transport bearing flow bursts is less than 3 Re.

  2. Electric current-induced lymphatic activation.

    PubMed

    Kajiya, Kentaro; Matsumoto-Okazaki, Yuko; Sawane, Mika; Fukada, Kaedeko; Takasugi, Yuya; Akai, Tomonori; Saito, Naoki; Mori, Yuichiro

    2014-12-01

    The lymphatic system in skin plays important roles in drainage of wastes and in the afferent phase of immune response. We previously showed that activation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), specifically the VEGFC/VEGFR-3 pathway, attenuates oedema and inflammation by promoting lymphangiogenesis, suggesting a protective role of lymphatic vessels against skin inflammation. However, it remains unknown how physical stimuli promote lymphatic function. Here, we show that lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) are activated by direct-current (DC) electrical stimulation, which induced extension of actin filaments of LECs, increased calcium influx into LECs, and increased phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). An inhibitor of focal adhesion kinase, which plays a role in cellular adhesion and motility, diminished the DC-induced extension of F-actin and abrogated p38 phosphorylation. Time-lapse imaging revealed that pulsed-DC stimulation promoted proliferation and migration of LECs. Overall, these results indicate that electro-stimulation activates lymphatic function by activating p38 MAPK. PMID:25308203

  3. From Plateau to Pseudo-Plateau Bursting: Making the Transition

    PubMed Central

    Teka, Wondimu; Tsaneva-Atanasova, Krasimira; Bertram, Richard; Tabak, Joël

    2011-01-01

    Bursting electrical activity is ubiquitous in excitable cells such as neurons and many endocrine cells. The technique of fast/slow analysis, which takes advantage of time scale differences, is typically used to analyze the dynamics of bursting in mathematical models. Two classes of bursting oscillations that have been identified with this technique, plateau and pseudo- plateau bursting, are often observed in neurons and endocrine cells, respectively. These two types of bursting have very different properties and likely serve different functions. This latter point is supported by the divergent expression of the bursting patterns into different cell types, and raises the question of whether it is even possible for a model for one type of cell to produce bursting of the type seen in the other type without large changes to the model. Using fast/slow analysis, we show here that this is possible, and we provide a procedure for achieving this transition. This suggests that the design principles for bursting in endocrine cells are just quantitative variations of those for bursting in neurons. PMID:20658200

  4. Order/disorder in brain electrical activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosso, O. A.; Figliola, Y. A.

    2004-04-01

    The processing of information by the brain is reflected in dynamical changes of the electrical activity in time, frequency, and space. Therefore, the concomitant studies require methods capable of describing the quantitative variation of the signal in both time and frequency. Here we present a quantitative EEG (qEEG) analysis, based on the Orthogonal Discrete Wavelet Transform (ODWT), of generalized epileptic tonic-clonic EEG signals. Two quantifiers: the Relative Wavelet Energy (RWE) and the Normalized Total Wavelet Entropy (NTWS) have been used. The RWE gives information about the relative energy associated with the different frequency bands present in the EEG and their corresponding degree of importance. The NTWS is a measure of the order/disorder degree in the EEG signal. These two quantifiers were computing in EEG signals as provided by scalp electrodes of epileptic patients. We showed that the epileptic recruitment rhythm observed for generalized epileptic tonic-clonic seizures is accurately described by the RWE quantifier. In addition, a significant decrease in the NTWS was observed in the recruitment epoch, indicating a more rhythmic and ordered behavior in the brain electrical activity.

  5. Bursting into the Nucleus

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Gerald R. Crabtree (Stanford University Medical School; REV)

    2008-12-23

    An increase in extracellular Ca2+ induces the nuclear localization of the Crz1 transcription factor and the activation of target genes in yeast. A recent study indicates that nuclear entry occurs in short stochastic bursts that are unsynchronized within the population of cells. The frequency but not the amplitude of the bursts is controlled by Ca2+. Modulation of the frequency of the burst coordinates aspects of expression of Crz target genes.

  6. Bursting into the nucleus.

    PubMed

    Crabtree, Gerald R; Graef, Isabella A

    2008-01-01

    An increase in extracellular Ca(2+) induces the nuclear localization of the Crz1 transcription factor and the activation of target genes in yeast. A recent study indicates that nuclear entry occurs in short stochastic bursts that are unsynchronized within the population of cells. The frequency but not the amplitude of the bursts is controlled by Ca(2+). Modulation of the frequency of the burst coordinates aspects of expression of Crz target genes. PMID:19109237

  7. Bursting into the Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Crabtree, Gerald R.; Graef, Isabella A.

    2009-01-01

    An increase in extracellular Ca2+ induces the nuclear localization of the Crz1 transcription factor and the activation of target genes in yeast. A recent study indicates that nuclear entry occurs in short stochastic bursts that are unsynchronized within the population of cells. The frequency but not the amplitude of the bursts is controlled by Ca2+. Modulation of the frequency of the burst coordinates aspects of expression of Crz target genes. PMID:19109237

  8. Induction of nitric oxide and respiratory burst response in activated goldfish macrophages requires potassium channel activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James L Stafford; Fernando Galvez; Gregory G Goss; Miodrag Belosevic

    2002-01-01

    Potassium channel activity is important for modulating mammalian macrophage antimicrobial functions. The involvement of potassium channels in mediation of immune cell function in lower vertebrates, such as teleost, has not been explored. Since relatively little is known about the types of potassium channels present in fish macrophages, pharmacological blockers with broad ranges of activity were tested: 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), quinine, and

  9. Genetic Algorithm for Burst Detection and Activity Tracking in Event Streams

    E-print Network

    Cuesta, José A.

    nature, such as seismic events and weblog comments that mention a particular word. Results are compared together. Discriminating whether these are just noise or a significant part of a burst is the real problem

  10. Control of VLF burst activity in the nightside ionosphere of Venus by the magnetic field orientation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, C.-M.; Strangeway, R. J.; Russell, C. T.

    1992-01-01

    A burst identificaton method developed by Ho et al. (1991) is used to analyze data on the nightside ionosphere of Venus in order to determine whether VLF bursts observed there are better interpreted as whistler mode waves or ion acoustic waves. The correlation between burst occurrence and the angle between the magnetic field and the radial direction, as well as the spacecraft flight direction are examined. Narrow-band 100-Hz bursts are found to be more frequently associated with radial magnetic fields while wideband signals are more frequently associated with horizontal fields. Under the assumption of vertical propagation, the normalized 100-Hz burst rate inside the resonance cone is larger than that outside. The burst rate inside the resonance cone dominates the altitude distribution. By assuming vertical propagation, the 100-Hz signals clearly divide into two populations. One is whistler mode propagating inside the resonance cone. The other is a nonpropagating mode outside the resonance cone which decreases quickly with altitude with a scale height of about 20 km.

  11. http://www.pdl.cs.cmu.edu/Active Thesis Defense Electrical and Computer Engineering Active Disks

    E-print Network

    http://www.pdl.cs.cmu.edu/Active Thesis Defense Electrical and Computer Engineering Active Disks Electrical and Computer Engineering Prof. David Nagle, ECE Prof. Christos Faloutsos, SCS Prof. Garth Gibson://www.pdl.cs.cmu.edu/Active Thesis Defense Electrical and Computer Engineering Active Disks Carnegie Mellon Thesis Statement A number

  12. Using Brain Electrical Activity Mapping to Diagnose Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torello, Michael, W.; Duffy, Frank H.

    1985-01-01

    Cognitive neuroscience assumes that measurement of brain electrical activity should relate to cognition. Brain Electrical Activity Mapping (BEAM), a non-invasive technique, is used to record changes in activity from one brain area to another and is 80 to 90 percent successful in classifying subjects as dyslexic or normal. (MT)

  13. Integrated electric alternators/active filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Towliat Abolhassani, Mehdi

    In response to energy crisis and power quality concerns, three different methodologies to integrate the concept of active filtering into the alternators are proposed. Wind energy, due to its free availability and its clean and renewable character, ranks as the most promising renewable energy resource that could play a key role in solving the worldwide energy crisis. An Integrated Doubly-fed Electric Alternator/Active filter (IDEA) for wind energy conversion systems is proposed. The proposed IDEA is capable of simultaneously capturing maximum power of wind energy and improving power quality, which are achieved by canceling the most significant and troublesome harmonics of the utility grid and power factor correction and reactive power compensation in the grid. The back-to-back current regulated power converters are employed to excite the rotor of IDEA. The control strategy of rotor-side power converter is based on position sensorless field oriented control method with higher power density. Analysis and experimental results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed IDEA. In the next step, an integrated synchronous machine/active filter is discussed. The proposed technology is essentially a rotating synchronous machine with suitable modification to its field excitation circuit to allow dc and ac excitations. It is shown that by controlling the ac excitation, the 5 th and 7th harmonics currents of the utility are compensated. The proposed method is cost effective because it can be applied to existing standby generators in commercial and industrial plants with minimal modification to the excitation circuits. To boost the gain of harmonic compensatory, an advanced electric machine is proposed. An Asymmetric Airgap Concentrated Winding Synchronous Machine (AACWSM) with ac and dc excitation was designed and employed. It is shown that the AACWSM with its unique design, in addition to power generation capability, could be used to compensate the most dominant current harmonics of the utility. The proposed AACWSM can compensate for the 5th and 7th harmonics currents in the grid by controlling the ac field excitation. In addition, the 11th and 13th harmonics currents are also significantly reduced. This system can be used at medium and low voltages for generation or motoring mode of operation.

  14. N-methyl-D-aspartate induces recurrent synchronized burst activity in immature hippocampal CA3 neurones in vitro.

    PubMed

    King, A E; Cherubini, E; Ben-Ari, Y

    1989-03-01

    Slices of hippocampus prepared from rats aged 1-10 days have been used to examine the chemosensitivity of CA3 pyramidal neurones to N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA). Superfusion of NMDA excited all neurones tested at all ages including the first day postnatal. In the majority of neurones this excitation was associated with the induction of a period of burst firing which disappeared on removal of NMDA. These bursts took the form of paroxysmal depolarizing shifts (PDSs) with a large amplitude depolarization and a high frequency discharge of spikes. The amplitude but not the frequency of occurrence of the PDSs was influenced by changes in the membrane potential and they could be abolished by either a high divalent cation medium or tetrodotoxin. Their occurrence was synchronous with an extracellularly recorded discharge. The NMDA induced excitation and the induction of the PDSs was attenuated by selective NMDA receptor antagonists D-aminophosphonovalerate (10-50 microM) and D,L-aminophosphonoheptanoate (20-30 microM). The results indicate that chemosensitivity to NMDA develops prenatally and that activation of NMDA receptors can in immature CA3 pyramidals induce recurrent synchronized burst activity. PMID:2650920

  15. Magnetism and Electricity Activity "Attracts" Student Interest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    Electricity and magnetism are intimately linked, this relationship forming the basis of the modern electric utility system and the generation of bulk electrical energy. There is rich literature from which to teach students the basics, but nothing drives the point home like having them learn from firsthand experience--and that is what this…

  16. Gamma-Ray Burst Wallsheet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2005-01-01

    The Gamma-ray Burst Wallsheet was developed to illustrate the properties of light emanating from a gamma-ray burst as seen by three distant satellites, including NASA's Swift. The back of the wallsheet has one of the three activities in the accompanying educator guide (Angling for Gamma-ray Bursts).

  17. Ulysses observations of wave activity at interplanetary shocks and implications for type II radio bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Lengyel-Frey, D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland (United States)] [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland (United States); [Computer Sciences Corporation, Suitland, Maryland (United States); Thejappa, G. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland (United States)] [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland (United States); MacDowall, R.J.; Stone, R.G. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland (United States)] [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland (United States); Phillips, J.L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States); [NASA Johnson Space Flight Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    1997-02-01

    We present the first quantitative investigation of interplanetary type II radio emission in which in situ waves measured at interplanetary shocks are used to compute radio wave intensities for comparison with type II observations. This study is based on in situ measurements of 42 in-ecliptic forward shocks as well as 10 intervals of type II emission observed by the Ulysses spacecraft between 1 AU and 5 AU. The analysis involves comparisons of statistical properties of type II bursts and in situ waves. Most of the 42 shocks are associated with the occurrence of electrostatic waves near the time of shock passage at Ulysses. These waves, which are identified as electron plasma waves and ion acoustic-like waves, are typically most intense several minutes before shock passage. This suggests that wave-wave interactions might be of importance in electromagnetic wave generation and that type II source regions are located immediately upstream of the shocks. We use the in situ wave measurements to compute type II brightness temperatures, assuming that emission at the fundamental of the electron plasma frequency is generated by the merging of electron plasma waves and ion acoustic waves or the decay of electron plasma waves into ion acoustic and transverse waves. Second harmonic emission is assumed to be produced by the merging of electron plasma waves. The latter mechanism requires that a portion of the electron plasma wave distribution is backscattered, presumably by density inhomogeneities in regions of observed ion acoustic wave activity. The computed type II brightness temperatures are found to be consistent with observed values for both fundamental and second harmonic emission, assuming that strong ({approx_equal}10{sup {minus}4}V/m) electron plasma waves and ion acoustic waves are coincident and that the electron plasma waves have phase velocities less than about 10 times the electron thermal velocity. (Abstract Truncated)

  18. How Noise and Coupling Induce Bursting Action Potentials in Pancreatic ?-Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Junghyo; Kang, Hyuk; Choi, Moo Young; Koh, Duk-Su

    2005-01-01

    Unlike isolated ?-cells, which usually produce continuous spikes or fast and irregular bursts, electrically coupled ?-cells are apt to exhibit robust bursting action potentials. We consider the noise induced by thermal fluctuations as well as that by channel-gating stochasticity and examine its effects on the action potential behavior of the ?-cell model. It is observed numerically that such noise in general helps single cells to produce a variety of electrical activities. In addition, we also probe coupling via gap junctions between neighboring cells, with heterogeneity induced by noise, to find that it enhances regular bursts. PMID:15994889

  19. Episodic Bursting Activity and Response to Excitatory Amino Acids in Acutely Dissociated Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Neurons Genetically Targeted with Green Fluorescent Protein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Cathleen Kuehl-Kovarik; Wendy A. Pouliot; Gloriana L. Halterman; Robert J. Handa; F. Edward Dudek; Kathryn M. Partin

    2002-01-01

    sec. At more negative resting potentials, GnRH-EGFP neurons exhibited oscillations in membrane potential, which could lead to bursting episodes lasting from seconds to minutes. These bursting episodes were often separated by minutes of inactivity. Rapid application of glutamate or NMDA increased firing activ- ity in all neurons and usually generated small inward currents (15 pA), although larger currents were evoked

  20. Propofol and sevoflurane induce distinct burst suppression patterns in rats

    E-print Network

    Westover, M. Brandon

    Burst suppression is an EEG pattern characterized by alternating periods of high-amplitude activity (bursts) and relatively low amplitude activity (suppressions). Burst suppression can arise from several different pathological ...

  1. The role of the hyperpolarization-activated cationic current I(h) in the timing of interictal bursts in the neonatal hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Agmon, Ariel; Wells, Jason E

    2003-05-01

    Under both pathological and experimental conditions, area CA3 of the adult or juvenile hippocampus generates periodic population discharges known as interictal bursts. Whereas the ionic and synaptic basis of individual bursts has been comprehensively studied experimentally and computationally, the pacemaker mechanisms underlying interictal rhythmicity remain conjectural. We showed previously that rhythmic population discharges resembling interictal bursts can be induced in hippocampal slices from first postnatal week mice, in Mg2+-free solution with GABA(A) receptor-mediated inhibition blocked. Here we show that these neonatal bursts occurred with high temporal precision and that their frequency and regularity were greatly reduced by the bradycardic agent ZD-7288 when applied at concentrations and durations that selectively block the hyperpolarization-activated, cationic current I(h). Augmenting I(h) by elevating intracellular cAMP dramatically increased burst frequency in a protein kinase A-independent manner. Burst amplitudes were strongly correlated with the preceding, but not the following, interburst intervals. The experimentally observed distribution of interburst intervals was modeled by assuming that a burst was triggered whenever the instantaneous rate of spontaneous EPSPs (sEPSPs) exceeded a threshold and that the mean sEPSP rate was minimal immediately after a burst and then relaxed exponentially to a steady-state level. The effect of blocking I(h) in any given slice could be modeled by decreasing only the steady-state sEPSP rate, suggesting that the instantaneous rate of sEPSPs is governed by the level of I(h) activation and raising the novel possibility that interburst intervals reflected the slow activation kinetics of I(h) in the neonatal CA3. PMID:12736337

  2. Status of State Electric Industry Restructuring Activity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Click on a state to view the current status of electric industry restructuring. Each report includes regulatory orders, legislation, investigative studies, and links to state regulatory commissions, major utilities, and tables on restructuring issues.

  3. SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF ELECTRICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES OF MATERIAL FROM THE TONE-BURST EDDY CURRENT THERMOGRAPHY (TBET) TIME-TEMPERATURE DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Biju, N.; Ganesan, N.; Krishnamurthy, C. V.; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan [Centre for Nondestructive Evaluation, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras (India)

    2010-02-22

    In this paper, an inversion method is proposed to determine simultaneously the electrical and thermal properties of a given isotropic material from the time-temperature data obtained from the Tone-Burst Eddy current Thermography (TBET). A multi-physics forward model for computing the surface temperature data was used in a Genetic Algorithm (GA) based inversion technique to determine the material properties such as electrical conductivity (sigma), thermal conductivity (k), density (rho), and specific heat (C{sub p}) simultaneously. Different trials were carried out initially with simulated temperature data (with and without noise). A typical case of inversion of anisotropic material properties using a 2D finite element model is also discussed.

  4. Extracellular K+ in the supraoptic nucleus of the rat during reflex bursting activity by oxytocin neurones.

    PubMed Central

    Coles, J A; Poulain, D A

    1991-01-01

    1. We have investigated changes in extracellular potassium concentration [K+]o in the supraoptic nucleus of lactating rats and in particular those that occur during the intense burst of firing by the oxytocin neurones involved in the milk ejection reflex. 2. Double-barrelled K(+)-selective microelectrodes containing a highly selective sensor based on valinomycin were lowered through the exposed cortex towards the supraoptic nucleus (SON) of female rats anaesthetized with urethane. The mean resting [K+]o in the hypothalami of five rats was 2.4 mM, S.D. = 0.3 mM. 3. Where the reference barrel recorded extracellular action potentials from an oxytocin cell, the reflex burst of firing (4 s, typical maximum 50 Hz) was accompanied by a mean increase in [K+]o (delta[K+]o) of 0.22 mM (S.E.M. = 0.02 mM, fifty-seven bursts in eight cells in seven rats). The rise in [K+]o did not begin more than 0.1 s before the onset of the burst, and began to fall from its maximum during the burst. Slow field potentials, indicative of spatial buffering of K+, were undetectable (less than 50 microV). When the electrode was advanced in steps, the amplitudes of both delta[K+]o and the action potential declined steeply to about 10% over a distance of 20 microns: K+ from oxytocin cells appears to be prevented from dispersing freely through the extracellular space of the SON. 4. When the electrode recorded action potentials from a vasopressin cell, delta[K+]o during an oxytocin cell burst was very small: 0.021 mM (S.E.M. = 0.005 mM). At other sites in the SON, where antidromic stimulation evoked a field potential but no action potential, delta[K+]o was 0.047 +/- 0.005 mM. We conclude that the reason oxytocin bursts do not affect vasopressin cells is that [K+]o rises very little around vasopressin cells. A fortiori, since the increases in [K+]o were very small except where action potentials from oxytocin cells were recorded, they can make no significant contribution to synchronizing the onsets of bursts in oxytocin cells that are not contiguous. 5. A standard antidromic stimulation from the pituitary stalk, at 40 Hz for 4 s, which stimulated both oxytocin neurones and vasopressin neurones, caused a delta[K+]o of 0.17-1.8 mM, the variation being mainly from rat to rat. The larger delta[K+]o values were accompanied by slow negative potentials of up to 1.5 mV, there was a gradient in delta[K+]o decreasing towards the pia at the inferior limit of the SON, and there was a slow increase in [K+] in the subarachnoid space.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1895242

  5. Inhibition by HAJ11 of respiratory burst in neutrophils and the involvement of protein tyrosine phosphorylation and phospholipase D activation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jih P; Tsao, Lo T; Raung, Shue L; Hsu, Mei F; Kuo, Sheng C

    1996-01-01

    The possible mechanisms of the inhibitory effect of ethyl 2-(3-hydroxyanilino)-4-oxo-4,5-dihydrofuran-3-carboxylate (HAJ11) on the respiratory burst of rat neutrophils in vitro was investigated.HAJ11 caused a reversible and a concentration-dependent inhibition of formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP)-induced superoxide anion (O2?) generation (IC50 4.9±0.7??M) and O2 consumption (IC50 4.9±1.5??M). Concanavalin A (Con A)- and NaF-induced O2? generation were also suppressed by HAJ11. However, HAJ11 was a weak inhibitor of the phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced responses.HAJ11 did not scavenge the O2? generation in the xanthine-xanthine oxidase system and dihydroxyfumaric acid (DHF) autoxidation.HAJ11 showed no activity on fMLP-induced inositol phosphates formation and [Ca2+]i elevation in intact neutrophils. In addition, HAJ11 had no effect on neutrophil cytosolic phospholipase C (PLC) activity.HAJ11 reduced fMLP-induced phosphatidic acid (PA) (IC50 29.1±6.5??M) and phosphatidylethanol (PEt) (IC50 22.6±1.9??M) formation in a concentration-dependent manner. HAJ11 also reduced protein tyrosine phosphorylation in neutrophils stimulated by fMLP.HAJ11 was a weak inhibitor of neutrophil cytosolic protein kinase C (PKC) activity, and had a negligible effect on brain PKC. Cellular cyclic nucleotides levels were not altered by HAJ11. In addition, HAJ11 did not affect protein kinase A (PKA) activity.HAJ11 had no effect on the O2? generation of PMA-activated and arachidonic acid (AA)-activated NADPH oxidase preparations.Taken together these results indicate that the inhibition of respiratory burst by HAJ11 probably mainly occurs through inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphorylation and phospholipase D (PLD) activity. PMID:9117103

  6. Scale-free bursting in human cortex following hypoxia at birth.

    PubMed

    Roberts, James A; Iyer, Kartik K; Finnigan, Simon; Vanhatalo, Sampsa; Breakspear, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The human brain is fragile in the face of oxygen deprivation. Even a brief interruption of metabolic supply at birth challenges an otherwise healthy neonatal cortex, leading to a cascade of homeostatic responses. During recovery from hypoxia, cortical activity exhibits a period of highly irregular electrical fluctuations known as burst suppression. Here we show that these bursts have fractal properties, with power-law scaling of burst sizes across a remarkable 5 orders of magnitude and a scale-free relationship between burst sizes and durations. Although burst waveforms vary greatly, their average shape converges to a simple form that is asymmetric at long time scales. Using a simple computational model, we argue that this asymmetry reflects activity-dependent changes in the excitatory-inhibitory balance of cortical neurons. Bursts become more symmetric following the resumption of normal activity, with a corresponding reorganization of burst scaling relationships. These findings place burst suppression in the broad class of scale-free physical processes termed crackling noise and suggest that the resumption of healthy activity reflects a fundamental reorganization in the relationship between neuronal activity and its underlying metabolic constraints. PMID:24806681

  7. How long does a burst burst?

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Bin-Bin; Connaughton, Valerie; Briggs, Michael S. [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research (CSPAR), The University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Zhang, Bing [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States); Murase, Kohta, E-mail: binbin.zhang@uah.edu [Institute for Advanced Study, 1 Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2014-05-20

    Several gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) last much longer (?hours) in ?-rays than typical long GRBs (?minutes), and it has recently been proposed that these 'ultra-long GRBs' may form a distinct population, probably with a different (e.g., blue supergiant) progenitor than typical GRBs. However, Swift observations suggest that many GRBs have extended central engine activities manifested as flares and internal plateaus in X-rays. We perform a comprehensive study on a large sample of Swift GRBs with X-Ray Telescope observations to investigate GRB central engine activity duration and to determine whether ultra-long GRBs are unusual events. We define burst duration t {sub burst} based on both ?-ray and X-ray light curves rather than using ?-ray observations alone. We find that t {sub burst} can be reliably measured in 343 GRBs. Within this 'good' sample, 21.9% GRBs have t {sub burst} ? 10{sup 3} s and 11.5% GRBs have t {sub burst} ? 10{sup 4} s. There is an apparent bimodal distribution of t {sub burst} in this sample. However, when we consider an 'undetermined' sample (304 GRBs) with t {sub burst} possibly falling in the gap between GRB duration T {sub 90} and the first X-ray observational time, as well as a selection effect against t {sub burst} falling into the first Swift orbital 'dead zone' due to observation constraints, the intrinsic underlying t {sub burst} distribution is consistent with being a single component distribution. We found that the existing evidence for a separate ultra-long GRB population is inconclusive, and further multi-wavelength observations are needed to draw a firmer conclusion. We also discuss the theoretical implications of our results. In particular, the central engine activity duration of GRBs is generally much longer than the ?-ray T {sub 90} duration and it does not even correlate with T {sub 90}. It would be premature to make a direct connection between T {sub 90} and the size of the progenitor star.

  8. Role of disulphide bonds in burst-like activity of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor channels in rat sympathetic neurones.

    PubMed Central

    Derkach, V A; Kurenny, D E; Melishchuk, A I; Selyanko, A A; Skok, V I

    1991-01-01

    1. The effects of reduction of disulphide bonds in nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nicotinic AChRs) with dithiothreitol (DTT) were studied in rat superior cervical ganglion neurones using the patch-clamp method in whole-cell and cell-attached recording modes. 2. Dithiothreitol (1 mM) markedly reduced the ACh-induced membrane current, while the action of ACh remained reversible. Conversely, bromoacetylcholine (BrACh), if applied after the treatment with DTT, caused irreversible activation of nicotinic AChRs manifested in the appearance of a non-declined steady-state component in BrACh-induced currents accompanied by increased membrane current fluctuations. The successive reoxidation of sulphydryl groups by potassium ferricyanide (1 mM-ferricyanide) restored the response to ACh. Ferricyanide itself had a weaker inhibitory effect on the ACh-induced current, compared to the effect of DTT. 3. As a result of the action of DTT (1 mM), the spectrum of BrACh-induced current noise shifted to a higher frequency range. 4. The distributions of durations of the gaps (closed states) and the bursts (the states identified as open states after the shortest gaps were ignored) in single-channel activity of native (non-treated with DTT) nicotinic AChRs caused by ACh (30 microM) and BrACh (30 microM) were similar and both revealed four to five and two to three components for gap intervals and burst durations respectively. 5. Single-channel behaviour of reduced nicotinic AChRs was similar for both ACh and BrACh as agonists, but significantly differed from that in the native one. The first difference was the marked increase in the frequency of the appearance of long closed states of the channel that was presumably due to enhanced receptor desensitization. The second difference was an almost complete disappearance of long bursts associated with disappearance of the fastest component in gap interval distribution. 6. Mean conductance of single nicotinic AChR channels decreased by approximately 20% in the reduced receptor compared with that in the native one, for both agonists. 7. The results suggest a critical role of disulphide bonds for the functioning of native neuronal nicotinic AChRs: the disruption of disulphide bonds leads to the loss of burst-like kinetics of the nicotinic AChR ionic channel. PMID:1725180

  9. Transparent electrical conducting films by activated reactive evaporation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Bunshah; P. Nath

    1982-01-01

    Process and apparatus for producing transparent electrical conducting thin films by activated reactive evaporation is disclosed. Thin films of low melting point metals and alloys, such as indium oxide and indium oxide doped with tin, are produced by physical vapor deposition. The metal or alloy is vaporized by electrical resistance heating in a vacuum chamber, oxygen and an inert gas

  10. Transparent electrical conducting films by activated reactive evaporation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rointan Bunshah; Prem Nath

    1982-01-01

    Process and apparatus for producing transparent electrical conducting thin films by activated reactive evaporation. Thin films of low melting point metals and alloys, such as indium oxide and indium oxide doped with tin, are produced by physical vapor deposition. The metal or alloy is vaporized by electrical resistance heating in a vacuum chamber, oxygen and an inert gas such as

  11. Evaluation of a pushrim activated electric powered wheelchair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Cooper; K. Prins; T. J. O'Connor; M. L. Boninger; S. Fitzgerald; C. Sunderhaus

    1999-01-01

    During this study a pushrim activated electric powered wheelchair was tested to published standards, compared to a manual wheelchair for metabolic energy consumption, and assessed by wheelchair users. The device performed favorably in nearly all cases

  12. Lighting and Electrical Plan Class Activity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Wolf, Arlynne

    This class exercise asks students to complete a lighting and electrical plan for a building in the most energy efficient approach possible. They will be given a floor plan to work with, and will then determine which outlets, types of lighting and switches to use. This document may be downloaded in Microsoft Word Doc file format.

  13. Activities in Electric Propulsion Development at IRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herdrich, Georg; Bauder, Uwe; Bock, Dagmar; Eichhorn, Christoph; Haag, Daniel; Lau, Matthias; Schönherr, Tony; Stindl, Torsten; Fertig, Markus; Löhle, Stefan; Auweter-Kurtz, Monika; Röser, Hans-Peter

    More than three decades of experience have been gained in the field of electric propulsion at the Institute of Space Systems (Institut für Raumfahrtsysteme = IRS). Recent developments within the field of electric propulsion are summarized and foremost results are highlighted. The various types of electric propulsion systems are not considered as to be competitive. Here, system analysis shows that optimum parameter such as the required exhaust velocity or specific impulse result taking into account both the mission profile and system related sizes such as the power conditioner efficiency, the thrust efficiency and the specific mass of the corresponding power unit. Correspondingly, ion thrusters, Hall thrusters, thermal arcjets, or magnetoplasmadynamics (MPD) thrusters are preferable depending on the mission. Among the described electric propulsion systems are recent developments in the field of applied field MPD but also from high power hybrid thrusters. In addition, new concepts such as the hybrid systems Thermal-Inductively heated Hybrid-Thruster of the University of Stuttgart (TIHTUS) and the so-called Coupled Tether/Ion Engine Propulsion (CETEP) are analysed.

  14. Active Shape Modeling with Electric Flows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Herng-Hua Chang; Daniel J. Valentino; Woei-Chyn Chu

    2010-01-01

    Physics-based particle systems are an effective tool for shape modeling. Also, there has been much interest in the study of shape modeling using deformable contour approaches. In this paper, we describe a new deformable model with electric flows based upon computer simulations of a number of charged particles embedded in an electrostatic system. Making use of optimized numerical techniques, the

  15. The Role of the Hyperpolarization-Activated Cationic Current Ih in the Timing of Interictal Bursts in the Neonatal Hippocampus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ariel Agmon; Jason E. Wells

    2003-01-01

    Under both pathological and experimental conditions, area CA3 of the adult or juvenile hippocampus generates periodic population discharges known as interictal bursts. Whereas the ionic and synaptic basis of individual bursts has been comprehensively studied experimentally and computationally, the pacemaker mechanisms underlying interictal rhythmicity remain conjectural. We showed previously that rhythmic population discharges resembling interictal bursts can be induced in

  16. Unusual Central Engine Activity in the Double Burst GRB 110709B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Bin-Bin; Burrows, David N.; Zhang, Bing; Meszaros, Peter; Stratta, Giulia; D'Elia, Valerio; Frederiks, Dmitry; Golenetskii, S.; Cummings, Jay R.; Wang, Xiang-Yu; Falcone, Abraham D.; Barthelmy, Scott D.; Gehrels, Neil

    2011-01-01

    The double burst, GRB 110709B, triggered Swift/BAT twice at 21:32:39 UT and 21:43:45 UT, respectively, on 9 July 2011. This is the first time we observed a GRB with two BAT triggers. In this paper, we present simultaneous Swift and Konus-WIND observations of this unusual GRB and its afterglow. If the two events are from the same physical origin, their different time-dependent spectral evolution suggest they must belong to different episodes of the central engine, which may be a magnetar-to-BH accretion system.

  17. Overview on NASA's Advanced Electric Propulsion Concepts Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisbee, Robert H.

    1999-01-01

    Advanced electric propulsion research activities are currently underway that seek to addresses feasibility issues of a wide range of advanced concepts, and may result in the development of technologies that will enable exciting new missions within our solar system and beyond. Each research activity is described in terms of the present focus and potential future applications. Topics include micro-electric thrusters, electrodynamic tethers, high power plasma thrusters and related applications in materials processing, variable specific impulse plasma thrusters, pulsed inductive thrusters, computational techniques for thruster modeling, and advanced electric propulsion missions and systems studies.

  18. Nanomolar Oxytocin Synergizes with Weak Electrical Afferent Stimulation to Activate the Locomotor CPG of the Rat Spinal Cord In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Dose, Francesco; Zanon, Patrizia; Coslovich, Tamara; Taccola, Giuliano

    2014-01-01

    Synergizing the effect of afferent fibre stimulation with pharmacological interventions is a desirable goal to trigger spinal locomotor activity, especially after injury. Thus, to better understand the mechanisms to optimize this process, we studied the role of the neuropeptide oxytocin (previously shown to stimulate locomotor networks) on network and motoneuron properties using the isolated neonatal rat spinal cord. On motoneurons oxytocin (1 nM–1 ?M) generated sporadic bursts with superimposed firing and dose-dependent depolarization. No desensitization was observed despite repeated applications. Tetrodotoxin completely blocked the effects of oxytocin, demonstrating the network origin of the responses. Recording motoneuron pool activity from lumbar ventral roots showed oxytocin mediated depolarization with synchronous bursts, and depression of reflex responses in a stimulus and peptide-concentration dependent fashion. Disinhibited bursting caused by strychnine and bicuculline was accelerated by oxytocin whose action was blocked by the oxytocin antagonist atosiban. Fictive locomotion appeared when subthreshold concentrations of NMDA plus 5HT were coapplied with oxytocin, an effect prevented after 24 h incubation with the inhibitor of 5HT synthesis, PCPA. When fictive locomotion was fully manifested, oxytocin did not change periodicity, although cycle amplitude became smaller. A novel protocol of electrical stimulation based on noisy waveforms and applied to one dorsal root evoked stereotypic fictive locomotion. Whenever the stimulus intensity was subthreshold, low doses of oxytocin triggered fictive locomotion although oxytocin per se did not affect primary afferent depolarization evoked by dorsal root pulses. Among the several functional targets for the action of oxytocin at lumbar spinal cord level, the present results highlight how small concentrations of this peptide could bring spinal networks to threshold for fictive locomotion in combination with other protocols, and delineate the use of oxytocin to strengthen the efficiency of electrical stimulation to activate locomotor circuits. PMID:24658101

  19. Subthalamic Nucleus Electrical Stimulation Modulates Calcium Activity of Nigral Astrocytes

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Subthalamic Nucleus Electrical Stimulation Modulates Calcium Activity of Nigral Astrocytes Elodie, paradoxically, the role of astrocytes in the regulation of SNr activity has never been studied. Principal Findings: In this work, we developed a rat brain slice model to study the influence of spontaneous

  20. ACTIVE CONTROL STICK DRIVEN BY A PIEZO ELECTRIC MOTOR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Schulte; H. Grotstollen; H.-P. Schöner; J.-T. Audren

    1999-01-01

    An Active Control Stick (ACS) realized by a travelling wave type ultrasonic motor (USM) is presented. In contrast to the conventional side stick in modern aircrafts, which is only operated by a passive mechanic feedback, forces can be reproduced artificially by an active con- trol stick. Ultrasonic motors are more compact as conventional electrical geared motors and combine features such

  1. Estimating electric current densities in solar active regions

    E-print Network

    Wheatland, M S

    2015-01-01

    Electric currents in solar active regions are thought to provide the energy released via magnetic reconnection in solar flares. Vertical electric current densities $J_z$ at the photosphere may be estimated from vector magnetogram data, subject to substantial uncertainties. The values provide boundary conditions for nonlinear force- free modelling of active region magnetic fields. A method is presented for estimating values of $J_z$ taking into account uncertainties in vector magnetogram field values, and minimizing $J_z^2$ across the active region. The method is demonstrated using the boundary values of the field for a force-free twisted bipole, with the addition of noise at randomly chosen locations.

  2. Participation of a persistent sodium current and calcium-activated nonspecific cationic current to burst generation in trigeminal principal sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Tsuruyama, Kentaro; Hsiao, Chie-Fang; Chandler, Scott H

    2013-10-01

    The properties of neurons participating in masticatory rhythmogenesis are not clearly understood. Neurons within the dorsal trigeminal principal sensory nucleus (dPrV) are potential candidates as components of the masticatory central pattern generator (CPG). The present study examines in detail the ionic mechanisms controlling burst generation in dPrV neurons in rat (postnatal day 8-12) brain stem slices using whole cell and perforated patch-clamp methods. Nominal extracellular Ca(2+) concentration transformed tonic discharge in response to a maintained step pulse of current into rhythmical bursting in 38% of nonbursting neurons. This change in discharge mode was suppressed by riluzole, a persistent Na(+) current (INaP) antagonist. Veratridine, which suppresses the Na(+) channel inactivation mechanism, induced rhythmical bursting in nonbursting neurons in normal artificial cerebrospinal fluid, suggesting that INaP contributes to burst generation. Nominal extracellular Ca(2+) exposed a prominent afterdepolarizing potential (ADP) following a single spike induced by a 3-ms current pulse, which was suppressed, but not completely blocked, by riluzole. Application of BAPTA, a Ca(2+) chelator, intracellularly, or flufenamic acid, a Ca(2+)-activated nonspecific cationic channel (ICAN) antagonist, extracellularly to the bath, suppressed rhythmical bursting and the postspike ADP. Application of drugs to alter Ca(2+) release from endoplasmic reticulum also suppressed bursting. Finally, voltage-clamp methods demonstrated that nominal Ca(2+) facilitated INaP and induced ICAN. These data demonstrate for the first time that the previously observed induction in dPrV neurons of rhythmical bursting in nominal Ca(2+) is mediated by enhancement of INaP and onset of ICAN, which are dependent on intracellular Ca(2+). PMID:23883859

  3. Burst tumulus

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A burst tumulus near Kamokuna, which is a lava delta where Pu?u ???? flows enter the Pacific Ocean. Tumuli can burst when the influx of lava is rapid compared to the rate at which the crust is thickening by cooling. In these cases the pressure driving the lava is significant...

  4. Nanoparticles Induce Changes of the Electrical Activity of Neuronal Networks on Microelectrode Array Neurochips

    PubMed Central

    Gramowski, Alexandra; Flossdorf, Juliane; Bhattacharya, Kunal; Jonas, Ludwig; Lantow, Margareta; Rahman, Qamar; Schiffmann, Dietmar; Weiss, Dieter G.; Dopp, Elke

    2010-01-01

    Background Nanomaterials are extensively used in industry and daily life, but little is known about possible health effects. An intensified research regarding toxicity of nanomaterials is urgently needed. Several studies have demonstrated that nanoparticles (NPs; diameter < 100 nm) can be transported to the central nervous system; however, interference of NPs with the electrical activity of neurons has not yet been shown. Objectives/methods We investigated the acute electrophysiological effects of carbon black (CB), hematite (Fe2O3), and titanium dioxide (TiO2) NPs in primary murine cortical networks on microelectrode array (MEA) neurochips. Uptake of NPs was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and intracellular formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was studied by flow cytometry. Results The multiparametric assessment of electrical activity changes caused by the NPs revealed an NP-specific and concentration-dependent inhibition of the firing patterns. The number of action potentials and the frequency of their patterns (spike and burst rates) showed a significant particle-dependent decrease and significant differences in potency. Further, we detected the uptake of CB, Fe2O3, and TiO2 into glial cells and neurons by TEM. Additionally, 24 hr exposure to TiO2 NPs caused intracellular formation of ROS in neuronal and glial cells, whereas exposure to CB and Fe2O3 NPs up to a concentration of 10 ?g/cm2 did not induce significant changes in free radical levels. Conclusion NPs at low particle concentrations are able to exhibit a neurotoxic effect by disturbing the electrical activity of neuronal networks, but the underlying mechanisms depend on the particle type. PMID:20457553

  5. The residual electrically active damage in ion implanted Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kringhøj, P.; Fatima, S.; Williams, J. S.; Jagadish, C.

    1995-12-01

    The residual damage in Si has been studied after ion implantation and annealing at elevated temperatures. The residual electrical and structural damage has been measured with capacitance-voltage, deep level transient spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. A correlation between the observable structural damage and the electrically active defects was observed. A critical dose is determined, below which no structural and electrically active defects are found. This dose is characterised for different implantation temperatures and implantation energies and therefore as a function of the initial damage present after implantation. Also discussed is the critical dose as a function of annealing parameters. The observed electrical compensation of the background concentration is found to be a result of neutral donor complexes and deep acceptors.

  6. Primed-burst potentiation occludes the potentiation phenomenon and enhances the epileptiform activity induced by transient pentylenetetrazol in the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Azar Omrani; Yaghoub Fathollahi; Hamid-Reza Mohajerani; Saeed Semnanian

    2000-01-01

    The effects of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) following induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) on population spikes in CA1 of hippocampal slices were investigated. Population spikes were evoked by activation of Schaffer collaterals with a range of stimulation intensities. LTP was induced using ?-pattern primed burst tetanic stimulation. Changes in the population spike amplitude and number of population spikes were used as indices

  7. Imaging and visualization of 3-D cardiac electric activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bin He; Dongsheng Wu

    2001-01-01

    Noninvasive imaging of cardiac electric activity is of importance for better understanding the underlying mechanisms and for aiding clinical diagnosis and intervention of cardiac ab- normalities. We propose to image the three-dimensional (3-D) car- diac bioelectric source distribution from body-surface electrocar- diograms. Cardiac electrical sources were modeled by a current dipole distribution throughout the entire myocardium, and esti- mated by

  8. Observations of the Bursting Activity of the 6.7GHz Methanol Maser in G33.641-0.228

    E-print Network

    Fujisawa, Kenta; Nagadomi, Yoshito; Kimura, Saki; Shimomura, Tadashi; Takase, Genta; Sugiyama, Koichiro; Motogi, Kazuhito; Niinuma, Kotaro; Hirota, Tomoya; Yonekura, Yoshinori

    2014-01-01

    We have observed bursting variability of the 6.7 GHz methanol maser of G33.641-0.228. Five bursts were detected in the observation period of 294 days from 2009 to 2012. The typical burst is a large flux density rise in about one day followed by a slow fall. A non-typical burst observed in 2010 showed a large and rapid flux density enhancement from the stable state, but the rise and fall of the flux density were temporally symmetric and a fast fluctuation continued 12 days. On average, the bursts occurred once every 59 days, although bursting was not periodic. Since the average power required for causing the burst of order of 10^21 Js^-1 is far smaller than the luminosity of G33.641-0.228, a very small fraction of the source's power would be sufficient to cause the burst occasionally. The burst can be explained as a solar-flare like event in which the energy is accumulated in the magnetic field of the circumstellar disk, and is released for a short time. However, the mechanism of the energy release and the dus...

  9. NMDA receptor activation strengthens weak electrical coupling in mammalian brain.

    PubMed

    Turecek, Josef; Yuen, Genevieve S; Han, Victor Z; Zeng, Xiao-Hui; Bayer, K Ulrich; Welsh, John P

    2014-03-19

    Electrical synapses are formed by gap junctions and permit electrical coupling, which shapes the synchrony of neuronal ensembles. Here, we provide a direct demonstration of receptor-mediated strengthening of electrical coupling in mammalian brain. Electrical coupling in the inferior olive of rats was strengthened by activation of NMDA-type glutamate receptors (NMDARs), which were found at synaptic loci and at extrasynaptic loci 20-100 nm proximal to gap junctions. Electrical coupling was strengthened by pharmacological and synaptic activation of NMDARs, whereas costimulation of ionotropic non-NMDAR glutamate receptors transiently antagonized the effect of NMDAR activation. NMDAR-dependent strengthening (1) occurred despite increased input conductance, (2) induced Ca(2+)-influx microdomains near dendritic spines, (3) required activation of the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein-kinase II, (4) was restricted to neurons that were weakly coupled, and (5) thus strengthened coupling, mainly between nonadjacent neurons. This provided a mechanism to expand the synchronization of rhythmic membrane potential oscillations by chemical neurotransmitter input. PMID:24656255

  10. Estimates of the global electric circuit from global thunderstorm activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchins, M. L.; Holzworth, R. H.; Brundell, J. B.

    2013-12-01

    The World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) has a global detection efficiency around 10%, however the network has been shown to identify 99% of thunderstorms (Jacobson, et al 2006, using WWLLN data from 2005). To create an estimate of the global electric circuit activity a clustering algorithm is applied to the WWLLN dataset to identify global thunderstorms from 2009 - 2013. The annual, seasonal, and regional thunderstorm activity is investigated with this new WWLLN thunderstorm dataset in order to examine the source behavior of the global electric circuit. From the clustering algorithm the total number of active thunderstorms is found every 30 minutes to create a measure of the global electric circuit source function. The clustering algorithm used is shown to be robust over parameter ranges related to real physical storm sizes and times. The thunderstorm groupings are verified with case study comparisons using satellite and radar data. It is found that there are on average 714 × 81 thunderstorms active at any given time. Similarly the highest average number of thunderstorms occurs in July (783 × 69) with the lowest in January (599 × 76). The annual and diurnal thunderstorm activity seen with the WWLLN thunderstorms is in contrast with the bimodal stroke activity seen by WWLLN. Through utilizing the global coverage and high time resolution of WWLLN, it is shown that the total active thunderstorm count is less than previous estimates based on compiled climatologies.

  11. Electrical-power-system data base for consumables analysis. Volume 1: Electrical equipment list, activity blocks, and time lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pipher, M. D.; Green, P. A.; Wolfgram, D. F.

    1975-01-01

    A standardized data base is described which consists of a space shuttle electrical equipment list, activity blocks defining electrical equipment utilization, and activity-block time lines for specific mission analyses. Information is presented to facilitate utilization of the data base, to provide the basis for the electrical equipment utilization to enable interpretation of analyses based on the data contained herein.

  12. Pre-B cell colony-enhancing factor (PBEF/Nampt/visfatin) primes neutrophils for augmented respiratory burst activity through partial assembly of the NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed

    Malam, Zeenat; Parodo, Jean; Waheed, Faiza; Szaszi, Katalin; Kapus, Andras; Marshall, John C

    2011-06-01

    Pre-B cell colony-enhancing factor ([PBEF] also known as Nampt/visfatin) is a pleiotropic 52-kDa cytokine-like molecule whose activity has been implicated in multiple inflammatory disease states. PBEF promotes polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) proinflammatory function by inhibiting constitutive PMN apoptosis. We investigated whether PBEF activates or primes for PMN respiratory burst. We found that although PBEF did not activate respiratory burst on its own, it primed for increased reactive oxygen species generation through the NADPH oxidase. PBEF promoted membrane translocation of cytosolic NADPH oxidase subunits p40 and p47, but not p67, induced p40 phosphorylation on Thr(154), and activated the small GTPase Rac. Priming, translocation, and phosphorylation were dependent on activation of p38 and ERK MAPKs, but not of PI3K. Priming by PBEF occurred independent of its NAD-generating capacity because neither nicotinamide mononucleotide or NAD could recapitulate the effects, and a specific inhibitor of PBEF, APO-866, could not inhibit priming. Taken together, these results demonstrate that PBEF can prime for PMN respiratory burst activity by promoting p40 and p47 translocation to the membrane, and this occurs in a MAPK-dependent fashion. PMID:21518975

  13. Analysis of Q burst waveforms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshio Ogawa; Masayuki Komatsu

    2007-01-01

    The electric field changes in ELF to VLF were observed with a ball antenna in fair weather at Kochi (latitude 33.3°N, longitude 133.4°E) during 2003–2004. Some 376 Q bursts were obtained, seven examples of which are analyzed in the present study. The continuous frequency spectra of the Q bursts and the background noises from 1.0 Hz to 11 kHz are

  14. Analysis of Q burst waveforms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshio Ogawa; Masayuki Komatsu

    2007-01-01

    The electric field changes in ELF to VLF were observed with a ball antenna in fair weather at Kochi (latitude 33.3°N, longitude 133.4°E) during 2003-2004. Some 376 Q bursts were obtained, seven examples of which are analyzed in the present study. The continuous frequency spectra of the Q bursts and the background noises from 1.0 Hz to 11 kHz are

  15. Monitoring of Tunneling Activities with Electrical Resistivity Imaging Methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Yang; B. Carr; M. B. Lagmanson

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate the effectiveness of electrical resistivity imaging methods for monitoring of tunneling activities with numerical modeling. The sharp resistivity contrast between an air-filled tunnel and surrounding materials presents an excellent opportunity for resistivity imaging methods to locate a tunnel. However, the subsurface inhomogeneity and varying moisture conditions produce strong resistivity anomalies that sometimes overwhelm the tunnel signature. Therefore, tunnel

  16. An Overview of Electric Propulsion Activities at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunning, John W., Jr.; Hamley, John A.; Jankovsky, Robert S.; Oleson, Steven R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of NASA s activities in the area of electric propulsion with an emphasis on project directions, recent progress, and a view of future project directions. The goals of the electric propulsion programs are to develop key technologies to enable new and ambitious science missions and to transfer these technologies to industry. Activities include the development of gridded ion thruster technology, Hall thruster technology, pulsed plasma thruster technology, and very high power electric propulsion technology, as well as systems technology that supports practical implementation of these advanced concepts. The performance of clusters of ion and Hall thrusters is being revisited. Mission analyses, based on science requirements and preliminary mission specifications, guide the technology projects and introduce mission planners to new capabilities. Significant in-house activity, with strong industrial/academia participation via contracts and grants, is maintained to address these development efforts. NASA has initiated a program covering nuclear powered spacecraft that includes both reactor and radioisotope power sources. This has provided an impetus to investigate higher power and higher specific impulse thruster systems. NASA continues to work closely with both supplier and user communities to maximize the understanding and acceptance of new technology in a timely and cost-effective manner. NASA s electric propulsion efforts are closely coordinated with Department of Defense and other national programs to assure the most effective use of available resources. Several NASA Centers are actively involved in these electric propulsion activities, including, the Glenn Research Center, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Johnson Space Center, and Marshall Space Flight Center.

  17. Bacterial inhibition by electrical activation of percutaneous silver implants.

    PubMed

    Spadaro, J A; Chase, S E; Webster, D A

    1986-01-01

    Percutaneous silver wire implants were looped through the dorsal skin of rats and inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus to test the effect on bacteria in the tract. The silver was activated with four brief daily applications of anodic microcurrent. Contralateral 316L stainless steel implants, identically inoculated, served as controls. Cultures from the silver tracts showed a marked reduction or elimination of bacteria, which persisted for the 3-week study period. In tracts with colonization established for 1 week, subsequent electrical activation of the silver also suppressed the bacteria. Inflammatory reactions at 3 weeks were mild at both the silver and stainless implants and no giant cells or toxicity were seen. This suggests that electrically activated silver may be useful in preventing or treating infection at percutaneous devices. PMID:3711134

  18. Compensatory changes in the hippocampus of somatostatin knockout mice: upregulation of somatostatin receptor 2 and its function in the control of bursting activity and synaptic transmission.

    PubMed

    Cammalleri, Maurizio; Cervia, Davide; Dal Monte, Massimo; Martini, Davide; Langenegger, Daniel; Fehlmann, Dominique; Feuerbach, Dominik; Pavan, Barbara; Hoyer, Daniel; Bagnoli, Paola

    2006-05-01

    Somatostatin-14 (SRIF) co-localizes with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the hippocampus and regulates neuronal excitability. A role of SRIF in the control of seizures has been proposed, although its exact contribution requires some clarification. In particular, SRIF knockout (KO) mice do not exhibit spontaneous seizures, indicating that compensatory changes may occur in KO. In the KO hippocampus, we examined whether specific SRIF receptors and/or the cognate peptide cortistatin-14 (CST) compensate for the absence of SRIF. We found increased levels of both sst2 receptors (sst2) and CST, and we explored the functional consequences of sst2 compensation on bursting activity and synaptic responses in hippocampal slices. Bursting was decreased by SRIF in wild-type (WT) mice, but it was not affected by either CST or sst2 agonist and antagonist. sst4 agonist increased bursting frequency in either WT or KO. In WT, but not in KO, its effects were blocked by agonizing or antagonizing sst2, suggesting that sst2 and sst4 are functionally coupled in the WT hippocampus. Bursting was reduced in KO as compared with WT and was increased upon application of sst2 antagonist, while SRIF, CST and sst2 agonist had no effect. At the synaptic level, we observed that in WT, SRIF decreased excitatory postsynaptic potentials which were, in contrast, increased by sst2 antagonist in KO. We conclude that sst2 compensates for SRIF absence and that its upregulation is responsible for reduced bursting and decreased excitatory transmission in KO mice. We suggest that a critical density of sst2 is needed to control hippocampal activity. PMID:16706848

  19. Active RF Pulse Compression Using An Electrically Controlled Semiconductor Switch

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Jiquan; Tantawi, Sami; /SLAC

    2007-01-10

    First we review the theory of active pulse compression systems using resonant delay lines. Then we describe the design of an electrically controlled semiconductor active switch. The switch comprises an active window and an overmoded waveguide three-port network. The active window is based on a four-inch silicon wafer which has 960 PIN diodes. These are spatially combined in an overmoded waveguide. We describe the philosophy and design methodology for the three-port network and the active window. We then present the results of using this device to compress 11.4 GHz RF signals with high compression ratios. We show how the system can be used with amplifier like sources, in which one can change the phase of the source by manipulating the input to the source. We also show how the active switch can be used to compress a pulse from an oscillator like sources, which is not possible with passive pulse compression systems.

  20. Electret-thermal and dielectric analyses of electrically active colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbachenko, L. A.; Borisov, V. S.; Maksimova, N. T.; Baryshnikov, E. S.; Ezhova, Ya. V.; Karnakov, V. A.; Marchuk, S. D.; Eine, Yu. T.

    2010-08-01

    The nature and mechanism of interfacial electrical interaction in organic colloids containing an active solid phase and a polar liquid phase are studied. Such systems are shown to offer specific properties. Specifically, high electrical forces producing gradients of the potential of the self-electric internal field arise at the liquid-solid interface. In the presence of free charges and ionic conductivity channels, this field can induce currents in such systems. When investigating the colloid system of the human venous blood, it is found that the internal field causes mesoscopic inhomogeneity in the structure of the aqueous components of the plasma and cytoplasm. It is shown that the concentration of free water molecules in the liquid phase of the system is maximal in group I blood and the physically nonuniform properties of combined water show up to the greatest extent in group IV blood. This finding is corroborated by the dispersion of the dielectric polarization in blood of different groups.

  1. Wireless integrated microsystems for monitoring brain chemical and electrical activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roham, Masoud; Garris, Paul A.; Mohseni, Pedram

    2008-08-01

    A 16-channel chip for wireless in vivo recording of chemical and electrical neural activity is described. The 7.83-mm2 IC is fabricated using a 0.5-?m CMOS process and incorporates a 71-?W, 3rd-order, reconfigurable, ?? modulator per channel, achieving an input-referred noise of 4.69 ?Vrms in 4-kHz BW and 94.1 pArms in 5-kHz BW for electrical and fast-scan voltammetric chemical neurosensing, respectively. The chip has been externally interfaced with carbon-fiber microelectrodes implanted acutely in the caudate-putamen of an anesthetized rat, and, for the first time, extracellular levels of dopamine elicited by electrical stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle have been successfully recorded wirelessly across multiple channels using 300-V/s fast-scan cyclic voltammetry.

  2. Antioxidant activity of hyaluronic acid investigated by means of chemiluminescence of equine neutrophil bursts and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Braga, P C; Dal Sasso, M; Lattuada, N; Greco, V; Sibilia, V; Zucca, E; Stucchi, L; Ferro, E; Ferrucci, F

    2015-02-01

    Activated neutrophils (PMNs), the ROS/RNS released by PMNs and the derived inflammatory processes are involved in the pathogenesis and progression of human inflammatory airway diseases. Similar diseases are also present in horses which suffer from recurrent airway obstruction (RAO), exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage (EIPH) and inflammatory airway diseases (IAD). Hyaluronic acid (HA) plays numerous roles in modulating inflammatory processes. The aim of this study was to examine whether a preparation of HA (MW 900 000 Da) interferes with ROS/RNS during the course of equine PMN respiratory bursts, and to establish the lowest concentration at which it still has antioxidant activity by means of luminol-amplified chemiluminescence (LACL). Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was also used to investigate the direct antiradical activity of HA. The hydroxyl radical was significantly scavenged in a concentration-dependent manner at HA concentrations ranging from 2.5 to 0.16 mg/mL. Superoxide anion, Tempol radical and the ABTS(•+) were significantly inhibited at concentrations ranging from 2.5 to 0.62 mg/mL. The LACL of stimulated equine neutrophils showed that HA induced a statistically significant concentration-effect reduction from 5 mg/mL to 1.25 mg/mL. These findings were confirmed also when l-Arg was added to investigate the inhibition of the resulting peroxynitrite anion. Our findings indicate that, in addition to the human use, HA can also be used to antagonize the oxidative stress generated by free radicals in horses peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). In order to achieve therapeutic concentrations, a direct aerosol administration to horses with horse respiratory diseases can be considered, as this route of application is also recommended in human medicine. PMID:25066541

  3. RADIAL ANGULAR MOMENTUM TRANSFER AND MAGNETIC BARRIER FOR SHORT-TYPE GAMMA-RAY-BURST CENTRAL ENGINE ACTIVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Tong; Gu Weimin; Hou Shujin [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Liang Enwei [Department of Physics and GXU-NAOC Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, Guangxi University, Nanning, Guangxi 530004 (China); Lei Weihua [School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Lin Lin; Zhang Shuangnan [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Dai Zigao, E-mail: lew@gxu.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210093 (China)

    2012-11-20

    Soft extended emission (EE) following initial hard spikes up to 100 s was observed with Swift/BAT for about half of known short-type gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs). This challenges the conversional central engine models of SGRBs, i.e., compact star merger models. In the framework of black-hole-neutron-star merger models, we study the roles of radial angular momentum transfer in the disk and the magnetic barrier around the black hole in the activity of SGRB central engines. We show that radial angular momentum transfer may significantly prolong the lifetime of the accretion process, which may be divided into multiple episodes by the magnetic barrier. Our numerical calculations based on models of neutrino-dominated accretion flows suggest that disk mass is critical for producing the observed EE. In the case of the mass being {approx}0.8 M {sub Sun }, our model can reproduce the observed timescale and luminosity of both the main and the EE episodes in a reasonable parameter set. The predicted luminosity of the EE component is lower than the observed EE within about one order of magnitude and the timescale is shorter than 20 s if the disk mass is {approx}0.2 M {sub Sun }. Swift/BAT-like instruments may be not sensitive enough to detect the EE component in this case. We argue that the EE component could be a probe for the merger process and disk formation for compact star mergers.

  4. Transparent selective illumination means suitable for use in optically activated electrical switches and optically activated electrical switches constructed using same

    DOEpatents

    Wilcox, R.B.

    1991-09-10

    A planar transparent light conducting means and an improved optically activated electrical switch made using the novel light conducting means are disclosed. The light conducting means further comprise light scattering means on one or more opposite planar surfaces thereof to transmit light from the light conducting means into adjacent media and reflective means on other surfaces of the light conducting means not containing the light scattering means. The optically activated electrical switch comprises at least two stacked photoconductive wafers, each having electrodes formed on both surfaces thereof, and separated by the planar transparent light conducting means. The light scattering means on the light conducting means face surfaces of the wafers not covered by the electrodes to transmit light from the light conducting means into the photoconductive wafers to uniformly illuminate and activate the switch. 11 figures.

  5. Single unit components of the hypothalamic multiunit electrical activity associated with the central signal generator that directs the pulsatile secretion of gonadotropic hormones.

    PubMed Central

    Cardenas, H; Ordög, T; O'Byrne, K T; Knobil, E

    1993-01-01

    Vertebrate reproduction is dependent on the operation of a central signal generator that directs the episodic release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, a neuropeptide that stimulates secretion of the pituitary gonadotropic hormones and, thereby, controls gonadal function. The electrophysiological correlates of this pulse generator are characterized by abrupt increases in hypothalamic multiunit electrical activity (MUA volleys) invariably associated with the initiation of secretory episodes of luteinizing hormone. Using cluster analysis, we extracted single units from the multiunit signals recorded from the mediobasal hypothalamus of four intact and four ovariectomized rhesus monkeys. Of the 40 individual units identified in this manner, 24 increased their frequency with the MUA volleys. The onset and termination of these single-unit bursts occurred coincidently with those of the MUA volleys in both intact and ovariectomized animals, indicating that the longer duration of the MUA volleys characteristic of the gonadectomized animals was due not to the sequential activation of different units but to the longer bursts of the individual cells. Four other units showed decreases in firing rate during the MUA volleys, while the frequency of the remainder did not change. All the examined units were active during the intervals between the volleys of electrical activity. The results indicate that the MUA volleys associated with the activity of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone pulse generator represent the simultaneous increase in firing rate of some individual hypothalamic neurons and the decrease in the frequency of others. Images Fig. 2 PMID:8415752

  6. Electricity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Brieske, Joel A.

    This Topic In Depth explores some of what the Web has to offer on the subject of electricity.The first site from Thinkquest.org called Electricity Online (1) gives an excellent overview, with topics ranging from circuits and transformers to electricity's discovery and history. The site even contains games, activities, and quizzes. The second site, Edison's Miracle of Light (2) from PBS.org, is a companion site to a PBS special of the same name. The site explores the life and accomplishments of one of the 19th century's greatest inventors, offering a timeline, recordings, and more. From Clark Public Utilities of Clark County Washington, the next site is called Electricity (3). This Web site offers information from a public utilities perspective, with subjects like electrical safety, how electricity gets to your home, what it costs to run appliances, and so on. Next, from the US Department of Energy, is a site that offers an Overview of the Electric Power Industry (4). Here, visitors can find information, data, publications, statistics, and more relating to electric power in the US. The fifth site from ExploreScience.com is called Multimedia Activities (5) and contains just that. Geared towards students, the four interactive lessons include an introduction to electricity and magnetism, an introduction to plasma, coulomb force, and lissajous figures. The next site, provided by the BBC, is another interactive learning site, called Activity Electricity (6). Users click through a lesson about circuits and current, answering questions along the way. The site also contains a fact sheet and quiz. From NASA, the Dataset Information site (7) contains data archived and cataloged by the Global Hydrology Resource Center relating to lighting. Several datasets from varying sources are available for free and include such things as Long Range Cloud to Ground Data. The last site is offered by the Canada Science and Technology Museum and is called Background Information for Electricity (8). This Web site for kids offers simple descriptions and illustrations about electricity, who discovered it, conductors and insulators, fuses, and more. The electricity workshop link also contains lesson plans and additional student activities.

  7. Extracellular electrical activity from the photoreceptors of midge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A A Babrekar; G R Kulkarni; B B Nath; P B Vidyasagar

    2004-01-01

    The ontogeny of photosensitivity has been studied in a holometabolous insect, the midgeChironomus ramosus. The life cycle of midges shifts from an aquatic environment to a non-aquatic environment. Extracellular electrical activity\\u000a of photoreceptor organs was recorded at larval and adult stages. We found an increase in photosensitivity as the larva metamorphosed\\u000a to the adult stage. This is the first report

  8. Activation of the JNK pathway by nanosecond pulsed electric fields

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keiko Morotomi-Yano; Yuichi Uemura; Sunao Katsuki; Hidenori Akiyama; Ken-ichi Yano

    2011-01-01

    Nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) are increasingly recognized as a novel and unique tool in various life science fields, including electroporation and cancer therapy, although their mode of action in cells remains largely unclear. Here, we show that nsPEFs induce strong and transient activation of a signaling pathway involving c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Application of nsPEFs to HeLa S3 cells

  9. Age-related changes in visually evoked electrical brain activity.

    PubMed

    Plomp, Gijs; Kunchulia, Marina; Herzog, Michael H

    2012-05-01

    Whereas much is known about the degenerative effects of aging on cortical tissue, less is known about how aging affects visually evoked electrical activity, and at what latencies. We compared visual processing in elderly and young controls using a visual masking paradigm, which is particularly sensitive to detect temporal processing deficits, while recording EEG. The results show that, on average, elderly have weaker visual evoked potentials than controls, and that elderly show a distinct scalp potential topography (microstate) at around 150 ms after stimulus onset. This microstate occurred irrespective of the visual stimulus presented. Electrical source imaging showed that the changes in the scalp potential resulted from decreased activity in lateral occipital cortex and increases in fronto-parietal areas. We saw, however, no evidence that increased fronto-parietal activity enhanced performance on the discrimination task, and no evidence that it compensated for decreased posterior activity. Our results show qualitatively different patterns of visual evoked potentials (VEPs) in the elderly, and demonstrate that increased fronto-parietal activity arises during visual processing in the elderly already between 150 and 200 ms after stimulus onset. The microstate associated with these changes is a potential diagnostic tool to detect age-related cortical changes. PMID:21538705

  10. Ambroxol inhibits neutrophil respiratory burst activated by alpha chain integrin adhesion.

    PubMed

    Peroni, D G; Moser, S; Gallo, G; Pigozzi, R; Tenero, L; Zanoni, L; Boner, A L; Piacentini, G L

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the possible anti-oxidant effect(s) of Ambroxol on neutrophils activated by ligand-binding of the drug with membrane-associated adhesion integrin CD11a and to estimate dose-response changes in oxygen free radical production. The amount of free radical production by anti-CD11a- and anti-CD4-coated neutrophils stimulated with N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) and challenged with increasing concentration of Ambroxol, was evaluated within a time frame of 90 minutes. A significant dose-dependent effect response of Ambroxol on O2? production by cells coated with anti-CD11a antibody was observed. This preliminary study opens a new perspective on the therapeutic role of Ambroxol as an antioxidant drug and for its potential use in controlling oxidative stress, particularly in leukocyte-dependent inflammation. PMID:24355223

  11. ELECTRICALLY ACTIVE MICROARRAY OF 3D CARBON MEMS ELECTRODES FOR PATHOGEN DETECTION SYSTEMS

    E-print Network

    Kassegne, Samuel Kinde

    ELECTRICALLY ACTIVE MICROARRAY OF 3D CARBON MEMS ELECTRODES FOR PATHOGEN DETECTION SYSTEMS: Electrically Active Microarray of 3D Carbon MEMS Electrodes for Pathogen Detection Systems OF THE THESIS ELECTRICALLY ACTIVE MICROARRAY OF 3D CARBON MEMS ELECTRODES FOR PATHOGEN DETECTION SYSTEMS by Jiae

  12. Transparent electrical conducting films by activated reactive evaporation

    DOEpatents

    Bunshah, R.; Nath, P.

    1982-06-22

    Process and apparatus for producing transparent electrical conducting thin films by activated reactive evaporation is disclosed. Thin films of low melting point metals and alloys, such as indium oxide and indium oxide doped with tin, are produced by physical vapor deposition. The metal or alloy is vaporized by electrical resistance heating in a vacuum chamber, oxygen and an inert gas such as argon are introduced into the chamber, and vapor and gas are ionized by a beam of low energy electrons in a reaction zone between the resistance heater and the substrate. There is a reaction between the ionized oxygen and the metal vapor resulting in the metal oxide which deposits on the substrate as a thin film which is ready for use without requiring post deposition heat treatment. 1 fig.

  13. Transparent electrical conducting films by activated reactive evaporation

    DOEpatents

    Bunshah, Rointan (Los Angeles, CA); Nath, Prem (Troy, MI)

    1982-01-01

    Process and apparatus for producing transparent electrical conducting thin films by activated reactive evaporation. Thin films of low melting point metals and alloys, such as indium oxide and indium oxide doped with tin, are produced by physical vapor deposition. The metal or alloy is vaporized by electrical resistance heating in a vacuum chamber, oxygen and an inert gas such as argon are introduced into the chamber, and vapor and gas are ionized by a beam of low energy electrons in a reaction zone between the resistance heater and the substrate. There is a reaction between the ionized oxygen and the metal vapor resulting in the metal oxide which deposits on the substrate as a thin film which is ready for use without requiring post deposition heat treatment.

  14. [Afobazole effect on the electrical activity of neurons].

    PubMed

    Vislobokov, A I; Ignatov, Iu D; Seredenin, S B

    2012-01-01

    Changes in the membrane rest potential (RP), action potential (AP) and impulse activity (IA) in neurons of isolated central nervous system of Lymnaea stagnalis and Planorbarius corneus under the action of anxiolytic afobazole (2-mercaptobenzimidazole derivative) in 1, 10, 100 and 1000 microM concentrations have been studied using a microelectrode technique. It is established that afobazole produces a two-phase, dose-dependent and reversible effect on the electrical activity of neurons. Hyperpolarization by 5-8 mV in the first phase (1-100 microM) and depolarization by 8-10 mV in the second phase (1000 microM) have been observed. The corresponding changes in AP and IA parameters were due to the RP level changes related to their potential dependence and resulted from the direct activation-suppression action of afobazole on the neuron ionic currents. PMID:22891434

  15. Mixed Mode Oscillations as a Mechanism for Pseudo-Plateau Bursting

    PubMed Central

    Vo, Theodore; Bertram, Richard; Tabak, Joel; Wechselberger, Martin

    2011-01-01

    We combine bifurcation analysis with the theory of canard-induced mixed mode oscillations to investigate the dynamics of a novel form of bursting. This bursting oscillation, which arises from a model of the electrical activity of a pituitary cell, is characterized by small impulses or spikes riding on top of an elevated voltage plateau. Oscillations with these characteristics have been called “pseudo-plateau bursting”. Unlike standard bursting, the subsystem of fast variables does not posses a stable branch of periodic spiking solutions, and in the case studied here the standard fast/slow analysis provides little information about the underlying dynamics. We demonstrate that the bursting is actually a canard-induced mixed mode oscillation, and use canard theory to characterize the dynamics of the oscillation. We also use bifurcation analysis of the full system of equations to extend the results of the singular analysis to the physiological regime. This demonstrates that the combination of these two analysis techniques can be a powerful tool for understanding the pseudo-plateau bursting oscillations that arise in electrically excitable pituitary cells and isolated pancreatic ?-cells. PMID:20186476

  16. Ga-implantation in Ge: Electrical activation and clustering

    SciTech Connect

    Impellizzeri, G.; Mirabella, S.; Irrera, A.; Grimaldi, M. G. [MATIS CNR-INFM and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Napolitani, E. [MATIS CNR-INFM and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2009-07-01

    The electrical activation and clustering of Ga implanted in crystalline Ge was investigated in the (0.3-1.2)x10{sup 21} Ga/cm{sup 3} concentration range. To this aim, Ge samples implanted with 50 keV gallium, and annealed at several temperatures up to 650 deg. C, have been subjected to a detailed structural and electrical characterization. The substrate was maintained at 77 K during implantation to avoid the formation of the honeycomb structure that occurs during implantation at room temperature of heavy ions at high fluence. Secondary ion mass spectrometry analyses indicated a negligible Ga diffusion and dopant loss during the thermal annealing. The carrier concentration in the recrystallized samples measured by Hall effect showed a maximum concentration of active Ga of approx6.6x10{sup 20} Ga/cm{sup 3}. A remarkable Ga deactivation occurred with increasing the annealing temperature from 450 to 650 deg. C although the sheet resistance did not change considerably in this temperature range. It turned out that the carrier concentration reduction is balanced by the enhancement of the hole mobility that exhibits a steep variation with the concentration of the ionized scattering centers in this range. A simple model is proposed to explain the experimental results taking into account the thermally activated Ga clustering. These studies, besides clarifying the mechanism of Ga deactivation in Ge, can be helpful for the realization of future generation devices based on Ge.

  17. Prolonged pulseless electrical activity: successful resuscitation using extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsi-Wen; Chiu, Chun-Chieh; Yen, Hsu-Heng; Chen, Yao-Li; Siao, Fu-Yuan

    2015-03-01

    Pulseless electrical activity (PEA) can rapidly transform into sudden cardiac death, if the etiology cannot be identified and corrected immediately. The clinical challenge is how to resuscitate the patient with prolonged PEA. We present a case of a 51-year-old man with PEA due to acute myocardial infarction caused by total occlusion of the main coronary artery, which was refractory to prolonged conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was initiated approximately 75 minutes after prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation; this achieved a sustained return of spontaneous circulation, which permitted adequate time for subsequent coronary intervention. He was discharged on day 16 without any further sequelae or neurologic deficits. PMID:25218623

  18. Biometrics from brain electrical activity: a machine learning approach.

    PubMed

    Palaniappan, Ramaswamy; Mandic, Danilo P

    2007-04-01

    The potential of brain electrical activity generated as a response to a visual stimulus is examined in the context of the identification of individuals. Specifically, a framework for the Visual Evoked Potential (VEP)-based biometrics is established, whereby energy features of the gamma band within VEP signals were of particular interest. A rigorous analysis is conducted which unifies and extends results from our previous studies, in particular, with respect to 1) increased bandwidth, 2) spatial averaging, 3) more robust power spectrum features, and 4) improved classification accuracy. Simulation results on a large group of subject support the analysis. PMID:17299228

  19. Disinhibition bursting of dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Lobb, Collin J; Troyer, Todd W; Wilson, Charles J; Paladini, Carlos A

    2011-01-01

    Substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) dopaminergic neurons receive strong tonic inputs from GABAergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNpr) and globus pallidus (GP), and glutamatergic neurons in the subthalamic nucleus. The presence of these tonic inputs raises the possibility that phasic disinhibition may trigger phasic bursts in dopaminergic neurons. We first applied constant NMDA and GABA(A) conductances onto a two-compartment single cell model of the dopaminergic neuron (Kuznetsov et al., 2006). The model exhibited disinhibition bursting upon stepwise removal of inhibition. A further bifurcation analysis suggests that disinhibition may be more robust than excitation alone in that for most levels of NMDA conductance, the cell remains capable of bursting even after a complete removal of inhibition, whereas too much excitatory input will drive the cell into depolarization block. To investigate the network dynamics of disinhibition, we used a modified version of an integrate-and-fire based model of the basal ganglia (Humphries et al., 2006). Synaptic activity generated in the network was delivered to the two-compartment single cell dopaminergic neuron. Phasic activation of the D1-expressing medium spiny neurons in the striatum (D1STR) produced disinhibition bursts in dopaminergic neurons through the direct pathway (D1STR to SNpr to SNpc). Anatomical studies have shown that D1STR neurons have collaterals that terminate in GP. Adding these collaterals to the model, we found that striatal activation increased the intra-burst firing frequency of the disinhibition burst as the weight of this connection was increased. Our studies suggest that striatal activation is a robust means by which disinhibition bursts can be generated by SNpc dopaminergic neurons, and that recruitment of the indirect pathway via collaterals may enhance disinhibition bursting. PMID:21617731

  20. Solar microwave bursts - A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundu, M. R.; Vlahos, L.

    1982-01-01

    Observational and theoretical results on the physics of microwave bursts that occur in the solar atmosphere are reviewed. Special attention is given to the advances made in burst physics over the last few years with the great improvement in spatial and time resolution, especially with instruments like the NRAO three-element interferometer, the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope, and more recently the Very Large Array. Observations made on the preflare build-up of an active region at centimeter wavelengths are reviewed. Three distinct phases in the evolution of cm bursts, namely the impulsive phase, the post-burst phase, and the gradual rise and fall, are discussed. Attention is also given to the flux density spectra of centimeter bursts. Descriptions are given of observations of fine structures with temporal resolution of 10-100 ms in the intensity profiles of cm-wavelength bursts. High spatial resolution observations are analyzed, with special reference to the one- and two-dimensional maps of cm burst sources.

  1. Involvement of Na+/K+ pump in fine modulation of bursting activity of the snail Br neuron by 10 mT static magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Nikoli?, Ljiljana; Todorovi?, Nataša; Zakrzewska, Joanna; Stani?, Marina; Rauš, Snežana; Kalauzi, Aleksandar; Jana?, Branka

    2012-07-01

    The spontaneously active Br neuron from the brain-subesophageal ganglion complex of the garden snail Helix pomatia rhythmically generates regular bursts of action potentials with quiescent intervals accompanied by slow oscillations of membrane potential. We examined the involvement of the Na(+)/K(+) pump in modulating its bursting activity by applying a static magnetic field. Whole snail brains and Br neuron were exposed to the 10-mT static magnetic field for 15 min. Biochemical data showed that Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity increased almost twofold after exposure of snail brains to the static magnetic field. Similarly, (31)P NMR data revealed a trend of increasing ATP consumption and increase in intracellular pH mediated by the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger in snail brains exposed to the static magnetic field. Importantly, current clamp recordings from the Br neuron confirmed the increase in activity of the Na(+)/K(+) pump after exposure to the static magnetic field, as the magnitude of ouabain's effect measured on the membrane resting potential, action potential, and interspike interval duration was higher in neurons exposed to the magnetic field. Metabolic pathways through which the magnetic field influenced the Na(+)/K(+) pump could involve phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, as blocking these processes abolished the effect of the static magnetic field. PMID:22534773

  2. Effect of acute hyperoxia during exercise on quadriceps electrical activity in active COPD patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Gosselin; F. Durand; M. Poulain; K. Lambert; F. Ceugniet; C. Prefaut; A. Varray

    2004-01-01

    Aims: This study investigated whether acute hyperoxia improves electrical muscle activity in active chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with mild hypoxemia (rest PaO2 ¼ 9.1 ? 0.4 kPa). Methods: Two identical incremental exercise tests were performed by nine patients while breathing either air or 30% oxygen. Pulmonary gas exchanges, venous concentrations of lactate and pyruvate, and the elec- tromyographic

  3. Heterogeneity in the properties of burst-forming units of erythroid lineage in sickle cell anemia: DNA synthesis and burst-promoting activity production is related to peripheral hemoglobin F levels

    SciTech Connect

    Croizat, H.; Billett, H.H.; Nagel, R.L. (Albert Einstein College of Medicine/Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY (USA))

    1990-02-15

    Circulating 14-day erythroid progenitors (BFU-E) from 28 sickle cell anemia (SS) patients with hemoglobin F (HbF) levels ranging from 2% to 16% were studied to determine their sensitivity to ({sup 3}H) thymidine kill and burst-promoting activity (BPA)-like factor production. We find that the proportion of BFU-E sensitive to 3H-dT kill, and hence active in DNA synthesis, was inversely correlated with the percent of peripheral HbF when light density (LD) mononuclear cells were used for plating. Regression analysis showed that the correlation between HbF level and BFU-E kill was highly significant (r = .88; P less than .00003). We confirmed the BPA-like factor(s) production by LD mononuclear cells of SS patients, and found, in addition, that this phenomenon is restricted to the population of SS patients with HbF levels lower than 9%. Circulating BFU-E of patients with high HbF levels are not sensitive to 3H-dT, and their mononuclear cells do not release BPA-like factor. In summary, SS patients exhibit differences in the capacity of their mononuclear cells to produce BPA activity according to their peripheral HbF level, as well as to the DNA synthesis-state of their circulating BFU-E. We conclude that erythroid progenitors differ among SS patients in relation to their peripheral HbF level.

  4. SK channels gate information processing in vivo by regulating an intrinsic bursting mechanism seen in vitro.

    PubMed

    Toporikova, Natalia; Chacron, Maurice J

    2009-10-01

    Understanding the mechanistic substrates of neural computations that lead to behavior remains a fundamental problem in neuroscience. In particular, the contributions of intrinsic neural properties such as burst firing and dendritic morphology to the processing of behaviorally relevant sensory input have received much interest recently. Pyramidal cells within the electrosensory lateral line lobe of weakly electric fish display an intrinsic bursting mechanism that relies on somato-dendritic interactions when recorded in vitro: backpropagating somatic action potentials trigger dendritic action potentials that lead to a depolarizing afterpotential (DAP) at the soma. We recorded intracellularly from these neurons in vivo and found firing patterns that were quite different from those seen in vitro: we found no evidence for DAPs as each somatic action potential was followed by a pronounced afterhyperpolarization (AHP). Calcium chelators injected in vivo reduced the AHP, thereby unmasking the DAP and inducing in vitro-like bursting in pyramidal cells. These bursting dynamics significantly reduced the cell's ability to encode the detailed time course of sensory input. We performed additional in vivo pharmacological manipulations and mathematical modeling to show that calcium influx through N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors activate dendritic small conductance (SK) calcium-activated potassium channels, which causes an AHP that counteracts the DAP and leads to early termination of the burst. Our results show that ion channels located in dendrites can have a profound influence on the processing of sensory input by neurons in vivo through the modulation of an intrinsic bursting mechanism. PMID:19675292

  5. A state-space model of the burst suppression ratio

    E-print Network

    Solt, Ken

    Burst suppression is an electroencephalogram pattern observed in states of severely reduced brain activity, such as general anesthesia, hypothermia and anoxic brain injuries. The burst suppression ratio (BSR), defined as ...

  6. Convolutional Virtual Electric Field for Image Segmentation Using Active Contours

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuanquan; Zhu, Ce; Zhang, Jiawan; Jian, Yuden

    2014-01-01

    Gradient vector flow (GVF) is an effective external force for active contours; however, it suffers from heavy computation load. The virtual electric field (VEF) model, which can be implemented in real time using fast Fourier transform (FFT), has been proposed later as a remedy for the GVF model. In this work, we present an extension of the VEF model, which is referred to as CONvolutional Virtual Electric Field, CONVEF for short. This proposed CONVEF model takes the VEF model as a convolution operation and employs a modified distance in the convolution kernel. The CONVEF model is also closely related to the vector field convolution (VFC) model. Compared with the GVF, VEF and VFC models, the CONVEF model possesses not only some desirable properties of these models, such as enlarged capture range, u-shape concavity convergence, subject contour convergence and initialization insensitivity, but also some other interesting properties such as G-shape concavity convergence, neighboring objects separation, and noise suppression and simultaneously weak edge preserving. Meanwhile, the CONVEF model can also be implemented in real-time by using FFT. Experimental results illustrate these advantages of the CONVEF model on both synthetic and natural images. PMID:25360586

  7. Convolutional virtual electric field for image segmentation using active contours.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuanquan; Zhu, Ce; Zhang, Jiawan; Jian, Yuden

    2014-01-01

    Gradient vector flow (GVF) is an effective external force for active contours; however, it suffers from heavy computation load. The virtual electric field (VEF) model, which can be implemented in real time using fast Fourier transform (FFT), has been proposed later as a remedy for the GVF model. In this work, we present an extension of the VEF model, which is referred to as CONvolutional Virtual Electric Field, CONVEF for short. This proposed CONVEF model takes the VEF model as a convolution operation and employs a modified distance in the convolution kernel. The CONVEF model is also closely related to the vector field convolution (VFC) model. Compared with the GVF, VEF and VFC models, the CONVEF model possesses not only some desirable properties of these models, such as enlarged capture range, u-shape concavity convergence, subject contour convergence and initialization insensitivity, but also some other interesting properties such as G-shape concavity convergence, neighboring objects separation, and noise suppression and simultaneously weak edge preserving. Meanwhile, the CONVEF model can also be implemented in real-time by using FFT. Experimental results illustrate these advantages of the CONVEF model on both synthetic and natural images. PMID:25360586

  8. Dispersion and time delay effects in synchronized spike–burst networks

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    We study spike–burst neural activity and investigate its transitions to synchronized states under electrical coupling. Our reported results include the following: (1) Synchronization of spike–burst activity is a multi-time scale phenomenon and burst synchrony is easier to achieve than spike synchrony. (2) Synchrony of networks with time-delayed connections can be achieved at lower coupling strengths than within the same network with instantaneous couplings. (3) The introduction of parameter dispersion into the network destroys the existence of synchrony in the strict sense, but the network dynamics in major regimes of the parameter space can still be effectively captured by a mean field approach if the couplings are excitatory. Our results on synchronization of spiking networks are general of nature and will aid in the development of minimal models of neuronal populations. The latter are the building blocks of large scale brain networks relevant for cognitive processing. PMID:19003471

  9. Student Models of Electric Current and Electric Potential in Activity-Based Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markes, Trecia

    2005-03-01

    With a three-year FIPSE grant, it has been possible at the University of Nebraska at Kearney (UNK) to develop and implement activity-based introductory physics at the algebra level. It has generally been recognized that students enter physics classes with misconceptions about current and potential difference in simple series and parallel circuits. Many of these misconceptions persist after instruction. Pretest and posttest responses on the ``Electric Circuit Concept Test'' (ECCT) are analyzed to determine the models that students use. Responses are divided into expert model (correct answer), one or more student models (approximately equally common incorrect answers), and null model (all other answers) categories. A description of each student model is also given. Changes in the use of these models are used to identify persistent and non-persistent misconceptions.

  10. T & I--Electric Motors. Kit No. 621. Instructor's Manual and Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bomar, William

    This instructor's manual and student learning activity guide comprise a kit for trade and industrial education (T & I) activities on electric motors. Purpose stated for the activities is to teach the student the four basic types of electric motors, the advantages and disadvantages of each, the types of jobs each can perform, and how to disassemble…

  11. Modeling Interactions Between Electrical Activity and Second-Messenger Cascades in Aplysia Neuron R15

    E-print Network

    Byrne, John H.

    Modeling Interactions Between Electrical Activity and Second-Messenger Cascades in Aplysia Neuron R activity and these cascades. The model proposed by Butera et al. in 1995 was extended to include equations. Modeling interactions between electrical activity and second-messenger cas- cades in Aplysia neuron R15. J

  12. The serotonergic inhibition of slowly bursting cells in the intergeniculate leaflet of the rat.

    PubMed

    Blasiak, T; Siejka, S; Raison, S; Pevet, P; Lewandowski, M H

    2006-11-01

    Electrophysiological studies combined with local neurotoxic lesions were conducted on anaesthetized rats in order to determine whether the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) inhibits the intergeniculate leaflet (IGL) of the lateral geniculate nucleus by means of innervation by serotonin-containing fibres. In the control animals, electrical stimulation of the DRN induced the long-latency and long-lasting inhibition of the neuronal firing of the IGL cells that are characterized by rhythmic, slow-bursting activity in light conditions. The electrical destruction of the DRN resulted in an increase in the firing rate of the recorded IGL cells, whilst at the same time not affecting the rhythmic, bursting pattern of the activity. In the second group of animals, local neurotoxic lesion of serotonergic fibres was performed by injection of the toxin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine into the IGL. After 10 days of postoperative recovery, electrophysiological experiments were performed on the toxin-treated rats. In these animals, electrical stimulation as well as electrical lesion of the DRN did not induce any change in the firing of the slowly bursting cells in the 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine-injected IGL. The results obtained provide evidence that inhibition of the IGL slowly bursting cells, by innervation from the dorsal raphe, is mediated by the release of serotonin. Furthermore, the observed serotonergic inhibition of the light-dependent activity of slowly bursting cells can contribute to the neuronal mechanism gating the information that flows through this nucleus to the vestibular, visuomotor, circadian and sleep/arousal systems, with which the IGL is strongly interconnected. PMID:17156203

  13. Changes in Student Models of Electric Current and Electric Potential in Activity-Based Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trecia Markes, C.

    2008-03-01

    With a three-year FIPSE grant, it has been possible at the University of Nebraska at Kearney (UNK) to develop and implement activity-based introductory physics at the algebra level. It has generally been recognized that students enter physics classes with misconceptions about current and potential difference in simple series and parallel circuits. Many of these misconceptions persist after instruction. Pretest and posttest responses on the ``Electric Circuit Concept Test'' (ECCT) are analyzed to determine the models that students use. Responses are divided into expert model (correct answer), one or more student models (approximately equally common incorrect answers), and null model (all other answers) categories. Students are categorized as being in an expert state (mostly expert model answers), a mixed state (a combination of expert model answers, student model answers, and null model answers), or a student state (mostly student model answers). The change (if any) of state is identified for each student. The changes are analyzed to determine the effectiveness of activity-based instruction.

  14. On the Modeling of Electrical Effects Experienced by Space Explorers During Extra Vehicular Activities: Intracorporal Currents, Resistances, and Electric Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cela, Carlos J.; Loizos, Kyle; Lazzi, Gianluca; Hamilton, Douglas; Lee, Raphael C.

    2011-01-01

    Recent research has shown that space explorers engaged in Extra Vehicular Activities (EVAs) may be exposed, under certain conditions, to undesired electrical currents. This work focuses on determining whether these undesired induced electrical currents could be responsible for involuntary neuromuscular activity in the subjects, possibly caused by either large diameter peripheral nerve activation or reflex activity from cutaneous afferent stimulation. An efficient multiresolution variant of the admittance method along with a millimeter-resolution model of a male human body were used to calculate induced electric fields, resistance between contact electrodes used to simulate the potential exposure condition, and currents induced in the human body model. Results show that, under realistic exposure conditions using a 15V source, current density magnitudes and total current injected are well above previously reported startle reaction thresholds. This indicates that, under the considered conditions, the subjects could experience involuntary motor response.

  15. An investigation of the harmonic impact on electrical treeing partial discharge activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Bahadoorsingh; S. M. Rowland

    2010-01-01

    Partial discharge activity is both a cause and symptom of electrical ageing mechanisms induced by electrical stress. This experimental study sought to differentiate variations in partial discharge patterns in the presence of harmonics and due to changes in the state of an electrical tree. Harmonic content has been superposed with the power frequency (50 Hz) creating six distorted, composite waveforms.

  16. Nramp transfection transfers Ity/Lsh/Bcg-related pleiotropic effects on macrophage activation: influence on oxidative burst and nitric oxide pathways.

    PubMed Central

    Barton, C. H.; Whitehead, S. H.; Blackwell, J. M.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Ity/Lsh/Bcg gene on mouse chromosome 1 regulates priming/activation of macrophages for antimicrobial and tumouricidal activity. A candidate gene expressed in macrophages has been identified by positional cloning and full-length sequence analysis, and encodes the Natural resistance-associated macrophage protein (Nramp). In this study, we have tested the hypothesis that the Nramp gene corresponds to Ity/Lsh/Bcg. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In vitro transfection was used to introduce the resistant allele into the macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 derived from the recessive susceptible BALB/c mouse strain. Expression of the transgene was monitored on the background of the endogenous susceptible allele by allele-specific oligonucleotide hybridization. RESULTS: Expression of the transgene correlated with three Lshr-associated lipopolysaccharide/interferon-gamma-regulated macrophage activation phenotypes: respiratory burst, nitrite release, and uptake of L-arginine. Endogenous and stimulated L-arginine fluxes were inhibitable with the radical scavengers nordihydroguaiaretic acid and butylated hydroxyanisole. The mitochondrial electron transport inhibitors, rotenone and thenoyltrifluoroacetone, inhibited respiratory burst, and rotenone suppressed L-arginine flux, implying that mitochondrial-derived oxygen radicals are important mediators in Nramp-regulated signal transduction pathways. CONCLUSIONS: These data provide the first direct evidence that Nramp is the product of the Ity/Lsh/Bcg gene, and are consistent with the hypothesis that the many pleiotropic effects of this gene on macrophage activation may all derive from the requirement for mitochondrial generation of oxygen radicals for intracellular signaling. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 PMID:8529105

  17. Diclofenac-Choline Antioxidant Activity Investigated by means of Luminol Amplified Chemiluminescence of Human Neutrophil Bursts and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Braga, P C; Lattuada, N; Greco, V; Sibilia, V; Falchi, M; Bianchi, T; Dal Sasso, M

    2015-05-01

    A new diclofenac salt called diclofenac-choline (DC) has recently been proposed for the symptomatic treatment of oropharyngeal inflammatory processes and pain because its greater water solubility allows the use of high concentrations, which are useful when the contact time between the drug and the oropharyngeal mucosa is brief, as in the case of mouthwashes or spray formulations. The antioxidant activity of DC has not yet been investigated, and so the aim was to use luminol-amplified-chemiluminescence (LACL) to verify whether various concentrations of DC (1.48, 0.74 and 0.37?mg/mL for incubation times of 2, 4 and 8?min) interfere with oxygen and nitrogen radicals during the course of human neutrophils respiratory bursts; electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used to investigate its direct antiradical (scavenger) activity. The EPR findings showed that DC has concentration-dependent scavenging activity against the ABTS, the DPPH, and the hydroxyl radicals, but no activity on superoxide anion, as has been previously reported in the case of other NSAIDs. LACL revealed an inhibitory effect that was statistically significant after only 2?min of incubation, and similar after 4 and 8?min. The effects on the peroxynitrite radical paralleled those observed in the previous test. High concentrations and short incubation times showed that there is no interference on PMN viability, and so the inhibitory findings must be attributed to the effect of the drug. The anti-inflammatory effects of DC cannot be attributed solely to the inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, but its effects on free radicals and neutrophil bursts suggest that they may contribute to its final therapeutic effect. PMID:24918344

  18. Knockdown of sodium channel NaV1.6 blocks mechanical pain and abnormal bursting activity of afferent neurons in inflamed sensory ganglia.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wenrui; Strong, Judith A; Ye, Ling; Mao, Ju-Xian; Zhang, Jun-Ming

    2013-08-01

    Inflammatory processes in the sensory ganglia contribute to many forms of chronic pain. We previously showed that local inflammation of the lumbar sensory ganglia rapidly leads to prolonged mechanical pain behaviors and high levels of spontaneous bursting activity in myelinated cells. Abnormal spontaneous activity of sensory neurons occurs early in many preclinical pain models and initiates many other pathological changes, but its molecular basis is not well understood. The sodium channel isoform NaV1.6 can underlie repetitive firing and excitatory persistent and resurgent currents. We used in vivo knockdown of this channel via local injection of siRNA to examine its role in chronic pain after local inflammation of the rat lumbar sensory ganglia. In normal dorsal root ganglion (DRG), quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that cells capable of firing repetitively had significantly higher relative expression of NaV1.6. In inflamed DRG, spontaneously active bursting cells expressed high levels of NaV1.6 immunoreactivity. In vivo knockdown of NaV1.6 locally in the lumbar DRG at the time of DRG inflammation completely blocked development of pain behaviors and abnormal spontaneous activity, while having only minor effects on unmyelinated C cells. Current research on isoform-specific sodium channel blockers for chronic pain is largely focused on NaV1.8 because it is present primarily in unmyelinated C fiber nociceptors, or on NaV1.7 because lack of this channel causes congenital indifference to pain. However, the results suggest that NaV1.6 may be a useful therapeutic target for chronic pain and that some pain conditions may be mediated primarily by myelinated A fiber sensory neurons. PMID:23622763

  19. Activation of human neutrophils by monoclonal antibody PMN7C3: cell movement and adhesion can be triggered independently from the respiratory burst.

    PubMed

    Melnick, D A; Meshulam, T; Manto, A; Malech, H L

    1986-05-01

    Anti-neutrophil monoclonal antibody PMN7C3 (IgG3) recognizes glycoproteins bearing the oligosaccharide lacto-N-fucopentaose III, including the C3bi receptor, LFA-1, and p150,95 on the plasma membrane and a group of granule-associated glycoproteins. We have previously shown that binding of this antibody to polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) stimulates a transient rise in cytosolic free calcium concentration but does not trigger the neutrophil respiratory burst. We now demonstrate that binding of PMN7C3 (and five other monoclonal antibodies recognizing the same antigen) to human neutrophils activates several other cellular responses. Addition of PMN7C3 to monolayers of neutrophils induces a rapid change in cell shape followed by pseudopod formation and increased migration. With incubation at 37 degrees C, the neutrophils aggregate in clusters (leukoagglutination). Quantitation of cell movement in a multiwell chemotaxis assembly or by migration of PMNs under agarose revealed that PMN7C3 is both chemotactic and chemokinetic. Pretreatment with the antibody inhibits subsequent chemotactic response to other stimuli. Monoclonal antibodies binding to other neutrophil antigens do not mimic these effects. These data suggest that cell movement and adhesion can be triggered independently from the respiratory burst. PMN7C3 may be a useful probe with which to study the events that link receptor-ligand binding to cellular response. PMID:3516255

  20. Activation of the JNK pathway by nanosecond pulsed electric fields.

    PubMed

    Morotomi-Yano, Keiko; Uemura, Yuichi; Katsuki, Sunao; Akiyama, Hidenori; Yano, Ken-ichi

    2011-05-13

    Nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) are increasingly recognized as a novel and unique tool in various life science fields, including electroporation and cancer therapy, although their mode of action in cells remains largely unclear. Here, we show that nsPEFs induce strong and transient activation of a signaling pathway involving c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Application of nsPEFs to HeLa S3 cells rapidly induced phosphorylation of JNK1 and MKK4, which is located immediately upstream of JNK in this signaling pathway. nsPEF application also elicited increased phosphorylation of c-Jun protein and dramatically elevated c-jun and c-fos mRNA levels. nsPEF-inducible events downstream of JNK were markedly suppressed by the JNK inhibitor SP600125, which confirmed JNK-dependency of these events in this pathway. Our results provide novel mechanistic insights into the mode of nsPEF action in human cells. PMID:21521634

  1. Insulin modulates the electrical activity of subfornical organ neurons.

    PubMed

    Lakhi, Suman; Snow, Wanda; Fry, Mark

    2013-04-17

    Insulin plays a crucial role in the regulation of energy balance. Within the central nervous system, hypothalamic nuclei such as the arcuate and ventromedial nuclei are targets of insulin; however, insulin may only access these nuclei after transport across the blood-brain barrier. Neurons of the subfornical organ are not protected by the blood-brain barrier and can rapidly detect and respond to circulating hormones such as leptin and ghrelin. Moreover, subfornical organ neurons form synaptic connections with hypothalamic control centers that regulate energy balance, including the arcuate and dorsomedial nuclei. However, it is unknown whether subfornical organ neurons respond to insulin. Using whole-cell current clamp, we examined the electrophysiological effects of insulin on rat subfornical organ neurons. Upon insulin application, 70% of neurons tested were responsive, with 33% of neurons tested (9/27) exhibiting hyperpolarization of membrane potential (-8.7 ± 1.7 mV) and 37% (10/27) exhibiting depolarization (10.5 ± 2.8 mV). Using pharmacological blockade, our data further indicate that the hyperpolarization was mediated by opening of KATP channels, whereas depolarization resulted from opening of Ih channels. These data are the first to show that insulin exerts a direct effect on the electrical activity of subfornical organ neurons and support the notion that the subfornical organ may act to communicate information on circulating satiety signals to homeostatic control centers. PMID:23481267

  2. Fermi\\/Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor Observations of SGR J0501+4516 Bursts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lin Lin; Chryssa Kouveliotou; Matthew G. Baring; Alexander J. van der Horst; Sylvain Guiriec; Peter M. Woods; Ersin Gögüs; Yuki Kaneko; Jeffrey Scargle; Jonathan Granot; Robert Preece; Andreas von Kienlin; Vandiver Chaplin; Anna L. Watts; Ralph A. M. J. Wijers; Shuang Nan Zhang; Narayan Bhat; Mark H. Finger; Neil Gehrels; Alice Harding; Lex Kaper; Victoria Kaspi; Julie Mcenery; Charles A. Meegan; William S. Paciesas; Asaf Pe'er; Enrico Ramirez-Ruiz; Michiel van der Klis; Stefanie Wachter; Colleen Wilson-Hodge

    2011-01-01

    We present our temporal and spectral analyses of 29 bursts from SGR J0501+4516, detected with the gamma-ray burst monitor on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope during 13 days of the source's activation in 2008 (August 22- September 3). We find that the T 90 durations of the bursts can be fit with a log-normal distribution with a mean value

  3. The hemodynamic and arterial blood gas response to asphyxiation: a canine model of pulseless electrical activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel J. DeBehnke; Swen J. Hilander; Daniel W. Dobler; Laurie L. Wickman; Gary L. Swart

    1995-01-01

    Objective: Asphyxiation is a time-honored animal model for producing pulseless electrical activity cardiac arrest. To date, there has not been a detailed description of the hemodynamic and arterial blood gas response to asphyxiation in a large number of animals. Our objective was to describe a single laboratory's experience with a standardized canine model of asphyxial pulseless electrical activity arrest. Methods:

  4. Electrical activation in silicon-on-insulator after low energy boron implantation

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    Electrical activation in silicon-on-insulator after low energy boron implantation Antonio F 18 May 2004) We have investigated the electrical activation of implanted boron in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) material using Hall effect, four-point probe, and secondary ion mass spectrometry. Boron

  5. Mapping of cardiac electrical activation with electromechanical wave imaging: An in silicoin vivo reciprocity study

    E-print Network

    Konofagou, Elisa E.

    Mapping of cardiac electrical activation with electromechanical wave imaging: An in silico­in vivo Electromechanical wave imaging (EWI) is an en- tirely noninvasive, ultrasound-based imaging method capable for the 3-dimensional electrical activation. OBJECTIVE The purpose of this report is to reproduce the elec

  6. Ionic contrast terahertz time resolved imaging of frog auricular heart muscle electrical activity

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Ionic contrast terahertz time resolved imaging of frog auricular heart muscle electrical activity contrast terahertz time resolved imaging of frog auricular heart muscle electrical activity Jean of functional frog auricular fibers by ionic contrast terahertz ICT near field microscopy. This technique

  7. Intracellular shunting of O{sub 2}{sup ?} contributes to charge compensation and preservation of neutrophil respiratory burst in the absence of voltage-gated proton channel activity

    SciTech Connect

    Decleva, Eva [Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Menegazzi, Renzo, E-mail: menegazz@units.it [Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Fasolo, Alba [Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Defendi, Federica [Université Joseph Fourier, GREPI/AGIM CNRS FRE 3405, Grenoble (France); Sebastianutto, Michele; Dri, Pietro [Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy)

    2013-07-15

    Proton efflux via voltage-gated proton channels (Hv1) is considered to mediate the charge compensation necessary to preserve NADPH oxidase activity during the respiratory burst. Using the Hv1 inhibitor Zn{sup 2+}, we found that the PMA-induced respiratory burst of human neutrophils is inhibited when assessed as extracellular production of O{sub 2}{sup ?} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, in accordance with literature studies, but, surprisingly, unaffected when measured as oxygen consumption or total (extracellular plus intracellular) H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production. Furthermore, we show that inhibiting Hv1 with Zn{sup 2+} results in an increased production of intracellular ROS. Similar results, i.e. decreased extracellular and increased intracellular ROS production, were obtained using a human granulocyte-like cell line with severely impaired Hv1 expression. Acidic extracellular pH, which dampens proton efflux, also augmented intracellular production of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Zinc caused an increase in the rate but not in the extent of depolarization and cytosolic acidification indicating that mechanisms other than proton efflux take part in charge compensation. Our results suggest a hitherto unpredicted mechanism of charge compensation whereby, in the absence of proton efflux, part of O{sub 2}{sup ?} generated within gp91{sup phox} in the plasma membrane is shunted intracellularly down electrochemical gradient to dampen excessive depolarization. This would preserve NADPH oxidase activity under conditions such as the inflammatory exudate in which the acidic pH hinders charge compensation by proton efflux. Highlights: • Neutrophils’ respiratory burst is not inhibited by the H{sup +} channel inhibitor Zn{sup 2+}. • Intracellular production of O{sub 2}{sup ?} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is increased in the presence of Zn{sup 2+}. • Intracellular H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production is increased in H{sup +} channels knock-down cells. • Zn{sup 2+} increases the rate but not the extent of depolarization and pH{sub i} decrease. • Intracellular shunting of O{sub 2}{sup ?} contributes to charge compensation in neutrophils.

  8. Multiple Bifurcations in a Polynomial Model of Bursting Oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vries, G.

    1998-06-01

    Bursting oscillations are commonly seen to be the primary mode of electrical behaviour in a variety of nerve and endocrine cells, and have also been observed in some biochemical and chemical systems. There are many models of bursting. This paper addresses the issue of being able to predict the type of bursting oscillation that can be produced by a model. A simplified model capable of exhibiting a wide variety of bursting oscillations is examined. By considering the codimension-2 bifurcations associated with Hopf, homoclinic, and saddle-node of periodics bifurcations, a bifurcation map in two-dimensional parameter space is created. Each region on the map is characterized by a qualitatively distinct bifurcation diagram and, hence, represents one type of bursting oscillation. The map elucidates the relationship between the various types of bursting oscillations. In addition, the map provides a different and broader view of the current classification scheme of bursting oscillations.

  9. The global atmospheric electric circuit, solar activity and climate change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J Rycroft; S. Israelsson; C. Price

    2000-01-01

    The study of the global atmospheric electric circuit has advanced dramatically in the past 50 years. Large advances have been made in the areas of lightning and thunderstorm research, as related to the global circuit. We now have satellites looking down on the Earth continuously, supplying information on the temporal and spatial variability of lightning and thunderstorms. Thunderstorms are electric

  10. Ex vivo activities of beta-lapachone and alpha-lapachone on macrophages: a quantitative pharmacological analysis based on amperometric monitoring of oxidative bursts by single cells.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Danielle C M; Tapsoba, Issa; Arbault, Stéphane; Bouret, Yann; Alexandre Moreira, Magna Suzana; Ventura Pinto, Antônio; Goulart, Marília O F; Amatore, Christian

    2009-02-13

    ARTIFICIAL SYNAPSES FOR FEMTOMOLAR DETECTION: Amperometry at platinized carbon fibre electrodes has been used to unravel the complexity of beta-lapachone's effects on cellular oxidative stress. Alpha-lapachone, the pharmacologically inactive para-quinone isomer, did not display such characteristics, but over longer incubation periods both quinones induced apoptosis. The observed effects were interpreted in terms of two mechanisms involving opposite reactivities of quinones in living cells. Beta-lapachone (1) has been widely used for its pharmacological activity, particularly against cancer. However, its mechanism of action at the cellular level remains unclear, although a common major hypothesis involves its prooxidant properties. Electrochemical measurements with microelectrodes were taken in order to quantitatively investigate the activity of 1 at different concentrations and several incubation times, on the oxidative bursts released by single macrophages. The exact natures of the electroactive reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) released by macrophages under the effect of 1 were characterized, and their fluxes were measured quantitatively. This allowed the reconstruction of the primary O2*- and NO production by the cells. In the first hour, at 10 microM, the decrease in the oxidative burst involved mainly RNS, while the amount of H(2)O(2) was found to be higher than in controls. After a longer incubation time-that is, 4 h-at 1 microM, the total amount of ROS and RNS had increased, with significant enhancements of H(2)O(2) and NO. In contrast, alpha-lapachone, the pharmacologically inactive para-quinone isomer, was unable to increase the production of RONS by macrophages significantly. Over much longer incubation periods (about one day), however, each quinone induced cell death by apoptosis. All these effects were interpreted by consideration of two different mechanisms involving opposite reactivities of quinones in living cells. PMID:19123194

  11. Bursts in discontinuous Aeolian saltation.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, M V; Rasmussen, K R; Herrmann, H J

    2015-01-01

    Close to the onset of Aeolian particle transport through saltation we find in wind tunnel experiments a regime of discontinuous flux characterized by bursts of activity. Scaling laws are observed in the time delay between each burst and in the measurements of the wind fluctuations at the fluid threshold Shields number ?c. The time delay between each burst decreases on average with the increase of the Shields number until sand flux becomes continuous. A numerical model for saltation including the wind-entrainment from the turbulent fluctuations can reproduce these observations and gives insight about their origin. We present here also for the first time measurements showing that with feeding it becomes possible to sustain discontinuous flux even below the fluid threshold. PMID:26073305

  12. Bursts in discontinuous Aeolian saltation

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, M. V.; Rasmussen, K. R.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2015-01-01

    Close to the onset of Aeolian particle transport through saltation we find in wind tunnel experiments a regime of discontinuous flux characterized by bursts of activity. Scaling laws are observed in the time delay between each burst and in the measurements of the wind fluctuations at the fluid threshold Shields number ?c. The time delay between each burst decreases on average with the increase of the Shields number until sand flux becomes continuous. A numerical model for saltation including the wind-entrainment from the turbulent fluctuations can reproduce these observations and gives insight about their origin. We present here also for the first time measurements showing that with feeding it becomes possible to sustain discontinuous flux even below the fluid threshold. PMID:26073305

  13. Line Length as a Robust Method to Detect High-Activity Events Automated Burst Detection in Premature EEG Recordings

    E-print Network

    all" & Methods in neurocognitive Psychology, University of Oldenburg, Oldenburg, Germany 5 Neonatal. Corresponding author: Ninah Koolen From the Department of Electrical Engineering (ESAT) ­ STADIUS , Centre and cognitive problems (Institute of Medicine, 2007). These disabilities excert pressure and raise cost

  14. Frequency-domain order parameters for the burst and spike synchronization transitions of bursting neurons.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Yoon; Lim, Woochang

    2015-08-01

    We are interested in characterization of synchronization transitions of bursting neurons in the frequency domain. Instantaneous population firing rate (IPFR) [Formula: see text], which is directly obtained from the raster plot of neural spikes, is often used as a realistic collective quantity describing population activities in both the computational and the experimental neuroscience. For the case of spiking neurons, a realistic time-domain order parameter, based on [Formula: see text], was introduced in our recent work to characterize the spike synchronization transition. Unlike the case of spiking neurons, the IPFR [Formula: see text] of bursting neurons exhibits population behaviors with both the slow bursting and the fast spiking timescales. For our aim, we decompose the IPFR [Formula: see text] into the instantaneous population bursting rate [Formula: see text] (describing the bursting behavior) and the instantaneous population spike rate [Formula: see text] (describing the spiking behavior) via frequency filtering, and extend the realistic order parameter to the case of bursting neurons. Thus, we develop the frequency-domain bursting and spiking order parameters which are just the bursting and spiking "coherence factors" [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] of the bursting and spiking peaks in the power spectral densities of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] (i.e., "signal to noise" ratio of the spectral peak height and its relative width). Through calculation of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], we obtain the bursting and spiking thresholds beyond which the burst and spike synchronizations break up, respectively. Consequently, it is shown in explicit examples that the frequency-domain bursting and spiking order parameters may be usefully used for characterization of the bursting and the spiking transitions, respectively. PMID:26157514

  15. Return Map Characterizations for a Model of Bursting with Two Slow Variables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger E. Griffiths; Mark Pernarowski

    2006-01-01

    Abstract. Various physiological systems display bursting electrical activity (BEA). There exist numerous three-variable models to describe this behavior. However, higher-dimensional models with two slow processes have recently been used to explain qualitative features of the BEA of some experimentally observed systems [T. Chay and D. Cook, Math. Biosci., 90 (1988), pp. 139–153; P. Smolen and J. Keizer, J. Memb. Biol.,

  16. Computational Model of Electrically Coupled, Intrinsically Distinct Pacemaker Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Soto-Treviño, Cristina; Rabbah, Pascale; Marder, Eve; Nadim, Farzan

    2005-01-01

    Electrical coupling between neurons with similar properties is often studied. Nonetheless, the role of electrical coupling between neurons with widely different intrinsic properties also occurs, but is less well understood. Inspired by the pacemaker group of the crustacean pyloric network, we developed a multicompartment, conductance-based model of a small network of intrinsically distinct, electrically coupled neurons. In the pyloric network, a small intrinsically bursting neuron, through gap junctions, drives 2 larger, tonically spiking neurons to reliably burst in-phase with it. Each model neuron has 2 compartments, one responsible for spike generation and the other for producing a slow, large-amplitude oscillation. We illustrate how these compartments interact and determine the dynamics of the model neurons. Our model captures the dynamic oscillation range measured from the isolated and coupled biological neurons. At the network level, we explore the range of coupling strengths for which synchronous bursting oscillations are possible. The spatial segregation of ionic currents significantly enhances the ability of the 2 neurons to burst synchronously, and the oscillation range of the model pacemaker network depends not only on the strength of the electrical synapse but also on the identity of the neuron receiving inputs. We also compare the activity of the electrically coupled, distinct neurons with that of a network of coupled identical bursting neurons. For small to moderate coupling strengths, the network of identical elements, when receiving asymmetrical inputs, can have a smaller dynamic range of oscillation than that of its constituent neurons in isolation. PMID:15728775

  17. Burst generation mediated by cholinergic input in terminal nerve-gonadotrophin releasing hormone neurones of the goldfish

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Takafumi; Abe, Hideki; Oka, Yoshitaka

    2013-01-01

    Peptidergic neurones play a pivotal role in the neuromodulation of widespread areas in the nervous system. Generally, it has been accepted that the peptide release from these neurones is regulated by their firing activities. The terminal nerve (TN)-gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) neurones, which are one of the well-studied peptidergic neurones in vertebrate brains, are characterised by their spontaneous regular pacemaker activities, and GnRH has been suggested to modulate the sensory responsiveness of animals. Although many peptidergic neurones are known to exhibit burst firing activities when they release the peptides, TN-GnRH neurones show spontaneous burst firing activities only infrequently. Thus, it remains to be elucidated whether the TN-GnRH neurones show burst activities and, if so, how the mode switching between the regular pacemaking and bursting modes is regulated in these neurones. In this study, we found that only a single pulse electrical stimulation of the neuropil surrounding the TN-GnRH neurones reproducibly induces transient burst activities in TN-GnRH neurones. Our combined physiological and morphological data suggest that this phenomenon occurs following slow inhibitory postsynaptic potentials mediated by cholinergic terminals surrounding the TN-GnRH neurones. We also found that the activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors induces persistent opening of potassium channels, resulting in a long-lasting hyperpolarisation. This long hyperpolarisation induces sustained rebound depolarisation that has been suggested to be generated by a combination of persistent voltage-gated Na+ channels and low-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels. These new findings suggest a novel type of cholinergic regulation of burst activities in peptidergic neurones, which should contribute to the release of neuropeptides. PMID:23959678

  18. Todd, Faraday and the electrical basis of brain activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward Reynolds

    2007-01-01

    The origins of our understanding of brain electricity and electrical discharges in epilepsy can be traced to Robert Bentley Todd (1809–60). Todd was influenced by his contemporary in London, Michael Faraday (1791–1867), who in the 1830s and 1840s was laying the foundations of our modern understanding of electromagnetism. Todd’s concept of nervous polarity, generated in nerve vesicles and transmitted in

  19. Spiking patterns of a hippocampus model in electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Men, Cong; Wang, Jiang; Qin, Ying-Mei; Wei, Xi-Le; Che, Yan-Qiu; Deng, Bin

    2011-12-01

    We develop a model of CA3 neurons embedded in a resistive array to mimic the effects of electric fields from a new perspective. Effects of DC and sinusoidal electric fields on firing patterns in CA3 neurons are investigated in this study. The firing patterns can be switched from no firing pattern to burst or from burst to fast periodic firing pattern with the increase of DC electric field intensity. It is also found that the firing activities are sensitive to the frequency and amplitude of the sinusoidal electric field. Different phase-locking states and chaotic firing regions are observed in the parameter space of frequency and amplitude. These findings are qualitatively in accordance with the results of relevant experimental and numerical studies. It is implied that the external or endogenous electric field can modulate the neural code in the brain. Furthermore, it is helpful to develop control strategies based on electric fields to control neural diseases such as epilepsy.

  20. In vitro interferon ? improves the oxidative burst activity of neutrophils in patients with chronic granulomatous disease with a subtype of gp91phox deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Uygun, Dilara F. Kocacik; Köksoy, Sadi; ?ahin, Emel; Ye?in, Olcay

    2015-01-01

    Aim of this study Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a genetically heterogeneous primary immunodeficiency caused by a defect in phagocyte production of oxygen metabolites, and resulting in infections produced by catalase-positive microorganisms and fungi. Interferon ? (IFN-?) has a multitude of effects on the immune system. Although preliminary studies with CGD patients on treatment with IFN-? showed that it enhanced phagocytosis and superoxide production, ongoing studies did not reveal a significant increase of this function. Here we investigated the oxidative capacity of phagocytes in different subtypes of CGD patients on treatment with IFN-? in vitro. Material and methods Fifty-seven patients with CGD from 14 immunology centres were enrolled to our multi-centre study. Twenty-one patients were studied as controls. Oxidative burst assay with dihydrorhodamine 123 (DHR) was used and the stimulation index (SI) was calculated with respect to CGD subtypes in both neutrophils and monocytes before, and then one and 24 hours after adding IFN-?. Results Upon comparison of the SIs of the patients’ neutrophils before in vitro IFN-? at hour 0, and after adding IFN-? at hour 1 and 24 were compared, and the differences were determined between hours 0-24 and hours 1-24. This difference was especially apparent between hours 1-24. In CGD subtypes, particularly in gp91phox subtype, it was seen that, following in vitro IFN-?, SIs of neutrophils began to increase after hour 1, and that increase became more apparent at hour 24. Conclusions Our study showed that IFN-? treatment may increase the oxidative bursting activity by increasing the superoxide production in neutrophils, particularly in gp91phox subtype.

  1. 5-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3,7-dimethoxy-4H-chromen-4-one (MSF-2) suppresses fMLP-mediated respiratory burst in human neutrophils by inhibiting phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chang-Hui; Chen, Jih-Jung; Lin, Jieru Egeria; Liu, Chia-Hsin; Tseng, Ching-Ping; Day, Yuan-Ji

    2011-06-01

    Respiratory burst mediates crucial bactericidal mechanism in neutrophils. However, undesirable respiratory burst leads to pathological inflammation and tissue damage. This study investigates the effect and the underlying mechanism of 5-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3,7-dimethoxy-4H-chromen-4-one (MSF-2), a lignan extracted from the fruit of Melicope Semecarprifolia, on fMLP-induced respiratory burst in human neutrophils and suggests a possible therapeutic approach to ameliorate disease associated with neutrophil hyperactivation. MSF-2 inhibited fMLP-induced neutrophil superoxide anion production, cathepsin G release and migration in human neutrophils isolated from healthy volunteers, reflecting inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activation. Specifically, PI3K/AKT activation results in migration, degranulation and superoxide anion production in neutrophils. MSF-2 suppresses PI3K activation and phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3) production, and consequently inhibits downstream activation of PDK1 and AKT. Further, PI3K also stimulates respiratory burst via PLC-dependent elevation of intracellular calcium. MSF-2 reduces fMLP-mediated PLC?2 activation and intracellular calcium accumulation notably through extracellular calcium influx in a PI3K and PLC-dependent manner. However, MSF-2 is not a competitive or allosteric antagonist of fMLP. Additionally, in an in vivo study, MSF-2 prevents fMLP-induced neutrophil infiltration and inflammation in mice. In conclusion, MSF-2 opposes fMLP-mediated neutrophil activation and inflammation by inhibiting PI3K activation and subsequent activation of AKT and PLC?2. PMID:20945388

  2. Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, Gearld J.

    2003-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts originate from cosmological distances and represent the largest known explosions in the Universe. The observed temporal and spectral characteristics of bursts in the gamma-ray region, primarily from data obtained with the BATSE experiment on the Compton Observatory, will be described. The talk will concentrate on recent studies of burst properties, correlations of GRB parameters and other statistical studies that have recently come to light. A summary of recent discoveries and observations in other wavelength regions will also be presented, along with their implications for models of the burst emission mechanism. Various models for the energy source of gamma-ray bursts will be described.

  3. Unihemispheric Burst Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Villemarette-Pittman, Nicole R.; Rogers, Cornel T.; Torres-Delgado, Frank; Olejniczak, Piotr W.; England, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Burst suppression (BS) consists of bursts of high-voltage slow and sharp wave activity alternating with periods of background suppression in the electroencephalogram (EEG). When induced by deep anesthesia or encephalopathy, BS is bihemispheric and is often viewed as a non-epileptic phenomenon. In contrast, unihemispheric BS is rare and its clinical significance is poorly understood. We describe here two cases of unihemispheric BS. The first patient is a 56-year-old woman with a left temporoparietal tumor who presented in convulsive status epilepticus. EEG showed left hemispheric BS after clinical seizure termination with lorazepam and propofol. The second patient is a 39-year-old woman with multiple medical problems and a vague history of seizures. After abdominal surgery, she experienced a convulsive seizure prompting treatment with propofol. Her EEG also showed left hemispheric BS. In both cases, increasing the propofol infusion rate resulted in disappearance of unihemispheric BS and clinical improvement. The prevailing view that typical bihemispheric BS is non-epileptic should not be extrapolated automatically to unihemispheric BS. The fact that unihemispheric BS was associated with clinical seizure and resolved with propofol suggests that, in both cases, an epileptic mechanism was responsible for unihemispheric BS. PMID:25309713

  4. DIFFERENTIAL ACTIVATION OF SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS MEDIATING OXIDATIVE BURST BY CHICKEN HETEROPHILS IN RESPONSE TO STIMULATION WITH SALMONELLA ENTERITIDIS LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE AND STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS LIPOTEICHOIC ACID

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have been previously shown to mediate oxidative burst in chicken heterophils. This study was conducted to determine which molecular pathways are involved in TLR mediated oxidative burst. Peripheral blood heterophils from neonatal chicks were isolated and exposed to known...

  5. DIFFERENTIAL ACTIVATION OF SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS MEDIATING OXIDATIVE BURST BY CHICKEN HETEROPHILS IN RESPONSE TO STIMULATION WITH LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE AND LIPOTEICHOIC ACID

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have been previously shown to mediate oxidative burst in chicken heterophils. This study was conducted to begin to map the molecular pathways that regulate TLR-mediated oxidative burst. Peripheral blood heterophils from neonatal chicks were isolated and exposed to known ...

  6. Active vasodilation by sympathetic outflow to limb skin in a patient with progressive aphasia.

    PubMed

    Shindo, Kazumasa; Kobayashi, Fumikazu; Miwa, Michiaki; Nagasaka, Takamura; Takiyama, Yoshihisa; Shiozawa, Zenji

    2014-03-26

    Despite considerable interest, a pure vasodilator response by skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA) bursts in human limbs has not been observed in previous studies. In a patient with progressive nonfluent aphasia, SSNA, sympathetic skin response, and skin blood flow were simultaneously recorded at rest and during electrical stimulation. There was a very low frequency of SSNA bursts at rest, and when electrical stimulation was delivered, reflex bursts of SSNA were always observed followed by a sympathetic skin response and an increase in skin blood flow. The reflex latency of SSNA was slightly prolonged and the mean amplitude of reflex SSNA bursts was lower after electrical stimulation, compared with the responses in healthy controls. We report for the first time that the active vasodilator component of cutaneous sympathetic activity in limbs was recorded without any vasoconstrictor component in a patient with progressive aphasia. PMID:24335782

  7. Unilateral electrical stimulation of rat locus coeruleus elicits bilateral response of norepinephrine neurons and sustained activation of medial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Marzo, Aude; Totah, Nelson K; Neves, Ricardo M; Logothetis, Nikos K; Eschenko, Oxana

    2014-06-15

    The brain stem nucleus locus coeruleus (LC) is thought to modulate cortical excitability by norepinephrine (NE) release in LC forebrain targets. The effects of LC burst discharge, typically evoked by a strong excitatory input, on cortical ongoing activity are poorly understood. To address this question, we combined direct electrical stimulation of LC (LC-DES) with extracellular recording in LC and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), an important cortical target of LC. LC-DES consisting of single pulses (0.1-0.5 ms, 0.01-0.05 mA) or pulse trains (20-50 Hz, 50-200 ms) evoked short-latency excitatory and inhibitory LC responses bilaterally as well as a delayed rebound excitation occurring ?100 ms after stimulation offset. The pulse trains, but not single pulses, reliably elicited mPFC activity change, which was proportional to the stimulation strength. The firing rate of ?50% of mPFC units was significantly modulated by the strongest LC-DES. Responses of mPFC putative pyramidal neurons included fast (?100 ms), transient (?100-200 ms) inhibition (10% of units) or excitation (13%) and delayed (?500 ms), sustained (?1 s) excitation (26%). The sustained spiking resembled NE-dependent mPFC activity during the delay period of working memory tasks. Concurrently, the low-frequency (0.1-8 Hz) power of the local field potential (LFP) decreased and high-frequency (>20 Hz) power increased. Overall, the DES-induced LC firing pattern resembled the naturalistic biphasic response of LC-NE neurons to alerting stimuli and was associated with a shift in cortical state that may optimize processing of behaviorally relevant events. PMID:24671530

  8. Electrospun nanofiber membranes for electrically activated shape memory nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fenghua; Zhang, Zhichun; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong

    2014-06-01

    A novel shape memory nanocomposite system, consisting of a thermoplastic Nafion polymer and ultrathin electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based carbonization nanofiber membranes, is successfully synthesized. PAN-based carbonization nanofiber networks that offer responses to deformations are considered to be an excellent actuation source. Significant improvement in the electrical conductivity of carbon nanofiber membranes is found by adjusting the applied voltage power in the electrospinning PAN process varying from 7.85 to 12.30 S cm-1. The porous structure of the carbon nanofiber membranes provides a large specific surface area and interfacial contact area when combined with the polymer matrix. Shape memory Nafion nanocomposites filled with interpenetrating non-woven electrospun PAN carbonization membranes can be actuated by applying 14 V electrical voltage within 5 s. The results, as demonstrated through morphology, electrical and thermal measurements and a shape recovery test, suggest a valuable route to producing soft nanocomposites.

  9. The Effects of Acute and Developmental Temperature on Burst Swimming Speed and Myofibrillar ATPase Activity in Tadpoles

    E-print Network

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    temperature ( ). Like swimming speed,P ! 0.001 enzyme activity was greater in the cool-reared tadpoles than ATPase Activity in Tadpoles of the Pacific Tree Frog, Hyla regilla Timothy B. Watkins* Department, and myofibrillar ATP- ase activity were assessed in tadpoles of the Pacific tree frog, Hyla regilla. Tadpoles from

  10. VLF wave activity in the solar wind and the photoelectron effect in electric field measurements: Ulysses observations

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    VLF wave activity in the solar wind and the photoelectron effect in electric field measurements activity in the solar wind and the photoelectron effect in electric field measurements: Ulysses solar wind streams, Ulysses observed nearly continuous electric wave activity with peak power below

  11. Effect of Instruction Based on Conceptual Change Activities on Students' Understanding of Static Electricity Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baser, Mustafa; Geban, Omer

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of learning activities based on conceptual change conditions and traditionally designed physics instruction on tenth-grade students' understanding of static electricity concepts and their attitudes toward physics as a school subject. Misconceptions related to static electricity concepts…

  12. Pain reactivity in Alzheimer patients with different degrees of cognitive impairment and brain electrical activity deterioration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabrizio Benedetti; Claudia Arduino; Sergio Vighetti; Giovanni Asteggiano; Luisella Tarenzi; Innocenzo Rainero

    2004-01-01

    Pain perception and autonomic responses to pain are known to be altered in dementia, although the mechanisms are poorly understood. We studied patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) whose cognitive status was assessed through the Mini Mental State Examination test and whose brain electrical activity was measured by means of quantitative electroencephalography. After assessment of both cognitive impairment and brain electrical

  13. Diagnostic Thresholds for Quantitative REM Sleep Phasic Burst Duration, Phasic and Tonic Muscle Activity, and REM Atonia Index in REM Sleep Behavior Disorder with and without Comorbid Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    McCarter, Stuart J.; St. Louis, Erik K.; Duwell, Ethan J.; Timm, Paul C.; Sandness, David J.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Silber, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: We aimed to determine whether phasic burst duration and conventional REM sleep without atonia (RSWA) methods could accurately diagnose REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) patients with comorbid OSA. Design: We visually analyzed RSWA phasic burst durations, phasic, “any,” and tonic muscle activity by 3-s mini-epochs, phasic activity by 30-s (AASM rules) epochs, and conducted automated REM atonia index (RAI) analysis. Group RSWA metrics were analyzed and regression models fit, with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves determining the best diagnostic cutoff thresholds for RBD. Both split-night and full-night polysomnographic studies were analyzed. Setting: N/A. Participants: Parkinson disease (PD)-RBD (n = 20) and matched controls with (n = 20) and without (n = 20) OSA. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: All mean RSWA phasic burst durations and muscle activities were higher in PD-RBD patients than controls (P < 0.0001), and RSWA associations with PD-RBD remained significant when adjusting for age, gender, and REM AHI (P < 0.0001). RSWA muscle activity (phasic, “any”) cutoffs for 3-s mini-epoch scorings were submentalis (SM) (15.5%, 21.6%), anterior tibialis (AT) (30.2%, 30.2%), and combined SM/AT (37.9%, 43.4%). Diagnostic cutoffs for 30-s epochs (AASM criteria) were SM 2.8%, AT 11.3%, and combined SM/AT 34.7%. Tonic muscle activity cutoff of 1.2% was 100% sensitive and specific, while RAI (SM) cutoff was 0.88. Phasic muscle burst duration cutoffs were: SM (0.65) and AT (0.79) seconds. Combining phasic burst durations with RSWA muscle activity improved sensitivity and specificity of RBD diagnosis. Conclusions: This study provides evidence for REM sleep without atonia diagnostic thresholds applicable in Parkinson disease-REM sleep behavior disorder (PD-RBD) patient populations with comorbid OSA that may be useful toward distinguishing PD-RBD in typical outpatient populations. Citation: McCarter SJ, St. Louis EK, Duwell EJ, Timm PC, Sandness DJ, Boeve BF, Silber MH. Diagnostic thresholds for quantitative REM sleep phasic burst duration, phasic and tonic muscle activity, and REM atonia index in REM sleep behavior disorder with and without comorbid obstructive sleep apnea. SLEEP 2014;37(10):1649-1662. PMID:25197816

  14. Young Scientists Explore Electricity & Magnetism. Book 7--Intermediate Level. A Good Apple Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBruin, Jerry

    Designed to develop creativity in young learners, this book contains interdisciplinary activities which focus on the theme of electricity and magnetism. Activity pages are provided that can serve as front and back covers of a student booklet and the suggested activities can be duplicated for insertion between the covers resulting in a booklet for…

  15. A model for cerebral cortical neuron group electric activity and its implications for cerebral function

    E-print Network

    Karameh, Fadi Nabih

    2002-01-01

    The electroencephalogram, or EEG, is a recording of the field potential generated by the electric activity of neuronal populations of the brain. Its utility has long been recognized as a monitor which reflects the vigilance ...

  16. Electrical Activity of Convective Events During MAP Experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Chauzy; S. Coquillat; Y. Seity; S. Soula

    2002-01-01

    The Mesoscale Alpine Programme (MAP) overall objective was to improve the forecast of severe meteorological events over mountainous terrain (intense precipitation, strong winds and altitude turbulence). During the Special Observing Period (SOP), from September 7 until November 15, 1999, 14 countries got involved in an intensive field experiment over Central Europe. The research group in atmospheric electricity of the Laboratoire

  17. An Overview of Electric and Advanced Propulsion Activities in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimiya Komurasaki; Yoshihiro Arakawa; Haruki Takegahara

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the current status of electric propulsion technology development and related studies in Japan. Ion engine systems (IES) onboard the Engineering Test Satellite VI (ETS-VI) and the Communications and Broadcasting Engineering Test Satellite (COMETS), and a quasisteady MPD thruster onboard the Space Flyer Unit (SFU) were successfully demonstrated. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) is to

  18. Performance of an active electric bearing for rotary micromotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, F. T.; Wang, L.; Wu, Q. P.; Liu, Y. F.

    2011-08-01

    An electric bearing used to support a micromachined rotor of variable-capacitance motors was designed and tested in order to study the characteristics of this frictionless bearing. Electrostatic suspension of a ring-shaped rotor in five degrees of freedom is required to eliminate the mechanical bearing and thus the friction and wear between the rotor and the substrate. Bulk microfabrication-based glass/silicon/glass bonding is chosen for this device, allowing the fabrication of large area sense capacitors and rotor, which make the device potentially suitable for the development of an electrostatically suspended micromachined gyroscope. The device and its basic operating principle are described, as well as the dynamics of the rotor and basic design considerations of the electric bearing system. A theoretical relationship to relate the characteristics of a classical lag-lead compensator to the stiffness properties of the electric bearing is developed to explain the experimental bearing measurements. The experimental results of closed-loop frequency response, suspension stiffness and drive voltage effects are presented and discussed for the bearing operated initially in the atmospheric environment. The performance of a tri-axial electrostatic accelerometer has also been experimentally investigated on the prototype of the electric bearing system.

  19. The electrical activity of the atmosphere of Venus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. V. Ksanfomaliti; F. L. Scarf; W. W. L. Taylor

    1983-01-01

    Electrical discharges in the atmosphere of Venus produce electromagnetic radiation which can be detected by remote sensors. The lowest-frequency wave components (f <= 300 Hz) propagate through the ionosphere in the whistler mode when the magnetic field strength is high and the field points toward the planet; the signals are detected on the Pioneer Venus orbiter. More complete information on

  20. Robotic Electrolocation: Active Underwater Target Localization with Electric Fields

    E-print Network

    Hartmann, Mitra J. Z.

    filter and refined with each measurement. I. INTRODUCTION The ability of some aquatic animals to sense electric fields was discovered in the late 1950s [8] and is therefore one of the most recently discovered, such as the platypus, are able to sense weak bioelectric fields emitted by aquatic prey and use these fields to locate

  1. Magnetar Twists: Fermi\\/Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor Detection of SGR J1550-5418

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuki Kaneko; Ersin Goegues; Chryssa Kouveliotou; Jonathan Granot; Enrico Ramirez-Ruiz; Alexander J. van der Horst; Anna L. Watts; Mark H. Finger; Neil Gehrels; Asaf Pe'er; Michiels van der Klis; Andreas von Kienlin; Stefanie Wachter; Colleen A. Wilson-Hodge; Peter M. Woods

    2010-01-01

    SGR J1550-5418 (previously known as AXP 1E 1547.0-5408 or PSR J1550-5418) went into three active bursting episodes in 2008 October and in 2009 January and March, emitting hundreds of typical soft gamma repeater bursts in soft gamma rays. The second episode was especially intense, and our untriggered burst search on Fermi\\/Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) data (8-1000 keV) revealed ~450 bursts

  2. Bursting Reverberation as a Multiscale Neuronal Network Process Driven by Synaptic Depression-Facilitation

    PubMed Central

    Dao Duc, K.; Lee, C.Y.; Parutto, Pierre; Cohen, Dror; Segal, Menahem; Rouach, Nathalie; Holcman, David

    2015-01-01

    Neuronal networks can generate complex patterns of activity that depend on membrane properties of individual neurons as well as on functional synapses. To decipher the impact of synaptic properties and connectivity on neuronal network behavior, we investigate the responses of neuronal ensembles from small (5–30 cells in a restricted sphere) and large (acute hippocampal slice) networks to single electrical stimulation: in both cases, a single stimulus generated a synchronous long-lasting bursting activity. While an initial spike triggered a reverberating network activity that lasted 2–5 seconds for small networks, we found here that it lasted only up to 300 milliseconds in slices. To explain this phenomena present at different scales, we generalize the depression-facilitation model and extracted the network time constants. The model predicts that the reverberation time has a bell shaped relation with the synaptic density, revealing that the bursting time cannot exceed a maximum value. Furthermore, before reaching its maximum, the reverberation time increases sub-linearly with the synaptic density of the network. We conclude that synaptic dynamics and connectivity shape the mean burst duration, a property present at various scales of the networks. Thus bursting reverberation is a property of sufficiently connected neural networks, and can be generated by collective depression and facilitation of underlying functional synapses. PMID:26017681

  3. A study on the electrical activation behavior of boron in Si thin film doped by IMD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong-Woo Lee; Sang-Joo Lee; Seung-Jae Yun; Seung-Ki Joo

    2011-01-01

    The crystallization of amorphous silicon (a-Si) film and the electrical activation of dopants have been systematically studied. The crystallization of a-Si was realized by depositing an a-Si film of 800 Å thickness on a glass substrate using a Ni phase transformation catalyst, followed by annealing at 550 °C. Electrical activation and crystallization were accomplished at the same time and the effect has

  4. Dynamics of firing patterns, synchronization and resonances in neuronal electrical activities: experiments and analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qishao Lu; Huaguang Gu; Zhuoqin Yang; Xia Shi; Lixia Duan; Yanhong Zheng

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in the experimental and theoretical study of dynamics of neuronal electrical firing activities are reviewed.\\u000a Firstly, some experimental phenomena of neuronal irregular firing patterns, especially chaotic and stochastic firing patterns,\\u000a are presented, and practical nonlinear time analysis methods are introduced to distinguish deterministic and stochastic mechanism\\u000a in time series. Secondly, the dynamics of electrical firing activities in a

  5. Pulse-driven magnetoimpedance sensor detection of biomagnetic fields in musculatures with spontaneous electric activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shinsuke Nakayama; Satoshi Atsuta; Takao Shinmi; Tsuyoshi Uchiyama

    2011-01-01

    We measured biomagnetic fields in musculatures with spontaneous electric activity using a pulse-driven magnetoimpedance (PMI) sensor with the sensitivity improved toward a pico-Tesla (pT) level. Due to the sufficiently short operation interval of 1?s, this magnetic sensor enabled quasi-real time recordings of the magnetic field for biological electric activity. Isolated small musculatures from the guinea-pig stomach, taenia caeci, portal vein

  6. Frequency chirping during a fishbone burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchenko, V. S.; Reznik, S. N.

    2011-12-01

    It is shown that frequency chirping during fishbone activity can be attributed to the reactive torque exerted on the plasma during the instability burst, which slows down plasma rotation inside the q = 1 surface and reduces the mode frequency in the lab frame. Estimates show that the peak value of this torque can exceed the neutral beam torque in modern tokamaks. The simple line-broadened quasilinear burst model (Berk et al 1995 Nucl. Fusion 35 1661), properly adapted for the fishbone case, is capable of reproducing the key features of the bursting mode.

  7. Electricity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Iowa Public Television. Explore More Project

    2004-01-01

    Electricity is very important to our lives. This reading, part of a series about the future of energy, introduces students to the need and uses for electricity. Students review sources of electricity generation and investigate the evaluation of energy production resources. Here students review information on the generation of electric power and the infrastructure needed to transmit and distribute electricity. Thought-provoking questions afford students chances to reflect on what they've read. Web links to two PBS NewsHour energy-related articles are provided, along with a link to information on the benefits of small-scale wind projects. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

  8. Todd, Faraday and the electrical basis of brain activity.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Edward

    2007-10-01

    The origins of our understanding of brain electricity and electrical discharges in epilepsy can be traced to Robert Bentley Todd (1809-60). Todd was influenced by his contemporary in London, Michael Faraday (1791-1867), who in the 1830 s and 1840 s was laying the foundations of our modern understanding of electromagnetism. Todd's concept of nervous polarity, generated in nerve vesicles and transmitted in nerve fibres (neurons in later terminology), was confirmed a century later by the Nobel Prize-winning work of Hodgkin and Huxley, who demonstrated the ionic basis of neuro-transmission, involving the same ions which had had been discovered by Faraday's mentor, Sir Humphry Davy (1778-1829). PMID:17885273

  9. Propagation of Electric Activity in Motor Nerve Terminals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Katz; R. Miledi

    1965-01-01

    External micro-electrodes were used to stimulate non-myelinated motor nerve terminals and to record pre- and post-synaptic responses at the neuromuscular junction of the frog. The synaptic terminals of the motor axon are electrically excitable. Antidromic nerve impulses can be set up by local stimulation of terminals along the greater part of their length. Presynaptic spikes can be recorded from the

  10. Effect of Direct-Current Electric Field on Enzymatic Activity and the Concentration of Laccase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunxing; Zhang, Huiling; Ren, Dajun; Li, Qian; Zhang, Shuqin; Feng, Tao

    2015-09-01

    This work investigates the effect of direct-current electric field on the extracellular enzymatic activity, concentration and other experimental parameters of laccase from Trametes versicolor. The results showed that laccase could significantly contribute to the change of pH at the end of graphite electrode. In addition, it increased the electrical conductivity of the water. In the experiment, the optimum pH and catalytic pH range for laccase activity were 3.0 and pH 2.5-4.0. The application of 6 V direct current showed significant effects on the laccase enzyme activity. The activity of laccase was enhanced in the anodic region, but at the same time was strongly inhibited at the cathode. The electric charge characteristics of laccase were changed when exposed to electric field, and some laccases molecules moved to the anode, which produced a slight migration phenomenon. This study is the basis of combination of laccase and electrical technology, at the same time, providing a new direction of enhancing laccase activity. Compared to immobilization, using electric field is simple, no chemical additives, and great potential. PMID:26063937

  11. External Resource: Anglin for Gamma-Ray Bursts: Gama Ray Burst Educational Unit

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1900-01-01

    This Gamma Ray Burst educator's guide contains science and mathematics activities that address the following topics: electromagnetic spectrum, low-energy radio waves, microwaves, infrared light, visible light, ultraviolet light, X-rays, and extremely high

  12. Frequency and concentration windows for the electric activation of a membrane active transport system.

    PubMed Central

    Markin, V. S.; Tsong, T. Y.

    1991-01-01

    Previous work has shown that a simple four-state membrane transport system can interact with an oscillating electric field to become an active transport system if there is charge translocation associated with conformational changes of the transporter and if affinities of the transporter for the ligand on the two sides of membrane are different. The relationship between the transport flux and both the frequency of the applied field and the concentration of ligand have been examined based on the following assumptions: the rate of the electroconformational change of the transporter is much greater than that of the ligand association/dissociation reaction, and the oscillating electric field has a large amplitude. It was found that the transport flux depends strongly on the frequency of the field and on the concentration of the ligand and it displays a window of broad bandwidth both on the frequency and the concentration axes. The maximum concentration gradient, or the static head, which can be supported by this mechanism is shown to be constant for field frequencies smaller than the rate of the electroconformational change. The static head value diminishes completely when the field frequency exceeds the rate of the conformational change. The presence of an optimal field frequency has been shown experimentally in several membrane enzyme systems. The theory was applied to the description of Rb and Na pumping in human erythrocytes stimulated by an AC field. The prediction of a window for a ligand concentration and the static head value may be tested experimentally. In addition, the rate constants and the equilibrium constants of the four state model can be determined by measuring positions of windows, fluxes, and static head values under different experimental conditions. These results are equally applicable to the oscillation of pressure, membrane tension, substrate concentration, or temperature if these external parameters can induce functionally relevant conformational changes of the transporter. Images FIGURE 8 PMID:1873467

  13. Thyroarytenoid Muscle Electrical Activity During Spontaneous Apneas in Preterm Lambs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SYLVAIN RENOLLEAU; PATRICK LETOURNEAU

    1999-01-01

    Laryngeal dynamics plays a major role during perinatal life, a period of respiratory control immatu- rity. Continuous electromyographic (EMG) activity of a laryngeal adductor muscle (thyroarytenoid (TA) muscle), was recently observed throughout provoked central apneas, either isolated or during induced periodic breathing, in full-term lambs. The aim of the present study was to test if continuous TA EMG activity was

  14. Effective release rates at single rat Schaffer collateral–CA1 synapses during sustained theta-burst activity revealed by optical imaging

    PubMed Central

    Awatramani, G B; Boyd, J D; Delaney, K R; Murphy, T H

    2007-01-01

    To understand how information is coded at single hippocampal synapses during high-frequency activity, we imaged NMDA receptor-mediated Ca2+ responses in spines of CA1 neurons using two-photon microscopy. Although discrete quantal events were not readily apparent during continuous theta-burst stimulation (TBS), we found that the steady-state dendritic Ca2+ response was spatially restricted (half-width < 1 ?m), voltage dependent and sensitive to MK-801, indicating that that it was mediated by activation of NMDA receptors at single synapses. Partial antagonism of NMDA receptors caused a similar reduction of NMDA EPSCs (measured at the soma) and local dendritic Ca2+ signals, suggesting that, like EPSCs, the steady-state Ca2+ signal was made up of a linear addition of quantal events. Statistical analyses of the steady-response suggested that the quantal size did not change dramatically during TBS. Deconvolution of TBS-evoked Ca2+ responses revealed a heterogeneous population of synapses differing in their capacity to signal high-frequency information, with an average effective steady-state release rate of ?2.6 vesicles synapse?1 s?1. To assess how the optically determined release rates compare with population measures we analysed the rate of decay of peak EPSCs during train stimulation. From these studies, we estimated a unitary vesicular replenishment rate of 0.02 s?1, which corresponds to an average release rate of ?0.8–2 vesicles s?1 at individual synapses. Additionally, extracellular recordings from single Schaffer collaterals revealed that spikes propagate reliably during TBS. Hence, during high-frequency activity, Schaffer collaterals conduct spikes with high fidelity, but release quanta with relatively lower efficiency, leaving NMDA receptor function largely intact and synapse specific. Heterogeneity in release rates between synapses suggests that similar patterns of presynaptic action potentials could trigger different forms of plasticity at individual synapses. PMID:17463045

  15. Comparison of chemical, electrical, and combined activation methods for in vitro matured porcine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuai; Cui, Kuiqing; Li, Hong Li; Sun, Jun Ming; Lu, Xing Rong; Shen, Kai Yuan; Liu, Qing You; Shi, De Shun

    2015-02-01

    Factors influencing porcine oocyte activation were systematically studied. This study included (1) the effect of ionomycin plus various chemical agents on activation, (2) comparison of different electrical activation parameters, (3) optimization of combined activation, and (4) evaluation of the optimized protocols. The results showed that (1) blastocyst rates of ionomycin (Ion) + 6-dimethylaminopurine (6-DMAP) (29.7?±?1.1%), Ion + cytochalasin B (CB) + cycloheximide (CHX) (29.8?±?1.2%), Ion + CB + 6-DMAP (30.4?±?1.6%), and Ion + CB + CHX + 6-DMAP (30.2?±?2.7%) were significantly higher than Ion + CHX (15.8?±?1.5%, p?electrical activation was optimal when oocytes were activated by three direct current (DC) pulses of 1.00 kV cm(-1) for 80 ?s (39.5?±?1.1%); (3) blastocyst rates of DC + CB + CHX (55.4?±?1.2%) and DC + CB + 6-DMAP (50.4?±?2.9%) were significantly higher than DC + 6-DMAP, DC + CB + CHX + 6-DMAP, electrical activation, and chemical activation alone (p?electrical activation blastocysts (40%). Using the optimized electrical and combined activation protocol, high blastocyst rates were generated by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) (34.6?±?1.1%), cytoplasmic microinjection (CI) (52.3?±?2.2%), and handmade cloning (HMC) (31.2?±?1.0%), respectively. This study concludes that the optimal activation protocol of in vitro matured porcine oocytes was combined activation with parameter as three DC pulses of 1.00 kV cm(-1) for 80 ?s plus CB and CHX treatment. PMID:25424832

  16. The GLAST Burst Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Meegan, Charles; Fishman, Gerald; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen [Marshall Space Flight Center, VP62, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Bhat, Narayana; Connaughton, Valerie; Briggs, Michael; Paciesas, William; Preece, Robert [University of Alabama, NSSTC, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Diehl, Roland; Greiner, Jochen; Kienlin, Andreas von; Lichti, Giselher; Steinle, Helmut [Max-Planck-Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Giessenbachstrasse 85748 Garching (Germany); Kippen, R. Marc [Los Alamos National Laboratory, ISR-1, MS B244, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2007-07-12

    The GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) comprises an array of NaI and BGO scintillation detectors designed to enhance the scientific return from GLAST in the study of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). By observing in the 10 keV to 30 MeV energy range, GBM extends the spectral coverage of GRBs more than 3 decades below the LAT energy threshold. GBM computes burst locations on-board, allowing repointing of the GLAST Observatory to place strong bursts within the LAT field-of-view to observe delayed high-energy emission.

  17. The GLAST Burst Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meegan, Charles; Bhat, Narayana; Connaughton, Valerie; Briggs, Michael; Diehl, Roland; Fishman, Gerald; Greiner, Jochen; Kippen, R. Marc; vonKienlin, Andreas; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Lichti, Giselher; Paciesas, William; Preece, Robert; Steinle, Helmut; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen

    2007-01-01

    The GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) comprises an array of NaI and BGO scintillation detectors designed to enhance the scientific return from GLAST in the study of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). By observing in the 10 keV to 30 MeV energy range, GBM extends the spectral coverage of GRBs more than 3 decades below the LAT energy threshold. GBM computes burst locations on-board, allowing repointing of the GLAST Observatory to place strong bursts within the LAT field-of-view to observe delayed high-energy emission.

  18. The effects of muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist on slow bursting neuronal activity in the rat intergeniculate leaflet.

    PubMed

    Werhun, Katarzyna; Lewandowski, Marian H

    2009-01-01

    The intergeniculate leaflet (IGL) of the thalamus is an important neuronal element of the mammalian circadian time-keeping system. It receives direct input from retinal ganglion cells. In addition, there are, among other projections, afferents to the IGL from the brainstem cholinergic nuclei. The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of intravenous (i.v.) application of atropine--a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist, on the ultra-slow isoperiodic oscillations of the IGL neurons. Spontaneous neuronal activity was extracellularly recorded from the rat IGL. Different concentrations of atropine were administrated after recording baseline activity. In all experiments, the period of oscillation became longer after injection of atropine. In some of cases we also noted a temporary disturbance of the oscillatory pattern of neuronal activity. These data suggest that the oscillatory firing of IGL cells can be modulated by cholinergic influence. PMID:19777963

  19. Electric and Magnetic Detection of Avalanche Behavior in Chemical Reactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Claycomb; M. Nersesyan; Martin Miller; John Miller; Dan Luss

    2001-01-01

    Intermittent bursts of chemical activity, displaying avalanche like behavior, have been observed in liquid-solid replacement reactions between metals and liquid electrolytes by measuring the time-dependent electric and magnetic fields. Magnetic measurements are conducted using a high-Tc SQUID inside a magnetically shielded enclosure. Electric potential difference measurements exhibit temporal behavior that is qualitatively similar to the recorded magnetic signals. The observed

  20. Evidence-Based Systematic Review: Effects of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation on Swallowing and Neural Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Heather; Lazarus, Cathy; Arvedson, Joan; Schooling, Tracy; Frymark, Tobi

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To systematically review the literature examining the effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) on swallowing and neural activation. The review was conducted as part of a series examining the effects of oral motor exercises (OMEs) on speech, swallowing, and neural activation. Method: A systematic search was conducted to…

  1. Analysis of electrical activity associated with inclined-plane tracking and erosion of insulating materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Chang; L. Mazeika

    2000-01-01

    Surface electrical activity and physical changes were measured and compared for several types of outdoor insulation materials, using a standard test method. The leakage current activities during the inclined-plane test (ASTM D2303) were measured by using four representative materials: a silicone with high (>70% by weight) loading of alumina trihydrate (ATH), a silicone with no ATH, a poly ethylene vinyl

  2. Electrically silent divalent cation entries in resting and active voltage-controlled muscle fibers

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Electrically silent divalent cation entries in resting and active voltage-controlled muscle 1, CNRS UMR 5123, Villeurbanne, France Running title: Mn2+ entry and current in muscle cells to enter skeletal muscle at rest and during activity. Except for the well characterized Ca2+ entry through

  3. Patterns of Brain-Electrical Activity during Declarative Memory Performance in 10-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morasch, Katherine C.; Bell, Martha Ann

    2009-01-01

    This study of infant declarative memory concurrently examined brain-electrical activity and deferred imitation performance in 10-month-old infants. Continuous electroencephalogram (EEG) measures were collected throughout the activity-matched baseline, encoding (modeling) and retrieval (delayed test) phases of a within-subjects deferred imitation…

  4. The Role of the Hyperpolarization-Activated Cationic Current Ih in the Timing of Interictal Bursts in the

    E-print Network

    ,butnotthefollowing,interburstintervals.Theexperimentallyobserveddistributionofinterburst intervalswasmodeledbyassumingthataburstwastriggeredwhenevertheinstantaneousrateofspontaneousEPSPs(sEPSPs)exceeded a threshold and that the mean sEPSP rate was minimal immediately after slice could be modeled by decreasing only the steady-state sEPSP rate, suggesting that the instan- taneous rate of sEPSPs is governed by the level ofIh activation and raising the novel possibility

  5. Lindane increases in vitro respiratory burst activity and intracellular calcium levels in rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss) head kidney phagocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Betoulle; C Duchiron; P Deschaux

    2000-01-01

    Phagocytic cells are the main actors of the fish immune system. They secrete reactive oxygen species (ROS) involved in their bactericidal activity. The effects of lindane on ROS production in rainbow trout phagocytes are contradictory. Here, we study the effects of high concentrations of lindane on ROS production (by chemiluminescence) and on intracellular calcium levels ([Ca2+]i) (by spectrofluorimetry) in trout

  6. Antioxidant Activity of Calendula officinalis Extract: Inhibitory Effects on Chemiluminescence of Human Neutrophil Bursts and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pier Carlo Braga; Monica Dal Sasso; Maria Culici; Alessandra Spallino; Mario Falchi; Aldo Bertelli; Roberto Morelli; Roberto Lo Scalzo

    2009-01-01

    There is growing interest in natural chemical compounds from aromatic, spicy, medicinal and other plants with antioxidant properties in order to find new sources of compounds inactivating free radicals generated by metabolic pathways within body tissue and cells, mainly polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) whose overregulated recruitment and activation generate a large amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species

  7. Spontaneous Electrical Activity of Cultured Interstitial Cells of Cajal from Mouse Urinary Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun-Ouck; Jeong, Han-Seong; Jang, Sujeong; Wu, Mei-Jin; Park, Jong Kyu; Jiao, Han-Yi; Jun, Jae Yeoul

    2013-01-01

    Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) from the urinary bladder regulate detrusor smooth muscle activities. We cultured ICCs from the urinary bladder of mice and performed patch clamp and intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) imaging to investigate whether cultured ICCs can be a valuable tool for cellular functional studies. The cultured ICCs displayed two types of spontaneous electrical activities which are similar to those recorded in intact bladder tissues. Spontaneous electrical activities of cultured ICCs were nifedipine-sensitive. Carbachol and ATP, both excitatory neurotransmitters in the urinary bladder, depolarized the membrane and increased the frequency of spike potentials. Carbachol increased [Ca2+]i oscillations and basal Ca2+ levels, which were blocked by atropine. These results suggest that cultured ICCs from the urinary bladder retain rhythmic phenotypes similar to the spontaneous electrical activities recorded from the intact urinary bladder. Therefore, we suggest that cultured ICCs from the urinary bladder may be useful for cellular and molecular studies of ICCs. PMID:24381503

  8. Neutrino bursts from gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paczynski, Bohdan; Xu, Guohong

    1994-01-01

    If gamma-ray bursts originate at cosmological distances, as strongly indicated by the results from Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO), then ultrarelativistic ejecta are the likely consequence of the highly super-Eddington luminosity of the sources. If the energy injection rate varies with time, then the Lorentz factor of the wind also varies, and the shells of ejected matter collide with each other. The collisions between baryons produce pions which decay into high-energy photons, electrons, electron positron pairs, and neutrino pairs. The bulk Lorentz factor of approximately 300 is required if our model is to be compatible with the observed millisecond variability. The strongest gamma-ray bursts are observed to deliver approximately 10(exp -4) ergs/sq cm in 100-200 keV photons. In our scenario more energy may be delivered in a neutrino burst. Typical neutrinos may be approximately 30 GeV if the protons have a Maxwellian energy distribution, and up to approximately TeV if the protons have a power-law distribution. Such neutrino bursts are close to the detection limit of the DUMAND II experiment.

  9. Electrical Activity and Behavior in the Pharynx of Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Raizen, David M.; Avery, Leon

    2015-01-01

    Summary The pharynx of C. elegans, a model system for neural networks and for membrane excitability, has been chiefly studied by observing its behavior in normal worms, in mutant worms, and in worms lacking pharyngeal neurons. To complement this behavioral approach, we devised a method for recording currents produced by changes in pharyngeal muscle membrane potential. The electrical records, called electropharyngeograms, contain transients caused by pharyngeal muscle action potentials and by inhibitory synaptic transmission between pharyngeal neuron M3 and the muscle. Using the electropharyngeograms, we show that ?-aminobutyric acid is not likely to be the M3 neurotransmitter, that synaptic transmission is present but abnormal in mutants lacking synaptotagmin, and that worms mutant in the eat-4 gene are defective for M3 function or transmission. PMID:8155316

  10. Theta-Burst Stimulation of Hippocampal Slices Induces Network-Level Calcium Oscillations and Activates Analogous Gene Transcription to Spatial Learning

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, John J.; Murphy, Keith J.

    2014-01-01

    Over four decades ago, it was discovered that high-frequency stimulation of the dentate gyrus induces long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic transmission. LTP is believed to underlie how we process and code external stimuli before converting it to salient information that we store as 'memories'. It has been shown that rats performing spatial learning tasks display theta-frequency (3–12 Hz) hippocampal neural activity. Moreover, administering theta-burst stimulation (TBS) to hippocampal slices can induce LTP. TBS triggers a sustained rise in intracellular calcium [Ca2+]i in neurons leading to new protein synthesis important for LTP maintenance. In this study, we measured TBS-induced [Ca2+]i oscillations in thousands of cells at increasing distances from the source of stimulation. Following TBS, a calcium wave propagates radially with an average speed of 5.2 µm/s and triggers multiple and regular [Ca2+]i oscillations in the hippocampus. Interestingly, the number and frequency of [Ca2+]i fluctuations post-TBS increased with respect to distance from the electrode. During the post-tetanic phase, 18% of cells exhibited 3 peaks in [Ca2+]i with a frequency of 17 mHz, whereas 2.3% of cells distributed further from the electrode displayed 8 [Ca2+]i oscillations at 33 mHz. We suggest that these observed [Ca2+]i oscillations could lead to activation of transcription factors involved in synaptic plasticity. In particular, the transcription factor, NF-?B, has been implicated in memory formation and is up-regulated after LTP induction. We measured increased activation of NF-?B 30 min post-TBS in CA1 pyramidal cells and also observed similar temporal up-regulation of NF-?B levels in CA1 neurons following water maze training in rats. Therefore, TBS of hippocampal slice cultures in vitro can mimic the cell type-specific up-regulations in activated NF-?B following spatial learning in vivo. This indicates that TBS may induce similar transcriptional changes to spatial learning and that TBS-triggered [Ca2+]i oscillations could activate memory-associated gene expression. PMID:24950243

  11. Sawtooth bursts: observations and model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlický, M.; Bárta, M.; Klassen, A.; Aurass, H.; Mann, G.

    2002-12-01

    An example of the sawtooth burst observed during the November 3, 1997 flare is shown. Basic parameters of the sawtooth bursts are summarized and compared with those of fibers, fiber chains, zebras, EEL bursts and lace bursts. The sawtooth bursts are found to be most similar to the lace bursts, therefore the lace bursts model is proposed also for them. Then using this model the dynamic spectrum with the sawtooth burst is modelled. The model considers accelerated electrons with an unstable distribution function on the double resonance frequency and quasi-periodic variations of the electron plasma density and/or magnetic field in the radio source.

  12. Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meegan, Charles A.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) are now known to be the most powerful explosions in the Universe. I will summarize the history of observations of GRBs, and how we came to know that the sources are so distant. I will also give an overview of the most prominent theories as to the cause of bursts.

  13. Section of Burst Tumulus

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A section of burst tumulus that has fallen away from the larger structure. Tumuli can burst when the influx of lava is rapid compared to the rate at which the crust is thickening by cooling. In these cases the pressure driving the lava is significantly greater than the weight of the overlying crust....

  14. Section of burst tumulus

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A section of burst tumulus that has fallen away from the larger structure. Tumuli can burst when the influx of lava is rapid compared to the rate at which the crust is thickening by cooling. In these cases the pressure driving the lava is significantly greater than the weight of the overlying crust....

  15. Gamma-ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Wijers, Ralph A. M. J.; Woosley, Stan

    2012-11-01

    Prologue C. Kouveliotou, R. A . M. J. Wijers and S. E. Woosley; 1. The discovery of the gamma-ray burst phenomenon R. W. Klebesadel; 2. Instrumental principles E. E. Fenimore; 3. The BATSE era G. J. Fishman and C. A. Meegan; 4. The cosmological era L. Piro and K. Hurley; 5. The Swift era N. Gehrels and D. N. Burrows; 6. Discoveries enabled by multi-wavelength afterglow observations of gamma-ray bursts J. Greiner; 7. Prompt emission from gamma-ray bursts T. Piran, R. Sari and R. Mochkovitch; 8. Basic gamma-ray burst afterglows P. Mészáros and R. A. M. J. Wijers; 9. The GRB-supernova connection J. Hjorth and J. S. Bloom; 10. Models for gamma-ray burst progenitors and central engines S. E. Woosley; 11. Jets and gamma-ray burst unification schemes J. Granot and E. Ramirez-Ruiz; 12. High-energy cosmic rays and neutrinos E. Waxman; 13. Long gamma-ray burst host galaxies and their environments J. P. U. Fynbo, D. Malesani and P. Jakobsson; 14. Gamma-ray burst cosmology V. Bromm and A. Loeb; 15. Epilogue R. D. Blandford; Index.

  16. Gamma Ray Bursts - Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, N.; Cannizzo, J. K.

    2010-01-01

    We are in an exciting period of discovery for gamma-ray bursts. The Swift observatory is detecting 100 bursts per year, providing arcsecond localizations and sensitive observations of the prompt and afterglow emission. The Fermi observatory is observing 250 bursts per year with its medium-energy GRB instrument and about 10 bursts per year with its high-energy LAT instrument. In addition, rapid-response telescopes on the ground are providing new capabilities to study optical emission during the prompt phase and spectral signatures of the host galaxies. The combined data set is enabling great advances in our understanding of GRBs including afterglow physics, short burst origin, and high energy emission.

  17. SHEBA prompt burst dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Kimpland, R.

    1997-12-31

    The Solution High-Energy Burst Assembly (SHEBA), located at the Los Alamos Critical Experiments Facility, is a homogeneous liquid-fueled reactor that is being prepared for prompt burst operation. As part of the preparations, a reactor safety study was performed in support of the new SHEBA experiment plan. This study looked at the maximum power, total energy yield, and maximum transient pressures that may occur in the reactor during prompt burst operation. The goal of this study is to analyze the neutronic and hydrodynamic behavior of the reactor during burst operation, and to ensure that prompt burst operation does not damage the reactor or exceed the safety envelope of the facility`s Safety Analysis Report (SAR).

  18. Gamma Ray Burst Distribution on the Sky: The Plots Thicken

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    In this activity, students look at the distribution of aluminum foil balls arranged in a circle on the floor, and compare them to the distribution of gamma-ray bursts on the sky. This activity uses Gamma-ray Bursts as an engagement tool to teach selected topics in physical science and mathematics. In addition to the activities, it features background information, assessment information, student worksheets, extension and transfer activities, and detailed information about the physical science and mathematics content standards for grades 9-12. This is Activity 3 of 4 in the guide which accompanies the educational wall sheet titled Angling for Gamma-ray Bursts

  19. Avalanches and bursts in low-pressure helium gas below the breakdown voltage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Donkó

    1995-01-01

    External ionizing particles may induce electron avalanches and bursts (sequences of avalanches) in a gas subjected to an electric field. The properties of these avalanches and bursts at a given pressure depend on the strength of the electric field, which in our case is considered to be homogeneous between two plane-parallel metal electrodes. With increasing voltage (V) applied to the

  20. Computing Electric Currents in Solar Active Regions with HMI Vector Magnetograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, L.; Hoeksema, J. T.; Schuck, P. W.; Sun, X.

    2010-12-01

    Electric currents in the photosphere may be good indicators of future solar activity. We investigate the time evolution of electric current patterns in a few active regions observed by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI). The electric currents are calculated by taking the curl of the HMI vector magnetograms. Using data from HMI has two main benefits. Since HMI continuously surveys the full solar disk with good resolution, no targeting is necessary; we are able to determine the currents before the active region forms, as well as during its emergence, rise, and decay. Also, since HMI is a space telescope, it provides frequent and consistent observations with which the time evolution of the current can be followed.

  1. Upconversion nanoparticle-mediated photodynamic therapy induces THP-1 macrophage apoptosis via ROS bursts and activation of the mitochondrial caspase pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xing; Wang, Hao; Zheng, Longbin; Zhong, Zhaoyu; Li, Xuesong; Zhao, Jing; Kou, Jiayuan; Jiang, Yueqing; Zheng, Xiufeng; Liu, Zhongni; Li, Hongxia; Cao, Wenwu; Tian, Ye; Wang, You; Yang, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis (AS) is the most vital cardiovascular disease, which poses a great threat to human health. Macrophages play an important role in the progression of AS. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has emerged as a useful therapeutic modality not only in the treatment of cancer but also in the treatment of AS. The purpose of this study was to determine the molecular mechanisms underlying the activity of PDT, using mesoporous-silica-coated upconversion fluorescent nanoparticles encapsulating chlorin e6 (UCNPs-Ce6) in the induction of apoptosis in THP-1 macrophages. Here, we investigated the ability of UCNPs-Ce6-mediated PDT to induce THP-1 macrophage apoptosis by facilitating the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and regulation of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) to depolarize mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Both Bax translocation and the release of cytochrome C were examined using immunofluorescence and Western blotting. Our results indicated that the levels of ROS were significantly increased in the PDT group, resulting in both MPTP opening and MMP depolarization, which led to apoptosis. In addition, immunofluorescence and Western blotting revealed that PDT induced both Bax translocation and the release of cytochrome C, as well as upregulation of cleaved caspase-9, cleaved caspase-3, and cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Therefore, we demonstrated that UCNPs-Ce6-mediated PDT induces apoptosis in THP-1 macrophages via ROS bursts. The proapoptotic factor Bax subsequently translocates from the cytosol to the mitochondria, resulting in the MPTP opening and cytochrome C release. This study demonstrated the great potential of UCNPs-Ce6-mediated PDT in the treatment of AS.

  2. Statistical Properties of SGR 1900+14 Bursts.

    PubMed

    Göğüş; Woods; Kouveliotou; van Paradijs J; Briggs; Duncan; Thompson

    1999-12-01

    We study the statistics of soft gamma repeater (SGR) bursts using a database of 187 events detected with BATSE and 837 events detected with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array; all events are from SGR 1900+14 during its 1998-1999 active phase. We find that the fluence or energy distribution of bursts is consistent with a power law of index 1.66, over 4 orders of magnitude. This scale-free distribution resembles the Gutenberg-Richter law for earthquakes and gives evidence for self-organized criticality in SGRs. The distribution of time intervals between successive bursts from SGR 1900+14 is consistent with a lognormal distribution. There is no correlation between burst intensity and the waiting times till the next burst, but there is some evidence for a correlation between burst intensity and the time elapsed since the previous burst. We also find a correlation between the duration and the energy of the bursts, but with significant scatter. In all these statistical properties, SGR bursts resemble earthquakes and solar flares more closely than they resemble any known accretion-powered or nuclear-powered phenomena. Thus, our analysis lends support to the hypothesis that the energy source for SGR bursts is internal to the neutron star and plausibly magnetic. PMID:10550286

  3. Calibrated mapping of the electrical activity in deformed silicon by means of charge-collection microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyman, L. W.; Snyman, H. C.; Engelbrecht, J. A. A.

    1986-02-01

    A method has been developed to obtain, by means of charge-collection microscopy (CCM), a calibrated two-dimensional map of the electrical activity of the minority carriers in a semiconductor crystal over large crystal dimensions. This is achieved by the calibration of the collection current in terms of the minority-carrier diffusion length and a photographic gray scale. The technique is applied to plastically deformed silicon and proves that it has great potential for the evaluation of electrical activity mechanisms in imperfect silicon.

  4. Phagocytic activity, respiratory burst, cytoplasmic free-Ca(2+) concentration and apoptotic cell ratio of haemocytes from the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon under acute copper stress.

    PubMed

    Xian, Jian-An; Wang, An-Li; Ye, Chao-Xia; Chen, Xiao-Dan; Wang, Wei-Na

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the cellular toxicity of copper-induced injury to the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. The 24h, 48h, 72h and 96h LC(50) (median lethal concentration) of Cu(2+) on P. monodon (11.63+/-1.14g) were found to be 3.49, 1.54, 0.73 and 0.40mgL(-1), respectively. Total haemocyte count (THC), phagocytic activity, respiratory burst (RB), cytoplasmic free-Ca(2+) (cf-Ca(2+)) concentration and apoptotic cell ratio of shrimp were determined after exposure to different concentrations of Cu(2+) (0, 0.05, 0.5, 1.5 and 3.5mgL(-1)) for 0, 6, 12, 24 and 48h. There was no significant effect on the analytic indicator of shrimp exposed to 0.05mgL(-1) Cu(2+). THC decreased after Cu-exposure to 0.5mgL(-1) for 48h, 1.5mgL(-1) for 24h and 3.5mgL(-1) for 12h. Phagocytic activity decreased in P. monodon following 48h exposure to 3.5mgL(-1) Cu(2+). RB was induced after 6h exposure to 0.5, 1.5 and 3.5mgL(-1) Cu(2+). cf-Ca(2+) concentration increased after 48h exposure to 0.5mgL(-1) Cu(2+), and 12h exposure to 1.5 and 3.5mgL(-1) Cu(2+). The percentage of apoptotic cells increased to 9.5%, 16.3% and 18.6% respectively following 48h exposure to 0.5, 1.5 and 3.5mgL(-1) Cu(2+). These results indicate that Cu can induce oxidative stress, elevation of cf-Ca(2+) and cell apoptosis, and inhibit phagocytic activity in the shrimp P. monodon, and the lethal injury of Cu(2+) to P. monodon may be mainly due to the sharp reduction of THC caused by ROS-induced apoptosis. PMID:20398793

  5. Store-operated Ca2+ entry and depolarization explain the anomalous behaviour of myometrial SR: Effects of SERCA inhibition on electrical activity, Ca2+ and force

    PubMed Central

    Noble, Debbie; Borysova, Lyudmyla; Wray, Susan; Burdyga, Theodor

    2014-01-01

    In the myometrium SR Ca2+ depletion promotes an increase in force but unlike several other smooth muscles, there is no Ca2+ sparks-STOCs coupling mechanism to explain this. Given the importance of the control of contractility for successful parturition, we have examined, in pregnant rat myometrium, the effects of SR Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) inhibition on the temporal relationship between action potentials, Ca2+ transients and force. Simultaneous recording of electrical activity, calcium and force showed that SERCA inhibition, by cyclopiazonic acid (CPA 20 ?M), caused time-dependent changes in excitability, most noticeably depolarization and elevations of baseline [Ca2+]i and force. At the onset of these changes there was a prolongation of the bursts of action potentials and a corresponding series of Ca2+ spikes, which increased the amplitude and duration of contractions. As the rise of baseline Ca2+ and depolarization continued a point was reached when electrical and Ca2+ spikes and phasic contractions ceased, and a maintained, tonic force and Ca2+ was produced. Lanthanum, a non-selective blocker of store-operated Ca2+ entry, but not the L-type Ca2+ channel blocker nifedipine (1–10 ?M), could abolish the maintained force and calcium. Application of the agonist, carbachol, produced similar effects to CPA, i.e. depolarization, elevation of force and calcium. A brief, high concentration of carbachol, to cause SR Ca2+ depletion without eliciting receptor-operated channel opening, also produced these results. The data obtained suggest that in pregnant rats SR Ca2+ release is coupled to marked Ca2+ entry, via store operated Ca2+ channels, leading to depolarization and enhanced electrical and mechanical activity. PMID:25084623

  6. The role of cellular coupling in the spontaneous generation of electrical activity in uterine tissue.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jinshan; Menon, Shakti N; Singh, Rajeev; Garnier, Nicolas B; Sinha, Sitabhra; Pumir, Alain

    2015-01-01

    The spontaneous emergence of contraction-inducing electrical activity in the uterus at the beginning of labor remains poorly understood, partly due to the seemingly contradictory observation that isolated uterine cells are not spontaneously active. It is known, however, that the expression of gap junctions increases dramatically in the approach to parturition, by more than one order of magnitude, which results in a significant increase in inter-cellular electrical coupling. In this paper, we build upon previous studies of the activity of electrically excitable smooth muscle cells (myocytes) and investigate the mechanism through which the coupling of these cells to electrically passive cells results in the generation of spontaneous activity in the uterus. Using a recently developed, realistic model of uterine muscle cell dynamics, we investigate a system consisting of a myocyte coupled to passive cells. We then extend our analysis to a simple two-dimensional lattice model of the tissue, with each myocyte being coupled to its neighbors, as well as to a random number of passive cells. We observe that different dynamical regimes can be observed over a range of gap junction conductances: at low coupling strength, corresponding to values measured long before delivery, the activity is confined to cell clusters, while the activity for high coupling, compatible with values measured shortly before delivery, may spread across the entire tissue. Additionally, we find that the system supports the spontaneous generation of spiral wave activity. Our results are both qualitatively and quantitatively consistent with observations from in vitro experiments. In particular, we demonstrate that the increase in inter-cellular electrical coupling observed experimentally strongly facilitates the appearance of spontaneous action potentials that may eventually lead to parturition. PMID:25793276

  7. Effects of nicotine on neocortical electrical activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Riekkinen, P; Riekkinen, M; Sirviö, J

    1993-11-01

    The present study investigates the effects of acute and repeated nicotine i.p. treatment on cortical EEG activity. Nicotine at 0.3 and 0.9 mg/kg, but not at 0.1 mg/kg, decreased high voltage spindles (HVSs). Nicotine at 2.7 mg/kg suppressed HVSs completely. Mecamylamine, a nicotinic cholinergic antagonist, increased HVSs at 5 and 7.5 mg/kg. Nicotine blocked the HVS induction induced by mecamylamine. Mecamylamine at 1.25 mg/kg antagonized the HVS suppressing action of nicotine at 0.3 mg/kg. The muscarinic cholinergic antagonist, scopolamine (0.2 mg/kg), increased the 1 to 20 Hz amplitude sum value, and this increase was blocked to some extent by the highest dose of nicotine (2.7 mg/kg). However, nicotine did not block the effect of a higher scopolamine (2.0 mg/kg) dose on the sum amplitude values. Mecamylamine at 2.5 and 7.5 mg/kg blocked the effect of nicotine at 2.7 mg/kg on the EEG sum amplitude values in scopolamine (0.2 mg/kg)-treated rats. The peripherally acting nicotinic and muscarinic cholinergic antagonists, hexamethonium and scopolamine methylbromide, had no effect on spectral EEG and HVS values. In quisqualic acid nucleus basalis-lesioned rats, a frontal cortical choline acetyltransferase depletion (-72%) and slowing of the EEG was observed. Nicotine could not restore EEG activity in nucleus basalis-lesioned rats. After repeated (10 days, three injections/day) administration of nicotine, no tolerance to the effects of either nicotine (0.9 mg/kg) on spontaneously occurring HVSs or nicotine (2.7 mg/kg) on the EEG change induced by scopolamine was observed. The present results show that nicotinic receptor stimulation desynchronizes neocortical EEG activity in normal animals, but this action disappears in basal forebrain-lesioned animals. Therefore, it is likely that the effects of nicotine in reversing EEG and behavioral abnormalities observed in Alzheimer's disease may be limited if the basal forebrain cell loss is extensive. PMID:8246153

  8. Coexistence of tonic firing and bursting in cortical neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fröhlich, Flavio; Bazhenov, Maxim

    2006-09-01

    Sustained neuronal activity can be broadly classified as either tonic firing or bursting. These two major patterns of neuronal oscillations are state dependent and may coexist. The dynamics and intracellular mechanisms of transitions between tonic firing and bursting in cortical networks remain poorly understood. Here we describe a detailed two-compartment conductance-based cortical neuron model which exhibits bistability with hysteresis between tonic firing and bursting for elevated extracellular potassium concentration. The study explains the ionic and dynamical mechanisms of burst generation and reveals the conditions underlying coexistence of two different oscillatory modes as a function of neuronal excitability.

  9. Active RF Pulse Compression using Electrically Controlled Semiconductor Switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jiquan; Tantawi, Sami

    2006-11-01

    In this paper, we present the recent results of our research on the ultra-high power fast silicon RF switch and its application on active X-Band RF pulse compression systems. This switch is composed of a group of PIN diodes on a high purity silicon wafer and has achieved a switching time of 300ns. The wafer is inserted into a cylindrical waveguide operating in the TE01 mode. Switching is performed by injecting carriers into the bulk silicon through a high current pulse. The RF energy is stored in a room-temperature, high-Q 375 ns delay line; it is then extracted out of the line in a short time using the switch. The pulse compression system has achieved a gain of 8, which is the ratio between output and input power.

  10. Decametric and hectometric Solar Type III bursts at Saturn's orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudjada, Mohammed Y.; Sawas, Sami; Galopeau, Patrick H. M.; Maksimovic, Milan

    2015-04-01

    We report on solar radio bursts observed by RPWS experiment onboard Cassini spacecraft. We consider Type III solar bursts observed in the frequency range from 1 MHz to 16 MHz. Those bursts are probably generated in the solar corona and the interplanetary medium. We show that the Type III burst occurrence is depending on the solar activity. We attempt to localize the regions where the Type III burst is probably emitted. We consider that the electrons at the origin of the Solar Type III bursts follow the interplanetary magnetic field. The trajectory is an Archimedean spiral contained in the ecliptic plane. We discuss our results taking into consideration on the one hand the spacecraft positions with regards to the source location, and on the other hand the temporal and spectral radio beam variation when combining Cassini and Wind observations.

  11. Quadriceps activation normative values and the affect of subcutaneous tissue thickness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jihong Park; J. Ty Hopkins

    2011-01-01

    Calculation of the central activation ratio (CAR) using the superimposed burst technique (SIB) is widely used. 0.95 is considered a normal value of the CAR in healthy subjects, but it has not been objectively examined. Since an electrical stimulation penetrates the subcutaneous tissue, the intensity of electrical stimulation may vary depending on the subcutaneous tissue thickness. Subjects performed a maximal

  12. Burst of succinate dehydrogenase and ?-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase activity in concert with the expression of genes coding for respiratory chain proteins underlies short-term beneficial physiological stress in mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Zakharchenko, Marina V; Zakharchenko, A V; Khunderyakova, N V; Tutukina, M N; Simonova, M A; Vasilieva, A A; Romanova, O I; Fedotcheva, N I; Litvinova, E G; Maevsky, E I; Zinchenko, V P; Berezhnov, A V; Morgunov, I G; Gulayev, A A; Kondrashova, M N

    2013-01-01

    Conditions for the realization in rats of moderate physiological stress (PHS) (30-120 min) were selected, which preferentially increase adaptive restorative processes without adverse responses typical of harmful stress (HST). The succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and ?-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (KDH) activity and the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mitochondria were measured in lymphocytes by the cytobiochemical method, which detects the regulation of mitochondria in the organism with high sensitivity. These mitochondrial markers undergo an initial 10-20-fold burst of activity followed by a decrease to a level exceeding the quiescent state 2-3-fold by 120 min of PHS. By 30-60 min, the rise in SDH activity was greater than in KDH activity, while the activity of KDH prevailed over that of SDH by 120 min. The attenuation of SDH hyperactivity during PHS occurs by a mechanism other than oxaloacetate inhibition developed under HST. The dynamics of SDH and KDH activity corresponds to the known physiological replacement of adrenergic regulation by cholinergic during PHS, which is confirmed here by mitochondrial markers because their activity reflects these two types of nerve regulation, respectively. The domination of cholinergic regulation provides the overrestoration of expenditures for activity. In essence, this phenomenon corresponds to the training of the organism. It was first revealed in mitochondria after a single short-time stress episode. The burst of ROS formation was congruous with changes in SDH and KDH activity, as well as in ucp2 and cox3 expression, while the activity of SDH was inversely dependent on the expression of the gene of its catalytic subunit in the spleen. As the SDH activity enhanced, the expression of the succinate receptor decreased with subsequent dramatic rise when the activity was becoming lower. This article is part of a Directed Issue entitled: Bioenergetic dysfunction, adaption and therapy. PMID:22814171

  13. On vortex bursting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werle, H.

    1984-01-01

    Vortex bursting is studied by means of visualization. The physical behavior of the phenomenon is emphasized, and its similarity with boundary layer separation or wake bursting becomes apparent. The essential influence of an increasing pressure gradient on the initiation, the position and the type of bursting is clearly confirmed. The evolution of the phenomena as a function of several parameters is analyzed in the case of delta wings, alone or installed on aircraft models, and compared with the results of similar wind tunnel or flight tests.

  14. Abnormal Bursting as a Pathophysiological Mechanism in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lobb, CJ

    2014-01-01

    Despite remarkable advances in Parkinson's disease (PD) research, the pathophysiological mechanisms causing motor dysfunction remain unclear, possibly delaying the advent of new and improved therapies. Several such mechanisms have been proposed including changes in neuronal firing rates, the emergence of pathological oscillatory activity, increased neural synchronization, and abnormal bursting. This review focuses specifically on the role of abnormal bursting of basal ganglia neurons in PD, where a burst is a physiologically-relevant, transient increase in neuronal firing over some reference period or activity. After reviewing current methods for how bursts are detected and what the functional role of bursts may be under normal conditions, existing studies are reviewed that suggest that bursting is abnormally increased in PD and that this increases with worsening disease. Finally, the influence of therapeutic approaches for PD such as dopamine-replacement therapy with levodopa or dopamine agonists, lesions, or deep brain stimulation on bursting is discussed. Although there is insufficient evidence to conclude that increased bursting causes motor dysfunction in PD, current evidence suggests that targeted investigations into the role of bursting in PD may be warranted. PMID:24729952

  15. Low Temperature Geothermal Electricity Generation: Google Earth Virtual Field Trip Activity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This exploration takes students to Chena Hot Springs Resort in Alaska where they will learn how to produce low temperature geothermal electricity. Teacher's guide, activity sheet and PowerPoint presenation included. The 2008 ATEEC Fellows Institute brought 18 environmental science community college and high school instructors to Alaska. They created virtual field trips using Google Earth. In the activity, explore Chena Hot Springs Resort in Alaska to learn about low temperature geothermal electricity generation. Chena Hot Springs runs their entire facility on renewable energy. Learn how they do it why they do it and the engineering challenges along the way. This activity includes numerous turnkey teaching resources such as a PowerPoint presentation explaining the geothermal heat exchanging process, video interviews with environmental engineers, a teacher's guide and student activity. Users must create a free login to access this resource.

  16. The Mesoscopic Modeling of Burst Suppression during Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Liley, David T. J.; Walsh, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    The burst-suppression pattern is well recognized as a distinct feature of the mammalian electroencephalogram (EEG) waveform. Consisting of alternating periods of high amplitude oscillatory and isoelectric activity, it can be induced in health by deep anesthesia as well as being evoked by a range of pathophysiological processes that include coma and anoxia. While the electroencephalographic phenomenon and clinical implications of burst suppression have been studied extensively, the physiological mechanisms underlying its emergence remain unresolved and obscure. Because electroencephalographic bursting phenomenologically resembles the bursting observed in single neurons, it would be reasonable to assume that the theoretical insights developed to understand bursting at the cellular (“microscopic”) level would enable insights into the dynamical genesis of bursting at the level of the whole brain (“macroscopic”). In general action potential bursting is the result of the interplay of two time scales: a fast time scale responsible for spiking, and a slow time scale that modulates such activity. We therefore hypothesize that such fast-slow systems dynamically underpin electroencephalographic bursting. Here we show that a well-known mean field dynamical model of the electroencephalogram, the Liley model, while unable to produce burst suppression unmodified, is able to give rise to a wide variety of burst-like activity by the addition of one or more slow systems modulating model parameters speculated to be major “targets” for anesthetic action. The development of a physiologically plausible theoretical framework to account for burst suppression will lead to a more complete physiological understanding of the EEG and the mechanisms that serve to modify ongoing brain activity necessary for purposeful behavior and consciousness. PMID:23641211

  17. Kinetics of the direct electric heating of a stationary bed of activated charcoal

    SciTech Connect

    Marfin, M.N.; Shumyatskii, Yu.I.

    1987-08-20

    Direct electric heating by passing an electrical current directly through a bed of adsorbent may prove to be an efficient means of regenerating activated charcoal in continuous and batch adsorption processes. Obvious advantages of this type of regeneration are its almost complete lack of inertia, which makes it possible to reduce the number and dimensions of the adsorbers, and its highly efficient use of energy due to the small number of steps in the conversion of the energy, as well as the reduction of heat losses involved in warming the structure and making up for losses to the surroundings. The authors consider the kinetics of direct electric heating of a stationary bed of activated charcoal not containing adsorbed substances.

  18. Effects of nanosecond pulsed electric fields on the activity of a Hodgkin and Huxley neuron model.

    PubMed

    Camera, F; Paffi, A; Merla, C; Denzi, A; Apollonio, F; Marracino, P; d'Inzeo, G; Liberti, M

    2012-01-01

    The cell membrane poration is one of the main assessed biological effects of nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF). This structural change of the cell membrane appears soon after the pulse delivery and lasts for a time period long enough to modify the electrical activity of excitable membranes in neurons. Inserting such a phenomenon in a Hodgkin and Huxley neuron model by means of an enhanced time varying conductance resulted in the temporary inhibition of the action potential generation. The inhibition time is a function of the level of poration, the pore resealing time and the background stimulation level of the neuron. Such results suggest that the neuronal activity may be efficiently modulated by the delivery of repeated pulses. This opens the way to the use of nsPEFs as a stimulation technique alternative to the conventional direct electric stimulation for medical applications such as chronic pain treatment. PMID:23366449

  19. Extreme electric fields power catalysis in the active site of ketosteroid isomerase.

    PubMed

    Fried, Stephen D; Bagchi, Sayan; Boxer, Steven G

    2014-12-19

    Enzymes use protein architecture to impose specific electrostatic fields onto their bound substrates, but the magnitude and catalytic effect of these electric fields have proven difficult to quantify with standard experimental approaches. Using vibrational Stark effect spectroscopy, we found that the active site of the enzyme ketosteroid isomerase (KSI) exerts an extremely large electric field onto the C=O chemical bond that undergoes a charge rearrangement in KSI's rate-determining step. Moreover, we found that the magnitude of the electric field exerted by the active site strongly correlates with the enzyme's catalytic rate enhancement, enabling us to quantify the fraction of the catalytic effect that is electrostatic in origin. The measurements described here may help explain the role of electrostatics in many other enzymes and biomolecular systems. PMID:25525245

  20. 162 Electrical and Computer Engineering 163 Courses and projects that actively involve them in their own education and

    E-print Network

    Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    162 Electrical and Computer Engineering 163 · Courses and projects that actively involve them of technology Graduate and undergraduate programs in electrical and computer engineering offer concentrations in electrical and computer engineering that the student can build upon to construct a custom program. Because

  1. Multigrid Block Preconditioning for a Coupled System of Partial Differential Equations Modeling the Electrical Activity in the Heart

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Sundnes; G. T. Lines; K. A. Mardal; A. Tveito

    2002-01-01

    The electrical activity of the heart may be modeled with a system of partial differential equations (PDEs) known as the bidomain model. Computer simulations based on these equations may become a helpful tool to understand the relationship between changes in the electrical field and various heart diseases. Because of the rapid variations in the electrical field, sufficiently accurate simulations require

  2. Project BudBurst: Citizen Science for All Seasons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Henderson; C. Brewer; K. Havens; K. Meymaris

    2007-01-01

    Project BudBurst is a national citizen science initiative designed to engage the public in observations of phenological (plant life cycle) events that raise awareness of climate change, and create a cadre of informed citizen scientists. Citizen science programs such as Project BudBurst provide the opportunity for students and interested laypersons to actively participate in scientific research. Such programs are important

  3. BATSE results on observational properties of gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kouveliotou, Chryssa

    1994-01-01

    The Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) has observed over 600 gamma-ray bursts since its activation on 1991 April 21. We present here results on the global properties of the first 542 events. Their angular distribution is consistent with isotropy; their peak intensity distribution shows a depletion at low intensities, consistent with inhomogeneity in Euclidean space.

  4. Solar radio meter burst and coronal mass ejections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuan Ma; Bao-Rong Luo; Xiang-Ming Zheng

    2002-01-01

    A particular solar radio metric wave burst was observed by using the Acousto-Optical Spectrograph in Yunnan Observatory. This burst was related to the optical activity events on June 7, 1991. The coronal mass ejection processes in terms of the radio and the optical are investigated in this paper. At 011447UT and 024020UT June 7, 1991, Yunnan Observatory recorded several metric

  5. Mechanistic investigation of electric field-activated self-propagating reactions: experimental and modeling studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Orrù; A. Cincotti; G. Cao; Z. A. Munir

    2001-01-01

    The mechanism of electric field-activated self-propagating reactions is investigated using the combustion front quenching technique. In particular, previously published experimental results obtained through the field-activated combustion synthesis (FACS) of ?-SiC, TaC, Ti3Al and B4C–TiB2 are re-examined and compared. Pre-combustion and combustion stages involved during synthesis wave propagation are postulated for all systems. Subsequently, modeling results aimed at simulating the process

  6. Effect of electric current frequency on the activation kinetics of raw charcoal

    SciTech Connect

    Shevchenko, A.O.; Ivakhnyuk, G.K.; Fedorov, N.F. [St. Petersburg Technological Institute (Russian Federation)

    1993-12-10

    The effect of electric current frequency on the kinetics of raw charcoal activation with water vapor has been investigated. It was established that under the effect of alternating current the rate constant increases under otherwise equal conditions. A dependence of the reaction rate on the current frequency was found. It was discovered that under the effect of alternating current the activation energy of interaction with water vapor diminishes.

  7. ELECTRIC IMPEDANCE OF THE SQUID GIANT AXON DURING ACTIVITY

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Kenneth S.; Curtis, Howard J.

    1939-01-01

    Alternating current impedance measurements have been made over a wide frequency range on the giant axon from the stellar nerve of the squid, Loligo pealii, during the passage of a nerve impulse. The transverse impedance was measured between narrow electrodes on either side of the axon with a Wheatstone bridge having an amplifier and cathode ray oscillograph for detector. When the bridge was balanced, the resting axon gave a narrow line on the oscillograph screen as a sweep circuit moved the spot across. As an impulse passed between impedance electrodes after the axon had been stimulated at one end, the oscillograph line first broadened into a band, indicating a bridge unbalance, and then narrowed down to balance during recovery. From measurements made during the passage of the impulse and appropriate analysis, it was found that the membrane phase angle was unchanged, the membrane capacity decreased about 2 per cent, while the membrane conductance fell from a resting value of 1000 ohm cm.2 to an average of 25 ohm cm.2 The onset of the resistance change occurs somewhat after the start of the monophasic action potential, but coincides quite closely with the point of inflection on the rising phase, where the membrane current reverses in direction, corresponding to a decrease in the membrane electromotive force. This E.M.F. and the conductance are closely associated properties of the membrane, and their sudden changes constitute, or are due to, the activity which is responsible for the all-or-none law and the initiation and propagation of the nerve impulse. These results correspond to those previously found for Nitella and lead us to expect similar phenomena in other nerve fibers. PMID:19873125

  8. Influence of lidocaine on human muscle sympathetic nerve activity during programmed electrical stimulation and ventricular tachycardia.

    PubMed

    Ellenbogen, K A; Smith, M L; Beightol, L A; Eckberg, D L

    1992-10-01

    Lidocaine directly affects conduction and refractoriness of ventricular myocardium, and may also indirectly affect these electrophysiologic properties by inhibition of cardiac sympathetic nerve traffic. Both effects may play important roles in preventing ventricular arrhythmias in humans. To determine if lidocaine has a direct effect on sympathetic nerve activity, the effects of a 100 mg lidocaine bolus followed by a 2 mg/min infusion of lidocaine on muscle sympathetic nerve activity was assessed in seven patients during programmed ventricular stimulation with single extrastimuli (premature ventricular contractions [PVCs]) in sinus rhythm, and in seven patients during induced hemodynamically stable monomorphic ventricular tachycardia. During single extrastimuli, the mean (+/- SEM) area of PVC-associated bursts of sympathetic nerve activity was unaffected by lidocaine (1101 +/- 16 units pre-lidocaine versus 1075 +/- 19 units following lidocaine; p = 0.30). Likewise, the transient decrease in blood pressure with induced PVCs was similar before and after lidocaine infusion (p = 0.46). In seven patients with induced monomorphic ventricular tachycardia, tachycardia cycle length did not change after the lidocaine bolus (393 +/- 18 versus 399 +/- 17 msec; p = 0.34) but increased during lidocaine maintenance infusion (428 +/- 17 msec; p = 0.01). After induction of ventricular tachycardia, systolic pressure decreased from 150 +/- 6 to 117 +/- 9 mm Hg at 1 minute of tachycardia, to 109 +/- 6 mm Hg during the lidocaine bolus, and rebounded to 126 +/- 8 mm Hg during the lidocaine maintenance infusion (p = 0.04, bolus versus infusion).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1382386

  9. Neural activity and diurnal variation of cortisol: Evidence from brain electrical tomography analysis and

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    Neural activity and diurnal variation of cortisol: Evidence from brain electrical tomography electroencephalographic and cortisol were obtained from healthy and anhedonic groups. Low-resolution electromagnetic found a relationship between current density in beta and gamma bands and steeper cortisol slope

  10. The Relations between Frontal Brain Electrical Activity and Cognitive Development during Infancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Martha Ann; Fox, Nathan A.

    1992-01-01

    Examined the relationship between changes in electroencephalograms and the development of the ability to perform cognitive tasks involving frontal lobe functioning in infants of 7 to 12 months of age. Infants who successfully found a hidden object showed changes in the power of brain electrical activity in the frontal lobe. (BC)

  11. Electrical activity of extended defects in polycrystalline silicon S. Pizzini, D. Narducci and M. Rodot (1)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    101 Electrical activity of extended defects in polycrystalline silicon S. Pizzini, D. Narducci on the microstructure in polycrystalline silicon has been extended by considering the influence of oxygen and carbon, affect only marginally the recombination losses at GB in polycrystalline silicon, whose average diffusion

  12. Particle acceleration and radiation by direct electric fields in flaring complex solar active regions

    E-print Network

    Anastasiadis, Anastasios

    Particle acceleration and radiation by direct electric fields in flaring complex solar active-Meudon, 92195 Meudon Cedex, FRANCE Abstract The acceleration and radiation of solar energetic particles with the existing observations. 1 Introduction The approach used for particle acceleration models proposed for solar

  13. Brain Activation Sequences Following Electrical Limb Stimulation of Normal and Paraplegic Subjects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas A. Ioannides; Lichan Liu; Ara Khurshudyan; Roger Bodley; Vahe Poghosyan; Tadahiko Shibata; Jürgen Dammers; Ali Jamous

    2002-01-01

    In current clinical practice the degree of paraplegia or quadriplegia is objectively determined with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and somatosensory-evoked potentials (SSEP). We measured the MEG signal following electrical stimulation of upper and lower limbs in two normal and three clinically complete paraplegic subjects. From the MEG signal we computed distributed estimates of brain activity and identified foci just behind

  14. ALTERATION OF CARDIAC ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY BY WATER-LEACHABLE COMPONENTS OF RESIDUAL OIL FLY ASH (ROFA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alteration of cardiac electrical activity by water-leachable components of residual oil fly ash (ROFA) Desuo Wang, Yuh-Chin T. Huang*, An Xie, Ting Wang *Human Studies Division, NHEERL, US EPA 104 Mason Farm Road, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 Department of Basic ...

  15. Electric ship research activities and capabilities at Mississippi State University and its partners

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nocl N. Schulz; Herbert L. Ginn; S. Mark Halpin

    2005-01-01

    Mississippi State University was one of the original four university participants in the Office of Naval Research sponsored Electric Ship Research and Development Consortium. Over the last three years, the MSU team and its partners have done research in areas of modeling and shipboard data analysis; active filtering and compensation techniques; control systems; and reconfiguration of the power system and

  16. Active and Collaborative Learning in an Introductory Electrical and Computer Engineering Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotru, Sushma; Burkett, Susan L.; Jackson, David Jeff

    2010-01-01

    Active and collaborative learning instruments were introduced into an introductory electrical and computer engineering course. These instruments were designed to assess specific learning objectives and program outcomes. Results show that students developed an understanding comparable to that of more advanced students assessed later in the…

  17. Electrical activity of the orbicularis muscles before and after installation of ocular prostheses.

    PubMed

    Goiato, M C; Santos, M R; Monteiro, B C Z; Moreno, A; Bannwart, L C; Filho, A J V; Guiotti, A M; Haddad, M F; Pesqueira, A A; Dos Santos, D M

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the electrical activity of the superior (SO) and inferior (IO) orbicularis oculi muscles before and after installing ocular prostheses in patients who had undergone unilateral enucleation. Twelve volunteers requiring prostheses were selected. Their electrical activity was monitored at rest and during normal opening and closing of the eyelids, rapid opening and closing of the eyelids, and squeezing. Data were recorded before and 7, 30, and 60 days after the ocular prosthesis was installed. Two-way analysis of variance was performed to verify whether there were any significant differences between the muscles and periods, and means were compared by Tukey-Kramer honestly significant difference (HSD) tests (P < 0.05). Results from the initial period differed significantly from those after prosthesis installation in all clinical situations. The SO had significantly higher electrical activity levels than the IO in all clinical situations but squeezing. The authors observed the same values during the initial period for the condition of rest (SO 8.42/IO 5.93) and the highest values for the condition of squeezing after 60 days (SO 131.50/IO 117.12). Rehabilitative treatment promoted an increase in the electrical activity of the orbicularis oculi muscles, restoring part of the muscle tone and motor function to muscles of the affected area. PMID:25457831

  18. Agriculture--Agricultural Mechanics, Electric Motors. Kit No. 56. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bomar, William

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on agricultural mechanics (electric motors) are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of agriculture. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings:…

  19. Nonlinear changes in brain electrical activity due to cell phone radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew A. Marino; Erik Nilsen; Clifton Frilot

    2003-01-01

    We studied the effect of an electromagnetic field from a cellular telephone on brain electrical activity, using a novel analytical method based on a nonlinear model. The electroencephalogram (EEG) from rabbits was embedded in phase space and local recurrence plots were calculated and quantified using recurrence quantitation analysis to permit statistical comparisons between filtered segments of exposed and control epochs

  20. Direct activation of sparse, distributed populations of cortical neurons by electrical microstimulation

    PubMed Central

    Histed, Mark H.; Bonin, Vincent; Reid, R. Clay

    2010-01-01

    Summary For over a century, electrical microstimulation has been the most direct method for causally linking brain function with behavior. Despite this long history, it is still unclear how the activity of neural populations is affected by stimulation. For example, there is still no consensus on where activated cells lie, or on the extent to which neural processes such as passing axons near the electrode are also activated. Past studies of this question have proven difficult because microstimulation interferes with electrophysiological recordings, which in any case provide only coarse information about the location of activated cells. We used two-photon calcium imaging, an optical method, to circumvent these hurdles. We found that microstimulation sparsely activates neurons around the electrode, sometimes as far as millimeters away, even at low currents. The pattern of activated neurons likely arises from the direct activation of axons in a volume with a diameter of tens of microns. PMID:19709632

  1. Gamma Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil

    2006-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts are among the most fascinating occurrences in the cosmos. They are thought to be the birth cries of black holes throughout the universe. There has been tremendous recent progress in our understanding of bursts with the new data from the Swift mission. Swift was launched in November 2004 and is a multiwave length observatory designed to determine the origin of bursts and use them to probe the early Universe. It was developed and is being operated by an international team of scientists from the US, UK and Italian. The first year of findings from the mission will be presented. A large step forward has been made in our understanding of the mysterious short GRBs. High redshift bursts have been detected leading to a better understanding of star formation rates and distant galaxy environments. GRBs have been found with giant X-ray flares occurring in their afterglow. These, and other topics, will be discussed.

  2. INTEGRAL burst alert service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedersen, H.; Jennings, D.; Mereghetti, S.; Teegarden, B.

    1997-01-01

    The detection, accurate positioning, and spectral analysis of cosmic gamma ray bursts is an objective of the International Gamma Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) mission. Due to their unpredictable nature, gamma ray bursts can only be observed in serendipity mode. In order to allow and promote multiwavelength follow-up observations of such events, it is desirable to make the information available to the astrophysics community with a minimum delay through the use of Internet. Ideally, the data dissemination should occur within a few seconds of the start of the burst event so that follow up observations can proceed while gamma rays are still being emitted. The technical feasibility of building such a system to disseminate INTEGRAL burst alerts in real time is currently under consideration, the preliminary results of which are presented. It is concluded that such an alert service is technically feasible.

  3. The GLAST Burst Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meegan, C. A.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The GLAST Burst Monitor The Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope, scheduled for launch in 2006, comprises a Large Area Telescope (LAT) and a GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM). The LAT is a pair telescope with unprecedented sensitivity in the 20 Mev to 300 GeV energy range. The GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) consists of an array of NaI and BGO scintillation detectors operating in the 10 kev to 30 MeV range and covering a wide field of view. The GBM will enhance LAT observations of GRBs by extending the spectral coverage into the range of current GRB databases, and will provide a trigger for re-orienting the spacecraft to observe delayed emission from bursts outside the LAT field of view.

  4. Gamma-Ray Bursts

    E-print Network

    P. Meszaros

    2006-05-30

    Gamma-ray bursts are the most luminous explosions in the Universe, and their origin and mechanism are the focus of intense research and debate. More than three decades after their discovery, and after pioneering breakthroughs from space and ground experiments, their study is entering a new phase with the recently launched Swift satellite. The interplay between these observations and theoretical models of the prompt gamma ray burst and its afterglow is reviewed.

  5. Method of Thunderstorm Activity Monitoring Using Lightning Sensors and Electric Field Mills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adzhiev, Anatoly; Boldyreff, Anton; Kazakova, Sanya

    2015-04-01

    Method of simultaneous monitoring of the thunderstorm activity parameters and atmospheric electric field values is developed. The measurement technique and equipment with taking into consideration the possibility of their durable operation without maintenance to provide the sufficient number of measurements in short time were determined. The hardware-software complex was developed for the atmospheric electric field measurement under thunderstorm conditions. It included the atmospheric electric field mill EFM550 (Vaisala), the lightning sensor LS8000 (Vaisala), the software for measuring, transferring and visualization of the atmospheric electric field values and the lightning parameters. The network of sensors is installed in the North Caucasus and is used to determine the lightning discharges disposition and parameters. The network consists of four lightning sensors LS8000 and the central station for data receiving and processing. Approximately 3928 lightning discharges were totally registered during the experimental days (6th, 13th, 16th and 17th of May, 2013) over the sensor operation zone limited by the circle with 10 km radius at the EFM550 installation point. This set of data included 3610 of the cloud lightning events ("VHF"), 64 cloud-to-ground lightning events and flashes of the positive polarity ("LF+") and 254 cloud-to-ground lightning events and flashes of the negative polarity ("LF-"). The results represent a good correlation of the lightning parameters and atmospheric electric field data. It was found that the correlation is most notably occurred for cloud-to-ground lightning discharges. The part of the cloud discharges were not registered by the EFM550 mill. The cloud discharge is insignificant that too weak perturbation of the electric field is registered by the EFM550 mill, which is lower than threshold sensitivity of the sensor. Also the cloud discharge is directed horizontally. That is why the direction of the electric field vector before the discharge is horizontal, but the EFM550 measures the vertical component of the atmospheric electric field. The electric field proceeds changing within a large diapason after the thunderstorm. This effect is explained by the precipitation in the vicinity of the atmospheric electric field point of installation. Since the precipitation particles can have different charges of opposite signs, it can affect the electric field mill readout. The second reason is that the electric field can be influenced by the thunderstorms occurring outside the 10 km territory of the experimental measurements.

  6. Q-bursts from various distances on the Earth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshio Ogawa; Masayuki Komatsu

    2009-01-01

    The mechanism of the Q-burst is investigated in the time and frequency domains. Electric fields in the ELF (extremely low frequency) to VLF (very low frequency) range have been observed with a ball antenna since 2003 in Kochi City, Japan (latitude 33.3°north, longitude 133.4°east). Source-to-observer distances (SODs) of Q-bursts are estimated by analyzing the waveforms. It is found as a

  7. On Risk Forecast and Risk Reduction of Tectonic Rock Bursts and Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tazhibaev, Kushbakali

    2015-04-01

    Avershin, Shrepp, Kvochkin, Bojarkin and others observed that before strong rock bursts, considered as weak earthquakes, for several hours, sometimes for 2-5 days, there occurred spasmodic and sign-variable changes in deformations of rock massif adjacent areas. The works of seismologists Rikitaki, Asada, Isibasi, Matsuda, Saverensky, etc. describe a number of cases of an earthquake before which spasmodic and sign-variable deformations of earth's crust have been observed. The results of our own experimental research conducted during last decades show that abnormal spasmodic and sign-variable deformations are observed only in rocks having residual stresses. As a rule, these rocks at test after such abnormal deformations collapse dynamically, like explosions, and as a rule, such rocks represent dangerous rock bursts in deposits, located in seismically active areas (Tazhibaev K. Conditions of dynamic destruction of rocks and causes of rock bursts, Frunze 1989). It is necessary to notice that these spasmodic deformations are accompanied by formation and movement of internal discontinuities: dislocations, micro-cracks, and, hence, by redistribution of electric charges in a crystal lattice, and also in the rock as a whole. Redistribution and change in position of electric charges lead to the change of the natural electric potential and intensity of the magnetic field in the rocks massif. Before tectonic rock bursts and earthquakes together with abnormal changes of deformation, the same spasmodic and sign-variable changes of the natural electric and magnetic fields intensity occur. Based on the above-stated experimental findings, for solution of the problem of tectonic earthquakes forecast, we suggest placing the deformation measuring tool, the magnetic field intensity measuring tool and the device for measurement of natural electric potential along with seismic measurement into the seismic stations. Using abnormal, simultaneous changes of indications of all above listed three devices, based on different physical principles, is a comprehensive approach, which provides a high reliability for forecast of seismic events. We offer substantiation for solution of the problem of prevention of tectonic earthquakes (Tazhibaev K., Tazhibaev D. Technological measures for prevention of tectonic rock bursts and earthquakes, Bishkek 2007). It consists in definition of experimentally measured stresses and strength of the rocks located in the seismically dangerous zones; in definition of the maximum and minimum values of specific energy of unloading; in stage-by-stage unloading of the stresses, discretely increasing (from a minimum to a maximum) on energy impulses of seismic waves of explosions, consistently and repeatedly made in a dangerous zone through certain time intervals.

  8. Role of oxytocin in activation of spontaneous electrical activity of uterine body and uterine tubes in non-pregnant rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. V. Kazaryan; N. G. Hunanyan; I. B. Meliksetyan; R. R. Hakopyan; A. A. Saakyan

    2011-01-01

    The work studies effects of various doses of oxytocin (0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10 ?g\\/kg) on duration of discharges of spontaneous\\u000a electrical activity and frequency of spikes in various parts of uterine tubes and of uterine body of non-pregnant rats. Under\\u000a these conditions, changes in these parameters for ovarian parts of the uterine tubes had similar character, unlike those in

  9. The Central Italy Electromagnetic Network and the 2009 L'Aquila Earthquake: Observed Electric Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fidani, Cristiano

    2011-12-01

    A network of low frequency electromagnetic detectors has been operating in Central Italy for more than three years, consisting of identical instruments that continuously record the electrical components of the electromagnetic field, ranging from a few Hz to tens of kHz. These signals are analyzed in real time and their power spectrum contents and time/frequency data are available online. To date, specific interest has been devoted to searching for any possible electromagnetic features which correlate with seismic activity in the same region. In this study, spectral analysis has evidenced very distinct power spectrum signatures that increased in intensity when strong seismic activity occurred near the stations of the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake. These signatures have revealed horizontally oriented electric fields, between 20 Hz to 400 Hz, lasting from several minutes to up to two hours. Their power intensities have been found to be about 1 μV/m. Moreover, a large number of man-made signals and meteorologic electric perturbations were recorded. Anthropogenic signatures have come from power line disturbances at 50 Hz and higher harmonics up to several kHz, while radio transmissions have influenced the higher kHz spectrum. Reception from low frequency transmitters is also provided in relation to seismic activity. Meteorologic signatures cover the lower frequency band through phenomena such as spherics, Schumann resonances and rain electrical perturbations. All of these phenomena are useful teaching tools for introducing students to this invisible electromagnetic world

  10. Action of suramin upon ecto-apyrase activity and synaptic depression of Torpedo electric organ.

    PubMed Central

    Martí, E.; Cantí, C.; Gómez de Aranda, I.; Miralles, F.; Solsona, C.

    1996-01-01

    1. The role of ATP, which is co-released with acetylcholine in synaptic contacts of Torpedo electric organ, was investigated by use of suramin. Suramin [8-(3-benzamido-4-methylbenzamido)naphthalene-1,3,5-trisulphoni c acid], a P2 purinoceptor antagonist, potently inhibited in a non-competitive manner the ecto-apyrase activity associated with plasma membrane isolated from cholinergic nerve terminals of Torpedo electric organ. The Ki was 30 microM and 43 microM for Ca(2+)-ADPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase respectively. 2. In Torpedo electric organ, repetitive stimulation decreased the evoked synaptic current by 51%. However, when fragments of electric organ were incubated with suramin the evoked synaptic current declined by only 14%. Fragments incubated with the selective A1 purinoceptor antagonist, DPCPX, showed 5% synaptic depression. 3. The effects of suramin and DPCPX on synaptic depression were not addictive. Synaptic depression may thus be linked to endogenous adenosine formed by dephosphorylation of released ATP by an ecto-apyrase. The final effector in synaptic depression, adenosine, acts via the A1 purinoceptor. 4. ATP hydrolysis is prevented in the presence of suramin. It slightly increased (20%) the mean amplitude of spontaneous miniature endplate currents. The frequency distribution of the amplitude of spontaneous events was shifted to the right, indicating that ATP, when not degraded, may modulate the activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors activated by the quantal secretion of acetycholine. PMID:8818348

  11. Electrically Active Magnetic Nanoparticles for Concentrating and Detecting Bacillus anthracis Spores in a Direct-Charge Transfer Biosensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sudeshna Pal; Emma B. Setterington; Evangelyn C. Alocilja

    2008-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, is considered as one of the most important pathogens in the list of bioterrorism threats. This paper describes the synthesis of electrically active magnetic (EAM) nanoparticles and their application in a direct-charge transfer biosensor for detecting B. anthracis Sterne endospores. These EAM nanoparticles were synthesized from aniline monomer made electrically active by acid

  12. Vortex shedding as a precursor of turbulent electrical activity in cardiac muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Cabo, C; Pertsov, A M; Davidenko, J M; Baxter, W T; Gray, R A; Jalife, J

    1996-01-01

    In cardiac tissue, during partial blockade of the membrane sodium channels, or at high frequencies of excitation, inexcitable obstacles with sharp edges may destabilize the propagation of electrical excitation waves, causing the formation of self-sustained vortices and turbulent cardiac electrical activity. The formation of such vortices, which visually resembles vortex shedding in hydrodynamic turbulent flows, was observed in sheep epicardial tissue using voltage-sensitive dyes in combination with video-imaging techniques. Vortex shedding is a potential mechanism leading to the spontaneous initiation of uncontrolled high-frequency excitation of the heart. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 7 PMID:8785270

  13. Q-bursts waveforms: model and experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Hayakawa; A. P. Nickolaenko; T. Ogawa; M. Komatsu

    Experimental and model waveforms of Q-bursts are compared. Vertical electric field was recorded with 16 kHz sampling rate in the wide frequency band by the ball antenna in fair weather conditions at Kochi (33.3° N and 133.4° E) during 2003 - 2004. Computations were performed for the uniform Earth-ionosphere cavity having the linear frequency dependence of ELF propagation constant. Waveforms

  14. Statistical Properties of SGR J1550-5418 Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorgone, Nicholas M.

    2010-01-01

    Magnetars are slowly rotating neutron stars with extreme magnetic fields, over 10(exp 15) Gauss. Only few have been discovered in the last 30 years. These sources are dormant most of their lifetimes and become randomly active emitting multiple soft gamma-ray bursts. We present here our results on the temporal analysis of 300 bursts from Soft Gamma Repeater SGR J1550-5418 recorded with the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) onboard the Fermi Observatory during its activation on January 22-29, 2009. We employed an un-triggered burst search in the energy range 8-100keV to collect all events from the source, besides the ones that triggered GBM. For the entire sample of bursts we determined their durations, rise and decay times. We study here the statistical properties of these characteristics and discuss how these may help us better understand the physical characteristics of the magnetar model.

  15. Unloaded Shortening Velocity of Voluntarily and Electrically Activated Human Dorsiflexor Muscles In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Kazushige; Ishii, Naokata

    2010-01-01

    We have previously shown that unloaded shortening velocity (V0) of human plantar flexors can be determined in vivo, by applying the “slack test” to submaximal voluntary contractions (J Physiol 567:1047–1056, 2005). In the present study, to investigate the effect of motor unit recruitment pattern on V0 of human muscle, we modified the slack test and applied this method to both voluntary and electrically elicited contractions of dorsiflexors. A series of quick releases (i.e., rapid ankle joint rotation driven by an electrical dynamometer) was applied to voluntarily activated dorsiflexor muscles at three different contraction intensities (15, 50, and 85% of maximal voluntary contraction; MVC). The quick-release trials were also performed on electrically activated dorsiflexor muscles, in which three stimulus conditions were used: submaximal (equal to 15%MVC) 50-Hz stimulation, supramaximal 50-Hz stimulation, and supramaximal 20-Hz stimulation. Modification of the slack test in vivo resulted in good reproducibility of V0, with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.87 (95% confidence interval: 0.68–0.95). Regression analysis showed that V0 of voluntarily activated dorsiflexor muscles significantly increased with increasing contraction intensity (R2?=?0.52, P<0.001). By contrast, V0 of electrically activated dorsiflexor muscles remained unchanged (R2<0.001, P?=?0.98) among three different stimulus conditions showing a large variation of tetanic torque. These results suggest that the recruitment pattern of motor units, which is quite different between voluntary and electrically elicited contractions, plays an important role in determining shortening velocity of human skeletal muscle in vivo. PMID:20885951

  16. Differential actions of prolactin on electrical activity and intracellular signal transduction in hypothalamic neurons.

    PubMed

    Brown, R S E; Piet, R; Herbison, A E; Grattan, D R

    2012-05-01

    In many tissues, including brain, prolactin action is predominantly mediated by the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signal transduction pathway, leading to changes in gene transcription. However, prolactin can also exert rapid actions on electrical activity of hypothalamic neurons. Here, we investigate whether both responses occur in a single cell type, focusing on three specific populations known to be influenced by prolactin: GnRH neurons, tuberoinfundibular dopamine (TIDA) neurons, and neurons in the anteroventral-periventricular nucleus in female mice. We performed phosphorylated STAT5 (pSTAT5) immunohistochemistry to identify prolactin-responsive neurons after in vivo prolactin treatment. In addition, we carried out in vitro electrophysiology in slices from transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein driven by the GnRH or tyrosine hydroxylase promoters as well as from C57BL/6J mice to assess acute electrical responses to prolactin. Approximately 88% of TIDA neurons expressed pSTAT5 in diestrous mice, rising to 97% after prolactin treatment. All TIDA neurons also showed a rapid increase in firing rate after prolactin treatment. In contrast, very few GnRH neurons (11%) showed pSTAT5 in response to prolactin, and none showed a change in electrical activity. Finally, in the anteroventral-periventricular nucleus, most neurons (69%) responded to prolactin treatment with an increase in pSTAT5, but only 2/38 (?5%) showed changes in electrical activity in response to prolactin. These observations show that prolactin recruits different combinations of electrical and transcriptional responses in neurons depending upon their anatomical location and phenotype. This may be critical in establishing appropriate responses to prolactin under different physiological conditions. PMID:22416085

  17. System and method for coproduction of activated carbon and steam/electricity

    DOEpatents

    Srinivasachar, Srivats (Sturbridge, MA); Benson, Steven (Grand Forks, ND); Crocker, Charlene (Newfolden, MN); Mackenzie, Jill (Carmel, IN)

    2011-07-19

    A system and method for producing activated carbon comprising carbonizing a solid carbonaceous material in a carbonization zone of an activated carbon production apparatus (ACPA) to yield a carbonized product and carbonization product gases, the carbonization zone comprising carbonaceous material inlet, char outlet and carbonization gas outlet; activating the carbonized product via activation with steam in an activation zone of the ACPA to yield activated carbon and activation product gases, the activation zone comprising activated carbon outlet, activation gas outlet, and activation steam inlet; and utilizing process gas comprising at least a portion of the carbonization product gases or a combustion product thereof; at least a portion of the activation product gases or a combustion product thereof; or a combination thereof in a solid fuel boiler system that burns a solid fuel boiler feed with air to produce boiler-produced steam and flue gas, the boiler upstream of an air heater within a steam/electricity generation plant, said boiler comprising a combustion zone, a boiler-produced steam outlet and at least one flue gas outlet.

  18. Electro-Active Device Using Radial Electric Field Piezo-Diaphragm for Control of Fluid Movement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor); Working, Dennis C. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A fluid-control electro-active device includes a piezo-diaphragm made from a ferroelectric material sandwiched by first and second electrode patterns configured to introduce an electric field into the ferroelectric material when voltage is applied thereto. The electric field originates at a region of the ferroelectric material between the first and second electrode patterns, and extends radially outward from this region of the ferroelectric material and substantially parallel to the plane of the ferroelectric material. The piezo-diaphragm deflects symmetrically about this region in a direction substantially perpendicular to the electric field. An annular region coupled to and extending radially outward from the piezo-diaphragm perimetrically borders the piezo-diaphragm, A housing is connected to the region and at least one fluid flow path with piezo-diaphragm disposed therein.

  19. Active control of thermoacoustic amplification in a thermo-acousto-electric engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivier, Come; Penelet, Guillaume; Poignand, Gaelle; Lotton, Pierrick

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, a new approach is proposed to control the operation of a thermoacoustic Stirling electricity generator. This control basically consists in adding an additional acoustic source to the device, connected through a feedback loop to a reference microphone, a phase-shifter, and an audio amplifier. Experiments are performed to characterize the impact of the feedback loop (and especially that of the controlled phase-shift) on the overall efficiency of the thermal to electric energy conversion performed by the engine. It is demonstrated that this external forcing of thermoacoustic self-sustained oscillations strongly impacts the performance of the engine, and that it is possible under some circumstances to improve the efficiency of the thermo-electric transduction, compared to the one reached without active control. Applicability and further directions of investigation are also discussed.

  20. Hakucho observations of X-ray bursts from 4U 1702-42

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makishima, K.; Inoue, H.; Koyama, K.; Matsuoka, M.; Murakami, T.; Oda, M.; Ogawara, Y.; Ohashi, T.; Shibazaki, N.; Tanaka, Y.; Hayakawa, S.; Kunieda, H.; Makino, F.; Masai, K.; Nagase, F.; Tawara, Y.; Miyamoto, S.; Tsunemi, H.; Yamashita, K.; Kondo, I.

    1982-04-01

    X-ray bursts were observed with the Hakucho satellite from a source designated XB 1702-429, which coincides in position with a medium intensity Uhuru source 4U/2S 1702-429 within an accuracy of about 0(deg).2. In 1979 this burst source was burst active. Its activity was much lower in 1980. Brief descriptions are given of the properties of bursts and persistent X-ray emissions from this source. Its relation to previous X-ray burst observations in the same sky region is discussed.

  1. Quantitative end qualitative analysis of the electrical activity of rectus abdominis muscle portions.

    PubMed

    Negrão Filho, R de Faria; Bérzin, F; Souza, G da Cunha

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the electrical behavior pattern of the Rectus abdominis muscle by qualitative and quantitative analysis of the electromyographic signal obtained from its superior, medium and inferior portions during dynamic and static activities. Ten voluntaries (aged X = 17.8 years, SD = 1.6) athletic males were studied without history of muscle skeletal disfunction. For the quantitative analysis the RMS (Root Mean Square) values obtained in the electromyographic signal during the isometric exercises were normalized and expressed in maximum voluntary isometric contraction percentages. For the qualitative analysis of the dynamic activity the electromyographic signal was processed by full-wave rectification, linear envelope and normalization (amplitude and time), so that the resulting curve of the processed signal was submitted to descriptive graphic analysis. The results of the quantitative study show that there is not a statistically significant difference among the portions of the muscle. Qualitative analysis demonstrated two aspects: the presence of a common activation electric pattern in the portions of Rectus abdominis muscle and the absence of significant difference in the inclination angles in the electrical activity curve during the isotonic exercises. PMID:12964259

  2. Bursting of sensitive polymersomes induced by curling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elyes Mabrouk; Damien Cuvelier; Françoise Brochard-Wyart; Pierre Nassoy; Min-Hui Li

    2009-01-01

    Polymersomes, which are stable and robust vesicles made of block copolymer amphiphiles, are good candidates for drug carriers or micro\\/nanoreactors. Polymer chemistry enables almost unlimited molecular design of responsive polymersomes whose degradation upon environmental changes has been used for the slow release of active species. Here, we propose a strategy to remotely trigger instantaneous polymersome bursting. We have designed asymmetric

  3. Efficient elastic burst detection in data streams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yunyue Zhu; Dennis Shasha

    2003-01-01

    Burst detection is the activity of finding abnormal aggregates in data streams. Such aggregates are based on sliding windows over data streams. In some applications, we want to monitor many sliding window sizes simultaneously and to report those windows with aggregates significantly different from other periods. We will present a general data structure for detecting interesting aggregates over such elastic

  4. Q-Burst Origins in Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Boldi; Y. Hobara; K. Yamashita; M. Hayakawa; G. Satori; J. Bor; W. A. Lyons; T. Nelson; B. Russell; E. Williams

    2006-01-01

    The generation of electromagnetic transient signatures in the SR frequency range (Q-bursts) from the energetic lightning originating in Africa were intensively studied during the AMMA (African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis) field program centered on Niamey, Niger in 2006. During this wet season many active westward- moving MCSs were observed by the MIT C-band Doppler radar. The MCSs exhibited a gust front,

  5. The protein VAT-1 from Torpedo electric organ exhibits an ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Linial, M; Levius, O

    1993-04-01

    VAT-1 is an abundant protein in Torpedo electric organ which copurifies with a major ATPase activity from synaptic vesicles. VAT-1 was expressed in E. coli and the product was purified and analyzed. The protein binds specifically to an ATP column and displays an ATPase activity as measured by the kinetics of [32P]phosphate release. The activity is dependent on divalent ions, with both Mg2+ and Ca2+ supporting the reaction. The apparent Km for ATP is 18 microM. This ATPase activity is not affected by known inhibitors of the vesicular V- and P-type ATPases such as vanadate and N-ethylmaleimide. We suggest that VAT-1 activity may affect ATP-dependent reactions in Torpedo nerve terminals, such as phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of proteins. PMID:8515869

  6. Active control of all-fibre graphene devices with electrical gating

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun Jung; Choi, Sun Young; Jeong, Hwanseong; Park, Nam Hun; Yim, Woongbin; Kim, Mi Hye; Park, Jae-Ku; Son, Suyeon; Bae, Sukang; Kim, Sang Jin; Lee, Kwanil; Ahn, Yeong Hwan; Ahn, Kwang Jun; Hong, Byung Hee; Park, Ji-Yong; Rotermund, Fabian; Yeom, Dong-Il

    2015-01-01

    Active manipulation of light in optical fibres has been extensively studied with great interest because of its compatibility with diverse fibre-optic systems. While graphene exhibits a strong electro-optic effect originating from its gapless Dirac-fermionic band structure, electric control of all-fibre graphene devices remains still highly challenging. Here we report electrically manipulable in-line graphene devices by integrating graphene-based field effect transistors on a side-polished fibre. Ion liquid used in the present work critically acts both as an efficient gating medium with wide electrochemical windows and transparent over-cladding facilitating light–matter interaction. Combined study of unique features in gate-variable electrical transport and optical transition at monolayer and randomly stacked multilayer graphene reveals that the device exhibits significant optical transmission change (>90%) with high efficiency-loss figure of merit. This subsequently modifies nonlinear saturable absorption characteristics of the device, enabling electrically tunable fibre laser at various operational regimes. The proposed device will open promising way for actively controlled optoelectronic and nonlinear photonic devices in all-fibre platform with greatly enhanced graphene–light interaction. PMID:25897687

  7. Inversion of Sonic hedgehog action on its canonical pathway by electrical activity

    PubMed Central

    Belgacem, Yesser H.; Borodinsky, Laura N.

    2015-01-01

    Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is a morphogenic protein that operates through the Gli transcription factor-dependent canonical pathway to orchestrate normal development of many tissues. Because aberrant levels of Gli activity lead to a wide spectrum of diseases ranging from neurodevelopmental defects to cancer, understanding the regulatory mechanisms of Shh canonical pathway is paramount. During early stages of spinal cord development, Shh specifies neural progenitors through the canonical signaling. Despite persistence of Shh as spinal cord development progresses, Gli activity is switched off by unknown mechanisms. In this study we find that Shh inverts its action on Gli during development. Strikingly, Shh decreases Gli signaling in the embryonic spinal cord by an electrical activity- and cAMP-dependent protein kinase-mediated pathway. The inhibition of Gli activity by Shh operates at multiple levels. Shh promotes cytosolic over nuclear localization of Gli2, induces Gli2 and Gli3 processing into repressor forms, and activates cAMP-responsive element binding protein that in turn represses gli1 transcription. The regulatory mechanisms identified in this study likely operate with different spatiotemporal resolution and ensure effective down-regulation of the canonical Shh signaling as spinal cord development progresses. The developmentally regulated intercalation of electrical activity in the Shh pathway may represent a paradigm for switching from canonical to noncanonical roles of developmental cues during neuronal differentiation and maturation. PMID:25829542

  8. Changes in the cardiac muscle electric activity as a result of Coronary Artery Bypass Graft operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grajek, Magdalena; Krzyminiewski, Ryszard; Kalawski, Ryszard; Kulczak, Mariusz

    2008-01-01

    Many bioelectric signals have a complex internal structure that can be a rich source of information on the tissue or cell processes. The structure of such signals can be analysed in detail by applying digital methods of signal processing. Therefore, of substantial use in diagnosis of the coronary arterial disease is the method of digital enhancement of increasing signal resolution ECG (NURSE-ECG), permitting detection of temporary changes in the electric potentials in the cardiac muscle in the process of depolarisation. Thanks to the application of NURSE-ECG it has become possible to detect relatively small changes in the electric activity of particular fragments of the cardiac muscle undetectable by the standard ECG method, caused by ischemia, the effect of a drug or infarct. The aim of this study was to identify and analyse changes in the electric activity of the cardiac muscle as a result of the Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) operation. In this study the method of NURSE-ECG has been applied in order to identify and analyse changes in the electric activity of the cardiac muscle as a result of the CABG operation. In the study performed in cooperation of the Institute of Physics Adam Mickiewicz University and the Strus Hospital, Cardiac Surgery Ward, 37 patients with advanced coronary arterial disease were asked to participate. The patients were examined prior to the operation, on the day after the operation and two months after the operation and a year after the operation. The ECG recordings were subjected to a numerical procedure of resolution enhancement by a NURSE-ECG program to reveal the tentative changes in the electric potential of the cardiac muscle on its depolarisation. Results of the study have shown that the NURSE ECG method can be applied to monitor changes in the electric activity of the cardiac muscle occurring as a result of CABG operation. One the second day after the operation in the majority of patients (70%) a rapid decrease of the total cardiac muscle activity was observed. The NURSE ECG seems to be a promising supplementary method in medical diagnosis. In particular it can be applied for qualification of patients for CABG operation and for verification of the operation effects.

  9. Coherent phonon optics in a chip with an electrically controlled active device

    PubMed Central

    Poyser, Caroline L.; Akimov, Andrey V.; Campion, Richard P.; Kent, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    Phonon optics concerns operations with high-frequency acoustic waves in solid media in a similar way to how traditional optics operates with the light beams (i.e. photons). Phonon optics experiments with coherent terahertz and sub-terahertz phonons promise a revolution in various technical applications related to high-frequency acoustics, imaging, and heat transport. Previously, phonon optics used passive methods for manipulations with propagating phonon beams that did not enable their external control. Here we fabricate a phononic chip, which includes a generator of coherent monochromatic phonons with frequency 378?GHz, a sensitive coherent phonon detector, and an active layer: a doped semiconductor superlattice, with electrical contacts, inserted into the phonon propagation path. In the experiments, we demonstrate the modulation of the coherent phonon flux by an external electrical bias applied to the active layer. Phonon optics using external control broadens the spectrum of prospective applications of phononics on the nanometer scale. PMID:25652241

  10. Coherent phonon optics in a chip with an electrically controlled active device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poyser, Caroline L.; Akimov, Andrey V.; Campion, Richard P.; Kent, Anthony J.

    2015-02-01

    Phonon optics concerns operations with high-frequency acoustic waves in solid media in a similar way to how traditional optics operates with the light beams (i.e. photons). Phonon optics experiments with coherent terahertz and sub-terahertz phonons promise a revolution in various technical applications related to high-frequency acoustics, imaging, and heat transport. Previously, phonon optics used passive methods for manipulations with propagating phonon beams that did not enable their external control. Here we fabricate a phononic chip, which includes a generator of coherent monochromatic phonons with frequency 378 GHz, a sensitive coherent phonon detector, and an active layer: a doped semiconductor superlattice, with electrical contacts, inserted into the phonon propagation path. In the experiments, we demonstrate the modulation of the coherent phonon flux by an external electrical bias applied to the active layer. Phonon optics using external control broadens the spectrum of prospective applications of phononics on the nanometer scale.

  11. Computationally efficient simulation of electrical activity at cell membranes interacting with self-generated and externally imposed electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agudelo-Toro, Andres; Neef, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    Objective. We present a computational method that implements a reduced set of Maxwell's equations to allow simulation of cells under realistic conditions: sub-micron cell morphology, a conductive non-homogeneous space and various ion channel properties and distributions. Approach. While a reduced set of Maxwell's equations can be used to couple membrane currents to extra- and intracellular potentials, this approach is rarely taken, most likely because adequate computational tools are missing. By using these equations, and introducing an implicit solver, numerical stability is attained even with large time steps. The time steps are limited only by the time development of the membrane potentials. Main results. This method allows simulation times of tens of minutes instead of weeks, even for complex problems. The extracellular fields are accurately represented, including secondary fields, which originate at inhomogeneities of the extracellular space and can reach several millivolts. We present a set of instructive examples that show how this method can be used to obtain reference solutions for problems, which might not be accurately captured by the traditional approaches. This includes the simulation of realistic magnitudes of extracellular action potential signals in restricted extracellular space. Significance. The electric activity of neurons creates extracellular potentials. Recent findings show that these endogenous fields act back onto the neurons, contributing to the synchronization of population activity. The influence of endogenous fields is also relevant for understanding therapeutic approaches such as transcranial direct current, transcranial magnetic and deep brain stimulation. The mutual interaction between fields and membrane currents is not captured by today's concepts of cellular electrophysiology, including the commonly used activation function, as those concepts are based on isolated membranes in an infinite, isopotential extracellular space. The presented tool makes simulations with detailed morphology and implicit interactions of currents and fields available to the electrophysiology community.

  12. Erbb2 Is Required for Cardiac Atrial Electrical Activity during Development

    PubMed Central

    Tenin, Gennadiy; Clowes, Christopher; Wolton, Kathryn; Krejci, Eliska; Wright, Jayne A.; Lovell, Simon C.; Sedmera, David; Hentges, Kathryn E.

    2014-01-01

    The heart is the first organ required to function during embryonic development and is absolutely necessary for embryo survival. Cardiac activity is dependent on both the sinoatrial node (SAN), which is the pacemaker of heart's electrical activity, and the cardiac conduction system which transduces the electrical signal though the heart tissue, leading to heart muscle contractions. Defects in the development of cardiac electrical function may lead to severe heart disorders. The Erbb2 (Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2) gene encodes a member of the EGF receptor family of receptor tyrosine kinases. The Erbb2 receptor lacks ligand-binding activity but forms heterodimers with other EGF receptors, stabilising their ligand binding and enhancing kinase-mediated activation of downstream signalling pathways. Erbb2 is absolutely necessary in normal embryonic development and homozygous mouse knock-out Erbb2 embryos die at embryonic day (E)10.5 due to severe cardiac defects. We have isolated a mouse line, l11Jus8, from a random chemical mutagenesis screen, which carries a hypomorphic missense mutation in the Erbb2 gene. Homozygous mutant embryos exhibit embryonic lethality by E12.5-13. The l11Jus8 mutants display cardiac haemorrhage and a failure of atrial function due to defects in atrial electrical signal propagation, leading to an atrial-specific conduction block, which does not affect ventricular conduction. The l11Jus8 mutant phenotype is distinct from those reported for Erbb2 knockout mouse mutants. Thus, the l11Jus8 mouse reveals a novel function of Erbb2 during atrial conduction system development, which when disrupted causes death at mid-gestation. PMID:25269082

  13. Use of brain electrical activity for the identification of hematomas in mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Daniel F; Chabot, Robert; Mould, W Andrew; Morgan, Timothy; Naunheim, Rosanne; Sheth, Kevin N; Chiang, William; Prichep, Leslie S

    2013-12-15

    This study investigates the potential clinical utility in the emergency department (ED) of an index of brain electrical activity to identify intracranial hematomas. The relationship between this index and depth, size, and type of hematoma was explored. Ten minutes of brain electrical activity was recorded from a limited montage in 38 adult patients with traumatic hematomas (CT scan positive) and 38 mild head injured controls (CT scan negative) in the ED. The volume of blood and distance from recording electrodes were measured by blinded independent experts. Brain electrical activity data were submitted to a classification algorithm independently developed traumatic brain injury (TBI) index to identify the probability of a CT+traumatic event. There was no significant relationship between the TBI-Index and type of hematoma, or distance of the bleed from recording sites. A significant correlation was found between TBI-Index and blood volume. The sensitivity to hematomas was 100%, positive predictive value was 74.5%, and positive likelihood ratio was 2.92. The TBI-Index, derived from brain electrical activity, demonstrates high accuracy for identification of traumatic hematomas. Further, this was not influenced by distance of the bleed from the recording electrodes, blood volume, or type of hematoma. Distance and volume limitations noted with other methods, (such as that based on near-infrared spectroscopy) were not found, thus suggesting the TBI-Index to be a potentially important adjunct to acute assessment of head injury. Because of the life-threatening risk of undetected hematomas (false negatives), specificity was permitted to be lower, 66%, in exchange for extremely high sensitivity. PMID:24040943

  14. The Electric Conductivity and the Activation Energy of Ionic Migration of Molten Salts and Their Mixtures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Bloom; E. Heymann

    1947-01-01

    The electric conductivity (kappa ), and its variation with temperature, of many molten salts of predominantly ionic character can be represented by a simple exponential equation kappa = const. × e-C\\/RT. Deviations from this relation are sometimes found for partially covalent compounds (e.g. ZnCl2, PbCl2) where constitutional changes may be expected with change of temperature. The activation energy of ionic

  15. High-Performance Electric Vehicle Battery with Lithium Iron Phosphate for Positive Active Material

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isao Suzuki; Tomotada Mochizuki; Takeshi Nakamoto; Yasushi Uebo; Koichi Nishiyama

    LiFePO4 is very attractive positive active material because of its features such as environmentally-friendly chemicals and high thermal stability. New prototype carbon-loaded LiFePO4\\/graphite lithium-ion cells with large capacity of 25 Ah have been developed for electric vehicles (EVs) applications. The developed cells show remarkably high discharge performance with a flat voltage profile and high-rate capacity retention of 99% even at

  16. Electrical activity and metabolism in cardiac tissue: An experimental and theoretical study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. G. Haas; R. Kern; H. M. Einwächter

    1970-01-01

    Summary (1) Effects of the metabolic inhibitor 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) on electrical activity in frog atria were studied by means of the sucrose-gap technique and in tracer experiments. (2) Voltage-clamp studies of ionic membrane currents showed a suppression by DNP of peak Na inward current without marked changes in the kinetics of the Na-carrying system and an increase of steady state

  17. New design of multiple-active-region electrically pumped VCSELs and edge-emitting lasers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander N. Korshak; Zinovi S. Gribnikov; Vladimir V. Mitin

    1999-01-01

    A novel injection multi-active-region cascade laser with high output power, low threshold, small beam divergence, and high inter-modal discrimination is described. The cascade laser is formed by a periodic structure of stacked double- heterostructure diodes electrically connected by low- resistance tunnel junctions. The laser cavity is designed to match the nodes of the optical mode with the tunnel junctions and

  18. Electrical activation and electron spin resonance measurements of implanted bismuth in isotopically enriched silicon-28

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weis, C. D.; Lo, C. C.; Lang, V.; Tyryshkin, A. M.; George, R. E.; Yu, K. M.; Bokor, J.; Lyon, S. A.; Morton, J. J. L.; Schenkel, T.

    2012-04-01

    We have performed continuous wave and pulsed electron spin resonance measurements of implanted bismuth donors in isotopically enriched silicon-28. Donors are electrically activated via thermal annealing with minimal diffusion. Damage from bismuth ion implantation is repaired during thermal annealing as evidenced by narrow spin resonance linewidths (Bpp=12?T) and long spin coherence times (T2=0.7 ms, at temperature T =8 K). The results qualify ion implanted bismuth as a promising candidate for spin qubit integration in silicon.

  19. Effect of pinaverium bromide on electrical and mechanical activity of smooth muscle cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Droogmans; B. Himpens; R. Casteels

    1983-01-01

    Pinaverium bromide exerts antagonistic effects on the contractions induced by BaCl2 in intestinal smooth muscle. We have therefore investigated its effects on the electrical and mechanical activity and on the 45Ca exchange of guinea-pig taenia coli and ileum. In the concentration range 10-7 to 10-5 M this drug does not exert an effect on the resting potential of either preparation.

  20. The GLAST Burst Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meegan, Charles

    2006-01-01

    The Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) observatory, scheduled for launch in September 2007, comprises the Large Area Telescope (LAT) and the GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM). LAT is a pair telescope that will observe many sources, including gamma-ray bursts, at energies above 20 MeV. GBM consists of twelve NaI and two BGO scintillation detectors operating in the 10 keV to 30 MeV range. The GBM will enhance LAT observations of GRBs by extending the spectral coverage into the range of current GRB databases, and will provide a trigger for re-orienting the spacecraft to observe delayed emission from bursts outside the LAT field of view. GBM capabilities and performance characteristics will be described. Opportunities for guest investigations will be presented.

  1. Improved detection of electrical activity with a voltage probe based on a voltage-sensing phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    Tsutsui, Hidekazu; Jinno, Yuka; Tomita, Akiko; Niino, Yusuke; Yamada, Yoshiyuki; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Okamura, Yasushi

    2013-01-01

    One of the most awaited techniques in modern physiology is the sensitive detection of spatiotemporal electrical activity in a complex network of excitable cells. The use of genetically encoded voltage probes has been expected to enable such analysis. However, in spite of recent progress, existing probes still suffer from low signal amplitude and/or kinetics too slow to detect fast electrical activity. Here, we have developed an improved voltage probe named Mermaid2, which is based on the voltage-sensor domain of the voltage-sensing phosphatase from Ciona intestinalis and Förster energy transfer between a pair of fluorescent proteins. In mammalian cells, Mermaid2 permits ratiometric readouts of fractional changes of more than 50% over a physiologically relevant voltage range with fast kinetics, and it was used to follow a train of action potentials at frequencies of up to 150 Hz. Mermaid2 was also able to detect single action potentials and subthreshold voltage responses in hippocampal neurons in vitro, in addition to cortical electrical activity evoked by sound stimuli in single trials in living mice. PMID:23836686

  2. Relation Between Lightning Activity of Summer and Winter Thunderclouds and Surface Electric Field Variation, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michimoto, K.; Shimura, T.; Suzuki, T.

    1999-01-01

    In winter, active convective clouds frequently form along the coastline of the Hokuriku district, in association with strong advection of Siberian air masses over the Sea of Japan. On the other hand, in summer, many thunderclouds form in the Kanto region in the afternoon every day. Summer and winter thunderclouds were investigated by field works, operation of the C- and X-band weather radars and a car-borne fieldmill. The investigation found a very close relation between the temporal variation of 3-dimensional radar echo and surface electric field magnitude detected by a car-borne fieldmill in the case of summer thunderclouds and winter convective clouds or thunderclouds. The study probed the close relation among radar echoes, quantity of thunderclouds and surface electric field magnitude in the summer and winter seasons. We think that summer thundercloud activity can basically be equated with winter thundercloud lightning activity, except that the magnitude of surface electric field under summer thunderclouds in the case of the Kanto region cannot be equated with that under winter thunderclouds in the case of the Hokuriku district in winter.

  3. Ionic contrast terahertz time resolved imaging of frog auricular heart muscle electrical activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, Jean-Baptiste; Sauviat, Martin-Pierre; Gallot, Guilhem

    2006-10-01

    The authors demonstrate the direct, noninvasive and time resolved imaging of functional frog auricular fibers by ionic contrast terahertz (ICT) near field microscopy. This technique provides quantitative, time-dependent measurement of ionic flow during auricular muscle electrical activity, and opens the way of direct noninvasive imaging of cardiac activity under stimulation. ICT microscopy technique was associated with full three-dimensional simulation enabling to measure precisely the fiber sizes. This technique coupled to waveguide technology should provide the grounds to development of advanced in vivo ion flux measurement in mammalian hearts, allowing the prediction of heart attack from change in K+ fluxes.

  4. Phenolic Lipids Affect the Activity and Conformation of Acetylcholinesterase from Electrophorus electricus (Electric eel)

    PubMed Central

    Stasiuk, Maria; Janiszewska, Alicja; Kozubek, Arkadiusz

    2014-01-01

    Phenolic lipids were isolated from rye grains, cashew nutshell liquid (CNSL) from Anacardium occidentale, and fruit bodies of Merrulius tremellosus, and their effects on the electric eel acetylcholinesterase activity and conformation were studied. The observed effect distinctly depended on the chemical structure of the phenolic lipids that were available for interaction with the enzyme. All of the tested compounds reduced the activity of acetylcholinesterase. The degree of inhibition varied, showing a correlation with changes in the conformation of the enzyme tested by the intrinsic fluorescence of the Trp residues of the protein. PMID:24787269

  5. The Glast Burst Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meegan, Charles

    2000-01-01

    The Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) will include a secondary instrument to augment the observatory's capabilities for GRB studies. The GLAST Burst Monitor (GBK is a collaboration between Marshall Space Flight Center, the University of Huntsville, Alabama, and the Max Plank Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics. The purpose of the GBM is to extend energy coverage below the main instrument's lower limit of about 20 MeV, and to provide an on-board burst trigger and approximate location. The instrument consists of twelve NaI detectors and two BGO detectors. This combination provides energy coverage from a few keV up to about 30 MeV.

  6. Changes in electrical properties of rat myometrium during gestation and following hormonal treatments.

    PubMed Central

    Kuriyama, H; Suzuki, H

    1976-01-01

    1. The membrane properties of the rat myometrium, during gestation and following ovarian hormone treatment, have been investigated with the micro-electrode technique. 2. Spontaneously generated bursts of electrical activity alternating with silent periods were recorded from non-pregnant, pregnant and post-partum myometria. The membrane potential was highest during the middle stage of gestation, but the spike amplitude within a burst was not uniform. In the final stage of gestation and during parturition, the membrane potential was low and the spikes within a burst were of low frequency and uniform amplitude. 3. During parturition and post-partum, a gradual depolarization of the membrane, accompanied by an increase in membrane resistance, occurred before the generation of a burst. 4. Excitability of the membrane fluctuated from a peak just before the generation of a burst to a low after the cessation of a burst. 5. Displacement of the membrane potential by electrical current or by lowering the temperature modified the slope spontaneous depolarization, but the fluctuations of excitability persisted. The Q10 value for the frequency of spontaneous bursts, measured between 36 and 30 degrees C, was 3-8. 6. Hyperpolarization of the membrane increased the maximum rate of rise of the spike, but beyond -70 mV, the rate of rise was reduced. Half-inactivation of spike generation of spike generation occurred at a membrane potential less negative than the interburst potential, indicating that the current carrying system was not fully activated during parturition. 7. In both normal and spayed rats, oestradiol hyperpolarized the membrane and the burst of spikes was generated hyperpolarized the membrane and the burst of spikes was generated on a sustained depolarization. Progesterone slightly hyperpolarized the membrane and burst discharges occurred without a sustained depolarization. Simultaneous treatment with progesterone and oestradiol produced a plateau potential of long duration during burst discharges. 8. The thickness of the muscle layer, length constant of the tissue and time constant of the membrane were measured during gestation and from spayed rats under various hormonal conditions. The length constant of the tissue was increased by oestradiol and was further increased by simultaneous treatment withoestradiol and progesterone. The increase in tissue thickness appeared to have the most marked influence on the length constant. 9. The resting and active membrane properties of the progresterone treated myometrium were similar to those observed during the middle stages of gestation. The oestradiol-treated myometrium did not resemble that during the last stages of gestation and parturition, which was simulated by combination of the two hormones, oestradiol preceding progesterone. PMID:978524

  7. A model for the scattering of high-frequency electromagnetic fields from dielectrics exhibiting thermally-activated electrical losses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hann, Raiford E.

    1991-01-01

    An equivalent circuit model (ECM) approach is used to predict the scattering behavior of temperature-activated, electrically lossy dielectric layers. The total electrical response of the dielectric (relaxation + conductive) is given by the ECM and used in combination with transmission line theory to compute reflectance spectra for a Dallenbach layer configuration. The effects of thermally-activated relaxation processes on the scattering properties is discussed. Also, the effect of relaxation and conduction activation energy on the electrical properties of the dielectric is described.

  8. The Electron Runaround: Understanding Electric Circuit Basics Through a Classroom Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vandana

    2010-05-01

    Several misconceptions abound among college students taking their first general physics course, and to some extent pre-engineering physics students, regarding the physics and applications of electric circuits. Analogies used in textbooks, such as those that liken an electric circuit to a piped closed loop of water driven by a water pump, do not completely resolve these misconceptions. Mazur and Knight,2 in particular, separately note that such misconceptions include the notion that electric current on either side of a light bulb in a circuit can be different. Other difficulties and confusions involve understanding why the current in a parallel circuit exceeds the current in a series circuit with the same components, and include the role of the battery (where students may assume wrongly that a dry cell battery is a fixed-current rather than a fixed-voltage device). A simple classroom activity that students can play as a game can resolve these misconceptions, providing an intellectual as well as a hands-on understanding. This paper describes the "Electron Runaround," first developed by the author to teach extremely bright 8-year-old home-schooled children the basics of electric circuits and subsequently altered (according to the required level of instruction) and used for various college physics courses.

  9. Electro-active device using radial electric field piezo-diaphragm for sonic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor); Fox, Robert L. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An electro-active transducer for sonic applications includes a ferroelectric material sandwiched by first and second electrode patterns to form a piezo-diaphragm coupled to a mounting frame. When the device is used as a sonic actuator, the first and second electrode patterns are configured to introduce an electric field into the ferroelectric material when voltage is applied to the electrode patterns. When the device is used as a sonic sensor, the first and second electrode patterns are configured to introduce an electric field into the ferroelectric material when the ferroelectric material experiences deflection in a direction substantially perpendicular thereto. In each case, the electrode patterns are designed to cause the electric field to: i) originate at a region of the ferroelectric material between the first and second electrode patterns, and ii) extend radially outward from the region of the ferroelectric material (at which the electric field originates) and substantially parallel to the plane of the ferroelectric material. The mounting frame perimetrically surrounds the peizo-diaphragm and enables attachment of the piezo-diaphragm to a housing.

  10. Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Burst-Induced Synaptic Depression and Its Modulation

    E-print Network

    Byrne, John H.

    to the skin. In the present study, we extend this analysis to show that sensory neurons also fire bursts in the range of 1­60 Hz in response to electrical stimuli similar to those used in behavioral studies of sensitization. Intracellular stimulation of sensory neurons to fire a burst of action potentials at 10 Hz for 1

  11. New solutions of the Zakharov's equation system for quantum plasmas in form of nonlinear bursts lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Dubinov, Alexander E.; Kitayev, Ilya N. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center-VNIIEF, Sarov, Nizhny Novgorod Region 607188 (Russian Federation)] [Russian Federal Nuclear Center-VNIIEF, Sarov, Nizhny Novgorod Region 607188 (Russian Federation)

    2014-02-15

    New multiplicative solutions of the Zakharov's quantum system of equations using the separation of variables method are found. The found solutions are interpreted as spatial-periodical lattices of non-linear plasma bursts. It is shown that the bursts could be both symmetrical and asymmetrical by an electric field.

  12. The GLAST Burst Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meegan, Charles A.

    2004-01-01

    The Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) observatory, scheduled for launch in 2007, comprises the Large Area Telescope (LAT) and the GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM). spectral changes that are known to occur within GRBs. between the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, the University of Alabama in Huntsville, and the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics. It consists of an array of NaI and BGO scintillation detectors operating in the 10 kev to 25 MeV range. The field of view includes the entire unocculted sky when the observatory is pointing close to the zenith. The GBM will enhance LAT observations of GRBs by extending the spectral coverage into the range of current GRB databases, and will provide a trigger for reorienting the spacecraft to observe delayed emission from bursts outside the LAT field of view. GBM is expected to trigger on about 200 bursts per year, and will provide on-board locations of strong bursts accurate to better than 10 degrees.

  13. Project BudBurst

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Project BudBurst (UCAR)

    2010-03-19

    This website is all about observing and collecting data on the timing of leafing and flowering of trees and flowers in your area. The ultimate goal of Project BudBurst is to have you observe the first day of the appropriate phenophase for your plant (e.g. First Flower).

  14. Electric, Magnetic and Ionospheric Survey of Seismically Active Regions with SWARM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echim, Marius M.; Moldovan, Iren; Voiculescu, Mirela; Balasis, George; Lichtenberger, Janos; Heilig, Balazs; Kovacs, Peter

    2014-05-01

    We present a project devoted to the scientific exploitation of SWARM multi-point measurements of the magnetic and electric field, of the electron temperature and density in the ionosphere. These data provide unique opportunities to study in-situ and remotely the electromagnetic and plasma variability due to ionospheric forcing from above and below. The project "Electric, Magnetic and Ionospheric Survey of Seismically Active Regions with SWARM (EMISSARS)" focus on coordinated studies between SWARM and ground based observatories to survey electromagnetic and ionospheric variability at medium latitudes and look for possible correlations with the seismic activity in central Europe. The project is coordinated by the Institute for Space Sciences (INFLPR-ISS) and the National Institute for Earth Physics (INFP) in Bucharest, Romania. In addition to SWARM data the project benefits from support of dedicated ground based measurements provided by the MEMFIS network coordinated by INFP, the MM100 network of magnetic observatories coordinated by the Geological and Geophysical Institute of Hungary (MFGI) in Budapest. Seismic data are provided by INFP and the European Mediterranean Seismological Center. The mission of the project is to monitor from space and from ground the ionospheric and electromagnetic variability during time intervals prior, during and after seismic activity in (i) the seismic active regions of the central Europe and (ii) in regions unaffected by the seismic activity. The latter will provide reference measurements, free from possible seismogenic signals. The scientific objectives of the project are: (1) Observation of electric, magnetic and ionospheric (electron temperature, density) variability in the ionosphere above or in the close vicinity of seismic active regions, in conjunction with ground based observations from dedicated networks; (2) Investigation of the coupling between the litosphere - atmosphere - ionosphere, during Earthquakes; (3) Quantitative nonlinear analysis of anomalous magnetic events detected on ground and in space before, during and after Earthquakes. The methodology includes methods of analysis like : (i) the Power Spectral Density (PSD) of electric, magnetic, lithospheric signal, (ii) the Probability Distribution Functions (PDFs) at various scales from multi-spacecraft statistical ensembles, (iii) the auto and cross-correlation analysis of magnetic field and ionospheric variables for search of coherent structures, (iv) numerical modelling of the litosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere coupling based on the current continuity.

  15. Photospheric Electric Fields and Energy Fluxes in the Eruptive Active Region NOAA 11158

    E-print Network

    Kazachenko, Maria D; Welsch, Brian T; Liu, Yang; Sun, Xudong

    2015-01-01

    How much electromagnetic energy crosses the photosphere in evolving solar active regions? With the advent of high-cadence vector magnetic field observations, addressing this fundamental question has become tractable. In this paper, we apply the "PTD-Doppler-FLCT-Ideal" (PDFI) electric field inversion technique of Kazachenko et al. (2014) to a 6-day HMI/SDO vector magnetogram and Doppler velocity sequence, to find the electric field and Poynting flux evolution in NOAA active region 11158, which produced an X2.2 flare early on 2011 February 15. We find photospheric electric fields ranging up to $1.5$ V/cm. The Poynting fluxes range up to $2\\times10^{10}$ ergs$\\cdot$cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ with mean values around $10^8$-$10^9$ ergs$\\cdot$cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$. Integrating the instantaneous energy flux over space and time, we find that the total magnetic energy accumulated above the photosphere from emergence to the moment before the X2.2 flare to be $E=10.6\\times10^{32}$ ergs, which is partitioned as $2.0\\times10^{32}$ er...

  16. Burst Populations and Detector Sensitivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Band, David L.

    2003-01-01

    The F(sub T) (peak bolometric photon flux) vs. E(sub p) (peak energy) plane is a powerful tool to compare the burst populations detected by different detectors. Detector sensitivity curves in this plane demonstrate which burst populations the detectors will detect. For example, future CZT-based detectors will show the largest increase in sensitivity for soft bursts, and will be particularly well- suited to study X-ray rich bursts and X-ray Flashes. Identical bursts at different redshifts describe a track in the F(sub T)-E(sub p) plane.

  17. Static Electricity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Carlyn Little

    1997-01-01

    In this quick activity, learners explore static electricity using a plastic comb, wool cloth, puffed rice, and a plastic bag. Use this activity to introduce learners to how static electricity is created when an object gives up or gains electrons.

  18. Role of septal and entorhinal inputs in the generation of hippocampal electrical activity in the cat sleep-wake cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. G. Nachkebiya; A. Ya. Nachkebiya; L. T. Oniani

    1987-01-01

    The effects of septal lesion and entorhinal cortex section on hippocampal electrical activity during the cat sleep-wake cycle were investigated in chronic experiments. The medial portion of the septum only was found to participate in generation of this activity. Complete suppression of hippocampal theta rhythm during active wakefulness and paradoxical sleep were the main effects of septal lesion. In slow-wave

  19. The influence of postmortem electrical stimulation on rigor mortis development, calpastatin activity, and tenderness in broiler and duck Pectoralis 

    E-print Network

    Zocchi, Christine

    1997-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of electrical stimulation (ES) on rigor mortis development, calpastafin activity, and tenderness in anatomically similar avian muscles comprised primarily of either red or white muscle fibers. Thirty...

  20. Electrical activation of ion implanted Si in amorphous and crystalline In0.53Ga0.47As

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lind, A. G.; Gill, M. A.; Hatem, C.; Jones, K. S.

    2014-10-01

    The effect of pre-amorphization on the electrical activation of Si implants into In0.53Ga0.47As is investigated. Electrical measurements show that Si implants into pre-amorphized and crystalline In0.53Ga0.47As yield similar levels of activation (1.0 × 1019 cm-3 in the pre-amorphized case and 9.0 × 1018cm-3 in the crystalline case) upon rapid thermal annealing for 5 s at 750 °C despite having very different types of resulting damage in the electrically active layers. The subsequent microstructural characterization by TEM indicates that the highly defective regrown layers in the pre-amorphized substrate leads to poor mobility in the active layers, which result in lower sheet resistances. The results suggest that solid phase epitaxy (SPE) in compound semiconductors can lead to some improved activation at lower temperatures and does not prevent substitutional activation of amphoteric dopants upon post SPE annealing.

  1. Lactate dehydrogenase activity in bovine and porcine muscle as influenced by electrical stimulation, aging, freezing, thawing and heating 

    E-print Network

    Collins, Sharen Sue

    1987-01-01

    LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE ACTIVITY IN BOVINF. AND PORCINE MUSCLE AS INFLUENCED BY ELECTRICAL STIMULATION, AGING, FREEZING, THA&v'ING AiVD HEATING A Thesis by SHAREN SUE COLLINS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1987 Major Subject: Animal Science LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE ACTIVITY IN BOVINE AND PORCINE MUSCLE AS INFLUENCED BY ELECTRICAL STIMULATION, AGING, FREEZING, THAWING AND HEATING A Thesis...

  2. The Double Firing Burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-09-01

    Astronomers from around the world combined data from ground- and space-based telescopes to paint a detailed portrait of the brightest explosion ever seen. The observations reveal that the jets of the gamma-ray burst called GRB 080319B were aimed almost directly at the Earth. Uncovering the disc ESO PR Photo 28/08 A Gamma-Ray Burst with Two Jets Read more on this illuminating blast in the additional story. GRB 080319B was so intense that, despite happening halfway across the Universe, it could have been seen briefly with the unaided eye (ESO 08/08). In a paper to appear in the 11 September issue of Nature, Judith Racusin of Penn State University, Pennsylvania (USA), and a team of 92 co-authors report observations across the electromagnetic spectrum that began 30 minutes before the explosion and followed it for months afterwards. "We conclude that the burst's extraordinary brightness arose from a jet that shot material almost directly towards Earth at almost the speed of light - the difference is only 1 part in 20 000," says Guido Chincarini, a member of the team. Gamma-ray bursts are the Universe's most luminous explosions. Most occur when massive stars run out of fuel. As a star collapses, it creates a black hole or neutron star that, through processes not fully understood, drives powerful gas jets outward. As the jets shoot into space, they strike gas previously shed by the star and heat it, thereby generating bright afterglows. The team believes the jet directed toward Earth contained an ultra-fast component just 0.4 degrees across (this is slightly smaller than the apparent size of the Full Moon). This jet is contained within another slightly less energetic jet about 20 times wider. The broad component is more typical of other bursts. "Perhaps every gamma-ray burst has a narrow jet, but astronomers miss it most of the time," says team member Stefano Covino. "We happened to view this monster down the barrel of the very narrow and energetic jet, and the chance for this nearly head-on alignment to occur is only about once a decade," added his colleague Cristiano Guidorzi. GRB 080319B was detected by the NASA/STFC/ASI Swift satellite towards the constellation of Boötes, the "Herdsman". A host of ground-based telescopes reacted promptly to study this new object in the sky, including ESO's Very Large Telescope, which was the first to provide the distance of the object, 7.5 billion light-years. The visible light from the burst was detected by a handful of wide-field cameras worldwide that are mounted on telescopes constantly monitoring a large fraction of the sky. One of these was the TORTORA camera mounted on the 0.6-m REM telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory (ESO 26/07). TORTORA's rapid imaging provides the most detailed look yet at the visible light associated with the initial blast of a gamma-ray burst. "We've been waiting a long time for this one," says TORTORA senior scientist Grigory Beskin of Russia's Special Astrophysical Observatory. The data collected simultaneously by TORTORA and the Swift satellite allowed astronomers to explain the properties of this burst.

  3. Burst Firing is a Neural Code in an Insect Auditory System

    PubMed Central

    Eyherabide, Hugo G.; Rokem, Ariel; Herz, Andreas V. M.; Samengo, Inés

    2008-01-01

    Various classes of neurons alternate between high-frequency discharges and silent intervals. This phenomenon is called burst firing. To analyze burst activity in an insect system, grasshopper auditory receptor neurons were recorded in vivo for several distinct stimulus types. The experimental data show that both burst probability and burst characteristics are strongly influenced by temporal modulations of the acoustic stimulus. The tendency to burst, hence, is not only determined by cell-intrinsic processes, but also by their interaction with the stimulus time course. We study this interaction quantitatively and observe that bursts containing a certain number of spikes occur shortly after stimulus deflections of specific intensity and duration. Our findings suggest a sparse neural code where information about the stimulus is represented by the number of spikes per burst, irrespective of the detailed interspike-interval structure within a burst. This compact representation cannot be interpreted as a firing-rate code. An information-theoretical analysis reveals that the number of spikes per burst reliably conveys information about the amplitude and duration of sound transients, whereas their time of occurrence is reflected by the burst onset time. The investigated neurons encode almost half of the total transmitted information in burst activity. PMID:18946533

  4. Ultrathin Palladium Membranes Prepared by a Novel Electric Field Assisted Activation

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, Samhun; Ko, Joon Ho; Oyama, S. Ted

    2011-03-01

    Ultra-thin Pd composite membranes with a thickness of 1 ?m were prepared by a novel electric-field assisted activation technique followed by electroless deposition of Pd on a hollow-fiber ?-alumina support. The novel activation method places Pd precursors and a reducing agent on opposite sides of a porous substrate and uses an electric field to cause migration of Pd ions to the outer surface where they are reduced to form seeds in high density in a narrow spatial region. The resulting membranes showed a high hydrogen permeance in the range of 4.0–5.0 × 10{sup ?6} mol m{sup ?2} s{sup ?1} Pa{sup ?1} and stable H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity of 3000–9000 during stability tests for 150 h at 733 K with H{sub 2} flow. The formation of the thin, defect-less and robust Pd layer can be ascribed to the evenly distributed Pd seeds on the support layer and the enhanced bonding between the Pd layer and the support layer resulting from the strong anchoring of the Pd seeds onto the support in the new activation step.

  5. Enhanced electricity generation by using algae biomass and activated sludge in microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Naim; Cui, Yu-Feng; Saif Ur Rehman, Muhammad; Han, Jong-In

    2013-07-01

    Recently, interest is growing to explore low-cost and sustainable means of energy production. In this study, we have exploited the potential of sustainable energy production from wastes. Activated sludge and algae biomass are used as substrates in microbial fuel cell (MFC) to produce electricity. Activated sludge is used at anode as inoculum and nutrient source. Various concentrations (1-5 g/L) of dry algae biomass are tested. Among tested concentrations, 5 g/L (5000 mg COD/L) produced the highest voltage of 0.89 V and power density of 1.78 W/m(2) under 1000 ? electric resistance. Pre-treated algae biomass and activated sludge are also used at anode. They give low power output than without pre-treatment. Spent algae biomass is tested to replace whole (before oil extraction) algae biomass as a substrate, but it gives low power output. This work has proved the concept of using algae biomass in MFC for high energy output. PMID:23584037

  6. Simplified 2D Bidomain Model of Whole Heart Electrical Activity and ECG Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sovilj, Siniša; Magjarevi?, Ratko; Abed, Amr Al; Lovell, Nigel H.; Dokos, Socrates

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was the development of a geometrically simple and highly computationally-efficient two dimensional (2D) biophysical model of whole heart electrical activity, incorporating spontaneous activation of the sinoatrial node (SAN), the specialized conduction system, and realistic surface ECG morphology computed on the torso. The FitzHugh-Nagumo (FHN) equations were incorporated into a bidomain finite element model of cardiac electrical activity, which was comprised of a simplified geometry of the whole heart with the blood cavities, the lungs and the torso as an extracellular volume conductor. To model the ECG, we placed four electrodes on the surface of the torso to simulate three Einthoven leads VI, VII and VIII from the standard 12-lead system. The 2D model was able to reconstruct ECG morphology on the torso from action potentials generated at various regions of the heart, including the sinoatrial node, atria, atrioventricular node, His bundle, bundle branches, Purkinje fibers, and ventricles. Our 2D cardiac model offers a good compromise between computational load and model complexity, and can be used as a first step towards three dimensional (3D) ECG models with more complex, precise and accurate geometry of anatomical structures, to investigate the effect of various cardiac electrophysiological parameters on ECG morphology.

  7. Computer programs to analyze brain electrical activity during copulatory pelvic thrusting in male rats.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Gonzalez, M; Guevara, M A; Moralí, G; Cervantes, M

    1997-10-01

    Two microcomputer programs have been developed to simultaneously record and analyze the brain electrical activity: multiple unit activity (MUA) and electroencephalogram (EEG), and the accelerometric signals generated in relation to the pelvic thrusting that performs the male rat during the copulatory responses of mount, intromission, and ejaculation. CAPTUMUL is a program allowing the on line capture of the different signals and the further off line delimitation of the brain signals occurring in exact temporal relation with the accelerometric record of motor responses. The ANAMUA program allows the off line analysis of the neuronal firing rate in MUA records at different discrimination levels according to the amplitude of the neuronal spikes, and compare these data in various behavioral situations. The use of these programs provides a way of correlating in time the changes of brain electrical activity occurring in animals in free-movement with the brief motor events of copulation as well as with other behaviors (i.e., genital grooming, sniffing, running, walking). Advantages of this software include the recording of sequential events, a better and rapid handling of data and a reliable method to analyze the MUA with different discrimination levels according to the amplitude of the neuronal spikes. PMID:9284487

  8. An interacting loop model of solar flare bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emslie, A. G.

    1981-01-01

    As a result of the strong heating produced at chromospheric levels during a solar flare burst, the local gas pressure can transiently attain very large values in certain regions. The effectiveness of the surrounding magnetic field at confining this high pressure plasma is therefore reduced and the flaring loop becomes free to expand laterally. In so doing it may drive magnetic field lines into neighboring, nonflaring, loops in the same active region, causing magnetic reconnection to take place and triggering another flare burst. The features of this interacting loop model are found to be in good agreement with the energetics and time structure of flare associated solar hard X-ray bursts.

  9. Identification of hematomas in mild traumatic brain injury using an index of quantitative brain electrical activity.

    PubMed

    Prichep, Leslie S; Naunheim, Rosanne; Bazarian, Jeffrey; Mould, W Andrew; Hanley, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Rapid identification of traumatic intracranial hematomas following closed head injury represents a significant health care need because of the potentially life-threatening risk they present. This study demonstrates the clinical utility of an index of brain electrical activity used to identify intracranial hematomas in traumatic brain injury (TBI) presenting to the emergency department (ED). Brain electrical activity was recorded from a limited montage located on the forehead of 394 closed head injured patients who were referred for CT scans as part of their standard ED assessment. A total of 116 of these patients were found to be CT positive (CT+), of which 46 patients with traumatic intracranial hematomas (CT+) were identified for study. A total of 278 patients were found to be CT negative (CT-) and were used as controls. CT scans were subjected to quantitative measurements of volume of blood and distance of bleed from recording electrodes by blinded independent experts, implementing a validated method for hematoma measurement. Using an algorithm based on brain electrical activity developed on a large independent cohort of TBI patients and controls (TBI-Index), patients were classified as either positive or negative for structural brain injury. Sensitivity to hematomas was found to be 95.7% (95% CI = 85.2, 99.5), specificity was 43.9% (95% CI = 38.0, 49.9). There was no significant relationship between the TBI-Index and distance of the bleed from recording sites (F = 0.044, p = 0.833), or volume of blood measured F = 0.179, p = 0.674). Results of this study are a validation and extension of previously published retrospective findings in an independent population, and provide evidence that a TBI-Index for structural brain injury is a highly sensitive measure for the detection of potentially life-threatening traumatic intracranial hematomas, and could contribute to the rapid, quantitative evaluation and treatment of such patients. PMID:25054838

  10. Dendritic Ca(2+)-activated K(+) conductances regulate electrical signal propagation in an invertebrate neuron.

    PubMed

    Wessel, R; Kristan, W B; Kleinfeld, D

    1999-10-01

    Activity-dependent changes in the short-term electrical properties of neurites were investigated in the anterior pagoda (AP) cell of leech. Imaging studies revealed that backpropagating Na(+) spikes and synaptically evoked EPSPs caused Ca(2+) entry through low-voltage-activated Ca(2+) channels that are distributed throughout the neurites. Voltage-clamp recordings from the soma revealed a TEA-sensitive outward current that was reduced when Ca(2+) entry was blocked with Co(2+) or when the intracellular concentration of free Ca(2+) was reduced by a high-affinity Ca(2+) buffer. Ca(2+) released in the neurite from a caged Ca(2+) compound caused a hyperpolarization of the membrane potential. These data imply that the AP cell expresses Ca(2+)-activated K(+) conductances, and that these conductances are present in the neurites. When the Ca(2+)-activated K(+) current was reduced through the block of Ca(2+) entry, backpropagating Na(+) spikes and synaptically evoked EPSPs increased in amplitude. Hence, the activity-dependent changes in the intracellular [Ca(2+)] together with the Ca(2+)-activated K(+) conductances participate in the regulation of dendritic signal propagation. PMID:10493733

  11. Dominant role of betagamma subunits of G-proteins in oxytocin-evoked burst firing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Feng; Hatton, Glenn I

    2007-02-21

    Pulsatile neuropeptide secretion is associated with burst firing patterns; however, intracellular signaling cascades leading to bursts remain unclear. We explored mechanisms underlying burst firing in oxytocin (OT) neurons in the supraoptic nucleus in brain slices from lactating rats. Application of 10 pm OT for 30 min or progressively rising OT concentrations from 1 to 100 pm induced burst firing in OT neurons in patch-clamp recordings. Burst generation was blocked by OT antagonist and ionotropic glutamate receptor blockers or tetanus toxin. Blocking G-protein activation with suramin or intracellular GDP-beta-S, but not intracellularly administered antibody against the OT-receptor (OTR) C terminus, blocked bursts. Moreover, pretreatment of slices with pertussis toxin, an inhibitor of G(i/o)-proteins, did not block OT-evoked bursts, suggesting that G(i)/G(o) activation is unnecessary for burst generation. Thus, we further examined G alpha(q/11)-associated signaling pathways in OT-evoked bursts. Inhibition of phospholipase C or RhoA/Rho kinase did not block bursts. Activation of G betagamma subunits using myristoylated G betagamma-binding peptide (mSIRK) caused bursts, whereas intracellularly loaded antibody against G beta subunit blocked OT-evoked bursts. Blocking Src family kinase, but not phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, occluded OT-evoked bursts. Similar to the effects of OT on EPSCs, mSIRK inhibited tonic EPSCs and elicited EPSC clustering. Finally, suckling caused dissociation of OTRs and G beta subunits from G alpha(q/11) subunits shown by coimmunoprecipitation and immunocytochemistry, supporting crucial roles for OTRs and G betagamma subunits in the milk-ejection reflex. We conclude that G betagamma subunits play a dominant role in burst firing evoked by applied OT or by suckling. PMID:17314286

  12. 1016 cm-3 electrically active and thermally stable deep Rh acceptors in InP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Dadgar; M. Kuttler; M. Strassburg; R. Heitz; D. Bimberg; J. Y. Hyeon; T. Grundemann; H. Schumann

    1996-01-01

    We present a detailed investigation of the electrically active Rh concentration in low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor-phase epitaxy grown InP:Rh in dependence of the growth parameters. Rh introduces two deep mid gap acceptor levels RhA and RhB in InP at Ev+0.71 eV and Ev+0.62 eV, respectively. Taking into account the low diffusivity of Rh in InP (Drh(800°C)⩽1×1014 cm2\\/s) Rh is an

  13. Four-point probe electrical resistivity scanning system for large area conductivity and activation energy mapping.

    PubMed

    Shimanovich, Klimentiy; Bouhadana, Yaniv; Keller, David A; Rühle, Sven; Anderson, Assaf Y; Zaban, Arie

    2014-05-01

    The electrical properties of metal oxides play a crucial role in the development of new photovoltaic (PV) systems. Here we demonstrate a general approach for the determination and analysis of these properties in thin films of new metal oxide based PV materials. A high throughput electrical scanning system, which facilitates temperature dependent measurements at different atmospheres for highly resistive samples, was designed and constructed. The instrument is capable of determining conductivity and activation energy values for relatively large sample areas, of about 72 × 72 mm(2), with the implementation of geometrical correction factors. The efficiency of our scanning system was tested using two different samples of CuO and commercially available Fluorine doped tin oxide coated glass substrates. Our high throughput tool was able to identify the electrical properties of both resistive metal oxide thin film samples with high precision and accuracy. The scanning system enabled us to gain insight into transport mechanisms with novel compositions and to use those insights to make smart choices when choosing materials for our multilayer thin film all oxide photovoltaic cells. PMID:24880411

  14. Magnetic and electric field alignments of cellulose chains for electro-active paper actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Sungryul; Chen, Yi; Lee, Sang Woo; Kim, Jaehwan; Kim, Heung Soo

    2008-03-01

    To improve the piezoelectricity of cellulose electro-active paper (EAPap), electrical field and magnetic field alignments were investigated. EAPap is made with cellulose by dissolving cotton pulp and regenerating cellulose with aligned cellulose fibers. EAPap made with cellulose has piezoelectric property due to its structural crystallinity. Noncentro-symmetric crystal structure of EAPap, which is mostly cellulose II, can exhibit piezoelectricity. However, EAPap has ordered crystal parts as well as disordered parts of cellulose. Thus, well alignment of cellulose chains in EAPap is important to improve its piezoelectricity. In this paper, uniaxial alignments of cellulose chains were investigated by applying electric field and magnetic field. As exposing different fields to EAPap samples, the changed characteristics were analyzed by X-Ray diffractometer (XRD) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Finally, the piezoelectricity of EAPap samples was evaluated by comparing their piezoelectric charge constant [d 31]. As increasing applied electric field up to 40V/mm, d 31 value was gradually improved due to increased cellulose crystallinity as well as alignment of cellulose chains. Also the alignment of cellulose chains was improved with increasing the exposing time to magnetic field (5.3T) and well alignment was achieved by exposing EAPap sample on the magnetic field for 180min.

  15. Analysis of the structural interaction of electrically active heterogeneous finely dispersed systems at the interfaces between the solid and liquid phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbachenko, L. A.; Maksimova, N. T.; Baryshnikov, S. S.; Karnakov, V. A.; Marchuk, S. D.; Ezhova, L. I.

    2011-07-01

    Strong electrical forces have been revealed in electrically active heterogeneous finely dispersed systems at the interfaces between the solid and liquid phases. It has been established that these forces give rise to gradients of the potential of an internal self-electric field that can provide circulation of electric currents in the systems under investigation. It has been found that, in these systems, there arises a double electric layer that represents a new structuring phase, which is characteristic of electrically active systems only. The mechanism of formation of a double electric layer includes electrocontact interaction between the surfaces of two heterogeneous liquid and solid polar dielectrics.

  16. Influence of motor imagination on cortical activation during functional electrical stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Clare; Osuagwu, Bethel A.; Vuckovic, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Objective Motor imagination (MI) and functional electrical stimulation (FES) can activate the sensory-motor cortex through efferent and afferent pathways respectively. Motor imagination can be used as a control strategy to activate FES through a brain–computer interface as the part of a rehabilitation therapy. It is believed that precise timing between the onset of MI and FES is important for strengthening the cortico-spinal pathways but it is not known whether prolonged MI during FES influences cortical response. Methods Electroencephalogram was measured in ten able-bodied participants using MI strategy to control FES through a BCI system. Event related synchronisation/desynchronisation (ERS/ERD) over the sensory-motor cortex was analysed and compared in three paradigms: MI before FES, MI before and during FES and FES alone activated automatically. Results MI practiced both before and during FES produced strongest ERD. When MI only preceded FES it resulted in a weaker beta ERD during FES than when FES was activated automatically. Following termination of FES, beta ERD returns to the baseline level within 0.5 s while alpha ERD took longer than 1 s. Conclusions When MI and FES are combined for rehabilitation purposes it is recommended that MI is practiced throughout FES activation period. Significance The study is relevant for neurorehabilitation of movement. PMID:25454278

  17. Dark gamma-ray bursts: possible role of multiphoton processes

    E-print Network

    Mark E. Perel'man

    2009-07-27

    The absence of optical afterglow at some gamma-ray bursts (so called dark bursts) requires analyses of physical features of this phenomenon. It is shown that such singularity can be connected with multiphoton processes of frequencies summation in the Rayleigh- Jeans part of spectra, their pumping into higher frequencies. It can be registered most probably on young objects with still thin plasma coating, without further thermalization, i.e. soon after a prompt beginning of the explosive activity.

  18. Effects of intermittent 60-Hz high voltage electric fields on metabolism, activity, and temperature in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenbergy, R.S; Duffy, P.H.; Sacher, G.A.

    1981-01-01

    Transient effects of 100-kV/m extremely low frequency electric fields were studied in the white footed deermouse, Peromyscus leucopus. Gross motor activity, carbon dioxide production, oxygen consumption, and core body temperature were monitored before, during, and after intermittent field exposures (four hour-long exposures, at one-hour intervals). Thirty-four mice were exposed in cages with plastic floors floating above ground potential, and 21 mice were exposed in cages with grounded metal floor plates. The first field exposure produced an immediate, transient increase of activity and gas measures during the inactive phase of the circadian cycle. All measures returned to baseline levels before the second exposure and were not significantly changed throughout the remainder of the exposures. The rapid habituation of field-induced arousal suggests that significant metabolic changes will not be measured in experiments in which the interval between exposure and measurement is greater than two hours.

  19. Deterministic and Stochastic Neuronal Contributions to Distinct Synchronous CA3 Network Bursts

    PubMed Central

    Takano, Hajime; McCartney, Melissa; Ortinski, Pavel I.; Putt, Mary E.; Coulter, Douglas A.

    2012-01-01

    Computational studies have suggested that stochastic, deterministic, and mixed processes all could be possible determinants of spontaneous, synchronous network bursts. In the present study, utilizing multicellular calcium imaging coupled with fast confocal microscopy, we describe neuronal behavior underlying spontaneous network bursts in developing rat and mouse hippocampal area CA3 networks. Two primary burst types were studied: giant depolarizing potentials (GDPs) and spontaneous interictal bursts recorded in bicuculline, a GABAA receptor antagonist. Analysis of the simultaneous behavior of multiple CA3 neurons during synchronous GDPs revealed a repeatable activation order from burst to burst. This was validated using several statistical methods, including high Kendall’s W values for firing order during GDPs, high Pearson’s correlations of cellular activation times between burst pairs, and latent class analysis, which revealed a population of 5-6% of CA3 neurons reliably firing very early during GDPs. In contrast, neuronal firing order during interictal bursts appeared homogenous, with no particular cells repeatedly leading or lagging during these synchronous events. We conclude that GDPs activate via a deterministic mechanism, with distinct, repeatable roles for subsets of neurons during burst generation, while interictal bursts appear to be stochastic events with cells assuming interchangeable roles in the generation of these events. PMID:22492030

  20. Active medium gain study of electric-discharge oxygen-iodine laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolobyanin, Yuriy; Adamenkov, Yuriy; Vyskubenko, Boris; Goryachev, Leonid; Ilyin, Sergey; Kalashnik, Anatoliy; Rakhimova, Tatiana; Rogozhnikov, Georgiy

    2007-05-01

    The paper reports on experimental studies of the active medium gain in supersonic electric-discharge oxygen-iodine laser (DOIL) based on traveling mw discharge. The measurements have included: absolute concentration, yield, and energy efficiency of production of SO in pure oxygen and oxygen-helium mixes at an oxygen partial pressure 3 to 15 Torr. For the gas flow to get rid of atomic oxygen, both heterogeneous mercury oxide coatings of the tube walls and homogeneous additives to the work mix, such as nitrogen oxide, have been used. The active medium of DOIL was formed using a nozzle array of the type of ejector sized as 10*50 mm2. The singlet oxygen-helium mix was supplied through three rows of sonic cylindrical nozzles, while the iodine-carrier gas mix - through two rows of supersonic conical nozzles with a half-opening angle of 10°(arc). The gas-phase iodine was produced in a quartz cell filled with iodine crystals. Room-temperature iodine vapors were picked up with a carrier gas (nitrogen or helium) and thus delivered into the nozzle array. The active medium was investigated by the high-resolution laser diode spectroscopy approach that used the laser type Vortex 6025 purchased from New Focus, Inc. The laser medium gain factor was determined by the intra-cavity approach having a sensitivity about 1*10 -6 cm -1. The static temperature of the medium was determined from the measurements of gain half-width. The gain of the active medium of electric-discharge OIL has been investigated. The DOIL in use was operating on a mix composed as O II:He=1:1 at a total pressure of 6 Torr and flowrate - about 1 mmol/s. With helium as an iodine carrier gas at a flowrate ~3 mmol/s, we have recorded a positive gain in the DOIL medium.

  1. Generation of high-frequency electric field activity by turbulence in the Earth's magnetotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stawarz, J. E.; Ergun, R. E.; Goodrich, K. A.

    2015-03-01

    Bursty bulk flow (BBF) events, frequently observed in the magnetotail, carry significant energy and mass from the tail region at distances that are often greater than 20 RE into the near-Earth plasma sheet at ˜10 RE where the flow is slowed and/or diverted. This region at ˜10 RE is referred to as the BBF braking region. A number of possible channels are available for the transfer or dissipation of energy in BBF events including adiabatic heating of particles, the propagation of Alfvén waves out of the BBF braking region and into the auroral region, diverted flow out of the braking region, and energy dissipation within the braking region itself. This study investigates the generation of intense high-frequency electric field activity observed within the braking region. When present, these intense electric fields have power above the ion cyclotron frequency and almost always contain nonlinear structures such as electron phase space holes and double layers, which are often associated with field-aligned currents. A hypothesis in which the observed high-frequency electric field activity is generated by field-aligned currents resulting from turbulence in the BBF braking region is considered. Although linear Alfvén waves can generate field-aligned currents, based on theoretical calculations, the required currents are likely not the result of linear waves. Observations from the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms satellites support the picture of a turbulent plasma leading to the generation of nonlinear kinetic structures. This work provides a possible mechanism for energy dissipation in turbulent plasmas.

  2. Eccentric Post-Newtonian Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loutrel, Nicholas; Yunes, Nicolas; Pretorius, Frans

    2015-04-01

    Gravitational wave emission from eccentric compact binaries is highly peaked around pericenter passage. As such, the gravitational wave signal looks like a sequence of discrete bursts in time-frequency space, as opposed to a continuous signal. Due to the relatively low power contained in each burst, standard matched filtering techniques may be impractical for extracting the parameters of the signal. Alternatively, one can stack the power within each burst, creating an enhanced data product and amplifying the signal-to-noise ratio. In order to do this, however, one must have some prior knowledge of where the bursts will occur in time-frequency space, i.e. a burst model. We here discuss a new method of constructing burst models that allows for a formulation at generic post-Newtonian (PN) order. We discuss its implementation at 3PN order and the accuracy of the full 3PN model by comparison to different eccentric PN Taylor approximants.

  3. RAPID COMMUNICATION GABAA-Receptor-Mediated Rebound Burst Firing and Burst Shunting

    E-print Network

    Huguenard, John R.

    RAPID COMMUNICATION GABAA-Receptor-Mediated Rebound Burst Firing and Burst Shunting in Thalamus-receptor-medi- tions between relay and perigeniculate nucleus cells (von ated rebound burst firing and burst shunting rebound burst firing and 2) burst inhibition experiments in vivo (Ahlse´n and Lindstro¨m 1982)inhibition

  4. ELF Q-bursts from African Squall Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobara, Y.; Williams, E.; Mushtak, V.; Boldi, R.; Hayakawa, M.; Yamashita, K.; Lyons, W.; Russell, B.; Satori, G.; Bor, J.; Price, C.; Greenberg, E.; Holzworth, R.

    2007-12-01

    A number of large amplitude ELF transient signals (Q-bursts) are documented at multiple sites around the world (Japan, Hungary, Israel and USA) in association with westward moving mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) in West Africa during the African Monsoon and Multidisciplinary Analysis campaign in 2006. Some of these bursts are associated with red sprites first observed from ground-based measurement in Africa. Using MIT Doppler radar and electric field measurements locally installed in Niamey, we investigate quantitatively the meteorological conditions responsible for generating these exceptionally large Q-bursts. Detailed meteorological information is provided from radar such as the spatio-temporal evolution of radar echo, while the electrical properties oflarge Q-bursts (e.g. charge moment charge (CMC)) are experimentally derived by using the remote-sensing method taking into account the theory for the earth-ionoshere wave guide. Furthermore, detailed propagation characteristics of Q-bursts and their effect on the location and remotely derived accuracy of the CMC will be discussed by comparing the results from multi ELF stations under different ionospheric conditions such as day-night asymmetry and the ionospheric terminator lines. Preliminary results from similar campaign in 2007 in Niger will also be presented to be compared with those in 2006.

  5. Swarm's Absolute Scalar Magnetometers Burst Mode Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coisson, P.; Vigneron, P.; Hulot, G.; Crespo Grau, R.; Brocco, L.; Lalanne, X.; Sirol, O.; Leger, J. M.; Jager, T.; Bertrand, F.; Boness, A.; Fratter, I.

    2014-12-01

    Each of the three Swarm satellites embarks an Absolute Scalar Magnetometer (ASM) to provide absolute scalar measurements of the magnetic field with high accuracy and stability. Nominal data acquisition of these ASMs is 1 Hz. But they can also run in a so-called "burst mode" and provide data at 250 Hz. During the commissioning phase of the mission, seven burst mode acquisition campaigns have been run simultaneously for all satellites, obtaining a total of ten days of burs-mode data. These campaigns allowed the identification of issues related to the operations of the piezo-electric motor and the heaters connected to the ASM, that do not impact the nominal 1 Hz scalar data. We analyze the burst mode data to identify high frequency geomagnetic signals, focusing the analysis in two regions: the low latitudes, where we seek signatures of ionospheric irregularities, and the high latitudes, to identify high frequency signals related to polar region currents. Since these campaigns have been conducted during the initial months of the mission, the three satellites where still close to each other, allowing to analyze the spatial coherency of the signals. Wavelet analysis have revealed 31 Hz signals appearing in the night-side in the equatorial region.

  6. The Intensity Distribution of Faint Gamma-Ray Bursts Detected with BATSE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kommers, Jefferson; Lewin, Walter H.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; vanParadijs, Jan; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Meegan, Charles A.; Fishman, Gerald J.

    1998-01-01

    We have recently completed a search of 6 years of archival Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) data for gamma-ray bursts (GRBS) that were too faint to activate the real-time burst detection system running onboard the spacecraft. These "non-triggered" bursts can be combined with the "triggered" bursts detected onboard to produce a GRB intensity distribution that reaches peak fluxes a factor of approximately 2 lower than could be studied previously. The value of the (V/V(max)) statistic (in Euclidean space) for the bursts we detect is 0.177 +/- 0.006. This surprisingly low value is obtained because we detected very few bursts on the 4.096 s and 8.192 s time scales (where most bursts have their highest signal-to-noise ratio) that were not already detected on the 1.024 s time scale. If allowance is made for a power-law distribution of intrinsic peak luminosities, the extended peak flux distribution is consistent with models in which the redshift distribution of the gamma-ray burst rate approximately traces the star formation history of the Universe. We argue that this class of models is preferred over those in which the burst rate is independent of redshift. These results lend support to the conclusions of previous studies predicting that relatively few faint bursts are waiting to be found below the BATSE onboard detection threshold.

  7. The effects of low frequency electrical stimulation on satellite cell activity in rat skeletal muscle during hindlimb suspension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bao-Ting Zhang; Simon S Yeung; Yue Liu; Hong-Hui Wang; Yu-Min Wan; Shu-Kuan Ling; Hong-Yu Zhang; Ying-Hui Li; Ella W Yeung

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The ability of skeletal muscle to grow and regenerate is dependent on resident stem cells called satellite cells. It has been shown that chronic hindlimb unloading downregulates the satellite cell activity. This study investigated the role of low-frequency electrical stimulation on satellite cell activity during a 28 d hindlimb suspension in rats. RESULTS: Mechanical unloading resulted in a 44%

  8. On the electric activity of superfluid helium at the excitation of first and second sound waves

    SciTech Connect

    Pashitskii, E. A., E-mail: pashitsk@iop.kiev.ua; Gurin, A. A. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Institute of Physics (Ukraine)

    2010-01-15

    We show that the electric activity of superfluid helium (HeII) observed in the experiments [3] during the excitation of standing second sound waves in an acoustic resonator can be described in terms of the phenomenological mechanism of the inertial polarization of atoms in a dielectric, in particular, in HeII, when the polarization field induced in the medium is proportional to the mechanical acceleration, by analogy with the Stewart-Tolman effect. The variable relative velocity w = v{sub n} - v{sub s} of the normal and superfluid HeII components that emerges in the second sound wave determines the mean group velocity of rotons, V{sub g} Almost-Equal-To w, with the density of the normal component related to their equilibrium number density in the temperature range 1.3 K {<=} T {<=} 2 K. Therefore, the acceleration of the 4He atoms involved in the formation of a roton excitation is proportional to the time derivative of the relative velocity.w. In this case, the linear local relations between the variable values of the electric induction, electric field strength, and polarization vector should be taken into account. As a result, the variable displacement current induced in the bulk of HeII and the corresponding potential difference do not depend on the anomalously low polarizability of liquid helium. This allows the ratio of the amplitudes of the temperature and potential oscillations in the second sound wave, which is almost independent of T in the above temperature range, consistent with experimental data to be obtained. At the same time, the absence of an electric response during the excitation of first sound waves in the linear regime is related to an insufficient power of the sound oscillations. Based on the experimental data on the excitation of first and second sounds, we have obtained estimates for the phenomenological coefficient of proportionality between the polarization vector and acceleration and for the drag coefficient of helium atoms by rotons in the second sound wave. We also show that the presence of a steady heat flow in HeII with nonzero longitudinal velocity and temperature gradients due to finite viscosity and thermal conductivity of the normal component leads to a change in the phase velocities of the first and second sound waves and to an exponential growth of their amplitudes with time, which should cause the amplitudes of the electric signals at the first and second sound frequencies to grow. This instability is analogous to the growth of the amplitude of long gravity waves on a shallow-water surface that propagate in the direction of decreasing basin depth.

  9. Considerations on the implementation and modeling of an active mass driver with electric torsional servomotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubertini, Filippo; Venanzi, Ilaria; Comanducci, Gabriele

    2015-06-01

    The current trend in full-scale applications of active mass drivers for mitigating buildings' vibrations is to rely on the use of electric servomotors and low friction transmission devices. While similar full-scale applications have been recently documented, there is still the need for deepening the understanding of the behavior of such active mass drivers, especially as it concerns their reliability in the case of extreme loading events. This paper presents some considerations arisen in the physical implementation of a prototype active mass driver system, fabricated by coupling an electric torsional servomotor with a ball screw transmission device, using state-of-the-art electronics and a high speed digital communication protocol between controller and servomotor drive. The prototype actuator is mounted on top of a scaled-down five-story frame structure, subjected to base excitation provided by a sliding table actuated by an electrodynamic shaker. The equations of motion are rigorously derived, at first, by considering the torque of the servomotor as the control input, in agreement with other literature work. Then, they are extended to the case where the servomotor operates under kinematic control, that is, by commanding its angular velocity instead of its torque, including control-structure-interaction effects. Experiments are carried out by employing an inherently stable collocated skyhook control algorithm, proving, on the one hand, the control effectiveness of the device but also revealing, on the other hand, the possibility of closed-loop system instability at high gains. Theoretical interpretation of the results clarifies that the dynamic behavior of the actuator plays a central role in determining its control effectiveness and is responsible for the observed stability issues, operating similarly to time delay effects. Numerical extension to the case of earthquake excitation confirms the control effectiveness of the device and highlights that different controllers essentially provide similar performances in the mitigation of the structural response.

  10. Activation of the inspiratory intercostal muscles by electrical stimulation of the spinal cord.

    PubMed

    DiMarco, A F; Altose, M D; Cropp, A; Durand, D

    1987-12-01

    Electrical stimulation of the spinal cord was evaluated as a method of activating the inspiratory intercostal muscles. Studies were performed in anesthetized dogs after hyperventilation-induced apnea. A stainless steel electrode, rubberized along its entire length except for 2 to 3 mm at the distal tip, was introduced epidurally onto the dorsal surface of the thoracic spinal cord. Stimulating electrodes were also placed in each hemidiaphragm. Intercostal electromyograms, inspired volume, and thoracoabdominal movements were monitored. The inspiratory capacity was determined in each animal as the volume required to achieve an airway pressure of +25 cm H2O during passive lung inflation. Spinal cord stimulation at the T2-T3 spinal level resulted in maximal inspired volume generation and electrical activation of the parasternal, external, and internal intercostal muscles of the upper and midrib cage regions as determined by electromyograms. Intrathoracic pressure swings increased progressively with increasing stimulus amplitude and frequency until plateaus were reached at 6 mA and 40 Hz, respectively. Postphrenicotomy spinal cord stimulation resulted in expansion of the rib cage and reduction in circumference of the abdominal compartment. Inspired volumes during spinal cord stimulation were 537 +/- 49 ml (prephrenicotomy, prone), 347 +/- 19.6 ml (postphrenicotomy, prone), and 303 +/- 30.6 ml (postphrenicotomy, supine). Bilateral diaphragm activation alone resulted in inspired volumes of 404 +/- 39 ml. Combined diaphragm and postphrenicotomy spinal cord stimulation (supine) resulted in an inspired volume of 712 +/- 72 ml, which approximated the inspiratory capacity (803 +/- 35 ml). Our results suggest that spinal cord stimulation may be a useful physiologic and clinical tool to produce coordinated contraction of the inspiratory intercostal muscles. PMID:3688644

  11. Electric fields measured by ISEE-1 within and near the neutral sheet during quiet and active times

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cattell, C. A.; Mozer, F. S.

    1982-01-01

    An understanding of the physical processes occurring in the magnetotail and plasmasheet during different interplanetary magnetic field orientations and differing levels of ground magnetic activity is crucial for the development of a theory of energy transfer from the solar wind to the particles which produce auroral arcs. In the present investigation, the first observations of electric fields during neutral sheet crossings are presented, taking into account the statistical correlations of the interplanetary magnetic field direction and ground activity with the character of the electric field. The electric field data used in the study were obtained from a double probe experiment on the ISEE-1 satellite. The observations suggest that turbulent electric and magnetic fields are intimately related to plasma acceleration in the neutral sheet and to the processes which create auroral particles.

  12. On Gamma-Ray Bursts

    E-print Network

    Remo Ruffini; Maria Grazia Bernardini; Carlo Luciano Bianco; Letizia Caito; Pascal Chardonnet; Christian Cherubini; Maria Giovanna Dainotti; Federico Fraschetti; Andrea Geralico; Roberto Guida; Barbara Patricelli; Michael Rotondo; Jorge Armando Rueda Hernandez; Gregory Vereshchagin; She-Sheng Xue

    2008-04-17

    (Shortened) We show by example how the uncoding of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) offers unprecedented possibilities to foster new knowledge in fundamental physics and in astrophysics. After recalling some of the classic work on vacuum polarization in uniform electric fields by Klein, Sauter, Heisenberg, Euler and Schwinger, we summarize some of the efforts to observe these effects in heavy ions and high energy ion collisions. We then turn to the theory of vacuum polarization around a Kerr-Newman black hole, leading to the extraction of the blackholic energy, to the concept of dyadosphere and dyadotorus, and to the creation of an electron-positron-photon plasma. We then present a new theoretical approach encompassing the physics of neutron stars and heavy nuclei. It is shown that configurations of nuclear matter in bulk with global charge neutrality can exist on macroscopic scales and with electric fields close to the critical value near their surfaces. These configurations may represent an initial condition for the process of gravitational collapse, leading to the creation of an electron-positron-photon plasma: the basic self-accelerating system explaining both the energetics and the high energy Lorentz factor observed in GRBs. We then turn to recall the two basic interpretational paradigms of our GRB model. [...] We then turn to the special role of the baryon loading in discriminating between "genuine" short and long or "fake" short GRBs [...] We finally turn to the GRB-Supernova Time Sequence (GSTS) paradigm: the concept of induced gravitational collapse. [...] We then present some general conclusions.

  13. Quantitative Brain Electrical Activity in the Initial Screening of Mild Traumatic Brain Injuries

    PubMed Central

    O’Neil, Brian; Prichep, Leslie S.; Naunheim, Roseanne; Chabot, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The incidence of emergency department (ED) visits for Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) in the United States exceeds 1,000,000 cases/year with the vast majority classified as mild (mTBI). Using existing computed tomography (CT) decision rules for selecting patients to be referred for CT, such as the New Orleans Criteria (NOC), approximately 70% of those scanned are found to have a negative CT. This study investigates the use of quantified brain electrical activity to assess its possible role in the initial screening of ED mTBI patients as compared to NOC. Methods: We studied 119 patients who reported to the ED with mTBI and received a CT. Using a hand-held electroencephalogram (EEG) acquisition device, we collected data from frontal leads to determine the likelihood of a positive CT. The brain electrical activity was processed off-line to generate an index (TBI-Index, biomarker). This index was previously derived using an independent population, and the value found to be sensitive for significant brain dysfunction in TBI patients. We compared this performance of the TBI-Index to the NOC for accuracy in prediction of positive CT findings. Results: Both the brain electrical activity TBI-Index and the NOC had sensitivities, at 94.7% and 92.1% respectively. The specificity of the TBI-Index was more than twice that of NOC, 49.4% and 23.5% respectively. The positive predictive value, negative predictive value and the positive likelihood ratio were better with the TBI-Index. When either the TBI-Index or the NOC are positive (combining both indices) the sensitivity to detect a positive CT increases to 97%. Conclusion: The hand-held EEG device with a limited frontal montage is applicable to the ED environment and its performance was superior to that obtained using the New Orleans criteria. This study suggests a possible role for an index of brain function based on EEG to aid in the acute assessment of mTBI patients. PMID:23359586

  14. Focal electrical stimulation as an effective sham control for active rTMS and biofeedback treatments

    PubMed Central

    Sheffer, Christine E; Mennemeier, Mark; Landes, Reid D; Dornhoffer, John; Kimbrell, Timothy; Bickel, Warren; Brackman, Sharon; Chelette, Kenneth C; Brown, Ginger; Vuong, Mai

    2013-01-01

    A valid sham control is important for determining the efficacy and effectiveness of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) as an experimental and clinical tool. Given the manner in which rTMS is applied, separately or in combination with self-regulatory approaches, and its intended impact on brain states, a valid sham control of this type may well serve as a meaningful control for biofeedback studies, where efforts to develop a credible control have often been less than ideal. This study examined the effectiveness of focal electrical stimulation of the frontalis muscle as a sham technique for blinding participants to high-frequency rTMS over the dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) at durations, intensities, and schedules of stimulation similar to many clinical applications. In this within-subjects single blind design, 19 participants made guesses immediately after receiving 54 counterbalanced rTMS sessions (sham, 10Hz, 20Hz); 7 (13%) of the guesses were made for sham, 31 (57%) were made for 10Hz, and 16 (30%) were made for 20Hz. Participants correctly guessed the sham condition 6% (CI: 1%, 32%) of the time, which is less than the odds of chance (i.e., of guessing at random, 33%); correctly guessed the 10Hz condition 66% (CI: 43%, 84%) of the time, which was greater than chance; and correctly guessed the 20Hz condition 41% (CI: 21%, 65%) of the time, which was no different than chance. Focal electrical stimulation therefore can be an effective sham control for high-frequency rTMS of the DLPFC, as well as for active biofeedback interventions. Participants were unaware that electrical stimulation was, in fact, sham rTMS. PMID:23702828

  15. Gamma Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil; Meszaros, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are bright flashes of gamma-rays coming from the cosmos. They occur roughly once per day ,last typically lOs of seconds and are the most luminous events in the universe. More than three decades after their discovery, and after pioneering advances from space and ground experiments, they still remain mysterious. The launch of the Swift and Fermi satellites in 2004 and 2008 brought in a trove of qualitatively new data. In this review we survey the interplay between these recent observations and the theoretical models of the prompt GRB emission and the subsequent afterglows.

  16. Gamma-ray bursts.

    PubMed

    Gehrels, Neil; Mészáros, Péter

    2012-08-24

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are bright flashes of gamma rays coming from the cosmos. They occur roughly once per day, typically last for tens of seconds, and are the most luminous events in the universe. More than three decades after their discovery, and after pioneering advances from space and ground experiments, they still remain mysterious. The launch of the Swift and Fermi satellites in 2004 and 2008 brought in a trove of qualitatively new data. In this Review, we survey the interplay between these recent observations and the theoretical models of the prompt GRB emission and the subsequent afterglow. PMID:22923573

  17. Burst Detector Sensitivity: Past, Present and Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Band, David L.

    2005-01-01

    I compare the burst detection sensitivity of CGRO's BATSE, Swift's BAT, the GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) and EXIST as a function of a burst s spectrum and duration. A detector's overall burst sensitivity depends on its energy sensitivity and set of accumulations times (Delta)t; these two factors shape the detected burst population. For example, relative to BATSE, the BAT s softer energy band decreases the detection rate of short, hard bursts, while the BAT s longer accumulation times increase the detection rate of long, soft bursts. Consequently, Swift is detecting long, low fluence bursts (2-3 x fainter than BATSE).

  18. Electrical Conductivity of Rocks and Dominant Charge Carriers. Part 1; Thermally Activated Positive Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, Friedemann T.; Freund, Minoru M.

    2012-01-01

    The prevailing view in the geophysics community is that the electrical conductivity structure of the Earth's continental crust over the 5-35 km depth range can best be understood by assuming the presence of intergranular fluids and/or of intragranular carbon films. Based on single crystal studies of melt-grown MgO, magma-derived sanidine and anorthosite feldspars and upper mantle olivine, we present evidence for the presence of electronic charge carriers, which derive from peroxy defects that are introduced during cooling, under non-equilibrium conditions, through a redox conversion of pairs of solute hydroxyl arising from dissolution of H2O.The peroxy defects become thermally activated in a 2-step process, leading to the release of defect electrons in the oxygen anion sublattice. Known as positive holes and symbolized by h(dot), these electronic charge carriers are highly mobile. Chemically equivalent to O(-) in a matrix of O(2-) they are highly oxidizing. Being metastable they can exist in the matrix of minerals, which crystallized in highly reduced environments. The h(dot) are highly mobile. They appear to control the electrical conductivity of crustal rocks in much of the 5-35 km depth range.

  19. Monitoring Hippocampus Electrical Activity In Vitro on an Elastically Deformable Microelectrode Array

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhe; Graudejus, Oliver; Tsay, Candice; Lacour, Stéphanie P.; Wagner, Sigurd

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Interfacing electronics and recording electrophysiological activity in mechanically active biological tissues is challenging. This challenge extends to recording neural function of brain tissue in the setting of traumatic brain injury (TBI), which is caused by rapid (within hundreds of milliseconds) and large (greater than 5% strain) brain deformation. Interfacing electrodes must be biocompatible on multiple levels and should deform with the tissue to prevent additional mechanical damage. We describe an elastically stretchable microelectrode array (SMEA) that is capable of undergoing large, biaxial, 2-D stretch while remaining functional. The new SMEA consists of elastically stretchable thin metal films on a silicone membrane. It can stimulate and detect electrical activity from cultured brain tissue (hippocampal slices), before, during, and after large biaxial deformation. We have incorporated the SMEA into a well-characterized in vitro TBI research platform, which reproduces the biomechanics of TBI by stretching the SMEA and the adherent brain slice culture. Mechanical injury parameters, such as strain and strain rate, can be precisely controlled to generate specific levels of damage. The SMEA allowed for quantification of neuronal function both before and after injury, without breaking culture sterility or repositioning the electrodes for the injury event, thus enabling serial and long-term measurements. We report tests of the SMEA and an initial application to study the effect of mechanical stimuli on neuron function, which could be employed as a high-content, drug-screening platform for TBI. PMID:19594385

  20. Computationally efficient model for simulating electrical activity in cardiac tissue with fiber rotation.

    PubMed

    Vigmond, E J; Leon, L J

    1999-01-01

    Transmural rotation of cardiac fibers may have a large influence on the initiation, stabilization, and termination of several life threatening cardiac arrhythmias. However, three-dimensional modeling of reentry in cardiac tissue is computationally demanding, as a tissue on the order of centimeters in size must be used to sustain reentry and several seconds must be simulated. Numerical accuracy requires time steps on the order of microseconds and spatial discretization on the order of microns. Consequently, the resultant numerical systems are extremely large. In this article, a computationally efficient model of a three-dimensional block of cardiac tissue with fiber rotation is presented. Computational speedup is achieved by using a discrete cable model which allowed for system order reduction, and also by using a scheme for tracking the activation wave front which identified regions requiring integration with a small time step. Simulating 1.2 s of activity of the approximately 2 x 10(6) cells constituting a block measuring 2.0 x 4.0 x 0.29 cm was performed in 26 h. Effects of model parameters on performance are discussed. The effect of fiber rotation on the spread of electrical activity after point source stimulation and a cross shock protocol is clearly demonstrated. PMID:10199692

  1. Burst Strength of Silicone Tubing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Regina M. Malczewski; William D. Inman; Brent L. Cadieux

    ilicone tubing is known for its flexibility and versatility. Tubing used for the pharmaceutical industry must meet special process requirements for purity, consistency, and in some cases for burst strength where pressure variations can be significant. Dow Corning® Pharma brand tubings with and without reinforcement have been tested for burst strength by procedures similar to those described in published guidelines.

  2. Energy dependence of electron pitch angle distribution widths in solar bursts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. de Koning; J. T. Gosling; R. M. Skoug; J. T. Steinberg

    2007-01-01

    Solar activity regularly produces suprathermal electron bursts at energies below 1.4 keV. At 1 AU, these bursts have been detected at energies as low as 73 eV. The characteristics of such bursts vary considerably from event to event due in part to the physical processes involved in their propagation to Earth. In 2002, Advanced Composition Explorer\\/Solar Wind Electron Proton Alpha

  3. Fabrication and electrical characterization of memristor with TiO2 as an active layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, S. K.; Kaur, Ramneek; Kaur, Harpreet; Rani, Mamta; Kaur, Jagdish; Kaur, Harmandeep

    2015-05-01

    Memristors show great potential for memory applications due to their high scalability and reliability. Memristor is a fourth basic electrical circuit element which gives relationship between the flux and charge. TiO2 is used as an active layer for the memristor and prepared by sol-gel method. Al/TiO2/Ag memristor device has been fabricated successfully and characterized by current-voltage (I-V) measurements. The non-linear I-V plot with hysteresis loop has been observed, which is a fingerprint of memristor. The retention behavior of the device has been witnessed from the current time plots. The device shows good stability over a long period of time. Thus, the results indicate that the TiO2 is a good candidate for memory device applications.

  4. Electrical activation and electron spin resonance measurements of arsenic implanted in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hori, Masahiro; Uematsu, Masashi; Fujiwara, Akira; Ono, Yukinori

    2015-04-01

    The electrical activation of arsenic (As) implanted in Si is investigated with electron spin resonance (ESR), spreading resistance (SR), and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). The As ions were implanted with a dose of 1 × 1012 cm-2 and subsequently annealed at various temperatures in the range of 500-1100 °C. The ESR measurements at 10 K show that the density of the As donor electrons for all the annealing temperatures is less than 10% of the As atom concentration measured by SIMS. The SR data indicate that the density of conduction band electrons is several times larger than that of the As donor electrons. These results strongly suggest that most of the As donor electrons are ESR inactive at low temperatures.

  5. High-fidelity optical reporting of neuronal electrical activity with an ultrafast fluorescent voltage sensor

    PubMed Central

    St-Pierre, François; Marshall, Jesse D; Yang, Ying; Gong, Yiyang; Schnitzer, Mark J; Lin, Michael Z

    2015-01-01

    Accurate optical reporting of electrical activity in genetically defined neuronal populations is a long-standing goal in neuroscience. Here we describe Accelerated Sensor of Action Potentials 1 (ASAP1), a novel voltage sensor design in which a circularly permuted green fluorescent protein is inserted within an extracellular loop of a voltage-sensing domain, rendering fluorescence responsive to membrane potential. ASAP1 demonstrates on- and off- kinetics of 2.1 and 2.0 ms, reliably detects single action potentials and subthreshold potential changes, and tracks trains of action potential waveforms up to 200 Hz in single trials. With a favorable combination of brightness, dynamic range, and speed, ASAP1 enables continuous monitoring of membrane potential in neurons at KHz frame rates using standard epifluorescence microscopy. PMID:24755780

  6. Floating Light-Activated Micro Electrical Stimulators Tested in the Rat Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Abdo, Ammar; Sahin, Mesut; Freedman, David S.; Cevik, Elif; Spuhler, Philipp S.; Unlu, M. Selim

    2011-01-01

    Microelectrodes of neural stimulation utilize fine wires for electrical connections to driving electronics. Breakage of these wires and the neural tissue response due to their tethering forces are major problems encountered with long term implantation of microelectrodes. The lifetime of an implant for neural stimulation can be substantially improved if the wire interconnects are eliminated. Thus, we proposed a floating light-activated micro electrical stimulator (FLAMES) for wireless neural stimulation. In this paradigm, a laser beam at near infrared (NIR) wavelengths will be used as a means of energy transfer to the device. In this study, microstimulators of various sizes were fabricated, with two cascaded GaAs p-i-n photodiodes, and tested in the rat spinal cord. A train of NIR pulses (0.2 ms, 50 Hz) was sent through the tissue to wirelessly activate the devices and generate the stimulus current. The forces elicited by intraspinal stimulation were measured from the ipsilateral forelimb with a force transducer. The largest forces were around 1.08N, a significant level of force for the rat forelimb motor function. These in vivo tests suggest that the FLAMES can be used for intraspinal microstimulation even for the deepest implant locations in the rat spinal cord. The power required to generate a threshold arm movement was investigated as the laser source was moved away from the microstimulator. The results indicate that the photon density does not decrease substantially for horizontal displacements of the source that are in the same order as the beam radius. This gives confidence that the stimulation threshold may not be very sensitive to small displacement of the spinal cord relative to the spine-mounted optical power source. PMID:21914931

  7. Bursting of sensitive polymersomes induced by curling

    PubMed Central

    Mabrouk, Elyes; Cuvelier, Damien; Brochard-Wyart, Françoise; Nassoy, Pierre; Li, Min-Hui

    2009-01-01

    Polymersomes, which are stable and robust vesicles made of block copolymer amphiphiles, are good candidates for drug carriers or micro/nanoreactors. Polymer chemistry enables almost unlimited molecular design of responsive polymersomes whose degradation upon environmental changes has been used for the slow release of active species. Here, we propose a strategy to remotely trigger instantaneous polymersome bursting. We have designed asymmetric polymer vesicles, in which only one leaflet is composed of responsive polymers. In particular, this approach has been successfully achieved by using a UV-sensitive liquid-crystalline copolymer. We study experimentally and theoretically this bursting mechanism and show that it results from a spontaneous curvature of the membrane induced by the remote stimulus. The versatility of this mechanism should broaden the range of applications of polymersomes in fields such as drug delivery, cosmetics and material chemistry. PMID:19383800

  8. Real-time electrical impedance detection of cellular activities of oral cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Arias, L Renea; Perry, Carla A; Yang, Liju

    2010-06-15

    In this study, the electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) system was used to study the cellular activities of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells in a real-time and label-free manner. Various cellular activities, including cell adhesion, spreading, proliferation, and drug-induced apoptosis and inhibition of apoptosis, were monitored. A linear relationship was found between the impedance-based cell index and the cell number in the range of 3500 to 35,000 cells/well. Anti-cancer drug-cisplatin-induced OSCC cell apoptosis at the minimal concentration of 5 microM after 20 h of treatment and followed a linear dose-dependent manner in the concentration range from 10 microM to 25 microM. The inhibition of cisplatin-induced apoptosis by the carcinogen, nicotine, at concentrations from 0.1 microM to 10 microM was monitored. The most significant inhibitory effect of nicotine on cisplatin-induced apoptosis was observed at concentrations of 0.5-1 microM. The results obtained with impedance method correlated well with microscopic imaging analysis of cellular morphology and cell viability analysis. This study demonstrated that the impedance-based method can provide real-time information about the cellular activity of viable cells and detect drug-induced cellular activities much earlier than commonly used cell-based image analysis. This impedance-based method has the potential to provide a useful analytical approach for cancer research. PMID:20304624

  9. Understanding the Continuum Spectra of Short Soft Gamma Repeater Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gogus, Ersin; Woods, Peter M.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Finger, Mark H.; Lenter, Geoffrey; Patel, Sandeep K.; Swank, Jean

    2006-01-01

    The spectra of short soft gamma repeater (SGR) bursts at photon energies above -15 keV are often well described by an optically thin thermal bremsstrahlung model (i.e., F(E) - E^-1 * exp(-E/kT) ) with kT=20-40 keV. However, the spectral shape burst continuum at lower photon energies (down to -2 keV) is not well established. It is important to better understand the SGR burst spectral properties at lower energies since inadequate description of the burst spectral continuum could lead to incorrect conclusions, such as existence of spectral lines. Here, we present detailed spectral investigations (in 2-200 keV) of 163 bursts from SGR 1806-20, all detected with Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer during the 2004 active episode that included the giant flare on 27 December 2004. We find that the great majority of burst spectra are well represented by the combination of a blackbody plus a OTTB models.

  10. Electro-Active Transducer Using Radial Electric Field To Produce/Motion Sense Out-Of-Plane Transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor); Fox, Robert L. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An electro-active transducer includes a ferroelectric material sandwiched by first and second electrode patterns. When the device is used as an actuator, the first and second electrode patterns are configured to introduce an electric field into the ferroelectric material when voltage is applied to the electrode patterns. When the device is used as a sensor. the first and second electrode patterns are configured to introduce an electric field into the ferroelectric material when the ferroelectric material experiences deflection in a direction substantially perpendicular thereto. In each case, the electrode patterns are designed to cause the electric field to: i) originate at a region of the ferroelectric material between the first and second electrode patterns. and ii) extend radially outward from the region of the ferroelectric material (at which the electric field originates) and substantially parallel to the ferroelectric material s plane.

  11. Thalamic bursting in rats during different awake behavioral states.

    PubMed

    Fanselow, E E; Sameshima, K; Baccala, L A; Nicolelis, M A

    2001-12-18

    Thalamic neurons have two firing modes: tonic and bursting. It was originally suggested that bursting occurs only during states such as slow-wave sleep, when little or no information is relayed by the thalamus. However, bursting occurs during wakefulness in the visual and somatosensory thalamus, and could theoretically influence sensory processing. Here we used chronically implanted electrodes to record from the ventroposterior medial thalamic nucleus (VPM) and primary somatosensory cortex (SI) of awake, freely moving rats during different behaviors. These behaviors included quiet immobility, exploratory whisking (large-amplitude whisker movements), and whisker twitching (small-amplitude, 7- to 12-Hz whisker movements). We demonstrated that thalamic bursting appeared during the oscillatory activity occurring before whisker twitching movements, and continued throughout the whisker twitching. Further, thalamic bursting occurred during whisker twitching substantially more often than during the other behaviors, and a neuron was most likely to respond to a stimulus if a burst occurred approximately 120 ms before the stimulation. In addition, the amount of cortical area activated was similar to that during whisking. However, when SI was inactivated by muscimol infusion, whisker twitching was never observed. Finally, we used a statistical technique called partial directed coherence to identify the direction of influence of neural activity between VPM and SI, and observed that there was more directional coherence from SI to VPM during whisker twitching than during the other behaviors. Based on these findings, we propose that during whisker twitching, a descending signal from SI triggers thalamic bursting that primes the thalamocortical loop for enhanced signal detection during the whisker twitching behavior. PMID:11752471

  12. Cosmological gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paczynski, Bohdan

    1991-01-01

    The distribution in angle and flux of gamma-ray bursts indicates that the majority of gamma-ray bursters are at cosmological distances, i.e., at z of about 1. The rate is then about 10 exp -8/yr in a galaxy like the Milky Way, i.e., orders of magnitude lower than the estimated rate for collisions between neutron stars in close binary systems. The energy per burst is about 10 exp 51 ergs, assuming isotropic emission. The events appear to be less energetic and more frequent if their emission is strongly beamed. Some tests for the distance scale are discussed: a correlation between the burst's strength and its spectrum; the absorption by the Galactic gas below about 2 keV; the X-ray tails caused by forward scattering by the Galactic dust; about 1 month recurrence of some bursts caused by gravitational lensing by foreground galaxies; and a search for gamma-ray bursts in M31. The bursts appear to be a manifestation of something exotic, but conventional compact objects can provide an explanation. The best possibility is offered by a decay of a bindary composed of a spinning-stellar-mass black-hole primary and a neutron or a strange-quark star secondary. In the final phase the secondary is tidally disrupted, forms an accretion disk, and up to 10 exp 54 ergs are released. A very small fraction of this energy powers the gamma-ray burst.

  13. Energetics of Gamma Ray Bursts

    E-print Network

    Jiménez, R; Piran, T; Jimenez, Raul; Band, David; Piran, Tsvi

    2001-01-01

    We determine the distribution of total energy emitted by gamma-ray bursts for bursts with fluences and distance information. Our core sample consists of eight bursts with BATSE spectra and spectroscopic redshifts. We extend this sample by adding four bursts with BATSE spectra and host galaxy R magnitudes. From these R magnitudes we calculate a redshift probability distribution; this method requires a model of the host galaxy population. From a sample of ten bursts with both spectroscopic redshifts and host galaxy R magnitudes (some do not have BATSE spectra) we find that the burst rate is proportional to the galaxy luminosity at the epoch of the burst. Assuming that the total energy emitted has a log-normal distribution, we find that the average emitted energy (assumed to be radiated isotropically) is $ = 1.3^{+1.2}_{-1.0} \\times 10^{53}$ ergs (for H$_0$ = 65 km s$^{-1}$ Mpc$^{-1}$, $\\Omega_m=0.3$ and $\\Omega_\\Lambda=0.7$); the distribution has a logarithmic width of $\\sigma_\\gamma=1.7^{+0.7}_{-0.3}$. The cor...

  14. Opentime heterogeneity during bursting of sodium channels in frog skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Patlak, J B; Ortiz, M; Horn, R

    1986-01-01

    Single voltage-activated Na+ channel currents were obtained from membrane patches on internally dialyzed skeletal muscle segments of adult frogs. The high channel density in these membranes permitted frequent observation of the "bursting mode" of individual Na+ channels during 400-ms records. We examined the opentimes within and between bursts on individual membrane patches. We used a new nonparametric statistical procedure to test for heterogeneity in the opentime distributions. We found that although 80% of all bursts consisted of opentimes drawn from a single distribution, the opentime distribution varied significantly from burst to burst. Significant heterogeneity was also detected within the remaining 20% of individual bursts. Our results indicate that the gating kinetics of individual Na+ channels are heterogeneous, and that they may occasionally change in a single channel. PMID:2421796

  15. Mechanical and electric current activation of solid–solid reactions for the synthesis of fully dense advanced materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Locci; R. Licheri; R. Orrù; A. Cincotti; G. Caoa

    2007-01-01

    The so-called spark plasma sintering (SPS) is used in this work as a new time-saving sintering\\/synthesis method for the preparation of fully dense TiC\\/TiB2 ceramic composites and NbAl3 intermetallics. In particular, mechanically activated powders of starting materials are reacted and simultaneously consolidated once crossed by an electric pulsed current.Specifically, the effect of the most important parameters related to mechanical activation

  16. Activity and accomplishments of dish/Stirling electric power system development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livingston, F. R.

    1985-02-01

    The development of the solar parabolic-dish/Stirling-engine electricity generating plant known as the dish/Stirling electric power system is described. The dish/Stirling electric power system converts sunlight to electricity more efficiently than any known existing solar electric power system. The fabrication and characterization of the test bed concentrators that were used for Stirling module testing and of the development of parabolic dish concentrator No. 2, an advanced solar concentrator unit considered for use with the Stirling power conversion unit is discussed.

  17. Spontaneous synchronized bursting in 2D neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segev, Ronen; Ben-Jacob, Eshel

    2001-12-01

    We present a long-term (hours) measurements of the spontaneous activity of cortical cells 2D neural network placed on multi-electrodes arrays. We compare the histogram of the single neurons inter spike interval and the network inter synchronized bursting events interval. In addition, the effect of Ca concentration on the network activity is being studied. Under 1 mM Ca concentration the network exhibits periodic synchronized bursting. We present a novel feedback regulated integrate & fire model to account of the observations. In the model we include two additional features of dynamical threshold and synapses fatigue.

  18. Modulation of neutrophil oxidative burst via histamine receptors.

    PubMed

    Cíž, M; Lojek, A

    2013-09-01

    Histamine has the ability to influence the activity of immune cells including neutrophils and plays a pivotal role in inflammatory processes, which are a complex network of cellular and humoral events. One of the main functions manifested by activated neutrophils is oxidative burst, which is linked to the production of reactive oxygen species; therefore, the effects of histamine receptor agonists and antagonists on the oxidative burst of neutrophils is reviewed. A role for the well-characterized histamine H1 and H2 receptors in this process is discussed and compared to that of the recently discovered H4 receptor. PMID:23336732

  19. Development of a continuous respiration olfactometer for odorant delivery synchronous with natural respiration during recordings of brain electrical activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caroline M. Owen; John Patterson; David G. Simpson

    2002-01-01

    The continuous respiration olfactometer (CRO) was designed as a respiration-synchronous method for delivering odorants during recordings of brain electrical activity, providing control and monitoring of the timing of the delivery as well as the quantities of odorant involved. The CRO incorporates a purpose-built electronic system designed with very specific temporal and quantitative characteristics, and is composed of four main parts:

  20. Sectoral electricity and fossil fuel demand in US manufacturing: Development of the Industrial Regional Activity and Energy Demand (INRAD) model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. A. Boyd; E. C. Kokkelenberg; M. H. Ross

    1991-01-01

    This report describes the modeling approach, data sources, and procedures used to estimate and forecast electricity and fossil fuel use in US manufacturing. The forecasts are required by several models in the Emissions and Control Cost Integrated Model Set (ECIMS) used by the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP). The theoretical approach used to develop the Industrial Regional Activity and

  1. T & I--Auto Mechanics. Electrical System. Kit No. 48. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake, Robert

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on auto electrical systems are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of trade and industry. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home…

  2. Heart Rate and the Role of the Active Receiver during Contingent Electric Shock for Severe Self-Injurious Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duker, Pieter C.; Van den Munckhof, Marcia

    2007-01-01

    Five individuals, who were treated for severe self-injurious behaviors (SIB) with contingent electric shock, participated. Hereby, each occurrence of the target response was followed by a remotely administered aversive consequence. Participants' heart rates were compared at times when the active device of the equipment for the above procedure was…

  3. Burst firing of neurons in the thalamic reticular nucleus during locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Beloozerova, Irina N.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the burst firing of neurons in the motor sector of the thalamic reticular nucleus (RE) of the cat. These neurons are inhibitory cells that project to the motor thalamus. The firing activity of RE neurons was studied during four behaviors: sleep, standing, walking on a flat surface, and accurate stepping on crosspieces of a horizontal ladder. Extracellularly recorded firing activity was analyzed in 58 neurons that were identified according to their receptive fields on the contralateral forelimb. All neurons generated bursts of spikes during sleep, half generated bursts of spikes during standing, and one-third generated bursts of spikes during walking. The majority of bursts were sequences of spikes with an exponential buildup of the firing rate followed by exponential decay with time constants in the range of 10–30 ms. We termed them “full-scale” bursts. All neurons also generated “atypical” bursts, in which the buildup of the firing rate deviated from the characteristic order. Burst firing was most likely to occur in neurons with receptive fields on the distal forelimb and least likely in neurons related to the proximal limb. Full-scale bursts were more frequent than atypical bursts during unconstrained walking on the flat surface. Bursts of both types occurred with similar probability during accurate stepping on the horizontal ladder, a task that requires forebrain control of locomotion. We suggest that transformations of the temporal pattern of bursts in the inhibitory RE neurons facilitate the tuning of thalamo-cortical signals to the complexity of ongoing locomotor tasks. PMID:24740856

  4. Decameter Type III-Like Bursts

    E-print Network

    V. N. Melnik; A. A. Konovalenko; B. P. Rutkevych; H. O. Rucker; V. V. Dorovskyy; E. P. Abranin; A. Lecacheux; A. I. Brazhenko; A. A. Stanislavskyy

    2007-12-10

    Starting from 1960s Type III-like bursts (Type III bursts with high drift rates) in a wide frequency range from 300 to 950MHz have been observed. These new bursts observed at certain frequency being compared to the usual Type III bursts at the same frequency show similar behaviour but feature frequency drift 2-6 times higher than the normal bursts. In this paper we report the first observations of Type III-like bursts in decameter range, carried out during summer campaigns 2002 - 2004 at UTR-2 radio telescope. The circular polarization of the bursts was measured by the radio telescope URAN-2 in 2004. The observed bursts are analyzed and compared with usual Type III bursts in the decameter range. From the analysis of over 1100 Type III-like bursts, their main parameters have been found. Characteristic feature of the observed bursts is similar to Type III-like bursts at other frequencies, i.e. measured drift rates (5-10 MHz/s) of this bursts are few times larger than that for usual Type III bursts, and their durations (1-2 s) are few times smaller than that for usual Type III bursts in this frequency band.

  5. Electrical measurements in the atmosphere and the ionosphere over an active thunderstorm. I - Campaign overview and initial ionospheric results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, M. C.; Siefring, C. L.; Pfaff, R. F.; Kintner, P. M.; Larsen, M.

    1985-01-01

    The first simultaneous electric field observations performed in the ionosphere and atmosphere over an active nighttime thunderstorm are reported here. In the stratosphere, typical storm-related dc electric fields were detected from a horizontal distance of about 100 km, and transient electric fields due to lightning were measured at several different altitudes. In the ionosphere and mesosphere, lightning-induced transient electric fields in the range of tens of millivolts per meter were detected with rise times at least as fast as 0.2 ms and typical duration of 10-20 ms. The transients had significant components parallel to the magnetic field at 150 km altitude. This implies that either considerable Joule heating occurs or a collective instability is present because of the high drift velocities induced by the transient electric fields. Copious numbers of whistlers were generated by the storm and were detected above but not below the base of the ionosphere. The outline of a new model for direct whistler wave generation over an active thunderstorm is presented based on these observations. The intensity of the observed two-hop whistlers implies that they were amplified along their propagation path and suggests that particles were precipitated in both hemispheres.

  6. Electrical Fleas

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Exploratorium

    2013-01-30

    In this activity about electricity, learners explore how static electricity can make electric "fleas" jump up and down. Learners use a piece of wool cloth or fur to charge a sheet of acrylic plastic. Then, they observe as tiny bits of Styrofoam, spices, ceiling glitter, or rice (aka "fleas") jump up to the plastic and then back down.

  7. Macroscopic bursting in physiological networks: node or network property?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, Fabiano A. S.; Viana, Ricardo L.; Gomez, Florian; Lorimer, Tom; Stoop, Ruedi

    2015-05-01

    Activity pattern modalities of neuronal ensembles are determined by node properties as well as network structure. For many purposes, it is of interest to be able to relate activity patterns to either node properties or to network properties (or to a combination of both). When in physiological neural networks we observe bursting on a coarse-grained time and space scale, a proper decision on whether bursts are the consequence of individual neurons with an inherent bursting property or whether we are dealing with a genuine network effect has generally not been possible because of the noise in these systems. Here, by linking different orders of time and space scales, we provide a simple coarse-grained criterion for deciding this question.

  8. Magnetron: Fitting bursts from magnetars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huppenkothen, D.; Brewer, B. J.; Hogg, D. W.; Murray, I.; Frean, M.

    2015-02-01

    Magnetron, written in Python, decomposes magnetar bursts into a superposition of small spike-like features with a simple functional form, where the number of model components is itself part of the inference problem. Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling and reversible jumps between models with different numbers of parameters are used to characterize the posterior distributions of the model parameters and the number of components per burst.

  9. Cortical activation change induced by neuromuscular electrical stimulation during hand movements: a functional NIRS study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) has been used in the field of rehabilitation for a long time. Previous studies on NMES have focused on the peripheral effect, in contrast, relatively little is known about the effect on the cerebral cortex. In the current study, we attempted to investigate the change of cortical activation pattern induced by NMES during execution of hand movements in normal subjects, using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Methods Twelve healthy normal subjects were randomly assigned to the NMES group (six subjects) and the sham group (six subjects). We measured oxy-hemoglobin (HbO) in six regions of interest (ROI) during pre-NMES and post-NMES motor phase; the left dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, premotor cortex, primary sensory-motor cortex (SM1), hand somatotopic area of SM1, and posterior parietal cortex. Between the pre-NMES and the post-NMES motor phases, real or sham NMES was applied on finger and wrist extensors of all subjects during a period of 5 minutes. Results In all groups, during the pre-NMES motor phase, the HbO value in the hand somatotopic area of the left SM1 was higher than those of other ROIs. In the NMES group, during the post-NMES motor phase, HbO value variation in the hand somatotopic area of the left SM1 showed a significant decrease, compared with that of sham group (p??0.05). Conclusions Results of this study showed that NMES induced a decrease of cortical activation during execution of hand movements. This finding appears to indicate that application of NMES can increase the efficiency of the cerebral cortex during execution of motor tasks. PMID:24597550

  10. TOPICAL REVIEW: Electric current activated/assisted sintering (ECAS): a review of patents 1906-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasso, Salvatore; Sakka, Yoshio; Maizza, Giovanni

    2009-10-01

    The electric current activated/assisted sintering (ECAS) is an ever growing class of versatile techniques for sintering particulate materials. Despite the tremendous advances over the last two decades in ECASed materials and products there is a lack of comprehensive reviews on ECAS apparatuses and methods. This paper fills the gap by tracing the progress of ECAS technology from 1906 to 2008 and surveys 642 ECAS patents published over more than a century. It is found that the ECAS technology was pioneered by Bloxam (1906 GB Patent No. 9020) who developed the first resistive sintering apparatus. The patents were searched by keywords or by cross-links and were withdrawn from the Japanese Patent Office (342 patents), the United States Patent and Trademark Office (175 patents), the Chinese State Intellectual Property Office of P.R.C. (69 patents) and the World Intellectual Property Organization (12 patents). A subset of 119 (out of 642) ECAS patents on methods and apparatuses was selected and described in detail with respect to their fundamental concepts, physical principles and importance in either present ECAS apparatuses or future ECAS technologies for enhancing efficiency, reliability, repeatability, controllability and productivity. The paper is divided into two parts, the first deals with the basic concepts, features and definitions of basic ECAS and the second analyzes the auxiliary devices/peripherals. The basic ECAS is classified with reference to discharge time (fast and ultrafast ECAS). The fundamental principles and definitions of ECAS are outlined in accordance with the scientific and patent literature.

  11. Nighttime observations of thunderstorm electrical activity from a high altitude airplane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brook, M.; Rhodes, C.; Vaughan, O. H., Jr.; Orville, R. E.; Vonnegut, B.

    1984-09-01

    Photographs from a NASA U-2 airplane flying over nocturnal thunderstorms show frequent lightning activity in the upper part of the cloud. In some cases, unobscured segments of lightning channels 1 km or longer are visible in clear air around and above the cloud. Multiple images of lightning channels indicate multiple discharges in the same channel. Photographs taken through a diffraction grating show that the lightning has a spectrum similar to that observed in the lower troposphere. Lightning spectra obtained with a slitless line-scan spectrometer show strong singly ionized nitrogen emissions at 463.0 and 500.5 nm. Field changes measured with an electric field-change meter correlate with pulses measured with a photocell optical system. Optical signals corresponding to dart leader, return stroke, and continuing current events are readily distinguished in the scattered light emerging from the cloud surface. The variation of light intensity with time in lightning events is consistent with predicted modification of optical lightning signals by clouds. It appears that satellite based optical sensor measurements cannot provide reliable information on current rise times in return strokes. On the other hand, discrimination between cloud-to-ground and intracloud flashes and the counting of ground strokes is possible using the optical pulse pairs which have been identified with leader, return-stroke events in the cloud-to-ground flashes studied.

  12. Optimization of Electrically Active Magnetic Nanoparticles as Accurate and Efficient Microbial Extraction Tools

    PubMed Central

    Cloutier, Barbara C.; Cloutier, Ashley K.; Alocilja, Evangelyn C.

    2015-01-01

    Food defense requires the means to efficiently screen large volumes of food for microbial pathogens. Even rapid detection methods often require lengthy enrichment steps, making them impractical for this application. There is a great need for rapid, sensitive, specific, and inexpensive methods for extracting and concentrating microbial pathogens from food. In this study, an immuno-magnetic separation (IMS) methodology was developed for Escherichia coli O157:H7, using electrically active magnetic nanoparticles (EAMNPs). The analytical specificity of the IMS method was evaluated against Escherichia coli O55:H7 and Shigella boydii, and was improved over previous protocols by the addition of sodium chloride during the conjugation of antibodies onto MNPs. The analytical sensitivity of the IMS method was greatest when a high concentration of antibodies (1.0 mg/mL) was present during conjugation. EAMNP concentrations of 1.0 and 0.5 mg/mL provided optimal analytical sensitivity and analytical specificity. The entire IMS procedure requires only 35 min, and antibody-conjugated MNPs show no decline in performance up to 149 days after conjugation. This analytically sensitive and specific extraction protocol has excellent longevity and shows promise as an effective extraction for multiple electrochemical biosensor applications. PMID:25664527

  13. Enzymatic activity of glucose oxidase covalently wired via viologen to electrically conductive polypyrrole films.

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Neoh, K G; Cen, Lian; Kang, E T

    2004-03-15

    The surface functionalization of an electrically conductive polypyrrole film (PPY) with a viologen, (N-(2-carboxyl-ethyl)-N'-(4-vinyl-benzyl)-4,4'-bipyridinium dichloride, or CVV) for the covalent immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOD) has been carried out. The viologen was first synthesized and graft polymerized on PPY film. It then served as an anchor via its carboxyl groups for the covalent immobilization of GOD. The surface composition of the as-functionalized substrates was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The effects of the CVV monomer concentration on the CVV-graft polymer concentration and the amount of GOD immobilized on the surface were investigated. The activity of the immobilized GOD was compared with that of free GOD and the kinetic effects were also obtained. The cyclic voltammetric (CV) response of the GOD-functionalized PPY substrates was studied in a phosphate buffer solution under an argon atmosphere. The CV results support the mechanism in which CVV acts as a mediator to transfer electron between the electrode and enzyme, and hence regenerating the enzyme in the enzymatic reaction with glucose. High sensitivity and linear response of the enzyme electrode was observed with glucose concentration ranging from 0 to 20 mM. PMID:15128101

  14. Advanced electric-field scanning probe lithography on molecular resist using active cantilever

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaestner, Marcus; Aydogan, Cemal; Lipowicz, Hubert-Seweryn; Ivanov, Tzvetan; Lenk, Steve; Ahmad, Ahmad; Angelov, Tihomir; Reum, Alexander; Ishchuk, Valentyn; Atanasov, Ivaylo; Krivoshapkina, Yana; Hofer, Manuel; Holz, Mathias; Rangelow, Ivo W.

    2015-03-01

    The routine "on demand" fabrication of features smaller than 10 nm opens up new possibilities for the realization of many novel nanoelectronic, NEMS, optical and bio-nanotechnology-based devices. Based on the thermally actuated, piezoresistive cantilever technology we have developed a first prototype of a scanning probe lithography (SPL) platform able to image, inspect, align and pattern features down to single digit nano regime. The direct, mask-less patterning of molecular resists using active scanning probes represents a promising path circumventing the problems in today's radiation-based lithography. Here, we present examples of practical applications of the previously published electric field based, current-controlled scanning probe lithography on molecular glass resist calixarene by using the developed tabletop SPL system. We demonstrate the application of a step-and-repeat scanning probe lithography scheme including optical as well as AFM based alignment and navigation. In addition, sequential read-write cycle patterning combining positive and negative tone lithography is shown. We are presenting patterning over larger areas (80 x 80 ?m) and feature the practical applicability of the lithographic processes.

  15. Noninvasive reconstruction of cardiac electrical activity: update on current methods, applications and challenges.

    PubMed

    Cluitmans, M J M; Peeters, R L M; Westra, R L; Volders, P G A

    2015-06-01

    Electrical activity at the level of the heart muscle can be noninvasively reconstructed from body-surface electrocardiograms (ECGs) and patient-specific torso-heart geometry. This modality, coined electrocardiographic imaging, could fill the gap between the noninvasive (low-resolution) 12-lead ECG and invasive (high-resolution) electrophysiology studies. Much progress has been made to establish electrocardiographic imaging, and clinical studies appear with increasing frequency. However, many assumptions and model choices are involved in its execution, and only limited validation has been performed. In this article, we will discuss the technical details, clinical applications and current limitations of commonly used methods in electrocardiographic imaging. It is important for clinicians to realise the influence of certain assumptions and model choices for correct and careful interpretation of the results. This, in combination with more extensive validation, will allow for exploitation of the full potential of noninvasive electrocardiographic imaging as a powerful clinical tool to expedite diagnosis, guide therapy and improve risk stratification. PMID:25896779

  16. On the Photonic Cellular Interaction and the Electric Activity of Neurons in the Human Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salari, V.; Tuszynski, J.; Bokkon, I.; Rahnama, M.; Cifra, M.

    2011-12-01

    The subject of Ultraweak Photon Emission (UPE) by biological systems is very fascinating, and both evidence of its effects and applications are growing rapidly due to improvements in experimental techniques. Since the relevant equipment should be ultrasensitive with high quantum efficiencies and very low noise levels, the subject of UPE is still hotly debated and some of the interpretations need stronger empirical evidence to be accepted at face value. In this paper we first review different types of interactions between light and living systems based on recent publications. We then discuss the feasibility of UPE production in the human brain. The subject of UPE in the brain is still in early stages of development and needs more accurate experimental methods for proper analysis. In this work we also discuss a possible role of mitochondria in the production of UPE in the neurons of the brain and the plausibility of their effects on microtubules (MTs). MTs have been implicated as playing an important role in the signal and information processing taking place in the mammalian (especially human) brain. Finally, we provide a short discussion about the feasible effects of MTs on electric neural activity in the human brain.

  17. [The changes in the brain's electrical activity in children with cerebral palsy during the complex rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Ukhanova, T A; Gorbunov, F E; Dement'eva, E V; Volkova, E A; Novikova, E E

    2012-01-01

    One hundred and five children, aged from 3 to 7 years, with the diagnosis "spastic diplegia cerebral palsy" were treated. Patients were stratified into three groups: group I (n=36) received three courses of microcurrent therapy (MENS) in addition to standard treatment; group II (n=38) received three courses of MENS in the combination with two treatment courses with the nootropic drug cortexin; children of group III (n=31) received standard therapy using massage and gymnastics. MENS was carried out in courses, including 15 sessions each, using the apparatus "MEKS". Cortexin was introduced intramuscular in dosage 10 mg, the treatment course consisted of 10 injections. To the end of the rehabilitation program, positive changes were found: 50% patients of group I, 66% patients of group II and 16% patients of group III could perform complex instructions and acquired skills in modeling and recognition of geometric forms. Positive changes in the brain's electrical activity were found in 75% of children in group I, in 82% of children in group II and in 64% of children in group III. PMID:23250594

  18. Nighttime observations of thunderstorm electrical activity from a high altitude airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brook, M.; Rhodes, C.; Vaughan, O. H., Jr.; Orville, R. E.; Vonnegut, B.

    1984-01-01

    Photographs from a NASA U-2 airplane flying over nocturnal thunderstorms show frequent lightning activity in the upper part of the cloud. In some cases, unobscured segments of lightning channels 1 km or longer are visible in clear air around and above the cloud. Multiple images of lightning channels indicate multiple discharges in the same channel. Photographs taken through a diffraction grating show that the lightning has a spectrum similar to that observed in the lower troposphere. Lightning spectra obtained with a slitless line-scan spectrometer show strong singly ionized nitrogen emissions at 463.0 and 500.5 nm. Field changes measured with an electric field-change meter correlate with pulses measured with a photocell optical system. Optical signals corresponding to dart leader, return stroke, and continuing current events are readily distinguished in the scattered light emerging from the cloud surface. The variation of light intensity with time in lightning events is consistent with predicted modification of optical lightning signals by clouds. It appears that satellite based optical sensor measurements cannot provide reliable information on current rise times in return strokes. On the other hand, discrimination between cloud-to-ground and intracloud flashes and the counting of ground strokes is possible using the optical pulse pairs which have been identified with leader, return-stroke events in the cloud-to-ground flashes studied.

  19. Sequential activation of class IB and class IA PI3K is important for the primed respiratory burst of human but not murine neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Condliffe, Alison M; Davidson, Keith; Anderson, Karen E; Ellson, Chris D; Crabbe, Tom; Okkenhaug, Klaus; Vanhaesebroeck, Bart; Turner, Martin; Webb, Louise; Wymann, Matthias P; Hirsch, Emilio; Ruckle, Thomas; Camps, Montserrat; Rommel, Christian; Jackson, Shaun P; Chilvers, Edwin R; Stephens, Len R; Hawkins, Phillip T

    2005-08-15

    It is well established that preexposure of human neutrophils to proinflammatory cytokines markedly augments the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to subsequent stimuli. This priming event is thought to be critical for localizing ROS to the vicinity of the inflammation, maximizing their role in the resolution of the inflammation, and minimizing the damage to surrounding tissue. We have used a new generation of isoform-selective phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors to show that ROS production under these circumstances is regulated by temporal control of class I PI3K activity. Stimulation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-primed human neutrophils with N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) results in biphasic activation of PI3K; the first phase is largely dependent on PI3Kgamma, and the second phase is largely dependent on PI3Kdelta. The second phase of PI3K activation requires the first phase; it is this second phase that is augmented by TNF-alpha priming and that regulates parallel activation of ROS production. Surprisingly, although TNF-alpha-primed mouse bone marrow-derived neutrophils exhibit superficially similar patterns of PI3K activation and ROS production in response to fMLP, these responses are substantially lower and largely dependent on PI3Kgamma alone. These results start to define which PI3K isoforms are responsible for modulating neutrophil responsiveness to infection and inflammation. PMID:15878979

  20. Gamma-ray burst models.

    PubMed

    King, Andrew

    2007-05-15

    I consider various possibilities for making gamma-ray bursts, particularly from close binaries. In addition to the much-studied neutron star+neutron star and black hole+neutron star cases usually considered good candidates for short-duration bursts, there are also other possibilities. In particular, neutron star+massive white dwarf has several desirable features. These systems are likely to produce long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), in some cases definitely without an accompanying supernova, as observed recently. This class of burst would have a strong correlation with star formation and occur close to the host galaxy. However, rare members of the class need not be near star-forming regions and could have any type of host galaxy. Thus, a long-duration burst far from any star-forming region would also be a signature of this class. Estimates based on the existence of a known progenitor suggest that this type of GRB may be quite common, in agreement with the fact that the absence of a supernova can only be established in nearby bursts. PMID:17293332

  1. Dynamical evolution of Schumann resonance frequency spectra during some strong Q-bursts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suman Paul; S. S. De

    2011-01-01

    Schumann resonances (SR) observations from a tropical region near Kolkata at the estuary of the river Ganges merging into the Bay-of-Bengal (21.48° N, 88.61° E) are being made frequently. Several Q-bursts spectra are observed. Strong ELF transients are detected in the recorded data of SR. The dynamic evolution of electric and magnetic field components of the Q-bursts will be presented

  2. Photocontrol of bud burst involves gibberellin biosynthesis in Rosa sp.

    PubMed

    Choubane, Djillali; Rabot, Amélie; Mortreau, Eric; Legourrierec, Jose; Péron, Thomas; Foucher, Fabrice; Ahcène, Youyou; Pelleschi-Travier, Sandrine; Leduc, Nathalie; Hamama, Latifa; Sakr, Soulaiman

    2012-09-01

    Light is a critical determinant of plant shape by controlling branching patterns and bud burst in many species. To gain insight into how light induces bud burst, we investigated whether its inductive effect in rose was related to gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis. In axillary buds of beheaded plants subject to light, the expression of two GA biosynthesis genes (RoGA20ox and RoGA3ox) was promptly and strongly induced, while that of a GA-catabolism genes (RoGA2ox) was reduced. By contrast, lower expression levels of these two GA biosynthesis genes were found in darkness, and correlated with a total inhibition of bud burst. This effect was dependent on both light intensity and quality. In in vitro cultured buds, the inductive effect of light on the growth of preformed leaves and SAM organogenic activity was inhibited by ancymidol and paclobutrazol, two effectors of GA biosynthesis. This effect was concentration-dependent, and negated by GA(3). However, GA(3) alone could not rescue bud burst in the dark. GA biosynthesis was also required for the expression and activity of a vacuolar invertase, and therefore for light-induced sugar metabolism within buds. These findings are evidence that GA biosynthesis contributes to the light effect on bud burst and lay the foundations of a better understanding of its exact role in plant branching. PMID:22749285

  3. Heterogeneity in Short Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, Jay P.; Gehrels Neil; Scargle, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the Swift/BAT sample of short gamma-ray bursts, using an objective Bayesian Block procedure to extract temporal descriptors of the bursts' initial pulse complexes (IPCs). The sample comprises 12 and 41 bursts with and without extended emission (EE) components, respectively. IPCs of non-EE bursts are dominated by single pulse structures, while EE bursts tend to have two or more pulse structures. The medians of characteristic timescales - durations, pulse structure widths, and peak intervals - for EE bursts are factors of approx 2-3 longer than for non-EE bursts. A trend previously reported by Hakkila and colleagues unifying long and short bursts - the anti-correlation of pulse intensity and width - continues in the two short burst groups, with non-EE bursts extending to more intense, narrower pulses. In addition we find that preceding and succeeding pulse intensities are anti-correlated with pulse interval. We also examine the short burst X-ray afterglows as observed by the Swift/XRT. The median flux of the initial XRT detections for EE bursts (approx 6 X 10(exp -10) erg / sq cm/ s) is approx > 20 x brighter than for non-EE bursts, and the median X-ray afterglow duration for EE bursts (approx 60,000 s) is approx 30 x longer than for non-EE bursts. The tendency for EE bursts toward longer prompt-emission timescales and higher initial X-ray afterglow fluxes implies larger energy injections powering the afterglows. The longer-lasting X-ray afterglows of EE bursts may suggest that a significant fraction explode into more dense environments than non-EE bursts, or that the sometimes-dominant EE component efficiently p()wers the afterglow. Combined, these results favor different progenitors for EE and non-EE short bursts.

  4. Lysophosphatidylcholine exacerbates Leishmania major-dendritic cell infection through interleukin-10 and a burst in arginase1 and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activities.

    PubMed

    Tounsi, Nabila; Meghari, Soraya; Moser, Muriel; Djerdjouri, Bahia

    2015-03-01

    Leishmania major is an obligate intracellular parasite hosted by phagocytes, including dendritic cells (DCs). Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) a pro-oxidant by-product of phospholipase A2 activity can modulate the maturation and function of DCs. However, little is known about its role in L. major infection. This study examined the effects of LPC and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in BALB/c mouse-derived DC infection by L. major promastigotes, in vitro. Our results showed early divergent effects of LPS and LPC, which lasted up to 24h. In contrast to LPS, LPC worsened DC infection by reversing the immune balance IL-10 vs. TNF-? and IL-6, and inducing a sharp down regulation of CD40 and iNOsynthase activity. In addition, LPC potentiated xanthine oxidase stress, the production of kynurenine by indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO), and arginase1 activity in the expense of iNOsynthase. Taken together, our results highlight some biochemical events bypassing the protective Th1 response. They suggest that LPC could facilitate the proliferation of this obligate intracellular parasite by neutralizing oxidative and nitrosative stresses and sustaining both IDO and arginase1 activities. PMID:25601495

  5. Hypothesis on radar sensing and communication by hornets: comments on their antennal organulles and electrical activity.

    PubMed

    Agmon, I; Litinetsky, L; Gavan, J; Ishay, J S

    2001-01-01

    Our study shows that the antenna of the hornet is densely covered from base to tip with six types of organulles, namely, a trichoid organulle, about 23 microm in length, a campaniform organulle which is 12 microm long, a heretofore undescribed structure measuring about 9 microm in length which we have now named the Agmon organulle, a rather flattened placoid organulle measuring about 25 microm in length and not projecting on the antennal surface, and finally rounded structures about 3 microm in diameter which are indented in the cuticle and resemble extraretinal photoreceptors. All the above-mentioned structures occur in the workers and drones, and the latter also possess an additional structure, namely, the tyloid which is about 254 microm long. Such organulles as protrude from the antennal surface are mostly orientated distally and their length is about half that of similar organulles on the hornets body. Yet their density on the antenna is greater than elsewhere on the body and in fact on all the antennal segments (12 in the workers and 13 in the drones) the entire surface area seems to be occupied by them. The most numerous are the trichoids, while the other organulles mentioned are fewer in number. In measuring the electric properties of the antennae, we obtained the following values: 10-80 nanoAmpers (nA), 60-100 milliVolt (mV) and several scores of Mega Ohms (Momega) in the dark, as compared to 10-20 nA, 150-200 mV and few Momega under illumination. We found that in many respects, the cuticle in the antenna behaves like an organic semiconductor possessing thermophotovoltaic (TPV) properties. Apart from contemplating that the role of the antennal organulles is as a mechanoreceptor, a chemoreceptor or a combination of the two, we also raise the conjecture that these organulles might serve as elements that pick up and broadcast at submillimetric wavelengths, and that the electric energy extant in the vespan antennae supplies the energy source for this kind of activity. PMID:11758738

  6. Optical Recording of Electrical Activity in Guinea-pig Enteric Networks using Voltage-sensitive Dyes

    PubMed Central

    Obaid, Ana L.; Salzberg, B. M.

    2009-01-01

    The enteric nervous system (ENS) is a self-contained network with identified functions, capable of performing complex behaviors in isolation. Its neurons (10 to 25 ?m in diameter) are arranged in plexuses that are confined to distinct planes of the gut wall 1; the myenteric plexus can be found between the longitudinal and circular muscle layers, and the submucous plexus between the circular muscle layer and the mucosa. Since the effector systems for these plexuses (transporting epithelium, endocrine cells, immune elements, blood vessels and smooth muscle) are also contained within the gut wall, semi-intact preparations can be dissected that preserve individual components of different reflex pathways. The behavior of the effector systems is controlled by the submucous and myenteric plexuses acting in concert. Therefore, detailed knowledge of synaptic interactions within and between ganglia, and of communication between the plexuses, is essential for understanding normal gastrointestinal function. The ENS, as an intact nervous system, is a unique experimental model in which one can correlate molecular and cellular events with the electrical behavior of the neuronal network and its physiological outputs. Because of the quasi-two-dimensional organization of its plexuses, the ENS is particularly well suited for the study of neural networks using multiple site optical recording techniques that employ voltage-sensitive dyes 2,7,8,9. We will illustrate here the use of a relatively new naphthylstyryl-pyridinium dye (di-4-ANEPPDHQ) 3 that offers multiple advantages over its predecessors, including very low phototoxicity, slow rate of internalization, and remarkable chemical stability. When used in conjunction with a camera that permits sub-millisecond time resolution, this dye allows us to monitor the electrical activity of all the neurons in the field of view with a maximal spatial resolution of ~ 2.5 ?m at 100X magnification. At lower magnification (10X or 20X), the sacrifice of single-cell resolution is compensated by a gain in perspective, revealing the intricacies of the inter-ganglionic circuitry. PMID:19966751

  7. Relative clock verifies endogenous bursts of human dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Tao; Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Yang, Zimo; Zhou, Changsong

    2012-01-01

    Temporal bursts are widely observed in many human-activated systems, which may result from both endogenous mechanisms like the highest-priority-first protocol and exogenous factors like the seasonality of activities. To distinguish the effects from different mechanisms is thus of theoretical significance. This letter reports a new timing method by using a relative clock, namely the time length between two consecutive events of an agent is counted as the number of other agents' events appeared during this interval. We propose a model, in which agents act either in a constant rate or with a power-law inter-event time distribution, and the global activity either keeps unchanged or varies periodically vs. time. Our analysis shows that the bursts caused by the heterogeneity of global activity can be eliminated by setting the relative clock, yet the bursts from real individual behaviors still exist. We perform extensive experiments on four large-scale systems, the search engine by AOL, a social bookmarking system —Delicious, a short-message communication network, and a microblogging system —Twitter. Seasonality of global activity is observed, yet the bursts cannot be eliminated by using the relative clock.

  8. Bursting in Cellular Automata and Cardiac Arrhythmias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bub, Gil; Shrier, Alvin; Glass, Leon

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the initiation and continuation of abnormal cardiac arrhythmias are incompletely understood. In this chapter, we summarize work that shows how simple cellular automata models of excitable media can display a range of interesting dynamical behavior including spontaneous bursts of reentrant spiral activity. Since the model incorporates basic physiological properties of excitability, heterogeneity, localized pacemakers, and fatigue in a schematic way, the model captures generic physiological dynamics that should be broadly observed in experimental and clinical settings as well as in more realistic mathematical models.

  9. The Intensity Distribution of Faint Gamma-Ray Bursts Detected with BATSE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kommers, Jefferson M.; Lewin, Walter H. G.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; vanParadus, Jan; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Meegan, Charles A.; Fishman, Gerald J.

    2000-01-01

    We have recently completed a search of six years of archival Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) data for gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) that were too faint to activate the real-time burst detection system running on board the spacecraft. These 'nontriggered' bursts can be combined with the 'triggered' bursts detected on board to produce a GRB intensity distribution that reaches peak fluxes a factor of approximately two lower than could be studied previously. The value of the statistic (in Euclidean space) for the bursts we detect is 0.177 +/- 0.006. This surprisingly low value is obtained because we detected very few bursts on the 4.096 s and 8.192 s timescales (where most bursts have their highest signal-to-noise ratio) that were not already detected on the 1.024 s timescale. If allowance is made for a power-law distribution of intrinsic peak luminosities, the extended peak flux distribution is consistent with models in which the redshift distribution of the gamma-ray burst rate approximately traces the star formation history of the universe. We argue that this class of models is preferred over those in which the burst rate is independent of redshift. We use the peak flux distribution to derive a limit of 10% (99% confidence) on the fraction of the total burst rate that could be contributed by a spatially homogeneous (in Euclidean space) subpopulation of burst sources, such as type Ib/c supernovae. These results lend support to the conclusions of previous studies predicting that relatively few faint 'classical' GRBs will be found below the BATSE onboard detection threshold.

  10. Cascade model of gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturrock, P. A.; Harding, A. K.; Daugherty, J. K.

    1989-01-01

    If, in a neutron star magnetosphere, an electron is accelerated to an energy of 10 to the 11th or 12th power eV by an electric field parallel to the magnetic field, motion of the electron along the curved field line leads to a cascade of gamma rays and electron-positron pairs. This process is believed to occur in radio pulsars and gamma ray burst sources. Results are presented from numerical simulations of the radiation and photon annihilation pair production processes, using a computer code previously developed for the study of radio pulsars. A range of values of initial energy of a primary electron was considered along with initial injection position, and magnetic dipole moment of the neutron star. The resulting spectra was found to exhibit complex forms that are typically power law over a substantial range of photon energy, and typically include a dip in the spectrum near the electron gyro-frequency at the injection point. The results of a number of models are compared with data for the 5 Mar., 1979 gamma ray burst. A good fit was found to the gamma ray part of the spectrum, including the equivalent width of the annihilation line.

  11. Cascade model of gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturrock, P. A.; Harding, A. K.; Daugherty, J. K.

    1989-11-01

    If, in a neutron star magnetosphere, an electron is accelerated to an energy of 10 to the 11th or 12th power eV by an electric field parallel to the magnetic field, motion of the electron along the curved field line leads to a cascade of gamma rays and electron-positron pairs. This process is believed to occur in radio pulsars and gamma ray burst sources. Results are presented from numerical simulations of the radiation and photon annihilation pair production processes, using a computer code previously developed for the study of radio pulsars. A range of values of initial energy of a primary electron was considered along with initial injection position, and magnetic dipole moment of the neutron star. The resulting spectra was found to exhibit complex forms that are typically power law over a substantial range of photon energy, and typically include a dip in the spectrum near the electron gyro-frequency at the injection point. The results of a number of models are compared with data for the 5 Mar., 1979 gamma ray burst. A good fit was found to the gamma ray part of the spectrum, including the equivalent width of the annihilation line.

  12. Relationship of protein phosphorylation to the activation of the respiratory burst in human neutrophils. Defects in the phosphorylation of a group of closely related 48-kDa proteins in two forms of chronic granulomatous disease

    SciTech Connect

    Okamura, N.; Curnutte, J.T.; Roberts, R.L.; Babior, B.M.

    1988-05-15

    When 32P-labeled human neutrophils were activated by exposure to phorbol myristate acetate, three 48-kDa proteins (designated pp48/6.8, pp48/7.3, and pp48/7.8, from their isoelectric points) were found to have become labeled. With maximal stimulation, labeling was complete by 30 s. With lesser degrees of stimulation, the extent of labeling at 2 min correlated with rates of production by the phorbol-treated cells. Increased labeling of these 48-kDa proteins was also seen in cells exposed to f-Met-Leu-Phe. In phorbol-treated neutrophils from patients with X-linked cytochrome b558-negative chronic granulomatous disease, pp48/7.8 was labeled in a normal fashion, but pp48/6.8 and pp48/7.3 failed to take up 32P. In cells from patients with autosomal recessive cytochrome b558-positive chronic granulomatous disease, however, none of the three proteins took up 32P in response to phorbol. The three proteins appear to be very closely related, as indicated by the findings that phosphoserine was the only phosphoamino acid found in any of the three, and all three yielded identical one-dimensional phosphopeptide maps after digestion with either chymotrypsin or staphylococcal proteinase V8. These results reconcile earlier observations on protein phosphorylation in chronic granulomatous disease and provide further evidence for a relationship between the phosphorylation of this group of 48-kDa proteins and the activation of the respiratory burst oxidase.

  13. Dynamics of propagating waves in the olfactory network of a terrestrial mollusk: an electrical and optical study.

    PubMed

    Kleinfeld, D; Delaney, K R; Fee, M S; Flores, J A; Tank, D W; Gelperin, A

    1994-09-01

    1. The procerebral (PC) lobe of the terrestrial mollusk Limax maximus contains a highly interconnected network of local olfactory interneurons that receives ipsilateral axonal projections from superior and inferior noses. This network exhibits an approximately 0.7-Hz intrinsic oscillation in its local field potential (LFP). 2. Intracellular recordings show that the lobe contains at least two classes of neurons with activity phase locked to the oscillation. Neurons in one class produce periodic bursts of spikes, followed by a period of hyperpolarization and subsequently a depolarizing afterpotential. There is a small but significant chance for a second burst to occur during the depolarizing afterpotential; this leads to a double event in the LFP. Bursting neurons constitute approximately 10% of the neurons in the lobe. 3. Neurons in the other class fire infrequently and do not produce periodic bursts of action potentials. However, they receive strong, periodic inhibitory input during every event in the LFP. These nonbursting cells constitute the major fraction of neurons in the lobe. There is a clear correlation between the periodic burst of action potentials in the bursting neurons and the hyperpolarization seen in nonbursting neurons. 4. Optical techniques are used to image the spatially averaged transmembrane potentials in preparations stained with voltage-sensitive dyes. The results of simultaneous optical and electrical measurements show that the major part of the optical signal can be interpreted as a superposition of the intracellular signals arising from the bursting and nonbursting neurons. 5. Successive images of the entire PC lobe show waves of electrical activity that span the width of the lobe and travel its full length along a longitudinal axis. The direction of propagation in the unperturbed lobe is always from the distal to the proximal end. The wavelength varies between preparations but is on the order of the length of the preparation. 6. One-dimensional images along the longitudinal axis of the lobe are used to construct a space-time map of the optical activity, from which we calculate the absolute contribution of bursting and nonbursting neurons to the optical signal. The contribution of the intracellular signals from the two cell types appears to vary systematically across the lobe; bursting cells dominate at middle and proximal locations, and nonbursting cells dominate at distal locations. 7. The direction and form of the waves can be perturbed either by microsurgical manipulation of the preparation or by chemical modulation of its synaptic and neuronal properties.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7807221

  14. The Electron Runaround: Understanding Electric Circuit Basics through a Classroom Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Vandana

    2010-01-01

    Several misconceptions abound among college students taking their first general physics course, and to some extent pre-engineering physics students, regarding the physics and applications of electric circuits. Analogies used in textbooks, such as those that liken an electric circuit to a piped closed loop of water driven by a water pump, do not…

  15. Shape memory alloy servo actuator system with electric resistance feedback and application for active endoscope

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koji Ikuta; M. Tsukamoto; Shigeo Hirose

    1988-01-01

    A control system for a shape memory alloy (SMA) servo actuator, and its application to a unique medical tool, are considered. It is thought that the electric resistance value of an SMA can be utilized to monitor the transformation of the SMA directly. Therefore, an antagonistic transformation control scheme using electric resistance feedback is proposed and is verified by several

  16. Electrically tunable hole g factor of an optically active quantum dot for fast spin rotations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prechtel, Jonathan H.; Maier, Franziska; Houel, Julien; Kuhlmann, Andreas V.; Ludwig, Arne; Wieck, Andreas D.; Loss, Daniel; Warburton, Richard J.

    2015-04-01

    We report a large g factor tunability of a single hole spin in an InGaAs quantum dot via an electric field. The magnetic field lies in the in-plane direction x , the direction required for a coherent hole spin. The electrical field lies along the growth direction z and is changed over a large range, 100 kV/cm. Both electron and hole g factors are determined by high resolution laser spectroscopy with resonance fluorescence detection. This, along with the low electrical-noise environment, gives very high quality experimental results. The hole g factor ghx depends linearly on the electric field Fz,d ghx/d Fz=(8.3 ±1.2 ) ×10-4 cm/kV, whereas the electron g factor gex is independent of electric field d gex/d Fz=(0.1 ±0.3 ) ×10-4 cm/kV (results averaged over a number of quantum dots). The dependence of ghx on Fz is well reproduced by a 4 ×4 k .p model demonstrating that the electric field sensitivity arises from a combination of soft hole confining potential, an In concentration gradient, and a strong dependence of material parameters on In concentration. The electric field sensitivity of the hole spin can be exploited for electrically driven hole spin rotations via the g tensor modulation technique and based on these results, a hole spin coupling as large as ˜1 GHz can be envisaged.

  17. Effects of surface-active demulsifiers on electrical conductivity of emulsions of water in crude oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Yunusov; G. M. Akhmadiev; G. A. Babalyan

    1984-01-01

    This article examines the effects of various emulsifiers on the electrical conductivity (EC) of emulsions of water in crude oil under conditions approaching the conditions prevailing in crude oil demulsification in electrocoalescing vessels. It is assumed that the EC of inverse hydrocarbon emulsions depends on the strength of the electric field. Beginning at a field strength of some hundreds of

  18. Differences in Consumer Activity at the Nordic Electricity Market - Searching for Explanations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Merja Pakkanen; Tor Arnt Johnsen

    Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden have all fully liberalized their electricity markets during the past 15 years, with Norway the first to commence in 1991 and Denmark the most recent in 2000. The residential (household) customers have been able to switch electricity supplier without mandatory hourly metering or switching charges in the following timetable: Norway 1997, Finland 1998, Sweden 1999

  19. Elicitor-Stimulated ion Fluxes and O2- from the Oxidative Burst are Essential Components in Triggering Defense Gene Activation and Phytoalexin Synthesis in Parsley

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thorsten Jabs; Markus Tschope; Christiane Colling; Klaus Hahlbrock; Dierk Scheel

    1997-01-01

    Fungal elicitor stimulates a multicomponent defense response in cultured parsley cells (Petroselinum crispum). Early elements of this receptor-mediated response are ion fluxes across the plasma membrane and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), sequentially followed by defense gene activation and phytoalexin accumulation. Omission of Ca2+ from the culture medium or inhibition of elicitor-stimulated ion fluxes by ion channel blockers

  20. Fermi/GBM Observations of SGRJ0501 + 4516 Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Lin; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Baring, Matthew G.; van der Horst, Alexander J.; Guiriec, Sylvain; Woods, Peter M.; Goegues, Ersin; Kaneko, Yuki; Scargle, Jeffrey; Granot, Jonathan; Preece, Robert; von Kienlin, Andreas; Chaplin, Vandiver; Watts, Anna L.; Wijers, Ralph A. M. J.; Zhang, Shuang Nan; Bhat, Narayan; Finger, Mark H.; Gehrels. Neil; Harding, Alice; Kaper, Lex; Kaspi, Victoria; Mcenery, Julie; Meegan, Charles A.; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen

    2011-01-01

    We present our temporal and spectral analyses of 29 bursts from SGRJ0501+4516, detected with the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor onboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope during the 13 days of the source activation in 2008 (August 22 to September 3). We find that the T(sub 90) durations of the bursts can be fit with a log-normal distribution with a mean value of approx. 123 ms. We also estimate for the first time event durations of Soft Gamma Repeater (SGR) bursts in photon space (i.e., using their deconvolved spectra) and find that these are very similar to the T(sub 90)s estimated in count space (following a log-normal distribution with a mean value of approx. 124 ms). We fit the time-integrated spectra for each burst and the time-resolved spectra of the five brightest bursts with several models. We find that a single power law with an exponential cutoff model fits all 29 bursts well, while 18 of the events can also be fit with two black body functions. We expand on the physical interpretation of these two models and we compare their parameters and discuss their evolution. We show that the time-integrated and time-resolved spectra reveal that E(sub peak) decreases with energy flux (and fluence) to a minimum of approx. 30 keV at F = 8.7 x 10(exp -6)erg/sq cm/s, increasing steadily afterwards. Two more sources exhibit a similar trend: SGRs J1550 - 5418 and 1806 - 20. The isotropic luminosity, L(sub iso), corresponding to these flux values is roughly similar for all sources (0.4 - l.5 x 10(exp 40) erg/s.

  1. A Type II Radio Burst without a Coronal Mass Ejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, W.; Cheng, X.; Ding, M. D.; Chen, P. F.; Sun, J. Q.

    2015-05-01

    Type II radio bursts are thought to be a signature of coronal shocks. In this paper, we analyze a short-lived type II burst that started at 07:40 UT on 2011 February 28. By carefully checking white-light images, we find that the type II radio burst is not accompanied by a coronal mass ejection, only by a C2.4 class flare and narrow jet. However, in the EUV images provided by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, we find a wave-like structure that propagated at a speed of ?600 km s?1 during the burst. The relationship between the type II radio burst and the wave-like structure is, in particular, explored. For this purpose, we first derive the density distribution under the wave by the differential emission measure method, which is used to restrict the empirical density model. We then use the restricted density model to invert the speed of the shock that produces the observed frequency drift rate in the dynamic spectrum. The inverted shock speed is similar to the speed of the wave-like structure. This implies that the wave-like structure is most likely a coronal shock that produces the type II radio burst. We also examine the evolution of the magnetic field in the flare-associated active region and find continuous flux emergence and cancellation taking place near the flare site. Based on these facts, we propose a new mechanism for the formation of the type II radio burst, i.e., the expansion of the strongly inclined magnetic loops after reconnecting with a nearby emerging flux acts as a piston to generate the shock wave.

  2. Activity and accomplishments in dish/Stirling electric power system development

    SciTech Connect

    Livingston, F.R.

    1985-02-15

    Development of a modular, sun-heated, 25-kWe Stirling-engine generating plant that began in late 1977 has now been achieved. The US Department of Energy Solar Thermal Technology Division sponsored the development of this solar parabolic-dish/Stirling-engine electricity generating plant known as the dish/Stirling electric power system. As of late 1984, the dish/Stirling electric power system converts sunlight to electricity more efficiently than any known existing solar electric power system. Further product development is ongoing. The report also covers the fabrication and characterization of the test bed concentrators that were used for Stirling module testing and of the development of Parabolic Dish Concentrator No. 2, an advanced solar concentrator unit considered for use with the Stirling power conversion unit.

  3. Anomalous electrical signals associated with microbial activity: Results from Iron and Nitrate-Reducing Columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaron, R. B.; Zheng, Q.; Flynn, P.; Singha, K.; Brantley, S.

    2008-12-01

    Three flow-through columns outfitted with Ag/AgCl electrodes were constructed to test the effects of different microbial processes on the geophysical measurements of self potential (SP), bulk electrical conductivity (? b), and induced polarization (IP). The columns were filled with sieved, Fe-bearing subsurface sediment from the Delmarva Peninsula near Oyster, VA, inoculated (9:1 ratio) with a freshly-collected, shallow subsurface sediment from a wetland floodplain (Dorn Creek) near Madison, WI. Each of the columns was fed anoxic and sterile PIPES buffered artificial groundwater (PBAGW) containing different concentrations of acetate and nitrate. The medium fed to Column 1 (nitrate-reducing) was amended with 100 ?M acetate and 2 mM nitrate. Column 2 (iron-reducing) was run with PBAGW containing 1.0 mM acetate and 0 mM nitrate. Column 3 (alternating redox state) was operated under conditions designed to alternately stimulate nitrate-reducing and iron-reducing populations to provide conditions, i.e., the presence of both nitrate and microbially-produced Fe(II), that would allow growth of nitrate-dependent Fe(II)-oxidizing populations. We operated Column 3 with a cycling strategy of 14-18 days of high C medium (1 mM acetate and 100 ? M nitrate) followed by 14-18 days of low C medium (100 ? M acetate and 2 mM nitrate). Effluent chemistry (NO3-, NO2-, NH4+, acetate, and Fe2+) was sampled daily for four months so as to be concurrent with the electrical measurements. We observed chemical evidence of iron reduction (dissolved [Fe(II)] = 0.2mM) in the effluent from the iron reduction and alternating redox columns. Chemical depletion of NO3- ([NO3-] ranged from 1 to 0.02mM), the production of NO2-, and possible production of NH4+ (0.2 mM) was observed in the nitrate reducing column as well as the alternating redox column. All three columns displayed loss of acetate as microbial activity progressed. ? b remained constant in the alternating redox column (~0.15 S/m), increased in the iron reducing column (0.2 S/m to 0.8 S/m) and increased markedly in the nitrate reducing column (0.3 S/m to 1.2 S/m). This runs counter to our expectations. We expected to see an increase in ? b as [Fe(II)] increased and a decrease in ? b as nitrate was removed from the columns. All three columns showed little or no IP response at the outset and developed negative chargeabilities over the course of the experiment (as great as -20 mV/V). These values are anomalous and difficult to interpret. SP signals show the most variable response. Initially all three columns had SP values at or very near 0 mV. SP for the nitrate reducing column remained constant around 0mV. The iron reducing column displayed an increasingly negative SP response for the first two months that became constant at about -200mV for the remainder of the experiment. The alternating redox column displayed an oscillating signal recording large positive values (~475 mV) when nitrate concentrations were low and returning to a baseline value (~160mV) when nitrate was introduced to the column. The results of these column experiments indicate that there is a link between microbial activity and geophysical signals and that further research is needed to better quantify these signals.

  4. Nonlinear changes in brain electrical activity due to cell phone radiation.

    PubMed

    Marino, Andrew A; Nilsen, Erik; Frilot, Clifton

    2003-07-01

    We studied the effect of an electromagnetic field from a cellular telephone on brain electrical activity, using a novel analytical method based on a nonlinear model. The electroencephalogram (EEG) from rabbits was embedded in phase space and local recurrence plots were calculated and quantified using recurrence quantitation analysis to permit statistical comparisons between filtered segments of exposed and control epochs from individual rabbits. When the rabbits were exposed to the radiation from a standard cellular telephone (800 MHz band, 600 mW maximum radiated power) under conditions that simulated normal human use, the EEG was significantly affected in nine of ten animals studied. The effect occurred beginning about 100 ms after initiation of application of the field and lasted approximately 300 ms. In each case, the fields increased the randomness in the EEG. A control procedure ruled out the possibility that the observations were a product of the method of analysis. No differences were found between exposed and control epochs in any animal when the experiment was repeated after the rabbits had been sacrificed, indicating that absorption of radiation by the EEG electrodes could not account for the observed effect. No effect was seen when deposition of energy in the brain was minimized by repositioning the radiating antenna from the head to the chest, showing that the type of tissue that absorbed the energy determined the observed changes in the EEG. We conclude that, in normal use, the fields from a standard cellular telephone can alter brain function as a consequence of absorption of energy by the brain. PMID:12820291

  5. Antibiofilm Activity of Low-Amperage Continuous and Intermittent Direct Electrical Current.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Malan, Suzannah M; Karau, Melissa J; Cede, Julia; Greenwood-Quaintance, Kerryl E; Brinkman, Cassandra L; Mandrekar, Jayawant N; Patel, Robin

    2015-08-01

    Bacterial biofilms are difficult to treat using available antimicrobial agents, so new antibiofilm strategies are needed. We previously showed that 20, 200, and 2,000 ?A of electrical current reduced bacterial biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Here, we tested continuous direct current at lower amperages, intermittent direct current, and combinations of surface materials (Teflon or titanium) and electrode compositions (stainless steel, graphite, titanium, or platinum) against S. aureus, S. epidermidis, and P. aeruginosa biofilms. In addition, we tested 200 or 2,000 ?A for 1 and 4 days against biofilms of 33 strains representing 13 species of microorganisms. The logarithmic reduction factor was used to measure treatment effects. Using continuous current delivery, the lowest active amperage was 2 ?A for 1, 4, or 7 days against P. aeruginosa and 5 ?A for 7 days against S. epidermidis and S. aureus biofilms. Delivery of 200 ?A for 4 h a day over 4 days reduced P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, and S. epidermidis biofilms on Teflon or titanium discs. A reduction of P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, and S. epidermidis biofilms was measured for 23 of 24 combinations of surface materials and electrode compositions tested. Four days of direct current delivery reduced biofilms of 25 of 33 strains studied. In conclusion, low-amperage current or 4 h a day of intermittent current delivered using a variety of electrode compositions reduced P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, and S. epidermidis biofilms on a variety of surface materials. The electricidal effect was observed against a majority of bacterial species studied. PMID:26014944

  6. Electric-dipole-active magnetic resonance in the conical-spin magnet Ba2Mg2Fe12O22

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kida, N.; Okuyama, D.; Ishiwata, S.; Taguchi, Y.; Shimano, R.; Iwasa, K.; Arima, T.; Tokura, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Electric-field (E) drive of magnetic resonance in a solid has been a big challenge in condensed-matter physics and emerging spintronics. We demonstrate the appearance of distinct magnetic excitations driven by the light E component in a hexaferrite Ba2Mg2Fe12O22 . In the conical-spin state even with no spontaneous electric polarization (Ps) , a sharp and intense resonance is observed around 2.8 meV for the light E vector parallel to the magnetic propagation vector in accord with the inelastic neutron scattering spectrum at the magnetic zone center. As the generic characteristic of the conical state, a weak magnetic field (˜2kOe) can modify the spin structure, leading to a remarkable change (terahertz magnetochromism) in spectral shape and intensity (by ˜200% ) of the electric-dipole-active magnetic resonance. The present observation implies that potentially many magnets with noncollinearly ordered spins may host such an electric-dipole-active resonance, irrespective of the presence or absence of Ps .

  7. Electric field absorption and emission as an indicator of active electromagnetic nature of organisms--preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Skarja, Metod; Jerman, Igor; Ruzic, Romana; Leskovar, Robert T; Jejcic, Luka

    2009-01-01

    Measurements of the response of organisms to the near field exposure show that this response, i.e., its absorption, transmission, and emission (ATE) of the organism, markedly differs from the behavior expected if one treats the organism as a simple dissipative conductive body. The results point to the at least partial active response of the organism. This active electrical response can be attributed at least partially to the response of the endogenous electromagnetic field of organisms, first postulated by Frohlich, and to the material structures that form an inseparable whole with this field. The near electric field influence, both on the organism and of the organism on the sensors, can be established either through the vicinity or through a direct nonconductive contact. This response correlates with the physiological state of an organism. Measurements performed with mealworm beetles indicated that the normal living organisms absorb and use some energy of the near electric field and therefore the transmitted (re-emitted) signal is weaker. The inactivated or the dead organisms are more passive electrical absorbers. PMID:19337899

  8. Transitions to Synchrony in Coupled Bursting Neurons Mukeshwar Dhamala,1

    E-print Network

    Dhamala, Mukesh

    clinical disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and drug addiction, are found,2 and Mingzhou Ding1,3 1 Center for Complex Systems and Brain Sciences, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton in the brain, for example, thalamic neurons during sleep, show spike-burst activity. We study such spike

  9. Respiratory Burst: Role in Signal Transduction in Alveolar Macrophages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maureen R. Gwinn; Val Vallyathan

    2006-01-01

    Alveolar macrophages play an important role in defense against airborne pathogens and particles. These macrophages respond through both the adaptive and acquired immune responses, and through the activation of a multitude of signaling pathways. One major macrophage defense mechanism is respiratory burst, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). While the ROS produced may act directly in pathogen killing, they

  10. Optical mapping of the electrical activity of isolated adult zebrafish hearts: acute effects of temperature

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Eric; Ribeiro, Amanda; Ding, Weiguang; Hove-Madsen, Leif; Sarunic, Marinko V.; Beg, Mirza Faisal

    2014-01-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has emerged as an important model for developmental cardiovascular (CV) biology; however, little is known about the cardiac function of the adult zebrafish enabling it to be used as a model of teleost CV biology. Here, we describe electrophysiological parameters, such as heart rate (HR), action potential duration (APD), and atrioventricular (AV) delay, in the zebrafish heart over a range of physiological temperatures (18–28°C). Hearts were isolated and incubated in a potentiometric dye, RH-237, enabling electrical activity assessment in several distinct regions of the heart simultaneously. Integration of a rapid thermoelectric cooling system facilitated the investigation of acute changes in temperature on critical electrophysiological parameters in the zebrafish heart. While intrinsic HR varied considerably between fish, the ex vivo preparation exhibited impressively stable HRs and sinus rhythm for more than 5 h, with a mean HR of 158 ± 9 bpm (means ± SE; n = 20) at 28°C. Atrial and ventricular APDs at 50% repolarization (APD50) were 33 ± 1 ms and 98 ± 2 ms, respectively. Excitation originated in the atrium, and there was an AV delay of 61 ± 3 ms prior to activation of the ventricle at 28°C. APD and AV delay varied between hearts beating at unique HRs; however, APD and AV delay did not appear to be statistically dependent on intrinsic basal HR, likely due to the innate beat-to-beat variability within each heart. As hearts were cooled to 18°C (by 1°C increments), HR decreased by ?40%, and atrial and ventricular APD50 increased by a factor of ?3 and 2, respectively. The increase in APD with cooling was disproportionate at different levels of repolarization, indicating unique temperature sensitivities for ion currents at different phases of the action potential. The effect of temperature was more apparent at lower levels of repolarization and, as a whole, the atrial APD was the cardiac parameter most affected by acute temperature change. In conclusion, this study describes a preparation enabling the in-depth analysis of transmembrane potential dynamics in whole zebrafish hearts. Because the zebrafish offers some critical advantages over the murine model for cardiac electrophysiology, optical mapping studies utilizing zebrafish offer insightful information into the understanding and treatment of human cardiac arrhythmias, as well as serving as a model for other teleosts. PMID:24671241

  11. Optimal Intrinsic Dynamics for Bursting in a Three-Cell Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunmyre, Justin R.; Rubin, Jonathan E.

    2010-01-01

    Previous numerical and analytical work has shown that synaptic coupling can allow a network of model neurons to synchronize despite heterogeneity in intrinsic parameter values. In particular, synchronous bursting oscillations can arise in a network with excitatory synaptic coupling, even in the absence of intrinsically bursting neurons. In this work, we explore how the intrinsic dynamics of neurons within a reduced three-cell network influence its ability to exhibit synchronous bursting and the frequency range over which such activity can occur. We establish necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of synchronous bursting solutions and perform related numerical experiments in three-cell networks that include a quiescent cell, a tonically active cell, and a third added cell. Our results show that, in most cases, the addition of a quiescent cell is optimal for synchronous network bursting, in a variety of ways, and that intrinsically bursting cells can be detrimental to synchronous bursting, and we explain the mechanisms underlying these effects. These findings may help explain how robust synchronous oscillations arise in neuronal central pattern generators, such as the mammalian inspiratory network, despite the presence of significant cellular heterogeneity. They also support the idea that intrinsic burst capabilities of individual cells need not be central to these networks' rhythms.

  12. Electrical safety programs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kim Eastwood; Danny Liggett; Erling Hesla

    2002-01-01

    An electrical safety program is a plan designed so that neither,workplace conditions, nor the actions of people, expose personnel unnecessarily to electrical hazards. Employers should develop and implement an electrical safety program to give overall safety directions for facility activities related to electrical work. Effective electrical safety programs are a major key in preventing electrical incidents.

  13. Charge collection microscopy of annealing induced electrically active defects in Si1-xGex/Si strained layer epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timbrell, P. Y.; Baribeau, J. M.; Lockwood, D. J.; McCaffrey, J. P.

    1990-07-01

    Images of electrically active defects in Si1-xGex strained epilayers on n-type Si(100) have been obtained using charge collection microscopy (CCM) in a scanning electron microscope. Electrically active defects were generated in the defect-free as-grown material by rapid thermal annealing treatments (3 min) over a temperature range of 550 to 850° C. Point-like contrast, attributed to threading dislocations, as well as an additional line contrast due to the formation of an interface misfit dislocation network, were observed as the metastable strained Si1-xGrx layers relaxed upon annealing. Cross-sectional and plan-view transmission electron microscopy were used to examine the Si1-xGex epilayers in finer detail. Double crystal x-ray diffraction and Raman scattering spectra were also obtained and the annealing induced peak shifts investigated.

  14. Optical and Electrical Properties of In2O3: Mo Films Prepared by Activated Reactive Evaporation Technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Kaleemulla; A. Sivasankar Reddy; S. Uthanna; P. Sreedhara Reddy

    2008-01-01

    Transparent conducting molybdenum doped indium oxide (In2O3: Mo) thin films with high performance have been deposited on glass substrates at 300 °C by activated reactive evaporation technique and the effect of molybdenum content on the physical properties of the deposited films had been studied using spectrophotometer and van der Pauw methods. The films exhibited a lower electrical resistivity of 7.2×l0?4

  15. Optical and Electrical Properties of In2O3: Mo Films Prepared by Activated Reactive Evaporation Technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Kaleemulla; A. Sivasankar Reddy; S. Uthanna; P. Sreedhara Reddy

    2008-01-01

    Transparent conducting molybdenum doped indium oxide (In2O3: Mo) thin films with high performance have been deposited on glass substrates at 300 °C by activated reactive evaporation technique and the effect of molybdenum content on the physical properties of the deposited films had been studied using spectrophotometer and van der Pauw methods. The films exhibited a lower electrical resistivity of 7.2×l0-4

  16. VOLUME 85, NUMBER 19 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 6 NOVEMBER 2000 Critical Dynamics of Burst Instabilities in the Portevin-Le Chtelier Effect

    E-print Network

    Nori, Franco

    activity in magnetars [11], and even bursts of economic activity and stock market crashes [12]. The dynamic of Burst Instabilities in the Portevin-Le Châtelier Effect Gianfranco D'Anna1 and Franco Nori2 1 Institut t of the PLC effect exhibits large fluctuations, and "critical slowing down" (i.e., the number t of bursts

  17. Noise-induced transition to bursting in responses of paddlefish electroreceptor afferents.

    PubMed

    Neiman, Alexander B; Yakusheva, Tatyana A; Russell, David F

    2007-11-01

    The response properties of ampullary electroreceptors of paddlefish, Polyodon spathula, were studied in vivo, as single-unit afferent responses to external electrical stimulation with varied intensities of several types of noise waveforms, all Gaussian and zero-mean. They included broadband white noise, Ornstein-Uhlenbeck noise, low- or high-frequency band-limited noise, or natural noise recorded from swarms of Daphnia zooplankton prey, or from individual prey. Normally the afferents fire spontaneously in a tonic manner, which is actually quasiperiodic due to embedded oscillators. 1) Weak noise stimuli increased the variability of afferent firing, but it remained tonic. 2) In contrast, stimulation with less-weak broadband noise led to a qualitative change of the firing patterns, to parabolic bursting, even though the mean firing rate was scarcely affected. 3) The transition to afferent bursting was marked by the development of two well-separated timescales: the fast frequency of spiking inside bursts at burst occurrences at about 9 (range 5-13) bursts/s. These two timescales were manifested as two regimes in afferent power spectra, bimodal interspike interval histograms, return maps, and autocorrelation functions of afferent spike trains. 4) The stochastic approximately 9-Hz bursts were not simply driven by similar-frequency components of noise stimuli because bursts could be dissociated from stimulus waveforms using high-pass filtered noise, or a 0.1-Hz sine-wave stimulus. 5) Arrhenius plots showed that the threshold noise intensity required to elicit bursting depended on the frequency content of a noise stimulus, being lowest, about 1.2 microV/cm, for stimuli matching the 1- to 20-Hz best response band of these cathodally excited ampullary electroreceptors. This is only slightly higher than previous behavioral estimates of the electrosensory threshold as 0.5 microV/cm. 6) Comparable threshold values for bursting came from an alternate analytical approach, based on correlation times of spike trains. 7) Simultaneous recordings from pairs of afferents showed that their bursting frequencies (bursts/s) always converged as the amplitude of a noise stimulus was raised. Thus the slow timescale of bursting is similar for different electroreceptors, even though their mean spiking rates can differ. In conclusion, the ampullary electroreceptors of paddlefish have two distinct modes of operation: their spontaneous tonic firing is modulated by the weakest stimuli, but they switch to bursting output for less-weak stimuli. We propose that afferent bursting may mediate close-range tracking of planktonic prey. PMID:17855580

  18. Statistical analysis of Naval activity electrical consumption. Final report October 1983-March 1984

    SciTech Connect

    de Monsabert, S.

    1984-06-01

    The electrical consumptions of Naval shore facilities for 1983 were regressed with current square footage areas for then different facility types. The data used was from the FASCO NFA/MAGIC and DEIS II data bases. The annual electrical consumption was found to vary from 2.4 kilowatt-hours per square foot for storage facilities to 34 kilowatt-hours per square foot for production facilities.

  19. Estimation of global lightning activity and observations of atmospheric electric field

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marek Golkowski; Marek Kubicki; Morris Cohen; Andrzej Kulak; Umran S. Inan

    2011-01-01

    Variations in the global atmospheric electric circuit are investigated using a wide range of globally spaced instruments observing\\u000a VLF (?10 kHz) waves, ELF (?300 Hz) waves, Schumann resonances (4–60 Hz), and the atmospheric fair weather electric field.\\u000a For the ELF\\/VLF observations, propagation effects are accounted for in a novel approach using established monthly averages\\u000a of lightning location provided by the

  20. Electrical Activity of Frank Partial Dislocations and the Influence of Metallic Impurities in Czochralski-Grown Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Bo; Yang, Kai; Chen, Peng; Zhang, Rong; Shi, Yi; Zheng, You-dou; T, Sekiguchi; K, Sumino

    1997-06-01

    Electrical activity of Frank partial dislocations bounding stacking faults and the influence of Fe impurities in Czochralski-grown silicon are investigated by means of the electron-beam-induced-current(EBIC) technique. Frank partials free from metallic impurities exhibit EBIC contrast at low temperatures but not at room temperature, indicating that they are only accompanied with shallow energy levels in the band gap. The energy level related to a Frank partial is determined to be about Ec - 0.08 eV in n-type Si. Frank partials decorated by Fe impurities become EBIC active at room temperature.

  1. Gamma-Ray Burst Lines

    E-print Network

    Michael S. Briggs

    1999-10-20

    The evidence for spectral features in gamma-ray bursts is summarized. As a guide for evaluating the evidence, the properties of gamma-ray detectors and the methods of analyzing gamma-ray spectra are reviewed. In the 1980's, observations indicated that absorption features below 100 keV were present in a large fraction of bright gamma-ray bursts. There were also reports of emission features around 400 keV. During the 1990's the situation has become much less clear. A small fraction of bursts observed with BATSE have statistically significant low-energy features, but the reality of the features is suspect because in several cases the data of the BATSE detectors appear to be inconsistent. Furthermore, most of the possible features appear in emission rather than the expected absorption. Analysis of data from other instruments has either not been finalized or has not detected lines.

  2. Inner Magnetosphere/Subauroral Flow Bursts in the Partial Ring Region and Their Possible Driving by Tail Flow bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, L. R.; Nishimura, T.; Hampton, D. L.; Angelopoulos, V.; Donovan, E.; Nicolls, M. J.; Chen, S.

    2014-12-01

    It is well known that meso-scale flow bursts/channels are an important feature of plasma sheet/auroral oval transport. They lead to most magnetosphere-ionosphere disturbances (i.e., PBIs, streamers, substorms), and significantly affect substorm expansion phase activity. Using radar and all-sky-imager observations, we have identified weak, azimuthally moving auroral features near the equatorward boundary of the auroral oval. We find that they are associated with large azimuthal flow bursts in the SAPS region, and we find evidence that they originate from tail flow bursts that are guided to the SAPS by the large-scale evening side convection. This suggests that, in addition to the well-established effects, some tail flow bursts may flow around the Harang reversal and reach the subauroral region of the inner magnetosphere without breaking or bouncing, leading to SAID-like flow enhancements in the SAPS region. We also have preliminary evidence that some of these flow bursts can extend earthward of the pre-existing SAPS region, leading to ring current earthward injections, proton aurora, and EMIC waves that are important for radiation belt electron loss.

  3. Origin of Bursting through Homoclinic Spike Adding in a Neuron Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Channell, Paul; Cymbalyuk, Gennady; Shilnikov, Andrey

    2007-03-01

    The origin of spike adding in bursting activity is studied in a reduced model of the leech heart interneuron. We show that, as the activation kinetics of the slow potassium current are shifted towards depolarized membrane potential values, the bursting phase accommodates incrementally more spikes into the train. This phenomenon is attested to be caused by the homoclinic bifurcations of a saddle periodic orbit setting the threshold between the tonic spiking and quiescent phases of the bursting. The fundamentals of the mechanism are revealed through the analysis of a family of the onto Poincaré return mappings.

  4. Millisecond extragalactic radio bursts as magnetar flares

    E-print Network

    Popov, S B

    2013-01-01

    Properties of the population of millisecond extragalactic radio bursts discovered by Thornton et al. (2013) are in good correspondence with the hypothesis that such events are related to hyperflares of magnetars, as was proposed by us after the first observation of an extragalactic millisecond radio burst by Lorimer et al. (2007). We also point that some of multiple millisecond radio bursts from M31 discovered by Rubio-Herrera et al. (2013) also can be related to weaker magnetar bursts.

  5. Cosmological Time Dilation in Gamma Ray Bursts?

    E-print Network

    David Band

    1994-07-01

    Norris et al. (1994) report that the temporal structure of faint gamma ray bursts is longer than that of bright bursts, as expected for time dilation in the cosmological models of burst origin. I show that the observed trends can easily be produced by a burst luminosity function and thus may not result from cosmological effects. A cosmological signature may be present, but the tests Norris et al. present are not powerful enough to detect these signatures.

  6. The Intensity Distribution of Faint Gamma-Ray Bursts Detected with BATSE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kommers, Jefferson M.; Lewin, Walter H. G.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; VanParadijs, Jan; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Meegan, Charles A.; Fishman, Gerald J.

    2000-01-01

    We have recently completed a search of 6 years of archival BATSE data for gamma-ray bursts (GRBS) that were too faint to activate the real-time burst detection system running on board the spacecraft. These "nontriggered" bursts can be combined with the "triggered" bursts detected on board to produce a GRB intensity distribution that reaches peak fluxes a factor of approximately 2 lower than could be studied previously. The value of the statistic (in Euclidean space) for the bursts we detect is 0.177 plus or minus 0.006. This surprisingly low value is obtained because we detected very few bursts on the 4.096 s and 8.192 s timescales (where most bursts have their highest signal-to-noise ratio) that were not already detected on the 1.024 s timescale. If allowance is made for a power-law distribution of intrinsic peak luminosities, the extended peak flux distribution is consistent with models in which the redshift distribution of the gamma-ray burst rate approximately traces the star formation history of the universe. We argue that this class of models is preferred over those in which the burst rate is independent of redshift. We use the peak flux distribution to derive a limit of 10% (99% confidence) on the fraction of the total burst rate that could be contributed by a spatially homogeneous (in Euclidean space) subpopulation of burst sources, such as type lb/c supernovae. These results lend support to the conclusions of previous studies predicting that relatively few faint "classical" GRBs will be found below the BATSE onboard detection threshold.

  7. High Redshift Gamma Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil

    2012-01-01

    The Swift Observatory has been detecting 100 gamma-ray bursts per year for 7 years and has greatly stimulated the field with new findings. Observations are made of the X-ray and optical afterglow from 1 minute after the burst, continuing for days. GRBs are providing a new tool to study the high redshift universe. Swift has detected several events at z>5 and one at z=9.4 giving information on metallicity, star formation rate and reionization. The talk will present the latest results.

  8. The Swift Burst Alert Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, A.; Barthelmy, S.; Barbier, L.; Gehrels, N.; Palmer, D.; Tueller, J.; Fenimore, E.; BAT Engineering Team

    2000-10-01

    The Swift Gamma Ray Burst MIDEX is a multiwavelength observatory scheduled to be launched in September 2003 to study gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and their x-ray and optical afterglow emission. Swift will exploit these newly discovered GRB afterglow characteristics to make a comprehensive study of ~ 1000 GRBs and use the afterglow phenomenon as a tool for probing their source and evolution. Swift will also be able to use GRBs to probe the early Universe. The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT), a large coded aperture instrument with a wide field-of-view (FOV), provides the gamma-ray burst triggers and locations for the Swift Mission. BAT will observe and locate hundreds of bursts per year to better than 4 arc minutes accuracy. Using this prompt burst location information, Swift can slew quickly (within 20 - 70 s) to point on-board x-ray (XRT) and optical (UVOT) instrumentation at the burst for continued afterglow studies. The BAT instrument consists of a large (5200 cm2) hard x-ray detector plane positioned one meter away from an even larger (2.6 m2) coded aperture mask. The BAT detector plane consists of 128 CdZnTe semiconductor detector modules each containing 256 individual, planar 4 mm x 4 mm x 2 mm CdZnTe detectors that are read out by a pair of XA1 Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs). The BAT mask will be constructed using 5 mm x 5 mm x 1 mm lead tiles attached to a self-supporting 0.4 g/cm2 substrate fabricated from Kevlar fiber/honeycomb materials. With 4 mm square focal plane detector elements and 5 mm square mask pixels, BAT will have angular resolution better than 22 arc minutes and will determine GRB source locations to ~ 4 arc minutes for bursts detected at 5 sigma or brighter. A full description of the BAT instrument and its capabilities will be presented along with results from performance tests of prototype detector modules.

  9. Burst Tails from SGR J1550-5418 Observed with Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer

    E-print Network

    Mus, Sinem Sasmaz; Kaneko, Yuki; Chakraborty, Manoneeta; Aydin, Berk

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of our extensive search using the Bayesian block method for long tails following short bursts from a magnetar, SGR J1550-5418, over all RXTE observations of the source. We identified four bursts with extended tails, most of which occurred during its 2009 burst active episode. The durations of tails range between ~13 s and over 3 ks, which are much longer than the typical duration of bursts. We performed detailed spectral and temporal analysis of the burst tails. We find that the spectra of three tails show a thermal nature with a trend of cooling throughout the tail. We compare the results of our investigations with the properties of four other extended tails detected from SGR 1900+14 and SGR 1806-20 and suggest a scenario for the origin of the tail in the framework of the magnetar model.

  10. ELF Q-burst caused by extragalactic gamma ray burst

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. P. Nickolaenko; A. Yu. Schekotov

    2011-01-01

    Experimental results are presented on the electromagnetic pulse associated with the abrupt change in the Earth–ionosphere cavity caused by the intense gamma ray burst of December 27, 2004. Parameters of observed extremely low frequency pulse correspond to expectations: the source bearing points to the epicenter of the ionosphere modification, the pulsed waveform is similar to that computed, and its amplitude

  11. 30 CFR 57.3461 - Rock bursts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rock bursts. 57.3461 Section 57.3461...Precautions-Underground Only § 57.3461 Rock bursts. (a) Operators of mines which have experienced a rock burst shall— (1) Within twenty...

  12. 30 CFR 57.3461 - Rock bursts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rock bursts. 57.3461 Section 57.3461...Precautions-Underground Only § 57.3461 Rock bursts. (a) Operators of mines which have experienced a rock burst shall— (1) Within twenty...

  13. 30 CFR 57.3461 - Rock bursts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rock bursts. 57.3461 Section 57.3461...Precautions-Underground Only § 57.3461 Rock bursts. (a) Operators of mines which have experienced a rock burst shall— (1) Within twenty...

  14. 30 CFR 57.3461 - Rock bursts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rock bursts. 57.3461 Section 57.3461...Precautions-Underground Only § 57.3461 Rock bursts. (a) Operators of mines which have experienced a rock burst shall— (1) Within twenty...

  15. 30 CFR 57.3461 - Rock bursts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rock bursts. 57.3461 Section 57.3461...Precautions-Underground Only § 57.3461 Rock bursts. (a) Operators of mines which have experienced a rock burst shall— (1) Within twenty...

  16. WDM burst switching for petabit capacity routers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuhua Chen; Jonathan S. Turner

    1999-01-01

    WDM burst switching is an approach to building very high capacity routing switches based on optical data paths and electronic control. Burst switches assign user data bursts to channels in WDM links on-the-fly in order to provide efficient statistical multiplexing of high rate data channels. The overall system architecture is designed to facilitate the introduction of optical switching components as

  17. Effects of nicotine and tobacco smoke on the electrical activity of the cerebral cortex and olfactory bulb

    PubMed Central

    Hall, G. H.

    1970-01-01

    1. Effects of nicotine, cigarette smoke and carbon monoxide have been compared in the cat encéphale isolé preparation, exhibiting a synchronized electrocorticogram (ECoG) and behavioural sleep. 2. 2 ml samples of smoke, containing approximately 7 ?g nicotine (approximately 2 ?g nicotine/kg for a 3 kg cat), introduced into the lungs at 30 s intervals from a smoking simulator, caused desynchronization of the ECoG and behavioural arousal. 3. Effects of smoke were matched in the same experiments by intravenous injections of nicotine, 2 ?g/kg every 30 s. 4. The use of specific nicotine antagonists, for example mecamylamine, and filters for removing nicotine, indicated the presence in smoke of other agents capable of exerting a pharmacological response. 5. Cigarette smoke contains approximately 5·0% carbon monoxide. Introduced into the lungs of cats pretreated with mecamylamine (2 mg/kg), 2 ml samples of 5% carbon monoxide caused changes in the ECoG similar to those caused by smoke. 6. Effects of nicotine or smoke were not modified by pretreatment with chlorpromazine (2·0-4·0 mg/kg). Atropine (0·3 mg/kg), however, prevented the cortical activation, but not the behavioural arousal. 7. 2 ml samples of smoke applied to the nostrils caused the occurrence in the olfactory bulb of a discharge or burst of “induced” waves. This discharge was sometimes accompanied by a transient period of cortical activation. 8. These studies demonstrate that in cats, nicotine is the principal pharmacological constituent of tobacco smoke as far as effects on the central nervous system are concerned, although other constituents of smoke may play a contributory role. PMID:5417854

  18. Long-term monitoring of hydrogeological activation behaviour of an active landslide system using time-lapse temperature-corrected electrical resistance geophysical measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merritt, Andrew; Murphy, William; Chambers, Jonathan; Wilkinson, Paul; West, Jared; Uhlemann, Sebastian

    2015-04-01

    If the effects of landslides are to be mitigated and avoided then the causes of landslide activations - and re-activations - must be better understood. The most common subsurface property change in the lead up to rainfall-triggered landslide activation is the moisture content of slope material and associated pore water pressure rises and/or consistency changes. If these characteristic subsurface physical properties can be observed in advance of activation then early warning of imminent slope activation may be possible. Recent advances in geoelectrical monitoring techniques reveal that time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is a useful tool, capable of observing hillslope hydrogeological processes. However, most previous studies lasted a short time-frame and compared few tomograms. Therefore, a geophysical imaging system through which the progressive wetting of the ground in response to rainfall leading to saturation and then sliding can be observed would seem to be a sensible approach to explore the forecasting of imminent landslide movement. Presented here is the analysis and interpretation of the results of a four and a half year, long-term and high temporal resolution monitoring campaign of a periodically active inland landslide, located in the UK, by a geoelectrical monitoring system called Automated time-Lapse Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ALERT). Time-lapse temperature-corrected transfer resistances reveal that the system responds very well to rises and falls in piezometric level and seasonal trends of soil desiccation during warmer, drier months and crack annealing and soil moisture accumulation in response to wetter periods. The existence of threshold slope moisture contents, and hence electrical resistances, above which the slope activates are not observed in resistance/resistivity results most probably due to the complex nature of the landslide system, the monitoring system resolution and a number of physical slope processes taking place. An exciting development is our improved understanding of shallow earthflow pre-activation hydrogeological behaviour. When interpreted alongside piezometry, an apparent increase in resistance in the months preceding earthflow activation reveals subtle geomechanical processes occurring, including slip surface drainage, due to soil dilation, as strain develops. Correlation between piezometric level fall and associated temperature-corrected resistance rise highlight the sensitivity of the geophysical monitoring system to landslide hydrogeological processes.

  19. Pulsed Electric Processing of the Seismic-Active Fault for Earthquake Hazard Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, V. A.; Zeigarnik, V. A.; Konev, Yu. B.; Klyuchkin, V. N.

    2010-03-01

    Previous field and laboratory investigations performed in Russia (1999-2008) showed a possibility of application of high-power electric current pulses generated by pulsed MHD power system for triggering the weak seismicity and release of tectonic stresses in the Earth crust for earthquake hazard mitigation. The mechanism of the influence of man-made electromagnetic field on the regional seismicity is not clear yet. One of possible cause of the phenomenon may be formation of cracks in the rocks under fluid pressure increase due to Joule heat generation by electric current injected into the Earth crust. Detailed 3D-calculaton of electric current density in the Earth crust of Northern Tien Shan provided by pulsed MHD power system connected to grounded electric dipole showed that at the depth of earthquake epicenters (> 5km) the electric current density is lower than 10-7 A/m2 that is not sufficient for increase of pressure in the fluid-saturated porous geological medium due to Joule heat generation, which may provide formation of cracks resulting in the fault propagation and release of tectonic stresses in the Earth crust. Nevertheless, under certain conditions, when electric current will be injected into the fault through the casing pipes of deep wells with preliminary injection of conductive fluid into the fault, the current density may be high enough for significant increase of mechanic pressure in the porous two-phase geological medium. Numerical analysis of a crack formation triggered by high-power electric pulses based on generation of mechanical pressure in the geological medium was carried out. It was shown that calculation of mechanical pressure impulse due to high-power electrical current in the porous two-phase medium may be performed neglecting thermal conductance by solving the non-stationary equation of piezo-conductivity with Joule heat generation. For calculation of heat generation the known solution of the task of current spreading from spherical or elliptic electrode submerged into unbounded medium is used. Pressure increase due to electric current is determined by voltage of the current source and the medium parameters, and it does not depend on the electrode radius. The pressure increase is proportional to parameter ? ? /r2, where ? is viscosity factor, ? is electric conductivity of fluid in pores, r is average radius of capillaries. This parameter may vary for different media and fluids in the pores by many orders of magnitude. The pressure increase for water is insignificant. If a high-mineralized fluid (e.g. sludge) is injected into the medium, the pressure may be increased by several orders. In that case the pressure may obtain tens kilobars, and an intergrowth of cracks will be possible in the medium exposed to high-power electric current. An estimation of parameters of portable pulsed power system for electric processing of the fault was performed, when the current is injected into the fault through the casing tubes of deep wells with preliminary injection of conductive fluid into the fault between the wells. The work is supported by grant No. 09-05-12059 of Russian Foundation for Basic Research.

  20. Axion-induced oscillations of cooperative electric field in a cosmic magneto-active plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakin, Alexander B.; Muharlyamov, Ruslan K.; Zayats, Alexei E.

    2014-06-01

    We consider one cosmological application of an axionic extension of the Maxwell-Vlasov theory, which describes axionically induced oscillatory regime in the state of global magnetic field evolving in the anisotropic expanding (early) universe. We show that the cooperative electric field in the relativistic plasma, being coupled to the pseudoscalar (axion) and global magnetic fields, plays the role of a regulator in this three-level system; in particular, the cooperative (Vlasov) electric field converts the regime of anomalous growth of the pseudoscalar field, caused by the axion-photon coupling at the inflationary epoch of the universe expansion, into an oscillatory regime with finite density of relic axions. We analyze solutions to the dispersion equations for the axionically induced cooperative oscillations of the electric field in the relativistic plasma.

  1. Electrically tunable plasmonic behavior of nanocube-polymer nanomaterials induced by a redox-active electrochromic polymer.

    PubMed

    König, Tobias A F; Ledin, Petr A; Kerszulis, Justin; Mahmoud, Mahmoud A; El-Sayed, Mostafa A; Reynolds, John R; Tsukruk, Vladimir V

    2014-06-24

    We present a plasmon-active hybrid nanomaterial design with electrochemical tunability of the localized surface plasmon resonances. The plasmonic-active nanostructures are composed of silver nanocube aggregates embedded into an electrochromic polymer coating on an indium tin oxide electrode with the nanocube aggregation controlled by the surface pressure. Such polymer-nanocube hybrid nanomaterials demonstrated unique tunable plasmonic behavior under an applied electrochemical potential. A significant reversible experimental peak shift of 22 nm at an electrical potential of 200 mV has been achieved in these measurements. Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations show that, under full oxidation potential, a maximal spectral shift of ca. 80 nm can be potentially achieved, which corresponds to a high sensitivity of 178 nm per refractive index unit. Furthermore, FDTD modeling suggests that the electrochemically controlled tunability of plasmonic peaks is caused by reversible changes in the refractive index of the electrochromic polymer coating caused by oxidation or reduction reactions under external electrical potential. Consequently, we define the orthogonal plasmonic resonance shift as a shift that is orthogonal to the redox process responsible for the refractive index change. On the basis of these results, we suggest that the combination of anisotropic nanostructures and electrochromic matrix has the potential to reversibly electrically tune plasmonic resonances over the full visible spectrum. PMID:24870253

  2. Enhanced thermal stability under DC electrical conductivity retention and visible light activity of Ag/TiO?@polyaniline nanocomposite film.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Mohd Omaish; Khan, Mohammad Mansoob; Ansari, Sajid Ali; Raju, Kati; Lee, Jintae; Cho, Moo Hwan

    2014-06-11

    The development of organic-inorganic photoactive materials has resulted in significant advancements in heterogeneous visible light photocatalysis. This paper reports the synthesis of visible light-active Ag/TiO2@Pani nanocomposite film via a simple biogenic-chemical route. Electrically conducting Ag/TiO2@Pani nanocomposites were prepared by incorporating Ag/TiO2 in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone solution of polyaniline (Pani), followed by the preparation of Ag/TiO2@Pani nanocomposite film using solution casting technique. The synthesized Ag/TiO2@Pani nanocomposite was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The Ag/TiO2@Pani nanocomposite film showed superior activity towards the photodegradation of methylene blue under visible light compared to Pani film, even after repeated use. Studies on the thermoelectrical behavior by DC electrical conductivity retention under cyclic aging techniques showed that the Ag/TiO2@Pani nanocomposite film possessed a high combination of electrical conductivity and thermal stability. Because of its better thermoelectric performance and photodegradation properties, such materials might be a suitable advancement in the field of smart materials in near future. PMID:24836114

  3. Dense arrays of micro-needles for recording and electrical stimulation of neural activity in acute brain slices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunning, D. E.; Beggs, J. M.; Dabrowski, W.; Hottowy, P.; Kenney, C. J.; Sher, A.; Litke, A. M.; Mathieson, K.

    2013-02-01

    Objective. This paper describes the design, microfabrication, electrical characterization and biological evaluation of a high-density micro-needle array. The array records from and electrically stimulates individual neurons simultaneously in acute slices of brain tissue. Approach. Acute slices, arguably the closest in-vitro model of the brain, have a damaged surface layer. Since electrophysiological recording methods rely heavily on electrode-cell proximity, this layer significantly attenuates the signal amplitude making the use of traditional planar electrodes unsuitable. To penetrate into the tissue, bypassing the tissue surface, and to record and stimulate neural activity in the healthy interior volume of the slice, an array of 61 micro-needles was fabricated. Main results. This device is shown to record extracellular action potentials from individual neurons in acute cortical slices with a signal to noise ratio of up to ˜15:1. Electrical stimulation of individual neurons is achieved with stimulation thresholds of 1.1-2.9 µA. Significance. The novelty of this system is the combination of close needle spacing (60 µm), needle heights of up to 250 µm and small (5-10 µm diameter) electrodes allowing the recording of single unit activity. The array is coupled to a custom-designed readout system forming a powerful electrophysiological tool that permits two-way electrode-cell communication with populations of neurons in acute brain slices.

  4. Effect of polyelectrolyte conditioning on the enhanced dewatering of activated sludge by application of an electric field during the expression phase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans Saveyn; Geert Pauwels; Rik Timmerman; Paul Van der Meeren

    2005-01-01

    Activated sludge is known to be poorly dewaterable due to its high surface charge density and the extreme solids compressibility, even after polyelectrolyte conditioning. The application of an electric field during pressure dewatering (PDW) of sludge can enhance the dewaterability by the electroosmosis effect.A comparative study was conducted to investigate the additional effect of an electric field, applied during the

  5. Swift: Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2005-12-17

    In this video segment adapted from Penn State Public Broadcasting's Swift: Eyes Through Time, learn about the Swift satellite — a NASA mission with international participation — and how it is collecting data about gamma-ray bursts that may yield important discoveries about the Universe.

  6. 5, 1148911515, 2005 Burst modelling

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    burst evolution in the convective boundary layer ­ Part II: Meteorological characterization O. Hellmuth-aerosol interactions in the convective boundary layer (CBL) was de- duced, in the present part the model capability and wind tunnel experiments. The results show that the model is able to predict the meteorological CBL

  7. Solar and geomagnetic activity, extremely low frequency magnetic and electric fields and human health at the Earth's surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, S. J.; Rycroft, M. J.; Cermack, M.

    2006-09-01

    The possibility that conditions on the Sun and in the Earth’s magnetosphere can affect human health at the Earth’s surface has been debated for many decades. This work reviews the research undertaken in the field of heliobiology, focusing on the effect of variations of geomagnetic activity on human cardiovascular health. Data from previous research are analysed for their statistical significance, resulting in support for some studies and the undermining of others. Three conclusions are that geomagnetic effects are more pronounced at higher magnetic latitudes, that extremely high as well as extremely low values of geomagnetic activity seem to have adverse health effects and that a subset of the population (10-15%) is predisposed to adverse health due to geomagnetic variations. The reported health effects of anthropogenic sources of electric and magnetic fields are also briefly discussed, as research performed in this area could help to explain the results from studies into natural electric and magnetic field interactions with the human body. Possible mechanisms by which variations in solar and geophysical parameters could affect human health are discussed and the most likely candidates investigated further. Direct effects of natural ELF electric and magnetic fields appear implausible; a mechanism involving some form of resonant absorption is more likely. The idea that the Schumann resonance signals could be the global environmental signal absorbed by the human body, thereby linking geomagnetic activity and human health is investigated. Suppression of melatonin secreted by the pineal gland, possibly via desynchronised biological rhythms, appears to be a promising contender linking geomagnetic activity and human health. There are indications that calcium ions in cells could play a role in one or more mechanisms. It is found to be unlikely that a single mechanism can explain all of the reported phenomena.

  8. Gamma-Ray Bursts: An Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, Gerald J.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts are now known to originate from cosmological distances and represent the largest known explosions in the Universe. The observed characteristics of bursts in the gamma-ray region, primarily from data obtained with the BATSE experiment on the Compton Observatory, will be described. These include the temporal and spectral characteristic of bursts, and their intensity and sky distribution. A summary of recent discoveries and observations in other wavelength regions will also be presented, along with their implications for models of the burst emission mechanism. Various models for the energy source of gamma-ray bursts will be described.

  9. The Mystery of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, Gerald J.

    2004-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts remain one of the greatest mysteries in astrophysics. Observations of gamma-ray bursts made by the BATSE experiment on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory will be described. Most workers in the field now believe that they originate from cosmological distances. This view has been reinforced by observations this year of several optical afterglow counterparts to gamma-ray bursts. A summary of these recent discoveries will be presented, along with their implications for models of the burst emission mechanism and the energy source of the bursts.

  10. Increase of electrodermal activity of heart meridian during physical exercise: the significance of electrical values in acupuncture and diagnostic importance.

    PubMed

    Pontarollo, Francesco; Rapacioli, Giuliana; Bellavite, Paolo

    2010-08-01

    Electric field measurements of skin potential and electrical currents are physiological indicators of electrodermal activity (EDA) and have been associated with a variety of sensory, cognitive and emotional stimuli. The aim of this study was to investigate the EDA at some hand acupoints before, during and after a physical exercise. EDA of eight points located at the corner of fingernails of hands was measured in 10 healthy young volunteers before, during and after a 14-min acute exercise in a bicycle ergometer. In pre-exercise resting state the parameters were stable and similar between the 8 different tested points, while during exercise a significant increase of current (from 1000-2000 to 4000-8000 nA) was observed, with the maximal values related to the point located on the ulnar side of the little finger, at the base of the nail, corresponding to the Shao chong (HT9) of heart meridian. PMID:20621275

  11. Lack of involvement of fusimotor activation in movements of the foot produced by electrical stimulation of monkey cerebral cortex

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, M. McD.; Porter, R.

    1971-01-01

    1. Contractions of the small muscles of the foot producing flexion and adduction of the hallux were elicited by brief trains of electrical stimulation of a motor point on the precentral gyrus of anaesthetized monkeys and these contractions were recorded myographically. 2. The cortical stimulus intensities necessary to produce minimal muscle contractions were measured for different frequencies of stimulation at the cortical point, and the latency of the minimal muscle contraction was measured in each case. 3. Section of all the relevant lumbar and sacral dorsal roots had no effect on the threshold stimulus currents necessary to produce minimal contractions or on the latencies of these responses. Hence, in the anaesthetized monkey, the power of the cortico-fusimotor activity stirred up by electrical stimulation of the cortex is inadequate to influence significantly the motor responses of the most accessible muscles. PMID:4254074

  12. Electrochemical and electric properties of vacuum-deposited poly(arylene)s: Electrochemical activity, diode, and electroluminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Takahazu; Wakayama, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Takashi; Kanbara, Takaki [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama (Japan)

    1992-10-29

    Vacuum-deposited thin films of poly(arylene)s [poly(p-phenylene), poly(thiophene-2,5-diyl) (PTh), poly(pyridine-2,5-diyl), and poly(2,2{prime}-bipyridine-5,5{prime}-diyl)] are electrochemically active, giving rise to doping and undoping peaks at essentially the same positions as those of original poly(arylene)s. Al/vacuum-deposited PTh/Au and Al/vacuum-deposited PTh/ITO electric junctions show rectification of electric current, which is accounted for by assuming the presence of a Schottky barrier between Al and PTh. The Al/vacuum-deposited PTh/ITO junction emits light at an applied voltage of 15 V. 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Voltage-dependent intrinsic bursting in olfactory bulb Golgi cells

    PubMed Central

    Pressler, R. Todd; Rozman, Peter A.; Strowbridge, Ben W.

    2013-01-01

    In the mammalian olfactory bulb (OB), local synaptic circuits modulate the evolving pattern of activity in mitral and tufted cells following olfactory sensory stimulation. GABAergic granule cells, the most numerous interneuron subtype in this brain region, have been extensively studied. However, classic studies using Golgi staining methods identified many other, nongranule cell types in the OB whose function remains mysterious. Within just the granule cell layer (GCL), Ramón y Cajal described multiple morphologically distinct subtypes of nongranule interneurons including large spiny Blanes cells which exhibit intrinsic persistent activity. Here, we define the intrinsic electrophysiology of a different nongranule interneuronal cell type in the GCL described by Ramón y Cajal, sparsely spiny Golgi cells in the rat OB. Golgi cells exhibit two distinct firing modes depending on the membrane potential: tonic firing and bursting. Golgi cells also generate rebound bursts following the offset of hyperpolarizing steps. We find that both low-threshold burst responses to depolarizing inputs and rebound bursts are blocked by nickel, an antagonist of T-type voltage-gated Ca2+ current. The state-dependent firing behavior we report in OB Golgi cells suggests that the function of these interneurons may dynamically shift from providing rhythmic potent inhibition of postsynaptic target neurons at sniffing frequencies to tonic, subtractive inhibition based on centrifugal modulatory input. PMID:23950193

  14. Mitochondrial release of Ca 2+ during sustained nerve activity in the electric organ of Torpedo marmorata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Schmidt; H. Zimmermann

    1980-01-01

    The calcium content of mitochondria isolated from the Torpedo electric organ was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The mitochondrial fraction was found to contain 830 ng-atom Ca\\/mg protein. For comparison a fraction of isolated nerve endings contained 250 ng-atom Ca\\/mg protein.

  15. Addressable Floating Light Activated Micro-Electrical Stimulators for Wireless Neurostimulation

    E-print Network

    Member, IEEE Abstract-- Stimulation of the central nervous system can be useful for treating neurological. INTRODUCTION Electrical stimulation of the central nervous system (CNS) has been used as a treatment larger than 2mm. These RF stimulators are attractive for use in the peripheral nervous system

  16. From passive to active about solar electricity: innovation decision process and photovoltaic interest generation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abram W Kaplan

    1999-01-01

    Electric utility managers are accustomed to technology choices, both in day-to-day load dispatching decisions and in the selection of new innovations to support utility operations. Conventional innovation management decision models may no longer apply in a confusing world of resource scarcity and industry deregulation. This research addresses the implications of a likely scenario: utilities will inevitably shift to a renewable

  17. Waste reduction activities and options for a fossil fuel fired electrical generating station. Environmental research brief

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Gashlin; D. J. Watts

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) funded a project with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and Energy (NJDEPE) to assist in conducting waste minimization assessments at thirty small- to medium-sized businesses in the state of New Jersey. One of the sites selected was a facility which is a fossil fuel fired electricity generating station. A site visit was

  18. Electric potential gradient changes during explosive activity at Sakurajima volcano, Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J S Gilbert

    1992-01-01

    We report electric potential gradient measurements carried out at Sakurajima volcano in Japan during: (1) explosions which generated ash plumes, (2) steam explosions which produced plumes of condensing gases, and (3) periods of ashfall and plume-induced acid rainfall. Sequential positive and negative deviations occurred during explosions which generated ash plumes. However, no deflections from background were found during steam explosions.

  19. Active attenuation of electromagnetic noise in an inverter-fed automotive electric drive system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrzej M. Trzynadlowski

    2006-01-01

    Electromagnetic noise, typical for systems with switching power converters, is especially troublesome in automotive electric drive systems because of the multitude of sensitive electronic equipment onboard of modern cars. To satisfy the relevant engineering norms, passive radio-frequency (RF) filters must be installed in the power electronic part of a drive. The RF filters add to the cost and size of

  20. Identification of Neural Circuits by Imaging Coherent Electrical Activity with FRET-Based Dyes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy W. Cacciatore; Peter D. Brodfuehrer; Jesus E. Gonzalez; Tao Jiang; Stephen R. Adams; Roger Y. Tsien; William B. Kristan Jr.; David Kleinfeld

    1999-01-01

    We show that neurons that underlie rhythmic patterns of electrical output may be identified by optical imaging and frequency-domain analysis. Our contrast agent is a two-component dye system in which changes in membrane potential modulate the relative emission between a pair of fluorophores. We demonstrate our methods with the circuit responsible for fictive swimming in the isolated leech nerve cord.