Science.gov

Sample records for bush beans phaseolus

  1. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL RESPONSES OF BUSH BEAN (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS) TO OZONE AND DROUGHT STRESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants were exposed to ozone (O3) episodes in open-top chambers in early and late season studies at Corvallis, Oregon. lants were grown in cultural systems that controlled plant water status. he 7-h seasonal mean O3 concentrations were 0.067 and ...

  2. RESPONSE OF BUSH BEAN EXPOSED TO ACID MIST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bush bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Contender) were treated once a week for six weeks with simulated acid mist at five pH ranging from 5.5 to 2.0. Leaf injury developed on plants exposed to acid concentrations below pH 3 and many leaves developed a flecking symptom simila...

  3. Transcriptome Sequencing of Lima Bean (Phaseolus lunatus) to Identify Putative Positive Selection in Phaseolus and Legumes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fengqi; Cao, Depan; Liu, Yang; Yang, Ting; Wang, Guirong

    2015-01-01

    The identification of genes under positive selection is a central goal of evolutionary biology. Many legume species, including Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean) and Phaseolus lunatus (lima bean), have important ecological and economic value. In this study, we sequenced and assembled the transcriptome of one Phaseolus species, lima bean. A comparison with the genomes of six other legume species, including the common bean, Medicago, lotus, soybean, chickpea, and pigeonpea, revealed 15 and 4 orthologous groups with signatures of positive selection among the two Phaseolus species and among the seven legume species, respectively. Characterization of these positively selected genes using Non redundant (nr) annotation, gene ontology (GO) classification, GO term enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analyses revealed that these genes are mostly involved in thylakoids, photosynthesis and metabolism. This study identified genes that may be related to the divergence of the Phaseolus and legume species. These detected genes are particularly good candidates for subsequent functional studies. PMID:26151849

  4. A Phaseolus vulgaris diversity panel for Andean bean improvement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) of the Andean gene pool, including red mottled, kidney, cranberry, and yellow seed types are important in Africa and in the Americas. Andean dry bean breeding gains have lagged behind those of Mesoamerican beans. These differences may be due to a narrower genetic b...

  5. Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 1 and Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 2 infecting common bean Phaseolus vulgaris genotypes show differential infection patterns between gene pools

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the occurrence of two plant endornaviruses, Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 1 (PvEV-1) and Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 2 (PvEV-2), in breeding-lines, cultivars, landraces, and wild genotypes of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) as well as other Phaseolus species collected from two...

  6. Nitrogen Fertilization Effects on Recovery of Bush Beans from Flooding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen loss can be a serious problem to vegetable growers in flood prone areas. A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the effects of nitrogen application method on recovery from flood damage in green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). There were three fertilizer treatments:1) normal - ½ N applied...

  7. A MOLECULAR MARKER LINKAGE MAP OF SNAP BEAN (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bush Blue Lake (BBL) snap beans are grown in the Willamette Valley of Oregon for canning and freezing. While they have desirable processing and production traits compared to other snap beans, plant architecture, seed production traits, and white mold resistance need improvement. Previous breeding ...

  8. Clinical complications of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) consumption.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Verma, Alok Kumar; Das, Mukul; Jain, S K; Dwivedi, Premendra D

    2013-06-01

    Kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), are common legumes, consumed worldwide. The delicacy of kidney beans is highly appreciable but, at the same time, their toxicity has raised an alarming concern. Kidney bean toxicity may be divided into two subcategories: toxicity caused by its lectins, saponins, phytates, and protease inhibitors or allergenicity induced by its allergenic proteins. The purpose of this review is to unravel the facts behind the different aspects of toxicity and allergenicity induced by kidney beans and try to fill the gaps that exist currently. PMID:23410632

  9. Extrudability of four common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extrusion method has been used to cook different food materials by employing the combination of high temperature, pressure and shearing stresses. Effects of extrusion cooking on functional, physicochemical and nutritional properties of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) have been reported for years...

  10. Tannins, trypsin inhibitors and lectin cytotoxicity in tepary (Phaseolus acutifolius) and common (Phaseolus vulgaris) beans.

    PubMed

    De Mejia, Elvira Gonzalez; Del Carmen Valadez-Vega, Maria; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalia; Loarca-Pina, Guadalupe

    2005-09-01

    This study compared the levels of antinutritional components and cytotoxic effect of extracts, from tepary (Phaseolus acutifolius) and common (Phaseolus vulgaris) beans. Antinutritional factors were evaluated by determining their effect on the viability of epithelial cells isolated from rat small intestine. The protein and carbohydrates content were similar in all the genotypes studied (20 and 60%, respectively). Common beans presented higher content of trypsin inhibitors, tannins and lectins than tepary beans. There was not a significant correlation between tannins and cooking time. However, water absorption and cooking time correlated significantly (p < 0.05). Considerable variation was observed in lectin activity (1302-18161 Ul/mg) of extracts from different beans. Tannins, lectins, trypsin inhibitors and fat content differed between bean varieties whereas protein content was similar. The percent cellularity on rat epithelial cells was significantly different among protein extracts from different bean cultivars and ranged between 53.5% and 87.4% (p < 0.05). These results suggest that the incorporation of tepary beans in the diet would not alter the current nutritional contribution of common beans or introduce adverse toxic effects. The agronomic characteristics of tepary beans make them attractive for cultivation. However, the harder to cook phenomenon may be a limiting factor that needs further consideration. PMID:16187017

  11. Microsatellite characterization of Andean races of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Blair, M W; Díaz, J M; Hidalgo, R; Díaz, L M; Duque, M C

    2007-12-01

    The Andean gene pool of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) has high levels of morphological diversity in terms of seed color and size, growth habit and agro-ecological adaptation, but previously was characterized by low levels of molecular marker diversity. Three races have been described within the Andean gene pool: Chile, Nueva Granada and Peru. The objective of this study was to characterize a collection of 123 genotypes representing Andean bean diversity with 33 microsatellite markers that have been useful for characterizing race structure in common beans. The genotypes were from both the primary center of origin as well as secondary centers of diversity to which Andean beans spread and represented all three races of the gene pool. In addition we evaluated a collection of landraces from Colombia to determine if the Nueva Granada and Peru races could be distinguished in genotypes from the northern range of the primary center. Multiple correspondence analyses of the Andean race representatives identified two predominant groups corresponding to the Nueva Granada and Peru races. Some of the Chile race representatives formed a separate group but several that had been defined previously as from this race grouped with the other races. Gene flow was more notable between Nueva Granada and Peru races than between these races and the Chile race. Among the Colombian genotypes, the Nueva Granada and Peru races were identified and introgression between these two races was especially notable. The genetic diversity within the Colombian genotypes was high, reaffirming the importance of this region as an important source of germplasm. Results of this study suggest that the morphological classification of all climbing beans as Peru race genotypes and all bush beans as Nueva Granada race genotypes is erroneous and that growth habit traits have been mixed in both races, requiring a re-adjustment in the concept of morphological races in Andean beans. PMID:17924092

  12. Volatile compounds of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Oomah, B Dave; Liang, Lisa S Y; Balasubramanian, Parthiba

    2007-12-01

    Volatile compounds of uncooked dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars representing three market classes (black, dark red kidney and pinto) grown in 2005 were isolated with headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME), and analyzed with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 62 volatiles consisting of aromatic hydrocarbons, aldehydes, alkanes, alcohols and ketones represented on average 62, 38, 21, 12, and 9 x 10(6) total area counts, respectively. Bean cultivars differed in abundance and profile of volatiles. The combination of 18 compounds comprising a common profile explained 79% of the variance among cultivars based on principal component analysis (PCA). The SPME technique proved to be a rapid and effective method for routine evaluation of dry bean volatile profile. PMID:17926127

  13. Genetic Diversity of North American Wild kidney bean (Phaseolus polystachios) in the Eastern US

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    North American wild kidney bean or thicket bean (Phaseolus polystachios (L.) Britton, Sterns, & Poggenb) is a perennial vine found in the eastern United States from Texas to Connecticut. It is the only Phaseolus species native to temperate North America. Its closest cultivated relative is P. lunatus...

  14. Proteomic analysis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The modern cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) has evolved from wild common beans distributed in Central America, Mexico and the Andean region of South America. It has been reported that wild common bean accessions have higher levels of protein content than the domesticated dry bean cultiva...

  15. Release of ‘Beniquez’ White Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Cultivar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV), a whitefly [Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius)]-transmitted begomovirus, can cause significant reductions in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seed yield when susceptible bean cultivars are planted in Central America and the Caribbean. Bean common mosaic virus (BCM...

  16. Diversification and Population Structure in Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Matthew W.; Soler, Alvaro; Cortés, Andrés J.

    2012-01-01

    Wild accessions of crops and landraces are valuable genetic resources for plant breeding and for conserving alleles and gene combinations in planta. The primary genepool of cultivated common beans includes wild accessions of Phaseolus vulgaris. These are of the same species as the domesticates and therefore are easily crossable with cultivated accessions. Molecular marker assessment of wild beans and landraces is important for the proper utilization and conservation of these important genetic resources. The goal of this research was to evaluate a collection of wild beans with fluorescent microsatellite or simple sequence repeat markers and to determine the population structure in combination with cultivated beans of all known races. Marker diversity in terms of average number of alleles per marker was high (13) for the combination of 36 markers and 104 wild genotypes that was similar to the average of 14 alleles per marker found for the 606 cultivated genotypes. Diversity in wild beans appears to be somewhat higher than in cultivated beans on a per genotype basis. Five populations or genepools were identified in structure analysis of the wild beans corresponding to segments of the geographical range, including Mesoamerican (Mexican), Guatemalan, Colombian, Ecuadorian-northern Peruvian and Andean (Argentina, Bolivia and Southern Peru). The combined analysis of wild and cultivated accessions showed that the first and last of these genepools were related to the cultivated genepools of the same names and the penultimate was found to be distinct but not ancestral to the others. The Guatemalan genepool was very novel and perhaps related to cultivars of race Guatemala, while the Colombian population was also distinct. Results suggest geographic isolation, founder effects or natural selection could have created the different semi-discrete populations of wild beans and that multiple domestications and introgression were involved in creating the diversity of cultivated beans

  17. Release of ‘XRAV-40-4’ black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production in the lowlands of Central America and the Caribbean is threatened by viral diseases. Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV), a whitefly [Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius)]-transmitted begomovirus, can cause significant reduction in common bean seed yield when...

  18. Patterns of fructose, glucose, and sucrose accumulation in snap and dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) pods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugars, including fructose, glucose, and sucrose contribute significantly to the flavor and consumer acceptance of snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Little is known regarding differences in sugar content among dry bean and snap bean cultivars and the patterns of sugar accumulation with increasing ...

  19. Anthocyanin profile of Korean cultivated kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Choung, Myoung-Gun; Choi, Byoung-Rourl; An, Young-Nam; Chu, Yong-Ha; Cho, Young-Son

    2003-11-19

    This investigation was conducted to determine the structures and amounts of anthocyanins obtained from seed coats of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivated in Korea. Anthocyanins in the seed coat of kidney bean were extracted with 1% HCl/20% CH(3)OH, and the crude anthocyanin extracts were purified by semipreparative HPLC. Five major anthocyanins were isolated, and their chemical structures were identified by spectroscopic methods (UV-vis, LC/ES-MS, and 1H and 13C NMR). The structures of these five anthocyanins were elucidated as cyanidin 3,5-diglucoside, delphinidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-glucoside, petunidin 3-glucoside, and pelargonidin 3-glucoside. Using RP-HPLC with photodiode array detection, each of the five anthocyanins was separated within 12 min by using a gradient elution. It was proved that the application of RP-HPLC could be an excellent method for determining the composition and contents of anthocyanins in kidney bean. The preponderance of pelargonidin 3-glucoside and delphinidin 3-glucoside are observed in red and black kidney beans, respectively. However, in this study, it is reported for the first time that the contents and composition of anthocyanins in speckled seed depend on the classes of speckle color. The contents of cyanidin 3,5-diglucoside, delphinidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-glucoside, petunidin 3-glucoside, pelargonidin 3-glucoside, and total anthocyanins in seed coats of 16 kidney beans cultivated in Korea were in the ranges of 0-0.04, 0-2.61, 0-0.12, 0-0.17, 0-0.59 and 0-2.78 mg/g of dried seed coats, respectively. PMID:14611168

  20. SNP marker diversity in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Cortés, Andrés J; Chavarro, Martha C; Blair, Matthew W

    2011-09-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers have become a genetic technology of choice because of their automation and high precision of allele calls. In this study, our goal was to develop 94 SNPs and test them across well-chosen common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) germplasm. We validated and accessed SNP diversity at 84 gene-based and 10 non-genic loci using KASPar technology in a panel of 70 genotypes that have been used as parents of mapping populations and have been previously evaluated for SSRs. SNPs exhibited high levels of genetic diversity, an excess of middle frequency polymorphism, and a within-genepool mismatch distribution as expected for populations affected by sudden demographic expansions after domestication bottlenecks. This set of markers was useful for distinguishing Andean and Mesoamerican genotypes but less useful for distinguishing within each gene pool. In summary, slightly greater polymorphism and race structure was found within the Andean gene pool than within the Mesoamerican gene pool but polymorphism rate between genotypes was consistent with genepool and race identity. Our survey results represent a baseline for the choice of SNP markers for future applications because gene-associated SNPs could themselves be causative SNPs for traits. Finally, we discuss that the ideal genetic marker combination with which to carry out diversity, mapping and association studies in common bean should consider a mix of both SNP and SSR markers. PMID:21785951

  1. QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCI (QTL) ANALYSIS OF CANNING QUALITY TRAITS IN KIDNEY BEAN (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Canning quality of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), of which the degree of splitting (SPLT) and overall appearance (APP) if canned beans are major components, is a complex trait that exhibits quantitative. The objectives of this study were to identify major genes that affect APP and SPLT in kidney...

  2. Conversion of starch from dry common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dry common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were evaluated for potential conversion of starch to ethanol. Eight varieties of beans with average starch content of 46% (db) were assayed in a laboratory-scaled process based upon the commercial corn dry grind fermentation process. Ethanol yield was 0.43-0....

  3. Antinutritional factors in anasazi and other pinto beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Weder, J K; Telek, L; Vozári-Hampe, M; Saini, H S

    1997-01-01

    Antinutritional factors of anasazi bean were compared to traditional pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Anasazi beans contained less (p<0.001) soluble and bound condensed tannins compared to pinto beans. No differences (p>0.05) in stachyose and raffinose content were found between the two bean types; verbascose was not detected at all. Significant (p<0.05) differences in lectin content were observed between anasazi and pinto bean. The lectins of anasazi beans were classified as non toxic and those of the pinto beans as toxic types. No differences (p>0.05) in inhibitor activity against human and bovine trypsin and chymotrypsin were found between the two bean types. PMID:9527344

  4. Biofortified black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in a maize/bean diet provide more bioavailable iron to piglets than standard black beans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to compare the capacities of biofortified and standard black beans to deliver iron (Fe) for hemoglobin synthesis. Two lines of black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), one standard (“Low”) and the other biofortified (“High”) in Fe (71 and 106 ug Fe/g, respectively) were used. Maize-bas...

  5. Comparative study of the chemical composition of wild and cultivated beans (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Sotelo, A; Sousa, H; Sánchez, M

    1995-02-01

    Five wild Phaseolus vulgaris beans were compared with five cultivated Phaseolus vulgaris beans in proximate composition, total (true) protein, amino acid composition, and toxic and antinutritional factors. The wild beans contained more protein (25.5% vs. 21.7%), ash (5.15 vs. 4.15%), crude fiber (7.08% vs. 5.04%) compared to cultivated beans while the former contained less fat (0.56 vs. 0.89%) and carbohydrates (61.64 vs. 68.05%). Sulfur amino acids were found to be limiting in both groups of bean as expected; however, the cultivated beans had a higher content of the limiting amino acids. Therefore, the cultivated beans showed a better amino acid profile than the wild beans. Toxic factors were not found in either type of bean; the determinations included saponins, alkaloids, and cyanogenic glycosides. The antinutritional factors investigated were hemagglutinins (lectins) and trypsin inhibitors. The wild beans presented a higher content of trypsin inhibitors (28 TUI per mg) and lectins (9.6) than the cultivated beans did (21 TUI per mg and 7 respectively). From the chemical point of view, domestication seems to be positive; however, the better protein nutritive quality of the cultivated beans should be further confirmed by biological assays. PMID:7792267

  6. Geometry applied to breeding common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Lima, J G; Ramalho, M A P

    2016-01-01

    The primary components of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) grain yield (W) are the number of pods (X), the number of grains per pod (Y), and the weight of the grains (Z). In 1964, Grafius suggested using geometry in plant breeding; W corresponds to the volume of a parallelepiped with three axes, X, Y, and Z. Because the cube is the largest parallelepiped by volume, maximum yield is obtained when the relative contributions of X, Y, and Z are the same. We evaluated individual plants of a 'Talismã' x 'L.59583' cross in two sowing periods. The sum of squares of deviations from the ideal plant (GI), i.e., the plant in which the X, Y, and Z contributions were the same, was estimated. Mean and variance genetic components, and genetic and phenotypic correlations between the characteristics were also estimated. Good concordance was observed in the magnitude and direction of the genetic and phenotypic correlation estimates of the paired characteristics. However, a low GI heritability (h(2)r = 6.7%) indicated that success due to selection should be small. Ninety-four progenies of 'Pérola' x 'ESAL 686' crosses were also evaluated, where X, Y, Z, and W were obtained and GI was estimated. The h(2) estimate was higher, but still low (h(2) = 39.0%). Therefore, the selection of individuals to obtain plants in which the X, Y, and Z products tend to the cube is unfeasible, because the sums of X, Y, and Z vary between individuals. In addition, the GI h2 value was low. PMID:27173247

  7. Suspected white kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) toxicity in horses and cattle.

    PubMed

    Carmalt, J; Rosel, K; Burns, T; Janzen, E

    2003-11-01

    Thirty-four mixed breed horses from two separate farms showed signs of abdominal discomfort, pyrexia and dehydration after being exposed to a new batch of 14% complete horse feed. A new batch of cattle feed from the same manufacturer resulted in dairy cows showing depression, a drop in milk production and diarrhoea. Examination of both diets revealed the presence of white kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Inclusion of raw beans of this genus in animal feeds is to be avoided. PMID:15086107

  8. Identification of quantitative trait loci associated with fructose, glucose and sucrose concentration in snap bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris L.) pods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugars, including fructose, glucose, and sucrose contribute significantly to the flavor and consumer acceptance of snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Differences between dry and snap bean cultivars and among snap bean cultivars in the patterns of accumulation of sugars have been observed. In ‘Eagle...

  9. Transcriptome of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) through RNA-seq: nodulation, symbiotic nitrogen fixation, transcription factors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean) is one of the most important grain legumes for direct human consumption. It comprises 50% of the grain legumes consumed worldwide and is important as a primary source of dietary protein in developing countries. We have performed next generation sequencing (RNA-seq) o...

  10. Genome-wide association studies of morphological and agronomical traits in cultivated tepary beans (Phaseolus acutifolius)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius A. Gray) is adapted to high temperature arid agroecological zones. In light of the ongoing and rapid changes in the world climate, the evaluation and development of alternate grain legume species that have similar nutritional and culinary characteristics as common ...

  11. Fungal endophytes in germinated seeds of the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is the most important food legume in the world, but its production is severely limited by several biotic and abiotic stressors. In search of a sustainable solution to this problem, we conducted a survey of fungal endophytes in 582 germinated seeds belonging to 11...

  12. Virulence of Macrophomina phaseolina isolates in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Charcoal rot caused by Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid, is an important disease in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) in the dry and warmer areas of Puerto Rico and in much of the tropics and subtropics worldwide. The virulence of three isolates from Isabela (Mph-ISA-TARS), Juana Diaz (Mph-JD) a...

  13. Microsatellite marker diversity in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Blair, M W; Giraldo, M C; Buendía, H F; Tovar, E; Duque, M C; Beebe, S E

    2006-06-01

    A diversity survey was used to estimate allelic diversity and heterozygosity of 129 microsatellite markers in a panel of 44 common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes that have been used as parents of mapping populations. Two types of microsatellites were evaluated, based respectively on gene coding and genomic sequences. Genetic diversity was evaluated by estimating the polymorphism information content (PIC), as well as the distribution and range of alleles sizes. Gene-based microsatellites proved to be less polymorphic than genomic microsatellites in terms of both number of alleles (6.0 vs. 9.2) and PIC values (0.446 vs. 0.594) while greater size differences between the largest and the smallest allele were observed for the genomic microsatellites than for the gene-based microsatellites (31.4 vs. 19.1 bp). Markers that showed a high number of alleles were identified with a maximum of 28 alleles for the marker BMd1. The microsatellites were useful for distinguishing Andean and Mesoamerican genotypes, for uncovering the races within each genepool and for separating wild accessions from cultivars. Greater polymorphism and race structure was found within the Andean gene pool than within the Mesoamerican gene pool and polymorphism rate between genotypes was consistent with genepool and race identity. Comparisons between Andean genotypes had higher polymorphism (53.0%) on average than comparisons among Mesoamerican genotypes (33.4%). Within the Mesoamerican parental combinations, the intra-racial combinations between Mesoamerica and Durango or Jalisco race genotypes showed higher average rates of polymorphism (37.5%) than the within-race combinations between Mesoamerica race genotypes (31.7%). In multiple correspondance analysis we found two principal clusters of genotypes corresponding to the Mesoamerican and Andean gene pools and subgroups representing specific races especially for the Nueva Granada and Peru races of the Andean gene pool. Intra population diversity

  14. The polyphenolic profiles of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Long-Ze; Harnly, James M.; Pastor-Corrales, Marcial S.; Luthria, Devanand L.

    2013-01-01

    Based on the phenolic profiles obtained by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS), 24 common bean samples, representing 17 varieties and 7 generic off-the-shelf items, belonging to ten US commercial market classes can be organized into six different groups. All of them contained the same hydroxycinnaminic acids, but the flavonoid components showed distinct differences. Black beans contained primarily the 3-O-glucosides of delphinidin, petunidin and malvidin, while pinto beans contained kaempferol and its 3-O-glycosides. Light red kidney bean contained traces of quercetin 3-O-glucoside and its malonates, but pink and dark red kidney beans contained the diglycosides of quercetin and kaempferol. Small red beans contained kaempferol 3-O-glucoside and pelargonidin 3-O-glucoside, while no flavonoids were detected in alubia, cranberry, great northern, and navy beans. This is the first report of the tentative identification of quercetin 3-O-pentosylhexoside and flavonoid glucoside malonates, and the first detailed detection of hydroxycinnamates, in common beans. PMID:25544796

  15. The Polyphenolic Profiles of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Based on the phenolic profiles obtained by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-ESI/MS), 24 common bean samples representing 17 varieties and 7 generic off-the-shelf items belonging to ten dry bean commercial market classes can be organized into six different group...

  16. 2007. Two genes from Phaseolus coccineus L. confer resistance to Bean golden yellow mosaic virus in common bean. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 132:530-533

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV), caused by a whitefly (Bemisia spp.) transmitted geminivirus, is an important disease that can limit common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production in Central America, the Caribbean and southern Florida. Only a few genes are currently deployed in BGYMV resista...

  17. Phaseolus beans: impact on glycaemic response and chronic disease risk in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Hutchins, Andrea M; Winham, Donna M; Thompson, Sharon V

    2012-08-01

    Consumption of Phaseolus vulgaris bean species such as pinto, black, navy or kidney may be beneficial in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases. In particular, conditions that are promoted by increased glycaemic stress (hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia) including diabetes, CVD and cancer seem to be reduced in individuals who eat more of these beans. The present paper discusses the influence of P. vulgaris species on glycaemic response and the impact that relationship may have on the risk of developing diabetes, CVD and cancer. PMID:22916816

  18. Dynamics of a Novel Highly Repetitive CACTA Family in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Dongying; Zhao, Dongyan; Abernathy, Brian; Iwata-Otsubo, Aiko; Herrera-Estrella, Alfredo; Jiang, Ning; Jackson, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    Transposons are ubiquitous genomic components that play pivotal roles in plant gene and genome evolution. We analyzed two genome sequences of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and identified a new CACTA transposon family named pvCACTA1. The family is extremely abundant, as more than 12,000 pvCACTA1 elements were found. To our knowledge, this is the most abundant CACTA family reported thus far. The computational and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses indicated that the pvCACTA1 elements were concentrated in terminal regions of chromosomes and frequently generated AT-rich 3 bp target site duplications (TSD, WWW, W is A or T). Comparative analysis of the common bean genomes from two domesticated genetic pools revealed that new insertions or excisions of pvCACTA1 elements occurred after the divergence of the two common beans, and some of the polymorphic elements likely resulted in variation in gene sequences. pvCACTA1 elements were detected in related species but not outside the Phaseolus genus. We calculated the molecular evolutionary rate of pvCACTA1 transposons using orthologous elements that indicated that most transposition events likely occurred before the divergence of the two gene pools. These results reveal unique features and evolution of this new transposon family in the common bean genome. PMID:27185400

  19. Dynamics of a Novel Highly Repetitive CACTA Family in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Gao, Dongying; Zhao, Dongyan; Abernathy, Brian; Iwata-Otsubo, Aiko; Herrera-Estrella, Alfredo; Jiang, Ning; Jackson, Scott A

    2016-01-01

    Transposons are ubiquitous genomic components that play pivotal roles in plant gene and genome evolution. We analyzed two genome sequences of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and identified a new CACTA transposon family named pvCACTA1. The family is extremely abundant, as more than 12,000 pvCACTA1 elements were found. To our knowledge, this is the most abundant CACTA family reported thus far. The computational and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses indicated that the pvCACTA1 elements were concentrated in terminal regions of chromosomes and frequently generated AT-rich 3 bp target site duplications (TSD, WWW, W is A or T). Comparative analysis of the common bean genomes from two domesticated genetic pools revealed that new insertions or excisions of pvCACTA1 elements occurred after the divergence of the two common beans, and some of the polymorphic elements likely resulted in variation in gene sequences. pvCACTA1 elements were detected in related species but not outside the Phaseolus genus. We calculated the molecular evolutionary rate of pvCACTA1 transposons using orthologous elements that indicated that most transposition events likely occurred before the divergence of the two gene pools. These results reveal unique features and evolution of this new transposon family in the common bean genome. PMID:27185400

  20. Identification and analysis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) transcriptomes by massively parallel pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is the most important food legume in the world. Although this crop is very important to both the developed and developing world as a means of dietary protein supply, resources available in common bean are limited. Global transcriptome analysis is important to better understand gene expression, genetic variation, and gene structure annotation in addition to other important features. However, the number and description of common bean sequences are very limited, which greatly inhibits genome and transcriptome research. Here we used 454 pyrosequencing to obtain a substantial transcriptome dataset for common bean. Results We obtained 1,692,972 reads with an average read length of 207 nucleotides (nt). These reads were assembled into 59,295 unigenes including 39,572 contigs and 19,723 singletons, in addition to 35,328 singletons less than 100 bp. Comparing the unigenes to common bean ESTs deposited in GenBank, we found that 53.40% or 31,664 of these unigenes had no matches to this dataset and can be considered as new common bean transcripts. Functional annotation of the unigenes carried out by Gene Ontology assignments from hits to Arabidopsis and soybean indicated coverage of a broad range of GO categories. The common bean unigenes were also compared to the bean bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) end sequences, and a total of 21% of the unigenes (12,724) including 9,199 contigs and 3,256 singletons match to the 8,823 BAC-end sequences. In addition, a large number of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and transcription factors were also identified in this study. Conclusions This work provides the first large scale identification of the common bean transcriptome derived by 454 pyrosequencing. This research has resulted in a 150% increase in the number of Phaseolus vulgaris ESTs. The dataset obtained through this analysis will provide a platform for functional genomics in common bean and related legumes and will aid in the

  1. Molecular characterization of two evolutionarily distinct endornaviruses co-infecting common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Okada, Ryo; Yong, Chee Keat; Valverde, Rodrigo A; Sabanadzovic, Sead; Aoki, Nanako; Hotate, Shunsuke; Kiyota, Eri; Moriyama, Hiromitsu; Fukuhara, Toshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    Two high-molecular-mass dsRNAs of approximately 14 and 15 kbp were isolated from the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cultivar Black Turtle Soup. These dsRNAs did not appear to cause obvious disease symptoms, and were transmitted through seeds at nearly 100% efficiency. Sequence information indicates that they are the genomes of distinct endornavirus species, for which the names Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 1 (PvEV-1) and Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 2 (PvEV-2) are proposed. The PvEV-1 genome consists of 13,908 bp and potentially encodes a single polyprotein of 4496 aa, while that of PvEV-2 consists of 14 820 bp and potentially encodes a single ORF of 4851 aa. PvEV-1 is more similar to Oryza sativa endornavirus, while PvEV-2 is more similar to bell pepper endornavirus. Both viruses have a site-specific nick near the 5' region of the coding strand, which is a common property of the endornaviruses. Their polyproteins contain domains of RNA helicase, UDP-glycosyltransferase and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, which are conserved in other endornaviruses. However, a viral methyltransferase domain was found in the N-terminal region of PvEV-2, but was absent in PvEV-1. Results of cell-fractionation studies suggested that their subcellular localizations were different. Most endornavirus-infected bean cultivars tested were co-infected with both viruses. PMID:23015743

  2. Soybean rust resistance sources and inheritance in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Souza, T L P O; Dessaune, S N; Moreira, M A; Barros, E G

    2014-01-01

    Soybean rust (SBR), caused by the fungus Phakopsora pachyrhizi, has been reported in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars and elite lines that were infected under controlled and natural field conditions in South Africa, the United States, Argentina, and Brazil. Although SBR is currently not a top priority problem for the common bean crop, many bean breeders are concerned about this disease because of the high severity and virulence diversity of P. pachyrhizi and its broad host range. In this study, a set of 44 P. vulgaris genotypes were tested for resistance to P. pachyrhizi; these genotypes included resistance sources to several fungal common bean diseases, carioca-, black- and red-seeded Brazilian cultivars, and elite lines that were developed by the main common bean breeding programs in Brazil. Twenty-four SBR resistance sources were identified. They presented the reddish-brown (RB) lesion type, characterizing resistance reactions. In addition to the RB lesion type, the PI181996 line presented the lowest disease severity mean score, considering its associated standard error value. For this reason, it was crossed with susceptible lines to study the inheritance of resistance. The results support the hypothesis that resistance to SBR in PI181996 is monogenic and dominant. We propose that this SBR resistance gene, the first to be identified and characterized in common bean, might be designated as Pkp-1. PMID:25117320

  3. Nutritional composition and cooking characteristics of tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius Gray) in comparison with common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tepary bean is a highly abiotic stress tolerant orphan crop, however, there has been limited research on its nutritional value and cooking characteristics, key aspects when considering the potential for broader adoption globally. The goal of this study was to evaluate a large set of seed composition...

  4. Study on great northern beans (Phaseolus vulgaris): effect of drum drying process on bean flour properties and effect on gamma radiation on bean starch properties

    SciTech Connect

    Rayas-Solis, P.

    1988-01-01

    Great Northern bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) drum dried flours at native pH of 6.54, pH 6 and 7 showed reduced activities of trypsin inhibitor, ..cap alpha..-amylase inhibitor, hemagglutinating titer, and nitrogen solubility. Electrophoretic analyses showed a slight modification of the native bean proteins, and the presence of at least four trypsin inhibitors. The study of the effect of 2.5-20 kGy irradiation doses on Great Northern beans showed essentially no modification of the electrophoretic mobility of the storage proteins or the trypsin inhibitors. Nitrogen solubility and hemagglutinating activity were essentially unchanged. With the 20 kGy dose, decrease in ..cap alpha..-amylase inhibitor activity, decrease reactive/available lysine content, and decrease cooking time of the irradiated beans after 11 months of storage were observed. Taste panel results indicated that the control and 20 kGy irradiated bean were significantly different at 5% level. At 20 kGy dose, the beans developed a partially water soluble brown color.

  5. Registration of ‘Snowdon’ White Kidney Bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Snowdon’ white kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) (Reg. no. CV- , PI __), developed by Michigan State University AgBioResearch was released in 2012 as an early-mid season, disease-resistant, bush bean cultivar. Snowdon was developed using pedigree breeding method to the F4 generation followed ...

  6. The amino-acid sequence of leghemoglobin component a from Phaseolus vulgaris (kidney bean).

    PubMed

    Lehtovaara, P; Ellfolk, N

    1975-06-01

    1. Leghemoglobin component a from Phaseolus vulgaris (kidney bean) was digested with trypsin; 15 tryptic peptides and free lysine were purified and the amino acid sequences of the peptides determined. 2. The internal order of the tryptic peptides was determined by the bridge peptides obtained from the thermolytic digest and the dilute acid hydrolyzate of kidney bean leghemoglobin a; 12 thermolytic peptides and two acid hydrolysis peptides were purified and the sequences were partially or completely determined. 3. The complete amino acid sequence of kidney bean leghemoglobin a is compared to that of leghemoglobin a from soybean (Glycine max) and to some animal globins. As regards sequence, the kidney bean globin has 79% identity with the soybean globin and 21% identity with human hemoglobin gamma-chain. Seven of the 14 amino acid residues common to most globins are found in the kidney bean globin. Trp-15 and Tyr-145 are evolutionarily conserved in this globin, which confirms the concept of a common origin of animal and plant globins. PMID:809270

  7. Visualization of resistance responses in Phaseolus vulgaris using reporter tagged clones of Bean common mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Naderpour, Masoud; Johansen, Ida Elisabeth

    2011-07-01

    Reporter tagged virus clones can provide detailed information on virus-host interactions. In Phaseolus vulgaris (bean), four recessive and one dominant gene are known to control infection by strains of the potyvirus species Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV). To study the interactions between BCMV and bean genotypes with different resistance gene combinations, an infectious clone of the strain RU1 was tagged with the UidA gene encoding β-glucuronidase (GUS). The clone was agroinoculated to bean genotypes with different combinations of the resistance genes bc-u, bc-1, bc-2, bc-3 and I. In situ histochemical GUS assays showed new details of the resistance responses, which were previously analysed by immunological methods and symptom descriptions. In some instances GUS assays suggested that resistance breaking strains appeared at single foci in uninoculated leaves. To allow recovery of resistance breaking strains for further studies, BCMV RU1 was tagged with the sequence encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP), which was visualized directly without destruction of the tissue. In this paper we present details of the construction of the infectious clone and discuss its application in studies of BCMV resistance in bean. PMID:21549773

  8. Comparison of growth, nitrogen metabolism and organ weights in piglets and rats fed on diets containing Phaseolus vulgaris beans.

    PubMed

    Huisman, J; van der Poel, A F; van Leeuwen, P; Verstegen, M W

    1990-11-01

    The effects of lectins in the diet have been mainly studied in rats. An important question is whether results obtained in rats can be extrapolated to larger animals like the pig. Phaseolus vulgaris beans are rich in toxic lectins. Therefore a study was carried out to compare the effects of diets containing 200 g Phaseolus vulgaris beans (raw or toasted)/kg in rats and piglets. Live-weight gain, nitrogen digestibility and N balance were much lower in piglets than in rats fed on diets containing raw beans. Live-weight gain and N balance were slightly negative in the piglets. When toasted beans were given, live-weight gain and N balance values were reduced in piglets but hardly at all in rats. Giving raw beans caused hypertrophy of the pancreas in the rats but in piglets the weight of the pancreas was reduced. Spleen weight was depressed in the piglets but not in the rats. Weight of liver was not affected in either animal species. When toasted beans were given no effects on the weights of pancreas, spleen or liver were found in piglets or rats. It was concluded that the piglet is much more sensitive to antinutritional factors in the Phaseolus vulgaris bean than the rat. PMID:2265182

  9. First record of Teratopactus nodicollis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Quintela, E D; dos Santos, J A P; Barrigossi, J A F; Guedes, J V C

    2012-06-01

    Observations on the bioecology and damage of Teratopactus nodicollis Boheman on Phaseolus vulgaris were carried out on field samples by assessing the number of larvae and root damage in 40 ha of a dry bean field from the Federal District, Brazil (16°4'28.41"W; 47°30'21.13"S). Larvae caused the greatest damage at the stage of germination, emergence, and primary leaves, producing 50 % stand reduction. Most larvae pupated in August and September, and adult emergence occurred in middle October. Some larvae were infected with the fungus Metarhizium spp., a biological agent that would be naturally controlling this insect. PMID:23950052

  10. Cytogenetic map of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    PubMed Central

    Fonsêca, Artur; Ferreira, Joana; dos Santos, Tiago Ribeiro Barros; Mosiolek, Magdalena; Bellucci, Elisa; Kami, James; Gepts, Paul; Geffroy, Valérie; Schweizer, Dieter; dos Santos, Karla G. B.

    2010-01-01

    A cytogenetic map of common bean was built by in situ hybridization of 35 bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) selected with markers mapping to eight linkage groups, plus two plasmids for 5S and 45S ribosomal DNA and one bacteriophage. Together with three previously mapped chromosomes (chromosomes 3, 4, and 7), 43 anchoring points between the genetic map and the cytogenetic map of the species are now available. Furthermore, a subset of four BAC clones was proposed to identify the 11 chromosome pairs of the standard cultivar BAT93. Three of these BACs labelled more than a single chromosome pair, indicating the presence of repetitive DNA in their inserts. A repetitive distribution pattern was observed for most of the BACs; for 38% of them, highly repetitive pericentromeric or subtelomeric signals were observed. These distribution patterns corresponded to pericentromeric and subtelomeric heterochromatin blocks observed with other staining methods. Altogether, the results indicate that around half of the common bean genome is heterochromatic and that genes and repetitive sequences are intermingled in the euchromatin and heterochromatin of the species. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10577-010-9129-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20449646

  11. Immunological detection of bean common mosaic virus in French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Verma, Poonam; Gupta, U P

    2010-09-01

    Bean common mosaic potyvirus (BCMV) is an important seed borne pathogen of French bean. Differential inoculation with bean common mosaic virus at cotylodonary trifoliate leaf stage and pre-flowering stage of crop growth revealed that cotyledonary leaf infection favored maximum disease expression. Under immunosorbent electron microscopy (ISEM) the virus particles of filamentous structure having a diameter of 750 nm (l) and 15 nm (w) were observed. These particles gave positive precipitin tests with polyclonal antiserum of Potato virus Y. PMID:23100839

  12. Biofortified red mottled beans (phaseolus vulgaris L.) in a maize and bean diet provide more bioavailable iron than standard red mottled beans: studies in poultry (Gallus gallus) and an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to compare the capacities of biofortified and standard colored beans to deliver iron (Fe) for hemoglobin synthesis. Two isolines of large-seeded, red mottled Andean beans (Phaseolus valgaris L.), one standard (“Low FE”) and the other biofortified (“High Fe”) in Fe (49 and 71 ug Fe...

  13. Genome-wide identification and characterization of aquaporin gene family in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Ariani, Andrea; Gepts, Paul

    2015-10-01

    Plant aquaporins are a large and diverse family of water channel proteins that are essential for several physiological processes in living organisms. Numerous studies have linked plant aquaporins with a plethora of processes, such as nutrient acquisition, CO2 transport, plant growth and development, and response to abiotic stresses. However, little is known about this protein family in common bean. Here, we present a genome-wide identification of the aquaporin gene family in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), a legume crop essential for human nutrition. We identified 41 full-length coding aquaporin sequences in the common bean genome, divided by phylogenetic analysis into five sub-families (PIPs, TIPs, NIPs, SIPs and XIPs). Residues determining substrate specificity of aquaporins (i.e., NPA motifs and ar/R selectivity filter) seem conserved between common bean and other plant species, allowing inference of substrate specificity for these proteins. Thanks to the availability of RNA-sequencing datasets, expression levels in different organs and in leaves of wild and domesticated bean accessions were evaluated. Three aquaporins (PvTIP1;1, PvPIP2;4 and PvPIP1;2) have the overall highest mean expressions, with PvTIP1;1 having the highest expression among all aquaporins. We performed an EST database mining to identify drought-responsive aquaporins in common bean. This analysis showed a significant increase in expression for PvTIP1;1 in drought stress conditions compared to well-watered environments. The pivotal role suggested for PvTIP1;1 in regulating water homeostasis and drought stress response in the common bean should be verified by further field experimentation under drought stress. PMID:25846963

  14. Fungal endophytes in germinated seeds of the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Parsa, Soroush; García-Lemos, Adriana M.; Castillo, Katherine; Ortiz, Viviana; López-Lavalle, Luis Augusto Becerra; Braun, Jerome; Vega, Fernando E.

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a survey of fungal endophytes in 582 germinated seeds belonging to 11 Colombian cultivars of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). The survey yielded 394 endophytic isolates belonging to 42 taxa, as identified by sequence analysis of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Aureobasidium pullulans was the dominant endophyte, isolated from 46.7 % of the samples. Also common were Fusarium oxysporum, Xylaria sp., and Cladosporium cladosporioides, but found in only 13.4 %, 11.7 %, and 7.6 % of seedlings, respectively. Endophytic colonization differed significantly among common bean cultivars and seedling parts, with the highest colonization occurring in the first true leaves of the seedlings. PMID:27109374

  15. Physiological behavior of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seedlings under metal stress.

    PubMed

    Zengin, Fikriye

    2013-01-01

    The effects of nickel, cobalt, chromium and zinc on the content of vitamins A, E and C, malondialdehyde (MDA), chlorophyll and carotenoids were investigated in bean seedlings (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown in Hoagland solution Control and heavy metal-treated plants were grown for ten days in Hoagland solution. Vitamin A, E, and C content were measured in primary leaves by high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC). MDA, chlorophyll and carotenoids were measured in leaves by spectrophotometer. In heavy metal treated plants, the levels of MDA, vitamins A, E and C and carotenoids significantly increased, while chlorophyll content decreased in leaves of seedlings. The results indicate that heavy metals caused an oxidative stress in bean plants. The strongest effect on vitamins A, E and C, MDA, chlorophyll and carotenoids was found in plants exposed to nickel, followed by the sequence cobalt > chromium> zinc. PMID:23760419

  16. Fungal endophytes in germinated seeds of the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Parsa, Soroush; García-Lemos, Adriana M; Castillo, Katherine; Ortiz, Viviana; López-Lavalle, Luis Augusto Becerra; Braun, Jerome; Vega, Fernando E

    2016-05-01

    We conducted a survey of fungal endophytes in 582 germinated seeds belonging to 11 Colombian cultivars of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). The survey yielded 394 endophytic isolates belonging to 42 taxa, as identified by sequence analysis of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Aureobasidium pullulans was the dominant endophyte, isolated from 46.7 % of the samples. Also common were Fusarium oxysporum, Xylaria sp., and Cladosporium cladosporioides, but found in only 13.4 %, 11.7 %, and 7.6 % of seedlings, respectively. Endophytic colonization differed significantly among common bean cultivars and seedling parts, with the highest colonization occurring in the first true leaves of the seedlings. PMID:27109374

  17. Understanding and improving flavor in beans: Screening the USDA Phaseolus core collection for pod sugar and flavor compounds in snap and dry bean accessions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of our research is to gain knowledge regarding variation in sugar and flavor content among a sample of dry bean and green pod-type accessions from the USDA Phaseolus Germplasm Core Collection, Pullman, WA. Knowledge of the variation will allow better utilization of germplasm resources ...

  18. Interaction of cold radiofrequency plasma with seeds of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    PubMed Central

    Bormashenko, Edward; Shapira, Yekaterina; Grynyov, Roman; Whyman, Gene; Bormashenko, Yelena; Drori, Elyashiv

    2015-01-01

    The impact of cold radiofrequency air plasma on the wetting properties and water imbibition of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) was studied. The influence of plasma on wetting of a cotyledon and seed coat (testa) was elucidated. It was established that cold plasma treatment leads to hydrophilization of the cotyledon and tissues constituting the testa when they are separately exposed to plasma. By contrast, when the entire bean is exposed to plasma treatment, only the external surface of the bean is hydrophilized by the cold plasma. Water imbibition by plasma-treated beans was studied. Plasma treatment markedly accelerates the water absorption. The crucial role of a micropyle in the process of water imbibition was established. It was established that the final percentage of germination was almost the same in the cases of plasma-treated, untreated, and vacuum-pumped samples. However, the speed of germination was markedly higher for the plasma-treated samples. The influence of the vacuum pumping involved in the cold plasma treatment on the germination was also clarified. PMID:25948708

  19. Novel lectin-related proteins are major components in lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Sparvoli, F; Gallo, A; Marinelli, D; Santucci, A; Bollini, R

    1998-02-17

    The only component of the lectin-related protein family so far reported in Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) seeds is the minor seed lectin (LBL). In the morphotype Big Lima, we have isolated and characterised two abundant lectin-related seed proteins and the corresponding cDNA clones. The clones show 93.7% nucleotide identity and encode an arcelin-like (ARL) and an alpha-amylase inhibitor-like (AIL) protein. Not considering the signal peptides, ARL and AIL polypeptides contain 239 and 233 amino acids, respectively. Each polypeptide is present in the mature protein as two glycoforms. ARL subunits (43 and 46 kDa) make up oligomers of about 125 to 130 kDa whereas AIL subunits (40 and 42 kDa) oligomerise in dimers of about 88 to 100 kDa. cDNA clones encoding two isoforms of the less abundant Lima bean lectin were also isolated. In common bean (P. vulgaris) the lectin locus encodes the lectin and the lectin-related proteins alpha-amylase inhibitor and arcelin, all plant defence proteins. Our data indicate extensive evolution of the locus also in Lima bean. PMID:9540803

  20. Interaction of cold radiofrequency plasma with seeds of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Bormashenko, Edward; Shapira, Yekaterina; Grynyov, Roman; Whyman, Gene; Bormashenko, Yelena; Drori, Elyashiv

    2015-07-01

    The impact of cold radiofrequency air plasma on the wetting properties and water imbibition of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) was studied. The influence of plasma on wetting of a cotyledon and seed coat (testa) was elucidated. It was established that cold plasma treatment leads to hydrophilization of the cotyledon and tissues constituting the testa when they are separately exposed to plasma. By contrast, when the entire bean is exposed to plasma treatment, only the external surface of the bean is hydrophilized by the cold plasma. Water imbibition by plasma-treated beans was studied. Plasma treatment markedly accelerates the water absorption. The crucial role of a micropyle in the process of water imbibition was established. It was established that the final percentage of germination was almost the same in the cases of plasma-treated, untreated, and vacuum-pumped samples. However, the speed of germination was markedly higher for the plasma-treated samples. The influence of the vacuum pumping involved in the cold plasma treatment on the germination was also clarified. PMID:25948708

  1. Transcriptome characterization of developing bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) pods from two genotypes with contrasting seed zinc concentrations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds are a rich source of dietary zinc, especially for people consuming plant-based diets. Within P. vulgaris there is at least two-fold variation in seed Zn concentration. Genetic studies have revealed seed Zn differences to be controlled by a single gene in two c...

  2. Bioaccessibility of phenols in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and iron (Fe) availability to Caco-2 cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Samples of common and biofortified beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), both raw and cooked (autoclaved 120 deg C, 20 min) were analyzed for their polyphenol composition. Polyphenols were identified via HPLC-UV/diode array detection. Cooking favored the extraction of polyphenols without the need of a hydroly...

  3. Isolates of Rhizoctonia solani can produce both web blight and root rot symptoms in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia solani Kühn (Rs) is an important pathogen in the tropics, causing web blight (WB), and a widespread soil-borne root rot (RR) pathogen of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) worldwide. This pathogen is a species complex classified into 14 anastomosis groups (AG). Some AGs have been report...

  4. MicroRNAs Expression Profile in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) under Nutrient Deficiency Stresses and Manganese Toxicity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a pivotal role in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in plants. The information on miRNAs in legumes is scarce. This work analyzes miRNAs in the agronomically important legume common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris. A hybridization approach of miRNAs-macroarrays prin...

  5. Nutritive value evaluated on rats of new cultivars of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) released in Chile.

    PubMed

    Yañez, E; Zacarias, I; Aguayo, M; Vasquez, M; Guzman, E

    1995-06-01

    Five new cultivars of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) recently released were analyzed for their proximate chemical composition and protein biological quality. The crude protein content in these cultivars ranged from 21.9 percent in cultivar Arroz 3 to 26.9 percent in cultivar Tórtola Diana (dry matter basis). Rats fed cultivar Tórtola INIA gained more weight, had a higher protein intake and registered higher PER and NPR than Tórtola corriente. On the other hand, rats consuming cultivars Arroz 3 and Fleetwood had lower weight gain, lower protein intake and lower PER and NPR than cultivar Coscorrón corriente. However, all these cultivars have a relatively good protein value as compared to other plant protein sources. PMID:8577647

  6. Vulgarinin, a broad-spectrum antifungal peptide from haricot beans (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Wong, Jack Ho; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2005-08-01

    From the seeds of haricot beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), an antifungal peptide with a molecular mass around 7 kDa was purified by using a simple protocol consisting of affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel and gel filtration on Superdex 75. This peptide named vulgarinin manifested an antifungal activity toward fungal species such as Fusarium oxysporum, Mycosphaerella arachidicola, Physalospora piricola and Botrytis cinerea, and an antibacterial action on Mycobacterium phlei, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus subtilis and Proteus vulgaris. It also inhibited proliferation in leukemia cell lines L1210 and M1 and breast cancer cell line MCF-7. This peptide could reduce the activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and inhibited translation in a cell-free rabbit reticulocyte lysate system. Its antifungal activity was retained after incubation with trypsin. PMID:15896669

  7. Lunatusin, a trypsin-stable antimicrobial peptide from lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus L.).

    PubMed

    Wong, Jack Ho; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2005-11-01

    An anti-fungal peptide designated as lunatusin, with a molecular mass around 7kDa, was purified from the seeds of Chinese lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.). The peptide was isolated using a simple protocol consisting of affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel and gel filtration on Superdex 75. Lunatusin exerted an anti-fungal activity toward fungal species such as Fusarium oxysporum, Mycosphaerella arachidicola and Botrytis cinerea, and an antibacterial action on, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus subtilis, Proteus vulgaris and Mycobacterium phlei. It also inhibited proliferation in the breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Lunatusin reduced the activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and it also inhibited translation in a cell-free rabbit reticulocyte lysate system. Its anti-fungal activity was retained after incubation with trypsin. Lunatusin elicited a mitogenic response from mouse splenocytes. PMID:16269344

  8. Protein structures of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) alpha-amylase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shih-Chieh; Gepts, Paul L; Whitaker, John R

    2002-10-23

    Two nucleotide sequences for genes that encode alpha-amylase inhibitor 4 (alphaAI-4) from white kidney bean (WKB) cv. 858, designated gene alphaAI-4 (Accession No. ), and alpha-amylase inhibitor 5 (alphaAI-5) from black bean (BB), designated gene alphaAI-5 (Accession No. ), were determined. Genes alphaAI-4 and alphaAI-5 encode 244 amino acid prepro-alphaAI-4 and prepro-alphaAI-5 polypeptides that are 93 and 95% identical with alpha-amylase inhibitor l (alphaAI-l; Hoffman, L. M.; Ma, Y.; Barker, R. F. Nucleic Acids Res. 1982, 10, 7819-7828), 40 and 43% identical with red kidney bean lectin, and 52 and 55% identical with arcelin l of wild-type bean. The high degree of sequence similarity indicates the evolutionary relationship among these genes. PCR analysis of genomic DNA purified from six genotypes of Phaseolus vulgaris showed very similar band patterns in 2% agarose gel, another indication of the conserved size homology among these genes. Proteolytic processing sites were located between Asn77 and Ser78 for pro-alphaAI-4 and pro-alphaAI-5. A bend next to Asn77 in three-dimensional model structures of alphaAI-4 and alphaAI-5 proinhibitors indicates that the proteolytic cleavage is necessary to remove the conformational constraint for activation to the mature protein. Mature WKB alphaAI-4 was composed of four subunits (2alpha2beta) and had a molecular weight of 50000 determined by multiangle laser light scattering and 56714 determined by laser-assisted time-of-flight mass spectrometry. PMID:12381161

  9. Environmental Effects of Nanoceria on Seed Production of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris): A Proteomic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Sanghamitra; Almeida, Igor C; Arigi, Emma A; Choi, Hyungwon; VerBerkmoes, Nathan C; Trujillo-Reyes, Jesica; Flores-Margez, Juan P; White, Jason C; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2015-11-17

    The rapidly growing literature on the response of edible plants to nanoceria has provided evidence of its uptake and bioaccumulation, which delineates a possible route of entry into the food chain. However, little is known about how the residing organic matter in soil may affect the bioavailability and resulting impacts of nanoceria on plants. Here, we examined the effect of nanoceria exposure (62.5-500 mg/kg) on kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) productivity and seed quality as a function of soil organic matter content. Cerium accumulation in the seeds produced from plants in organic matter enriched soil showed a dose-dependent increase, unlike in low organic matter soil treatments. Seeds obtained upon nanoceria exposure in soils with higher organic matter were more susceptible to changes in nutrient quality. A quantitative proteomic analysis of the seeds produced upon nanoceria exposure provided evidence for upregulation of stress-related proteins at 62.5 and 125 mg/kg nanoceria treatments. Although the plants did not exhibit overt toxicity, the major seed proteins primarily associated with nutrient storage (phaseolin) and carbohydrate metabolism (lectins) were significantly down-regulated in a dose dependent manner upon nanoceria exposure. This study thus suggests that nanoceria exposures may negatively affect the nutritional quality of kidney beans at the cellular and molecular level. More confirmatory studies with nanoceria along different species using alternative and orthogonal "omic" tools are currently under active investigation, which will enable the identification of biomarkers of exposure and susceptibility. PMID:26488752

  10. Antipeptide antibodies that can distinguish specific subunit polypeptides of glutamine synthetase from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cai, X.; Henry, R. L.; Takemoto, L. J.; Guikema, J. A.; Wong, P. P.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    The amino acid sequences of the beta and gamma subunit polypeptides of glutamine synthetase from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) root nodules are very similar. However, there are small regions within the sequences that are significantly different between the two polypeptides. The sequences between amino acids 2 and 9 and between 264 and 274 are examples. Three peptides (gamma 2-9, gamma 264-274, and beta 264-274) corresponding to these sequences were synthesized. Antibodies against these peptides were raised in rabbits and purified with corresponding peptide-Sepharose affinity chromatography. Western blot analysis of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of bean nodule proteins demonstrated that the anti-beta 264-274 antibodies reacted specifically with the beta polypeptide and the anti-gamma 264-274 and anti-gamma 2-9 antibodies reacted specifically with the gamma polypeptide of the native and denatured glutamine synthetase. These results showed the feasibility of using synthetic peptides in developing antibodies that are capable of distinguishing proteins with similar primary structures.

  11. A growth analysis of waterlogging damage in mung bean (Phaseolus aureus)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musgrave, M. E.; Vanhoy, M. A.

    1989-01-01

    Mung beans (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) were grown for 2 weeks in gravel-vermiculite soilless mix in a growth chamber and subjected to a 1-week waterlogging period followed by a 1-week recovery period. Sequential harvests were made to determine the time course of effects of waterlogging and subsequent recovery on growth parameters by techniques of growth analysis. Root dry matter was the first to be affected, along with an increase in leaf dry matter and specific leaf weight. After a 1-week waterlogging period, specific leaf weight had more than doubled in the stressed plants. Leaf area declined in relation to the control plants as did the ratio of root dry matter to shoot dry matter. During the recovery period there was an increase in the dry matter allocation to the roots relative to the shoot. Specific leaf weight fell to control levels although the rate of leaf area elaboration did not increase during this time, suggesting a redistribution of stored assimilates from the leaves. Net assimilation rate increased during the waterlogging period, probably due to a restriction in root metabolism and reduced translocation out of the leaf rather than to an increase in photosynthesis. Net assimilation rate of waterlogged plants was severely reduced compared with control plants during the recovery period. Both relative growth rate and leaf area duration declined during the waterlogging period and declined further subsequent to the waterlogging treatment. The results illustrate the interrelationships between root and shoot carbon budgets in mung bean during response to the stress of waterlogging.

  12. Cell-Wall Proteins Induced by Water Deficit in Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Seedlings.

    PubMed Central

    Covarrubias, A. A.; Ayala, J. W.; Reyes, J. L.; Hernandez, M.; Garciarrubio, A.

    1995-01-01

    In the last few years, much attention has been given to the role of proteins that accumulate during water deficit. In this work, we analyzed the electrophoretic patterns of basic protein extracts, enriched for a number of cell-wall proteins, from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seedlings and 21-d-old plants subjected to water deficit. Three major basic proteins accumulated in bean seedlings exposed to low water potentials, with apparent molecular masses of 36, 33, and 22 kD, which we refer to as p36, p33, and p22, respectively. Leaves and roots of 21-d-old plants grown under low-water-availability conditions accumulated only p36 and p33 proteins. In 21-d-old plants subjected to a fast rate of water loss, both p33 and p36 accumulated to approximately the same levels, whereas if the plants were subjected to a gradual loss of water, p33 accumulated to higher levels. Both p36 and p33 were glycosylated and were found in the cell-wall fraction. In contrast, p22 was not glycosylated and was found in the soluble fraction. The accumulation of these proteins was also induced by abscisic acid (0.1-1.0 mM) treatment but not by wounding or by jasmonate treatment. PMID:12228420

  13. Assessment of genotoxic effects of boron on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) by using RAPD analysis.

    PubMed

    Kekec, Guzin; Sakcali, M Serdal; Uzonur, Irem

    2010-06-01

    In boron-rich soils of Turkey, boron tolerant wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and sensitive bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are most widely cultivated crops. In this study they have been studied to elucidate the probable genotoxic effects of boron by using RAPD analysis. During the study, root and stem lengths have been measured and inhibitory rates (%) of root growth have been found to be significant, starting from 10 (13%) and 5 ppm (19%) for wheat and bean, respectively, which is in strong correlation with the root DNA alterations; RAPD variations starting from 100 ppm for wheat and 25 ppm for bean. The preliminary findings encourage the use of these tools in investigation of genotoxic effects of boron on wheat, bean and the other crops. PMID:20467724

  14. Analysis of trypsin inhibitors and lectins in white kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris, var. Processor) in a combined method.

    PubMed

    Roozen, J P; de Groot, J

    1991-01-01

    Buffered saline extraction, affinity chromatography, and Folin-BSA protein assay were used consecutively to provide a combined method for analysis of trypsin inhibitors and lectins in white kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris, var. Processor). The method was tested by following the decrease of both antinutritional factors by germination of the beans for 7 days at 20 degrees C. Repeatability coefficients of variation were 2-7.4% for the trypsin inhibitors and 2.2-10% for the lectins. After 7 days of germination, trypsin inhibitors and lectins were reduced by 72 and 92%, respectively. PMID:1757418

  15. The Linamarin β-Glucosidase in Costa Rican Wild Lima Beans (Phaseolus lunatus L.) Is Apoplastic 1

    PubMed Central

    Frehner, Marco; Conn, Eric E.

    1987-01-01

    Analysis of mesophyll protoplasts and cell wall extracts of leaf discs of Costa Rican wild lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) shows that the linamarase activity is confined to the apoplast. Its substrate linamarin, together with the related enzyme hydroxynitrile lyase, is found inside the cells. This compartmentation prevents cyanogenesis from occurring in intact tissue, and suggests that linamarin has to be protected during any translocation across the linamarase rich apoplast. PMID:16665601

  16. Molecular cloning and characterization of the ABA-specific glucosyltransferase gene from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Palaniyandi, Sasikumar Arunachalam; Chung, Gyuhwa; Kim, Sang Hyon; Yang, Seung Hwan

    2015-04-15

    Levels of the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) are maintained in homeostasis by a balance of its biosynthesis, catabolism and conjugation. The detailed molecular and signaling events leading to strict homeostasis are not completely understood in crop plants. In this study, we obtained cDNA of an ABA-inducible, ABA-specific UDP-glucosyltransferase (ABAGT) from the bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) involved in conjugation of a glucose residue to ABA to form inactive ABA-glucose ester (ABA-GE) to examine its role during development and abiotic stress in bean. The bacterially expressed PvABAGTase enzyme showed ABA-specific glucosylation activity in vitro. A higher level of the PvABAGT transcript was observed in mature leaves, mature flowers, roots, seed coats and embryos as well as upon rehydration following a period of dehydration. Overexpression of 35S::PvABAGT in Arabidopsis showed reduced sensitivity to ABA compared with WT. The transgenic plants showed a high level of ABA-GE without significant decrease in the level of ABA compared with the wild type (WT) during dehydration stress. Upon rehydration, the levels of ABA and phaseic acid (PA) decreased in the WT and the PvABAGT-overexpressing lines with high levels of ABA-GE only in the transgenic plants. Our findings suggest that the PvABAGT gene could play a role in ABA homeostasis during development and stress responses in bean and its overexpression in Arabidopsis did not alter ABA homeostasis during dehydration stress. PMID:25747288

  17. Beans in Europe: origin and structure of the European landraces of Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    PubMed

    Angioi, S A; Rau, D; Attene, G; Nanni, L; Bellucci, E; Logozzo, G; Negri, V; Spagnoletti Zeuli, P L; Papa, R

    2010-09-01

    This study focuses on the expansion of Phaseolus vulgaris in Europe. The pathways of distribution of beans into and across Europe were very complex, with several introductions from the New World that were combined with direct exchanges between European and other Mediterranean countries. We have analyzed here six chloroplast microsatellite (cpSSR) loci and two unlinked nuclear loci (for phaseolin types and Pv-shatterproof1). We have assessed the genetic structure and level of diversity of a large collection of European landraces of P. vulgaris (307) in comparison to 94 genotypes from the Americas that are representative of the Andean and Mesoamerican gene pools. First, we show that most of the European common bean landraces (67%) are of Andean origin, and that there are no strong differences across European regions for the proportions of the Andean and Mesoamerican gene pools. Moreover, cytoplasmic diversity is evenly distributed across European regions. Secondly, the cytoplasmic bottleneck that was due to the introduction of P. vulgaris into the Old World was very weak or nearly absent. This is in contrast to evidence from nuclear analyses that have suggested a bottleneck of greater intensity. Finally, we estimate that a relatively high proportion of the European bean germplasm (about 44%) was derived from hybridization between the Andean and Mesoamerican gene pools. Moreover, although hybrids are present everywhere in Europe, they show an uneven distribution, with high frequencies in central Europe, and low frequencies in Spain and Italy. On the basis of these data, we suggest that the entire European continent and not only some of the countries therein can be regarded as a secondary diversification center for P. vulgaris. Finally, we outline the relevance of these inter-gene pool hybrids for plant breeding. PMID:20490446

  18. Genome-Wide Association Study of Anthracnose Resistance in Andean Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    PubMed Central

    Zuiderveen, Grady H.; Padder, Bilal A.; Kamfwa, Kelvin; Song, Qijian; Kelly, James D.

    2016-01-01

    Anthracnose is a seed-borne disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) caused by the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and the pathogen is cosmopolitan in distribution. The objectives of this study were to identify new sources of anthracnose resistance in a diverse panel of 230 Andean beans comprised of multiple seed types and market classes from the Americas, Africa, and Europe, and explore the genetic basis of this resistance using genome-wide association mapping analysis (GWAS). Twenty-eight of the 230 lines tested were resistant to six out of the eight races screened, but only one cultivar Uyole98 was resistant to all eight races (7, 39, 55, 65, 73, 109, 2047, and 3481) included in the study. Outputs from the GWAS indicated major quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance on chromosomes, Pv01, Pv02, and Pv04 and two minor QTL on Pv10 and Pv11. Candidate genes associated with the significant SNPs were detected on all five chromosomes. An independent QTL study was conducted to confirm the physical location of the Co-1 locus identified on Pv01 in an F4:6 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. Resistance was determined to be conditioned by the single dominant gene Co-1 that mapped between 50.16 and 50.30 Mb on Pv01, and an InDel marker (NDSU_IND_1_50.2219) tightly linked to the gene was developed. The information reported will provide breeders with new and diverse sources of resistance and genomic regions to target in the development of anthracnose resistance in Andean beans. PMID:27270627

  19. Genome-Wide Association Study of Anthracnose Resistance in Andean Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Zuiderveen, Grady H; Padder, Bilal A; Kamfwa, Kelvin; Song, Qijian; Kelly, James D

    2016-01-01

    Anthracnose is a seed-borne disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) caused by the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and the pathogen is cosmopolitan in distribution. The objectives of this study were to identify new sources of anthracnose resistance in a diverse panel of 230 Andean beans comprised of multiple seed types and market classes from the Americas, Africa, and Europe, and explore the genetic basis of this resistance using genome-wide association mapping analysis (GWAS). Twenty-eight of the 230 lines tested were resistant to six out of the eight races screened, but only one cultivar Uyole98 was resistant to all eight races (7, 39, 55, 65, 73, 109, 2047, and 3481) included in the study. Outputs from the GWAS indicated major quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance on chromosomes, Pv01, Pv02, and Pv04 and two minor QTL on Pv10 and Pv11. Candidate genes associated with the significant SNPs were detected on all five chromosomes. An independent QTL study was conducted to confirm the physical location of the Co-1 locus identified on Pv01 in an F4:6 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. Resistance was determined to be conditioned by the single dominant gene Co-1 that mapped between 50.16 and 50.30 Mb on Pv01, and an InDel marker (NDSU_IND_1_50.2219) tightly linked to the gene was developed. The information reported will provide breeders with new and diverse sources of resistance and genomic regions to target in the development of anthracnose resistance in Andean beans. PMID:27270627

  20. Demographic factors shaped diversity in the two gene pools of wild common bean Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    PubMed Central

    Mamidi, S; Rossi, M; Moghaddam, S M; Annam, D; Lee, R; Papa, R; McClean, P E

    2013-01-01

    Wild common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is distributed throughout the Americas from Mexico to northern Argentina. Within this range, the species is divided into two gene pools (Andean and Middle American) along a latitudinal gradient. The diversity of 24 wild common bean genotypes from throughout the geographic range of the species was described by using sequence data from 13 loci. An isolation–migration model was evaluated using a coalescent analysis to estimate multiple demographic parameters. Using a Bayesian approach, Andean and Middle American subpopulations with high percentage of parentages were observed. Over all loci, the Middle American gene pool was more diverse than the Andean gene pool (πsil=0.0089 vs 0.0068). The two subpopulations were strongly genetically differentiated over all loci (Fst=0.29). It is estimated that the two current wild gene pools diverged from a common ancestor ∼111 000 years ago. Subsequently, each gene pool underwent a bottleneck immediately after divergence and lasted ∼40 000 years. The Middle American bottleneck population size was ∼46% of the ancestral population size, whereas the Andean was 26%. Continuous asymmetric gene flow was detected between the two gene pools with a larger number of migrants entering Middle American gene pool from the Andean gene pool. These results suggest that because of the complex population structure associated with the ancestral divergence, subsequent bottlenecks in each gene pool, gene pool-specific domestication and intense selection within each gene pool by breeders; association mapping would best be practised within each common bean gene pool. PMID:23169559

  1. Isolation and characterization of endophytic bacteria isolated from the leaves of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira Costa, Leonardo Emanuel; de Queiroz, Marisa Vieira; Borges, Arnaldo Chaer; de Moraes, Celia Alencar; de Araújo, Elza Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    The common bean is one of the most important legumes in the human diet, but little is known about the endophytic bacteria associated with the leaves of this plant. The objective of this study was to characterize the culturable endophytic bacteria of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) leaves from three different cultivars (Vermelhinho, Talismã, and Ouro Negro) grown under the same field conditions. The density of endophytic populations varied from 4.5 x 102 to 2.8 x 103 CFU g-1 of fresh weight. Of the 158 total isolates, 36.7% belonged to the Proteobacteria, 32.9% to Firmicutes, 29.7% to Actinobacteria, and 0.6% to Bacteroidetes. The three P. vulgaris cultivars showed class distribution differences among Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria and Bacilli. Based on 16S rDNA sequences, 23 different genera were isolated comprising bacteria commonly associated with soil and plants. The genera Bacillus, Delftia, Methylobacterium, Microbacterium, Paenibacillus, Staphylococcus and Stenotrophomonas were isolated from all three cultivars. To access and compare the community structure, diversity indices were calculated. The isolates from the Talismã cultivar were less diverse than the isolates derived from the other two cultivars. The results of this work indicate that the cultivar of the plant may contribute to the structure of the endophytic community associated with the common bean. This is the first report of endophytic bacteria from the leaves of P. vulgaris cultivars. Future studies will determine the potential application of these isolates in biological control, growth promotion and enzyme production for biotechnology. PMID:24031988

  2. Inheritance of high levels of resistance to common bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas Axonopodis pv. Phaseoli in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common bacterial blight caused by the pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli (Xap) is an important biotic factor limiting common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production. A few interspecific bean breeding lines such as VAX 6 exhibit a high level of resistance to a wide range of Xap strains repr...

  3. Transcript Profiling of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Using the GeneChip Soybean Genome Array: Optimizing Analysis by Masking Biased Probes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and soybean (Glycine max) both belong to the Phaseoleae tribe and share significant coding sequence homology. To evaluate the utility of the soybean GeneChip for transcript profiling of common bean, we hybridized cRNAs purified from nodule, leaf, and root of common b...

  4. Transcript Profiling of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Using the GeneChip(R) Soybean Genome Array: Optimizing Analysis by Masking Biased Probes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and soybean (Glycine max) both belong to the Phaseoleae tribe and share significant coding sequence homology. This suggests that the GeneChip(R) Soybean Genome Array (soybean GeneChip) may be used for gene expression studies using common bean. To evaluate the utility...

  5. Assesing potential effects of inulin and probiotic bacteria on Fe bioavailability from common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to Caco-2 cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inulin, a prebiotic, may enhance intestinal Fe absorption. Our objective was to assess the effects of supplemental inulin and two probiotic bacteria (B. infantis and L.acidophillus) on Fe availability to Caco-2 cells from common white and red beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Cooked beans were mixed o...

  6. Linkage disequilibrium at the APA insecticidal seed protein locus of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background An interesting seed protein family with a role in preventing insect herbivory is the multi-gene, APA family encoding the α-amylase inhibitor, phytohemagglutinin and arcelin proteins of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Variability for this gene family exists and has been exploited to breed for insect resistance. For example, the arcelin locus has been successfully transferred from wild to cultivated common bean genotypes to provide resistance against the bruchid species Zabrotes subfasciatus although the process has been hampered by a lack of genetic tools for and understanding about the locus. In this study, we analyzed linkage disequilibrium (LD) between microsatellite markers at the APA locus and bruchid resistance in a germplasm survey of 105 resistant and susceptible genotypes and compared this with LD in other parts of the genome. Results Microsatellite allele diversity was found to vary with each of the eight APA-linked markers analyzed, and two markers within the APA locus were found to be diagnostic for bruchid resistance or susceptibility and for the different arcelin alleles inherited from the wild accessions. Arc1 was found to provide higher levels of resistance than Arc5 and the markers in the APA locus were highly associated with resistance showing that introgression of this gene-family from wild beans provides resistance in cultivated beans. LD around the APA locus was found to be intermediate compared to other regions of the genome and the highest LD was found within the APA locus itself for example between the markers PV-atct001 and PV-ag004. Conclusions We found the APA locus to be an important genetic determinant of bruchid resistance and also found that LD existed mostly within the APA locus but not beyond it. Moderate LD was also found for some other regions of the genome perhaps related to domestication genes. The LD pattern may reflect the introgression of arcelin from the wild into the cultivated background through breeding. LD

  7. Activation of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) alpha-amylase inhibitor requires proteolytic processing of the proprotein.

    PubMed Central

    Pueyo, J J; Hunt, D C; Chrispeels, M J

    1993-01-01

    Seeds of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) contain a plant defense protein that inhibits the alpha-amylases of mammals and insects. This alpha-amylase inhibitor (alpha AI) is synthesized as a proprotein on the endoplasmic reticulum and is proteolytically processed after arrival in the protein storage vacuoles to polypeptides of relative molecular weight (M(r)) 15,000 to 18,000. We report two types of evidence that proteolytic processing is linked to activation of the inhibitory activity. First, by surveying seed extracts of wild accessions of P. vulgaris and other species in the genus Phaseolus, we found that antibodies to alpha AI recognize large (M(r) 30,000-35,000) polypeptides as well as typical alpha AI processing products (M(r) 15,000-18,000). Alpha AI activity was found in all extracts that had the typical alpha AI processed polypeptides, but was absent from seed extracts that lacked such polypeptides. Second, we made a mutant alpha AI in which asparagine-77 is changed to aspartic acid-77. This mutation slows down the proteolytic processing of pro-alpha AI when the gene is expressed in tobacco. When pro-alpha AI was separated from mature alpha AI by gel filtration, pro-alpha AI was found not to have alpha-amylase inhibitory activity. We interpret these results to mean that formation of the active inhibitor is causally related to proteolytic processing of the proprotein. We suggest that the polypeptide cleavage removes a conformational constraint on the precursor to produce the biochemically active molecule. PMID:8310064

  8. Activation of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) [alpha]-amylase inhibitor requires proteolytic processing of the proprotein

    SciTech Connect

    Pueyo, J.J.; Hunt, D.C.; Chrispeels, M.J. )

    1993-04-01

    Seeds of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) contain a plant defense protein that inhibits the [alpha]-amylases of mammals and insects. This [alpha]-amylase inhibitor ([alpha]Al) is synthesized as a proprotein on the endoplasmic reticulum and is proteolytically processed after arrival in the protein storage vacuoles to polypeptides of relative molecular weight (M[sub r]) 15,000 to 18,000. The authors report two types of evidence that proteolytic processing is linked to activation of the inhibitory activity. First, by surveying seed extracts of wild accessions of P. vulgaris and other species in the genus Phaseolus, they found that antibodies to [alpha]Al recognize large (M[sub r] 30,000-35,000) polypeptides as well as typical [alpha]Al processing products (M[sub r] 15,000-18,000). [alpha]Al activity was found in all extracts that had the typical [alpha]Al processed polypeptides, but was absent from seed extracts that lacked such polypeptides. Second, they made a mutant [alpha]Al in which asparagine-77 is changed to aspartic acid-77. This mutation slows down the proteolytic processing of pro-[alpha]Al when the gene is expressed in tobacco. When pro-[alpha]Al was separated from mature [alpha]Al by gel filtration, pro-[alpha]Al was found not to have [alpha]-amylase inhibitory activity. The authors interpret these results to mean that formation of the active inhibitor is causally related to proteolytic processing of the proprotein. They suggest that the polypeptide cleavage removes a conformation constraint on the precursor to produce the biochemically active molecule. 43 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Effect of variable protein contents in diets containing Phaseolus vulgaris beans on performance, organ weights and blood variables in piglets, rats and chickens.

    PubMed

    Huisman, J; van der Poel, A F; Mouwen, J M; van Weerden, E J

    1990-11-01

    A comparison was made of the effects of antinutritional factors present in Phaseolus vulgaris on piglets, rats and chickens. Also the hypothesis of whether the negative effect on weight gain due to the inclusion of raw Phaseolus vulgaris in the diet can be attributed to an insufficient supply of amino acids was tested. Test diets containing 200 g raw Phaseolus beans/kg were balanced for digestible protein and amino acids; in one diet extra casein was incorporated. The main response criteria were live-weight gain and the weight of various organs including the intestine. Live-weight gain in piglets was markedly reduced during feeding 200 g raw Phaseolus vulgaris/kg in the diet, but not in rats and chickens. Addition of casein did not improve the weight gain of the piglets, indicating that a toxic factor was responsible for the reduced weight gain and not an insufficient supply of amino acids. The weights of the spleen and thymus were markedly reduced in the piglets when the diets with raw Phaseolus beans were given, but not in the rats and chickens. Additional supply of casein did not change this effect. Indications were found that when the supply of dietary protein is adequate there is no reduction in pancreas weight with raw Phaseolus beans as was observed in previous experiments. The weight of the intestine was increased in all three species due to feeding raw Phaseolus vulgaris. PMID:2265183

  10. Genetic mapping of two genes conferring resistance to powdery mildew in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Vega, Elena; Trabanco, Noemí; Campa, Ana; Ferreira, Juan José

    2013-06-01

    Powdery mildew (PM) is a serious disease in many legume species, including the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). This study investigated the genetic control behind resistance reaction to PM in the bean genotype, Cornell 49242. The results revealed evidence supporting a qualitative mode of inheritance for resistance and the involvement of two independent genes in the resistance reaction. The location of these resistance genes was investigated in a linkage genetic map developed for the XC RIL population. Contingency tests revealed significant associations for 28 loci out of a total of 329 mapped loci. Fifteen were isolated or formed groups with less than two loci. The thirteen remaining loci were located at three regions in linkage groups Pv04, Pv09, and Pv11. The involvement of Pv09 was discarded due to the observed segregation in the subpopulation obtained from the Xana genotype for the loci located in this region. In contrast, the two subpopulations obtained from the Xana genotype for the BM161 locus, linked to the Co-3/9 anthracnose resistance gene (Pv04), and from the Xana genotype for the SCAReoli locus, linked to the Co-2 anthracnose resistance gene (Pv11), exhibited monogenic segregations, suggesting that both regions were involved in the genetic control of resistance. A genetic dissection was carried out to verify the involvement of both regions in the reaction to PM. Two resistant recombinant lines were selected, according to their genotypes, for the block of loci included in the Co-2 and Co-3/9 regions, and they were crossed with the susceptible parent, Xana. Linkage analysis in the respective F2 populations supported the hypothesis that a dominant gene (Pm1) was located in the linkage group Pv11 and another gene (Pm2) was located in the linkage group Pv04. This is the first report showing the localization of resistance genes against powdery mildew in Phaseolus vulgaris and the results offer the opportunity to increase the efficiency of breeding

  11. Effect of cooking on aroma profile of red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and correlation with sensory quality.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Prashant K; Tripathi, Jyoti; Gupta, Sumit; Variyar, Prasad S

    2017-01-15

    Volatile aroma compounds of three varieties of red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) namely Kashmiri red, Sharmili and Chitra were extracted in raw state using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and cooked state using simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE). During cooking a significant (p<0.05) reduction in the content of several aldehydes, alcohols and terpene hydrocarbons while an increase in content of various sulfurous compounds, terpene alcohols, ketones and pyrazines was noted. Descriptive sensory analysis showed that the maximum intensity of 'kidney bean', 'earthy' and 'smoky' odour was observed in Kashmiri red while Sharmili variety was characterised by 'sulfurous' odour. Correlation of volatile profile data with descriptive sensory analysis and odour activity values clearly established the role of compounds, such as methanethiol, diethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, methional and dimethyl trisulfide, in contributing to 'cooked kidney bean' aroma, while dimethyl sulfoxide, dimethyl sulfone and ethyl methyl sulfone were responsible for 'sulfurous' aroma. PMID:27542492

  12. Evaluation of the antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of extracted saponins and flavonols from germinated black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Guajardo-Flores, Daniel; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A

    2013-11-15

    Flavonoids and saponins from common beans have been widely studied due to their bioactivity. This research evaluated the effect of germination of black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) on the antioxidant capacity and antiproliferative activity against cancer cell lines of saponins and flavonoids extracted from seed coats, cotyledons and sprouts. Principal component analysis was performed to achieve punctual associations between the black bean saponins and flavonoids concentrations to the antioxidant capacity and the antiproliferative activities. Total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of extracts were higher when obtained from seed coats, mainly from the 3rd germination day. The extracts obtained from seed coats after 3 and 5 germination days inhibited all cancer cell lines proliferation with no cytotoxicity against control cells. Genistein was related with the activity against mammary cancer cells but flavonols and group B saponins were more related with hepatic and colon cancers. Non-glycosilated flavonols were related with antioxidant capacity. PMID:23790944

  13. Effect of different production systems on chemical profiles of dwarf French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Top Crop) pods.

    PubMed

    Jakopic, Jerneja; Slatnar, Ana; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Veberic, Robert; Stampar, Franci; Bavec, Franci; Bavec, Martina

    2013-03-13

    The chemical composition of dwarf French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cv. Top Crop was compared among five production systems: conventional, integrated, organic, and biodynamic production systems and the control. Determination of sugars and organic acids was performed with a HPLC system, and identification of individual phenolic compounds using HPLC-MS. The chemical composition of the beans was unaffected by the production systems; however, the content levels of individual compounds were changed. The pods from integrated production contained the lowest levels of glucose and sucrose and the highest levels of catechin, procyanidin dimers, and a vanillic acid derivative. The control treatment, as well as organic and biodynamic productions, positively affected the levels of sugar content and caused a lower content of catechin and trans-p-coumaroylaldaric acids. Beans from the conventional production system contained the lowest levels of fructose, glucose, ascorbic acid, and many phenolics from various groups. PMID:23398279

  14. Selection of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes using a genotype plus genotype x environment interaction biplot.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, A M; Teodoro, P E; Gonçalves, M C; Santos, A; Torres, F E

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the genotype plus genotype x environment interaction (GGE) biplot methodology has been used to investigate genotype x environment interactions in several crop species, but has not been applied to the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) crop in Brazil. The aim of this study was to identify common bean genotypes that exhibit high grain yield and stability in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. We conducted 12 trials from 2000 to 2006 in the municipalities of Aquidauana and Dourados, and evaluated 13 genotypes in a randomized block design with three replications. Grain yield data were subjected to individual and joint analyses of variance. After analyzing the GE interaction, the adaptability and phenotypic stability of the common bean genotypes were analyzed using GGE biplot methodology. The genotypes EMGOPA-201, Xamego, and Aporé are recommended for growing in Mato Grosso do Sul, because they exhibited high grain yield and phenotypic stability. PMID:27525915

  15. Identification of novel drought-tolerant-associated SNPs in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    PubMed Central

    Villordo-Pineda, Emiliano; González-Chavira, Mario M.; Giraldo-Carbajo, Patricia; Acosta-Gallegos, Jorge A.; Caballero-Pérez, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is a leguminous in high demand for human nutrition and a very important agricultural product. Production of common bean is constrained by environmental stresses such as drought. Although conventional plant selection has been used to increase production yield and stress tolerance, drought tolerance selection based on phenotype is complicated by associated physiological, anatomical, cellular, biochemical, and molecular changes. These changes are modulated by differential gene expression. A common method to identify genes associated with phenotypes of interest is the characterization of Single Nucleotide Polymorphims (SNPs) to link them to specific functions. In this work, we selected two drought-tolerant parental lines from Mesoamerica, Pinto Villa, and Pinto Saltillo. The parental lines were used to generate a population of 282 families (F3:5) and characterized by 169 SNPs. We associated the segregation of the molecular markers in our population with phenotypes including flowering time, physiological maturity, reproductive period, plant, seed and total biomass, reuse index, seed yield, weight of 100 seeds, and harvest index in three cultivation cycles. We observed 83 SNPs with significant association (p < 0.0003 after Bonferroni correction) with our quantified phenotypes. Phenotypes most associated were days to flowering and seed biomass with 58 and 44 associated SNPs, respectively. Thirty-seven out of the 83 SNPs were annotated to a gene with a potential function related to drought tolerance or relevant molecular/biochemical functions. Some SNPs such as SNP28 and SNP128 are related to starch biosynthesis, a common osmotic protector; and SNP18 is related to proline biosynthesis, another well-known osmotic protector. PMID:26257755

  16. OZONE ALTERS THE CONCENTRATIONS OF NUTRIENTS IN BEAN TISSUE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies were conducted to determine the impact of ozone on the nutrient concentrations in tissue from various organs of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv Bush Bluelake 290). The plants were exposed to episodic concentrations of ozone in open-top field exposure chambers from soon af...

  17. Turnover of thylakoid membrane proteins during senescence of primary bean leaves. [Phaseolus vulgaris

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, D.R.; Dumbroff, E.B.; Mattoo, A.K.; Thompson, J.E.

    1986-04-01

    Pulse-labelling of primary bean leaves (Phaseolus vulgaris) with /sup 35/S-methionine has revealed differential changes in the rates at which proteins in thylakoid membranes are synthesized during senescence. In particular, synthesis of the 32 Kd herbicide-binding protein remains highly active throughout senescence, whereas turnover of the ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. subunits of ATPase and of the LHCP declines. During a 24-h pulse chase experiment with unlabelled methionine, only the 32 KD protein showed evidence of degradation. Degradation of the 32 Kd unit and, to a lesser extent, of other thylakoid proteins was also observed when the membranes were aged in vitro. The latter process resembled that observed in vivo in that it was light dependent, sensitive to DCMU, and it was inhibited by spermine and Ca/sup 2 +/, both of which alter membrane fluidity. Collectively, these observations suggest that in vitro aging of thylakoid membranes is a useful model system for studying the characteristics of the thylakoid protein degradation.

  18. Lectin and lectin-related proteins in lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) seeds: biochemical and evolutionary studies.

    PubMed

    Sparvoli, F; Lanave, C; Santucci, A; Bollini, R; Lioi, L

    2001-03-01

    Lectin-related polypeptides are a class of defence proteins found in seeds of Phaseolus species. In Lima bean (P. lunatus), these proteins and their genes have been well characterized in the Andean morphotype, which represents one of the two gene pools of this species. To study the molecular evolution of the lectin family in Lima bean we characterized the polypeptides belonging to this multigene family and cloned the genes belonging to the Mesoamerican gene pool. The latter gene pool contains components similar to those of the Andean pool, namely: an amylase inhibitor-like (AIL), an arcelin-like (ARL) lectin and the less abundant Lima bean lectin (LBL). These proteins originate from an ancestor gene of the lectin type which duplicated to yield the lectin gene and the progenitor of ARL and AIL. In this species. ARL represents an evolutionary intermediate form that precedes AIL. Phylogenetic analysis supports an Andean origin for Lima bean. The molecular evolutionary studies were extended to the genes of common bean and demonstrated that true lectin genes and the ancestor of lectin-related genes are the result of a duplication event that occurred before speciation. Lima and common bean followed different evolutionary pathways and in the latter species a second duplication event occurred that gave rise, in Mesoamerican wild genotypes, to arcelin genes. PMID:11414617

  19. Effect of cooking and germination on phenolic composition and biological properties of dark beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    López, Ana; El-Naggar, Tarek; Dueñas, Montserrat; Ortega, Teresa; Estrella, Isabel; Hernández, Teresa; Gómez-Serranillos, M Pilar; Palomino, Olga M; Carretero, M Emilia

    2013-05-01

    Legumes are the basés diet in several countries. They hold a high nutritional value, but other properties related to human health are nowadays being studied. The aim of this work was to study the influence of processes (boiling or germination) on the phenolic composition of dark beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. c.v. Tolosana) and their effect on their antioxidant, neuroprotective and anticancer ability. Phenolic composition of raw and processed dark beans was analysed by HPLC-PAD and HPLC-ESI/MS. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by ORAC. Astrocytes cultures (U-373) have been used to test their neuroprotective effect. Anticancer activities were evaluated on three different cell lines (renal adenocarcinoma (TK-10), breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) and melanoma (UACC-62)) by sulphorhodamine B method. Qualitative and quantitative differences in phenolic composition have been observed between raw and processed dark beans that influence the antioxidant activity, mainly for germinated samples which show a decrease of antioxidant capacity. Although every assayed extracts decreased reactive oxygen species release and exhibited cytotoxicity activities on cancer cell lines, raw beans proved to be the most active in neuroprotective and antitumoral effects; this sample is especially rich in phenolic compounds, mainly anthocyanins. This study further demonstrated that phenolic composition of dark beans is related with cooking process and so with their neuroprotective and anticancer activity; cooking of dark beans improves their digestion and absorption at intestinal level, while maintaining its protective ability on oxidative process at cellular level. PMID:23265523

  20. Evaluation of diversity among common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) from two centers of domestication using 'omics' technologies

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Genetic diversity among wild accessions and cultivars of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) has been characterized using plant morphology, seed protein allozymes, random amplified polymorphic DNA, restriction fragment length polymorphisms, DNA sequence analysis, chloroplast DNA, and microsatellite markers. Yet, little is known about whether these traits, which distinguish among genetically distinct types of common bean, can be evaluated using omics technologies. Results Three 'omics' approaches: transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics were used to qualitatively evaluate the diversity of common bean from two Centers of Domestication (COD). All three approaches were able to classify common bean according to their COD using unsupervised analyses; these findings are consistent with the hypothesis that differences exist in gene transcription, protein expression, and synthesis and metabolism of small molecules among common bean cultivars representative of different COD. Metabolomic analyses of multiple cultivars within two common bean gene pools revealed cultivar differences in small molecules that were of sufficient magnitude to allow identification of unique cultivar fingerprints. Conclusions Given the high-throughput and low cost of each of these 'omics' platforms, significant opportunities exist for their use in the rapid identification of traits of agronomic and nutritional importance as well as to characterize genetic diversity. PMID:21126341

  1. Specific interaction of human Tamm-Horsfall gylcoprotein with leucoagglutinin, a lectin from Phaseolus vulgaris (red kidney bean).

    PubMed Central

    Serafini-Cessi, F; Franceschi, C; Sperti, S

    1979-01-01

    Human Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein inhibits lymphocyte transformation induced by leucoagglutinin and haemagglutinin from Phaseolus vulgaris (red kidney bean). The glycoprotein interacts with the two lectins, giving insoluble precipitates. The interaction with leucoagglutinin is highly specific, and the shape of the precipitin curve is that of an antigen-antibody reaction; precipitation is specifically inhibited by N-acetyl-D-galactosamine. Results are discussed, and it is suggested that inhibition of lymphocyte transformation is due to competition between human Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein and carbohydrate receptors on lymphocytes for the two lectins. The interaction between human Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein and Phaseolus vulgaris lectins has been used to develop a one-step procedure for the separation of the two lectins by affinity chromatography on (human Tamm-Horsfall-glycoprotein)-Sepharose. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 5. PMID:118744

  2. Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH)-Based Karyotyping Reveals Rapid Evolution of Centromeric and Subtelomeric Repeats in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and Relatives.

    PubMed

    Iwata-Otsubo, Aiko; Radke, Brittany; Findley, Seth; Abernathy, Brian; Vallejos, C Eduardo; Jackson, Scott A

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)-based karyotyping is a powerful cytogenetics tool to study chromosome organization, behavior, and chromosome evolution. Here, we developed a FISH-based karyotyping system using a probe mixture comprised of centromeric and subtelomeric satellite repeats, 5S rDNA, and chromosome-specific BAC clones in common bean, which enables one to unambiguously distinguish all 11 chromosome pairs. Furthermore, we applied the karyotyping system to several wild relatives and landraces of common bean from two distinct gene pools, as well as other related Phaseolus species, to investigate repeat evolution in the genus Phaseolus Comparison of karyotype maps within common bean indicates that chromosomal distribution of the centromeric and subtelomeric satellite repeats is stable, whereas the copy number of the repeats was variable, indicating rapid amplification/reduction of the repeats in specific genomic regions. In Phaseolus species that diverged approximately 2-4 million yr ago, copy numbers of centromeric repeats were largely reduced or diverged, and chromosomal distributions have changed, suggesting rapid evolution of centromeric repeats. We also detected variation in the distribution pattern of subtelomeric repeats in Phaseolus species. The FISH-based karyotyping system revealed that satellite repeats are actively and rapidly evolving, forming genomic features unique to individual common bean accessions and Phaseolus species. PMID:26865698

  3. Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH)-Based Karyotyping Reveals Rapid Evolution of Centromeric and Subtelomeric Repeats in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and Relatives

    PubMed Central

    Iwata-Otsubo, Aiko; Radke, Brittany; Findley, Seth; Abernathy, Brian; Vallejos, C. Eduardo; Jackson, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)-based karyotyping is a powerful cytogenetics tool to study chromosome organization, behavior, and chromosome evolution. Here, we developed a FISH-based karyotyping system using a probe mixture comprised of centromeric and subtelomeric satellite repeats, 5S rDNA, and chromosome-specific BAC clones in common bean, which enables one to unambiguously distinguish all 11 chromosome pairs. Furthermore, we applied the karyotyping system to several wild relatives and landraces of common bean from two distinct gene pools, as well as other related Phaseolus species, to investigate repeat evolution in the genus Phaseolus. Comparison of karyotype maps within common bean indicates that chromosomal distribution of the centromeric and subtelomeric satellite repeats is stable, whereas the copy number of the repeats was variable, indicating rapid amplification/reduction of the repeats in specific genomic regions. In Phaseolus species that diverged approximately 2–4 million yr ago, copy numbers of centromeric repeats were largely reduced or diverged, and chromosomal distributions have changed, suggesting rapid evolution of centromeric repeats. We also detected variation in the distribution pattern of subtelomeric repeats in Phaseolus species. The FISH-based karyotyping system revealed that satellite repeats are actively and rapidly evolving, forming genomic features unique to individual common bean accessions and Phaseolus species. PMID:26865698

  4. Triple-Layer Plastic Bags Protect Dry Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) Against Damage by Acanthoscelides obtectus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) During Storage.

    PubMed

    Mutungi, C; Affognon, H D; Njoroge, A W; Manono, J; Baributsa, D; Murdock, L L

    2015-10-01

    Fumigated dry common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) that were artificially infested with Acanthoscelides obtectus Say, and others that were not artificially infested, were stored in hermetic triple-layer PICS (Lela Agro, Kano, Nigeria) or woven polypropylene (PP) bags for 6 mo at ambient laboratory temperature conditions of 22.6 ± 1.9°C and 60.1 ± 4.3% relative humidity. In an additional trial, beans contained in PP bags were treated with Actellic Super dust before introducing A. obtectus. Moisture content, number of live adult A. obtectus, seed damage, weight loss, and seed germination were determined at monthly intervals. At 6 mo, beans stored in PICS bags retained higher moisture than those stored in PP bags, but in all treatments the moisture level remained below that recommended for safe storage of beans. In the PICS bags, proliferation of A. obtectus did not proceed and at 6 mo, beans stored in these bags did not have insect-inflicted seed damage or weight loss. In contrast, seed damage and weight loss in PP bags exceeded economic threshold after 1 mo in the absence of Actellic Super dust (Syngenta Crop protection AG, Basle, Switzerland), and after 2 mo in the presence of it. Germination of beans stored in PP bags decreased greatly whereas the beans stored in PICS bags did not show reduced germination. Chemical free storage of common beans in PICS bags protects them against damage by A. obtectus. PMID:26453738

  5. The degradation of lectins, phaseolin and trypsin inhibitors during germination of white kidney beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    PubMed

    Savelkoul, F H; Tamminga, S; Leenaars, P P; Schering, J; Ter Maat, D W

    1994-04-01

    White kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), cv Processor, contain a relatively high content of phaseolin (storage protein), lectins and a special group of glycoproteins as well as a considerable amount of protein-type trypsin inhibitors. Protein digestion of raw 'Processor' beans in monogastrics, for example pigs, is disturbed by poorly digested, phaseolin lectins, which can bind to carbohydrates in brush border membranes of the small intestinal epithelium, and trypsin inhibitors. The effect of the germination of white kidney beans on lectins, phaseolin and trypsin inhibitors was studied in order to achieve a degradation of lectins, phaseolin and trypsin inhibitors and an increase of in vitro enzymatic hydrolysis of the protein of bean flour. Therefore, whole bean extracts were examined throughout a germination period of up to seven days for their lectin and phaseolin pattern, lectin content, binding capacities of functional lectins towards brush border membranes and trypsin inhibitor content. In addition the in vitro enzymatic hydrolysis by pepsin and pancreatin of the protein from flours of (un)germinated white kidney beans was studied. SDS-PAGE demonstrated a degradation of E-lectins and a disappearance of L-lectins and phaseolin during germination. Results indicated a decrease of the lectin content by 85%, a loss of binding capacities of functional lectins towards brush border membranes by 91%, and a decrease of trypsin inhibitors by 76%, in bean flour after germination for seven days. A maximum in in vitro enzymatic hydrolysis of protein from bean flour was already established after germination for half a day. PMID:8052578

  6. Effect of DTPA on concentration ratios of /sup 237/Np and /sup 244/Cm in vegetative parts of bush bean and barley

    SciTech Connect

    Romney, E.M.; Wallace, A.; Mueller, R.T.; Cha, J.W.; Wood, R.A.

    1981-07-01

    We grew bush beans, barley, and rice in two different soils in a glasshouse with /sup 237/Np or /sup 244/Cm mixed into separate containers of the soil. The chelating agent DTPA at 100 ..mu..g/g soil was added to half of the containers. The concentration ratio (CR) for /sup 237/Np without DTPA was two orders of magnitude higher than for /sup 244/Cm without DTPA for all three plant species. The DTPA increased the CR of /sup 244/Cm by two to three orders of magnitude, but had no influence on that for /sup 237/Np. In bush beans, both /sup 237/Np and /sup 244/Cm CRs were higher in primary leaves than in trifoliate leaves, which were higher than for stems. The CRs for bush beans were generally higher for both /sup 237/Np and /sup 244/Cm than for either barley or rice, especially without DTPA.

  7. Seed-borne fungi and ochratoxin A contamination of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in the Republic of Croatia.

    PubMed

    Domijan, A-M; Peraica, M; Zlender, V; Cvjetković, B; Jurjević, Z; Topolovec-Pintarić, S; Ivić, D

    2005-03-01

    The study was designed to identify seed-borne fungi on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) crops grown in 13 counties of the Republic of Croatia and their association with ochratoxin A (OTA) production. Bean samples (N=45) were collected in Croatia in 2001 shortly after the harvest and were stored at -20 degrees C for mycological and mycotoxin analyses. The most common fungi isolated were Cladosporium spp. (98%) Alternaria spp. (75%), Aspergillus spp. (73%), Rhizopus spp. (73%), Penicillium spp. (69%), Fusarium spp. (38%), Botrytis spp. (27%), Trichothecium spp. (24%), and Chaetomium spp. (18%). OTA was found only in samples contaminated with Penicillium and Aspergillus spp. Using HPLC (detection limit 0.25 microg/kg), OTA was found in 17 out of 45 samples (38%), and the mean concentration in positive samples was 0.41+/-0.21 microg OTA/kg. Beans from south Croatia (Adriatic coast) were OTA-free and the least mould-infected, while the mean OTA concentration and mould infection of samples from other regions were similar. The OTA contamination of beans in our country is low. Although beans are not severely contaminated with OTA, their consumption may contribute to the exposure to OTA from other commodities. PMID:15680678

  8. Genomic Analysis of Storage Protein Deficiency in Genetically Related Lines of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    PubMed Central

    Pandurangan, Sudhakar; Diapari, Marwan; Yin, Fuqiang; Munholland, Seth; Perry, Gregory E.; Chapman, B. Patrick; Huang, Shangzhi; Sparvoli, Francesca; Bollini, Roberto; Crosby, William L.; Pauls, Karl P.; Marsolais, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    A series of genetically related lines of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) integrate a progressive deficiency in major storage proteins, the 7S globulin phaseolin and lectins. SARC1 integrates a lectin-like protein, arcelin-1 from a wild common bean accession. SMARC1N-PN1 is deficient in major lectins, including erythroagglutinating phytohemagglutinin (PHA-E) but not α-amylase inhibitor, and incorporates also a deficiency in phaseolin. SMARC1-PN1 is intermediate and shares the phaseolin deficiency. Sanilac is the parental background. To understand the genomic basis for variations in protein profiles previously determined by proteomics, the genotypes were submitted to short-fragment genome sequencing using an Illumina HiSeq 2000/2500 platform. Reads were aligned to reference sequences and subjected to de novo assembly. The results of the analyses identified polymorphisms responsible for the lack of specific storage proteins, as well as those associated with large differences in storage protein expression. SMARC1N-PN1 lacks the lectin genes pha-E and lec4-B17, and has the pseudogene pdlec1 in place of the functional pha-L gene. While the α-phaseolin gene appears absent, an approximately 20-fold decrease in β-phaseolin accumulation is associated with a single nucleotide polymorphism converting a G-box to an ACGT motif in the proximal promoter. Among residual lectins compensating for storage protein deficiency, mannose lectin FRIL and α-amylase inhibitor 1 genes are uniquely present in SMARC1N-PN1. An approximately 50-fold increase in α-amylase inhibitor like protein accumulation is associated with multiple polymorphisms introducing up to eight potential positive cis-regulatory elements in the proximal promoter specific to SMARC1N-PN1. An approximately 7-fold increase in accumulation of 11S globulin legumin is not associated with variation in proximal promoter sequence, suggesting that the identity of individual proteins involved in proteome rebalancing might

  9. Genomic Analysis of Storage Protein Deficiency in Genetically Related Lines of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Pandurangan, Sudhakar; Diapari, Marwan; Yin, Fuqiang; Munholland, Seth; Perry, Gregory E; Chapman, B Patrick; Huang, Shangzhi; Sparvoli, Francesca; Bollini, Roberto; Crosby, William L; Pauls, Karl P; Marsolais, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    A series of genetically related lines of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) integrate a progressive deficiency in major storage proteins, the 7S globulin phaseolin and lectins. SARC1 integrates a lectin-like protein, arcelin-1 from a wild common bean accession. SMARC1N-PN1 is deficient in major lectins, including erythroagglutinating phytohemagglutinin (PHA-E) but not α-amylase inhibitor, and incorporates also a deficiency in phaseolin. SMARC1-PN1 is intermediate and shares the phaseolin deficiency. Sanilac is the parental background. To understand the genomic basis for variations in protein profiles previously determined by proteomics, the genotypes were submitted to short-fragment genome sequencing using an Illumina HiSeq 2000/2500 platform. Reads were aligned to reference sequences and subjected to de novo assembly. The results of the analyses identified polymorphisms responsible for the lack of specific storage proteins, as well as those associated with large differences in storage protein expression. SMARC1N-PN1 lacks the lectin genes pha-E and lec4-B17, and has the pseudogene pdlec1 in place of the functional pha-L gene. While the α-phaseolin gene appears absent, an approximately 20-fold decrease in β-phaseolin accumulation is associated with a single nucleotide polymorphism converting a G-box to an ACGT motif in the proximal promoter. Among residual lectins compensating for storage protein deficiency, mannose lectin FRIL and α-amylase inhibitor 1 genes are uniquely present in SMARC1N-PN1. An approximately 50-fold increase in α-amylase inhibitor like protein accumulation is associated with multiple polymorphisms introducing up to eight potential positive cis-regulatory elements in the proximal promoter specific to SMARC1N-PN1. An approximately 7-fold increase in accumulation of 11S globulin legumin is not associated with variation in proximal promoter sequence, suggesting that the identity of individual proteins involved in proteome rebalancing might

  10. Thesis Abstract Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines: chemical composition and protein digestibility.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, F R; Silva, M I A; Corrêa, A D

    2016-01-01

    The bean represents the main source of proteins for the low income populations, although the digestibility of those proteins is relatively low. Consequently, the programs of plant genetic breeding have been working on the search for new lines with higher protein levels. Thus, with the purpose of supplying information to the researchers, in this study, 21 bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines were analyzed for the centesimal and mineral composition, protein digestibility, phenolic compounds, and trypsin inhibitor. The entirely randomized experimental design was used with 21 treatments (lines) and three repetitions. All values were within the following ranges: 22.34 to 36.28 g crude protein/100 g dry matter (DM); 7.56 to 20.91 g neutral detergent fiber/100 g DM; 0.53 to 2.55 g fat/100 g DM and 2.97 to 4.87 g ashes/100 g DM. The levels of phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and sulfur, in g/100 g DM, varied from 0.45 to 0.72; 1.51 to 2.48; 0.03 to 0.28; 0.18 to 0.34 and 0.28 to 0.45, respectively. Regarding copper, manganese, zinc and iron, the levels, in mg/kg DM, varied from 11.37 to 17.73; 14.93 to 28.90; 36.67 to 69.90 and 71.37 to 126.90, respectively. The in vitro protein digestibility varied from 18.03 to 48.32%. The levels of phenolic compounds varied from 0.28 to 1.08 mg acid tanic/100 g DM and the one of trypsin inhibitor from 59.93 to 151.07 trypsin inhibited units/mg DM. Among the lines with higher protein contents, "ESAL 569" (beige with brown stripe) presented the largest protein digestibility and considerable levels of minerals. "P-180" (beige with brown stripe) was one of the lines with higher crude protein contents and digestibilities, and also presented high levels for most of the minerals. No relation between protein digestibility and the contents of phenolic compounds or trypsin inhibitor was observed. PMID:27173357

  11. Phytohemagglutinin derived from red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris): a cause for intestinal malabsorption associated with bacterial overgrowth in the rat.

    PubMed

    Banwell, J G; Boldt, D H; Meyers, J; Weber, F L

    1983-03-01

    Plant lectins or carbohydrate binding proteins interact with membrane receptors on cellular surfaces but their antinutritional effects are poorly defined. Studies were conducted to determine the effects of phytohemagglutinin, a lectin derived from raw red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), on small intestinal absorptive function and morphology, and on the intestinal microflora. Phytohemagglutinin was isolated in purified form by thyroglobulin-sepharose 4B affinity chromatography. Red kidney bean and phytohemagglutinin (6% and 0.5%, respectively, of dietary protein) were fed in a purified casein diet to weanling rats for up to 21 days. Weight loss, associated with malabsorption of lipid, nitrogen, and vitamin B12, developed in comparison with animals pair-fed isonitrogenous casein diets. Antinutritional effects of red kidney bean were reversible on reinstitution of a purified casein diet. An increase in bacterial colonization of the jejunum and ileum occurred in red kidney bean- and phytohemagglutin-fed animals. When antibiotics were included in the diet, malabsorption of [3H]triolein and 57Co-vitamin B12 in red kidney bean-fed animals was partially reversed and, in germ-free animals, purified phytohemagglutinin had no demonstrable antinutritional effect. Mucosal disaccharidase activity was reduced in red kidney bean- and phytohemagglutinin-fed animals, but intestinal mucosal morphology was unchanged. Dietary administration of phytohemagglutinin, alone or as a component of red kidney bean, caused intestinal dysfunction, which was associated with, and dependent upon, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Adherence of enteric bacteria to the mucosal surface was enhanced by phytohemagglutinin which may have facilitated small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. PMID:6822324

  12. Comparison of Metabolic Profiles of Three Varieties of Dry Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we compared the amino acid (11), organic acid (3) and sugar (9) profiles of three different varieties of dry beans (black bean (BB), dark red bean (DRB), and cranberry bean (CB)). The efficiency of the two commonly used extraction solvents (water and methanol:chloroform:water (2.5:1:1...

  13. Microsatellite diversity and genetic structure among common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) landraces in Brazil, a secondary center of diversity

    PubMed Central

    Burle, Marília Lobo; Fonseca, Jaime Roberto; Kami, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Brazil is the largest producer and consumer of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), which is the most important source of human dietary protein in that country. This study assessed the genetic diversity and the structure of a sample of 279 geo-referenced common bean landraces from Brazil, using molecular markers. Sixty-seven microsatellite markers spread over the 11 linkage groups of the common bean genome, as well as Phaseolin, PvTFL1y, APA and four SCAR markers were used. As expected, the sample showed lower genetic diversity compared to the diversity in the primary center of diversification. Andean and Mesoamerican gene pools were both present but the latter gene pool was four times more frequent than the former. The two gene pools could be clearly distinguished; limited admixture was observed between these groups. The Mesoamerican group consisted of two sub-populations, with a high level of admixture between them leading to a large proportion of stabilized hybrids not observed in the centers of domestication. Thus, Brazil can be considered a secondary center of diversification of common bean. A high degree of genome-wide multilocus associations even among unlinked loci was observed, confirming the high level of structure in the sample and suggesting that association mapping should be conducted in separate Andean and Mesoamerican Brazilian samples. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00122-010-1350-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20502861

  14. Identification and Characterization of Phytohemagglutinins from White Kidney Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. Beldia) in the Rat Small Intestine.

    PubMed

    Nciri, Nader; Cho, Namjun; El Mhamdi, Faiçal; Ben Mansour, Abderraouf; Haj Sassi, Fayçal; Ben Aissa-Fennira, Fatma

    2016-01-01

    Although kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lectin toxicity is widely known, its effects in the gastrointestinal tract require further study. This investigation aimed to identify and characterize phytohemagglutinins (PHAs) in the small intestine and sera of rats following oral challenge with ground white beans. Twenty young, adult male rats were divided randomly into two groups of 10 animals each. The control group underwent gavage with a suspension of 300 mg of rodent pellet flour. The experimental group was administered a 300 mg Beldia bean flour suspension (BBFS). After 10 days of daily treatment, jejunal rinse liquid (JRL) and ileum rinse liquid and secretions, as well as sera, were collected. All biological fluids were screened for lectin reactivity using competitive inhibition ELISA, Ouchterlony double immunodiffusion, and immunoelectrophoresis techniques. The results revealed the presence of immunogenic intraluminal PHAs 3-4 h after the oral intake of the BBFS in the JRLs as well as in the jejunal and ileal secretions; however, no PHA was detectable in the rat sera. Ingestion of raw Beldia beans may lead to interaction between PHAs and the mucosa of the small intestine, potentially resulting in an inflammatory response. PMID:26561877

  15. Sequence-based introgression mapping of WM7.1 and WM8.3, two major QTL affecting white mold tolerance in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White mold disease, caused by the necrotrophic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary, is a major pathogen of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). More than 20 QTL were reported using multiple bi-parental populations. To study the disease in more detail, advanced back-cross populations seg...

  16. Sampling techniques and detection methods for developing risk assessments for root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) on lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) in the Mid-Atlantic region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lima bean, Phaseolus lunatus, is a cornerstone crop in the Mid-Atlantic region and Meloidogyne incognita, the southern root knot nematode (RKN), causes significant yield loss. The RKN has become more pervasive as toxic nematicides have been removed from the market, and risk evaluation research is ne...

  17. The switching of electron flux from the cyanide-insensitive oxidase to the cytochrome pathway in mung-bean (Phaseolus aureus L.) mitochondria.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, S B

    1988-01-01

    The activities of the mung-bean (Phaseolus aureus L.) mitochondrial cyanide-insensitive oxidase and cytochrome pathways have been measured simultaneously. The results show that electrons can be diverted both from the alternative pathway to the cytochrome pathway and from the cytochrome to the alternative pathway. The competition of the two pathways for the available electron flux is discussed. PMID:3342013

  18. Purification and Immunobiochemical Characterization of a 31 kDa Cross-Reactive Allergen from Phaseolus vulgaris (Kidney Bean)

    PubMed Central

    Kasera, Ramkrashan; Singh, Anand Bahadur; Lavasa, Shakuntala; Nagendra, Komarla; Arora, Naveen

    2013-01-01

    Background Legumes are a rich source of proteins but are also potential elicitors of IgE-mediated food allergy. This study aimed to isolate and characterize a major allergen of Phaseolus vulgaris (kidney bean) and determine its allergenicity. Methodology Kidney bean allergen was purified using Q Sepharose column (anion exchanger) and eluates with high intensity were pooled to purify protein using Superdex 75 (gel filtration) and C18 column (RP-HPLC). Patients with history of kidney bean allergy were skin prick tested (SPT) with crude kidney bean extract and the purified protein. Specific IgE was estimated in sera by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Characterization of purified protein and its cross-reactivity was investigated by immunobiochemical methods. Identification of purified protein was carried out by tandem mass spectrometry. Principal Findings Purified protein appeared as a single band at 31 kDa on SDS-PAGE and showed IgE binding to 88% patients’ sera by ELISA and immunoblotting. SPT with purified protein identified 78% hypersensitive patients of kidney bean. Significant release of histamine from sensitized basophils was observed after challenge with purified protein. PAS staining suggested it to be a glycoprotein, but no change in IgE binding was observed after periodate oxidation. The 31 kDa protein remained stable for 60 min on incubation with pepsin. The purified protein had high allergenic potential since it required only 102 ng of self protein for 50% IgE inhibition. Mass spectrometric analysis identified it as Phytohemagglutinin. It also showed hemagglutination with human RBCs. Cross-reactivity was observed with peanut and black gram with IC50 of 185 and 228 ng respectively. Conclusion/Significance A 31 kDa major allergen of kidney bean was purified and identified as phytohemagglutinin with cross-reactivity to peanut and black gram. PMID:23671655

  19. Genome-Wide Association Studies of Anthracnose and Angular Leaf Spot Resistance in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Perseguini, Juliana Morini Küpper Cardoso; Oblessuc, Paula Rodrigues; Rosa, João Ricardo Bachega Feijó; Gomes, Kleber Alves; Chiorato, Alisson Fernando; Carbonell, Sérgio Augusto Morais; Garcia, Antonio Augusto Franco; Vianello, Rosana Pereira; Benchimol-Reis, Luciana Lasry

    2016-01-01

    The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the world's most important legume for human consumption. Anthracnose (ANT; Colletotrichum lindemuthianum) and angular leaf spot (ALS; Pseudocercospora griseola) are complex diseases that cause major yield losses in common bean. Depending on the cultivar and environmental conditions, anthracnose and angular leaf spot infections can reduce crop yield drastically. This study aimed to estimate linkage disequilibrium levels and identify quantitative resistance loci (QRL) controlling resistance to both ANT and ALS diseases of 180 accessions of common bean using genome-wide association analysis. A randomized complete block design with four replicates was performed for the ANT and ALS experiments, with four plants per genotype in each replicate. Association mapping analyses were performed for ANT and ALS using a mixed linear model approach implemented in TASSEL. A total of 17 and 11 significant statistically associations involving SSRs were detected for ANT and ALS resistance loci, respectively. Using SNPs, 21 and 17 significant statistically associations were obtained for ANT and angular ALS, respectively, providing more associations with this marker. The SSR-IAC167 and PvM95 markers, both located on chromosome Pv03, and the SNP scaffold00021_89379, were associated with both diseases. The other markers were distributed across the entire common bean genome, with chromosomes Pv03 and Pv08 showing the greatest number of loci associated with ANT resistance. The chromosome Pv04 was the most saturated one, with six markers associated with ALS resistance. The telomeric region of this chromosome showed four markers located between approximately 2.5 Mb and 4.4 Mb. Our results demonstrate the great potential of genome-wide association studies to identify QRLs related to ANT and ALS in common bean. The results indicate a quantitative and complex inheritance pattern for both diseases in common bean. Our findings will contribute to more

  20. Genome-Wide Association Studies of Anthracnose and Angular Leaf Spot Resistance in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    PubMed Central

    Perseguini, Juliana Morini Küpper Cardoso; Oblessuc, Paula Rodrigues; Rosa, João Ricardo Bachega Feijó; Gomes, Kleber Alves; Chiorato, Alisson Fernando; Carbonell, Sérgio Augusto Morais; Garcia, Antonio Augusto Franco; Vianello, Rosana Pereira; Benchimol-Reis, Luciana Lasry

    2016-01-01

    The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the world’s most important legume for human consumption. Anthracnose (ANT; Colletotrichum lindemuthianum) and angular leaf spot (ALS; Pseudocercospora griseola) are complex diseases that cause major yield losses in common bean. Depending on the cultivar and environmental conditions, anthracnose and angular leaf spot infections can reduce crop yield drastically. This study aimed to estimate linkage disequilibrium levels and identify quantitative resistance loci (QRL) controlling resistance to both ANT and ALS diseases of 180 accessions of common bean using genome-wide association analysis. A randomized complete block design with four replicates was performed for the ANT and ALS experiments, with four plants per genotype in each replicate. Association mapping analyses were performed for ANT and ALS using a mixed linear model approach implemented in TASSEL. A total of 17 and 11 significant statistically associations involving SSRs were detected for ANT and ALS resistance loci, respectively. Using SNPs, 21 and 17 significant statistically associations were obtained for ANT and angular ALS, respectively, providing more associations with this marker. The SSR-IAC167 and PvM95 markers, both located on chromosome Pv03, and the SNP scaffold00021_89379, were associated with both diseases. The other markers were distributed across the entire common bean genome, with chromosomes Pv03 and Pv08 showing the greatest number of loci associated with ANT resistance. The chromosome Pv04 was the most saturated one, with six markers associated with ALS resistance. The telomeric region of this chromosome showed four markers located between approximately 2.5 Mb and 4.4 Mb. Our results demonstrate the great potential of genome-wide association studies to identify QRLs related to ANT and ALS in common bean. The results indicate a quantitative and complex inheritance pattern for both diseases in common bean. Our findings will contribute to more

  1. Genotypes of the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Lacking the Nodule-Enhanced Isoform of Glutamine Synthetase.

    PubMed Central

    Gao, F.; Wong, P. P.

    1994-01-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) is an octameric enzyme. The nodule cytosol of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) has two major types of GS subunit polypeptides ([beta] and [gamma]). As a result, nine different isozymes containing varied proportions of [beta] and [gamma] can be generated. The isozymes are resolvable by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Staining the gel for GS activity reveals two isoforms, GSn1, which is nodule enhanced and is composed of the eight [gamma] polypeptide-containing isozymes, and GSn2, which is the isozyme [beta]8. We screened 104 cultivars and genotypes of common beans for variations in isozyme formation and found two, PI317350 and PI326054, that had no GSn1. The PI beans appeared to nodulate normally and had cytosolic protein concentrations and total GS activities similar to those of the cultivar UI-111, which has GSn1. They accumulated the [gamma] polypeptide, which had the same molecular weight (46,000) and isoelectric point (6.3) as the [gamma] polypeptide of UI-111. Experiments with extracts prepared by mixing UI-111 and the PI bean nodules suggested that the PI bean nodule extracts did not have an inhibitor or a proteolytic system that specifically inhibited or degraded GSn1. Nodules from UI-111 and the PI beans were dissected into cortex and central infection zone tissue fractions. GSn2 was found in the cortex and the central infection zone tissue of all beans. Our results suggested that the reason we were unable to detect GSn1 from the PI beans was not because their GSn1 and GSn2 had an identical electrophoretic mobility, nor was it due to an inhibited or unstable GSn1. Our results suggested that either their [gamma] gene had mutated in the region that is essential for the [gamma] polypeptide to assemble or the assembly of GS may require a chaperone. In the two PI beans, the chaperone accumulated to a lower level than it did in UI-111. This lower amount limited the assembly of the [gamma] polypeptide into GS. PMID

  2. Marker-based linkage map of Andean common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and mapping of QTLs underlying popping ability traits

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Nuña bean is a type of ancient common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) native to the Andean region of South America, whose seeds possess the unusual property of popping. The nutritional features of popped seeds make them a healthy low fat and high protein snack. However, flowering of nuña bean only takes place under short-day photoperiod conditions, which means a difficulty to extend production to areas where such conditions do not prevail. Therefore, breeding programs of adaptation traits will facilitate the diversification of the bean crops and the development of new varieties with enhanced healthy properties. Although the popping trait has been profusely studied in maize (popcorn), little is known about the biology and genetic basis of the popping ability in common bean. To obtain insights into the genetics of popping ability related traits of nuña bean, a comprehensive quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was performed to detect single-locus and epistatic QTLs responsible for the phenotypic variance observed in these traits. Results A mapping population of 185 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between two Andean common bean genotypes was evaluated for three popping related traits, popping dimension index (PDI), expansion coefficient (EC), and percentage of unpopped seeds (PUS), in five different environmental conditions. The genetic map constructed included 193 loci across 12 linkage groups (LGs), covering a genetic distance of 822.1 cM, with an average of 4.3 cM per marker. Individual and multi-environment QTL analyses detected a total of nineteen single-locus QTLs, highlighting among them the co-localized QTLs for the three popping ability traits placed on LGs 3, 5, 6, and 7, which together explained 24.9, 14.5, and 25.3% of the phenotypic variance for PDI, EC, and PUS, respectively. Interestingly, epistatic interactions among QTLs have been detected, which could have a key role in the genetic control of popping. Conclusions

  3. Analysis of genetic and nutritional diversity among selected accessions of dry beans and nuña beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) from the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beans (Phaseolus spp.) are one of the most economically and nutritionally important crops world-wide, with a value of over $17 billion harvested annually. They are one of the most ancient crops of the New World, having been cultivated for thousands of years. They are an environmentally diverse crop...

  4. Endophytic Bacteria Isolated from Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Exhibiting High Variability Showed Antimicrobial Activity and Quorum Sensing Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Ralf Bruno Moura; Costa, Leonardo Emanuel de Oliveira; Vanetti, Maria Cristina Dantas; de Araújo, Elza Fernandes; de Queiroz, Marisa Vieira

    2015-10-01

    Endophytic bacteria play a key role in the biocontrol of phytopathogenic microorganisms. In this study, genotypic diversity was analyzed via repetitive element PCR (rep-PCR) of endophytic isolates of the phylum Actinobacteria that were previously collected from leaves of cultivars of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Considerable variability was observed, which has not been reported previously for this phylum of endophytic bacteria of the common bean. Furthermore, the ethanol extracts from cultures of various isolates inhibited the growth of pathogenic bacteria in vitro, especially Gram-positive pathogens. Extracts from cultures of Microbacterium testaceum BAC1065 and BAC1093, which were both isolated from the 'Talismã' cultivar, strongly inhibited most of the pathogenic bacteria tested. Bean endophytic bacteria were also demonstrated to have the potential to inhibit the quorum sensing of Gram-negative bacteria. This mechanism may regulate the production of virulence factors in pathogens. The ability to inhibit quorum sensing has also not been reported previously for endophytic microorganisms of P. vulgaris. Furthermore, M. testaceum with capacity to inhibit quorum sensing appears to be widespread in common bean. The genomic profiles of M. testaceum were also analyzed via pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and greater differentiation was observed using this method than rep-PCR; in general, no groups were formed based on the cultivar of origin. This study showed for the first time that endophytic bacteria from common bean plants exhibit high variability and may be useful for the development of strategies for the biological control of diseases in this important legume plant. PMID:26202846

  5. Uranium and cesium accumulation in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) and its potential for uranium rhizofiltration.

    PubMed

    Yang, Minjune; Jawitz, James W; Lee, Minhee

    2015-02-01

    Laboratory scale rhizofiltration experiments were performed to investigate uranium and cesium accumulation in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) and its potential for treatment of uranium contaminated groundwater. During 72 h of rhizofiltration, the roots of the bean accumulated uranium and cesium to concentrations 317-1019 times above the initial concentrations, which ranged from 100 to 700 μg l(-1) in artificially contaminated solutions. When the pH of the solution was adjusted to 3, the ability to accumulate uranium was 1.6 times higher than it was for solutions of pH 7 and pH 9. With an initial uranium concentration of 240 μg l(-1) in genuine groundwater at pH 5, the bean reduced the uranium concentration by 90.2% (to 23.6 μg l(-1)) within 12 h and by 98.9% (to 2.8 μg l(-1)) within 72 h. A laboratory scale continuous clean-up system reduced uranium concentrations from 240 μg l(-1) to below 10 μg l(-1) in 56 h; the whole uranium concentration in the bean roots during system operation was more than 2600 μg g(-1) on a dry weight basis. Using SEM and EDS analyses, the uranium removal in solution at pH 7 was determined based on adsorption and precipitation on the root surface in the form of insoluble uranium compounds. The present results demonstrate that the rhizofiltration technique using beans efficiently removes uranium and cesium from groundwater as an eco-friendly and cost-effective method. PMID:25461514

  6. Physicochemical properties and digestibility of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) starches.

    PubMed

    Du, Shuang-Kui; Jiang, Hongxin; Ai, Yongfeng; Jane, Jay-Lin

    2014-08-01

    Physicochemical properties and digestibility of pinto bean, red kidney bean, black bean and navy bean starches were analyzed. All the common bean starches had oval and spherical granules with average diameter of 25.3-27.4 μm. Amylose contents were 32.0-45.4%. Black bean starch showed the highest peak viscosity, breakdown, final viscosity and setback, whereas red kidney bean starch showed the lowest pasting temperature, peak viscosity, breakdown, and setback. Pinto bean starch showed the highest onset and peak gelatinization temperatures, and the lowest gelatinization temperature range; whereas navy bean starch exhibited the lowest values. Amylopectin of red kidney bean had the highest molecular weight (Mw) and z-average gyration radius (Rz), whereas black bean amylopectin had the lowest values of Mw and Rz. The proportions of DP 6-12, DP 13-24, DP 25-36, and DP ≥ 37 and average branch-chain lengths were 23.30-35.21%, 47.79-53.53%, 8.99-12.65%, 6.39-13.49%, and 17.91-21.56, respectively. All the native bean starches were highly resistant to enzyme digestion. PMID:24751265

  7. Iron bioavailability to piglets from red and white common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyphenols in foods may chelate dietary Fe and lower its bioavailability. Concentrations of phenols are substantially higher in red beans than in white beans. The aim of this study was to compare iron bioavailabilities from red and white beans in a piglet hemoglobin repletion model. Fe deficient cr...

  8. Multilocus sequence analysis of Brazilian Rhizobium microsymbionts of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) reveals unexpected taxonomic diversity.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Renan Augusto; Barcellos, Fernando Gomes; Thompson, Fabiano L; Hungria, Mariangela

    2009-05-01

    The diazotrophic bacteria collectively known as "rhizobia" are important for establishing symbiotic N(2)-fixing associations with many legumes. These microbes have been used for over a century as an environmentally beneficial and cost-effective means of ensuring acceptable yields of agricultural legumes. The most widely used phylogenetic marker for identification and classification of rhizobia has been the 16S rRNA gene; however, this marker fails to discriminate some closely related species. In this study, we established the first multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) scheme for the identification and classification of rhizobial microsymbionts of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). We analyzed 12 Brazilian strains representative of a collection of over 850 isolates in addition to type and reference rhizobial strains, by sequencing recA, dnaK, gltA, glnII and rpoA genes. Gene sequence similarities among the five type/reference Rhizobium strains which are symbionts of common bean ranged from 95 to 100% for 16S rRNA, and from 83 to 99% for the other five genes. Rhizobial species described as symbionts of common bean also formed separate groups upon analysis of single and concatenated gene sequences, and clusters formed in each tree were in good mutual agreement. The five additional loci may thus be considered useful markers of the genus Rhizobium; in addition, MLSA also revealed broad genetic diversity among strains classified as Rhizobium tropici, providing evidence of new species. PMID:19403105

  9. Transcriptome Characterization of Developing Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Pods from Two Genotypes with Contrasting Seed Zinc Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Astudillo-Reyes, Carolina; Fernandez, Andrea C; Cichy, Karen A

    2015-01-01

    Dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds are a rich source of dietary zinc, especially for people consuming plant-based diets. Within P. vulgaris there is at least two-fold variation in seed Zn concentration. Genetic studies have revealed seed Zn differences to be controlled by a single gene in two closely related navy bean genotypes, Albion and Voyager. In this study, these two genotypes were grown under controlled fertilization conditions and the Zn concentration of various plant parts was determined. The two genotypes had similar levels of Zn in their leaves and pods but Voyager had 52% more Zn in its seeds than Albion. RNA was sequenced from developing pods of both genotypes. Transcriptome analysis of these genotypes identified 27,198 genes in the developing bean pods, representing 86% of the genes in the P. vulgaris genome (v 1.0 DOE-JGI and USDA-NIFA). Expression was detected in 18,438 genes. A relatively small number of genes (381) were differentially expressed between Albion and Voyager. Differentially expressed genes included three genes potentially involved in Zn transport, including zinc-regulated transporter, iron regulated transporter like (ZIP), zinc-induced facilitator (ZIF) and heavy metal associated (HMA) family genes. In addition 12,118 SNPs were identified between the two genotypes. Of the gene families related to Zn and/or Fe transport, eleven genes were found to contain SNPs between Albion and Voyager. PMID:26367119

  10. Transcriptome Characterization of Developing Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Pods from Two Genotypes with Contrasting Seed Zinc Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Astudillo-Reyes, Carolina; Fernandez, Andrea C.; Cichy, Karen A.

    2015-01-01

    Dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds are a rich source of dietary zinc, especially for people consuming plant-based diets. Within P. vulgaris there is at least two-fold variation in seed Zn concentration. Genetic studies have revealed seed Zn differences to be controlled by a single gene in two closely related navy bean genotypes, Albion and Voyager. In this study, these two genotypes were grown under controlled fertilization conditions and the Zn concentration of various plant parts was determined. The two genotypes had similar levels of Zn in their leaves and pods but Voyager had 52% more Zn in its seeds than Albion. RNA was sequenced from developing pods of both genotypes. Transcriptome analysis of these genotypes identified 27,198 genes in the developing bean pods, representing 86% of the genes in the P. vulgaris genome (v 1.0 DOE-JGI and USDA-NIFA). Expression was detected in 18,438 genes. A relatively small number of genes (381) were differentially expressed between Albion and Voyager. Differentially expressed genes included three genes potentially involved in Zn transport, including zinc-regulated transporter, iron regulated transporter like (ZIP), zinc-induced facilitator (ZIF) and heavy metal associated (HMA) family genes. In addition 12,118 SNPs were identified between the two genotypes. Of the gene families related to Zn and/or Fe transport, eleven genes were found to contain SNPs between Albion and Voyager. PMID:26367119

  11. Tissue hypertrophy and epithelial proliferation rate in the gut of rats fed on bread and haricot beans (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Key, F B; McClean, D; Mathers, J C

    1996-08-01

    The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that increasing short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production in the large bowel increases gut epithelial proliferation rate (EPR). Two experiments were carried out in which rats were fed on bread (wholemeal or white)-based diets containing graded amounts of cooked haricot (Phaseolus vulgaris) beans; the latter are a rich source of fermentable carbohydrates. Consumption of beans was associated with several-fold increases in SCFA production with the greatest relative increase being for butyrate. Despite the very large increase in SCFA production, there was no evidence that this had any effect on EPR in the duodenum. Where the basal diet contained wholemeal bread (Expt 1) there was no effect of enhanced SCFA supply on EPR in either the caecum or colon, but with the white bread-based diet (Expt 2) adding beans produced increments in both SCFA supply and EPR in the caecum. Evidence that SCFA are responsible for enhanced EPR above normal levels is not convincing. In those instances where enhanced SCFA supply is associated with increased EPR, the increase may be (1) from a hypoproliferative state towards normal, (2) a transient phenomenon accompanying tissue hypertrophy or (3) a homeostatic response to increased cell loss by cell sloughing or apoptosis. It is not likely that there is any direct link with risk of colon cancer. PMID:8813901

  12. Changes in the functional properties and antinutritional factors of extruded hard-to-cook common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.).

    PubMed

    Batista, Karla A; Prudêncio, Sandra H; Fernandes, Kátia F

    2010-04-01

    The biochemical and functional properties of 2 hard-to-cook common bean cultivars (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.) were investigated after the extrusion process. Beans of BRS pontal and BRS grafite cultivars were milled and extruded at 150 degrees C, with a compression ratio screw of 3 : 1, 5-mm die, and screw speed of 150 rpm. Extrudate flours were evaluated for water solubility (WS), water absorption index (WAI), oil absorption capacity (OAC), foaming capacity (FC), emulsifying activity (EA), antinutritional factors, and in vitro protein and starch digestibility. Results indicated that the extrusion significantly decreased antinutrients such as phytic acid, lectin, alpha-amylase, and trypsin inhibitors, reduced the emulsifying capacity and eliminated the FC in both BRS pontal and BRS grafite cultivars. In addition, the WS, WAI, and in vitro protein and starch digestibility were improved by the extrusion process. These results indicate that it is possible to produce new extruded products with good functional and biochemical properties from these common bean cultivars. PMID:20492281

  13. Review: The Potential of the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) as a Vehicle for Iron Biofortification

    PubMed Central

    Petry, Nicolai; Boy, Erick; Wirth, James P.; Hurrell, Richard F.

    2015-01-01

    Common beans are a staple food and the major source of iron for populations in Eastern Africa and Latin America. Bean iron concentration is high and can be further increased by biofortification. A major constraint to bean iron biofortification is low iron absorption, attributed to inhibitory compounds such as phytic acid (PA) and polyphenol(s) (PP). We have evaluated the usefulness of the common bean as a vehicle for iron biofortification. High iron concentrations and wide genetic variability have enabled plant breeders to develop high iron bean varieties (up to 10 mg/100 g). PA concentrations in beans are high and tend to increase with iron biofortification. Short-term human isotope studies indicate that iron absorption from beans is low, PA is the major inhibitor, and bean PP play a minor role. Multiple composite meal studies indicate that decreasing the PA level in the biofortified varieties substantially increases iron absorption. Fractional iron absorption from composite meals was 4%–7% in iron deficient women; thus the consumption of 100 g biofortified beans/day would provide about 30%–50% of their daily iron requirement. Beans are a good vehicle for iron biofortification, and regular high consumption would be expected to help combat iron deficiency (ID). PMID:25679229

  14. Toxicity Assessment of Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Widely Consumed by Tunisian Population.

    PubMed

    Nciri, Nader; Cho, Namjun; El Mhamdi, Faiçal; Ben Ismail, Hanen; Ben Mansour, Abderraouf; Sassi, Fayçal Haj; Ben Aissa-Fennira, Fatma

    2015-09-01

    This research aimed at assessing the content and the functional properties of phytohemagglutinin (PHA) in different varieties of beans widely consumed in Tunisia through soaking, cooking, autoclaving, germination, and their combinations. This study was carried out on three varieties of white beans grown in different localities of Tunisia, namely Twila, Coco, and Beldia, as well as on imported and local canned beans. All bean samples underwent biochemical and immunological evaluation by employing several techniques such as indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), hemagglutinating assay, Ouchterlony double immunodiffusion, and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Biochemical and immunological analyses indicated that raw dry beans contained a considerable amount of proteins and PHAs. ELISA demonstrated that soaking, either in plain water or in alkaline solution, caused an increase in the concentration of PHA. A slight increase of PHA was produced equally by germination during 4 days in all bean varieties. Cooking or autoclaving of presoaked beans resulted in a complete disappearance of PHA. ELISA test also proved that both imported and local canned beans contained fingerprints of PHA. Hemagglutination assays showed that not only cooked and autoclaved presoaked beans lacked the ability to agglutinate red blood cells but also autoclaved unsoaked beans did. In agar gel immunodiffusion using rabbit anti-PHA serum, raw, soaked, cooked unsoaked, and sprouted beans gave precipitin arc reactions, indicating that PHA existed in immunoreactive form in the tested seeds. SDS-PAGE electrophoretograms showed protein isolates of Twila and Beldia beans to have different profiles through soaking, cooking, and autoclaving processes. This work revealed that the combination of soaking and cooking/autoclaving was the best way in reducing PHA content and its activity in all bean varieties when compared with germination. PMID:26355953

  15. Isolation of a homodimeric lectin with antifungal and antiviral activities from red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seeds.

    PubMed

    Ye, X Y; Ng, T B; Tsang, P W; Wang, J

    2001-07-01

    A homodimeric lectin adsorbed on Affi-gel blue gel and CM-Sepharose and possessing a molecular weight of 67 kDa was isolated from red kidney beans. The hemagglutinating activity of this lectin was inhibited by glycoproteins but not by simple sugars. The lectin manifested inhibitory activity on human immunodeficiency virus-1 reverse transcriptase and alpha-glucosidase. The N-terminal sequence of the lectin exhibited some differences from previously reported lectins from Phaseolus vulgaris but showed some similarity to chitinases. It exerted a suppressive effect on growth of the fungal species Fusarium oxysporum, Coprinus comatus, and Rhizoctonia solani. The lectin had low ribonuclease and negligible translation-inhibitory activities. PMID:11732688

  16. Effect of White Kidney Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Beldia) on Small Intestine Morphology and Function in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Nciri, Nader; Cho, Namjun; Bergaoui, Nacef; El Mhamdi, Faiçal; Ben Ammar, Aouatef; Trabelsi, Najoua; Zekri, Sami; Guémira, Fathi; Ben Mansour, Abderraouf; Sassi, Fayçal Haj; Ben Aissa-Fennira, Fatma

    2015-12-01

    The chronic ingestion of raw or undercooked kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) causes functional and morphological derangement in various tissues. The major objectives of this study were to investigate the gavage effects of a raw Beldia bean variety that is widely consumed in Tunisia, on the small intestine morphology and jejunal absorption of water, electrolytes, and glucose in Wistar rats. Twenty young male rats were randomly divided into two groups of 10 rats. The first group served as the control and was gavaged with 300 mg of a rodent pellet flour suspension (RPFS), whereas the second experimental group was challenged with 300 mg of a Beldia bean flour suspension (BBFS) for 10 days. Histological studies were performed using light and electron microcopy. The intestinal transport of water, sodium, potassium, and glucose was studied by perfusing the jejunal loops of the small bowels in vivo. The feeding experiments indicated that BBFS did not affect weight gain. Histomorphometric analyses showed that the villus heights, crypt depths, and crypt/villus ratios in the jejunum and ileum were greater in the BBFS-fed rats than controls. Electron microscopy studies demonstrated that the rats exposed to RPFS exhibited intact intestinal tracts; however, the BBFS-treated rats demonstrated intestinal alterations characterized by abnormal microvillus architectures, with short and dense or long and slender features, in addition to the sparse presence of vesicles near the brush border membrane. BBFS administration did not significantly affect glucose absorption. However, significant decreases were observed in water and electrolyte absorption compared with the uptake of the controls. In conclusion, raw Beldia beans distorted jejunum morphology and disturbed hydroelectrolytic flux. PMID:26488416

  17. A reproducible genetic transformation system for cultivated Phaseolus acutifolius (tepary bean) and its use to assess the role of arcelins in resistance to the Mexican bean weevil.

    PubMed

    Zambre, M; Goossens, A; Cardona, C; Van Montagu, M; Terryn, N; Angenon, G

    2005-03-01

    A reproducible Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation method that delivers fertile and morphologically normal transgenic plants was developed for cultivated tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius L. Gray). Factors contributing to higher transformation efficiencies include (1) a low initial concentration of bacteria coupled with a longer cocultivation period with callus, (2) an initial selection of callus on a medium containing low levels of the selectable agent, (3) omission of the selectable agent from the medium during callus differentiation to shoots and (4) the efficient conversion of transgenic shoots into fertile plants. All plants regenerated with this procedure (T0) were stably transformed, and the introduced foreign genes were inherited in a Mendelian fashion in most of the 33 independent transformants. Integration, stable transmission and high expression levels of the transgenes were observed in the T1 and/or T3 progenies of the transgenic lines. The binary transformation vectors contained the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene, the neomycin phosphotransferase II selectable marker gene and either an arcelin 1 or an arcelin 5 gene. Arcelins are seed proteins that are very abundant in some wild P. vulgaris L. genotypes showing resistance to the storage insect Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) (Coleoptera, Bruchidae). Transgenic beans from two different cultivated P. acutifolius genotypes with high arcelin levels were infested with Z. subfasciatus, but they were only marginally less susceptible to infestation than the non-transgenic P. acutifolius. Hence, the arcelin genes tested here are not major determinants of resistance against Z. subfasciatus. PMID:15702345

  18. Influence of atmospheric vapour pressure deficit on ozone responses of snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two genotypes of snapbean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), one known to be sensitive to ozone and the other resistant, were examined to determine their response to atmospheric vapor pressure deficit (VPD) in the presence and absence of ozone. Plants were grown in Outdoor Plant Environment Chambers in combin...

  19. Microwave-assisted Extraction of Phenolics from Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The phenolic phytochemicals are associated with many health benefits, and it is useful to develop improved methods for its extraction from beans. In this work, we showed that extraction with microwave irradiation is an effective method for the determination of extractable phenolic content in beans....

  20. Iron and zinc bioavailabilities to pigs from red and white beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are similar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common beans contain relatively high concentrations of iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) but are also high in polyphenols and phytates, factors that may inhibit Fe and Zn absorption. In vitro (Caco-2 cells) and in vivo (pigs) models were used to compare Fe and Zn bioavailabilities between red and white beans,...

  1. Evaluation of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) collection for agromorphological and seed mineral concentration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A collection of common bean comprising totally 223 genotypes of which 176 genotypes from the USDA, 37 common bean landraces and 10 commercial cultivars from Turkey, evaluated for several agromorphological plant characters and mineral concentrations in seeds. There were wide range of variations for t...

  2. Fermented nondigestible fraction from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivar Negro 8025 modulates HT-29 cell behavior.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Bravo, R K; Guevara-Gonzalez, R; Ramos-Gomez, M; Garcia-Gasca, T; Campos-Vega, R; Oomah, B D; Loarca-Piña, G

    2011-03-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of a fermented nondigestible fraction (FNDF) of cooked bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivar Negro 8025 on human colon adenocarcinoma HT-29 cell survival. Negro 8025 was chosen for in vitro fermentation based on comparison of chemical composition with 2 other cultivars: Azufrado Higuera and Pinto Durango. Negro 8025 had 58% total dietary fiber, 27% resistant starch, and 20 mg of (+)-catechin equivalents per gram of sample. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production and pH of the medium were measured after fermentation as indicators of colon protection through induced arrest on cell culture and apoptosis. Butyrate and pH of FNDF of Negro 8025 were higher than the control fermented raffinose extract. The FNDF inhibited HT-29 cell survival in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The lethal concentration 50 (LC(50)) was 13.63% FNDF (equivalent to 7.36, 0.33, and 3.31 mmol of acetic, propionic, and butyric acids, respectively). DNA fragmentation, an apoptosis indicator, was detected by the TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling method in cells treated with the LC(50)-FNDF and a synthetic mixture of SCFAs mimicking LC(50)-FNDF. Our results suggest that common bean is a reliable source of fermentable substrates in colon, producing compounds with potential chemoprotective effect on HT-29 colon adenocarcinoma cells, so it may present an effective alternative to mitigate colon cancer development. PMID:21535793

  3. Friend or Foe—Light Availability Determines the Relationship between Mycorrhizal Fungi, Rhizobia and Lima Bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Ballhorn, Daniel J.; Schädler, Martin; Elias, Jacob D.; Millar, Jess A.; Kautz, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    Plant associations with root microbes represent some of the most important symbioses on earth. While often critically promoting plant fitness, nitrogen-fixing rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) also demand significant carbohydrate allocation in exchange for key nutrients. Though plants may often compensate for carbon loss, constraints may arise under light limitation when plants cannot extensively increase photosynthesis. Under such conditions, costs for maintaining symbioses may outweigh benefits, turning mutualist microbes into parasites, resulting in reduced plant growth and reproduction. In natural systems plants commonly grow with different symbionts simultaneously which again may interact with each other. This might add complexity to the responses of such multipartite relationships. We experimented with lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus), which efficiently forms associations with both types of root symbionts. We applied full light and low-light to each of four treatments of microbial inoculation. After an incubation period of 14 weeks, we quantified vegetative aboveground and belowground biomass and number and viability of seeds to determine effects of combined inoculant and light treatment on plant fitness. Under light-limited conditions, vegetative and reproductive traits were inhibited in AMF and rhizobia inoculated lima bean plants relative to controls (un-colonized plants). Strikingly, reductions in seed production were most critical in combined treatments with rhizobia x AMF. Our findings suggest microbial root symbionts create additive costs resulting in decreased plant fitness under light-limited conditions. PMID:27136455

  4. Proteomic and phosphoproteomic analysis of polyethylene glycol-induced osmotic stress in root tips of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    PubMed Central

    Horst, Walter Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that polyethylene glycol (PEG)-induced osmotic stress (OS) reduces cell-wall (CW) porosity and limits aluminium (Al) uptake by root tips of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). A subsequent transcriptomic study suggested that genes related to CW processes are involved in adjustment to OS. In this study, a proteomic and phosphoproteomic approach was applied to identify OS-induced protein regulation to further improve our understanding of how OS affects Al accumulation. Analysis of total soluble proteins in root tips indicated that, in total, 22 proteins were differentially regulated by OS; these proteins were functionally categorized. Seventy-seven per- cent of the total expressed proteins were involved in metabolic pathways, particularly of carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. An analysis of the apoplastic proteome revealed that OS reduced the level of five proteins and increased that of seven proteins. Investigation of the total soluble phosphoproteome suggested that dehydrin responded to OS with an enhanced phosphorylation state without a change in abundance. A cellular immunolocalization analysis indicated that dehydrin was localized mainly in the CW. This suggests that dehydrin may play a major protective role in the OS-induced physical breakdown of the CW structure and thus maintenance of the reversibility of CW extensibility during recovery from OS. The proteomic and phosphoproteomic analyses provided novel insights into the complex mechanisms of OS-induced reduction of Al accumulation in the root tips of common bean and highlight a key role for modification of CW structure. PMID:24123251

  5. Characterization of starch synthase I and II expressed in early developing seeds of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Senoura, Takeshi; Isono, Naoto; Yoshikawa, Motoyo; Asao, Ayako; Hamada, Shigeki; Watanabe, Kenji; Ito, Hiroyuki; Matsui, Hirokazu

    2004-09-01

    Plant starch synthase (SS) contributes to the elongation of glucan chains during starch biosynthesis and hence plays an essential role in determining the fine structure of amylopectin. To elucidate the role of SS activity in the formation of amylopectin in kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), a study was undertaken to isolate cDNA clones for SS and to characterize the enzymatic properties of the coded recombinant enzymes. Two SS cDNAs, designated pvss1 and pvss21, which were isolated from early developing seeds, encoded SSI and SSII (designated PvSSI and PvSSII-1) that displayed significant identity (more than 65%) with other SSI and SSII members, respectively. RNA gel blot analysis indicated that both transcripts accumulate in leaves and developing seeds at the early stage. Immunoblot analysis with antisera raised against both recombinant proteins (rPvSSI and rPvSSII-1) showed that the accumulation of both proteins parallels the gene expression profiles, although both were detectable only in starch-granule fractions. Recombinant enzymes expressed by Escherichia coli cells showed distinct chain-length specificities for the extension of glucan chains. Our results suggest that these SS isozymes for synthesis of transitory starch are also responsible for synthesis of storage starch in early developing seeds of kidney bean. PMID:15388972

  6. Identification of essential amino acid residues of an alpha-amylase inhibitor from Phaseolus vulgaris white kidney beans.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, T; Hiramoto, S; Wato, S; Nishimoto, T; Wada, Y; Nagai, K; Yamaguchi, H

    1999-11-01

    Kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) alpha-amylase inhibitors, which are bivalent inhibitors with the subunit stoichiometry of (alphabeta)(2) complex, have been inferred to contain unique arginine, tryptophan, and tyrosine residues essential for the inhibitory activity. To test the validity of this inference, an attempt was made to identify the essential amino acid residues of a white kidney bean (P. vulgaris) alpha-amylase inhibitor (PHA-I) by using the chemical modification technique combined with amino acid sequencing and mass spectrometry. Exhaustive modification of the arginine residues by phenylglyoxal did not lead to a marked loss of activity, suggesting that no arginine residue is directly associated with the inhibitory activity. N-Bromosuccinimide treatment of PHA-I in the presence or absence of a substrate alpha-amylase revealed the involvement of two tryptophan residues in alpha-amylase inhibition, and they were identified as Trp188 of the beta-subunit by amino acid sequencing and mass spectrometry of lysylendopeptidase peptides. Further, two tyrosine residues were preferentially modified either by N-acetylimidazole or by tetranitromethane, resulting in a concomitant loss of most of the PHA-I activity. Amino acid sequencing of the lysylendopeptidase peptides from a tetranitromethane-modified PHA-I identified Tyr186 of the beta-subunit as an essential residue. PMID:10544275

  7. Characterization and functional properties of the alpha-amylase inhibitor (alpha-AI) from kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seeds.

    PubMed

    Le Berre-Anton, V; Bompard-Gilles, C; Payan, F; Rougé, P

    1997-11-14

    Alpha-amylase inhibitor (alpha-AI) from kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv Tendergreen) seeds has been purified to homogeneity by heat treatment in acidic medium, ammonium sulphate fractionation, chromatofocusing and gel filtration. Two isoforms, alpha-AI1 and alpha-AI1', of 43 kDa have been isolated which differ from each other by their isoelectric points and neutral sugar contents. The major isoform alpha-AI1 inhibited human and porcine pancreatic alpha-amylases (PPA) but was devoid of activity on alpha-amylases of bacterial or fungal origins. As shown on the Lineweaver-Burk plots, the nature of the inhibition is explained by a mixed non-competitive inhibition mechanism. Alpha-AI1 formed a 1:2 stoichiometric complex with PPA which showed an optimum pH of 4.5 at 30 degrees C. Owing to the low optimum pH found for alpha-AI activity, inhibitor-containing diets such as beans or transgenic plants expressing alpha-AI should be devoid of any harmful effect on human health. PMID:9428656

  8. Nitric oxide increases tolerance responses to moderate water deficit in leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna unguiculata bean species.

    PubMed

    Zimmer-Prados, Lucas Martins; Moreira, Ana Sílvia Franco Pinheiro; Magalhaes, Jose Ronaldo; França, Marcel Giovanni Costa

    2014-07-01

    Drought stress is one of the most intensively studied and widespread constraints, and nitric oxide (NO) is a key signaling molecule involved in the mediation of abiotic stresses in plants. We demonstrated that a sprayed solution of NO from donor sodium nitroprusside increased drought stress tolerance responses in both sensitive (Phaseolus vulgaris) and tolerant (Vigna unguiculata) beans. In intact plants subjected to halting irrigation, NO increased the leaf relative water content and stomatal conductance in both species. After cutting leaf discs and washing them, NO induced increased electrolyte leakage, which was more evident in the tolerant species. These leaf discs were then subjected to different water deficits, simulating moderate and severe drought stress conditions through polyethylene glycol solutions. NO supplied at moderate drought stress revealed a reduced membrane injury index in sensitive species. In hydrated discs and at this level of water deficit, NO increased the electron transport rate in both species, and a reduction of these rates was observed at severe stress levels. Taken together, it can be shown that NO has an effective role in ameliorating drought stress effects, activating tolerance responses at moderate water deficit levels and in both bean species which present differential drought tolerance. PMID:25049456

  9. Reverse micellar extraction of lectin from black turtle bean (Phaseolus vulgaris): optimisation of extraction conditions by response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    He, Shudong; Shi, John; Walid, Elfalleh; Zhang, Hongwei; Ma, Ying; Xue, Sophia Jun

    2015-01-01

    Lectin from black turtle bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) was extracted and purified by reverse micellar extraction (RME) method. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimise the processing parameters for both forward and backward extraction. Hemagglutinating activity analysis, SDS-PAGE, RP-HPLC and FTIR techniques were used to characterise the lectin. The optimum extraction conditions were determined as 77.59 mM NaCl, pH 5.65, AOT 127.44 mM sodium bis (2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) for the forward extraction; and 592.97 mM KCl, pH 8.01 for the backward extraction. The yield was 63.21 ± 2.35 mg protein/g bean meal with a purification factor of 8.81 ± 0.17. The efficiency of RME was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and RP-HPLC, respectively. FTIR analysis indicated there were no significant changes in the secondary protein structure. Comparison with conventional chromatographic method confirmed that the RME method could be used for the purification of lectin from the crude extract. PMID:25053033

  10. Friend or Foe-Light Availability Determines the Relationship between Mycorrhizal Fungi, Rhizobia and Lima Bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.).

    PubMed

    Ballhorn, Daniel J; Schädler, Martin; Elias, Jacob D; Millar, Jess A; Kautz, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    Plant associations with root microbes represent some of the most important symbioses on earth. While often critically promoting plant fitness, nitrogen-fixing rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) also demand significant carbohydrate allocation in exchange for key nutrients. Though plants may often compensate for carbon loss, constraints may arise under light limitation when plants cannot extensively increase photosynthesis. Under such conditions, costs for maintaining symbioses may outweigh benefits, turning mutualist microbes into parasites, resulting in reduced plant growth and reproduction. In natural systems plants commonly grow with different symbionts simultaneously which again may interact with each other. This might add complexity to the responses of such multipartite relationships. We experimented with lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus), which efficiently forms associations with both types of root symbionts. We applied full light and low-light to each of four treatments of microbial inoculation. After an incubation period of 14 weeks, we quantified vegetative aboveground and belowground biomass and number and viability of seeds to determine effects of combined inoculant and light treatment on plant fitness. Under light-limited conditions, vegetative and reproductive traits were inhibited in AMF and rhizobia inoculated lima bean plants relative to controls (un-colonized plants). Strikingly, reductions in seed production were most critical in combined treatments with rhizobia x AMF. Our findings suggest microbial root symbionts create additive costs resulting in decreased plant fitness under light-limited conditions. PMID:27136455

  11. Amino acid profiles after sprouting, autoclaving, and lactic acid fermentation of finger millet (Eleusine coracan) and kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Mbithi-Mwikya, S; Ooghe, W; Van Camp, J; Ngundi, D; Huyghebaert, A

    2000-08-01

    Seeds of finger millet (Eleucine coracan (L.) Gaertner) and kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were sprouted, autoclaved, and fermented during the processing of a weaning (complementary) food for children. Relative changes in individual amino acids with processing were evaluated. Finger millet and kidney beans both showed a good percentage of essential to total amino acids, with 44. 2-44.9% in finger millet and 44.2-45.1% in kidney beans, when compared to 33.9% for the FAO/WHO reference protein for 2-5 year old children. Sprouting resulted in a significant decrease in lysine in kidney beans. Autoclaving caused significant decreases in histidine, while fermentation significantly decreased phenylalanine and increased tryptophan in finger millet. The leucine-to-lysine ratio, which is an indicator of the pellagragenic character of a protein, was significantly improved in finger millet by both sprouting and fermentation. PMID:10956072

  12. Use of two varieties of hard-to-cook beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) in the processing of koki (a steamed legume product).

    PubMed

    Mbofung, C M; Rigby, N; Waldron, K

    1999-01-01

    Koki is a nutritious cowpea-based food product usually processed by steam cooking whipped cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) paste mixed with spices and palm oil. A study was carried out to investigate the effect of the partial replacement of cowpeas (CP) with hard-to-cook (HTC) beans on the chemical, nutritional and sensory characteristics of koki. Towards this objective, two varieties of beans--Phaseolus vulgaris (red kidney beans--RKB and mottled brown beans--MBB), each with the HTC defect, were separately incorporated into cowpea paste in the following Bean:CP ratios 0:100, 20:80, 30:70, 40:60, 50:50, 60:40 and processed into koki. Incorporation of dry HTC beans into cowpeas in the making of koki affected the bulking properties of the uncooked paste, the nutrient composition, essential amino acid content, antinutritional factors, digestibility as well as the sensory attributes of cooked koki. Sensory tests showed that a highly acceptable, nutritious and digestible koki can be processed from cowpeas partially replaced with dry HTC bean paste up to levels of about 40-50% depending on the variety of dry bean used. PMID:10646560

  13. Use of BABA and INA As Activators of a Primed State in the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Aguilar, Keren; Ramírez-Carrasco, Gabriela; Hernández-Chávez, José Luis; Barraza, Aarón; Alvarez-Venegas, Raúl

    2016-01-01

    To survive in adverse conditions, plants have evolved complex mechanisms that “prime” their defense system to respond and adapt to stresses. Their competence to respond to such stresses fundamentally depends on its capacity to modulate the transcriptome rapidly and specifically. Thus, chromatin dynamics is a mechanism linked to transcriptional regulation and enhanced defense in plants. For example, in Arabidopsis, priming of the SA-dependent defense pathway is linked to histone lysine methylation. Such modifications could create a memory of the primary infection that is associated with an amplified gene response upon exposure to a second stress-stimulus. In addition, the priming status of a plant for induced resistance can be inherited to its offspring. However, analyses on the molecular mechanisms of generational and transgenerational priming in the common bean (Phaseolus vulagris L.), an economically important crop, are absent. Here, we provide evidence that resistance to P. syringae pv. phaseolicola infection was induced in the common bean with the synthetic priming activators BABA and INA. Resistance was assessed by evaluating symptom appearance, pathogen accumulation, changes in gene expression of defense genes, as well as changes in the H3K4me3 and H3K36me3 marks at the promoter-exon regions of defense-associated genes. We conclude that defense priming in the common bean occurred in response to BABA and INA and that these synthetic activators primed distinct genes for enhanced disease resistance. We hope that an understanding of the molecular changes leading to defense priming and pathogen resistance will provide valuable knowledge for producing disease-resistant crop varieties by exposing parental plants to priming activators, as well as to the development of novel plant protection chemicals that stimulate the plant's inherent disease resistance mechanisms. PMID:27242854

  14. Rapid evolutionary change of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L) plastome, and the genomic diversification of legume chloroplasts

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xianwu; Castillo-Ramírez, Santiago; González, Víctor; Bustos, Patricia; Luís Fernández-Vázquez, José; Santamaría, Rosa Isela; Arellano, Jesús; Cevallos, Miguel A; Dávila, Guillermo

    2007-01-01

    Background Fabaceae (legumes) is one of the largest families of flowering plants, and some members are important crops. In contrast to what we know about their great diversity or economic importance, our knowledge at the genomic level of chloroplast genomes (cpDNAs or plastomes) for these crops is limited. Results We sequenced the complete genome of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Negro Jamapa) chloroplast. The plastome of P. vulgaris is a 150,285 bp circular molecule. It has gene content similar to that of other legume plastomes, but contains two pseudogenes, rpl33 and rps16. A distinct inversion occurred at the junction points of trnH-GUG/rpl14 and rps19/rps8, as in adzuki bean [1]. These two pseudogenes and the inversion were confirmed in 10 varieties representing the two domestication centers of the bean. Genomic comparative analysis indicated that inversions generally occur in legume plastomes and the magnitude and localization of insertions/deletions (indels) also vary. The analysis of repeat sequences demonstrated that patterns and sequences of tandem repeats had an important impact on sequence diversification between legume plastomes and tandem repeats did not belong to dispersed repeats. Interestingly, P. vulgaris plastome had higher evolutionary rates of change on both genomic and gene levels than G. max, which could be the consequence of pressure from both mutation and natural selection. Conclusion Legume chloroplast genomes are widely diversified in gene content, gene order, indel structure, abundance and localization of repetitive sequences, intracellular sequence exchange and evolutionary rates. The P. vulgaris plastome is a rapidly evolving genome. PMID:17623083

  15. Use of BABA and INA As Activators of a Primed State in the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Martínez-Aguilar, Keren; Ramírez-Carrasco, Gabriela; Hernández-Chávez, José Luis; Barraza, Aarón; Alvarez-Venegas, Raúl

    2016-01-01

    To survive in adverse conditions, plants have evolved complex mechanisms that "prime" their defense system to respond and adapt to stresses. Their competence to respond to such stresses fundamentally depends on its capacity to modulate the transcriptome rapidly and specifically. Thus, chromatin dynamics is a mechanism linked to transcriptional regulation and enhanced defense in plants. For example, in Arabidopsis, priming of the SA-dependent defense pathway is linked to histone lysine methylation. Such modifications could create a memory of the primary infection that is associated with an amplified gene response upon exposure to a second stress-stimulus. In addition, the priming status of a plant for induced resistance can be inherited to its offspring. However, analyses on the molecular mechanisms of generational and transgenerational priming in the common bean (Phaseolus vulagris L.), an economically important crop, are absent. Here, we provide evidence that resistance to P. syringae pv. phaseolicola infection was induced in the common bean with the synthetic priming activators BABA and INA. Resistance was assessed by evaluating symptom appearance, pathogen accumulation, changes in gene expression of defense genes, as well as changes in the H3K4me3 and H3K36me3 marks at the promoter-exon regions of defense-associated genes. We conclude that defense priming in the common bean occurred in response to BABA and INA and that these synthetic activators primed distinct genes for enhanced disease resistance. We hope that an understanding of the molecular changes leading to defense priming and pathogen resistance will provide valuable knowledge for producing disease-resistant crop varieties by exposing parental plants to priming activators, as well as to the development of novel plant protection chemicals that stimulate the plant's inherent disease resistance mechanisms. PMID:27242854

  16. Black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein hydrolysates: Physicochemical and functional properties.

    PubMed

    Evangelho, Jarine Amaral do; Vanier, Nathan Levien; Pinto, Vânia Zanella; Berrios, Jose J De; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa

    2017-01-01

    Black bean protein hydrolysates obtained from pepsin and alcalase digestions until 120min of hydrolysis were evaluated by gel electrophoresis, relative fluorescence intensity, emulsifying properties, light micrograph of emulsions and in vitro antioxidant activity. The emulsion stability of the bean protein hydrolysates were evaluated during 30days of storage. The pepsin-treated bean protein hydrolysates presented higher degree of hydrolysis than the alcalase-treated protein hydrolysates. The alcalase-treated bean protein hydrolysates showed higher surface hydrophobicity. Moreover, the protein hydrolysates obtained with alcalase digestion presented higher emulsion stability during 30-days than those obtained from pepsin digestion. The protein concentrate and especially the hydrolysates obtained from alcalase digestion had good emulsion stability and antioxidant activity. Thus, they could be exploited as protein supplements in the diet as nutritional and bioactive foods. PMID:27507499

  17. [Role of black bean Phaseolus vulgaris on the nutritional status of Guatemalan population].

    PubMed

    Serrano, José; Goñi, Isabel

    2004-03-01

    Guatemala provides an example of epidemiological superposition, in which health problems typical of developed countries and developing countries are both observed. Nutritional deficiencies in some micronutrients like vitamin A and iron coexist alongside chronic diseases such as diabetes type II and cardiovascular diseases. The importance of black beans in the normal Guatemala diet is well known:70g per capita of black beans are consumed daily. Black beans are an important sources of protein and energy in the diet. They contain "lente" digestion carbohydrates and a high proportion of non-digested carbohydrates that may be fermented in the large intestine. Theses types of carbohydrates are associated with a low glycemic response, low serum cholesterol levels, and a decrease of colon cancer risk factors. These physiological effects may be related to colonic fermentation end products (propionic and butyric acids). Black beans also contain several antinutritional compounds (enzymatic inhibitors, haemaglutenins, saponins and phytic acid, etc.), some of them thermolabiles that are partially eliminated during culinary processes and may modify the nutritional quality of beans. Black beans play a crucial role in the etiology of several diseases in Guatemala. PMID:15332354

  18. Implications of mitotic and meiotic irregularities in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Lima, D C; Braz, G T; Dos Reis, G B; Techio, V H; Davide, L C; de F B Abreu, A

    2016-01-01

    The common bean has great social and economic importance in Brazil and is the subject of a high number of publications, especially in the fields of genetics and breeding. Breeding programs aim to increase grain yield; however, mitosis and meiosis represent under explored research areas that have a direct impact on grain yield. Therefore, the study of cell division could be another tool available to bean geneticists and breeders. The aim of this study was to investigate irregularities occurring during the cell cycle and meiosis in common bean. The common bean cultivar used was BRSMG Talismã, which owing to its high yield and grain quality is recommended for cultivation in Brazil. We classified the interphase nuclei, estimated the mitotic and meiotic index, grain pollen viability, and percentage of abnormalities in both processes. The mitotic index was 4.1%, the interphase nucleus was non-reticulated, and 19% of dividing somatic cells showed abnormal behavior. Meiosis also presented irregularities resulting in a meiotic index of 44.6%. Viability of pollen grains was 94.3%. These results indicate that the common bean cultivar BRSMG Talismã possesses repair mechanisms that compensate for changes by producing a large number of pollen grains. Another important strategy adopted by bean plants to ensure stability is the elimination of abnormal cells by apoptosis. As the common bean cultivar BRSMG Talismã is recommended for cultivation because of its good agronomic performance, it can be concluded that mitotic and meiotic irregularities have no negative influence on its grain quality and yield. PMID:27323072

  19. Analyses of Methylomes Derived from Meso-American Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Using MeDIP-Seq and Whole Genome Sodium Bisulfite-Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Crampton, Mollee; Sripathi, Venkateswara R.; Hossain, Khwaja; Kalavacharla, Venu

    2016-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is economically important for its high protein, fiber, and micronutrient contents, with a relatively small genome size of ∼587 Mb. Common bean is genetically diverse with two major gene pools, Meso-American and Andean. The phenotypic variability within common bean is partly attributed to the genetic diversity and epigenetic changes that are largely influenced by environmental factors. It is well established that an important epigenetic regulator of gene expression is DNA methylation. Here, we present results generated from two high-throughput sequencing technologies, methylated DNA immunoprecipitation-sequencing (MeDIP-seq) and whole genome bisulfite-sequencing (BS-Seq). Our analyses revealed that this Meso-American common bean displays similar methylation patterns as other previously published plant methylomes, with CG ∼50%, CHG ∼30%, and CHH ∼2.7% methylation, however, these differ from the common bean reference methylome of Andean origin. We identified higher CG methylation levels in both promoter and genic regions than CHG and CHH contexts. Moreover, we found relatively higher CG methylation levels in genes than in promoters. Conversely, the CHG and CHH methylation levels were highest in promoters than in genes. This is the first genome-wide DNA methylation profiling study in a Meso-American common bean cultivar (“Sierra”) using NGS approaches. Our long-term goal is to generate genome-wide epigenomic maps in common bean focusing on chromatin accessibility, histone modifications, and DNA methylation. PMID:27199997

  20. Analyses of Methylomes Derived from Meso-American Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Using MeDIP-Seq and Whole Genome Sodium Bisulfite-Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Crampton, Mollee; Sripathi, Venkateswara R; Hossain, Khwaja; Kalavacharla, Venu

    2016-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is economically important for its high protein, fiber, and micronutrient contents, with a relatively small genome size of ∼587 Mb. Common bean is genetically diverse with two major gene pools, Meso-American and Andean. The phenotypic variability within common bean is partly attributed to the genetic diversity and epigenetic changes that are largely influenced by environmental factors. It is well established that an important epigenetic regulator of gene expression is DNA methylation. Here, we present results generated from two high-throughput sequencing technologies, methylated DNA immunoprecipitation-sequencing (MeDIP-seq) and whole genome bisulfite-sequencing (BS-Seq). Our analyses revealed that this Meso-American common bean displays similar methylation patterns as other previously published plant methylomes, with CG ∼50%, CHG ∼30%, and CHH ∼2.7% methylation, however, these differ from the common bean reference methylome of Andean origin. We identified higher CG methylation levels in both promoter and genic regions than CHG and CHH contexts. Moreover, we found relatively higher CG methylation levels in genes than in promoters. Conversely, the CHG and CHH methylation levels were highest in promoters than in genes. This is the first genome-wide DNA methylation profiling study in a Meso-American common bean cultivar ("Sierra") using NGS approaches. Our long-term goal is to generate genome-wide epigenomic maps in common bean focusing on chromatin accessibility, histone modifications, and DNA methylation. PMID:27199997

  1. Ethiopian soils harbor natural populations of rhizobia that form symbioses with common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Beyene, Desta; Kassa, Serawit; Ampy, Franklin; Asseffa, Amha; Gebremedhin, Tadesse; van Berkum, Peter

    2004-02-01

    The diversity and taxonomic relationships of 83 bean-nodulating rhizobia indigenous to Ethiopian soils were characterized by PCR-RFLP of the internally transcribed spacer (ITS) region between the 16S and 23S rRNA genes, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE), and amplified fragment-length polymorphism. The isolates fell into 13 distinct genotypes according to PCR-RFLP analysis of the ITS region. Based on MLEE, the majority of these genotypes (70%) was genetically related to the type strain of Rhizobium leguminosarum. However, from analysis of their 16S rRNA genes, the majority was placed with Rhizobium etli. Transfer and recombination of the 16S rRNA gene from presumptively introduced R. etli to local R. leguminosarum is a possible theory to explain these contrasting results. However, it seems unlikely that bean rhizobia originating from the Americas (or Europe) extensively colonized soils of Ethiopia because Rhizobium tropici, Rhizobium gallicum, and Rhizobium giardinii were not detected and only a single ineffective isolate of R. etli that originated from a remote location was identified. Therefore, Ethiopian R. leguminosarum may have acquired the determinants for nodulation of bean from a low number of introduced bean-nodulating rhizobia that either are poor competitors for nodulation of bean or that failed to survive in the Ethiopian environment. Furthermore, it may be concluded from the genetic data presented here that the evidence for separating R. leguminosarum and R. etli into two separate species is inconclusive. PMID:14685648

  2. Cooked common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) modulate renal genes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Lomas-Soria, Consuelo; Pérez-Ramírez, Iza F; Caballero-Pérez, Juan; Guevara-Gonzalez, Ramón G; Guevara-Olvera, Lorenzo; Loarca-Piña, Guadalupe; Guzman-Maldonado, Horacio S; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalía

    2015-07-01

    Food consumption with different bioactive compounds could reduce the risk of diabetic complications. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of cooked common beans on differentially expressed genes in whole kidney homogenates of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. After 4weeks of treatment with a cooked bean supplemented (10%) diet, animals fed with Flor de Mayo bean (FMB) exerted the greatest protective effect, since they presented the lowest blood glucose levels, consistent with an increase in blood insulin levels, a decrease in urine albumin and urea levels and an increase in creatinine clearance (P≤.05). Regarding the gene expression of kidneys evaluated using expressed sequence tag, consumption of cooked beans improved the expression of Glu1, Cps1, Ipmk, Cacna1c, Camk1, Pdhb, Ptbp3 and Pim1, which are related to the elimination of ammonium groups, the regulation of inflammatory and oxidative response, as well as cell signaling and apoptosis. In addition, the beneficial effects observed were not related to their polyphenolic and saponin profile, suggesting the activity of other bioactive compounds or the synergistic interaction of these compounds. These results suggest that the consumption of cooked common beans (FMB) might be used as an alternative for the regulation of genes related to renal alterations. PMID:25863648

  3. Genetic Characterization of Green Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Accessions from Turkey with SCAR and SSR Markers.

    PubMed

    Madakbaş, Seher Yıldız; Sarıkamış, Gölge; Başak, Hakan; Karadavut, Ufuk; Özmen, Canan Yüksel; Daşçı, Mete Gürhan; Çayan, Selin

    2016-08-01

    Characterization, conservation, and utilization of genetic resources is essential for the sustainability in agriculture. Plant genetic resources are important for breeding efforts designed for the generation of new cultivars or for the improvement of existing ones. Green bean has been cultivated extensively in Turkey giving rise to local accessions through selection over time and adaptation to various environmental conditions. The objective of the present study was to determine the genetic relationships of green bean accessions collected from Kırşehir Province of Turkey, located at the central Anatolia. Within a population of 275 green bean accessions, 50 accessions were selected on the basis of morphological observations for further evaluation with SSR and STS/SCAR markers together with 4 reference cultivars of Andean and Mesoamerican origin. SSR markers selected on the basis of high polymorphism information content revealed the genetic relatedness of selected green bean accessions. STS/SCAR markers associated with bean anthracnose, common bacterial blight, white mold, halo blight, and phaseolin protein demonstrated the inheritance of resistance traits of local accessions at the selected loci. These findings may help better utilize genetic resources and furthermore are expected to facilitate forthcoming breeding studies for the generation of novel cultivars well adapted to the region. PMID:27156082

  4. Biodiversity and biogeography of rhizobia associated with common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Shaanxi Province.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Cao, Ying; Wang, En Tao; Qiao, Ya Juan; Jiao, Shuo; Liu, Zhen Shan; Zhao, Liang; Wei, Ge Hong

    2016-05-01

    The biodiversity and biogeography of rhizobia associated with bean in Shaanxi Province were investigated. A total of 194 bacterial isolates from bean nodules collected from 13 sampling sites were characterized based on phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA gene, the housekeeping genes recA, glnII and atpD, and the symbiotic genes nodC and nifH. Fifteen genospecies belonging to the genera Rhizobium, Agrobacterium, Ensifer, Bradyrhizobium and Ochrobactrum were defined among the isolates, with Rhizobium sp. II, Agrobacterium sp. II, E. fredii and R. phaseoli being the dominant groups. Four symbiotic gene lineages corresponding to Rhizobium sp. I, Rhizobium sp. II, R. phaseoli and B. liaoningense were detected in the nodC and nifH sequence analyses, indicating different origins for the symbiotic genes and their co-evolution with the chromosome of the bacteria. Moreover, the Ensifer isolates harbored symbiotic genes closely related to bean-nodulating Pararhizobium giardinii, indicating possible lateral gene transfer from Rhizobium to Ensifer. Correlation of rhizobial community composition with moisture, temperature, intercropping, soil features and nutrients were detected. All the results demonstrated a great diversity of bean rhizobia in Shaanxi that might be due to the adaptable evolution of the bean-nodulating rhizobia subjected to the diverse ecological conditions in the area. PMID:26966063

  5. Symbiotic Efficiency of Native Rhizobia Nodulating Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Soils of Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Kawaka, Fanuel; Dida, Mathews M.; Opala, Peter A.; Ombori, Omwoyo; Maingi, John; Osoro, Newton; Muthini, Morris; Amoding, Alice; Mukaminega, Dative; Muoma, John

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the abundance and symbiotic efficiency of native rhizobia nodulating common bean in Kisumu and Kakamega, Kenya. Soil sampling was carried out in three farms that had been used for growing common bean for at least two seasons and one fallow land with no known history of growing common bean or inoculation. Abundance of soil rhizobia and symbiotic efficiency (SE) were determined in a greenhouse experiment. Native rhizobia populations ranged from 3.2 × 101 to 3.5 × 104 cells per gram of soil. Pure bacterial cultures isolated from fresh and healthy root nodules exhibited typical characteristics of Rhizobium sp. on yeast extract mannitol agar media supplemented with Congo red. Bean inoculation with the isolates significantly (p < 0.05) increased the shoot dry weight and nitrogen (N) concentration and content. The SE of all the native rhizobia were higher when compared to a reference strain, CIAT 899 (67%), and ranged from 74% to 170%. Four isolates had SE above a second reference strain, Strain 446 (110%). Our results demonstrate the presence of native rhizobia that are potentially superior to the commercial inoculants. These can be exploited to enhance bean inoculation programmes in the region. PMID:27355005

  6. Genetic analysis of the response to eleven Colletotrichum lindemuthianum races in a RIL population of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bean anthracnose is caused by the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc. & Magnus) Lams.- Scrib. Resistance to C. lindemuthianum in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) generally follows a qualitative mode of inheritance. The pathogen shows extensive pathogenic variation and up to 20 anthracnose resistance loci (named Co-), conferring resistance to specific races, have been described. Anthracnose resistance has generally been investigated by analyzing a limited number of isolates or races in segregating populations. In this work, we analyzed the response against eleven C. lindemuthianum races in a recombinant inbred line (RIL) common bean population derived from the cross Xana × Cornell 49242 in which a saturated linkage map was previously developed. Results A systematic genetic analysis was carried out to dissect the complex resistance segregations observed, which included contingency analyses, subpopulations and genetic mapping. Twenty two resistance genes were identified, some with a complementary mode of action. The Cornell 49242 genotype carries a complex cluster of resistance genes at the end of linkage group (LG) Pv11 corresponding to the previously described anthracnose resistance cluster Co-2. In this position, specific resistance genes to races 3, 6, 7, 19, 38, 39, 65, 357, 449 and 453 were identified, with one of them showing a complementary mode of action. In addition, Cornell 49242 had an independent gene on LG Pv09 showing a complementary mode of action for resistance to race 453. Resistance genes in genotype Xana were located on three regions involving LGs Pv01, Pv02 and Pv04. All resistance genes identified in Xana showed a complementary mode of action, except for two controlling resistance to races 65 and 73 located on LG Pv01, in the position of the previously described anthracnose resistance cluster Co-1. Conclusions Results shown herein reveal a complex and specific interaction between bean and fungus genotypes leading to

  7. Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) PvTIFY orchestrates global changes in transcript profile response to jasmonate and phosphorus deficiency

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background TIFY is a large plant-specific transcription factor gene family. A subgroup of TIFY genes named JAZ (Jasmonate-ZIM domain) has been identified as repressors of jasmonate (JA)-regulated transcription in Arabidopsis and other plants. JA signaling is involved in many aspects of plant growth/development and in defense responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Here, we identified the TIFY genes (designated PvTIFY) from the legume common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and functionally characterized PvTIFY10C as a transcriptional regulator. Results Nineteen genes from the PvTIFY gene family were identified through whole-genome sequence analysis. Most of these were induced upon methyl-JA elicitation. We selected PvTIFY10C as a representative JA-responsive PvTIFY gene for further functional analysis. Transcriptome analysis via microarray hybridization using the newly designed Bean Custom Array 90 K was performed on transgenic roots of composite plants with modulated (RNAi-silencing or over-expression) PvTIFY10C gene expression. Data were interpreted using Gene Ontology and MapMan adapted to common bean. Microarray differential gene expression data were validated by real-time qRT-PCR expression analysis. Comparative global gene expression analysis revealed opposite regulatory changes in processes such as RNA and protein regulation, stress responses and metabolism in PvTIFY10C silenced vs. over-expressing roots. These data point to transcript reprogramming (mainly repression) orchestrated by PvTIFY10C. In addition, we found that several PvTIFY genes, as well as genes from the JA biosynthetic pathway, responded to P-deficiency. Relevant P-responsive genes that participate in carbon metabolic pathways, cell wall synthesis, lipid metabolism, transport, DNA, RNA and protein regulation, and signaling were oppositely-regulated in control vs. PvTIFY10C-silenced roots of composite plants under P-stress. These data indicate that PvTIFY10C regulates, directly or indirectly, the

  8. Damaged-self recognition in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) shows taxonomic specificity and triggers signaling via reactive oxygen species (ROS)

    PubMed Central

    Duran-Flores, Dalia; Heil, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Plants require reliable mechanisms to detect injury. Danger signals or “damage-associated molecular patterns” (DAMPs) are released from stressed host cells and allow injury detection independently of enemy-derived molecules. We studied the response of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) to the application of leaf homogenate as a source of DAMPs and measured the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as an early response and the secretion of extrafloral nectar (EFN) as a jasmonic acid (JA)-dependent late response. We observed a strong taxonomic signal in the response to different leaf homogenates. ROS formation and EFN secretion were highly correlated and responded most strongly to leaf homogenates produced using the same cultivar or closely related accessions, less to a distantly related cultivar of common bean or each of the two congeneric species, P. lunatus and P. coccineus, and not at all to homogenates prepared from species in different genera, not even when using other Fabaceae. Interestingly, leaf homogenates also reduced the infection by the bacterial pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, when they were applied directly before challenging, although the same homogenates exhibited no direct in vitro inhibitory effect in the bacterium. We conclude that ROS signaling is associated to the induction of EFN secretion and that the specific blend of DAMPs that are released from damaged cells allows the plant to distinguish the “damaged-self” from the damaged “non-self.” The very early responses of plants to DAMPs can trigger resistance to both, herbivores and pathogens, which should be adaptive because injury facilitates infection, independently of its causal reason. PMID:25400650

  9. ZnO nanoparticles and root colonization by a beneficial pseudomonad influence essential metal responses in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Dimkpa, Christian O; Hansen, Trevor; Stewart, Jacob; McLean, Joan E; Britt, David W; Anderson, Anne J

    2015-05-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) incorporated into commercial products are reactive on plants. Here, the influence of a root-associated bacterium, Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6 (PcO6) on the responses of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) to commercial ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) was examined. ZnO NPs (250-1000 mg Zn/kg) significantly (p = 0.05) impacted root elongation after 7 days; only at 1000 mg/kg was shoot growth significantly inhibited. Zn solubilized from ZnO NPs correlated with root growth inhibition (r(2 )= 0.8709); solubility of Fe (r(2 )= 0.916) and Mn (r(2 )= 0.997), and shoot accumulation of Zn (r(2 )= 0.9095), Fe (r(2 )= 0.9422) and Mn (r(2 )= 0.789). Root ferric reductase activity diminished 31% in NP-exposed plants. Amendments with Zn ions at 6 mg/kg, corresponding to Zn solubilized from the NPs, did not replicate the responses, suggesting a nano-specific contribution of the ZnO. Neither NPs (500 mg Zn/kg) nor Zn ions affected root colonization by PcO6. Siderophore production by PcO6 increased 17% by exposure to NPs and 11% with Zn ions (18 mg/kg). PcO6 restored plant ferric reduction under NP exposure, but decreased uptake of Zn and Fe, 58 and 18%, respectively, suggesting soil bacteria could reduce plant accumulation of metals under toxic exposure levels, while negatively affecting uptake of essential elements. Collectively, these findings demonstrated that growth and balance of essential metals in bean exposed to ZnO NPs were influenced by the NPs and bacterial colonization of NP-exposed roots, indicating subtle effects of NPs in plant nutrition. PMID:24713073

  10. Spatial aluminium sensitivity of root apices of two common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes with contrasting aluminium resistance.

    PubMed

    Rangel, Andrés F; Rao, Idupulapati M; Horst, Walter J

    2007-01-01

    The initial response of plants to aluminium (Al) is an inhibition of root elongation. In the present study, short and medium-term effects of Al treatment (20 muM) on root growth and Al accumulation of two common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes, VAX-1 (Al-sensitive) and Quimbaya (Al-resistant), were studied. Root elongation of both genotypes was severely inhibited during the first 3-4 h of Al treatment. Thereafter, both genotypes showed gradual recovery. However, this recovery continued in genotype Quimbaya until the root elongation rate reached the level of the control (without Al) while the genotype VAX-1 was increasingly damaged by Al after 12 h of Al treatment. Short-term Al treatment (90 microM Al) to different zones of the root apex using agarose blocks corroborated the importance of the transition zone (TZ, 1-2 mm) as a main target of Al. However, Al applied to the elongation zone (EZ) also contributed to the overall inhibition of root elongation. Enhanced inhibition of root elongation during the initial 4 h of Al treatment was related to high Al accumulation in root apices in both genotypes (Quimbaya>VAX-1). Recovery from Al stress was reflected by decreasing Al contents especially in the TZ, but also in the EZ. After 24 h of Al treatment the high Al resistance of Quimbaya was reflected by much lower Al contents in the entire root apex. The results confirmed that genotypic differences in Al resistance in common bean are built up during medium-term exposure of the roots to Al. For this acquisition of Al resistance, the activation and maintenance of an Al exclusion mechanism, especially in the TZ but also in the EZ, appears to be decisive. PMID:17975208

  11. Syntenic relationships among legumes revealed using a gene-based genetic linkage map of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    McConnell, Melody; Mamidi, Sujan; Lee, Rian; Chikara, Shireen; Rossi, Monica; Papa, Roberto; McClean, Phillip

    2010-10-01

    Molecular linkage maps are an important tool for gene discovery and cloning, crop improvement, further genetic studies, studies on diversity and evolutionary history, and cross-species comparisons. Linkage maps differ in both the type of marker and type of population used. In this study, gene-based markers were used for mapping in a recombinant inbred (RI) population of Phaseolus vulgaris L. P. vulgaris, common dry bean, is an important food source, economic product, and model organism for the legumes. Gene-based markers were developed that corresponded to genes controlling mutant phenotypes in Arabidopsis thaliana, genes undergoing selection during domestication in maize, and genes that function in a biochemical pathway in A. thaliana. Sequence information, including introns and 3' UTR, was generated for over 550 genes in the two genotypes of P. vulgaris. Over 1,800 single nucleotide polymorphisms and indels were found, 300 of which were screened in the RI population. The resulting LOD 2.0 map is 1,545 cM in length and consists of 275 gene-based and previously mapped core markers. An additional 153 markers that mapped at LOD <1.0 were placed in genetic bins. By screening the parents of other mapping populations, it was determined that the markers were useful for other common Mesoamerican × Andean mapping populations. The location of the mapped genes relative to their homologs in Arabidopsis thaliana (At), Medicago truncatula (Mt), and Lotus japonicus (Lj) were determine by using a tblastx analysis with the current psedouchromosome builds for each of the species. While only short blocks of synteny were observed with At, large-scale macrosyntenic blocks were observed with Mt and Lj. By using Mt and Lj as bridging species, the syntenic relationship between the common bean and peanut was inferred. PMID:20607211

  12. Anthocyanidins and Flavonols, Major nod Gene Inducers from Seeds of a Black-Seeded Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) 1

    PubMed Central

    Hungria, Mariangela; Joseph, Cecillia M.; Phillips, Donald A.

    1991-01-01

    Eleven compounds released from germinating seeds of a black-seeded bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., cv PI165426CS) induce transcription of nod genes in Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar phaseoli. Aglycones from 10 of those compounds were identified by spectroscopic methods (ultraviolet/visible, proton nuclear magnetic resonance, and mass spectroscopy), and their biological activities were demonstrated by induction of β-galactosidase activity in R. leguminosarum strains containing nodA-lacZ or nodC-lacZ fusions controlled by R. leguminosarum biovar phaseoli nodD genes. By making comparisons with authentic standards, the chemical structures for aglycones from the 10 molecules were confirmed as being anthocyanidins (delphinidin, petunidin, and malvidin) and flavonols (myricetin, quercetin, and kaempferol). All anthocyanidins and flavonols had 3-O-glycosylation and free hydroxyl groups at the 4′, 5, and 7 positions. Hydrolysis experiments showed that the mean concentration required for half-maximum nod gene induction (I50) by the 10 glycosides was about half that of the corresponding aglycones. The mean I50 value for the three anthocyanidins (360 nanomolar) was less (P ≤ 0.05) than that of the three flavonol aglycones (980 nanomolar). Each seed released approximately 2500 nanomoles of anthocyanidin and 450 nanomoles of flavonol nod gene inducers in conjugated forms during the first 6 hours of imbibition. Based on amounts and activities of the compounds released, anthocyanins contributed approximately 10-fold more total nod-inducing activity than flavonol glycosides. These anthocyanidins from bean seeds represent the first nod-inducing compounds identified from that group of flavonoids. PMID:16668462

  13. Purification and Characterization of a Lectin from Phaseolus vulgaris cv. (Anasazi Beans)

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Arishya; Ng, Tzi Bun; Wong, Jack Ho; Lin, Peng

    2009-01-01

    A lectin has been isolated from seeds of the Phaseolus vulgaris cv. “Anasazi beans” using a procedure that involved affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC)-ion exchange chromatography on Mono S, and FPLC-gel filtration on Superdex 200. The lectin was comprised of two 30-kDa subunits with substantial N-terminal sequence similarity to other Phaseolus lectins. The hemagglutinating activity of the lectin was stable within the pH range of 1–14 and the temperature range of 0–80°C. The lectin potently suppressed proliferation of MCF-7 (breast cancer) cells with an IC50 of 1.3 μM, and inhibited the activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase with an IC50 of 7.6 μM. The lectin evoked a mitogenic response from murine splenocytes as evidenced by an increase in [3H-methyl]-thymidine incorporation. The lectin had no antifungal activity. It did not stimulate nitric oxide production by murine peritoneal macrophages. Chemical modification results indicated that tryptophan was crucial for the hemagglutinating activity of the lectin. PMID:19343172

  14. Site-specific risk factors of white mould epidemics in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in Tasmania

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Tasmania, Australia, if more than 5% of bean pods are found to be affected by white mould (caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) entire crops can be rejected by contracting processors. This strict quality standard is one of the main reasons for prophylactic application of fungicides over flowering...

  15. Plastic expression of heterochrony quantitative trait loci (hQTLs) for leaf growth in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Libo; Clavijo, Jose A; Sun, Lidan; Zhu, Xuli; Bhakta, Mehul S; Gezan, Salvador A; Carvalho, Melissa; Vallejos, C Eduardo; Wu, Rongling

    2015-08-01

    Heterochrony, that is, evolutionary changes in the relative timing of developmental events and processes, has emerged as a key concept that links evolution and development. Genes associated with heterochrony encode molecular components of developmental timing mechanisms. However, our understanding of how heterochrony genes alter the expression of heterochrony in response to environmental changes remains very limited. We applied functional mapping to find quantitative trait loci (QTLs) responsible for growth trajectories of leaf area and leaf mass in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) grown in two contrasting environments. We identified three major QTLs pleiotropically expressed under the two environments. Further characterization of the temporal pattern of these QTLs indicates that they are heterochrony QTLs (hQTLs) in terms of their role in influencing four heterochronic parameters: the timing of the inflection point, the timing of maximum acceleration and deceleration, and the duration of linear growth. The pattern of gene action by the hQTLs on each parameter was unique, being environmentally dependent and varying between two allometrically related leaf growth traits. These results provide new insights into the complexity of genetic mechanisms that control trait formation in plants and provide novel findings that will be of use in studying the evolutionary trends. PMID:25816915

  16. Variation in cyanogenic glycosides across populations of wild lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus) has no apparent effect on bruchid beetle performance.

    PubMed

    Shlichta, J Gwen; Glauser, Gaetan; Benrey, Betty

    2014-05-01

    Cyanogenic glycosides (CNGs) act as feeding or oviposition deterrents and are toxic after enzymatic hydrolysis, thus negatively affecting herbivore performance. While most studies on CNGs focus on leaf herbivores, here we examined seeds from natural populations of Phaseolus lunatus in Mexico. The predominant CNGs, linamarin and lotaustralin, were quantified for each population by using ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. We also examined whether there was a correlation between the concentration of CNGs and the performance of the Mexican bean beetle, Zabrotes subfasciatus, on seeds from each population(.) The concentrations of CNGs in the seeds were relatively high compared to the leaves and were significantly variable among populations. Surprisingly, this had little effect on the performance of the bruchid beetles. Zabrotes subfasciatus can tolerate high concentrations of CNGs, most likely because of the limited β-glucosidase activity in the seeds. Seed herbivory does not appear to liberate hydrogen cyanide due to the low water content in the seed. This study illustrates the importance of quantifying the natural variation and activity of toxic compounds in order to make relevant biological inferences about their role in defense against herbivores. PMID:24863488

  17. Bean arcelin : 1. Inheritance of a novel seed protein of Phaseolus vulgaris L. and its effect on seed composition.

    PubMed

    Romero Andreas, J; Yandell, B S; Bliss, F A

    1986-04-01

    SDS-PAGE of seed proteins from the seeds of a nondomesticated bean of Mexican origin (Phaseolus vulgaris L., PI 325690) revealed the presence of a novel 38 kd protein which appeared to be neither an altered phaseolin nor a lectin fraction. The protein was named arcelin, after Arcelia, the town in the state of Guerrero near which PI 325690 had been collected. The pure line, UW 325, was derived by self fertilization of the plant from a single arcelin-containing seed of PI 325690. Despite a low percentage seed phaseolin (14.6%), seed phenotype, seed germination, plant growth, pollen fertility, and percentage seed protein of UW 325 were normal. Analyses of F2 and F3 seeds from a single F1 plant of the cross 'Sanilac'XPI 325690-3 revealed that arcelin expression was inherited as a single gene and that presence was dominant to absence of arcelin. The mean percentage phaseolin in the seeds of homozygous dominant Arc/Arc F3 families (14.0%) was significantly lower than that of the homozygous recessive arc/arc seeds (44.7%). The distribution of percentage phaseolin values for seeds within segregating families was bimodal and nonoverlapping. Without exception, seeds containing arcelin (Arc+phenotype) contained a lower percentage phaseolin than seeds lacking arcelin (Arc-phenotype). Although arcelin presence was associated with low percentage phaseolin, the Arc/Arc and Arc/arc genotypes were similar for seed weight and percentage total seed protein. PMID:24247784

  18. Accumulation and translocation of metals in soil and different parts of French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) amended with sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vinod; Chopra, A K

    2014-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the accumulation and translocation of metals in French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Plants were grown in soil amended with up to 100 % sewage sludge. Significant (p < 0.01) changes to soil characteristics were observed. The maximum growth of P. vulgaris was noted in the treatment with 40 % of sewage sludge. Metal concentrations were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in P. vulgaris after sewage sludge amendment where Fe > Zn > Cd > Cu > Cr > Pb. The translocation for Fe and Zn was in the order of leaves > shoot > root > fruits, for Cd, shoot > root > leaves > fruits, for Cu and Pb shoot > leaves > root > fruits and for Cr root > shoot > leaves > fruits of P. vulgaris. All accumulated metal concentrations except Cd in the fruit were below the FAO/WHO standard limits. Thus, the amendment of agricultural soil by sewage sludge might be feasible. However, a regular monitoring of metal levels in agricultural products is recommended to prevent their accumulation in the food chain. PMID:24196375

  19. Physiological and molecular analysis of the interaction between aluminium toxicity and drought stress in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhong-Bao; Eticha, Dejene; Albacete, Alfonso; Rao, Idupulapati Madhusudana; Roitsch, Thomas; Horst, Walter Johannes

    2012-05-01

    Aluminium (Al) toxicity and drought are two major factors limiting common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) production in the tropics. Short-term effects of Al toxicity and drought stress on root growth in acid, Al-toxic soil were studied, with special emphasis on Al-drought interaction in the root apex. Root elongation was inhibited by both Al and drought. Combined stresses resulted in a more severe inhibition of root elongation than either stress alone. This result was different from the alleviation of Al toxicity by osmotic stress (-0.60 MPa polyethylene glycol) in hydroponics. However, drought reduced the impact of Al on the root tip, as indicated by the reduction of Al-induced callose formation and MATE expression. Combined Al and drought stress enhanced up-regulation of ACCO expression and synthesis of zeatin riboside, reduced drought-enhanced abscisic acid (ABA) concentration, and expression of NCED involved in ABA biosynthesis and the transcription factors bZIP and MYB, thus affecting the regulation of ABA-dependent genes (SUS, PvLEA18, KS-DHN, and LTP) in root tips. The results provide circumstantial evidence that in soil, drought alleviates Al injury, but Al renders the root apex more drought-sensitive, particularly by impacting the gene regulatory network involved in ABA signal transduction and cross-talk with other phytohormones necessary for maintaining root growth under drought. PMID:22371077

  20. Structure and Activity Changes of Phytohemagglutinin from Red Kidney Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Affected by Ultrahigh-Pressure Treatments.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yunjun; Liu, Cencen; Zhao, Mouming; Cui, Chun; Ren, Jiaoyan

    2015-11-01

    Phytohemagglutin (PHA), purified from red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) by Affi-Gel blue affinity chromatography, was subjected to ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) treatment (150, 250, 350, and 450 MPa). The purified PHA lost its hemagglutination activity after 450 MPa treatment and showed less pressure tolerance than crude PHA. However, the saccharide specificity and α-glucosidase inhibition activity of the purified PHA did not change much after UHP treatment. Electrophoresis staining by periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) manifested that the glycone structure of purified PHA remained stable even after 450 MPa pressure treatment. However, electrophoresis staining by Coomassie Blue as well as circular dichroism (CD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) assay proved that the protein unit structure of purified PHA unfolded when treated at 0-250 MPa but reaggregates at 250-450 MPa. Therefore, the hemagglutination activity tends to be affected by the protein unit structure, while the stability of the glycone structure contributed to the remaining α-glucosidase inhibition activity. PMID:26416299

  1. Genetic Dissection of ICP-Detected Nutrient Accumulation in the Whole Seed of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Matthew Wohlgemuth; Wu, Xingbo; Bhandari, Devendra; Astudillo, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Nutrient transport to grain legume seeds is not well studied and can benefit from modern methods of elemental analysis including spectroscopic techniques. Some cations such as potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) are needed for plant physiological purposes. Meanwhile, some minerals such as copper (Cu), iron (Fe), molybdenum (Mo), and zinc (Zn) are important micronutrients. Phosphorus (P) is rich in legumes, while sulfur (S) concentration is related to essential amino acids. In this research, the goal was to analyze a genetic mapping population of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) with inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectrophotometry to determine concentrations of and to discover quantitative trait loci (QTL) for 15 elements in ground flour of whole seeds. The population was grown in randomized complete block design experiments that had been used before to analyze Fe and Zn. A total of 21 QTL were identified for nine additional elements, of which four QTL were found for Cu followed by three each for Mg, Mn, and P. Fewer QTL were found for K, Na and S. Boron (B) and calcium (Ca) had only one QTL each. The utility of the QTL for breeding adaptation to element deficient soils and association with previously discovered nutritional loci are discussed. PMID:27014282

  2. Effects of acetylsalicylic acid on fresh weight pigment and protein content of bean leaf discs (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Canakçi, S

    2003-01-01

    The effects of 100, 250, and 500 ppm acetylsalicylic acid solutions treatments on weight alteration, pigment and protein amounts in discs from the primary leaves of one month old bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seedlings produced tinder greenhouse conditions are presented. The experiments show that: 100 ppm ASA had no significant influence (P > 0.05) but 250 and 500 ppm ASA caused an increase on weight loss (P < 0.01); ASA at higher concentrations (250 and 500 ppm), generally, caused a decrease on pigment amounts (P < 0.05-P < 0.01) but 100 ppm ASA had no considerably significant influence on them (P > 0.05), none of the ASA treatments caused a statistically significant influence on carotenoid amount (P > 0.05); 100 and 250 ppm ASA treatments did not cause a significant influence on protein amount (P > 0.05). however 500 ppm ASA treatment caused an increase on protein injury (P < 0.05). Consequently, it is supposed that wet weight loss, pigment and protein injury have somewhat increased on leaf discs. depending on the toxic effect of high acetylsalicylic acid concentrations. PMID:14711042

  3. A Glucosamine-Specific Lectin from Green Dragon No. 8 Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) Induced Apoptosis on Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Yau Sang; Xia, Lixin; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2015-01-01

    A lectin exhibiting antiproliferative activity on tumor cell lines but devoid of antifungal activity has been purified from Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Green Dragon no. 8 seeds. The lectin was a 60 kDa dimeric protein with two 30 kDa subunits. It was a glucosamine-specific lectin as implied from the inhibitory effect of glucosamine on hemagglutinating activity of the lectin. The steps for isolation of the lectin involved Affi-gel blue gel (affinity gel), Mono Q (anion exchanger), and Superdex 75 column (size exclusion). The lectin was purified 20.8-fold from the crude extract of the beans. The purified lectin showed antiproliferative activity on breast cancer MCF7 cell line and nasopharyngeal cancer HONE1 and CNE2 cell lines, but a low activity on normal skin fibroblast HSF98 cell line. The lectin was shown to induce apoptosis on HONE1 cells, as indicated by increased phosphatidylserine externalization and mitochondrial depolarization. It also blocked HONE1 cell division and kept the cells at the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. PMID:26290674

  4. Genetic Dissection of ICP-Detected Nutrient Accumulation in the Whole Seed of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Blair, Matthew Wohlgemuth; Wu, Xingbo; Bhandari, Devendra; Astudillo, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Nutrient transport to grain legume seeds is not well studied and can benefit from modern methods of elemental analysis including spectroscopic techniques. Some cations such as potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) are needed for plant physiological purposes. Meanwhile, some minerals such as copper (Cu), iron (Fe), molybdenum (Mo), and zinc (Zn) are important micronutrients. Phosphorus (P) is rich in legumes, while sulfur (S) concentration is related to essential amino acids. In this research, the goal was to analyze a genetic mapping population of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) with inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectrophotometry to determine concentrations of and to discover quantitative trait loci (QTL) for 15 elements in ground flour of whole seeds. The population was grown in randomized complete block design experiments that had been used before to analyze Fe and Zn. A total of 21 QTL were identified for nine additional elements, of which four QTL were found for Cu followed by three each for Mg, Mn, and P. Fewer QTL were found for K, Na and S. Boron (B) and calcium (Ca) had only one QTL each. The utility of the QTL for breeding adaptation to element deficient soils and association with previously discovered nutritional loci are discussed. PMID:27014282

  5. Relative importance of phytohemagglutinin (lectin) and trypsin-chymotrypsin inhibitor on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L) protein absorption and utilization by the rat.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, M R; Sgarbieri, V C

    1998-10-01

    The main objective of this work was to perform a comparative study of the antinutritional and/or toxic properties of phytohemagglutinin and trypsin-chymotrypsin inhibitor extracted from the seed of a commercial cultivar of edible bean used in Brazil. Bean proteins were extracted in acidic salt solution and fractionated by dialysis and centrifugation, then freeze-dried. The total freeze-dried bean extract and the globulin or albumin protein fraction were resuspended in distilled water and heated (100 degrees C, 30 min) for inactivation of hemagglutinin. Diets were prepared with unheated bean protein fractions and heated ones (100% trypsin inhibitor activity, but 0% phytohemagglutinin activity). As a result, the inhibition of growth and poor dietary protein utilization were observed in rats fed diets containing unheated bean protein fractions, but not in rats fed diets containing heated fractions. It was thus assumed that phytohemagglutinin is the main antinutritional and toxic factor that in dry bean (Phaseolus) protein and that trypsin inhibitor (Bowman-Birk type) did not interfere with rat growth. PMID:9919488

  6. Induction of ferritin synthesis by water deficit and iron excess in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    DeLaat, Daiane Mariele; Colombo, Carlos Augusto; Chiorato, Alisson Fernando; Carbonell, Sergio Augusto Morais

    2014-03-01

    Ferritins are molecules for iron storage present in most living beings. In plants, ferritin is an essential iron homeostasis regulator and therefore plays a fundamental role in control of iron induced by oxidative stress or by excess of iron ions. Ferritin gene expression is modulated by various environmental factors, including the intensity of drought, cold, light and pathogenic attack. Common bean, one of the most important species in the Brazilian diet, is also affected by insufficiency or lack of water. Thus, the present study was conducted for the purpose of determining the levels of expression of ferritins transcripts in leaf tissues of three common bean cultivars (BAT 477, Carioca Comum and IAC-Diplomata) under osmotic shock caused by polyethylene glycol 6000 and by iron excess. The expression of three ferritins genes (PvFer1, PvFer2 and PvFer3), determined by quantitative PCR, indicated a difference in the expression kinetics among the cultivars. All the ferritin genes were actively transcribed under iron excess and water deficit conditions. The cultivars most responsive to treatments were BAT 477 and IAC-Diplomata. All the cultivars responded to treatments. Nevertheless, the ferritin genes were differentially regulated according to the cultivars. Analysis of variance indicated differences among cultivars in expression of the genes PvFer1 and PvFer3. Both genes were most responsive to treatments. This result suggests that ferritin genes may be functionally important in acclimatization of common bean under iron excess or water deficit conditions. PMID:24390245

  7. 7 CFR 319.56-54 - French beans and runner beans from Kenya.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false French beans and runner beans from Kenya. 319.56-54... § 319.56-54 French beans and runner beans from Kenya. French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and runner beans (Phaseolus coccineus L.) may be imported into the United States from Kenya only under...

  8. 7 CFR 319.56-54 - French beans and runner beans from Kenya.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false French beans and runner beans from Kenya. 319.56-54... § 319.56-54 French beans and runner beans from Kenya. French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and runner beans (Phaseolus coccineus L.) may be imported into the United States from Kenya only under...

  9. 7 CFR 319.56-54 - French beans and runner beans from Kenya.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false French beans and runner beans from Kenya. 319.56-54... § 319.56-54 French beans and runner beans from Kenya. French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and runner beans (Phaseolus coccineus L.) may be imported into the United States from Kenya only under...

  10. Chromosome identification in the Andean common bean accession G19833 (Phaseolus vulgaris L., Fabaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Altrock, Sarah; Fonsêca, Artur; Pedrosa-Harand, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Characterization of all chromosomes of the Andean G19833 bean genotype was carried out by fluorescent in situ hybridization. Eleven single-copy genomic sequences, one for each chromosome, two BACs containing subtelomeric and pericentromeric repeats and the 5S and 45S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) were used as probes. Comparison to the Mesoamerican accession BAT93 showed little divergence, except for additional 45S rDNA sites in four chromosome pairs. Altogether, the results indicated a relative karyotypic stability during the evolution of the Andean and Mesoamerican gene pools of P. vulgaris. PMID:21931520

  11. A specific endogenous reference for genetically modified common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) DNA quantification by real-time PCR targeting lectin gene.

    PubMed

    Venturelli, Gustavo L; Brod, Fábio C A; Rossi, Gabriela B; Zimmermann, Naíra F; Oliveira, Jaison P; Faria, Josias C; Arisi, Ana C M

    2014-11-01

    The Embrapa 5.1 genetically modified (GM) common bean was approved for commercialization in Brazil. Methods for the quantification of this new genetically modified organism (GMO) are necessary. The development of a suitable endogenous reference is essential for GMO quantification by real-time PCR. Based on this, a new taxon-specific endogenous reference quantification assay was developed for Phaseolus vulgaris L. Three genes encoding common bean proteins (phaseolin, arcelin, and lectin) were selected as candidates for endogenous reference. Primers targeting these candidate genes were designed and the detection was evaluated using the SYBR Green chemistry. The assay targeting lectin gene showed higher specificity than the remaining assays, and a hydrolysis probe was then designed. This assay showed high specificity for 50 common bean samples from two gene pools, Andean and Mesoamerican. For GM common bean varieties, the results were similar to those obtained for non-GM isogenic varieties with PCR efficiency values ranging from 92 to 101 %. Moreover, this assay presented a limit of detection of ten haploid genome copies. The primers and probe developed in this work are suitable to detect and quantify either GM or non-GM common bean. PMID:25078400

  12. Nutritional quality of extruded kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Pinto) and its effects on growth and skeletal muscle nitrogen fractions in rats.

    PubMed

    Marzo, F; Alonso, R; Urdaneta, E; Arricibita, F J; Ibáñez, F

    2002-04-01

    The influence of extrusion cooking on the protein content, amino acid profile, and concentration of antinutritive compounds (phytic acid, condensed tannins, polyphenols, trypsin, chymotrypsin, alpha-amylase inhibitors, and hemagglutinating activity) in kidney bean seeds (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Pinto) was investigated. Growing male rats were fed diets based on casein containing raw or extruded kidney beans with or without methionine supplementation for 8 or 15 d. Rates of growth, food intake, and protein efficiency ratio were measured and the weight of the gastrocnemius muscle and the composition of its nitrogenous fraction was determined. Extrusion cooking reduced (P < 0.01) phytic acid, condensed tannins, and trypsin, chymotrypsin, and (alpha-amylase inhibitory activities. Furthermore, hemagglutinating activity was abolished by extrusion treatment. Protein content was not affected by this thermal treatment. Rats fed raw kidney bean lost BW rapidly and the majority died by 9 d. Pretreatment of the beans by extrusion cooking improved food intake and utilization by the rats and they gained BW. Supplementation of extruded kidney bean with methionine further enhanced (P < 0.01) food conversion efficiency and growth. However, BW gains and muscle composition still differed (P < 0.01) from those of rats fed a high-quality protein. PMID:12002323

  13. Unfolding and refolding of leucoagglutinin (PHA-L), an oligomeric lectin from kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Biswas, Shyamasri; Kayastha, Arvind M

    2004-09-01

    The unfolding and refolding of Phaseolus vulgaris Leucoagglutinin, a homotetrameric legume lectin, was studied at pH 2.5 and 7.2 using fluorescence, far- and near-UV circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, 8-anilino-1-naphthalene sulfonate (ANS) binding and FPLC techniques. This protein was found to refold even at pH 2.5 and also exhibited high refolding yield around 60% at pH 2.5 and 85% at pH 7.2. The refolding at pH 2.5 takes place with the formation of a dimeric intermediate. Although the hydrodynamic radius of the completely renatured protein and the dimer at pH 2.5 was found to be same, the ANS binding as well as far-UV CD spectra of the two were different. The denaturation kinetics at pH 2.5 followed single exponential pattern with the rate of denaturation being independent of protein concentration. The renaturation kinetics on the other hand was dependent on the protein concentration providing further evidence of an intermediate state during refolding. From these experiments the folding pathway of the protein at pH 2.5 was proposed. PMID:15342112

  14. Paraheliotropism can protect water-stressed bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants against photoinhibition.

    PubMed

    Pastenes, Claudio; Porter, Victor; Baginsky, Cecilia; Horton, Peter; González, Javiera

    2004-12-01

    In order to estimate the importance of leaf movements on photosynthesis in well-watered and water-stressed field grown bean cultivars (Arroz Tuscola (AT), Orfeo INIA (OI), Bayos Titan (BT), and Hallados Dorado (HD)), CO2 assimilation, leaf temperature, and capacity for the maximum quantum yield recovery, measured as Fv/Fm, were assessed. Leaf water potential was lower in water-stressed compared to control plants throughout the day. Water status determined a decrease in the CO2 assimilation and stomatal conductance as light intensity and temperature increased up to maximal intensities at midday. Both parameters were lower in stressed compared to control plants. Even though high light intensity and water-stress induced stomatal closure is regarded as a photoinhibitory condition, the recovery of variable to maximal fluorescence (Fv/Fm) after 30min of darkness was nearly constant in both water regimes. In fact, higher values were observed in OI and AT when under stress. Photochemical and non-photochemical fluorescence quenching resulted in minor changes during the day and were similar between watered and stressed plants. It is concluded that paraheliotropism, present in the four bean cultivars, efficiently protects stressed plants from photoinhibition in the field and helps maintain leaf temperatures far below the ambient temperatures, however, it may also be responsible for low CO2 assimilation rates in watered plants. PMID:15658802

  15. Race structure within the Mesoamerican gene pool of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) as determined by microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Díaz, L M; Blair, M W

    2006-12-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars are distinguished morphologically, agronomically and ecologically into specific races within each of the two gene pools found for the species (Andean and Mesoamerican). The objective of this study was to describe the race structure of the Mesoamerican gene pool using microsatellite markers. A total of 60 genotypes previously described as pertaining to specific Mesoamerican races as well as two Andean control genotypes were analyzed with 52 markers. A total of 267 bands were generated with an average of 5.1 alleles per marker and 0.297 heterozygosity across all microsatellites. Correspondence analysis identified two major groups equivalent to the Mesoamerica race and a group containing both Durango and Jalisco race genotypes. Two outlying individuals were classified as potentially of the Guatemala race although this race does not have a defined structure and previously classified members of this race were classified with other races. Population structure analysis with K = 1-4 agreed with this classification. The genetic diversity based on Nei's index for the entire set of genotypes was 0.468 while this was highest for the Durango-Jalisco group (0.414), intermediate for race Mesoamerica (0.340) and low for race Guatemala (0.262). Genetic differentiation (G (ST)) between the Mesoamerican races was 0.27 while genetic distance and identity showed race Durango and Jalisco individuals to be closely related with high gene flow (N (m)) both between these two races (1.67) and between races Durango and Mesoamerica (1.58). Observed heterozygosity was low in all the races as would be expected for an inbreeding species. The analysis with microsatellite markers identified subgroups, which agreed well with commercial class divisions, and seed size was the main distinguishing factor between the two major groups identified. PMID:17047911

  16. Aluminum resistance in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) involves induction and maintenance of citrate exudation from root apices.

    PubMed

    Rangel, Andrés Felipe; Rao, Idupulapati Madhusudana; Braun, Hans-Peter; Horst, Walter Johannes

    2010-02-01

    Two common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes differing in aluminum (Al) resistance, Quimbaya (Al-resistant) and VAX-1 (Al-sensitive) were grown in hydroponics for up to 25 h with or without Al, and several parameters related to the exudation of organic acids anions from the root apex were investigated. Al treatment enhanced the exudation of citrate from the root tips of both genotypes. However, its dynamic offers the most consistent relationship between Al-induced inhibition of root elongation and Al accumulation in and exclusion from the root apices. Initially, in both genotypes the short-term (4 h) Al-injury period was characterized by the absence of citrate efflux independent of the citrate content of the root apices, and reduction of cytosolic turnover of citrate conferred by a reduced Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-isocitrate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.42) activity. Transient recovery from initial Al stress (4-12 h) was found to be dependent mainly on the capacity to utilize internal citrate pools (Al-resistant genotype Quimbaya) or enhanced citrate synthesis [increased activities of NAD-malate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.37) and ATP-phosphofructokinase (EC 2.7.1.11) in Al-sensitive VAX-1]. Sustained recovery from Al stress through citrate exudation in genotype Quimbaya after 24 h Al treatment relied on restoring the internal citrate pool and the constitutive high activity of citrate synthase (CS) (EC 4.1.3.7) fuelled by high phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (EC 4.1.1.31) activity. In the Al-sensitive genotype VAX-1 the citrate exudation and thus Al exclusion and root elongation could not be maintained coinciding with an exhaustion of the internal citrate pool and decreased CS activity. PMID:20053183

  17. Enrichment of ACE inhibitory peptides in navy bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) using lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Rui, Xin; Wen, Delan; Li, Wei; Chen, Xiaohong; Jiang, Mei; Dong, Mingsheng

    2015-02-01

    The present study was conducted to explore a novel strategy to enhance angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of navy bean by preparation of navy bean milk (NBM) which was then subjected to fermentation of four lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains, namely, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Lactobacillus helveticus MB2-1, Lactobacillus plantarum B1-6, and Lactobacillus plantarum 70810. With the exception of L. helveticus MB2-1, the other three selected strains had good growth performances in NBM with viable counts increased to log 8.30-8.39 cfu ml(-1) during 6 h of fermentation, and thus were selected for the following investigations. Protein contents of NBM significantly reduced when treated with L. bulgaricus and L. plantarum B1-6, and the electrophoresis patterns showed the preferable proteins for LAB strains to hydrolyze were α- and β-type phaseolins, whereas γ-type phaseolin was resistant to hydrolysis. RP-HPLC analysis demonstrated all fermented NBM had higher intensities of peaks with retention times between 2.5 and 3.5 min indicative of formation of small peptides. All fermented NBM showed higher ACE inhibitory activity compared to the unfermented ones, for which 2 h, 3 h, and 5 h were found to be the optimum fermentation periods for respectively L. plantarum 70810, L. plantarum B1-6 and L. bulgaricus, with IC50 values of 109 ± 5.1, 108 ± 1.1, and 101 ± 2.2 μg protein ml(-1). The subsequent in vitro gastrointestinal simulation afforded all fermented extracts reduced IC50 values and the extracts fermented by L. plantarum B1-6 exerted the lowest IC50 value of 21 ± 2.1 μg protein ml(-1). The research has broadened our knowledge bases on the effect of LAB fermentation on the degradation of navy bean proteins and the capacity to release ACE inhibitory peptides. The approach was promising to obtain probiotic products with potential to serve as functional ingredients targeting hypertension. PMID:25536445

  18. Conversion of L-sorbosone to L-ascorbic acid by a NADP-dependent dehydrogenase in bean and spinach leaf. [Phaseolus vulgaris L. ; Spinacia oleracea L

    SciTech Connect

    Loewus, M.W.; Bedgar, D.L.; Saito, Kazumi; Loewus, F.A. )

    1990-11-01

    An NADP-dependent dehydrogenase catalyzing the conversion of L-sorbosone to L-ascorbic acid has been isolated from Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Spinacia oleracea L. and partially purified. It is stable at {minus}20{degree}C for up to 8 months. Molecular masses, as determined by gel filtration, were 21 and 29 kilodaltons for bean and spinach enzymes, respectively. K{sub m} for sorbosone were 12 {plus minus} 2 and 18 {plus minus} 2 millimolar and for NADP{sup +}, 0.14 {plus minus} 0.05 and 1.2 {plus minus} 0.5 millimolar, for bean and spinach, respectively. Lycorine, a purported inhibitor of L-ascorbic acid biosynthesis, had no effect on the reaction.

  19. Seed storage protein deficiency improves sulfur amino acid content in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.): redirection of sulfur from gamma-glutamyl-S-methyl-cysteine.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Meghan; Chapman, Ralph; Beyaert, Ronald; Hernández-Sebastià, Cinta; Marsolais, Frédéric

    2008-07-23

    The contents of sulfur amino acids in seeds of common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are suboptimal for nutrition. They accumulate large amounts of a gamma-glutamyl dipeptide of S-methyl-cysteine, a nonprotein amino acid that cannot substitute for methionine or cysteine in the diet. Protein accumulation and amino acid composition were characterized in three genetically related lines integrating a progressive deficiency in major seed storage proteins, phaseolin, phytohemagglutinin, and arcelin. Nitrogen, carbon, and sulfur contents were comparable among the three lines. The contents of S-methyl-cysteine and gamma-glutamyl-S-methyl-cysteine were progressively reduced in the mutants. Sulfur was shifted predominantly to the protein cysteine pool, while total methionine was only slightly elevated. Methionine and cystine contents (mg per g protein) were increased by up to ca. 40%, to levels slightly above FAO guidelines on amino acid requirements for human nutrition. These findings may be useful to improve the nutritional quality of common bean. PMID:18588315

  20. Semienclosed Tube Cultures of Bean Plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) for Enumeration of Rhizobium phaseoli by the Most-Probable-Number Technique.

    PubMed

    Araujo, R S; Maya-Flores, J; Barnes-McConnell, D; Yokoyama, C; Dazzo, F B; Bliss, F A

    1986-10-01

    The semienclosed tube culture technique of Gibson was modified to permit growth of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) roots in humid air, enabling enumeration of the homologous (nodule forming) symbiont, Rhizobium phaseoli, by the most-probable-number plant infection method. A bean genotype with improved nodulation characteristics was used as the plant host. This method of enumeration was accurate when tubes were scored 3 weeks after inoculation with several R. phaseoli strains diluted from aqueous suspensions, peat-based inoculants, or soil. A comparison of population sizes obtained by most-probable-number tube cultures and plate counts indicated that 1 to 3 viable cells of R. phaseoli were a sufficient inoculant to induce nodule formation. PMID:16347191

  1. A Gap Analysis Methodology for Collecting Crop Genepools: A Case Study with Phaseolus Beans

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Villegas, Julián; Khoury, Colin; Jarvis, Andy; Debouck, Daniel Gabriel; Guarino, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    Background The wild relatives of crops represent a major source of valuable traits for crop improvement. These resources are threatened by habitat destruction, land use changes, and other factors, requiring their urgent collection and long-term availability for research and breeding from ex situ collections. We propose a method to identify gaps in ex situ collections (i.e. gap analysis) of crop wild relatives as a means to guide efficient and effective collecting activities. Methodology/Principal Findings The methodology prioritizes among taxa based on a combination of sampling, geographic, and environmental gaps. We apply the gap analysis methodology to wild taxa of the Phaseolus genepool. Of 85 taxa, 48 (56.5%) are assigned high priority for collecting due to lack of, or under-representation, in genebanks, 17 taxa are given medium priority for collecting, 15 low priority, and 5 species are assessed as adequately represented in ex situ collections. Gap “hotspots”, representing priority target areas for collecting, are concentrated in central Mexico, although the narrow endemic nature of a suite of priority species adds a number of specific additional regions to spatial collecting priorities. Conclusions/Significance Results of the gap analysis method mostly align very well with expert opinion of gaps in ex situ collections, with only a few exceptions. A more detailed prioritization of taxa and geographic areas for collection can be achieved by including in the analysis predictive threat factors, such as climate change or habitat destruction, or by adding additional prioritization filters, such as the degree of relatedness to cultivated species (i.e. ease of use in crop breeding). Furthermore, results for multiple crop genepools may be overlaid, which would allow a global analysis of gaps in ex situ collections of the world's plant genetic resources. PMID:20976009

  2. Oxidative stress reactions induced in beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) following exposure to uranium.

    PubMed

    Vandenhove, H; Cuypers, A; Van Hees, M; Koppen, G; Wannijn, J

    2006-01-01

    The present study aimed to analyze the biological effects induced by bioaccumulation of uranium in Phaseolus vulgaris. Ten-day-old seedlings were exposed to 0, 0.1, 1, 10, 100 and 1000 microM U in diluted Hoagland solution. Following 1, 2, 4 and 7 days' exposure, plants were monitored for uranium uptake, biometric parameters, capacities of enzymes involved in the anti-oxidative defense mechanisms (GPOD, SPOD, GLUR, SOD, ICDH, G-6P-DH), glutathione (GSH) pool and DNA integrity. Uranium contents were up to 900-fold higher in roots (31-14,916 mg kg(-1) FW following 7 days' exposure to 0.1 and 1000 microM U, respectively) as compared to primary leaves (1-16 mg kg(-1) FW following 7 days' exposure to 0.1 and 1000 microM U, respectively). Uranium exposure did not significantly affect plant growth compared to the control. For all enzymes studied, except SOD, enzyme capacities in roots were slightly stimulated with increasing contaminant concentrations (though not significantly). For roots exposed to 1000 microM U, enzyme capacities were significantly reduced. Enzyme capacities in leaves were not affected by uranium treatment. Total and reduced GSH levels were higher in primary leaves of uranium (

  3. Binding of isolectins from red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) to purified rat brush-border membranes.

    PubMed

    Boldt, D H; Banwell, J G

    1985-12-13

    Ingestion of red kidney bean phytohemagglutinin causes impaired growth and intestinal malabsorption, and facilitates bacterial colonization in the small intestine of weanling rats. We have studied interactions of the highly purified phytohemagglutinin erythroagglutinating (E4) and mitogenic (L4) isolectins with microvillous membrane vesicles prepared from rat small intestines. E4 and L4 were radioiodinated with 125I by the chloramine-T technique. E4 and L4 isolectins both bound to microvillous membrane vesicles. Binding was saturable and reversible. Each mg of membrane protein bound 744 +/- 86 micrograms E4 and 213 +/- 21 micrograms L4. The apparent Ka for E4 and L4 binding was 2.5 x 10(-6) and 13.0 x 10(-6) M-1, respectively. Binding of each 125I-labelled isolectin was abolished by 100-fold excess of unlabelled isolectin. In each case binding also was inhibited by appropriate oligosaccharide inhibitors, indicating that isolectin-microvillous membrane interactions were mediated by carbohydrate recognition. Patterns of saccharide inhibition of isolectin binding were different for E4 and L4. Competitive binding experiments demonstrated mutual noncompetitive inhibition of E4 and L4 binding consistent with steric hindrance. Therefore, E4 and L4 each bound to its own set of receptors. Based on the known saccharide specificities of E4 and L4, these data indicate that there are differences in expression of complex asparagine-linked biantennary and tri- or tetraantennary oligosaccharides at the microvillous surface. The data also provide the possibility that direct interactions of one or more phytohemagglutinin isolectins with intestinal mucosa in vivo may contribute to the antinutritional effects associated with ingestion of crude red kidney beans. PMID:4063394

  4. Bradyrhizobium paxllaeri sp. nov. and Bradyrhizobium icense sp. nov., nitrogen-fixing rhizobial symbionts of Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) in Peru.

    PubMed

    Durán, David; Rey, Luis; Mayo, Juan; Zúñiga-Dávila, Doris; Imperial, Juan; Ruiz-Argüeso, Tomás; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza; Ormeño-Orrillo, Ernesto

    2014-06-01

    A group of strains isolated from root nodules of Phaseolus lunatus (Lima bean) in Peru were characterized by genotypic, genomic and phenotypic methods. All strains possessed identical 16S rRNA gene sequences that were 99.9% identical to that of Bradyrhizobium lablabi CCBAU 23086(T). Despite having identical 16S rRNA gene sequences, the Phaseolus lunatus strains could be divided into two clades by sequence analysis of recA, atpD, glnII, dnaK and gyrB genes. The genome sequence of a representative of each clade was obtained and compared to the genomes of closely related species of the genus Bradyrhizobium. Average nucleotide identity values below the species circumscription threshold were obtained when comparing the two clades to each other (88.6%) and with all type strains of the genus Bradyrhizobium (≤92.9%). Phenotypes distinguishing both clades from all described and closely related species of the genus Bradyrhizobium were found. On the basis of the results obtained, two novel species, Bradyrhizobium paxllaeri sp. nov. (type strain LMTR 21(T) = DSM 18454(T) = HAMBI 2911(T)) and Bradyrhizobium icense sp. nov. (type strain LMTR 13(T) = HAMBI 3584(T) = CECT 8509(T) = CNPSo 2583(T)), are proposed to accommodate the uncovered clades of Phaseolus lunatus bradyrhizobia. These species share highly related but distinct nifH and nodC symbiosis genes. PMID:24664579

  5. Fate of the explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in soil and bioaccumulation in bush bean hydroponic plants

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, S.D.; Fellows, R.J.; Cataldo, D.A.; Bean, R.M. )

    1991-01-01

    Soils amended with [[sup 14]C]hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) were sampled over 60 d and subjected to exhaustive Soxhlet extraction followed by HPLC analysis. RDX was the only radiolabeled compound observed in soil extracts. Emission of volatile organics and [sup 14]CO[sub 2] from soil accounted for only 0.31 % of the amended radiolabel. Mass balance for RDX-amended soil was better than 84% throughout the two-month study. The analytical method developed for plants involved acid hydrolysis, solvent extraction, fractionation on Florisil adsorbent and separation by HPLC. The described methodology allowed for RDX recovery of 86 [+-] 3% from fortified bush bean leaf tissue. Further experiments were conducted with bush bean plants maintained on RDX-containing hydroponic solutions. Hydroponic plants did not emit detectable amounts of [sup 14]CO[sub 2] or radiolabeled volatile organics. Analysis of the plant tissue indicated bioaccumulation of RDX in the aerial tissues of hydroponic plants exposed for either 1 or 7 d. Metabolism of RDX to polar metabolites was observed in plants exposed for 7 d.

  6. Intra- and interchromosomal rearrangements between cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) revealed by BAC-FISH.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Emanuelle Varão; de Andrade Fonsêca, Artur Fellipe; Pedrosa-Harand, Andrea; de Andrade Bortoleti, Kyria Cilene; Benko-Iseppon, Ana Maria; da Costa, Antônio Félix; Brasileiro-Vidal, Ana Christina

    2015-06-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an annual legume grown in tropical and subtropical regions, which is economically relevant due to high protein content in dried beans, green pods, and leaves. In this work, a comparative cytogenetic study between V. unguiculata and Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean) was conducted using BAC-FISH. Sequences previously mapped in P. vulgaris chromosomes (Pv) were used as probes in V. unguiculata chromosomes (Vu), contributing to the analysis of macrosynteny between both legumes. Thirty-seven clones from P. vulgaris 'BAT93' BAC library, corresponding to its 11 linkage groups, were hybridized in situ. Several chromosomal rearrangements were identified, such as translocations (between BACs from Pv1 and Pv8; Pv2 and Pv3; as well as Pv2 and Pv11), duplications (BAC from Pv3), as well as paracentric and pericentric inversions (BACs from Pv3, and Pv4, respectively). Two BACs (from Pv2 and Pv7), which hybridized at terminal regions in almost all P. vulgaris chromosomes, showed single-copy signal in Vu. Additionally, 17 BACs showed no signal in V. unguiculata chromosomes. The present results demonstrate the feasibility of using BAC libraries in comparative chromosomal mapping and karyotype evolution studies between Phaseolus and Vigna species, and revealed several macrosynteny and collinearity breaks among both legumes. PMID:25634499

  7. Assessing potential effects of inulin and probiotic bacteria on Fe availability from common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Laparra, J M; Glahn, R P; Miller, D D

    2009-03-01

    Inulin, a prebiotic, may enhance intestinal Fe absorption. Our objective was to assess the effects of supplemental inulin and 2 probiotic bacteria (B. infantis and L. acidophillus) on Fe availability to Caco-2 cells from common white and red beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Cooked beans were mixed or not with supplemental inulin (4%, w/w), and then subjected to simulated gastrointestinal digestion (pepsin, pH 2; pancreatin, pH 7.2). Subsequently, the digests were incubated overnight with and without B. infantis or L. acidophilus. Ferritin formation in Caco-2 cells was used to evaluate Fe uptake. Total soluble phenols (Folin-Ciocalteau) and phytate (HPLC-electrochemical detection) were quantified, and the flavonoids profile (HPLC-PDA/UV detection) was monitored in the digests. Supplemental inulin did not affect Fe uptake from white nor red beans. Incubation with B. infantis increased total soluble phenols (TSP) in the digests and decreased Fe uptake. Incubation with L. acidophilus decreased TSP in the digest and increased Fe uptake. Variations in Fe uptake were not associated with soluble phytate concentrations in the digests. The largest change in flavonoids profile were found in the digests incubated with L. acidophilus, which decreased the soluble concentration of astragalin (kaempferol-3-O-glucoside). These results suggest that certain probiotics could increase Fe uptake from common beans. PMID:19323749

  8. Insecticidal activity of an alpha-amylase inhibitor-like protein resembling a putative precursor of alpha-amylase inhibitor in the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    PubMed

    Ishimoto, M; Yamada, T; Kaga, A

    1999-06-15

    alpha-Amylase inhibitor (alphaAI) in the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., protects seeds from insect pests such as the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus) and the azuki bean weevil (C. chinensis). Cultivars which lack alphaAI still show resistance to both bruchids. These cultivars have a glycoprotein that reacts with anti-alphaAI-1 antibodies. The glycoprotein with a molecular mass of 29 kDa (Gp29) was purified and the encoding gene was isolated. The primary structure of Gp29 is the same as alpha-amylase inhibitor-like protein (AIL) from which the encoding gene has already been isolated. AIL resembles a putative precursor of alphaAI, even though it does not form the active inhibitor. However, AIL has some inhibitory effect on the growth of C. maculatus but not C. chinensis. The presence of AIL alone is insufficient to explain the bruchid resistance of common bean cultivars lacking alpha-AI. Common bean seeds appear to contain several factors responsible for the bruchid resistance. PMID:10366733

  9. Construction of a BAC library and a physical map of a major QTL for CBB resistance of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, S Y; Yu, K; Huffner, M; Park, S J; Banik, M; Pauls, K P; Crosby, W

    2010-07-01

    A major quantitative trait loci (QTL) conditioning common bacterial blight (CBB) resistance in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines HR45 and HR67 was derived from XAN159, a resistant line obtained from an interspecific cross between common bean lines and the tepary bean (P. acutifolius L.) line PI319443. This source of CBB resistance is widely used in bean breeding. Several other CBB resistance QTL have been identified but none of them have been physically mapped. Four molecular markers tightly linked to this QTL have been identified suitable for marker assisted selection and physical mapping of the resistance gene. A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was constructed from high molecular weight DNA of HR45 and is composed of 33,024 clones. The size of individual BAC clone inserts ranges from 30 kb to 280 kb with an average size of 107 kb. The library is estimated to represent approximately sixfold genome coverage. The BAC library was screened as BAC pools using four PCR-based molecular markers. Two to seven BAC clones were identified by each marker. Two clones were found to have both markers PV-tttc001 and STS183. One preliminary contig was assembled based on DNA finger printing of those positive BAC clones. The minimum tiling path of the contig contains 6 BAC clones spanning an estimated size of 750 kb covering the QTL region. PMID:20419470

  10. Species limits in Rhizobium populations that nodulate the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    PubMed Central

    Eardly, B D; Wang, F S; Whittam, T S; Selander, R K

    1995-01-01

    Evolutionary genetic relationships among 146 bean-nodulating Rhizobium strains, including 94 field isolates from three localities in Colombia and 36 strains from Mexico, were examined by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of a PCR-amplified 260-bp segment of the 16S rRNA gene. Seventy-five electrophoretic types (ETs), corresponding to multilocus enzyme genotypes, were identified, including a genotypically diverse group of 18 ETs in Colombia that is strongly differentiated from the ETs of R. etli, which occur in Mexico, Colombia, and Brazil. Most strains of the distinctive Colombian ETs carried the same 16S rRNA allele as did strains of R. etli, but, surprisingly, 17 isolates of two of these ETs had the allele that is characteristic of R. leguminosarum, and strains of two other divergent groups of ETs were also polymorphic for the two alleles. No fully satisfactory explanation for the occurrence of the R. leguminosarum 16S rRNA allele in three distantly related groups of strains is available, but horizontal transfer and recombination of the gene, in whole or in part, would seem to be more plausible than convergence in nucleotide sequence. PMID:7574588

  11. Consumption of diets containing raw soya beans (Glycine max), kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) or lupin seeds (Lupinus angustifolius) by rats for up to 700 days: effects on body composition and organ weights.

    PubMed

    Grant, G; Dorward, P M; Buchan, W C; Armour, J C; Pusztai, A

    1995-01-01

    Feeding trials have been done with rats to assess the effects of long-term (700 d) consumption of diets based on raw cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata; moderate Bowman-Birk inhibitor content, low lectin content), lupin seeds (Lupinus angustifolius; low lectin and protease inhibitor content) or soya beans (Glycine max; high Kunitz inhibitor content, moderate Bowman-Birk inhibitor content, moderate lectin content) or diets containing low levels of raw kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris; high lectin content, low Bowman-Birk inhibitor content) on body weight and composition and organ weights. All the legume-based diets reduced feed conversion efficiency and growth rates during the initial 250 d. However, after 250 d the weight gains by rats given legume-based diets were similar to those of controls given the same daily feed intake. Long-term consumption of diets containing low levels of kidney bean significantly altered body composition of rats. The levels of lipid in the body were significantly reduced. As a result, carcasses of these rats contained a higher proportion of muscle/protein than did controls. Small-intestine relative weight was increased by short- and long-term consumption of the kidney-bean-based diet. However, the increase in relative pancreatic weight observed at 30 d did not persist long term. None of the other legume-based diets caused any significant changes in body composition. However, long-term exposure to a soya-bean- or cowpea-based diet induced an extensive increase in the relative and absolute weights of the pancreas and caused an increase in the incidence of macroscopic pancreatic nodules and possibly pancreatic neoplasia. Long-term consumption of the cowpea-, kidney-bean-, lupin-seed- or soya-bean-based diets by rats resulted in a significant increase in the relative weight of the caecum and colon. PMID:7857911

  12. Studies of Cream Seeded Carioca Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) from a Rwandan Efficacy Trial: In Vitro and In Vivo Screening Tools Reflect Human Studies and Predict Beneficial Results from Iron Biofortified Beans.

    PubMed

    Tako, Elad; Reed, Spenser; Anandaraman, Amrutha; Beebe, Steve E; Hart, Jonathan J; Glahn, Raymond P

    2015-01-01

    Iron (Fe) deficiency is a highly prevalent micronutrient insufficiency predominantly caused by a lack of bioavailable Fe from the diet. The consumption of beans as a major food crop in some populations suffering from Fe deficiency is relatively high. Therefore, our objective was to determine whether a biofortified variety of cream seeded carioca bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) could provide more bioavailable-Fe than a standard variety using in-vivo (broiler chicken, Gallus gallus) and in-vitro (Caco-2 cell) models. Studies were conducted under conditions designed to mimic the actual human feeding protocol. Two carioca-beans, a standard (G4825; 58 μg Fe/g) and a biofortified (SMC; 106 μg Fe/g), were utilized. Diets were formulated to meet the nutrient requirements of Gallus gallus except for Fe (33.7 and 48.7 μg Fe/g, standard and biofortified diets, respectively). In-vitro observations indicated that more bioavailable-Fe was present in the biofortified beans and diet (P<0.05). In-vivo, improvements in Fe-status were observed in the biofortified bean treatment, as indicated by the increased total-body-Hemoglobin-Fe, and hepatic Fe-concentration (P<0.05). Also, DMT-1 mRNA-expression was increased in the standard bean treatment (P<0.05), indicating an upregulation of absorption to compensate for less bioavailable-Fe. These results demonstrate that the biofortified beans provided more bioavailable Fe; however, the in vitro results revealed that ferritin formation values were relatively low. Such observations are indicative of the presence of high levels of polyphenols and phytate that inhibit Fe absorption. Indeed, we identified higher levels of phytate and quercetin 3-glucoside in the Fe biofortified bean variety. Our results indicate that the biofortified bean line was able to moderately improve Fe-status, and that concurrent increase in the concentration of phytate and polyphenols in beans may limit the benefit of increased Fe-concentration. Therefore, specific

  13. Studies of Cream Seeded Carioca Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) from a Rwandan Efficacy Trial: In Vitro and In Vivo Screening Tools Reflect Human Studies and Predict Beneficial Results from Iron Biofortified Beans

    PubMed Central

    Tako, Elad; Reed, Spenser; Anandaraman, Amrutha; Beebe, Steve E.; Hart, Jonathan J.; Glahn, Raymond P.

    2015-01-01

    Iron (Fe) deficiency is a highly prevalent micronutrient insufficiency predominantly caused by a lack of bioavailable Fe from the diet. The consumption of beans as a major food crop in some populations suffering from Fe deficiency is relatively high. Therefore, our objective was to determine whether a biofortified variety of cream seeded carioca bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) could provide more bioavailable-Fe than a standard variety using in-vivo (broiler chicken, Gallus gallus) and in-vitro (Caco-2 cell) models. Studies were conducted under conditions designed to mimic the actual human feeding protocol. Two carioca-beans, a standard (G4825; 58μg Fe/g) and a biofortified (SMC; 106μg Fe/g), were utilized. Diets were formulated to meet the nutrient requirements of Gallus gallus except for Fe (33.7 and 48.7μg Fe/g, standard and biofortified diets, respectively). In-vitro observations indicated that more bioavailable-Fe was present in the biofortified beans and diet (P<0.05). In-vivo, improvements in Fe-status were observed in the biofortified bean treatment, as indicated by the increased total-body-Hemoglobin-Fe, and hepatic Fe-concentration (P<0.05). Also, DMT-1 mRNA-expression was increased in the standard bean treatment (P<0.05), indicating an upregulation of absorption to compensate for less bioavailable-Fe. These results demonstrate that the biofortified beans provided more bioavailable Fe; however, the in vitro results revealed that ferritin formation values were relatively low. Such observations are indicative of the presence of high levels of polyphenols and phytate that inhibit Fe absorption. Indeed, we identified higher levels of phytate and quercetin 3–glucoside in the Fe biofortified bean variety. Our results indicate that the biofortified bean line was able to moderately improve Fe-status, and that concurrent increase in the concentration of phytate and polyphenols in beans may limit the benefit of increased Fe-concentration. Therefore, specific

  14. Phenotypic evaluation and genome wide association studies of two common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) diversity panels in multiple locations highlight evaluation techniques, traits and lines useful for trait based selection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) productivity is constrained by abiotic soil conductions including drought and low fertility as well as by high temperature. High temperature primarily impacts pollen viability and growth. Soil water content and nutrients occur heterogeneously and often in a stratif...

  15. Identification of expressed resistance gene-like sequences by data mining in 454-derived transcriptomic sequences of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is one of the most important legumes in the world. Several diseases severely reduce bean production and quality; therefore, it is very important to better understand disease resistance in common bean in order to prevent these losses. More than 70 resistance (R) genes which confer resistance against various pathogens have been cloned from diverse plant species. Most R genes share highly conserved domains which facilitates the identification of new candidate R genes from the same species or other species. The goals of this study were to isolate expressed R gene-like sequences (RGLs) from 454-derived transcriptomic sequences and expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of common bean, and to develop RGL-tagged molecular markers. Results A data-mining approach was used to identify tentative P. vulgaris R gene-like sequences from approximately 1.69 million 454-derived sequences and 116,716 ESTs deposited in GenBank. A total of 365 non-redundant sequences were identified and named as common bean (P. vulgaris = Pv) resistance gene-like sequences (PvRGLs). Among the identified PvRGLs, about 60% (218 PvRGLs) were from 454-derived sequences. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis confirmed that PvRGLs were actually expressed in the leaves of common bean. Upon comparison to P. vulgaris genomic sequences, 105 (28.77%) of the 365 tentative PvRGLs could be integrated into the existing common bean physical map. Based on the syntenic blocks between common bean and soybean, 237 (64.93%) PvRGLs were anchored on the P. vulgaris genetic map and will need to be mapped to determine order. In addition, 11 sequence-tagged-site (STS) and 19 cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) molecular markers were developed for 25 unique PvRGLs. Conclusions In total, 365 PvRGLs were successfully identified from 454-derived transcriptomic sequences and ESTs available in GenBank and about 65% of PvRGLs were integrated into the common

  16. Hypoglycaemic and anorexigenic activities of an alpha-amylase inhibitor from white kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Tormo, M A; Gil-Exojo, I; Romero de Tejada, A; Campillo, J E

    2004-11-01

    An inhibitor of alpha-amylase was isolated and purified from an extract of white kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). The acute oral administration of the inhibitor (50 mg/kg body weight) to adult Wistar rats together with a starch load (2 g/kg body weight suspended in NaCl (9 g/l)) reduced the increase in glycaemia over the basal value (NaCl, 222 (SEM 49); inhibitor, 145 (SEM 16) mmol/l x 180 min; P<0.05) without modifying the insulin response. On administering the inhibitor orally (50 mg/kg body weight dissolved in NaCl (9 g/l)) for 21 d to rats fed on a standard diet, a decline was observed in the glycaemia values on day 0 (NaCl, 5.53 (SEM 0.12); inhibitor, 5.25 (SEM 0.16) mmol/l) relative to those obtained on days 10 (NaCl, 5.00 (SEM 0.14); inhibitor, 4.60 (SEM 0.08) mmol/l; P<0.05) and 21 (NaCl, 5.22 (SEM 0.22); inhibitor, 4.50 (SEM 0.12) mmol/l; P<0.01) of treatment, without modifying the plasma concentration of insulin. There was found to be a significant anorexigenic action of the inhibitor; there was reduced food intake (NaCl, 23.07 (SEM 0.31); inhibitor, 19.50 (SEM 0.49) g/d; P<0.01), a reduced weight gain (NaCl, 52 (SEM 3); inhibitor, -1.33 (SEM 8.9) g/21 d; P<0.01), as well as changes in the activity of some intestinal enzymes such as maltase (NaCl, 87 (SEM 7); inhibitor, 127 (SEM 11) U/g proteins; P<0.05). The present study has shown, for the first time, that the prolonged administration of an alpha-amylase inhibitor reduces blood glucose levels and body-weight gain in Wistar rats. PMID:15533267

  17. Genetic diversity and population structure of an Italian landrace of runner bean (Phaseolus coccineus L.): inferences for its safeguard and on-farm conservation.

    PubMed

    Mercati, F; Catarcione, G; Paolacci, A R; Abenavoli, M R; Sunseri, F; Ciaffi, M

    2015-08-01

    The landraces are considered important sources of valuable germplasm for breeding activities to face climatic changes as well as to satisfy the requirement of new varieties for marginal areas. Runner bean (Phaseolus coccineus L.) is one of the most cultivated Phaseolus species worldwide, but few studies have been addressed to assess the genetic diversity and structure within and among landrace populations. In the present study, 20 different populations of a runner bean landrace from Central Italy named "Fagiolone," together with 41 accessions from Italy and Mesoamerica, were evaluated by using 14 nuclear SSRs to establish its genetic structure and distinctiveness. Results indicated that "Fagiolone" landrace can be considered as a dynamic evolving open-pollinated population that shows a significant level of genetic variation, mostly detected within populations, and the presence of two main genetic groups, of which one distinguished from other Italian runner bean landraces. Results highlighted also a relevant importance of farmers' management practices able to influence the genetic structure of this landrace, in particular the seed exchanges and selection, and the past introduction in cultivation of landraces/cultivars similar to seed morphology, but genetically rather far from "Fagiolone." The most suitable on-farm strategies for seed collection, conservation and multiplication will be defined based on our results, as a model for threatened populations of other allogamous crop species. STRUCTURE and phylogenetic analyses indicated that Mesoamerican accessions and Italian landraces belong to two distinct gene pools confirming the hypothesis that Europe could be considered a secondary diversification center for P. coccineus. PMID:26036320

  18. QUES, a new Phaseolus vulgaris genotype resistant to common bean weevils, contains the Arcelin-8 allele coding for new lectin-related variants.

    PubMed

    Zaugg, Isabelle; Magni, Chiara; Panzeri, Dario; Daminati, Maria Gloria; Bollini, Roberto; Benrey, Betty; Bacher, Sven; Sparvoli, Francesca

    2013-03-01

    In common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), the most abundant seed proteins are the storage protein phaseolin and the family of closely related APA proteins (arcelin, phytohemagglutinin and α-amylase inhibitor). High variation in APA protein composition has been described and the presence of arcelin (Arc) has been associated with bean resistance against two bruchid beetles, the bean weevil (Acanthoscelides obtectus Say) and the Mexican bean weevil (Zabrotes subfasciatus Bohemian). So far, seven Arc variants have been identified, all in wild accessions, however, only those containing Arc-4 were reported to be resistant to both species. Although many efforts have been made, a successful breeding of this genetic trait into cultivated genotypes has not yet been achieved. Here, we describe a newly collected wild accession (named QUES) and demonstrate its resistance to both A. obtectus and Z. subfasciatus. Immunological and proteomic analyses of QUES seed protein composition indicated the presence of new Arc and arcelin-like (ARL) polypeptides of about 30 and 27 kDa, respectively. Sequencing of cDNAs coding for QUES APA proteins confirmed that this accession contains new APA variants, here referred to as Arc-8 and ARL-8. Moreover, bioinformatic analysis showed the two proteins are closely related to APA components present in the G12949 wild bean accession, which contains the Arc-4 variant. The presence of these new APA components, combined with the observations that they are poorly digested and remain very abundant in A. obtectus feces, so-called frass, suggest that the QUES APA locus is involved in the bruchid resistance. Moreover, molecular analysis indicated a lower complexity of the locus compared to that of G12949, suggesting that QUES should be considered a valuable source of resistance for further breeding purposes. PMID:23117719

  19. Effects of ozone and peroxyacetyl nitrate on polar lipids and fatty acids in leaves of morning glory and kidney bean. [Pharbitis nil; Phaseolus vulgaris

    SciTech Connect

    Nouchi, Isamu; Toyama, Susumu Ochanomizu Univ., Tokyo )

    1988-07-01

    To compare the effects of ozone and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) on leaf lipids, fatty acids and malondialdehyde (MDA), morning glory (Pharbitis nil Choisy cv Scarlet O'Hara) and kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv Gintebo) plants were exposed to either ozone (0.15 microliter per liter for 8 hours) or PAN (0.10 microliter per liter for up to 8 hours). Ozone increased phospholipids in morning glory and decreased in kidney bean at the initial stage (2-4 hours) of exposure, while it scarcely changed glycolipids, the unsaturated fatty acids, and MDA in both plants. A large reduction of glycolipids occurred 1 day after ozone exposure in both plants. PAN caused marked drops in phospholipids and glycolipids in kidney bean at relatively late stage (6-8 hours) of exposure, while it increased phosphatidic acid and decreased the unsaturated fatty acids, an increase which was accompanied by a large increase in MDA. These results suggest that ozone may not directly oxidize unsaturated fatty acids at the initial stage of exposure, but may alter polar lipid metabolism, particularly phospholipids. On the other hand, PAN may abruptly and considerably degrade phospholipids and glycolipids by peroxidation or hydrolysis at the late stage of exposure. The present study shows that ozone and PAN affect polar lipids in different manners.

  20. Effect of illumination on the content of melatonin, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity during germination of lentils (Lens culinaris L.) and kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Yolanda; Liébana, Rosa; Herrera, Teresa; Rebollo-Hernanz, Miguel; Sanchez-Puelles, Carlos; Benítez, Vanesa; Martín-Cabrejas, María A

    2014-11-01

    This study reports the effects of two different illumination conditions during germination (12 h light/12 h dark vs 24 h dark) in lentils (Lens culinaris L.) and kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) on the content of melatonin and phenolic compounds, as well as the antioxidant activity. Germination led to relative increase in melatonin content and significant antioxidant activity, while the content of phenolic compounds decreased. The highest melatonin content was obtained after 6 days of germination under 24 h dark for both legumes. These germinated legume seeds with improved levels of melatonin might play a protective role against free radicals. Thus, considering the potent antioxidant activity of melatonin, these sprouts can be consumed as direct foods and be offered as preventive food strategies in combating chronic diseases through the diet. PMID:25310717

  1. Characterization and sugar-binding properties of arcelin-1, an insecticidal lectin-like protein isolated from kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. RAZ-2) seeds.

    PubMed Central

    Fabre, C; Causse, H; Mourey, L; Koninkx, J; Rivière, M; Hendriks, H; Puzo, G; Samama, J P; Rougé, P

    1998-01-01

    Arcelin-1 is a lectin-like protein found in the seeds of wild varieties of the kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). This protein displays insecticidal properties, but the mechanism of action is as yet unknown. In the present study we investigated the biochemical and biophysical properties of arcelin-1 from Phaseolus vulgaris cv. RAZ-2. Native arcelin-1 is a dimeric glycoprotein of 60 kDa, built from the non-covalent association of two identical monomers. This dimer resists dissociation by chaotropic agents and is highly resistant to proteolytic enzymes. Each subunit contains 10% (w/w) neutral sugars which belong to the high-mannose and complex-type glycans attached to three glycosylation sites. No interaction of the protein with simple sugars could be detected, but arcelin-1 displays an intrinsic specificity in binding complex glycans. Arcelin-1 therefore differs from the closely related phytohaemagglutinin lectins and alpha-amylase inhibitor in several respects: oligomerization states, sugar-binding affinities and the type and number of glycan chains. These features may be related to the toxicity of arcelin-1. PMID:9445382

  2. Characterization and sugar-binding properties of arcelin-1, an insecticidal lectin-like protein isolated from kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. RAZ-2) seeds.

    PubMed

    Fabre, C; Causse, H; Mourey, L; Koninkx, J; Rivière, M; Hendriks, H; Puzo, G; Samama, J P; Rougé, P

    1998-02-01

    Arcelin-1 is a lectin-like protein found in the seeds of wild varieties of the kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). This protein displays insecticidal properties, but the mechanism of action is as yet unknown. In the present study we investigated the biochemical and biophysical properties of arcelin-1 from Phaseolus vulgaris cv. RAZ-2. Native arcelin-1 is a dimeric glycoprotein of 60 kDa, built from the non-covalent association of two identical monomers. This dimer resists dissociation by chaotropic agents and is highly resistant to proteolytic enzymes. Each subunit contains 10% (w/w) neutral sugars which belong to the high-mannose and complex-type glycans attached to three glycosylation sites. No interaction of the protein with simple sugars could be detected, but arcelin-1 displays an intrinsic specificity in binding complex glycans. Arcelin-1 therefore differs from the closely related phytohaemagglutinin lectins and alpha-amylase inhibitor in several respects: oligomerization states, sugar-binding affinities and the type and number of glycan chains. These features may be related to the toxicity of arcelin-1. PMID:9445382

  3. Content of short-chain fatty acids in the hindgut of rats fed processed bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) flours varying in distribution and content of indigestible carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Henningsson, A M; Nyman, E M; Björck, I M

    2001-09-01

    Red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) processed to differ in distribution and content of indigestible carbohydrates were used to study hindgut fermentability and production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). Bean flours with low or high content of resistant starch (RS), mainly raw and physically-inaccessible starch, were obtained by milling the beans before or after boiling. Flours containing retrograded starch and with a high or low content of oligosaccharides were prepared by autoclaving followed by freeze-drying with or without the boiling water. Six diets were prepared from these flours yielding a total concentration of indigestible carbohydrates of 90 or 120 g/kg (dry weight basis). The total fermentability of the indigestible carbohydrates was high with all diets (80-87 %). Raw and physically-inaccessible starch was more readily fermented than retrograded starch (97-99 % v. 86-95 %; ). Non-starch glucans were fermented to a lesser extent than RS, but the fermentability was higher in the case of autoclaved (50-54 %) than boiled beans (37-41 %). The distribution between acetic, propionic and butyric acid in the caecum was similar for all diets, with a comparatively high percentage of butyric acid (approximately 18). However, with diets containing the high amounts of RS, the butyric acid concentration was significantly higher in the distal colon than in the proximal colon ( and for the high- and low-level diets respectively), whereas it remained constant, or decreased along the colon in the case of the other diets. Furthermore, the two diets richest in RS also promoted the highest percentages of butyric acid in the distal colon (24 and 17 v. 12 and 12-16 for the high- and low-level diets respectively). PMID:11570990

  4. Mycoflora of Dried Edible Beans, Phaseolus vulgaris, from the Northern Plains of the United States and its Potential for Ochratoxigenesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A shipment of beans from the U.S. northern plains region was found to contain unacceptable levels of ochratoxin-A (OA) at processing time. One hundred and twenty-one beans were removed from a sample and soaked in ca 250 mL of 2% sodium hypochlorite solution for 5 minutes with occasional agitation. ...

  5. The cotyledon cell wall and intracellular matrix are factors that limit iron bioavailability of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Glahn, Raymond P; Tako, Elad; Cichy, Karen; Wiesinger, Jason

    2016-07-13

    Strategies that enhance the Fe bioavailability of the bean are of keen interest to nutritionists, bean breeders and growers. In beans, the cotyledons contain 75-80% of the total seed Fe, most of which appears to be located within the cotyledon cells. The cotyledon cell walls are known to be resistant to digestion in the stomach and the upper small intestine. Therefore, given the above and the general belief that the primary site for human Fe absorption is the upper small intestine, the present study was designed to determine if the cotyledon cell walls represent a barrier to Fe absorption from the bean. To do so, we utilized high pressure to rupture bean cotyledon cells. The iron bioavailability of cooked bean samples was assessed using an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell culture model. Microscopy analyses confirmed that the cotyledon cell walls are highly resistant to pepsin, the low pH of the stomach, and the pancreatic enzymes, indicating that the walls are a barrier to Fe absorption from the bean. Relatively high intracellular pressure (>4000 psi) was required to initiate cell wall rupture. Surprisingly, the lysis of cotyledon cells did not result in a consistent or strong enhancement of bioavailable Fe, suggesting that the liberated intracellular starch and protein influenced the Fe bioavailability by creating a matrix that inhibited the exchange of Fe with the cell transport mechanism. Such observations warrant further pursuit in vivo as the confirmation of these effects would reshape strategies to enhance Fe absorption from beans. PMID:27326892

  6. Root environment is a key determinant of fungal entomopathogen endophytism following seed treatment in the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The common bean is the most important food legume in the world. We examined the potential of the fungal entomopathogens Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae applied as seed treatments for their endophytic establishment in the common bean. Endophytic colonization in sterile sand:peat average...

  7. The polyphenolic profiles of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) (Experimental Biology Annal Meeting, April, 2006, Washington, D.C)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Based on the phenolic profiles obtained by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-ESI/MS), 24 classes of bean cultivars can be organized into six groups. All of the tested beans contained the same hydroxycinnaminc acid derivatives, but the glycosylated flavonoid com...

  8. Non-digestible fraction of cooked bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivar Bayo Madero suppresses colonic aberrant crypt foci in azoxymethane-induced rats.

    PubMed

    Vergara-Castañeda, Haydé Azeneth; Guevara-González, Ramón Gerardo; Ramos-Gómez, Minerva; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalía; Guzmán-Maldonado, Horacio; Feregrino-Pérez, Ana Angélica; Oomah, B Dave; Loarca-Piña, Guadalupe

    2010-12-01

    The non-digestible fraction (NDF) of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivar Bayo Madero was evaluated for its chemopreventive effect on azoxymethane (AOM) induced aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in rats. Diets containing cooked beans (CB) or its non-digestible fraction (NDF) were fed to 72 male rats after 2 azoxymethane injections (15 mg kg(-1) of body weight once a week for 2 weeks). ACF number, short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and β-glucuronidase activity were measured in colon sections from rats sacrificed 7 weeks after the last AOM injection. Food intake and weight gain of rats were unaffected by CB and NDF. CB and NDF suppressed the AOM-induced formation of ACF (0.8 and 1.5 ACF/distal zone, respectively vs. 6.6 ACF/distal zone based on methylene blue stain) and lowered β-glucuronidase activity in cecal, colonic and fecal content compared to AOM group. SCFA production was not significantly different among fecal, cecal and colonic content. These results indicate that CB and NDF from Bayo Madero provide direct chemoprotection against early stage of azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon cancer in rats. PMID:21776479

  9. Paraburkholderia nodosa is the main N2-fixing species trapped by promiscuous common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in the Brazilian 'Cerradão'.

    PubMed

    Dall'Agnol, Rebeca F; Plotegher, Fábio; Souza, Renata C; Mendes, Iêda C; Dos Reis Junior, Fábio B; Béna, Gilles; Moulin, Lionel; Hungria, Mariangela

    2016-08-01

    The bacterial genus Burkholderia comprises species occupying several habitats, including a group of symbionts of leguminous plants-also called beta-rhizobia-that has been recently ascribed to the new genus Paraburkholderia We used common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants to trap rhizobia from an undisturbed soil of the Brazilian Cerrado under the vegetation type 'Cerradão'. Genetic characterization started with the analyses of 181 isolates by BOX-PCR, where the majority revealed unique profiles, indicating high inter- and intra-species diversity. Restriction fragment length polymorphism-PCR of the 16S rRNA of representative strains of the BOX-PCR groups indicated two main clusters, and gene-sequencing analysis identified the minority (27%) as Rhizobium and the majority (73%) as Paraburkholderia Phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA and housekeeping (recA and gyrB) genes positioned all strains of the second cluster in the species P. nodosa, and the phylogeny of a symbiotic gene-nodC-was in agreement with the conserved genes. All isolates were stable vis-à-vis nodulating common bean, but, in general, with a low capacity for fixing N2, although some effective strains were identified. The predominance of P. nodosa might be associated with the edaphic properties of the Cerrado biome, and might represent an important role in terms of maintenance of the ecosystem, which is characterized by acid soils with high saturation of aluminum and low N2 content. PMID:27199345

  10. Light piping driven photosynthesis in the soil: Low-light adapted active photosynthetic apparatus in the under-soil hypocotyl segments of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Kakuszi, Andrea; Sárvári, Éva; Solti, Ádám; Czégény, Gyula; Hideg, Éva; Hunyadi-Gulyás, Éva; Bóka, Károly; Böddi, Béla

    2016-08-01

    Photosynthetic activity was identified in the under-soil hypocotyl part of 14-day-old soil-grown bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Magnum) cultivated in pots under natural light-dark cycles. Electron microscopic, proteomic and fluorescence kinetic and imaging methods were used to study the photosynthetic apparatus and its activity. Under-soil shoots at 0-2cm soil depth featured chloroplasts with low grana and starch grains and with pigment-protein compositions similar to those of the above-soil green shoot parts. However, the relative amounts of photosystem II (PSII) supercomplexes were higher; in addition a PIP-type aquaporin protein was identified in the under-soil thylakoids. Chlorophyll-a fluorescence induction measurements showed that the above- and under-soil hypocotyl segments had similar photochemical yields at low (10-55μmolphotonsm(-2)s(-1)) light intensities. However, at higher photon flux densities the electron transport rate decreased in the under-soil shoot parts due to inactivation of the PSII reaction centers. These properties show the development of a low-light adapted photosynthetic apparatus driven by light piping of the above-soil shoot. The results of this paper demonstrate that the classic model assigning source and sink functions to above- and under-soil tissues is to be refined, and a low-light adapted photosynthetic apparatus in under-soil bean hypocotyls is capable of contributing to its own carbon supply. PMID:27318297

  11. Purification of a novel α-amylase inhibitor from local Himalayan bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seeds with activity towards bruchid pests and human salivary amylase.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Mridu; Sharma, Pratima; Nath, Amarjit K

    2014-07-01

    Six bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars of Himalayan region were analysed for α- amylase inhibitor activity. The α-amylase inhibitor from seeds of screened bean cultivar KR-9, showing maximum inhibitory activity was purified using ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel filtration chromatography (Sephadex G-100) and ion exchange chromatography (DEAE-Sephadex). The inhibitor was purified to homogeneity as judged by native-PAGE with 14.22 fold purification and 71.66% recovery. Purified inhibitor consisted of three subunits of molecular weight 15,488, 18,620 and 26,302 daltons, respectively as determined by SDS-PAGE. It was found to be heat stable up to 30 °C-40 °C and had two pH optima of 5.0 and 6.9. Nature of inhibition was found to be of non-competitive type. The purified inhibitor was found to be effective against α-amylases extracted from larvae of Callosobruchus chinensis, Tribolium castaneum and gut enzyme of Spodoptera littoralis. Larvae of Tribolium castaneum fed on flour mixed with purified inhibitor for 5 days showed 100% larval mortality. Purified α-amylase inhibitor was also found to inhibit human salivary α-amylase, suggesting its potential in prevention and therapy of obesity and use as drug design targets for treatment of diabetes. The gene encoding the inhibitor may be used to develop transgenic plants resistant against insect pests. PMID:24966421

  12. Characterization of free, conjugated and bound phenolics and lipophilic antioxidants in regular- and non-darkening cranberry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Chen, Peter X; Tang, Yao; Marcone, Massimo F; Pauls, Peter K; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Ronghua; Tsao, Rong

    2015-10-15

    Cranberry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) from 7 different cultivars were characterized for phytochemicals and assessed for antioxidant activities. In vitro colorimetric methods were used to measure total phenolic (TPC) and total proanthocyanidin (PAC) contents. Free, conjugated and bound phenolic acids and flavonoids were also identified and quantified using HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS(n). Regular-darkening (RD) seeds contained higher TPC, PAC and flavonoids which were absent in the non-darkening (ND) seeds. Bound and conjugated phenolics in RD and ND mainly included cinnamic and benzoic acids. DPPH, FRAP and ORAC showed strong positive correlation with TPC, PAC, and with specific phenolics such as free catechin and bound p-hydroxybenzoic acid. Lipophilic extracts were rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (69.20-76.89%). Carotenoid and tocopherol were limited to γ-tocopherol and β-carotene. Results from this study can contribute to the development of cranberry bean cultivars with increased health benefits and addresses specific phenolic contributors to antioxidant activity. PMID:25952872

  13. Effects of ozone, sulfur dioxide, and alpha and delta races of Colletotrichum Lindemuthianum (Sacc. and Magn. ) Bri and Cav. on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. )

    SciTech Connect

    Achwanya, O.S.

    1984-01-01

    A number of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars were evaluated for their responses to the air pollutants ozone and sulfur dioxide singly and in combination, as well as for their reaction to the alpha and delta races of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc. and Magn.) Bri and Cav. Variation in response to both the pollutants and the fungus was noted among the cultivars. Anthracnose caused a reduction in the biomass of some cultivars of the order of 50%. A negative correlation of (r = -0.72, p < 0.0001) was found between the disease severity and the total plant biomass. Greater than additive effects of O/sub 3/ + SO/sub 2/ mixtures were demonstrated. Chlorophyll content and biomass were found to be reliable variables for assessing treatment effects. The pollutants appeared to stimulate the disease development. Greater pollutant injury was also in the presence of the anthracnose disease. The results indicated that there was an interaction between the fungal disease and the air pollutants. Implications for evaluating bean cultivars for resistance to C. lindemuthianum under polluted atmosphere are suggested.

  14. The fermented non-digestible fraction of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) triggers cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human colon adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Bravo, R K; Guevara-González, R G; Ramos-Gómez, M; Oomah, B D; Wiersma, P; Campos-Vega, R; Loarca-Piña, G

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide with colorectal cancer (CRC) ranking as the third contributing to overall cancer mortality. Non-digestible compounds such as dietary fiber have been inversely associated with CRC in epidemiological in vivo and in vitro studies. In order to investigate the effect of fermentation products from a whole non-digestible fraction of common bean versus the short-chain fatty acid (SCFAs) on colon cancer cells, we evaluated the human gut microbiota fermented non-digestible fraction (hgm-FNDF) of cooked common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivar Negro 8025 and a synthetic mixture SCFAs, mimicking their concentration in the lethal concentration 50 (SCFA-LC50) of FNDF (hgm-FNDF-LC50), on the molecular changes in human colon adenocarcinoma cells (HT-29). Total mRNA from hgm-FNDF-LC50 and SCFA-LC50 treated HT-29 cells were used to perform qPCR arrays to determine the effect of the treatments on the transcriptional expression of 84 genes related to the p53-pathway. This study showed that both treatments inhibited cell proliferation in accordance with modulating RB1, CDC2, CDC25A, NFKB and E2F genes. Furthermore, we found an association between the induction of apoptosis and the modulation of APAF1, BID, CASP9, FASLG, TNFR10B and BCL2A genes. The results suggest a mechanism of action by which the fermentation of non-digestible compounds of common bean exert a beneficial effect better than the SCFA mixture by modulating the expression of antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic genes in HT-29 cells to a greater extent, supporting previous results on cell behavior, probably due to the participation of other compounds, such as phenolic fatty acids derivatives and biopetides. PMID:24293398

  15. Differentially Expressed Genes in Resistant and Susceptible Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Genotypes in Response to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Renfeng; Wu, Jing; Zhu, Zhendong; Wang, Lanfen; Wang, Xiaoming; Wang, Shumin; Blair, Matthew W.

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium wilt of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), caused by Fusarium oxysporum Schlechtend.:Fr. f.sp. phaseoli (Fop), is one of the most important diseases of common beans worldwide. Few natural sources of resistance to Fop exist and provide only moderate or partial levels of protection. Despite the economic importance of the disease across multiple crops, only a few of Fop induced genes have been analyzed in legumes. Therefore, our goal was to identify transcriptionally regulated genes during an incompatible interaction between common bean and the Fop pathogen using the cDNA amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) technique. We generated a total of 8,730 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) with 768 primer pairs based on the comparison of a moderately resistant and a susceptible genotype. In total, 423 TDFs (4.9%) displayed altered expression patterns after inoculation with Fop inoculum. We obtained full amplicon sequences for 122 selected TDFs, of which 98 were identified as annotated known genes in different functional categories based on their putative functions, 10 were predicted but non-annotated genes and 14 were not homologous to any known genes. The 98 TDFs encoding genes of known putative function were classified as related to metabolism (22), signal transduction (21), protein synthesis and processing (20), development and cytoskeletal organization (12), transport of proteins (7), gene expression and RNA metabolism (4), redox reactions (4), defense and stress responses (3), energy metabolism (3), and hormone responses (2). Based on the analyses of homology, 19 TDFs from different functional categories were chosen for expression analysis using quantitative RT-PCR. The genes found to be important here were implicated at various steps of pathogen infection and will allow a better understanding of the mechanisms of defense and resistance to Fop and similar pathogens. The differential response genes discovered here could also be used as molecular

  16. Pulvinus activity, leaf movement and leaf water-use efficiency of bush bean ( Phaseplus vulgaris L.) in a hot environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raeini-Sarjaz, Mahmoud; Chalavi, Vida

    2008-11-01

    Pulvinus activity of Phaseolus species in response to environmental stimuli plays an essential role in heliotropic leaf movement. The aims of this study were to monitor the continuous daily pulvinus movement and pulvinus temperature, and to evaluate the effects of leaf movements, on a hot day, on instantaneous leaf water-use efficiency (WUEi), leaf gas exchange, and leaf temperature. Potted plants of Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Provider were grown in Chicot sandy loam soil under well-watered conditions in a greenhouse. When the second trifoliate leaf was completely extended, one plant was selected to measure pulvinus movement using a beta-ray gauging (BRG) meter with a point source of thallium-204 (204Tl). Leaf gas exchange measurements took place on similar leaflets of three plants at an air temperature interval of 33-42°C by a steady-state LI-6200 photosynthesis system. A copper-constantan thermocouple was used to monitor pulvinus temperature. Pulvinus bending followed the daily diurnal rhythm. Significant correlations were found between the leaf-incident angle and the stomatal conductance ( R 2 = 0.54; P < 0.01), and photosynthesis rate ( R 2 = 0.84; P < 0.01). With a reduction in leaf-incidence angle and increase in air temperature, WUEi was reduced. During the measurements, leaf temperature remained below air temperature and was a significant function of air temperature ( r = 0.92; P < 0.01). In conclusion, pulvinus bending followed both light intensity and air temperature and influenced leaf gas exchange.

  17. Nutritional evaluation of biologically treated white kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in pigs: ileal and amino acid digestibility.

    PubMed

    Schulze, H; Savelkoul, F H; Verstegen, M W; van der Poel, A F; Tamminga, S; Groot Nibbelink, S

    1997-12-01

    We studied the effect of feeding young growing pigs a semisynthetic diet containing 7.5% white kidney beans-germinated (GB), pancreatin treated (PTB), or untreated (raw beans RB)--on protein and amino acid (AA) digestibilities at the terminal ileum. Eleven castrated male pigs (12.2 kg live weight) fitted with a post-valve T-cecal cannula and two blood catheters were used. The 15N-isotope dilution method was used to determine the amount of endogenous protein passing the terminal ileum and the true ileal protein digestibility. Ileal crude protein losses in pigs fed the RB, GB, and PTB diets were 51.9, 27.4, and 51.1 g/kg of DMI, respectively. The total amounts of AA passing the terminal ileum of the pigs fed the RB, GB, and PTB diets were 48.6, 21.4, and 42.2 g/kg DMI, respectively. The apparent ileal crude protein and AA digestibilities of the RB, GB, and PTB diets were 74, 87, and 75% and 76, 89, and 78%, respectively. True ileal protein digestibilities were 88, 93, and 93% for the RB, GB, and PTB diets, respectively. On the basis of this research, germination of white kidney beans improves the digestion of protein by decreasing the content of bean antinutritional factors and increasing the bean true ileal protein digestibility. PMID:9419992

  18. Physico-chemical, functional and structural properties of RS3/RS4 from kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Gani, Adil; Jan, Amreen; Shah, Asima; Masoodi, F A; Ahmad, Mudasir; Ashwar, Bilal Ahmad; Akhter, Rehana; Wani, Idrees Ahmed

    2016-06-01

    Starch isolated from four kidney bean cultivars (Yellow bean, Red bean, Black bean and White bean) were physically and chemically modified in order to prepare resistant starch (RS3/RS4). Following the Heat-moisture treatment (HMT) and Citric acid modification (CT) of the native starch, the amylose content got decreased whereas bulk and tapped density (g/ml) increased. Both HMT and CT reduced the swelling power and the solubility of native starch. Pasting temperature increased and peak, breakdown, final, and set-back viscosity decreased after both the modifications. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis displayed peaks at 1020cm(-1) in HMT and 1724cm(-1) in CT starches. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) analysis revealed that samples were more stable after modification. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed reordering of chain segments to more crystalline structure. These results suggested modifications resulted in starch with improved properties and could be a possible method for the RS preparation with better thermal stability. PMID:26976068

  19. Pectic zymogram variation and pathogenicity of Rhizoctonia solani AG-4 to bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) isolates in Isfahn, Iran.

    PubMed

    Balali, G R; Kowsari, M

    2004-10-01

    Rhizoctonia disease, caused by Rhizoctonia solani is one of the most important fungal diseases in bean fields in Isfahan, Iran. Bean plants showing stem and root cankers were collected and Rhizoctonia-like fungi obtained from the samples were identified by anastomosis. Pure cultures of bean isolates of R. solani were identified as AG-4. There were also AG-4 isolates from tomato, potato, cucumber, alfalfa and sugar beet in the areas sampled. A total of 163 isolates of R. solani AG-4 originating from stem and root cankers of beans were examined using pectic zymogram electrophoresis. Polygalacturonase (PG) and pectin estrase isozymes were observed in all AG-4 isolates tested. One (PG) and one pectic esterase (PE) band was found in common between all isolates examined. The electrophoretic patterns were grouped into seven zymogram groups (ZGs) according to the diagnostic PG and PE bands. One ZG occurred in a high frequency throughout the areas sampled. A pathogenicity test was conducted and representative isolates of each ZG were used to inoculate healthy bean plants. The results showed that each ZG caused different symptoms with varying severity. Isolates belonging to two ZGs were highly pathogenic causing root, stem and hypocotyl cankers whereas isolates of the other ZGs produced weak or no symptoms. PMID:15645177

  20. Changes in antioxidant and antiinflammatory activity of black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein isolates due to germination and enzymatic digestion.

    PubMed

    López-Barrios, Lidia; Antunes-Ricardo, Marilena; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A

    2016-07-15

    Germination is an inexpensive process to improve the nutritional properties of legumes. The effect of germinating black bean seeds on the production of cotyledon protein hydrolysates (CPH) with antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities was analyzed in this research. After simulated enzymatic digestion, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of CPH obtained from germinated black beans was lower than that observed for raw cotyledons. There were no significant differences among CPH cellular antioxidant activities (CAA), except for the high CAA of the 120 min hydrolysate obtained from one day germinated black bean cotyledons. The most significant changes due to germination and enzymatic hydrolysis were observed for the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production in macrophages. The NO synthesis inhibition observed for raw CPH was reduced after simulated gastrointestinal digestion but for germinated samples the inhibition was doubled. Peptides derived from cell wall proteins produced during germination could be responsible of antiinflammatory activity. PMID:26948633

  1. The Phaseolus vulgaris PvTRX1h gene regulates plant hormone biosynthesis in embryogenic callus from common bean

    PubMed Central

    Barraza, Aarón; Cabrera-Ponce, José L.; Gamboa-Becerra, Roberto; Luna-Martínez, Francisco; Winkler, Robert; Álvarez-Venegas, Raúl

    2015-01-01

    Common bean is the most important grain legume in the human diet. Bean improvement efforts have been focused on classical breeding techniques because bean is recalcitrant to both somatic embryogenesis and in vitro regeneration. This study was undertaken to better understand the process of somatic embryogenesis in the common bean. We focused on the mechanisms by which somatic embryogenesis in plants is regulated and the interaction of these mechanisms with plant hormones. Specifically, we examined the role of the gene PvTRX1h, an ortholog of a major known histone lysine methyltransferase in plants, in somatic embryo generation. Given the problems with regeneration and transformation, we chose to develop and use regeneration-competent callus that could be successively transformed. Embryogenic calli of common bean were generated and transformed with the PvTRX1hRiA construction to down-regulate, by RNA interference, expression of the PvTRX1h gene. Plant hormone content was measured by mass spectrometry and gene expression was assessed by q-PCR. Detailed histological analysis was performed on selected transgenic embryogenic calli. It was determined that down-regulation of PvTRX1h gene was accompanied by altered concentrations of plant hormones in the calli. PvTRX1h regulated the expression of genes involved in auxin biosynthesis and embryogenic calli in which PvTRX1h was down-regulated were capable of differentiation into somatic embryos. Also, down-regulation of PvTRX1h showed increased transcript abundance of a gene coding for a second histone lysine methyltransferase, PvASHH2h. Accordingly, the PvTRX1h gene is involved in the synthesis of plant hormones in common bean callus. These results shed light on the crosstalk among histone methyltransferases and plant hormone signaling and on gene regulation during somatic embryo generation. PMID:26284093

  2. Human gut flora-fermented nondigestible fraction from cooked bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) modifies protein expression associated with apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and proliferation in human adenocarcinoma colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Campos-Vega, Rocio; García-Gasca, Teresa; Guevara-Gonzalez, Ramón; Ramos-Gomez, Minerva; Oomah, B Dave; Loarca-Piña, Guadalupe

    2012-12-26

    Metabolism of the nondigested fraction (NDF) from common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) by the human gut flora (hgf) produces short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) that may benefit cancer by reducing colorectal tumor risks. This paper reports the effect of fermentation products (FP) by hgf (FP-hgf) from NDF of cooked beans on survival and protein expression associated with apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and proliferation in human adenocarcinoma colon cancer cells. FP-hgf was the only inoculum eliciting butyrate production after 24 h of NDF fermentation using different bacterial sources. FP-hgf inhibited HT-29 cell growth and modulated protein expression associated with apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and proliferation, as well as morphological changes linked to apoptosis evaluated by TUNEL and hematoxylin and eosin stains, confirming previous results on gene expression. The current results suggest that fermentation of NDF from common beans can elicit beneficial chemoprotective effects in colon cancer by modulating protein expression in HT-29 cells. PMID:23194196

  3. Analysis of BAC-end sequences in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) towards the development and characterization of long motifs SSRs.

    PubMed

    Müller, Bárbara Salomão de Faria; Sakamoto, Tetsu; de Menezes, Ivandilson Pessoa Pinto; Prado, Guilherme Souza; Martins, Wellington Santos; Brondani, Claudio; de Barros, Everaldo Gonçalves; Vianello, Rosana Pereira

    2014-11-01

    The increasing volume of genomic data on the Phaseolus vulgaris species have contributed to its importance as a model genetic species and positively affected the investigation of other legumes of scientific and economic value. To expand and gain a more in-depth knowledge of the common bean genome, the ends of a number of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) were sequenced, annotated and the presence of repetitive sequences was determined. In total, 52,270 BESs (BAC-end sequences), equivalent to 32 Mbp (~6 %) of the genome, were processed. In total, 3,789 BES-SSRs were identified, with a distribution of one SSR (simple sequence repeat) per 8.36 kbp and 2,000 were suitable for the development of SSRs, of which 194 were evaluated in low-resolution screening. From 40 BES-SSRs based on long motifs SSRs (≥ trinucleotides) analyzed in high-resolution genotyping, 34 showed an equally good amplification for the Andean and for the Mesoamerican genepools, exhibiting an average gene diversity (H E) of 0.490 and 5.59 alleles/locus, of which six classified as Class I showed a H E ≥ 0.7. The PCoA and structure analysis allowed to discriminate the gene pools (K = 2, FST = 0.733). From the 52,270 BESs, 2 % corresponded to transcription factors and 3 % to transposable elements. Putative functions for 24,321 BESs were identified and for 19,363 were assigned functional categories (gene ontology). This study identified highly polymorphic BES-SSRs containing tri- to hexanucleotides motifs and bringing together relevant genetic characteristics useful for breeding programs. Additionally, the BESs were incorporated into the international genome-sequencing project for the common bean. PMID:25164100

  4. The carbohydrate profile of a dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) panel encompassing broad genetic variability for cooking time

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dry beans are typically consumed as a whole food and cooking time is one of the most important processing quality attributes. While significant genetic variability for cooking time exists, a clear underlying mechanism has not been established. Genetic determinants of processing quality in grain crop...

  5. A major QTL is associated with resistance to curly top virus in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) landrace G122

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Curly top virus (CTV) is a devastating disease of common bean in the Western U.S. Genetic resistance provides effective control but can be difficult to discern in early generations. Two populations of F5:7 RILs were derived from separate F1 seeds from a cross between the G122 landrace from India kn...

  6. Imazamox Absorption, Translocation and Metabolism in Red Lentil (Lens culinaris Medic.) and Dry Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Imazamox is an imidazolinone herbicide used to control many grasses and broadleaf weeds in leguminous crops such as soybeans, alfalfa and dry beans; however, imazamox cannot be used on red lentils because of unacceptable injury. Studies were conducted to compare imazamox absorption, translocation a...

  7. Screening of iron bioavailability patterns in eight bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes using the Caco-2 cell in vitro model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary goal of this research was to use an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 model to study iron bioavailability in 8 bean genotypes (three Mesoamerican and five Andean) that represent diversity of grain types in the crop. Complementing this goal, we measured the distribution of both iron and phytate ...

  8. Characterization of a panel of tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius) and its application to theimprovement of this orphan crop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High ambient temperature and drought stress as a result of climate change are increasingly critical factors affecting agriculture and specifically grain legume production. Tepary (Phaseolusacutifolius A. Gray), a drought and heat tolerant sister species of common bean (P. vulgaris L.), has long been...

  9. Genetic diversity and population structure of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) landraces from the East African highlands.

    PubMed

    Asfaw, Asrat; Blair, Matthew W; Almekinders, Conny

    2009-12-01

    The East African highlands are a region of important common bean production and high varietal diversity for the crop. The objective of this study was to uncover the diversity and population structure of 192 landraces from Ethiopia and Kenya together with four genepool control genotypes using morphological phenotyping and microsatellite marker genotyping. The germplasm represented different common bean production ecologies and seed types common in these countries. The landraces showed considerable diversity that corresponded well to the two recognized genepools (Andean and Mesoamerican) with little introgression between these groups. Mesoamerican genotypes were predominant in Ethiopia while Andean genotypes were predominant in Kenya. Within each country, landraces from different collection sites were clustered together indicating potential gene flow between regions within Kenya or within Ethiopia. Across countries, landraces from the same country of origin tended to cluster together indicating distinct germplasm at the national level and limited gene flow between the two countries highlighting divided social networks within the regions and a weak trans-national bean seed exchange especially for landrace varieties. One exception to this may be the case of small red-seeded beans where informal cross-border grain trade occurs. We also observed that genetic divergence was slightly higher for the Ethiopian landraces compared to Kenyan landraces and that Mesoamerican genotypes were more diverse than the Andean genotypes. Common beans in eastern Africa are often cultivated in marginal, risk-prone farming systems and the observed landrace diversity should provide valuable alleles for adaptation to stressful environments in future breeding programs in the region. PMID:19756469

  10. Quinclorac-habituation of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cultured cells is related to an increase in their antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Largo-Gosens, Asier; de Castro, María; Alonso-Simón, Ana; García-Angulo, Penélope; Acebes, José L; Encina, Antonio; Álvarez, Jesús M

    2016-10-01

    The habituation of bean cells to quinclorac did not rely on cell wall modifications, contrary to what it was previously observed for the well-known cellulose biosynthesis inhibitors dichlobenil or isoxaben. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether or not the bean cells habituation to quinclorac is related to an enhancement of antioxidant activities involved in the scavenging capacity of reactive oxygen species. Treating non-habituated bean calluses with 10 μM quinclorac reduced the relative growth rate and induced a two-fold increase in lipid peroxidation. However, the exposition of quinclorac-habituated cells to a concentration of quinclorac up to 30 μM neither affected their growth rate nor increased their lipid peroxidation levels. Quinclorac-habituated calluses had significantly higher constitutive levels of three antioxidant activities (class-III peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and superoxide dismutase) than those observed in non-habituated calluses, and the treatment of habituated calluses with 30 μM quinclorac significantly increased the level of class III-peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. The results reported here indicate that the process of habituation to quinclorac in bean callus-cultured cells is related, at least partially, to the development of a stable antioxidant capacity that enables them to cope with the oxidative stress caused by quinclorac. Class-III peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities could play a major role in the quinclorac-habituation. Changes in the antioxidant status of bean cells were stable, since the increase in the antioxidant activities were maintained in quinclorac-dehabituated cells. PMID:27318799