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Sample records for buttercups

  1. Genetics of the buttercup plumage pattern.

    PubMed

    Smyth, J R; Classen, H L; Malone, G W; Moore, J W

    1980-11-01

    Genetic analysis of the Buttercup breed of chickens indicates that they carry the buttercup allele (ebc) at the E locus, modified by the columbian-like primary pattern mutation Db and a secondary pattern gene resulting in autosomal barring. The interactions between ebc and the Db alleles are clarified by both F2 and testcross data. Homozygous ebc in the absence of Db results in a modified stripe pattern, whereas the light parallel back stripes are irregular and wider than those of wild type chicks. The dorsal head stripe is also broken and irregular, while the ground color is of a lighter shade of tan. Adult ebc/ebc db+/db+ males are typical black-breasted wild types as suggested previously by Brumbaugh and Hollander (1965). Adult females closely resemble the brown (eb/eb) phenotype. Further proof that the buttercup gene is an allele at the E locus is provided by F2 segregation data for crosses between Buttercup (ebc/cbc db+/db+) and Light Brown Leghorns (e+/e+ db+/db+) and Black Langshans (E/Edb+/db+). PMID:7465504

  2. Abortions in Thoroughbred mares associated with consumption of bulbosus buttercups (Ranunculus bulbosus L).

    PubMed

    Swerczek, Thomas W

    2016-03-15

    CASE DESCRIPTION Unexplained clinical signs of weight loss and emaciation were reported in a herd of Thoroughbred horses grazing spring pastures on a central Kentucky farm, even though supplemental grain and hay were provided. CLINICAL FINDINGS A buttercup plant, Ranunculus bulbosus L, was abundantly present in all pastures and paddocks on the farm. All horses, especially lactating mares and their foals, had mild to severe weight loss as assessed by body condition. Seven mares on the farm had been confirmed pregnant between 30 and 45 days of gestation, but were later found to have aborted. Two 2-year-old fillies developed severe diarrhea, incoordination, recumbency, and paralysis and were euthanized. Necropsy of these horses revealed ulcers and erosions in the stomach and large intestine. The findings were considered consistent with buttercup toxicosis. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME The horses were moved from the buttercup-infested pastures to a farm free of the weed. All horses made an uneventful recovery, and clinical signs resolved after the horses were transferred to buttercup-free pastures. Mares that had aborted conceived successfully in the next breeding season. CLINICAL RELEVANCE The buttercup plant is toxic for all classes of livestock. The clinical signs associated with buttercup toxicosis may mimic other disease syndromes affecting the gastrointestinal tract of herbivores. On-farm epidemiological investigations are an essential part of the diagnosis of this condition. Consumption of buttercups has previously been associated with abortions in cattle, but to the author's knowledge, this has not previously been described in horses. PMID:26953921

  3. Suspected buttercup (Ranunculus bulbosus) toxicosis with secondary photosensitization in a Charolais heifer.

    PubMed

    Kelch, W J; Kerr, L A; Adair, H S; Boyd, G D

    1992-06-01

    A presumptive diagnosis of buttercup toxicosis with photosensitization secondary to hepatotoxicity was made in an 18-mo-old Charolais heifer. The differential diagnosis included salmonellosis, aflatoxicosis, bovine virus diarrhea, internal parasite infestation, and plant toxicosis with either primary or secondary photosensitization. All these possibilities were excluded except buttercup toxicosis with photosensitization secondary to hepatotoxicity. While this diagnosis was not absolutely confirmed, it was the most likely cause of the disease and raised the intriguing possibility that protoanemonin, buttercup's toxic principle, is hepatotoxic. PMID:1609496

  4. Buttercup squash provides a marketable alternative to blue hubbard as a trap crop for control of striped cucumber beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, Andrew F; Adler, Lynn S; Hazzard, Ruth V

    2010-12-01

    Winter squash is a vital agricultural commodity worldwide. In the Northeastern United States, the primary insect pest is the striped cucumber beetle, Acalymma vittatum F. Using a Blue Hubbard squash (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne) perimeter trap crop system can reduce insecticide use by >90% in butternut squash (C. moschata Poir), the primary winter squash grown in this region. Despite the savings in insecticide costs, growers may be reluctant to give up field space for a perimeter crop of Blue Hubbard squash, which comprises only 5% of the winter squash market in New England as compared with 19% for buttercup squash. Finding a more marketable trap crop would lower the barrier for adoption of this system. We tested eight varieties of three species of cucurbits for attractiveness to beetles relative to Blue Hubbard and butternut squash, and chose buttercup squash as the most promising replacement. We compared the effect of a buttercup border, Blue Hubbard border, or control (no border) on beetle numbers, herbivory, insecticide use, pollination, and pollen limitation in the main crop. We found that buttercup squash performed equally well as Blue Hubbard as a trap crop, with 97% reduction in total insecticide use compared with control fields. Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) and squash bees (Peponapis pruinosa Say) were the predominant pollinators, and border treatments did not affect visitation. Hand pollination did not increase reproduction or yield, indicating that natural pollination was sufficient for full yield. This study confirms the effectiveness of perimeter trap crop systems and offers growers a more marketable trap crop for managing cucumber beetle damage. PMID:22182562

  5. Too low to kill: concentration of the secondary metabolite ranunculin in buttercup pollen does not affect bee larval survival.

    PubMed

    Sedivy, Claudio; Piskorski, Rafal; Müller, Andreas; Dorn, Silvia

    2012-08-01

    Growing evidence suggests that the freely accessible pollen of some plants is chemically protected against pollen-feeding flower visitors. For example, a diet of pollen from buttercup plants (Ranunculus) recently was shown to have a deleterious effect on developing larvae of several bee species not specialized on Ranunculus. Numerous Ranunculus species contain ranunculin, the glucosyl hydrate form of the highly reactive and toxic lactone protoanemonin, that causes the toxicity of these plants. We tested whether the presence of ranunculin is responsible for the lethal effects of R. acris pollen on the larvae of two bee species that are not Ranunculus specialists. To investigate the effect on bee larval development, we added ranunculin to the pollen provisions of the Campanula specialist bee Chelostoma rapunculi and the Asteraceae specialist bee Heriades truncorum, and allowed the larvae to feed on these provisions. We quantified ranunculin in pollen of R. acris and in brood cell provisions collected by the Ranunculus specialist bee Chelostoma florisomne. We demonstrated that although ranunculin was lethal to both tested bee species in high concentrations, the concentration in the pollen of R. acris was at least fourfold lower than that tolerated by the larvae of C. rapunculi and H. truncorum in the feeding experiments. Ranunculin concentration in the brood cells of C. florisomne was on average even twentyfold lower than that in Ranunculus pollen, suggesting that a mechanism different from ranunculin intoxication accounts for the larval mortality reported for bees not specialized on Ranunculus pollen. PMID:22711029

  6. Solar furnaces or swamp coolers: costs and benefits of water use by solar-tracking flowers of the alpine snow buttercup, Ranunculus adoneus.

    PubMed

    Galen, Candace

    2006-06-01

    Solar tracking or heliotropism simultaneously raises organ temperature and light interception. For leaves and flowers carbon gain is maximized at the expense of water loss. In this study I explore how costs and benefits associated with water use by solar-tracking flowers of the alpine snow buttercup, Ranunculus adoneus change with ambient temperature. First, I test whether heliotropism increases the water cost of reproduction in the snow buttercup under extant alpine conditions. I then explore whether water use for evaporative cooling in solar-tracking flowers reduces the risk of over-heating as temperatures increase. Solar tracking, by elevating floral temperature and irradiance causes a 29% increase in water uptake by flowers. Gas exchange measurements suggest that the extra water taken up by solar-tracking flowers is released through transpiration. Transpirational cooling in turn allows solar-tracking flowers to gain advantages of enhanced light interception and warmth while reducing the risk of over-heating. Transpiration reduces excess temperature in solar-tracking flowers, but at a water cost. Results show that even in cool alpine habitats, flower heliotropism has water costs to balance its reproductive advantages. Plants with solar-tracking flowers may tolerate hotter conditions if soil moisture is plentiful, but not under drought. PMID:16465542

  7. Disruption of the petal identity gene APETALA3-3 is highly correlated with loss of petals within the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Guo, Chunce; Zhang, Wengen; Wang, Peipei; Li, Lin; Duan, Xiaoshan; Du, Qinggao; Zhao, Liang; Shan, Hongyan; Hodges, Scott A; Kramer, Elena M; Ren, Yi; Kong, Hongzhi

    2013-03-26

    Absence of petals, or being apetalous, is usually one of the most important features that characterizes a group of flowering plants at high taxonomic ranks (i.e., family and above). The apetalous condition, however, appears to be the result of parallel or convergent evolution with unknown genetic causes. Here we show that within the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae), apetalous genera in at least seven different lineages were all derived from petalous ancestors, indicative of parallel petal losses. We also show that independent petal losses within this family were strongly associated with decreased or eliminated expression of a single floral organ identity gene, APETALA3-3 (AP3-3), apparently owing to species-specific molecular lesions. In an apetalous mutant of Nigella, insertion of a transposable element into the second intron has led to silencing of the gene and transformation of petals into sepals. In several naturally occurring apetalous genera, such as Thalictrum, Beesia, and Enemion, the gene has either been lost altogether or disrupted by deletions in coding or regulatory regions. In Clematis, a large genus in which petalous species evolved secondarily from apetalous ones, the gene exhibits hallmarks of a pseudogene. These results suggest that, as a petal identity gene, AP3-3 has been silenced or down-regulated by different mechanisms in different evolutionary lineages. This also suggests that petal identity did not evolve many times independently across the Ranunculaceae but was lost in numerous instances. The genetic mechanisms underlying the independent petal losses, however, may be complex, with disruption of AP3-3 being either cause or effect. PMID:23479615

  8. Disruption of the petal identity gene APETALA3-3 is highly correlated with loss of petals within the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui; Guo, Chunce; Zhang, Wengen; Wang, Peipei; Li, Lin; Duan, Xiaoshan; Zhao, Liang; Shan, Hongyan; Hodges, Scott A.; Kramer, Elena M.; Ren, Yi; Kong, Hongzhi

    2013-01-01

    Absence of petals, or being apetalous, is usually one of the most important features that characterizes a group of flowering plants at high taxonomic ranks (i.e., family and above). The apetalous condition, however, appears to be the result of parallel or convergent evolution with unknown genetic causes. Here we show that within the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae), apetalous genera in at least seven different lineages were all derived from petalous ancestors, indicative of parallel petal losses. We also show that independent petal losses within this family were strongly associated with decreased or eliminated expression of a single floral organ identity gene, APETALA3-3 (AP3-3), apparently owing to species-specific molecular lesions. In an apetalous mutant of Nigella, insertion of a transposable element into the second intron has led to silencing of the gene and transformation of petals into sepals. In several naturally occurring apetalous genera, such as Thalictrum, Beesia, and Enemion, the gene has either been lost altogether or disrupted by deletions in coding or regulatory regions. In Clematis, a large genus in which petalous species evolved secondarily from apetalous ones, the gene exhibits hallmarks of a pseudogene. These results suggest that, as a petal identity gene, AP3-3 has been silenced or down-regulated by different mechanisms in different evolutionary lineages. This also suggests that petal identity did not evolve many times independently across the Ranunculaceae but was lost in numerous instances. The genetic mechanisms underlying the independent petal losses, however, may be complex, with disruption of AP3-3 being either cause or effect. PMID:23479615

  9. NITROGEN UPTAKE DURING SNOWMELT BY THE SNOW BUTTERCUP, RANUNCULUS ADONEUS (R823442)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  10. Buttercups and Daisies: Building a Community of Practice amongst Teachers in a Brazilian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    do Nascimento Botelho, Marcel; Kowalski, Robert; Bartlett, Steve

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the promotion and adoption of action research as an instrument of institutional change by academic staff in a Brazilian rural university. The results of the research are presented showing the mobilisation of a group of volunteers, the implementation of their action research projects and the sustainability of the process.…

  11. Barney and Buttercup: The Big and Little Silent Hunters of the Night

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gantert, Robert L.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the owls of the Rotating School Zoo which travels to all the schools in Seattle (Washington) for lecture-demonstrations in wildlife conservation. Outlines the behavior and major characteristics of owls. (JR)

  12. Invasion genetics of the Bermuda buttercup (Oxalis pes-caprae): complex intercontinental patterns of genetic diversity, polyploidy and heterostyly characterize both native and introduced populations.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, Victoria; Barrett, Spencer C H; Castro, Sílvia; Caldeirinha, Patrícia; Navarro, Luis; Loureiro, João; Rodríguez-Echeverría, Susana

    2015-05-01

    Genetic diversity in populations of invasive species is influenced by a variety of factors including reproductive systems, ploidy level, stochastic forces associated with colonization and multiple introductions followed by admixture. Here, we compare genetic variation in native and introduced populations of the clonal plant Oxalis pes-caprae to investigate the influence of reproductive mode and ploidy on levels of diversity. This species is a tristylous geophyte native to South Africa. Invasive populations throughout much of the introduced range are composed of a sterile clonal pentaploid short-styled form. We examined morph ratios, ploidy level, reproductive mode and genetic diversity at nuclear microsatellite loci in 10 and 12 populations from South Africa and the Western Mediterranean region, respectively. Flow cytometry confirmed earlier reports of diploids and tetraploids in the native range, with a single population containing pentaploid individuals. Introduced populations were composed mainly of pentaploids, but sexual tetraploids were also found. There was clear genetic differentiation between ploidy levels, but sexual populations from both regions were not significantly different in levels of diversity. Invasive populations of the pentaploid exhibited dramatically reduced levels of diversity but were not genetically uniform. The occurrence of mixed ploidy levels and stylar polymorphism in the introduced range is consistent with multiple introductions to the Western Mediterranean. This inference was supported by variation patterns at microsatellite loci. Our study indicates that some invasive populations of Oxalis pes-caprae are not entirely clonal, as often assumed, and multiple introductions and recombination have the potential to increase genetic variation in the introduced range. PMID:25604701

  13. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents procedures, exercises, demonstrations, and information on a variety of biology topics including labeling systems, biological indicators of stream pollution, growth of lichens, reproductive capacity of bulbous buttercups, a straw balance to measure transpiration, interaction of fungi, osmosis, and nitrogen fixation and crop production. (DC)

  14. 36 CFR 294.29 - List of designated Idaho Roadless Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Mountain 923 X Challis Borah Peak 012 X X X Challis Boulder-White Clouds 920 X X Challis Camas Creek 901 X... Sawtooth Blackhorse Creek 039 X Sawtooth Boulder-White Clouds 920 X X X X Sawtooth Buttercup Mountain 038...

  15. 36 CFR 294.29 - List of designated Idaho Roadless Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Mountain 923 X Challis Borah Peak 012 X X X Challis Boulder-White Clouds 920 X X Challis Camas Creek 901 X... Boulder-White Clouds 920 X X X X Sawtooth Buttercup Mountain 038 X X Sawtooth Cache Peak 007 X X...

  16. 36 CFR 294.29 - List of designated Idaho Roadless Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Mountain 923 X Challis Borah Peak 012 X X X Challis Boulder-White Clouds 920 X X Challis Camas Creek 901 X... Boulder-White Clouds 920 X X X X Sawtooth Buttercup Mountain 038 X X Sawtooth Cache Peak 007 X X...

  17. 36 CFR 294.29 - List of designated Idaho Roadless Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Mountain 923 X Challis Borah Peak 012 X X X Challis Boulder-White Clouds 920 X X Challis Camas Creek 901 X... Boulder-White Clouds 920 X X X X Sawtooth Buttercup Mountain 038 X X Sawtooth Cache Peak 007 X X...

  18. 36 CFR 294.29 - List of designated Idaho Roadless Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Mountain 923 X Challis Borah Peak 012 X X X Challis Boulder-White Clouds 920 X X Challis Camas Creek 901 X... Boulder-White Clouds 920 X X X X Sawtooth Buttercup Mountain 038 X X Sawtooth Cache Peak 007 X X...

  19. What is Ranunculus gelidus?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A native North American buttercup is currently being called by three names in the literature: Ranunculus gelidus, R. karelinii, and R. grayi. Accurate communication of scientific work and other information about these plants requires a stable, well documented nomenclature, so the three names and th...

  20. 76 FR 35906 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Reviews of 12 Species in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... Endangered........ U.S.A. (UT)....... September 28, 1978 argillacea. (43 FR 44810). Colorado butterfly plant...)....... October 6, 2005 lincolniana. (70 FR 58335). Madtom, Neosho Noturus placidus.. Threatened........ U.S.A. (KS, MO, May 22, 1990 (55 OK). FR 21148). ] PLANTS Autumn buttercup Ranunculus Endangered...........

  1. Comparison of perimeter trap crop varieties: effects on herbivory, pollination, and yield in butternut squash.

    PubMed

    Adler, L S; Hazzard, R V

    2009-02-01

    Perimeter trap cropping (PTC) is a method of integrated pest management (IPM) in which the main crop is surrounded with a perimeter trap crop that is more attractive to pests. Blue Hubbard (Cucurbita maxima Duch.) is a highly effective trap crop for butternut squash (C. moschata Duch. ex Poir) attacked by striped cucumber beetles (Acalymma vittatum Fabricius), but its limited marketability may reduce adoption of PTC by growers. Research comparing border crop varieties is necessary to provide options for growers. Furthermore, pollinators are critical for cucurbit yield, and the effect of PTC on pollination to main crops is unknown. We examined the effect of five border treatments on herbivory, pollination, and yield in butternut squash and manipulated herbivory and pollination to compare their importance for main crop yield. Blue Hubbard, buttercup squash (C. maxima Duch.), and zucchini (C. pepo L.) were equally attractive to cucumber beetles. Border treatments did not affect butternut leaf damage, but butternut flowers had the fewest beetles when surrounded by Blue Hubbard or buttercup squash. Yield was highest in the Blue Hubbard and buttercup treatments, but this effect was not statistically significant. Native bees accounted for 87% of pollinator visits, and pollination did not limit yield. There was no evidence that border crops competed with the main crop for pollinators. Our results suggest that both buttercup squash and zucchini may be viable alternatives to Blue Hubbard as borders for the main crop of butternut squash. Thus, growers may have multiple border options that reduce pesticide use, effectively manage pests, and do not disturb mutualist interactions with pollinators. PMID:19791616

  2. The hypostatic genotype of the recessive white prat breed of chickens.

    PubMed

    Campo, J L

    1997-03-01

    The genetics of the plumage color of the White Prat breed of chicken was studied. Results of crosses between the White Prat breed and Recessive Wheaten (ey/ey) tester line, and Buff Prat (eWh/eWh Co/Co) or Castellana (E/E) breeds, suggested that the former carries the buttercup allele (ebc) at the E-locus, the columbian restriction gene (Co), and the autosomal recessive white (c) gene. Heterozygous Co/co+ in the presence of ebc resulted in a modified stripe pattern in the chick down. The ground color was very dark tan, whereas the light back stripes and the broken head stripe were similar to those of buttercup chicks. Adults were typical buff columbian with considerable black markings on the feathers. The homozygous ebc/ebc Co/Co produced chicks with a black back and a brown head, similar to those previously described for the interaction between Co and the brown (eb) allele. The presence of the recessive white gene masked unexpected genetic variation at the E-locus in the Prat breed, the Buff variety carrying the dominant wheaten (eWh) instead of the buttercup allele. The sex-linked gold (s+) allele was the most frequent in the White Prat variety. The silver (S), sex-linked barring (B), blue (Bl), and possibly dominant white (I) alleles also were present at low frequencies. PMID:9068040

  3. Calf mortalities associated with Sarcini ventriculi infection.

    PubMed

    2012-12-15

    Abomasal rupture associated with Sarcini ventriculi as likely cause of neonatal mortalities on a dairy farm Immune-mediated anaemia and thrombocytopenia suspected in a seven-month-old Holstein-Friesian heifer Buttercup (Ranunculus species) poisoning causing blindness and ear twitching in five-month-old lambs Diagnosis and reporting of sheep scab Diarrhoea in 200-day-old gilts due to coccidosis These are among matters discussed in the disease surveillance report for September and October from SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services (SAC C VS). PMID:23248111

  4. Genetics of the black-tailed red plumage pattern in Villafranquina chickens.

    PubMed

    Campo, J L; Alvarez, C

    1988-03-01

    Data are presented on the genetics of the plumage color of the Villafranquina, a breed of Spanish chicken representing a black-tailed red type of the columbian restriction pattern. Crosses between Villafranquina females, which show a large amount of secondary pattern, and Brown and Buttercup tester males suggested that this breed carries the brown allele (eb) at the E-locus. This allele is modified by the dark-brown columbian-like gene (Db), resulting in the plumage pattern characteristic of the breed. The degree of expression of Db varies markedly depending on other key genes present. This gene acted as an incomplete dominant when crossed to brown (eb) and buttercup (ebc) tester lines. However, in the presence of the birchen (ER) gene, Db was recessive in females but dominant in males, suggesting sex-influenced inheritance. Silver (S) does not alter the brown down of Db-modified ER, although it does express itself readily on a brown (eb) background. Variability in the expression of Db in both F1 and F2 populations suggests that it sometimes interacts with not yet identified modifying genes. PMID:3405912

  5. UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE (UAV) HYPERSPECTRAL REMOTE SENSING FOR DRYLAND VEGETATION MONITORING

    SciTech Connect

    Nancy F. Glenn; Jessica J. Mitchell; Matthew O. Anderson; Ryan C. Hruska

    2012-06-01

    UAV-based hyperspectral remote sensing capabilities developed by the Idaho National Lab and Idaho State University, Boise Center Aerospace Lab, were recently tested via demonstration flights that explored the influence of altitude on geometric error, image mosaicking, and dryland vegetation classification. The test flights successfully acquired usable flightline data capable of supporting classifiable composite images. Unsupervised classification results support vegetation management objectives that rely on mapping shrub cover and distribution patterns. Overall, supervised classifications performed poorly despite spectral separability in the image-derived endmember pixels. Future mapping efforts that leverage ground reference data, ultra-high spatial resolution photos and time series analysis should be able to effectively distinguish native grasses such as Sandberg bluegrass (Poa secunda), from invasives such as burr buttercup (Ranunculus testiculatus) and cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum).

  6. A genomic duplication is associated with ectopic eomesodermin expression in the embryonic chicken comb and two duplex-comb phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Dorshorst, Ben; Harun-Or-Rashid, Mohammad; Bagherpoor, Alireza Jian; Rubin, Carl-Johan; Ashwell, Chris; Gourichon, David; Tixier-Boichard, Michèle; Hallböök, Finn; Andersson, Leif

    2015-03-01

    Duplex-comb (D) is one of three major loci affecting comb morphology in the domestic chicken. Here we show that the two Duplex-comb alleles, V-shaped (D*V) and Buttercup (D*C), are both associated with a 20 Kb tandem duplication containing several conserved putative regulatory elements located 200 Kb upstream of the eomesodermin gene (EOMES). EOMES is a T-box transcription factor that is involved in mesoderm specification during gastrulation. In D*V and D*C chicken embryos we find that EOMES is ectopically expressed in the ectoderm of the comb-developing region as compared to wild-type embryos. The confinement of the ectopic expression of EOMES to the ectoderm is in stark contrast to the causal mechanisms underlying the two other major comb loci in the chicken (Rose-comb and Pea-comb) in which the transcription factors MNR2 and SOX5 are ectopically expressed strictly in the mesenchyme. Interestingly, the causal mutations of all three major comb loci in the chicken are now known to be composed of large-scale structural genomic variants that each result in ectopic expression of transcription factors. The Duplex-comb locus also illustrates the evolution of alleles in domestic animals, which means that alleles evolve by the accumulation of two or more consecutive mutations affecting the phenotype. We do not yet know whether the V-shaped or Buttercup allele correspond to the second mutation that occurred on the haplotype of the original duplication event. PMID:25789773

  7. A Genomic Duplication is Associated with Ectopic Eomesodermin Expression in the Embryonic Chicken Comb and Two Duplex-comb Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Dorshorst, Ben; Rubin, Carl-Johan; Ashwell, Chris; Gourichon, David; Tixier-Boichard, Michèle; Hallböök, Finn; Andersson, Leif

    2015-01-01

    Duplex-comb (D) is one of three major loci affecting comb morphology in the domestic chicken. Here we show that the two Duplex-comb alleles, V-shaped (D*V) and Buttercup (D*C), are both associated with a 20 Kb tandem duplication containing several conserved putative regulatory elements located 200 Kb upstream of the eomesodermin gene (EOMES). EOMES is a T-box transcription factor that is involved in mesoderm specification during gastrulation. In D*V and D*C chicken embryos we find that EOMES is ectopically expressed in the ectoderm of the comb-developing region as compared to wild-type embryos. The confinement of the ectopic expression of EOMES to the ectoderm is in stark contrast to the causal mechanisms underlying the two other major comb loci in the chicken (Rose-comb and Pea-comb) in which the transcription factors MNR2 and SOX5 are ectopically expressed strictly in the mesenchyme. Interestingly, the causal mutations of all three major comb loci in the chicken are now known to be composed of large-scale structural genomic variants that each result in ectopic expression of transcription factors. The Duplex-comb locus also illustrates the evolution of alleles in domestic animals, which means that alleles evolve by the accumulation of two or more consecutive mutations affecting the phenotype. We do not yet know whether the V-shaped or Buttercup allele correspond to the second mutation that occurred on the haplotype of the original duplication event. PMID:25789773

  8. Phytocontact dermatitis due to Ranunculus arvensis mimicking burn injury: report of three cases and literature review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Ranunculus arvensis (corn buttercup) is a plant species of the genus Ranunculus that is frequently used in the Far East to treat rheumatic diseases and several dermatological disorders. In Turkey, the plant is seen in the eastern and southeastern Anatolian highlands, which are underdeveloped areas of the country. Herein, we report three patients who used Ranunculus arvensis for the treatment of arthralgia and osteoarthritis. A distinctive phytodermatitis developed on the right thumb in one patient (48-year-old male), on the anterior aspect of both knees in another patient (70-year-old female) and all around both knees in a third (59-year-old female). The patients were treated with topical antibiotics and daily wound dressing, and none of them experienced any complications. Ranunculus arvensis was confirmed as the cause of the phytodermatitis in the three cases. Poultices of plants applied to the skin demonstrate beneficial effects on many dermatological and rheumatic diseases; however, they have several adverse effects that should not be ignored. In this study, we also present a review of 25 cases reported in the literature. PMID:21408003

  9. The rise of angiosperm-dominated herbaceous floras: Insights from Ranunculaceae

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Lin, Li; Xiang, Xiao-Guo; Ortiz, Rosa del C.; Liu, Yang; Xiang, Kun-Li; Yu, Sheng-Xiang; Xing, Yao-Wu; Chen, Zhi-Duan

    2016-01-01

    The rise of angiosperms has been regarded as a trigger for the Cretaceous revolution of terrestrial ecosystems. However, the timeframe of the rise angiosperm-dominated herbaceous floras (ADHFs) is lacking. Here, we used the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae) as a proxy to provide insights into the rise of ADHFs. An integration of phylogenetic, molecular dating, ancestral state inferring, and diversification analytical methods was used to infer the early evolutionary history of Ranunculaceae. We found that Ranunculaceae became differentiated in forests between about 108–90 Ma. Diversification rates markedly elevated during the Campanian, mainly resulted from the rapid divergence of the non-forest lineages, but did not change across the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary. Our data for Ranunculaceae indicate that forest-dwelling ADHFs may have appeared almost simultaneously with angiosperm-dominated forests during the mid-Cretaceous, whereas non-forest ADHFs arose later, by the end of the Cretaceous terrestrial revolution. Furthermore, ADHFs were relatively unaffected by the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction. PMID:27251635

  10. Genetic variation of chicken MC1R gene in different plumage colour populations.

    PubMed

    Guo, X L; Li, X L; Li, Y; Gu, Z L; Zheng, C S; Wei, Z H; Wang, J S; Zhou, R Y; Li, L H; Zheng, H Q

    2010-12-01

    1. Genetic variation in the chicken MC1R gene was analysed through bioinformatic methods after polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and sequencing of the coding region of MC1R gene from 5 different populations with 4 plumage colours (black, grey plumage with black spots, yellow plumage with black spots, red). 2. A total of 11 novel variations were detected in Hebei chickens, of which 8 were non-synonymous. Allele distribution analysis showed that the wild-type e(+) (Brown Leghorn) allele was mainly found in Hy-Line Brown and Lohmann Brown, the dominant Extended black E(AY220304) allele was mainly found in Hebei chicken with black plumage, whereas the Buttercup (e(bc)) allele was rare. 3. Nucleotide diversity (π) within each colour strain of Hebei chickens (0·0047-0·0052) was significantly greater than that of Hy-Line Brown (0·0024) or Lohmann Brown (0·0043). 4. The results indicate that there is abundant polymorphism in the MC1R gene, especially in Hebei chicken, which was associated with its rich plumage colour diversity. PMID:21161779

  11. Melanocortin 1-receptor (MC1R) mutations are associated with plumage colour in chicken.

    PubMed

    Kerje, S; Lind, J; Schütz, K; Jensen, P; Andersson, L

    2003-08-01

    The co-segregation of plumage colour and sequence polymorphism in the melanocortin 1-receptor gene (MC1R) was investigated using an intercross between the red junglefowl and White Leghorn chickens. The results provided compelling evidence that the Extended black (E) locus controlling plumage colour is equivalent to MC1R. E/MC1R was assigned to chromosome 11 with overwhelming statistical support. Sequence analysis indicated that the E92K substitution, causing a constitutively active receptor in the sombre mouse, is the most likely causative mutation for the Extended black allele carried by the White Leghorn founders in this intercross. The MC1R sequence associated with the recessive buttercup (ebc) allele indicated that this allele evolved from a dominant Extended black allele as it shared the E92K and M71T substitutions with some E alleles. It also carried a third missense mutation H215P which thus may interfere with the constitutive activation of the receptor caused by E92K (and possibly M71T). PMID:12873211

  12. Functional characteristics, nutritional value and industrial applications of Madhuca longifolia seeds: an overview.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy; Mohdaly, Adel Abdelrazek Abdelazim; Assiri, Adel M A; Tadros, Monier; Niemeyer, Bernd

    2016-05-01

    New sustainable edible oil sources are desired to achieve supply chain flexibility and cost saving opportunities. Non-traditional fruit seeds are being considered because their constituents have unique chemical properties and may augment the supply of nutritional and functional products. Madhuca longifolia Syn. M. indica (Sapotaceae) is an important economic tree growing throughout the subtropical region of the Indo-Pak subcontinent. Information concerning the exact composition of mahua butter (known also as mowrah butter) from fruit-seeds of buttercup or Madhuca tree is scare. Few studies investigated mahua butter for its composition, nutritional value, biological activities and antioxidative properties. In consideration of potential utilization, detailed knowledge on the chemical composition, nutritional value and industrial applications of mahua butter is of major importance. The diversity of applications to which mahua butter can be put gives this substance great industrial importance. This review summarizes recent knowledge on bioactive compounds, functional properties as well as food and non-food industrial applications of mahua butter. Graphical abstractᅟ. PMID:27407181

  13. Chemical and biological evaluation of Ranunculus muricatus.

    PubMed

    Khan, Farhat Ali; Zahoor, Muhammad; Khan, Ezzat

    2016-03-01

    Ranunculus muricatus is commonly known as spiny fruit buttercup and is used in the treatment of intermittent fevers, gout and asthma. Qualitative analysis of phytochemicals of Ranunculus muricatus indicated the presence of saponins, tannins, phenols, flavonoids and alkaloids. Saponins were present in high amount as compared with other chemicals. Inorganic and heavy metals constituents were determined. Heavy metals estimation in the sample showed that iron was present in high amount followed by zinc even then the concentration of these metals is below acceptable limit. The physical parameters, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the extracts were determined. Acetone extract fraction showed optimal antioxidant activity as compared to ethanol and chloroform fractions of the candidate plant. The antimicrobial and antifungal activities of the crude extract and extract fractions were determined by well agar diffusion method. Highest zone of inhibitions were observed for crude extract followed by acetone extract fraction against Micrococcus luteus. Antifungal activities were high for crude extracts against Candida Albican. Findings of this study show that Ranunculus muricatus has a good medicinal impact. PMID:27087095

  14. Black cohosh for the management of menopausal symptoms : a systematic review of clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Palacio, Carlos; Masri, Ghania; Mooradian, Arshag D

    2009-01-01

    Alternative medicine preparations represent a significant industry worldwide. Black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa), a buttercup plant grown in North America, is one such popular preparation for the treatment of menopausal symptoms. Because the proportion of women experiencing climacteric symptoms is high, black cohosh merits further study as to its efficacy and safety. Convincing evidence for its efficacy in this setting remains to be demonstrated. The purpose of this systematic review was to assess the current literature on the benefits of black cohosh for women experiencing climacteric symptoms. To this end, a PubMed search was conducted on 1 November 2007 using the search terms 'black cohosh' AND 'menopause'. The search was limited to randomized controlled trials in the English language involving adults. Several additional reviews dealing with alternative therapies for menopause were included to capture additional older and non-English language literature. Ultimately, 16 studies eligible for review were identified. Many of the studies had conflicting results. Methodological flaws included lack of uniformity of the drug preparation used, variable outcome measures and lack of a placebo group. The benefits of black cohosh in the management of climacteric symptoms remain to be proven. Case studies suggest an additional unexplored area of adverse events that also needs to be addressed. PMID:19102512

  15. The rise of angiosperm-dominated herbaceous floras: Insights from Ranunculaceae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Lin, Li; Xiang, Xiao-Guo; Ortiz, Rosa Del C; Liu, Yang; Xiang, Kun-Li; Yu, Sheng-Xiang; Xing, Yao-Wu; Chen, Zhi-Duan

    2016-01-01

    The rise of angiosperms has been regarded as a trigger for the Cretaceous revolution of terrestrial ecosystems. However, the timeframe of the rise angiosperm-dominated herbaceous floras (ADHFs) is lacking. Here, we used the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae) as a proxy to provide insights into the rise of ADHFs. An integration of phylogenetic, molecular dating, ancestral state inferring, and diversification analytical methods was used to infer the early evolutionary history of Ranunculaceae. We found that Ranunculaceae became differentiated in forests between about 108-90 Ma. Diversification rates markedly elevated during the Campanian, mainly resulted from the rapid divergence of the non-forest lineages, but did not change across the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary. Our data for Ranunculaceae indicate that forest-dwelling ADHFs may have appeared almost simultaneously with angiosperm-dominated forests during the mid-Cretaceous, whereas non-forest ADHFs arose later, by the end of the Cretaceous terrestrial revolution. Furthermore, ADHFs were relatively unaffected by the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction. PMID:27251635

  16. Lutein in selected Canadian crops and agri-food processing by-products and purification by high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Rong; Yang, Raymond

    2006-04-21

    This study mainly focused on lutein content in several selected crops grown in southern Ontario, Canada. Marigold flower, a good rotation crop for the control of nematodes in tobacco fields was found to contain 0.77% lutein (after saponification, on dry basis). A high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) method using a two-phase solvent system consisting of hexane-ethanol-water (6:4.5:1.5, v/v/v) was developed for the purification of lutein from the saponification mixture of marigold flower extract. The purity of lutein prepared using this HSCCC method was 97%. Free lutein was found to be the predominant form in three squash varieties, and it was mostly found in the peel rather than the commonly consumed flesh. Sweet Mamma, Buttercup and Pepper squash varieties contained 25.4, 18.4 and 30.1mg/100g fresh weigh (FW) of lutein in the peels, respectively. These concentrations were significantly higher than that in spinach and kale (3.7 and 12.3 mg/100 g FW). beta-Carotene was found most in the peel of Sweet Mamma squash at 13.6 mg/100g FW, whereas it was below 2mg/100g FW in all other samples. Cooking increased extractable free lutein by 22-65% in squash peels. Lutein in Yukon Gold potato was at ca. 0.4 mg/100 g FW. Certain Yukon Gold was also found to contain violaxanthin (0.35 mg/100 g FW). Structures of lutein, beta-carotene and violaxanthin were identified by LC-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization MS in positive ion mode, and by comparing the retention time and UV-vis spectral data with standards. Results from this study suggest the selected crops and agri-food industrial processing by-products of these can be a good source of free lutein. PMID:16242702

  17. Edaphic and Phytochemical Factors as Predictors of Equine Grass Sickness Cases in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Sarah E.; Martz, Kathrin E.; Rogge, Anja; Heinrich, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Background: Equine dysautonomia or equine grass sickness (EGS), as it is more commonly known, is a usually fatal disease of equids of uncertain etiology, although associated with grazing, that affects the autonomic and enteric nervous system. Lowered gastrointestinal motility, leading to paralysis of the gut, is one of the main symptoms of EGS. Previous studies have implicated anaerobic bacteria, notably Clostridium botulinum, but what triggers the severe bacterial infestations remains enigmatic. We hypothesized that a detailed comparison of soil mineral and botanical composition of EGS and control sites would yield new insights into the causation of the disease. Results: Between March 2007 and September 2008, soil, plant, and water samples from a total of 23 EGS sites and 11 control sites were studied. Metal and non-metal element levels of the soil and herbage samples were assessed. Significantly, EGS sites had higher levels of soil nitrogen, and significantly higher levels of iron, lead, arsenic, and chromium in the herbage. Toxic Ranunculus spp. (buttercups) were found in abundance at every EGS site, making ingestion plausible. Conversely, neurotoxin-producing cyanobacteria were not found in any of the water samples analyzed. Conclusions: The significantly higher levels of iron and heavy metals found in herbage growing in EGS sites, in addition to toxic Ranunculus species, suggest that previously unknown triggers are involved in a multi-factorial EGS etiology. Our results also show that cyanobacteria on the other hand, are unlikely to be a factor in EGS. Consequently, the concomitant presence of two (or more) factors could be the trigger for an outbreak of EGS. PMID:21833167

  18. Cardiovascular effects of Adonis aestivalis in anesthetized sheep.

    PubMed

    Maham, Masoud; Sarrafzadeh-Rezaei, Farshid

    2014-01-01

    Adonis aestivalis (summer pheasant-eye) is an annual plant with a crimson flower, distributed in southern Europe and Asia. The plant has large buttercup-like blossoms and soft, fern-like leaves. It blooms in spring and is often found as a weed in cereal fields. Like other Adonis spp., the plant produces cardiac glycosides. It is used in remedies for mild weakness of the heart, especially when accompanied by nervous complaints. Cardiovascular and toxic effects of a hydroalcoholic extract from the aerial parts of A. aestivalis were investigated in sheep and mice. Six male sheep were anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital and arterial blood pressure was measured with a transducer connected to the left femoral artery. Heart rate and electrocardiogram (ECG) were registered from lead base-apex ECG derivatives connected to a Powerlab recorder. Three successive equal doses (75 mg kg(-1)) of the hydroalcoholic extract of A. aestivalis intravenously administered to anesthetized sheep. Adonis aestivalis extract induced a significant bradycardia and hypotension in sheep. Various ECG abnormalities in sheep included sinus arrhythmia, shortened and depressed S-T interval, and absence of P wave and flattened or inverted T wave. In addition, ventricular arrhythmias, bradyarrhythmias, atrioventricular block, ventricular premature beats, ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation have also been observed. The acute intraperitoneal toxicity (LD50) of the extract in mice was 2150 mg kg(-1). In conclusion, bradycardia and ECG alterations induced by the extract could explain the justification of traditional use of the of Adonis aestivalis in treating cardiovascular insufficiency. PMID:25568718

  19. Antarctic Miocene Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashworth, A. C.; Lewis, A. R.

    2013-12-01

    Fossils from Antarctic Miocene terrestrial deposits, coupled with stratigraphic, geochemical and paleontological data from marine boreholes, provide new insights into the climatic history of the continent. During the Miocene, ice caps coalesced to form ice sheets and vegetated surfaces gave way to barren expanses. The cryospheric changes especially have global climatic implications. The fossil data consists of diatoms, pollen and spores, and macroscopic remains of plants, ostracods, insects, molluscs and a fish. Plant fossils include wood and leaves of Nothofagus (southern beech), seeds of several vascular plants, including Ranunculus (buttercup), Hippuris (mare's-tail) and Myriophyllum (watermilfoil), megaspores of Isoetes (quillwort), and moss species. The insect chitin consists of larval head capsules of Chironomidae (midges) and exoskeletal parts of Coleoptera (beetles). The molluscs include freshwater gastropods and bivalves. The majority of these taxa are likely descendants of taxa that had survived on the continent from the Paleogene or earlier. Even though early Miocene glaciations may have been large, the climate was never cold enough to cause the extinction of the biota, which probably survived in coastal refugia. Early Miocene (c. 20 Ma) macrofossils from the McMurdo Dry Valleys (77°S) support palynological interpretations from the Cape Roberts and ANDRILL marine records that the upland vegetation was a shrub tundra. Mean summer temperature (MST) in the uplands was c. 6°C and possibly higher at the coast. The climate was wet, supporting mires and lakes. By the mid-Miocene, even though the climate continued to be wet. MST was c. 4°C which was too cold to support Nothofagus and most vascular plant species. Stratigraphic evidence indicates that the time between the Early and Mid-Miocene was a time of repeated ice advances and retreats of small glaciers originating from ice caps. At c. 14 Ma there appears to have been a modal shift in climate to

  20. Miocene Antarctic Terrestrial Realm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashworth, A. C.; Lewis, A.; Marchant, D. R.

    2009-12-01

    The discovery of several locations in the Transantarctic Mountains that contain macrofossils and pollen is transforming our understanding of late Cenozoic Antarctica. The most southerly location is on the Beardmore Glacier (85.1°S) about 500 km from the South Pole. The environment was an active glacial margin in which plants, insects and freshwater mollusks inhabited the sand and gravel bars and small lakes on an outwash plain. In addition to leaves and wood of dwarf Nothofagus (Southern Beech) shrubs, achenes of Ranunculus (Buttercup), in situ cushion growth forms of mosses and a vascular plant, the assemblages contains various exoskeletal parts of carabid and curculionid beetles and a cyclorrhaphan fly, the shells of freshwater bivalve and gastropod species and a fish tooth. Initially the deposits were assigned a Pliocene age (3.5 Ma) but a mid- to early Miocene age is more probable (c. 14 - 25 Ma) based on correlation of fossil pollen from the deposits with 39Ar/40Ar dated pollen assemblages from the McMurdo Dry Valleys locations. The oldest location within the Dry Valleys also involved an active ice margin but was part of a valley system that was completely deglaciated for intervals long enough for thick paleosols to develop. The Friis Hills fossil deposits of the Taylor Valley region (77.8°S) are at least 19.76 Ma based on the 39Ar/40Ar age of a volcanic ash bed. The valley floor during the non-glacial phases had poorly-drained soils and the extensive development of mossy mires. Wood and leaves of Nothofagus are abundant in lacustrine deposits. The silts of shallow fluvial channels contain abundant megaspores and spiky leaves of the aquatic lycopod Isoetes (Quillwort). Fossils of beetles are also present in these deposits. During the glacial phases, proglacial lakes were surrounded by dwarfed, deciduous Nothofagus shrubs. The youngest fossils recovered from the Dry Valleys are from the Olympus Range (77.5°S) with an age of 14.07 Ma. The environment was an

  1. Palynostratigraphical correlation of the excavated Miocene lignite seams of the Yataǧan basin (Muǧla Province, south-western Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchal, Johannes Martin; Grímsson, Friðgeir; Denk, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    (basswood, mallow family), Myricaceae (bayberry), Oleaceae (olive family), Onagraceae (evening primrose family), Plumbaginaceae (sea-lavender), Polygonaceae (docks, knotweed), Ranunculaceae (buttercup family), Rosaceae (rose family), Salicaceae (willow), Sapindaceae (maple), Sapotaceae, and Ulmaceae (elm, Zelkova). The objectives of this investigation were (1) to evaluate whether the three palynological sections were deposited at the same time, and (2) to show regional vegetation differences within a single sedimentary basin. We found three general pollen zones corresponding to different sedimentary settings and palaeoenvironments. The first pollen zone was linked to lignite formation (swamp forest, fern spores, Alnus, Decodon). The second pollen zone reflects lacustrine conditions (Typhaceae) and surrounding hinterland vegetation dominated by Fagaceae. The third pollen zone is dominated by herbaceous taxa, whereas woody taxa are less diverse and less abundant. In general, the three palynological sections are congruent in reflecting distinct pollen zones. However main vegetation types may be represented by different dominating taxa (e. g. Alnus dominace in Eskihisar and Tı naz localities while absent in Salihpaşalar) and rare taxa may differ between localities. Our results demonstrate that in order to achieve a comprehensive understanding of environmental and vegetation conditions in a sedimentary basin, a single palynological section (locality) may not capture the entirety of environmental conditions and changes.