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Sample records for bush beans phaseolus

  1. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL RESPONSES OF BUSH BEAN (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS) TO OZONE AND DROUGHT STRESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants were exposed to ozone (O3) episodes in open-top chambers in early and late season studies at Corvallis, Oregon. lants were grown in cultural systems that controlled plant water status. he 7-h seasonal mean O3 concentrations were 0.067 and ...

  2. RESPONSE OF BUSH BEAN EXPOSED TO ACID MIST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bush bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Contender) were treated once a week for six weeks with simulated acid mist at five pH ranging from 5.5 to 2.0. Leaf injury developed on plants exposed to acid concentrations below pH 3 and many leaves developed a flecking symptom simila...

  3. Transcriptome Sequencing of Lima Bean (Phaseolus lunatus) to Identify Putative Positive Selection in Phaseolus and Legumes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fengqi; Cao, Depan; Liu, Yang; Yang, Ting; Wang, Guirong

    2015-01-01

    The identification of genes under positive selection is a central goal of evolutionary biology. Many legume species, including Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean) and Phaseolus lunatus (lima bean), have important ecological and economic value. In this study, we sequenced and assembled the transcriptome of one Phaseolus species, lima bean. A comparison with the genomes of six other legume species, including the common bean, Medicago, lotus, soybean, chickpea, and pigeonpea, revealed 15 and 4 orthologous groups with signatures of positive selection among the two Phaseolus species and among the seven legume species, respectively. Characterization of these positively selected genes using Non redundant (nr) annotation, gene ontology (GO) classification, GO term enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analyses revealed that these genes are mostly involved in thylakoids, photosynthesis and metabolism. This study identified genes that may be related to the divergence of the Phaseolus and legume species. These detected genes are particularly good candidates for subsequent functional studies. PMID:26151849

  4. A Phaseolus vulgaris diversity panel for Andean bean improvement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) of the Andean gene pool, including red mottled, kidney, cranberry, and yellow seed types are important in Africa and in the Americas. Andean dry bean breeding gains have lagged behind those of Mesoamerican beans. These differences may be due to a narrower genetic b...

  5. Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 1 and Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 2 infecting common bean Phaseolus vulgaris genotypes show differential infection patterns between gene pools

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the occurrence of two plant endornaviruses, Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 1 (PvEV-1) and Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 2 (PvEV-2), in breeding-lines, cultivars, landraces, and wild genotypes of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) as well as other Phaseolus species collected from two...

  6. Nitrogen Fertilization Effects on Recovery of Bush Beans from Flooding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen loss can be a serious problem to vegetable growers in flood prone areas. A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the effects of nitrogen application method on recovery from flood damage in green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). There were three fertilizer treatments:1) normal - ½ N applied...

  7. A MOLECULAR MARKER LINKAGE MAP OF SNAP BEAN (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bush Blue Lake (BBL) snap beans are grown in the Willamette Valley of Oregon for canning and freezing. While they have desirable processing and production traits compared to other snap beans, plant architecture, seed production traits, and white mold resistance need improvement. Previous breeding ...

  8. Clinical complications of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) consumption.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Verma, Alok Kumar; Das, Mukul; Jain, S K; Dwivedi, Premendra D

    2013-06-01

    Kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), are common legumes, consumed worldwide. The delicacy of kidney beans is highly appreciable but, at the same time, their toxicity has raised an alarming concern. Kidney bean toxicity may be divided into two subcategories: toxicity caused by its lectins, saponins, phytates, and protease inhibitors or allergenicity induced by its allergenic proteins. The purpose of this review is to unravel the facts behind the different aspects of toxicity and allergenicity induced by kidney beans and try to fill the gaps that exist currently. PMID:23410632

  9. Extrudability of four common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extrusion method has been used to cook different food materials by employing the combination of high temperature, pressure and shearing stresses. Effects of extrusion cooking on functional, physicochemical and nutritional properties of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) have been reported for years...

  10. Tannins, trypsin inhibitors and lectin cytotoxicity in tepary (Phaseolus acutifolius) and common (Phaseolus vulgaris) beans.

    PubMed

    De Mejia, Elvira Gonzalez; Del Carmen Valadez-Vega, Maria; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalia; Loarca-Pina, Guadalupe

    2005-09-01

    This study compared the levels of antinutritional components and cytotoxic effect of extracts, from tepary (Phaseolus acutifolius) and common (Phaseolus vulgaris) beans. Antinutritional factors were evaluated by determining their effect on the viability of epithelial cells isolated from rat small intestine. The protein and carbohydrates content were similar in all the genotypes studied (20 and 60%, respectively). Common beans presented higher content of trypsin inhibitors, tannins and lectins than tepary beans. There was not a significant correlation between tannins and cooking time. However, water absorption and cooking time correlated significantly (p < 0.05). Considerable variation was observed in lectin activity (1302-18161 Ul/mg) of extracts from different beans. Tannins, lectins, trypsin inhibitors and fat content differed between bean varieties whereas protein content was similar. The percent cellularity on rat epithelial cells was significantly different among protein extracts from different bean cultivars and ranged between 53.5% and 87.4% (p < 0.05). These results suggest that the incorporation of tepary beans in the diet would not alter the current nutritional contribution of common beans or introduce adverse toxic effects. The agronomic characteristics of tepary beans make them attractive for cultivation. However, the harder to cook phenomenon may be a limiting factor that needs further consideration. PMID:16187017

  11. Microsatellite characterization of Andean races of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Blair, M W; Díaz, J M; Hidalgo, R; Díaz, L M; Duque, M C

    2007-12-01

    The Andean gene pool of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) has high levels of morphological diversity in terms of seed color and size, growth habit and agro-ecological adaptation, but previously was characterized by low levels of molecular marker diversity. Three races have been described within the Andean gene pool: Chile, Nueva Granada and Peru. The objective of this study was to characterize a collection of 123 genotypes representing Andean bean diversity with 33 microsatellite markers that have been useful for characterizing race structure in common beans. The genotypes were from both the primary center of origin as well as secondary centers of diversity to which Andean beans spread and represented all three races of the gene pool. In addition we evaluated a collection of landraces from Colombia to determine if the Nueva Granada and Peru races could be distinguished in genotypes from the northern range of the primary center. Multiple correspondence analyses of the Andean race representatives identified two predominant groups corresponding to the Nueva Granada and Peru races. Some of the Chile race representatives formed a separate group but several that had been defined previously as from this race grouped with the other races. Gene flow was more notable between Nueva Granada and Peru races than between these races and the Chile race. Among the Colombian genotypes, the Nueva Granada and Peru races were identified and introgression between these two races was especially notable. The genetic diversity within the Colombian genotypes was high, reaffirming the importance of this region as an important source of germplasm. Results of this study suggest that the morphological classification of all climbing beans as Peru race genotypes and all bush beans as Nueva Granada race genotypes is erroneous and that growth habit traits have been mixed in both races, requiring a re-adjustment in the concept of morphological races in Andean beans. PMID:17924092

  12. Volatile compounds of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Oomah, B Dave; Liang, Lisa S Y; Balasubramanian, Parthiba

    2007-12-01

    Volatile compounds of uncooked dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars representing three market classes (black, dark red kidney and pinto) grown in 2005 were isolated with headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME), and analyzed with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 62 volatiles consisting of aromatic hydrocarbons, aldehydes, alkanes, alcohols and ketones represented on average 62, 38, 21, 12, and 9 x 10(6) total area counts, respectively. Bean cultivars differed in abundance and profile of volatiles. The combination of 18 compounds comprising a common profile explained 79% of the variance among cultivars based on principal component analysis (PCA). The SPME technique proved to be a rapid and effective method for routine evaluation of dry bean volatile profile. PMID:17926127

  13. Genetic Diversity of North American Wild kidney bean (Phaseolus polystachios) in the Eastern US

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    North American wild kidney bean or thicket bean (Phaseolus polystachios (L.) Britton, Sterns, & Poggenb) is a perennial vine found in the eastern United States from Texas to Connecticut. It is the only Phaseolus species native to temperate North America. Its closest cultivated relative is P. lunatus...

  14. Release of ‘Beniquez’ White Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Cultivar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV), a whitefly [Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius)]-transmitted begomovirus, can cause significant reductions in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seed yield when susceptible bean cultivars are planted in Central America and the Caribbean. Bean common mosaic virus (BCM...

  15. Proteomic analysis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The modern cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) has evolved from wild common beans distributed in Central America, Mexico and the Andean region of South America. It has been reported that wild common bean accessions have higher levels of protein content than the domesticated dry bean cultiva...

  16. Diversification and Population Structure in Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Matthew W.; Soler, Alvaro; Cortés, Andrés J.

    2012-01-01

    Wild accessions of crops and landraces are valuable genetic resources for plant breeding and for conserving alleles and gene combinations in planta. The primary genepool of cultivated common beans includes wild accessions of Phaseolus vulgaris. These are of the same species as the domesticates and therefore are easily crossable with cultivated accessions. Molecular marker assessment of wild beans and landraces is important for the proper utilization and conservation of these important genetic resources. The goal of this research was to evaluate a collection of wild beans with fluorescent microsatellite or simple sequence repeat markers and to determine the population structure in combination with cultivated beans of all known races. Marker diversity in terms of average number of alleles per marker was high (13) for the combination of 36 markers and 104 wild genotypes that was similar to the average of 14 alleles per marker found for the 606 cultivated genotypes. Diversity in wild beans appears to be somewhat higher than in cultivated beans on a per genotype basis. Five populations or genepools were identified in structure analysis of the wild beans corresponding to segments of the geographical range, including Mesoamerican (Mexican), Guatemalan, Colombian, Ecuadorian-northern Peruvian and Andean (Argentina, Bolivia and Southern Peru). The combined analysis of wild and cultivated accessions showed that the first and last of these genepools were related to the cultivated genepools of the same names and the penultimate was found to be distinct but not ancestral to the others. The Guatemalan genepool was very novel and perhaps related to cultivars of race Guatemala, while the Colombian population was also distinct. Results suggest geographic isolation, founder effects or natural selection could have created the different semi-discrete populations of wild beans and that multiple domestications and introgression were involved in creating the diversity of cultivated beans

  17. Release of ‘XRAV-40-4’ black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production in the lowlands of Central America and the Caribbean is threatened by viral diseases. Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV), a whitefly [Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius)]-transmitted begomovirus, can cause significant reduction in common bean seed yield when...

  18. Patterns of fructose, glucose, and sucrose accumulation in snap and dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) pods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugars, including fructose, glucose, and sucrose contribute significantly to the flavor and consumer acceptance of snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Little is known regarding differences in sugar content among dry bean and snap bean cultivars and the patterns of sugar accumulation with increasing ...

  19. Anthocyanin profile of Korean cultivated kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Choung, Myoung-Gun; Choi, Byoung-Rourl; An, Young-Nam; Chu, Yong-Ha; Cho, Young-Son

    2003-11-19

    This investigation was conducted to determine the structures and amounts of anthocyanins obtained from seed coats of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivated in Korea. Anthocyanins in the seed coat of kidney bean were extracted with 1% HCl/20% CH(3)OH, and the crude anthocyanin extracts were purified by semipreparative HPLC. Five major anthocyanins were isolated, and their chemical structures were identified by spectroscopic methods (UV-vis, LC/ES-MS, and 1H and 13C NMR). The structures of these five anthocyanins were elucidated as cyanidin 3,5-diglucoside, delphinidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-glucoside, petunidin 3-glucoside, and pelargonidin 3-glucoside. Using RP-HPLC with photodiode array detection, each of the five anthocyanins was separated within 12 min by using a gradient elution. It was proved that the application of RP-HPLC could be an excellent method for determining the composition and contents of anthocyanins in kidney bean. The preponderance of pelargonidin 3-glucoside and delphinidin 3-glucoside are observed in red and black kidney beans, respectively. However, in this study, it is reported for the first time that the contents and composition of anthocyanins in speckled seed depend on the classes of speckle color. The contents of cyanidin 3,5-diglucoside, delphinidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-glucoside, petunidin 3-glucoside, pelargonidin 3-glucoside, and total anthocyanins in seed coats of 16 kidney beans cultivated in Korea were in the ranges of 0-0.04, 0-2.61, 0-0.12, 0-0.17, 0-0.59 and 0-2.78 mg/g of dried seed coats, respectively. PMID:14611168

  20. SNP marker diversity in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Cortés, Andrés J; Chavarro, Martha C; Blair, Matthew W

    2011-09-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers have become a genetic technology of choice because of their automation and high precision of allele calls. In this study, our goal was to develop 94 SNPs and test them across well-chosen common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) germplasm. We validated and accessed SNP diversity at 84 gene-based and 10 non-genic loci using KASPar technology in a panel of 70 genotypes that have been used as parents of mapping populations and have been previously evaluated for SSRs. SNPs exhibited high levels of genetic diversity, an excess of middle frequency polymorphism, and a within-genepool mismatch distribution as expected for populations affected by sudden demographic expansions after domestication bottlenecks. This set of markers was useful for distinguishing Andean and Mesoamerican genotypes but less useful for distinguishing within each gene pool. In summary, slightly greater polymorphism and race structure was found within the Andean gene pool than within the Mesoamerican gene pool but polymorphism rate between genotypes was consistent with genepool and race identity. Our survey results represent a baseline for the choice of SNP markers for future applications because gene-associated SNPs could themselves be causative SNPs for traits. Finally, we discuss that the ideal genetic marker combination with which to carry out diversity, mapping and association studies in common bean should consider a mix of both SNP and SSR markers. PMID:21785951

  1. QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCI (QTL) ANALYSIS OF CANNING QUALITY TRAITS IN KIDNEY BEAN (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Canning quality of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), of which the degree of splitting (SPLT) and overall appearance (APP) if canned beans are major components, is a complex trait that exhibits quantitative. The objectives of this study were to identify major genes that affect APP and SPLT in kidney...

  2. Conversion of starch from dry common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dry common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were evaluated for potential conversion of starch to ethanol. Eight varieties of beans with average starch content of 46% (db) were assayed in a laboratory-scaled process based upon the commercial corn dry grind fermentation process. Ethanol yield was 0.43-0....

  3. Antinutritional factors in anasazi and other pinto beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Weder, J K; Telek, L; Vozári-Hampe, M; Saini, H S

    1997-01-01

    Antinutritional factors of anasazi bean were compared to traditional pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Anasazi beans contained less (p<0.001) soluble and bound condensed tannins compared to pinto beans. No differences (p>0.05) in stachyose and raffinose content were found between the two bean types; verbascose was not detected at all. Significant (p<0.05) differences in lectin content were observed between anasazi and pinto bean. The lectins of anasazi beans were classified as non toxic and those of the pinto beans as toxic types. No differences (p>0.05) in inhibitor activity against human and bovine trypsin and chymotrypsin were found between the two bean types. PMID:9527344

  4. Biofortified black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in a maize/bean diet provide more bioavailable iron to piglets than standard black beans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to compare the capacities of biofortified and standard black beans to deliver iron (Fe) for hemoglobin synthesis. Two lines of black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), one standard (“Low”) and the other biofortified (“High”) in Fe (71 and 106 ug Fe/g, respectively) were used. Maize-bas...

  5. Comparative study of the chemical composition of wild and cultivated beans (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Sotelo, A; Sousa, H; Sánchez, M

    1995-02-01

    Five wild Phaseolus vulgaris beans were compared with five cultivated Phaseolus vulgaris beans in proximate composition, total (true) protein, amino acid composition, and toxic and antinutritional factors. The wild beans contained more protein (25.5% vs. 21.7%), ash (5.15 vs. 4.15%), crude fiber (7.08% vs. 5.04%) compared to cultivated beans while the former contained less fat (0.56 vs. 0.89%) and carbohydrates (61.64 vs. 68.05%). Sulfur amino acids were found to be limiting in both groups of bean as expected; however, the cultivated beans had a higher content of the limiting amino acids. Therefore, the cultivated beans showed a better amino acid profile than the wild beans. Toxic factors were not found in either type of bean; the determinations included saponins, alkaloids, and cyanogenic glycosides. The antinutritional factors investigated were hemagglutinins (lectins) and trypsin inhibitors. The wild beans presented a higher content of trypsin inhibitors (28 TUI per mg) and lectins (9.6) than the cultivated beans did (21 TUI per mg and 7 respectively). From the chemical point of view, domestication seems to be positive; however, the better protein nutritive quality of the cultivated beans should be further confirmed by biological assays. PMID:7792267

  6. Geometry applied to breeding common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Lima, J G; Ramalho, M A P

    2016-01-01

    The primary components of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) grain yield (W) are the number of pods (X), the number of grains per pod (Y), and the weight of the grains (Z). In 1964, Grafius suggested using geometry in plant breeding; W corresponds to the volume of a parallelepiped with three axes, X, Y, and Z. Because the cube is the largest parallelepiped by volume, maximum yield is obtained when the relative contributions of X, Y, and Z are the same. We evaluated individual plants of a 'Talismã' x 'L.59583' cross in two sowing periods. The sum of squares of deviations from the ideal plant (GI), i.e., the plant in which the X, Y, and Z contributions were the same, was estimated. Mean and variance genetic components, and genetic and phenotypic correlations between the characteristics were also estimated. Good concordance was observed in the magnitude and direction of the genetic and phenotypic correlation estimates of the paired characteristics. However, a low GI heritability (h(2)r = 6.7%) indicated that success due to selection should be small. Ninety-four progenies of 'Pérola' x 'ESAL 686' crosses were also evaluated, where X, Y, Z, and W were obtained and GI was estimated. The h(2) estimate was higher, but still low (h(2) = 39.0%). Therefore, the selection of individuals to obtain plants in which the X, Y, and Z products tend to the cube is unfeasible, because the sums of X, Y, and Z vary between individuals. In addition, the GI h2 value was low. PMID:27173247

  7. Suspected white kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) toxicity in horses and cattle.

    PubMed

    Carmalt, J; Rosel, K; Burns, T; Janzen, E

    2003-11-01

    Thirty-four mixed breed horses from two separate farms showed signs of abdominal discomfort, pyrexia and dehydration after being exposed to a new batch of 14% complete horse feed. A new batch of cattle feed from the same manufacturer resulted in dairy cows showing depression, a drop in milk production and diarrhoea. Examination of both diets revealed the presence of white kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Inclusion of raw beans of this genus in animal feeds is to be avoided. PMID:15086107

  8. Identification of quantitative trait loci associated with fructose, glucose and sucrose concentration in snap bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris L.) pods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugars, including fructose, glucose, and sucrose contribute significantly to the flavor and consumer acceptance of snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Differences between dry and snap bean cultivars and among snap bean cultivars in the patterns of accumulation of sugars have been observed. In ‘Eagle...

  9. Transcriptome of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) through RNA-seq: nodulation, symbiotic nitrogen fixation, transcription factors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean) is one of the most important grain legumes for direct human consumption. It comprises 50% of the grain legumes consumed worldwide and is important as a primary source of dietary protein in developing countries. We have performed next generation sequencing (RNA-seq) o...

  10. Virulence of Macrophomina phaseolina isolates in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Charcoal rot caused by Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid, is an important disease in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) in the dry and warmer areas of Puerto Rico and in much of the tropics and subtropics worldwide. The virulence of three isolates from Isabela (Mph-ISA-TARS), Juana Diaz (Mph-JD) a...

  11. Genome-wide association studies of morphological and agronomical traits in cultivated tepary beans (Phaseolus acutifolius)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius A. Gray) is adapted to high temperature arid agroecological zones. In light of the ongoing and rapid changes in the world climate, the evaluation and development of alternate grain legume species that have similar nutritional and culinary characteristics as common ...

  12. Fungal endophytes in germinated seeds of the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is the most important food legume in the world, but its production is severely limited by several biotic and abiotic stressors. In search of a sustainable solution to this problem, we conducted a survey of fungal endophytes in 582 germinated seeds belonging to 11...

  13. Microsatellite marker diversity in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Blair, M W; Giraldo, M C; Buendía, H F; Tovar, E; Duque, M C; Beebe, S E

    2006-06-01

    A diversity survey was used to estimate allelic diversity and heterozygosity of 129 microsatellite markers in a panel of 44 common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes that have been used as parents of mapping populations. Two types of microsatellites were evaluated, based respectively on gene coding and genomic sequences. Genetic diversity was evaluated by estimating the polymorphism information content (PIC), as well as the distribution and range of alleles sizes. Gene-based microsatellites proved to be less polymorphic than genomic microsatellites in terms of both number of alleles (6.0 vs. 9.2) and PIC values (0.446 vs. 0.594) while greater size differences between the largest and the smallest allele were observed for the genomic microsatellites than for the gene-based microsatellites (31.4 vs. 19.1 bp). Markers that showed a high number of alleles were identified with a maximum of 28 alleles for the marker BMd1. The microsatellites were useful for distinguishing Andean and Mesoamerican genotypes, for uncovering the races within each genepool and for separating wild accessions from cultivars. Greater polymorphism and race structure was found within the Andean gene pool than within the Mesoamerican gene pool and polymorphism rate between genotypes was consistent with genepool and race identity. Comparisons between Andean genotypes had higher polymorphism (53.0%) on average than comparisons among Mesoamerican genotypes (33.4%). Within the Mesoamerican parental combinations, the intra-racial combinations between Mesoamerica and Durango or Jalisco race genotypes showed higher average rates of polymorphism (37.5%) than the within-race combinations between Mesoamerica race genotypes (31.7%). In multiple correspondance analysis we found two principal clusters of genotypes corresponding to the Mesoamerican and Andean gene pools and subgroups representing specific races especially for the Nueva Granada and Peru races of the Andean gene pool. Intra population diversity

  14. The polyphenolic profiles of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Long-Ze; Harnly, James M.; Pastor-Corrales, Marcial S.; Luthria, Devanand L.

    2013-01-01

    Based on the phenolic profiles obtained by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS), 24 common bean samples, representing 17 varieties and 7 generic off-the-shelf items, belonging to ten US commercial market classes can be organized into six different groups. All of them contained the same hydroxycinnaminic acids, but the flavonoid components showed distinct differences. Black beans contained primarily the 3-O-glucosides of delphinidin, petunidin and malvidin, while pinto beans contained kaempferol and its 3-O-glycosides. Light red kidney bean contained traces of quercetin 3-O-glucoside and its malonates, but pink and dark red kidney beans contained the diglycosides of quercetin and kaempferol. Small red beans contained kaempferol 3-O-glucoside and pelargonidin 3-O-glucoside, while no flavonoids were detected in alubia, cranberry, great northern, and navy beans. This is the first report of the tentative identification of quercetin 3-O-pentosylhexoside and flavonoid glucoside malonates, and the first detailed detection of hydroxycinnamates, in common beans. PMID:25544796

  15. The Polyphenolic Profiles of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Based on the phenolic profiles obtained by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-ESI/MS), 24 common bean samples representing 17 varieties and 7 generic off-the-shelf items belonging to ten dry bean commercial market classes can be organized into six different group...

  16. 2007. Two genes from Phaseolus coccineus L. confer resistance to Bean golden yellow mosaic virus in common bean. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 132:530-533

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV), caused by a whitefly (Bemisia spp.) transmitted geminivirus, is an important disease that can limit common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production in Central America, the Caribbean and southern Florida. Only a few genes are currently deployed in BGYMV resista...

  17. Phaseolus beans: impact on glycaemic response and chronic disease risk in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Hutchins, Andrea M; Winham, Donna M; Thompson, Sharon V

    2012-08-01

    Consumption of Phaseolus vulgaris bean species such as pinto, black, navy or kidney may be beneficial in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases. In particular, conditions that are promoted by increased glycaemic stress (hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia) including diabetes, CVD and cancer seem to be reduced in individuals who eat more of these beans. The present paper discusses the influence of P. vulgaris species on glycaemic response and the impact that relationship may have on the risk of developing diabetes, CVD and cancer. PMID:22916816

  18. Dynamics of a Novel Highly Repetitive CACTA Family in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Gao, Dongying; Zhao, Dongyan; Abernathy, Brian; Iwata-Otsubo, Aiko; Herrera-Estrella, Alfredo; Jiang, Ning; Jackson, Scott A

    2016-01-01

    Transposons are ubiquitous genomic components that play pivotal roles in plant gene and genome evolution. We analyzed two genome sequences of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and identified a new CACTA transposon family named pvCACTA1. The family is extremely abundant, as more than 12,000 pvCACTA1 elements were found. To our knowledge, this is the most abundant CACTA family reported thus far. The computational and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses indicated that the pvCACTA1 elements were concentrated in terminal regions of chromosomes and frequently generated AT-rich 3 bp target site duplications (TSD, WWW, W is A or T). Comparative analysis of the common bean genomes from two domesticated genetic pools revealed that new insertions or excisions of pvCACTA1 elements occurred after the divergence of the two common beans, and some of the polymorphic elements likely resulted in variation in gene sequences. pvCACTA1 elements were detected in related species but not outside the Phaseolus genus. We calculated the molecular evolutionary rate of pvCACTA1 transposons using orthologous elements that indicated that most transposition events likely occurred before the divergence of the two gene pools. These results reveal unique features and evolution of this new transposon family in the common bean genome. PMID:27185400

  19. Dynamics of a Novel Highly Repetitive CACTA Family in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Dongying; Zhao, Dongyan; Abernathy, Brian; Iwata-Otsubo, Aiko; Herrera-Estrella, Alfredo; Jiang, Ning; Jackson, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    Transposons are ubiquitous genomic components that play pivotal roles in plant gene and genome evolution. We analyzed two genome sequences of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and identified a new CACTA transposon family named pvCACTA1. The family is extremely abundant, as more than 12,000 pvCACTA1 elements were found. To our knowledge, this is the most abundant CACTA family reported thus far. The computational and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses indicated that the pvCACTA1 elements were concentrated in terminal regions of chromosomes and frequently generated AT-rich 3 bp target site duplications (TSD, WWW, W is A or T). Comparative analysis of the common bean genomes from two domesticated genetic pools revealed that new insertions or excisions of pvCACTA1 elements occurred after the divergence of the two common beans, and some of the polymorphic elements likely resulted in variation in gene sequences. pvCACTA1 elements were detected in related species but not outside the Phaseolus genus. We calculated the molecular evolutionary rate of pvCACTA1 transposons using orthologous elements that indicated that most transposition events likely occurred before the divergence of the two gene pools. These results reveal unique features and evolution of this new transposon family in the common bean genome. PMID:27185400

  20. Identification and analysis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) transcriptomes by massively parallel pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is the most important food legume in the world. Although this crop is very important to both the developed and developing world as a means of dietary protein supply, resources available in common bean are limited. Global transcriptome analysis is important to better understand gene expression, genetic variation, and gene structure annotation in addition to other important features. However, the number and description of common bean sequences are very limited, which greatly inhibits genome and transcriptome research. Here we used 454 pyrosequencing to obtain a substantial transcriptome dataset for common bean. Results We obtained 1,692,972 reads with an average read length of 207 nucleotides (nt). These reads were assembled into 59,295 unigenes including 39,572 contigs and 19,723 singletons, in addition to 35,328 singletons less than 100 bp. Comparing the unigenes to common bean ESTs deposited in GenBank, we found that 53.40% or 31,664 of these unigenes had no matches to this dataset and can be considered as new common bean transcripts. Functional annotation of the unigenes carried out by Gene Ontology assignments from hits to Arabidopsis and soybean indicated coverage of a broad range of GO categories. The common bean unigenes were also compared to the bean bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) end sequences, and a total of 21% of the unigenes (12,724) including 9,199 contigs and 3,256 singletons match to the 8,823 BAC-end sequences. In addition, a large number of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and transcription factors were also identified in this study. Conclusions This work provides the first large scale identification of the common bean transcriptome derived by 454 pyrosequencing. This research has resulted in a 150% increase in the number of Phaseolus vulgaris ESTs. The dataset obtained through this analysis will provide a platform for functional genomics in common bean and related legumes and will aid in the

  1. Molecular characterization of two evolutionarily distinct endornaviruses co-infecting common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Okada, Ryo; Yong, Chee Keat; Valverde, Rodrigo A; Sabanadzovic, Sead; Aoki, Nanako; Hotate, Shunsuke; Kiyota, Eri; Moriyama, Hiromitsu; Fukuhara, Toshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    Two high-molecular-mass dsRNAs of approximately 14 and 15 kbp were isolated from the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cultivar Black Turtle Soup. These dsRNAs did not appear to cause obvious disease symptoms, and were transmitted through seeds at nearly 100% efficiency. Sequence information indicates that they are the genomes of distinct endornavirus species, for which the names Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 1 (PvEV-1) and Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 2 (PvEV-2) are proposed. The PvEV-1 genome consists of 13,908 bp and potentially encodes a single polyprotein of 4496 aa, while that of PvEV-2 consists of 14 820 bp and potentially encodes a single ORF of 4851 aa. PvEV-1 is more similar to Oryza sativa endornavirus, while PvEV-2 is more similar to bell pepper endornavirus. Both viruses have a site-specific nick near the 5' region of the coding strand, which is a common property of the endornaviruses. Their polyproteins contain domains of RNA helicase, UDP-glycosyltransferase and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, which are conserved in other endornaviruses. However, a viral methyltransferase domain was found in the N-terminal region of PvEV-2, but was absent in PvEV-1. Results of cell-fractionation studies suggested that their subcellular localizations were different. Most endornavirus-infected bean cultivars tested were co-infected with both viruses. PMID:23015743

  2. Soybean rust resistance sources and inheritance in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Souza, T L P O; Dessaune, S N; Moreira, M A; Barros, E G

    2014-01-01

    Soybean rust (SBR), caused by the fungus Phakopsora pachyrhizi, has been reported in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars and elite lines that were infected under controlled and natural field conditions in South Africa, the United States, Argentina, and Brazil. Although SBR is currently not a top priority problem for the common bean crop, many bean breeders are concerned about this disease because of the high severity and virulence diversity of P. pachyrhizi and its broad host range. In this study, a set of 44 P. vulgaris genotypes were tested for resistance to P. pachyrhizi; these genotypes included resistance sources to several fungal common bean diseases, carioca-, black- and red-seeded Brazilian cultivars, and elite lines that were developed by the main common bean breeding programs in Brazil. Twenty-four SBR resistance sources were identified. They presented the reddish-brown (RB) lesion type, characterizing resistance reactions. In addition to the RB lesion type, the PI181996 line presented the lowest disease severity mean score, considering its associated standard error value. For this reason, it was crossed with susceptible lines to study the inheritance of resistance. The results support the hypothesis that resistance to SBR in PI181996 is monogenic and dominant. We propose that this SBR resistance gene, the first to be identified and characterized in common bean, might be designated as Pkp-1. PMID:25117320

  3. Nutritional composition and cooking characteristics of tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius Gray) in comparison with common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tepary bean is a highly abiotic stress tolerant orphan crop, however, there has been limited research on its nutritional value and cooking characteristics, key aspects when considering the potential for broader adoption globally. The goal of this study was to evaluate a large set of seed composition...

  4. Registration of ‘Snowdon’ White Kidney Bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Snowdon’ white kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) (Reg. no. CV- , PI __), developed by Michigan State University AgBioResearch was released in 2012 as an early-mid season, disease-resistant, bush bean cultivar. Snowdon was developed using pedigree breeding method to the F4 generation followed ...

  5. Study on great northern beans (Phaseolus vulgaris): effect of drum drying process on bean flour properties and effect on gamma radiation on bean starch properties

    SciTech Connect

    Rayas-Solis, P.

    1988-01-01

    Great Northern bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) drum dried flours at native pH of 6.54, pH 6 and 7 showed reduced activities of trypsin inhibitor, ..cap alpha..-amylase inhibitor, hemagglutinating titer, and nitrogen solubility. Electrophoretic analyses showed a slight modification of the native bean proteins, and the presence of at least four trypsin inhibitors. The study of the effect of 2.5-20 kGy irradiation doses on Great Northern beans showed essentially no modification of the electrophoretic mobility of the storage proteins or the trypsin inhibitors. Nitrogen solubility and hemagglutinating activity were essentially unchanged. With the 20 kGy dose, decrease in ..cap alpha..-amylase inhibitor activity, decrease reactive/available lysine content, and decrease cooking time of the irradiated beans after 11 months of storage were observed. Taste panel results indicated that the control and 20 kGy irradiated bean were significantly different at 5% level. At 20 kGy dose, the beans developed a partially water soluble brown color.

  6. Visualization of resistance responses in Phaseolus vulgaris using reporter tagged clones of Bean common mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Naderpour, Masoud; Johansen, Ida Elisabeth

    2011-07-01

    Reporter tagged virus clones can provide detailed information on virus-host interactions. In Phaseolus vulgaris (bean), four recessive and one dominant gene are known to control infection by strains of the potyvirus species Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV). To study the interactions between BCMV and bean genotypes with different resistance gene combinations, an infectious clone of the strain RU1 was tagged with the UidA gene encoding β-glucuronidase (GUS). The clone was agroinoculated to bean genotypes with different combinations of the resistance genes bc-u, bc-1, bc-2, bc-3 and I. In situ histochemical GUS assays showed new details of the resistance responses, which were previously analysed by immunological methods and symptom descriptions. In some instances GUS assays suggested that resistance breaking strains appeared at single foci in uninoculated leaves. To allow recovery of resistance breaking strains for further studies, BCMV RU1 was tagged with the sequence encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP), which was visualized directly without destruction of the tissue. In this paper we present details of the construction of the infectious clone and discuss its application in studies of BCMV resistance in bean. PMID:21549773

  7. The amino-acid sequence of leghemoglobin component a from Phaseolus vulgaris (kidney bean).

    PubMed

    Lehtovaara, P; Ellfolk, N

    1975-06-01

    1. Leghemoglobin component a from Phaseolus vulgaris (kidney bean) was digested with trypsin; 15 tryptic peptides and free lysine were purified and the amino acid sequences of the peptides determined. 2. The internal order of the tryptic peptides was determined by the bridge peptides obtained from the thermolytic digest and the dilute acid hydrolyzate of kidney bean leghemoglobin a; 12 thermolytic peptides and two acid hydrolysis peptides were purified and the sequences were partially or completely determined. 3. The complete amino acid sequence of kidney bean leghemoglobin a is compared to that of leghemoglobin a from soybean (Glycine max) and to some animal globins. As regards sequence, the kidney bean globin has 79% identity with the soybean globin and 21% identity with human hemoglobin gamma-chain. Seven of the 14 amino acid residues common to most globins are found in the kidney bean globin. Trp-15 and Tyr-145 are evolutionarily conserved in this globin, which confirms the concept of a common origin of animal and plant globins. PMID:809270

  8. Comparison of growth, nitrogen metabolism and organ weights in piglets and rats fed on diets containing Phaseolus vulgaris beans.

    PubMed

    Huisman, J; van der Poel, A F; van Leeuwen, P; Verstegen, M W

    1990-11-01

    The effects of lectins in the diet have been mainly studied in rats. An important question is whether results obtained in rats can be extrapolated to larger animals like the pig. Phaseolus vulgaris beans are rich in toxic lectins. Therefore a study was carried out to compare the effects of diets containing 200 g Phaseolus vulgaris beans (raw or toasted)/kg in rats and piglets. Live-weight gain, nitrogen digestibility and N balance were much lower in piglets than in rats fed on diets containing raw beans. Live-weight gain and N balance were slightly negative in the piglets. When toasted beans were given, live-weight gain and N balance values were reduced in piglets but hardly at all in rats. Giving raw beans caused hypertrophy of the pancreas in the rats but in piglets the weight of the pancreas was reduced. Spleen weight was depressed in the piglets but not in the rats. Weight of liver was not affected in either animal species. When toasted beans were given no effects on the weights of pancreas, spleen or liver were found in piglets or rats. It was concluded that the piglet is much more sensitive to antinutritional factors in the Phaseolus vulgaris bean than the rat. PMID:2265182

  9. First record of Teratopactus nodicollis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Quintela, E D; dos Santos, J A P; Barrigossi, J A F; Guedes, J V C

    2012-06-01

    Observations on the bioecology and damage of Teratopactus nodicollis Boheman on Phaseolus vulgaris were carried out on field samples by assessing the number of larvae and root damage in 40 ha of a dry bean field from the Federal District, Brazil (16°4'28.41"W; 47°30'21.13"S). Larvae caused the greatest damage at the stage of germination, emergence, and primary leaves, producing 50 % stand reduction. Most larvae pupated in August and September, and adult emergence occurred in middle October. Some larvae were infected with the fungus Metarhizium spp., a biological agent that would be naturally controlling this insect. PMID:23950052

  10. Cytogenetic map of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    PubMed Central

    Fonsêca, Artur; Ferreira, Joana; dos Santos, Tiago Ribeiro Barros; Mosiolek, Magdalena; Bellucci, Elisa; Kami, James; Gepts, Paul; Geffroy, Valérie; Schweizer, Dieter; dos Santos, Karla G. B.

    2010-01-01

    A cytogenetic map of common bean was built by in situ hybridization of 35 bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) selected with markers mapping to eight linkage groups, plus two plasmids for 5S and 45S ribosomal DNA and one bacteriophage. Together with three previously mapped chromosomes (chromosomes 3, 4, and 7), 43 anchoring points between the genetic map and the cytogenetic map of the species are now available. Furthermore, a subset of four BAC clones was proposed to identify the 11 chromosome pairs of the standard cultivar BAT93. Three of these BACs labelled more than a single chromosome pair, indicating the presence of repetitive DNA in their inserts. A repetitive distribution pattern was observed for most of the BACs; for 38% of them, highly repetitive pericentromeric or subtelomeric signals were observed. These distribution patterns corresponded to pericentromeric and subtelomeric heterochromatin blocks observed with other staining methods. Altogether, the results indicate that around half of the common bean genome is heterochromatic and that genes and repetitive sequences are intermingled in the euchromatin and heterochromatin of the species. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10577-010-9129-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20449646

  11. Immunological detection of bean common mosaic virus in French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Verma, Poonam; Gupta, U P

    2010-09-01

    Bean common mosaic potyvirus (BCMV) is an important seed borne pathogen of French bean. Differential inoculation with bean common mosaic virus at cotylodonary trifoliate leaf stage and pre-flowering stage of crop growth revealed that cotyledonary leaf infection favored maximum disease expression. Under immunosorbent electron microscopy (ISEM) the virus particles of filamentous structure having a diameter of 750 nm (l) and 15 nm (w) were observed. These particles gave positive precipitin tests with polyclonal antiserum of Potato virus Y. PMID:23100839

  12. Biofortified red mottled beans (phaseolus vulgaris L.) in a maize and bean diet provide more bioavailable iron than standard red mottled beans: studies in poultry (Gallus gallus) and an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to compare the capacities of biofortified and standard colored beans to deliver iron (Fe) for hemoglobin synthesis. Two isolines of large-seeded, red mottled Andean beans (Phaseolus valgaris L.), one standard (“Low FE”) and the other biofortified (“High Fe”) in Fe (49 and 71 ug Fe...

  13. Genome-wide identification and characterization of aquaporin gene family in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Ariani, Andrea; Gepts, Paul

    2015-10-01

    Plant aquaporins are a large and diverse family of water channel proteins that are essential for several physiological processes in living organisms. Numerous studies have linked plant aquaporins with a plethora of processes, such as nutrient acquisition, CO2 transport, plant growth and development, and response to abiotic stresses. However, little is known about this protein family in common bean. Here, we present a genome-wide identification of the aquaporin gene family in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), a legume crop essential for human nutrition. We identified 41 full-length coding aquaporin sequences in the common bean genome, divided by phylogenetic analysis into five sub-families (PIPs, TIPs, NIPs, SIPs and XIPs). Residues determining substrate specificity of aquaporins (i.e., NPA motifs and ar/R selectivity filter) seem conserved between common bean and other plant species, allowing inference of substrate specificity for these proteins. Thanks to the availability of RNA-sequencing datasets, expression levels in different organs and in leaves of wild and domesticated bean accessions were evaluated. Three aquaporins (PvTIP1;1, PvPIP2;4 and PvPIP1;2) have the overall highest mean expressions, with PvTIP1;1 having the highest expression among all aquaporins. We performed an EST database mining to identify drought-responsive aquaporins in common bean. This analysis showed a significant increase in expression for PvTIP1;1 in drought stress conditions compared to well-watered environments. The pivotal role suggested for PvTIP1;1 in regulating water homeostasis and drought stress response in the common bean should be verified by further field experimentation under drought stress. PMID:25846963

  14. Fungal endophytes in germinated seeds of the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Parsa, Soroush; García-Lemos, Adriana M.; Castillo, Katherine; Ortiz, Viviana; López-Lavalle, Luis Augusto Becerra; Braun, Jerome; Vega, Fernando E.

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a survey of fungal endophytes in 582 germinated seeds belonging to 11 Colombian cultivars of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). The survey yielded 394 endophytic isolates belonging to 42 taxa, as identified by sequence analysis of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Aureobasidium pullulans was the dominant endophyte, isolated from 46.7 % of the samples. Also common were Fusarium oxysporum, Xylaria sp., and Cladosporium cladosporioides, but found in only 13.4 %, 11.7 %, and 7.6 % of seedlings, respectively. Endophytic colonization differed significantly among common bean cultivars and seedling parts, with the highest colonization occurring in the first true leaves of the seedlings. PMID:27109374

  15. Physiological behavior of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seedlings under metal stress.

    PubMed

    Zengin, Fikriye

    2013-01-01

    The effects of nickel, cobalt, chromium and zinc on the content of vitamins A, E and C, malondialdehyde (MDA), chlorophyll and carotenoids were investigated in bean seedlings (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown in Hoagland solution Control and heavy metal-treated plants were grown for ten days in Hoagland solution. Vitamin A, E, and C content were measured in primary leaves by high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC). MDA, chlorophyll and carotenoids were measured in leaves by spectrophotometer. In heavy metal treated plants, the levels of MDA, vitamins A, E and C and carotenoids significantly increased, while chlorophyll content decreased in leaves of seedlings. The results indicate that heavy metals caused an oxidative stress in bean plants. The strongest effect on vitamins A, E and C, MDA, chlorophyll and carotenoids was found in plants exposed to nickel, followed by the sequence cobalt > chromium> zinc. PMID:23760419

  16. Fungal endophytes in germinated seeds of the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Parsa, Soroush; García-Lemos, Adriana M; Castillo, Katherine; Ortiz, Viviana; López-Lavalle, Luis Augusto Becerra; Braun, Jerome; Vega, Fernando E

    2016-05-01

    We conducted a survey of fungal endophytes in 582 germinated seeds belonging to 11 Colombian cultivars of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). The survey yielded 394 endophytic isolates belonging to 42 taxa, as identified by sequence analysis of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Aureobasidium pullulans was the dominant endophyte, isolated from 46.7 % of the samples. Also common were Fusarium oxysporum, Xylaria sp., and Cladosporium cladosporioides, but found in only 13.4 %, 11.7 %, and 7.6 % of seedlings, respectively. Endophytic colonization differed significantly among common bean cultivars and seedling parts, with the highest colonization occurring in the first true leaves of the seedlings. PMID:27109374

  17. Understanding and improving flavor in beans: Screening the USDA Phaseolus core collection for pod sugar and flavor compounds in snap and dry bean accessions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of our research is to gain knowledge regarding variation in sugar and flavor content among a sample of dry bean and green pod-type accessions from the USDA Phaseolus Germplasm Core Collection, Pullman, WA. Knowledge of the variation will allow better utilization of germplasm resources ...

  18. Interaction of cold radiofrequency plasma with seeds of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Bormashenko, Edward; Shapira, Yekaterina; Grynyov, Roman; Whyman, Gene; Bormashenko, Yelena; Drori, Elyashiv

    2015-07-01

    The impact of cold radiofrequency air plasma on the wetting properties and water imbibition of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) was studied. The influence of plasma on wetting of a cotyledon and seed coat (testa) was elucidated. It was established that cold plasma treatment leads to hydrophilization of the cotyledon and tissues constituting the testa when they are separately exposed to plasma. By contrast, when the entire bean is exposed to plasma treatment, only the external surface of the bean is hydrophilized by the cold plasma. Water imbibition by plasma-treated beans was studied. Plasma treatment markedly accelerates the water absorption. The crucial role of a micropyle in the process of water imbibition was established. It was established that the final percentage of germination was almost the same in the cases of plasma-treated, untreated, and vacuum-pumped samples. However, the speed of germination was markedly higher for the plasma-treated samples. The influence of the vacuum pumping involved in the cold plasma treatment on the germination was also clarified. PMID:25948708

  19. Interaction of cold radiofrequency plasma with seeds of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    PubMed Central

    Bormashenko, Edward; Shapira, Yekaterina; Grynyov, Roman; Whyman, Gene; Bormashenko, Yelena; Drori, Elyashiv

    2015-01-01

    The impact of cold radiofrequency air plasma on the wetting properties and water imbibition of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) was studied. The influence of plasma on wetting of a cotyledon and seed coat (testa) was elucidated. It was established that cold plasma treatment leads to hydrophilization of the cotyledon and tissues constituting the testa when they are separately exposed to plasma. By contrast, when the entire bean is exposed to plasma treatment, only the external surface of the bean is hydrophilized by the cold plasma. Water imbibition by plasma-treated beans was studied. Plasma treatment markedly accelerates the water absorption. The crucial role of a micropyle in the process of water imbibition was established. It was established that the final percentage of germination was almost the same in the cases of plasma-treated, untreated, and vacuum-pumped samples. However, the speed of germination was markedly higher for the plasma-treated samples. The influence of the vacuum pumping involved in the cold plasma treatment on the germination was also clarified. PMID:25948708

  20. Novel lectin-related proteins are major components in lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Sparvoli, F; Gallo, A; Marinelli, D; Santucci, A; Bollini, R

    1998-02-17

    The only component of the lectin-related protein family so far reported in Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) seeds is the minor seed lectin (LBL). In the morphotype Big Lima, we have isolated and characterised two abundant lectin-related seed proteins and the corresponding cDNA clones. The clones show 93.7% nucleotide identity and encode an arcelin-like (ARL) and an alpha-amylase inhibitor-like (AIL) protein. Not considering the signal peptides, ARL and AIL polypeptides contain 239 and 233 amino acids, respectively. Each polypeptide is present in the mature protein as two glycoforms. ARL subunits (43 and 46 kDa) make up oligomers of about 125 to 130 kDa whereas AIL subunits (40 and 42 kDa) oligomerise in dimers of about 88 to 100 kDa. cDNA clones encoding two isoforms of the less abundant Lima bean lectin were also isolated. In common bean (P. vulgaris) the lectin locus encodes the lectin and the lectin-related proteins alpha-amylase inhibitor and arcelin, all plant defence proteins. Our data indicate extensive evolution of the locus also in Lima bean. PMID:9540803

  1. Bioaccessibility of phenols in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and iron (Fe) availability to Caco-2 cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Samples of common and biofortified beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), both raw and cooked (autoclaved 120 deg C, 20 min) were analyzed for their polyphenol composition. Polyphenols were identified via HPLC-UV/diode array detection. Cooking favored the extraction of polyphenols without the need of a hydroly...

  2. Isolates of Rhizoctonia solani can produce both web blight and root rot symptoms in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia solani Kühn (Rs) is an important pathogen in the tropics, causing web blight (WB), and a widespread soil-borne root rot (RR) pathogen of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) worldwide. This pathogen is a species complex classified into 14 anastomosis groups (AG). Some AGs have been report...

  3. Transcriptome characterization of developing bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) pods from two genotypes with contrasting seed zinc concentrations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds are a rich source of dietary zinc, especially for people consuming plant-based diets. Within P. vulgaris there is at least two-fold variation in seed Zn concentration. Genetic studies have revealed seed Zn differences to be controlled by a single gene in two c...

  4. MicroRNAs Expression Profile in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) under Nutrient Deficiency Stresses and Manganese Toxicity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a pivotal role in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in plants. The information on miRNAs in legumes is scarce. This work analyzes miRNAs in the agronomically important legume common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris. A hybridization approach of miRNAs-macroarrays prin...

  5. Vulgarinin, a broad-spectrum antifungal peptide from haricot beans (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Wong, Jack Ho; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2005-08-01

    From the seeds of haricot beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), an antifungal peptide with a molecular mass around 7 kDa was purified by using a simple protocol consisting of affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel and gel filtration on Superdex 75. This peptide named vulgarinin manifested an antifungal activity toward fungal species such as Fusarium oxysporum, Mycosphaerella arachidicola, Physalospora piricola and Botrytis cinerea, and an antibacterial action on Mycobacterium phlei, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus subtilis and Proteus vulgaris. It also inhibited proliferation in leukemia cell lines L1210 and M1 and breast cancer cell line MCF-7. This peptide could reduce the activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and inhibited translation in a cell-free rabbit reticulocyte lysate system. Its antifungal activity was retained after incubation with trypsin. PMID:15896669

  6. Lunatusin, a trypsin-stable antimicrobial peptide from lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus L.).

    PubMed

    Wong, Jack Ho; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2005-11-01

    An anti-fungal peptide designated as lunatusin, with a molecular mass around 7kDa, was purified from the seeds of Chinese lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.). The peptide was isolated using a simple protocol consisting of affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel and gel filtration on Superdex 75. Lunatusin exerted an anti-fungal activity toward fungal species such as Fusarium oxysporum, Mycosphaerella arachidicola and Botrytis cinerea, and an antibacterial action on, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus subtilis, Proteus vulgaris and Mycobacterium phlei. It also inhibited proliferation in the breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Lunatusin reduced the activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and it also inhibited translation in a cell-free rabbit reticulocyte lysate system. Its anti-fungal activity was retained after incubation with trypsin. Lunatusin elicited a mitogenic response from mouse splenocytes. PMID:16269344

  7. Nutritive value evaluated on rats of new cultivars of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) released in Chile.

    PubMed

    Yañez, E; Zacarias, I; Aguayo, M; Vasquez, M; Guzman, E

    1995-06-01

    Five new cultivars of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) recently released were analyzed for their proximate chemical composition and protein biological quality. The crude protein content in these cultivars ranged from 21.9 percent in cultivar Arroz 3 to 26.9 percent in cultivar Tórtola Diana (dry matter basis). Rats fed cultivar Tórtola INIA gained more weight, had a higher protein intake and registered higher PER and NPR than Tórtola corriente. On the other hand, rats consuming cultivars Arroz 3 and Fleetwood had lower weight gain, lower protein intake and lower PER and NPR than cultivar Coscorrón corriente. However, all these cultivars have a relatively good protein value as compared to other plant protein sources. PMID:8577647

  8. Protein structures of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) alpha-amylase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shih-Chieh; Gepts, Paul L; Whitaker, John R

    2002-10-23

    Two nucleotide sequences for genes that encode alpha-amylase inhibitor 4 (alphaAI-4) from white kidney bean (WKB) cv. 858, designated gene alphaAI-4 (Accession No. ), and alpha-amylase inhibitor 5 (alphaAI-5) from black bean (BB), designated gene alphaAI-5 (Accession No. ), were determined. Genes alphaAI-4 and alphaAI-5 encode 244 amino acid prepro-alphaAI-4 and prepro-alphaAI-5 polypeptides that are 93 and 95% identical with alpha-amylase inhibitor l (alphaAI-l; Hoffman, L. M.; Ma, Y.; Barker, R. F. Nucleic Acids Res. 1982, 10, 7819-7828), 40 and 43% identical with red kidney bean lectin, and 52 and 55% identical with arcelin l of wild-type bean. The high degree of sequence similarity indicates the evolutionary relationship among these genes. PCR analysis of genomic DNA purified from six genotypes of Phaseolus vulgaris showed very similar band patterns in 2% agarose gel, another indication of the conserved size homology among these genes. Proteolytic processing sites were located between Asn77 and Ser78 for pro-alphaAI-4 and pro-alphaAI-5. A bend next to Asn77 in three-dimensional model structures of alphaAI-4 and alphaAI-5 proinhibitors indicates that the proteolytic cleavage is necessary to remove the conformational constraint for activation to the mature protein. Mature WKB alphaAI-4 was composed of four subunits (2alpha2beta) and had a molecular weight of 50000 determined by multiangle laser light scattering and 56714 determined by laser-assisted time-of-flight mass spectrometry. PMID:12381161

  9. Environmental Effects of Nanoceria on Seed Production of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris): A Proteomic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Sanghamitra; Almeida, Igor C; Arigi, Emma A; Choi, Hyungwon; VerBerkmoes, Nathan C; Trujillo-Reyes, Jesica; Flores-Margez, Juan P; White, Jason C; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2015-11-17

    The rapidly growing literature on the response of edible plants to nanoceria has provided evidence of its uptake and bioaccumulation, which delineates a possible route of entry into the food chain. However, little is known about how the residing organic matter in soil may affect the bioavailability and resulting impacts of nanoceria on plants. Here, we examined the effect of nanoceria exposure (62.5-500 mg/kg) on kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) productivity and seed quality as a function of soil organic matter content. Cerium accumulation in the seeds produced from plants in organic matter enriched soil showed a dose-dependent increase, unlike in low organic matter soil treatments. Seeds obtained upon nanoceria exposure in soils with higher organic matter were more susceptible to changes in nutrient quality. A quantitative proteomic analysis of the seeds produced upon nanoceria exposure provided evidence for upregulation of stress-related proteins at 62.5 and 125 mg/kg nanoceria treatments. Although the plants did not exhibit overt toxicity, the major seed proteins primarily associated with nutrient storage (phaseolin) and carbohydrate metabolism (lectins) were significantly down-regulated in a dose dependent manner upon nanoceria exposure. This study thus suggests that nanoceria exposures may negatively affect the nutritional quality of kidney beans at the cellular and molecular level. More confirmatory studies with nanoceria along different species using alternative and orthogonal "omic" tools are currently under active investigation, which will enable the identification of biomarkers of exposure and susceptibility. PMID:26488752

  10. A growth analysis of waterlogging damage in mung bean (Phaseolus aureus)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musgrave, M. E.; Vanhoy, M. A.

    1989-01-01

    Mung beans (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) were grown for 2 weeks in gravel-vermiculite soilless mix in a growth chamber and subjected to a 1-week waterlogging period followed by a 1-week recovery period. Sequential harvests were made to determine the time course of effects of waterlogging and subsequent recovery on growth parameters by techniques of growth analysis. Root dry matter was the first to be affected, along with an increase in leaf dry matter and specific leaf weight. After a 1-week waterlogging period, specific leaf weight had more than doubled in the stressed plants. Leaf area declined in relation to the control plants as did the ratio of root dry matter to shoot dry matter. During the recovery period there was an increase in the dry matter allocation to the roots relative to the shoot. Specific leaf weight fell to control levels although the rate of leaf area elaboration did not increase during this time, suggesting a redistribution of stored assimilates from the leaves. Net assimilation rate increased during the waterlogging period, probably due to a restriction in root metabolism and reduced translocation out of the leaf rather than to an increase in photosynthesis. Net assimilation rate of waterlogged plants was severely reduced compared with control plants during the recovery period. Both relative growth rate and leaf area duration declined during the waterlogging period and declined further subsequent to the waterlogging treatment. The results illustrate the interrelationships between root and shoot carbon budgets in mung bean during response to the stress of waterlogging.

  11. Antipeptide antibodies that can distinguish specific subunit polypeptides of glutamine synthetase from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cai, X.; Henry, R. L.; Takemoto, L. J.; Guikema, J. A.; Wong, P. P.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    The amino acid sequences of the beta and gamma subunit polypeptides of glutamine synthetase from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) root nodules are very similar. However, there are small regions within the sequences that are significantly different between the two polypeptides. The sequences between amino acids 2 and 9 and between 264 and 274 are examples. Three peptides (gamma 2-9, gamma 264-274, and beta 264-274) corresponding to these sequences were synthesized. Antibodies against these peptides were raised in rabbits and purified with corresponding peptide-Sepharose affinity chromatography. Western blot analysis of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of bean nodule proteins demonstrated that the anti-beta 264-274 antibodies reacted specifically with the beta polypeptide and the anti-gamma 264-274 and anti-gamma 2-9 antibodies reacted specifically with the gamma polypeptide of the native and denatured glutamine synthetase. These results showed the feasibility of using synthetic peptides in developing antibodies that are capable of distinguishing proteins with similar primary structures.

  12. Cell-Wall Proteins Induced by Water Deficit in Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Seedlings.

    PubMed Central

    Covarrubias, A. A.; Ayala, J. W.; Reyes, J. L.; Hernandez, M.; Garciarrubio, A.

    1995-01-01

    In the last few years, much attention has been given to the role of proteins that accumulate during water deficit. In this work, we analyzed the electrophoretic patterns of basic protein extracts, enriched for a number of cell-wall proteins, from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seedlings and 21-d-old plants subjected to water deficit. Three major basic proteins accumulated in bean seedlings exposed to low water potentials, with apparent molecular masses of 36, 33, and 22 kD, which we refer to as p36, p33, and p22, respectively. Leaves and roots of 21-d-old plants grown under low-water-availability conditions accumulated only p36 and p33 proteins. In 21-d-old plants subjected to a fast rate of water loss, both p33 and p36 accumulated to approximately the same levels, whereas if the plants were subjected to a gradual loss of water, p33 accumulated to higher levels. Both p36 and p33 were glycosylated and were found in the cell-wall fraction. In contrast, p22 was not glycosylated and was found in the soluble fraction. The accumulation of these proteins was also induced by abscisic acid (0.1-1.0 mM) treatment but not by wounding or by jasmonate treatment. PMID:12228420

  13. Assessment of genotoxic effects of boron on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) by using RAPD analysis.

    PubMed

    Kekec, Guzin; Sakcali, M Serdal; Uzonur, Irem

    2010-06-01

    In boron-rich soils of Turkey, boron tolerant wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and sensitive bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are most widely cultivated crops. In this study they have been studied to elucidate the probable genotoxic effects of boron by using RAPD analysis. During the study, root and stem lengths have been measured and inhibitory rates (%) of root growth have been found to be significant, starting from 10 (13%) and 5 ppm (19%) for wheat and bean, respectively, which is in strong correlation with the root DNA alterations; RAPD variations starting from 100 ppm for wheat and 25 ppm for bean. The preliminary findings encourage the use of these tools in investigation of genotoxic effects of boron on wheat, bean and the other crops. PMID:20467724

  14. Analysis of trypsin inhibitors and lectins in white kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris, var. Processor) in a combined method.

    PubMed

    Roozen, J P; de Groot, J

    1991-01-01

    Buffered saline extraction, affinity chromatography, and Folin-BSA protein assay were used consecutively to provide a combined method for analysis of trypsin inhibitors and lectins in white kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris, var. Processor). The method was tested by following the decrease of both antinutritional factors by germination of the beans for 7 days at 20 degrees C. Repeatability coefficients of variation were 2-7.4% for the trypsin inhibitors and 2.2-10% for the lectins. After 7 days of germination, trypsin inhibitors and lectins were reduced by 72 and 92%, respectively. PMID:1757418

  15. The Linamarin β-Glucosidase in Costa Rican Wild Lima Beans (Phaseolus lunatus L.) Is Apoplastic 1

    PubMed Central

    Frehner, Marco; Conn, Eric E.

    1987-01-01

    Analysis of mesophyll protoplasts and cell wall extracts of leaf discs of Costa Rican wild lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) shows that the linamarase activity is confined to the apoplast. Its substrate linamarin, together with the related enzyme hydroxynitrile lyase, is found inside the cells. This compartmentation prevents cyanogenesis from occurring in intact tissue, and suggests that linamarin has to be protected during any translocation across the linamarase rich apoplast. PMID:16665601

  16. Molecular cloning and characterization of the ABA-specific glucosyltransferase gene from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Palaniyandi, Sasikumar Arunachalam; Chung, Gyuhwa; Kim, Sang Hyon; Yang, Seung Hwan

    2015-04-15

    Levels of the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) are maintained in homeostasis by a balance of its biosynthesis, catabolism and conjugation. The detailed molecular and signaling events leading to strict homeostasis are not completely understood in crop plants. In this study, we obtained cDNA of an ABA-inducible, ABA-specific UDP-glucosyltransferase (ABAGT) from the bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) involved in conjugation of a glucose residue to ABA to form inactive ABA-glucose ester (ABA-GE) to examine its role during development and abiotic stress in bean. The bacterially expressed PvABAGTase enzyme showed ABA-specific glucosylation activity in vitro. A higher level of the PvABAGT transcript was observed in mature leaves, mature flowers, roots, seed coats and embryos as well as upon rehydration following a period of dehydration. Overexpression of 35S::PvABAGT in Arabidopsis showed reduced sensitivity to ABA compared with WT. The transgenic plants showed a high level of ABA-GE without significant decrease in the level of ABA compared with the wild type (WT) during dehydration stress. Upon rehydration, the levels of ABA and phaseic acid (PA) decreased in the WT and the PvABAGT-overexpressing lines with high levels of ABA-GE only in the transgenic plants. Our findings suggest that the PvABAGT gene could play a role in ABA homeostasis during development and stress responses in bean and its overexpression in Arabidopsis did not alter ABA homeostasis during dehydration stress. PMID:25747288

  17. Beans in Europe: origin and structure of the European landraces of Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    PubMed

    Angioi, S A; Rau, D; Attene, G; Nanni, L; Bellucci, E; Logozzo, G; Negri, V; Spagnoletti Zeuli, P L; Papa, R

    2010-09-01

    This study focuses on the expansion of Phaseolus vulgaris in Europe. The pathways of distribution of beans into and across Europe were very complex, with several introductions from the New World that were combined with direct exchanges between European and other Mediterranean countries. We have analyzed here six chloroplast microsatellite (cpSSR) loci and two unlinked nuclear loci (for phaseolin types and Pv-shatterproof1). We have assessed the genetic structure and level of diversity of a large collection of European landraces of P. vulgaris (307) in comparison to 94 genotypes from the Americas that are representative of the Andean and Mesoamerican gene pools. First, we show that most of the European common bean landraces (67%) are of Andean origin, and that there are no strong differences across European regions for the proportions of the Andean and Mesoamerican gene pools. Moreover, cytoplasmic diversity is evenly distributed across European regions. Secondly, the cytoplasmic bottleneck that was due to the introduction of P. vulgaris into the Old World was very weak or nearly absent. This is in contrast to evidence from nuclear analyses that have suggested a bottleneck of greater intensity. Finally, we estimate that a relatively high proportion of the European bean germplasm (about 44%) was derived from hybridization between the Andean and Mesoamerican gene pools. Moreover, although hybrids are present everywhere in Europe, they show an uneven distribution, with high frequencies in central Europe, and low frequencies in Spain and Italy. On the basis of these data, we suggest that the entire European continent and not only some of the countries therein can be regarded as a secondary diversification center for P. vulgaris. Finally, we outline the relevance of these inter-gene pool hybrids for plant breeding. PMID:20490446

  18. Genome-Wide Association Study of Anthracnose Resistance in Andean Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    PubMed Central

    Zuiderveen, Grady H.; Padder, Bilal A.; Kamfwa, Kelvin; Song, Qijian; Kelly, James D.

    2016-01-01

    Anthracnose is a seed-borne disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) caused by the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and the pathogen is cosmopolitan in distribution. The objectives of this study were to identify new sources of anthracnose resistance in a diverse panel of 230 Andean beans comprised of multiple seed types and market classes from the Americas, Africa, and Europe, and explore the genetic basis of this resistance using genome-wide association mapping analysis (GWAS). Twenty-eight of the 230 lines tested were resistant to six out of the eight races screened, but only one cultivar Uyole98 was resistant to all eight races (7, 39, 55, 65, 73, 109, 2047, and 3481) included in the study. Outputs from the GWAS indicated major quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance on chromosomes, Pv01, Pv02, and Pv04 and two minor QTL on Pv10 and Pv11. Candidate genes associated with the significant SNPs were detected on all five chromosomes. An independent QTL study was conducted to confirm the physical location of the Co-1 locus identified on Pv01 in an F4:6 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. Resistance was determined to be conditioned by the single dominant gene Co-1 that mapped between 50.16 and 50.30 Mb on Pv01, and an InDel marker (NDSU_IND_1_50.2219) tightly linked to the gene was developed. The information reported will provide breeders with new and diverse sources of resistance and genomic regions to target in the development of anthracnose resistance in Andean beans. PMID:27270627

  19. Isolation and characterization of endophytic bacteria isolated from the leaves of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira Costa, Leonardo Emanuel; de Queiroz, Marisa Vieira; Borges, Arnaldo Chaer; de Moraes, Celia Alencar; de Araújo, Elza Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    The common bean is one of the most important legumes in the human diet, but little is known about the endophytic bacteria associated with the leaves of this plant. The objective of this study was to characterize the culturable endophytic bacteria of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) leaves from three different cultivars (Vermelhinho, Talismã, and Ouro Negro) grown under the same field conditions. The density of endophytic populations varied from 4.5 x 102 to 2.8 x 103 CFU g-1 of fresh weight. Of the 158 total isolates, 36.7% belonged to the Proteobacteria, 32.9% to Firmicutes, 29.7% to Actinobacteria, and 0.6% to Bacteroidetes. The three P. vulgaris cultivars showed class distribution differences among Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria and Bacilli. Based on 16S rDNA sequences, 23 different genera were isolated comprising bacteria commonly associated with soil and plants. The genera Bacillus, Delftia, Methylobacterium, Microbacterium, Paenibacillus, Staphylococcus and Stenotrophomonas were isolated from all three cultivars. To access and compare the community structure, diversity indices were calculated. The isolates from the Talismã cultivar were less diverse than the isolates derived from the other two cultivars. The results of this work indicate that the cultivar of the plant may contribute to the structure of the endophytic community associated with the common bean. This is the first report of endophytic bacteria from the leaves of P. vulgaris cultivars. Future studies will determine the potential application of these isolates in biological control, growth promotion and enzyme production for biotechnology. PMID:24031988

  20. Genome-Wide Association Study of Anthracnose Resistance in Andean Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Zuiderveen, Grady H; Padder, Bilal A; Kamfwa, Kelvin; Song, Qijian; Kelly, James D

    2016-01-01

    Anthracnose is a seed-borne disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) caused by the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and the pathogen is cosmopolitan in distribution. The objectives of this study were to identify new sources of anthracnose resistance in a diverse panel of 230 Andean beans comprised of multiple seed types and market classes from the Americas, Africa, and Europe, and explore the genetic basis of this resistance using genome-wide association mapping analysis (GWAS). Twenty-eight of the 230 lines tested were resistant to six out of the eight races screened, but only one cultivar Uyole98 was resistant to all eight races (7, 39, 55, 65, 73, 109, 2047, and 3481) included in the study. Outputs from the GWAS indicated major quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance on chromosomes, Pv01, Pv02, and Pv04 and two minor QTL on Pv10 and Pv11. Candidate genes associated with the significant SNPs were detected on all five chromosomes. An independent QTL study was conducted to confirm the physical location of the Co-1 locus identified on Pv01 in an F4:6 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. Resistance was determined to be conditioned by the single dominant gene Co-1 that mapped between 50.16 and 50.30 Mb on Pv01, and an InDel marker (NDSU_IND_1_50.2219) tightly linked to the gene was developed. The information reported will provide breeders with new and diverse sources of resistance and genomic regions to target in the development of anthracnose resistance in Andean beans. PMID:27270627

  1. Demographic factors shaped diversity in the two gene pools of wild common bean Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    PubMed Central

    Mamidi, S; Rossi, M; Moghaddam, S M; Annam, D; Lee, R; Papa, R; McClean, P E

    2013-01-01

    Wild common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is distributed throughout the Americas from Mexico to northern Argentina. Within this range, the species is divided into two gene pools (Andean and Middle American) along a latitudinal gradient. The diversity of 24 wild common bean genotypes from throughout the geographic range of the species was described by using sequence data from 13 loci. An isolation–migration model was evaluated using a coalescent analysis to estimate multiple demographic parameters. Using a Bayesian approach, Andean and Middle American subpopulations with high percentage of parentages were observed. Over all loci, the Middle American gene pool was more diverse than the Andean gene pool (πsil=0.0089 vs 0.0068). The two subpopulations were strongly genetically differentiated over all loci (Fst=0.29). It is estimated that the two current wild gene pools diverged from a common ancestor ∼111 000 years ago. Subsequently, each gene pool underwent a bottleneck immediately after divergence and lasted ∼40 000 years. The Middle American bottleneck population size was ∼46% of the ancestral population size, whereas the Andean was 26%. Continuous asymmetric gene flow was detected between the two gene pools with a larger number of migrants entering Middle American gene pool from the Andean gene pool. These results suggest that because of the complex population structure associated with the ancestral divergence, subsequent bottlenecks in each gene pool, gene pool-specific domestication and intense selection within each gene pool by breeders; association mapping would best be practised within each common bean gene pool. PMID:23169559

  2. Assesing potential effects of inulin and probiotic bacteria on Fe bioavailability from common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to Caco-2 cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inulin, a prebiotic, may enhance intestinal Fe absorption. Our objective was to assess the effects of supplemental inulin and two probiotic bacteria (B. infantis and L.acidophillus) on Fe availability to Caco-2 cells from common white and red beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Cooked beans were mixed o...

  3. Transcript Profiling of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Using the GeneChip Soybean Genome Array: Optimizing Analysis by Masking Biased Probes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and soybean (Glycine max) both belong to the Phaseoleae tribe and share significant coding sequence homology. To evaluate the utility of the soybean GeneChip for transcript profiling of common bean, we hybridized cRNAs purified from nodule, leaf, and root of common b...

  4. Transcript Profiling of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Using the GeneChip(R) Soybean Genome Array: Optimizing Analysis by Masking Biased Probes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and soybean (Glycine max) both belong to the Phaseoleae tribe and share significant coding sequence homology. This suggests that the GeneChip(R) Soybean Genome Array (soybean GeneChip) may be used for gene expression studies using common bean. To evaluate the utility...

  5. Inheritance of high levels of resistance to common bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas Axonopodis pv. Phaseoli in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common bacterial blight caused by the pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli (Xap) is an important biotic factor limiting common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production. A few interspecific bean breeding lines such as VAX 6 exhibit a high level of resistance to a wide range of Xap strains repr...

  6. Linkage disequilibrium at the APA insecticidal seed protein locus of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background An interesting seed protein family with a role in preventing insect herbivory is the multi-gene, APA family encoding the α-amylase inhibitor, phytohemagglutinin and arcelin proteins of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Variability for this gene family exists and has been exploited to breed for insect resistance. For example, the arcelin locus has been successfully transferred from wild to cultivated common bean genotypes to provide resistance against the bruchid species Zabrotes subfasciatus although the process has been hampered by a lack of genetic tools for and understanding about the locus. In this study, we analyzed linkage disequilibrium (LD) between microsatellite markers at the APA locus and bruchid resistance in a germplasm survey of 105 resistant and susceptible genotypes and compared this with LD in other parts of the genome. Results Microsatellite allele diversity was found to vary with each of the eight APA-linked markers analyzed, and two markers within the APA locus were found to be diagnostic for bruchid resistance or susceptibility and for the different arcelin alleles inherited from the wild accessions. Arc1 was found to provide higher levels of resistance than Arc5 and the markers in the APA locus were highly associated with resistance showing that introgression of this gene-family from wild beans provides resistance in cultivated beans. LD around the APA locus was found to be intermediate compared to other regions of the genome and the highest LD was found within the APA locus itself for example between the markers PV-atct001 and PV-ag004. Conclusions We found the APA locus to be an important genetic determinant of bruchid resistance and also found that LD existed mostly within the APA locus but not beyond it. Moderate LD was also found for some other regions of the genome perhaps related to domestication genes. The LD pattern may reflect the introgression of arcelin from the wild into the cultivated background through breeding. LD

  7. Activation of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) [alpha]-amylase inhibitor requires proteolytic processing of the proprotein

    SciTech Connect

    Pueyo, J.J.; Hunt, D.C.; Chrispeels, M.J. )

    1993-04-01

    Seeds of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) contain a plant defense protein that inhibits the [alpha]-amylases of mammals and insects. This [alpha]-amylase inhibitor ([alpha]Al) is synthesized as a proprotein on the endoplasmic reticulum and is proteolytically processed after arrival in the protein storage vacuoles to polypeptides of relative molecular weight (M[sub r]) 15,000 to 18,000. The authors report two types of evidence that proteolytic processing is linked to activation of the inhibitory activity. First, by surveying seed extracts of wild accessions of P. vulgaris and other species in the genus Phaseolus, they found that antibodies to [alpha]Al recognize large (M[sub r] 30,000-35,000) polypeptides as well as typical [alpha]Al processing products (M[sub r] 15,000-18,000). [alpha]Al activity was found in all extracts that had the typical [alpha]Al processed polypeptides, but was absent from seed extracts that lacked such polypeptides. Second, they made a mutant [alpha]Al in which asparagine-77 is changed to aspartic acid-77. This mutation slows down the proteolytic processing of pro-[alpha]Al when the gene is expressed in tobacco. When pro-[alpha]Al was separated from mature [alpha]Al by gel filtration, pro-[alpha]Al was found not to have [alpha]-amylase inhibitory activity. The authors interpret these results to mean that formation of the active inhibitor is causally related to proteolytic processing of the proprotein. They suggest that the polypeptide cleavage removes a conformation constraint on the precursor to produce the biochemically active molecule. 43 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Activation of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) alpha-amylase inhibitor requires proteolytic processing of the proprotein.

    PubMed Central

    Pueyo, J J; Hunt, D C; Chrispeels, M J

    1993-01-01

    Seeds of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) contain a plant defense protein that inhibits the alpha-amylases of mammals and insects. This alpha-amylase inhibitor (alpha AI) is synthesized as a proprotein on the endoplasmic reticulum and is proteolytically processed after arrival in the protein storage vacuoles to polypeptides of relative molecular weight (M(r)) 15,000 to 18,000. We report two types of evidence that proteolytic processing is linked to activation of the inhibitory activity. First, by surveying seed extracts of wild accessions of P. vulgaris and other species in the genus Phaseolus, we found that antibodies to alpha AI recognize large (M(r) 30,000-35,000) polypeptides as well as typical alpha AI processing products (M(r) 15,000-18,000). Alpha AI activity was found in all extracts that had the typical alpha AI processed polypeptides, but was absent from seed extracts that lacked such polypeptides. Second, we made a mutant alpha AI in which asparagine-77 is changed to aspartic acid-77. This mutation slows down the proteolytic processing of pro-alpha AI when the gene is expressed in tobacco. When pro-alpha AI was separated from mature alpha AI by gel filtration, pro-alpha AI was found not to have alpha-amylase inhibitory activity. We interpret these results to mean that formation of the active inhibitor is causally related to proteolytic processing of the proprotein. We suggest that the polypeptide cleavage removes a conformational constraint on the precursor to produce the biochemically active molecule. PMID:8310064

  9. Effect of variable protein contents in diets containing Phaseolus vulgaris beans on performance, organ weights and blood variables in piglets, rats and chickens.

    PubMed

    Huisman, J; van der Poel, A F; Mouwen, J M; van Weerden, E J

    1990-11-01

    A comparison was made of the effects of antinutritional factors present in Phaseolus vulgaris on piglets, rats and chickens. Also the hypothesis of whether the negative effect on weight gain due to the inclusion of raw Phaseolus vulgaris in the diet can be attributed to an insufficient supply of amino acids was tested. Test diets containing 200 g raw Phaseolus beans/kg were balanced for digestible protein and amino acids; in one diet extra casein was incorporated. The main response criteria were live-weight gain and the weight of various organs including the intestine. Live-weight gain in piglets was markedly reduced during feeding 200 g raw Phaseolus vulgaris/kg in the diet, but not in rats and chickens. Addition of casein did not improve the weight gain of the piglets, indicating that a toxic factor was responsible for the reduced weight gain and not an insufficient supply of amino acids. The weights of the spleen and thymus were markedly reduced in the piglets when the diets with raw Phaseolus beans were given, but not in the rats and chickens. Additional supply of casein did not change this effect. Indications were found that when the supply of dietary protein is adequate there is no reduction in pancreas weight with raw Phaseolus beans as was observed in previous experiments. The weight of the intestine was increased in all three species due to feeding raw Phaseolus vulgaris. PMID:2265183

  10. Genetic mapping of two genes conferring resistance to powdery mildew in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Vega, Elena; Trabanco, Noemí; Campa, Ana; Ferreira, Juan José

    2013-06-01

    Powdery mildew (PM) is a serious disease in many legume species, including the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). This study investigated the genetic control behind resistance reaction to PM in the bean genotype, Cornell 49242. The results revealed evidence supporting a qualitative mode of inheritance for resistance and the involvement of two independent genes in the resistance reaction. The location of these resistance genes was investigated in a linkage genetic map developed for the XC RIL population. Contingency tests revealed significant associations for 28 loci out of a total of 329 mapped loci. Fifteen were isolated or formed groups with less than two loci. The thirteen remaining loci were located at three regions in linkage groups Pv04, Pv09, and Pv11. The involvement of Pv09 was discarded due to the observed segregation in the subpopulation obtained from the Xana genotype for the loci located in this region. In contrast, the two subpopulations obtained from the Xana genotype for the BM161 locus, linked to the Co-3/9 anthracnose resistance gene (Pv04), and from the Xana genotype for the SCAReoli locus, linked to the Co-2 anthracnose resistance gene (Pv11), exhibited monogenic segregations, suggesting that both regions were involved in the genetic control of resistance. A genetic dissection was carried out to verify the involvement of both regions in the reaction to PM. Two resistant recombinant lines were selected, according to their genotypes, for the block of loci included in the Co-2 and Co-3/9 regions, and they were crossed with the susceptible parent, Xana. Linkage analysis in the respective F2 populations supported the hypothesis that a dominant gene (Pm1) was located in the linkage group Pv11 and another gene (Pm2) was located in the linkage group Pv04. This is the first report showing the localization of resistance genes against powdery mildew in Phaseolus vulgaris and the results offer the opportunity to increase the efficiency of breeding

  11. OZONE ALTERS THE CONCENTRATIONS OF NUTRIENTS IN BEAN TISSUE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies were conducted to determine the impact of ozone on the nutrient concentrations in tissue from various organs of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv Bush Bluelake 290). The plants were exposed to episodic concentrations of ozone in open-top field exposure chambers from soon af...

  12. Identification of novel drought-tolerant-associated SNPs in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    PubMed Central

    Villordo-Pineda, Emiliano; González-Chavira, Mario M.; Giraldo-Carbajo, Patricia; Acosta-Gallegos, Jorge A.; Caballero-Pérez, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is a leguminous in high demand for human nutrition and a very important agricultural product. Production of common bean is constrained by environmental stresses such as drought. Although conventional plant selection has been used to increase production yield and stress tolerance, drought tolerance selection based on phenotype is complicated by associated physiological, anatomical, cellular, biochemical, and molecular changes. These changes are modulated by differential gene expression. A common method to identify genes associated with phenotypes of interest is the characterization of Single Nucleotide Polymorphims (SNPs) to link them to specific functions. In this work, we selected two drought-tolerant parental lines from Mesoamerica, Pinto Villa, and Pinto Saltillo. The parental lines were used to generate a population of 282 families (F3:5) and characterized by 169 SNPs. We associated the segregation of the molecular markers in our population with phenotypes including flowering time, physiological maturity, reproductive period, plant, seed and total biomass, reuse index, seed yield, weight of 100 seeds, and harvest index in three cultivation cycles. We observed 83 SNPs with significant association (p < 0.0003 after Bonferroni correction) with our quantified phenotypes. Phenotypes most associated were days to flowering and seed biomass with 58 and 44 associated SNPs, respectively. Thirty-seven out of the 83 SNPs were annotated to a gene with a potential function related to drought tolerance or relevant molecular/biochemical functions. Some SNPs such as SNP28 and SNP128 are related to starch biosynthesis, a common osmotic protector; and SNP18 is related to proline biosynthesis, another well-known osmotic protector. PMID:26257755

  13. Effect of cooking on aroma profile of red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and correlation with sensory quality.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Prashant K; Tripathi, Jyoti; Gupta, Sumit; Variyar, Prasad S

    2017-01-15

    Volatile aroma compounds of three varieties of red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) namely Kashmiri red, Sharmili and Chitra were extracted in raw state using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and cooked state using simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE). During cooking a significant (p<0.05) reduction in the content of several aldehydes, alcohols and terpene hydrocarbons while an increase in content of various sulfurous compounds, terpene alcohols, ketones and pyrazines was noted. Descriptive sensory analysis showed that the maximum intensity of 'kidney bean', 'earthy' and 'smoky' odour was observed in Kashmiri red while Sharmili variety was characterised by 'sulfurous' odour. Correlation of volatile profile data with descriptive sensory analysis and odour activity values clearly established the role of compounds, such as methanethiol, diethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, methional and dimethyl trisulfide, in contributing to 'cooked kidney bean' aroma, while dimethyl sulfoxide, dimethyl sulfone and ethyl methyl sulfone were responsible for 'sulfurous' aroma. PMID:27542492

  14. Evaluation of the antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of extracted saponins and flavonols from germinated black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Guajardo-Flores, Daniel; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A

    2013-11-15

    Flavonoids and saponins from common beans have been widely studied due to their bioactivity. This research evaluated the effect of germination of black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) on the antioxidant capacity and antiproliferative activity against cancer cell lines of saponins and flavonoids extracted from seed coats, cotyledons and sprouts. Principal component analysis was performed to achieve punctual associations between the black bean saponins and flavonoids concentrations to the antioxidant capacity and the antiproliferative activities. Total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of extracts were higher when obtained from seed coats, mainly from the 3rd germination day. The extracts obtained from seed coats after 3 and 5 germination days inhibited all cancer cell lines proliferation with no cytotoxicity against control cells. Genistein was related with the activity against mammary cancer cells but flavonols and group B saponins were more related with hepatic and colon cancers. Non-glycosilated flavonols were related with antioxidant capacity. PMID:23790944

  15. Effect of different production systems on chemical profiles of dwarf French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Top Crop) pods.

    PubMed

    Jakopic, Jerneja; Slatnar, Ana; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Veberic, Robert; Stampar, Franci; Bavec, Franci; Bavec, Martina

    2013-03-13

    The chemical composition of dwarf French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cv. Top Crop was compared among five production systems: conventional, integrated, organic, and biodynamic production systems and the control. Determination of sugars and organic acids was performed with a HPLC system, and identification of individual phenolic compounds using HPLC-MS. The chemical composition of the beans was unaffected by the production systems; however, the content levels of individual compounds were changed. The pods from integrated production contained the lowest levels of glucose and sucrose and the highest levels of catechin, procyanidin dimers, and a vanillic acid derivative. The control treatment, as well as organic and biodynamic productions, positively affected the levels of sugar content and caused a lower content of catechin and trans-p-coumaroylaldaric acids. Beans from the conventional production system contained the lowest levels of fructose, glucose, ascorbic acid, and many phenolics from various groups. PMID:23398279

  16. Selection of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes using a genotype plus genotype x environment interaction biplot.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, A M; Teodoro, P E; Gonçalves, M C; Santos, A; Torres, F E

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the genotype plus genotype x environment interaction (GGE) biplot methodology has been used to investigate genotype x environment interactions in several crop species, but has not been applied to the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) crop in Brazil. The aim of this study was to identify common bean genotypes that exhibit high grain yield and stability in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. We conducted 12 trials from 2000 to 2006 in the municipalities of Aquidauana and Dourados, and evaluated 13 genotypes in a randomized block design with three replications. Grain yield data were subjected to individual and joint analyses of variance. After analyzing the GE interaction, the adaptability and phenotypic stability of the common bean genotypes were analyzed using GGE biplot methodology. The genotypes EMGOPA-201, Xamego, and Aporé are recommended for growing in Mato Grosso do Sul, because they exhibited high grain yield and phenotypic stability. PMID:27525915

  17. Turnover of thylakoid membrane proteins during senescence of primary bean leaves. [Phaseolus vulgaris

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, D.R.; Dumbroff, E.B.; Mattoo, A.K.; Thompson, J.E.

    1986-04-01

    Pulse-labelling of primary bean leaves (Phaseolus vulgaris) with /sup 35/S-methionine has revealed differential changes in the rates at which proteins in thylakoid membranes are synthesized during senescence. In particular, synthesis of the 32 Kd herbicide-binding protein remains highly active throughout senescence, whereas turnover of the ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. subunits of ATPase and of the LHCP declines. During a 24-h pulse chase experiment with unlabelled methionine, only the 32 KD protein showed evidence of degradation. Degradation of the 32 Kd unit and, to a lesser extent, of other thylakoid proteins was also observed when the membranes were aged in vitro. The latter process resembled that observed in vivo in that it was light dependent, sensitive to DCMU, and it was inhibited by spermine and Ca/sup 2 +/, both of which alter membrane fluidity. Collectively, these observations suggest that in vitro aging of thylakoid membranes is a useful model system for studying the characteristics of the thylakoid protein degradation.

  18. Effect of cooking and germination on phenolic composition and biological properties of dark beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    López, Ana; El-Naggar, Tarek; Dueñas, Montserrat; Ortega, Teresa; Estrella, Isabel; Hernández, Teresa; Gómez-Serranillos, M Pilar; Palomino, Olga M; Carretero, M Emilia

    2013-05-01

    Legumes are the basés diet in several countries. They hold a high nutritional value, but other properties related to human health are nowadays being studied. The aim of this work was to study the influence of processes (boiling or germination) on the phenolic composition of dark beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. c.v. Tolosana) and their effect on their antioxidant, neuroprotective and anticancer ability. Phenolic composition of raw and processed dark beans was analysed by HPLC-PAD and HPLC-ESI/MS. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by ORAC. Astrocytes cultures (U-373) have been used to test their neuroprotective effect. Anticancer activities were evaluated on three different cell lines (renal adenocarcinoma (TK-10), breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) and melanoma (UACC-62)) by sulphorhodamine B method. Qualitative and quantitative differences in phenolic composition have been observed between raw and processed dark beans that influence the antioxidant activity, mainly for germinated samples which show a decrease of antioxidant capacity. Although every assayed extracts decreased reactive oxygen species release and exhibited cytotoxicity activities on cancer cell lines, raw beans proved to be the most active in neuroprotective and antitumoral effects; this sample is especially rich in phenolic compounds, mainly anthocyanins. This study further demonstrated that phenolic composition of dark beans is related with cooking process and so with their neuroprotective and anticancer activity; cooking of dark beans improves their digestion and absorption at intestinal level, while maintaining its protective ability on oxidative process at cellular level. PMID:23265523

  19. Lectin and lectin-related proteins in lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) seeds: biochemical and evolutionary studies.

    PubMed

    Sparvoli, F; Lanave, C; Santucci, A; Bollini, R; Lioi, L

    2001-03-01

    Lectin-related polypeptides are a class of defence proteins found in seeds of Phaseolus species. In Lima bean (P. lunatus), these proteins and their genes have been well characterized in the Andean morphotype, which represents one of the two gene pools of this species. To study the molecular evolution of the lectin family in Lima bean we characterized the polypeptides belonging to this multigene family and cloned the genes belonging to the Mesoamerican gene pool. The latter gene pool contains components similar to those of the Andean pool, namely: an amylase inhibitor-like (AIL), an arcelin-like (ARL) lectin and the less abundant Lima bean lectin (LBL). These proteins originate from an ancestor gene of the lectin type which duplicated to yield the lectin gene and the progenitor of ARL and AIL. In this species. ARL represents an evolutionary intermediate form that precedes AIL. Phylogenetic analysis supports an Andean origin for Lima bean. The molecular evolutionary studies were extended to the genes of common bean and demonstrated that true lectin genes and the ancestor of lectin-related genes are the result of a duplication event that occurred before speciation. Lima and common bean followed different evolutionary pathways and in the latter species a second duplication event occurred that gave rise, in Mesoamerican wild genotypes, to arcelin genes. PMID:11414617

  20. Evaluation of diversity among common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) from two centers of domestication using 'omics' technologies

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Genetic diversity among wild accessions and cultivars of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) has been characterized using plant morphology, seed protein allozymes, random amplified polymorphic DNA, restriction fragment length polymorphisms, DNA sequence analysis, chloroplast DNA, and microsatellite markers. Yet, little is known about whether these traits, which distinguish among genetically distinct types of common bean, can be evaluated using omics technologies. Results Three 'omics' approaches: transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics were used to qualitatively evaluate the diversity of common bean from two Centers of Domestication (COD). All three approaches were able to classify common bean according to their COD using unsupervised analyses; these findings are consistent with the hypothesis that differences exist in gene transcription, protein expression, and synthesis and metabolism of small molecules among common bean cultivars representative of different COD. Metabolomic analyses of multiple cultivars within two common bean gene pools revealed cultivar differences in small molecules that were of sufficient magnitude to allow identification of unique cultivar fingerprints. Conclusions Given the high-throughput and low cost of each of these 'omics' platforms, significant opportunities exist for their use in the rapid identification of traits of agronomic and nutritional importance as well as to characterize genetic diversity. PMID:21126341

  1. Specific interaction of human Tamm-Horsfall gylcoprotein with leucoagglutinin, a lectin from Phaseolus vulgaris (red kidney bean).

    PubMed Central

    Serafini-Cessi, F; Franceschi, C; Sperti, S

    1979-01-01

    Human Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein inhibits lymphocyte transformation induced by leucoagglutinin and haemagglutinin from Phaseolus vulgaris (red kidney bean). The glycoprotein interacts with the two lectins, giving insoluble precipitates. The interaction with leucoagglutinin is highly specific, and the shape of the precipitin curve is that of an antigen-antibody reaction; precipitation is specifically inhibited by N-acetyl-D-galactosamine. Results are discussed, and it is suggested that inhibition of lymphocyte transformation is due to competition between human Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein and carbohydrate receptors on lymphocytes for the two lectins. The interaction between human Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein and Phaseolus vulgaris lectins has been used to develop a one-step procedure for the separation of the two lectins by affinity chromatography on (human Tamm-Horsfall-glycoprotein)-Sepharose. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 5. PMID:118744

  2. Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH)-Based Karyotyping Reveals Rapid Evolution of Centromeric and Subtelomeric Repeats in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and Relatives.

    PubMed

    Iwata-Otsubo, Aiko; Radke, Brittany; Findley, Seth; Abernathy, Brian; Vallejos, C Eduardo; Jackson, Scott A

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)-based karyotyping is a powerful cytogenetics tool to study chromosome organization, behavior, and chromosome evolution. Here, we developed a FISH-based karyotyping system using a probe mixture comprised of centromeric and subtelomeric satellite repeats, 5S rDNA, and chromosome-specific BAC clones in common bean, which enables one to unambiguously distinguish all 11 chromosome pairs. Furthermore, we applied the karyotyping system to several wild relatives and landraces of common bean from two distinct gene pools, as well as other related Phaseolus species, to investigate repeat evolution in the genus Phaseolus Comparison of karyotype maps within common bean indicates that chromosomal distribution of the centromeric and subtelomeric satellite repeats is stable, whereas the copy number of the repeats was variable, indicating rapid amplification/reduction of the repeats in specific genomic regions. In Phaseolus species that diverged approximately 2-4 million yr ago, copy numbers of centromeric repeats were largely reduced or diverged, and chromosomal distributions have changed, suggesting rapid evolution of centromeric repeats. We also detected variation in the distribution pattern of subtelomeric repeats in Phaseolus species. The FISH-based karyotyping system revealed that satellite repeats are actively and rapidly evolving, forming genomic features unique to individual common bean accessions and Phaseolus species. PMID:26865698

  3. Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH)-Based Karyotyping Reveals Rapid Evolution of Centromeric and Subtelomeric Repeats in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and Relatives

    PubMed Central

    Iwata-Otsubo, Aiko; Radke, Brittany; Findley, Seth; Abernathy, Brian; Vallejos, C. Eduardo; Jackson, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)-based karyotyping is a powerful cytogenetics tool to study chromosome organization, behavior, and chromosome evolution. Here, we developed a FISH-based karyotyping system using a probe mixture comprised of centromeric and subtelomeric satellite repeats, 5S rDNA, and chromosome-specific BAC clones in common bean, which enables one to unambiguously distinguish all 11 chromosome pairs. Furthermore, we applied the karyotyping system to several wild relatives and landraces of common bean from two distinct gene pools, as well as other related Phaseolus species, to investigate repeat evolution in the genus Phaseolus. Comparison of karyotype maps within common bean indicates that chromosomal distribution of the centromeric and subtelomeric satellite repeats is stable, whereas the copy number of the repeats was variable, indicating rapid amplification/reduction of the repeats in specific genomic regions. In Phaseolus species that diverged approximately 2–4 million yr ago, copy numbers of centromeric repeats were largely reduced or diverged, and chromosomal distributions have changed, suggesting rapid evolution of centromeric repeats. We also detected variation in the distribution pattern of subtelomeric repeats in Phaseolus species. The FISH-based karyotyping system revealed that satellite repeats are actively and rapidly evolving, forming genomic features unique to individual common bean accessions and Phaseolus species. PMID:26865698

  4. The degradation of lectins, phaseolin and trypsin inhibitors during germination of white kidney beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    PubMed

    Savelkoul, F H; Tamminga, S; Leenaars, P P; Schering, J; Ter Maat, D W

    1994-04-01

    White kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), cv Processor, contain a relatively high content of phaseolin (storage protein), lectins and a special group of glycoproteins as well as a considerable amount of protein-type trypsin inhibitors. Protein digestion of raw 'Processor' beans in monogastrics, for example pigs, is disturbed by poorly digested, phaseolin lectins, which can bind to carbohydrates in brush border membranes of the small intestinal epithelium, and trypsin inhibitors. The effect of the germination of white kidney beans on lectins, phaseolin and trypsin inhibitors was studied in order to achieve a degradation of lectins, phaseolin and trypsin inhibitors and an increase of in vitro enzymatic hydrolysis of the protein of bean flour. Therefore, whole bean extracts were examined throughout a germination period of up to seven days for their lectin and phaseolin pattern, lectin content, binding capacities of functional lectins towards brush border membranes and trypsin inhibitor content. In addition the in vitro enzymatic hydrolysis by pepsin and pancreatin of the protein from flours of (un)germinated white kidney beans was studied. SDS-PAGE demonstrated a degradation of E-lectins and a disappearance of L-lectins and phaseolin during germination. Results indicated a decrease of the lectin content by 85%, a loss of binding capacities of functional lectins towards brush border membranes by 91%, and a decrease of trypsin inhibitors by 76%, in bean flour after germination for seven days. A maximum in in vitro enzymatic hydrolysis of protein from bean flour was already established after germination for half a day. PMID:8052578

  5. Triple-Layer Plastic Bags Protect Dry Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) Against Damage by Acanthoscelides obtectus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) During Storage.

    PubMed

    Mutungi, C; Affognon, H D; Njoroge, A W; Manono, J; Baributsa, D; Murdock, L L

    2015-10-01

    Fumigated dry common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) that were artificially infested with Acanthoscelides obtectus Say, and others that were not artificially infested, were stored in hermetic triple-layer PICS (Lela Agro, Kano, Nigeria) or woven polypropylene (PP) bags for 6 mo at ambient laboratory temperature conditions of 22.6 ± 1.9°C and 60.1 ± 4.3% relative humidity. In an additional trial, beans contained in PP bags were treated with Actellic Super dust before introducing A. obtectus. Moisture content, number of live adult A. obtectus, seed damage, weight loss, and seed germination were determined at monthly intervals. At 6 mo, beans stored in PICS bags retained higher moisture than those stored in PP bags, but in all treatments the moisture level remained below that recommended for safe storage of beans. In the PICS bags, proliferation of A. obtectus did not proceed and at 6 mo, beans stored in these bags did not have insect-inflicted seed damage or weight loss. In contrast, seed damage and weight loss in PP bags exceeded economic threshold after 1 mo in the absence of Actellic Super dust (Syngenta Crop protection AG, Basle, Switzerland), and after 2 mo in the presence of it. Germination of beans stored in PP bags decreased greatly whereas the beans stored in PICS bags did not show reduced germination. Chemical free storage of common beans in PICS bags protects them against damage by A. obtectus. PMID:26453738

  6. Effect of DTPA on concentration ratios of /sup 237/Np and /sup 244/Cm in vegetative parts of bush bean and barley

    SciTech Connect

    Romney, E.M.; Wallace, A.; Mueller, R.T.; Cha, J.W.; Wood, R.A.

    1981-07-01

    We grew bush beans, barley, and rice in two different soils in a glasshouse with /sup 237/Np or /sup 244/Cm mixed into separate containers of the soil. The chelating agent DTPA at 100 ..mu..g/g soil was added to half of the containers. The concentration ratio (CR) for /sup 237/Np without DTPA was two orders of magnitude higher than for /sup 244/Cm without DTPA for all three plant species. The DTPA increased the CR of /sup 244/Cm by two to three orders of magnitude, but had no influence on that for /sup 237/Np. In bush beans, both /sup 237/Np and /sup 244/Cm CRs were higher in primary leaves than in trifoliate leaves, which were higher than for stems. The CRs for bush beans were generally higher for both /sup 237/Np and /sup 244/Cm than for either barley or rice, especially without DTPA.

  7. Seed-borne fungi and ochratoxin A contamination of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in the Republic of Croatia.

    PubMed

    Domijan, A-M; Peraica, M; Zlender, V; Cvjetković, B; Jurjević, Z; Topolovec-Pintarić, S; Ivić, D

    2005-03-01

    The study was designed to identify seed-borne fungi on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) crops grown in 13 counties of the Republic of Croatia and their association with ochratoxin A (OTA) production. Bean samples (N=45) were collected in Croatia in 2001 shortly after the harvest and were stored at -20 degrees C for mycological and mycotoxin analyses. The most common fungi isolated were Cladosporium spp. (98%) Alternaria spp. (75%), Aspergillus spp. (73%), Rhizopus spp. (73%), Penicillium spp. (69%), Fusarium spp. (38%), Botrytis spp. (27%), Trichothecium spp. (24%), and Chaetomium spp. (18%). OTA was found only in samples contaminated with Penicillium and Aspergillus spp. Using HPLC (detection limit 0.25 microg/kg), OTA was found in 17 out of 45 samples (38%), and the mean concentration in positive samples was 0.41+/-0.21 microg OTA/kg. Beans from south Croatia (Adriatic coast) were OTA-free and the least mould-infected, while the mean OTA concentration and mould infection of samples from other regions were similar. The OTA contamination of beans in our country is low. Although beans are not severely contaminated with OTA, their consumption may contribute to the exposure to OTA from other commodities. PMID:15680678

  8. Genomic Analysis of Storage Protein Deficiency in Genetically Related Lines of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    PubMed Central

    Pandurangan, Sudhakar; Diapari, Marwan; Yin, Fuqiang; Munholland, Seth; Perry, Gregory E.; Chapman, B. Patrick; Huang, Shangzhi; Sparvoli, Francesca; Bollini, Roberto; Crosby, William L.; Pauls, Karl P.; Marsolais, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    A series of genetically related lines of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) integrate a progressive deficiency in major storage proteins, the 7S globulin phaseolin and lectins. SARC1 integrates a lectin-like protein, arcelin-1 from a wild common bean accession. SMARC1N-PN1 is deficient in major lectins, including erythroagglutinating phytohemagglutinin (PHA-E) but not α-amylase inhibitor, and incorporates also a deficiency in phaseolin. SMARC1-PN1 is intermediate and shares the phaseolin deficiency. Sanilac is the parental background. To understand the genomic basis for variations in protein profiles previously determined by proteomics, the genotypes were submitted to short-fragment genome sequencing using an Illumina HiSeq 2000/2500 platform. Reads were aligned to reference sequences and subjected to de novo assembly. The results of the analyses identified polymorphisms responsible for the lack of specific storage proteins, as well as those associated with large differences in storage protein expression. SMARC1N-PN1 lacks the lectin genes pha-E and lec4-B17, and has the pseudogene pdlec1 in place of the functional pha-L gene. While the α-phaseolin gene appears absent, an approximately 20-fold decrease in β-phaseolin accumulation is associated with a single nucleotide polymorphism converting a G-box to an ACGT motif in the proximal promoter. Among residual lectins compensating for storage protein deficiency, mannose lectin FRIL and α-amylase inhibitor 1 genes are uniquely present in SMARC1N-PN1. An approximately 50-fold increase in α-amylase inhibitor like protein accumulation is associated with multiple polymorphisms introducing up to eight potential positive cis-regulatory elements in the proximal promoter specific to SMARC1N-PN1. An approximately 7-fold increase in accumulation of 11S globulin legumin is not associated with variation in proximal promoter sequence, suggesting that the identity of individual proteins involved in proteome rebalancing might

  9. Genomic Analysis of Storage Protein Deficiency in Genetically Related Lines of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Pandurangan, Sudhakar; Diapari, Marwan; Yin, Fuqiang; Munholland, Seth; Perry, Gregory E; Chapman, B Patrick; Huang, Shangzhi; Sparvoli, Francesca; Bollini, Roberto; Crosby, William L; Pauls, Karl P; Marsolais, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    A series of genetically related lines of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) integrate a progressive deficiency in major storage proteins, the 7S globulin phaseolin and lectins. SARC1 integrates a lectin-like protein, arcelin-1 from a wild common bean accession. SMARC1N-PN1 is deficient in major lectins, including erythroagglutinating phytohemagglutinin (PHA-E) but not α-amylase inhibitor, and incorporates also a deficiency in phaseolin. SMARC1-PN1 is intermediate and shares the phaseolin deficiency. Sanilac is the parental background. To understand the genomic basis for variations in protein profiles previously determined by proteomics, the genotypes were submitted to short-fragment genome sequencing using an Illumina HiSeq 2000/2500 platform. Reads were aligned to reference sequences and subjected to de novo assembly. The results of the analyses identified polymorphisms responsible for the lack of specific storage proteins, as well as those associated with large differences in storage protein expression. SMARC1N-PN1 lacks the lectin genes pha-E and lec4-B17, and has the pseudogene pdlec1 in place of the functional pha-L gene. While the α-phaseolin gene appears absent, an approximately 20-fold decrease in β-phaseolin accumulation is associated with a single nucleotide polymorphism converting a G-box to an ACGT motif in the proximal promoter. Among residual lectins compensating for storage protein deficiency, mannose lectin FRIL and α-amylase inhibitor 1 genes are uniquely present in SMARC1N-PN1. An approximately 50-fold increase in α-amylase inhibitor like protein accumulation is associated with multiple polymorphisms introducing up to eight potential positive cis-regulatory elements in the proximal promoter specific to SMARC1N-PN1. An approximately 7-fold increase in accumulation of 11S globulin legumin is not associated with variation in proximal promoter sequence, suggesting that the identity of individual proteins involved in proteome rebalancing might

  10. Thesis Abstract Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines: chemical composition and protein digestibility.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, F R; Silva, M I A; Corrêa, A D

    2016-01-01

    The bean represents the main source of proteins for the low income populations, although the digestibility of those proteins is relatively low. Consequently, the programs of plant genetic breeding have been working on the search for new lines with higher protein levels. Thus, with the purpose of supplying information to the researchers, in this study, 21 bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines were analyzed for the centesimal and mineral composition, protein digestibility, phenolic compounds, and trypsin inhibitor. The entirely randomized experimental design was used with 21 treatments (lines) and three repetitions. All values were within the following ranges: 22.34 to 36.28 g crude protein/100 g dry matter (DM); 7.56 to 20.91 g neutral detergent fiber/100 g DM; 0.53 to 2.55 g fat/100 g DM and 2.97 to 4.87 g ashes/100 g DM. The levels of phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and sulfur, in g/100 g DM, varied from 0.45 to 0.72; 1.51 to 2.48; 0.03 to 0.28; 0.18 to 0.34 and 0.28 to 0.45, respectively. Regarding copper, manganese, zinc and iron, the levels, in mg/kg DM, varied from 11.37 to 17.73; 14.93 to 28.90; 36.67 to 69.90 and 71.37 to 126.90, respectively. The in vitro protein digestibility varied from 18.03 to 48.32%. The levels of phenolic compounds varied from 0.28 to 1.08 mg acid tanic/100 g DM and the one of trypsin inhibitor from 59.93 to 151.07 trypsin inhibited units/mg DM. Among the lines with higher protein contents, "ESAL 569" (beige with brown stripe) presented the largest protein digestibility and considerable levels of minerals. "P-180" (beige with brown stripe) was one of the lines with higher crude protein contents and digestibilities, and also presented high levels for most of the minerals. No relation between protein digestibility and the contents of phenolic compounds or trypsin inhibitor was observed. PMID:27173357

  11. Phytohemagglutinin derived from red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris): a cause for intestinal malabsorption associated with bacterial overgrowth in the rat.

    PubMed

    Banwell, J G; Boldt, D H; Meyers, J; Weber, F L

    1983-03-01

    Plant lectins or carbohydrate binding proteins interact with membrane receptors on cellular surfaces but their antinutritional effects are poorly defined. Studies were conducted to determine the effects of phytohemagglutinin, a lectin derived from raw red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), on small intestinal absorptive function and morphology, and on the intestinal microflora. Phytohemagglutinin was isolated in purified form by thyroglobulin-sepharose 4B affinity chromatography. Red kidney bean and phytohemagglutinin (6% and 0.5%, respectively, of dietary protein) were fed in a purified casein diet to weanling rats for up to 21 days. Weight loss, associated with malabsorption of lipid, nitrogen, and vitamin B12, developed in comparison with animals pair-fed isonitrogenous casein diets. Antinutritional effects of red kidney bean were reversible on reinstitution of a purified casein diet. An increase in bacterial colonization of the jejunum and ileum occurred in red kidney bean- and phytohemagglutin-fed animals. When antibiotics were included in the diet, malabsorption of [3H]triolein and 57Co-vitamin B12 in red kidney bean-fed animals was partially reversed and, in germ-free animals, purified phytohemagglutinin had no demonstrable antinutritional effect. Mucosal disaccharidase activity was reduced in red kidney bean- and phytohemagglutinin-fed animals, but intestinal mucosal morphology was unchanged. Dietary administration of phytohemagglutinin, alone or as a component of red kidney bean, caused intestinal dysfunction, which was associated with, and dependent upon, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Adherence of enteric bacteria to the mucosal surface was enhanced by phytohemagglutinin which may have facilitated small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. PMID:6822324

  12. Comparison of Metabolic Profiles of Three Varieties of Dry Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we compared the amino acid (11), organic acid (3) and sugar (9) profiles of three different varieties of dry beans (black bean (BB), dark red bean (DRB), and cranberry bean (CB)). The efficiency of the two commonly used extraction solvents (water and methanol:chloroform:water (2.5:1:1...

  13. Identification and Characterization of Phytohemagglutinins from White Kidney Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. Beldia) in the Rat Small Intestine.

    PubMed

    Nciri, Nader; Cho, Namjun; El Mhamdi, Faiçal; Ben Mansour, Abderraouf; Haj Sassi, Fayçal; Ben Aissa-Fennira, Fatma

    2016-01-01

    Although kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lectin toxicity is widely known, its effects in the gastrointestinal tract require further study. This investigation aimed to identify and characterize phytohemagglutinins (PHAs) in the small intestine and sera of rats following oral challenge with ground white beans. Twenty young, adult male rats were divided randomly into two groups of 10 animals each. The control group underwent gavage with a suspension of 300 mg of rodent pellet flour. The experimental group was administered a 300 mg Beldia bean flour suspension (BBFS). After 10 days of daily treatment, jejunal rinse liquid (JRL) and ileum rinse liquid and secretions, as well as sera, were collected. All biological fluids were screened for lectin reactivity using competitive inhibition ELISA, Ouchterlony double immunodiffusion, and immunoelectrophoresis techniques. The results revealed the presence of immunogenic intraluminal PHAs 3-4 h after the oral intake of the BBFS in the JRLs as well as in the jejunal and ileal secretions; however, no PHA was detectable in the rat sera. Ingestion of raw Beldia beans may lead to interaction between PHAs and the mucosa of the small intestine, potentially resulting in an inflammatory response. PMID:26561877

  14. Microsatellite diversity and genetic structure among common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) landraces in Brazil, a secondary center of diversity

    PubMed Central

    Burle, Marília Lobo; Fonseca, Jaime Roberto; Kami, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Brazil is the largest producer and consumer of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), which is the most important source of human dietary protein in that country. This study assessed the genetic diversity and the structure of a sample of 279 geo-referenced common bean landraces from Brazil, using molecular markers. Sixty-seven microsatellite markers spread over the 11 linkage groups of the common bean genome, as well as Phaseolin, PvTFL1y, APA and four SCAR markers were used. As expected, the sample showed lower genetic diversity compared to the diversity in the primary center of diversification. Andean and Mesoamerican gene pools were both present but the latter gene pool was four times more frequent than the former. The two gene pools could be clearly distinguished; limited admixture was observed between these groups. The Mesoamerican group consisted of two sub-populations, with a high level of admixture between them leading to a large proportion of stabilized hybrids not observed in the centers of domestication. Thus, Brazil can be considered a secondary center of diversification of common bean. A high degree of genome-wide multilocus associations even among unlinked loci was observed, confirming the high level of structure in the sample and suggesting that association mapping should be conducted in separate Andean and Mesoamerican Brazilian samples. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00122-010-1350-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20502861

  15. Sampling techniques and detection methods for developing risk assessments for root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) on lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) in the Mid-Atlantic region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lima bean, Phaseolus lunatus, is a cornerstone crop in the Mid-Atlantic region and Meloidogyne incognita, the southern root knot nematode (RKN), causes significant yield loss. The RKN has become more pervasive as toxic nematicides have been removed from the market, and risk evaluation research is ne...

  16. The switching of electron flux from the cyanide-insensitive oxidase to the cytochrome pathway in mung-bean (Phaseolus aureus L.) mitochondria.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, S B

    1988-01-01

    The activities of the mung-bean (Phaseolus aureus L.) mitochondrial cyanide-insensitive oxidase and cytochrome pathways have been measured simultaneously. The results show that electrons can be diverted both from the alternative pathway to the cytochrome pathway and from the cytochrome to the alternative pathway. The competition of the two pathways for the available electron flux is discussed. PMID:3342013

  17. Sequence-based introgression mapping of WM7.1 and WM8.3, two major QTL affecting white mold tolerance in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White mold disease, caused by the necrotrophic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary, is a major pathogen of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). More than 20 QTL were reported using multiple bi-parental populations. To study the disease in more detail, advanced back-cross populations seg...

  18. Genome-Wide Association Studies of Anthracnose and Angular Leaf Spot Resistance in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Perseguini, Juliana Morini Küpper Cardoso; Oblessuc, Paula Rodrigues; Rosa, João Ricardo Bachega Feijó; Gomes, Kleber Alves; Chiorato, Alisson Fernando; Carbonell, Sérgio Augusto Morais; Garcia, Antonio Augusto Franco; Vianello, Rosana Pereira; Benchimol-Reis, Luciana Lasry

    2016-01-01

    The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the world's most important legume for human consumption. Anthracnose (ANT; Colletotrichum lindemuthianum) and angular leaf spot (ALS; Pseudocercospora griseola) are complex diseases that cause major yield losses in common bean. Depending on the cultivar and environmental conditions, anthracnose and angular leaf spot infections can reduce crop yield drastically. This study aimed to estimate linkage disequilibrium levels and identify quantitative resistance loci (QRL) controlling resistance to both ANT and ALS diseases of 180 accessions of common bean using genome-wide association analysis. A randomized complete block design with four replicates was performed for the ANT and ALS experiments, with four plants per genotype in each replicate. Association mapping analyses were performed for ANT and ALS using a mixed linear model approach implemented in TASSEL. A total of 17 and 11 significant statistically associations involving SSRs were detected for ANT and ALS resistance loci, respectively. Using SNPs, 21 and 17 significant statistically associations were obtained for ANT and angular ALS, respectively, providing more associations with this marker. The SSR-IAC167 and PvM95 markers, both located on chromosome Pv03, and the SNP scaffold00021_89379, were associated with both diseases. The other markers were distributed across the entire common bean genome, with chromosomes Pv03 and Pv08 showing the greatest number of loci associated with ANT resistance. The chromosome Pv04 was the most saturated one, with six markers associated with ALS resistance. The telomeric region of this chromosome showed four markers located between approximately 2.5 Mb and 4.4 Mb. Our results demonstrate the great potential of genome-wide association studies to identify QRLs related to ANT and ALS in common bean. The results indicate a quantitative and complex inheritance pattern for both diseases in common bean. Our findings will contribute to more

  19. Purification and Immunobiochemical Characterization of a 31 kDa Cross-Reactive Allergen from Phaseolus vulgaris (Kidney Bean)

    PubMed Central

    Kasera, Ramkrashan; Singh, Anand Bahadur; Lavasa, Shakuntala; Nagendra, Komarla; Arora, Naveen

    2013-01-01

    Background Legumes are a rich source of proteins but are also potential elicitors of IgE-mediated food allergy. This study aimed to isolate and characterize a major allergen of Phaseolus vulgaris (kidney bean) and determine its allergenicity. Methodology Kidney bean allergen was purified using Q Sepharose column (anion exchanger) and eluates with high intensity were pooled to purify protein using Superdex 75 (gel filtration) and C18 column (RP-HPLC). Patients with history of kidney bean allergy were skin prick tested (SPT) with crude kidney bean extract and the purified protein. Specific IgE was estimated in sera by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Characterization of purified protein and its cross-reactivity was investigated by immunobiochemical methods. Identification of purified protein was carried out by tandem mass spectrometry. Principal Findings Purified protein appeared as a single band at 31 kDa on SDS-PAGE and showed IgE binding to 88% patients’ sera by ELISA and immunoblotting. SPT with purified protein identified 78% hypersensitive patients of kidney bean. Significant release of histamine from sensitized basophils was observed after challenge with purified protein. PAS staining suggested it to be a glycoprotein, but no change in IgE binding was observed after periodate oxidation. The 31 kDa protein remained stable for 60 min on incubation with pepsin. The purified protein had high allergenic potential since it required only 102 ng of self protein for 50% IgE inhibition. Mass spectrometric analysis identified it as Phytohemagglutinin. It also showed hemagglutination with human RBCs. Cross-reactivity was observed with peanut and black gram with IC50 of 185 and 228 ng respectively. Conclusion/Significance A 31 kDa major allergen of kidney bean was purified and identified as phytohemagglutinin with cross-reactivity to peanut and black gram. PMID:23671655

  20. Genome-Wide Association Studies of Anthracnose and Angular Leaf Spot Resistance in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    PubMed Central

    Perseguini, Juliana Morini Küpper Cardoso; Oblessuc, Paula Rodrigues; Rosa, João Ricardo Bachega Feijó; Gomes, Kleber Alves; Chiorato, Alisson Fernando; Carbonell, Sérgio Augusto Morais; Garcia, Antonio Augusto Franco; Vianello, Rosana Pereira; Benchimol-Reis, Luciana Lasry

    2016-01-01

    The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the world’s most important legume for human consumption. Anthracnose (ANT; Colletotrichum lindemuthianum) and angular leaf spot (ALS; Pseudocercospora griseola) are complex diseases that cause major yield losses in common bean. Depending on the cultivar and environmental conditions, anthracnose and angular leaf spot infections can reduce crop yield drastically. This study aimed to estimate linkage disequilibrium levels and identify quantitative resistance loci (QRL) controlling resistance to both ANT and ALS diseases of 180 accessions of common bean using genome-wide association analysis. A randomized complete block design with four replicates was performed for the ANT and ALS experiments, with four plants per genotype in each replicate. Association mapping analyses were performed for ANT and ALS using a mixed linear model approach implemented in TASSEL. A total of 17 and 11 significant statistically associations involving SSRs were detected for ANT and ALS resistance loci, respectively. Using SNPs, 21 and 17 significant statistically associations were obtained for ANT and angular ALS, respectively, providing more associations with this marker. The SSR-IAC167 and PvM95 markers, both located on chromosome Pv03, and the SNP scaffold00021_89379, were associated with both diseases. The other markers were distributed across the entire common bean genome, with chromosomes Pv03 and Pv08 showing the greatest number of loci associated with ANT resistance. The chromosome Pv04 was the most saturated one, with six markers associated with ALS resistance. The telomeric region of this chromosome showed four markers located between approximately 2.5 Mb and 4.4 Mb. Our results demonstrate the great potential of genome-wide association studies to identify QRLs related to ANT and ALS in common bean. The results indicate a quantitative and complex inheritance pattern for both diseases in common bean. Our findings will contribute to more

  1. Genotypes of the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Lacking the Nodule-Enhanced Isoform of Glutamine Synthetase.

    PubMed Central

    Gao, F.; Wong, P. P.

    1994-01-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) is an octameric enzyme. The nodule cytosol of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) has two major types of GS subunit polypeptides ([beta] and [gamma]). As a result, nine different isozymes containing varied proportions of [beta] and [gamma] can be generated. The isozymes are resolvable by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Staining the gel for GS activity reveals two isoforms, GSn1, which is nodule enhanced and is composed of the eight [gamma] polypeptide-containing isozymes, and GSn2, which is the isozyme [beta]8. We screened 104 cultivars and genotypes of common beans for variations in isozyme formation and found two, PI317350 and PI326054, that had no GSn1. The PI beans appeared to nodulate normally and had cytosolic protein concentrations and total GS activities similar to those of the cultivar UI-111, which has GSn1. They accumulated the [gamma] polypeptide, which had the same molecular weight (46,000) and isoelectric point (6.3) as the [gamma] polypeptide of UI-111. Experiments with extracts prepared by mixing UI-111 and the PI bean nodules suggested that the PI bean nodule extracts did not have an inhibitor or a proteolytic system that specifically inhibited or degraded GSn1. Nodules from UI-111 and the PI beans were dissected into cortex and central infection zone tissue fractions. GSn2 was found in the cortex and the central infection zone tissue of all beans. Our results suggested that the reason we were unable to detect GSn1 from the PI beans was not because their GSn1 and GSn2 had an identical electrophoretic mobility, nor was it due to an inhibited or unstable GSn1. Our results suggested that either their [gamma] gene had mutated in the region that is essential for the [gamma] polypeptide to assemble or the assembly of GS may require a chaperone. In the two PI beans, the chaperone accumulated to a lower level than it did in UI-111. This lower amount limited the assembly of the [gamma] polypeptide into GS. PMID

  2. Marker-based linkage map of Andean common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and mapping of QTLs underlying popping ability traits

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Nuña bean is a type of ancient common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) native to the Andean region of South America, whose seeds possess the unusual property of popping. The nutritional features of popped seeds make them a healthy low fat and high protein snack. However, flowering of nuña bean only takes place under short-day photoperiod conditions, which means a difficulty to extend production to areas where such conditions do not prevail. Therefore, breeding programs of adaptation traits will facilitate the diversification of the bean crops and the development of new varieties with enhanced healthy properties. Although the popping trait has been profusely studied in maize (popcorn), little is known about the biology and genetic basis of the popping ability in common bean. To obtain insights into the genetics of popping ability related traits of nuña bean, a comprehensive quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was performed to detect single-locus and epistatic QTLs responsible for the phenotypic variance observed in these traits. Results A mapping population of 185 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between two Andean common bean genotypes was evaluated for three popping related traits, popping dimension index (PDI), expansion coefficient (EC), and percentage of unpopped seeds (PUS), in five different environmental conditions. The genetic map constructed included 193 loci across 12 linkage groups (LGs), covering a genetic distance of 822.1 cM, with an average of 4.3 cM per marker. Individual and multi-environment QTL analyses detected a total of nineteen single-locus QTLs, highlighting among them the co-localized QTLs for the three popping ability traits placed on LGs 3, 5, 6, and 7, which together explained 24.9, 14.5, and 25.3% of the phenotypic variance for PDI, EC, and PUS, respectively. Interestingly, epistatic interactions among QTLs have been detected, which could have a key role in the genetic control of popping. Conclusions

  3. Analysis of genetic and nutritional diversity among selected accessions of dry beans and nuña beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) from the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beans (Phaseolus spp.) are one of the most economically and nutritionally important crops world-wide, with a value of over $17 billion harvested annually. They are one of the most ancient crops of the New World, having been cultivated for thousands of years. They are an environmentally diverse crop...

  4. Uranium and cesium accumulation in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) and its potential for uranium rhizofiltration.

    PubMed

    Yang, Minjune; Jawitz, James W; Lee, Minhee

    2015-02-01

    Laboratory scale rhizofiltration experiments were performed to investigate uranium and cesium accumulation in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) and its potential for treatment of uranium contaminated groundwater. During 72 h of rhizofiltration, the roots of the bean accumulated uranium and cesium to concentrations 317-1019 times above the initial concentrations, which ranged from 100 to 700 μg l(-1) in artificially contaminated solutions. When the pH of the solution was adjusted to 3, the ability to accumulate uranium was 1.6 times higher than it was for solutions of pH 7 and pH 9. With an initial uranium concentration of 240 μg l(-1) in genuine groundwater at pH 5, the bean reduced the uranium concentration by 90.2% (to 23.6 μg l(-1)) within 12 h and by 98.9% (to 2.8 μg l(-1)) within 72 h. A laboratory scale continuous clean-up system reduced uranium concentrations from 240 μg l(-1) to below 10 μg l(-1) in 56 h; the whole uranium concentration in the bean roots during system operation was more than 2600 μg g(-1) on a dry weight basis. Using SEM and EDS analyses, the uranium removal in solution at pH 7 was determined based on adsorption and precipitation on the root surface in the form of insoluble uranium compounds. The present results demonstrate that the rhizofiltration technique using beans efficiently removes uranium and cesium from groundwater as an eco-friendly and cost-effective method. PMID:25461514

  5. Endophytic Bacteria Isolated from Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Exhibiting High Variability Showed Antimicrobial Activity and Quorum Sensing Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Ralf Bruno Moura; Costa, Leonardo Emanuel de Oliveira; Vanetti, Maria Cristina Dantas; de Araújo, Elza Fernandes; de Queiroz, Marisa Vieira

    2015-10-01

    Endophytic bacteria play a key role in the biocontrol of phytopathogenic microorganisms. In this study, genotypic diversity was analyzed via repetitive element PCR (rep-PCR) of endophytic isolates of the phylum Actinobacteria that were previously collected from leaves of cultivars of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Considerable variability was observed, which has not been reported previously for this phylum of endophytic bacteria of the common bean. Furthermore, the ethanol extracts from cultures of various isolates inhibited the growth of pathogenic bacteria in vitro, especially Gram-positive pathogens. Extracts from cultures of Microbacterium testaceum BAC1065 and BAC1093, which were both isolated from the 'Talismã' cultivar, strongly inhibited most of the pathogenic bacteria tested. Bean endophytic bacteria were also demonstrated to have the potential to inhibit the quorum sensing of Gram-negative bacteria. This mechanism may regulate the production of virulence factors in pathogens. The ability to inhibit quorum sensing has also not been reported previously for endophytic microorganisms of P. vulgaris. Furthermore, M. testaceum with capacity to inhibit quorum sensing appears to be widespread in common bean. The genomic profiles of M. testaceum were also analyzed via pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and greater differentiation was observed using this method than rep-PCR; in general, no groups were formed based on the cultivar of origin. This study showed for the first time that endophytic bacteria from common bean plants exhibit high variability and may be useful for the development of strategies for the biological control of diseases in this important legume plant. PMID:26202846

  6. Physicochemical properties and digestibility of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) starches.

    PubMed

    Du, Shuang-Kui; Jiang, Hongxin; Ai, Yongfeng; Jane, Jay-Lin

    2014-08-01

    Physicochemical properties and digestibility of pinto bean, red kidney bean, black bean and navy bean starches were analyzed. All the common bean starches had oval and spherical granules with average diameter of 25.3-27.4 μm. Amylose contents were 32.0-45.4%. Black bean starch showed the highest peak viscosity, breakdown, final viscosity and setback, whereas red kidney bean starch showed the lowest pasting temperature, peak viscosity, breakdown, and setback. Pinto bean starch showed the highest onset and peak gelatinization temperatures, and the lowest gelatinization temperature range; whereas navy bean starch exhibited the lowest values. Amylopectin of red kidney bean had the highest molecular weight (Mw) and z-average gyration radius (Rz), whereas black bean amylopectin had the lowest values of Mw and Rz. The proportions of DP 6-12, DP 13-24, DP 25-36, and DP ≥ 37 and average branch-chain lengths were 23.30-35.21%, 47.79-53.53%, 8.99-12.65%, 6.39-13.49%, and 17.91-21.56, respectively. All the native bean starches were highly resistant to enzyme digestion. PMID:24751265

  7. Iron bioavailability to piglets from red and white common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyphenols in foods may chelate dietary Fe and lower its bioavailability. Concentrations of phenols are substantially higher in red beans than in white beans. The aim of this study was to compare iron bioavailabilities from red and white beans in a piglet hemoglobin repletion model. Fe deficient cr...

  8. Transcriptome Characterization of Developing Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Pods from Two Genotypes with Contrasting Seed Zinc Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Astudillo-Reyes, Carolina; Fernandez, Andrea C; Cichy, Karen A

    2015-01-01

    Dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds are a rich source of dietary zinc, especially for people consuming plant-based diets. Within P. vulgaris there is at least two-fold variation in seed Zn concentration. Genetic studies have revealed seed Zn differences to be controlled by a single gene in two closely related navy bean genotypes, Albion and Voyager. In this study, these two genotypes were grown under controlled fertilization conditions and the Zn concentration of various plant parts was determined. The two genotypes had similar levels of Zn in their leaves and pods but Voyager had 52% more Zn in its seeds than Albion. RNA was sequenced from developing pods of both genotypes. Transcriptome analysis of these genotypes identified 27,198 genes in the developing bean pods, representing 86% of the genes in the P. vulgaris genome (v 1.0 DOE-JGI and USDA-NIFA). Expression was detected in 18,438 genes. A relatively small number of genes (381) were differentially expressed between Albion and Voyager. Differentially expressed genes included three genes potentially involved in Zn transport, including zinc-regulated transporter, iron regulated transporter like (ZIP), zinc-induced facilitator (ZIF) and heavy metal associated (HMA) family genes. In addition 12,118 SNPs were identified between the two genotypes. Of the gene families related to Zn and/or Fe transport, eleven genes were found to contain SNPs between Albion and Voyager. PMID:26367119

  9. Transcriptome Characterization of Developing Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Pods from Two Genotypes with Contrasting Seed Zinc Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Astudillo-Reyes, Carolina; Fernandez, Andrea C.; Cichy, Karen A.

    2015-01-01

    Dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds are a rich source of dietary zinc, especially for people consuming plant-based diets. Within P. vulgaris there is at least two-fold variation in seed Zn concentration. Genetic studies have revealed seed Zn differences to be controlled by a single gene in two closely related navy bean genotypes, Albion and Voyager. In this study, these two genotypes were grown under controlled fertilization conditions and the Zn concentration of various plant parts was determined. The two genotypes had similar levels of Zn in their leaves and pods but Voyager had 52% more Zn in its seeds than Albion. RNA was sequenced from developing pods of both genotypes. Transcriptome analysis of these genotypes identified 27,198 genes in the developing bean pods, representing 86% of the genes in the P. vulgaris genome (v 1.0 DOE-JGI and USDA-NIFA). Expression was detected in 18,438 genes. A relatively small number of genes (381) were differentially expressed between Albion and Voyager. Differentially expressed genes included three genes potentially involved in Zn transport, including zinc-regulated transporter, iron regulated transporter like (ZIP), zinc-induced facilitator (ZIF) and heavy metal associated (HMA) family genes. In addition 12,118 SNPs were identified between the two genotypes. Of the gene families related to Zn and/or Fe transport, eleven genes were found to contain SNPs between Albion and Voyager. PMID:26367119

  10. Tissue hypertrophy and epithelial proliferation rate in the gut of rats fed on bread and haricot beans (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Key, F B; McClean, D; Mathers, J C

    1996-08-01

    The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that increasing short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production in the large bowel increases gut epithelial proliferation rate (EPR). Two experiments were carried out in which rats were fed on bread (wholemeal or white)-based diets containing graded amounts of cooked haricot (Phaseolus vulgaris) beans; the latter are a rich source of fermentable carbohydrates. Consumption of beans was associated with several-fold increases in SCFA production with the greatest relative increase being for butyrate. Despite the very large increase in SCFA production, there was no evidence that this had any effect on EPR in the duodenum. Where the basal diet contained wholemeal bread (Expt 1) there was no effect of enhanced SCFA supply on EPR in either the caecum or colon, but with the white bread-based diet (Expt 2) adding beans produced increments in both SCFA supply and EPR in the caecum. Evidence that SCFA are responsible for enhanced EPR above normal levels is not convincing. In those instances where enhanced SCFA supply is associated with increased EPR, the increase may be (1) from a hypoproliferative state towards normal, (2) a transient phenomenon accompanying tissue hypertrophy or (3) a homeostatic response to increased cell loss by cell sloughing or apoptosis. It is not likely that there is any direct link with risk of colon cancer. PMID:8813901

  11. Multilocus sequence analysis of Brazilian Rhizobium microsymbionts of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) reveals unexpected taxonomic diversity.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Renan Augusto; Barcellos, Fernando Gomes; Thompson, Fabiano L; Hungria, Mariangela

    2009-05-01

    The diazotrophic bacteria collectively known as "rhizobia" are important for establishing symbiotic N(2)-fixing associations with many legumes. These microbes have been used for over a century as an environmentally beneficial and cost-effective means of ensuring acceptable yields of agricultural legumes. The most widely used phylogenetic marker for identification and classification of rhizobia has been the 16S rRNA gene; however, this marker fails to discriminate some closely related species. In this study, we established the first multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) scheme for the identification and classification of rhizobial microsymbionts of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). We analyzed 12 Brazilian strains representative of a collection of over 850 isolates in addition to type and reference rhizobial strains, by sequencing recA, dnaK, gltA, glnII and rpoA genes. Gene sequence similarities among the five type/reference Rhizobium strains which are symbionts of common bean ranged from 95 to 100% for 16S rRNA, and from 83 to 99% for the other five genes. Rhizobial species described as symbionts of common bean also formed separate groups upon analysis of single and concatenated gene sequences, and clusters formed in each tree were in good mutual agreement. The five additional loci may thus be considered useful markers of the genus Rhizobium; in addition, MLSA also revealed broad genetic diversity among strains classified as Rhizobium tropici, providing evidence of new species. PMID:19403105

  12. Changes in the functional properties and antinutritional factors of extruded hard-to-cook common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.).

    PubMed

    Batista, Karla A; Prudêncio, Sandra H; Fernandes, Kátia F

    2010-04-01

    The biochemical and functional properties of 2 hard-to-cook common bean cultivars (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.) were investigated after the extrusion process. Beans of BRS pontal and BRS grafite cultivars were milled and extruded at 150 degrees C, with a compression ratio screw of 3 : 1, 5-mm die, and screw speed of 150 rpm. Extrudate flours were evaluated for water solubility (WS), water absorption index (WAI), oil absorption capacity (OAC), foaming capacity (FC), emulsifying activity (EA), antinutritional factors, and in vitro protein and starch digestibility. Results indicated that the extrusion significantly decreased antinutrients such as phytic acid, lectin, alpha-amylase, and trypsin inhibitors, reduced the emulsifying capacity and eliminated the FC in both BRS pontal and BRS grafite cultivars. In addition, the WS, WAI, and in vitro protein and starch digestibility were improved by the extrusion process. These results indicate that it is possible to produce new extruded products with good functional and biochemical properties from these common bean cultivars. PMID:20492281

  13. Review: The Potential of the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) as a Vehicle for Iron Biofortification

    PubMed Central

    Petry, Nicolai; Boy, Erick; Wirth, James P.; Hurrell, Richard F.

    2015-01-01

    Common beans are a staple food and the major source of iron for populations in Eastern Africa and Latin America. Bean iron concentration is high and can be further increased by biofortification. A major constraint to bean iron biofortification is low iron absorption, attributed to inhibitory compounds such as phytic acid (PA) and polyphenol(s) (PP). We have evaluated the usefulness of the common bean as a vehicle for iron biofortification. High iron concentrations and wide genetic variability have enabled plant breeders to develop high iron bean varieties (up to 10 mg/100 g). PA concentrations in beans are high and tend to increase with iron biofortification. Short-term human isotope studies indicate that iron absorption from beans is low, PA is the major inhibitor, and bean PP play a minor role. Multiple composite meal studies indicate that decreasing the PA level in the biofortified varieties substantially increases iron absorption. Fractional iron absorption from composite meals was 4%–7% in iron deficient women; thus the consumption of 100 g biofortified beans/day would provide about 30%–50% of their daily iron requirement. Beans are a good vehicle for iron biofortification, and regular high consumption would be expected to help combat iron deficiency (ID). PMID:25679229

  14. Toxicity Assessment of Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Widely Consumed by Tunisian Population.

    PubMed

    Nciri, Nader; Cho, Namjun; El Mhamdi, Faiçal; Ben Ismail, Hanen; Ben Mansour, Abderraouf; Sassi, Fayçal Haj; Ben Aissa-Fennira, Fatma

    2015-09-01

    This research aimed at assessing the content and the functional properties of phytohemagglutinin (PHA) in different varieties of beans widely consumed in Tunisia through soaking, cooking, autoclaving, germination, and their combinations. This study was carried out on three varieties of white beans grown in different localities of Tunisia, namely Twila, Coco, and Beldia, as well as on imported and local canned beans. All bean samples underwent biochemical and immunological evaluation by employing several techniques such as indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), hemagglutinating assay, Ouchterlony double immunodiffusion, and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Biochemical and immunological analyses indicated that raw dry beans contained a considerable amount of proteins and PHAs. ELISA demonstrated that soaking, either in plain water or in alkaline solution, caused an increase in the concentration of PHA. A slight increase of PHA was produced equally by germination during 4 days in all bean varieties. Cooking or autoclaving of presoaked beans resulted in a complete disappearance of PHA. ELISA test also proved that both imported and local canned beans contained fingerprints of PHA. Hemagglutination assays showed that not only cooked and autoclaved presoaked beans lacked the ability to agglutinate red blood cells but also autoclaved unsoaked beans did. In agar gel immunodiffusion using rabbit anti-PHA serum, raw, soaked, cooked unsoaked, and sprouted beans gave precipitin arc reactions, indicating that PHA existed in immunoreactive form in the tested seeds. SDS-PAGE electrophoretograms showed protein isolates of Twila and Beldia beans to have different profiles through soaking, cooking, and autoclaving processes. This work revealed that the combination of soaking and cooking/autoclaving was the best way in reducing PHA content and its activity in all bean varieties when compared with germination. PMID:26355953

  15. Isolation of a homodimeric lectin with antifungal and antiviral activities from red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seeds.

    PubMed

    Ye, X Y; Ng, T B; Tsang, P W; Wang, J

    2001-07-01

    A homodimeric lectin adsorbed on Affi-gel blue gel and CM-Sepharose and possessing a molecular weight of 67 kDa was isolated from red kidney beans. The hemagglutinating activity of this lectin was inhibited by glycoproteins but not by simple sugars. The lectin manifested inhibitory activity on human immunodeficiency virus-1 reverse transcriptase and alpha-glucosidase. The N-terminal sequence of the lectin exhibited some differences from previously reported lectins from Phaseolus vulgaris but showed some similarity to chitinases. It exerted a suppressive effect on growth of the fungal species Fusarium oxysporum, Coprinus comatus, and Rhizoctonia solani. The lectin had low ribonuclease and negligible translation-inhibitory activities. PMID:11732688

  16. Effect of White Kidney Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Beldia) on Small Intestine Morphology and Function in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Nciri, Nader; Cho, Namjun; Bergaoui, Nacef; El Mhamdi, Faiçal; Ben Ammar, Aouatef; Trabelsi, Najoua; Zekri, Sami; Guémira, Fathi; Ben Mansour, Abderraouf; Sassi, Fayçal Haj; Ben Aissa-Fennira, Fatma

    2015-12-01

    The chronic ingestion of raw or undercooked kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) causes functional and morphological derangement in various tissues. The major objectives of this study were to investigate the gavage effects of a raw Beldia bean variety that is widely consumed in Tunisia, on the small intestine morphology and jejunal absorption of water, electrolytes, and glucose in Wistar rats. Twenty young male rats were randomly divided into two groups of 10 rats. The first group served as the control and was gavaged with 300 mg of a rodent pellet flour suspension (RPFS), whereas the second experimental group was challenged with 300 mg of a Beldia bean flour suspension (BBFS) for 10 days. Histological studies were performed using light and electron microcopy. The intestinal transport of water, sodium, potassium, and glucose was studied by perfusing the jejunal loops of the small bowels in vivo. The feeding experiments indicated that BBFS did not affect weight gain. Histomorphometric analyses showed that the villus heights, crypt depths, and crypt/villus ratios in the jejunum and ileum were greater in the BBFS-fed rats than controls. Electron microscopy studies demonstrated that the rats exposed to RPFS exhibited intact intestinal tracts; however, the BBFS-treated rats demonstrated intestinal alterations characterized by abnormal microvillus architectures, with short and dense or long and slender features, in addition to the sparse presence of vesicles near the brush border membrane. BBFS administration did not significantly affect glucose absorption. However, significant decreases were observed in water and electrolyte absorption compared with the uptake of the controls. In conclusion, raw Beldia beans distorted jejunum morphology and disturbed hydroelectrolytic flux. PMID:26488416

  17. A reproducible genetic transformation system for cultivated Phaseolus acutifolius (tepary bean) and its use to assess the role of arcelins in resistance to the Mexican bean weevil.

    PubMed

    Zambre, M; Goossens, A; Cardona, C; Van Montagu, M; Terryn, N; Angenon, G

    2005-03-01

    A reproducible Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation method that delivers fertile and morphologically normal transgenic plants was developed for cultivated tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius L. Gray). Factors contributing to higher transformation efficiencies include (1) a low initial concentration of bacteria coupled with a longer cocultivation period with callus, (2) an initial selection of callus on a medium containing low levels of the selectable agent, (3) omission of the selectable agent from the medium during callus differentiation to shoots and (4) the efficient conversion of transgenic shoots into fertile plants. All plants regenerated with this procedure (T0) were stably transformed, and the introduced foreign genes were inherited in a Mendelian fashion in most of the 33 independent transformants. Integration, stable transmission and high expression levels of the transgenes were observed in the T1 and/or T3 progenies of the transgenic lines. The binary transformation vectors contained the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene, the neomycin phosphotransferase II selectable marker gene and either an arcelin 1 or an arcelin 5 gene. Arcelins are seed proteins that are very abundant in some wild P. vulgaris L. genotypes showing resistance to the storage insect Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) (Coleoptera, Bruchidae). Transgenic beans from two different cultivated P. acutifolius genotypes with high arcelin levels were infested with Z. subfasciatus, but they were only marginally less susceptible to infestation than the non-transgenic P. acutifolius. Hence, the arcelin genes tested here are not major determinants of resistance against Z. subfasciatus. PMID:15702345

  18. Influence of atmospheric vapour pressure deficit on ozone responses of snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two genotypes of snapbean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), one known to be sensitive to ozone and the other resistant, were examined to determine their response to atmospheric vapor pressure deficit (VPD) in the presence and absence of ozone. Plants were grown in Outdoor Plant Environment Chambers in combin...

  19. Microwave-assisted Extraction of Phenolics from Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The phenolic phytochemicals are associated with many health benefits, and it is useful to develop improved methods for its extraction from beans. In this work, we showed that extraction with microwave irradiation is an effective method for the determination of extractable phenolic content in beans....

  20. Evaluation of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) collection for agromorphological and seed mineral concentration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A collection of common bean comprising totally 223 genotypes of which 176 genotypes from the USDA, 37 common bean landraces and 10 commercial cultivars from Turkey, evaluated for several agromorphological plant characters and mineral concentrations in seeds. There were wide range of variations for t...

  1. Iron and zinc bioavailabilities to pigs from red and white beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are similar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common beans contain relatively high concentrations of iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) but are also high in polyphenols and phytates, factors that may inhibit Fe and Zn absorption. In vitro (Caco-2 cells) and in vivo (pigs) models were used to compare Fe and Zn bioavailabilities between red and white beans,...

  2. Characterization of starch synthase I and II expressed in early developing seeds of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Senoura, Takeshi; Isono, Naoto; Yoshikawa, Motoyo; Asao, Ayako; Hamada, Shigeki; Watanabe, Kenji; Ito, Hiroyuki; Matsui, Hirokazu

    2004-09-01

    Plant starch synthase (SS) contributes to the elongation of glucan chains during starch biosynthesis and hence plays an essential role in determining the fine structure of amylopectin. To elucidate the role of SS activity in the formation of amylopectin in kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), a study was undertaken to isolate cDNA clones for SS and to characterize the enzymatic properties of the coded recombinant enzymes. Two SS cDNAs, designated pvss1 and pvss21, which were isolated from early developing seeds, encoded SSI and SSII (designated PvSSI and PvSSII-1) that displayed significant identity (more than 65%) with other SSI and SSII members, respectively. RNA gel blot analysis indicated that both transcripts accumulate in leaves and developing seeds at the early stage. Immunoblot analysis with antisera raised against both recombinant proteins (rPvSSI and rPvSSII-1) showed that the accumulation of both proteins parallels the gene expression profiles, although both were detectable only in starch-granule fractions. Recombinant enzymes expressed by Escherichia coli cells showed distinct chain-length specificities for the extension of glucan chains. Our results suggest that these SS isozymes for synthesis of transitory starch are also responsible for synthesis of storage starch in early developing seeds of kidney bean. PMID:15388972

  3. Identification of essential amino acid residues of an alpha-amylase inhibitor from Phaseolus vulgaris white kidney beans.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, T; Hiramoto, S; Wato, S; Nishimoto, T; Wada, Y; Nagai, K; Yamaguchi, H

    1999-11-01

    Kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) alpha-amylase inhibitors, which are bivalent inhibitors with the subunit stoichiometry of (alphabeta)(2) complex, have been inferred to contain unique arginine, tryptophan, and tyrosine residues essential for the inhibitory activity. To test the validity of this inference, an attempt was made to identify the essential amino acid residues of a white kidney bean (P. vulgaris) alpha-amylase inhibitor (PHA-I) by using the chemical modification technique combined with amino acid sequencing and mass spectrometry. Exhaustive modification of the arginine residues by phenylglyoxal did not lead to a marked loss of activity, suggesting that no arginine residue is directly associated with the inhibitory activity. N-Bromosuccinimide treatment of PHA-I in the presence or absence of a substrate alpha-amylase revealed the involvement of two tryptophan residues in alpha-amylase inhibition, and they were identified as Trp188 of the beta-subunit by amino acid sequencing and mass spectrometry of lysylendopeptidase peptides. Further, two tyrosine residues were preferentially modified either by N-acetylimidazole or by tetranitromethane, resulting in a concomitant loss of most of the PHA-I activity. Amino acid sequencing of the lysylendopeptidase peptides from a tetranitromethane-modified PHA-I identified Tyr186 of the beta-subunit as an essential residue. PMID:10544275

  4. Characterization and functional properties of the alpha-amylase inhibitor (alpha-AI) from kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seeds.

    PubMed

    Le Berre-Anton, V; Bompard-Gilles, C; Payan, F; Rougé, P

    1997-11-14

    Alpha-amylase inhibitor (alpha-AI) from kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv Tendergreen) seeds has been purified to homogeneity by heat treatment in acidic medium, ammonium sulphate fractionation, chromatofocusing and gel filtration. Two isoforms, alpha-AI1 and alpha-AI1', of 43 kDa have been isolated which differ from each other by their isoelectric points and neutral sugar contents. The major isoform alpha-AI1 inhibited human and porcine pancreatic alpha-amylases (PPA) but was devoid of activity on alpha-amylases of bacterial or fungal origins. As shown on the Lineweaver-Burk plots, the nature of the inhibition is explained by a mixed non-competitive inhibition mechanism. Alpha-AI1 formed a 1:2 stoichiometric complex with PPA which showed an optimum pH of 4.5 at 30 degrees C. Owing to the low optimum pH found for alpha-AI activity, inhibitor-containing diets such as beans or transgenic plants expressing alpha-AI should be devoid of any harmful effect on human health. PMID:9428656

  5. Fermented nondigestible fraction from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivar Negro 8025 modulates HT-29 cell behavior.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Bravo, R K; Guevara-Gonzalez, R; Ramos-Gomez, M; Garcia-Gasca, T; Campos-Vega, R; Oomah, B D; Loarca-Piña, G

    2011-03-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of a fermented nondigestible fraction (FNDF) of cooked bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivar Negro 8025 on human colon adenocarcinoma HT-29 cell survival. Negro 8025 was chosen for in vitro fermentation based on comparison of chemical composition with 2 other cultivars: Azufrado Higuera and Pinto Durango. Negro 8025 had 58% total dietary fiber, 27% resistant starch, and 20 mg of (+)-catechin equivalents per gram of sample. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production and pH of the medium were measured after fermentation as indicators of colon protection through induced arrest on cell culture and apoptosis. Butyrate and pH of FNDF of Negro 8025 were higher than the control fermented raffinose extract. The FNDF inhibited HT-29 cell survival in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The lethal concentration 50 (LC(50)) was 13.63% FNDF (equivalent to 7.36, 0.33, and 3.31 mmol of acetic, propionic, and butyric acids, respectively). DNA fragmentation, an apoptosis indicator, was detected by the TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling method in cells treated with the LC(50)-FNDF and a synthetic mixture of SCFAs mimicking LC(50)-FNDF. Our results suggest that common bean is a reliable source of fermentable substrates in colon, producing compounds with potential chemoprotective effect on HT-29 colon adenocarcinoma cells, so it may present an effective alternative to mitigate colon cancer development. PMID:21535793

  6. Friend or Foe—Light Availability Determines the Relationship between Mycorrhizal Fungi, Rhizobia and Lima Bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Ballhorn, Daniel J.; Schädler, Martin; Elias, Jacob D.; Millar, Jess A.; Kautz, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    Plant associations with root microbes represent some of the most important symbioses on earth. While often critically promoting plant fitness, nitrogen-fixing rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) also demand significant carbohydrate allocation in exchange for key nutrients. Though plants may often compensate for carbon loss, constraints may arise under light limitation when plants cannot extensively increase photosynthesis. Under such conditions, costs for maintaining symbioses may outweigh benefits, turning mutualist microbes into parasites, resulting in reduced plant growth and reproduction. In natural systems plants commonly grow with different symbionts simultaneously which again may interact with each other. This might add complexity to the responses of such multipartite relationships. We experimented with lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus), which efficiently forms associations with both types of root symbionts. We applied full light and low-light to each of four treatments of microbial inoculation. After an incubation period of 14 weeks, we quantified vegetative aboveground and belowground biomass and number and viability of seeds to determine effects of combined inoculant and light treatment on plant fitness. Under light-limited conditions, vegetative and reproductive traits were inhibited in AMF and rhizobia inoculated lima bean plants relative to controls (un-colonized plants). Strikingly, reductions in seed production were most critical in combined treatments with rhizobia x AMF. Our findings suggest microbial root symbionts create additive costs resulting in decreased plant fitness under light-limited conditions. PMID:27136455

  7. Proteomic and phosphoproteomic analysis of polyethylene glycol-induced osmotic stress in root tips of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    PubMed Central

    Horst, Walter Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that polyethylene glycol (PEG)-induced osmotic stress (OS) reduces cell-wall (CW) porosity and limits aluminium (Al) uptake by root tips of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). A subsequent transcriptomic study suggested that genes related to CW processes are involved in adjustment to OS. In this study, a proteomic and phosphoproteomic approach was applied to identify OS-induced protein regulation to further improve our understanding of how OS affects Al accumulation. Analysis of total soluble proteins in root tips indicated that, in total, 22 proteins were differentially regulated by OS; these proteins were functionally categorized. Seventy-seven per- cent of the total expressed proteins were involved in metabolic pathways, particularly of carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. An analysis of the apoplastic proteome revealed that OS reduced the level of five proteins and increased that of seven proteins. Investigation of the total soluble phosphoproteome suggested that dehydrin responded to OS with an enhanced phosphorylation state without a change in abundance. A cellular immunolocalization analysis indicated that dehydrin was localized mainly in the CW. This suggests that dehydrin may play a major protective role in the OS-induced physical breakdown of the CW structure and thus maintenance of the reversibility of CW extensibility during recovery from OS. The proteomic and phosphoproteomic analyses provided novel insights into the complex mechanisms of OS-induced reduction of Al accumulation in the root tips of common bean and highlight a key role for modification of CW structure. PMID:24123251

  8. Friend or Foe-Light Availability Determines the Relationship between Mycorrhizal Fungi, Rhizobia and Lima Bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.).

    PubMed

    Ballhorn, Daniel J; Schädler, Martin; Elias, Jacob D; Millar, Jess A; Kautz, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    Plant associations with root microbes represent some of the most important symbioses on earth. While often critically promoting plant fitness, nitrogen-fixing rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) also demand significant carbohydrate allocation in exchange for key nutrients. Though plants may often compensate for carbon loss, constraints may arise under light limitation when plants cannot extensively increase photosynthesis. Under such conditions, costs for maintaining symbioses may outweigh benefits, turning mutualist microbes into parasites, resulting in reduced plant growth and reproduction. In natural systems plants commonly grow with different symbionts simultaneously which again may interact with each other. This might add complexity to the responses of such multipartite relationships. We experimented with lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus), which efficiently forms associations with both types of root symbionts. We applied full light and low-light to each of four treatments of microbial inoculation. After an incubation period of 14 weeks, we quantified vegetative aboveground and belowground biomass and number and viability of seeds to determine effects of combined inoculant and light treatment on plant fitness. Under light-limited conditions, vegetative and reproductive traits were inhibited in AMF and rhizobia inoculated lima bean plants relative to controls (un-colonized plants). Strikingly, reductions in seed production were most critical in combined treatments with rhizobia x AMF. Our findings suggest microbial root symbionts create additive costs resulting in decreased plant fitness under light-limited conditions. PMID:27136455

  9. Nitric oxide increases tolerance responses to moderate water deficit in leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna unguiculata bean species.

    PubMed

    Zimmer-Prados, Lucas Martins; Moreira, Ana Sílvia Franco Pinheiro; Magalhaes, Jose Ronaldo; França, Marcel Giovanni Costa

    2014-07-01

    Drought stress is one of the most intensively studied and widespread constraints, and nitric oxide (NO) is a key signaling molecule involved in the mediation of abiotic stresses in plants. We demonstrated that a sprayed solution of NO from donor sodium nitroprusside increased drought stress tolerance responses in both sensitive (Phaseolus vulgaris) and tolerant (Vigna unguiculata) beans. In intact plants subjected to halting irrigation, NO increased the leaf relative water content and stomatal conductance in both species. After cutting leaf discs and washing them, NO induced increased electrolyte leakage, which was more evident in the tolerant species. These leaf discs were then subjected to different water deficits, simulating moderate and severe drought stress conditions through polyethylene glycol solutions. NO supplied at moderate drought stress revealed a reduced membrane injury index in sensitive species. In hydrated discs and at this level of water deficit, NO increased the electron transport rate in both species, and a reduction of these rates was observed at severe stress levels. Taken together, it can be shown that NO has an effective role in ameliorating drought stress effects, activating tolerance responses at moderate water deficit levels and in both bean species which present differential drought tolerance. PMID:25049456

  10. Reverse micellar extraction of lectin from black turtle bean (Phaseolus vulgaris): optimisation of extraction conditions by response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    He, Shudong; Shi, John; Walid, Elfalleh; Zhang, Hongwei; Ma, Ying; Xue, Sophia Jun

    2015-01-01

    Lectin from black turtle bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) was extracted and purified by reverse micellar extraction (RME) method. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimise the processing parameters for both forward and backward extraction. Hemagglutinating activity analysis, SDS-PAGE, RP-HPLC and FTIR techniques were used to characterise the lectin. The optimum extraction conditions were determined as 77.59 mM NaCl, pH 5.65, AOT 127.44 mM sodium bis (2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) for the forward extraction; and 592.97 mM KCl, pH 8.01 for the backward extraction. The yield was 63.21 ± 2.35 mg protein/g bean meal with a purification factor of 8.81 ± 0.17. The efficiency of RME was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and RP-HPLC, respectively. FTIR analysis indicated there were no significant changes in the secondary protein structure. Comparison with conventional chromatographic method confirmed that the RME method could be used for the purification of lectin from the crude extract. PMID:25053033

  11. Amino acid profiles after sprouting, autoclaving, and lactic acid fermentation of finger millet (Eleusine coracan) and kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Mbithi-Mwikya, S; Ooghe, W; Van Camp, J; Ngundi, D; Huyghebaert, A

    2000-08-01

    Seeds of finger millet (Eleucine coracan (L.) Gaertner) and kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were sprouted, autoclaved, and fermented during the processing of a weaning (complementary) food for children. Relative changes in individual amino acids with processing were evaluated. Finger millet and kidney beans both showed a good percentage of essential to total amino acids, with 44. 2-44.9% in finger millet and 44.2-45.1% in kidney beans, when compared to 33.9% for the FAO/WHO reference protein for 2-5 year old children. Sprouting resulted in a significant decrease in lysine in kidney beans. Autoclaving caused significant decreases in histidine, while fermentation significantly decreased phenylalanine and increased tryptophan in finger millet. The leucine-to-lysine ratio, which is an indicator of the pellagragenic character of a protein, was significantly improved in finger millet by both sprouting and fermentation. PMID:10956072

  12. Use of two varieties of hard-to-cook beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) in the processing of koki (a steamed legume product).

    PubMed

    Mbofung, C M; Rigby, N; Waldron, K

    1999-01-01

    Koki is a nutritious cowpea-based food product usually processed by steam cooking whipped cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) paste mixed with spices and palm oil. A study was carried out to investigate the effect of the partial replacement of cowpeas (CP) with hard-to-cook (HTC) beans on the chemical, nutritional and sensory characteristics of koki. Towards this objective, two varieties of beans--Phaseolus vulgaris (red kidney beans--RKB and mottled brown beans--MBB), each with the HTC defect, were separately incorporated into cowpea paste in the following Bean:CP ratios 0:100, 20:80, 30:70, 40:60, 50:50, 60:40 and processed into koki. Incorporation of dry HTC beans into cowpeas in the making of koki affected the bulking properties of the uncooked paste, the nutrient composition, essential amino acid content, antinutritional factors, digestibility as well as the sensory attributes of cooked koki. Sensory tests showed that a highly acceptable, nutritious and digestible koki can be processed from cowpeas partially replaced with dry HTC bean paste up to levels of about 40-50% depending on the variety of dry bean used. PMID:10646560

  13. Rapid evolutionary change of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L) plastome, and the genomic diversification of legume chloroplasts

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xianwu; Castillo-Ramírez, Santiago; González, Víctor; Bustos, Patricia; Luís Fernández-Vázquez, José; Santamaría, Rosa Isela; Arellano, Jesús; Cevallos, Miguel A; Dávila, Guillermo

    2007-01-01

    Background Fabaceae (legumes) is one of the largest families of flowering plants, and some members are important crops. In contrast to what we know about their great diversity or economic importance, our knowledge at the genomic level of chloroplast genomes (cpDNAs or plastomes) for these crops is limited. Results We sequenced the complete genome of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Negro Jamapa) chloroplast. The plastome of P. vulgaris is a 150,285 bp circular molecule. It has gene content similar to that of other legume plastomes, but contains two pseudogenes, rpl33 and rps16. A distinct inversion occurred at the junction points of trnH-GUG/rpl14 and rps19/rps8, as in adzuki bean [1]. These two pseudogenes and the inversion were confirmed in 10 varieties representing the two domestication centers of the bean. Genomic comparative analysis indicated that inversions generally occur in legume plastomes and the magnitude and localization of insertions/deletions (indels) also vary. The analysis of repeat sequences demonstrated that patterns and sequences of tandem repeats had an important impact on sequence diversification between legume plastomes and tandem repeats did not belong to dispersed repeats. Interestingly, P. vulgaris plastome had higher evolutionary rates of change on both genomic and gene levels than G. max, which could be the consequence of pressure from both mutation and natural selection. Conclusion Legume chloroplast genomes are widely diversified in gene content, gene order, indel structure, abundance and localization of repetitive sequences, intracellular sequence exchange and evolutionary rates. The P. vulgaris plastome is a rapidly evolving genome. PMID:17623083

  14. Use of BABA and INA As Activators of a Primed State in the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Martínez-Aguilar, Keren; Ramírez-Carrasco, Gabriela; Hernández-Chávez, José Luis; Barraza, Aarón; Alvarez-Venegas, Raúl

    2016-01-01

    To survive in adverse conditions, plants have evolved complex mechanisms that "prime" their defense system to respond and adapt to stresses. Their competence to respond to such stresses fundamentally depends on its capacity to modulate the transcriptome rapidly and specifically. Thus, chromatin dynamics is a mechanism linked to transcriptional regulation and enhanced defense in plants. For example, in Arabidopsis, priming of the SA-dependent defense pathway is linked to histone lysine methylation. Such modifications could create a memory of the primary infection that is associated with an amplified gene response upon exposure to a second stress-stimulus. In addition, the priming status of a plant for induced resistance can be inherited to its offspring. However, analyses on the molecular mechanisms of generational and transgenerational priming in the common bean (Phaseolus vulagris L.), an economically important crop, are absent. Here, we provide evidence that resistance to P. syringae pv. phaseolicola infection was induced in the common bean with the synthetic priming activators BABA and INA. Resistance was assessed by evaluating symptom appearance, pathogen accumulation, changes in gene expression of defense genes, as well as changes in the H3K4me3 and H3K36me3 marks at the promoter-exon regions of defense-associated genes. We conclude that defense priming in the common bean occurred in response to BABA and INA and that these synthetic activators primed distinct genes for enhanced disease resistance. We hope that an understanding of the molecular changes leading to defense priming and pathogen resistance will provide valuable knowledge for producing disease-resistant crop varieties by exposing parental plants to priming activators, as well as to the development of novel plant protection chemicals that stimulate the plant's inherent disease resistance mechanisms. PMID:27242854

  15. Use of BABA and INA As Activators of a Primed State in the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Aguilar, Keren; Ramírez-Carrasco, Gabriela; Hernández-Chávez, José Luis; Barraza, Aarón; Alvarez-Venegas, Raúl

    2016-01-01

    To survive in adverse conditions, plants have evolved complex mechanisms that “prime” their defense system to respond and adapt to stresses. Their competence to respond to such stresses fundamentally depends on its capacity to modulate the transcriptome rapidly and specifically. Thus, chromatin dynamics is a mechanism linked to transcriptional regulation and enhanced defense in plants. For example, in Arabidopsis, priming of the SA-dependent defense pathway is linked to histone lysine methylation. Such modifications could create a memory of the primary infection that is associated with an amplified gene response upon exposure to a second stress-stimulus. In addition, the priming status of a plant for induced resistance can be inherited to its offspring. However, analyses on the molecular mechanisms of generational and transgenerational priming in the common bean (Phaseolus vulagris L.), an economically important crop, are absent. Here, we provide evidence that resistance to P. syringae pv. phaseolicola infection was induced in the common bean with the synthetic priming activators BABA and INA. Resistance was assessed by evaluating symptom appearance, pathogen accumulation, changes in gene expression of defense genes, as well as changes in the H3K4me3 and H3K36me3 marks at the promoter-exon regions of defense-associated genes. We conclude that defense priming in the common bean occurred in response to BABA and INA and that these synthetic activators primed distinct genes for enhanced disease resistance. We hope that an understanding of the molecular changes leading to defense priming and pathogen resistance will provide valuable knowledge for producing disease-resistant crop varieties by exposing parental plants to priming activators, as well as to the development of novel plant protection chemicals that stimulate the plant's inherent disease resistance mechanisms. PMID:27242854

  16. Black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein hydrolysates: Physicochemical and functional properties.

    PubMed

    Evangelho, Jarine Amaral do; Vanier, Nathan Levien; Pinto, Vânia Zanella; Berrios, Jose J De; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa

    2017-01-01

    Black bean protein hydrolysates obtained from pepsin and alcalase digestions until 120min of hydrolysis were evaluated by gel electrophoresis, relative fluorescence intensity, emulsifying properties, light micrograph of emulsions and in vitro antioxidant activity. The emulsion stability of the bean protein hydrolysates were evaluated during 30days of storage. The pepsin-treated bean protein hydrolysates presented higher degree of hydrolysis than the alcalase-treated protein hydrolysates. The alcalase-treated bean protein hydrolysates showed higher surface hydrophobicity. Moreover, the protein hydrolysates obtained with alcalase digestion presented higher emulsion stability during 30-days than those obtained from pepsin digestion. The protein concentrate and especially the hydrolysates obtained from alcalase digestion had good emulsion stability and antioxidant activity. Thus, they could be exploited as protein supplements in the diet as nutritional and bioactive foods. PMID:27507499

  17. [Role of black bean Phaseolus vulgaris on the nutritional status of Guatemalan population].

    PubMed

    Serrano, José; Goñi, Isabel

    2004-03-01

    Guatemala provides an example of epidemiological superposition, in which health problems typical of developed countries and developing countries are both observed. Nutritional deficiencies in some micronutrients like vitamin A and iron coexist alongside chronic diseases such as diabetes type II and cardiovascular diseases. The importance of black beans in the normal Guatemala diet is well known:70g per capita of black beans are consumed daily. Black beans are an important sources of protein and energy in the diet. They contain "lente" digestion carbohydrates and a high proportion of non-digested carbohydrates that may be fermented in the large intestine. Theses types of carbohydrates are associated with a low glycemic response, low serum cholesterol levels, and a decrease of colon cancer risk factors. These physiological effects may be related to colonic fermentation end products (propionic and butyric acids). Black beans also contain several antinutritional compounds (enzymatic inhibitors, haemaglutenins, saponins and phytic acid, etc.), some of them thermolabiles that are partially eliminated during culinary processes and may modify the nutritional quality of beans. Black beans play a crucial role in the etiology of several diseases in Guatemala. PMID:15332354

  18. Implications of mitotic and meiotic irregularities in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Lima, D C; Braz, G T; Dos Reis, G B; Techio, V H; Davide, L C; de F B Abreu, A

    2016-01-01

    The common bean has great social and economic importance in Brazil and is the subject of a high number of publications, especially in the fields of genetics and breeding. Breeding programs aim to increase grain yield; however, mitosis and meiosis represent under explored research areas that have a direct impact on grain yield. Therefore, the study of cell division could be another tool available to bean geneticists and breeders. The aim of this study was to investigate irregularities occurring during the cell cycle and meiosis in common bean. The common bean cultivar used was BRSMG Talismã, which owing to its high yield and grain quality is recommended for cultivation in Brazil. We classified the interphase nuclei, estimated the mitotic and meiotic index, grain pollen viability, and percentage of abnormalities in both processes. The mitotic index was 4.1%, the interphase nucleus was non-reticulated, and 19% of dividing somatic cells showed abnormal behavior. Meiosis also presented irregularities resulting in a meiotic index of 44.6%. Viability of pollen grains was 94.3%. These results indicate that the common bean cultivar BRSMG Talismã possesses repair mechanisms that compensate for changes by producing a large number of pollen grains. Another important strategy adopted by bean plants to ensure stability is the elimination of abnormal cells by apoptosis. As the common bean cultivar BRSMG Talismã is recommended for cultivation because of its good agronomic performance, it can be concluded that mitotic and meiotic irregularities have no negative influence on its grain quality and yield. PMID:27323072

  19. Analyses of Methylomes Derived from Meso-American Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Using MeDIP-Seq and Whole Genome Sodium Bisulfite-Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Crampton, Mollee; Sripathi, Venkateswara R.; Hossain, Khwaja; Kalavacharla, Venu

    2016-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is economically important for its high protein, fiber, and micronutrient contents, with a relatively small genome size of ∼587 Mb. Common bean is genetically diverse with two major gene pools, Meso-American and Andean. The phenotypic variability within common bean is partly attributed to the genetic diversity and epigenetic changes that are largely influenced by environmental factors. It is well established that an important epigenetic regulator of gene expression is DNA methylation. Here, we present results generated from two high-throughput sequencing technologies, methylated DNA immunoprecipitation-sequencing (MeDIP-seq) and whole genome bisulfite-sequencing (BS-Seq). Our analyses revealed that this Meso-American common bean displays similar methylation patterns as other previously published plant methylomes, with CG ∼50%, CHG ∼30%, and CHH ∼2.7% methylation, however, these differ from the common bean reference methylome of Andean origin. We identified higher CG methylation levels in both promoter and genic regions than CHG and CHH contexts. Moreover, we found relatively higher CG methylation levels in genes than in promoters. Conversely, the CHG and CHH methylation levels were highest in promoters than in genes. This is the first genome-wide DNA methylation profiling study in a Meso-American common bean cultivar (“Sierra”) using NGS approaches. Our long-term goal is to generate genome-wide epigenomic maps in common bean focusing on chromatin accessibility, histone modifications, and DNA methylation. PMID:27199997

  20. Analyses of Methylomes Derived from Meso-American Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Using MeDIP-Seq and Whole Genome Sodium Bisulfite-Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Crampton, Mollee; Sripathi, Venkateswara R; Hossain, Khwaja; Kalavacharla, Venu

    2016-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is economically important for its high protein, fiber, and micronutrient contents, with a relatively small genome size of ∼587 Mb. Common bean is genetically diverse with two major gene pools, Meso-American and Andean. The phenotypic variability within common bean is partly attributed to the genetic diversity and epigenetic changes that are largely influenced by environmental factors. It is well established that an important epigenetic regulator of gene expression is DNA methylation. Here, we present results generated from two high-throughput sequencing technologies, methylated DNA immunoprecipitation-sequencing (MeDIP-seq) and whole genome bisulfite-sequencing (BS-Seq). Our analyses revealed that this Meso-American common bean displays similar methylation patterns as other previously published plant methylomes, with CG ∼50%, CHG ∼30%, and CHH ∼2.7% methylation, however, these differ from the common bean reference methylome of Andean origin. We identified higher CG methylation levels in both promoter and genic regions than CHG and CHH contexts. Moreover, we found relatively higher CG methylation levels in genes than in promoters. Conversely, the CHG and CHH methylation levels were highest in promoters than in genes. This is the first genome-wide DNA methylation profiling study in a Meso-American common bean cultivar ("Sierra") using NGS approaches. Our long-term goal is to generate genome-wide epigenomic maps in common bean focusing on chromatin accessibility, histone modifications, and DNA methylation. PMID:27199997

  1. Cooked common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) modulate renal genes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Lomas-Soria, Consuelo; Pérez-Ramírez, Iza F; Caballero-Pérez, Juan; Guevara-Gonzalez, Ramón G; Guevara-Olvera, Lorenzo; Loarca-Piña, Guadalupe; Guzman-Maldonado, Horacio S; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalía

    2015-07-01

    Food consumption with different bioactive compounds could reduce the risk of diabetic complications. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of cooked common beans on differentially expressed genes in whole kidney homogenates of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. After 4weeks of treatment with a cooked bean supplemented (10%) diet, animals fed with Flor de Mayo bean (FMB) exerted the greatest protective effect, since they presented the lowest blood glucose levels, consistent with an increase in blood insulin levels, a decrease in urine albumin and urea levels and an increase in creatinine clearance (P≤.05). Regarding the gene expression of kidneys evaluated using expressed sequence tag, consumption of cooked beans improved the expression of Glu1, Cps1, Ipmk, Cacna1c, Camk1, Pdhb, Ptbp3 and Pim1, which are related to the elimination of ammonium groups, the regulation of inflammatory and oxidative response, as well as cell signaling and apoptosis. In addition, the beneficial effects observed were not related to their polyphenolic and saponin profile, suggesting the activity of other bioactive compounds or the synergistic interaction of these compounds. These results suggest that the consumption of cooked common beans (FMB) might be used as an alternative for the regulation of genes related to renal alterations. PMID:25863648

  2. Genetic Characterization of Green Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Accessions from Turkey with SCAR and SSR Markers.

    PubMed

    Madakbaş, Seher Yıldız; Sarıkamış, Gölge; Başak, Hakan; Karadavut, Ufuk; Özmen, Canan Yüksel; Daşçı, Mete Gürhan; Çayan, Selin

    2016-08-01

    Characterization, conservation, and utilization of genetic resources is essential for the sustainability in agriculture. Plant genetic resources are important for breeding efforts designed for the generation of new cultivars or for the improvement of existing ones. Green bean has been cultivated extensively in Turkey giving rise to local accessions through selection over time and adaptation to various environmental conditions. The objective of the present study was to determine the genetic relationships of green bean accessions collected from Kırşehir Province of Turkey, located at the central Anatolia. Within a population of 275 green bean accessions, 50 accessions were selected on the basis of morphological observations for further evaluation with SSR and STS/SCAR markers together with 4 reference cultivars of Andean and Mesoamerican origin. SSR markers selected on the basis of high polymorphism information content revealed the genetic relatedness of selected green bean accessions. STS/SCAR markers associated with bean anthracnose, common bacterial blight, white mold, halo blight, and phaseolin protein demonstrated the inheritance of resistance traits of local accessions at the selected loci. These findings may help better utilize genetic resources and furthermore are expected to facilitate forthcoming breeding studies for the generation of novel cultivars well adapted to the region. PMID:27156082

  3. Biodiversity and biogeography of rhizobia associated with common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Shaanxi Province.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Cao, Ying; Wang, En Tao; Qiao, Ya Juan; Jiao, Shuo; Liu, Zhen Shan; Zhao, Liang; Wei, Ge Hong

    2016-05-01

    The biodiversity and biogeography of rhizobia associated with bean in Shaanxi Province were investigated. A total of 194 bacterial isolates from bean nodules collected from 13 sampling sites were characterized based on phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA gene, the housekeeping genes recA, glnII and atpD, and the symbiotic genes nodC and nifH. Fifteen genospecies belonging to the genera Rhizobium, Agrobacterium, Ensifer, Bradyrhizobium and Ochrobactrum were defined among the isolates, with Rhizobium sp. II, Agrobacterium sp. II, E. fredii and R. phaseoli being the dominant groups. Four symbiotic gene lineages corresponding to Rhizobium sp. I, Rhizobium sp. II, R. phaseoli and B. liaoningense were detected in the nodC and nifH sequence analyses, indicating different origins for the symbiotic genes and their co-evolution with the chromosome of the bacteria. Moreover, the Ensifer isolates harbored symbiotic genes closely related to bean-nodulating Pararhizobium giardinii, indicating possible lateral gene transfer from Rhizobium to Ensifer. Correlation of rhizobial community composition with moisture, temperature, intercropping, soil features and nutrients were detected. All the results demonstrated a great diversity of bean rhizobia in Shaanxi that might be due to the adaptable evolution of the bean-nodulating rhizobia subjected to the diverse ecological conditions in the area. PMID:26966063

  4. Ethiopian soils harbor natural populations of rhizobia that form symbioses with common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Beyene, Desta; Kassa, Serawit; Ampy, Franklin; Asseffa, Amha; Gebremedhin, Tadesse; van Berkum, Peter

    2004-02-01

    The diversity and taxonomic relationships of 83 bean-nodulating rhizobia indigenous to Ethiopian soils were characterized by PCR-RFLP of the internally transcribed spacer (ITS) region between the 16S and 23S rRNA genes, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE), and amplified fragment-length polymorphism. The isolates fell into 13 distinct genotypes according to PCR-RFLP analysis of the ITS region. Based on MLEE, the majority of these genotypes (70%) was genetically related to the type strain of Rhizobium leguminosarum. However, from analysis of their 16S rRNA genes, the majority was placed with Rhizobium etli. Transfer and recombination of the 16S rRNA gene from presumptively introduced R. etli to local R. leguminosarum is a possible theory to explain these contrasting results. However, it seems unlikely that bean rhizobia originating from the Americas (or Europe) extensively colonized soils of Ethiopia because Rhizobium tropici, Rhizobium gallicum, and Rhizobium giardinii were not detected and only a single ineffective isolate of R. etli that originated from a remote location was identified. Therefore, Ethiopian R. leguminosarum may have acquired the determinants for nodulation of bean from a low number of introduced bean-nodulating rhizobia that either are poor competitors for nodulation of bean or that failed to survive in the Ethiopian environment. Furthermore, it may be concluded from the genetic data presented here that the evidence for separating R. leguminosarum and R. etli into two separate species is inconclusive. PMID:14685648

  5. Symbiotic Efficiency of Native Rhizobia Nodulating Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Soils of Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Kawaka, Fanuel; Dida, Mathews M.; Opala, Peter A.; Ombori, Omwoyo; Maingi, John; Osoro, Newton; Muthini, Morris; Amoding, Alice; Mukaminega, Dative; Muoma, John

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the abundance and symbiotic efficiency of native rhizobia nodulating common bean in Kisumu and Kakamega, Kenya. Soil sampling was carried out in three farms that had been used for growing common bean for at least two seasons and one fallow land with no known history of growing common bean or inoculation. Abundance of soil rhizobia and symbiotic efficiency (SE) were determined in a greenhouse experiment. Native rhizobia populations ranged from 3.2 × 101 to 3.5 × 104 cells per gram of soil. Pure bacterial cultures isolated from fresh and healthy root nodules exhibited typical characteristics of Rhizobium sp. on yeast extract mannitol agar media supplemented with Congo red. Bean inoculation with the isolates significantly (p < 0.05) increased the shoot dry weight and nitrogen (N) concentration and content. The SE of all the native rhizobia were higher when compared to a reference strain, CIAT 899 (67%), and ranged from 74% to 170%. Four isolates had SE above a second reference strain, Strain 446 (110%). Our results demonstrate the presence of native rhizobia that are potentially superior to the commercial inoculants. These can be exploited to enhance bean inoculation programmes in the region. PMID:27355005

  6. Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) PvTIFY orchestrates global changes in transcript profile response to jasmonate and phosphorus deficiency

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background TIFY is a large plant-specific transcription factor gene family. A subgroup of TIFY genes named JAZ (Jasmonate-ZIM domain) has been identified as repressors of jasmonate (JA)-regulated transcription in Arabidopsis and other plants. JA signaling is involved in many aspects of plant growth/development and in defense responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Here, we identified the TIFY genes (designated PvTIFY) from the legume common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and functionally characterized PvTIFY10C as a transcriptional regulator. Results Nineteen genes from the PvTIFY gene family were identified through whole-genome sequence analysis. Most of these were induced upon methyl-JA elicitation. We selected PvTIFY10C as a representative JA-responsive PvTIFY gene for further functional analysis. Transcriptome analysis via microarray hybridization using the newly designed Bean Custom Array 90 K was performed on transgenic roots of composite plants with modulated (RNAi-silencing or over-expression) PvTIFY10C gene expression. Data were interpreted using Gene Ontology and MapMan adapted to common bean. Microarray differential gene expression data were validated by real-time qRT-PCR expression analysis. Comparative global gene expression analysis revealed opposite regulatory changes in processes such as RNA and protein regulation, stress responses and metabolism in PvTIFY10C silenced vs. over-expressing roots. These data point to transcript reprogramming (mainly repression) orchestrated by PvTIFY10C. In addition, we found that several PvTIFY genes, as well as genes from the JA biosynthetic pathway, responded to P-deficiency. Relevant P-responsive genes that participate in carbon metabolic pathways, cell wall synthesis, lipid metabolism, transport, DNA, RNA and protein regulation, and signaling were oppositely-regulated in control vs. PvTIFY10C-silenced roots of composite plants under P-stress. These data indicate that PvTIFY10C regulates, directly or indirectly, the

  7. Genetic analysis of the response to eleven Colletotrichum lindemuthianum races in a RIL population of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bean anthracnose is caused by the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc. & Magnus) Lams.- Scrib. Resistance to C. lindemuthianum in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) generally follows a qualitative mode of inheritance. The pathogen shows extensive pathogenic variation and up to 20 anthracnose resistance loci (named Co-), conferring resistance to specific races, have been described. Anthracnose resistance has generally been investigated by analyzing a limited number of isolates or races in segregating populations. In this work, we analyzed the response against eleven C. lindemuthianum races in a recombinant inbred line (RIL) common bean population derived from the cross Xana × Cornell 49242 in which a saturated linkage map was previously developed. Results A systematic genetic analysis was carried out to dissect the complex resistance segregations observed, which included contingency analyses, subpopulations and genetic mapping. Twenty two resistance genes were identified, some with a complementary mode of action. The Cornell 49242 genotype carries a complex cluster of resistance genes at the end of linkage group (LG) Pv11 corresponding to the previously described anthracnose resistance cluster Co-2. In this position, specific resistance genes to races 3, 6, 7, 19, 38, 39, 65, 357, 449 and 453 were identified, with one of them showing a complementary mode of action. In addition, Cornell 49242 had an independent gene on LG Pv09 showing a complementary mode of action for resistance to race 453. Resistance genes in genotype Xana were located on three regions involving LGs Pv01, Pv02 and Pv04. All resistance genes identified in Xana showed a complementary mode of action, except for two controlling resistance to races 65 and 73 located on LG Pv01, in the position of the previously described anthracnose resistance cluster Co-1. Conclusions Results shown herein reveal a complex and specific interaction between bean and fungus genotypes leading to

  8. ZnO nanoparticles and root colonization by a beneficial pseudomonad influence essential metal responses in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Dimkpa, Christian O; Hansen, Trevor; Stewart, Jacob; McLean, Joan E; Britt, David W; Anderson, Anne J

    2015-05-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) incorporated into commercial products are reactive on plants. Here, the influence of a root-associated bacterium, Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6 (PcO6) on the responses of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) to commercial ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) was examined. ZnO NPs (250-1000 mg Zn/kg) significantly (p = 0.05) impacted root elongation after 7 days; only at 1000 mg/kg was shoot growth significantly inhibited. Zn solubilized from ZnO NPs correlated with root growth inhibition (r(2 )= 0.8709); solubility of Fe (r(2 )= 0.916) and Mn (r(2 )= 0.997), and shoot accumulation of Zn (r(2 )= 0.9095), Fe (r(2 )= 0.9422) and Mn (r(2 )= 0.789). Root ferric reductase activity diminished 31% in NP-exposed plants. Amendments with Zn ions at 6 mg/kg, corresponding to Zn solubilized from the NPs, did not replicate the responses, suggesting a nano-specific contribution of the ZnO. Neither NPs (500 mg Zn/kg) nor Zn ions affected root colonization by PcO6. Siderophore production by PcO6 increased 17% by exposure to NPs and 11% with Zn ions (18 mg/kg). PcO6 restored plant ferric reduction under NP exposure, but decreased uptake of Zn and Fe, 58 and 18%, respectively, suggesting soil bacteria could reduce plant accumulation of metals under toxic exposure levels, while negatively affecting uptake of essential elements. Collectively, these findings demonstrated that growth and balance of essential metals in bean exposed to ZnO NPs were influenced by the NPs and bacterial colonization of NP-exposed roots, indicating subtle effects of NPs in plant nutrition. PMID:24713073

  9. Damaged-self recognition in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) shows taxonomic specificity and triggers signaling via reactive oxygen species (ROS)

    PubMed Central

    Duran-Flores, Dalia; Heil, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Plants require reliable mechanisms to detect injury. Danger signals or “damage-associated molecular patterns” (DAMPs) are released from stressed host cells and allow injury detection independently of enemy-derived molecules. We studied the response of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) to the application of leaf homogenate as a source of DAMPs and measured the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as an early response and the secretion of extrafloral nectar (EFN) as a jasmonic acid (JA)-dependent late response. We observed a strong taxonomic signal in the response to different leaf homogenates. ROS formation and EFN secretion were highly correlated and responded most strongly to leaf homogenates produced using the same cultivar or closely related accessions, less to a distantly related cultivar of common bean or each of the two congeneric species, P. lunatus and P. coccineus, and not at all to homogenates prepared from species in different genera, not even when using other Fabaceae. Interestingly, leaf homogenates also reduced the infection by the bacterial pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, when they were applied directly before challenging, although the same homogenates exhibited no direct in vitro inhibitory effect in the bacterium. We conclude that ROS signaling is associated to the induction of EFN secretion and that the specific blend of DAMPs that are released from damaged cells allows the plant to distinguish the “damaged-self” from the damaged “non-self.” The very early responses of plants to DAMPs can trigger resistance to both, herbivores and pathogens, which should be adaptive because injury facilitates infection, independently of its causal reason. PMID:25400650

  10. Spatial aluminium sensitivity of root apices of two common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes with contrasting aluminium resistance.

    PubMed

    Rangel, Andrés F; Rao, Idupulapati M; Horst, Walter J

    2007-01-01

    The initial response of plants to aluminium (Al) is an inhibition of root elongation. In the present study, short and medium-term effects of Al treatment (20 muM) on root growth and Al accumulation of two common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes, VAX-1 (Al-sensitive) and Quimbaya (Al-resistant), were studied. Root elongation of both genotypes was severely inhibited during the first 3-4 h of Al treatment. Thereafter, both genotypes showed gradual recovery. However, this recovery continued in genotype Quimbaya until the root elongation rate reached the level of the control (without Al) while the genotype VAX-1 was increasingly damaged by Al after 12 h of Al treatment. Short-term Al treatment (90 microM Al) to different zones of the root apex using agarose blocks corroborated the importance of the transition zone (TZ, 1-2 mm) as a main target of Al. However, Al applied to the elongation zone (EZ) also contributed to the overall inhibition of root elongation. Enhanced inhibition of root elongation during the initial 4 h of Al treatment was related to high Al accumulation in root apices in both genotypes (Quimbaya>VAX-1). Recovery from Al stress was reflected by decreasing Al contents especially in the TZ, but also in the EZ. After 24 h of Al treatment the high Al resistance of Quimbaya was reflected by much lower Al contents in the entire root apex. The results confirmed that genotypic differences in Al resistance in common bean are built up during medium-term exposure of the roots to Al. For this acquisition of Al resistance, the activation and maintenance of an Al exclusion mechanism, especially in the TZ but also in the EZ, appears to be decisive. PMID:17975208

  11. Syntenic relationships among legumes revealed using a gene-based genetic linkage map of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    McConnell, Melody; Mamidi, Sujan; Lee, Rian; Chikara, Shireen; Rossi, Monica; Papa, Roberto; McClean, Phillip

    2010-10-01

    Molecular linkage maps are an important tool for gene discovery and cloning, crop improvement, further genetic studies, studies on diversity and evolutionary history, and cross-species comparisons. Linkage maps differ in both the type of marker and type of population used. In this study, gene-based markers were used for mapping in a recombinant inbred (RI) population of Phaseolus vulgaris L. P. vulgaris, common dry bean, is an important food source, economic product, and model organism for the legumes. Gene-based markers were developed that corresponded to genes controlling mutant phenotypes in Arabidopsis thaliana, genes undergoing selection during domestication in maize, and genes that function in a biochemical pathway in A. thaliana. Sequence information, including introns and 3' UTR, was generated for over 550 genes in the two genotypes of P. vulgaris. Over 1,800 single nucleotide polymorphisms and indels were found, 300 of which were screened in the RI population. The resulting LOD 2.0 map is 1,545 cM in length and consists of 275 gene-based and previously mapped core markers. An additional 153 markers that mapped at LOD <1.0 were placed in genetic bins. By screening the parents of other mapping populations, it was determined that the markers were useful for other common Mesoamerican × Andean mapping populations. The location of the mapped genes relative to their homologs in Arabidopsis thaliana (At), Medicago truncatula (Mt), and Lotus japonicus (Lj) were determine by using a tblastx analysis with the current psedouchromosome builds for each of the species. While only short blocks of synteny were observed with At, large-scale macrosyntenic blocks were observed with Mt and Lj. By using Mt and Lj as bridging species, the syntenic relationship between the common bean and peanut was inferred. PMID:20607211

  12. Anthocyanidins and Flavonols, Major nod Gene Inducers from Seeds of a Black-Seeded Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) 1

    PubMed Central

    Hungria, Mariangela; Joseph, Cecillia M.; Phillips, Donald A.

    1991-01-01

    Eleven compounds released from germinating seeds of a black-seeded bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., cv PI165426CS) induce transcription of nod genes in Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar phaseoli. Aglycones from 10 of those compounds were identified by spectroscopic methods (ultraviolet/visible, proton nuclear magnetic resonance, and mass spectroscopy), and their biological activities were demonstrated by induction of β-galactosidase activity in R. leguminosarum strains containing nodA-lacZ or nodC-lacZ fusions controlled by R. leguminosarum biovar phaseoli nodD genes. By making comparisons with authentic standards, the chemical structures for aglycones from the 10 molecules were confirmed as being anthocyanidins (delphinidin, petunidin, and malvidin) and flavonols (myricetin, quercetin, and kaempferol). All anthocyanidins and flavonols had 3-O-glycosylation and free hydroxyl groups at the 4′, 5, and 7 positions. Hydrolysis experiments showed that the mean concentration required for half-maximum nod gene induction (I50) by the 10 glycosides was about half that of the corresponding aglycones. The mean I50 value for the three anthocyanidins (360 nanomolar) was less (P ≤ 0.05) than that of the three flavonol aglycones (980 nanomolar). Each seed released approximately 2500 nanomoles of anthocyanidin and 450 nanomoles of flavonol nod gene inducers in conjugated forms during the first 6 hours of imbibition. Based on amounts and activities of the compounds released, anthocyanins contributed approximately 10-fold more total nod-inducing activity than flavonol glycosides. These anthocyanidins from bean seeds represent the first nod-inducing compounds identified from that group of flavonoids. PMID:16668462

  13. Purification and Characterization of a Lectin from Phaseolus vulgaris cv. (Anasazi Beans)

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Arishya; Ng, Tzi Bun; Wong, Jack Ho; Lin, Peng

    2009-01-01

    A lectin has been isolated from seeds of the Phaseolus vulgaris cv. “Anasazi beans” using a procedure that involved affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC)-ion exchange chromatography on Mono S, and FPLC-gel filtration on Superdex 200. The lectin was comprised of two 30-kDa subunits with substantial N-terminal sequence similarity to other Phaseolus lectins. The hemagglutinating activity of the lectin was stable within the pH range of 1–14 and the temperature range of 0–80°C. The lectin potently suppressed proliferation of MCF-7 (breast cancer) cells with an IC50 of 1.3 μM, and inhibited the activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase with an IC50 of 7.6 μM. The lectin evoked a mitogenic response from murine splenocytes as evidenced by an increase in [3H-methyl]-thymidine incorporation. The lectin had no antifungal activity. It did not stimulate nitric oxide production by murine peritoneal macrophages. Chemical modification results indicated that tryptophan was crucial for the hemagglutinating activity of the lectin. PMID:19343172

  14. Site-specific risk factors of white mould epidemics in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in Tasmania

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Tasmania, Australia, if more than 5% of bean pods are found to be affected by white mould (caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) entire crops can be rejected by contracting processors. This strict quality standard is one of the main reasons for prophylactic application of fungicides over flowering...

  15. Accumulation and translocation of metals in soil and different parts of French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) amended with sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vinod; Chopra, A K

    2014-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the accumulation and translocation of metals in French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Plants were grown in soil amended with up to 100 % sewage sludge. Significant (p < 0.01) changes to soil characteristics were observed. The maximum growth of P. vulgaris was noted in the treatment with 40 % of sewage sludge. Metal concentrations were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in P. vulgaris after sewage sludge amendment where Fe > Zn > Cd > Cu > Cr > Pb. The translocation for Fe and Zn was in the order of leaves > shoot > root > fruits, for Cd, shoot > root > leaves > fruits, for Cu and Pb shoot > leaves > root > fruits and for Cr root > shoot > leaves > fruits of P. vulgaris. All accumulated metal concentrations except Cd in the fruit were below the FAO/WHO standard limits. Thus, the amendment of agricultural soil by sewage sludge might be feasible. However, a regular monitoring of metal levels in agricultural products is recommended to prevent their accumulation in the food chain. PMID:24196375

  16. Physiological and molecular analysis of the interaction between aluminium toxicity and drought stress in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhong-Bao; Eticha, Dejene; Albacete, Alfonso; Rao, Idupulapati Madhusudana; Roitsch, Thomas; Horst, Walter Johannes

    2012-05-01

    Aluminium (Al) toxicity and drought are two major factors limiting common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) production in the tropics. Short-term effects of Al toxicity and drought stress on root growth in acid, Al-toxic soil were studied, with special emphasis on Al-drought interaction in the root apex. Root elongation was inhibited by both Al and drought. Combined stresses resulted in a more severe inhibition of root elongation than either stress alone. This result was different from the alleviation of Al toxicity by osmotic stress (-0.60 MPa polyethylene glycol) in hydroponics. However, drought reduced the impact of Al on the root tip, as indicated by the reduction of Al-induced callose formation and MATE expression. Combined Al and drought stress enhanced up-regulation of ACCO expression and synthesis of zeatin riboside, reduced drought-enhanced abscisic acid (ABA) concentration, and expression of NCED involved in ABA biosynthesis and the transcription factors bZIP and MYB, thus affecting the regulation of ABA-dependent genes (SUS, PvLEA18, KS-DHN, and LTP) in root tips. The results provide circumstantial evidence that in soil, drought alleviates Al injury, but Al renders the root apex more drought-sensitive, particularly by impacting the gene regulatory network involved in ABA signal transduction and cross-talk with other phytohormones necessary for maintaining root growth under drought. PMID:22371077

  17. Structure and Activity Changes of Phytohemagglutinin from Red Kidney Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Affected by Ultrahigh-Pressure Treatments.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yunjun; Liu, Cencen; Zhao, Mouming; Cui, Chun; Ren, Jiaoyan

    2015-11-01

    Phytohemagglutin (PHA), purified from red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) by Affi-Gel blue affinity chromatography, was subjected to ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) treatment (150, 250, 350, and 450 MPa). The purified PHA lost its hemagglutination activity after 450 MPa treatment and showed less pressure tolerance than crude PHA. However, the saccharide specificity and α-glucosidase inhibition activity of the purified PHA did not change much after UHP treatment. Electrophoresis staining by periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) manifested that the glycone structure of purified PHA remained stable even after 450 MPa pressure treatment. However, electrophoresis staining by Coomassie Blue as well as circular dichroism (CD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) assay proved that the protein unit structure of purified PHA unfolded when treated at 0-250 MPa but reaggregates at 250-450 MPa. Therefore, the hemagglutination activity tends to be affected by the protein unit structure, while the stability of the glycone structure contributed to the remaining α-glucosidase inhibition activity. PMID:26416299

  18. Variation in cyanogenic glycosides across populations of wild lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus) has no apparent effect on bruchid beetle performance.

    PubMed

    Shlichta, J Gwen; Glauser, Gaetan; Benrey, Betty

    2014-05-01

    Cyanogenic glycosides (CNGs) act as feeding or oviposition deterrents and are toxic after enzymatic hydrolysis, thus negatively affecting herbivore performance. While most studies on CNGs focus on leaf herbivores, here we examined seeds from natural populations of Phaseolus lunatus in Mexico. The predominant CNGs, linamarin and lotaustralin, were quantified for each population by using ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. We also examined whether there was a correlation between the concentration of CNGs and the performance of the Mexican bean beetle, Zabrotes subfasciatus, on seeds from each population(.) The concentrations of CNGs in the seeds were relatively high compared to the leaves and were significantly variable among populations. Surprisingly, this had little effect on the performance of the bruchid beetles. Zabrotes subfasciatus can tolerate high concentrations of CNGs, most likely because of the limited β-glucosidase activity in the seeds. Seed herbivory does not appear to liberate hydrogen cyanide due to the low water content in the seed. This study illustrates the importance of quantifying the natural variation and activity of toxic compounds in order to make relevant biological inferences about their role in defense against herbivores. PMID:24863488

  19. Genetic Dissection of ICP-Detected Nutrient Accumulation in the Whole Seed of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Blair, Matthew Wohlgemuth; Wu, Xingbo; Bhandari, Devendra; Astudillo, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Nutrient transport to grain legume seeds is not well studied and can benefit from modern methods of elemental analysis including spectroscopic techniques. Some cations such as potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) are needed for plant physiological purposes. Meanwhile, some minerals such as copper (Cu), iron (Fe), molybdenum (Mo), and zinc (Zn) are important micronutrients. Phosphorus (P) is rich in legumes, while sulfur (S) concentration is related to essential amino acids. In this research, the goal was to analyze a genetic mapping population of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) with inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectrophotometry to determine concentrations of and to discover quantitative trait loci (QTL) for 15 elements in ground flour of whole seeds. The population was grown in randomized complete block design experiments that had been used before to analyze Fe and Zn. A total of 21 QTL were identified for nine additional elements, of which four QTL were found for Cu followed by three each for Mg, Mn, and P. Fewer QTL were found for K, Na and S. Boron (B) and calcium (Ca) had only one QTL each. The utility of the QTL for breeding adaptation to element deficient soils and association with previously discovered nutritional loci are discussed. PMID:27014282

  20. Genetic Dissection of ICP-Detected Nutrient Accumulation in the Whole Seed of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Matthew Wohlgemuth; Wu, Xingbo; Bhandari, Devendra; Astudillo, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Nutrient transport to grain legume seeds is not well studied and can benefit from modern methods of elemental analysis including spectroscopic techniques. Some cations such as potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) are needed for plant physiological purposes. Meanwhile, some minerals such as copper (Cu), iron (Fe), molybdenum (Mo), and zinc (Zn) are important micronutrients. Phosphorus (P) is rich in legumes, while sulfur (S) concentration is related to essential amino acids. In this research, the goal was to analyze a genetic mapping population of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) with inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectrophotometry to determine concentrations of and to discover quantitative trait loci (QTL) for 15 elements in ground flour of whole seeds. The population was grown in randomized complete block design experiments that had been used before to analyze Fe and Zn. A total of 21 QTL were identified for nine additional elements, of which four QTL were found for Cu followed by three each for Mg, Mn, and P. Fewer QTL were found for K, Na and S. Boron (B) and calcium (Ca) had only one QTL each. The utility of the QTL for breeding adaptation to element deficient soils and association with previously discovered nutritional loci are discussed. PMID:27014282

  1. Plastic expression of heterochrony quantitative trait loci (hQTLs) for leaf growth in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Libo; Clavijo, Jose A; Sun, Lidan; Zhu, Xuli; Bhakta, Mehul S; Gezan, Salvador A; Carvalho, Melissa; Vallejos, C Eduardo; Wu, Rongling

    2015-08-01

    Heterochrony, that is, evolutionary changes in the relative timing of developmental events and processes, has emerged as a key concept that links evolution and development. Genes associated with heterochrony encode molecular components of developmental timing mechanisms. However, our understanding of how heterochrony genes alter the expression of heterochrony in response to environmental changes remains very limited. We applied functional mapping to find quantitative trait loci (QTLs) responsible for growth trajectories of leaf area and leaf mass in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) grown in two contrasting environments. We identified three major QTLs pleiotropically expressed under the two environments. Further characterization of the temporal pattern of these QTLs indicates that they are heterochrony QTLs (hQTLs) in terms of their role in influencing four heterochronic parameters: the timing of the inflection point, the timing of maximum acceleration and deceleration, and the duration of linear growth. The pattern of gene action by the hQTLs on each parameter was unique, being environmentally dependent and varying between two allometrically related leaf growth traits. These results provide new insights into the complexity of genetic mechanisms that control trait formation in plants and provide novel findings that will be of use in studying the evolutionary trends. PMID:25816915

  2. Bean arcelin : 1. Inheritance of a novel seed protein of Phaseolus vulgaris L. and its effect on seed composition.

    PubMed

    Romero Andreas, J; Yandell, B S; Bliss, F A

    1986-04-01

    SDS-PAGE of seed proteins from the seeds of a nondomesticated bean of Mexican origin (Phaseolus vulgaris L., PI 325690) revealed the presence of a novel 38 kd protein which appeared to be neither an altered phaseolin nor a lectin fraction. The protein was named arcelin, after Arcelia, the town in the state of Guerrero near which PI 325690 had been collected. The pure line, UW 325, was derived by self fertilization of the plant from a single arcelin-containing seed of PI 325690. Despite a low percentage seed phaseolin (14.6%), seed phenotype, seed germination, plant growth, pollen fertility, and percentage seed protein of UW 325 were normal. Analyses of F2 and F3 seeds from a single F1 plant of the cross 'Sanilac'XPI 325690-3 revealed that arcelin expression was inherited as a single gene and that presence was dominant to absence of arcelin. The mean percentage phaseolin in the seeds of homozygous dominant Arc/Arc F3 families (14.0%) was significantly lower than that of the homozygous recessive arc/arc seeds (44.7%). The distribution of percentage phaseolin values for seeds within segregating families was bimodal and nonoverlapping. Without exception, seeds containing arcelin (Arc+phenotype) contained a lower percentage phaseolin than seeds lacking arcelin (Arc-phenotype). Although arcelin presence was associated with low percentage phaseolin, the Arc/Arc and Arc/arc genotypes were similar for seed weight and percentage total seed protein. PMID:24247784

  3. Effects of acetylsalicylic acid on fresh weight pigment and protein content of bean leaf discs (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Canakçi, S

    2003-01-01

    The effects of 100, 250, and 500 ppm acetylsalicylic acid solutions treatments on weight alteration, pigment and protein amounts in discs from the primary leaves of one month old bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seedlings produced tinder greenhouse conditions are presented. The experiments show that: 100 ppm ASA had no significant influence (P > 0.05) but 250 and 500 ppm ASA caused an increase on weight loss (P < 0.01); ASA at higher concentrations (250 and 500 ppm), generally, caused a decrease on pigment amounts (P < 0.05-P < 0.01) but 100 ppm ASA had no considerably significant influence on them (P > 0.05), none of the ASA treatments caused a statistically significant influence on carotenoid amount (P > 0.05); 100 and 250 ppm ASA treatments did not cause a significant influence on protein amount (P > 0.05). however 500 ppm ASA treatment caused an increase on protein injury (P < 0.05). Consequently, it is supposed that wet weight loss, pigment and protein injury have somewhat increased on leaf discs. depending on the toxic effect of high acetylsalicylic acid concentrations. PMID:14711042

  4. A Glucosamine-Specific Lectin from Green Dragon No. 8 Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) Induced Apoptosis on Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Yau Sang; Xia, Lixin; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2015-01-01

    A lectin exhibiting antiproliferative activity on tumor cell lines but devoid of antifungal activity has been purified from Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Green Dragon no. 8 seeds. The lectin was a 60 kDa dimeric protein with two 30 kDa subunits. It was a glucosamine-specific lectin as implied from the inhibitory effect of glucosamine on hemagglutinating activity of the lectin. The steps for isolation of the lectin involved Affi-gel blue gel (affinity gel), Mono Q (anion exchanger), and Superdex 75 column (size exclusion). The lectin was purified 20.8-fold from the crude extract of the beans. The purified lectin showed antiproliferative activity on breast cancer MCF7 cell line and nasopharyngeal cancer HONE1 and CNE2 cell lines, but a low activity on normal skin fibroblast HSF98 cell line. The lectin was shown to induce apoptosis on HONE1 cells, as indicated by increased phosphatidylserine externalization and mitochondrial depolarization. It also blocked HONE1 cell division and kept the cells at the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. PMID:26290674

  5. Relative importance of phytohemagglutinin (lectin) and trypsin-chymotrypsin inhibitor on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L) protein absorption and utilization by the rat.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, M R; Sgarbieri, V C

    1998-10-01

    The main objective of this work was to perform a comparative study of the antinutritional and/or toxic properties of phytohemagglutinin and trypsin-chymotrypsin inhibitor extracted from the seed of a commercial cultivar of edible bean used in Brazil. Bean proteins were extracted in acidic salt solution and fractionated by dialysis and centrifugation, then freeze-dried. The total freeze-dried bean extract and the globulin or albumin protein fraction were resuspended in distilled water and heated (100 degrees C, 30 min) for inactivation of hemagglutinin. Diets were prepared with unheated bean protein fractions and heated ones (100% trypsin inhibitor activity, but 0% phytohemagglutinin activity). As a result, the inhibition of growth and poor dietary protein utilization were observed in rats fed diets containing unheated bean protein fractions, but not in rats fed diets containing heated fractions. It was thus assumed that phytohemagglutinin is the main antinutritional and toxic factor that in dry bean (Phaseolus) protein and that trypsin inhibitor (Bowman-Birk type) did not interfere with rat growth. PMID:9919488

  6. Induction of ferritin synthesis by water deficit and iron excess in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    DeLaat, Daiane Mariele; Colombo, Carlos Augusto; Chiorato, Alisson Fernando; Carbonell, Sergio Augusto Morais

    2014-03-01

    Ferritins are molecules for iron storage present in most living beings. In plants, ferritin is an essential iron homeostasis regulator and therefore plays a fundamental role in control of iron induced by oxidative stress or by excess of iron ions. Ferritin gene expression is modulated by various environmental factors, including the intensity of drought, cold, light and pathogenic attack. Common bean, one of the most important species in the Brazilian diet, is also affected by insufficiency or lack of water. Thus, the present study was conducted for the purpose of determining the levels of expression of ferritins transcripts in leaf tissues of three common bean cultivars (BAT 477, Carioca Comum and IAC-Diplomata) under osmotic shock caused by polyethylene glycol 6000 and by iron excess. The expression of three ferritins genes (PvFer1, PvFer2 and PvFer3), determined by quantitative PCR, indicated a difference in the expression kinetics among the cultivars. All the ferritin genes were actively transcribed under iron excess and water deficit conditions. The cultivars most responsive to treatments were BAT 477 and IAC-Diplomata. All the cultivars responded to treatments. Nevertheless, the ferritin genes were differentially regulated according to the cultivars. Analysis of variance indicated differences among cultivars in expression of the genes PvFer1 and PvFer3. Both genes were most responsive to treatments. This result suggests that ferritin genes may be functionally important in acclimatization of common bean under iron excess or water deficit conditions. PMID:24390245

  7. 7 CFR 319.56-54 - French beans and runner beans from Kenya.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false French beans and runner beans from Kenya. 319.56-54... § 319.56-54 French beans and runner beans from Kenya. French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and runner beans (Phaseolus coccineus L.) may be imported into the United States from Kenya only under...

  8. 7 CFR 319.56-54 - French beans and runner beans from Kenya.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false French beans and runner beans from Kenya. 319.56-54... § 319.56-54 French beans and runner beans from Kenya. French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and runner beans (Phaseolus coccineus L.) may be imported into the United States from Kenya only under...

  9. 7 CFR 319.56-54 - French beans and runner beans from Kenya.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false French beans and runner beans from Kenya. 319.56-54... § 319.56-54 French beans and runner beans from Kenya. French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and runner beans (Phaseolus coccineus L.) may be imported into the United States from Kenya only under...

  10. Chromosome identification in the Andean common bean accession G19833 (Phaseolus vulgaris L., Fabaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Altrock, Sarah; Fonsêca, Artur; Pedrosa-Harand, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Characterization of all chromosomes of the Andean G19833 bean genotype was carried out by fluorescent in situ hybridization. Eleven single-copy genomic sequences, one for each chromosome, two BACs containing subtelomeric and pericentromeric repeats and the 5S and 45S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) were used as probes. Comparison to the Mesoamerican accession BAT93 showed little divergence, except for additional 45S rDNA sites in four chromosome pairs. Altogether, the results indicated a relative karyotypic stability during the evolution of the Andean and Mesoamerican gene pools of P. vulgaris. PMID:21931520

  11. Nutritional quality of extruded kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Pinto) and its effects on growth and skeletal muscle nitrogen fractions in rats.

    PubMed

    Marzo, F; Alonso, R; Urdaneta, E; Arricibita, F J; Ibáñez, F

    2002-04-01

    The influence of extrusion cooking on the protein content, amino acid profile, and concentration of antinutritive compounds (phytic acid, condensed tannins, polyphenols, trypsin, chymotrypsin, alpha-amylase inhibitors, and hemagglutinating activity) in kidney bean seeds (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Pinto) was investigated. Growing male rats were fed diets based on casein containing raw or extruded kidney beans with or without methionine supplementation for 8 or 15 d. Rates of growth, food intake, and protein efficiency ratio were measured and the weight of the gastrocnemius muscle and the composition of its nitrogenous fraction was determined. Extrusion cooking reduced (P < 0.01) phytic acid, condensed tannins, and trypsin, chymotrypsin, and (alpha-amylase inhibitory activities. Furthermore, hemagglutinating activity was abolished by extrusion treatment. Protein content was not affected by this thermal treatment. Rats fed raw kidney bean lost BW rapidly and the majority died by 9 d. Pretreatment of the beans by extrusion cooking improved food intake and utilization by the rats and they gained BW. Supplementation of extruded kidney bean with methionine further enhanced (P < 0.01) food conversion efficiency and growth. However, BW gains and muscle composition still differed (P < 0.01) from those of rats fed a high-quality protein. PMID:12002323

  12. A specific endogenous reference for genetically modified common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) DNA quantification by real-time PCR targeting lectin gene.

    PubMed

    Venturelli, Gustavo L; Brod, Fábio C A; Rossi, Gabriela B; Zimmermann, Naíra F; Oliveira, Jaison P; Faria, Josias C; Arisi, Ana C M

    2014-11-01

    The Embrapa 5.1 genetically modified (GM) common bean was approved for commercialization in Brazil. Methods for the quantification of this new genetically modified organism (GMO) are necessary. The development of a suitable endogenous reference is essential for GMO quantification by real-time PCR. Based on this, a new taxon-specific endogenous reference quantification assay was developed for Phaseolus vulgaris L. Three genes encoding common bean proteins (phaseolin, arcelin, and lectin) were selected as candidates for endogenous reference. Primers targeting these candidate genes were designed and the detection was evaluated using the SYBR Green chemistry. The assay targeting lectin gene showed higher specificity than the remaining assays, and a hydrolysis probe was then designed. This assay showed high specificity for 50 common bean samples from two gene pools, Andean and Mesoamerican. For GM common bean varieties, the results were similar to those obtained for non-GM isogenic varieties with PCR efficiency values ranging from 92 to 101 %. Moreover, this assay presented a limit of detection of ten haploid genome copies. The primers and probe developed in this work are suitable to detect and quantify either GM or non-GM common bean. PMID:25078400

  13. Unfolding and refolding of leucoagglutinin (PHA-L), an oligomeric lectin from kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Biswas, Shyamasri; Kayastha, Arvind M

    2004-09-01

    The unfolding and refolding of Phaseolus vulgaris Leucoagglutinin, a homotetrameric legume lectin, was studied at pH 2.5 and 7.2 using fluorescence, far- and near-UV circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, 8-anilino-1-naphthalene sulfonate (ANS) binding and FPLC techniques. This protein was found to refold even at pH 2.5 and also exhibited high refolding yield around 60% at pH 2.5 and 85% at pH 7.2. The refolding at pH 2.5 takes place with the formation of a dimeric intermediate. Although the hydrodynamic radius of the completely renatured protein and the dimer at pH 2.5 was found to be same, the ANS binding as well as far-UV CD spectra of the two were different. The denaturation kinetics at pH 2.5 followed single exponential pattern with the rate of denaturation being independent of protein concentration. The renaturation kinetics on the other hand was dependent on the protein concentration providing further evidence of an intermediate state during refolding. From these experiments the folding pathway of the protein at pH 2.5 was proposed. PMID:15342112

  14. Paraheliotropism can protect water-stressed bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants against photoinhibition.

    PubMed

    Pastenes, Claudio; Porter, Victor; Baginsky, Cecilia; Horton, Peter; González, Javiera

    2004-12-01

    In order to estimate the importance of leaf movements on photosynthesis in well-watered and water-stressed field grown bean cultivars (Arroz Tuscola (AT), Orfeo INIA (OI), Bayos Titan (BT), and Hallados Dorado (HD)), CO2 assimilation, leaf temperature, and capacity for the maximum quantum yield recovery, measured as Fv/Fm, were assessed. Leaf water potential was lower in water-stressed compared to control plants throughout the day. Water status determined a decrease in the CO2 assimilation and stomatal conductance as light intensity and temperature increased up to maximal intensities at midday. Both parameters were lower in stressed compared to control plants. Even though high light intensity and water-stress induced stomatal closure is regarded as a photoinhibitory condition, the recovery of variable to maximal fluorescence (Fv/Fm) after 30min of darkness was nearly constant in both water regimes. In fact, higher values were observed in OI and AT when under stress. Photochemical and non-photochemical fluorescence quenching resulted in minor changes during the day and were similar between watered and stressed plants. It is concluded that paraheliotropism, present in the four bean cultivars, efficiently protects stressed plants from photoinhibition in the field and helps maintain leaf temperatures far below the ambient temperatures, however, it may also be responsible for low CO2 assimilation rates in watered plants. PMID:15658802

  15. Race structure within the Mesoamerican gene pool of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) as determined by microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Díaz, L M; Blair, M W

    2006-12-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars are distinguished morphologically, agronomically and ecologically into specific races within each of the two gene pools found for the species (Andean and Mesoamerican). The objective of this study was to describe the race structure of the Mesoamerican gene pool using microsatellite markers. A total of 60 genotypes previously described as pertaining to specific Mesoamerican races as well as two Andean control genotypes were analyzed with 52 markers. A total of 267 bands were generated with an average of 5.1 alleles per marker and 0.297 heterozygosity across all microsatellites. Correspondence analysis identified two major groups equivalent to the Mesoamerica race and a group containing both Durango and Jalisco race genotypes. Two outlying individuals were classified as potentially of the Guatemala race although this race does not have a defined structure and previously classified members of this race were classified with other races. Population structure analysis with K = 1-4 agreed with this classification. The genetic diversity based on Nei's index for the entire set of genotypes was 0.468 while this was highest for the Durango-Jalisco group (0.414), intermediate for race Mesoamerica (0.340) and low for race Guatemala (0.262). Genetic differentiation (G (ST)) between the Mesoamerican races was 0.27 while genetic distance and identity showed race Durango and Jalisco individuals to be closely related with high gene flow (N (m)) both between these two races (1.67) and between races Durango and Mesoamerica (1.58). Observed heterozygosity was low in all the races as would be expected for an inbreeding species. The analysis with microsatellite markers identified subgroups, which agreed well with commercial class divisions, and seed size was the main distinguishing factor between the two major groups identified. PMID:17047911

  16. Aluminum resistance in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) involves induction and maintenance of citrate exudation from root apices.

    PubMed

    Rangel, Andrés Felipe; Rao, Idupulapati Madhusudana; Braun, Hans-Peter; Horst, Walter Johannes

    2010-02-01

    Two common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes differing in aluminum (Al) resistance, Quimbaya (Al-resistant) and VAX-1 (Al-sensitive) were grown in hydroponics for up to 25 h with or without Al, and several parameters related to the exudation of organic acids anions from the root apex were investigated. Al treatment enhanced the exudation of citrate from the root tips of both genotypes. However, its dynamic offers the most consistent relationship between Al-induced inhibition of root elongation and Al accumulation in and exclusion from the root apices. Initially, in both genotypes the short-term (4 h) Al-injury period was characterized by the absence of citrate efflux independent of the citrate content of the root apices, and reduction of cytosolic turnover of citrate conferred by a reduced Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-isocitrate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.42) activity. Transient recovery from initial Al stress (4-12 h) was found to be dependent mainly on the capacity to utilize internal citrate pools (Al-resistant genotype Quimbaya) or enhanced citrate synthesis [increased activities of NAD-malate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.37) and ATP-phosphofructokinase (EC 2.7.1.11) in Al-sensitive VAX-1]. Sustained recovery from Al stress through citrate exudation in genotype Quimbaya after 24 h Al treatment relied on restoring the internal citrate pool and the constitutive high activity of citrate synthase (CS) (EC 4.1.3.7) fuelled by high phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (EC 4.1.1.31) activity. In the Al-sensitive genotype VAX-1 the citrate exudation and thus Al exclusion and root elongation could not be maintained coinciding with an exhaustion of the internal citrate pool and decreased CS activity. PMID:20053183

  17. Enrichment of ACE inhibitory peptides in navy bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) using lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Rui, Xin; Wen, Delan; Li, Wei; Chen, Xiaohong; Jiang, Mei; Dong, Mingsheng

    2015-02-01

    The present study was conducted to explore a novel strategy to enhance angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of navy bean by preparation of navy bean milk (NBM) which was then subjected to fermentation of four lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains, namely, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Lactobacillus helveticus MB2-1, Lactobacillus plantarum B1-6, and Lactobacillus plantarum 70810. With the exception of L. helveticus MB2-1, the other three selected strains had good growth performances in NBM with viable counts increased to log 8.30-8.39 cfu ml(-1) during 6 h of fermentation, and thus were selected for the following investigations. Protein contents of NBM significantly reduced when treated with L. bulgaricus and L. plantarum B1-6, and the electrophoresis patterns showed the preferable proteins for LAB strains to hydrolyze were α- and β-type phaseolins, whereas γ-type phaseolin was resistant to hydrolysis. RP-HPLC analysis demonstrated all fermented NBM had higher intensities of peaks with retention times between 2.5 and 3.5 min indicative of formation of small peptides. All fermented NBM showed higher ACE inhibitory activity compared to the unfermented ones, for which 2 h, 3 h, and 5 h were found to be the optimum fermentation periods for respectively L. plantarum 70810, L. plantarum B1-6 and L. bulgaricus, with IC50 values of 109 ± 5.1, 108 ± 1.1, and 101 ± 2.2 μg protein ml(-1). The subsequent in vitro gastrointestinal simulation afforded all fermented extracts reduced IC50 values and the extracts fermented by L. plantarum B1-6 exerted the lowest IC50 value of 21 ± 2.1 μg protein ml(-1). The research has broadened our knowledge bases on the effect of LAB fermentation on the degradation of navy bean proteins and the capacity to release ACE inhibitory peptides. The approach was promising to obtain probiotic products with potential to serve as functional ingredients targeting hypertension. PMID:25536445

  18. Conversion of L-sorbosone to L-ascorbic acid by a NADP-dependent dehydrogenase in bean and spinach leaf. [Phaseolus vulgaris L. ; Spinacia oleracea L

    SciTech Connect

    Loewus, M.W.; Bedgar, D.L.; Saito, Kazumi; Loewus, F.A. )

    1990-11-01

    An NADP-dependent dehydrogenase catalyzing the conversion of L-sorbosone to L-ascorbic acid has been isolated from Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Spinacia oleracea L. and partially purified. It is stable at {minus}20{degree}C for up to 8 months. Molecular masses, as determined by gel filtration, were 21 and 29 kilodaltons for bean and spinach enzymes, respectively. K{sub m} for sorbosone were 12 {plus minus} 2 and 18 {plus minus} 2 millimolar and for NADP{sup +}, 0.14 {plus minus} 0.05 and 1.2 {plus minus} 0.5 millimolar, for bean and spinach, respectively. Lycorine, a purported inhibitor of L-ascorbic acid biosynthesis, had no effect on the reaction.

  19. Seed storage protein deficiency improves sulfur amino acid content in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.): redirection of sulfur from gamma-glutamyl-S-methyl-cysteine.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Meghan; Chapman, Ralph; Beyaert, Ronald; Hernández-Sebastià, Cinta; Marsolais, Frédéric

    2008-07-23

    The contents of sulfur amino acids in seeds of common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are suboptimal for nutrition. They accumulate large amounts of a gamma-glutamyl dipeptide of S-methyl-cysteine, a nonprotein amino acid that cannot substitute for methionine or cysteine in the diet. Protein accumulation and amino acid composition were characterized in three genetically related lines integrating a progressive deficiency in major seed storage proteins, phaseolin, phytohemagglutinin, and arcelin. Nitrogen, carbon, and sulfur contents were comparable among the three lines. The contents of S-methyl-cysteine and gamma-glutamyl-S-methyl-cysteine were progressively reduced in the mutants. Sulfur was shifted predominantly to the protein cysteine pool, while total methionine was only slightly elevated. Methionine and cystine contents (mg per g protein) were increased by up to ca. 40%, to levels slightly above FAO guidelines on amino acid requirements for human nutrition. These findings may be useful to improve the nutritional quality of common bean. PMID:18588315

  20. Semienclosed Tube Cultures of Bean Plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) for Enumeration of Rhizobium phaseoli by the Most-Probable-Number Technique.

    PubMed

    Araujo, R S; Maya-Flores, J; Barnes-McConnell, D; Yokoyama, C; Dazzo, F B; Bliss, F A

    1986-10-01

    The semienclosed tube culture technique of Gibson was modified to permit growth of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) roots in humid air, enabling enumeration of the homologous (nodule forming) symbiont, Rhizobium phaseoli, by the most-probable-number plant infection method. A bean genotype with improved nodulation characteristics was used as the plant host. This method of enumeration was accurate when tubes were scored 3 weeks after inoculation with several R. phaseoli strains diluted from aqueous suspensions, peat-based inoculants, or soil. A comparison of population sizes obtained by most-probable-number tube cultures and plate counts indicated that 1 to 3 viable cells of R. phaseoli were a sufficient inoculant to induce nodule formation. PMID:16347191

  1. Oxidative stress reactions induced in beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) following exposure to uranium.

    PubMed

    Vandenhove, H; Cuypers, A; Van Hees, M; Koppen, G; Wannijn, J

    2006-01-01

    The present study aimed to analyze the biological effects induced by bioaccumulation of uranium in Phaseolus vulgaris. Ten-day-old seedlings were exposed to 0, 0.1, 1, 10, 100 and 1000 microM U in diluted Hoagland solution. Following 1, 2, 4 and 7 days' exposure, plants were monitored for uranium uptake, biometric parameters, capacities of enzymes involved in the anti-oxidative defense mechanisms (GPOD, SPOD, GLUR, SOD, ICDH, G-6P-DH), glutathione (GSH) pool and DNA integrity. Uranium contents were up to 900-fold higher in roots (31-14,916 mg kg(-1) FW following 7 days' exposure to 0.1 and 1000 microM U, respectively) as compared to primary leaves (1-16 mg kg(-1) FW following 7 days' exposure to 0.1 and 1000 microM U, respectively). Uranium exposure did not significantly affect plant growth compared to the control. For all enzymes studied, except SOD, enzyme capacities in roots were slightly stimulated with increasing contaminant concentrations (though not significantly). For roots exposed to 1000 microM U, enzyme capacities were significantly reduced. Enzyme capacities in leaves were not affected by uranium treatment. Total and reduced GSH levels were higher in primary leaves of uranium (

  2. A Gap Analysis Methodology for Collecting Crop Genepools: A Case Study with Phaseolus Beans

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Villegas, Julián; Khoury, Colin; Jarvis, Andy; Debouck, Daniel Gabriel; Guarino, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    Background The wild relatives of crops represent a major source of valuable traits for crop improvement. These resources are threatened by habitat destruction, land use changes, and other factors, requiring their urgent collection and long-term availability for research and breeding from ex situ collections. We propose a method to identify gaps in ex situ collections (i.e. gap analysis) of crop wild relatives as a means to guide efficient and effective collecting activities. Methodology/Principal Findings The methodology prioritizes among taxa based on a combination of sampling, geographic, and environmental gaps. We apply the gap analysis methodology to wild taxa of the Phaseolus genepool. Of 85 taxa, 48 (56.5%) are assigned high priority for collecting due to lack of, or under-representation, in genebanks, 17 taxa are given medium priority for collecting, 15 low priority, and 5 species are assessed as adequately represented in ex situ collections. Gap “hotspots”, representing priority target areas for collecting, are concentrated in central Mexico, although the narrow endemic nature of a suite of priority species adds a number of specific additional regions to spatial collecting priorities. Conclusions/Significance Results of the gap analysis method mostly align very well with expert opinion of gaps in ex situ collections, with only a few exceptions. A more detailed prioritization of taxa and geographic areas for collection can be achieved by including in the analysis predictive threat factors, such as climate change or habitat destruction, or by adding additional prioritization filters, such as the degree of relatedness to cultivated species (i.e. ease of use in crop breeding). Furthermore, results for multiple crop genepools may be overlaid, which would allow a global analysis of gaps in ex situ collections of the world's plant genetic resources. PMID:20976009

  3. Binding of isolectins from red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) to purified rat brush-border membranes.

    PubMed

    Boldt, D H; Banwell, J G

    1985-12-13

    Ingestion of red kidney bean phytohemagglutinin causes impaired growth and intestinal malabsorption, and facilitates bacterial colonization in the small intestine of weanling rats. We have studied interactions of the highly purified phytohemagglutinin erythroagglutinating (E4) and mitogenic (L4) isolectins with microvillous membrane vesicles prepared from rat small intestines. E4 and L4 were radioiodinated with 125I by the chloramine-T technique. E4 and L4 isolectins both bound to microvillous membrane vesicles. Binding was saturable and reversible. Each mg of membrane protein bound 744 +/- 86 micrograms E4 and 213 +/- 21 micrograms L4. The apparent Ka for E4 and L4 binding was 2.5 x 10(-6) and 13.0 x 10(-6) M-1, respectively. Binding of each 125I-labelled isolectin was abolished by 100-fold excess of unlabelled isolectin. In each case binding also was inhibited by appropriate oligosaccharide inhibitors, indicating that isolectin-microvillous membrane interactions were mediated by carbohydrate recognition. Patterns of saccharide inhibition of isolectin binding were different for E4 and L4. Competitive binding experiments demonstrated mutual noncompetitive inhibition of E4 and L4 binding consistent with steric hindrance. Therefore, E4 and L4 each bound to its own set of receptors. Based on the known saccharide specificities of E4 and L4, these data indicate that there are differences in expression of complex asparagine-linked biantennary and tri- or tetraantennary oligosaccharides at the microvillous surface. The data also provide the possibility that direct interactions of one or more phytohemagglutinin isolectins with intestinal mucosa in vivo may contribute to the antinutritional effects associated with ingestion of crude red kidney beans. PMID:4063394

  4. Fate of the explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in soil and bioaccumulation in bush bean hydroponic plants

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, S.D.; Fellows, R.J.; Cataldo, D.A.; Bean, R.M. )

    1991-01-01

    Soils amended with [[sup 14]C]hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) were sampled over 60 d and subjected to exhaustive Soxhlet extraction followed by HPLC analysis. RDX was the only radiolabeled compound observed in soil extracts. Emission of volatile organics and [sup 14]CO[sub 2] from soil accounted for only 0.31 % of the amended radiolabel. Mass balance for RDX-amended soil was better than 84% throughout the two-month study. The analytical method developed for plants involved acid hydrolysis, solvent extraction, fractionation on Florisil adsorbent and separation by HPLC. The described methodology allowed for RDX recovery of 86 [+-] 3% from fortified bush bean leaf tissue. Further experiments were conducted with bush bean plants maintained on RDX-containing hydroponic solutions. Hydroponic plants did not emit detectable amounts of [sup 14]CO[sub 2] or radiolabeled volatile organics. Analysis of the plant tissue indicated bioaccumulation of RDX in the aerial tissues of hydroponic plants exposed for either 1 or 7 d. Metabolism of RDX to polar metabolites was observed in plants exposed for 7 d.

  5. Bradyrhizobium paxllaeri sp. nov. and Bradyrhizobium icense sp. nov., nitrogen-fixing rhizobial symbionts of Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) in Peru.

    PubMed

    Durán, David; Rey, Luis; Mayo, Juan; Zúñiga-Dávila, Doris; Imperial, Juan; Ruiz-Argüeso, Tomás; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza; Ormeño-Orrillo, Ernesto

    2014-06-01

    A group of strains isolated from root nodules of Phaseolus lunatus (Lima bean) in Peru were characterized by genotypic, genomic and phenotypic methods. All strains possessed identical 16S rRNA gene sequences that were 99.9% identical to that of Bradyrhizobium lablabi CCBAU 23086(T). Despite having identical 16S rRNA gene sequences, the Phaseolus lunatus strains could be divided into two clades by sequence analysis of recA, atpD, glnII, dnaK and gyrB genes. The genome sequence of a representative of each clade was obtained and compared to the genomes of closely related species of the genus Bradyrhizobium. Average nucleotide identity values below the species circumscription threshold were obtained when comparing the two clades to each other (88.6%) and with all type strains of the genus Bradyrhizobium (≤92.9%). Phenotypes distinguishing both clades from all described and closely related species of the genus Bradyrhizobium were found. On the basis of the results obtained, two novel species, Bradyrhizobium paxllaeri sp. nov. (type strain LMTR 21(T) = DSM 18454(T) = HAMBI 2911(T)) and Bradyrhizobium icense sp. nov. (type strain LMTR 13(T) = HAMBI 3584(T) = CECT 8509(T) = CNPSo 2583(T)), are proposed to accommodate the uncovered clades of Phaseolus lunatus bradyrhizobia. These species share highly related but distinct nifH and nodC symbiosis genes. PMID:24664579

  6. Intra- and interchromosomal rearrangements between cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) revealed by BAC-FISH.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Emanuelle Varão; de Andrade Fonsêca, Artur Fellipe; Pedrosa-Harand, Andrea; de Andrade Bortoleti, Kyria Cilene; Benko-Iseppon, Ana Maria; da Costa, Antônio Félix; Brasileiro-Vidal, Ana Christina

    2015-06-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an annual legume grown in tropical and subtropical regions, which is economically relevant due to high protein content in dried beans, green pods, and leaves. In this work, a comparative cytogenetic study between V. unguiculata and Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean) was conducted using BAC-FISH. Sequences previously mapped in P. vulgaris chromosomes (Pv) were used as probes in V. unguiculata chromosomes (Vu), contributing to the analysis of macrosynteny between both legumes. Thirty-seven clones from P. vulgaris 'BAT93' BAC library, corresponding to its 11 linkage groups, were hybridized in situ. Several chromosomal rearrangements were identified, such as translocations (between BACs from Pv1 and Pv8; Pv2 and Pv3; as well as Pv2 and Pv11), duplications (BAC from Pv3), as well as paracentric and pericentric inversions (BACs from Pv3, and Pv4, respectively). Two BACs (from Pv2 and Pv7), which hybridized at terminal regions in almost all P. vulgaris chromosomes, showed single-copy signal in Vu. Additionally, 17 BACs showed no signal in V. unguiculata chromosomes. The present results demonstrate the feasibility of using BAC libraries in comparative chromosomal mapping and karyotype evolution studies between Phaseolus and Vigna species, and revealed several macrosynteny and collinearity breaks among both legumes. PMID:25634499

  7. Construction of a BAC library and a physical map of a major QTL for CBB resistance of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, S Y; Yu, K; Huffner, M; Park, S J; Banik, M; Pauls, K P; Crosby, W

    2010-07-01

    A major quantitative trait loci (QTL) conditioning common bacterial blight (CBB) resistance in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines HR45 and HR67 was derived from XAN159, a resistant line obtained from an interspecific cross between common bean lines and the tepary bean (P. acutifolius L.) line PI319443. This source of CBB resistance is widely used in bean breeding. Several other CBB resistance QTL have been identified but none of them have been physically mapped. Four molecular markers tightly linked to this QTL have been identified suitable for marker assisted selection and physical mapping of the resistance gene. A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was constructed from high molecular weight DNA of HR45 and is composed of 33,024 clones. The size of individual BAC clone inserts ranges from 30 kb to 280 kb with an average size of 107 kb. The library is estimated to represent approximately sixfold genome coverage. The BAC library was screened as BAC pools using four PCR-based molecular markers. Two to seven BAC clones were identified by each marker. Two clones were found to have both markers PV-tttc001 and STS183. One preliminary contig was assembled based on DNA finger printing of those positive BAC clones. The minimum tiling path of the contig contains 6 BAC clones spanning an estimated size of 750 kb covering the QTL region. PMID:20419470

  8. Assessing potential effects of inulin and probiotic bacteria on Fe availability from common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Laparra, J M; Glahn, R P; Miller, D D

    2009-03-01

    Inulin, a prebiotic, may enhance intestinal Fe absorption. Our objective was to assess the effects of supplemental inulin and 2 probiotic bacteria (B. infantis and L. acidophillus) on Fe availability to Caco-2 cells from common white and red beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Cooked beans were mixed or not with supplemental inulin (4%, w/w), and then subjected to simulated gastrointestinal digestion (pepsin, pH 2; pancreatin, pH 7.2). Subsequently, the digests were incubated overnight with and without B. infantis or L. acidophilus. Ferritin formation in Caco-2 cells was used to evaluate Fe uptake. Total soluble phenols (Folin-Ciocalteau) and phytate (HPLC-electrochemical detection) were quantified, and the flavonoids profile (HPLC-PDA/UV detection) was monitored in the digests. Supplemental inulin did not affect Fe uptake from white nor red beans. Incubation with B. infantis increased total soluble phenols (TSP) in the digests and decreased Fe uptake. Incubation with L. acidophilus decreased TSP in the digest and increased Fe uptake. Variations in Fe uptake were not associated with soluble phytate concentrations in the digests. The largest change in flavonoids profile were found in the digests incubated with L. acidophilus, which decreased the soluble concentration of astragalin (kaempferol-3-O-glucoside). These results suggest that certain probiotics could increase Fe uptake from common beans. PMID:19323749

  9. Insecticidal activity of an alpha-amylase inhibitor-like protein resembling a putative precursor of alpha-amylase inhibitor in the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    PubMed

    Ishimoto, M; Yamada, T; Kaga, A

    1999-06-15

    alpha-Amylase inhibitor (alphaAI) in the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., protects seeds from insect pests such as the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus) and the azuki bean weevil (C. chinensis). Cultivars which lack alphaAI still show resistance to both bruchids. These cultivars have a glycoprotein that reacts with anti-alphaAI-1 antibodies. The glycoprotein with a molecular mass of 29 kDa (Gp29) was purified and the encoding gene was isolated. The primary structure of Gp29 is the same as alpha-amylase inhibitor-like protein (AIL) from which the encoding gene has already been isolated. AIL resembles a putative precursor of alphaAI, even though it does not form the active inhibitor. However, AIL has some inhibitory effect on the growth of C. maculatus but not C. chinensis. The presence of AIL alone is insufficient to explain the bruchid resistance of common bean cultivars lacking alpha-AI. Common bean seeds appear to contain several factors responsible for the bruchid resistance. PMID:10366733

  10. Species limits in Rhizobium populations that nodulate the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    PubMed Central

    Eardly, B D; Wang, F S; Whittam, T S; Selander, R K

    1995-01-01

    Evolutionary genetic relationships among 146 bean-nodulating Rhizobium strains, including 94 field isolates from three localities in Colombia and 36 strains from Mexico, were examined by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of a PCR-amplified 260-bp segment of the 16S rRNA gene. Seventy-five electrophoretic types (ETs), corresponding to multilocus enzyme genotypes, were identified, including a genotypically diverse group of 18 ETs in Colombia that is strongly differentiated from the ETs of R. etli, which occur in Mexico, Colombia, and Brazil. Most strains of the distinctive Colombian ETs carried the same 16S rRNA allele as did strains of R. etli, but, surprisingly, 17 isolates of two of these ETs had the allele that is characteristic of R. leguminosarum, and strains of two other divergent groups of ETs were also polymorphic for the two alleles. No fully satisfactory explanation for the occurrence of the R. leguminosarum 16S rRNA allele in three distantly related groups of strains is available, but horizontal transfer and recombination of the gene, in whole or in part, would seem to be more plausible than convergence in nucleotide sequence. PMID:7574588

  11. Consumption of diets containing raw soya beans (Glycine max), kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) or lupin seeds (Lupinus angustifolius) by rats for up to 700 days: effects on body composition and organ weights.

    PubMed

    Grant, G; Dorward, P M; Buchan, W C; Armour, J C; Pusztai, A

    1995-01-01

    Feeding trials have been done with rats to assess the effects of long-term (700 d) consumption of diets based on raw cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata; moderate Bowman-Birk inhibitor content, low lectin content), lupin seeds (Lupinus angustifolius; low lectin and protease inhibitor content) or soya beans (Glycine max; high Kunitz inhibitor content, moderate Bowman-Birk inhibitor content, moderate lectin content) or diets containing low levels of raw kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris; high lectin content, low Bowman-Birk inhibitor content) on body weight and composition and organ weights. All the legume-based diets reduced feed conversion efficiency and growth rates during the initial 250 d. However, after 250 d the weight gains by rats given legume-based diets were similar to those of controls given the same daily feed intake. Long-term consumption of diets containing low levels of kidney bean significantly altered body composition of rats. The levels of lipid in the body were significantly reduced. As a result, carcasses of these rats contained a higher proportion of muscle/protein than did controls. Small-intestine relative weight was increased by short- and long-term consumption of the kidney-bean-based diet. However, the increase in relative pancreatic weight observed at 30 d did not persist long term. None of the other legume-based diets caused any significant changes in body composition. However, long-term exposure to a soya-bean- or cowpea-based diet induced an extensive increase in the relative and absolute weights of the pancreas and caused an increase in the incidence of macroscopic pancreatic nodules and possibly pancreatic neoplasia. Long-term consumption of the cowpea-, kidney-bean-, lupin-seed- or soya-bean-based diets by rats resulted in a significant increase in the relative weight of the caecum and colon. PMID:7857911

  12. Studies of Cream Seeded Carioca Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) from a Rwandan Efficacy Trial: In Vitro and In Vivo Screening Tools Reflect Human Studies and Predict Beneficial Results from Iron Biofortified Beans

    PubMed Central

    Tako, Elad; Reed, Spenser; Anandaraman, Amrutha; Beebe, Steve E.; Hart, Jonathan J.; Glahn, Raymond P.

    2015-01-01

    Iron (Fe) deficiency is a highly prevalent micronutrient insufficiency predominantly caused by a lack of bioavailable Fe from the diet. The consumption of beans as a major food crop in some populations suffering from Fe deficiency is relatively high. Therefore, our objective was to determine whether a biofortified variety of cream seeded carioca bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) could provide more bioavailable-Fe than a standard variety using in-vivo (broiler chicken, Gallus gallus) and in-vitro (Caco-2 cell) models. Studies were conducted under conditions designed to mimic the actual human feeding protocol. Two carioca-beans, a standard (G4825; 58μg Fe/g) and a biofortified (SMC; 106μg Fe/g), were utilized. Diets were formulated to meet the nutrient requirements of Gallus gallus except for Fe (33.7 and 48.7μg Fe/g, standard and biofortified diets, respectively). In-vitro observations indicated that more bioavailable-Fe was present in the biofortified beans and diet (P<0.05). In-vivo, improvements in Fe-status were observed in the biofortified bean treatment, as indicated by the increased total-body-Hemoglobin-Fe, and hepatic Fe-concentration (P<0.05). Also, DMT-1 mRNA-expression was increased in the standard bean treatment (P<0.05), indicating an upregulation of absorption to compensate for less bioavailable-Fe. These results demonstrate that the biofortified beans provided more bioavailable Fe; however, the in vitro results revealed that ferritin formation values were relatively low. Such observations are indicative of the presence of high levels of polyphenols and phytate that inhibit Fe absorption. Indeed, we identified higher levels of phytate and quercetin 3–glucoside in the Fe biofortified bean variety. Our results indicate that the biofortified bean line was able to moderately improve Fe-status, and that concurrent increase in the concentration of phytate and polyphenols in beans may limit the benefit of increased Fe-concentration. Therefore, specific

  13. Studies of Cream Seeded Carioca Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) from a Rwandan Efficacy Trial: In Vitro and In Vivo Screening Tools Reflect Human Studies and Predict Beneficial Results from Iron Biofortified Beans.

    PubMed

    Tako, Elad; Reed, Spenser; Anandaraman, Amrutha; Beebe, Steve E; Hart, Jonathan J; Glahn, Raymond P

    2015-01-01

    Iron (Fe) deficiency is a highly prevalent micronutrient insufficiency predominantly caused by a lack of bioavailable Fe from the diet. The consumption of beans as a major food crop in some populations suffering from Fe deficiency is relatively high. Therefore, our objective was to determine whether a biofortified variety of cream seeded carioca bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) could provide more bioavailable-Fe than a standard variety using in-vivo (broiler chicken, Gallus gallus) and in-vitro (Caco-2 cell) models. Studies were conducted under conditions designed to mimic the actual human feeding protocol. Two carioca-beans, a standard (G4825; 58 μg Fe/g) and a biofortified (SMC; 106 μg Fe/g), were utilized. Diets were formulated to meet the nutrient requirements of Gallus gallus except for Fe (33.7 and 48.7 μg Fe/g, standard and biofortified diets, respectively). In-vitro observations indicated that more bioavailable-Fe was present in the biofortified beans and diet (P<0.05). In-vivo, improvements in Fe-status were observed in the biofortified bean treatment, as indicated by the increased total-body-Hemoglobin-Fe, and hepatic Fe-concentration (P<0.05). Also, DMT-1 mRNA-expression was increased in the standard bean treatment (P<0.05), indicating an upregulation of absorption to compensate for less bioavailable-Fe. These results demonstrate that the biofortified beans provided more bioavailable Fe; however, the in vitro results revealed that ferritin formation values were relatively low. Such observations are indicative of the presence of high levels of polyphenols and phytate that inhibit Fe absorption. Indeed, we identified higher levels of phytate and quercetin 3-glucoside in the Fe biofortified bean variety. Our results indicate that the biofortified bean line was able to moderately improve Fe-status, and that concurrent increase in the concentration of phytate and polyphenols in beans may limit the benefit of increased Fe-concentration. Therefore, specific

  14. Phenotypic evaluation and genome wide association studies of two common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) diversity panels in multiple locations highlight evaluation techniques, traits and lines useful for trait based selection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) productivity is constrained by abiotic soil conductions including drought and low fertility as well as by high temperature. High temperature primarily impacts pollen viability and growth. Soil water content and nutrients occur heterogeneously and often in a stratif...

  15. Identification of expressed resistance gene-like sequences by data mining in 454-derived transcriptomic sequences of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is one of the most important legumes in the world. Several diseases severely reduce bean production and quality; therefore, it is very important to better understand disease resistance in common bean in order to prevent these losses. More than 70 resistance (R) genes which confer resistance against various pathogens have been cloned from diverse plant species. Most R genes share highly conserved domains which facilitates the identification of new candidate R genes from the same species or other species. The goals of this study were to isolate expressed R gene-like sequences (RGLs) from 454-derived transcriptomic sequences and expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of common bean, and to develop RGL-tagged molecular markers. Results A data-mining approach was used to identify tentative P. vulgaris R gene-like sequences from approximately 1.69 million 454-derived sequences and 116,716 ESTs deposited in GenBank. A total of 365 non-redundant sequences were identified and named as common bean (P. vulgaris = Pv) resistance gene-like sequences (PvRGLs). Among the identified PvRGLs, about 60% (218 PvRGLs) were from 454-derived sequences. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis confirmed that PvRGLs were actually expressed in the leaves of common bean. Upon comparison to P. vulgaris genomic sequences, 105 (28.77%) of the 365 tentative PvRGLs could be integrated into the existing common bean physical map. Based on the syntenic blocks between common bean and soybean, 237 (64.93%) PvRGLs were anchored on the P. vulgaris genetic map and will need to be mapped to determine order. In addition, 11 sequence-tagged-site (STS) and 19 cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) molecular markers were developed for 25 unique PvRGLs. Conclusions In total, 365 PvRGLs were successfully identified from 454-derived transcriptomic sequences and ESTs available in GenBank and about 65% of PvRGLs were integrated into the common

  16. Hypoglycaemic and anorexigenic activities of an alpha-amylase inhibitor from white kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Tormo, M A; Gil-Exojo, I; Romero de Tejada, A; Campillo, J E

    2004-11-01

    An inhibitor of alpha-amylase was isolated and purified from an extract of white kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). The acute oral administration of the inhibitor (50 mg/kg body weight) to adult Wistar rats together with a starch load (2 g/kg body weight suspended in NaCl (9 g/l)) reduced the increase in glycaemia over the basal value (NaCl, 222 (SEM 49); inhibitor, 145 (SEM 16) mmol/l x 180 min; P<0.05) without modifying the insulin response. On administering the inhibitor orally (50 mg/kg body weight dissolved in NaCl (9 g/l)) for 21 d to rats fed on a standard diet, a decline was observed in the glycaemia values on day 0 (NaCl, 5.53 (SEM 0.12); inhibitor, 5.25 (SEM 0.16) mmol/l) relative to those obtained on days 10 (NaCl, 5.00 (SEM 0.14); inhibitor, 4.60 (SEM 0.08) mmol/l; P<0.05) and 21 (NaCl, 5.22 (SEM 0.22); inhibitor, 4.50 (SEM 0.12) mmol/l; P<0.01) of treatment, without modifying the plasma concentration of insulin. There was found to be a significant anorexigenic action of the inhibitor; there was reduced food intake (NaCl, 23.07 (SEM 0.31); inhibitor, 19.50 (SEM 0.49) g/d; P<0.01), a reduced weight gain (NaCl, 52 (SEM 3); inhibitor, -1.33 (SEM 8.9) g/21 d; P<0.01), as well as changes in the activity of some intestinal enzymes such as maltase (NaCl, 87 (SEM 7); inhibitor, 127 (SEM 11) U/g proteins; P<0.05). The present study has shown, for the first time, that the prolonged administration of an alpha-amylase inhibitor reduces blood glucose levels and body-weight gain in Wistar rats. PMID:15533267

  17. Genetic diversity and population structure of an Italian landrace of runner bean (Phaseolus coccineus L.): inferences for its safeguard and on-farm conservation.

    PubMed

    Mercati, F; Catarcione, G; Paolacci, A R; Abenavoli, M R; Sunseri, F; Ciaffi, M

    2015-08-01

    The landraces are considered important sources of valuable germplasm for breeding activities to face climatic changes as well as to satisfy the requirement of new varieties for marginal areas. Runner bean (Phaseolus coccineus L.) is one of the most cultivated Phaseolus species worldwide, but few studies have been addressed to assess the genetic diversity and structure within and among landrace populations. In the present study, 20 different populations of a runner bean landrace from Central Italy named "Fagiolone," together with 41 accessions from Italy and Mesoamerica, were evaluated by using 14 nuclear SSRs to establish its genetic structure and distinctiveness. Results indicated that "Fagiolone" landrace can be considered as a dynamic evolving open-pollinated population that shows a significant level of genetic variation, mostly detected within populations, and the presence of two main genetic groups, of which one distinguished from other Italian runner bean landraces. Results highlighted also a relevant importance of farmers' management practices able to influence the genetic structure of this landrace, in particular the seed exchanges and selection, and the past introduction in cultivation of landraces/cultivars similar to seed morphology, but genetically rather far from "Fagiolone." The most suitable on-farm strategies for seed collection, conservation and multiplication will be defined based on our results, as a model for threatened populations of other allogamous crop species. STRUCTURE and phylogenetic analyses indicated that Mesoamerican accessions and Italian landraces belong to two distinct gene pools confirming the hypothesis that Europe could be considered a secondary diversification center for P. coccineus. PMID:26036320

  18. QUES, a new Phaseolus vulgaris genotype resistant to common bean weevils, contains the Arcelin-8 allele coding for new lectin-related variants.

    PubMed

    Zaugg, Isabelle; Magni, Chiara; Panzeri, Dario; Daminati, Maria Gloria; Bollini, Roberto; Benrey, Betty; Bacher, Sven; Sparvoli, Francesca

    2013-03-01

    In common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), the most abundant seed proteins are the storage protein phaseolin and the family of closely related APA proteins (arcelin, phytohemagglutinin and α-amylase inhibitor). High variation in APA protein composition has been described and the presence of arcelin (Arc) has been associated with bean resistance against two bruchid beetles, the bean weevil (Acanthoscelides obtectus Say) and the Mexican bean weevil (Zabrotes subfasciatus Bohemian). So far, seven Arc variants have been identified, all in wild accessions, however, only those containing Arc-4 were reported to be resistant to both species. Although many efforts have been made, a successful breeding of this genetic trait into cultivated genotypes has not yet been achieved. Here, we describe a newly collected wild accession (named QUES) and demonstrate its resistance to both A. obtectus and Z. subfasciatus. Immunological and proteomic analyses of QUES seed protein composition indicated the presence of new Arc and arcelin-like (ARL) polypeptides of about 30 and 27 kDa, respectively. Sequencing of cDNAs coding for QUES APA proteins confirmed that this accession contains new APA variants, here referred to as Arc-8 and ARL-8. Moreover, bioinformatic analysis showed the two proteins are closely related to APA components present in the G12949 wild bean accession, which contains the Arc-4 variant. The presence of these new APA components, combined with the observations that they are poorly digested and remain very abundant in A. obtectus feces, so-called frass, suggest that the QUES APA locus is involved in the bruchid resistance. Moreover, molecular analysis indicated a lower complexity of the locus compared to that of G12949, suggesting that QUES should be considered a valuable source of resistance for further breeding purposes. PMID:23117719

  19. Effects of ozone and peroxyacetyl nitrate on polar lipids and fatty acids in leaves of morning glory and kidney bean. [Pharbitis nil; Phaseolus vulgaris

    SciTech Connect

    Nouchi, Isamu; Toyama, Susumu Ochanomizu Univ., Tokyo )

    1988-07-01

    To compare the effects of ozone and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) on leaf lipids, fatty acids and malondialdehyde (MDA), morning glory (Pharbitis nil Choisy cv Scarlet O'Hara) and kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv Gintebo) plants were exposed to either ozone (0.15 microliter per liter for 8 hours) or PAN (0.10 microliter per liter for up to 8 hours). Ozone increased phospholipids in morning glory and decreased in kidney bean at the initial stage (2-4 hours) of exposure, while it scarcely changed glycolipids, the unsaturated fatty acids, and MDA in both plants. A large reduction of glycolipids occurred 1 day after ozone exposure in both plants. PAN caused marked drops in phospholipids and glycolipids in kidney bean at relatively late stage (6-8 hours) of exposure, while it increased phosphatidic acid and decreased the unsaturated fatty acids, an increase which was accompanied by a large increase in MDA. These results suggest that ozone may not directly oxidize unsaturated fatty acids at the initial stage of exposure, but may alter polar lipid metabolism, particularly phospholipids. On the other hand, PAN may abruptly and considerably degrade phospholipids and glycolipids by peroxidation or hydrolysis at the late stage of exposure. The present study shows that ozone and PAN affect polar lipids in different manners.

  20. Effect of illumination on the content of melatonin, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity during germination of lentils (Lens culinaris L.) and kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Yolanda; Liébana, Rosa; Herrera, Teresa; Rebollo-Hernanz, Miguel; Sanchez-Puelles, Carlos; Benítez, Vanesa; Martín-Cabrejas, María A

    2014-11-01

    This study reports the effects of two different illumination conditions during germination (12 h light/12 h dark vs 24 h dark) in lentils (Lens culinaris L.) and kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) on the content of melatonin and phenolic compounds, as well as the antioxidant activity. Germination led to relative increase in melatonin content and significant antioxidant activity, while the content of phenolic compounds decreased. The highest melatonin content was obtained after 6 days of germination under 24 h dark for both legumes. These germinated legume seeds with improved levels of melatonin might play a protective role against free radicals. Thus, considering the potent antioxidant activity of melatonin, these sprouts can be consumed as direct foods and be offered as preventive food strategies in combating chronic diseases through the diet. PMID:25310717

  1. Characterization and sugar-binding properties of arcelin-1, an insecticidal lectin-like protein isolated from kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. RAZ-2) seeds.

    PubMed Central

    Fabre, C; Causse, H; Mourey, L; Koninkx, J; Rivière, M; Hendriks, H; Puzo, G; Samama, J P; Rougé, P

    1998-01-01

    Arcelin-1 is a lectin-like protein found in the seeds of wild varieties of the kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). This protein displays insecticidal properties, but the mechanism of action is as yet unknown. In the present study we investigated the biochemical and biophysical properties of arcelin-1 from Phaseolus vulgaris cv. RAZ-2. Native arcelin-1 is a dimeric glycoprotein of 60 kDa, built from the non-covalent association of two identical monomers. This dimer resists dissociation by chaotropic agents and is highly resistant to proteolytic enzymes. Each subunit contains 10% (w/w) neutral sugars which belong to the high-mannose and complex-type glycans attached to three glycosylation sites. No interaction of the protein with simple sugars could be detected, but arcelin-1 displays an intrinsic specificity in binding complex glycans. Arcelin-1 therefore differs from the closely related phytohaemagglutinin lectins and alpha-amylase inhibitor in several respects: oligomerization states, sugar-binding affinities and the type and number of glycan chains. These features may be related to the toxicity of arcelin-1. PMID:9445382

  2. Characterization and sugar-binding properties of arcelin-1, an insecticidal lectin-like protein isolated from kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. RAZ-2) seeds.

    PubMed

    Fabre, C; Causse, H; Mourey, L; Koninkx, J; Rivière, M; Hendriks, H; Puzo, G; Samama, J P; Rougé, P

    1998-02-01

    Arcelin-1 is a lectin-like protein found in the seeds of wild varieties of the kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). This protein displays insecticidal properties, but the mechanism of action is as yet unknown. In the present study we investigated the biochemical and biophysical properties of arcelin-1 from Phaseolus vulgaris cv. RAZ-2. Native arcelin-1 is a dimeric glycoprotein of 60 kDa, built from the non-covalent association of two identical monomers. This dimer resists dissociation by chaotropic agents and is highly resistant to proteolytic enzymes. Each subunit contains 10% (w/w) neutral sugars which belong to the high-mannose and complex-type glycans attached to three glycosylation sites. No interaction of the protein with simple sugars could be detected, but arcelin-1 displays an intrinsic specificity in binding complex glycans. Arcelin-1 therefore differs from the closely related phytohaemagglutinin lectins and alpha-amylase inhibitor in several respects: oligomerization states, sugar-binding affinities and the type and number of glycan chains. These features may be related to the toxicity of arcelin-1. PMID:9445382

  3. Content of short-chain fatty acids in the hindgut of rats fed processed bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) flours varying in distribution and content of indigestible carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Henningsson, A M; Nyman, E M; Björck, I M

    2001-09-01

    Red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) processed to differ in distribution and content of indigestible carbohydrates were used to study hindgut fermentability and production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). Bean flours with low or high content of resistant starch (RS), mainly raw and physically-inaccessible starch, were obtained by milling the beans before or after boiling. Flours containing retrograded starch and with a high or low content of oligosaccharides were prepared by autoclaving followed by freeze-drying with or without the boiling water. Six diets were prepared from these flours yielding a total concentration of indigestible carbohydrates of 90 or 120 g/kg (dry weight basis). The total fermentability of the indigestible carbohydrates was high with all diets (80-87 %). Raw and physically-inaccessible starch was more readily fermented than retrograded starch (97-99 % v. 86-95 %; ). Non-starch glucans were fermented to a lesser extent than RS, but the fermentability was higher in the case of autoclaved (50-54 %) than boiled beans (37-41 %). The distribution between acetic, propionic and butyric acid in the caecum was similar for all diets, with a comparatively high percentage of butyric acid (approximately 18). However, with diets containing the high amounts of RS, the butyric acid concentration was significantly higher in the distal colon than in the proximal colon ( and for the high- and low-level diets respectively), whereas it remained constant, or decreased along the colon in the case of the other diets. Furthermore, the two diets richest in RS also promoted the highest percentages of butyric acid in the distal colon (24 and 17 v. 12 and 12-16 for the high- and low-level diets respectively). PMID:11570990

  4. The cotyledon cell wall and intracellular matrix are factors that limit iron bioavailability of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Glahn, Raymond P; Tako, Elad; Cichy, Karen; Wiesinger, Jason

    2016-07-13

    Strategies that enhance the Fe bioavailability of the bean are of keen interest to nutritionists, bean breeders and growers. In beans, the cotyledons contain 75-80% of the total seed Fe, most of which appears to be located within the cotyledon cells. The cotyledon cell walls are known to be resistant to digestion in the stomach and the upper small intestine. Therefore, given the above and the general belief that the primary site for human Fe absorption is the upper small intestine, the present study was designed to determine if the cotyledon cell walls represent a barrier to Fe absorption from the bean. To do so, we utilized high pressure to rupture bean cotyledon cells. The iron bioavailability of cooked bean samples was assessed using an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell culture model. Microscopy analyses confirmed that the cotyledon cell walls are highly resistant to pepsin, the low pH of the stomach, and the pancreatic enzymes, indicating that the walls are a barrier to Fe absorption from the bean. Relatively high intracellular pressure (>4000 psi) was required to initiate cell wall rupture. Surprisingly, the lysis of cotyledon cells did not result in a consistent or strong enhancement of bioavailable Fe, suggesting that the liberated intracellular starch and protein influenced the Fe bioavailability by creating a matrix that inhibited the exchange of Fe with the cell transport mechanism. Such observations warrant further pursuit in vivo as the confirmation of these effects would reshape strategies to enhance Fe absorption from beans. PMID:27326892

  5. Mycoflora of Dried Edible Beans, Phaseolus vulgaris, from the Northern Plains of the United States and its Potential for Ochratoxigenesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A shipment of beans from the U.S. northern plains region was found to contain unacceptable levels of ochratoxin-A (OA) at processing time. One hundred and twenty-one beans were removed from a sample and soaked in ca 250 mL of 2% sodium hypochlorite solution for 5 minutes with occasional agitation. ...

  6. The polyphenolic profiles of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) (Experimental Biology Annal Meeting, April, 2006, Washington, D.C)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Based on the phenolic profiles obtained by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-ESI/MS), 24 classes of bean cultivars can be organized into six groups. All of the tested beans contained the same hydroxycinnaminc acid derivatives, but the glycosylated flavonoid com...

  7. Root environment is a key determinant of fungal entomopathogen endophytism following seed treatment in the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The common bean is the most important food legume in the world. We examined the potential of the fungal entomopathogens Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae applied as seed treatments for their endophytic establishment in the common bean. Endophytic colonization in sterile sand:peat average...

  8. Paraburkholderia nodosa is the main N2-fixing species trapped by promiscuous common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in the Brazilian 'Cerradão'.

    PubMed

    Dall'Agnol, Rebeca F; Plotegher, Fábio; Souza, Renata C; Mendes, Iêda C; Dos Reis Junior, Fábio B; Béna, Gilles; Moulin, Lionel; Hungria, Mariangela

    2016-08-01

    The bacterial genus Burkholderia comprises species occupying several habitats, including a group of symbionts of leguminous plants-also called beta-rhizobia-that has been recently ascribed to the new genus Paraburkholderia We used common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants to trap rhizobia from an undisturbed soil of the Brazilian Cerrado under the vegetation type 'Cerradão'. Genetic characterization started with the analyses of 181 isolates by BOX-PCR, where the majority revealed unique profiles, indicating high inter- and intra-species diversity. Restriction fragment length polymorphism-PCR of the 16S rRNA of representative strains of the BOX-PCR groups indicated two main clusters, and gene-sequencing analysis identified the minority (27%) as Rhizobium and the majority (73%) as Paraburkholderia Phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA and housekeeping (recA and gyrB) genes positioned all strains of the second cluster in the species P. nodosa, and the phylogeny of a symbiotic gene-nodC-was in agreement with the conserved genes. All isolates were stable vis-à-vis nodulating common bean, but, in general, with a low capacity for fixing N2, although some effective strains were identified. The predominance of P. nodosa might be associated with the edaphic properties of the Cerrado biome, and might represent an important role in terms of maintenance of the ecosystem, which is characterized by acid soils with high saturation of aluminum and low N2 content. PMID:27199345

  9. Non-digestible fraction of cooked bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivar Bayo Madero suppresses colonic aberrant crypt foci in azoxymethane-induced rats.

    PubMed

    Vergara-Castañeda, Haydé Azeneth; Guevara-González, Ramón Gerardo; Ramos-Gómez, Minerva; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalía; Guzmán-Maldonado, Horacio; Feregrino-Pérez, Ana Angélica; Oomah, B Dave; Loarca-Piña, Guadalupe

    2010-12-01

    The non-digestible fraction (NDF) of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivar Bayo Madero was evaluated for its chemopreventive effect on azoxymethane (AOM) induced aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in rats. Diets containing cooked beans (CB) or its non-digestible fraction (NDF) were fed to 72 male rats after 2 azoxymethane injections (15 mg kg(-1) of body weight once a week for 2 weeks). ACF number, short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and β-glucuronidase activity were measured in colon sections from rats sacrificed 7 weeks after the last AOM injection. Food intake and weight gain of rats were unaffected by CB and NDF. CB and NDF suppressed the AOM-induced formation of ACF (0.8 and 1.5 ACF/distal zone, respectively vs. 6.6 ACF/distal zone based on methylene blue stain) and lowered β-glucuronidase activity in cecal, colonic and fecal content compared to AOM group. SCFA production was not significantly different among fecal, cecal and colonic content. These results indicate that CB and NDF from Bayo Madero provide direct chemoprotection against early stage of azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon cancer in rats. PMID:21776479

  10. Light piping driven photosynthesis in the soil: Low-light adapted active photosynthetic apparatus in the under-soil hypocotyl segments of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Kakuszi, Andrea; Sárvári, Éva; Solti, Ádám; Czégény, Gyula; Hideg, Éva; Hunyadi-Gulyás, Éva; Bóka, Károly; Böddi, Béla

    2016-08-01

    Photosynthetic activity was identified in the under-soil hypocotyl part of 14-day-old soil-grown bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Magnum) cultivated in pots under natural light-dark cycles. Electron microscopic, proteomic and fluorescence kinetic and imaging methods were used to study the photosynthetic apparatus and its activity. Under-soil shoots at 0-2cm soil depth featured chloroplasts with low grana and starch grains and with pigment-protein compositions similar to those of the above-soil green shoot parts. However, the relative amounts of photosystem II (PSII) supercomplexes were higher; in addition a PIP-type aquaporin protein was identified in the under-soil thylakoids. Chlorophyll-a fluorescence induction measurements showed that the above- and under-soil hypocotyl segments had similar photochemical yields at low (10-55μmolphotonsm(-2)s(-1)) light intensities. However, at higher photon flux densities the electron transport rate decreased in the under-soil shoot parts due to inactivation of the PSII reaction centers. These properties show the development of a low-light adapted photosynthetic apparatus driven by light piping of the above-soil shoot. The results of this paper demonstrate that the classic model assigning source and sink functions to above- and under-soil tissues is to be refined, and a low-light adapted photosynthetic apparatus in under-soil bean hypocotyls is capable of contributing to its own carbon supply. PMID:27318297

  11. Purification of a novel α-amylase inhibitor from local Himalayan bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seeds with activity towards bruchid pests and human salivary amylase.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Mridu; Sharma, Pratima; Nath, Amarjit K

    2014-07-01

    Six bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars of Himalayan region were analysed for α- amylase inhibitor activity. The α-amylase inhibitor from seeds of screened bean cultivar KR-9, showing maximum inhibitory activity was purified using ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel filtration chromatography (Sephadex G-100) and ion exchange chromatography (DEAE-Sephadex). The inhibitor was purified to homogeneity as judged by native-PAGE with 14.22 fold purification and 71.66% recovery. Purified inhibitor consisted of three subunits of molecular weight 15,488, 18,620 and 26,302 daltons, respectively as determined by SDS-PAGE. It was found to be heat stable up to 30 °C-40 °C and had two pH optima of 5.0 and 6.9. Nature of inhibition was found to be of non-competitive type. The purified inhibitor was found to be effective against α-amylases extracted from larvae of Callosobruchus chinensis, Tribolium castaneum and gut enzyme of Spodoptera littoralis. Larvae of Tribolium castaneum fed on flour mixed with purified inhibitor for 5 days showed 100% larval mortality. Purified α-amylase inhibitor was also found to inhibit human salivary α-amylase, suggesting its potential in prevention and therapy of obesity and use as drug design targets for treatment of diabetes. The gene encoding the inhibitor may be used to develop transgenic plants resistant against insect pests. PMID:24966421

  12. Characterization of free, conjugated and bound phenolics and lipophilic antioxidants in regular- and non-darkening cranberry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Chen, Peter X; Tang, Yao; Marcone, Massimo F; Pauls, Peter K; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Ronghua; Tsao, Rong

    2015-10-15

    Cranberry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) from 7 different cultivars were characterized for phytochemicals and assessed for antioxidant activities. In vitro colorimetric methods were used to measure total phenolic (TPC) and total proanthocyanidin (PAC) contents. Free, conjugated and bound phenolic acids and flavonoids were also identified and quantified using HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS(n). Regular-darkening (RD) seeds contained higher TPC, PAC and flavonoids which were absent in the non-darkening (ND) seeds. Bound and conjugated phenolics in RD and ND mainly included cinnamic and benzoic acids. DPPH, FRAP and ORAC showed strong positive correlation with TPC, PAC, and with specific phenolics such as free catechin and bound p-hydroxybenzoic acid. Lipophilic extracts were rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (69.20-76.89%). Carotenoid and tocopherol were limited to γ-tocopherol and β-carotene. Results from this study can contribute to the development of cranberry bean cultivars with increased health benefits and addresses specific phenolic contributors to antioxidant activity. PMID:25952872

  13. Effects of ozone, sulfur dioxide, and alpha and delta races of Colletotrichum Lindemuthianum (Sacc. and Magn. ) Bri and Cav. on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. )

    SciTech Connect

    Achwanya, O.S.

    1984-01-01

    A number of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars were evaluated for their responses to the air pollutants ozone and sulfur dioxide singly and in combination, as well as for their reaction to the alpha and delta races of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc. and Magn.) Bri and Cav. Variation in response to both the pollutants and the fungus was noted among the cultivars. Anthracnose caused a reduction in the biomass of some cultivars of the order of 50%. A negative correlation of (r = -0.72, p < 0.0001) was found between the disease severity and the total plant biomass. Greater than additive effects of O/sub 3/ + SO/sub 2/ mixtures were demonstrated. Chlorophyll content and biomass were found to be reliable variables for assessing treatment effects. The pollutants appeared to stimulate the disease development. Greater pollutant injury was also in the presence of the anthracnose disease. The results indicated that there was an interaction between the fungal disease and the air pollutants. Implications for evaluating bean cultivars for resistance to C. lindemuthianum under polluted atmosphere are suggested.

  14. The fermented non-digestible fraction of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) triggers cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human colon adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Bravo, R K; Guevara-González, R G; Ramos-Gómez, M; Oomah, B D; Wiersma, P; Campos-Vega, R; Loarca-Piña, G

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide with colorectal cancer (CRC) ranking as the third contributing to overall cancer mortality. Non-digestible compounds such as dietary fiber have been inversely associated with CRC in epidemiological in vivo and in vitro studies. In order to investigate the effect of fermentation products from a whole non-digestible fraction of common bean versus the short-chain fatty acid (SCFAs) on colon cancer cells, we evaluated the human gut microbiota fermented non-digestible fraction (hgm-FNDF) of cooked common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivar Negro 8025 and a synthetic mixture SCFAs, mimicking their concentration in the lethal concentration 50 (SCFA-LC50) of FNDF (hgm-FNDF-LC50), on the molecular changes in human colon adenocarcinoma cells (HT-29). Total mRNA from hgm-FNDF-LC50 and SCFA-LC50 treated HT-29 cells were used to perform qPCR arrays to determine the effect of the treatments on the transcriptional expression of 84 genes related to the p53-pathway. This study showed that both treatments inhibited cell proliferation in accordance with modulating RB1, CDC2, CDC25A, NFKB and E2F genes. Furthermore, we found an association between the induction of apoptosis and the modulation of APAF1, BID, CASP9, FASLG, TNFR10B and BCL2A genes. The results suggest a mechanism of action by which the fermentation of non-digestible compounds of common bean exert a beneficial effect better than the SCFA mixture by modulating the expression of antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic genes in HT-29 cells to a greater extent, supporting previous results on cell behavior, probably due to the participation of other compounds, such as phenolic fatty acids derivatives and biopetides. PMID:24293398

  15. Differentially Expressed Genes in Resistant and Susceptible Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Genotypes in Response to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Renfeng; Wu, Jing; Zhu, Zhendong; Wang, Lanfen; Wang, Xiaoming; Wang, Shumin; Blair, Matthew W.

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium wilt of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), caused by Fusarium oxysporum Schlechtend.:Fr. f.sp. phaseoli (Fop), is one of the most important diseases of common beans worldwide. Few natural sources of resistance to Fop exist and provide only moderate or partial levels of protection. Despite the economic importance of the disease across multiple crops, only a few of Fop induced genes have been analyzed in legumes. Therefore, our goal was to identify transcriptionally regulated genes during an incompatible interaction between common bean and the Fop pathogen using the cDNA amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) technique. We generated a total of 8,730 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) with 768 primer pairs based on the comparison of a moderately resistant and a susceptible genotype. In total, 423 TDFs (4.9%) displayed altered expression patterns after inoculation with Fop inoculum. We obtained full amplicon sequences for 122 selected TDFs, of which 98 were identified as annotated known genes in different functional categories based on their putative functions, 10 were predicted but non-annotated genes and 14 were not homologous to any known genes. The 98 TDFs encoding genes of known putative function were classified as related to metabolism (22), signal transduction (21), protein synthesis and processing (20), development and cytoskeletal organization (12), transport of proteins (7), gene expression and RNA metabolism (4), redox reactions (4), defense and stress responses (3), energy metabolism (3), and hormone responses (2). Based on the analyses of homology, 19 TDFs from different functional categories were chosen for expression analysis using quantitative RT-PCR. The genes found to be important here were implicated at various steps of pathogen infection and will allow a better understanding of the mechanisms of defense and resistance to Fop and similar pathogens. The differential response genes discovered here could also be used as molecular

  16. Pulvinus activity, leaf movement and leaf water-use efficiency of bush bean ( Phaseplus vulgaris L.) in a hot environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raeini-Sarjaz, Mahmoud; Chalavi, Vida

    2008-11-01

    Pulvinus activity of Phaseolus species in response to environmental stimuli plays an essential role in heliotropic leaf movement. The aims of this study were to monitor the continuous daily pulvinus movement and pulvinus temperature, and to evaluate the effects of leaf movements, on a hot day, on instantaneous leaf water-use efficiency (WUEi), leaf gas exchange, and leaf temperature. Potted plants of Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Provider were grown in Chicot sandy loam soil under well-watered conditions in a greenhouse. When the second trifoliate leaf was completely extended, one plant was selected to measure pulvinus movement using a beta-ray gauging (BRG) meter with a point source of thallium-204 (204Tl). Leaf gas exchange measurements took place on similar leaflets of three plants at an air temperature interval of 33-42°C by a steady-state LI-6200 photosynthesis system. A copper-constantan thermocouple was used to monitor pulvinus temperature. Pulvinus bending followed the daily diurnal rhythm. Significant correlations were found between the leaf-incident angle and the stomatal conductance ( R 2 = 0.54; P < 0.01), and photosynthesis rate ( R 2 = 0.84; P < 0.01). With a reduction in leaf-incidence angle and increase in air temperature, WUEi was reduced. During the measurements, leaf temperature remained below air temperature and was a significant function of air temperature ( r = 0.92; P < 0.01). In conclusion, pulvinus bending followed both light intensity and air temperature and influenced leaf gas exchange.

  17. Nutritional evaluation of biologically treated white kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in pigs: ileal and amino acid digestibility.

    PubMed

    Schulze, H; Savelkoul, F H; Verstegen, M W; van der Poel, A F; Tamminga, S; Groot Nibbelink, S

    1997-12-01

    We studied the effect of feeding young growing pigs a semisynthetic diet containing 7.5% white kidney beans-germinated (GB), pancreatin treated (PTB), or untreated (raw beans RB)--on protein and amino acid (AA) digestibilities at the terminal ileum. Eleven castrated male pigs (12.2 kg live weight) fitted with a post-valve T-cecal cannula and two blood catheters were used. The 15N-isotope dilution method was used to determine the amount of endogenous protein passing the terminal ileum and the true ileal protein digestibility. Ileal crude protein losses in pigs fed the RB, GB, and PTB diets were 51.9, 27.4, and 51.1 g/kg of DMI, respectively. The total amounts of AA passing the terminal ileum of the pigs fed the RB, GB, and PTB diets were 48.6, 21.4, and 42.2 g/kg DMI, respectively. The apparent ileal crude protein and AA digestibilities of the RB, GB, and PTB diets were 74, 87, and 75% and 76, 89, and 78%, respectively. True ileal protein digestibilities were 88, 93, and 93% for the RB, GB, and PTB diets, respectively. On the basis of this research, germination of white kidney beans improves the digestion of protein by decreasing the content of bean antinutritional factors and increasing the bean true ileal protein digestibility. PMID:9419992

  18. Pectic zymogram variation and pathogenicity of Rhizoctonia solani AG-4 to bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) isolates in Isfahn, Iran.

    PubMed

    Balali, G R; Kowsari, M

    2004-10-01

    Rhizoctonia disease, caused by Rhizoctonia solani is one of the most important fungal diseases in bean fields in Isfahan, Iran. Bean plants showing stem and root cankers were collected and Rhizoctonia-like fungi obtained from the samples were identified by anastomosis. Pure cultures of bean isolates of R. solani were identified as AG-4. There were also AG-4 isolates from tomato, potato, cucumber, alfalfa and sugar beet in the areas sampled. A total of 163 isolates of R. solani AG-4 originating from stem and root cankers of beans were examined using pectic zymogram electrophoresis. Polygalacturonase (PG) and pectin estrase isozymes were observed in all AG-4 isolates tested. One (PG) and one pectic esterase (PE) band was found in common between all isolates examined. The electrophoretic patterns were grouped into seven zymogram groups (ZGs) according to the diagnostic PG and PE bands. One ZG occurred in a high frequency throughout the areas sampled. A pathogenicity test was conducted and representative isolates of each ZG were used to inoculate healthy bean plants. The results showed that each ZG caused different symptoms with varying severity. Isolates belonging to two ZGs were highly pathogenic causing root, stem and hypocotyl cankers whereas isolates of the other ZGs produced weak or no symptoms. PMID:15645177

  19. Physico-chemical, functional and structural properties of RS3/RS4 from kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Gani, Adil; Jan, Amreen; Shah, Asima; Masoodi, F A; Ahmad, Mudasir; Ashwar, Bilal Ahmad; Akhter, Rehana; Wani, Idrees Ahmed

    2016-06-01

    Starch isolated from four kidney bean cultivars (Yellow bean, Red bean, Black bean and White bean) were physically and chemically modified in order to prepare resistant starch (RS3/RS4). Following the Heat-moisture treatment (HMT) and Citric acid modification (CT) of the native starch, the amylose content got decreased whereas bulk and tapped density (g/ml) increased. Both HMT and CT reduced the swelling power and the solubility of native starch. Pasting temperature increased and peak, breakdown, final, and set-back viscosity decreased after both the modifications. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis displayed peaks at 1020cm(-1) in HMT and 1724cm(-1) in CT starches. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) analysis revealed that samples were more stable after modification. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed reordering of chain segments to more crystalline structure. These results suggested modifications resulted in starch with improved properties and could be a possible method for the RS preparation with better thermal stability. PMID:26976068

  20. Changes in antioxidant and antiinflammatory activity of black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein isolates due to germination and enzymatic digestion.

    PubMed

    López-Barrios, Lidia; Antunes-Ricardo, Marilena; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A

    2016-07-15

    Germination is an inexpensive process to improve the nutritional properties of legumes. The effect of germinating black bean seeds on the production of cotyledon protein hydrolysates (CPH) with antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities was analyzed in this research. After simulated enzymatic digestion, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of CPH obtained from germinated black beans was lower than that observed for raw cotyledons. There were no significant differences among CPH cellular antioxidant activities (CAA), except for the high CAA of the 120 min hydrolysate obtained from one day germinated black bean cotyledons. The most significant changes due to germination and enzymatic hydrolysis were observed for the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production in macrophages. The NO synthesis inhibition observed for raw CPH was reduced after simulated gastrointestinal digestion but for germinated samples the inhibition was doubled. Peptides derived from cell wall proteins produced during germination could be responsible of antiinflammatory activity. PMID:26948633

  1. The Phaseolus vulgaris PvTRX1h gene regulates plant hormone biosynthesis in embryogenic callus from common bean

    PubMed Central

    Barraza, Aarón; Cabrera-Ponce, José L.; Gamboa-Becerra, Roberto; Luna-Martínez, Francisco; Winkler, Robert; Álvarez-Venegas, Raúl

    2015-01-01

    Common bean is the most important grain legume in the human diet. Bean improvement efforts have been focused on classical breeding techniques because bean is recalcitrant to both somatic embryogenesis and in vitro regeneration. This study was undertaken to better understand the process of somatic embryogenesis in the common bean. We focused on the mechanisms by which somatic embryogenesis in plants is regulated and the interaction of these mechanisms with plant hormones. Specifically, we examined the role of the gene PvTRX1h, an ortholog of a major known histone lysine methyltransferase in plants, in somatic embryo generation. Given the problems with regeneration and transformation, we chose to develop and use regeneration-competent callus that could be successively transformed. Embryogenic calli of common bean were generated and transformed with the PvTRX1hRiA construction to down-regulate, by RNA interference, expression of the PvTRX1h gene. Plant hormone content was measured by mass spectrometry and gene expression was assessed by q-PCR. Detailed histological analysis was performed on selected transgenic embryogenic calli. It was determined that down-regulation of PvTRX1h gene was accompanied by altered concentrations of plant hormones in the calli. PvTRX1h regulated the expression of genes involved in auxin biosynthesis and embryogenic calli in which PvTRX1h was down-regulated were capable of differentiation into somatic embryos. Also, down-regulation of PvTRX1h showed increased transcript abundance of a gene coding for a second histone lysine methyltransferase, PvASHH2h. Accordingly, the PvTRX1h gene is involved in the synthesis of plant hormones in common bean callus. These results shed light on the crosstalk among histone methyltransferases and plant hormone signaling and on gene regulation during somatic embryo generation. PMID:26284093

  2. Analysis of BAC-end sequences in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) towards the development and characterization of long motifs SSRs.

    PubMed

    Müller, Bárbara Salomão de Faria; Sakamoto, Tetsu; de Menezes, Ivandilson Pessoa Pinto; Prado, Guilherme Souza; Martins, Wellington Santos; Brondani, Claudio; de Barros, Everaldo Gonçalves; Vianello, Rosana Pereira

    2014-11-01

    The increasing volume of genomic data on the Phaseolus vulgaris species have contributed to its importance as a model genetic species and positively affected the investigation of other legumes of scientific and economic value. To expand and gain a more in-depth knowledge of the common bean genome, the ends of a number of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) were sequenced, annotated and the presence of repetitive sequences was determined. In total, 52,270 BESs (BAC-end sequences), equivalent to 32 Mbp (~6 %) of the genome, were processed. In total, 3,789 BES-SSRs were identified, with a distribution of one SSR (simple sequence repeat) per 8.36 kbp and 2,000 were suitable for the development of SSRs, of which 194 were evaluated in low-resolution screening. From 40 BES-SSRs based on long motifs SSRs (≥ trinucleotides) analyzed in high-resolution genotyping, 34 showed an equally good amplification for the Andean and for the Mesoamerican genepools, exhibiting an average gene diversity (H E) of 0.490 and 5.59 alleles/locus, of which six classified as Class I showed a H E ≥ 0.7. The PCoA and structure analysis allowed to discriminate the gene pools (K = 2, FST = 0.733). From the 52,270 BESs, 2 % corresponded to transcription factors and 3 % to transposable elements. Putative functions for 24,321 BESs were identified and for 19,363 were assigned functional categories (gene ontology). This study identified highly polymorphic BES-SSRs containing tri- to hexanucleotides motifs and bringing together relevant genetic characteristics useful for breeding programs. Additionally, the BESs were incorporated into the international genome-sequencing project for the common bean. PMID:25164100

  3. Human gut flora-fermented nondigestible fraction from cooked bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) modifies protein expression associated with apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and proliferation in human adenocarcinoma colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Campos-Vega, Rocio; García-Gasca, Teresa; Guevara-Gonzalez, Ramón; Ramos-Gomez, Minerva; Oomah, B Dave; Loarca-Piña, Guadalupe

    2012-12-26

    Metabolism of the nondigested fraction (NDF) from common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) by the human gut flora (hgf) produces short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) that may benefit cancer by reducing colorectal tumor risks. This paper reports the effect of fermentation products (FP) by hgf (FP-hgf) from NDF of cooked beans on survival and protein expression associated with apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and proliferation in human adenocarcinoma colon cancer cells. FP-hgf was the only inoculum eliciting butyrate production after 24 h of NDF fermentation using different bacterial sources. FP-hgf inhibited HT-29 cell growth and modulated protein expression associated with apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and proliferation, as well as morphological changes linked to apoptosis evaluated by TUNEL and hematoxylin and eosin stains, confirming previous results on gene expression. The current results suggest that fermentation of NDF from common beans can elicit beneficial chemoprotective effects in colon cancer by modulating protein expression in HT-29 cells. PMID:23194196

  4. The carbohydrate profile of a dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) panel encompassing broad genetic variability for cooking time

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dry beans are typically consumed as a whole food and cooking time is one of the most important processing quality attributes. While significant genetic variability for cooking time exists, a clear underlying mechanism has not been established. Genetic determinants of processing quality in grain crop...

  5. A major QTL is associated with resistance to curly top virus in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) landrace G122

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Curly top virus (CTV) is a devastating disease of common bean in the Western U.S. Genetic resistance provides effective control but can be difficult to discern in early generations. Two populations of F5:7 RILs were derived from separate F1 seeds from a cross between the G122 landrace from India kn...

  6. Imazamox Absorption, Translocation and Metabolism in Red Lentil (Lens culinaris Medic.) and Dry Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Imazamox is an imidazolinone herbicide used to control many grasses and broadleaf weeds in leguminous crops such as soybeans, alfalfa and dry beans; however, imazamox cannot be used on red lentils because of unacceptable injury. Studies were conducted to compare imazamox absorption, translocation a...

  7. Characterization of a panel of tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius) and its application to theimprovement of this orphan crop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High ambient temperature and drought stress as a result of climate change are increasingly critical factors affecting agriculture and specifically grain legume production. Tepary (Phaseolusacutifolius A. Gray), a drought and heat tolerant sister species of common bean (P. vulgaris L.), has long been...

  8. Screening of iron bioavailability patterns in eight bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes using the Caco-2 cell in vitro model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary goal of this research was to use an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 model to study iron bioavailability in 8 bean genotypes (three Mesoamerican and five Andean) that represent diversity of grain types in the crop. Complementing this goal, we measured the distribution of both iron and phytate ...

  9. Genetic diversity and population structure of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) landraces from the East African highlands.

    PubMed

    Asfaw, Asrat; Blair, Matthew W; Almekinders, Conny

    2009-12-01

    The East African highlands are a region of important common bean production and high varietal diversity for the crop. The objective of this study was to uncover the diversity and population structure of 192 landraces from Ethiopia and Kenya together with four genepool control genotypes using morphological phenotyping and microsatellite marker genotyping. The germplasm represented different common bean production ecologies and seed types common in these countries. The landraces showed considerable diversity that corresponded well to the two recognized genepools (Andean and Mesoamerican) with little introgression between these groups. Mesoamerican genotypes were predominant in Ethiopia while Andean genotypes were predominant in Kenya. Within each country, landraces from different collection sites were clustered together indicating potential gene flow between regions within Kenya or within Ethiopia. Across countries, landraces from the same country of origin tended to cluster together indicating distinct germplasm at the national level and limited gene flow between the two countries highlighting divided social networks within the regions and a weak trans-national bean seed exchange especially for landrace varieties. One exception to this may be the case of small red-seeded beans where informal cross-border grain trade occurs. We also observed that genetic divergence was slightly higher for the Ethiopian landraces compared to Kenyan landraces and that Mesoamerican genotypes were more diverse than the Andean genotypes. Common beans in eastern Africa are often cultivated in marginal, risk-prone farming systems and the observed landrace diversity should provide valuable alleles for adaptation to stressful environments in future breeding programs in the region. PMID:19756469

  10. Quinclorac-habituation of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cultured cells is related to an increase in their antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Largo-Gosens, Asier; de Castro, María; Alonso-Simón, Ana; García-Angulo, Penélope; Acebes, José L; Encina, Antonio; Álvarez, Jesús M

    2016-10-01

    The habituation of bean cells to quinclorac did not rely on cell wall modifications, contrary to what it was previously observed for the well-known cellulose biosynthesis inhibitors dichlobenil or isoxaben. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether or not the bean cells habituation to quinclorac is related to an enhancement of antioxidant activities involved in the scavenging capacity of reactive oxygen species. Treating non-habituated bean calluses with 10 μM quinclorac reduced the relative growth rate and induced a two-fold increase in lipid peroxidation. However, the exposition of quinclorac-habituated cells to a concentration of quinclorac up to 30 μM neither affected their growth rate nor increased their lipid peroxidation levels. Quinclorac-habituated calluses had significantly higher constitutive levels of three antioxidant activities (class-III peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and superoxide dismutase) than those observed in non-habituated calluses, and the treatment of habituated calluses with 30 μM quinclorac significantly increased the level of class III-peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. The results reported here indicate that the process of habituation to quinclorac in bean callus-cultured cells is related, at least partially, to the development of a stable antioxidant capacity that enables them to cope with the oxidative stress caused by quinclorac. Class-III peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities could play a major role in the quinclorac-habituation. Changes in the antioxidant status of bean cells were stable, since the increase in the antioxidant activities were maintained in quinclorac-dehabituated cells. PMID:27318799

  11. Nucleotide diversity of a genomic sequence similar to SHATTERPROOF (PvSHP1) in domesticated and wild common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Nanni, L; Bitocchi, E; Bellucci, E; Rossi, M; Rau, D; Attene, G; Gepts, P; Papa, R

    2011-12-01

    Evolutionary studies in plant and animal breeding are aimed at understanding the structure and organization of genetic variations of species. We have identified and characterized a genomic sequence in Phaseolus vulgaris of 1,200 bp (PvSHP1) that is homologous to SHATTERPROOF-1 (SHP1), a gene involved in control of fruit shattering in Arabidopsis thaliana. The PvSHP1 fragment was mapped to chromosome Pv06 in P. vulgaris and is linked to the flower and seed color gene V. Amplification of the PvSHP1 sequence from the most agronomically important legume species showed a high degree of interspecies diversity in the introns within the Phaseoleae, while the coding region was conserved across distant taxa. Sequencing of the PvSHP1 sequence in a sample of 91 wild and domesticated genotypes that span the geographic distribution of this species in the centers of origin showed that PvSHP1 is highly polymorphic and, therefore, particularly useful to further investigate the origin and domestication history of P. vulgaris. Our data confirm the gene pool structure seen in P. vulgaris along with independent domestication processes in the Andes and Mesoamerica; they provide additional evidence for a single domestication event in Mesoamerica. Moreover, our results support the Mesoamerican origin of this species. Finally, we have developed three indel-spanning markers that will be very useful for bean germplasm characterization, and particularly to trace the distribution of the domesticated Andean and Mesoamerican gene pools. PMID:21830108

  12. Complete sequence, subunit structure, and complexes with pancreatic alpha-amylase of an alpha-amylase inhibitor from Phaseolus vulgaris white kidney beans.

    PubMed

    Kasahara, K; Hayashi, K; Arakawa, T; Philo, J S; Wen, J; Hara, S; Yamaguchi, H

    1996-07-01

    The complete amino acid sequence of a white kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) alpha-amylase inhibitor (PHA-I), which is composed of two kinds of glycopolypeptide subunits, alpha and beta, was established by conventional methods. The polypeptide molecular weight of PHA-I determined by the light-scattering technique, considered together with the sequence molecular weights revealed for the subunits, indicated that PHA-I has the subunit stoichiometry of (alpha beta)2 complex. Inhibition test of PHA-I with increasing amounts of porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase (PPA) suggested that an inactive 2:1 complex is formed between PPA and PHA-I. In fact, two complexes differing from each other in the molar ratio of PPA to PHA-I were separated by gel filtration, and molecular weight estimation by the light-scattering technique confirmed that they are complexes of PHA-I with one or two PPA molecules. The binding of PPA to PHA-I appeared to follow simple binomial statistics, suggesting that two binding sites on PHA-I are independent and of high affinity for PPA. PMID:8864861

  13. Transcriptional Analysis of Drought-Induced Genes in the Roots of a Tolerant Genotype of the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    PubMed Central

    Recchia, Gustavo Henrique; Caldas, Danielle Gregorio Gomes; Beraldo, Ana Luiza Ahern; da Silva, Márcio José; Tsai, Siu Mui

    2013-01-01

    In Brazil, common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) productivity is severely affected by drought stress due to low technology cultivation systems. Our purpose was to identify differentially expressed genes in roots of a genotype tolerant to water deficit (BAT 477) when submitted to an interruption of irrigation during its development. A SSH library was constructed taking as “driver” the genotype Carioca 80SH (susceptible to drought). After clustering and data mining, 1572 valid reads were obtained, resulting in 1120 ESTs (expressed sequence tags). We found sequences for transcription factors, carbohydrates metabolism, proline-rich proteins, aquaporins, chaperones and ubiquitins, all of them organized according to their biological processes. Our suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) library was validated through RT-qPCR experiment by assessing the expression patterns of 10 selected genes in both genotypes under stressed and control conditions. Finally, the expression patterns of 31 ESTs, putatively related to drought responses, were analyzed in a time-course experiment. Our results confirmed that such genes are more expressed in the tolerant genotype during stress; however, they are not exclusive, since different levels of these transcripts were also detected in the susceptible genotype. In addition, we observed a fluctuation in gene regulation over time for both the genotypes, which seem to adopt and adapt different strategies in order to develop tolerance against this stress. PMID:23538843

  14. Superoxide-Dismutase Deficient Mutants in Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.): Genetic Control, Differential Expressions of Isozymes, and Sensitivity to Arsenic

    PubMed Central

    Talukdar, Dibyendu; Talukdar, Tulika

    2013-01-01

    Two common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) mutants, sodPv 1 and sodPv 2, exhibiting foliar superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of only 25% and 40% of their mother control (MC) cv. VL 63 were isolated in EMS-mutagenized (0.15%, 8 h) M2 progeny. Native-PAGE analysis revealed occurrence of Mn SOD, Fe SOD, Cu/Zn SOD I and Cu/Zn SOD II isozymes in MC, while Fe SOD, and Mn SOD were not formed in sodPv 1 and sodPv 2 leaves, respectively. In-gel activity of individual isozymes differed significantly among the parents. SOD deficiency is inherited as recessive mutations, controlled by two different nonallelic loci. Gene expressions using qRT PCR confirmed higher expressions of Cu/Zn SOD transcripts in both mutants and the absence of Fe SOD in sodPv 1 and Mn SOD in sodPv 2. In 50 μM arsenic, Cu/Zn SODs genes were further upregulated but other isoforms downregulated in the two mutants, maintaining SOD activity in its control level. In an F2 double mutants of sodPv 1 × sodPv 2, no Fe SOD, and Mn SOD expressions were detectable, while both Cu/Zn SODs are down-regulated and arsenic-induced leaf necrosis appeared. In contrast to both mutants, ROS-imaging study revealed overaccumulation of both superoxides and H2O2 in leaves of double mutant. PMID:24078924

  15. Effect of Nigella sativa alcoholic extract and oil, as well as Phaseolus vulgaris (kidney bean) lectin on the ultrastructure of Trichomonas vaginalis trophozoites.

    PubMed

    Aminou, Heba AbdelKader; Alam-Eldin, Yosra Hussein; Hashem, Hanan Ahmed

    2016-09-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a parasitic protozoan that is the aetiological agent of trichomoniasis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Currently, the compound of choice for the treatment of T. vaginalis infections is metronidazole, however, it has many side effects and an increase in metronidazole-resistant trichomoniasis has been observed. Medicinal plants could be a source of new antiprotozoal drugs with high activity, low toxicity and lower price. The present work was carried out to investigate the therapeutic potential of Nigella sativa alcoholic extract and oil, as well as Phaseolus vulgaris (kidney bean) lectin and their in vitro activity on the ultrastructure of T. vaginalis trophozoites in comparison to metronidazole, as detected by transmission electron microscope. Both N. sativa oil and P. vulgaris lectin showed high toxic effect as evidenced by severe cell damage with cytoplasmic and nuclear destruction, while the effect of N. sativa alcoholic extract was moderate. Therefore, these two extracts could offer an effective, cheaper and more safe alternative for metronidazole in treatment of trichomoniasis. PMID:27605771

  16. D-Glucosone and L-sorbosone, putative intermediates of L-ascorbic acid biosynthesis in detached bean and spinach leaves. [Phaseolus vulgaris L. ; Spinacia oleracea L

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Kazumi; Nick, J.A.; Loewus, F.A. )

    1990-11-01

    D-(6-{sup 14}C)Glucosone that had been prepared enzymically from D-(6-{sup 14}C)glucose was used to compare relative efficiencies of these two sugars for L-ascorbic acid (AA) biosynthesis in detached bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., cv California small white) apices and 4-week-old spinach (Spinacia oleracea L., cv Giant Noble) leaves. At tracer concentration, {sup 14}C from glucosone was utilized by spinach leaves for AA biosynthesis much more effectively than glucose. Carbon-14 from (6-{sup 14}C)glucose underwent considerable redistribution during AA formation, whereas {sup 14}C from (6-{sup 14}C)glucosone remained almost totally in carbon 6 of AA. In other experiments with spinach leaves, L-(U-{sup 14}C)sorbosone was found to be equivalent to (6-{sup 14}C)glucose as a source of {sup 14}C for AA. In the presence of 0.1% D-glucosone, conversion of (6-{sup 14}C) glucose into labeled AA was greatly repressed. In a comparable experiment with L-sorbosone replacing D-glucosone, the effect was much less. The experiments described here give substance to the proposal that D-glucosone and L-sorbosone are putative intermediates in the conversion of D-glucose to AA in higher plants.

  17. Transcriptional analysis of drought-induced genes in the roots of a tolerant genotype of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Recchia, Gustavo Henrique; Caldas, Danielle Gregorio Gomes; Beraldo, Ana Luiza Ahern; da Silva, Márcio José; Tsai, Siu Mui

    2013-01-01

    In Brazil, common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) productivity is severely affected by drought stress due to low technology cultivation systems. Our purpose was to identify differentially expressed genes in roots of a genotype tolerant to water deficit (BAT 477) when submitted to an interruption of irrigation during its development. A SSH library was constructed taking as "driver" the genotype Carioca 80SH (susceptible to drought). After clustering and data mining, 1572 valid reads were obtained, resulting in 1120 ESTs (expressed sequence tags). We found sequences for transcription factors, carbohydrates metabolism, proline-rich proteins, aquaporins, chaperones and ubiquitins, all of them organized according to their biological processes. Our suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) library was validated through RT-qPCR experiment by assessing the expression patterns of 10 selected genes in both genotypes under stressed and control conditions. Finally, the expression patterns of 31 ESTs, putatively related to drought responses, were analyzed in a time-course experiment. Our results confirmed that such genes are more expressed in the tolerant genotype during stress; however, they are not exclusive, since different levels of these transcripts were also detected in the susceptible genotype. In addition, we observed a fluctuation in gene regulation over time for both the genotypes, which seem to adopt and adapt different strategies in order to develop tolerance against this stress. PMID:23538843

  18. Optimization of enzymatic production of anti-diabetic peptides from black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) proteins, their characterization and biological potential.

    PubMed

    Mojica, Luis; de Mejía, Elvira González

    2016-02-01

    The aim was to optimize the production of bioactive peptides from black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein isolate and to determine their biological potential using biochemical and in silico approaches. Protein fractions were generated using eight commercially available proteases after 2, 3 and 4 h and 1:20, 1:30 and 1:50 enzyme/substrate (E/S) ratios. The best combination of conditions to generate anti-diabetic peptides was with alcalase for 2 h and E/S of 1:20; with inhibition values for dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV, 96.7%), α-amylase (53.4%) and α-glucosidase (66.1%). Generated peptides were characterized using LC-ESI-MS/MS. Molecular docking analysis was performed to predict individual peptide biological potential using DockingServer®. Peptides EGLELLLLLLAG, AKSPLF and FEELN inhibited DPP-IV more efficiently in silico through free energy interactions of -9.8, -9.6 and -9.5 kcal mol(-1), respectively, than the control sitagliptin (-8.67 kcal mol(-1)). The peptide TTGGKGGK (-8.97 kcal mol(-1)) had higher inhibitory potential on α-glucosidase compared to the control acarbose (-8.79 kcal mol(-1)). Peptides AKSPLF (-10.2 kcal mol(-1)) and WEVM (-10.1 kcal mol(-1)) generated a lower free energy interaction with the catalytic site of α-amylase in comparison with acarbose (-9.71 kcal mol(-1)). Bean peptides inhibited the tested enzymes through hydrogen bonds, polar and hydrophobic interactions. The main bindings on the catalytic site were with ASP192, GLU192 and ARG 253 on DPP-IV; TYR151, HIS201 and ILE235 on α-amylase; and ASP34, THR83 and ASN32 on α-glucosidase. For the first time, a systematic evaluation and characterization of the anti-diabetic peptides from black bean protein isolate is presented with the potential for inhibiting important molecular markers related to diabetes. PMID:26824775

  19. Structure of genetic diversity in the two major gene pools of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Kwak, Myounghai; Gepts, Paul

    2009-03-01

    Domesticated materials with well-known wild relatives provide an experimental system to reveal how human selection during cultivation affects genetic composition and adaptation to novel environments. In this paper, our goal was to elucidate how two geographically distinct domestication events modified the structure and level of genetic diversity in common bean. Specifically, we analyzed the genome-wide genetic composition at 26, mostly unlinked microsatellite loci in 349 accessions of wild and domesticated common bean from the Andean and Mesoamerican gene pools. Using a model-based approach, implemented in the software STRUCTURE, we identified nine wild or domesticated populations in common bean, including four of Andean and four of Mesoamerican origins. The ninth population was the putative wild ancestor of the species, which was classified as a Mesoamerican population. A neighbor-joining analysis and a principal coordinate analysis confirmed genetic relationships among accessions and populations observed with the STRUCTURE analysis. Geographic and genetic distances in wild populations were congruent with the exception of a few putative hybrids identified in this study, suggesting a predominant effect of isolation by distance. Domesticated common bean populations possessed lower genetic diversity, higher F(ST), and generally higher linkage disequilibrium (LD) than wild populations in both gene pools; their geographic distributions were less correlated with genetic distance, probably reflecting seed-based gene flow after domestication. The LD was reduced when analyzed in separate Andean and Mesoamerican germplasm samples. The Andean domesticated race Nueva Granada had the highest F(ST) value and widest geographic distribution compared to other domesticated races, suggesting a very recent origin or a selection event, presumably associated with a determinate growth habit, which predominates in this race. PMID:19130029

  20. Domestication of small-seeded lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) landraces in Mesoamerica: evidence from microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Andueza-Noh, Rubén H; Martínez-Castillo, Jaime; Chacón-Sánchez, María I

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the Mesoamerican small-seeded landraces of Lima bean may have been domesticated more than once in Mesoamerica, once in central-western Mexico and another one in an area between Guatemala and Costa Rica. However, these findings were based on sequencing of only one locus from nuclear DNA, and additional confirmation was needed. Here we contribute with additional data on the origin of the Mesoamerican landraces and document the founder effect due to domestication. We characterized 62 domesticated, 87 wild and six weedy Lima bean accessions with ten microsatellite loci. Genetic relationships were analyzed using genetic distances and Bayesian clustering approaches. Domestication bottlenecks were documented using inter-population comparisons and M ratios. The results support at least one domestication event in the area of distribution of gene pool MI in central-western Mexico and also show that some landraces are genetically related to wild accessions of gene pool MII. Also, our data support founder effects due to domestication in Mesoamerican Lima bean landraces. Although we could not establish more specifically the place of origin of the Mesoamerican Lima bean landraces, our results show that these are not a genetically homogeneous group, a finding that may be compatible with a scenario of more than one domestication event accompanied by gene flow. The complex genetic makeup of landraces that we found indicates that a more comprehensive geographic and genomic sampling is needed in order to establish how domestication processes and gene flow have shaped the current genetic structure of landraces. PMID:26391600

  1. Impact of dehulling on the physico-chemical properties and in vitro protein digestion of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Romano, A; Giosafatto, C V L; Masi, P; Mariniello, L

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the effect of dehulling on the microstructural, physico-chemical characteristics, and in vitro protein digestion of common bean flours with particular regard to differences between adults and infants. The microstructure of flour samples from undehulled (WB) and manually dehulled (SB) beans, observed through scanning electron microscopy, showed that WB starch granules appeared to be surrounded by an integral matrix, while the SB starch granule structure was still visible although covered by protein clusters. The starch granules were oval and spherical, with heterogeneous sizes ranging from 19 to 30 μm in diameter. Particle size analysis determined with a laser diffraction particle size analyzer showed similar bimodal particle size distributions of small (1-25 μm) and large (>100 μm) granules, though the particle size of WB was obviously higher than SB. Color and other physico-chemical analyses showed that dehulling had significant (P < 0.05) influence on all investigated characteristics. The in vitro gastric and duodenal digestion experiments carried out under physiological conditions showed that the SB samples are more likely to be digested by infants. From our results, it is possible to conclude that the dehulling process improves bean flour protein digestion which could be utilized in various food applications. PMID:25778680

  2. Delivery of Flavonoids and Saponins from Black Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Seed Coats Incorporated into Whole Wheat Bread

    PubMed Central

    Chávez-Santoscoy, Rocio A.; Lazo-Vélez, Marco A.; Serna-Sáldivar, Sergio O.; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A.

    2016-01-01

    Cereal-based products can be used as vehicles for the delivery of relevant bioactive compounds since they are staple foods for most cultures throughout the world. The health promoting benefits of flavonoids and saponins contained in black bean seed coats have been previously described. In the present work, the effect of adding flavonoids and saponins from black bean seed coat to the typical yeast-leavened whole wheat bread formulation in terms of bread features, organoleptic properties and phytochemical profile was studied. The retention of bioactive compounds was determined and the inhibitory effects of in vitro enzyme digested samples on two colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2 and HT29) was evaluated. The addition of bioactive compounds did not significantly affect baking properties or texture parameters. Among organoleptic properties of enriched breads, only crumb color was affected by the addition of bioactive compounds. However, the use of whole wheat flour partially masked the effect on color. More than 90% of added flavonoids and saponins and 80% of anthocyanins were retained in bread after baking. However, saponins were reduced more than 50% after the in vitro enzyme digestion. The black bean seed coat phytochemicals recovered after in vitro enzyme digestion of enriched breads significantly reduced by 20% the viability of colon cancer cells without affecting standard fibroblast cells (p < 0.05). PMID:26901186

  3. Delivery of Flavonoids and Saponins from Black Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Seed Coats Incorporated into Whole Wheat Bread.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Santoscoy, Rocio A; Lazo-Vélez, Marco A; Serna-Sáldivar, Sergio O; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A

    2016-01-01

    Cereal-based products can be used as vehicles for the delivery of relevant bioactive compounds since they are staple foods for most cultures throughout the world. The health promoting benefits of flavonoids and saponins contained in black bean seed coats have been previously described. In the present work, the effect of adding flavonoids and saponins from black bean seed coat to the typical yeast-leavened whole wheat bread formulation in terms of bread features, organoleptic properties and phytochemical profile was studied. The retention of bioactive compounds was determined and the inhibitory effects of in vitro enzyme digested samples on two colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2 and HT29) was evaluated. The addition of bioactive compounds did not significantly affect baking properties or texture parameters. Among organoleptic properties of enriched breads, only crumb color was affected by the addition of bioactive compounds. However, the use of whole wheat flour partially masked the effect on color. More than 90% of added flavonoids and saponins and 80% of anthocyanins were retained in bread after baking. However, saponins were reduced more than 50% after the in vitro enzyme digestion. The black bean seed coat phytochemicals recovered after in vitro enzyme digestion of enriched breads significantly reduced by 20% the viability of colon cancer cells without affecting standard fibroblast cells (p < 0.05). PMID:26901186

  4. Bean arcelin : 2. Genetic variation, inheritance and linkage relationships of a novel seed protein of Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    PubMed

    Osborn, T C; Blake, T; Gepts, P; Bliss, F A

    1986-03-01

    Crude proteins from seeds of wild bean accessions of Mexican origin were analyzed by one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS/PAGE). Several accessions had electrophoretic patterns showing unique protein bands. When analyzed by two-dimensional isoelectric focusing (IEF)-SDS/PAGE, four protein variants which had electrophoretic mobilities similar to each other but different from the other major seed proteins, phaseolin and lectin, were observed. All four variants, which have not been described in cultivated beans, were tentatively named arcelin proteins and designated as arcelin 1, 2, 3 and 4. Arcelins 3 and 4 had polypeptides that comigrated on two-dimensional gels and these variants occurred in accessions that were collected in the same location. Analysis of single F2 seeds from crosses among arcelin-containing lines and from crosses between cultivated beans lines without arcelin and arcelin-containing lines revealed that differences in arcelin polypeptide expression were inherited monogenically. The alleles for different arcelin variants were codominant to each other and dominant to the absence of arcelin. The gene(s) controlling arcelin proteins were unlinked to those controlling phaseolin expression and tightly linked to genes controlling the presence of lectin proteins (< 0.30% recombination). The possible origins of arcelin genes and their potential role in bruchid resistance are discussed. PMID:24247713

  5. Genetic mapping of the bean golden yellow mosaic geminivirus resistance gene bgm-1 and linkage with potyvirus resistance in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Blair, Matthew W; Rodriguez, Lina M; Pedraza, Fabio; Morales, Francisco; Beebe, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV) is a whitefly-transmitted geminivirus of the Begomovirus family that causes important yield losses to common beans grown in tropical and sub-tropical countries of Latin America and the Caribbean. A major resistance gene that has been widely deployed in this region is the recessive locus bgm-1 that prevents the development of severe yellowing typical of the disease. In this study, we developed a co-dominant sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker, SR2, based on a previously identified random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker that is tightly linked to the bgm-1 resistance gene and identified the position of the locus in the common bean genome through comparative mapping using two genetic maps for the species. The SR2 marker was mapped relative to bgm-1 in a segregating population of recombinant inbred lines developed from the resistant x susceptible cross of DOR476 x SEL1309. Polymorphism was shown to be based on a 37 bp insertion event in the SR2 allele associated with susceptibility compared to the allele associated with resistance and the marker mapped at a distance of 7.8 cM from the resistance gene. The SR2 marker was significantly associated with overall disease symptoms and with three of the four symptoms associated with the disease (yellowing or chlorosis, flower abortion, foliar deformation) in a greenhouse trial in Colombia with the mechanically transmissible BGYMV-Guatemala strain. In both the DOR364 x G19833 and BAT93 x Jalo EEP558 mapping populations, SR2 was located near the end of linkage group b03 (chromosome 5) suggesting a sub-telomeric position. The position of the bgm-1 resistance gene was estimated to be close to that of bc-1, a strain-specific resistance gene for Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV), based on linkage of SR2 with the SCAR marker SBD5 in the DOR364 x G19833 mapping population. The implications of linkage between these two recessive resistance genes are discussed, as this is

  6. The soybean (Glycine max) nodulation-suppressive CLE peptide, GmRIC1, functions interspecifically in common white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), but not in a supernodulating line mutated in the receptor PvNARK.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Brett J; Li, Dongxue; Hastwell, April H; Reid, Dugald E; Li, Yupeng; Jackson, Scott A; Gresshoff, Peter M

    2014-10-01

    Legume plants regulate the number of nitrogen-fixing root nodules they form via a process called the Autoregulation of Nodulation (AON). Despite being one of the most economically important and abundantly consumed legumes, little is known about the AON pathway of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). We used comparative- and functional-genomic approaches to identify central components in the AON pathway of common bean. This includes identifying PvNARK, which encodes a LRR receptor kinase that acts to regulate root nodule numbers. A novel, truncated version of the gene was identified directly upstream of PvNARK, similar to Medicago truncatula, but not seen in Lotus japonicus or soybean. Two mutant alleles of PvNARK were identified that cause a classic shoot-controlled and nitrate-tolerant supernodulation phenotype. Homeologous over-expression of the nodulation-suppressive CLE peptide-encoding soybean gene, GmRIC1, abolished nodulation in wild-type bean, but had no discernible effect on PvNARK-mutant plants. This demonstrates that soybean GmRIC1 can function interspecifically in bean, acting in a PvNARK-dependent manner. Identification of bean PvRIC1, PvRIC2 and PvNIC1, orthologues of the soybean nodulation-suppressive CLE peptides, revealed a high degree of conservation, particularly in the CLE domain. Overall, our work identified four new components of bean nodulation control and a truncated copy of PvNARK, discovered the mutation responsible for two supernodulating bean mutants and demonstrated that soybean GmRIC1 can function in the AON pathway of bean. PMID:25040127

  7. Genetic diversity, inter-gene pool introgression and nutritional quality of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) from Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Blair, Matthew W; González, Laura F; Kimani, Paul M; Butare, Louis

    2010-07-01

    The Great Lakes region of Central Africa is a major producer of common beans in Africa. The region is known for high population density and small average farm size. The common bean represents the most important legume crop of the region, grown on over a third of the cultivated land area, and the per capita consumption is among the highest in the world for the food crop. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic diversity in a collection of 365 genotypes from the Great Lakes region of Central Africa, including a large group of landraces from Rwanda as well as varieties from primary centers of diversity and from neighboring countries of Central Africa, such as the Democratic Republic of Congo and Uganda, using 30 fluorescently labeled microsatellite markers and automated allele detection. In addition, the landraces were evaluated for their seed iron and zinc concentration to determine if genetic diversity influenced nutritional quality. Principal coordinate and neighbor-joining analyses allowed the separation of the landraces into 132 Andean and 195 Mesoamerican (or Middle American) genotypes with 32 landraces and 6 varieties intermediate between the gene pools and representing inter-gene pool introgression in terms of seed characteristics and alleles. Genetic diversity and the number of alleles were high for the collection, reflecting the preference for a wide range of seed types in the region and no strong commercial class preference, although red, red mottled and brown seeded beans were common. Observed heterozygosity was also high and may be explained by the common practice of maintaining seed and plant mixtures, a coping strategy practiced by Central African farmers to reduce the effects of abiotic and biotic stresses. Finally, nutritional quality differed between the gene pools with respect to seed iron and zinc concentration, while genotypes from the intermediate group were notably high in both minerals. In conclusion, this study has shown that

  8. Light-stimulated cell expansion in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) leaves. II. Quantity and quality of light required

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Volkenburgh, E.; Cleland, R. E.; Watanabe, M.

    1990-01-01

    The quantity and quality of light required for light-stimulated cell expansion in leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris L. have been determined. Seedlings were grown in dim red light (RL; 4 micromoles photons m-2 s-1) until cell division in the primary leaves was completed, then excised discs were incubated in 10 mM sucrose plus 10 mM KCl in a variety of light treatments. The growth response of discs exposed to continuous white light (WL) for 16 h was saturated at 100 micromoles m-2 s-1, and did not show reciprocity. Extensive, but not continuous, illumination was needed for maximal growth. The wavelength dependence of disc expansion was determined from fluence-response curves obtained from 380 to 730 nm provided by the Okazaki Large Spectrograph. Blue (BL; 460 nm) and red light (RL; 660 nm) were most effective in promoting leaf cell growth, both in photosynthetically active and inhibited leaf discs. Far-red light (FR; 730 nm) reduced the effectiveness of RL, but not BL, indicating that phytochrome and a separate blue-light receptor mediate expansion of leaf cells.

  9. Post-translational processing of two alpha-amylase inhibitors and an arcelin from the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Young, N M; Thibault, P; Watson, D C; Chrispeels, M J

    1999-03-01

    Mass spectrometric methods were used to investigate the proteolytic processing and glycopeptide structures of three seed defensive proteins from Phaseolus vulgaris. The proteins were the alpha-amylase inhibitors alphaAI-1 and alphaAI-2 and arcelin-5, all of which are related to the seed lectins, PHA-E and PHA-L. The mass data showed that the proteolytic cleavage required for activation of the amylase inhibitors is followed by loss of the terminal Asn residue in alphaAI-1, and in all three proteins, seven or more residues were clipped from the C-termini, in the manner of the seed lectins. In most instances, individual glycoforms could be assigned at each Asn site, due to the unique masses of the plant glycopeptides. It was found that alphaAI-1 and alphaAI-2 differed significantly in their glycosylation patterns, despite their high sequence homology. These data complement the previous X-ray studies of the alpha1-amylase inhibitor and arcelin, where many of the C-terminal residues and glycopeptide residues could not be observed. PMID:10100643

  10. Light-stimulated cell expansion in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) leaves. I. Growth can occur without photosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Volkenburgh, E.; Cleland, R. E.

    1990-01-01

    Cell expansion in dicotyledonous leaves is strongly stimulated by bright white light (WL), at least in part as a result of light-induced acidification of the cell walls. It has been proposed that photosynthetic reactions are required for light-stimulated transport processes across plasma membranes of leaf cells, including proton excretion. The involvement of photosynthesis in growth and wall acidification of primary leaves of bean has been tested by inhibiting photosynthesis in two ways: by reducing chlorophyll content of intact plants with tentoxin (TX) and by treating leaf discs with 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU). Exposure to bright WL stimulated growth of intact leaves of TX-treated plants. Discs excised from green as well as from TX-or DCMU-treated leaves also responded by growing faster in WL, as long as exogenous sucrose was supplied to the photosynthetically inhibited tissues. The WL caused acidification of the epidermal surface of intact TX-leaves, but acidification of the incubation medium by mesophyll cells only occurred when photosynthesis was not inhibited. It is concluded that light-stimulated cell enlargement of bean leaves, and the necessary acidification of epidermal cell walls, are mediated by a pigment other than chlorophyll. Light-induced proton excretion by mesophyll cells, on the other hand, may require both a photosynthetic product (or exogenous sugars) and a non-photosynthetic light effect.

  11. Physicochemical characterization of a navy bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) protein fraction produced using a solvent-free method.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Mousa; Rajabzadeh, Amin Reza; Tabtabaei, Solmaz; Marsolais, Frédéric; Legge, Raymond L

    2016-10-01

    A solvent-free electrostatic separation method was employed to separate navy bean flour (NBF) into protein-rich (PR) and starch-rich (SR) fractions. The physicochemical properties of NBF and separated fractions were compared to proteins (navy bean isolate (NBI) and 7S globulin) prepared using a wet process. Gel electrophoresis confirmed that the protein distribution in the isolated fractions was similar to that of NBF. The protein profile of NBI and 7S globulin was found to be devoid of certain proteins that were found in the NBF and PR fraction. Amino acid analysis revealed that the NBI and 7S globulin had a lower content of sulfur-containing amino acids compared to NBF and the electrostatically isolated fractions. CD and fluorescence spectroscopy confirmed that denaturation of the proteins during the acid precipitation is likely. This novel solvent-free electrostatic separation process preserves the native protein structure found in NBF and improves the recovery of some of the smaller MW proteins. PMID:27132821

  12. Computational analysis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., genotype BAT93) lycopene β-cyclase and β-carotene hydroxylase gene's cDNA.

    PubMed

    Bhore, Subhash Janardhan; Amelia, Kassim; Wang, Edina; Priyadharsini, Sindhuja; Shah, Farida Habib

    2013-01-01

    The identification of genes and understanding of genes' expression and regulation in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is necessary in order to strategize its improvement using genetic engineering techniques. Generation of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) is useful in rapid isolation, identification and characterization of the genes. To study the gene expression in P. vulgaris pods tissue, ESTs generation work was initiated. Early stage and late stage bean-pod-tissues cDNA libraries were constructed using CloneMiner cDNA library construction kit. In total, 5972 EST clones were isolated using random method of gene isolation. While processing ESTs, we found lycopene β-cyclase (PvLCY-β) and β-carotene hydroxylase (PvCHY-β) gene's cDNA. In carotenoid biosynthesis pathway, PvLCY-β catalyzes the production of carotene; and PvCHY-β is known to function as a catalyst in the production of lutein and zeaxanthin. To understand more about PvLCY-β and PvCHY-β, both strands of both cDNA clones were sequenced using M13 forward and reverse primers. Nucleotide and deduced protein sequences were analyzed and annotated using online bioinformatics tools. Results showed that PvLCY-β and PvCHY-β cDNAs are 1639 and 1107 bp in length, respectively. Analysis results showed that PvLCY-β and PvCHY-β gene's cDNA contains an open reading frame (ORF) that encodes for 502 and 305 amino acid residues, respectively. The deduced protein sequence analysis results also showed the presence of conserved domains needed for PvLCY-β and PvCHY-β functions. The phylogenetic analysis of both PvLCY-β and PvCHY-β proteins showed it's closeness with the LCY-β and CHY-β proteins from Glycine max, respectively. The nucleotide sequence of PvLCY-β and PvCHY-β gene's cDNA and it's annotation is reported in this paper. PMID:23519320

  13. Breeding Beans with Bruchid and Multiple Virus Resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) are worldwide threats to dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production. Beans planted in the lowlands of Central America and the Caribbean also need resistance to Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV). The common bean weev...

  14. A proprietary alpha-amylase inhibitor from white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris): a review of clinical studies on weight loss and glycemic control.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Marilyn L; Udani, Jay K

    2011-01-01

    Obesity, and resultant health hazards which include diabetes, cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome, are worldwide medical problems. Control of diet and exercise are cornerstones of the management of excess weight. Foods with a low glycemic index may reduce the risk of diabetes and heart disease as well as their complications. As an alternative to a low glycemic index diet, there is a growing body of research into products that slow the absorption of carbohydrates through the inhibition of enzymes responsible for their digestion. These products include alpha-amylase and glucosidase inhibitors. The common white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) produces an alpha-amylase inhibitor, which has been characterized and tested in numerous clinical studies. A specific and proprietary product named Phase 2® Carb Controller (Pharmachem Laboratories, Kearny, NJ) has demonstrated the ability to cause weight loss with doses of 500 to 3000 mg per day, in either a single dose or in divided doses. Clinical studies also show that Phase 2 has the ability to reduce the post-prandial spike in blood glucose levels. Experiments conducted incorporating Phase 2 into food and beverage products have found that it can be integrated into various products without losing activity or altering the appearance, texture or taste of the food. There have been no serious side effects reported following consumption of Phase 2. Gastro-intestinal side effects are rare and diminish upon extended use of the product. In summary, Phase 2 has the potential to induce weight loss and reduce spikes in blood sugar caused by carbohydrates through its alpha-amylase inhibiting activity. PMID:21414227

  15. A proprietary alpha-amylase inhibitor from white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris): A review of clinical studies on weight loss and glycemic control

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Obesity, and resultant health hazards which include diabetes, cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome, are worldwide medical problems. Control of diet and exercise are cornerstones of the management of excess weight. Foods with a low glycemic index may reduce the risk of diabetes and heart disease as well as their complications. As an alternative to a low glycemic index diet, there is a growing body of research into products that slow the absorption of carbohydrates through the inhibition of enzymes responsible for their digestion. These products include alpha-amylase and glucosidase inhibitors. The common white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) produces an alpha-amylase inhibitor, which has been characterized and tested in numerous clinical studies. A specific and proprietary product named Phase 2® Carb Controller (Pharmachem Laboratories, Kearny, NJ) has demonstrated the ability to cause weight loss with doses of 500 to 3000 mg per day, in either a single dose or in divided doses. Clinical studies also show that Phase 2 has the ability to reduce the post-prandial spike in blood glucose levels. Experiments conducted incorporating Phase 2 into food and beverage products have found that it can be integrated into various products without losing activity or altering the appearance, texture or taste of the food. There have been no serious side effects reported following consumption of Phase 2. Gastro-intestinal side effects are rare and diminish upon extended use of the product. In summary, Phase 2 has the potential to induce weight loss and reduce spikes in blood sugar caused by carbohydrates through its alpha-amylase inhibiting activity. PMID:21414227

  16. Porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase inhibition by the kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) inhibitor (alpha-AI1) and structural changes in the alpha-amylase inhibitor complex.

    PubMed

    Santimone, Marius; Koukiekolo, Roger; Moreau, Yann; Le Berre, Véronique; Rougé, Pierre; Marchis-Mouren, Guy; Desseaux, Véronique

    2004-02-12

    Porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase (PPA) is inhibited by the red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) inhibitor alpha-AI1 [Eur. J. Biochem. 265 (1999) 20]. Inhibition kinetics were carried out using DP 4900-amylose and maltopentaose as substrate. As shown by graphical and statistical analysis of the kinetic data, the inhibitory mode is of the mixed noncompetitive type whatever the substrate thus involving the EI, EI2, ESI and ESI2 complexes. This contrast with the E2I complex obtained in the crystal and with biophysical studies. Such difference very likely depends on the [I]/[E] ratio. At low ratio, the E2I complex is favoured; at high ratio the EI, ESI and EI2 complexes are formed. The inhibition model also differs from those previously proposed for acarbose [Eur. J. Biochem. 241 (1996) 787 and Eur. J. Biochem. 252 (1998) 100]. In particular, with alpha-AI1, the inhibition takes place only when PPA and alpha-AI are preincubated together before adding the substrate. This indicates that the abortive PPA-alphaAI1 complex is formed during the preincubation period. One additional carbohydrate binding site is also demonstrated yielding the ESI complex. Also, a second protein binding site is found in EI2 and ESI2 abortive complexes. Conformational changes undergone by PPA upon alpha-AI1 binding are shown by higher sensitivity to subtilisin attack. From X-ray analysis of the alpha-AI1-PPA complex (E2I), the major interaction occurs with two hairpin loops L1 (residues 29-46) and L2 (residues 171-189) of alpha-AI1 protruding into the V-shaped active site of PPA. The hydrolysis of alpha-AI1 that accounts for the inhibitory activity is reported. PMID:14871659

  17. Purification and characterization of a thermostable beta-galactosidase from kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cv. PDR14.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Shyamasri; Kayastha, Arvind M; Seckler, Robert

    2003-04-01

    Using five different steps, beta-Galactosidase has been purified from kidney beans to apparent electrophoretic homogeneity with approximately 90-fold purification with a specific activity of 281 units mg-1 protein. A single band was observed in native PAGE. Activity staining of the native gel with 5-bromo 4-chloro 3-indoxyl beta-D-galactopyranoside (X-Gal) at pH 4.0 also produced a single band. Analytical gel filtration in Superdex G-75 revealed the molecular mass of the native protein to be approximately 75 kD. 10% SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions showed two subunits of molecular masses, 45 and 30 kD, respectively. Hence, beta-galactosidase from kidney beans is a heterodimer. A typical protein profile with lambda max at 280 nm was observed and A280/A260 ratio was 1.52. The N-terminal sequence of the 45 kD band showed 86% sequence homology with an Arabidopsis thaliana and 85% with Lycopersicon esculentum putative beta-galactosidase sequences. The Electrospray Mass Spectrometric analysis of this band also revealed a peptide fragment that had 90% sequence homology with an Arabidopsis thaliana putative beta-galactosidase sequence. The N-terminal sequencing of the 30 kD band as well as mass spectrometric analysis both by MALDI-TOF and ES MS revealed certain sequences that matched with phytohemagglutinin of kidney beans. The optimum pH of the enzyme was 4.0 and it hydrolysed o- and p-nitrophenyl beta-D galactopyranoside with a Km value of 0.63 mmol/L and 0.74 mmol/L, respectively. The energy of activation calculated from the Arrhenius equation was 14.8 kcal/mol enzyme site. The enzyme was found to be comparatively thermostable showing maximum activity at 67 degrees C. Thermal denaturation of the enzyme at 65 degrees C obeys single exponential decay with first order-rate constant 0.105 min-1. Galactose, a hydrolytic product of this enzyme was a competitive inhibitor with a Ki of 2.7 mmol/L. PMID:12756912

  18. A study on starch profile of rajma bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) incorporated noodle dough and its functional characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S Bharath; Prabhasankar, P

    2015-08-01

    Starch profile reflects functional characteristics like digestibility and product quality. A study was aimed to incorporate rajma in noodle processing to improve product and nutritional quality and also to reduce starch digestibility. It is known that some of the pulses like Kidney beans have an isoforms of Starch-Branching-Enzyme (SBE) helps in converting amylose to amylopectin. Rajma flour was incorporated at 10%, 20% and 30% with Triticumdurum and subjected to rheological, physico-chemical and amylose/amylopectin determination using High-Performance-Size-Exclusion-Chromatography (HPSEC). Results revealed that rajma flour decreased peak-viscosity from 954 to 683 BU and increased water absorption. Protein and dietary fiber content increased significantly. Sensory profile showed higher overall quality (>8.5). In vitro starch digestibility reduced from 65% to 49%. Starch profile from HPSEC showed changes in amylose:amylopectin peak, this may be because of the presence of SBE, further studies may be required to support the hypothesis. PMID:25766809

  19. Effects of high hydrostatic pressure treatments on haemagglutination activity and structural conformations of phytohemagglutinin from red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Liu, Cencen; Zhao, Mouming; Sun, Weizheng; Ren, Jiaoyan

    2013-02-15

    Red kidney beans were subjected to high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment (50, 150, 250, 350, 450 MPa) and phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) was then extracted by affinity chromatography. It appeared that HHP treatment could increase crude extract yield and decrease its haemagglutination activity. For purified samples, PHA yield was not affected at pressures <450 MPa while the haemagglutination activity was noticeably reduced at 450 MPa. The structural changes were investigated using electrophoresis, size exclusion chromatography (SEC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and differencial scanning calorimetry (DSC). Electrophoresis and SEC profiles revealed a new high molecular weight polymer after 450 MPa treatment. At pressures <450 MPa, FTIR showed an increase in β-sheet structure and a decrease in α-helix. At 450 MPa, the bands at 1688 cm(-1), representing aggregate strands and random coils, increased. The conclusions are that pressures <450 MPa can cause PHA unfolding and induce PHA aggregation at 450 MPa. PMID:23194535

  20. Genetic diversity, seed size associations and population structure of a core collection of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Blair, Matthew W; Díaz, Lucy M; Buendía, Hector F; Duque, Myriam C

    2009-10-01

    Cultivated common bean germplasm is especially diverse due to the parallel domestication of two genepools in the Mesoamerican and Andean centers of diversity and introgression between these gene pools. Classification into morphological races has helped to provide a framework for utilization of this cultivated germplasm. Meanwhile, core collections along with molecular markers are useful tools for organizing and analyzing representative sets of these genotypes. In this study, we evaluated 604 accessions from the CIAT core germplasm collection representing wide genetic variability from both primary and secondary centers of diversity with a newly developed, fluorescent microsatellite marker set of 36 genomic and gene-based SSRs to determine molecular diversity and with seed protein analysis to determine phaseolin alleles. The entire collection could be divided into two genepools and five predominant races with the division between the Mesoamerica race and the Durango-Jalisco group showing strong support within the Mesoamerican genepool and the Nueva Granada and Peru races showing less diversity overall and some between-group admixture within the Andean genepool. The Chile race could not be distinguished within the Andean genepool but there was support for the Guatemala race within the Mesoamerican genepool and this race was unique in its high level of diversity and distance from other Mesoamerican races. Based on this population structure, significant associations were found between SSR loci and seed size characteristics, some on the same linkage group as the phaseolin locus, which previously had been associated with seed size, or in other regions of the genome. In conclusion, this study has shown that common bean has very significant population structure that can help guide the construction of genetic crosses that maximize diversity as well as serving as a basis for additional association studies. PMID:19688198

  1. Complete Genome Sequence of Bradyrhizobium sp. Strain CCGE-LA001, Isolated from Field Nodules of the Enigmatic Wild Bean Phaseolus microcarpus.

    PubMed

    Servín-Garcidueñas, Luis E; Rogel, Marco A; Ormeño-Orrillo, Ernesto; Zayas-Del Moral, Alejandra; Sánchez, Federico; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza

    2016-01-01

    We present the complete genome sequence of Bradyrhizobium sp. strain CCGE-LA001, a nitrogen-fixing bacterium isolated from nodules of Phaseolus microcarpus. Strain CCGE-LA001 represents the first sequenced bradyrhizobial strain obtained from a wild Phaseolus sp. Its genome revealed a large and novel symbiotic island. PMID:26988045

  2. Complete Genome Sequence of Bradyrhizobium sp. Strain CCGE-LA001, Isolated from Field Nodules of the Enigmatic Wild Bean Phaseolus microcarpus

    PubMed Central

    Servín-Garcidueñas, Luis E.; Rogel, Marco A.; Ormeño-Orrillo, Ernesto; Zayas-del Moral, Alejandra; Sánchez, Federico

    2016-01-01

    We present the complete genome sequence of Bradyrhizobium sp. strain CCGE-LA001, a nitrogen-fixing bacterium isolated from nodules of Phaseolus microcarpus. Strain CCGE-LA001 represents the first sequenced bradyrhizobial strain obtained from a wild Phaseolus sp. Its genome revealed a large and novel symbiotic island. PMID:26988045

  3. Effects of nitrogen dioxide on growth and yield of black turtle bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cv. 'Domino'.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, R; Gupta, G

    1989-01-01

    Twenty-six-day-old black turtle bean cv. 'Domino' plants were exposed to nitrogen dioxide (0.0, 0.025, 0.05 and 0.10 microl liter(-1)), 7 h per day for 5 days per week for 3 weeks, under controlled environment. Data were collected on net photosynthesis rate (PN), stomatal resistance (SR), and dark respiration rate (DR), immediately after exposure, 24 h after the termination of exposure and at maturity (when the leaves had just started turning yellow), using a LICOR 6000 Portable Photosynthesis System. Chlorophyll-a (Ch-a), chlorophyll-b (Ch-b), total chlorophyll (tot-Ch) and leaf nitrogen were measured immediately after exposure and at maturity. Growth characteristics-relative growth rate (RGR), net assimilation rate (NAR), leaf area ratio (LAR) and root: shoot ratio (RSR)-were computed for treated plants. Net photosynthesis rate increased by 53% in 0.10 microl liter(-1) NO2 treated plants immediately after exposure compared to control plants. Dark respiration rates were also higher in treated plants. Ch-a, Ch-b and tot-Ch showed significant increases with 0.1 microl liter(-1) NO2 treatment immediately after exposure. Foliar nitrogen content showed an increase in treated plants both immediately after exposure and at maturity. Increases were also seen in RGR and NAR. Plant yield increased by 86% (number of pods), 29% (number of seeds) and 46% (weight of seeds), respectively. Nitrogen dioxide stimulated the overall plant growth and crop yield. PMID:15092401

  4. Evaluation of the reaction oof interspecific hybrids of common bean and tepary bean to Bradyrhizobium y Rhizobium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interspecific hybrids between common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., and tepary bean, Phaseolus acutifolius A. Gray, have the potential to increase bean production in regions where rainfall is limited. In 2014, an experiment was initiated using a split-plot design. The treatments included inoculation, ...

  5. Functional expression and activity of the recombinant antifungal defensin PvD1r from Phaseolus vulgaris L. (common bean) seeds

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Defensins are basic, cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides that are important components of plant defense against pathogens. Previously, we isolated a defensin, PvD1, from Phaseolus vulgaris L. (common bean) seeds. Results The aim of this study was to overexpress PvD1 in a prokaryotic system, verify the biologic function of recombinant PvD1 (PvD1r) by comparing the antimicrobial activity of PvD1r to that of the natural defensin, PvD1, and use a mutant Candida albicans strain that lacks the gene for sphingolipid biosynthesis to unravel the target site of the PvD1r in C. albicans cells. The cDNA encoding PvD1, which was previously obtained, was cloned into the pET-32 EK/LIC vector, and the resulting construct was used to transform bacterial cells (Rosetta Gami 2 (DE3) pLysS) leading to recombinant protein expression. After expression had been induced, PvD1r was purified, cleaved with enterokinase and repurified by chromatographic steps. N-terminal amino acid sequencing showed that the overall process of the recombinant production of PvD1r, including cleavage with the enterokinase, was successful. Additionally, modeling revealed that PvD1r had a structure that was similar to the defensin isolated from plants. Purified PvD1 and PvD1r possessed inhibitory activity against the growth of the wild-type pathogenic yeast strain C. albicans. Both defensins, however, did not present inhibitory activity against the mutant strain of C. albicans. Antifungal assays with the wild-type C. albicans strains showed morphological changes upon observation by light microscopy following growth assays. PvD1r was coupled to FITC, and the subsequent treatment of wild type C. albicans with DAPI revealed that the labeled peptide was intracellularly localized. In the mutant strain, no intracellular labeling was detected. Conclusion Our results indicate that PvD1r retains full biological activity after recombinant production, enterokinase cleavage and purification. Additionally, our

  6. Fractionation and availability of heavy metals in tannery sludge-amended soil and toxicity assessment on the fully-grown Phaseolus vulgaris cultivars.

    PubMed

    López-Luna, J; González-Chávez, M C; Esparza-García, F J; Rodríguez-Vázquez, R

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the effect of tannery sludge on the bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cultivars fully-grown on a culture sandy soil, as tannery sludge is valuable to improve soil fertility but long term studies evaluating the effect on fully grown plants are scarce. Tannery sludge amendments (0, 0.77, 1.54, 3.08 and 6.16 g tannery sludge kg(-1) soil) were characterized and the main heavy metals identified (Cr, Mn, Fe, K, and Zn) later on sequentially and singly extracted, for soil fractionation and availability determination, respectively. Metals showed different fractionation and availability patterns, being the most toxic metal (Cr) found to primarily bind to the carbonate fraction in soil, while almost 10% of the total Cr was available for plant uptake. In the green house experiments, bush bean cultivars exposed to increasing tannery sludge amendments were evaluated at different plant stages. Metal accumulation and physiological parameters (chlorophyll, carotenoids, nitrate reductase activity and dry weight) were determined. Toxicity was primarily due to Cr, stimulating or affecting the response of physiological parameters and suppressing seed formation at the highest tannery sludge ratio. Metals were mainly accumulated in the roots of bush beans, diminishing in the upper part of the plants with minimal translocation to seeds, supposing little risk for human consumption. Additionally, important correlations, antagonistic and synergistic relationships were observed between the extracted metals and metal accumulation in plant tissues. PMID:22320693

  7. Evolutionary analysis of the APA genes in the Phaseolus genus: wild and cultivated bean species as sources of lectin-related resistance factors?

    PubMed

    Lioi, L; Galasso, I; Lanave, C; Daminati, M G; Bollini, R; Sparvoli, F

    2007-11-01

    The APA (Arcelin/Phytohemagglutinin/alpha-Amylase inhibitor) gene family is composed of various members, present in Phaseolus species and coding for lectin and lectin-related seed proteins having the double role of storage and defense proteins. Here members of the APA family have been identified by immunological, functional, and molecular analyses and representative genes were sequenced in nine wild species of Phaseolus. All taxa possessed at least one member of the true lectin gene. No arcelin type sequences have been isolated from the species examined. Among the wild species studied, only P. costaricensis contained an alpha-amylase inhibitor (alpha-AI). In addition P. augusti, P. maculatus, P. microcarpus, and P. oligospermus showed the presence of the lectin-related alpha-amylase inhibitor-like (AIL) genes and alpha-AI activity. Data from Southern blot analysis indicated the presence of only one lectin gene in P. parvulus and P. filiformis, while an extensive gene duplication of the APA locus was found in the other Phaseolus species. Phylogenetic analysis carried out on the nucleotide sequences showed the existence of two main clusters and clearly indicated that lectin-related genes originated from a paralogous duplication event preceding the development of the ancestor to the Phaseolus genus. The finding of detectable alpha-AI activity in species containing AIL genes suggests that exploiting APA genes variability in the Phaseolus genus may represent a valuable tool to find new members that may have acquired insecticidal activities. PMID:17701394

  8. Evaluation of the tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius) diversity panel for response to the NL 3 strain of Bean Common Mosaic Necrosis Virus (BCMNV) and for biological nitrogen fixation with Bradyrhizobium strains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aphid-transmitted Bean Common Mosaic Necrosis Virus (BCMNV) and Bean Common Mosaic Virus (BCMV) are potyviruses that are seed transmitted in tepary bean. Developing resistance to these viruses will be critical for expanding production in areas where they are endemic. Biological nitrogen fixation (BN...

  9. Genome-Wide Profiling of Histone Modifications (H3K9me2 and H4K12ac) and Gene Expression in Rust (Uromyces appendiculatus) Inoculated Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    PubMed Central

    Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Bhide, Ketaki P.; Sripathi, Venkateswara R.; Smolinski, Tomasz G.; Manoharan, Muthusamy; Thurston, Yaqoob; Todd, Antonette; Kingham, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Histone modifications such as methylation and acetylation play a significant role in controlling gene expression in unstressed and stressed plants. Genome-wide analysis of such stress-responsive modifications and genes in non-model crops is limited. We report the genome-wide profiling of histone methylation (H3K9me2) and acetylation (H4K12ac) in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) under rust (Uromyces appendiculatus) stress using two high-throughput approaches, chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-Seq) and RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). ChIP-Seq analysis revealed 1,235 and 556 histone methylation and acetylation responsive genes from common bean leaves treated with the rust pathogen at 0, 12 and 84 hour-after-inoculation (hai), while RNA-Seq analysis identified 145 and 1,763 genes differentially expressed between mock-inoculated and inoculated plants. The combined ChIP-Seq and RNA-Seq analyses identified some key defense responsive genes (calmodulin, cytochrome p450, chitinase, DNA Pol II, and LRR) and transcription factors (WRKY, bZIP, MYB, HSFB3, GRAS, NAC, and NMRA) in bean-rust interaction. Differential methylation and acetylation affected a large proportion of stress-responsive genes including resistant (R) proteins, detoxifying enzymes, and genes involved in ion flux and cell death. The genes identified were functionally classified using Gene Ontology (GO) and EuKaryotic Orthologous Groups (KOGs). The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis identified a putative pathway with ten key genes involved in plant-pathogen interactions. This first report of an integrated analysis of histone modifications and gene expression involved in the bean-rust interaction as reported here provides a comprehensive resource for other epigenomic regulation studies in non-model species under stress. PMID:26167691

  10. Effects of industrial canning on the proximate composition, bioactive compounds contents and nutritional profile of two Spanish common dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Pedrosa, Mercedes M; Cuadrado, Carmen; Burbano, Carmen; Muzquiz, Mercedes; Cabellos, Blanca; Olmedilla-Alonso, Begoña; Asensio-Vegas, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the changes produced by canning in the proximate composition and in the bioactive constituents of two "ready to eat" Spanish beans. The foremost difference in the raw beans corresponded to the lectin: a higher content was found in raw Curruquilla beans (16.50 mg 100 mg(-1)) compared with raw Almonga beans (0.6 mg 100 mg(-1)). In general, industrial canning significantly increased the protein (>7%) and dietary fibre (>5%) contents of both beans varieties. However, the minerals, total α-galactosides and inositol phosphates contents were reduced (>25%) in both canned seeds. The trypsin inhibitors content was almost abolished by canning, and no lectins were found in either of the canned samples. Canned Curruquilla showed a decrease (38%) of their antioxidant activity. These "ready to eat" beans exhibited adequate nutritive profiles according to the USDA dietary recommendations. Furthermore, they had bioactive components content that are suitable for establishing a healthy lifestyle. PMID:25053030

  11. Registration of ‘Krimson’ cranberry bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cranberry is an important dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) market class grown in the United States and Canada. Beet curly top virus (BCTV) plagues cranberry bean production in the western U.S. (CA, ID, OR, WA). ‘Krimson’ (Reg. No. CV PI 663911 ) cranberry bean released by the USDA-ARS in 2009, ...

  12. Ozone alters the concentrations of nutrients in bean tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Tingey, D.T.; Rodecap, K.D.; Lee, E.H.; Moser, T.J.; Hogsett, W.E.

    1986-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the impact of ozone on the nutrient concentrations in tissue from various organs of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv Bush Bluelake 290). The plants were exposed to episodic concentrations of ozone in open-top field exposure chambers from soon after emergence until pod maturity. At harvest the leaf, stem, root and pod tissue were separated and dried (at 70C) to a constant weight. Nutrient concentrations in the tissue were determined using an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer. Ozone exposure decreased the foliar concentrations of only four of the twelve nutrients analyzed (Ca, Mg, Fe and Mn) and increased the concentrations of three nutrients (K,P and Mo) in the pods. There were no significant changes in the macro- or micronutrient levels in the stem or root tissue. The decreased concentrations in the foliage appear to be the result of reduced transport into the leaves rather than reduced uptake or leaching.

  13. Two endornaviruses show differential infection patterns between gene pools of Phaseolus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Khankhum, Surasak; Valverde, Rodrigo A; Pastor-Corrales, Marcial A; Osorno, Juan M; Sabanadzovic, Sead

    2015-04-01

    We investigated the occurrence of two plant endornaviruses, Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 1 and Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 2, in breeding lines, cultivars, landraces, and wild genotypes of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) collected from the two centers of common bean domestication: Mesoamerica and the Andes. The two endornaviruses were detected in many genotypes of Mesoamerican origin but rarely in genotypes of Andean origin. The results suggest that these two endornaviruses were introduced into the Mesoamerican modern genotypes during common bean domestication and provide more evidence for the existence of two divergent gene pools of common bean. PMID:25623050

  14. Binding of navy bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) lectin to the intestinal cells of the rat and its effect on the absorption of glucose

    SciTech Connect

    Donatucci, D.A.; Liener, I.E.; Gross, C.J.

    1987-12-01

    The main objectives of this investigation were to study the binding of a lectin from navy beans with the epithelial cells of the rat intestine and to assess the effect of such binding on the ability of the intestine to absorb glucose. A Scatchard plot, based on the binding of /sup 125/I-labeled lectin to isolated intestinal epithelial cells, was used to calculate an association constant (Ka) of 15 x 10(6)M-1 and the number of binding sites per cell, 12 x 10(6). Metabolic studies were conducted over a period of 5 d on groups of rats fed raw or autoclaved navy bean flour and casein with or without the purified lectin. Growth, protein digestibility, biological value and net protein utilization were significantly lower in animals that had been fed raw navy bean flour or casein plus lectin than in control groups fed diets containing autoclaved navy bean flour or casein alone. Vascular perfusion was used to measure the rate of uptake of glucose by the intestines of rats that had received the various dietary treatments. The rate of absorption of (/sup 14/C)glucose by intestines from rats fed raw navy bean flour or casein plus lectin was approximately one-half that of their counterparts fed the autoclaved flour or casein alone. These results provide evidence that the lectin, by virtue of its interference with intestinal absorption, is responsible, at least in part, for the nutritional inferiority of raw navy beans.

  15. Registration of AO-1012-29-3-3A red kidney bean germplasm line with bean weevil, BCMV and BCMNV resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) are important seed-borne diseases of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in the Americas and Africa. The bean weevil (Acanthoscelides obtectus Say) is an aggressive post-harvest pest of the common bean. The development of bea...

  16. Bean Common Mosaic Virus and Bean Common Mosaic Necrosis Virus (Genus Potyvirus; Potyviridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) are species within the genus Potyvirus, family Potyviridae and cause some of the most economically important diseases of legume crops worldwide. Both viruses occur essentially wherever bean and cowpea (including Phaseolus...

  17. Use of different spices as potential natural antioxidant additives on cooked beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Increase of DPPH radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Marina Pelincer; Tavano, Olga Luisa

    2014-12-01

    Herbs and spices, excellent sources of phenolic compounds, can be considered potential antioxidant additives. The use of spices must strike a balance between their potential antioxidant capabilities during preparation and the flavor acceptance, in order to avoid rejection of the food. The aimed of this study is to evaluate the influence of different spices and their concentrations on cooked common beans, focusing its potential as antioxidant additives. Onion, parsley, spring onion, laurel and coriander increased the antioxidant activity of preparation when used at 7.96 g of onion, 1.06 g parsley, 3.43 g spring onion, 0.25 g laurel (dry leaves), and 0.43 g coriander/100 g of cooked beans. Besides, these spices concentrations enhance total phenolics and alter the mixture protein digestibility minimally. For garlic samples it was not possible to establish a concentration that increases the antioxidant activity of cooked beans. PMID:25179942

  18. Detailed analysis of seed coat and cotyledon reveals molecular understanding of the hard-to-cook defect of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Yi, Jianyong; Njoroge, Daniel M; Sila, Daniel N; Kinyanjui, Peter K; Christiaens, Stefanie; Bi, Jinfeng; Hendrickx, Marc E

    2016-11-01

    The hard-to-cook (HTC) defect in legumes is characterized by the inability of cotyledons to soften during the cooking process. Changes in the non-starch polysaccharides of common bean seed coat and cotyledon were studied before and after development of the HTC defect induced by storage at 35°C and 75% humidity for 8months. Distinct differences in the yields of alcohol insoluble residues, degree of methoxylation (DM), sugar composition, and molar mass distribution of non-starch polysaccharides were found between the seeds coat and cotyledons. The non-starch polysaccharide profiles, both for seed coats and cotyledons, significantly differed when comparing HTC and easy-to-cook (ETC) beans. In conclusion, differences in the structure, composition and extractability of non-starch polysaccharides between the ETC and HTC beans confirmed the significant role of pectin polysaccharides in interaction with divalent ions in the HTC development, which consequently affect their cooking behaviors. PMID:27211674

  19. Influence of compost application on arsenic uptake by beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), irrigated with arsenic-contaminated waters at four different concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caporale, A. G.; Pigna, M.; Sommella, A.; Cozzolino, V.; Violante, A.

    2012-04-01

    The presence of arsenic (As) in soils and/or groundwaters, used for agricultural purposes, causes a strong abiotic stress to the cultivated plants, which results in the reduction of biomasses and yields, and the abundance of non-tradable products. It is therefore desirable to identify and develop production techniques capable of limiting the mobility and phyto-availability of As in soil, through the stabilization of the metalloid on the more recalcitrant soil fractions. Incorporation of compost into soil for As immobilization offers various potential advantages over other methods such as low-cost, simple methodology and low environmental impact. We studied the influence of compost application on the mobility and phyto-availability of As in soil, the growth of the bean plants irrigated with As-contaminated waters and their own As uptake. Bean was selected as test plant, because this crop is grown in several As-contaminated areas and suffers As toxicity. Bean plants growth was significantly affected by As and compost treatments. Increasing As concentration in the irrigation water decreased markedly the dry biomass, as a consequence of As phytotoxicity. The influence of compost application on plants growth was also significant, indicating the ability of the compost to alleviate the As phytotoxicity. Arsenic caused a reduction of the photosynthesis rate. By increasing As concentration in irrigation water, in fact, bean leaves showed a decrease in both chlorophyll A and B concentrations in their own mesophylls. However, by increasing level of compost application there was an increase of both chlorophylls concentrations in bean leaves. Arsenic concentration in roots was higher than that in shoots and bean yield. Bean plants showed a typical behavior of the plants sensitive to As toxicity, which usually tend to limit the As translocation from roots to shoots and yield. A low As allocation in bean yield is desirable, because a high As content in edible part of the plants

  20. Peptides present in the non-digestible fraction of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) inhibit the angiotensin-I converting enzyme by interacting with its catalytic cavity independent of their antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Luna-Vital, Diego A; González de Mejía, Elvira; Mendoza, Sandra; Loarca-Piña, Guadalupe

    2015-05-01

    The aim was to evaluate the angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory potential and the antioxidant capacity of pure synthesized peptides (GLTSK, LSGNK, GEGSGA, MPACGSS and MTEEY) originally identified in the non-digestible fraction (NDF) of common beans (P. vulgaris L.) that had previously demonstrated antiproliferative activity against human colorectal cancer cells. The five peptides were able to inhibit ACE with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values ranging from 65.4 (GLTSK) to 191.5 μM (MPACGSS). The combination of GLTSK and MTEEY increased the ACE inhibition by 30% compared to equieffective doses of the single peptides. According to molecular docking analysis, the five peptides had lower estimated free energy values (-6.47 to -9.34 kcal mol(-1)) when they interacted with the catalytic site of ACE than that of the substrate hippuryl-histidyl-leucine (-5.41 kcal mol(-1)), thus inhibiting the enzymatic activity. According to molecular docking analysis, the five peptides interacted with four (His353, Ala354, Glu411 and Tyr523) out of 6 catalytic residues. Moreover, MPACGSS had the highest antioxidant activity according to Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) (421.58 μmol FeSO4 mg(-1)), Fe(2+) chelation (2.01 μmol Na2EDTA mg(-1)) assays, and also in DPPH (748.39 μmol Trolox per mg of dry peptide) and ABTS (561.42 μmol Trolox mg(-1)) radical scavenging assays. The results support the hypothesis that peptides present in the non-digestible fraction of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) may exert their physiological benefits independent of their antioxidant capacity, by ACE inhibition through interaction with its catalytic cavity. PMID:25881860

  1. Genetic reduction of antinutrients in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seed, increases nutrients and in vitro iron bioavailability without depressing main agronomical traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In common bean, lectins, phytic acid, polyphenols and tannins exert major antinutritional effects when grains are consumed as a staple food. Reduced iron and zinc absorption, low protein digestibility and high toxicity at the intestinal level are the causes of their antinutritional effect. To improv...

  2. Effect of gamma irradiation on the microbiological quality and on the functional properties of proteins in dry red kidney beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogbevi, M. K.; Vachon, C.; Lacroix, M.

    2000-03-01

    Gamma-irradiation was found to affect the physicochemical properties of dry red kidney beans. The highest dose used (8 kGy) significantly ( P⩽0.05) modified the extent of deamidation, the number of sulfhydryl groups, as well as the solubility and the hydrophobicity of the protein. Deamidation, protein solubility and hydrophobicity all increased with the irradiation dose while the number of sulfhydryl groups was reduced by the treatment. Furthermore, irradiation also affected the outgrowth of natural filamentous fungi contaminants present on the dry beans. A dose of 1.5 kGy reduced the number of filamentous fungi by 2 log cycles immediately after treatment. However, the highest dose used (3 kGy) did not eliminate the filamentous fungi completely. Moreover, the filamentous fungi population was a lot less diversified on the irradiated samples. Species of Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp. were more abundant on the unirradiated beans while the beans irradiated at 3 kGy contained were predominantly infected by species of Rhizopus sp. , Cladosporium sp. and Alternaria sp.

  3. Development of an event-specific hydrolysis probe quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for Embrapa 5.1 genetically modified common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Treml, Diana; Venturelli, Gustavo L; Brod, Fábio C A; Faria, Josias C; Arisi, Ana C M

    2014-12-10

    A genetically modified (GM) common bean event, namely Embrapa 5.1, resistant to the bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV), was approved for commercialization in Brazil. Brazilian regulation for genetically modified organism (GMO) labeling requires that any food containing more than 1% GMO be labeled. The event-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method has been the primary trend for GMO identification and quantitation because of its high specificity based on the flanking sequence. This work reports the development of an event-specific assay, named FGM, for Embrapa 5.1 detection and quantitation by use of SYBR Green or hydrolysis probe. The FGM assay specificity was tested for Embrapa 2.3 event (a noncommercial GM common bean also resistant to BGMV), 46 non-GM common bean varieties, and other crop species including maize, GM maize, soybean, and GM soybean. The FGM assay showed high specificity to detect the Embrapa 5.1 event. Standard curves for the FGM assay presented a mean efficiency of 95% and a limit of detection (LOD) of 100 genome copies in the presence of background DNA. The primers and probe developed are suitable for the detection and quantitation of Embrapa 5.1. PMID:25437743

  4. Identification of Diaporthe longicolla on dry edible peas (Pisum sativum), dry edible beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and soybeans (Glycine max) in North Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diaporthe longicolla is a fungal pathogen that causes Phomopsis seed decay and stem disease of soybean, economically important diseases in some U.S. states. Dry edible bean, dry edible pea and soybean stems with unidentified lesions were collected from fields in North Dakota. Diaporthe longicolla ...

  5. Bean cultivars (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) have similar high antioxidant capacity, in vitro inhibition of alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase while diverse phenolic composition and concentration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common beans are a good source of essential nutrients such as protein, fiber, vitamins, and minerals; they also contain phenolic compounds and other phytochemicals. Phenolic compounds exhibit high antioxidant capacity that promotes health benefits by reducing oxidative stress. The objective was to c...

  6. Genome-wide annotation and characterization of CLAVATA/ESR (CLE) peptide hormones of soybean (Glycine max) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), and their orthologues of Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Hastwell, April H.; Gresshoff, Peter M.; Ferguson, Brett J.

    2015-01-01

    CLE peptides are key regulators of cell proliferation and differentiation in plant shoots, roots, vasculature, and legume nodules. They are C-terminally encoded peptides that are post-translationally cleaved and modified from their corresponding pre-propeptides to produce a final ligand that is 12–13 amino acids in length. In this study, an array of bionformatic and comparative genomic approaches was used to identify and characterize the complete family of CLE peptide-encoding genes in two of the world’s most important crop species, soybean and common bean. In total, there are 84 CLE peptide-encoding genes in soybean (considerably more than the 32 present in Arabidopsis), including three pseudogenes and two multi-CLE domain genes having six putative CLE domains each. In addition, 44 CLE peptide-encoding genes were identified in common bean. In silico characterization was used to establish all soybean homeologous pairs, and to identify corresponding gene orthologues present in common bean and Arabidopsis. The soybean CLE pre-propeptide family was further analysed and separated into seven distinct groups based on structure, with groupings strongly associated with the CLE domain sequence and function. These groups provide evolutionary insight into the CLE peptide families of soybean, common bean, and Arabidopsis, and represent a novel tool that can aid in the functional characterization of the peptides. Transcriptional evidence was also used to provide further insight into the location and function of all CLE peptide-encoding members currently available in gene atlases for the three species. Taken together, this in-depth analysis helped to identify and categorize the complete CLE peptide families of soybean and common bean, established gene orthologues within the two legume species, and Arabidopsis, and provided a platform to help compare, contrast, and identify the function of critical CLE peptide hormones in plant development. PMID:26188205

  7. A xylosyltransferase involved in the synthesis of a protein-associated xyloglucan in suspension-cultured dwarf-French-bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cells and its interaction with a glucosyltransferase.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, R E; Brett, C T; Hillman, J R

    1988-01-01

    A particulate enzyme preparation made from suspension-cultured dwarf-French-bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cv. Canadian Wonder cells was shown to incorporate xylose from UDP-D-[14C]xylose into polysaccharide. The reaction was dependent upon the presence of UDP-D-glucose and was stimulated, and apparently protected, by GDP-D-glucose and GDP-D-mannose, though neither was able to replace UDP-D-glucose as a glycosyl donor. The product of the reaction was identified as xyloglucan by analysis of products of enzyme breakdown and acid hydrolysis. Mr determination after proteinase K digestion indicated that the nascent xyloglucan is closely associated with protein. Preincubation of the enzyme with UDP-D-glucose stimulated incorporation from UDP-D-[14C]xylose, suggesting an 'imprecise' mechanism of biosynthesis, as defined by Waldron & Brett [(1985) in Biochemistry of Plant Cell Walls (Brett, C. T. & Hillman, J. R., eds.) (SEB Semin. Ser. 28), pp. 79-97, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge]. PMID:2460084

  8. Pancreatic enlargement is evident in rats fed diets containing raw soybeans (Glycine max) or cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) for 800 days but not in those fed diets based on kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) or lupinseed (Lupinus angustifolius).

    PubMed

    Grant, G; Dorward, P M; Pusztai, A

    1993-12-01

    Pancreatic weights and composition were studied with rats fed diets containing raw legume seeds for up to 800 d. Rapid pancreatic enlargement was induced by dietary soybeans (Glycine max) (high Kunitz and Bowman-Birk trypsin inhibitor contents, moderate lectin content) during the initial 150 d. Over the next 200 d the rate of pancreatic growth was similar to that in controls. After 350 d a second period of rapid pancreatic growth occurred. Macroscopic pancreatic nodules were evident in a number of rats fed soybeans for 500 d or more. A similar pattern of pancreatic growth was observed in rats fed dietary cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) (high Bowman-Birk inhibitor content, low lectin content). Extensive pancreatic growth was also found in young rats fed moderate dietary levels of kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) (low Bowman-Birk inhibitor content, high lectin content). However, the trophic effects diminished with time, and from 100 d onwards, little enlargement was evident. Consumption of a lupinseed (Lupinus angustifolius) diet (low trypsin inhibitor, low lectin content) did not cause pancreatic enlargement. The initial pancreatic growth induced by dietary soybeans seemed to be due to the lectins and trypsin inhibitors, whereas the second period of pancreatic growth was possibly due primarily to the trypsin inhibitors. PMID:7505319

  9. Influence of Rhizoctonia solani and Trichoderma spp. in growth of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and in the induction of plant defense-related genes

    PubMed Central

    Mayo, Sara; Gutiérrez, Santiago; Malmierca, Monica G.; Lorenzana, Alicia; Campelo, M. Piedad; Hermosa, Rosa; Casquero, Pedro A.

    2015-01-01

    Many Trichoderma species are well-known for their ability to promote plant growth and defense. We study how the interaction of bean plants with R. solani and/or Trichoderma affect the plants growth and the level of expression of defense-related genes. Trichoderma isolates were evaluated in vitro for their potential to antagonize R. solani. Bioassays were performed in climatic chambers and development of the plants was evaluated. The effect of Trichoderma treatment and/or R. solani infection on the expression of bean defense-related genes was analyzed by real-time PCR and the production of ergosterol and squalene was quantified. In vitro growth inhibition of R. solani was between 86 and 58%. In in vivo assays, the bean plants treated with Trichoderma harzianum T019 always had an increased size respect to control and the plants treated with this isolate did not decrease their size in presence of R. solani. The interaction of plants with R. solani and/or Trichoderma affects the level of expression of seven defense-related genes. Squalene and ergosterol production differences were found among the Trichoderma isolates, T019 showing the highest values for both compounds. T. harzianum T019 shows a positive effect on the level of resistance of bean plants to R. solani. This strain induces the expression of plant defense-related genes and produces a higher level of ergosterol, indicating its ability to grow at a higher rate in the soil, which would explain its positive effects on plant growth and defense in the presence of the pathogen. PMID:26442006

  10. Production of maize tortillas and cookies from nixtamalized flour enriched with anthocyanins, flavonoids and saponins extracted from black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seed coats.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Santoscoy, Rocio A; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; Serna-Saldivar, Sergio O; Perez-Carrillo, Esther

    2016-02-01

    Ethanolic extract from black beans coat is a source of flavonoids, saponins and antocyanins. Nixtamalized maize flours (NF) are used for the preparation of products such as tortillas, tortillas chips, cookies among others. The objective of this research was to study the effect on textural parameters and color after adding flavonoids, saponins and anthocyanins from black bean seed coat in NF used for the production of tortillas and gluten-free cookies. Furthermore, the retention of bioactive compounds after tortilla and gluten-free-cookie preparation was assessed. Ethanolic extracts of black bean seed coats were added (3g/kg or 7 g/kg) to NF in order to prepare corn tortillas and gluten free cookies characterized in terms of dimensions, color and texture. Addition of 7 g/kg affected the color of cookies and tortillas without effect on texture and dimensions. It was possible to retain more than 80% and 60% of bioactives into baked tortillas and cookies, respectively. PMID:26304324

  11. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Two Varieties of Genetically Modified (GM) Embrapa 5.1 Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and Their Non-GM Counterparts.

    PubMed

    Balsamo, Geisi M; Valentim-Neto, Pedro A; Mello, Carla S; Arisi, Ana C M

    2015-12-01

    The genetically modified (GM) common bean event Embrapa 5.1 was commercially approved in Brazil in 2011; it is resistant to golden mosaic virus infection. In the present work grain proteome profiles of two Embrapa 5.1 common bean varieties, Pérola and Pontal, and their non-GM counterparts were compared by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) followed by mass spectrometry (MS). Analyses detected 23 spots differentially accumulated between GM Pérola and non-GM Pérola and 21 spots between GM Pontal and non-GM Pontal, although they were not the same proteins in Pérola and Pontal varieties, indicating that the variability observed may not be due to the genetic transformation. Among them, eight proteins were identified in Pérola varieties, and four proteins were identified in Pontal. Moreover, we applied principal component analysis (PCA) on 2-DE data, and variation between varieties was explained in the first two principal components. This work provides a first 2-DE-MS/MS-based analysis of Embrapa 5.1 common bean grains. PMID:26575080

  12. Effect of chemical stress on germination of cv Dalia bean (Phaseolus vularis L.) as an alternative to increase antioxidant and nutraceutical compounds in sprouts.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Sánchez, Magdalena; Guevara-González, Ramón G; Castaño-Tostado, Eduardo; Mercado-Silva, Edmundo M; Acosta-Gallegos, Jorge A; Rocha-Guzmán, Nuria E; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalía

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of chitosan (CH), salicylic acid (SA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at different concentrations on the antinutritional and nutraceutical content, as well as the antioxidant capacity of bean sprouts (cv Dalia). All elicitors at medium and high concentrations reduced the antinutritional content of lectins (48%), trypsin inhibitor (57%), amylase inhibitor (49%) and phytic acid (56%). Sprouts treated with CH, SA and H2O2 (7μM; 1 and 2mM, and 30mM respectively) increased the content of phenolic compounds (1.8-fold), total flavonoids (3-fold), saponins (1.8-fold) and antioxidant capacity (37%). Furthermore, the UPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis showed an increase of several nutraceutical compounds in bean sprouts treated with SA such as coumaric (8.5-fold), salicylic (115-fold), gallic (25-fold) and caffeic (1.7-fold) acids, as well as epigallocatechin (63-fold), rutin (41-fold) and quercetin (16.6-fold) flavonoids. The application of elicitors in bean seed during sprouting enhances their nutraceutical properties. PMID:27374516

  13. Studies of cream seeded carioca beans (phaseolus vulgaris L.) from a Rwandan efficacy trial: in vitro and in vivo screening tools reflect human studies and predict beneficial results from iron biofortified beans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Iron (Fe) deficiency is a highly prevalent micronutrient insufficiency predominantly caused by a lack of bioavailable Fe from the diet. The consumption of beans as a major food crop in some populations suffering from Fe deficiency is relatively high. Therefore, our objective was to determine whether...

  14. Non-digestible fraction of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) modulates signalling pathway genes at an early stage of colon cancer in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Haydé, Vergara-Castañeda; Ramón, Guevara-González; Lorenzo, Guevara-Olvera; Dave, Oomah B; Rosalía, Reynoso-Camacho; Paul, Wiersma; Guadalupe, Loarca-Piña

    2012-08-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in Western countries, the second cause of cancer mortality in the USA and a major public health problem in Mexico. A diet rich in legumes is directly related to the prevention of colon cancer, showing an inverse relationship with the development of colorectal adenomas in human subjects. The present study shows the results of molecular changes involved in the Tp53 pathway at an early stage in the distal colon tissue of azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon cancer in rats evaluated by PCR array after exposure to diets containing the non-digestible fraction (NDF) of cooked bean (cultivar Bayo Madero). Significant differences were detected in seventy-two genes of the Tp53-mediated signalling pathway involved in apoptosis, cell-cycle regulation and arrest, inhibition of proliferation and inflammation, and DNA repair. Tp53, Gadd45a, Cdkn1a and Bax were highly expressed (9·3-, 18·3-, 5·5- and 3·5-fold, respectively) in the NDF+AOM group, whereas Cdc25c, Ccne2, E2f1 and Bcl2 were significantly suppressed ( - 9·2-, - 2·6-, - 18·4- and - 3·5-fold, respectively), among other genes, compared with the AOM group, suggesting that chemoprevention of aberrant crypt foci results from a combination of cell-cycle arrest in G1/S and G2/M phases and cell death by apoptotic induction. We demonstrate that the NDF from common bean modulates gene expression profiles in the colon tissue of AOM-induced rats, contributing to the chemoprotective effect of common bean on early-stage colon cancer. PMID:22916810

  15. QTL analyses for seed iron and zinc concentrations in an intra-genepool population of Andean common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Blair, Matthew W; Astudillo, Carohna; Rengifo, Judith; Beebe, Steve E; Graham, Robin

    2011-02-01

    Legumes provide essential micronutrients that are found only in low amounts in the cereals or root crops. An ongoing project at CIAT has shown that the legume common bean is variable in the amount of seed minerals (iron, zinc, and other elements), vitamins, and sulfur amino acids that they contain and that these traits are likely to be inherited quantitatively. In this study we analyzed iron and zinc concentrations in an Andean recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of 100 lines derived from a cross between G21242, a Colombian cream-mottled climbing bean with high seed iron/zinc and G21078, an Argentinean cream seeded climbing bean with low seed iron/zinc. The population was planted across three environments; seed from each genotype was analyzed with two analytical methods, and quantitative trait loci (QTL) were detected using composite interval mapping and single-point analyses. A complete genetic map was created for the cross using a total of 74 microsatellite markers to anchor the map to previously published reference maps and 42 RAPD markers. In total, nine seed mineral QTL were identified on five linkage groups (LGs) with the most important being new loci on b02 and other QTL on b06, b08, and b07 near phaseolin. Seed weight QTL were associated with these on b02 and b08. These Andean-derived QTL are candidates for marker-assisted selection either in combination with QTL from the Mesoamerican genepool or with other QTL found in inter and intra-genepool crosses, and the genetic map can be used to anchor other intra-genepool studies. PMID:21113704

  16. Identification of QTL conditioning partial resistance to white mold in kidney bean line VA19 derived from an interspecific population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scarlet-runner bean (Phaseolus coccineus L.), a representative species of the secondary gene pool of common bean, is a potential source of white mold resistance for improving dry bean and snap bean. VA19 is a light-red kidney bean line that possesses resistance to white mold putatively derived from...

  17. Integration of genome and phenotypic scanning gives evidence of genetic structure in Mesoamerican common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) landraces from the southwest of Europe.

    PubMed

    Santalla, M; De Ron, A M; De La Fuente, M

    2010-05-01

    Southwestern Europe has been considered as a secondary centre of genetic diversity for the common bean. The dispersal of domesticated materials from their centres of origin provides an experimental system that reveals how human selection during cultivation and adaptation to novel environments affects the genetic composition. In this paper, our goal was to elucidate how distinct events could modify the structure and level of genetic diversity in the common bean. The genome-wide genetic composition was analysed at 42 microsatellite loci in individuals of 22 landraces of domesticated common bean from the Mesoamerican gene pool. The accessions were also characterised for phaseolin seed protein and for nine allozyme polymorphisms and phenotypic traits. One of this study's important findings was the complementary information obtained from all the polymorphisms examined. Most of the markers found to be potentially under the influence of selection were located in the proximity of previously mapped genes and quantitative trait loci (QTLs) related to important agronomic traits, which indicates that population genomics approaches are very efficient in detecting QTLs. As it was revealed by outlier simple sequence repeats, loci analysis with STRUCTURE software and multivariate analysis of phenotypic data, the landraces were grouped into three clusters according to seed size and shape, vegetative growth habit and genetic resistance. A total of 151 alleles were detected with an average of 4 alleles per locus and an average polymorphism information content of 0.31. Using a model-based approach, on the basis of neutral markers implemented in the software STRUCTURE, three clusters were inferred, which were in good agreement with multivariate analysis. Geographic and genetic distances were congruent with the exception of a few putative hybrids identified in this study, suggesting a predominant effect of isolation by distance. Genomic scans using both markers linked to genes affected

  18. A novel Moringa oleifera leaf extract can mitigate the stress effects of salinity and cadmium in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants.

    PubMed

    Howladar, Saad M

    2014-02-01

    Phaseolus vulgaris plants were grown in the presence of NaCl and/or CdCl2 beginning from the second week, sprayed twice with moringa leaf extract (MLE) at 21 and 28 days after sowing (DAS), and were sampled at 35 DAS for growth and chemical analyses and yielded at the end of experiment. Growth traits, level of photosynthetic pigments, green pod yield and pod protein were significantly reduced with exposing the plants to NaCl and/or CdCl2. However, the follow up foliar application with MLE detoxified the stress generated by NaCl and/or CdCl2 and significantly enhanced the aforementioned parameters. Either individual or combined used stresses increased the electrolyte leakage (EL), lipid peroxidation and plant Cd(2+) content, and decreased the membrane stability index (MSI) and relative water content (RWC). However, the foliar application of MLE in the absence of the stress improved the MSI and RWC and minimized plant Cd(2+) content but could not affect EL and lipid peroxidation. Proline content and the activity of antioxidant enzymes showed a significant increase in response to MLE as well as to NaCl and/or CdCl2 stress. PMID:24433793

  19. An interdisciplinary research strategy to improve symbiotic nitrogen fixation and yield of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in salinised areas of the Mediterranean basin.

    PubMed

    Drevon, J J; Abdelly, C; Amarger, N; Aouani, E A; Aurag, J; Gherbi, H; Jebara, M; Lluch, C; Payre, H; Schump, O; Soussi, M; Sifi, B; Trabelsi, M

    2001-10-01

    The main findings of a cooperative research group of agronomists, plant breeders, microbiologists, physiologists and molecularists to improve the symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) and N2-dependent yield of common bean under moderate salinity in the Mediterranean basin are summarised. Agronomic surveys in reference production areas show large spatial and temporal variations in plant nodulation and growth, and in efficiency of utilisation of the rhizobial symbiosis. The latter was associated with a large rhizobial diversity, including new bean nodulating species. Macrosymbiont diversity in SNF and adaptation to NaCl was found. However, contrasts between plant genotypes could be altered by specific interactions with some native rhizobia. Therefore, variations in soil rhizobial population, in addition to agronomic practices and environmental constraints, may have contributed to erratic results observed in field inoculations. At the mechanistic level, nodule C and N metabolisms, and abcissic acid content, were related to SNF potential and tolerance to NaCl. Their relation with nodule conductance to O2 diffusion was addressed by in situ hybridisation of candidate carbonic anhydrase and aquaporin genes in nodule cortex. The limits and prospects of the cooperative strategy are discussed. PMID:11566396

  20. Cupric stress induces oxidative damage marked by accumulation of H2O2 and changes to chloroplast ultrastructure in primary leaves of beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Bouazizi, Houda; Jouili, Hager; Geitmann, Anja; Ferjani, Ezzeddine

    2010-06-01

    The effect of copper excess (CuSO 4 ) on lipid peroxidation, H2O2 content, and antioxidative enzyme activities was studied in primary leaves of bean seedlings. Fourteen-day-old bean seedlings were cultured in a nutrient solution containing Cu 2+ at various concentrations (50 and 75 microM) for 3 days. Excess of copper significantly increased malondialdehyde content and endogenous H2O2 . This radical accumulated in the intercellular spaces of palisade mesophyll cells. In addition, cupric stress induced changes in antioxidant enzyme activities. GPX (guaiacol peroxidase, EC 1.11.1.7) activity was decreased in 50 microM Cu-stressed leaves whereas 75 microM of CuSOP 4 resulted in an increase of enzyme activity. On the contrary, CAT (catalase, EC 1.11.1.6) activity was stimulated at 50 microM CuSO 4 but unaltered at 75 microM CuSO 4 . Transmission electron microscopy revealed that excess copper induced changes in the ultrastructure of chloroplasts visible in form of a deterioration in the grana structure and the accumulation and swelling of starch grains in the stroma. PMID:20519173

  1. Common beans, diseases: ecology and control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, is one of the most important edible legume crops worldwide, nutritionally and economically. Diseases caused by pathogens that affect beans can have catastrophic effects, destroying entire crops in some instances. There are more than 200 pathogens (bacterial, fungal,...

  2. Release of ‘Croissant’ Pinto Bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station announces the release of ‘Croissant’, disease-resistant pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) variety. Croissant was developed at Colorado State University and tested in the Western Regional Bean Trials, Midwest Regional Performance Nursery, and Colorado Cr...

  3. Registration of ‘Samurai’ Otebo Bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Samurai’ otebo bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) (Reg. no. CV- , PI ), developed by Michigan State University AgBioResearch was released in 2015 as an upright, full-season cultivar with virus [caused by Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV)] resistance and high-yield potential. Samurai was developed using ped...

  4. Guidelines for Common Bean QTL Nomenclature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis has become an important tool for the characterization and breeding of complex traits in crops plants, such as common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). A standard system for naming QTL in common bean is needed for effective referencing of new and previously identif...

  5. Weed competition and dry bean yield components

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed competition can significantly reduce dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) yields and therefore the profitability for the producer. Depending on the dry bean variety produced, the yield components may be affected differently by the stress produced by weed competition. This research was conducted to ...

  6. Genomic basis of broad host range and environmental adaptability of Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899 and Rhizobium sp. PRF 81 which are used in inoculants for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899 and Rhizobium sp. PRF 81 are α-Proteobacteria that establish nitrogen-fixing symbioses with a range of legume hosts. These strains are broadly used in commercial inoculants for application to common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in South America and Africa. Both strains display intrinsic resistance to several abiotic stressful conditions such as low soil pH and high temperatures, which are common in tropical environments, and to several antimicrobials, including pesticides. The genetic determinants of these interesting characteristics remain largely unknown. Results Genome sequencing revealed that CIAT 899 and PRF 81 share a highly-conserved symbiotic plasmid (pSym) that is present also in Rhizobium leucaenae CFN 299, a rhizobium displaying a similar host range. This pSym seems to have arisen by a co-integration event between two replicons. Remarkably, three distinct nodA genes were found in the pSym, a characteristic that may contribute to the broad host range of these rhizobia. Genes for biosynthesis and modulation of plant-hormone levels were also identified in the pSym. Analysis of genes involved in stress response showed that CIAT 899 and PRF 81 are well equipped to cope with low pH, high temperatures and also with oxidative and osmotic stresses. Interestingly, the genomes of CIAT 899 and PRF 81 had large numbers of genes encoding drug-efflux systems, which may explain their high resistance to antimicrobials. Genome analysis also revealed a wide array of traits that may allow these strains to be successful rhizosphere colonizers, including surface polysaccharides, uptake transporters and catabolic enzymes for nutrients, diverse iron-acquisition systems, cell wall-degrading enzymes, type I and IV pili, and novel T1SS and T5SS secreted adhesins. Conclusions Availability of the complete genome sequences of CIAT 899 and PRF 81 may be exploited in further efforts to understand the interaction of tropical rhizobia with common bean

  7. Response of two cultivars of Phaseolus vulgaris L. (French beans) plants exposed to enhanced UV-B radiation under mountain ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Raghuvanshi, Rashmi; Sharma, Rajesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B) irradiance resulting from depletion in the ozone layer has the potential to cause detrimental effects on plants. Higher altitudes tend to receive higher doses of ambient UV-B radiation. The present study was carried out to assess the effects of enhanced UV-B (ambient + 10.2 kJ m(-2) day(-1)) radiation on two cultivars of Phaseolus vulgaris L. (cv. Pusa Himlata and Pusa Parvati) at growth, physiological, and biochemical levels grown under mountain ecosystem. The magnitudes of negative effects of enhanced UV-B radiation were found more in Pusa Parvati as compared to Pusa Himlata. Non-enzymatic (total phenolics and flavonoids content) and enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase) were increased in both cultivars at both the ages of growth but increase was found more in Pusa Himlata as compared to Pusa Parvati. The study further showed that the economic yield of Pusa Himlata and Pusa Parvati was decreased by 14 and 44%, respectively, due to enhanced UV-B radiation. The higher decrease in the economic yield of Pusa Parvati depicted that increased amounts of total flavonoids content and stimulation of their antioxidant defense mechanism via increasing the activities of enzymatic antioxidants were not able to completely detoxify the produced reactive oxygen species under enhanced UV-B radiation and made it more sensitive to applied stress. From the present study, it can be concluded that enhanced UV-B radiation in the mountain areas of the Indian Himalayan Regions could be one of the environmental causes for lower yields of agricultural crops. Cultivation of P. vulgaris L. cv. Pusa Himlata should be promoted at higher altitudes of the Indian Himalayan Regions. PMID:26342300

  8. Registration of PR1146-138 yellow dry bean germplasm line

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The yellow bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important market class in Haiti. However, there have been no previous attempts to genetically improve this seed type for the Caribbean. Landrace varieties of yellow beans in Haiti are susceptible to Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV) and bean common...

  9. Development of the yellow common bean germplasm PR1146-138

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The yellow bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important market class in Haiti. There have been, however, no previous attempts to genetically improve this seed type for the Caribbean. Landrace varieties of yellow beans in Haiti are susceptible to Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV) and bean commo...

  10. 7 CFR 319.56-62 - Fresh beans, shelled or in pods, from Jordan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fresh beans, shelled or in pods, from Jordan. 319.56... Vegetables § 319.56-62 Fresh beans, shelled or in pods, from Jordan. Fresh beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L... Spodoptera littoralis. (a) Packinghouse requirements. The beans must be packed in packing facilities that...

  11. The transcriptome of common bean: nodules to beans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean) is one of the most important grain legumes for direct human consumption. It comprises 50% of the grain legumes consumed worldwide and is important as a primary source of dietary protein in developing countries. We performed next generation sequencing (RNAseq) on five...

  12. Development of microsatellite markers for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) based on screening of non-enriched, small-insert genomic libraries.

    PubMed

    Blair, Matthew W; Torres, Monica Muñoz; Pedraza, Fabio; Giraldo, Martha C; Buendía, Hector F; Hurtado, Natalia

    2009-09-01

    Microsatellite markers are useful genetic tools for a wide array of genomic analyses although their development is time-consuming and requires the identification of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) from genomic sequences. Screening of non-enriched, small-insert libraries is an effective method of SSR isolation that can give an unbiased picture of motif frequency. Here we adapt high-throughput protocols for the screening of plasmid-based libraries using robotic colony picking and filter preparation. Seven non-enriched genomic libraries from common bean genomic DNA were made by digestion with four frequently cutting restriction enzymes, double digestion with a frequently cutting restriction enzyme and a less frequently cutting restriction enzyme, or sonication. Library quality was compared and three of the small-insert libraries were selected for further analysis. Each library was plated and picked into 384-well plates that were used to create high-density filter arrays of over 18 000 clones each, which were screened with oligonucleotide probes for various SSR motifs. Positive clones were found to have low redundancy. One hundred SSR markers were developed and 80 were tested for polymorphism in a standard parental survey. These microsatellite markers derived from non-SSR-enriched libraries should be useful additions to previous markers developed from enriched libraries. PMID:19935925

  13. Enzyme-assisted extraction and identification of antioxidative and α-amylase inhibitory peptides from Pinto beans (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Pinto).

    PubMed

    Ngoh, Ying-Yuan; Gan, Chee-Yuen

    2016-01-01

    Antioxidant and α-amylase inhibitor peptides were successfully extracted from Pinto bean protein isolate (PBPI) using Protamex. A factorial design experiment was conducted and the effects of extraction time, pH and temperature were studied. pH 7.5, extraction time of 1h, S/E ratio of 10 (w/w) and temperature of 50 °C gave the highest antioxidant activities (i.e., ABTS scavenging activity (53.3%) and FRAP value (3.71 mM)), whereas pH 6.5 with the same extraction time, S/E ratio and temperature, gave the highest α-amylase inhibitory activity (57.5%). It was then fractioned using membrane ultrafiltration with molecular weight cutoffs of 100, 50, 30, 10 and 3 kDa. Peptide fraction <3 kDa, which exhibited the highest antioxidant activities (i.e., ABTS (42.2%) and FRAP (0.81 mM)) and α-amylase inhibitory activity (62.1%), was then subjected to LCMS and MS/MS analyses. Six sequences were identified for antioxidant peptides, whereas seven peptides for α-amylase inhibitor. PMID:26212978

  14. Gene expression patterns and dynamics of the colonization of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) by highly virulent and weakly virulent strains of Fusarium oxysporum

    PubMed Central

    Niño-Sánchez, Jonathan; Tello, Vega; Casado-del Castillo, Virginia; Thon, Michael R.; Benito, Ernesto P.; Díaz-Mínguez, José María

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of root and hypocotyl colonization, and the gene expression patterns of several fungal virulence factors and plant defense factors have been analyzed and compared in the interaction of two Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli strains displaying clear differences in virulence, with a susceptible common bean cultivar. The growth of the two strains on the root surface and the colonization of the root was quantitatively similar although the highly virulent (HV) strain was more efficient reaching the central root cylinder. The main differences between both strains were found in the temporal and spatial dynamics of crown root and hypocotyl colonization. The increase of fungal biomass in the crown root was considerably larger for the HV strain, which, after an initial stage of global colonization of both the vascular cylinder and the parenchymal cells, restricted its growth to the newly differentiated xylem vessels. The weakly virulent (WV) strain was a much slower and less efficient colonizer of the xylem vessels, showing also growth in the intercellular spaces of the parenchyma. Most of the virulence genes analyzed showed similar expression patterns in both strains, except SIX1, SIX6 and the gene encoding the transcription factor FTF1, which were highly upregulated in root crown and hypocotyl. The response induced in the infected plant showed interesting differences for both strains. The WV strain induced an early and strong transcription of the PR1 gene, involved in SAR response, while the HV strain preferentially induced the early expression of the ethylene responsive factor ERF2. PMID:25883592

  15. Physico-chemical and functional properties of Resistant starch prepared from red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris.L) starch by enzymatic method.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Chagam Koteswara; Suriya, M; Haripriya, Sundaramoorthy

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the production, physico-chemical and functional properties of Resistant starch (RS) from red kidney bean starch by enzymatic method. Native and gelatinized starch were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis (pullulanase, 40 U/g/10 h), autoclaved (121 °C/30 min), stored under refrigeration (4 °C/24 h), and lyophilized. The enzymatic hydrolysis and thermal treatment of starch increased the formation of RS which showed an increase in water absorption and water solubility indexes and a decrease in swelling power due to hydrolytic and thermal process. The process for obtaining RS changed the crystallinity pattern from C to B and increased the crystallinity due to the retrogradation process. RS obtained from hydrolysis showed a reduction in viscosity, indicating the rupture of starch molecules. The viscosity was found to be inversely proportional to the RS content in the sample. The thermal properties of RS increased due to the retrogradation and recrystallization (P<0.05). PMID:23618263

  16. Molecular identification and expression of the peroxidase responsible for the oxidative burst in French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and related members of the gene family.

    PubMed

    Blee, K A; Jupe, S C; Richard, G; Zimmerlin, A; Davies, D R; Bolwell, G P

    2001-11-01

    Molecular characterization has been accomplished for five members of the peroxidase gene family in French bean. The most important of these, designated FBPI, corresponds to the isoform believed to be responsible for the apoplastic oxidative burst demonstrated by suspension-cultured cells in response to fungal elicitor. Identification was made by a complete match of six peptide sequences derived from the native protein to the translated sequence of the cDNA. Modelling of the surface structure in comparison with two other members of the peroxidase family did not reveal any unusual features which might account for its role in the oxidative burst. However, FBP1 when expressed in Pichia pastoris generated H2O2 using cysteine at pH 7.2, a specific property of the native protein when isolated from suspension-cultured cells. FBP1, together with other members of the family, were all induced in cell cultures by elicitor action although they all showed some expression in non-induced cultured cells. They were also expressed in all tissues examined with varying levels of intensity of detection in northern blots. This was confirmed by in situ hybridization and FBP1 expression was confirmed in tissues where it has been previously detected by immunolocalization methods. Assigning roles to individual peroxidases is an important goal and molecular identification of the oxidative burst peroxidase allows further exploration of the relative roles of the different systems involved in generating reactive oxygen species. PMID:11725946

  17. Starch characteristics of bean extrudates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are one of the significant sources of food in the world. They are a rich source of carbohydrates (28-35%), even though they are better known for proteins (23-27%), fiber (2-5%), and minerals (4.21-5.17%). United States is the sixth-leading producer of dry edible...

  18. The Bush Memorial Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamline University Bulletin, 1971

    1971-01-01

    The Bush Memorial Library was formally dedicated on October 9, 1971. As part of Hamline University in St. Paul, Minnesota, the Bush Memorial Library has a reading room, audio booths, and audio-visual classroom as well as an audio control room. The Bush Memorial Library is a member of the Cooperating Libraries in Consortium which is a cooperative…

  19. Registration of PR0633-10 and PR0737-1 red mottled dry bean germplasm lines with resistance to BGYMB, BCMV, BCMNV, and common bacterial blight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV) is an important disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Central America and the Caribbean. Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) pose a threat to common bean production throughout the world. The development an...

  20. Alteration of cell-wall porosity is involved in osmotic stress-induced enhancement of aluminium resistance in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhong-Bao; Eticha, Dejene; Rao, Idupulapati Madhusudana; Horst, Walter Johannes

    2010-07-01

    Aluminium (Al) toxicity and drought are the two major abiotic stress factors limiting common bean production in the tropics. Using hydroponics, the short-term effects of combined Al toxicity and drought stress on root growth and Al uptake into the root apex were investigated. In the presence of Al stress, PEG 6000 (polyethylene glycol)-induced osmotic (drought) stress led to the amelioration of Al-induced inhibition of root elongation in the Al-sensitive genotype VAX 1. PEG 6000 (> PEG 1000) treatment greatly decreased Al accumulation in the 1 cm root apices even when the roots were physically separated from the PEG solution using dialysis membrane tubes. Upon removal of PEG from the treatment solution, the root tips recovered from osmotic stress and the Al accumulation capacity was quickly restored. The PEG-induced reduction of Al accumulation was not due to a lower phytotoxic Al concentration in the treatment solution, reduced negativity of the root apoplast, or to enhanced citrate exudation. Also cell-wall (CW) material isolated from PEG-treated roots showed a low Al-binding capacity which, however, was restored after destroying the physical structure of the CW. The comparison of the Al(3+), La(3+), Sr(2+), and Rb(+) binding capacity of the intact root tips and the isolated CW revealed the specificity of the PEG 6000 effect for Al. This could be due to the higher hydrated ionic radius of Al(3+) compared with other cations (Al(3+) > La(3+) > Sr(2+) > Rb(+)). In conclusion, the results provide circumstantial evidence that the osmotic stress-inhibited Al accumulation in root apices and thus reduced Al-induced inhibition of root elongation in the Al-sensitive genotype VAX 1 is related to the alteration of CW porosity resulting from PEG 6000-induced dehydration of the root apoplast. PMID:20511277

  1. Effect of cadmium on nodulation and N/sub 2/(C/sub 2/H/sub 2/)-fixation by dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. )

    SciTech Connect

    Vigue, G.T.; Pepper, I.L.; Bezdicek, D.F.

    1981-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the toxicity of Cd on the nodulation, N/sub 2/(C/sub 2/H/sub 2/)-fixation, and growth of dry beans. Plants were grown in the greenhouse with hydroponic solutions to which 0 to 500 ..mu..m Cd/liter had been added. The total N content of shoots, nodule weight, nodule number, and N/sub 2/(C/sub 2/H/sub 2/)-fixation were significantly decreased at 10 ..mu..m Cd/liter. Nodulation was completely inhibited at 500 ..mu..m Cd/liter. Nodulation and the N/sub 2/(C/sub 2/H/sub 2/)-fixation rate were negatively correlated with solution Cd concentration (r = -0.97). Cadmium uptake and translocation were slow; therefore, Cd levels were highest in the roots, much lower in the nodules, and lowest in the shoot tissue. For example, at 20 ..mu..m Cd/liter, respective tissue Cd levels averaged 431, 80, and 35 ..mu..g Cd/g, on a dry weight basis. Cadmium levels in roots or shoots from comparable Cd treatments were essentially the same whether the plants obtained their N by fixation or from nutrient solution NO/sub 3/. Root Cd concentrations were exponentially correlated with nodule number, nodule weight, and acetylene reduction, with correlation coefficients of -0.99, -0.99, and -0.97, respectively. Shoot Cd concentrations were logarithmically correlated with nodule number, nodule weight, and acetylene reduction, with correlation coefficients of -0.89, -0.91, and -0.84, respectively.

  2. Assessment of the use potential of edible sea urchins (Paracentrotus lividus) processing waste within the agricultural system: influence on soil chemical and biological properties and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and wheat (Triticum vulgare) growth in an amended acidic soil.

    PubMed

    Garau, Giovanni; Castaldi, Paola; Deiana, Salvatore; Campus, Paolo; Mazza, Antonio; Deiana, Pietrino; Pais, Antonio

    2012-10-30

    In this study we evaluated the influence of ground purple sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) endoskeletons, a processing waste common to all edible sea urchin plants, on the chemical, biochemical and microbiological features of an acidic (pH 5.65) sandy-loam soil. The purple sea urchin endoskeletons were characterized by a high content of total carbonates (∼94%), a moderately alkaline pH in water (pH 7.88) and electrical conductivity values (3.55 mS/cm) very similar to those of commercial lime. To evaluate the influence of the P. lividus endoskeletons on soil properties four different amendment rates were tested, notably 0.5, 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0% based on soil dry weight, and the effects compared with those recorded on unamended control soil. The addition of the purple sea urchin processing waste caused an immediate and significant pH increase which was positively related to the rate of the amendment addition. After a six months equilibration period, the differences in soil pH were still evident and significant increases of electrical conductivity and available phosphorus were also detected in soils with the higher amendment rates. The number of heterotrophic and cellulolytic bacteria and actinomycetes significantly increased after amendment addition while the number of culturable fungi steadily declined. The analysis of the Biolog Community Level Physiological Profile indicated a clear influence of the purple sea urchin processing waste on the structure of the native microbial community while a significant increase of microbial functionality (i.e. dehydrogenase activity) was recorded in soil treated with the higher amendment rates (i.e. 3.0 and 5.0%). The improvement of microbial abundance and functionality as well as the change of the microbial community structure were ascribed to the pH shift induced by the P. lividus processing waste. To investigate possible effects on soil fertility, dwarf bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and wheat (Triticum vulgare) growth were also

  3. Combining Rust Resistance and Heat Tolerance in Snap Beans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important crop in many countries both in economic and nutritional terms. However, diseases such as rust (Uromyces appendiculatus) and abiotic stresses including high temperatures limit its productivity in many areas in the tropics. Enhancing snap bean resistan...

  4. Exclusion of deer and yield of dry bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yields of crops can be reduced due to predation by herbivores. Field grown Navy Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is susceptible to damage by deer. Seed of the Navy Bean cv. Aspen were sown in a sandy loam soil in May 2006. When plants reached the first trifoliate leaf stage exclusion cages were set a...

  5. DIFFERENTIAL RESPONSE OF COMMON BEAN CULTIVARS TO PHAKOPSORA PACHYRHIZI

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi H. Sydow & Sydow) has been reported on common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Asia, South Africa, and the United States. However, there is little information on the interaction of individual isolates of P. pachyrhizi with common bean germplasm. A set of 16 comm...

  6. Registration of ‘Long’s Peak’ Pinto Bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methods to harvest dry edible bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) have changed dramatically in the past 20 years to accommodate direct harvest systems that eliminate the need to undercut and windrow the crop before it can be threshed. Direct harvest systems cut the bean plant with a sickle bar on the comb...

  7. Diversity for cooking time in Andean dry beans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L) are a nutrient dense, low cost food and therefore are an excellent value for consumers (Drewnowski and Rehm, 2013). In spite of this value, long cooking times limit bean consumption. This is true in developing countries where cooking fuel is sometimes scarce and in d...

  8. REGISTRATION OF 'SILVER CLOUD' WHITE KIDNEY DRY BEAN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Silver Cloud white kidney dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) was developed by WSU and USDA-ARS. This cultivar provides a high yielding white kidney with mid season maturity and disease resistance for bean production areas of the Pacific Northwest. Silver Cloud has the combined I and bc-1 genes for res...

  9. Registration of Common Bacterial Blight, Rust and Bean Common Mosaic Resistant Great Northern Bean Germplasm Line ABC - Weihing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Great northern common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) germplasm line ABC-Weihing was developed specifically for enhanced resistance to common bacterial blight (CBB), a major disease of common bean caused by the seedborne bacteria Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli (Xcp) and the brown-pigmented variant...

  10. Red kidney beans--to eat or not to eat?

    PubMed

    Venter, F S; Thiel, P G

    1995-04-01

    The importation of dry red kidney beans (a variety of the species Phaseolus vulgaris) for cultivation or consumption in South Africa is prohibited because of their potential toxicity to humans. It has been established that the haemagglutinating lectins (e.g. phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)) in kidney beans are responsible for this toxicity. Dry bean varieties available on the South African market for human consumption as well as locally produced (for this study) and imported dry red kidney beans and imported canned red kidney beans were compared. The PHA activity and the effect of heat thereon were measured, before and after overnight soaking. The PHA activity in extracts of uncooked and incompletely cooked red kidney beans was not higher than the levels measured in 50% of the other bean varieties included in the study. These findings indicate that the toxic potentials and health risks associated with red kidney beans are similar to those of other dry beans already commercially available to South Africans. PMID:7777998

  11. Registration of ‘Zenith' black bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Zenith’ black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) (Reg. no. CV- , PI -), developed by Michigan State University AgBioResearch was released in 2014 as an upright, full-season cultivar with anthracnose [caused by Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc. et Magnus) Lams.-Scrib] resistance and excellent canning q...

  12. Registration of ‘Alpena' navy bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Alpena’ navy bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) (Reg. no. CV- , PI -), developed by Michigan State University AgBioResearch was released in 2014 as an upright, midseason cultivar with uniform dry down and excellent canning quality. Alpena was developed using pedigree breeding method to the F3 generation ...

  13. Investigating nitrogen deficiency in common beans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean) and soybean diverged from a common ancestor approximately 19 million years ago. The genome of P. vulgaris is approximately half the size of soybean, making it an excellent model for soybean genetics. Nitrogen (N) is often a growth-limiting nutrient, and N deficiency ...

  14. Registration of ‘Eldorado’ pinto bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Eldorado’ (Reg. No. CV-302, PI 665012) pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), which was developed by Michigan State University AgBioResearch, was released in 2012 as an upright, full-season,disease-resistant cultivar. Eldorado, tested as MSU breeding line P07863, was developed using the single-seed-de...

  15. Registration of 'Badillo' Light Red Kidney Bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Badillo’, Reg. No. CV-294, PI658490, a multiple disease resistant light red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivar adapted to the humid tropics, was developed and released in 2009 cooperatively by the University of Puerto Rico (UPR) Agricultural Experiment Station and the United States Depart...

  16. INFLUENCE OF ROOT COLONIZING BACTERIA ON THE DEFENSE RESPONSES OF BEAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Colonization of plant roots by fluorescent pseudomonads has been correlated with disease suppression. ne mechanism may involve altered defense responses in the plant upon colonization. ltered defense responses were observed in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) inoculated with fluorescent...

  17. Induced Pathogen Resistance in Bean Plants: A Model for Studying "Vaccination" in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetsch, Emily; Mathias, Christine; Mosley, Sydnie; Shull, Meredith; Brock, David L.

    2002-01-01

    Shows how the tobacco mosaic virus can be used in conjunction with the common bean plant Phaseolus vulgaris to provide a discernable, experimental model that students can use to study induced resistance. (Contains 17 references.) (DDR)

  18. Targeting gene combinations for broad spectrum rust resistance in heat tolerant snap beans developed for tropical environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Common bean rust disease, caused by Uromyces appendiculatus, and heat stress, caused by high ambient temperature, constrain snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production in many areas in tropical and temperate zones. Bean rust and heat stress often occur within the same production regions, such ...

  19. HVDC wall bushing studies

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, H.M.; Lux, A.E.; Howes, D.R. )

    1990-07-01

    This report describes research conducted to determine the performance of HVDC wall bushings in different wetting conditions. The in-service behavior of these wall bushing on HVDC systems at voltages of {plus minus}450 kV and above is first described to establish the conditions under which flashovers have occurred. Laboratory tests made at the EPRI High Voltage Transmission Research Center confirm that wall bushings may flash over at rated operation voltage under conditions which are intended to be representative of those experienced on operating transmission systems. Methods for improving performance are discussed, and results of tests with several types of mitigation techniques are described. The major emphasis is placed on the application of room temperature vulcanized (RTV) silicone rubber. Clean fog is used to evaluate the characteristics of this material on post insulators. The encouraging performance of the post insulators coated with RTV is the basis for further evaluation on full scale wall bushings tested in nonuniform rain. In addition to tests on RTV coated wall bushings without pre-doposited contamination, attempts at achieving reasonable contamination layers on RV are described. By means of resistance measurements on horizontal insulators, the critical conditions which may lead to flashover on surfaces with different materials and coatings are investigated 15 refs., 39 figs., 11 tabs.

  20. Reflective Polyethylene Mulch Reduces Mexican Bean Beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Densities and Damage in Snap Beans.

    PubMed

    Nottingham, L B; Kuhar, T P

    2016-08-01

    Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis Mulsant, is a serious pest of snap beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., in the eastern United States. These beetles are intolerant to direct sunlight, explaining why individuals are typically found on the undersides of leaves and in the lower portion of the plant canopy. We hypothesized that snap beans grown on reflective, agricultural polyethylene (plastic mulch) would have fewer Mexican bean beetles and less injury than those grown on black plastic or bare soil. In 2014 and 2015, beans were seeded into beds of metallized, white, and black plastic, and bare soil, in field plots near Blacksburg, VA. Mexican bean beetle density, feeding injury, predatory arthropods, and snap bean yield were sampled. Reflected light intensity, temperature, and humidity were monitored using data loggers. Pyranometer readings showed that reflected light intensity was highest over metallized plastic and second highest over white plastic; black plastic and bare soil were similarly low. Temperature and humidity were unaffected by treatments. Significant reductions in Mexican bean beetle densities and feeding injury were observed in both metallized and white plastic plots compared to black plastic and bare soil, with metallized plastic having the fewest Mexican bean beetle life stages and injury. Predatory arthropod densities were not reduced by reflective plastic. Metallized plots produced the highest yields, followed by white. The results of this study suggest that growing snap beans on reflective plastic mulch can suppress the incidence and damage of Mexican bean beetle, and increase yield in snap beans. PMID:27341891

  1. The influence of aluminium availability on phosphate uptake in Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Phaseolus lunatus L.

    PubMed

    Mimmo, Tanja; Sciortino, Marco; Ghizzi, Massimiliano; Gianquinto, Giorgio; Gessa, Carlo E

    2009-01-01

    Aluminium toxicity is one of the major limiting factors of crop productivity on acid soils. High levels of available aluminium in soil may induce phosphorus deficiency in plants. This study investigates the influence of Aluminium (Al) on the phosphate (P(i)) uptake of two Phaseolus species, Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Red Kidney and Phaseolus lunatus L. The two bean species were treated first with solutions of Al at different concentrations (0, 25, 50 and 100microM, pH 4.50) and second with solutions of P(i) (150microM) at pH 4.50. The higher the Al concentration the higher the Al concentration sorbed but P. vulgaris L var. Red Kidney adsorbed significantly more Al than P. lunatus L. Both species released organic acids: P. vulgaris L var. Red Kidney released fumaric acid and P. lunatus L. fumaric and oxalic acids which could have hindered further Al uptake. The two bean species showed a sigmoid P(i) uptake trend but with two different mechanisms. P. vulgaris L var. Red Kidney showed a starting point of 3h whereas P. lunatus L. adsorbed P(i) immediately within the first minutes. In addition, P. vulgaris L var. Red Kidney presented significantly higher P(i) uptake (higher uptake rate 'k' and higher maximum adsorption 'a' of the kinetic uptake model). The Al treatments did not significantly influence P(i) uptake. Results suggest that P. lunatus L. might adopt an external Al detoxification mechanism by the release of oxalic acid. P. vulgaris L var. Red Kidney on the other hand seemed to adopt an internal detoxification mechanism even if the Al sorbed is poorly translocated into the shoots. More detailed studies will be necessary to better define Al tolerance and/or resistance of Phaseolus spp. PMID:18996705

  2. Protective mechanism of the Mexican bean weevil against high levels of alpha-amylase inhibitor in the common bean.

    PubMed Central

    Ishimoto, M; Chrispeels, M J

    1996-01-01

    Alpha-amylase inhibitor (alpha AI) protects seeds of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) against predation by certain species of bruchids such as the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus) and the azuki bean weevil (Callosobruchus chinensis), but not against predation by the bean weevil (Acanthoscelides obtectus) or the Mexican bean weevil (Zabrotes subfasciatus), insects that are common in the Americas. We characterized the interaction of alpha AI-1 present in seeds of the common bean, of a different isoform, alpha AI-2, present in seeds of wild common bean accessions, and of two homologs, alpha AI-Pa present in seeds of the tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius) and alpha AI-Pc in seeds of the scarlet runner bean (Phaseolus coccineus), with the midgut extracts of several bruchids. The extract of the Z. subfasciatus larvae rapidly digests and inactivates alpha AI-1 and alpha AI-Pc, but not alpha AI-2 or alpha AI-Pa. The digestion is caused by a serine protease. A single proteolytic cleavage in the beta subunit of alpha AI-1 occurs at the active site of the protein. When degradation is prevented, alpha AI-1 and alpha AI-Pc do not inhibit the alpha-amylase of Z. subfasciatus, although they are effective against the alpha-amylase of C. chinensis. Alpha AI-2 and alpha AI-Pa, on the other hand, do inhibit the alpha-amylase of Z. subfasciatus, suggesting that they are good candidates for genetic engineering to achieve resistance to Z. subfasciatus. PMID:8787024

  3. Protein Quality of Irradiated Brazilian Beans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delincée, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna-Lucia C. H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    1998-06-01

    Beans are a major source of dietary protein in Brazil. However, high losses due to insect infestation occur after each harvest. To combat these losses, radiation processing of beans offers promise as an alternative to chemical treatment, provided the nutritional quality of beans is not impaired by the radiation treatment. Conflicting results have been published about the effect of radiation on the biological value of legume proteins. Therefore, two varieties of Brazilian beans were studied: 1) Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and 2) Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macaçar. The beans were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy. Since irradiated beans will be consumed after appropriate storage, the beans under study were stored for 6 months at ambient temperature. Protein quality was measured by a biological assay employing the nitrogen balance approach in weanling rats. The animals were fed with optimally cooked beans, which were the only source of protein (˜10%). Nitrogen contents of legumes, diets, animal urine and faeces were determined by Kjeldahl analysis. The indices for apparent protein quality: net protein utilisation, digestibility and biological value were not influenced by irradiation. Thus, radiation treatment of Brazilian beans offers considerable promise as an effective insect disinfection process, without impairing the biological quality of the valuable bean protein.

  4. Registration of Great Northern Common Bean Cultivar NE1-06-12 with Enhanced Disease Resistance to Common Bacterial Blight and Bean Rust

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Great northern common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivar NE1-06-12, developed by the University of Nebraska Agricultural Research Division and released in 2008, was bred specifically for enhanced resistance to common bacterial blight, a major disease of common bean caused by the seed borne bacter...

  5. Host Suitability of Diverse Lines of Phaseolus vulgaris to Multiple Populations of Heterodera glycines

    PubMed Central

    Smith, James R.; Young, Lawrence D.

    2003-01-01

    The host suitability of diverse races and gene pools of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) for multiple isolates of Heterodera glycines was studied. Twenty P. vulgaris genotypes, representing three of the six races within the two major germplasm pools, were tested in greenhouse experiments to determine their host suitability to five H. glycines isolates. Phaseolus vulgaris genotypes differed in their host suitability to different H. glycines isolates. While some common bean lines were excellent hosts for some H. glycines isolates, no common bean line was a good host for all isolates. Some bean lines from races Durango and Mesoamerica, representing the Middle America gene pool, were resistant to all five nematode isolates. Other lines, from both the Andean and Middle America gene pools, had differential responses for host suitability to the different isolates of H. glycines. PMID:19265970

  6. A dominant gene for garnet brown seed coats at the Rk locus in Dorado common bean and mapping Rk to linkage group 1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The color of the seed coats of Dorado (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is garnet brown (dark red kidney bean color) and differs from most other dry bean varieties in the Honduran red bean market class. A genetic investigation of the color of Dorado (same as DOR364) and G19833 (Liborino market class) seed co...

  7. A dominant gene for garnet brown seed coats at the Rk locus in Dorado common bean and mapping Rk to linkage group 1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The color of the seed coats of Dorado (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is garnet brown (dark red kidney bean color) and differs from most other dry bean varieties in the Honduran red bean market class. A genetic investigation of the color of Dorado (same as DOR364) and G19833 (Liborino market class) see...

  8. Response of Andean and Mesoamerican common bean genotypes to inoculation with rhizobium strains.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In most common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production regions of Latin America, inoculants are rarely used by farmers in spite of several studies that demonstrate the importance of Rhizobium inoculation on commercial production of legume crops. This study investigated specific bean host plant-Rhizo...

  9. THE ROLE OF THE EPICUTICULAR WAX LAYER IN WATER MOVEMENT ACROSS THE BEAN SEED COAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water uptake influences a seed's hydration, texture, palatability, and cooking time. Water uptake also influences the leaching of pigments that occurs in color seeded and especially black dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Black bean leaching is a major problem in commerce because consumers expect...

  10. Common bean-Rhizobium symbiosis: functional genomics of legume response to abiotic stresses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is the world's most important grain legume for direct human consumption and a main source of proteins in Latin America and Africa. Environmental factors such as nutrient deficiency, soil acidity, and metal toxicity are important constraints for bean symbiotic nitroge...

  11. Use of wild relatives and closely-related species to adapt common bean to climate change

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important legume crop worldwide. However, abiotic and biotic stress limits bean yields less than 600 kg/ha in low-income countries. Current low yields result in food insecurity, while demands for increased yields to match the rate of population growth combin...

  12. Pinto Bean Hull Extract Supplementation Favorably Affects Markers of Bone Metabolism and Bone Structure in Mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dry edible beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) have many health benefits attributed to their high content of protein, non-digestible starches, fiber, and other bioactive components. Hulls from dry beans are rich in phenolics known to possess antioxidant activity that is beneficial to human health. The object...

  13. Screening common bean for resistance to four Sclerotinia sclerotiorum isolates collected in northern Spain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White mold, caused by the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary, is a serious disease in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) causing significant yield loss. Few cultivars with high levels of physiological resistance to white mold have been described in common bean. The objectives of this st...

  14. Registration of Drought Tolerant, Rust Resistant, High Yielding Pinto Bean Germplasm Line CO46348

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drought stress reduces dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) yield in more than 60 % of the production regions worldwide. The release of CO465348 will provide plant breeders with drought tolerant, pinto bean germplasm that takes advantage of full-growing season (95 to 98 d), has high yield potential, exc...

  15. Population genetics of the western bean cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) across the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta (Smith), is a secondary pest of maize (Zea mays L.) and dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in the western United States. Recently, this insect has undergone a major territory expansion into the eastern US and has become a pest throughout much of the Corn...

  16. A reference genome for common bean and genome wide analysis of dual domestications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is the single most important grain legume for human consumption and, due to its ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen via symbioses with soil-borne microorganisms, has a valuable place in sustainable agriculture. We assembled 473 Mb of the common bean genome and geneti...

  17. Registration of partial white mold resistant pinto bean germplasm line USPT-WM-12

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), the most widely grown dry bean market class across the United States, is highly susceptible to white mold disease caused by the fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Lib deBary. The Agricultural Research Service, Michigan State University AgBioResearch, and the...

  18. Generation of Phaseolus vulgaris ESTs and investigation of the regulation upon Uromyces appendiculatus infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    : No soybean (Glycine max) cultivars are available that show field resistance to Asian soybean rust (ASR) caused by the biotrophic fungus Phakopsora pachyrhizi. However, in a closely related crop, Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean) several resistant genes were identified that confer resistance to exa...

  19. Identifying genes involved in nodulation and symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) in Phaseolus vulgaris using RNAseq technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean) is one of the most important grain legumes for direct human consumption. It comprises 50% of the grain legumes consumed worldwide and is important as a primary source of dietary protein in developing countries. Legumes form a unique symbiotic relationship with rhizob...

  20. ACE-I Inhibitory Activity from Phaseolus lunatus and Phaseolus vulgaris Peptide Fractions Obtained by Ultrafiltration.

    PubMed

    Betancur-Ancona, David; Dávila-Ortiz, Gloria; Chel-Guerrero, Luis Antonio; Torruco-Uco, Juan Gabriel

    2015-11-01

    The involvement of angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE-I) as one of the mechanisms controlling blood pressure is being studied to find alternative means of control of hypertension on human beings. On the market there are synthetic drugs that can control it, but these can cause undesirable health side effects. In this work was assessed the fractionation by ultrafiltration of the Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) and Jamapa bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), protein hydrolysates obtained with Alcalase(®) and Flavourzyme(®) on ACE-I inhibitory activity. Four membranes of different molecular cutoffs (10, 5, 3, and 1 kDa) were used. Fractions that had a higher inhibitory activity in both legumes were denominated as E (<1 kDa) with IC50 of 30.3 and 51.8 μg/mL values for the P. lunatus with Alcalase and Flavourzyme, respectively, and for the Phaseolus vulgaris with Alcalase and Flavourzyme with about 63.8 and 65.8 μg/mL values, respectively. The amino acid composition of these fractions showed residues in essential amino acids, which make a good source of energy and amino acids. On the other hand, the presence of hydrophobic amino acids such as V and P is a determining factor in the ACE-I inhibitor effect. The results suggest the possibility of obtaining and utilizing these peptide fractions in the development and innovation of a functional product that helps with treatment and/or prevention of hypertension. PMID:26061663

  1. Phenotyping common beans for adaptation to drought

    PubMed Central

    Beebe, Stephen E.; Rao, Idupulapati M.; Blair, Matthew W.; Acosta-Gallegos, Jorge A.

    2013-01-01

    Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) originated in the New World and are the grain legume of greatest production for direct human consumption. Common bean production is subject to frequent droughts in highland Mexico, in the Pacific coast of Central America, in northeast Brazil, and in eastern and southern Africa from Ethiopia to South Africa. This article reviews efforts to improve common bean for drought tolerance, referring to genetic diversity for drought response, the physiology of drought tolerance mechanisms, and breeding strategies. Different races of common bean respond differently to drought, with race Durango of highland Mexico being a major source of genes. Sister species of P. vulgaris likewise have unique traits, especially P. acutifolius which is well adapted to dryland conditions. Diverse sources of tolerance may have different mechanisms of plant response, implying the need for different methods of phenotyping to recognize the relevant traits. Practical considerations of field management are discussed including: trial planning; water management; and field preparation. PMID:23507928

  2. The "white kidney bean incident" in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Haruko; Date, Kimie

    2014-01-01

    Lectin poisoning occurred in Japan in 2006 after a TV broadcast that introduced a new diet of eating staple foods with powdered toasted white kidney beans, seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris. Although the method is based on the action of a heat-stable α-amylase inhibitor in the beans, phaseolamin, more than 1,000 viewers who tried the method suffered from acute intestinal symptoms and 100 people were hospitalized. Lectins in the white kidney beans were suspected to be the cause of the trouble. We were asked to investigate the lectin activity remaining in the beans after the heat treatment recommended on the TV program. The test suggested that the heat treatment was insufficient to inactivate the lectin activity, which, combined with our ignorance of carbohydrate signaling in the intestine, was the cause of the problem. PMID:25117222

  3. The arcelin-5 gene of Phaseolus vulgaris directs high seed-specific expression in transgenic Phaseolus acutifolius and Arabidopsis plants.

    PubMed

    Goossens, A; Dillen, W; De Clercq, J; Van Montagu, M; Angenon, G

    1999-08-01

    The regulatory sequences of many genes encoding seed storage proteins have been used to drive seed-specific expression of a variety of proteins in transgenic plants. Because the levels at which these transgene-derived proteins accumulate are generally quite low, we investigated the utility of the arcelin-5 regulatory sequences in obtaining high seed-specific expression in transgenic plants. Arcelin-5 is an abundant seed protein found in some wild common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes. Seeds of Arabidopsis and Tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius A. Gray) plants transformed with arcelin-5 gene constructs synthesized arcelin-5 to levels of 15% and 25% of the total protein content, respectively. To our knowledge, such high expression levels directed by a transgene have not been reported before. The transgenic plants also showed low plant-to-plant variation in arcelin expression. Complex transgene integration patterns, which often result in gene silencing effects, were not associated with reduced arcelin-5 expression. High transgene expression was the result of high mRNA steady-state levels and was restricted to seeds. This indicates that all requirements for high seed-specific expression are cis elements present in the cloned genomic arcelin-5 sequence and trans-acting factors that are available in Arabidopsis and Phaseolus spp., and thus probably in most dicotyledonous plants. PMID:10444093

  4. Characterization of white mold disease avoidance in common bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White mold, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, is a devastating fungal disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) worldwide. Physiological resistance and disease avoidance conferred by plant architecture-related traits contribute to white mold field resistance. Our objective was to further exam...

  5. Phosphorus stress in common bean: root transcript and metabolic responses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential element for plant growth. Crop production of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), the most important legume for human consumption, is often limited by low P in the soil. Functional genomics technologies were used to investigate global gene expression and metabolic respons...

  6. The transcriptome of common bean: more than nodulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean) is one of the most important grain legumes for direct human consumption. It comprises 50% of the grain legumes consumed worldwide and is important as a primary source of dietary protein in developing countries. We performed next generation sequencing (RNAseq) on five...

  7. Applications of common beans in food and biobased materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extrusion method has been used to cook different food materials by employing the combination of high temperature, pressure and shearing stresses. Effects of extrusion cooking on functional, physicochemical and nutritional properties of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) have been reported for years...

  8. The Bush Education Budget Legacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delisle, Jason; Luebchow, Lindsey; Rieman, Heather

    2008-01-01

    Next week, President George W. Bush will submit his eighth and final budget request to the Congress. How has he fared with respect to education budget proposals thus far? Answer: although President Bush made the No Child Left Behind Act, which deals with elementary and secondary education, the hallmark of his education policy, from a federal…

  9. Growth, yield and yield components of dry bean as influenced by phosphorus in a tropical acid soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus deficiency is one of the most yield limiting factors for dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) production in tropical acid soils. Dry beans are invariably grown as mono crops or as inter crops under the perennial tropical crops. Information is limited regarding the influence of phosphorus fertili...

  10. Modified bean seed protein phaseolin did not accumulate stably in transgenic tobacco seeds after methionine enhancement mutations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The major seed storage protein phaseolin of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is deficient in methionine, an essential amino acid for human and animal health. To improve the nutritional quality of common bean, we designed methionine enhancement of phaseolin based on the three dimensional structure...

  11. Characterization and application of the Andean Diversity Panel for the improvement of common bean productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa is far below yield potential, while climate change and access to inputs are persistent challenges. In addition, the market and human nutrition needs for common bean continue to expand in the African continent, which has the highest ...

  12. Cost benefit analysis of the introduction of heat tolerant bean varieties in Atlántida, Honduras.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rising ambient air temperatures, migration, and deforestation threaten the sustainability of hillside common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) farming in Atlántida, Honduras. Farmers avoid climatic constraints to common bean production by planting at different altitudes during different seasons. In this ...

  13. Can leek interfere with bean plant-bean fly interaction? Test of ecological pest management in mixed cropping.

    PubMed

    Bandara, K A N P; Kumar, V; Ninkovic, V; Ahmed, E; Pettersson, J; Glinwood, R

    2009-06-01

    Effects of volatile odors from leek, Allium porum L., on the behavior of bean fly, Ophiomyia phaseoli (Tryon) (Diptera: Agromyzidae), were tested in laboratory olfactometer bioassays. Aqueous and solvent extracts (dichloromethane and methanol) of leek were repellent to adult flies. Whole leek plants were repellent and prevented attraction to the host plant, beans. Beans that had been exposed to volatiles from living leek plants for 7 d became repellent to the fly. Leek and several other crops were tested in field experiments to identify candidate crops for a mixed cropping system to minimize bean fly attack in beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L. In a wet season field experiment, mixed cropping of bean with leek or three other vegetable crops did not significantly reduce bean fly infestation or infection with Fusarium oxysporum Schltdl. compared with a mono crop, but significantly reduced plant death caused by both agents combined. In two dry season field experiments, mixed cropping of beans with leek significantly reduced adult bean fly settling, emergence, and death of bean plants compared with a mono crop. Bean yield per row was approximately 150% higher for the mixed crop, and economic returns were approximately Sri Lankan Rs. 180,000/ha, higher than for the mono crop. For the mono crop, the farmer had a monetary loss, which would become a small profit only if the costs of family labor are excluded. The study is an example of the first steps toward development of sustainable plant protection in a subsistence system. PMID:19610413

  14. SEALED INSULATOR BUSHING

    DOEpatents

    Carmichael, H.

    1952-11-11

    The manufacture of electrode insulators that are mechanically strong, shock-proof, vacuum tight, and are capable of withstanding gas pressures of many atmospheres under intense neutron bombardment, such as may be needed in an ionization chamber, is described. The ansulator comprises a bolt within a quartz tube, surrounded by a bushing held in place by two quartz rings, and tightened to a pressure of 1,000 pounds per square inch by a nut and washer. Quartz is the superior material to meet these conditions, however, to withstand this pressure the quartz must be fire polished, lapped to form smooth and parallel surfaces, and again fire polished to form an extremely smooth and fracture resistant mating surface.

  15. Developing market class specific InDel markers from next generation sequence data in Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Next generation sequence data provides valuable information and tools for genetics and genomics research and offers new insights useful for marker development. These data are useful for design of accurate and user-friendly molecular tools. Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is a diverse crop in w...

  16. Testing the model for a dominant resistance gene expresed on leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris F2 (0313-58 X Rosada Nativa) to the common bacterial blight pathogen, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. Phaseoli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The common bean bacterial blight pathogen, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli, is a limiting factor for bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, production worldwide and resistance to the pathogen in commercial varieties is inadequate. To test the hypothesis of the presence of strain specific genes for resistance...

  17. Biology of the coconut bug, Pseudotheraptus wayi, on French beans.

    PubMed

    Egonyu, James Peter; Ekesi, Sunday; Kabaru, Jacques; Irungu, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    The coconut bug, Pseudotheraptus wayi Brown (Heteroptera: Coreidae), is a major pest of a wide range of economically important crops in Eastern and Southern Africa. The suitability of French beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Fabales: Fabaceae) as an alternative food for mass rearing of P. wayi was determined by elucidating its development, survival, and reproduction on French bean pods in the laboratory. Development and survival of immatures on French beans was comparable to what is reported with two hosts previously used for rearing this species, namely coconut and cashew. Adults survived thrice longer and laid almost twice more eggs on the French beans than was reported for the two hosts above. These findings suggest that French beans are more suitable for mass rearing of this species than coconut and cashew, which have been used previously but can be scarce and too costly. PMID:25373191

  18. Biology of the Coconut Bug, Pseudotheraptus wayi, on French Beans

    PubMed Central

    Egonyu, James Peter; Ekesi, Sunday; Kabaru, Jacques; Irungu, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    The coconut bug, Pseudotheraptus wayi Brown (Heteroptera: Coreidae), is a major pest of a wide range of economically important crops in Eastern and Southern Africa. The suitability of French beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Fabales: Fabaceae) as an alternative food for mass rearing of P. wayi was determined by elucidating its development, survival, and reproduction on French bean pods in the laboratory. Development and survival of immatures on French beans was comparable to what is reported with two hosts previously used for rearing this species, namely coconut and cashew. Adults survived thrice longer and laid almost twice more eggs on the French beans than was reported for the two hosts above. These findings suggest that French beans are more suitable for mass rearing of this species than coconut and cashew, which have been used previously but can be scarce and too costly. PMID:25373191

  19. Reaction of common bean cultivars to the Asian soybean rust pathogen, Phakopsora pachyrhizi, under field conditions in South Africa and Brazil.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phakopsora pachyrhizi, the Asian soybean rust (ASR) pathogen, infects soybeans (Glycine max) and some 95 other leguminous species, including dry and snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). This pathogen has been reported infecting dry beans under field conditions in South Africa and the United States in 20...

  20. A new gene, bic, with pleiotropic effects (with T P V) for bicolor flowers and dark olive brown seed coat in common bean.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Painted Lady’ (Phaseolus coccineus L.) has bicolor flowers with vermilion banner petal and white wing petals. This flower color pattern is not known in common bean (P. vulgaris L.). The bicolor trait was backcrossed into common bean and its inheritance was investigated, including allelism tests w...

  1. Zolfino landrace (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) from Pratomagno: general and specific features of a functional food

    PubMed Central

    Balestri, Francesco; Rotondo, Rossella; Moschini, Roberta; Pellegrino, Mario; Cappiello, Mario; Barracco, Vito; Misuri, Livia; Sorce, Carlo; Andreucci, Andrea; Del-Corso, Antonella; Mura, Umberto

    2016-01-01

    Background The Zolfino bean is a variety of Phaseolus vulgaris, which is cultivated in a limited area of Tuscany, Italy, and is widely appreciated for its flavor and culinary uses. Objectives A yellow Zolfino landrace cultivated in the Leccio-Reggello area was characterized and compared with three other varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris (i.e. the Borlotto, Cannellino, and Corona beans) in terms of its general features and potential as an antioxidant/anti-inflammatory agent. Design The length, width, thickness, equatorial section surface, weight, volume, and seed coat section were measured in all the beans. The seed surface area was also estimated by an original empirical method. The ability of the different beans to interfere with the enzymes of the polyol pathway (that is, aldose reductase (AR) and sorbitol dehydrogenase) was tested using the supernatant after soaking the beans at room temperature and after thermal treatment, which simulated the bean-cooking process in a controlled fashion. Results Concerning the general features, Zolfino was comparable with other beans, except Corona, in terms of surface–volume ratio, which possesses the lowest tegument thickness. Moreover, Zolfino appears the most effective in inhibiting AR activity. The inhibitory ability is unaffected by thermal treatment and appears to be associated with compound(s) present in the coat of the bean. Conclusions The ability of Zolfino to inhibit AR, thus reducing the flux of glucose through the polyol pathway, highlights the features of Zolfino as a functional food, potentially useful in treating the dysfunctions linked to the hyperactivity of AR, such as diabetic complications or inflammatory responses. PMID:27415159

  2. Comparative QTL map for white mold resistance in common bean, and characterization of partial resistance in dry bean lines VA19 and I9365-31

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White mold caused by the necrotrophic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary limits common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production in temperate climates. Disease resistance has been identified, but breeding is hampered by a paucity of resistance sources and complex inheritance, as numerous ...

  3. High voltage RF feedthrough bushing

    DOEpatents

    Grotz, Glenn F.

    1984-01-01

    Described is a multi-element, high voltage radio frequency bushing for trmitting RF energy to an antenna located in a vacuum container. The bushing includes a center conductor of complex geometrical shape, an outer coaxial shield conductor, and a thin-walled hollow truncated cone insulator disposed between central and outer conductors. The shape of the center conductor, which includes a reverse curvature portion formed of a radially inwardly directed shoulder and a convex portion, controls the uniformity of the axial surface gradient on the insulator cone. The outer shield has a first substantially cylindrical portion and a second radially inwardly extending truncated cone portion.

  4. 33 CFR 117.547 - Bush River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bush River. 117.547 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.547 Bush River. The draw of the Amtrak bridge... Superintendent at 301-291-4278 by an authorized representative of the Bush River Yacht Club by noon on the...

  5. 33 CFR 117.547 - Bush River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bush River. 117.547 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.547 Bush River. The draw of the Amtrak bridge... Superintendent at 301-291-4278 by an authorized representative of the Bush River Yacht Club by noon on the...

  6. 33 CFR 117.547 - Bush River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bush River. 117.547 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.547 Bush River. The draw of the Amtrak bridge... Superintendent at 301-291-4278 by an authorized representative of the Bush River Yacht Club by noon on the...

  7. 33 CFR 117.547 - Bush River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bush River. 117.547 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.547 Bush River. The draw of the Amtrak bridge... Superintendent at 301-291-4278 by an authorized representative of the Bush River Yacht Club by noon on the...

  8. 33 CFR 117.547 - Bush River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bush River. 117.547 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.547 Bush River. The draw of the Amtrak Bridge... the Bush River Yacht Club no later than noon on the Friday just preceding the day of opening or,...

  9. History of the Bush Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauriel, John J.

    The history of the Bush Public School Executive Fellows program is described. The primary objective of the program is to increase the ability of chief Minnesota school executives to guide and direct the design and delivery of public education in a more effective and efficient manner. Participation is designed to increase their ability to more…

  10. Q&A Steve Bush

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Steve

    2016-08-01

    Steve Bush, curriculum leader for science at Sackville School in West Sussex, was awarded the 2016 RAS Patrick Moore Medal for his contribution to astronomy education. But, as he explains here, it was only chance that led him to astronomy.

  11. Vannevar Bush backs the bomb

    SciTech Connect

    Zachary, G.P.

    1992-12-01

    This article deals with Vannevar Bush's role in controlling America's secret research on the atomic bomb from 1939 to 1942, concentrating on administrative/political/military aspects. This is one of a series of articles in this magazine commemorating the 50th anniversary of the first controlled chain reaction.

  12. The arcelin-5 Gene of Phaseolus vulgaris Directs High Seed-Specific Expression in Transgenic Phaseolus acutifolius and Arabidopsis Plants1

    PubMed Central

    Goossens, Alain; Dillen, Willy; De Clercq, Janniek; Van Montagu, Marc; Angenon, Geert

    1999-01-01

    The regulatory sequences of many genes encoding seed storage proteins have been used to drive seed-specific expression of a variety of proteins in transgenic plants. Because the levels at which these transgene-derived proteins accumulate are generally quite low, we investigated the utility of the arcelin-5 regulatory sequences in obtaining high seed-specific expression in transgenic plants. Arcelin-5 is an abundant seed protein found in some wild common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes. Seeds of Arabidopsis and Tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius A. Gray) plants transformed with arcelin-5 gene constructs synthesized arcelin-5 to levels of 15% and 25% of the total protein content, respectively. To our knowledge, such high expression levels directed by a transgene have not been reported before. The transgenic plants also showed low plant-to-plant variation in arcelin expression. Complex transgene integration patterns, which often result in gene silencing effects, were not associated with reduced arcelin-5 expression. High transgene expression was the result of high mRNA steady-state levels and was restricted to seeds. This indicates that all requirements for high seed-specific expression are cis elements present in the cloned genomic arcelin-5 sequence and trans-acting factors that are available in Arabidopsis and Phaseolus spp., and thus probably in most dicotyledonous plants. PMID:10444093

  13. Interplanting Annual Ryegrass, Wheat, Oat, and Corn to Mitigate Iron Deficiency in Dry Beans

    PubMed Central

    Omondi, Emmanuel Chiwo; Kniss, Andrew R.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated whether grass intercropping can be used to alleviate Fe deficiency chlorosis in dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown in high pH, calcareous soils with low organic matter. Field studies were conducted at the University of Wyoming Sustainable Agriculture Research and Extension Center in 2009 and 2010. Black- and navy beans were grown alone or intercropped with annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), oat (Avena sativa L.), corn (Zea mays L.), or spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in a two-factor factorial strip-plot randomized complete block design. All four grass species increased chlorophyll intensity in dry beans. However, grass species did not increase iron (Fe) concentration in dry bean tissues suggesting inefficient utilization of Fe present in the dry bean tissues. In 2009, nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) and manganese (Mn) concentration in bean tissue were greater in bean monoculture than in grass intercropped beans. Bean monoculture also had greater soil NO3-N concentrations than grass intercropped treatments. In 2009, grass intercrops reduced dry bean yield >25% compared to bean monoculture. Annual ryegrass was the least competitive of the four annual grass species. This suggests that competition from grasses for nutrients, water, or light may have outweighed benefits accruing from grass intercropping. Additional studies are required to determine the appropriate grass and dry bean densities, as well as the optimum time of grass removal. PMID:25536084

  14. Interplanting annual ryegrass, wheat, oat, and corn to mitigate iron deficiency in dry beans.

    PubMed

    Omondi, Emmanuel Chiwo; Kniss, Andrew R

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated whether grass intercropping can be used to alleviate Fe deficiency chlorosis in dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown in high pH, calcareous soils with low organic matter. Field studies were conducted at the University of Wyoming Sustainable Agriculture Research and Extension Center in 2009 and 2010. Black- and navy beans were grown alone or intercropped with annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), oat (Avena sativa L.), corn (Zea mays L.), or spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in a two-factor factorial strip-plot randomized complete block design. All four grass species increased chlorophyll intensity in dry beans. However, grass species did not increase iron (Fe) concentration in dry bean tissues suggesting inefficient utilization of Fe present in the dry bean tissues. In 2009, nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) and manganese (Mn) concentration in bean tissue were greater in bean monoculture than in grass intercropped beans. Bean monoculture also had greater soil NO3-N concentrations than grass intercropped treatments. In 2009, grass intercrops reduced dry bean yield >25% compared to bean monoculture. Annual ryegrass was the least competitive of the four annual grass species. This suggests that competition from grasses for nutrients, water, or light may have outweighed benefits accruing from grass intercropping. Additional studies are required to determine the appropriate grass and dry bean densities, as well as the optimum time of grass removal. PMID:25536084

  15. Isolation of oligomannose-type glycans from bean glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Lu, Y; Ye, J; Wold, F

    1993-02-15

    We have isolated individual oligosaccharyl-asparagine derivatives from the total soluble glycoproteins from kidney beens (Phaseolus vulgaris) and from lima beans (Phaseolus limensis). The protein/glycoprotein mixture was digested exhaustively by pronase, and the glycan-containing fractions were separated from free amino acids and peptides by gel filtration. The oligosaccharyl-asparagine derivatives were finally fractionated on Dowex 50 (C. C. Huang, H.E. Meyer, and R. Montgomery, Carbohydr. Res. 13, 127-137, 1970), and the individual fractions were characterized by mass spectrometry, NMR, and ion exchange chromatography. With the procedures described, only oligomannose derivatives were obtained from the beans. In the case of kidney beans, six different derivatives were observed and characterized, Man9GlcNAc2Asn, two positional isomers of Man8GlcNAc2Asn, two positional isomers of Man7GlcNAc2Asn, and Man6GlcNAc2Asn. Under identical conditions the lima beans yielded primarily the Man9GlcNAc2Asn derivative along with a small amount of the two Man8GlcNAc2Asn derivatives. The oligomannose structures can be isolated in reasonable quantities (2-20 mg) from about 200 g of dry beans. PMID:8465965

  16. Genetic diversity and selection of genotypes to enhance Zn and Fe content in common bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important source of dietary protein and minerals worldwide. Genes conditioning variability for mineral contents are not clearly understood. Our ultimate goal is to identify genes conditioning genetic variation for Zn and Fe content. To establish mapping popu...

  17. Response of different common bean lines to Phaeoisariopsis griseola in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Angular leaf spot (ALS), caused by Phaeoisariopsis griseola (Sacc.) Ferraris sin. Pseudocercospora griseola (Sacc.) Crous & U. Braun., is an important disease in common bean Phaseolus vulgaris L. in the Caribbean and Central America. The wide pathogen variability makes it necessary to continuously m...

  18. Dynamics of dry matter and mineral allocation to pod walls versus seeds in common bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is an important source of dietary nutrients, energy, and fiber. Although its seeds store starch, protein, minerals, and vitamins, we have yet to fully understand how the movement of minerals, amino acids, and sugars are regulated from the main plant to the seeds. T...

  19. Evaluation of common bean lines for adaptation to high temperatures in Honduras

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As in other regions worldwide, common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production in Central America and the Caribbean (CA/C) region is threatened by effects of climate change including increasing temperatures and drought due to variable rainfall patterns. One of the main alternatives for increasing ada...

  20. Field level risk assessment for root-knot nematodes in lima beans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Southern Root-Knot Nematode (RKN), Meloidogyne incognita, is a major yield limiting pest in lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus). RKN are not evenly distributed through fields and population dynamics are fluid making whole field management challenging. The objectives of this research were to characterize ...

  1. Genome-wide association study of agronomic traits in common bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A genome-wide association study (GWAS) using a global Andean diversity panel (ADP) of 237 genotypes of common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris was conducted to gain insight into the genetic architecture of several agronomic traits controlling phenology, biomass, yield components and seed yield. The panel wa...

  2. INFLUENCE OF PEROXYACETYL NITRATE (PAN) ON WATER STRESS IN BEAN PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris) were exposed to 395 micrograms/cu m (0.08 ppm) peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) for 0.5 hr and subjected to drought stress following exposure. PAN influenced the plant water potential of PAN-sensitive 'Provider' resulting in visible wilting and reduced ...

  3. Genome-wide association analysis of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in common bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted to explore the genetic basis of variation for symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) and related traits in the Andean diversity panel (ADP) comprised of 259 common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) genotypes. The ADP was evaluated for SNF and related traits in...

  4. QTL for yield under multiple stress and drought conditions in a dry bean population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Terminal and intermittent drought limits dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production worldwide. Tolerance to drought exists but is difficult to breed for because of inconsistent expression across environments. Our objective was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) conditioning yield in a recom...

  5. Sequence-based introgression mapping identifies candidate white mold tolerance genes in common bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White mold disease, caused by the necrotrophic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary, is a major pathogen of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). More than 20 QTL were reported using multiple bi-parental populations. To study the disease in more detail, advanced back-cross populations seg...

  6. A strain of Clover yellow vein virus that causes severe pod necrosis disease in snap bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 2000, the soybean aphid (Aphis glycines) has been associated with severe virus epidemics in snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in the upper Midwestern states, New York, and Ontario, Canada. The causal agent of a disease causing severe mosaic, apical necrosis stunting and extensive pod necrosis wa...

  7. Lima bean – lady beetle interactions: hooked trichomes affect survival of Stethorus punctillum larvae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We tested the hypothesis that Lima bean Phaseolus lunatus L. (Henderson cultivar) trichome density affects the survival of the acariphagous lady beetle Stethorus punctillum Weise. When isolated throughout larval development, 10% or less of S. punctillum larvae reared on two-spotted spider mite Tetr...

  8. TARS-HT1 and TARS-HT2 heat-tolerant dry bean germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    TARS-HT1 (Reg no. __, PI ___) and TARS-HT2 (Reg no. __, PI ___) are heat tolerant dark red and light red, respectively, kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) developed cooperatively by the USDA-ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station (TARS), the University of Puerto Rico, Cornell University, and th...

  9. Physical characteristics of extrudates from corn flour and dehulled carioca bean flour blend

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extruded products were prepared from a corn flour and dehulled carioca bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.) flour blend using a single-screw extruder. A central composite rotate design was used to evaluate the effects of extrusion process variables: screw speed (318.9-392.9 rpm), feed moisture (10.9-21.0 g...

  10. Development of candidate gene markers associated to common bacterial blight resistance in common bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common bacterial blight (CBB), caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli (Xap), is a major yield-limiting factor of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production around the world. Two major CBB-resistant quantitative trait loci (QTL), linked to the sequence characterized amplified region marker...

  11. Dominant gene for common bean resistance to common bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The common bacterial blight pathogen [Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli (Xap)] is a limiting factor for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production worldwide and resistance to the pathogen in most commercial cultivars is inadequate. Variability in virulence of the bacterial pathogen has been ob...

  12. PHOTOCHEMICAL OXIDENTS IN YONKERS, NEW YORK: EFFECTS ON YIELD OF BEAN AND TOMATO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field plots of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Tendergreen) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Fireball 861 VR) were enclosed in chambers and exposed for 43 or 99 days, respectively, to ambient air or to air from which 60 to 70% of the ambient photochemical oxidants were exclud...

  13. Cross Pathogenicity of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. betae on Sugar Beet and Common Bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium wilt, also known as Fusarium yellows, is caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum. Fusarium oxysporum is a vascular pathogen with a broad host range including common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) with formae speciales (f. sp.) defined by the ability to cause ...

  14. Genetic characterization and molecular mapping pse-2 gene for resistance to halo blight in common bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola (Psp) causes ‘Halo Blight’, which is a serious bacterial disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Several R genes have been discovered in host differential cultivar ZAA 12. Our objectives were to further characterize and enable marker-assisted selection ...

  15. Yield, Grade, and Revenue of Double Cropped Green Bean and Sweet Corn with Cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Double cropping green bean, (Phaseolus vulgaris L.; GB) and sweet corn (Zea mays L.; SC) with cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.; CT) can increase the economic return but can also be at risk of crop failure due to inclement weather patterns. The objectives were to: 1) quantify the yield of GB and SC doub...

  16. Variation and inheritance of iron reductase activity in the roots of common vean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and association with seed iron accumulation QTL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Iron deficiency anemia is a global problem, which often affects women and children of developing countries and is based on diets that are low in iron. Strategy I plants, such as common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) take up iron through a process that involves an iron reduction mechanism in their root...

  17. Potyviral resistance derived from cultivars of Phaseolus vulgaris carrying bc-3 is associated with the homozygotic presence of a mutated eIF4E allele

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eukaryotic translation initiation factors (eIFs) play a central role in potyviral infection. Accordingly, mutations in the gene encoding eIF4E have been identified as a source of recessive resistance in several plant species. In common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, four recessive genes, bc-1, bc-2, bc-3...

  18. High voltage feed through bushing

    DOEpatents

    Brucker, J.P.

    1993-04-06

    A feed through bushing for a high voltage diode provides for using compression sealing for all sealing surfaces. A diode assembly includes a central conductor extending through the bushing and a grading ring assembly circumferentially surrounding and coaxial with the central conductor. A flexible conductive plate extends between and compressively seals against the central conductor and the grading ring assembly, wherein the flexibility of the plate allows inner and outer portions of the plate to axially translate for compression sealing against the central conductor and the grading ring assembly, respectively. The inner portion of the plate is bolted to the central conductor for affecting sealing. A compression beam is also bolted to the central conductor and engages the outer portion of the plate to urge the outer portion toward the grading ring assembly to obtain compression sealing therebetween.

  19. Identification of presumed ancestral DNA sequences of phaseolin in Phaseolus vulgaris.

    PubMed Central

    Kami, J; Velásquez, V B; Debouck, D G; Gepts, P

    1995-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) consists of two major geographic gene pools, one distributed in Mexico, Central America, and Colombia and the other in the southern Andes (southern Peru, Bolivia, and Argentina). Amplification and sequencing of members of the multigene family coding for phaseolin, the major seed storage protein of the common bean, provide evidence for accumulation of tandem direct repeats in both introns and exons during evolution of the multigene family in this species. The presumed ancestral phaseolin sequences, without tandem repeats, were found in recently discovered but nearly extinct wild common bean populations of Ecuador and northern Peru that are intermediate between the two major gene pools of the species based on geographical and molecular arguments. Our results illustrate the usefulness of tandem direct repeats in establishing the polarity of DNA sequence divergence and therefore in proposing phylogenies. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:7862642

  20. Bean Common Mosaic Virus and Bean Common Mosaic Necrosis Virus: Relationships, Biology, and Prospects for Control.

    PubMed

    Worrall, Elizabeth A; Wamonje, Francis O; Mukeshimana, Gerardine; Harvey, Jagger J W; Carr, John P; Mitter, Neena

    2015-01-01

    The closely related potyviruses Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) are major constraints on common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) production. Crop losses caused by BCMV and BCMNV impact severely not only on commercial scale cultivation of this high-value crop but also on production by smallholder farmers in the developing world, where bean serves as a key source of dietary protein and mineral nutrition. In many parts of the world, progress has been made in combating BCMV through breeding bean varieties possessing the I gene, a dominant gene conferring resistance to most BCMV strains. However, in Africa, and in particular in Central and East Africa, BCMNV is endemic and this presents a serious problem for deployment of the I gene because this virus triggers systemic necrosis (black root disease) in plants possessing this resistance gene. Information on these two important viruses is scattered throughout the literature from 1917 onward, and although reviews on resistance to BCMV and BCMNV exist, there is currently no comprehensive review on the biology and taxonomy of BCMV and BCMNV. In this chapter, we discuss the current state of our knowledge of these two potyviruses including fundamental aspects of classification and phylogeny, molecular biology, host interactions, transmission through seed and by aphid vectors, geographic distribution, as well as current and future prospects for the control of these important viruses. PMID:26111585

  1. Vannevar Bush: Fifty Years Later

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1995-12-01

    It is ironic that the 50th anniversary year of Vannevar Bush's Report to President Truman entitled "Science the Endless Frontier", which put into motion the eminently successful current system of education of scientists in this country occurs at a time when serious questions are being asked about the usefulness of that very system. Bush viewed his proposal to establish a national research foundation (later to be called the National Science Foundation) as a "social compact." Judgment of scientific merit would be delegated to expert peers in return for scientific progress, which would ultimately benefit the nation in terms of scientific needs--military security, economic productivity, and enhanced quality of life. Bush wanted the funding of basic research intertwined with training, and preferred to use universities for this purpose rather than industrial or national labs. Bush viewed college and university scientists as teachers and investigators. He believed university-based research would uniquely encourage and engage the next generation of scientists as no other institutional arrangement could. Bush did not trust industry's commitment to basic research, an instinct that proved prophetic. The academic reserve of scientists (PhD's in training and postdoctoral students) that existed before World War II, and upon which the United States could draw for its needs, which were primarily associated with defense efforts, was probably one of the defining factors in Bush's suggested strategy. Currently, that reserve of talent has gotten so large that it is the obvious throttle in the pipeline slowing the continued development of the university research enterprise. Since 1977, the rate at which we have trained new scientists exceeds an average of 4% annually. Since 1987, the "science work force"--PhD's--has grown at three times the rate of the general labor supply. Temporary positions for postdoctoral scientists have grown even faster (over 5% per year since 1989). To compound

  2. A comparative study of phytohaemagglutinin and extract of Phaseolus vulgaris seeds by characterization and cytogenetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badari Nath, A. R. S.; Sivaramakrishna, A.; Marimuthu, K. M.; Saraswathy, Radha

    2015-01-01

    Phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) is a lectin obtained from Phaseolus vulgaris (red kidney beans), that acts as a mitogen in human leucocyte culture and is commercially available from Gibco®. This PHA (Gibco®) was found to be very expensive, hence other inexpensive sources that can be used in all kinds of cytogenetics labs (rich and poor), were attempted. One such successful attempt was PHA extract from seeds of P.vulgaris. This paper details the methodology of extraction and application of PHA from seeds of P.vulgaris. Attempts has been made to identify the chemical and physical properties of the products in the extract, analyzed by various spectroscopic and analytical techniques. The analysis clearly indicates that the product from Phaseolus seeds extract was found to be similar to the commercially available PHA (Gibco®) in the cytogenetic study of human leucocyte cultures. The present study enforces the possible utility of the plant extract directly for human leucocyte cultures.

  3. A comparative study of phytohaemagglutinin and extract of Phaseolus vulgaris seeds by characterization and cytogenetics.

    PubMed

    Badari Nath, A R S; Sivaramakrishna, A; Marimuthu, K M; Saraswathy, Radha

    2015-01-01

    Phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) is a lectin obtained from Phaseolus vulgaris (red kidney beans), that acts as a mitogen in human leucocyte culture and is commercially available from Gibco. This PHA (Gibco) was found to be very expensive, hence other inexpensive sources that can be used in all kinds of cytogenetics labs (rich and poor), were attempted. One such successful attempt was PHA extract from seeds of P.vulgaris. This paper details the methodology of extraction and application of PHA from seeds of P.vulgaris. Attempts has been made to identify the chemical and physical properties of the products in the extract, analyzed by various spectroscopic and analytical techniques. The analysis clearly indicates that the product from Phaseolus seeds extract was found to be similar to the commercially available PHA (Gibco) in the cytogenetic study of human leucocyte cultures. The present study enforces the possible utility of the plant extract directly for human leucocyte cultures. PMID:25004904

  4. Unique structural features of red kidney bean purple acid phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Cashikar, A G; Rao, M N

    1995-06-01

    Purple acid phosphatase from red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) has been purified to homogeneity and characterized. The enzyme is a homodimer of 60 kDa subunits each containing one atom of zinc and iron in the active site. Circular dichroism spectral studies on the purified enzyme reveals that a large portion of the peptide backbone is in the unordered and beta-turn conformation. A unique feature of the red kidney bean acid phosphatase, which we have found, is that one of the two cysteines of each subunit is involved in the formation of an inter-subunit disulphide. The thiol group of the other cysteine is not necessary for the activity of the enzyme. Western blot analysis with antibodies raised against kidney bean acid phosphatase could not recognize acid phosphatases from other sources except from potato. This paper emphasizes the fact that acid phosphatases are functionally, but not structurally, conserved enzymes. PMID:7590853

  5. Mineral composition of some varieties of beans from Mediterranean and Tropical areas.

    PubMed

    Di Bella, Giuseppa; Naccari, Clara; Bua, Giuseppe Daniel; Rastrelli, Luca; Lo Turco, Vincenzo; Potortì, Angela Giorgia; Dugo, Giacomo

    2016-01-01

    In this study has been evaluated the mineral composition (Cd, Pb, As, Hg, Ba, Cr, Co, Ni, Se, Sb, V, Cu, Fe, Zn, Mo, Na, K, Ca, Mg) of some varieties of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, Vigna unguiculata and V. angularis) from Mediterranean and Tropical areas of the world (Italy, Mexico, India, Japan, Ghana and Ivory Coast); the correlation between beans mineral composition in micro and macroelements and botanical and/or geographical origin; trace elements dietary intake by beans consumption. The results showed a correlation between beans mineral composition and their geographical origin, with higher values in Ivory Coast samples. Moreover, minerals content found confirmed the importance of these legumes in the diet for the significant content of essential micro and macroelements and a safe consumption of beans for the low residual levels of toxic metals. PMID:26940501

  6. Bush Impact on Schools to Outlive Term

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, David J.

    2008-01-01

    George W. Bush entered the White House determined to change federal education policy. In his first year as the president, Bush forged a bipartisan consensus around the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), which he signed into law on January 8, 2002. For the first time, states receiving federal K-12 education funding would be required to hold districts…

  7. Control of Butterfly Bush with Postemergence Herbicides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Butterfly bush (Buddleja davidii) is classified as invasive in several parts of the United States. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of four herbicides and two application methods on postemergence butterfly bush control. The four herbicides included: Roundup (glyphosate)...

  8. Bush to Obama: Education in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branch-Brioso, Karen; Dervarics, Charles; Powell, Tracie; Roach, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    President Bush's education legacy is inexorably tied to the No Child Left Behind Act, the comprehensive K-12 reform law he signed in January 2002. The law has drawn praise for requiring schools to show specific progress in educating minority and low-income children or face sanctions for failing to do so. But critics say the Bush administration…

  9. Fine Line on Schools for Bush, Kerry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.; Davis, Michelle R.

    2004-01-01

    There's no doubt that President George W. Bush and Senator John Kerry, the two major-party candidates in the hard-fought presidential contest, part company on some education issues. President Bush, for instance, backs private school vouchers while Senator Kerry wants to see bigger spending increases for schools. This article discusses how much…

  10. Simple sequence repeats linked with Slow Darkening Trait in Pinto bean discovered by SNP assay and whole genome sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed coat darkening in pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) primarily occurs during prolonged storage and can result in significant loss in value based on it being a consumer perceived product flaw. Several slow darkening (SD) pintos, conditioned by the presence of the recessive sd gene, exist but are...

  11. A NEW ALLELE, RK(CD) WITH CONVERTIBLE EXPRESSION AT THE RED KIDNEY LOCUS FOR SEEDCOAT COLOR IN COMMON BEAN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Among light red and dark red kidney common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars, pink seedcoat color (light red kidney) is dominant to dark red, but when small red cultivars (with dark red seedcoats) are crossed with dark red kidney cultivars, dark red seedcoat is dominant to the pink segregants o...

  12. QTL analysis of ICA Bunsi-derived resistance to white mold in a pinto x navy bean cross

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Breeding for genetic resistance to white mold [Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary] in dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is difficult because of low heritability. To facilitate breeding, researchers have sought to identify QTL underpinning genetic resistance to white mold. We identified two QTL ...

  13. Blue Pattern Flower in Common Bean Expressed by Interaction of Prpi-2 with a New Gene tbp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The inheritance of blue pattern flower (BPF) expression was investigated in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). The BPF trait was derived from accession line G07262, and the flowers express blue banner petal and white wings with blue veins. Crosses between a BPF stock and three other parents - t ...

  14. Mapping QTL conferring partial physiological resistance to white mold in the common bean RIL population Xana/Cornell 49242

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White mold, caused by the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary, is a devastating disease in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Resistance to this pathogen can be due to physiological or avoidance mechanisms. We sought to characterize the partial physiological resistance exhibited by ‘Xa...

  15. Genotyping by sequencing enabled mapping and marker development for the By-2 potyvirus resistance allele in common bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since its emergence in 2001, an aphid-transmitted virus disease complex has caused substantial economic losses to snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production and processing in the Great Lakes Region of the United States. The general ineffectiveness of chemical control measures for nonpersistently t...

  16. Molecular cloning, characterization and regulation of two different NADH-glutamate synthase cDNAs in bean nodules

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    NADH-dependent glutamate synthase (NADH-GOGAT; EC 1.4.1.14) is a key enzyme in primary ammonia assimilation in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) nodules. Two different types of cDNA clones of PvNADH-GOGAT were isolated from two independent nodule cDNA libraries. The full-length cDNA clones of PvNADH-GOGA...

  17. Tagging and mapping Pse-1 gene for resistance to halo blight in common bean differential cultivar UI-3

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Halo blight [caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola (Psp)] is a serious seed-borne bacterial disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). A few R genes and QTL provide control to one or more races of the pathogen. To better understand monogenic resistance and improve breeding efficienc...

  18. Two independent QTL in dry bean conditioning resistance to common bacterial blight express recessive epistasis when combined

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common bacterial blight (CBB) caused by (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli) is a major seed-borne disease limiting commercial yield and disease-free seed production of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) worldwide. Genetic resistance is the most effective control method but is difficult to incorporate b...

  19. Registration of TARS-MST1 and SB-DT1 multiple-stress tolerant black bean germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High-ambient-temperature stress, drought stress, root rot disease, and common bacterial blight [CBB; caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli (Smith) Dye] cause widespread yield reductions in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) worldwide. TARS-MST1 (Reg. No. GP-284, PI 661512) and SB-DT1 (Reg. ...

  20. YEILD NUTRIENT UPTAKE AND SOIL CHEMICAL PROPERTIES AS INFLUENCED BY LIMING AND BORON APPLICATION IN COMMON BEAN IN NOTILAGE SYSTEM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Oxisols, acidity is the principal limiting factor for crop production. In recent years due to intensive cropping on these soils, deficiency of micronutrients is increasing. Field experiment was conducted on an Oxisol during three consecutive years to assess the response of common bean (Phaseolus ...

  1. Field assessment of a snap bean ozone bioindicator system under elevated ozone and carbon dioxide in a free air system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ozone-sensitive (S156) and -tolerant (R123 and R331) genotypes of snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were tested as a plant bioindicator system for detecting O3 effects at current and future levels of tropospheric O3 and atmospheric CO2 under field conditions. Plants were exposed to reciprocal combi...

  2. Screening a dry bean Andean diversity panel for potential sources of resistance to Rhizoctonia root rot and damping-off

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia root rot and damping-off, caused by Rhizoctonia solani, are among the most economically important root and hypocotyl diseases in the world and affect a wide range of hosts including the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). To identify potential sources of resistance, screening material was ...

  3. Global changes in the transcript and metabolic profiles during symbiotic nitrogen fixation in phosphorus-stressed common bean plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) deficiency is widespread in regions where the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), the most important legume for human consumption, is produced and is perhaps the factor that most limits nitrogen (N) fixation. Global gene expression and metabolome approaches were used to investigate t...

  4. Cadmium in Jamaican Bush Teas

    PubMed Central

    Hoo Fung, LA; Rattray, VR; Lalor, GC

    2014-01-01

    Samples of Jamaican plants used as bush teas were collected from households in high soil-cadmium (Cd) areas of central Jamaica and analysed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry for total cadmium and for cadmium extractable with a hot water brew as prepared for human consumption to determine their contribution to dietary cadmium exposure. The concentrations ranged from < 0.03 to 6.85 μg/g for total Cd, between 1 and 15% of which was extracted with a hot water brew. One cup (200 ml) of the teas examined was found to contain < 0.04–1.18 μg of Cd and would contribute 0.1 – 0.3 μg of Cd to a person's dietary intake. This is significantly below the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of 7 μg Cd/kg body weight established by the World Health Organization (WHO). While this suggests that bush tea consumption does not contribute significantly to the PTWI, some of the teas examined exceed the WHO recommendation of less than 0.3 mg/kg Cd for medicinal plants. PMID:25303189

  5. Cadmium in jamaican bush teas.

    PubMed

    Hoo Fung, L A; Rattray, V R; Lalor, G C

    2014-01-01

    Samples of Jamaican plants used as bush teas were collected from households in high soil-cadmium (Cd) areas of central Jamaica and analysed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry for total cadmium and for cadmium extractable with a hot water brew as prepared for human consumption to determine their contribution to dietary cadmium exposure. The concentrations ranged from < 0.03 to 6.85 µg/g for total Cd, between 1 and 15% of which was extracted with a hot water brew. One cup (200 ml) of the teas examined was found to contain < 0.04-1.18 µg of Cd and would contribute 0.1-0.3 µg of Cd to a person's dietary intake. This is significantly below the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of 7 µg Cd/kg body weight established by the World Health Organization (WHO). While this suggests that bush tea consumption does not contribute significantly to the PTWI, some of the teas examined exceed the WHO recommendation of less than 0.3 mg/kg Cd for medicinal plants. PMID:25303189

  6. Genetic and molecular characterization of the I locus of Phaseolus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Vallejos, C Eduardo; Astua-Monge, Gustavo; Jones, Valerie; Plyler, Tammy R; Sakiyama, Ney S; Mackenzie, Sally A

    2006-02-01

    The I locus of the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, controls the development of four different phenotypes in response to inoculation with Bean common mosaic virus, Bean common mosaic necrosis virus, several other related potyviruses, and one comovirus. We have generated a high-resolution linkage map around this locus and have aligned it with a physical map constructed with BAC clones. These clones were obtained from a library of the cultivar "Sprite," which carries the dominant allele at the I locus. We have identified a large cluster of TIR-NBS-LRR sequences associated within this locus, which extends over a distance >425 kb. Bean cultivars from the Andean or Mesoamerican gene pool that contain the dominant allele share the same haplotypes as revealed by gel blot hybridizations with a TIR probe. In contrast, beans with a recessive allele display simpler and variable haplotypes. A survey of wild accessions from Argentina to Mexico showed that this multigene family has expanded significantly during evolution and domestication. RNA gel blot analysis indicated that the TIR family of genes plays a role in the response to inoculations with BCMV or BCMNV. PMID:16322513

  7. Vannevar Bush: Fifty Years Later

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1995-12-01

    It is ironic that the 50th anniversary year of Vannevar Bush's Report to President Truman entitled "Science the Endless Frontier", which put into motion the eminently successful current system of education of scientists in this country occurs at a time when serious questions are being asked about the usefulness of that very system. Bush viewed his proposal to establish a national research foundation (later to be called the National Science Foundation) as a "social compact." Judgment of scientific merit would be delegated to expert peers in return for scientific progress, which would ultimately benefit the nation in terms of scientific needs--military security, economic productivity, and enhanced quality of life. Bush wanted the funding of basic research intertwined with training, and preferred to use universities for this purpose rather than industrial or national labs. Bush viewed college and university scientists as teachers and investigators. He believed university-based research would uniquely encourage and engage the next generation of scientists as no other institutional arrangement could. Bush did not trust industry's commitment to basic research, an instinct that proved prophetic. The academic reserve of scientists (PhD's in training and postdoctoral students) that existed before World War II, and upon which the United States could draw for its needs, which were primarily associated with defense efforts, was probably one of the defining factors in Bush's suggested strategy. Currently, that reserve of talent has gotten so large that it is the obvious throttle in the pipeline slowing the continued development of the university research enterprise. Since 1977, the rate at which we have trained new scientists exceeds an average of 4% annually. Since 1987, the "science work force"--PhD's--has grown at three times the rate of the general labor supply. Temporary positions for postdoctoral scientists have grown even faster (over 5% per year since 1989). To compound

  8. Effect of Ethephon, Indole Butyric Acid, and Treatment Solution pH on Rooting and on Ethylene Levels within Mung Bean Cuttings.

    PubMed

    Mudge, K W; Swanson, B T

    1978-02-01

    Light-grown mung bean (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) cuttings were treated with buffered and nonbuffered solutions of Ethephon, indole butyric acid (IBA), and the combination of both. Ethephon treatment resulted in increased tissue ethylene levels with increasing solution pH, but had no effect on rooting. IBA treatment had no effect on tissue ethylene levels, but strongly promoted rooting. Combinations of Ethephon and IBA had no effect on rooting of mung bean cuttings beyond that obtained by IBA alone. PMID:16660274

  9. Contact dermatitis from Larrea (creosote bush).

    PubMed

    Leonforte, J F

    1986-02-01

    Six men suffering from acute dermatitis had positive patch tests to Larrea (creosote bush). The lesions preferentially involved sun-exposed sites, simulating a photodermatitis, but also were on the legs and scrotum. Our findings were more consistent with contact allergy than with a primary irritant or a phototoxic response. The patch tests were also positive to Zuccagnia punctata. In two cases the exposure to the creosote bush occurred as a result of casual occupations, in two because of household remedies (moist compresses and baths), and in the other two as a result of burning the bush and resorting to household remedies. Attention should be drawn to this contact dermatitis because the creosote bush grows abundantly all over the American continent. PMID:3950120

  10. Mars Science Laboratory Rover Mobility Bushing Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riggs, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    NASA s Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Project will send a six-wheeled rover to Mars in 2009. The rover will carry a scientific payload designed to search for organic molecules on the Martian surface during its primary mission. This paper describes the development and testing of a bonded film lubricated bushing system to be used in the mobility system of the rover. The MSL Rover Mobility System contains several pivots that are tightly constrained with respect to mass and volume. These pivots are also exposed to relatively low temperatures (-135 C) during operation. The combination of these constraints led the mobility team to consider the use of solid film lubricated metallic bushings and dry running polymeric bushings in several flight pivot applications. A test program was developed to mitigate the risk associated with using these materials in critical pivots on the MSL vehicle. The program was designed to characterize bushing friction and wear performance over the expected operational temperature range (-135 C to +70 C). Seven different bushing material / lubricant combinations were evaluated to aid in the selection of the final flight pivot bushing material / lubricant combination.

  11. Thigmomorphogenesis: on the mechanical properties of mechanically perturbed bean plants.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, M J; Telewski, F W; Cooke, P W

    1984-01-01

    The mechanical properties of control and mechanically perturbed (MP) bean stems (Phaseolus vulgaris L., cv. Cherokee wax) were compared. The rubbed plants were greatly hardened against mechanical rupture by previous MP. This hardening was due to a dramatic increase in the flexibility of the stems, but not in their stiffness. The MP-plants were able to bend more than 90 degree without breaking, whereas the control plants broke after just slight bending. A comparison with other work reveals that different species utilize different tactics for achieving similar resistance to rupture due to mechanical stress. PMID:11540788

  12. Significance of pollutant concentration distribution in the response of 'Red Kidney' beans to ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Musselman, R.C.; Oshima, R.J.; Gallavan, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    Bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. red kidney) exposed to ozone with a simulated ambient concentration distribution showed significantly more injury, less growth, and lower yield than those exposed to an equivalent dose of ozone with a uniform concentration distribution. The concentration distribution did not alter the type of biological response of red kidney beans to ozone, an indication that uniform concentration distribution fumigations are appropriate for investigations of mode of action of pollutants on plants. However, this study suggests that research using a uniform concentration distribution of pollutants may underestimate the magnitude of growth and yield responses to ambient pollutants. 26 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  13. Photochemical oxidants potentiate yield losses in snap beans attributable to sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Heggestad, H.E.; Bennett, J.H.

    1981-08-28

    Field-grown snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) were given recurring midday exposures to sulfur dioxide in open-top field chambers containing ambient photochemical oxidants. There was a linear correlation (correlation coefficient = -.99) between increasing concentrations of sulfur dioxide and the yields of snap beans. Synergism was indicated for the mixtures of ambient ozone plus sulfur dioxide, leading to threefold greater yield losses in nonfiltered air than in charcoal-filtered air (to remove the ozone). Even the lowest sulfur dioxide dose in nonfiltered air reduced the yields of Astro, a cultivar that exhibited no visible pollutant-induced foliar injury. 16 referances, 1 figure, 1 table.

  14. Nutritional performance and activity of some digestive enzymes of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, in response to seven tested bean cultivars.

    PubMed

    Namin, Foroogh Rahimi; Naseri, Bahram; Razmjou, Jabraeil

    2014-01-01

    Nutritional performance and activity of some digestive enzymes (protease and α-amylase) of Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in response to feeding on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Fabales: Fabaceae)) cultivars (Shokufa, Akhtar, Sayyad, Naz, Pak, Daneshkadeh, and Talash) were evaluated under laboratory conditions (25 ± 1°C, 65 ± 5% RH, and a 16:8 L:D photoperiod). The highest and lowest respective values of approximate digestibility were observed when fourth, fifth, and sixth larval instar H. armigera were fed red kidney bean Akhtar and white kidney bean Daneshkadeh. The efficiency of conversion of ingested and digested food was highest when H. armigera was fed red kidney beans Akhtar and Naz and lowest when they were fed white kidney bean Pak. The highest protease activity of fifth instars was observed when they were fed red kidney bean Naz, and the highest amylase activity of fifth instars was observed when they were fed red kidney bean Sayyad. Sixth instar larvae that fed on red kidney bean Sayyad showed the highest protease activity. Larvae reared on common bean Talash and white kidney bean Pak showed the highest amylase activity. Among bean cultivars tested, red kidney bean Sayyad was the most unsuitable host for feeding H. armigera. PMID:25368049

  15. Technology Goes Bush: Using Mobile Technologies to Support Learning in a Bush Kinder Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masters, Jennifer; Grogan, Leanne

    2015-01-01

    A "bush kinder" is the Australian equivalent of a European forest kindergarten. Although it is not usual for technology to be used in the type of program, the authors suggest that mobile technologies can be used creatively and sensitively to support learning in the bush kinder context. This paper describes an ethnographical case study…

  16. The Protective Effect of Phaseolus Vulgaris on Cataract in Type 2 Diabetes: A Profitable Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Longo-Mbenza, Benjamin; Muaka, MoiseMvitu

    2013-01-01

    The pathophysiology of major ocular complications in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among Bantu is not well understood. Several studies have been conducted to determine the basic reasons of visual deficiencies (VD) (blindness, visual impairment, and ocular eye diseases) in T2DM among Bantu from Central Africa. The quality of dietary intake was assessed in patients along with other ophthalmological assessments for diabetic retinopathy, cataract, glaucoma, and macular edema. Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and leafy vegetables are rich in antioxidants. The consumption of at least 3 ladles per meal, 3 times or more per week, has been identified as a potential protective factor against cataract. The anti-radical activity of beans is well known in the literature. Beans are considered to have a comparatively higher antioxidant activity than in many other vegetables. Our findings from previous epidemiologic studies establish that the antioxidant activity of P. vulgaris helps control blood glucose. We, therefore, hypothesize that the dietary supplements of bean can be a low-cost prevention approach to reduce cataract and much other visual comorbidity associated with T2DM. However, further epidemiological studies combined with molecular research need to be conducted to prove this hypothesis. PMID:24822230

  17. Essential role of MYB transcription factor: PvPHR1 and microRNA: PvmiR399 in the phosphorus deficiency signaling in common bean roots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P), an essential element for plants, is one of the most limiting nutrients for plant growth. Few transcription factor (TF) genes involved in P-starvation signaling have been characterized for Arabidopsis and rice, but none for legumes. Crop production of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris),...

  18. Linkage mapping of the Phg-1 and Co-14 genes for resistance to angular leaf spot and anthracnose in the common bean cultivar AND 277

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Andean common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivar AND 277 is an important source of disease resistance to angular leaf spot (ALS, caused by Pseudocercospora griseola) and anthracnose (caused by Colletotrichum lindemuthianum). AND 277 has the Phg-1 gene that confers resistance to eight races of...

  19. Registration of PR0806-80 and PR0806-81 white bean germplasm lines with resistance to BGYMV, BCMV, BCMNV and rust

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    PR0806-80 (Reg. No. GP-___, PI ______) and PR0806-81 (Reg. No. GP-___, PI ______) are multiple disease resistant dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) germplasm lines, adapted to the humid tropics, that were developed and released cooperatively by the University of Puerto Rico Agricultural Experiment Sta...

  20. Lima bean lady beetle interactions: spider mite mediates sublethal effects of its host plant on growth and development of its predator

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated plants can have negative effects on natural enemies that attack spider mites. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that spider mites mediate effects of a lima bean, Phaseolus lunatus L., cultivar on the life history of a lady beetle Stethorus punctillum Weise. We provisioned laborato...

  1. Zeatin reductase in Phaseolus embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.C.; Mok, David, W.S.; Mok, M.C. )

    1989-04-01

    Zeatin was converted to O-xylosylzeatin in embryos of Phaseolus vulgaris . O-xylosyldihydrozeatin was also identified as a zeatin metabolite. Incubation of embryo extracts with {sup 14}C-zeatin and {sup 14}C-O-xylosylzeatin revealed that reduction preceeds the O-xylosylation of zeatin. An enzyme responsible for reducing the N{sup 6}-side chain was isolated and partially purified using ammonium sulfate fractionation and affinity, gel filtration and anion exchange chromatography. The NADPH dependent reductase was zeatin specific and did not recognize cis-zeatin, ribosylzeatin, i{sup 6}Ade or i{sup 6}Ado. Two forms of the reductase could be separated by either gel filtration or anion exchange HPLC. The HMW isozyme (Mr. 55,000) eluted from the anion exchange column later than the LMW isozyme (Mr. 25,000). Interspecific differences in zeatin reductase activity were also detected.

  2. Regulation of Small RNAs and Corresponding Targets in Nod Factor-Induced Phaseolus vulgaris Root Hair Cells.

    PubMed

    Formey, Damien; Martín-Rodríguez, José Ángel; Leija, Alfonso; Santana, Olivia; Quinto, Carmen; Cárdenas, Luis; Hernández, Georgina

    2016-01-01

    A genome-wide analysis identified the set of small RNAs (sRNAs) from the agronomical important legume Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean), including novel P. vulgaris-specific microRNAs (miRNAs) potentially important for the regulation of the rhizobia-symbiotic process. Generally, novel miRNAs are difficult to identify and study because they are very lowly expressed in a tissue- or cell-specific manner. In this work, we aimed to analyze sRNAs from common bean root hairs (RH), a single-cell model, induced with pure Rhizobium etli nodulation factors (NF), a unique type of signal molecule. The sequence analysis of samples from NF-induced and control libraries led to the identity of 132 mature miRNAs, including 63 novel miRNAs and 1984 phasiRNAs. From these, six miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed during NF induction, including one novel miRNA: miR-RH82. A parallel degradome analysis of the same samples revealed 29 targets potentially cleaved by novel miRNAs specifically in NF-induced RH samples; however, these novel miRNAs were not differentially accumulated in this tissue. This study reveals Phaseolus vulgaris-specific novel miRNA candidates and their corresponding targets that meet all criteria to be involved in the regulation of the early nodulation events, thus setting the basis for exploring miRNA-mediated improvement of the common bean-rhizobia symbiosis. PMID:27271618

  3. Electrical bushing for a superconductor element

    DOEpatents

    Mirebeau, Pierre; Lallouet, Nicolas; Delplace, Sebastien; Lapierre, Regis

    2010-05-04

    The invention relates to an electrical bushing serving to make a connection at ambient temperature to a superconductor element situated in an enclosure at cryogenic temperature. The electrical bushing passes successively through an enclosure at intermediate temperature between ambient temperature and cryogenic temperature, and an enclosure at ambient temperature, and it comprises a central electrical conductor surrounded by an electrically insulating sheath. According to the invention, an electrically conductive screen connected to ground potential surrounds the insulating sheath over a section that extends from the end of the bushing that is in contact with the enclosure at cryogenic temperature at least as far as the junction between the enclosure at intermediate temperature and the enclosure at ambient temperature. The invention is more particularly applicable to making a connection to a superconductor cable.

  4. Common Bean: A Legume Model on the Rise for Unraveling Responses and Adaptations to Iron, Zinc, and Phosphate Deficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Guerrero, Norma A.; Isidra-Arellano, Mariel C.; Mendoza-Cozatl, David G.; Valdés-López, Oswaldo

    2016-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) was domesticated ∼8000 years ago in the Americas and today is a staple food worldwide. Besides caloric intake, common bean is also an important source of protein and micronutrients and it is widely appreciated in developing countries for their affordability (compared to animal protein) and its long storage life. As a legume, common bean also has the economic and environmental benefit of associating with nitrogen-fixing bacteria, thus reducing the use of synthetic fertilizers, which is key for sustainable agriculture. Despite significant advances in the plant nutrition field, the mechanisms underlying the adaptation of common bean to low nutrient input remains largely unknown. The recent release of the common bean genome offers, for the first time, the possibility of applying techniques and approaches that have been exclusive to model plants to study the adaptive responses of common bean to challenging environments. In this review, we discuss the hallmarks of common bean domestication and subsequent distribution around the globe. We also discuss recent advances in phosphate, iron, and zinc homeostasis, as these nutrients often limit plant growth, development, and yield. In addition, iron and zinc are major targets of crop biofortification to improve human nutrition. Developing common bean varieties able to thrive under nutrient limiting conditions will have a major impact on human nutrition, particularly in countries where dry beans are the main source of carbohydrates, protein and minerals. PMID:27200068

  5. Common Bean: A Legume Model on the Rise for Unraveling Responses and Adaptations to Iron, Zinc, and Phosphate Deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Castro-Guerrero, Norma A; Isidra-Arellano, Mariel C; Mendoza-Cozatl, David G; Valdés-López, Oswaldo

    2016-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) was domesticated ∼8000 years ago in the Americas and today is a staple food worldwide. Besides caloric intake, common bean is also an important source of protein and micronutrients and it is widely appreciated in developing countries for their affordability (compared to animal protein) and its long storage life. As a legume, common bean also has the economic and environmental benefit of associating with nitrogen-fixing bacteria, thus reducing the use of synthetic fertilizers, which is key for sustainable agriculture. Despite significant advances in the plant nutrition field, the mechanisms underlying the adaptation of common bean to low nutrient input remains largely unknown. The recent release of the common bean genome offers, for the first time, the possibility of applying techniques and approaches that have been exclusive to model plants to study the adaptive responses of common bean to challenging environments. In this review, we discuss the hallmarks of common bean domestication and subsequent distribution around the globe. We also discuss recent advances in phosphate, iron, and zinc homeostasis, as these nutrients often limit plant growth, development, and yield. In addition, iron and zinc are major targets of crop biofortification to improve human nutrition. Developing common bean varieties able to thrive under nutrient limiting conditions will have a major impact on human nutrition, particularly in countries where dry beans are the main source of carbohydrates, protein and minerals. PMID:27200068

  6. Assess suitability of hydroaeroponic culture to establish tripartite symbiosis between different AMF species, beans, and rhizobia

    PubMed Central

    Tajini, Fatma; Suriyakup, Porntip; Vailhe, Hélène; Jansa, Jan; Drevon, Jean-Jacques

    2009-01-01

    Background Like other species of the Phaseoleae tribe, common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) has the potential to establish symbiosis with rhizobia and to fix the atmospheric dinitrogen (N2) for its N nutrition. Common bean has also the potential to establish symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) that improves the uptake of low mobile nutrients such as phosphorus, from the soil. Both rhizobial and mycorrhizal symbioses can act synergistically in benefits on plant. Results The tripartite symbiosis of common bean with rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) was assessed in hydroaeroponic culture with common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), by comparing the effects of three fungi spp. on growth, nodulation and mycorrhization of the roots under sufficient versus deficient P supplies, after transfer from initial sand culture. Although Glomus intraradices Schenck & Smith colonized intensely the roots of common bean in both sand and hydroaeroponic cultures, Gigaspora rosea Nicolson & Schenck only established well under sand culture conditions, and no root-colonization was found with Acaulospora mellea Spain & Schenck under either culture conditions. Interestingly, mycorrhization by Glomus was also obtained by contact with mycorrhized Stylosanthes guianensis (Aubl.) sw in sand culture under deficient P before transfer into hydroaeroponic culture. The effect of bean genotype on both rhizobial and mycorrhizal symbioses with Glomus was subsequently assessed with the common bean recombinant inbreed line 7, 28, 83, 115 and 147, and the cultivar Flamingo. Significant differences among colonization and nodulation of the roots and growth among genotypes were found. Conclusion The hydroaeroponic culture is a valuable tool for further scrutinizing the physiological interactions and nutrient partitioning within the tripartite symbiosis. PMID:19534785

  7. Effect of irradiation on anti-nutrients (total phenolics, tannins and phytate) in Brazilian beans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C. H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Delincée, Henry; Greiner, Ralf

    2000-03-01

    The Brazilian bean varieties Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Carioca and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp var. Macaçar were irradiated with doses of 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy and subsequently stored at ambient temperature for 6 months. The anti-nutrients phenolic compounds, tannins and phytate were determined to be 0.48 mg g -1 dry basis, 1.8 mg g -1 dry basis and 13.5 μmol g -1 dry basis in the raw non-irradiated Carioca beans and 0.30 mg g -1 dry basis, 0.42 mg g -1 dry basis and 7.5 μmol g -1 dry basis in the raw non-irradiated Macaçar beans. After soaking and cooking a higher content of phenolic compounds and a lower phytate content was observed in both bean varieties. Tannin content was not affected by soaking and cooking of Carioca beans, but higher after soaking and cooking of Macaçar beans. Using radiation doses relevant for food did not effect the content of the anti-nutrients under investigation in both bean varieties.

  8. High mannose oligosaccharide of phytohemagglutinin is attached to asparagine 12 and the modified oligosaccharide to asparagine 60. [Phaseolus vulgaris

    SciTech Connect

    Sturm, A.; Chrispeels, M.J.

    1986-05-01

    Phytohemagglutinin, the lectin of the common bean Phaseolus vulgaris, has a high mannose and a modified (fucosylated) oligosaccharide on each polypeptide. Fractionation by high performance liquid chromatography of tryptic digests of (/sup 3/H)fucose or (/sup 3/H)glucosamine labeled phytohemagglutinin, followed by amino acid sequencing of the isolated glycopeptides, shows that the high mannose oligosaccharide is attached to Asn/sup 12/ and the modified oligosaccharide to Asn /sup 60/ of the protein. In animal glycoproteins, high mannose chains are rarely found at the N-terminal side of complex chains.

  9. Bush and Gore Focus on Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joiner, Lottie L.

    2000-01-01

    In the 2000 presidential race, education seems a top priority for Vice-President Al Gore and Texas Governor George W. Bush. Although both candidates are promising billions of federal-aid dollars to raise standards, many believe they are ignoring factors such as student motivation and funding inequities. (MLH)

  10. 2005 Budget Drops below Bush Request

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Education will see its smallest budget increase in nearly a decade under the catchall spending plan approved by the Republican-controlled Congress in a lame-duck session. For the first time since President Bush entered office, the budget will fall short of his overall request for education funding. The final fiscal 2005…

  11. The Invasive Buddleja Daviddi (Butterfly Bush)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Buddleja davidii Franchet (Synonym. Buddleia davidii; common name butterfly bush) is a perennial, semi-deciduous, multi-stemmed shrub that is resident in gardens and disturbed areas. Since its introduction to the United Kingdom from China in the late 1800s, B. davidii has become...

  12. Obama Echoes Bush on Education Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2009-01-01

    President Barack Obama campaigned on a message of change, but when it comes to K-12 education, he appears to be walking in the policy footsteps of his recent predecessors, including George W. Bush. Obama is sounding themes of accountability based on standards and assessments. He is delivering tough talk on teacher quality, including a call for…

  13. Bush to Start NCLB Push in Congress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, David J.

    2007-01-01

    Making college more affordable, raising the minimum wage, and other domestic items were at the top of Democrats' agenda during their meeting at Capitol Hill. President Bush made clear that reauthorizing the No Child Left Behind Act is one of the priorities. To mark the fifth anniversary of his signing the measure into law on January 8, 2007, the…

  14. Bush Budget Would Boost NCLB Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Alyson

    2007-01-01

    This article reports that President Bush's fiscal 2008 budget request for reauthorizing the No Child Left Behind Act is being criticized by two key congressional Democrats as they believe that the plan falls short of what schools need to get on track to meet the measure's ambitious achievement goals. Rep. George Miller, D-Calif., and Sen. Edward…

  15. Subgroups of the Cowpea Miscellany: Symbiotic Specificity within Bradyrhizobium spp. for Vigna unguiculata, Phaseolus lunatus, Arachis hypogaea, and Macroptilium atropurpureum†

    PubMed Central

    Thies, Janice E.; Bohlool, B. Ben; Singleton, Paul W.

    1991-01-01

    Rhizobia classified as Bradyrhizobium spp. comprise a highly heterogeneous group of bacteria that exhibit differential symbiotic characteristics on hosts in the cowpea miscellany cross-inoculation group. To delineate the degree of specificity exhibited by four legumes in the cowpea miscellany, we tested the symbiotic characteristics of indigenous cowpea bradyrhizobia on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), siratro (Macroptilium atropurpureum), lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus), and peanut (Arachis hypogaea). The most-probable-number counts of indigenous bradyrhizobia at three sites on Maui, Hawaii, were substantially different on the four hosts: highest on siratro, intermediate on cowpea, and significantly lower on both lima bean and peanut. Bradyrhizobia from single cowpea nodules from the most-probable-number assays were inoculated onto the four hosts. Effectiveness patterns of these rhizobia on cowpea followed a normal distribution but were strikingly different on the other legumes. The effectiveness profiles on siratro and cowpea were similar but not identical. The indigenous cowpea-derived bradyrhizobia were of only moderate effectiveness on siratro and were in all cases lower than the inoculant-quality reference strain. Between 5 and 51% of the bradyrhizobia, depending on site, failed to nodulate peanut, whereas 0 to 32% failed to nodulate lima bean. No significant correlation was observed between the relative effectiveness of the bradyrhizobia on cowpea and their corresponding effectiveness on either lima bean or peanut. At all sites, bradyrhizobia that were ineffective on cowpea but that effectively nodulated lima bean, peanut, or both were found. Eighteen percent or fewer of the bradyrhizobia were as effective on lima bean as the reference inoculant strain; 44% or fewer were as effective on peanut as the reference strain. Only 18% of all cowpea-derived bradyrhizobia tested were able to form N2-fixing nodules on both lima bean and peanut. These results indicate the need

  16. A thermostable trypsin inhibitor with antiproliferative activity from small pinto beans.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yau Sang; Zhang, Yanbo; Sze, Stephen Cho Wing; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2014-08-01

    Small pinto bean is a cultivar of Phaseolus vulgaris. It produces a 16-kDa trypsin inhibitor that could be purified using anion exchange and size chromatography. Q-Sepharose, Mono Q and Superdex 75 columns were employed for the isolation process. Small pinto bean trypsin inhibitor demonstrated moderate pH stability (pH 2-10) and marked heat stability, with its trypsin inhibitory activity largely retained after exposure to 100 °C for half an hour. The activity was abolished in the presence of dithiothreitol, in a dose-dependent manner, implying that disulfide bonds in small pinto bean trypsin inhibitor are crucial for the activity. The trypsin inhibitor showed a blocked N-terminus. The trypsin inhibitor only slightly inhibited the viability of breast cancer MCF7 and hepatoma HepG2 cells at 125 μM. PMID:23859150

  17. Targeting and release of phytohemagglutinin from the roots of bean seedlings.

    PubMed Central

    Kjemtrup, S; Borkhsenious, O; Raikhel, N V; Chrispeels, M J

    1995-01-01

    Phytohemagglutinin (PHA), an abundant vacuolar seed protein of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), is a tetramer of two homologous polypeptides, PHA-E and PHA-L. The roots of bean seedlings release into the culture medium a cross-reacting lectin that is most closely related to PHA-E. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction with root mRNA as template was used to identify PHA transcripts in the roots of bean seedlings. Roots were found to contain mRNA for PHA-E but not for PHA-L. Indirect immunocytochemical detection with colloidal gold and antibodies to deglycosylated PHA showed that in the meristem of the primary root, PHA accumulates in vacuoles. However, in elongated root cells PHA was found only in the cell walls, indicating targeting to an alternate location. These results are discussed in relation to the various mechanisms that may account for the release of a normally vacuolar protein by roots. PMID:7480348

  18. Isolation and Partial Characterization of a Seed Lectin from Tepary Bean that Delays Bruchid Beetle Development 1

    PubMed Central

    Pratt, Richard C.; Singh, Narendra K.; Shade, R. E.; Murdock, L. L.; Bressan, Ray A.

    1990-01-01

    Four isolectin forms of a seed lectin from mature seed of tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius) were isolated using solubility fractionation, affinity chromatography, and high performance liquid chromatography. The subunits are polypeptides with an apparent molecular mass of 30,000 daltons. The 30 kilodalton subunits are produced starting approximately 13 days after flowering and subsequently comprise a major fraction of the proteins found in the mature seed. The amino terminus of each isolectin fraction was determined to be highly homologous with that of the subunits of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) phytohemagglutinin (PHA). The tepary isolectin cross-reacts with both erythroagglutinating and leucoagglutinating subunits of PHA antibodies, although differential cross-reactivity was noted. A seed protein fraction enriched in tepary bean lectin was found to be toxic to bean bruchid beetles (Acanthoscelides obtectus), when incorporated into their diets at incremental concentrations from (1-5% w/w) above that of PHA concentrations in mature seeds of the susceptible common bean variety “Red Kidney.” Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:16667639

  19. Groups praise, criticize Bush Transition choices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    As the administration of George W. Bush takes hold in the White House, transition plans gradually are coming into focus for many federal agencies that deal with geoscience issues. Congressional confirmation hearings already have been held for cabinet secretary nominees—including Gale Norton, the controversial figure named to head the Department of the Interior. Bush transition team members have fanned out to visit a number of agencies, and interest groups have lined up to either criticize or praise various appointment decisions that affect geoscience issues.Among cabinet nominees, New Jersey Governor Christine Todd Whitman has received mixed reviews as nominee to head the Environmental Protection Agency and is widely viewed as a moderate on environmental issues. Spencer Abraham, nominated to lead the Department of Energy co-sponsored a bill to abolish the department in 1999 while he represented Michigan in the Senate. However, there has not been a groundswell of political energy expended to try to challenge his nomination.

  20. The influence of rat endogenous nitrogen excretion on the assessment of bean protein quality.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, A C; Sgarbieri, V C

    1986-08-01

    The main objective of the present work was to study the interference of rat endogenous nitrogen excretion with the assessment of digestibility and biological value of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.) protein. Dry bean plants were cultivated under (15NH4)2SO4 fertilization and at harvest dry beans had 1.080 atoms % of 15N-excess. Nitrogen balance studies indicated that bean protein digestibility and biological value were higher when N-balance was based on 15N-excess as compared to total nitrogen, both for undenaturated and heat-denaturated protein. The 15N-balance also showed that heat treatment significantly improved (p less than or equal to 0.05) the digestibility of bean protein in the integral flour and in protein isolate while the biological value decreased for both materials. The results permitted the conclusion that the conventional methods employed for calculation of bean protein digestibility and biological value, based on total nitrogen balance and protein-free diet, underestimate these indices of protein quality. PMID:3806256